United States
          Environmental Protection
Administration And
Resources Management
January 1992
&EPA     Bibliographic Series
          Public Information Access

  	  •                  WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460
                                2 3  PQ?                     ADMIN1NRATION
                                 ^  i^*-                     ANORESOUCES

     SUBJECT:  Public Information Access
                        ~l,   ')'•'.'.'   -
     FROM:     Daiva Balk'us," Director
               Information Management and Services Division

     TO:       Senior Information Resource Management Officials
               IRM Branch Chiefs
               Public Access Forum Attendees
               EPA Records Network
               EPA Library Network
               EPA Clearinghouse Managers
          Attached  for  your  information is Public Information
     Access, the latest  in our  Bibliographic series.    There is
     currently a renewed emphasis  on  public ownership of
     government information  and the means  to access it.   Public
     Information Access  provides EPA  decision makers  with
     summaries of current thinking on the  many issues involved
     in public access to government information.

          Topics covered include policy issues,  cost, legislation
     and the newly  enacted National Research and  Education Network
     (NREN), to build a  "super  highway of  information."   Case
     studies review federal,  state and local examples of
     information access  initiatives.

          If you would  like  additional copies, or have questions
     on the Public  Access Program, please  contact Brigid Rapp,
     Chief,  Information  Access  Branch at 260-8710,  or Email

     cc:  Al Pesachowitz
          Paul Wohlleben
          OIRM Division  Directors
          Director, NDPD
                                                              Printed on Recycled Paper

Public Information  Access
           EPA Headquarters Library
          Information Access Branch
   Information Management and Services Division
    Office of Information Resources Management
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            RoomM2904 PM-211A
             401 M Street, SW
            Washington, DC 20460
                           U.S. Environmental Prctrsctlon Agency
                           Region 5, Library (pi.-*"'
                           77 West Jackson Ecu:;:,, ,.  :-,-• pjoor
                           Chicago, IL  60604-3 C^O '


Introduction 	  i

Federal Policy 	  1

Electronic Dissemination 	 16

Local and State Case Studies	28

NREN & Internet	32

Cost	43

Access Mechanisms  	 47

Congress and OMB

   Current Legislation 	 52

   Freedom of Information Act	57

   Paperwork Reduction Act 	 58

   OMB Circular A-130	60

Technology Transfer  	 62

Environmental Initiatives  	 65

EPA/OARM Case Studies	69

   The  purpose  of Public  Information  Access is  to  increase EPA
staff understanding  and awareness of public  access  issues.   The
issue of  public access  to government information is  growing in
complexity.   Factors such as  confidentiality,  delivery systems,
user fees and data integration all affect decisions concerning the
dissemination and availability of government  information.

   The  "Principles  of Public Information" developed by the U.S.
Commission  on Libraries and  Information Science  defines public
information as ". . .information created, compiled, and/or maintained
by the  Federal  Government...public  information  is owned  by the
people,  held in trust by their  government, and should be available
to the  people except where restricted  by law."   These principles
are reflected in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's  (EPA)
draft public access  policy.   EPA is striving to create, collect,
manage  and disseminate  Agency  information to the  public.   EPA is
taking an active role addressing the issues of access by initiating
an Agency-wide  public  access  program and  developing  tools and
communication   mechanisms   to   facilitate   public   access  to

   Public Information Access  organizes  summaries of issues such as
the  debate  over  who  has  access,  who  pays,  and who  delivers
government  information.    A  legislation  section  begins  with an
overview of  current  public access legislation and OMB Circulars,
followed  by new  legislation  pending  before  the current   102nd
Congress.   Additional citations are listed for three key pieces of
legislation;  the  Freedom  of  Information Act  (FOIA),  Paperwork
Reduction Act  (PRA),  and OMB Circular A-130.   The Headquarter's
Library currently provides updates on IRM legislation.

   Technology issues are discussed as they relate to themes of U.S.
competitiveness in  the  world  marketplace,  data  integration and
electronic dissemination.  The  development  and  implementation of
public access networks such as NREN and Internet are  included.

   Case studies  illustrate real-life  situations  surrounding or
resulting from public access issues  in Federal, State,  and local

   Public Information Access was  compiled from  sources  available
through  DIALOG Information  Services, Inc.  Summaries  are included
for each entry.  Entries summarized by the EPA Headquarters Library
staff are indicated by the  notation "Headquarters  Library;" all

other entries are followed by the name of the database from which
they were retrieved.   The debate  on public access in the press and
the  legislature  is constantly  changing.    Because the  issue  of
public access to information is dynamic, Public Information Access,
is by nature of its topic a living document.

   For more  information about the  bibliography or  EPA's Public
Access Program, please contact:

                U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
                Public Access Program
                401 M Street, SW
                Washington, DC  20460

A national strategy for the information age.
Allen, K.B.
Information Management Review,  Vol. 4, Issue 4, p.  17-27,  Spr 1989

  Discusses the  value of information in  American democracy,  the
evolution and current  status of federal information policy, and the
need  for  a national  strategy  to facilitate  evolution  toward an
information society.  Specific    information   policy  goals   and
principles   are   identified,   and  suggestions for implementing
policy formation are presented.  (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Federal information resources management (IRM): a policy review and
Bishop, A.  (Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY); Doty, P.; McClure, C.R.
Managing  Information   and  Technology,  p.  40-47,  1989,  Learned
Information, Medford,  NJ, 32

   Since the  passage  of the  Paperwork  Reduction Act  of  1980,
Information Resources   Management (IRM) has been the major strategy
used by the Federal government to improve the  effective management
of  information  and information  technology  and   to  reduce the
costs of a wide  range  of  information  services and products.   The
authors briefly  examine the conceptual  basis of IRM, the origins
and rationale of  Federal commitment to IRM, and the development and
implementation   of  Federal  IRM policy.   They  also    discuss
assertions  that  Federal  IRM  has not  adequately  increased  the
effectiveness of information   management,  that   Federal  IRM is
poorly understood and  implemented by IRM managers,  and that, as an
instrument for implementing  Federal  information   policy,  it has
had ambiguous results  at best. It is concluded that the Federal
government must renew  its commitment to the original vision of IRM,
with an emphasis on maximizing the benefits and value of Federal
information for  all its users.   (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

US Government information policy.
Eisenbeis,  Kathleen
Journal of Education for Library and Information Science  v29 (2)
Fall 88, 92-98.   10 refs. bibliog

   Provides  an  understanding  of the  federal information policy.
Some definitions  of that policy are provided along with an idea of
the range   of issues  being covered.  Some of  the current  policy
initiatives are highlighted, as are suggestions of  ways faculty can
participate  in   the policy process.    (LIBRARY  AND INFORMATION

The  right  to  know:  public access to federal information  in the
Shattuck, John
Government Information Quarterly  v5 (4)  1988,  369-375.  5 refs

   Examines government information controls in  the context of the
constitutional   and   statutory    tradition  of  open access  to
government  information in  the  USA.  Discusses  the  restrictive
climate in which the Reagan   administration  views public access
and warns  that restrictive  national   security   policies   may
actually  curtail  economic growth, retard  defence programs, and
undermine  the  Constitution.    (LIBRARY  AND INFORMATION  SCIENCE

Government information: an underutilized resource.
Mason,  M.G.
In: Government Information: An Endangered Species  in the Electronic
Age, p.  42-57,  1986, Special Libraries Association,  Washington, DC

   This  paper discusses  the principles  which  provide  for  the
underpinnings  for the  Federal role in  information collection and
distribution.  The author considers  what use consists  of,  what is
going on now, and are the principles being worked out. The author
considers how  individual  rights impacts upon  information usage.
Reinterpretation  of  the   Freedom  of  Information Act  is  also

Presidential Initiative on Information Policy.  Number 7
Shattuck, J. ; Spence, M.  M.
Performing Organization: Benton  Foundation, Washington,  DC.  1989

   Two  trends  have  inhibited the  development of information and
ideas,  which are vital resources in a modern technological society,

First,  the Federal Government is engaged in efforts to control the
flow of scientific and technical information (STI)  to make it less
accessible to  foreign competitors and  hostile  nations.   Second,
the role of government in collecting, maintaining, and publishing
information has been curtailed due to reduced federal spending on
information  resources.    The President's  policy  agendas  should
include  initiatives  on information policy with  special  programs
focusing on science,  the  economy, and  national  security.   The
following elements would be  included:  (1)  a review of the system
for classifying information;  (2)  a review  of export controls and
related restrictions on the communication of unclassified STI; (3)
steps to give  Congress and the public time to comment on proposed
executive orders and national security directives;  (4) interagency
deliberations  to  develop guidelines  that  protect  against undue

government  control  over the content and conclusions of federally
sponsored research;  (5) actions to limit the role of  the Office of
Management  and Budget?  (6) revisions in the Freedom of Information
Act  to  facilitate  access  to  government  information;   and  (7)
authorization  for  the Secretary of Defense to curb  inappropriate
secrecy in  agency budgets.   (NTIS)

Finding government information: the  Federal Information Locator
System  (FILS).
Bass, Gary  D. and David Plocher.
Government  Information  Quarterly  8:11-32  no 1  '91

   In 1977, the Commission on Federal  Paperwork  observed that "the
Federal Government does not  know what information it collects, with
what frequency, from whom, and for what uses."  To remedy this, the
Commission  recommended  the  creation  of  a Federal Information
Locator System (FILS).  Mandated by the Paperwork Reduction Act of
1980, FILS  exists today in  name only.  This article  describes the
ill-fated history of FILS and presents a vision  of what FILS  still
can be —  a  series of  linked computer systems maintained by Federal
agencies  to improve the  management of information resources and
facilitate  public access  to government information.  (PAIS)

Federal  information  inventory/locator systems:  from burden  to
McClure, C.R.
Jul 1990,  105p.

   Building  on  previous  discussions  of  Federal  information
inventory locator  systems  (FILS),  this  report explores issues
related to  FILS  and  identifies  policy and implementation options
that can best  meet the competing rationales and requirements for
FILS.  The  concept  of  a  Government-wide  Information  Inventory/
Locator System is explored,  and  it is  suggested  that  such  a system
should  would  serve  as  an authoritative  register of all Federal
information  collection  requests,   assist  agencies  in   locating
government  information, and eliminate duplication of information
collection. The  system would contain  citations  and  abstracts of
publicly available U.S.  government information,  and the name of the
agency or  source where the information could  be  obtained.  This
study: (l)  reviews the  existing  policy  system  regarding   FILS;
(2) clarifies the objectives and uses  for  FILS;  (3) identifies key
stakeholders (i.e., Federal mission agencies,  Federal dissemination
agencies,  Office  of Management and Budget Office  of  Information and
Regulatory  Affairs,   Congress,  public   advocacy  groups,   the
library/information science  community,  the general  public, and the
private  sector); and (4)  discusses  issues and criteria related to
how these   systems   can  meet the  needs of the stakeholders. The
report assumes  that  readers  are  knowledgeable  about  Federal

information policies and information resources management and does
not provide a general overview of the existing Federal information

The quantification  of information:  the paperwork budget  and the
birth of the burden hour.
Rubinstein, Gwen
Government Information Quarterly,  7(1)  1990,  p.  73-81

   Discusses  the  problem  of  quantifying  information  and  the
elaborate  system  of numbers that the  Office of  Information and
Regulatory Affairs within the Office of Management and Budget uses
to measure paperwork.   Notes  the shortcoming of  the Information
Collection budget  and encourages it  elimination.   (LIBRARY AND

Proceedings of the  Federal  Pre-White House Conference on Library
and Information Services
Lister Hill Auditorium,  National Library of Medicine, November 26-
27, 1990
Federal  Library  and Information  Center Committee,  Library  of

   These  proceeding  contain  several  main   areas of  continuing
concern including access, networking,  preservation,  and funding.
These core national  issues  were addressed under the umbrella of:
"equal opportunity of access to federal information."
   The preconference activity goals included  the promotion of the
theme of "citizen access to federal information resources through
federal agency informational organizations."  The guiding principle
of the federal preconference was that "access is the key" for the
improvement  of information services  to increase  productivity,
expand literacy, and strengthen democracy.  (HEADQUARTERS LIBRARY)

New Directions in Federal Information Policy  and Dissemination.
Snowhill, Lucia; Meszaros, Rosemary
Microform Review  v!9 (4) Fall 90,  181-185.

   During the Reagan Administration,  federal  information policies
and  climate  were  driven  by  budget  cutting,  elimination  of
publications, and a dramatic increase in privatization of federal
information. Looks  at proposed legislation of  the 101st Congress
and other factors through July 90 contributing to the development
of information  policy in the  Bush Administration.  Although the
current  legislative emphasis  is on  incorporation  of electronic
formats, print and microfiche publications continue to have a large
and  valid  role   in  disseminating  certain   types of  government

Information policy and the Bush administration: a first look.
Shill, Harold B.
Government Information Quarterly  v7  (I) 1990, 1-7. 14 refs

   Attempts to identify directions in US information policy after
one  year of   the   Bush   administration.  The following general
policy  directions are  emerging   in  some areas  of  information
policy:  electronic dissemination  of  information;  scientific  and
technical information;  the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and
public/private  roles and  responsibilities.   Examines  the 1988
Republican  Party  platform,   analyses  the new  administration's
pattern  of  appointments;  considers  specific  decisions  made and
actions  taken  on information-related  issues since Inaugural Day,
and  gives attention  to  the Bush administration's decision-making
structure,  style  and  priorities  in  an  attempt  to  identify
information policy  directions. (LIBRARY AND  INFORMATION SCIENCE

What's new in federal information policy.
Johnson, S.W. ed.; Hattery, M.
Information  Retrieval and Library Automation  (US), Vol. 26, Issue
4, p. 1-4, Sep 1990

   Reforms  in  federal  information policy  proposed  by  D.  Allen
Bromley, the President's   science adviser, are discussed. Public
information  is  defined.  Principles    of    public   information
regarding  access,  dissemination,  and integrity  and preservation
are    suggested.     An     enhances   role  for  FCCSET   (Federal
Coordinating Council for Science,  Engineering, and Technology) is

The use of government publications: a twelve-year perspective.
Postema, B.  (Fargo Public Library, Fargo, ND); Weech,  T.L.
Government  Publications Review, Vol.  18, Issue 3, p.  223-238
May 1991

   Updating an earlier  review of the literature of  government
document use that was published in 1978,  this article covers the
period from mid-1977 through   December, 1989. The  literature is
analyzed in terms of three categories:  library surveys,  citation
studies, and  user surveys. Six  library surveys,  three  citation
studies, and 13 user surveys (including studies using circulation
data) are  identified and  analyzed.   In  addition, five  non-U.S.
studies  are examined. It  is noted that the research  findings in
some  areas   such as the  conclusions  that   social  scientists,
especially economists and  political scientists,  are  the  heaviest
users of documents;  non-users believe  either that documents do not
contain information relevant to their information needs or that the
time involved in retrieving the information from documents cannot
be justified.  Although some progress has been made in building on

prior research, a  need  still  exists for more consistency  in the
construction   of   the   data   gathering  instruments   and   in
categorization of  the results.  It is suggested that future studies
focus on the impact of privatization and electronic dissemination
of government information on use and user attitudes. (INFORMATION

Remarks of  Fred B. Wood, Senior Associate, Office  of  Technology
Assessment, United states Congress, before the  Federal  Pre-White
House Conference on Library and Information Services
Proceedings of the Federal  Pre-White House Conference  on Library
and Information Services
Lister Hill Auditorium,  National Library of Medicine, November 26-
27, 1990
Federal  Library   and  Information  Center Committee,  Library  of

   Discusses some  of  the successes  the  information community has
seen over  the past  two years  in  the  area  of  public  access  to
information policy.  Lists  10 principles or guidelines critical to
implementing access, and two avenues to use for enlisting support
from the broader  community  to  implement  these  principles;  global
change, and elementary/secondary education. (HEADQUARTERS LIBRARY)

The Cutting Edge of Federal Information Policy:  An Interview with
John Chelen, Esq., Executive Director,  Unison Institute
Sherwood, Diane
Information  Today  Wn8  PP:   27-30  Sep 1990

   In an interview, John Chelen, executive director of the Unison
Institute,  which was established to provide a center for computer
systems and software technology in the  public interest,  discussed
the functions of the Institute.   The Unison Institute was founded
on the belief that the  opportunities arising from the  changes in
information technology  and theory  are  vast and  profound.   The
Institute  is  seen as  a center  in the  public  interest for the
discussion  and  analysis of these  opportunities.  Chelen is most
involved  in  questions  of  access  to  government  information,
especially  questions  relating to  policies  of  dissemination and
distribution, cost, media of dissemination, and computer software.
Areas  of  interest include  the  possibilities for  greater  public
access to  government information.   For  the average  citizen,  the
most important benefit from the open access to information provided
by  the Institute  will   be  in  the  area  of  enhanced  government
effectiveness in the operation of its own programs. (ABI/INFORM)

Office   of   Technology  Assessment  perspectives  on  current US
federal  information issues.
Wood, F.B.  (Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, Wash.,
DC) Government Publications Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p.  281-300,
Jul 1990

   These  articles cover three  of the major  issues  dealing with
federal  information management  and policy currently being debated
in  the  United  States Congress.   They  present  the Office  of
Technology Assessment's evaluation of and suggestions  for improving
current  federal  information initiatives.  Topics treated  include:
government  printing,  the  procurement  of  printing  and  other
information  products  and services, the distribution  and sale of
public documents,  the depository  library  program,  the Paperwork
Reduction  Act,   federal  information  policy,  and  the  general
management  of federal  information resources.  The  final article
details  the  serious financial  problems being  encountered by the
National Technical Information  Service and outlines ways  in which
the Service can  be salvaged.  (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Information policies:  strategies  for the future.
Morton, S.; Barry, M.
Special Libraries, Vol. 81, Issue 2, p. 158-162, Spr 1990

   This paper summarizes the National  Information Policy report of
the Special  Libraries Association on the  issue  of formulating a
national   information policy  for the United States.   Key issues
included the dissemination of and access to government information,
the greatest  possible   diversity  of  public and private  sources,
and protection of basic  democratic  values.   Privacy,   public
subsidies,   global    competition,  and  government management  of
information are  also reviewed.  (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Federal information policy.
Morton, Sandy I.
Government Information Quarterly  v7 (1) 1990,  67-72. 6 refs

   With a new Administration at the helm and the 101st Congress in
place,  prospects  are  good  for a coordinated effort within the
government to  establish viable information management strategies
for the  1990s.   Adapted  from  testimony   given  by the Special
Libraries Association,  to  the  House  Subcommittee  on Government
Information, Justice,  and Agriculture in May   1989,   government
information dissemination policies and practices are addressed and
recommendations for the future offered.  Original abstract  (LIBRARY

strategies arguments and tactical battles over federal information
policy development.
Sherwood, Diane E.
Government Information Quarterly  v7 (1)  1990,  59-66. 10 refs

   Because  there  is  no  clear  philosophy  on the role of the
Federal government  in  the dissemination of its own information,
and because  dissemination  technologies are changing so rapidly,
agencies conflict   on  how to  disseminate  information.  Examines
specific agency attempts   its   data in a way  that  satisfies its
constituencies, Office of  Management  and   Budget  (OMB)  and the
private  sector.   Specifically  the   Securities   and   Exchange
Commission's   release  of EDGAR,  the  Department   of Commerce's
Patent  and  Trademark  Office's recent  lawsuit  of    trademark
records,  and the  Department of Defense's problems with Fedlog  are
cited.    Statements   and  policy   recommendations   from  recent
Congressional hearings are also included.   (LIBRARY AND INFORMATION

Directions   in federal information resources  management:  a view
from the Office of Management and Budget.
Reeder, Franklin S.
Information Management Review  v4 (4)  Spring 89, 29-37.  29 refs

   Describes   the  role and functions of  the Office  of Management
and    Budget   with    respect  to  federal   information  resources
management and  defines  some  of  the important trends and issues
in  information   resources  management   policy.     (LIBRARY  AND

Government publications and publishing during the Reagan years
Hernon, Peter
Government Information Quarterly  v6 (4)  1989,  395-410.  table.

   Claims  that   the   Reagan administration adopted policies and
practices  that managed, controlled, reduced, and,  in some cases,
restricted the flow of government publications and information to
the  public.    This  overview  identifies  the  relevant  policy
instruments  used  by  the  Administration   in  this  regard,  and
indicates that Congress also reduced public access to government
publications  and   information.   (LIBRARY  AND INFORMATION  SCIENCE

Discussion forum:  national information policy.
Hernon, P.
Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 6, Issue 3, p.  229-236, 1989

   Reviews  discussions  of  the  need  for  a national information
policy and explores   some  of   the  complex  issues  involved in


policy  formation.  The differences  between national  and federal
information policy are identified, the  role  of  scientific  and
technical  information is  discussed,  and  strategies  for creating
a national information policy are suggested. (INFORMATION SCIENCE

Strengthening  Federal   Information   Policy:   Opportunities  and
Realities at OMB. Number 6
Bass, G., Plocher, D.; Benton Foundation, Washington,  DC

   During the past decade the Federal Government has significantly
retreated from its historical responsibility to maintain the free
flow  of  information  that  is  essential  to maintain a  healthy
democracy.  This  responsibility  includes the  collection of basic
data on the health of the economy as well as the dissemination of
information that assists  and propels  public debate.  The Office of
Management and Budget (OMB), which has wide-ranging authority over
Federal information activities, is the agency primarily responsible
for discouraging the flow of public information.  It has failed in
its mandate  to improve Federal  information resources management
(Circular A-130) ,  deferring to private sector businesses instead of
helping agencies  to plan  for the new electronic information age.
Two  areas  in  which  OMB  has   exercised   control  over  Federal
information  activities are paperwork reduction and  information
resources  management,  and  management  of  Federal  information
dissemination  through  reductions   in  printing  of   government
publications  and  the privatization  of  government  information
dissemination. The consequences  of these cutbacks  in  information
activities  have  been magnified  by  the  current  revolution  in
information technology.  Efforts  should be made to: (1) articulate
a national information policy; (2) reform  legislative direction and
oversight;  (3)  reduce centralized  political  control of Federal
agency information activities; and (4)  strengthen the capabilities
of  Federal  agencies  to  control their  information  activities.
Congress and the President must work together to redirect Federal
information policies  and practices  if the  free flow  of  public
information is to be ensured.   (NTIS)

Federal  information   policies:  the  Congressional  initiative.  A
summary of proceedings of the annual forum of federal  information
policies, 1989.
Price, D. (Federal Library and Information Center,  Washington DC)
80 pp., 1989, Pub. No: ED 314  070

   This booklet  summarizes  the  proceedings  of  a forum—whose
audience consisted of  over  200 library and information  managers,
congressional staff members, and  persons from    the  information
industry  and   academic  community—on  the condition of federal
information  policies  as  they  relate to    the    Congressional

initiative. Among issues discussed are:  (1)  the role of  Congress
in   formulating  information   policies,    and how that  role is
balanced  by  the  executive  and   judicial  branches;   (2)   the
practicality and desirability  of   centralized  control over the
dissemination of government  information;  and  (3)  the inhibiting
impact   of   the costs  of acquiring  information  in electronic
formats  on  access   to  that  information.  (INFORMATION  SCIENCE

Federal information policy.
Boehlert, Sherwood
Government Information Quarterly  v6 (l)  1989, 25-29.  refs

  Contribution to a special section devoted to  the 5th  annual forum
on  federal  information policies,  a symposium  on the  impact on
competitiveness, held in Washington, DC,  7  Mar  88,  and  sponsored by
the  Federal  Library  and  Information Center   Committee (FLICC).
Keynote address which underlines the necessity  of having  a coherent
information policy that  fosters competitiveness and recognizes the
place of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) within
the federal government.  The policy  structure must  create  greater
opportunities   for   the   American   public   to gain  access to

Federal  information  policy  and its impact  on competitiveness:  a
Boehlert, Sherwood
Government Publications Review  v!5 (5)  Sept/Oct 88,  399-402

   Congressman  Sherwood  Boehlert  discusses  the  issue  of US
competitiveness  in   trade   and   how  it   is  affected  by  the
ready availability  and  free flow of information. Concludes that
there is a critical   need   for  the development  of a comprehensive

Technology assessment and federal information policy.
Eisenbeis, Kathleen
Special Libraries  v79 (3) Summer 88,  200-206. 23 refs

   A rapidly changing information technology environment, changing
user needs, and an active information industry lobby  are forcing
Congress  to  rethink current  information  policies  embodied in
numerous and often conflicting laws, regulations, and guidelines.
A knowledge of the chain of events leading  to the current Office of
Technology Assessment (OTA) appraisal of technology, public policy,
and the  changing  nature of federal information dissemination is
useful in understanding the complex issues, questions,  and concerns
now facing  legislative  policy makers.   (LIBRARY AND  INFORMATION


A  secondary publisher's views  on federal  information policy: a
Landau, Herbert B.
Government  Publications Review  v!5 (1)  Jan/Feb 88,  1-10.  table.

   Adapted   from   a   talk   presented  at the Federal  Library  and
Information Committee 'Forum on Federal Information Policies', 25
Feb 87,  Washington,  DC. Current US government  information policy
is  found  lacking    in  terms  of its  support  of  the   domestic
information industry. Lack   of   federal   leadership   and   a
broad-based national  information  policy   imposes    a   serious
competitive handicap upon the USA. As a result,   large  segments
of  the US   information  infrastructure  have  been  acquired   by
foreign  interests.  The  US  response  to   the  present situation
requires: a comprehensive and cohesive national  information policy;
a   focal   point for  national policy  and program development  and
coordination;  and  recognition  and  nurturing of  US  private  and
public information resources  (LIBRARY AND SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Statement   before  the  subcommittee  on  Science,  Research and
Technology  on Federal Information Resources Policy, July  14, 1987
Skill, Harold B.
West Virginia Libraries  v40  (3) Fall 87, 8-28. 8 refs

   Statement on behalf of the American Library Association before
the    subcommittee  on  Science,  Research  and  Technology,  House
Committee  on   Science,   Space,    and   Technology  on  Federal
Information Resources Policy,  14 July 87. Lists  the  subcommittee's
concerns  and  addresses  them  by:   examining   the   national   and
international context of information   policy today;  reviewing  the
federal government's  current programs for acquiring,  processing,
organizing,  indexing  and disseminating  both completed  research
and statistical data; analyzing the  question  of   public/private
responsibilities  in the context of current  national   information
needs  and  the  option  of  converting  the National   Technical
Information Service into a government  corporation;  and   giving
more attention to   a  policy  mechanism  which  might appropriately
draft   the   type  of  information policy the  Subcommittee seeks.

Public Laws and Public Access
Chartrand, Robert Lee
Information Society  v5nl  PP: 7-18  1987

   The   roles  of   traditional  libraries  and the newer multi-
purpose information centers in offering  the  type of  access desired
by their patron? will  continue   to   evolve  with  technological
advances and changing user needs.  In   view  of  these  changes,
the issue  of access  is becoming more  important.    Information


professionals   have   focused   close   attention   on  national
information  access  policies  and  the  increasing complexity of
formulating  such  policies. Over  500  bills  and resolutions that
focused on information-related  matters were introduced during the
99th Congress, most concerning   the  areas  of:   1.  library and
archives policy, 2. information disclosure,  confidentiality, and
right  of  privacy,  and    3.  government   information    systems,
clearinghouses,  and dissemination.  Policymakers are beginning  to
view  information  as a commodity and as a national resource that
must be protected and cultivated. (ABI/INFORM)

Access and dissemination issues concerning federal government
Levin, Marc A.
Special Libraries  v74 (2) Apr 83,  127-137. 20 refs

   For the first time in US history a national information policy
is  beginning   to  surface-unplanned,   with   little   democratic
participation,  and  less unanimity.  Examines the federal access
and  dissemination    policies    that  favor  and  encourage  the
availability of public information; the structures and mechanisms
for producing  and disseminating government information;  recent
legislation and  legal implications  of   policy   decisions; the
effect  of  new  technologies  on  public  access  and  dissemination
issues; current executive branch policy   directions;   and a call
for action to  reverse some trends  that  threaten basic values and

Federal Information Policies in the 1980s: conflicts and Issues
Hernon, P.; McClure,  C.R.
467 pp., 1986, Ablex Publishing Co., Norwood,  NJ

   This book examines  the development of US information policy.  It
then examines  the  uses of government publications as an information
resource.  The impact  of public access laws, and of legislation and
regulations on the provision  of federal government information are
studied.  Federal science and technology information policies are
also studied,  both before and during the  Reagan administration.

United   States  government  information   policies:   views   and
McClure, Charles R.
1989,  xi+349pp.

   Includes discussion on the role  of the Office of Management and
Budget   and   other   federal   agencies   in  information   policy
development, and the  collection and dissemination of information.
(PAIS)                                                :


Federal information resources management  (IRM): a policy review and
Bishop, A.; Doty P.; McClure, C.R.
In: Managing Information and Technology, p. 40-47, 1989

   Since  the passage  of  the  Paperwork Reduction Act  of 1980,
Information Resources Management (IRM)  has  been the major strategy
used by the Federal government  to improve the  effective management
of information and information technology and to reduce the costs
of a wide range of information  services and products.  The authors
briefly  examine the  conceptual basis of IRM,  the  origins  and
tarionale  of  Federal  commitment to IRM, and  the development and
implementation of Federal IRM policy.  They also discuss assertions
that Federal IRM has not adequately increased  the effectiveness of
information management, that Federal IRM is poorly understood and
implemented  by  IRM  managers,   and that,  as  an  instrument  for
implementing Federal information policy,  it has has had ambiguous
results at best.  It is concluded that  the Federal  government must
renew  its commitment  to  the  original  vision of IRM, with  an
emphasis   on  maximizing   the   benefits   and  value  of  Federal
information for all its users.   (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Information policy: a study of values  in the policy process
Overman, E. Sam, and Anthony G. Cahill
Policy Studies Review, Summer 1990

   Discusses such issues as access,  privacy, openness, usefulness,
cost  and  benefit,  security,  and   ownership  and  their relative
significance in the existing legislation  and policy debate. (PAIS)

How many  people can keep  a secret?.   Data  interchange within a
decentralized system.
Clark,   C.Z.F.   (Agriculture  Division,  Bureau of  the  Census,
U.S.  Department of Commerce, Washington,  DC); Coffey, J.L.
Review  of  Public  Data   Use,  Vol. 12,  Issue 4,  p.  271-277,  Dec

   This  paper  describes   and   discusses  a  number of the issues
associated with   the   sharing   of  statistical data  by federal
government agencies. It also provides  a  brief history of  U.S.
federal government legislation  concerning  the confidentiality of
statistical data and considers  the  legal concepts  originating in

There ought to be a law.. (Issues  of statistical use of information
collected by the federal government).
Alexander, L.  (Office of Research, Social Security Administration,
Dept. of Health and Human Services,  Washington,  DC)
Review  of  Public  Data  Use, Vol. 12, Issue  4,  p.  279-287,  Dec

   This  paper  considers   the  issues  of  statistical   use of
information collected  by the  federal  government,  especially the
administrative records that  agencies   maintain in order to carry
out  their  programs.  It considers the   existing  provisions   of
federal    confidentiality   law  and  the  various  arguments  for
legislative change.  It discusses  the benefits of changes, but also
the constraints that they would be likely to impose on the sharing
of statistical  data.   A   focal   point  for  the  paper   is the
draft bill  for  Confidentiality  of  Federal Statistical  Records
recently  circulated  by  the  Office of  Management  and  Budget.

URISA 91.  Information and Technology:  Gateway  to Solutions
Proceedings from  URISA (Urban and  Regional Information  Systems
Association) Public Information:  Legal  Issues,  Policy Issues, Use
and Impact of Information Technology.   Vol.  4,  900 Second Street,
Suite 304, Washington, DC  20002

   The  URISA  '91  proceedings  include  papers  on  the  latest
developments  in the information  systems industry,  including new
projects, case studies and  field  analyses written by people in the
field.    URISA  is  a  professional/educational  organization  for
individuals concerned with the effective use of information systems
by local, regional,  and state/province  governments.   URISA's over
3,000 members  include providers, managers and technicians, analysts
and vendors associated with county or municipal governments.  The
Proceedings of the  1991 conference held in  San Francisco include
papers on the development of data policy for the information age,
open records law, CIS, copyright,  information privacy and consensus
in the development of public information policies.  (HEADQUARTERS

Information 2000: Library  and Information Services  for  the 21st
Summary report of the  1991  White House Conference on Library and
Information Services  (WHCLIS).   July   9-13, 1991  (Available from
WHCLIS, 1111 18th St., NW,  Washington,  DC  20036

   The summary report of the White House Conference on Library and
Information Services (WHCLIS) contains the final 95 recommendations
adopted by delegates to the July  1991 conference.   The conference
is the culmination of state  pre-conferences involving thousands of
information professionals   nationwide.    The  conference  themes,


literacy, productivity and democracy,  are reflected in some aspect
of each of the recommendations.  Thirteen priority recommendations
include: enactment of legislation to create and fund the National
Research and Education Network  (NREN)  to serve as an information
"super highway"; a provision that assures that libraries continue
to acquire, preserve, and disseminate those information resources
needed for education  and research in order for the United States to
increase  its  productivity and  stay  competitive in  the  world
marketplace;  development  of  a  National policy for  information
preservation; congressional amendments to copyright legislation to
accommodate the impact of  new and emerging technologies; amendment
of the  Freedom of Information Act  to ensure access to  all  non-
exempt information whether  received by the  federal  government or
created  at public expense and  regardless  of  physical form  or
characteristics; and enactment of a national  information policy.

Online Access to Government Information: A Foundation's view
Toll, Martha A.
Bulletin of  the  American Society for Information Science   v!7n6
PP: 11-12, Aug/Sep 1991

   Policy  questions  have  arisen   about   government  agencies'
information   management procedures, public  access  to  data,  the
government's affirmative role in disseminating it,  and who should
pay  for  it.  The Bauman  Foundation  (Washington,  DC) ,  a private,
nonprofit foundation, is working to strengthen  public  access to
government  information  in  the  electronic  age.   Its  greatest
challenge  lies  in  encouraging the  public  to  participate  in
information  policy discussions and   decisions   at  the  federal
level. Broadening  the  nonprofit constituency beyond   the   civil
liberties  and citizen      watchdog   groups   concerned    with
right-to-know  issues   in   the electronic  age  is   a  crucial,
albeit  long-term,   process.  The  Bauman Foundation  has  worked
to help  realize the potential of  the Environmental Protection
Agency's Toxic Release  Inventory, a publicly available database of
toxic   emissions.    The  Foundation   now  is seeking  to  foster
electronic  access  across  the  entire  spectrum  of  government
activities.  (ABI/INFORM)

Online Access to Federal Information: A Publisher's View
Massa, Paul P.
Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science v!7n6 PP:
8-9.  Aug/Sep 1991

   An  assumption  is often  made that the federal government has
numerous databases that the public could access readily if only a
"gateway" or "window" were provided. However, only a small amount
of electronic information    owned    by  federal  agencies  could
conceivably be mounted  by the  federal government itself for remote
public online   access.  Editorial  control would  have to  be  far
stricter at all levels,  from  the technical validation of data to
the careful resolution of content and design issues.  Skilled human
effort would be required at   all  stages:  collection,  processing,
access,  preservation,   and  dissemination.  Dissemination  trends
already under way are likely to accelerate,  such as the emergence
of  a  complementary  relationship       between   government  and
non-government information sources. Costs will have to be minimized
by ensuring  that  the  information   is   easily   available   in
standard  formats  on offline  media. A  creative   realism   that
capitalizes on existing strengths will better  equip the US to face
the challenges of the new information-intensive century that lies
just  ahead. (ABI/INFORM)

Pathways:  Online Freedom
Anzovin, Steven
Compute! (GCOE)  v!3n4  p46  Apr 1991

   Leonard   J.   Umina, who ran  for  governor of Massachusetts in
1990,  feels  that   electronic   technology   is   the   key   to
restoring the  free  spread  of  information.  He and his Independent
High  Tech  Party  have proposed  a  program  for  public  access to
government information.  (COURIER PLUS)

Freedom of Information in the Computer Era
Shulman, Seth
Technology Review (TCR)  v93n5  p!4-15  Jul 1990

   Computer  tapes containing  electronic memos sent by White House
staffers are at  the  center of  a  battle  over  public  access to
government information. (COURIER PLUS)

Determining    the  content  and  identifying  suppliers  of  public
information in electronic form.
Perritt, H.H.  (Villanova University Law School,  Villanova, PA)
Government Publications Review,  Vol.  17, Issue 4, p. 325-332, Jul

   This  paper  reviews   the   issues   involved in  the growing
debate on  the  circumstances  under   which   federal   government
information  should  be made available   to   the   public.   The
existing   legal    framework  is  found  to  be  adequate      to
accommodate   electronic   information   policies.   The   author
discusses  how  the  particular features of electronic information
products should   be designed  to meet consumer  needs.  The author
stresses the need to  define  public   and  private  sector  roles
in  adding value to electronic information. Five different stages
of   information   processing  at  which  these   roles  influence
information are studied.  (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Computers and the FOIA
Stein, M L
Editor & Publisher  (GEDP)   v!23n23   p!6-17  Jun  9, 1990

   Reporters  will  find the effort  to  get information under the
Freedom of Information Act even harder as  federal  agencies move
toward the  creation  of  electronic   databases;   however,   the
databases can  bring some  benefits to  news   organizations.   The
advantages    and    disadvantages    of  databases  are  discussed.

Public Access: Two Cases of Federal Electronic Dissemination
U.S. General Accounting Office Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee
on Government Information, Justice  and Agriculture,  Committee on
Government Operations, House of Representatives; May 14, 1990

   In using information technology to conduct their business more
effectively and efficiently, federal agencies have converted public
information from  paper  documents and data  files  into electronic
data base systems.  Various public interest groups have expressed
concern that this transformation of public information and public
decision-making  into  electronic  formats  has  occurred  without
serious public policy attention  being paid to how  it may affect
citizen access rights  to public information.  (HEADQUARTERS LIBRARY)

Making It Hard to Get Records
Chichioco, Tess
Editor & Publisher (GEDP)  v!23n!3  p!6  Mar 31, 1990

   As   government  increasingly  conducts  its  business  through
computers,  the fight   for   access  to records has  shifted  to an
ill-defined area.  It is  now much   tougher   to get government
records through the Freedom of Information Act,  because computers
can be used to hinder disclosure. (COURIER PLUS)

Access  denied:  new  electronic technologies should make it easier
for the public   to   get at governmental data,   but requests are
often blocked; Congress may try again to open the doors.
Moore W. John.
National Journal  v22:121-4,  January 20,  1990

   Access  to  electronic  information such as  data  bases  has
uncovered new problems related to the public's right to gain access
to  government information.    Also  included discussion  of  the
controversy   over  whether  the 1966 Freedom of  Information Act
applies to such information.  (PAIS)

The   freedom   of   information  act needs no amendment  to ensure
access to electronic records.
Goldman, P.A.
Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 7,  Issue 4, p. 389-402, 1990

   This   discussion  of the  Freedom of  Information Act  (FOIA)
focuses on  its applicability   to   computer   records.   Agency
practices  to  ensure  access  to  information    are   considered;
requests,    litigation,   and   administrative appeals   that   have
helped  clarify   the  FOIA are  described;  and computer software,
electronic mail,   computer  programming, and  requested formats are

Federal Information  in  the Electronic Age:  Policy Issues for the
The Bureau of National Affairs, 1990

  BNA's new  Special  Report presents  a factual and comprehensive
review of the explosive  debate that is likely to result in major
changes in how the government  supplies information and the future
role of the private  sector  in  information delivery. (HEADQUARTERS

Dialing  Uncle  Sam:  government  bulletin  boards as  information
Delfino, E.  (Library of Congress, Washington, DC)
Online/CD-ROM    '90   Conference    Proceedings,  p. 44-48,  1990,
Online, Inc., Weston, CT

   The  efficiency  of  bulletin  board  system  software  as  the
means  of  providing    information    by  government  agencies  is
discussed. The  importance of  the mission  support bulletin board
systems is emphasized. The  usefulness of  the system operator is
examined.  A  listing  of  available  bulletin boards is  provided.

AT&T Wins Pact to Build Kat'l  LAN Internet for IRS
Messmer, Ellen
Network World  v8n29  PP: 2, 6  Jul 22, 1991

   In  July  1991,  the Department of the Treasury awarded a 7-year
contract to AT&T for  networked  computer systems that will automate
the bulk of the Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) remote offices and
provide links to IRS  data  centers.  The  IRS  will  install local
area networks  (LAN)  in  local and   regional  tax  offices  and link
them with a nationwide backbone net. The installations  are  part
of  a  broad  information systems  effort  to  embrace client-server
computing, which will facilitate the exchange of data between the
tax    offices  and   IRS  data  centers.  The  Treasury  Multi-User
Acquisition Contract  (TMAC),  with  a  potential  value of $1.4
billion, is the single largest computer systems order AT&T has ever
received. The contract will be the  basis  for  all  IRS  network
purchases during  the next 7 years. Other Treasury  agencies will
have the option  of purchasing  equipment  and services  through the
TMAC contract as well.  The typical design  envisioned under TMAC
will   feature    AT&T  workstations  networked  to a Pyramid MISe
server, which would run a distributed database application.

6E Division Builds Global LAN Internet
O'Brien, Timothy
Network World  v8n28  PP: 1,  88  Jul 15,  1991

   General Electric Co.'s (GE)  Nuclear Energy Division has awarded
a multimillion-dollar    contract   to   Hughes   LAN Systems  for
deployment of  an  enterprise  network linking local  area networks
(LAN)  and personal  computers  at   its  manufacturing  sites  and
offices worldwide. The divison will install Banyan  Systems  Inc.
VINES  LANs  throughout  its   campus  facility.   The  global  LAN
internetwork    is   expected  to  make   GE more  competitive  by
streamlining  operations    and     speeding     the   transfer  of
information.   The  GE  project  team  established    a    4-phase
implementation  plan that addressed cabling in its first  2 phases
and LANs  and  internetworking  in the final 2. The enterprise net
will  support  many of the current mainframe applications that run
the business.   GE  is  also  planning to  move some  large systems
applications down to  the  LANs.  GE's Sush Patel said that VINES
was  selected  because  of its  superior   wide-area  communications
facilities.  (ABI/INFORM)

IBM Hail for '90s: "Free Jailed Data"
Orr, Ken
Software Magazine  vlln9  PP:  51-57  Jul 1991

   "Data in  jail"  is how some industry  experts refer to the data
accessibility   and  integration  problem. IBM's  solution to the
data access problem  is  a new data strategy for the 1990s - the
Information Warehouse, which  is  a  framework for data  access for
all  products  and  applications.    This  framework   has 2  major
conceptual components:  universal  data  access  and  informational
databases. Universal data access provides a common mechanism by
which any  application can access any type of data  format on any
hardware or  software   platform  throughout  the enterprise. This
common  mechanism  is  called    an    application    programming
interface.  Developing a strategy for separating the  support  of
informational     databases  from  the   support   for  operational
databases  is   a   key   to  the  Information  Warehouse framework.
Developing  an  enterprise-wide  Information  Warehouse  involves
defining what data  exist with  the  enterprise's   key  operational
system  and  then determining  what specific  end-user communities
require. A key  technology in these activities  is  information  (data)
modeling.  (ABI/INFORM)

Power to the People
Roesler, Paula
Telephony  v219n28  PP:   12-13  Dec 31,  1990

   A case study on data  integration.  Pacific  Gas  and  Electric
Co., which has more than 4.1 million electric  and 3.5 million gas


customers  in northern  and  central California,  handles enormous
volumes  of information.  Three  years ago,  the company  began to
build  a  local  area  network-wide  area network  (LAN-WAN). Until
all offices  are interconnected  and voice and data integration is
completed, the company  is  complementing  the  LAN-WAN  with its
mainframe-based  computer  system    and   PBX-based    telephone
network.   At  present,  between  60 and 70 offices are included in
the  LAN-WAN. Mark  Michaels,  LAN-WAN  project manager  for   the
business distribution unit,  says the goal is  to have 125, or about
50%,  of  the  company's offices  interconnected  by   1992.   The
company's  distribution,   electric  supply,   gas supply, nuclear
power and generation,  and  corporation  shared power business units
will  each  have  unique  LAN-WAN  applications.    According    to
Michaels,  the LAN-WAN can address both  current and future needs.

Government Information Goes On-Line
Perritt, Henry H., Jr.
Technology  Review  v92n8  PP:  60-67  Nov/Dec  1989

   As  increasing  amounts of government information are  stored in
electronic  form,  policymakers  are  attempting to decide just how
far  the  government    should    go   in  making  such  information
available  to  the  public.   Information   sellers   and    some
government   officials   argue  that agencies should  provide  data
wholesale  but  leave  retailing  to the  private  sector,  since
information   companies   are  more   responsive to consumer needs
than   government      bureaucracies.      On    the   other  hand,
public-interest groups  feel  that   information   technology could
greatly improve the public's  ability  to draw on  government data.
However, neither faction appears to comprehend the complexities  of
government  information in  the electronic  era.   It is suggested
that   federal  policy should  promote public  access to electronic
information,  while  the decision of whether government agencies or
private vendors   would  retail information  to the public should
depend  on  the  costs  and  benefits  of  particular  electronic
information products. (ABI/INFORM)

Electronic information  and freedom of  information: moving toward
policy; a viewpoint.
Wise, Bob
Government Publications Review  v!6 (5)  Sept/Oct 89,  425-428

   Discusses the relationships between government information in
electronic format  and the Freedom of Information Act and the
implication it has for the formulation and implementation of US
federal   information   policy.    Also  explored are the  inherent
tensions  between   the   executive   and legislative branches  of
government in the  enterprise of formulation and implementation of


Information drought: next crisis for the American farmer.
Kranich, Nancy C.
Library Journal  vl!4 (11) 15 June 89, 22-27.  illus. 26 refs

   Since the Reagan administration began its war on waste in 1981
and  the  Office  of Management and Budget promulgated guidelines
for managing  federal   information  resources   in  1985, farmers
and  other citizens   have  had no alternative  to buying  their
information from  the private   sector  at  far   steeper  prices.
Cites  as an  example the  EDI  (Electronic     Dissemination   of
Information)  data  base  of  the  US Department  of  Agriculture
(USDA)  operated  by Martin Marietta Data Systems under contract to

National information policy: the broader context.
Day, Melvin S.
Government Information Quarterly  v6  (2) 1989,  159-163. 1 ref

   Contribution   to  a   special section on the  1988 US Office of
Technology   (OTA)  assessment  report:  Informing   the nation:
federal  information   dissemination   in  an electronic age.  The
author works  at Herner    &   Co.,   Arlington,   Virginia.   Argues
that    the    OTA  report,  concerned   only   with   electronic
dissemination of information,  should not be considered in a vacuum
and  that there  is  an  urgent  need  for  the  US   leadership   to
recognize   that  a  national  information policy  is  a fundamental
requirement if the USA is not  to lose its world leadership role in
the  information  age.    J.S.  (LIBRARY  AND  INFORMATION  SYSTEMS

A  basis  for  increasing  public   access  to  federal  electronic
Shill, Harold B.
Government Information Quarterly  v6  (2) 1989,  135-141.

   Contribution   to  a   special section on the  1988 US Office of
Technology   (OTA)  assessment  report:  Informing   the nation:
federal  information  dissemination  in an electronic age. Briefly
assesses the OTA  report,  examines  its strengths and weaknesses
and suggests some directions for information policy development by
Congress  and  the Bush administration.   (LIBRARY AND INFORMATION

Electronic dissemination of federal information.
Sprehe,  T.J.  (Office  of  Management & Budget, Washington, DC);
Coyne, J.G. ; Jayne, E.; Kronich, N.; McDermott, J.
Managing   Information   and  Technology,  p.  217,  1989

   The  authors  review  developments  since   the  October 1988 OTA
report, "Informing  the  Nation."   Specific   topics  addressed are
executive branch  initiatives,  action  on the congressional front,
private  industry  perspectives,    public    access  concerns  of
librarians,   and   agency  management   of   federal  information.

Draft  policy  of  the  U.S.  Department   of   Commerce   on  the
dissemination of information in electronic format.
Government Information Quarterly  v6  (1) 1989, 89-96

   Reprints  part   of   the   draft  guidelines on electronic data
dissemination  issued by the  US Department of Commerce on 11 Aug
88 under  the Office of  Management and Budget (OMB) circular A-130
issued at the end of 1985. The  Department of Commerce is the first
department to  issue such guidelines.  Stresses  that the guidelines
may be revised when  OMB issues   its revision of A-130 covering

Viewpoint: The Right to Access Information in an Information Age
Allen, Kenneth B.
Information Management Review  v3n3  PP: 57-64  Winter 1988

   The US government,  in the name of national security, may seek to
restrict  the  right  of  citizens   to acquire information. New
concepts  of  sensitive  but  unclassified information turned the
government's attention to the  online  private-sector  information
industry  in 1985. Concerned with foreign access to US public and
private databases, the government, in  1986,  approved  a  "National
Policy on Protection of Sensitive, but Unclassified,  Information
in    Federal    Government   Telecommunications   and   Automated
Information   Systems."   The   immediate  public  response  to the
government's definition of "sensitive, but unclassified" was both
immediate and  widespread.  The  information  industry,  librarians,
civil  libertarians, among  others,  all expressed concern  that
inappropriate restrictions on public access  to  information  would
result  from   this  decision.  A series  of conflicting  statements
from Department of Defense (DOD) officials resulted in an attempt
by the information  industry  to meet with government  officials to
clarify their concerns,  but  so  far, the  DOD  has declined to do so.

THE  FEDERAL  PAGE  -  As  Paperwork  Declines,  GPO  Eyes Future;
Agencies Expected to Turn Increasingly to Electronic Dissemination
of Information.
The Washington Post, October 06, 1988, FINAL Edition Sec. A, p.A23
By: Bill McAllister, Washington Post Staff Writer

   Computers  may have  a  major  impact on  the  way the  federal
government handles  information   in   the  future,  but   for  the
immediate  future the  nation's bureaucrats  will remain  awash in

Informing  the nation.  Federal information  dissemination  in an
electronic age.
US Congress, Washington, DC
32 pp., Oct 1988

   This  report   summarizes   a   study  conducted by the Office of
Technology  Assessment   which   addressed    the   opportunities
offered  by technological advances  to  improve the dissemination
of federal information essential to public  understanding  of many
issues facing  Congress  and  the Nation.  Two major   problems  are
highlighted:   maintaining   equity   in  public access  to federal
information  in  electronic   formats,  and defining the respective
roles  of  federal  agencies   and   the  private  sector  in  the
electronic dissemination  process.   The  report focuses on current
and future roles of the   US  Government  Printing  Office  (GPO)
and   the  Superintendent   of Documents,  the  Depository Library
Program—administered by  the  GPO—and the  National   Technical
Information   Service   (NTIS).  In  addition,  the report suggests
technical/management improvements and statutory/oversight changes,
and examines  opportunities for  the electronic  dissemination of
congressional information.  A list of related reports and general
information on the  Office of  Technology Assessment are attached.

Federal  Agency Use of  Computer Modeling and  Decision Analytic
Wood,  Fred B.; Smith,  Jean E.
Interfaces  v!8n2  PP: 45-55  Mar/Apr 1988

   The major US government agencies make widespread use of computer
modeling  and computer-based  decision analytic techniques. Survey
results  indicate   that  about 60%  of the responding  agencies
reported such  use as  of mid-1985.    However, the full  extent and
actual effects  of such use,  especially with respect  to federal
decision   making,   are  not   well  understood.   A  coordinated,
modest   research  program could help  identify which   kinds   of
modeling techniques and applications are working  well  and which
are not. Beyond  further research on the use of computer modeling
and decision   support,    steps  can   be  taken  to  help decision


makers more  fully realize the potential of information technology
to  improve  federal  decision making.   These  steps are:  1.  the
development  of guidelines or standards for evaluating models,  2.
the  establishment of a directory to major modeling  applications,
3.   the   clarification   of   public access procedures,  and 4.
further   development  of  the   decision   conference  technique.

New  Locks  and Keys for Electronic Information
Computers  &  Security  v7nl  PP:  89-93  Feb 1988

   A report titled "Defending Secrets, Sharing Data," recently was
issued  by  the  Office of Technology Assessment of the Congress of
the  US. The  report points out the criteria needed to maintain an
objective  balance  between    the  need   to  safeguard  important
information  and the need to insure that  citizens  have  free and
open access to unclassified information. The  report  examines:  1.
US federal government policies directed at protecting information,
2.   the vulnerability of communications and computer systems, and
3.   the   trends   in   technology  for safeguarding information in
these systems.  The  business  community and the government agencies
that deal  with  the    business   community often  have a different
outlook  and different  needs than   defense   and   intelligence
agencies   when  it  comes to safeguarding information. The report
examines the goals that specific federal government policies should
aim  to achieve. (ABI/INFORM)

Policy perspectives  on electronic collection  and  dissemination of
Sprehe, J. Timothy
Government Information Quarterly  v5  (3)  1988, 213-221. 16 refs

   Discusses  the  relationship  of  OMB Circular No. A-130, the
Management  of  Federal  Information Resources,  to  the  Paperwork
Reduction   Act.   Information   collection and  dissemination are
treated unequally in the  Act.  OMB's proposed policy guidance on
electronic   collection     enumerated  conditions   favorable  to
electronic collection, and criteria for design and development of
electronic  collection  systems.     Issues  raised  by  commenters
included  the response  burden  for  electronic    collection,  the
importance  of  benefit-cost  analysis,  and  the  advisability  of
waivers.  Policy issues to be treated  in  forthcoming proposed OMB
policy guidance on electronic  collection   include requirement of
agency inventories  of  information  dissemination  products   and
services,  the  meaning of  adequate  notice  prior to initiating
or terminating dissemination, and other general guidance.

Authorizing EDGAR: information policy in theory and practice.
Gellman, Robert M.
Government Information Quarterly  v5 (3)  1988,  199-211.  72 refs

   The Securities and Exchange Commission's new EDGAR (Electronic
Data    Gathering,    Analysis,    and  Retrieval)  data  base  of
prospectuses, securities   registration   statements,   and  other
SEC  filings  was authorized   by  the  Congress.  EDGAR  is  the
first  large  Federal electronic  information  system  authorized
at  a   time  when both the legislative  and  executive   branches
have   been  actively  considering policies    for    electronic
information   systems.  The   legislative  conditions  established
for  EDGAR provide  insight  into the future direction for Federal

Computerizing Uncle Sam's Data:  Oh/  How the Public is Paying
Seghers, Frances
Business  Week  n2977  (Industrial/Technology Edition)  PP: 102-103
Dec 15, 1986

   Allowing  the  private  sector  to set  up computer information
services  for   government  data  and reselling  the data  to recoup
costs is a process that  was  expected  to result   in less costly
services. However, prices  for  information  have  gone  up in all
cases. While Administration officials  defend  the  higher  prices
on the grounds that the new sellers enhance the information or put
it  in  a more usable  format,  critics  contend  that,  while   the
information  is   easily  affordable  for big  business, libraries,
students,  and   other  users cannot pay  such  higher  prices. The
raised  prices   are seen  as  a possible block to  public  access of
government information.   For   example,   at   the   Agriculture
Department, the  nonprofit University of Nebraska's Agnet database
charged an annual fee of $60  plus $40  per hour.  Now that Martin
Marietta Corp. has exclusive  rights  to  the database,  charges  are
$1,800   per  year plus $12 per  hour over 150 hours. While   such
charges  can  be  cost-efficient  for  heavy users,  individuals and
occasional customers suffer.   (ABI/INFORM)

Viewpoint: Government Automation Goes Public in Electronic Filing
Allen, Kenneth B.
Information Management Review  vln4  PP:75-80  Spring 1986

   A  number   of  government  agencies  are beginning to implement
electronic filing systems  in order to  reduce paperwork and costs.
As the  information flow between  citizens  and the state  shifts to
electronic media, the relationship  between  the  public   and the
government could  change.  Therefore,   both   government   and  the
public  need   to participate in the development  of  policies.  The
Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) has proposed  to  collect
information  electronically using the  Electronic  Data  Gathering,


Analysis  and   Retrieval System. The SEC's proposal  to fund the
over-$65-million   system  through   the private sector has some
problems: 1.   The   executive   branch   would not be  subject to
review and oversight. 2. It would  promote  inefficient  resource
allocation.   3.  It  would  reduce  public  availability   of   SEC
information.   The   Patent  and  Trademark Office  has  a similar
project,  which  will be  funded through exchange agreements with
private-sector   vendors.  This   action   may  diminish  public
access  to  the  information.     The     Information     Industry
Association,   along  with   the  government,   is  addressing these
concerns. (ABI/INFORM)

Electronic collection and dissemination of information by federal
US Congress, Washington, DC   599 pp., 1986

   This   document   provides  a   complete  record of testimony
presented at a series   of   hearings  before  the U.S.  Congress on
the electronic collection and  dissemination  of  information  by
federal agencies. In looking at the  effect   of  new  computer  and
communications  technology  on  government  information  activities
and  practices,  the  hearings  considered  such  issues  as  the
capabilities  and  expense  of  modern  computerized  information
systems,  and    the   consequent  reevaluation  of  the role  of
government agencies in the dissemination of public information. The
first day of hearings concentrated on  the  EDGAR (Electronic Data
Gathering,  Analysis,  and Retrieval)  system  developed   at   the
Securities  and  Exchange  Commission. Testimony on the second day
considered the proposal  of the Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) to
establish an  automated  tariff  filing and  information  system.  To
explore potential   conflict   between  the  FMC  and  the private
sector, some of the companies offering tariff automation  services
offered testimony. Other witnesses  at  the  hearing  represented
three  agencies  that have  developed electronic    dissemination
systems for  press  releases  and  other  agency data — the  Census
Bureau,     Food   and Drug   Administration,   and  Department  of
Agriculture.  The   final day of  hearings focused on  the National
Library  of  Medicine's  Medlars   system  and  on  the  trademark
automation activities of the Patent  and  Trademark  Office.  The
hearings  were  held  to review those decisions and to compare and
contrast alternative approaches (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Panels Ruled Exempt from Disclosure Lav
New York Times (NY) Sec B, p 2, col 1  Jul 31,  1991

   The  Connecticut Supreme  Court  ruled  on July  30,  1991  that
certain committees created by public agencies are exempt from the
Freedom  of Information  Act.   The  ruling  stemmed  from a  case
involving  the Eighth  Utilities  District,   a  public  agency  in
Manchester that created a study committee to review its election
procedures.  At issue was  whether the study committee was itself a
public agency subject to freedom of information laws.  Writing for
the Supreme Court's 4-1 majority, Justice David M. Borden said the
freedom of information  law is unclear about whether it covers study
or advisory  committees appointed by public agencies.    The  case
began in May  1988  when the district — which  is responsible for
fire and sewer services in the north end of Manchester -- appointed
an "elections  review committee"  to  consider changes in  how the
district conducts its annual meetings.   A resident sought minutes
of the  committee's meetings taking  the  issue  to the  Freedom of
Information Commission.  (COURIER PLUS)

Editor of Bay Area Newspaper Wins Freedom of Information Award
Los Angeles Times  (LA)  Sec A, p 27,  col I  Jun 2, 1991

   Bruce   Brugmann,   the   editor   and   publisher   of   the San
Francisco Bay Guardian  newspaper,  received   the  California First
Amendment Coalition's Bill Farr  Freedom  of Information Award for
his extensive  work to  enhance freedom of information  and public
access to  government documents.  Brugmann was  recognized for his
work  on  behalf  of free  access  to  information.    His  newspaper
publishes an annual freedom of information issue and he testifies
frequently on legislation involving access to public records.  The
award was named for Bill Farr, a Los Angeles  Times reporter who was
jailed for contempt  when  he refused to disclose the  identity of
sources for stories he wrote for the Los  Angeles Herald Examiner
during the trial of mass killer Charles Manson.  (COURIER PLUS)

A $46 Tape Becomes a $10K Print Job
Betts, Mitch
Computerworld  v25n!7  PP:1, 121  Apr 29,  1991

   Brownstone  Publishers  Inc. considered the database kept by the
buildings   department  in New York City a valuable source  of
statistics that  it    could    market  to  the  local real  estate
industry. The  company  planned  to use  the   state's   Freedom  of
Information Act to acguire the data  for just $46,   the  cost  of
copying  the database  onto  computer  tape. However,  the buildings


department said it would only release the database in paper form.
This  meant a 6-week,  $10,000 printing job that would consume more
than  one million    sheets   of  paper  and  force Brownstone  to
recoroputerize the  data  at an  estimated cost  of several hundred
thousand dollars. The resulting court battle  over whether the data
should  be released  in  paper  or electronic  form is   a   prime
example   of   growing tensions  between government  agencies  and
parties   that   are   trying   to obtain computerized government
records under freedom of information laws.  (ABI/INFORM)

Obstruction of Public Access?
Fitzgerald, Mark
Editor & Publisher (GEDP)  v!24nll  p!2, 51  Mar 16,  1991

   In  an  open  letter   to  Detroit  MI  Mayor Coleman Young, the
Michigan Freedom  of  Information Committee  has  protested what it
says has become a pattern  of  efforts  by  the  city to obstruct
public access to government information. (COURIER PLUS)

How states utilize foreign evidence.
Bennett, Colin J.
Journal of Public Policy  11:31-54 Ja/Mr '91, bibl

   This article examines how evidence about Program A in Country A
may be utilized in Country B,  and thus how utilization may explain
the adoption  of  the same  program.   Elites  and  activists  have a
number of interests in using policy evidence  from another country:
to put  an issue to  a  systemic or  institutional agenda,  mollify
political pressure,  provide an  exemplar,  indicate the  range  of
options or reinforce conclusions already reached.   The interests of
the importer dictate the nature, timing and origins of the evidence
injected into policy debate.  This framework is applied to the case
of freedom  of information  policy.   An analysis of  how  and  why
evidence about the United States  Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
was utilized in Canada and Britain reveals that FOIA was used as an
exemplar in Canada and the reverse in Britain.   (PAIS)

Government Computer Files Open to Public/  Court Rules
Sullivan, Ronald
New York Times (NY) Sec 1, p 33,  col 5  Oct 28, 1990

   A  New  York  State  appeals   court  has   ruled   that  public
access to government  records  granted  under the state's Freedom
of Information Law applies to government computer tapes as well as
to paper files.   The unanimous ruling by the Appellate Division of
State Supreme Court was hailed by freedom of information experts as
highly significant because public agencies  and  private  industry
increasingly ask that  they be given access to government documents
or computer  tapes rather  than in written  records.    The  ruling


upheld a March decision by Justice David B. Saxe of State Supreme
Court in the  case of Brownstone Publishers Inc.,  which sought a
Buildings  Department computer  tape  that  contained  statistical
information on  virtually every  piece of  property in  the  city.
Although the  state's Freedom of Information  Law provides public
access  to  computer  disks  and  tapes,  Ms. Hehn,  the  assistant
corporation counsel,  said  individual agencies have the right to
decide  in  which  form they  can  release their records.    But the
ruling  emphasized that  the "underlying policy  of the  law  is to
insure maximum  public access to government records.:   The panel
ordered  the  Buildings  Department  to comply with  Brownstone's
request. (COURIER PLUS)

Bill Would Allow More Secret Talks
Harris, John F
Washington Post (WP)  Sec C,  p 6, col l  Jan 19,  1990

   Although the Freedom of  Information  Act  in  Virginia forbids
local governing boards  to meet  in private  except   in   narrowly
defined  circumstances,   the   state's   General   Assembly   is
considering a  bill that would allow city councils  and county boards
of  supervisors  to go on  three-day  retreats  that are  closed to
reporters and the public.  (COURIER PLUS)

Florida's  Information  Policy:   Problems  and   Issues  in  the
information Age
Florida State Legislature,  Tallahassee.
Apr 89  Pages: 273p

   This report examines  the major issues arising  from the impact of
information technology  on the creation of  government information
and   its   storage,   processing,  and  recordkeeping,   based  on
information gathered  through a  literature  search,  several mailed
questionnaires,  and  three public  hearings.   An outline  of the
background of  the  information policy debate in Florida includes: a
brief history of public records  law, general principles of access
in Florida, definitions  of public records,  exemptions, content and
format  of  access, the  cost of access,  and  the  enforcement of
sanctions.   Findings  of the  study  are outlined  in nine chapters:
(I) Defining Reasonable Access;  (2)  Security  Concerns;  (3)  Legal
Issues Associated  with Optical Storage; (4)  Dissemination of Public
Information; (5) Computer Software Issues;  (6) Computer Matching;
(7)  Fair  Information Practices;  (8) Technological  Impacts  on
Privacy;  and   (9)  Records  Management  and  Archival  Concerns.
Conclusions and recommendations for  state  information policy are
outlined  in  the   final section.    Appended are  the  proposed
information policy legislation,  copies of the questionnaires used
in the study, public hearing agendas, and laws  and opinions related
to the copyright of public software.   (NTIS)

Boston's Leap Into the Information Age
Marantz, Steve
Boston Globe (BG) p 39, col 1  Mar 5, 1989

   Boston's government is becoming one of  the most computerized in
the  nation,  according to  the  director  of the  city's Management
Information Systems Department, but the  public's access to much of
this  information  is  in question.   Parking meter repairs,  street
cuts  by utility  companies,  police details,  handgun registration,
and traffic light management are  just a few of  the hundreds of city
government functions now managed by computers, a report soon to be
published by the department says.  Yet, as the  amount and nature of
information compiled  by  the city  increases exponentially,  so do
questions  of  public   access  to  that  information.   The  Flynn
administration,   criticized  in   the  past   for  keeping  public
information from  individuals,  reporters and elected officials, is
facing untested  public access issues stemming  from computerized
information.   "New  data  is being  created about which government
will  have  to make responsible  decisions,"  said Allan  K.  Stern,
director of  the  Management  Information  Systems  Department,  who
prepared the report.   "Much of  that data  has  not been put to the
test  yet."   State law  requires  the disclosure  of all  public
records, whether printed or computerized data,  unless those records
are  exempt.   The law specifies numerous reasons  for exemption,
including invasion of personal privacy.  (COURIER PLUS)

Your right to know.  Mew York State's open government laws.
New York State Committee on Open Government,  Albany, NY
Jan 1987,  18p.

   This  brochure first  discusses  the  make-up of the Committee
on Open  Government   and its  responsibility  for  overseeing  the
implementation of two  laws:  the  Freedom of Information Law (Public
Officers Law, sections 84-90), which  governs  rights of  access to
government records; and  the Open Meetings Law   (Public Officers
Law,  sections 100-111), which concerns the conduct of meetings  of
public  bodies    and   the  right   to attend those meetings.  An
explanation  is   given  of the  Freedom of Information  Law,  what
records are accessible,  how  to  obtain  records,   and access to
court records;  sample  request  and  appeal  letters   are  provided.
The discussion  of the  Open Meetings  Law  includes an  explanation
of  what  a "meeting"  is, what  is  covered by  the  law,   notice
of  meetings,   closed   meetings, minutes of meetings,  enforcement
of the  law,  the  site  of  meetings,  and  exemptions  from  the  law.

Challengers Rise to Internet
Anthes, Gary H.
Computerworld  v25n38  PP: 49, 55  Sep 23,  1991

   The US  General  Accounting Office  (GAO)  says that  Europe and
Japan  are closely  watching  the progress  of  the  US'  emerging
National  Research  and  Education  Network  (NREN)   and  that  a
gigabit-per-second,  pan-European network patterned after it is a
possibility. Barriers to  the  deployment  of such  a   network  in
either region  are  more financial, political,  and  organizational
than technical.  Recently, 3 of Europe's 4  big computer companies
   Groupe  Bull  (France),  Siemens Nixdorf  Informationssysteme AG
(Germany) , and Ing.  C. Olivetti & Co.  (Italy)  - announced that they
plan to jointly build a trans-European computer network called the
European Nervous System.   Japan   announced  that  it  would invest
some $250 billion over 25 years   to  bring  broadband   ISDN  to
homes and businesses via fiber-optic cables.  (ABI/INFORM)/

Gov't Reports Could Undercut Plans for NREN
Messmer, Ellen
Network World  v8n38  PP: 11  Sep 23,  1991

   Two  Government   Accounting  Office  (GAO)  reports  that weaken
arguments  calling   for the federal government to spend millions of
dollars on  development   of   a   nationwide  gigabit network have
been released. The  reports   came  to  light  just   as  Congress
was  in   the  final  stages of appropriating  funds   for   a new
program  to  build the National  Research snd Education   Network
(NREN).  One  report  underscored the reliance of large domestic
companies  in  the   oil,   aerospace,   automobile,   and  chemical
industries  on  daily Tl  data  transmissions.   However,  none of
the  firms  reported a need  for  transmission capacity  beyond the
commercially available T3  speeds  of  today.  The  2nd  GAO report
presented the National Science Foundation Network as far advanced
when  compared  to   other  research  networks  abroad.  The  report
concluded  that  the  US   leads   both  Europe  and  Japan  in  the
development  of high-speed  computer  networks   for  research  and
education.  (ABI/INFORM)

Gov't reports could  undercut plans for NREN. (National Research and
Education Network)
Messmer, Ellen
Network World  v8  pll(l)  Sept 23, 1991

   The  governmental  development  of  the  National  Research  and
Education Network (NREN)  may be in jeopardy because of two reports


released  by the Government Accounting  Office  (GAO).  The reports
come when Congress has almost secured funding for the nationwide,
gigabit   network.   One  report  indicates   that   the  need  for
transmission speeds beyond those offered by T3 communications links
is  not required by  industry  users.  It states that  speed is not
hampering the use of supercomputer technology as much as  software
and  other factors are.  The  other report cited that  the current
National  Science  Foundation  Network  is  already far more  advanced
than  those  available  to  other  industrial nations.   (COMPUTER

Congress  gives nod  to  NREN.  (National  Research and  Education
Mace, Scott
InfoWorld   Vl3  p36(l)  Sept 23, 1991

   Congress has voted to fund the National Research and Education
Network  (NREN),  a  high-speed  computer  network   for  scientific
research that will also have a portion reserved for commercial or
private use. The High Performance Computing Act of  1991 is  unlikely
to be  signed  into law until 1992 due to  differences between the
House and Senate versions. President Bush supports the $2 billion
plan, and many private companies are already preparing to bid for
contracts. The  current precursor  to  NREN  is the National Science
Foundation's  Internet,  which  is limited   to  official  use  by
educators and researchers;  commercial equivalents are taking shape;
however, through networks being established by ANS Core and UUNet
Inc.  Many  expect  increasing corporate  use  of  the  Internet.

Despite  Senate's  endorsement,  NREN  still has long road ahead.
(National Research and Education Network)
Messmer, Ellen
Network World   v8  p4(2)  Sept 16, 1991

   Senator  Albert Gore's  bill  proposing  establishment of  the
National Research and Education Network (NREN)  has passed through
the  Senate.  There  are  obstacles,   however,   that  may  impede
implementation of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991.  The
bill  outlines  establishment  of  a  national high-speed  network
featuring transmission speeds up  to one gigabit/second. NREN is to
be  based  on  the  existing National  Science Foundation  Network.
Differences between the Senate's  and House's views on the role of
government in the national network may  halt  passage  of  the bill.
The  executive  office  also  disagrees  with the  extent  of  the
government's role  in creation of the network,  but Gore believes the
President will eventually sign the bill.  (COMPUTER DATABASE)

 Planned super networks foreshadow 21st century,  (includes related
 articles  on NREN fiscal and political prospects and following in
 the  footsteps of ARPANET)
 Kobielus, James
 Network World  v8  pi(5)  August 26, 1991

    Five federally funded research projects will provide a glimpse
 into the  future  of  high-speed wide-area  networks  (WANs).  The
 Aurora, Blanca, Casa,  Necta and Vistanet high-speed network test
 beds will explore concepts  for  the proposed National Research and
 Education Network (NREN). NREN  will provide high-speed, real-time
 communications between government, commercial and academic research
 computers. The projects are taking different approaches, some are
 focusing  on network  architecture  issues,  others  are exploring
 engineering and optimizing applications for multigigabit networks.
 Research is currently in an  exploratory stage at all five projects.

 Interoperability and the body politic:  connecting the TCP/IP world
 of the Internet.  (Special Report: Interoperability)
 Romke, John
 LAN  Times  v8  p56(2)  August 19, 1991

    Participants  in  Internet,   the  federally-funded TCP/IP-based
 massive collection  of LANs and long-haul  networks, cannot fully
 utilize the interoperability provided by the technology. NSF NET,
 the backbone of Internet that succeeded Arpanet and  that eventually
 will be replaced by NREN  (National Research and Education Network) ,
 is   prohibited  by  the  US  government  from  carrying  business
 transactions over NSFNET links. If  the government  continues this
 policy with NREN,  businesses connected to Internet  will be limited
 in the transactions they can conduct with some of  their networked
 customers. Businesses that can justify their use of the network by
 supporting NSF  NET-connected  researchers who are  their customers
 are   exempted.  Commercial   activity  over  Internet  will  grow
 substantially  during the  early 1990s  as corporations  learn to
 conduct business over a wire. Individuals can help shape the future
 of Internet by writing to Congress or joining the Internet Society.

 Beyond  OPACS  . .  .  The Wealth of  Information  Resources  on the
 Kalin, Sally W.; Tennant, Roy
: Database  Vl4n4  PP:  28-33  Aug 1991
;    The Internet is  a collection of  local, regional, and national
 telecomunications  networks.    Primarily  funded  by  the  federal
 government,  its participants   include  educational institutions,
 government  agencies,  and   organizations   that  do  research  and
 development   for  the   federal  government.   Scholars     with


workstations  connected  to  a  campus  network with  appropriate
telecommunications   infrastructure  can  link  to the Internet and
exploit a growing  number  of  open access  databases found there.
However, there  are still   some  problems  that must be worked out
before  the  Internet truly  is the     research   tool   network
scholars   expect  it  to   be.   For  example, telecommunications
problems still arise. In addition, users must be taught  the ethics
of  using open access systems, and researchers need better and more
information  on  what  is  available  on the Internet. Finally, it
is  important  that  librarians evaluate what  role they have in the
dissemination of  information about Internet resources. Many people
do  not know about the open   public access   catalogs   (OPAC)  and
other     information    resources  available  on  the   Internet.

NREN, a fundamental  turning  point in networks?  (National  Research
and Education Network)  (Telecommunications  Insights)
Hargadon, Thomas J.
Office  vl!4  p!8(l)  July,  1991

    The National  Research  and Education Network (NREN)  may be the
most  powerful  telecommunications  device  ever  developed.  The
initiators of the NREN developed the network because they  felt that
the telecommunications  industry  was  not  developing  very  high
bandwidth networks quickly enough.  This meant that researchers and
scientists were not able to transmit their work to  one another. The
SONET-based ANS has been selected as the backbone for the  NREN. The
initiators of NREN,  however, would have preferred an asynchronous
transfer  mode  system at  speeds  of  600M-bps  to  1.6G-bps.  The
fundamental  issues   of   the  1990s  include  the  provision  of
international     telecommunications    services,     compression
technologies, and  personal communications  services, but not the

Civilizing Internet
Churbuck, David
Forbes  v!48nl  PP:  90-91  Jul 8,  1991

    Despite  problems, Internet  has enormous potential.  It is the
place  where   electronic mail was born, and from  it  have sprung
most  of  the  de facto   computer   networking   standards   used
commercially  and abroad.  Internet  is financed by $20 million a
year  in  federal subsidies  covering a high-speed   cross-country
link managed by the National Science Foundation.   Today, anyone
with a computer and  modem  can  get on  the  system by paying one of
a  half-dozen  companies  for  an  Internet  access  account.  The
most compelling   reason  to   pay  for access  to  Internet is its
sheer size.  Lotus Development  Corp.  founder  Mitch Kaor foresees
a  world  in which  Internet will  connect  millions  of  dissimilar
computers and become the prototype of a national  public  network.


However,  much  remains  to  be  done  before  that  is  achieved,
including  creating  a   directory.  Managing  the   network  is a
troubling  issue.  The   present  grass-roots  policing   is  full
of flaws, especially security flaws.  (ABI/INFORM)

Whither NREN? (State of the Art;  planning the National Research and
Education  Network; includes related articles on Internet and by
Sen. Al Gore)
Fisher, Sharon
Byte  V16  p!81(9)  July, 1991

   There is a two-sided debate on meeting the United States' future
networking needs.  One  side  proposes a  federally funded National
Research  and    Education  Network  (NREN),   comparable  to  the
interstate highway system, to encourage commercial  development of
networking services. Another side believes NREN-equivalent services
are  already  offered  by  existing  commercial   vendors.  NREN's
forerunner   is   Internet,  a  government-sponsored   network  for
educational  and research use.  In  the  late  1980s,   the National
Science  Foundation gave  money to establish a high-speed network
backbone,  called NSFnet, that  currently  links 16  supercomputer
centers  around  the country. A 1989  White  House  Office of Science
and Technology Policy report said that the US lagged other nations
in high-technology development and  that one way to  overcome that
gap would be to build a nationwide education and research network.

Editing Down Our Ideas About NREN:  The Present Dog Won't Hunt
Nelson, Milo
Information Today  v8n6  PP:  37-39  Jun 1991

   The  information industry  is overwhelmed with the magnitude of
problems  associated with devising a national electronic  network to
rapidly  share  data.  The question still remains  as to whether the
National  Research and   Education   Network    (NREN)   is  to be
primarily dedicated to education, linking  secondary  and  higher
educational    institutions  together   in  a  meaningful  way,  or
dedicated  to linking university and  research  institutions,   or
linking  commercial and governmental entities.  NREN cannot succeed
in  any  true  educational role  with its present complication of
roles.   As   presently  conceived, NREN  is  an unworkable tangle of
political, technology,  and education and research interests. NREN
can  be  an  innovative  way     of     binding   together   vast
educational   activities.  However,   the connection   needs to be
less   complicated,  less  driven   by   the    fear   factor   of
competitiveness,  and  less  beguiled   by the  technology  that
accompanies it.  (ABI/INFORM)

NREN: Your Tax Dollars at Work
Finneran, Michael
Business Communications Review  v21n5  PP: 90, 92  May 1991

   US Senator Albert  Gore has introduced a  bill  that would fund
development  of  a multigigabit fiber-optic network for government
and  educational    users.   The   National Research  and Education
Network  (NREN) is  part  of the High-Performance  Computing Act of
1991, intended to spur development in high-performance
supercomputers.  Primary  responsibility  for development   of  the
NREN   would   lie  with  the  Defense Advanced  Research Poject
Agency. Other than acceleration of research, the bill seems lacking
in a goal or objective.  The  NREN  is to  be based on fiber, and it
would link researchers  in government,  industry,  and universities
around  the  US.   A  lack of clarity  and definition  surrounds the
proposal. It  is  unclear whether all locations   would have fiber
access. Further,  the system would not even push the  state of the
art  in  fiber  communications. Politics seems  to  be  the motivator
behind  a  vague  and   expensive   proposal that would be largely
irrelevant to the daily lives of most people.  (ABI/INFORM)

Users awaiting NREN. (National Research and Education Network)
Jackson, Kelly
CommunicationsWeek  p!7(2)  April 8, 1991

   Sen  Albert   Gore,   Jr  (D-TN)   has  reintroduced  legislation
promoting the  creation  of the National  Research  and Education
Network  (NREN),   a gigabit-speed  computer  network  for  linking
government users, researchers, institutions of higher learning, and
primary  and  high  schools.   Two major  groups that  are  watching
development of NREN are narrowband users,  such as primary and high
schools, and  broadband users such  as governmental  agencies and
supercomputer  users.  The Bush  administration  has proposed  an
allocation of  $150 million for the  NREN,  but the  money  is only
earmarked for one year.  Gore's proposed legislation would fund the
entire network, but is opposed by the White House, which feels that
Gore's  proposed   network  is  too  restrictive for  the needs  of
high-speed networks and supercomputers.   (COMPUTER DATABASE)

Five Steps to NREN Enlightenment.
Weingarten,  Fred
EDUCOM Review, V26 nl p26-30 Spr  1991

   Discussion  of  NREN (National Research and Education Network)
focuses on balancing   the  needs  of  a  wider user constituency
with those of the more technical  scientific  community.  The  flow
of   information  technology is discussed,  including the  roles of
schools, universities, and libraries; and  issues   of   government
intervention and questions of funding are addressed. (ERIC)

The Internet as an External Economy: The Emergence of the Invisible
Brownrigg, Edwin B.
Library Administration & Management, v5 n2 p95-97  Spr  1991

   Discusses  the  Internet,  an interconnected array of scientific
research  networks.  The  role  of   libraries  in the  Internet  is
discussed; the Coalition for   Networked   Information   (CNI)   and
Advanced Network Services  (ANS)   are  described;   and   economic
issues  of  the  Internet  are raised,  including external economy
and public good. (ERIC)

Riding the Internet
Coursey, David
InfoWorld  v!3n5  PP:  48, 57  Feb 4, 1991

   What  most people think of as the Internet is  really a jumble of
networks   rooted   in   academic   and    research  institutions.
Together, these networks  connect   over 40  countries,  providing
electronic    mail,    file  transfer,    remote  log  in,  software
archives, and news to  users  on the 2,000  networks.  Because it is
not a single  entity and  given  its  roots  in the  UNIX world,  many
people   find  the   Internet   to  be shrouded  in mystery. Uunet
Technologies  provides  Usenet  feeds  and  other  services  to 1,800
subscribers. Usenet,   although  not  strictly  part  of  Internet,
is   the  heart  of the connected   system.   Usenet,    a   giant
distributed   bulletin   board  system,  carries nearly  850 ongoing
discussion  groups.   Every  day, Usenet   serves more  than    11
megabytes  of  news  to as many as 1.5 million readers worldwide.
Internet   is  much more than  a  news  feed and electronic mail.
Remote log  in allows  users on one  system  to  access  another host
across  the  network,   while a  file transfer  program makes  vast
archives of software available. (ABI/INFORM)

The NREM  enigma:  a  new national network?  (National  Research and
Education Network)
Valovic, Thomas S.
Telecommunications  v25  p!3(2)  Jan, 1991

   The political and educational communities are discussing plans
to  expand  the  Internet  network  that  presently  connects  US
universities, government facilities  and  research  institutions. A
new network,  the National  Research and Education  Network  (NREN),
would  supply  high-speed  links between   academic  and  research
institutions  and other areas  of the US population,  including the
educational  levels  K-12 and  local and regional  libraries.  Some
proponents advise extending the network to  residential subscribers.
The NREN proposal raises  issues of regulation and accountability as
it combines the  features of non-profit  and commercial enterprises.


Hub, Internet Firms Profit by Partnering
Brown, Bob
Network World  v7n51  PP: 9-10  Dec 17, 1990

   Intelligent  wiring  hub  vendors  have entered into a series of
strategic   relationships   with   local   area   network   (LAN)
internetworking  suppliers  over the  past  year  to broaden  the
capabilities of  their products. By  partnering   with   companies
that  provide router and bridge  functions, wiring  hub makers  are
able   to   offer   users the ability to consolidate several   LAN
functions  into  one site and manage them from  a  single  network
management package.   The  agreements   have   become   attractive
to  internetworking   suppliers   because   the  suppliers get  a
guaranteed base  of  users   to   whom   they    can  pitch  their
products.   In   exchange,  the  internetworking  vendors  develop a
board-level implementation of a bridge or router  designed to fit
in a specific wiring  hub vendor's  hub.  The spate of partnerships
crafted   over   the  past   year  indicates  that internetworking
vendors  recognize  user demands to centralize network  devices in
the wiring   closet  instead of buying more  expensive  standalone
devices. The pacts also provide internetworking vendors with access
to a market  that is expected to grow  50% annually through 1993.

E-Mail Security System Developed for Internet Users
Scott, Karyl
Data Communications  v!9n!5  PP: 18, 22  Nov 21, 1990

   Nowhere is the threat of unauthorized access more present than
on the  Internet,  the  nationwide  network  linking  thousands of
users at US government  facilities,  research  organizations,  and
universities, mostly  through   electronic  mail.  In response to
growing concerns, the  Privacy  and  Security  Research   Group   of
the  Internet  Activities  Board   (IAB)   has  developed   a set of
guidelines for secure e-mail. The group is conducting a test of a
technology called privacy enhanced mail,  which it expects to have
adopted   as  an Internet standard early in 1991.  The  security
standard will provide  end-to-end  encryption  of  messages through
the use of public and private  cryptographic  keys.   It  will  also
ensure that messages are not  corrupted  en route  to  recipients.
The  architecture  is  similar to Open  Systems   Interconnection's
(OSI)  1988  standard for X.400.  Privacy enhanced mail  encryption
technology is designed by RSA Data Security Inc.   (ABI/INFORM)

Casting a New Net: Searching Library Catalogs via the Internet.
Birchfield, Marilee
8 Nov 1990

   Noting that telecommunications technology  is making it possible
to search  library catalogs around the nation and  the world via a
modem and a personal computer,   this paper highlights some of the
reasons why  a researcher would  wish to search  library catalogs
through  the  Internet,  which  is a  network  of  networks    with
connections  to nearly  1,000  regional,  government,  and  campus
networks.  The  paper  also  discusses  some  of  the problems that
may be  encountered by researchers  who wish to use  Internet to
retrieve  information,  and describes  efforts being made  in the
Northwestern University library's reference   department to improve
the existing  documentation  on  Internet  for  its   users.  Outreach
programs designed to increase  faculty  members'   awareness  and
use of remote catalogs are also described. The paper concludes with
a discussion of efforts being made on a national  scale  to extend
the outreach of the Internet, which will promote the provision of
information  resources  on  existing  networks  and  on  proposed
interconnected networks.  (ERIC)

The  National  Research and  Education  Network   (NREN):  Promise
of New information Environments.
ERIC Digest.
Bishop, Ann P.
ERIC Clearinghouse on  Information Resources,  Syracuse,  N.Y., Nov

   This     digest   describes    proposed   legislation   for  the
implementation  of the National  Research  and  Education Network
(NREN).   Issues   and  implications   for  teachers,     students,
researchers,  and  librarians  are  suggested  and the emergence of
the electronic network as a general communication and research tool
is  described.  Developments  in  electronic  communications  and
computing since  the  late  1960s  are  reviewed,  including  the
development of such networks   as   ARPANET,   NSFNET,   Internet,
BITNET,   CSNET,   and  CREN. Implementation  of  the National High
Performance  Computing  Act  of  1990  would provide  for:  (1)  the
involvement  of  science agencies and national libraries in  the
development  of resources  for the NREN;  (2) the linking of federal
and    industrial    laboratories, educational  institutions,  and
libraries;  (3)  the   development    of  electronic  information
resources  and  services;   and  (4)   the       development    of
supercomputers  and   advanced   software  to  support scientific
and engineering research.  However,  before such a  network  can be
instituted,  several issues need to be resolved, including how to
determine costs   and  management policies,   guarantee universal
access,  provide  user  support     and    training,     overcome
organizational resistance  to networking, maintain  quality control
of   information   resources,   and   adapt  network services   to


research   and   education   norms.   New initiatives  for network
research,  services,   and  advocacy  have  emerged as  a result of
growing  support  for  national  networking;  these  include  the
Corporation  for National  Research     Initiatives,     Reference
Point,   the  Coalition   for  Networked  Information,    and   the
Electronic    Frontier  Foundation.   One  common  goal  of  these
initiatives,   one that  educators and  librarians share,  is  the
desire to   shape the  future  of national networking  in such a way
that  its benefits  are made available to a  broad range  of users.

Using the National Networks:  BITNET and the Internet.
Arms, Caroline R.
Online, v!4 n5 p24-29 Sep 1990

   Provides   guidelines   on  using  two   national   networks,
BITNET and  the  Internet.   The   discussion   covers   electronic
mail,  bulletin  boards, collections of public files,  downloading
files,  logging  into  remote  systems   over the  Internet,  online
catalogs  and   local   databases   on  the   Internet,   and  future
applications. (ERIC)

Hitchhiker's guide to life on the Internet.
Bishop, K.  A.
Proceedings - Petroleum Computer  Conference, Denver, CO, USA, 1990
Jun 25-28
Proceedings of the Petroleum Computer Conf., p249-254, 1990

   This paper provides a survey level introduction to the Internet:
the  high speed  communications network that  provides  access  to
remote supercomputers, libraries, and other specialized information
services.  In addition  to describing the  physical and logical
topology of  the  network,  it  describes  the  supercomputing  and
network-oriented visualization capabilities offered by one node on
the Internet, the National  Center for Supercomputing Applications.
Engineering  studies  are used  as vehicles  throughout  the paper.

X-kernel: A platform  for accessing internet resources.
Peterson, Larry; Hutchinson,  Norman; O'Malley, Sean; Rao, Herman
Computer v  23 n 5 May 1990 p 23-33

   X-kernel  is   an experimental  operating system  for  personal
workstations that allows uniform access to resources throughout a
nationwide internet:  an interconnection of  networks similar to the
TCP/IP internet. This network is  also called the  National Research
and Education Network (NREN).  The x-kernel supports a library of
protocols,   and  it  accesses  different  resources with  different
protocol combinations.  In  addition, two user-level systems that


give users an integrated and uniform  interface  to resources have
been built on top of the x-kernel.  These two systems—a file system
and a command interpreter—hide differences  among the underlying
protocols. (COMPENDEX PLUS)

Selling Access by the Hour:  Katten Muchin Hopes to Profit From EPA
By Linda Hiroelstein
Legal Times, November 11, 1991, p. 6

   A database  designed  and compiled by  the Chicago Law  firm of
Katten Muchin  & Zavis  of more than  2500  EPA policy  documents,
internal memorandum and enforcement action was originally developed
for the firm's clients.   There has been such a demand from outside
the firm that the database may prove to be a money making venture
for them.   Before  building the database, the  firm  relied on the
Federal Register for much of their information.  The material was
not  available  in  any organized  form  until the  firm  set  about
compiling the database.   Now they  use the computer and charge back
the  time to  clients.   There has  been a  tremendous  amount of
interest in  the  database from clients, other  firms,  and  the EPA

Towards  2001:  An Examination of the Present and  Future Roles of
Libraries in Relation to Economic and Social Trends.
Moore, Susan; Schauder,  Donald
Journal of Library Administration 14 (1) 1991,  19-33.

   In Australia, the government is actively pursuing the principle
of the user paying,  at least  in part,  for services,  including
libraries and  education.   Librarians have  to  look at alternative
sources of funding,  but  also try to convince government of the need
for subsidizing  information  services as  part of  an investment in
human  capital.   By  2001  all  library services might be priced but
with a system of  exemptions and subsidies  to ensure  access to
information  for  all citizens.  (LIBRARY AND  INFORMATION SCIENCE

Discussion  Forum:  Initiation  of  a User Fee  Program by  Federal
Government Information Quarterly  6 (2) 1989,  113-126. illus.

   Analyses  legislation,  court  decisions,  and  administrative
guidelines issued by the US Office of Management and Budget (OMB),
on the charging of  user fees  for  information by  US  government
agencies.    Discusses  factors  to  consider in  determining  the
feasibility  of  institution  charges.    Concludes  that  costs of
establishing and maintaining a system of user fees mean that they
are  not  in  the  best interests  of all  agencies.    (LIBRARY AND

Byting the Hand that Feeds Them
Gross, Daniel
Washington Monthly  v23nll  p37-41  Nov 1991

   Since 1981, the  federal government  has privatized  much of the
distribution  of public information,  such  as  the weather; as a
result, private  contractors  have begun charging  for  information
that was once free.  Examples of the  information industry's several

Federal Data Goes Private
Rowe, Jonathan
Christian Science Monitor p 15, col 2  Sep 24, 1990

   The   privatization   of  federal information,  letting private
vendors sell information  the US government used to distribute at
little or no cost,  has caused   the   price   of  much  information
to  skyrocket,  and is costing US taxpayers more money.  (LIBRARY AND

Crown copyright and the privatization of government information
in Canada, with comparisons to the United States experience.
Hubbertz, Andrew
Government Publications Review  17 (2) Mar/Apr 90,  159-165. 23 refs

   Government  information   enjoys   a   quite different status in
Canada  than it  does  in  the  USA.  In  the  first  instance,  Crown
copyright in Canada  reserves copyright of government information to
the government,  while  in  the  USA there   is  no  copyright  of
federal government  information.  Consequently,  privatisation  of
government information  in Canada occurs only with the consent of
government.   The  legal     and     administrative  structure  of
privatization  is  discussed.  At times,  it has been proposed that
Crown  copyright  be  eliminated  for  the sake  of  freer access to
government   information.  However,   it  is   argued   that    the
elimination  of   Crown   copyright  would   be  inconsistent  with
parliamentary  government  as it has developed in  Canada, and that
the elimination   of  Crown  copyright would also have undesirable
practical  consequences,   possibly  including   reduced  access  to

Does privatization  affect access to government information?
Caponio, Joseph  F.; Geffner, Janet
Government Information Quarterly  5  (2) 1988, 147-154. 2 refs

   Defines  and discusses privatization of government information
and notes that privatization is effective when it is used

appropriately,  and ineffective when it  is applied as a panacea to
all  management  problems.     (LIBRARY  AND  INFORMATION  SCIENCE

Government  for sale:  the privatization  of  federal  information
Levin, Marc A.
Special Libraries  79  (3) Summer 88, 207-214. 15 refs

   Privatization,  as   a concept  and as a political movement, is
profoundly  altering  the federal information landscape. Explores
the ideas and issues engendered by privatisation; the distinctions
between  the   public   and   private  sectors  in the  delivery of
services; and  the  effects  this   policy  may   have   upon   the
future  federal role in  the  library/information   arena.  Federal
experience  with  contracting  out of  agency   libraries  and   the
proposed  sale of  the National Technical  Information   Service
are    examined  to   raise   critical   questions  respecting   the
limits  on privatisation  as a strategy for delivering tax-supported
library and information services.  (LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE

Putting a Price on Information
Washington Post (WP) Sec A,  p 22,  col 1  Mar 22, 1990

   Editorial  comments  on a  court  decision  by which government
information  has been  made more easily available to  the news media
and the public. (COURIER PLUS)

Making the case for access:  ALA needs you!
Glass Schuman, Patricia; Schuman,  P. Glass
RQ, v29  (2) Winter 89, 166-172. 9 refs

   For almost  a decade the American Library Association (ALA) has
been  fighting to protect   the  public's  access  to  government
information. The White House  Office  of Management and Budget  (OMB)
has classified  federal  libraries  as  a commercial activity that
can be  privatized.   This   reflects  attempts   to   reverse the
growing  federal  budget  deficit   and  close   to  100   federal
libraries are now run by  commercial  firms. The  private sector is
under no obligation to  make government information available to the
public at an affordable price. Discusses the dangers  posed  by a
monopoly of government information by a  handful  of  corporations
and  conglomerates   many  of   which   are foreign-owned.  Calls  on
ALA members to help build safeguards for the public  into the new
version  of  the  Paperwork  Reduction  Act now  before  Congress.

Articulating a compelling reason to take action.
Heim, Kathleen
Government Information Quarterly  v6 (2) 1989,  149-152.  2 refs

   Contribution  to  a   special  section on  the  1988  US  Office of
Technology   (OTA)   assessment   report:   Informing   the nation:
federal information  dissemination  in  an electronic age. Argues
that the OTA report,  despite  its  affirmation of public access to
information,  is  unlikely  to  cause a  redeployment  of  resources
unless librarians argue vociferously that there is  a  real need for
this information, and that denying    funding    for   electronic
dissemination  will  create   an  unbridgeable  chasm between those
with the resources to buy information products and those without.

The privatizing of government information: economic considerations.
Kent, C.A.  (Baylor Univ., Waco, TX)
Government Publications Review, Vol. 16,  Issue 2, p.  113-132, 1989

   This   article  discusses   the   privatization   of  government
information.  It  begins  by   delineating  the   cases   for  and
against privatization and the various  forms  that  privatization
can   and  has taken,  both  in the  United  States  and   in other
countries.  The  theory  behind  the  government's  provision  of
information  services is  presented.  It concludes that the economic
case for  government activity in the information services area is
to be  found in the  concept   of   merit goods.  Since government
information is a merit good providing  external benefits that the
market will not consider, government activity is justified.  Major
studies  and  positions  taken  regarding  the  privatization   of
government  information  are  evaluated,  including  those  of  the
National  Commission  on  Libraries  and Information Science and
the  Information   Institute   of   America.   A   critique  of  the
current  government  policy as contained  in OMB  Circular A-130 is
provided.  Finally,  the  article  presents  10  conclusions  and
recommendations     for    further    action     and  discussion.

Fee or free. Public interests and the Freedom of Information Act.
O'Hanlon, N.
Government Information Quarterly,  Vol. 1, Issue 4, p.  365-378, 1984

   This  examination  of  agency   fee waiver guidelines for  public
interest groups  within the context of the Freedom of Information
Act found that the lack  of  consistent  guidelines  inhibited  the
use  of  the act  by public interest  requesters.  Efforts to limit
types  of information  available   under  the act  are  described.

Government Printing Office Dissemination of Government Documents on
CD-ROM: Report from the Govdoc-L Discussion List
Kovacs, Diane K.
CD-ROM Professional  v4n4  PP: 36-38  Jul 1991

   In  accordance  with Title  44  of  the US Code, the Government
Printing  Office  (GPO)  acts  as the clearinghouse for and central
printer of government  documents.  Also  created by Title  44  is the
Depository  Library  System,  which  provides  public  access  to
government  information.  Some of the problems     and    solutions
identified   by    depository   librarians   on    the  electronic
mail-based  discussion list - Govdoc-L - are provided. Govdoc-L has
been  described  as one of the  best modes  of transmitting accurate
and useful   information  about documents  on  CD-ROM to depository
librarians  and of   providing   feedback to  the  GPO  about  how
libraries are coping with depository   CD-ROMs.  The policy of the
federal government has been to  avoid  developing  truly  useful
search software so as not to compete with private industry.  This
policy has  prevented the compact disc products distributed by the
GPO from being as useful as they could be. (ABI/INFORM)

Documents to the people: access through the automated catalog.
Bolner, M.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA); Kile, B.
Government  Publications Review,  Vol.  18,  Issue  1, p.  51-64, Jan

   This  paper examines the  unfulfilled promises of  the GPO/MARC
tapes that  were  intended  to  improve  the bibliographic control of
government  publications.  Problems  associated   with  the  tapes
that   have  prevented  libraries   from taking  advantage  of the
cost-effectiveness  of  the   tapes   are reviewed.    A    project
involving document   librarians  at  Louisiana  State University,
Rice  University, and Texas A&M University is described,  which is
intended   to  reverse this situation. The  use  of  a  commercial
vendor by the  librarians,  corrections  to  the  records  on the
GPO/MARC tapes, and measures  taken to clean up the retrospective
tapes and make them available to depository libraries are reviewed.

A quiet revolution: community online systems.
Maciuszko,  K.L.
Online, Vol. 14,  Issue 6,  p.  24-28,31-32,  Nov 1990

   A   community   computer  network  is described.  Coin-Operated
public terminals are  explored.  Services  that  interconnect with
local government information networks  are described  as ideal for


mass market penetration.   Non-profit, community online systems are
emphasized.   The  possibility  of  local  governments setting  up
commercial databases is suggested.  (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Office  of  Technology  Assessment  perspectives  on current  D.8.
federal  information issues:    the  "Government  Printing  Office
Improvement Act of  1990";   the   "Federal   Information  Resources
Management Act of  1989";  modernization  of the National  Technical
Information Service.
Wood, Fred B.
Government Publications R  17:281-300 Jl/Ag '90

   Three  statements  before  US  House  and  Senate  Committees,
Feb.-Mar., 1990.  Includes evaluation and suggestions regarding the
distribution  and  sale of public   documents,   the   depository
library program,  and the Paperwork Reduction Act.  (PAIS)

The Defense Technical Information Center:  a wealth of information
for the public
Johnson, S.
Information Retrieval and Library Automation  (US),  Vol.  25, Issue
10, p.1-4, Mar 1990

  This paper  reviews the  history and present  operating  status of
the databases of the Defense Technical Information Center.  These
include the R&T work unit  information system,  the technical report
database, the independent  research and development,  an manpower and
training  research  information systems.    Special collections and
other services and  products are examined.   Project summaries are
provided  for  several  research  and  development  efforts.    The
Scientific  and Technical  Information Library  Automation System
(STILAS)  is also described  as accommodating government  libraries
that deal with both MARC and COSATI.  Machine translations are also

Access  to electronic  government  information through  the  GPO's
depository library program:  an update.
McClure, C.R. (Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY)
In  Online/CD-ROM   '90 Conference  Proceedings, p.  117-124, 1990,
Online, Inc., Weston, CT

   An  overview of  recent policy initiatives  that  may affect the
Government  Printing Office's  (GPO)  Depository Library   Program
(DLP)'s  role  in  the  dissemination  of   electronic  government
information is provided.  Trends that  could  affect  the public's
access to electronic information through  the  DLP are identified.
Decentralization   of   electronic  dissemination   of   government
information is suggested.  (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)


Depository Libraries in the 1990s
Garner, D.
Paper presented  at  Annual Conference of the American Statistical
Association  (Washington,  D.C., October 6-10, 1989)

   The  assumption  is  made that what the  1990s  have in store for
users of  depository libraries will hinge on three crucial areas:
(1) the reform and development of government information policies;
(2) changing technology;  and  (3) the willingness and ability of the
depository libraries to accommodate these changes.  The uncertain
role of the  government as information disseminator is discussed,
and the question is posed whether  it is  enough to make information
available, or whether  the  government should be actively involved in
promoting  accessibility   to  its  use.   Effects of  the  Paperwork
Reduction Act of 1980  are  assessed  in this context.  Also discussed
is  the  Office  of  Management  and  Budget's  proposed  revision to
Circular  A-130, which states  that  government agencies  should
publish materials in electronic format in preference to traditional
formats where appropriate, and that publishing agencies should rely
on the  private sector  for dissemination.  Potential roadblocks to
making  available  government   information   in  CD-ROM and  online
formats—in  addition   to   their being an  additional expense  to
depository libraries—are then discussed,  including the  lack of
standardization.   Examples of progress  being  made by depository
libraries  in combatting  these difficulties are  offered,  e.g.,
through resource sharing  and  user  education.  (NTIS)

Is government information in  your  library's  future?
Shill, Harold B.; Peterson, Sandra K.
College & Research  Libraries News 50  (8)  Sept 89, 649-656. 23 refs

   Since  many   of  the   critical decisions involving electronic
dissemination  of government  information may be made very shortly
in the   USA, it is vital that academic  and research librarians
understand the   issues   and   stakes   involved.   Explores   the
background   of  the electronic  dissemination   of   information
controversy,   examines the issues   and   initiatives  which  have
emerged  in  1989, and  suggests actions  which  might be  taken by
concerned  librarians  to  affect the outcome of the controversy.

Privatization  and   the availability  of  federal  information  in
microform: the Reagan years.
Snowhill,  L.
Microform Review, Vol. 18, Issue 4, p. 203-209, Fall 1989

  Reviews the  factors  influencing the political  and information
climate related to privatization during the  Reagan administration,
and describes some of the resulting microform products and services
that provide  federal information.  The effects of privatization and


related  information  policies   on  the  availability  of  federal
information  are evaluated  and  discussed.   (INFORMATION  SCIENCE

Public access to government document microforms.
Stratford, J.
Microform Review, Vol. 17, Issue 5, p. 292-294,  Dec 1988

   The  author  examines  criteria  for  the   coordination  of  the
administration  of  government  document  microcopy  collections.
Limitations to the integration of these collections are examined.
Special  problems  of  public  access  to  these  less  than  fully
integrated collections are analyzed, including bibliographic access
and physical access.   Recommendations  are made which would improve

GPO's depository library program: building for the future
Hernon, Peter; McClure,  Charles R.
Library Journal  vl!3 (6) 1 Apr 88, 52-56

   The  Government  Printing   Office's   (GPO)  depository library
program (DLP)  is  an  important  mechanism  for  public  access to
government information,   in effect  acting  as  a  safety net.  Nearly
1,400  libraries participate    in  the  DLP,  2/3  being  academic
libraries. Both  the   government and  member   libraries   benefit
from the cooperative relationship  and  share  expenses.  The  GPO
acquires, classifies and catalogues  titles  and  offers  support
services.  In return member libraries house,  service and provide
access to depository materials.  The  vast majority of depository
libraries are grossly understaffed and receive inadequate resources
from their host institutions to carry  out their  responsibilities.
Describes  the  DLP's  dimensions,  costs and benefits and examines
the criticism of the DLP as  a costly  anachronism  (LIBRARY  AND

Scientific   and   technical information policy  and  the  future of
NTIS:  hearings  before  the  Subcommittee  on  Science,   Research
and Technology.
Paul,  James H.
Government Information Quarterly 5 (2) 1988, 137-146

   Summarizes  the  key   policy issues,  relating  to the National
Technical  Information Service  (NTIS),   raised in  the  hearings
on 'Federal  Information  Policy Mechanisms'  held  14-15 July 87
by the  House  Committee   on   Science,   Space, and Technology,
Subcommittee on  Science, Research, and  Technology.   (LIBRARY AND

The National Technical Information Service:  a federal resource for
health information and services
Bracken, Darcia D.
Journal of the American Society  for  Information Science  v38 (1)
Jan 87, p65-67

   Paper  in  a   collection   reviewing  the Federal government's
involvement   in   and   support  of   medical   information.   The
National Technical   Information   Service   (NTIS)  addresses the
issue facing all government  information  providers-justification
of the activity on a cost/benefit basis; by being self-supporting.
The user pays for the information  provided   on a cost-recovery
basis.  Within the  NTIS a  new  program  adds   to  the  resources
available to the health professional and/or  consumer. The Center
for   the   Utilization   of  Federal   Technology   (CUFT)   links
information, Federal technology resources,  and  new technologies
to  new  users,    including  the  private  sector,  to  facilitate
commercialization.   Individual    products    and   examples   of
successful projects   addressing  the  health  community  and  its
concerns   are described.    The  CUFT  program is  increasing its
on-line availability to deal  with  the  increasing   volume  of
information  available  and the  growing   number    of  users  in
health-related  fields  as  well  as  in  other  areas  of  Federal
scientific  and  technical  information  (LIBRARY AND  INFORMATION

The new publishers
Drexel Library Quarterly
SOURCE: 20 (3) Summer 84,  1-103. refs. bibliog

   Issue devoted  to the changing values applied to publishing by
commercial  pressures  acting  through  the  agency  of  computer
and telecommunications  technology.   The   following   papers are
presented: From   pride to profit: one  hundred years of American
trade publishing, by  Taylor  Hubbard;  Publishers, technological
change, and copyright:  Maintaining the  balance,  by Meredith  A.
Butler;  Impact   from US government  printing  on  public  access
to  government information,  by  Peter    Hernon   and Charles  R.
McClure; The changing  world of scholarly publishing,  by Naomi  B.
Pascal;  Electronic delivery of scientific information,  by  Karen
A. Hunter; Implications of New Publishing for library schools, by


This  section  presents   a  brief  overview  of   public  access
requirements in  current  federal laws  and  OMB Circulars;  and  is
followed by legislation pending  before the current 102nd Congress.
The pending legislation affects one or more of the laws currently
in  existence.    Two major  public  access  laws,  the Freedom  of
Information Act and the Paperwork Reduction Act; and the Office of
Management and  Budget Circulars, the directives that govern Federal
information policy are also reviewed.

Selected Federal Legislation and OMB Circulars

Administrative Procedures Act of 1966.  Requires agencies to make
available to the public  all substantive rules  and  statements  of
general policy  and to give notice of proposed rulemaking to provide
an  opportunity  for interested  persons to   participate  in  the

1988 Trade Bill.   Requires information  to be made available to the
public in electronic format.

Freedom  of  Information   Act  (FOIA)   1966,   last  amended  1978.
Provides access  to records unless one of nine  exemptions  can  be
invoked .

Government  in  the Sunshine Act 1976.   Allows citizens  to attend
Federal government meetings unless an exemption is met.

Paperwork Reduction Act 1980.  Restricts the government to obtain
only  that  information from  citizens  which will  be used  by the
government to the  fullest extent possible.

Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA)  1972.  Allows individuals to
go  to FAC  meetings and obtain meeting records  unless  one  of the
exemptions from the Government and the Sunshine Act is met.

OMB Circular A-130 1985.   Forbids Federal agencies initially from
developing any electronic systems which duplicated those available
in  the private sector.   This philosophy  has  since been reversed,
and OMB  is now  encouraging  diversity of private  and  government
distribution systems.

OMB Circular A-3 1922, last revised 1985.   Requires agencies  to
implement  a  periodicals  control system to  eliminate unnecessary
publications and institutes  and annual review  of  periodicals  by

 OMB Circular A-25, 1959.  Provides general policies for developing
 charges  (cost-reimbursable)  for  certain  government services  and
 property  and requires  agencies  to annually report  these charges.

 Relevant  Legislation  Pending  Before  The  102nd  Congress  As  Of
 December  1991

 HR280.    Collins  (D-IL),   "Individual  Privacy  Protection Act  of
 1991,"102nd Cong.,1st  session," Referred to the House Committee on
 Government Operations  (CR  p.H78),  January 3,  1991.
   The  purpose  of  this   legislation  is to  amend  the privacy
 provisions of title 5 United States Code to improve the protection
 of individual information  and to  re-establish a permanent Privacy
 Protection  Commission  as  an independent entity  in the Federal

 HR656.   Brown  (D-CA),   "High-Performance Computing  Act  of  1991,"
 102nd Cong, ,1st session,  introduced and ordered to be reported by
 the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology,   January 28,
 1991.  (CR s. CR p. H701-H702). Related measure, S272 introduced in
 Senate, January 24,  1991.   Passed in House with amendments, July
 11, 1991  (CR p.  H5413-H5424).  Amended in House, July 11,  1991  (CR
 p. H5424).   Referred to Senate  Committee on Commerce,  Science  and
 Transportation, July  15,  1991  (CR p. S10039).  Passed  in Senate,
 September 11, 1991.   (CR p. Sl2750-sl2751).
   A bill to provide for a coordinated federal research program to
 ensure  continued United   States  leadership  in high-performance

 HR685.   Wise  (D-WV),    "Data  Protection Act  of   1991,"    102nd
 Cong.,1st session,"  January 29,1991 Introduced  (CR p.  H755-H757)
 and Referred to House  Committee  on  Government Operations  (CR  p.
   Amends the Privacy Act of 1974  to establish the  Data  Protection
 Board as an independent agency of the executive branch.   Requires
 the Board to develop  guidelines and regulations to  implement  the
 Privacy Act of  1974 and the  Freedom of Information Act.  Directs
 the Board  to  assist Federal agencies  in  implementing such Acts.
 Allows the Board to: (l) issue advisory opinions;  (2) investigate
 compliance with such Acts;  (3) report violations of such Acts to an
 agency, the President,  the Attorney General,  and the Congress;  and
 (4) file comments with the Office  of Management and Budget and  any
 Federal agency on any proposal regarding  such Acts.

 HR1423.   Kleczka  (D-WI),   "Freedom  of  Information Public Access
 Improvement Act  of 1991,"  102nd Cong.,1st session,   Introduced  (CR
 p. H1726-H1727)  and Referred  to  House   Committee  on Government
 Operations (CR p.  H1757-H1758)  March 13, 1991.
   The Congress finds  that  the  Freedom  of  Information  Act has
 served an essential  role in informing the  public on  the activities
of the Federal  Government; identifying and  deterring government


waste,  abuse,  wrongdoing,  and  mismanagement;  and  disclosing
significant information regarding public health and safety, and the
environment.    Amendments  are  needed  to  make  the  Freedom  of
Information  Act  simpler  and  less  expensive   for  noncommercial
interests  and news  organizations  to  use,  to  provide  for  more
meaningful  sanctions for  its  violation,  to  minimize delays  in
processing  requests  under  the Act,  to discourage misuse  of the
Act's exemptions  by  agencies and agency personnel,  to eliminate
exemptions  from the Act  that serve no legitimate  governmental
purpose and to provide for more effective Congressional review of
proposed exemptions to the Act.

HR1989.    Valentine  (D-NC),   "American  Technology  Preeminence
Act  of  1991,"  102nd   Cong.,1st   session,    Referred  to  House
Committee on Science, Space and technology,  April 23, 1991 (CR p.
H2467) .   Passed with amendments by  House,  July  16,  1991  (CR p.
H5459-H5490)  (CR p. H5489-H5490).   (Related Bill S1034 introduced
in Senate, May 9,  1991.)  Referred to  Senate  Committee on Commerce,
Science & Transportation.   July 17, 1991.   Unanimous consent that
the Senate  strike  all  after  the enacting  clause of  HR1989 (House
companion bill) and  insert in  lieu thereof  the text of S1034, as
amended, by  the  Senate, agreed to by unanimous  consent.   (CR p.
S18776) November  27, 1991.   Measure  as amended, passes Senate by
unanimous consent. (CR p.  S18776)(WR pp. 3579,  3601) November 27,
   Congress finds that  in order to help United States industries to
speed  the development  of  new products and processes  so as  to
maintain  the  economic competitiveness of the  Nation,  it  is
necessary  to  strengthen   the  programs and  activities  of  the
Department  of Commerce's  Technology Administration  and  National
Institute of Standards and Technology.

HR2772.   Rose  (D-NC),   "GPO Wide  Information Network  for  Data
Online Act of 1991,"  102nd Cong.,1st session, Referred to Committee
on House Administration, June 26,  1991  (CR p.  H5209).
   Agency possession of public information in electronic form has
stimulated  interest  in public accessibility of that information
through electronic networks.

S272.   Gore  (D-TN),    "High-Performance Computing Act of 1991,"
102nd  Cong.,1st  session,    Introduced and  Referred  to  House
Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation January 24, 1991.
(CR p. S1198-S1203).   Related measure (HR656 introduced in House,
January 28, 1991.  Passed by Senate with amendments  September 11,
1991 (CR p. s 12744-S12746).  Senate Speech by Simon supporting the
High Performance computing  Act.  (CR p. s!2996-s!2997).  Considered
and amended by the House.  (CR p. H10688-H10697) November 20, 1991.
Brown (D-CA), substitute amendment, agreed to by voice vote.  (see
CR p.H10697) (CR p. H10688-H10697) November  20,  1991.  Measure, as
amended,  passed  in  House  by voice  vote  (title  amended)  (CR p.
H10697) November  20, 1991.   Submitted to  the president  (CR p.
S18689)(WR p. 3525)  November 27, 1991.  Signed by the president,


December 9, 1991  (PL 102-194 105 Stat. 1594).
   Amends the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization,
and Priorities Act of 1976 to direct the President to develop and
implement  a  National High-Performance Computing  Plan.   Provides
for: (1) establishment of a National Research and Education Network
(NREN);  (2)   establishment  of  an  advisory  committee  on  high
performance  computing;   (3)  standards  and  guidelines  for  high
performance networks; and (4) the responsibility of certain Federal
agencies with regard to  the Network.  Directs  each Federal entity
involved in high-performance computing  to  submit, as part of its
annual budget request, a report on the role of  its activities with
regard  to  the  plan and  relevant  budget  requests.    Requires
specified agencies to plan and relevant budget requests.   Requires
specified agencies to provide for the establishment of the Network
by 1996 to link research and educational institutions, government,
and industry in every state.

8343.   Johnston  (D-LA),  "Department of  Energy  High-Performance
Computing  Act  of 1991,"   102nd Cong.1st  session Introduced and
referred  to  Senate  Committee  on  Energy  and  Natural  Resources,
February  5,  1991  (CR p.  sl559-s!564).   Reported to  Senate as
amended by Senate Committee  on  Energy and  Natural Resources, May
23, 1991 (CR p. S6652).
   Directs the  President to develop  a  National  High-Performance
Computing and Communications Program; and  establish a high-speed
computer  network,  to  be  known  as  the   National  Research  and
Education Network (NREN). Provides for the establishment of High-
Performance  Computing   Research  and  Development  Collaborative
Consortia. Requires NREN to link Federal departments and  agencies,
research and educational institutions, and  industry.

81034.  Hollings  (D-SC),  "American Technology Preeminence Act of
1991,"  102nd Cong.,1st  session , Introduced and referred  to Senate
Committee on  Commerce, Science and Transportation (CR p. 5614-5615)
(CR p.  s5646-s5648) ,  May 9, 1991.  Reported  to Senate as amended by
Committee on Commerce,  Science  and Transportation,  September 24,
1991.  (CR p.  S13577) . (Related  Bill HR1989  introduced in  the House
April  23,  1991).   Unanimous consent that  the  Senate  strike all
after the enacting clause of HR 1989 and  insert in  lieu thereof the
text of S1034, as amended, by the Senate.   (CR p.  S18776)  November
27,  1991.   Unanimous consent  to return the bill to  the  Senate
Legislative Calendar. (CR p.  S18776)(WR p.3579) November  27, 1991.
   Authorizes  appropriations  to  the Secretary  of Commerce  for
activities relating to technology.  Amends the National  Institute
of Standards and  Technology  Act,  the Stevenson-Wydler Technology
Innovation Act of 1980, the National Science and Technology Policy,
Organization, and Priorities Act  of 1976,  the National Technical
Information  Act  of  1988,   and   other  Acts  to  modify various
requirements. Establishes: the High-Resolution Information Systems
Advisory Board; and the Commission on Technology  and Procurement.

81044.  Glenn  (D-OH),   'Federal Information Resources Management
Act,  "102nd Cong.,1st  session,  Introduced  and referred to Senate
Committee on Governmental Affairs,  May 14,  1991  (CR p. s5752)   (CR
p. S5967-S5974).
   Amends the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 to  reduce further the
burden of Federal paperwork on the public.   Outlines guidelines for
review  by the Office  of Information  and  Regulatory Affairs  of
agency rulemaking.  Requires  agency records management programs to
comply with Federal law governing records disposal.  Authorizes the
United  States  Archivist to examine agency  records for historical
preservation value.  Authorizes appropriations to OIRA.

81139.   Nunn   (D-GA),   "Paperwork  Reduction Act of  1991," 102nd
Cong.,1st session, Introduced and referred to Senate Committee on
Governmental Affairs, May 22, 1991  (CR p. s6401-s6411).  Speech by
Senator Kasten in  support of the  Paperwork Reduction Act of 1991
September 12,  1991, (CR p. S12847-12848).
   Identifies  any  agency  initiatives  to reduce  the  burden of the
Federal  collection of information  associated  with  businesses,
especially  small businesses  and  those engaged  in  international
competition;   state   and  local   governments;   and  educational

HR3459. Owens (D-NY),  "The Improvement of Information Access Act,"
102nd  Cong.,1st  session,     Introduced and  referred  to  House
Committee on Government Operations, October 1-3, 1991 (CR p.H7198)
(CR p. E3241- E3245).
   The  public  should  have  timely,  complete,  equitable,  and
affordable  access  to  government  information.    Federal  agencies
should  use modern information  technology  for the  benefit  of
citizens of the United  States.  Each executive department, military
department, and  independent  establishment shall  prepare  by  not
later than February 1  of  each  year,  and make freely available to
the public upon request and at  no charge, a report which describes
the  information  dissemination policies   and  practices  of  the
department  or  establishment,  including plans  to  introduce  new
information products and services or discontinue old ones.

HR3458.   Owens  (D-NY),   "The Educational  Research, Development,
and  Dissemination Excellence  Act,"    102nd  Cong.,1st  session,
Introduced and referred to House Committee  on Education and Labor,
October 1, 1991  (CR p. H7198) (CR p.  H7160-7161).
   Establishment of this act  would  improve  education in the United
States by promoting excellence  in  research,  development,  and the
dissemination  of  information.    This  establishes  the  National
Educational Research Policy  and Advisory Board.   The Board shall
make a report  to  the President which identifies administrative and
legislative changes  necessary  to  improve the  coordination  and
dissemination activities carried out without the Federal Government
and to enable greater interaction among all entities engaged in

such activities,  including the Environmental  Protection Agency.
This shall be done no later than 18 months after the establishment
of the Act.

81939.      Leahy  (D-VT),   "Electronic  Freedom   of  Information
Improvement Act of 1191,"  introduced November 7, 1991, referred to
the Committee on the Judiciary.
   The purpose of this bill is to improve public access to agency
records and information.   Documents shall be furnished without any
charge, if disclosure of the  information is in the public interest
because  such  disclosure   is  likely  to  contribute directly  or
indirectly  to  public understanding of  the Government  and other
matters of public interest.

81942.    Glenn  (D-OH), "Regulatory Review Sunshine  Act  of 1991,"
introduced  November  7,   1991,  referred  to  the  Committee  on
Governmental Affairs. Ordered to be reported by Senate Govermental
Affairs Committee by yea/nea vote: 8-3.  (CR p.  D1498)
November 22, 1991.  Senate speech by Sen.  Glenn urging passage
(CR p.  S17995) November 23, 1991.
   A reviewing entity shall establish procedures to  provide public
access to  information concerning  each agency  rulemaking activity
under  its  review.   Such  information shall include  a copy of all
written communications, regardless of format, between the reviewing
entity and any person not employed by the Federal Government.

Freedom of Information Act
Computer Friendly FOIA?
Washington Post, Nov 11, 1991

   Senators Patrick Leahy  (D-VT)  and Hank Brown (R-CO) sponsored
two new bills to  "improve"  the  Freedom of Information Act.  They
were introduced before  the Senate Judiciary subcommittee on  law and
technology on November 7, 1991.
   S1940,  "The  Electronic  FOIA  Improvement  Act of  1991," would
define a "record" as "all books, papers, maps, photographs, data,
machine-readable materials,  digitized and electronic information
regardless of physical  form or characteristics."  This would allow
the requestor to decide  whether he wants information in paper of
electronic format, if the information exists in both forms.
   To  encourage agencies  to respond faster  to FOIA requests,
another section of this  bill would allow the requested agency to
keep half  the  fees.   The money, which now goes  to  the Treasury,
would have to be used to fund FOIA operations.
   The second  bill,  S1939,  "The  FOIA Improvement Act of  1991,"
proposes extending coverage to  the offices  of the president, the
vice-president  and Congress.    It  would also  tighten  several
exemptions, including  the  one for national  security information.
It would  permit  withholding of  classified  information only  if


disclosure would cause "identifiable damage" to national security.
   These two new bills differ from HR1423, Freedom of Information
Act  Public  Access  Improvement Act of  1991.   If passes  it would
strengthen simplify and tighten restrictions of FOIA.  It is more
general than the Senate FOIA  bills, which if  passed would extend
coverage  to the executive  branch and  Congress  and  allow those
requesting  information  to select  a  paper or  electronic format.
HR1423, the house bill to reauthorize  FOIA, was  introduced March
13,  1991  and is currently  stalled in the  Government Operations

There Goes the FOIA
Greer, Edward
Progressive (GTPR)   v54n9  p!6-17  Sep 1990

   The  Federal  judiciary  seems  disposed   to  do away with the
Freedom  of Information  Act  (FOIA)  by  interpreting  it  out  of
existence.  Several  lawsuit  cases that illustrate  this  point are
discussed.  (COURIER PLUS)

Bush to Look at FOIA
Editor & Publisher  (GEDP)   v!23n!7  p8  Apr 28, 1990

   An  editorial  argues  that if President Bush  is sincere about
wanting to improve   public access to information under the Freedom
of Information Act,  he should  support  bills  that  will extend the
act to cover electronically stored information. (COURIER PLUS)

Paperwork Reduction Act

Cutting Paperwork for Small Business
Times Mirror Company, 1991

   The Paperwork Reduction Act (SB  1139) would reauthorize similar
legislation from 1980,  which  required, among  other things,  that
before requesting information  from  businesses, a government agency
must conduct  a thorough review  to ensure that its requests are
necessary and  practical.   Nunn  will  set  an  initial goal  of  5%
reduction in the forms that the federal government requires small
businesses  to  complete.   New  reviews will  be  established  for
information  requests  and  agencies  will  be  required  to  use
information more efficiently.
   "The   cumulative   effect   of   the   government's  information
requirements is drowning the small-business community," Nunn said.
"Of  the   $330  billion  in estimated  annual  paperwork   costs  to
business, one-third are borne by small businesses,  which have the
least resources for handling the paperwork load."


   Labor fears  that  new reductions will impede  the  free flow of
information required to monitor business.  But a large coalition of
business groups are  supporting Nunn's  proposal.   "Red tape has a
real economic cost,"  said Leslie Aubin, a lobbyist for the National
Federation of Independent Businesses.   "It  is not just an esoteric

Nunn Needs Help in Battle to Cut Federal Paperwork
By: Durwood McAlister
Atlanta Journal, July 2, 1991, p. A6

   Columnist Durwood McAlister praises efforts by Sen. Bob Kasten
(R-Wis.) and Georgia Sen. Sam Nunn to push a bill reaffirming the
purpose of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980.
   A little more than  10 years ago,  Congress took a hard look at
the  unbelievable  mountain   of   paperwork  imposed  by  federal
bureaucrats on the  general public and decided to do something about
it.  The result was the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980. It was an
attempt to curb a bureaucracy run amok and  it did at least slow it
down.  The Act gave the White House Office of  Management and Budget
(OMB) the power to  monitor  and review paperwork demands imposed on
the public by federal agencies.
   Subsequently, bills have been introduced that would curb OMB's
authority.   A 1990 Supreme  Court decision  has removed about one-
third of all government paperwork requirements from OMB's review.
   Sen. Kasten and  Georgia Sen. Sam Nunn have joined  forces to push
a  bill  reaffirming  the   purpose  of  the  original   act  and
strengthening OMB's authority to attack government red  tape.  Among
other things, their  bill requires  government forms  to display an
estimate of the  time  spent and the cost involved in filling out the

Stop Daydreaming About Deregulation
Glenn,  John
Wall Street Journal  (WSJ) Sec A,  p 13, col 1  Jul 10,  1991

   Sen   John  Glenn   (D-OH)  responds   to   the  Jun  17,  1991
editorial  "The  Reregulation President,"  and  argues  that  the
American people will  be paying for  the  deregulation policies  of
former  President Ronald Reagan  for  the next   50  years.  Glenn
explains his policies  on the Paperwork Reduction Act  and the OMB
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs.  (COURIER PLUS)

Restraining the Regulatory Herd
Hasten, Robert
Washington Times (WT) Sec G, p 3, col 3  Jun 27, 1991

   Sen Robert Hasten (R-WI) says the federal regulatory bureaucracy
has  run  amok, with  red tape hitting  small business  owners the
hardest. He  discusses  the  Paperwork  Reduction Action of 1980,
which  empowers  the OMB  to  monitor  paperwork demands  federal
agencies impose on the public. (COURIER PLUS)

Trends in the legislative environment of records managers.
Allen, D. P.
Proceedings   of  the  ARMA International 35th Annual Conference,
San  Francisco,  CA,   November   1990,  p.   840-849,   1990,  ARMA
International, Prairie Village,  KS

   Legislation  affecting  records  management  is discussed. The
Paperwork Reduction  Act  is defined. Creation  and duties of the
Office of Information and  Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) are described.
Records  management  technology  and  legislation  are  examined.

OMB Circular A-130
OMB Delays Release of Proposed Changes in A-130
By: Kevin Power
Government Computer News, November 11, 1991, p. 10

   OMB will wait until January to issue their latest proposal for
updating Circular A-130.  They issued the first set of changes in
January  1990.    Agencies  rebuffed  that  proposal,  charging  its
definitions were unclear and it hands  the private sector too big a
role in distributing government information.
   Unnamed OMB  officials said they  are  reluctant to  make final
changes  in  the government's  basic  IRM policy  document  until
Congress  clarifies  its  IRM  views   with  a  revamped  Paperwork
Reduction  Act   and  reauthorizes  the  Office  of Information  and
Regulatory Affairs.  However, neither Senator Glenn's (D-OH) S1044,
Federal Information Resources Management Act (often referred to as
the  Paperwork   Reduction  Act) or Senator  Nunn's   (D-GA)  S1139,
Paperwork Reduction Act has yet to pass the Senate.
   OMB's latest reform  proposal  called  for  strengthening A-130's
notification   requirements,    limiting   development   of   agency
electronic-dissemination   products   and   maintaining   agency
inventories on such products.
   As for other circulars, A-3 on agency publications, and A-114 on
audiovisual activities,  will be incorporated into A-130. A-123 and
A-127, which deal with agency  internal controls and financial

management systems,  will be updated after OMB officials obtain more
experience  in  carrying out  requirements of the  Chief  Financial

Circular Game: OMB Readies Another Round
By: J. Timothy Sprehe
Federal Computer Week, Nov. 4, 1991, p. 15

   OMB  has  announced  the elimination of  11  or  its  43  active
circulars  and  the revision of  another 20.   As  Director Richard
Darman  said  "Duplicative,  occasionally  incomprehensible,  OMB
circulars  have  in some cases impeded,  rather  than facilitated,
management of the federal  government.   We owe federal agencies and
the public a much more straightforward, simple and serious system
of OMB directives."
   OMB has stated it will issue a revision of OMB Circular No.
A-130, the management of Federal Information  Resources, January 31,
1992.    Into  A-130  OMB  will  fold  Circular  A-3,  Government
Publications, and Circular No. A-114, Audiovisual Activities.
   In 56  Federal Register (FR)  42,  P. 9026, March  4,  1991,  OMB
announced plans to revise Circular A-130.  56 Federal Register (FR)
190, p.  49824,  October  1, 1991, OMB announced plans to rescind some
circulars.  Among then  A-3 and A-114, which will  be folded into No.
A-130.  In this article OMB stated "proposed revisions to Circular
No. A-130,..., will  be published for  public comment  on or about
January 31,  1992."   During confirmation hearings on October 30,
1991, Mr.  Frank  Hodsoll,  Deputy Director of Management, restated
the revision conversation, Perter Wise, OMB contact person for
A-130, confirmed OMB's commitment to the revision of A-130 "on or
about January 31 of next year."  (HEADQUARTERS LIBRARY)

Helping  America  Compete:  The  Role  of Federal  Scientific  and
Technical Information
Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC.,  Jul 90

   The special report assesses how Federal scientific and technical
information (STI) can contribute to  a more competitive America and
what  actions  are needed  to  realize the  potential.    The report
identifies and discusses a range of  actions  that can help the U.S.
compete  in the  worldwide marketplace  of  ideas,  products,  and
services,  and to provide  leadership  on global  issues  like  the
environment.     The  report   discusses  the  possibility  of  a
presidential  initiative on STI  that would  include  a strengthened
role  for  the  Office  of Science  and  Technology  Policy,  new
mechanisms  for  STI  leadership  in  the  Federal   research  and
development agencies,  and the application of Federal STI to improve
science  education.    The  report  also  addresses government  wide
information policy  issues relevant to STI,  including the roles of
the National Technical Information Service and Government Printing
Office in electronic dissemination.  (NTIS)

Federal Scientific and Technical Information in an Electronic Age:
Opportunities and Challenges; staff paper
Performing   Organization:   Office   of  Technology   Assessment,
Washington, DC. Oct 89

   The House Committee on  Science, Space, and Technology asked the
Office of Technology Assessment  (OTA) to examine the opportunities
and challenges facing the  Federal Government with  respect to the
dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI).   The
paper presents the  results of OTA's inquiry.  OTA  found that the
government does not have  an  overall strategy on  dissemination of
STI.  An  overall  strategy would help maximize the  return on the
substantial Federal research and development investment, and meet
other national goals to which STI can contribute, such as improving
the education of U.S.  scientists and engineers,  the international
competitiveness of  U.S.  industry,  and  the  strength of  the  U.S.
civilian technology base.  (NTIS)

Federal information policy and U.S.  competitiveness.
Owens, C.T.
Government Information Quarterly, Vol.  6, Issue  1,  p.  43-46,  1989

   Reviews  the National Science Foundation's (NSF)  activities in
gathering  and   disseminating   foreign  scientific  and  technical
information. Activities described  include information processing
by domestic and overseas offices; a   pilot  study   to  determine


effective   dissemination   methods;   online services;  a  program
of  survey   visits  to  foreign  facilities; and the development
of  NSF's   Science and Technology Centers.    (INFORMATION SCIENCE

Federal    technical    information    and    US  competitiveness.
Meeds, opportunities/ and  issues.
Hill, C.T.
Government  Information Quarterly, Vol. 6,  Issue 1, p. 31-38, 1989
   Discusses   the importance of competitiveness  to the American
economy  and examines  three   areas  where   federal information
policies affect American competitiveness:  providing  the private
sector  with  technical  information;  making  federal information
resources available to industry; and restricting foreign access to
those resources.  For each  area, current policy  and  issues needing
resolution  are discussed.   (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Federal information: foundation for national competitiveness.
Clark, J.E.
Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 5, Issue 4,  p. 353-368, 1988

   These    seven   papers   address   issues    related   to   the
dissemination of federal information to the private sector. General
topics addressed  include  the   impact  of   federal  information
policy on the flow of scientific and technical  information  (STI),
business needs  for STI, and  the role of  the National Technical

Support for information technology in science:  the  federal role.
Bortnick, Jane.
Government  Information Quarterly  3:233-50 no 3 '86, tables chart

   Based on a report prepared for the Task Force on Science Policy,
Committee on Science and Technology,  U.S.  House of Representatives.
Federal  funding  of R&D   in  information  technologies;  funding
and tax credits allowed  for purchase and donation  of information
technology equipment; funding database development.   (PAIS)

Improving access to Japanese scientific and technical literature
in the United States: the role of the federal government.
Rosenbaum, Howard
Government Information Quarterly  v5  (1)  1988,  5-26.

   Currently,  the  USA lacks  a clear and consistent information
policy  defining  and  regulating the Federal  role  in collection
and  dissemination    of    Japanese  scientific   and  technical
information (STI)  to users in the public and private sectors.  One
long-term consequence  of this situation  involves negative impacts


on  American  scientific  and  technological  innovation  and  on
competitiveness in the global economy.   After a discussion of the
existing legislative   and   regulatory  environment   shaping the
Federal government's approach to Japanese STI activities,  presents
5  policy  options,  each  of which describes a different role for
the Federal government. Recommends a combination of 2  options that
will create the basis for a Federal information  policy designed  to
support  a  self-sustaining STI  infrastructure  in the USA.  That
infrastructure  will efficiently  access  and disseminate Japanese
STI to public and private sector users.   (LIBRARY AND INFORMATION

The international flow of scientific and technical information
Meredith, Barba J.(ed)
Government Information Quarterly  v3 (2)  May 86, 163-178

   Reprint of  'The international flow of scientific and technical
information:  a summary  of  the  proceedings'  prepared by Barbara
J. Meredith    from  tape   recordings   of   the  2nd   Federal
Library  and  Information   Center  Committee   (FLICC)   Forum  on
Federal  Information Policies held  at the  Library of  Congress,
Washington,  D.C.,  27     Feb 1985.  The  following  topics  were
discussed:  an understanding of  what drives  federal  information
policy;    international   influences    on  federal  information
policies;  the ferment  in international telecommunications; and
international  influences on the flow of scientific and technical

Sharing Data  for Environmental  Results:  Report of  a conference
Sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Governor's Association, 1989

   The  goals  of  the conference are  to  build  and  maintain  the
infrastructure needed for effective environmental data management
and sharing (Phase I),  and  to  develop  and support the strategies
necessary to integrate data across media and programs (Phase II).
During the three-day conference, discussion  covered  the state of
environmental data,  the tools  used to  manage  and  analyze this
information,   and  the  strategies  to  spur  data  sharing  and
integration across  all environmental  programs.   The conference
represented  a  continuation of the  three-year-old  partnership
between the  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA)  and  the

Report Outlines Waste Dumping by Tankers on West Coast
Coughlin,  William P
Boston Globe (BG) p  41, col 1  Aug 29,  1991

   A  report  obtained  by   an  Alaska  state  senator under the
Freedom of Information  Act  says that oil tankers operated by some
major oil shipping firms  routinely  pump  toxic  sludge and oily
ballast water into the ocean from Panama  to Alaska. (COURIER PLUS)

Toxic Chemicals: EPA's Toxic Release Inventory is Useful  but Can Be
U.S. General Accounting Office Report to Congress, June 27,  1991

   The Toxic Release  Inventory, available since 1989,  is  a valuable
source of environmental  information.  Federal  and state governments
have used the data  to enact laws designed to control and reduce
toxic  emissions,  and  the   public  availability  of  the data  has
prompted some companies to set  emissions reduction  goals.   The
inventory is  an  important  source  of  environmental  data and is
available to the  public through an online data base,  a national
report, a computer diskette, and other  formats.  Environmental and
public  interest groups use the data  extensively.   (HEADQUARTERS

Environmental Protection:  Meeting Public Expectations With Limited
U.S. General Accounting Office  Report to the Congress,  June 18,

   Drawing on past GAO work and a symposium held in June 1990, as
well as analyses prepared  by  the  Environmental  Protection Agency
(EPA) and others, this report discusses ways in which the federal
government can  achieve environmental goals more  efficiently and
effectively.  As the 102nd Congress takes up legislation to create
a  Cabinet  department  for  the environment,  it  may also  wish to
consider creating (1) a commission to study the desirability of a
unified environmental  statute and  (2)  a  center  for environmental
information to help  in the collection and application of data on
environmental conditions and trends.   (HEADQUARTERS LIBRARY)

Hazardous Waste: Data Management Problems Delay EPA's Assessment of
Minimization Efforts
U.S. General Accounting Office Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee
on Transportation and Hazardous  Materials, Committee on Energy and
Commerce, House of Representatives, June 13, 1991

   GAO recommends that the  Administrator, EPA,  work with the states
and industry to define  data requirements to meet  current and future
information needs  for  b  .irdous waste minimization.  As part of
this effort, GAO also  recommends that EPA set out how these data
requirements  will  be met;  who  will  be   responsible   for  data
collection, analysis and management;  and what the time frames and
resources for completion of these  tasks  will  be.   To ensure that
this   new   approach   to   measuring   waste   minimization  meets
congressional  needs and  expectations,  the plan  should  be  made
available  to the  cognizant congressional   oversight  committees,
which many want to explore the approach and options in more detail

Pentagon's Toxic Waste Denounced
Shepard, Scott
Atlanta Constitution (ATC) Sec A, p 2, col  1  Mar 14, 1991

   The Pentagon has  created "thousands of points  of blight," the
Boston-based  National Toxic Campaign Fund charged on Mar  13, 1991
in a report  compiled from  Pentagon  documents obtained under the
Freedom  of  Information   Act that uncovered  evidence  of 14,401
pollution sites at 1,579 military bases. (COURIER PLUS)

Information, Please
Fricker, Richard L
ABA Journal  (GABA)  v76  p56-61  Jun 1990

   Presents  numerous  cases  of  problems  with  the  Freedom  of
Information  Act.     Requestors,  including  lawyer  Larry  Johns
representing  220  plaintiffs exposed to  radiation,  have had FOIA
requests denied or delayed.  In many of these cases,  the government
claims  national  security would be endangered if the information
were released.  There is  open speculation that the delays are meant
to serve not "national security," but rather administration or CIA
"image security."  Public-interest groups calim the public's access
to  information is limited  so  that the government  won't  be held
accountable for waste and violations.  (COURIER  PLUS)

Exposure to radiation, (public access to government information)
The Washington Post, November 29, 1989, Sec A,  p. A25
By: Ann Devroy and Bill  McAllister

   Independent  researchers  should  be  given  access  to  secret
government files  on  worker exposure  to   radiation  at  federal
nuclear weapons plants, an advisory panel to Energy Secretary James
D. Watkins has recommended. (NATIONAL NEWSPAPER INDEX)

Romer Demands Flats Risk Data
Kowalski, Robert
Denver Post  (DP) Sec A,  p 6, col 1  Sep 14, 1989

   Colorado Gov.  Roy  Romer has asked Energy Secretary James Watkins
to make public  information  obtained  in  a  continuing  federal
investigation of alleged  illegal  waste dumping at the Rocky Flats
nuclear weapons plant so  the state can deal with any  health hazards
that might have resulted. (COURIER PLUS)

EDAAS: An   Expert   System  At The US  Environmental Protection
Agency For Avoiding Disclosure of Confidential Business Information
Feinstein Jerald L.,  Siems Frederick
Booz, Allen & Hamilton,  MD,
Expert Systems, Apr 85,  v2, n2, p72(13)

   EPA uses an expert system designed  to help screen freedom  of
information  act   (FOIA)  requests. The design and operation of said
system, entitled expert  disclosure analysis and avoidance system,
are discussed.  Specifically,  the  system aids public information
specialists  to   determine  which  information  concerning  the
manufacture and distribution of toxic chemicals  may  be released to
the public without compromising other  sensitive   company   data
which the EPA is legally bound to protect from public disclosure.


Confidentiality  and  Freedom  of  Information for Epidemiological
Data in Governmental Research.
Nehls, G.J.; Hayes, C.G.; Nelson,  W.C.
1981, 5 P.,Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC

    The  issues of confidentiality and freedom of information are
discussed for   studies   involving  health  surveillance  around
point  sources of pollution.  The  problems  discussed are related
to protecting data after a study  has  been  initiated.   Research
studies  describing  the  impact of confidentiality  on  response
rates  are discussed. The U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency's
current  and   proposed   procedures  for  handling  and  releasing
these data are presented. These can  be used by  other agencies in
defining their security procedures. (INFORMATION SCIENCE ABSTRACTS)

Policy on Public Access to EPA Information (draft)
Office   of   Administration  and  Resources   Management  -  U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, 1991

   This policy establishes the principles governing public access
to and dissemination of information gathered and maintained by EPA.
Information that is restricted by Federal or State requirements for
confidentiality,   privacy,   national   defense   or   enforcement
sensitivity  shall  be assembled  to  provide access while meeting
requirements for restriction.  (HEADQUARTERS LIBRARY)

Recommendations for EPA's Public Access Strategy  (Draft)
Office of  Information Resources Management - Information Access
Branch, Environmental Protection Agency, January  23,  1991

   The demand by the public to access information maintained by the
government, particularly environmental information, has increased
greatly within the  past  few  years.   The Environmental Protection
Agency  (EPA)  has  experienced this  intensifying  demand  through
receipt of increasing numbers of  requests  for  its  information from
members of the public.   Congress has also been responding to the
public's  desire  to  obtain  environmental  information  through
proposing legislation that contains public access  requirements for
the Agency.   These factors combined with  a desire by  EPA to use
public education campaigns to facilitate the attainment of stated
Agency  goals  (e.g,  risk reduction and pollution  prevention)
highlight the importance of public access efforts within the EPA.

Public Access Manual  (Draft)
Office of  Information Resources Management - Information Access
Branch, Environmental Protection Agency and Booz Allen, & Hamilton,
Inc., 1991

   The manual provides information on EPA's Public Access Program
& Strategy, its roles and responsibilities, goals and objectives.
The Public Access  Manual  presents the steps to  take to identify an
audience and their  information  needs, and the  media to use when
delivering the message.  Access  points  are discussed that can be
used to  disseminate the  information gathered  such  as  hotlines,
clearinghouses,  libraries, bulletin  boards,  dockets,  and public
information centers.  Other  distribution  mechanisms  to take into
consideration are EPIC (EPA  Publication and  Information Center),
EPA's  Public  Information  Center (PIC)  the   Government  Printing
Office (GPO),  the  National Technical Information Center (NTIS).

Partnership opportunities  with states,  other federal  agencies,
private  interest groups  and  corporations  are  also  mentioned.

Interagency Conference on Public Access:  A Summary Report
Office  of  Information Resources  Management,  U.S.  Environmental
Protection Agency, Solomons,  MD, May 20-21,  1991

   The  conference offered departmental  and  agency officials  an
opportunity  to  discuss  issues  surrounding  public  access  to
government information,  particularly  that which  is  collected  or
generated  and maintained  in  electronic  format; and  to  share
experiences to  date.   Congress  is  increasingly  requiring  that
specific databases generated by an agency for its own use be made
available to  the general public electronically,   as with  the EPA
Toxics  Release  Inventory  (TRI).   In  addition,   departments  and
agencies are more aware  of their  obligations  to  make information
available  in  the  format in  which they  are using  it.   Public
interest groups,  professional associations, academia, libraries and
the  press  are   demanding  access  to  government   information  in
electronic format.   There is  concern  that movement to electronic
media will  eventually limit  access  to  those  with the means  of
accessing it.  This  in turn raises a fear that  citizens  may not
have access to the information necessary to  effectively exercise
their rights in a democratic society.  (HEADQUARTERS LIBRARY)