TC-3752
FINAL REPORT
EPA-910/9-85-134b
COMMENCEMENT  BAY
NEARSHORE /  TIDEFLATS
REMEDIAL INVESTIGATION
VOLUME ^
 AUGUST, 1985

 PREPARED FOR:
 WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF ECOLOGY
 AND U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 Mr. James D. Kruli, Project Manager
 Washington State Department of Ecology
 Olympia, Washington

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 TC-3752
 Final  Report

 COMMENCEMENT  BAY  NEARSHORE/
 TIDEFLATS  REMEDIAL  INVESTIGATION

 Volume 1
by

Tetra Tech,  Inc.
for
Washington State Department of Ecology
and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Mr. James D. KruTI, Project Manager
Washington State Department of Ecology
Olympia, Washington

August, 1985
Tetra Tech, Inc.
11820 Northup Way, Suite 100
Bellevue, Washington  98005

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                                  CONTENTS


                                                                      Page

LIST OF FIGURES                                                         ix

LIST OF TABLES                                                         xvi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                      xxii

1.0  INTRODUCTION                                                      1.1

     1.1  BACKGROUND                                                   1.1

     1.2  SITE DESCRIPTION                                             1.1

     1.3  NATURE AND EXTENT OF PROBLEM                                 1.4

     1.4  COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT                                        1.6

     1.5  REPORT OVERVIEW                                              1.7

2.0  METHODS                                                           2.1

     2.1  GENERAL APPROACH                                             2.1

          2.1.1  Study Design                                          2.1
          2.1.2  Station Locations                                     2.1
          2.1.3  Data Analysis Methods                                 2.16
          2.1.4  Geophysical Survey                                    2.18

     2.2  SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY                                           2.18

          2.2.1  Field Sampling                                        2.19
          2.2.2  Laboratory Analysis for Metals                        2.21
          2.2.3  Laboratory Analysis for Organic Compounds             2.21
          2.2.4  Ancillary Analyses                                    2.24

     2.3  WATER COLUMN CHEMISTRY                                       2.25

          2.3.1  Field Sampling                                        2.25
          2.3.2  Laboratory Analysis                                   2.27

     2.4  BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES                                   2.28

          2.4.1  Field Sampling                                        2.28
          2.4.2  Laboratory Analysis                                   2.29
                                    11

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2.5  SEDIMENT BIOASSAYS                                           2.29

     2.5.1  Field Sampling                                        2.29
     2.5.2  Laboratory Analysis                                   2.29

2.6  FISH HISTOPATHOLOGY                                          2.32

     2.6.1  Field Sampling                                        2.32
     2.6.2  Histopathological Examination                         2.33

2.7  BIOACCUMULATION                                              2.33

     2.7.1  Field Sampling                                        2.33
     2.7.2  Laboratory Analysis for Metals                        2.34
     2.7.3  Laboratory Analysis for Organic Compounds             2.35

2.8  DATA MANAGEMENT                                              2.36

     2.8.1  The Database                                          2.36
     2.8.2  Data Analysis                                         2.37
     2.8.3  Graphics                                              2.37
     2.8.4  Quality Control                                       2.38
     2.8.5  Library                                               2.38

2.9  HEALTH AND SAFETY                                            2.38

2.10 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS QA/QC                                  2.39

     2.10.1 Sample Collection                                     2.39
     2.10.2 Organic Compound Analyses                             2.40
     2.10.3 Trace Metals and Ancillary Analyses                   2.41
     2.10.4 Benthic Macroinvertebrates, Sediment Bioassays,
            and Fish Histopathology                               2.41

2.11 RISK ASSESSMENT                                              2.41

     2.11.1 Exposure Evaluation                                   2.44
     2.11.2 Health Effects (Hazard Assessment) Methodology        2.47
     2.11.3 Risk Assessment Calculations                          2.47

2.12 SOURCE IDENTIFICATION                                        2.52

     2.12.1 Sediment Chemistry                                    2.52
     2.12.2 Water Quality Data                                    2.57
     2.12.3 Point Sources and Runoff                              2.57
     2.12.4 Groundwater Sources                                   2.62
     2.12.5 Atmospheric Sources                                   2.63
     2.12.6 Spills                                                2.63
     2.12.7 Dredging                                              2.64
                               iii

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3.0  RESULTS                                                           3.1

     3.1  SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY                                           3.1

          3.1.1  Bulk Sediment Characteristics                         3.1
          3.1.2  Normalization of Chemical  Concentrations              3.10
          3.1.3  Sediment Metals                                       3.13
          3.1.4  Sediment Organic Compounds                            3.20
          3.1.5  Prioritization of Areas Based on Sediment
                 Contamination                                         3.39
          3.1.6  Comparison with Historical Conditions                 3.69
          3.1.7  Contamination of Waterway Suspended Solids            3.72
          3.1.8  Summary                                               3.73

     3.2  BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES                                   3.78

          3.2.1  Introduction                                          3.78
          3.2.2  Characteristics of Benthic Communities in
                 Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet                       3.78
          3.2.3  Comparisons Among Study Areas                         3.80
          3.2.4  Comparisons Within Study Areas                        3.92
          3.2.5  Classification Analyses                               3.98
          3.2.6  Animal-Sediment Relationships                         3.106
          3.2.7  Indices for Decision Criteria                         3.117
          3.2.8  Comparisons With Past Studies                         3.121
          3.2.9  Summary                                               3.122

     3.3  SEDIMENT TOXICITY                                            3.123

          3.3.1  Introduction                                          3.123
          3.3.2  Amphipod Sediment Bioassays                           3.125
          3.3.3  Oyster  Larvae Sediment Bioassays                      3.125
          3.3.4  Discussion                                            3.133
          3.3.5  Comparison With Historical Data                       3.134
          3.3.6  Summary                                               3.140

     3.4  FISH ECOLOGY                                                 3.140

          3.4.1  Introduction                                          3.140
          3.4.2  Total Fish Assemblages                                3.140
          3.4.3  English Sole Populations                              3.143
          3.4.4  Summary                                               3.151

     3.5  FISH HISTOPATHOLOGY                                          3.153

          3.5.1  Introduction                                          3.153
          3.5.2  External  Abnormalities                                3.153
          3.5.3  Classification of Liver Conditions                     3.153
          3.5.4  Effects of Sex                                        3.155
          3.5.5  Effects of Age                                        3.157
          3.5.6  Spatial  Patterns of Individual  Disorders              3.157
          3.5.7  Spatial  Patterns of Fish Having One or More
                 Major Lesion                                          3.162
          3.5.8  Fish Condition Comparisons                            3.164


                                   iv

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          3.5.9  Comparisons With Historical Data                      3.164
          3.5.10 Summary                                               3.169

     3.6  BIOACCUMULATION                                              3.170

          3.6.1  Introduction                                          3.170
          3.6.2  Metals in Fish Muscle                                 3.172
          3.6.3  Metals in Crab Muscle                                 3.174
          3.6.4  Organic Compounds in Fish Muscle                      3.174
          3.6.5  Organic Compounds in Crab Muscle                      3.193
          3.6.6  Comparison With Other Studies                         3.195
          3.6.7  Summary                                               3.200

4.0  CONTAMINANT, TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS RELATIONSHIPS       4.1

     4.1  INTRODUCTION                                                 4.1

     4.2  RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CONTAMINANTS, TOXICITY, AND BENTHIC
          EFFECTS                                                      4.1

          4.2.1  Correlation of Indicators                             4.2
          4.2.2  Apparent Chemical Effect Thresholds                   4.3
          4.2.3  Correspondence Among Chemical, Toxicity, and
                 Benthic Effects Gradients                             4.21
          4.2.4  Summary                                               4.29

     4.3  COMPARISON OF BIOASSAY RESPONSES WITH BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE
          ASSEMBLAGES                                                  4.34

          4.3.1  Correlation of Indicators                             4.35
          4.3.2  Comparison of Bioassays with Benthic Groupings        4.35
          4.3.3  Comparison of Significant Responses                   4.35
          4.3.4  Summary                                               4.38

     4.4  COMPARISONS OF LESION PREVALENCES IN ENGLISH SOLE WITH
          CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN SEDIMENTS                           4.38

     4.5  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOACCUMULATION AND SEDIMENT
          CONTAMINATION                                                4.42

          4.5.1  Inorganic Substances                                  4.43
          4.5.2  Organic Substances                                    4.45
          4.5.3  Summary                                               4.48

     4.6  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH HISTO-
          PATHOLOGY                                                    4.48

          4.6.1  Inorganic Substances                                  4.48
          4.6.2  Organic Substances                                    4.50
          4.6.3  Summary                                               4.52

5.0  PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT                                          5.1

     5.1  INTRODUCTION                                                 5.1

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     5.2  SUMMARY OF RESULTS                                           5.1

          5.2.1  Carcinogens in Fish Muscle Tissue                     5.2
          5.2.2  Noncarcinogens in Fish Muscle Tissue                  5.4
          5.2.3  Carcinogens in Crab Muscle Tissue                     5.4
          5.2.4  Noncarcinogens in Crab Muscle Tissue                  5.6
          5.2.5  Consumption of Fish Livers                            5.6

6.0  PRIORITIZATION OF PROBLEM AREAS AND CONTAMINANTS                  6.1

     6.1  INTRODUCTION                                                 6.1

     6.2  IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM AREAS                              6.1

          6.2.1  Action Assessment Matrices                            6.1
          6.2.2  Application of Action Levels to Determine Problem
                 Areas                                                 6.11
          6.2.3  Ranking of Study Areas and Segments                   6.11

     6.3  SPATIAL EXTENT AND RANKING OF PROBLEM AREAS                  6.19

     6.4  CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PROBLEM AREAS                   6.25

          6.4.1  Hylebos Waterway                                      6.26
          6.4.2  Blair Waterway                                        6.27
          6.4.3  Sitcum Waterway                                       6.28
          6.4.4  Milwaukee Waterway                                    6.28
          6.4.5  St. Paul Waterway                                     6.28
          6.4.6  Middle Waterway                                       6.29
          6.4.7  City Waterway                                         6.29
          6.4.8  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline                         6.30

     6.5  RANKING OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM CHEMICALS IN PROBLEM AREAS      6.31

     6.6  SUMMARY                                                      6.37
                                    vi

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                             CONTENTS VOLUME 2
7.0  SOURCE EVALUATION

     7.1  INTRODUCTION

     7.2  HYLEBOS WATERWAY

          7.2.1  Introduction
          7.2.2  Contaminants of Concern
          7.2.3  Polychlorinated Biphenyls
          7.2.4  Aromatic Hydrocarbons
          7.2.5  Dibenzofuran
          7.2.6  Benzyl  Alcohol
          7.2.7  Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
          7.2.8  Pentachlorocyclopentane Isomer
          7.2.9  Arsenic
          7.2.10 Copper, Lead, and Zinc
          7.2.11 Mercury
          7.2,12 Hylebos Waterway:  Summary and  Recommendations

     7.3  SITCUM WATERWAY

          7.3.1  Introduction
          7.3.2  Aromatic Hydrocarbons and  Dibenzofuran
          7.3.3  Metals

     7.4  ST. PAUL WATERWAY

          7.4.1  Introduction
          7.4.2  Spatial Distribution
          7.4.3  Loading Estimates
          7.4.4  Source  Identification
          7.4.5  Summary and Recommendations

     7.5  MIDDLE WATERWAY

          7.5.1  Introduction
          7.5.2  Pentachlorophenol and Dichlorobenzenes
          7.5.3  Aromatic Hydrocarbons and  Dibenzofuran
          7.5.4  Mercury and Copper
          7.5.5  Middle  Waterway:  Summary  and Recommendations

     7.6  CITY WATERWAY

          7.6.1  Introduction
          7.6.2  Contaminants of Concern
          7.6.3  Organic Enrichment
                                   vii

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          7.6.4  Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Dibenzofuran
          7.6.5  Dichlorobenzenes
          7.6.6  4-Methylphenol
          7.6.7  Polychlorinated Biphenyls
          7.6.8  Copper and Zinc
          7.6.9  Lead
          7.6.10 Summary and Recommendations

     7.7  RUSTON-PT.  DEFIANCE SHORELINE

          7.7.1  Introduction
          7.7.2  Spatial Distribution
          7.7.3  Loading Estimates
          7.7.4  Source Identification
          7.7.5  Summary and Recommendations

8.0  RECOMMENDATIONS OF AREAS AND SOURCES FOR POTENTIAL  REMEDIAL
     ACTIONS

     8.1  INTRODUCTION

     8.2  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REMEDIAL ACTION

          8.2.1  Hylebos Waterway
          8.2.2  Siteurn Waterway
          8.2.3  St. Paul Waterway
          8.2.4  Middle Waterway
          8.2.5  City Waterway
          8.2.6  Ruston - Pt. Defiance Shoreline

     8.3  GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

9.0  OVERVIEW OF CONTAMINATION AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN
     COMMENCEMENT BAY

10.0 STUDY DESIGN EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES

11.0 REFERENCES
                                  viii

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                                  FIGURES


Number                                                                  Page

 1.1    General location of study area in Puget Sound                  1.2

 1.2    South and southcentral Puget Sound showing locations of
        Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet                                1.3

 1.3    Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats study area                1.5

 2.1    Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled for surficial
        sediment chemistry during March                                2.3

 2.2    Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled for sediment
        chemistry during January and July                              2.5

 2.3    Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled for sub-
        surface sediment chemistry during March and July               2.7

 2.4    Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled for water
        column chemistry during April and August                       2.9

 2.5    Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled for benthic
        macroinvertebrates and sediment bioassays during March and
        July                                                           2.10

 2.6    Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled for fish
        histopathology and bioaccumulation during June                 2.12

 2.7    Locations of reference stations sampled in Carr Inlet          2.14

 2.8    Examples of surficial sediment chemistry data                  2.54

 2.9    Example of sediment core data illustrating concentrations
        of PAH with depth  in  sediment at a site within Hylebos
     '   Waterway                                                       2.56

 2.10   Examples of procedures used  in calculating average discharge
        loads                                                          2.58

 3.1    Total average percent fine-grained material (>4 phi) and
        average percent clay  (>8 phi) in sediments from Commencement
        Bay and Carr Inlet study areas                                 3.2

 3.2    Total average oil  and grease concentrations in sediments
        from Commencement  Bay and Carr Inlet study areas               3.3
                                    IX

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3.3    Relative concentrations of sediment organic carbon and
       sulfides in Commencement Bay study areas (January and
       March, 1984)                                                   3.4

3.4    Comparison of the average percent total volatile solids
       with average percent total organic carbon in sediments
       from Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet study areas               3.6

3.5    Comparison of the average atomic carbon/nitrogen ratio
       (C/N) in sediments from Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet
       study areas                                                    3.7

3.6    Area segments defined for Commencement Bay Superfund
       data analysis                                                  3.40

3.7    Elevations above reference (EAR) for Pb, Cu, Zn in
       Commencement Bay study areas                                   3.52

3.8    Elevations above reference (EAR) for arsenic in Commencement
       Bay study areas                                                3.53

3.9    Elevations above reference (EAR) for low molecular weight
       aromatic hydrocarbons in Commencement Bay study areas          3.54

3.10   Elevations above reference (EAR) for high molecular weight
       aromatic hydrocarbons in Commencement Bay study areas          3.55

3.11   Elevations above reference (EAR) for total PCBs in
       Commencement Bay study areas                                   3.56

3.12   Elevations above reference (EAR) for total chlorinated
       benzenes in Commencement Bay study areas                       3.57

3.13   Elevations above reference (EAR) for total chlorinated
       butadienes in Commencement Bay study areas                     3.58

3.14   Elevations above reference (EAR) for total phthalates in
       Commencement Bay study areas                                   3.59

3.15   Elevations above reference (EAR) for Pb, Cu, Zn by segment
       in Commencement Bay study areas                                3.61

3.16   Elevations above reference (EAR) for arsenic by segment in
       Commencement Bay study areas                                   3.62

3.17   Elevations above reference (EAR) for low molecular weight
       aromatic hydrocarbons by segment in Commencement Bay study
       areas                                                          3.63

3.18   Elevations above reference (EAR) for high molecular weight
       aromatic hydrocarbons by segment in Commencement Bay study
       areas                                                          3.64

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3.19   Elevations above reference (EAR) for total PCBs by segment
       in Commencement Bay study areas                                3.65

3.20   Elevations above reference (EAR) for total chlorinated
       benzenes by segment in Commencement Bay study areas            3.66

3.21   Elevations above reference (EAR) for total chlorinated
       butadienes by segment in Commencement Bay study area           3.67

3.22   Elevations above reference (EAR) for total phthalates by
       segment in Commencement Bay study areas                        3.68

3.23   Mean number of species per grab sample and mean number of
       individuals/m2 in each study area                              3.81

3.24   Mean number of polychaete species per grab sample and
       mean number of polychaete individuals/m2 in each survey
       area                                                           3.84

3.25   Mean number of mollusc species per grab sample and mean
       number of mollusc individuals/m2 in each survey area           3.85

3.26   Mean number of crustacean species per grab sample and
       mean number of crustacean individuals/m? in each survey
       area                                                           3.86

3.27   Mean number of echinoderm species per grab sample and
       mean number of echinoderm individuals/m2 in each study
       area                                                           3.88

3.28   Mean abundances per station of the five numerically dominant
       species per study area and the proportions of total infaunal
       abundances for which they account                              3.89

3.29   Total abundances of numerically dominant species at
       stations in Hylebos Waterway, and the proportions of
       total infaunal abundances for which they account               3.93

3.30   Total abundances of numerically dominant species at
       stations in Blair, Sitcum, and Milwaukee Waterways, and
       the proportions of total infaunal abundances for which
       they account                                                   3.94

3.31   Total abundances of numerically dominant species at stations
       in St. Paul, Middle, and City Waterways, and the proportions
       of total infaunal  abundances for which they account            3.95

3.32   Total abundances of the numerically dominant species at
       stations along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline and in
       Carr Inlet and the proportions of total infaunal abundances
       for which they account                                         3.96

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3.33   Results of a Q-mode classification analysis (Bray-Curtis
       similarity index, group average clustering strategy) using
       square-root transformed abundances of the 64 numerically
       dominant infaunal species                                      3.100

3.34   Geographic distribution of station groups 1-9, plus outliers
       (o), in Commencement Bay waterways (from Figure 3.33)          3.101

3.35   Sediment grain size characteristics of the major station
       groups defined by normal classification analysis of the
       benthic infaunal data in Commencement Bay study areas          3.103

3.36   Geographic distribution of sediment volatile solids content    3.107

3.37   Total organic carbon content of the sediments in Hylebos
       Waterway                                                       3.109

3.38   Total organic carbon content of the sediment in Blair
       Waterway                                                       3.110

3.39   Total organic carbon content of the sediments in City
       Waterway                                                       3.111

3.40   Percent fine-grained materials (silt plus clay) in the
       sediments of Hylebos Waterway                                  3.112

3.41   Percent fine-grained materials (silt plus clay) in the
       sediments of Blair Waterway                                    3.113

3.42   Percent fine-grained materials (silt plus clay) in the
       sediments of City Waterway                                     3.114

3.43   Correlations of numerical abundances of all benthic infauna,
       polychaetous annelids, and molluscs vs. the percent of fine-
       grained materials (silt plus clay) in the sediments            3.115

3.44   Summary of spatial patterns of benthic depressions             3.124

3.45   Bioassay responses to sediments from Hylebos and Blair
       Waterways                                                      3.135

3.46'   Bioassay responses to sediments from Middle, Milwaukee,
       Sitcum, St. Paul, and City Waterways                           3.136

3.47   Bioassay responses to sediments from Ruston-Pt. Defiance
       Shoreline and Carr Inlet                                       3.137

3.48   Relationship between amphipod and oyster larvae bioassay
       results                                                        3.138

3.49   Summary of spatial patterns of significant bioassay
       responses                                                      3.141
                                  xn

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3.50   Comparisons of major characteristics of fish assemblages
       from Commencement Bay study areas with those of the
       assemblage from Carr Inlet                                     3.144

3.51   Length frequency distributions of English sole captured
       in Carr Inlet and Commencement Bay                             3.145

3.52   Comparison of abundances of English sole from Commencement
       Bay study areas with the abundance from Carr Inlet             3.147

3.53   Comparison of male percentages of English sole populations
       with fine-grained sediment fractions (silt plus clay) using
       the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs)                 3.148

3.54   Comparison of weight-length relationships of male and
       female English sole captured in Commencement Bay and Carr
       Inlet                                                          3.150

3.55   Comparisons of length distributions of English sole captured
       in City and Sitcum Waterways during 1981 and 1984 using the
       Mann-Whitney U-test                                            3.152

3.56   Comparisons of prevalences of four liver disorders with age
       of English sole from Commencement Bay using the Spearman
       rank correlation coefficient (rs)                              3.158

3.57   Comparisons of prevalences of six liver disorders between
       English sole from Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet using a
       2x2 contingency test                                         3.160

3.58   Comparisons of prevalences of one or more of four major
       hepatic lesions in English sole from Commencement Bay and
       Carr Inlet using a 2 x 2 contingency test                      3.165

3.59   Comparison of prevalences of hepatic lesions in English
       sole sampled in the present study and in Mai ins et al.
       (1984)                                                         3.168

3.60   Summary of areas having significantly elevated prevalences
       of one or more hepatic lesions in English sole                 3.171

3.61   Concentrations of hexachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene
       in English sole muscle tissue                                  3.181

3.62   Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene in English sole
       muscle tissue                                                  3.182

3.63   Concentrations of pentachlorophenol and 1,3-dichlorobenzene
       in English sole muscle tissue                                  3.183

3.64   Concentrations of naphthalene in English sole muscle tissue    3.184

3.65   Concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate in English sole
       muscle tissue                                                  3.185


                                  x i i i

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3.66   Concentrations of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in English
       sole muscle tissue                                             3.186

3.67   Concentrations of total PCBs in English sole muscle tissue     3.187

4.1    Correlation patterns among selected contaminants, sediment
       toxicity, and benthic effects                                  4.4

4.2    Example use of synoptic benthic effects and sediment
       toxicity data to determine apparent chemical effect
       thresholds                                                     4.5

4.3    Correlation plots of sediment toxicity indicators and
       selected chemicals at Hylebos Waterway cross-channel
       biology stations (HY-22, HY-23, HY-24, and HY-42, HY-43,
       and HY-44)                                                     4.23

4.4    Correlation plots of benthic indicators and selected
       chemicals at Hylebos Waterway cross-channel stations
       (HY-22, HY-23, HY-24)                                          4.25

4.5    Correlation plots of sediment toxicity indicators and
       selected chemicals at St. Paul Waterway stations (SP-11,
       SP-12, SP-14, SP-15, and SP-16)                                4.27

4.6    Correlation plots of benthic indicators and selected
       chemicals at St. Paul Waterway stations (SP-11, SP-12,
       SP-14, SP-15, and SP-16)                                       4.28

4.7    Correlation plots of sediment toxicity indicators and
       selected chemicals at the head of City Waterway (Stations
       CI-11, CI-13, and CI-17)                                       4.30

4.8    Correlation plots of benthic indicators and selected
       chemicals at the head of City Waterway (Stations CI-11,
       CI-13, and CI-17)                                              4.31

4.9    Correlation plots of sediment toxicity indicators and
       selected chemicals along a Ruston-Pt. Defiance offshore
       transect of stations (RS-18, RS-19, and RS-20)                 4.32

4.10   Correlation plots of benthic indicators and selected
       chemicals along a Ruston-Pt. Defiance offshore transect of
       stations (RS-18, RS-19, and RS-20)                             4.33

4.11   Ranges of bioassay responses for the station groupings
       based on classification analysis of benthic assemblages        4.37

4.12   Correspondence between stations having significant (P<0.05)
       bioassay responses and stations having significant (P<0.05)
       benthic depressions                                            4.39
                                  xiv

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4.13   Correlations of lesion prevalence in English sole with
       sediment concentrations of PAH and metals.  ns=P>0.95,
       experimentwise                                                 4.40

4.14   Correlations of lesion prevalences in English sole with
       sediment concentrations of PCBs, chlorinated benzenes, and
       phthalates.  ns=P>0.05, experimentwise                         4.41

4.15   Relationship of sediment contamination to bioaccumulation
       in English sole in Hylebos Waterway.  EAR is the ratio of
       contaminant concentrations in Hylebos Waterway to those in
       Carr Inlet                                                     4.44

4.16   Relationship of PCB contamination of sediments and fish
       muscle tissue for Commencement Bay waterways                   4.47

6.1    Evaluation and prioritization of problem areas and
       chemicals                                                      6.2

6.2    Relative ranking of study area segments by average and
       maximum observed contamination, toxicity, and biological
       effects                                                        6.20

6.3    Definition and prioritization of Commencement Bay problem
       areas                                                          6.23

6.4    Prioritization of chemicals                                    6.32
                                  xv

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                                   TABLES

Number                                                                 Page

 2.1    Summary of general study design                                2.2

 2.2    Mean water depths by study area for benthic infauna
        stations                                                       2.15

 2.3    Summary of available precision and recovery data for
        Commencement Bay organic chemistry samples                     2.42

 2.4    Summary of available precision and recovery data for
        Commencement Bay inorganic chemistry samples                   2.43

 2.5    Population exposed by consumption rate                         2.46

 2.6    Fish liver consumption rates                                   2.48

 2.7    A summary of health effects data for carcinogens and
        noncarcinogens                                                 2.49

 3.1    Concentrations of U.S. EPA priority pollutant trace
        metals and additional metals in surface sediments
        (0-2 cm) from Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet                  3.15

 3.2    U.S. EPA priority pollutant trace metals and additional
        metals in subsurface sediments from Commencement Bay           3.16

 3.3    Summary of metal concentrations in sediments from Puget
        Sound reference areas                                          3.18

 3.4    Comparison of the range in elevations above reference
        (EAR) for inorganic contaminants of concern in surface
        sediments (0-2 cm) from Commencement Bay                       3.19

 3.5    Concentrations of U.S. EPA organic priority pollutants
        and additional hazardous substance list (HSL) compounds
        in surface sediments (0-2 cm) from Commencement Bay and
        Carr Inlet                                                     3.21

 3.6    Concentrations of tentatively identified compounds in
        surface sediments (0-2 cm) from Commencement Bay and
        Carr Inlet                                                     3.26

 3.7    U.S. EPA organic priority pollutants and additional
        hazardous substance list (HSL) compounds in subsurface
        sediments from Commencement Bay                                3.28
                                   xvi

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3.8    Organic compounds with at least a fivefold difference
       between maximum subsurface and surface sediment
       concentrations                                                 3.32

3.9    Summary of organic compound concentrations in sediments
       from Puget Sound reference areas                               3.34

3.10   Comparison of the range in elevations above reference
       (EAR) for organic contaminants of concern in surface
       sediments from Commencement Bay                                3.37

3.11   Commencement Bay area segments used for data analysis          3.42

3.12   Summary of chemicals with elevations above reference
       greater than 1,OOOX in sediments from Commencement Bay         3.46

3.13   Summary of chemicals with elevations above reference
       between 100 and 1,OOOX in sediments from Commencement
       Bay stations                                                   3.48

3.14   Summary of chemicals with sediment elevations above
       reference (EAR) between 100 and l.OOOX averaged over
       Commencement Bay areas or segments                             3.50

3.15   Station locations at which sediment concentrations of
       chemicals exceeded 80 percent of sediment concentrations
       measured in all Commencement Bay study areas                   3.74

3.16   Abundances and ranks of the 10 numerically dominant
       benthic taxa collected in Commencement Bay                     3.79

3.17   Results of Kruskal-Wallis tests comparing numbers of
       taxa per grab sample and numbers of individuals per
       grab sample among the study areas                              3.82

3.18   Results of Mann-Whitney U-test multiple comparisons
       of numbers of taxa per grab sample and numbers of
       individuals per grab sample among the study areas              3.83

3.19   Key for Figure 3.28                                            3.90

3.20   Numbers of amphipods collected at each of the
       Commencement Bay stations (0.24 m2) sampled in March, 1984     3.91

3.21   Key for Figures 3.29 - 3.32                                    3.97

3.22   Mean abundances (No./m2) Of numerically dominant taxa
       and mean values of sediment characteristics for the
       major station groups defined by normal classification
       analyses                                                       3.102
                                  xvn

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3.23   Results of Pearson product-moment correlation analyses
       between sediment characteristics, and abundances of
       major taxonomic groups and numerically dominant taxa
       (Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline and Carr Inlet study
       areas deleted)                                                 3.116

3.24   Pairings of reference stations and potentially impacted
       stations used for statistical comparisons                      3.119

3.25   Comparisons of mean abundances of benthic invertebrate
       taxa between potentially impacted stations and reference
       stations                                                       3.120

3.26   Summary of non-dilution amphipod bioassay results              3.126

3.27   Summary of amphipod sediment dilution bioassays                3.127

3.28   Comparisons of initial and dilution bioassays for
       amphipod mortality and oyster larval abnormality               3.128

3.29   Summary of non-dilution oyster larvae bioassay results         3.129

3.30   Summary of oyster larvae sediment dilution bioassays           3.132

3.31   Relative abundances of fishes captured in Commencement
       Bay and Carr Inlet                                             3.142

3.32   Comparisons of sex distributions of Commencement Bay
       English sole having various  kinds of liver lesion with
       the sex distribution of all  English sole sampled in
       Commencement Bay                                               3.156

3.33   Comparisons of prevalences of four liver lesions between
       English sole from study areas in Commencement Bay and
       Carr Inlet                                                     3.161
3.34   Comparisons of prevalences of four liver lesions between
       English sole from trawl transects in Commencement Bay
       and Carr Inlet                                                 3.163

3.35   Comparisons of weight-length regression coefficients
       between English sole with lesions and conspecifics
       without lesions                                                3.166

3.36   Mean concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) of inorganic
       tissue substances in English sole muscle tissue                3.173

3.37   Mean concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) of inorganic
       substances in crab muscle tissue                               3.175

3.38   U.S. EPA priority pollutants not detected in any fish
       or crab muscle tissue sample at any of 17 trawl
       transects                                                      3.176
                                 xvm

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3.39   Concentrations (ug/kg wet weight) of organic compounds
       in English sole muscle tissue at all 17 trawl transects         3.180

3.40   Concentrations of p,p'-DDE in English sole muscle tissue        3.189

3.41   Total extractable organic material  in English sole
       muscle tissue                                                   3.192

3.42   Age composition of English sole samples used for bio-
       accumulation analyses                                           3.194

3.43   Concentrations (ug/kg wet weight) of selected organic
       compounds in crab muscle tissue                                 3.196

3.44   Concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) of metals  in
       Commencement Bay in English sole muscle tissue  as
       determined by Gahler et al. (1982)                              3.197

3.45   Concentrations (ug/kg wet weight) of PCBs and hexa-
       chlorobenzene in fish muscle tissue in Hylebos  and
       City Waterways as determined by Gahler et al. (1982)            3.199

4.1    Apparent effect thresholds for potential problem metals
       normalized to dry weight                                        4.8

4.2    Apparent effect thresholds for potential problem organic
       compounds normalized to dry weight                              4.9

4.3    Apparent effect thresholds for conventional  variables           4.10

4.4    Summary of effects and potential problem chemicals at
       biological stations (normalized to  dry weight)                  4.11

4.5    Apparent effect thresholds for potential problem metals
       normalized to organic carbon                                    4.14

4.6    Apparent effect thresholds for potential problem organic
       compounds normalized to organic carbon                          4.15

4.7    Summary of effects and potential problem chemicals at
       biological stations (normalized to  organic carbon)              4.16

4.8    Apparent effect thresholds for potential problem metals
       normalized to fine-grained material                             4.17

4.9    Apparent effect thresholds for potential problem organic
       compounds normalized to fine-grained material                   4.18

4.10   Summary of effects and potential problem chemicals at
       biological stations (normalized to  fine-grained
       material)                                                       4.19
                                  xix

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4.11   Chemicals of concern with concentrations never exceeding
       apparent effect thresholds       '                              4.22

4.12   Correlations of abundances of major benthic invertebrate
       taxa with amphipod mortality and oyster larvae abnor-
       mality                                                         4.36

4.13   Average metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in
       English sole composite liver samples                           4.49

4.14   Total PCB concentrations (ug/kg wet weight) in English
       sole composite liver samples                                   4.51

4.15   Occurrences of major hepatic lesions relative to muscle
       tissue PCB levels in English sole from Commencement Bay        4.53

5.1    Estimated individual lifetime risks for organic compounds
       in fish muscle tissue                                          5.3

5.2    Projected lifetime cancer cases for PCBs and arsenic           5.5

6.1    Action assessment matrix of sediment contamination,
       sediment toxicity, and biological effects indices for
       Commencement Bay study areas, by study area                    6.3

6.2    Action assessment matrix of sediment contamination,
       sediment toxicity, and biological effects indices for
       Commencement Bay study areas, Hylebos segments                 6.5

6.3    Action assessment matrix of sediment contamination,
       sediment toxicity, and biological effects indices for
       Commencement Bay study areas, Blair segments                   6.6

6.4    Action assessment matrix of sediment contamination,
       sediment toxicity, and biological effects indices for
       Commencement Bay study areas, City segments                    6.7

6.5    Action assessment matrix of sediment contamination,
       sediment toxicity, and biological effects indices for
       Commencement Bay study areas, Ruston segments                  6.8

6.6    Mean reference values used to calculate elevations
       above reference for benthic infauna                            6.9

6.7    Identification of reference groups used to calculate
       benthic abundance elevations above reference for study
       areas and segments                                             6.10

6.8    Action-level guidelines                                        6.12

6.9    Summary of ranking criteria for sediment contamination,
       toxicity, and biological  effects indicators                    6.14

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6.10   Ranking of study areas and segments by average magni-
       tude and number of significant sediment contaminants            6.16

6.11   Ranking of study areas and segments by the average
       magnitude of sediment toxicity and biological effects           6.17

6.12   Ranking of study area segments by maximum observed
       sediment contamination, toxicity, and biological
       effects                                                         6.18

6.13   Definition and relative ranking of problem areas                6.21

6.14   Potential problem chemicals in problem areas                    6.34
                                  xxi

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                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      This document  was compiled  by Tetra  Tech, Inc., under the direction
 of  Dr.  Thomas C. Ginn,  for the State of Washington  Department of Ecology
 (WDOE) in  partial  fulfillment of Contract No. C-84031 for the Commencement
 Bay Nearshore/Tideflats  Area Superfund Project.   Mr. James  D. Krull  of
 the WDOE was the Project Manager.  Mr. Larry Marx provided project coordination
 for Tetra Tech, as did Ms. Mary Ruckelshaus for WDOE.   Mr.  Charles Kleeburg
 and Mr. Robert  Kievit were  the U.S.  EPA Region X  project monitors.   The
 work was conducted under an EPA/State Cooperative Agreement (No.  CX810926-01-0).

      The  primary authors of this report were Mr. Robert Barrick, Dr.  Scott
 Becker, Dr. Donald Weston, and Dr.  Thomas Ginn.   Individuals  contributing
 to the  sampling, data analysis, and report writing efforts  are listed below.
 Tetra Tech,  Inc. Technical Staff

 Ms. Ann K. Bailey
 Mr. Robert C. Barrick
Dr. D. Scott Becker

Dr. Gordon R. Bilyard
Ms. Marcy B. Brooks-McAuliffe
Ms. Roberta P. Feins
Dr. Thomas C. Ginn
Mr. Thomas Grieb
Dr. Marc W. Lorenzen
Mr. Larry Marx
Ms. Nancy A. Musgrove
Dr. Robert A. Pastorok
Ms. Glynda Steiner
Mr. Jeff Stern
Dr. Michael Swayne
Mr. Gary Weins, P.E.
Ms. Julia F. Wilcox
Dr. Les G. Williams

Production Staff

Mr. A. Brian Carr
Ms. Betty Dowd
Ms. Lisa M. Fosse
Ms. Gretchen Margrave
Ms. Sharon L. Hinton
Ms. Karen L. Keeley
Ms. Dana L. Schai
Chemistry Quality Assurance
Chemistry Quality Assurance,
Field  Sampling,  Data Analysis,
Decision-Making Approach
Field Sampling, Fish and Shellfish,
Data Analysis
Benthic Infauna, Data Analysis
Technical Editor
Database Management
Management, Data Analysis,  Endanger-
ment Assessment,  Decision-Making
Approach
Data Analysis, Statistics
Management, Quality Control, Review
Health and Safety, Project Coordination
Database Management
Study Design, Field Sampling
Source Identification
Field Sampling, Data Analysis
Database Management
Source Evaluations
Chemistry Quality Assurance
Bioassays, Data Analysis
Graphics
Graphics
Word Processing
Word Processing
Word Processing
Graphics
Word Processing
                                  xxn

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Ms. Gail  Singer
Ms. Gestin  K.  Suttle
Ms. Stephanie  Turco
Word Processing
Word Processing
Reproduction
University of Washington/Evans  Hamilton,  Inc.
Mr. Jack Q. Word

Mr. Keven Li
Mr. Jeff Ward
Ms. Karen L. Keeley
Ms. Julia L. Schroeder

EVS Consultants
Dr.  Robert N.  Dexter
Dr.  Peter Chapman

Raven Systems  and  Research  Inc.

Mr.  John Dermody
Mr.  Michael Healey

Fishi and Wildlife  Health  Consultants

Dr.  Marsha Landolt
Dr.  Richard Kocan
Mr.  Dave Powell

JRB  Associates  (SAIC)

Dr.  Don Weston
Mr.  Richard Greiling
Ms.  Barbara Morson
Ms.  Patricia 0'Flaherty

AB Consultants
Ms. Ann K. Bailey

Versar, Inc.

Mr. Douglas A. Dixon
Ms. Gena Dixon
Mr. Walt Palmer
Tacoma Pierce County Health Department

Mr. Douglas Pierce
Mr. James Mitchell
Mr. Thomas Rogers
Benthic Sampling Supervision, Benthic
Data Interpretation
Benthic Taxonomy
Benthic Taxonomy
Benthic Taxonomy
Benthic Taxonomy
Field Supervision, Data Interpretation
Bioassays
Field Mobilization, Geophysics
Field Mobilization, Geophysics
Fish Pathology
Fish Pathology
Fish Pathology
Source Identification
Source Identification
Source Identification
Source Identification
Quality Assurance
Endangerment Assessment
Endangerment Assessment
Endangerment Assessment
Community Relations
Drainage Maps
Drainage Survey
                                  xxi ii

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Washington Department of Ecology-Water Quality Investigations Section

Mr. William Yake                        Source Investigation
Mr. Art Johnson                         Source Investigation
Mr. Dale Norton                         Source Investigation

Others

Mr. Wayne Palsson                       Field Sampling
Ms. Ruth Mandapat                       Fish Aging
Dr. Richard Branchflower                Toxicology, Risk Assessment
Dr. John Hedges                         Chemical  Analyses, Suspended Particu-
                                        lates

     Appreciation is  also extended to the  U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency's (EPA) Superfund Contract Laboratory Program for analytical support,
to  the  U.S.  EPA Region X/WDOE Manchester Laboratory for analytical support,
and to U.S. EPA Region X for quality assurance support.  We also appreciate
the assistance of Mr. Charles Eaton, Skipper of the R/V  Kittiwake, in conducting
the field sampling for benthos and fishes, and Mr. Benjamin Huntley, Skipper
of the M/V Readout and the M/V Cathlamet Bay, in conducting the field sampling
for sediment  cores and suspended solids.

     Preparation of this report was aided greatly by the support and construc-
tive contributions of the WDOE management staff,  the Technical Oversight
Committee, the Citizens Advisory Committee and many personnel  from federal,
state, industry, and  environmental organizations.

     The following  individuals  provided  written comments on all parts of
the draft report:

     Dr. Roy  Carpenter (U of W)
     Dr. Sin-Lam Chan (NOAA, NMFS)
     Mr. Joseph Cummins (U.S. EPA)
     Mr. Thomas Deming (Puyallup Tribe)
     Mr. James Ebbert (USGS)
     Dr. Dave Jamison (WDNR)
     Mr. Ed Long (NOAA, OAD)
     Mr. Rick Pierce  (WDOE)
     Ms. Diane Robbins
     Dr. Donald Schults (U.S. EPA, ORD)
     Mr. William Wilkerson (WDF)

The helpful criticisms from these reviewers are gratefully acknowledged.
                                   xxiv

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                             1.0   INTRODUCTION
1.1  BACKGROUND

     In December,  1980,  in  response to significant public  health and environ-
mental  threats  associated with the  release of hazardous substances  from
uncontrolled waste  sites  and from  chemical  spills.  Congress passed the
Comprehensive  Environmental Response, Compensation  and  Liability Act (CERCLA).
One  result of CERCLA was  the establishment  of a  "Superfund" to finance
investigations  of  the hazardous waste problem and to  fund investigations
and cleanup of  the most  seriously contaminated  sites.   The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency  (U.S.  EPA) was delegated the  lead role to work with  state
and local  agencies to coordinate and  implement  programs  authorized by CERCLA.

     On October 23,  1981,  the U.S. EPA announced  an  "interim priority list"
of 115 top-priority  hazardous waste sites targeted  for  action under Superfund.
Commencement Bay, located in the southern Puget Sound  region, was listed
as the  highest priority site in the state of Washington and one of  the
10 highest national  priority sites federal  funding of  remedial action under
CERCLA.  The Corrmencement Bay  site was divided  into  four areas:  the Deepwater,
the Nearshore,  the Tideflats Industrial, and the  South  Tacoma channel.

     On December  30, 1982, U.S.  EPA proposed  additions to  the  national
priority list.  The  list increased  to 418 hazardous  waste sites ranked
by their  potential  threat to public  health  and the  environment.  On this
subsequent Superfund  list,  the Nearshore and the  Tideflats Industrial  areas
were designated  as  a separate project, as was the  South Tacoma channel,
The Deepwater area was eliminated as a priority site  because  water quality
studies indicated  less contamination  in that area  than was  initially suspected.
On September  6, 1983, U.S. EPA published and promulgated the first official
National  Priority List (NPL)  of 406  hazardous  waste  sites, including the
Commencement  Bay Nearshore/Tideflats area.

     On April  13, 1983, U.S.  EPA  announced  that an  agreement was reached
with  the Washington  Department of Ecology (WDOE)  to  conduct a remedial
investigation  of  the hazardous substance contamination in the Nearshore/
Tideflats  Industrial areas of Commencement  Bay.   Under the Cooperative
Agreement, the  WDOE was  delegated the lead role in the  investigation.

1.2  SITE  DESCRIPTION

     Commencement Bay   is  an embayment of  approximately 9 mi^ in southern
Puget Sound,  Washington  (Figures 1.1 and 1.2).  The bay  opens to Puget Sound
in the  northwest, with Tacoma situated on the  south  and southeast shores.
The mean tidal  range  in  Commencement  Bay is 8.1  ft, with a  diurnal  range
of 11.8 ft and an extreme range of 19 ft (COE 1983).   Residential portions
of northeast  Tacoma and  the Browns Point section of Pierce  County occupy
the north shore  of  the bay.   Ownership of the  shoreline is vested in the
Port  of Tacoma, the city of Tacoma, Pierce County, the  state of Washington,


                                  1.1

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                                            0      10    -20
                                            I      I	I MILES
                                             [	[	1 KILOMETERS
                                             0   10  20
Figure  1.1.   General  location of study  area in Puget  Sound.
                               1.2

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OJ
                 Figure  1.2.   South  and  southcentral  Puget  Sound  showing locations of Commencement Bay
                              and  Carr  Inlet.

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 the  Puyallup Indian Tribe,  and  numerous private parties.   Much of the publicly
 owned land is leased to private industrial and commercial  enterprises.

     The Nearshore area is  defined  as the area along the  Ruston  Way shoreline
 from the head of City Waterway  to Pt. Defiance,  including all  waters  with
 depths  less than  60 ft.  The Tideflats area  includes  Hylebos Waterway,
 Blair Waterway, Sitcum Waterway, Milwaukee Waterway,  St. Paul Waterway,
 Middle  Waterway,  City Waterway,  and  the Puyallup  River upstream to the
 1-5 highway bridge (Figure  1.3).  The project boundaries  are shown in Figure
 X • j *

 1.3  NATURE AND EXTENT OF PROBLEM

     Urbanization and  industrial  development of the Commencement Bay area
 began in the late 1800s.   At  that time, the south end of the  bay was primarily
 tideflats  formed  by the Puyallup  River delta.   Since  their  inception in
 the 1920s, dredge and fill  activities have significantly altered the estuarine
 nature  of  the bay.   Intertidal areas  were covered  and meandering streams
 and rivers  were channelized.  Numerous industrial and  commercial  operations
 located  in the newly  filled  areas  of  the bay.   These  included pulp and
 lumber mills,  shipbuilding, shipping, marinas, chlorine and chemical  production,
 concrete production,  aluminum smelting, oil  refining,  food processing,
 automotive  repair  services, railroad  operations,  and  a number of other
 storage, transportation,  and  chemical manufacturing companies.   Tne documented
 waste management  practices  of  these  operations  included landfills,  open
 dumps, chemical  recycling and reclamation, and  on-site storage and treatment
 facilities.

     A smelter  (ASARCO) has been  located  in  the nearshore area close to
 Ruston since  the  late 1800s.   The  plant, operational until  March, 1985,
 generated  substantial  amounts of slag  containing  various  metals.  This
 slag was deposited  along the shoreline  near the  plant  and  used as fill,
 riprap,  and  ballast material  in the Tideflats  area.   The  slag material
 was also utilized  to  produce commercial  sandblasting  material used widely
 throughout  the  study  area.  While the hazards of the slag remain  undetermined,
 it contains high  concentrations of toxic  metals, primarily  arsenic.

     Since  initial  industrialization of the Commencement Bay area, hazardous
 substances  and  waste  materials have  been released  into  the  terrestrial,
 freshwater,  groundwater,  and  marine environments.   Discharges and  dumping
 of solid and liquid,  organic and inorganic waste materials,  and contamination
 from airborne  wastes  entering via  surface and groundwaters have modified
 the chemical  quality  of the waters and sediments  in  many  portions of  the
 area.  These pollutants include metals  (e.g.,  arsenic, lead,  zinc,  copper,
mercury)  and  organic  compounds [e.g., polychlorinated  biphenyls (PCBs),
dibenzofurans, chlorinated  pesticides, plasticizers  (phthalates) ,  and
 polynuclear aromatic  hydrocarbons (PAH)].

     Pollutant loadings in the Commencement  Bay site originate from  both
 point and nonpoint  sources.   Industrial  surveys conducted by  the Tacoma-Pierce
 County Health  Department  and  the Port  of  Tacoma indicate that there are
 over  281  industrial activities  in the Commencement  Bay Nearshore/Tideflats
 area.  Approximately 27 of these  are NPDES-permitted discharges, including
two sewage  treatment plants.  Nonpoint  sources  include  two creeks;  the


                                   1.4

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                                COMMENCEMENT
                                       BAY
0
I
              J NAUTICAL MILES
I
0
          KILOMETERS
    Figure 1.3.  Commencement  Bay  Nearshore/Tideflats study area.

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Puyallup River;  numerous  storm drains, seeps, and  open  channels; groundwater
seepage; atmospheric  fallout; and spills.   The Tacoma-Pierce County  Health
Department summarized point and nonpoint sources in 1983, identifying 334 drains
(pipes), seeps,  and open  channels that empty into the  Nearshore/Tideflats
area  (Rogers et al.  1983).   Recent  investigations by regulatory agencies
have identified  429 additional point and nonpoint discharges in the study
area.  All known discharges were assigned an identifier with their locations
and description  and were  compiled in the project database  (Tetra Tech 1985).

     Previous investigations of  the nearshore  waters of Commencement Bay
demonstrated  the existence of sediment contamination by  toxic pollutants,
accumulation of some  of these substances by biota, and possible pollution-
associated abnormalities  in indigenous biota  (Crecelius et al. 1975;  Riley
et  al.  1980, 1981;  Mai ins  et al. 1980,  1982; Gahler et al. 1982).  These
studies indicate that the highest concentrations of  certain metals (arsenic,
copper,  lead, mercury)  were found  in  sediments  in  the waterways, along
the southwest shore,  and  near the ASARCO smelter.   Sediment contamination
by  persistent organic  compounds  (e.g.,  PCBs) was detected in the heavily
industrialized waterways  and along the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline.

     The  toxicity  of Commencement Bay sediments to infaunal amphipods was
studied using  acute bioassays (Swartz et al. 1982a,b).   The waterways contain
both highly toxic and nontoxic sediments with heterogenous spatial distribu-
tions.  Sediments with the highest toxicity were detected near docks, drains,
and  ditches, which  are most likely  associated with pollutant sources.
In the waterways, higher  toxicities were observed in intertidal sediments
compared with those from  midchannel and subtidal sites.

     Commencement Bay,  like much of the Puget Sound  system, supports important
fishery resources, especially anadromous  salmonid  populations.  Although
occupying Commencement  Bay for only part of their life cycle, these species
have critical estuarine migratory and  rearing  habitat requirements.   The
Commencement  Bay area also supports recreational fisheries, including pollock,
hake, rockfish,  and cod.  In addition, many of  the  other  important  fishes
and  invertebrates (e.g.,  English sole  and crab)  live in contact with the
bottom sediments, resulting  in a high  potential for  uptake of sediment-
associated contaminants.   Studies indicate that  the incidence of liver
lesions is greatest in  fish from areas with  high levels of sediment-associated
contaminants (Mai ins  et al.   1980).  Higher prevalences of abnormalities
have also been found  in organs of shrimp  and crabs from  Commencement  Bay
waterways  (Mai ins et  al.  1980).   Concern  exists  over the potential human
health impacts from consumption of local  seafood  organisms  that contain
chemical  contaminants.  The  Tacoma-Pierce County  Health Department issued
an advisory on fish consumption in  1982.

1.4  COOPERATIVE  AGREEMENT

     The  general objective of the work  planned  under  the  U.S EPA/WDOE
Cooperative Agreement  is to  identify  the worst problems  and to provide
a database and   framework  for future activities.   The ultimate goal  of the
Superfund project is  to remedy public  health or environmental threats  in
                                   1.6

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 a  prioritized  manner.   The Remedial  Investigation  focuses on  sediment
 contamination, effects on biota, and  sources  of  contamination.  The  overall
 scope of the Remedial Investigation includes  the following tasks:

     Task 1.   Investigative support
     Task 2.   Development of preliminary remedial  objectives
     Task 3.   Determine type and extent of  contamination and exposure
               pathways
     Task 4.   Determine sources  of contamination and characterize
               as current or historical
     Task 5.   Endangerment assessment support
     Task 6.   Identify potential  remedial  technologies
     Task 7.   Safety plan, quality assurance/quality control plan.

 The key questions to be answered during  the Remedial Investigation include:

          Is the area contaminated?
          Does the contamination result  in  adverse  effects?
          Is there a potential  threat to public  health?
          Can the contaminant sources be identified?
          What are the potential remedial  action  alternatives?
          Would  remedial  action  reduce  the threat to the environment
          or to public health?

     In order to answer these  questions,  the following goals and objectives
 were set for the Remedial Investigation:

          Define a problem sediment
          Apply  definition  of problem  sediment in order to delineate
          problem areas
          Determine problem chemicals for problem areas
          Determine problem sources for  problem  chemicals
          Prioritize problem  areas, problem  chemicals, and  problem
          sources
          Assess impacts of fish and  crab  consumption on human health
          Document  alternative methods of dredging, handling,  and
          disposing of contaminated sediments
     •    Initiate a decision-making  framework for  managing the disposal
          of contaminated sediments
     •    Identify potential  remedial  alternatives.

 1.5  REPORT OVERVIEW

     This report represents work completed  under  the U.S. EPA/WDOE Cooperative
Agreement for Task 3 (determine  type and  extent of contamination and exposure
pathways),  Task 4  (determine  sources of contamination and  characterize
as current  and historical  sources), and  Task 5 [endangerment (public health)
assessment].   The Commencement Bay Superfund Investigation includes various
 integrated program components, including  assessments of chemical  contamination,
biological  effects, toxicity, public  health concerns, source identification,
and identification  of potential  remedial  actions  and technologies.   Volume 1
contains Sections  1  through  6.   Volume 2 contains Sections 7  through 11.
The methods  and  results  for each  individual  study  component  are included
in Sections 2 and  3,  respectively, of this report.   Section  4  describes

                                   1.7

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quantitative relationships among contamination  and biological effects that
form the basis  for estimating contaminant effect levels.   An assessment
of public  health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood is included
as Section  5.   All of  the  study results  described in  Sections 3 through
5 are then  integrated into an identification  and prioritization of problem
areas in Section 6.  Section 7 contains source evaluations for the previously
identified  areas and contaminants.   High  priority areas with identified
sources  are  recommended  for remedial  actions  in Section  8.   An overview
of contamination and biological effects in the  entire study area is presented
in Section  9.   A retrospsective evaluation of the study design and recommen-
dations  for future studies  are presented  in Section 10.  References are
provided in Section 11.   All raw data collected as part  of the present
study are included in  Appendices I-XV.
                               1.8

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                               2.0  METHODS
2.1  GENERAL APPROACH

2.1.1  Study Design

     Field  studies  for the Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats Remedial
Investigation were designed to document  the  degree and  spatial extent  of
chemical  contamination,  adverse biological  effects, and potential  threats
to public  health.  This  information was used  in conjunction with historical
data  to  formulate decision  criteria which,  in  turn, were used to identify
problem areas and to prioritize these  areas  for possible  source control
and/or sediment  remedial action.  This decision-making approach is described
in detail  in Tetra Tech (1984a).  That  document includes  rationales for
the  selection of chemical  and biological  variables and  examples  of the
development and  application of the decision criteria.

     The general study  design for the Commencement Bay project is presented
in Table 2.1.  Sediment  contamination  was measured in two  media:  bottom
sediments  (surface and subsurface)  and water column particles.  Four kinds
of biological  effects of chemical contamination were also measured:  alteration
of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages,  toxicity to bioassay organisms
(amphipods  and oyster  larvae), prevalence of  histopathological disorders
in English sole livers, and bioaccumulation  (English sole and cancrid crab
muscle tissue, English sole livers).   In addition to the  data collected
as part of  the main Commencement Bay  project,  contaminant/effects information
was collected in Blair  Waterway as  part of  the Blair  Waterway Dredging
Survey, a  combined effort  between  the Port  of  Tacoma and the Commencement
Bay Superfund project.   Because these samples  were collected  using methods
identical  to those of  the  Commencement  Bay project,  the  resulting data
were  included in the analyses in the  present report.

2.1.2  Station Locations

     Location of stations sampled  during the Commencement Bay project are
presented  in Figures 2.1-2.7.   Locations of  the Blair  Waterway Dredging
Survey  stations are  presented in Figures 2.2,  2.3, and 2.5.  State plane
coordinates and water  depths  (corrected  to  mean lower  low  water)  of all
stations are listed  in Appendix XIV.   The average water depth of stations
sampled for benthic infauna in each study area is  summarized in Table  2.2.

     Stations selected for a preliminary survey in January, 1984 (Figures 2.2
and 2.7) were sampled  primarily for sediment  chemistry,  and  the resulting
information was used for the following purposes:

     •   Confirmation  of  data from previous  studies,  especially in
         areas with little or  conflicting data  on sediment contam-
         ination

     •   Collection  of sediment quality data from project areas that
         had not been sampled  previously


                                  2.1

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                     TABLE 2.1.   SUMMARY  OF GENERAL STUDY DESIGN
Number of Stations
Commencement Carr Study Areas3
Variable Bay Inlet Sampled
Sediment Chemistry
Surface

Subsurface
Water Column Chemistry
Benthic Macroinvertebrates

Sediment Bioassays

Fish Histopathology
Bioaccumulation

15
111
12
18
17
9
44
6
46
6
15
15

4C HY,BL,MI,MD,CI,RS,CR
4 All
BL
HY,SI,SP,MD,CI,RS
BL
HY,BL,SI,MI,MD,CI
4 All
BL
4 All
BL
2 All
2 All
Time of
Sampling*5

January
March
July
May
July
April
August
March
July
March
July
June
June
a The  nine study areas  include Hylebos (HY), Blair (BL), Sitcum (SI),  Milwaukee  (MI),
St. Paul (SP),  Middle (MD)  and City  (CI) Waterways, the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance  Shoreline
(RS), and Carr  Inlet  (CR).

b All  sampling was  conducted in  1984.   The stations sampled in  January were part of
the preliminary survey  and  the stations sampled in July were part of the  Blair  Waterway
Dredging Survey.

c At two of these  stations, only conventional sediment variables were measured.
                                         2.2

-------
            COMMENCEMENT
                  BAY
HY-44
   HY-39
    HY-38
                                                                                         HY-31
NJ
•
00
                                                    HYLEBOS
                                                    WATERWAY HY-47
                                                            HY-46
                                                             HY-45
                                                                                                         HY-18
                   CITY
                   WATERWAY
                                                               Locations  of Commencement Bay  stations  sampled
                                                               for surficial sediment chemistry during March.

-------
  • RS-22
       • RS-24
fNJ
           RS-21
            RS-18


            RS-19
           RUSTON
         N
         0

         I
J	I
         r
         o
                        RS-20
                                                        COMMENCEMENT

                                                               BAY
         4000

      I    I   FEET
-|	1  METERS


      1000
                                                              RS-13
                                                   TACOMA
                                                               RS-12
                   Figure  2.1.  (Continued).

-------
en
                                                                                     STATIONS SAMPLED FOR SURFICIAL
                                                                                     SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY DURING JANUARY
                                                                                     STATIONS SAMPLED FOR SURFICIAL
                                                                                     SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY DURING JULY
            COMMENCEMENT
                 BAY
                                               Figure  2.2.
Locations  of Commencement Bay stations sampled
for sediment chemistry during January and July

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-------
                      -RS-61
                          • RS-60
           RUSTON
CO
         N
         o
         I
                                                                                      •  STATIONS SAMPLED FOR SUBSURFACE
                                                                                         SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY DURING MARCH

                                                                                      •  STATIONS SAMPLED FOR SUBSURFACE
                                                                                         SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY DURING JULY
                                                  COMMENCEMENT
                                                        BAY
                                                 TACOMA
   4000
J	I  FEET
                    	1  METERS

                    1OOO
                  Figure  2.3.  (Continued)

-------
                                    HY-57
           COMMENCEMENT
                 BAY
10
        CI-56
                  cirr
                  WATERWAY
                                              Figure 2.4.  Locations of Commencement  Bay stations sampled
                                                           for water column chemistry during April and
                                                           August.

-------
                                       HY-50
            COMMENCEMENT
                  BAY
                         STATIONS SAMPLED FOR BENTHOS
                         AND BIOASSAYS DURING MARCH

                         STATIONS SAMPLED FOR BENTHOS
                         AND BIOASSAYS DURING JULY
    HY-44
                                                                                                  HY-17
ro
•
t—i
o
            CI-17
                  CITY
                  WATERWAY
Locations  of Commencement  Bay stations  sampled
for benthic macroinvertebrates and  sediment
bioassays  during March  and July.

-------
    RS-22 (BIOASSAY ONLY)
ro
         RS-24 (BIOASSAY ONLY)
            BS-18
           RUSTON
         N
      /t\
         r
         o
                      • RS-20
                            • RS-19
         O              400O
         I    I    I     I    I  FEET
~~|  METERS
 10OO
                                                                                         •  STATIONS SAMPLED FOR BENTHOS
                                                                                            AND BIOASSAYS DURING JANUARY

                                                                                         •  STATIONS SAMPLED FOR BENTHOS
                                                                                            AND BIOASSAYS DURING JULY
                                                     COMMENCEMENT
                                                           BAY
                                                            RS-13
                                                   TACOMA
                                                         ns-12
                  Figure  2.5.   (Continued).

-------
tvj
           COMMENCEMENT
                BAY
                                                                                     r
                                                                                     o
                                                                                                 HY 70
                                                                                                     N
                                                                                                    /T\
                                                                                                    4000
                                                                                                 J	I  FEET
 I
                                                                                                     METERS
1000
                                                         Locations of Commencement Bay stations sampled
                                                         for fish histopathology and bioaccumulation
                                                         during June.

-------
    ^^^ RS 72
(S3
ป
H-*
CO
          RUSTON
        N
0
I
I    I
                      4000
                    I    I  FEET
         r
         0
                       METERS
                                              TACOMA
                                                     COMMENCEMENT
                                                          BAY
       1000
                  Figure 2.6.   (Continued).

-------
            •  SURFICIAL SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY — JANUARY
               SURFICIAL SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY, BENTHIC
               MACROINVERTEBRATES, AND SEDIMENT
               TOXICITY — MARCH
               FISH HtSTOPATHOLOGY AND BIOACCUMULATION
               JUNE
               NOTE ONLY CONVENTIONAL SEDIMENT VARIABLES
                   WERE MEASURED AT CR-02 AND CR-05
Figure 2,7.
Locations of reference  stations sampled in Carr
Inlet.
            2.14

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                TABLE 2.2.   MEAN  WATER  DEPTHS  BY STUDY AREA
                       FOR BENTHIC INFAUNA STATIONS
Study Area
Hylebos Waterway
Blair Waterway
Sitcum Waterway
Milwaukee Waterway
St. Paul Waterway
Middle Waterway
City Waterway (main
channel)
Wheel er-Osgood Waterway
Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shoreline
Carr Inlet
Mean Lower
Low Water Depth
(ft)
30.09
37.2
39.7
35.2
12. 7b
18.0
24.1
6.1
26. OC
10.9
Standard
Deviation
(ft)
ฑ 3-7
+ 3.2
+ 2.5
+ 2.3
+_3.6
ฑฐ
_+ 6.4
ฑฐ
+_5.0
+_5.1
Number of
Benthic Infauna
Stations
12a
11
3
3
4b
1
5
1
6C
3d

a Excludes Station HY-44 at a depth of 5.9 ft  and  excludes  deepwater Station
HY-50 outside of Hylebos Waterway at a depth of  57.7  ft.

b Excludes Station SP-16 outside of waterway at  49.9  ft.

c Excludes Station  RS-20 on  transect away  from the  shoreline  at a depth
of 67.2 ft.

d Excludes Station CR-12 at a depth of 62.2 ft.
                                   2.15

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     •    Confirmation of potential  reference sites and final selection
          of specific  sampling  locations

     •    Initial  QA/QC analyses,  standardization of general cruise
          protocols,  and verification of  field sampling methods

     t    Selection of contract laboratories and analytical protocols.

     Final  prioritization of areas  and final selection of sampling stations
for the main part of  the Commencement Bay  project were  dependent  on  the
elimination of data gaps through information collected in the January survey.
The January survey also allowed a  better  definition of the  spatial  extent
of  known  contaminated areas,  and  provided data on any  "hot spots" that
potentially existed in areas  not sampled  previously.

     After  a review of historical  information and data from the preliminary
survey, sediment stations were selected for the main part of the Commencement
Bay project conducted in March,  1984.   The rationales for specific station
locations  are  presented in  Tetra Tech  (1984b).   Briefly,  stations were
selected for the following purposes:

     •    Filling data gaps

     t    Defining known areas  of  contamination more precisely

     •    Determining  gradients of contamination in relation to suspected
          sources.

     Station locations  were determined  by  line-of-site fixes on stationary
shoreline features.  Photographic records were made of all position alignments
and ranges.  These methods were tested and standardized during the preliminary
survey.  Loran C navigation coordinates were also recorded for each station.

2.1.3  Data Analysis  Methods

2.1.3.1  Chemical Contamination--

     The magnitude and spatial  extent of  chemical contamination of sediments
was determined by comparisons of chemical concentrations among Commencement
Bay study areas  and  with reference  conditions  in Carr Inlet.  Known  and
blind replicate samples prepared from homogenized  sediments  were analyzed
as part of the quality assurance program  to  establish precision of laboratory
methods.   Within-station variability was  not evaluated.   Therefore,  tests
for statistically significant differences between Commencement Bay  and
Carr Inlet that  require within-station variability were  not conducted.
Instead,  sediment contamination was defined as "significant" if the concen-
trations in Commencement Bay sediments  exceeded  all reported values  (or
detection  limits) in  any of up  to  nine Puget Sound reference areas, including
Carr Inlet.

     Conditions in the nine reference areas  were reported by several  investi-
gators.  Complete data for  all  chemicals  studied  in Commencement Bay were
available only  for the Carr  Inlet reference area.  As a result of a check

                                  2.16

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for  anomalously high  values in these  reference areas,  a  single value for
phenol  concentration  [1,800 ug/kg dry  weight  (DW)]  was excluded from one
Carr Inlet station  when  the significance of Commencement Bay sediment contam-
ination was determined.  Data for 10  organic  compounds in sediments  from
one study of Samish Inlet  and Dabob Bay were also excluded  because detection
limits  exceeded 50  ug/kg DW.   These  detection  limits  typically exceeded
observed  values for these  compounds  in  other  reference areas, and were
substantially higher  than  detection  limits obtained  in the Commencement
Bay study.

     Pearson linear correlation analyses and factor analyses  (varimax rotation)
were performed for  subsets of chemical data.  Results were  used to establish
relationships among the  distributions  of chemicals  in Commencement Bay
study areas, and among sediment contamination, sediment  toxicity, and benthic
infaunal  abundances.   Apparent effect  thresholds derived for different
chemicals were established by comparing  the  range  of  concentrations for
each chemical in  each  of three groups  of stations:   1)  stations where^no
significant toxicity  was  observed, 2) stations where no significant depression
in benthic infaunal abundances was  observed, and  3)  stations where  toxic
or benthic effects  were  observed.

2.1.3.2  Biological Effects--

     To determine  the  potential biological effects of  the  observed chemical
contamination, each of  four biological  indicators  (i.e., benthic  macro-
invertebrates, sediment  bioassays, fish histopathology,  and  bioaccumulation)
were  compared between  Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet.  Although some compar-
isons  were qualitative (i.e., descriptive), most were  based  on statistical
criteria.  Use of  such criteria ensured that impacts were judged objectively.
If possible, comparisons were made  using parametric methods.  Where the
assumption of parametric tests could not be met using either  untransformed
or transformed data,  nonparametric  methods were  used  with untransformed
data.  For each analysis involving multiple  comparisons, the Bonferroni
inequality was used to achieve an experimentwise error rate  of 0.05.  This
method  tests each comparison at a significance level  equal  to 0.05 divided
by the  number of comparisons (i.e., comparisonwise error rate).  By summing
all comparisonwise error  rates, the significance level  for the entire analysis
is 0.05.  This method is simple but highly conservative  (Snedecor and Cochran
1980).   The specific  statistical tests used for  each biological indicator
are described below.

     For benthic macroinvertebrates, number of taxa and  number of individuals
were compared among study  areas using the Kruskal-Wallis test.  A posteriori
multiple  range comparisons  were made  using the Mann-Whitney U-test.  A
classification analysis  was also conducted to group stations having  similar
benthic invertebrate  assemblages.  This analysis used  the Bray-Curtis Similarity
Index and the group  average  cluster  strategy  (see Boesch  1977)  and was
conducted  on the  64 most abundant taxa.  Associations  between abundances
of major taxa and the silt-clay content  of bottom  sediments were  tested
using  the product-moment  correlation coefficient.  Finally, log-transformed
abundances of major taxa at potentially  impacted  stations  were compared
with abundances at  reference stations using either the t-test  or the approximate
t-test.
                                  2.17

-------
     For  sediment bioassays,  values of amphipod mortality and  oyster  larvae
abnormality were compared  between  potentially  impacted stations  and Carr
Inlet  stations using  either the t-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test.  Results
of the two bioassays were  compared with one another  using Spearman's rank
correlation coefficient.

     For fish histopathlogy, effects of sex and age on prevalences of hepatic
lesions were tested using a 2x2 contingency test and Spearman's rank correlation
coefficient, respectively.   Age-normalized prevalences  of  hepatic lesions
were then compared between Commencement Bay  areas  and  Carr Inlet  using
2x2  contingency  tests.   Finally, weight-at-length  values  for fish  having
lesions were compared with values for fish not having lesions using regression
analysis.

     For  bioaccumulation, tissue contaminant concentrations  were compared
among study areas using the Kruskal-Wallis test.   A posteriori multiple
comparisons were made  using the Mann-Whitney U-test.

2.1.4  Geophysical Survey

     Bottom  and subbottom profiling was conducted throughout  the waterways
of Commencement Bay to  estimate the  depth of  accumulated sediments.  The
scope of the subbottom  data collection was limited to  defining  the soft/fluff
sediment accumulation layer that overlies either the natural  bottom materials
exposed  by dredging  operations, granular fill materials  placed by human
activities, or waste materials dumped  or discharged into the waterways.
Bathymetric data were also  collected to confirm the water  depths recorded
on existing charts and  to  serve as a control for the  concurrently collected
geophysical data.

     The  geophysical   survey  was  conducted February  7-9,  1984.  Horizontal
control was by means of a range-azimuth system.   Azimuth was determined
by scaling off photo-montage maps, and range determined with  a laser rangefinder
(Atlas Lara 90).   Profiling devices  used included  a Raytheon Model 719B
200 kHz transducer system with a 7.5 degree beam width and  a Ross Laboratories
Model 801 28 kHz transducer system with a 22 degree beam width.

     Both  acoustic profiling  systems were "bar checked" prior  to each day's
survey operations to set the water velocity calibration controls and  draft
correction controls.  The  systems were  also checked periodically during
the course of each day's operation.  Time and location marks were recorded
on both  recorder systems  simultaneously.  Data were transcribed from the
acoustic  system  records  and  entered  into a computer for tide reduction
and  final  profile plotting  of the data.   Data were  plotted with a DP-1
plotter to produce both  length of waterway profiles and cross-waterway
profiles.   A description  of  the data reduction procedures and a complete
set of the waterway profiles can be found in the "Commencement Bay Nearshore/
Tideflats Subbottom Profiling Task Report" (Raven  Systems & Research, Inc.
1984).

2.2  SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY

     Most chemical analyses were performed by U.S.  EPA contract laboratories
following requirements  under EPA IFB WA  83-A125  for  trace metals and  EPA

                                  2.18

-------
 IFB  84A-266 for  trace organic  compounds, with  adjustments and additions
 to the protocols specified under  Special Analytical Services (SAS) contract
 864-J.

 2.2.1  Field Sampling

 2.2.1.1  Surficial Sediment Samples--

     Surf icial  sediments for chemical  analysis and bioassays were collected
 using  a 0.1-m2 modified van Veen  bottom grab (galvanized steel)  operated
 in the normal manner.  Because  different tests  were to  be  performed  on
 the sediments from different stations,  the number of grab samples per station
 varied from one to four.

     Upon  retrieval  aboard ship, the  exterior and  interior of  the  grab
 were checked for hazardous vapors using an HNu  ionization  detector prior
 to any further handling.  When  vapors were detected (at low levels  in the
 worst  case) or when a strong odor of f^S was present, protective breathing
 apparatus was worn by all  personnel near the sample.

     To  process the  sample,  the grab was placed in the metal  sieving  stand
 used for the macroinvertebrates  (Section 2.4).  The upper flap of the  grab
 was  opened and the  contents  examined to ensure that sufficient penetration
 had been achieved  and that no  leakage or surface disturbance  had occurred.
 The grab was then  carefully rocked to one side without disturbing the surface
 layers and  sufficient overlying water was decanted  to expose  the sediment
 surface on the raised side of  the  grab.  The upper 2 cm  of sediment  were
 then removed using a glass plate  as a spatula.  No sediments near the sides
 of the grab were collected.

     The material removed  from the grab was placed in either a glass jar
 or in a large stainless steel bowl  (the latter for large volumes)  and carefully
 homogenized by stirring with a stainless steel spoon.  When  color or textural
differences  could no longer  be detected, aliquots of the homogenized sediments
 for chemical analysis were placed  in glass jars with TFE cap liners  (obtained
 organically precleaned from the  U.S.  EPA sample  management  system),  and
 aliquots for bioassays  were placed  in new polyethylene bags.  All  sample
 containers  were closed, labeled,  sealed with  custody tape,  and stored  on
 ice until returned to shore for shipment to the laboratories.

     At 20  stations in Hylebos, Blair, Sitcum, St.  Paul, and City Waterways,
 samples were collected for analysis  of volatile chemicals.  At each  of
 these  stations two  10-mL vials  (VOA vials from U.S. EPA)  were filled  with
 surface sediment  using a stainless  steel spatula to scrape surficial material
 into  the vials.  This procedure  was performed prior to collecting the upper
2 cm as described  above.

     Prior  to  sampling at  each  station, the grab was  rinsed thoroughly
with  site water  and the glass plate, spoons, spatulas, bowl,  and homogenizing
jars were  rinsed  in sequence with site  water, pesticide-grade methanol,
 and pesticide-grade dichloromethane,  and finally  wrapped or  covered with
aluminum foil.
                                 2.19

-------
 2.2.1.2  Subsurface Sediment  Samples--

     Two  coring devices were  used during  the  subsurface sediment survey:
 a standard gravity  corer with a  10.2-cm steel barrel  in lengths of  1.5
 and  3.0 m, polycarbonate core  liners, and 600 Ib of  weight; and a box corer
 with  a  stainless  steel  box approximately 25 x 38  cm  in  cross section.
 Both  devices were used  at each sampling station  to achieve maximum possible
 undisturbed core length.  The sample handling procedures for both devices
 are described below.

     Gravity  Corer--As  the corer was recovered  from  the  water, the exterior
 and inside the top were  checked for hazardous vapors  with the vapor detector
 described previously.   No  vapor problems were  ever  detected at this point
 in the sampling.

     Upon  recovery,  the gravity core was carefully laid  nearly horizontally
 on the deck and the  overlying water carefully decanted by tipping the cutter
 end  of  the corer slightly  above horizontal.   The  cutter and core catcher
 were removed  and  the core  liner  pulled from the corer barrel.  A  3.0-m
 wooden  trough was lined with aluminum foil.  The deep end of the core liner
 was then placed near  one end of the trough and the liner  was  tapped gently
 with a rubber mallet  to  dislodge the sediment from the liner.   As the sediment
 oozed out, the  liner was moved along  the trough to minimize distortion
 of the core.

     After extrusion, the entire length of the core was checked for hazardous
 vapors.  Core HY-63-G01 from off the salt pier at Occidental Chemical Corpora-
 tion  in  Hylebos Waterway did  have a  significant response, and protective
 breathing equipment was worn while processing that  core.   The outside  of
 the  core was  then scraped away with a stainless steel spatula and the core
was measured  and examined.   Total core length, and  the depths of color,
 odor, and textural  horizons were recorded on  field data logs.   The core
was also photographed.   Based on these observations,  sampling horizons
were  selected to provide  adequate sample volumes and to obtain horizons
 representative of  any major  discontinuities in the  core.   The sediments
between  these horizons were then placed  in a glass jar using a stainless
 steel spatula.   Care  was taken to avoid collecting material  that had been
 in contact with the  core liner or with the trough.  The  collected  sediments
were homogenized and  transferred to sample jars, as was done for the surface
sediments.

     Between  samples, the corer and core liner were washed with site  water
 and reassembled.   The spatulas, homogenizing jars,  and other tools were
rinsed  with  site water, solvent-washed,  and  covered with aluminum  foil,
as was done during the surface sediment collections.

     Box Corer--As the box corer was recovered from the water, it was checked
externally and internally  for hazardous vapors, as  before.   No problems
were  encountered.   The flaps were then held open while  the water  overlying
the sediments  was  carefully removed  using a small centrifugal pump.  The
base plate was then attached, and the box was removed and placed in a wooden
rack at  an angle of about 20 degrees from vertical.  The  side of the box
was  carefully lowered  to expose the  vertical sediment face.  All  samples
were sufficiently cohesive  that no slumpling  occurred when the box was

                                  2.20

-------
opened.   Prior  to  further handling, the core  was  checked across the exposed
face for the  presence of hazardous vapors.

     The outer  layer of the core  was scraped away to expose the sediment
horizons.  The total core depth and the depths  of color and textural horizons
were recorded,  and  the core was photographed.  As with the gravity core,
the horizons  sampled  for chemical analysis  were based on these observations.
At  the  selected depths, a 10-cm wide glass plate was inserted horizontally
into the core.   The overlying sediment  was  then cut from  the box with  a
stainless  steel spatula  and lifted with the  glass plate to a glass jar.
The material  was homogenized and  aliquots  prepared,  as described  above
for surface sediment.

     Between  stations, the  box  corer was rinsed  with site water,  while
the utensils  were rinsed with water and solvent, as  before.

2.2.2  Laboratory Analysis for Metals

     Analyses were conducted  for  16 elements,  13 of  which are U.S.  EPA
priority pollutant metals.  Three of these "metals" (i.e., antimony, arsenic,
and  selenium) are classified  as metalloids,  which are elements that do
not strictly occur as metals  in  the environment.  Following U.S. EPA convention
and  for  ease of discussion, these  three elements will be referred to as
metals.

     Mercury  determinations for all sediments  were conducted  with wet sediment
aliquots  (0.5-g)  digested  using an  aqua regia and KMn04/K2S20o mixture
and then analyzed by  atomic absorption using the  cold vapor technique (U.S.  EPA
Method  245.5).   Analyses  of the remaining  12 U.S. EPA priority pollutant
metals  plus barium, iron,  and manganese were performed  after drying  the
samples  at 50ฐ C  and  digesting a 2-g aliquot with HN0.3 and 1^0? according
to methods detailed in  the U.S.  EPA  Contract  Lab Program  IFB VIA 83-A125.
Digestates were taken to  a  range of  final  dilution  volumes depending on
sample  concentrations.

     In the  January  sediment  survey, chromium, iron, manganese, and zinc
were analyzed by flame  atomic absorption; the  remaining metals except barium
were analyzed by graphite  furnace with Zeeman correction.  Barium was not
analyzed for  in the  January survey.   In  the remaining  surveys, barium,
beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper,  iron, manganese, nickel, lead,  and
zinc were analyzed  by Inductively  Coupled Argon Plasma (ICAP).  Silver,
arsenic,  antimony, selenium, and thallium were  analyzed by graphite furnace
with deuterium arc, background correction.

2.2.3  Laboratory Analysis for Organic Compounds

2.2.3.1   Volatile Organic Compounds --

     Analyses for  volatile organic compounds  were conducted for 20 selected
surface  sediment samples  and  one deep  core  sediment sample using 2-g  to
5-g  (wet  weight)  aliquots.   Just prior  to  purging, 10 ml of organic-free
water spiked with  three internal recovery standards (D4-l,2-dichloroethane,
bromofluorobenzene, and Ds-toluene) were added to the 40-mL VOA vial containing
the sample.  After  blending,  the vials  were  connected  to  a Tekmar  purge

                                  2.21

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and  trap instrument  heated in  a  60ฐ c water  bath,  and the  samples were
sparged onto traps containing 2:1 Tenax  and silica.

     Volatile  compounds  were  desorbed at 180ฐ C from the traps  onto a 0.2
percent CW1500 stainless  steel  column (80-100 mesh,  Carbopack  C)  held at
300  c.   After desorption, the GC oven temperature was raised  to 60ฐ C and
held  for 2 min,  and  then programmed at 8ฐ C/min  to 180ฐ C  and  held for
19 min.  A Finnigan 3100D with  a  Riber SADR data system was used  for GC/MS
quantitation.  Results were not corrected for recovery.

2.2.3.2  Semi-Volatile Organic  Compounds--

     Extraction  and Cleanup—Prior to extraction, 100-g wet weight  sediment
samples were spiked with  54 isotopically labelled  recovery standards  that
included 51 of  the 56 U.S. EPA base/neutral/acid  priority  pollutants.
Samples were spiked with a total of  5 ug/component for  base/neutral compounds
and  10  ug/component  for acid compounds.  This spike level  resulted in an
absolute mass of  10-20 ng/component on-column for GC/MS analyses, assuming
100 percent recovery,  and represented  a  tradeoff between spiking  with enough
material to provide a reliable GC/MS signal and enabling  the best determination
of detection limits at low levels  for undetected compounds.   Separate GC/MS
analyses of acid and base compound classes were not possible under  the  program.

     Spiked  sediments were  Soxhlet-extracted  in precleaned  thimbles for
24 h using a 2:1  mixture  of high-purity methylene chloridermethanol.   An
intercomparison with a different  extraction technique  (i.e., direct  sediment-
solvent contact under agitation)  showed comparable results for most  compounds.
Solvents were checked to ensure  that  they were contaminant-free  prior to
use.   All sediments were  stirred during extraction  to  prevent  channeling.
Sediments stirred easily after most of the water was  removed  in  the initial
solvent cycles.   Because  of the substantial quantity of water removed  from
the  sediment during  extraction,  a  water fractionation step  was  found to
be required.   Water and methanol  were removed from  the sediment extracts
by partitioning  against 50 percent  Na2S04 saturated organic-free water,
maintained at pH  <2 with  6N HC1 to prevent fractionation of acidic  organic
compounds.   Following  isolation of the organic fraction, the  aqueous wash
was adjusted  to pH >12 with  6N  NaOH, back-extracted with methylene chloride
to recover any  basic organic compounds, and discarded.   The combined organic
fractions were dried  by passing  the extract  through a Na2SO-4  column and
reduced in volume to approximately 10 ml by gentle evaporation in  a  Kuderna-
Danish (K-D)  apparatus.

     Elemental sulfur was  removed by  shaking  the  extracts with 0.5 ml Hg
for at least  4  h.   The  desulfurized extracts were filtered to remove mercury
and  salts, reduced to approximately  3 ml under a  stream of  purified Noป
and subjected  to gel  permeation  chromatography (GPC)  using methylene  chloride
as an  eluant.   GPC columns (20 mm  x 300 mm)  were slurry-packed with 19
g of  Bio Beads S-X3 (Bio Rad)  that had been equilibrated  for 4 h with methylene
chloride, and were pressurized  to 80 mm Hg (39 psi)  with N?.

     Each  GPC column was  calibrated using a 3-mL mixture of 200  mg/mL corn
oil,  4 mg/mL pentachlorophenol  (PCP), and 4 mg/mL bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
in methylene chloride.    After the calibration mixture was charged to the
column,  5-mL aliquots  of  the eluant were collected and the amounts of  PCP


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 and phthalate were determined  by gas chromatography using a flame  ionization
 detector  (GC/FID).  The amount of corn oil in each 5-mL aliquot  was  determined
 gravimetrically.   A plot of PCS,  phthalate, and  corn oil  concentrations
 in each 5-mL aliquot was  then  constructed and used to determine  the  elution
 volume that maximized  the removal  of corn oil  while minimizing  the  loss
 of phthalate  and  PCP.  For a typical  sample, the  first 40 ml  of eluant
 were discarded and the subsequent 100 ml were preserved.

     Following  6PC cleanup,  most sediment  extracts were purified further
 using disposable 3-mL solid phase extraction columns  {SPE; Baker-10 Octadecyl).
 Extracts from 6PC  were  concentrated  to  less than  6 mL by K-D,  and  then
 to 1 mL using Nฃ.   A 10 percent (100 uL) aliquot was  removed for PCB analysis.
 The remaining extract was transferred  to  an 8-mL test tube with  3  mL of
 methanol and reduced in  volume to 1 mL using Nฃ to remove methylene chloride.
 Each SPE column  was conditioned with three column  volumes of methanol  prior
 to  adding the extracts  and eluting with 7 mL  of methanol.   All  used SPE
 columns were  archived.   An excess  of  methylene chloride was then  added
 to the eluants and the mixtures were reduced in volume by K-D to approximately
 1 mL,  transferred  to autoinjection vials, reduced  to 0.5 mL using Nฃ, and
 submitted for GC/MS analysis.  All GC/MS results were corrected for losses
 during sample workup using the isotopically labeled recovery standards
 spiked to each sample.

     The  10  percent aliquots  (100 uL) removed for PCB analysis  were diluted
 to 1 mL with hexane, charged to 3 g Alumina III (7 percent volume/weight)
 in  a 5-mL disposable pipet,  and eluted with 11  mL  of 20 percent methylene
 chloride in hexane.   The  eluants were subsequently exchanged  into  isooctane,
 adjusted to a final  volume of 1 mL by K-D, and submitted for analysis by
 gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD).

     Surface sediment samples from 55 of the 115 March sampling  sites were
 processed using  silica gel chromatography instead  of the SPE technique.
 Tests  using labelled recovery standards  showed  that equivalent  recoveries
 were obtained for  most compounds using the two  techniques, but that the
 SPE technique enhanced  recovery of phthalates  and low molecular weight
 chlorinated compounds such as dichlorobenzenes, hexachlorobenzene, and
 hexachlorobutadiene.   Because of this factor and  the  ease of analysis using
 SPE chromatography,  the SPE technique was used with all subsequent sediment,
 particulate material,  and  tissue samples.

     The 55 March  surface  sediment extracts processed  by silica  gel chromato-
 graphy  were subjected  to  acid/base partitioning after  GPC cleanup in  order
 to isolate organic acids  and bases that could be lost  on silica  gel.   Silica
gel columns, topped  with 2  cm of Na2S04,  were  prepared  using 11 g silica
gel  (EM Reagents,  Kieselgel 60) that was activated at  1400 c and  then  slurried
 in methylene chloride.  After packing, all  columns were rinsed with  40 mL
 of pentane prior to  loading the sample extract.  Four  eluants were collected
 from the columns:   (1)  22 mL pentane;  (2) 44 mL of 3 percent methylene
 chloride in pentane;  (3)  44 mL of 1 percent methanol  in methylene chloride;
 and  (4) 44 mL of 100 percent methanol.   The first and last eluants, containing
 aliphatic  hydrocarbons and polar substances (e.g., pigments), were combined
 and archived.  The second eluant was diluted to  50  mL with hexane  and  a
 10 percent aliquot  (5 mL)  was removed,  concentrated to  a final  volume of
 1 mL,  and submitted  for PCB analysis by  GC/ECD.  The remainder of the second

                                 2.23

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eluant  was then combined with the third eluant and the acid/base  fractions,
concentrated to a final  volume of 0.5 ml, and submitted for  GC/MS  analysis.

     Surface  sediments from the 17 sites sampled in January  were subjected
to a more rigorous analysis  using high pressure liquid chromatography  (HPLC)
to  separate chemically the extracts  into three  neutral  fractions after
organic  acids  and bases had been  isolated.  Each  of the five analytical
fractions  was analyzed by  GC/MS, and the fraction containing PCBs  was also
analyzed by GC/ECD.   The same mixture  of isotopically labelled  recovery-
standards used in later analyses was also used in this procedure.   Recovery-
corrected results between this procedure and the simplified procedure used
for the  majority of Commencement Bay organic chemical analyses were comparable
for most compounds.  However, by removing sample interferences more effectively,
the HPLC procedure enabled an improvement of more than an  order of magnitude
in detection limits (to less than 1 ug/kg dry weight).  The  reproducibility
of  results for  acid  and  base compounds  was also improved by the  separate
GC/MS analysis of these fractions.

     GC/MS  and GC/EC Procedures—Samples  were analyzed  using  a  Finnigan
GC/MS with  an  INCOS data system.   Procedures were  modified  from U.S.  EPA
1625 procedures  for  the  isotope dilution technique (method of  standard
additions)  using mass  spectrpscopy.  The major change in the 1625  procedure
was  that compounds  for which there was no isotope analog  were quantitated
by using the response  factor of the nearest eluting, most  chemically similar
labelled recovery  standard.   For example, benzo(g,h,i)perylene  was used
for the quantitation of  indeno(c,d)pyrene.  When a chemically  similar  recovery
standard was  not  available (e.g., for tentatively identified compounds),
the response factor for the  diQ-phenanthrene was used.

2.2.3.3   Total Extractable Organic Material--

     The weight of solvent-extractable organic material was  determined
for most sediments by determining the weight of the solvent-extracted residue
obtained from a  10-g  (wet  weight) sediment subsample shaken for  1 h with
1:1 methylene chlorideracetone.   The resulting extract was filtered, reduced
in  volume  to  approximately 5 ml by  K-D,  evaporated to dryness on a pre-
weighed  aluminum dish,  and weighed.   The weight  of any  elemental  sulfur
co-extracted with the  organic matter was included in this  determination.

2.2.4  Ancillary Analyses

2.2.4.1   Bulk  Sediment  Chemical Analyses--

     Determinations of total  organic  carbon  (TOC)  and nitrogen  (N) were
made for all sediments  by combustion  using either  a Carlo Erba  Elemental
Analyzer (January  survey  only)  or a  Perkin Elmer Elemental  Analyzer.  In
the January survey,  total  organic carbon  was measured as the difference
between  the total carbon content determined in combusted nonacidified sediments
and total carbonate determined separately by coulometric titration.   Aliquots
of  all  subsequent  samples  were acidified to remove carbonate and organic
carbon was  determined directly.

     Total  solids, total volatile solids (TVS), and oil and  grease determina-
tions were  made  for all sediments  according  to  procedures  described by

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Plumb  (1981).  For  percent solids,  an  approximate  25-g  aliquot of well-
mixed wet sediment  was  transferred  to a tared evaporating dish, weighed
to  the  nearest 10 mg,  and  dried overnight at 103-1050 C.   The dried sample
was cooled, desiccated,  and  weighed to constant weight.   The  percent  solids
was  calculated based on the residue weight divided  by  the original sediment
wet weight.

     TVS determinations were  made by weighing  the residue from the total
solids  analysis after  ignition at  550  ^50ฐ C in a  muffle furnace for a
minimum of 1 h.  Volatile solids content was calculated based on the difference
between total  solids  residue and the volatile solids residue  weights divided
by the total solids residue  weight.

     Oil and grease determinations were conducted  with  10-g  to 20-g aliquots
of wet  sediment acidified  with sulfuric acid to  pH 2.   MgSO^HpO was added
to the acidified  sample  to make a  uniform paste.  After solidification,
the  sample was ground,  added to a paper extraction thimble, and extracted
with Freon in a  Soxhlet apparatus  for 4 h.  The resulting  extract was distilled
using  a water bath  at 70ฐ  C,  and the residue weight after  removal of Freon
was recorded as total oil and grease content.

     Sulfide  was  determined  by  titrating SAOB-buffered  sediment samples
(20-g aliquot)  with a standardized lead perchlorate  solution and measuring
the  endpoint with a specific ion electrode.  Samples  collected during the
January survey were immediately preserved in  SAOB  buffer upon receipt at
the  laboratory, but subsequent samples analyzed  by a  different laboratory
were not buffered  until  analysis.  Because holding  times sometimes exceeded
30 days for these  latter samples, total sulfide measurements were qualified
under QA review as minimum estimates.  Sulfide levels in the  January  survey
samples showed a greater range  in concentration than did the  later samples.

2.2.4.2  Grain Size Analysis--

     Sediment  grain  size was determined by sieve  and pi pet  analysis.   After
dry and wet sieving of  the  gravel  and sand fractions  (-1  to 4 phi),  the
remaining silt/clay fraction was treated with HgO?  to remove organic material,
suspended in a settling  column with  a defloccufating  agent, and sampled
over time  according to  procedures  detailed by Folk  (1974).  The percent
weights of  the gravel, sand, and silt fractions (-1  to  8 phi) were measured
for  each 0.5-pni size  interval.  Percent weights for the clay fraction
were determined to the nearest  1.0  phi.   Pipet sampling was discontinued
when the cumulative weight of the  preceding phi  size classes exceeded 95
percent of  the total  sample  weight.

2.3  WATER COLUMN  CHEMISTRY

2.3.1  Field Sampling

2.3.1.1  Metals—

     In  separate  casts made at the stations and depths  selected for organic
samples, samples for the  analysis of particulate metals  were collected
in standard 5-L PVC Scott  Richards  bottles. Upon retrieval aboard ship,
aliquots were collected  from each bottle for salinity and oxygen using


                                  2.25

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 standard procedures.   Then 1-gal  polyethylene cubitainers  were  carefully
 rinsed with the sample,  filled,  capped, and stored  on ice until  returned
 to  the laboratory.   These samples were filtered through  preweighed 0.4-um
 Nuclepore filters,  folded to protect the filtered material,  and  placed
 in  polycarbonate petri  dishes.  The dishes were sealed,  labeled, and frozen
 until  shipped to the laboratory  for reweighing  and measurement of the trace
 metals.

 2.3.1.2  Organic Compounds--

     Samples for the measurement of organic compounds in suspended  particulates
 were collected in 23-L stainless steel water bottles  deployed  at each of
 two  depths at each  station:  near the  surface  (0.5 m)  and at  5 m.  The
 depths were selected to sample the  brackish  surface layer and  the  more
 saline,  deeper  water.   The adequacy of these  depths  was  determined at the
 start of each cruise by  determining the depths  of  the  thermocline and the
 halocline with probes.

     The  sample bottles entered and exited the  water with  all ports closed.
 The ports were opened only  while sampling at the desired depth.  Once sample
 bottles  were retrieved, two separate aliquots  of 125-500  mL were  collected
 from each bottle and composited  in polyethylene  cubitainers.  The remaining
 water  in the sample bottles was forced  by nitrogen overpressure through
 147-mm glass fiber filters  held  in either stainless steel or aged PVC filter
 holders.   (The filters were prepared by combustion at 500ฐ  C for 8  h followed
 by solvent rinsing.)   This  sampling  procedure  was repeated with  multiple
 bottle casts until  sufficient sample  had been  collected.  In some cases
 samples retrieved with  the steel  sampler were  transferred to an  aged PVC
 pressure chamber for filtration.

     While  a  minimum of 100 L was intended to  be filtered for each sample,
 the filters often clogged before  this quantity  could be  forced  through.
 At different stations and depths, therefore, from two to eight sample bottles
 were filtered and  from  one to  four  filters were used.   When the  entire
 contents of a bottle could  not be filtered,  the  volume of the  remaining
 water was measured and the  volume filtered determined by difference.

     After  filtration,  the glass fiber filters  were  removed from the filter
 chambers  with  forceps, folded to protect the filtered material, and  placed
 in glass jars with  TFE cap  liners.  The  jars were  labeled,  sealed with
 custody tape, and  stored  on  ice until  shipped to  the laboratory for  analysis.

     The cubitainers of composited  water were stored on ice until taken
 to the laboratory for filtration.  One of the duplicate aliquots from  each
 sample was filtered  through a 0.45-um, preweighed Nuclepore filter, dried,
 and reweighed  for the determination of the dry mass concentration  of the
 sample.   The  other  aliquot was filtered through a 0.4-um,  combusted, silver
 filter for determination of carbon  and  nitrogen  content of  the particulate
matter.
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 2.3.2   Laboratory Analysis

 2.3.2.1  Metals-

     Polycarbonate filters (Nuclepore; 0.45-um pore size; 142-mrn diameter),
 were used for metal participate  filtration.  After filtration,  the filters
 were dried at 60ฐ c and weighed for  total sample weight.  The entire  filter
 was  then placed in a beaker and  the participates were digested using HNOo/H^
 as for  the sediments.  The digestate was reduced  to approximately  3 ml,
 filtered, and  then  diluted  to 10 ml.  The standards used to calibrate the
 April analyses  were  prepared using  standard  acid concentrations  of 0.5
 percent HN03.  The  standards  used  subsequently for the August survey were
 matrix-matched in  the same acid  concentrations as the sample (approximately
 20 percent HN03).

     Because  of the  limited  sample size,  mercury analysis was omitted.
 Analyses for barium,  beryllium,  cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese,
 nickel, lead,  and  zinc were  performed by ICAP.  Silver, arsenic,  antimony,
 selenium, and thallium were analyzed  by graphite furnace atomic  absorption
 with deuterium arc background correction.  If not detected by ICAP, cadmium
 and  lead were also analyzed by graphite furnace.

 2.3.2.2  Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds--

     Glass  fiber  filters  containing particulate material  were cut up into
 Soxhlet thimbles  using solvent-rinsed  scissors  and  spiked with isotope
 recovery standards  at a level   of 5 ug/component/sample.   Procedural  steps
 for filters  were identical to those  for  sediments  taken through the  SPE
 chromatography protocol, except that the elemental  sulfur  removal and GPC
 (Bio  Beads)  cleanup steps  were  omitted because the extracts  were  not complex.
The  final  dilution  volume for  the  August  particulate  samples was reduced
 to 0.05 ml from the  0.5 ml used  for April  particulate samples  in  order
 to improve detection  limits.   The  spike level  was also  lowered.

 2.3.2.3  Ancillary Analyses—

     The total  organic  carbon and nitrogen contents  of particulate material
were based  on  0.3-L to 1-L  aliquots of site water filtered through 0.45-um
silver  filters precombusted  at  5500 c  for 3  h.   The sample aliquots were
 taken from water  collected for analyses of organic  compounds.  Organic
 carbon  and  nitrogen  measurements  were made on  the pelletized  silver filters
using a Carlo  Erba Elemental Analyzer.  A  set of standards  and blank filters
was  analyzed  with each  batch of  samples  in  order to generate a multi-point
calibration curve.   The  calibration curves  were  used  to  determine appropriate
response  factors  for  the  range  of  concentrations  observed  in each sample
set (Hedges  and  Stern  1984).

     A test was conducted to determine  the amount,  if any, of inorganic
carbon  in  the  particulate material.  Two filters  from a group of replicates
were each cut approximately  in half.  One  half was exposed to acid  vapors
 (Hedges  and  Stern  1984)  and the  other half  was untreated.  Based on the
lack of  variation in  atomic  carbon-to-nitrogen  ratios  for the treated  and
untreated  samples,  it  was concluded  that  organic carbon  was not present
in appreciable levels  to warrant  acid  treatment  of the  samples.

                                  2.27

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     Suspended  solids  concentrations were determined for each water sample
collected for organic  compound  analyses by filtering a 1-L  aliquot through
43-mm  Nuclepore  filters (Q.45-um  pore  size).  The wet filters were rinsed
with distilled water to remove  salts  and dried to constant weight.  Suspended
solid  loads determined from  these filters were used to estimate the total
particulate material  on  silver  filters used in carbon and nitrogen determin-
ations,  and on glass fiber filters used for  organic compound analyses.
The dry weight of  particulate material  on Nuclepore filters  analyzed  for
metals was determined  directly.

2.4  BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

2.4.1  Field Sampling

     Sediment samples  analyzed  for benthic macroinvertebrates were collected
using  a  Q.06-m2  modified van Veen bottom grab.   Four replicate samples
were collected at  each of 54  stations.  Forty-eight of these stations were
occupied in March,  1984 as part  of the Superfund project.  The remaining
six stations (all  in  Blair Waterway)  were sampled  in August,  1984 as part
of the Blair Waterway Dredging Study.  Samples were sieved using mesh sizes
of 1.0  and 0.5 mm.   All 1.0-mm  fractions were analyzed taxonomically, whereas
all 0.5-mm fractions  were stored  for possible analysis in the future.

     Upon retrieval,  the grab was placed  on a metal sieving stand for obser-
vation of sediment characteristics.  The following characteristics were
recorded for each  sample:  sediment  texture; sediment color; presence,
type, and strength of  odors;  penetration  depth; degree of leakage or surface
disturbance; and presence of  large animals or debris.

     Samples displaying  excessive leakage or surface disturbance were rejected.
Samples were also rejected if they did not  meet the following minimum penetra-
tion depths:

     •    Coarse sand  and gravel - 4 cm

     t    Coarse to medium sand - 5  cm

     t    Fine sand -  7  cm

     •    Silt with sand or clay - 10 cm.

     Once  sediment characteristics were recorded, the jaws of the sampler
were opened and the sediment was released  into the top section of the sieving
stand.   It was then  gently  sprayed with seawater as the larger masses of
sediment were broken apart.  This material was rinsed into one of two stacked
screen boxes (1.0- and 5.0-mm mesh)  in the lower level of the sieving stand,
where it  was completely  washed until materials no longer  passed through
the screens.  Material retained by  each screen  was transferred to thick
plastic bags labeled with external and internal tags.  A 15 percent solution
of formalin buffered with sodium  borate in seawater was used in the field
to fix the tissues of  organisms.
                                  2.28

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2.4.2  Laboratory Analysis

     All 1.0-mm benthic samples  were analyzed  within 2-14 days following
collection.   Each sample was transferred  to a screening  device with  mesh
openings  slightly smaller than those originally used  in  the field, and
the formalin was  washed  away using  fresh water.  The  screened material
was  transferred  to  a  clean sample  container  having  internal and external
labels, and  the container was then filled  with 70  percent  ethanol solution.
Each  sample was  cataloged in a rescreening log,  which  was later compared
against field inventory notes to ensure  that all  samples were accounted
for.   As mentioned  earlier,  all 0.5-mm benthic samples were archived for
possible analysis in  the future.

     Samples were sorted  in  one  of two ways.   Samples  containing large
quantities  of coarse  material were processed using  a  flotation technique,
where  the  sediment  was  first rinsed in  fresh  water  in a large, flat tray.
The organisms that became  suspended  in  the water  (soft-bodied organisms
and  arthropods) were  carefully poured  into a  sieve.   This  material was
sorted while viewing it  through a binocular dissecting microscope  at  a
minimum  of  lOx  power.  The remaining portion of  denser material was sorted
using a 5x hand  lens.   Organisms remaining in this portion generally consisted
of molluscs and  some  tube-dwelling or encrusting organisms associated with
the sediment  grains.  Samples  containing less dense material  were not processed
using the flotation technique, but were simply sorted  under lOx magnification
using a binocular dissecting microscope.

     Organisms were  first  sorted  into major  taxonomic  groups:  Annelida,
Arthropoda,   Mollusca,  Echinodermata,  and other  phyla.   Quality control
of this sorting process was  performed by resorting 20  percent of each  sample.
Identification and enumeration of sorted organisms was to the lowest taxonomic
unit  possible, generally  to  species level.  This was  accomplished using
dissecting  and  compound microscopes,  the  laboratory's taxonomic library,
and the laboratory's  reference collection.  Assurance  of consistent identifi-
cations among  individuals within the laboratory  was  accomplished by continuous
interaction of  individuals,  use of the reference  collection, and  use of
specially designed  in-house  taxonomic keys for difficult genera and species.

2.5  SEDIMENT BIOASSAYS

2.5.1  Field Sampling

     Field  collection methods for sediment bioassays are described in  Section
2.2.1.1.

2.5.2  Laboratory Analysis

2.5.2.1  Amphipod Bioassays—

     The infaunal  amphipod Rhepoxynius  abronius  was collected subtidally
from West Beach on  Whidbey Island  (Washington)  using  a bottom dredge.
Amphipods were maintained  and  transported  in clean coolers with ice, and
were returned to  the  laboratory within 18  h of collection.
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     Following  their arrival  in  the laboratory,  amphipods were  kept  in
holding containers  filled with fresh seawater (28 ppt  salinity) and clean
sediment  and  maintained  at  15+10 Q under  continuous light until  used  in
testing.   Cultures  were  aerated but  not  fed during acclimation and were
held  for  4-14 days.  Prior  to testing,  amphipods  were sorted by hand  from
sediments  and  identifications were confirmed using a  Wild  M5 dissecting
microscope.   Damaged, dead, or unhealthy individuals were discarded.

     Acute  lethality of whole,  fresh  (unfrozen)  sediments was measured
using the  methodology of  Swartz et  al.  (1982a, 1985), which involved  a
10-day exposure  to  test  sediments.  A 2-cm layer  of  test sediment was placed
in 1-L glass  jars  and  covered with 800 ml  of clean  seawater (28 ppt salinity).
Each  beaker was seeded with 20 amphipods and aerated.  Six replicates  (20
amphipods each) were  run  per test sediment.  Five  beakers served to determine
toxicity,  while  the  sixth beaker served  as a  reference for daily measurement
of water chemistry  (i.e., pH, dissolved  oxygen, salinity, and temperature).
Testing was conducted  at  15+1ฐ C under constant light.   Test containers
were checked daily  to estabVTsh early trends  in mortality and sediment
avoidance,  and  also to gently sink any amphipods that had left the  surface
overnight  and  become trapped by surface  tension at the air/water interface.
A negative  (clean)  control  sediment  (from the amphipod collection site)
was run concurrently with each series of test sediments.   In addition,
clean  sediment  spiked  with  CdCl2 to  produce  a concentration of  10 mg/L
was used as  a  positive control to ensure that response criteria (lethality)
were operative.

     Amphipod  dilution bioassays were conducted on samples from six stations
that were found to be highly toxic in initial  tests.  Dilution concentrations
were  100, 75,  50,  25,  and  10 percent test sediment.  Where insufficient
sediment was available for complete testing,  replication was reduced  and/or
the higher test  sediment concentrations  (100  and  75 percent) were eliminated.
Sediment dilutions  were determined gravimetrically using  a  2-cm layer of
100 percent test sediment  as a standard upon  which to base the remaining
concentrations of  that  sample.  Sand  from West Beach on  Whidbey  Island
was mixed with  the  test  sediment to  attain homogeneous sediment dilution
weight equivalent to that of the 100 percent  sample.

     Bioassay tests were terminated after 10  days,  when sediments were
sieved  (0.5-mm  screen), and live and dead amphipods were removed and counted.
Amphipods  were considered dead when there  was no  response to physical stimu-
lation and microscopic examination revealed no evidence of pleopod or other
movement.   Missing  amphipods were assumed to have died and  decomposed prior
to the termination of the bioassay (Swartz et al. 1982, 1985).

2.5.2.2.   Oyster Larvae  Bioassays--

     Adult  Pacific  oysters  (Crasspstrea gigas, age 3-5 yr) were obtained
from Baynes  Sound Oyster, a commercial  oyster farm located  in Union Bay,
British Columbia.   Prior to testing,  the  oysters were cleaned of  fouling
organisms  and  placed  in  continuous-flow  conditioning trays to permit  gonadal
maturation.  The oysters were thermally conditioned (19+1ฐ C) for 4-6 wk
in unfiltered  seawater,  with  individual  oysters periodically sacrificed
to determine the state of gonadal development.


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      Spawning was  induced  by thermal  stimulation and  the  addition of a
 prepared sperm suspension from a  sacrificed male oyster, following  standard
 procedures described in Chapman  et al.  (1983,  1984),  Chapman and Morgan
 (1983), and ASTM (1983).   The  fertilized eggs were washed through a Nitex
 screen (0.25-mm mesh size)  to  remove excess gonadal  tissue  and  were then
 suspended in 4 L of  filtered  (0.45 urn  nominal pore size), UV-treated  seawater
 at  incubating temperature.   When  microscopic examination revealed the  formation
 of  polar bodies, egg density was  determined from  triplicate counts of the
 number of eggs in 1-mL samples of a 1:99 dilution of homogeneous egg suspension.

    ^Sediment bioassays  were conducted  in  clean (rinsed with  5 percent
 nitric acid) 1-L plastic bottles.  Fifteen grams (wet weight)  of the appropriate
 sediment was added to each bottle and  the volume brought up to 750 ml with
 treated seawater to make  a final  concentration  in all  test containers  of
 20  g  (wet weight)  of sediment  per  L  of seawater.  Two seawater and two
 sediment controls contained  20 g/L  of clean sediment,  collected  from off
 West  Beach, Whidbey Island.   One seawater and  one sediment control were
 spiked with CdCl2 to produce a concentration of 10 mg/L  and served as positive
 controls for 100 percent  lethality  [Martin et al.  (1981) reported a  48-h
 EC50  of 0.61 mg/L  Cd  for Pacific oyster larvae].  All test sediments were
 run in duplicate and the  controls were replicated five times.

      Dilution bioassays were conducted on samples from  five stations that
 were  found to be highly toxic  in initial  tests.   Concentrations  of  test
 sediments  used  in  the dilution bioassays  were  20, 15, 10, 5, and 2 g/L,
 with  the remaining  volume  (to make  up a  20-g/L  concentration)  provided
 by  clean control  sediment.   Seawater  and clean  sediment  controls were prepared
 and run in duplicate.

      The sediments were suspended by vigorous  shaking for 5 sec.   Embryos
 were  then added  and  the suspended  sediments were allowed to settle.   No
 additional  agitation was  provided after  inoculation.

     Within 2 h  of  fertilization, each container  was inoculated with approxi-
mately 22,000 developing oyster embryos, to give  an  approximate concentration
 of  30 per  ml.  The  containers were covered  and  air-incubated for 48 h  at
 20+10 c.   After 48  h, larvae were  concentrated  using  a 0.038-mm sieve,
 Quantitatively transferred to  screw-cap glass vials,  and  preserved  with
  percent  buffered  formalin.  Preserved samples  were examined in Sedgewick-
 Rafter cells under  lOOx magnification.  Because bivalve larvae sink after
 preservation (ASTM  1983),  it was possible to discard  most  of the water
 (70 percent)  from the sample vials before examining the residual volume
 containing  the larvae.

     Normal  and  abnormal  larvae were enumerated  to  determine percent survival
 and percent  abnormality.   Percent survival  was determined  as the number
of larvae surviving  in each  test container  relative to the seawater  control.
Larvae that  failed to transform to the  fully shelled,  hinged, "D-shaped"
prodissoconch  I stage were considered  abnormal.   The results of the  dilution
bioassay were also  analyzed  to estimate the 48-h median effective concentration
 (EC50) based  on abnormal shell  development.

    Salinity, dissolved oxygen,  and  pH  levels  were  initially  adjusted
in each container  to 28 ppt, 7.6-7.8 mg/L,  and 7.9-8.0, respectively.

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These  variables were measured  for each container at the  termination  of
the bioassays.

2.6  FISH HISTOPATHOLOGY

2.6.1  Field Sampling

     Demersal  fish  assemblages in Commencement Bay  and  Carr Inlet  were
sampled June  4-9,  1984 aboard  the RV KITTIWAKE.  Fishes  were collected
using  a 7.6-m  (headrope) Marinovich otter trawl, having  a body  mesh  size
of 3.2 cm (stretched) and  a  cod-end  liner mesh size of 1.3 cm.  All  trawling
was  conducted  at  a  constant vessel  speed of  approximately 2.5  kn  during
daylight hours (i.e., 0630-1700).

     English  sole (Parophrys vetulus) larger than 225 mm total  length  (TL)
were targeted  for  histopathological  analysis.   Larger fish  were  selected
for  analysis because Malins et al.  (1982) found  that lesion  prevalences
in English sole less  than  2  yr old were substantially lower  than  prevalences
in older fish.  The present study  therefore  focused on  fish  most  likely
to be afflicted with  liver disorders  (i.e., fish >_ 3 yr old).

     At  each  of the  17 trawl  transects, all target fish were removed  from
the total catch and pooled in a  large bucket.  Sixty individuals were then
randomly selected for analysis, yielding 1,020 fish for the entire  study.
Each selected  fish  was sacrificed by a blow to  the head, weighed  (nearest
g wet weight), measured (nearest mm TL), examined for grossly visible external
abnormalities  (e.g.,  lesions, scoliosis, fin erosion, parasites), and  tagged
with a code number.  Following external examination, each fish was transferred
to the shipboard laboratory  for  internal examination and liver removal.

     In the laboratory, the  abdominal cavity of each specimen was surgically
opened to reveal the  visceral organs.  After all internal organs were  inspected
for  the  presence  of grossly visible defects, the liver was removed  in its
entirety and placed on a stainless steel plate.  With the use of stainless
steel dissecting tools, the  liver was cut into multiple sections  and examined
for the presence of lesions.  The color of the  organ was noted, a portion
of the tissue  was  placed in  10 percent neutral buffered formalin for  subsequent
histopathological  analysis,  and  the  remainder  of  the liver  was placed  in
vials and frozen for  later chemical analysis.  If hepatic lesions or discon-
tinuities were noted, the  section  for histopathological examination was
taken  from the affected  area.  If  the  organ  appeared to  be  normal, the
section for histopathological  examination was  taken from  the center  of
the  liver at  its  broadest  point.  Following removal and dissection  of the
liver,  the gonads were inspected  and  the sex of the fish was noted.  The
head was then removed, a tag bearing the accession number  of the fish was
placed  in the  left  opercular chamber, and the head was frozen for subsequent
age determination by  otolith examination.

     All  fishes  in  the remainder of the catch at each station were  identified
to species and  counted.  All English sole not selected for histopathological
analysis were  measured (nearest mm TL) and counted.
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 2.6.2  Histopathological  Examination

     Each  formalin-fixed  liver sample  was  dehydrated  in  a graded  series
 of ethanol, cleared in xylene,  and  embedded in paraffin.   Two 4-um sections
 were made  using a rotary  microtome.  One  section was stained  with  hematoxylin
 and eosin.  The remaining section  was  left unstained for possible future
 use.

     Prepared  slides were  examined using  conventional  light microscopy.
 All observed abnormal  conditions were verified by Mr.  Mark Myers,  the chief
 pathologist of the  Environmental  Conservation Division of the Northwest
 and Alaska Fisheries  Center  of  the  National Marine Fisheries  Service (NMFS).
 This  verification procedure  ensured that results  of the present study are
 comparable with those of  past studies conducted in Puget  Sound by the NMFS
 Environmental  Conservation Division  (e.g., Malins et al.  1980,  1982,  1984).

 2.7  BIOACCUMULATION

 2.7.1  Field Sampling

 2.7.1.1  Specimen  Collection--

     Bioaccumulation analyses were conducted  on  English sole and  cancrid
 crabs.  Because of  its  economic  importance, the  Dungeness  crab  (Cancer
magister)  was  the preferred invertebrate species.   However,  two confamilial
 species (i.e.,  ฃ.  productus and ฃ.  gracil is) were  retained  for possible
 analysis because  it was uncertain whether adequate sample  sizes of  C.  magister
 could be obtained  at  every station.

     At each study site, five English  sole  were  randomly  selected from
the 60 fish used for  histopathological  analysis  (see Section 2.6).   Each
fish (whole body minus liver and head)  was tagged with a  code  number, wrapped
 in aluminum foil,  stored  on  ice, and returned  to  the  shore-based laboratory
for tissue removal.

     Cancrid crabs  were collected from  the  trawl  catches  at  each study
site.  Crab pots were also fished near  each trawl  transect to  provide  additional
specimens.  Each  crab (whole  body) was tagged, placed  in  a polyethylene
bag,  held  live  on  ice, and returned to  the shore-based laboratory  for tissue
removal.

2.7.1.2 Tissue Removal--

     English Sole—Each  fish  was  first rinsed  with tap water  to remove
any adherent contaminants and then scraped with a stainless  steel  spatula
to remove  surface mucus.   The carcass  was then  placed on an absorbent pad
and the  upper fillet was  removed with  the skin intact.   The carcass  was
then turned  over  and the  opposite fillet was  removed.   Both fillets were
placed  skin-side down on a precleaned glass plate  and  the  skin was  removed
using a stainless steel  filleting knife. The  skinned fillet was then cut
into  6-g and 36-g  portions, which were  stored  frozen  in  glass bottles  for
subsequent  metal and organic analyses,  respectively.
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     All  instruments were  stainless steel  and  were cleaned  between use
on each fish.  The cleaning  procedure consisted of  washing with tap  water
to remove any adherent tissue, wiping clean with a sterile  gauze pad, soaking
in methylene chloride (nanograde), and finally rinsing  with  double-distilled,
deionized water  (tissue culture quality).  Work surfaces were washed with
95 percent ethanol,  followed by methylene chloride.   With the exception
of the external  skin surface, each fish was handled  with  cleaned stainless
steel  instruments  and  came  into contact with precleaned glass only.

     To ensure that  samples were not mixed,  each specimen was identified
and processed to completion before a second animal  was  started.  This consisted
of removing the  identifying label  that  accompanied  the  carcass, labeling
the final collection jars,  and processing the entire specimen before beginning
the  next.  The original  identification  tag accompanied the sample from
the carcass to the final  sample jar.   All  specimens  from each collection
site  were stored as  a  group to ensure that specimens from different study
sites were not mixed.

     Cancrid  Crabs—Each  crab was  first  washed with tap water to remove
surface contaminants and then dried  using a paper towel.  All legs  were
cracked  off at the body suture and  placed on a precleaned glass surface.
Muscle tissue remaining  inside the body was removed  using  curved stainless
steel  forceps and  placed  on the glass  surface.  The end of each leg was
then cut with scissors and  the muscle tissue was  expressed  by squeezing
from  one  end of  the  leg toward the cut end.  This tissue was added to the
body tissue, mixed  thoroughly, divided  into 6-g  and  36-g portions,  and
stored frozen in glass bottles for later metal and organic  analyses, respec-
tively.

     All instruments and  work surfaces were treated  using the same procedures
as those described previously for  fish tissue removal.   In addition,  all
crabs  from each  study  site were processed individually and stored as  a
group to ensure that specimens from different study  sites were not mixed.

2.7.2  Laboratory  Analysis for Metals

2.7.2.1 Muscle tissue—

     For the  first  set of muscle  tissue  analyses,  a 2-g aliquot of wet
tissue was used  for  analyses.   The tissue was  held overnight in HNO-3, then
digested as for metals, and the digestate  was diluted  to  100  ml.   Barium,
beryllium, chromium, cobalt,  copper, iron, manganese, nickel, silver, and
zinc  were  analyzed by  ICAP.   Arsenic,  cadmium, lead,  antimony, selenium,
and thallium were  analyzed by graphite furnace with  deuterium arc background
correction.   Mercury was  analyzed on a  separate  0.5-g  aliquot using  cold
vapor atomic absorption.

     Subsequent QA  review of the data indicated  that the aforementioned
protocol had not been followed for  the tissue analyses except for the mercury
determinations.   Consequently,  many elements were not  detected, and the
detection  limits reported were not as low  as originally requested.  Thus,
reanalysis of the  muscle tissue  was required.  Due to limited sample size,
cadmium, chromium, copper, lead,  nickel,  and silver  as elements of critical
importance were requested for reanalysis.   No tissue remained for one sample

                                 2.34

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 (HY-71-560), and  the  remaining sample quantities  varied from 0.38 g to
 8.05 g wet weight.   To obtain  total solids measurements,  the  entire remaining
 sample  was dried  at 50ฐ  C prior to HNOWH20ฃ digestion.  The entire aliquot
 of dried tissue was digested  using similar procedures  as  for the sediments.
 The resulting digestates  were diluted prior to analysis  such that the maximum
 dilution factor, based  on sample weight, was 12.5.   Analyses for chromium,
 copper, and nickel were performed by ICAP.  Cadmium,  lead and silver were
 analyzed by graphite furnace  AA with deuterium arc  background correction.

 2.7.2.2  Fish Livers--

     Approximately 0.5 g (wet  weight) of  liver  tissue was digested using
 persulfate and analyzed  for Hg using the cold vapor  technique.  The remaining
 liver  tissue, consisting  of samples  sizes ranging  from 1.04 g to 9.14 g,
was  dried  at 60ฐ  C to  obtain percent solids content and  then digested using
HN03 and  H202-  The digestates were diluted to 25 ml  if less than 2 g was
digested, or to 50 ml if more than  2  g  was digested.   Iron and zinc  were
 analyzed  for by  flame atomic absorption.   All other  metals were analyzed
by graphite furnace with  Zeeman correction.

 2.7.3  Laboratory  Analysis for Organic Compounds

 2.7.3.1  Volatile  Organic Compounds--

     Volatile  organic  compound  analyses were conducted  for 20  selected
 fish tissue samples using 1-g tissue aliquots blended  with 3 ml of organic-
 free water and spiked with three recovery standards.  The blended samples
were transferred  back  into   VOA vials  and the tissue  blender was  rinsed
twice with additional 3-mL  aliquots of organic-free  water.  After addition
of internal standards,  the sample was analyzed  according  to the purge  and
 trap technique  described  for  sediments.

 2.7.3.2  Semi-Volatile  Organic Compounds--

     Homogenized muscle and  liver tissue samples were  mixed with approximately
30 g Na2$04 in a  beaker prior to adding to precleaned  Soxhlet thimbles
for extraction.  When possible, approximately 25  g  of wet muscle  tissue
was  used  for analysis; some individual fish and most crab  samples had less
material (a minimum of  13 g wet weight crab muscle).   Because of the limited
mass of individual  fish livers (1.5-3 g wet weight),  liver tissue was composited
from 6-40 fish  (in  samples  used for  replicate analyses)  to yield  6-25  g
wet weight  for  organic  analyses.  The same total amount  of labelled recovery
standards  used  to  spike sediments  (5 ug/component/sample) was also  used
for  tissues.  Although  this amount resulted in a  higher spike level (>400
ug/kg wet weight)  than  that used with sediments  because  less tissue  sample
was available,  the  same final dilution volume was required.

     Fish  and  crab muscle tissue Soxhlet extracts  were partitioned against
acidified  organic-free  water  as described for sediment  extracts.  Because
of the  simplicity  of  the extracts, the  elemental sulfur removal  step and
SPE chromatography step  used with sediments  were  omitted  for tissues.
GPC cleanup (Bio  Beads) was required  because of the  high  lipid content
of the tissues,  and was performed as described  for  sediments.   All  tissue
extracts  to be analyzed  by GC/MS were  taken  to  a  final  dilution volume

                                 2.35

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of 0.5 ml  following GPC;  a  one-tenth aliquot for PCB analysis by GC/ECD
was taken to  a  final volume of 1 ml.

2.7.3.3  Total  Extractable Organic Material--

     The weight  of  solvent-extractable  organic material  in tissues  was
determined directly from  the  same extract  used for chemical  analyses.
After  allowing the Soxhlet  extracts to  settle overnight, a 1-mL aliquot
was transferred to a pre-weighed aluminum  dish, evaporated,  and weighed.
This aliquot  was  typically 1/200 of the total  extract.  The weight measurement
of a smaller  aliquot was  not  feasible because an electrobalance was  not
available for this analysis.

2.8  DATA MANAGEMENT

     As part of  the  overall management  support provided  to WDOE,  a data
management system was developed  for the Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats
Remedial  Investigation.  The system was designed  to manage the large quantities
of data that  were collected and  used  for this  investigation  and to provide
WDOE with a tool  for long-term management  of environmental data  frcm Commence-
ment Bay.

     The data management system consists  of  a  central database,  additional
data analysis capabilities, and  a library.   It was developed  using an  IBM
microcomputer and the Knowledge  Man relational database software package.

2.8.1  The Database

     The Commencement  Bay database  consists  of 23 data files, each storing
a different type  of data.   Data of different types  are  linked  by common
identifiers.  There are two sets of key  identifiers:  survey-station-sample
and drainage.  All data are identified by  survey or  research project, by
a  carefully  located station,  and by a description of the sample that  was
taken for analysis.  In addition, data are identified by location within
the  Commencement Bay drainage system defined  and described for this project
(i.e., along  a  waterway, ditch,  pipe, drain, or  seep).

     These two sets  of identifiers  make it possible to examine data from
several points  of view.   Different data  sets that  are  related in space
and/or time  can  be retrieved  easily in  a form that enables comparison.
For example,  drainage  identifiers can be used to retrieve  all data  for
a given point source or to plot  spatial  changes  in a variable (e.g., chemical
concentration)  along a creek, ditch,  or aquifer.  These latter capabilities
were used extensively during the project for source identification.

     Currently,  the Commencement Bay database contains over 25,000 records,
each consisting of 15-150 separate parameters.  There  are  descriptions
of over  50 surveys, 500  sampling stations, and 2,000 samples of water,
solids, and  biota.  More than 400 components of the Commencement Bay drainage
system have  been identified.   Types of  data  stored include inorganic  and
organic chemicals; conventional variables  for both sediment and water;
results of amphipod, oyster larvae, and  bacterial bioassays;  and observations
on fish pathology and benthic community  structure.


                                 2.36

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     The  large  quantity of data  is easily managed within the menu-driven
system, which allows  access to all  files.   The menus  enable the user  to
enter, edit, view,  report, or process data of any data type by simply typing
one to three letters  at each choice.   Data from a particular station  or
sample can be retrieved quickly and viewed by selecting  two or three descrip-
tors.

2.8.2  Data Analysis

     Standard  reports are built  into the menu-driven  system.  Reports can
be simple or complex  tables, forms,  spreadsheets, or  graphics.  Reports
are  available to  provide  simple statistics and  to  calculate mass loadings.
For non-standard,  one-time requests, the database  software contains a special
"structured language"  very  close to English  that  allows a user to request
needed information.

     For more  complex analyses, data retrieved  via the menu-driven reports
or ad-hoc queries can  be written to a file in standard ASCII format.  These
retrievals can then  be included in word-processed  reports; used with other
analysis programs,  statistical packages, or models;  or transferred to other
computers via modem.

     Data  analyses conducted  to  apply decision  criteria and to identify
contaminant sources for Commencement Bay involved the use  of the database
and  several auxiliary packages.  The database was  used to retrieve partial
and entire data  sets  and to calculate statistics  such as means and detection
frequencies for chemical  compounds, mean mortalities of bioassay organisms
by station and  by waterway, and counts of the number of fish  with lesions
of certain types.   For source identification, the ability to search for
data on the basis of  drainage enabled  retrievals of all  historical  data
for a certain pipe  or  all data on a certain compound from a set of discharges
to a waterway.

     Data  were  also  transferred  via file  to the  SPSS/PC software package
available for IBM microcomputers.   This  package was used  extensively  in
running parametric  and  nonparametric statistical  analyses (e.g., correlations,
analyses of variance,  t-tests, and factor analyses) as well as in calculating
elevations above reference.  Data were transferred  to SPSS on a Prime mini-
computer for performing  cluster analyses, and several  Fortran programs
were used for other analyses.

2.8.3  Graphics

     The LOTUS  1-2-3 spreadsheet  was used to  create  graphics to display
data.  Spatial information stored  for  stations in the database enabled
any data point  to be placed at a position along a drainage.  The spreadsheet
was used to graph the  concentration of a given  contaminant against distance
from  the  mouth of the waterway or drainage.  In  addition, the shoreline
of Commencement  Bay was digitized  and  the coordinates  incorporated  into
spreadsheets.  Maps of the  area were  then created.  The  scale of these
maps can be adjusted  and actual data  values can be graphically presented
on these maps.
                                  2.37

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2.8.4  Data Quality  Control

     Extensive  quality control procedures were  used  in coding and entering
data.  All  historical data considered  for  inclusion  in  the database  were
evaluated  by technical  personnel.  All new data  collected for the project
were subjected to  extensive quality assurance (QA)  by  technical personnel.
Throughout the  data-screening, coding,  and entry process, data personnel
worked closely with  technical staff in properly coding  data and qualifying
data as indicated  by QA review.

     Data  were  entered into  the  database  using  forms identical to those
used for coding.   Extensive error trapping  facilities  were  used,  including
a set  of  programs  to  check  the entered  data for errors  in identifiers or
codes.  One hundred  percent of all  data  collected to  analyze sources  and
levels of contamination in Commencement Bay were  verified after entry.

     The database was designed  to provide  information about data quality
and data interpretation along with  the actual data.   Data are referenced
to  the  document containing the original  data. This allows a user to return
to the original  source  if desired.  The  initials  and  organization  of  the
QA officer who reviewed the data are also stored.   Codes for each particular
analysis method are  also stored so that later retrieval of  data for a particular
use could specify  use of data analyzed by certain methods only.

2.8.5  Library

     A Commencement Bay project  library was established which  contains
over 500 pertinent  documents, including technical  and administrative reports,
correspondence, maps, and  references.   A  complete  copy of all documents
in the library is located  in the  WDOE  Project  Office  in Olympia  and  at
Tetra Tech's office  in  Bellevue.  Documents are filed  by accession number.

     This  information is linked  to  the database  in  an overall records and
document management system.   A file  in the database stores information
on  the  documents in the project  library by their accession number.  It
is possible to search for documents by number, title,  author, agency,  any
word  in  the title, and  by  subject area.   All data within the database are
referenced  to a  document, enabling a user to  easily locate original sources
if needed.

2.9  HEALTH AND  SAFETY

     A site-specific safety plan (Brown  and  Caldwell  and E.V.S. Consultants
1983) was  prepared for the data collection  and field operations conducted
under Tasks 3 and 4 of  the  Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats Remedial
Investigation.  The  safety plan was based on  guidelines  in Tetra Tech (1983b).
Both plans  were  approved by the WDOE Project  Manager and the U.S. EPA Region
X Safety Officer.

     Procedures described  in  the  site-specific  safety plan ensured  safe
collection  of data of  adequate quality  to meet  contract  specifications.
The  plan  specifically called  for a modified Level   D protection with the
substitution of marine rubber work boots  with non-slip  soles for steel-toed
boots.  Monitoring equipment  included  an HNu photoionization detector and

                                 2.38

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 personnel organic  monitoring  badges.  Collection of certain deep  core  and
 sediment samples required  the  use  of respirators  with GM C-H  combination
 cartridges for  acids, gases,  and  organic vapors (MSA 464 046).  The  site-
 specific safety plan includes  the  following sections:

          Introduction
          Site safety plan summary,  Tasks 3 and 4
          Site description
          History of site  activities
          Contractor's site safety work plan
          Hazard evaluation and  potential chemical  exposure
          Key personnel
          Work effort and  levels of  protection
          Designated work  areas
          Personnel  and equipment
          Site emergency procedures
          Emergency  facilities
          Monitoring of air and  personnel
          Personnel  training
          Weather and other conditions which may affect site  operations
          Access by  unauthorized personnel
          Decontamination
          References.

 2.10  SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS QA/QC

     QA/QC procedures  applied  in  the Commencement  Bay Nearshore/Tideflats
 Superfund Investigation were geared to cover  interdisciplinary  field sampling,
 laboratory analyses,  and data analysis/validation  of over a million data
 values on approximately 28,000 data  records.  Specific procedures  used
 in each  of these areas were summarized  in a QA/QC  project plan approved
 by the U.S. EPA and  WDOE (Brown  and  Caldwell and E.V.S.  Consultants  1984).
 These  procedures covered necessary  collections  of  water,  biota (fish and
 crab  species), surface  and  subsurface sediments, and suspended particulate
material  for analyses in  organic and inorganic chemistry, benthic ecology,
 sediment  toxicology,  and fish pathology.

     Results  from analytical  laboratories were reviewed  by Tetra Tech for
 conformance with QA/QC  requirements and  to resolve  analytical problems.
 Detection  limits,  recovery,  precision, completeness,  and conformance with
 the specified  protocol  were verified  during data review.  Ten to  twenty
 percent  of the data was  examined  in a complete  verification effort.  The
 remainder of  the data was  evaluated for outliers and completeness  prior
 to submission  for database  entry.  All of the spectral  data for the tentatively
 identified  organic compounds were manually examined.   When possible,  QA
audits included the use  of known geochemical  trends  in  environmental  data
to evaluate the  reliability of the data returned for interpretation.

2.10.1  Sample Collection

     Integration  of  field  tasks and study results was  accomplished by estab-
lishing common  sampling sites, sampling methods, and  sampling times  for
related  disciplines,  as  specified in the project  sampling and analysis
plan  (Tetra Tech  1984b).   Field sampling  procedures included instructions

                                  2.39

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 for navigation, geophysical investigations (bottom  profiling), use of field
 sampling  gear, sample container preparation,  sample  preservation and holding
 times, and  shipping procedures.  Special  sample  handling requirements to
 ensure the  integrity of samples were  also  defined,  for  example,  the  need
 to exclude  air  spaces in the collection of  sediments for volatile organics
 analysis.   Sample alteration checklists  were used  to document authorized
 changes in  previously established procedures  in  order to  provide an accurate
 record for use in data interpretation.   Sample  custody records were maintained
 so that  sample  possession  could be traced  from the time of collection to
 the  time  of  introduction as evidence  in  enforcement  proceedings.  Replicate
 archive samples of all sediment samples  collected for analysis, and unanalyzed
 fish  liver  samples were maintained in  freezers should additional  analyses
 be warranted  in  the future.   Selected  formalin-preserved benthic taxonomy
 samples were retained to document a reference  collection.

 2.10.2 Organic Compound Analyses

     A method validation study  involving four laboratories was conducted
 to evaluate  established  analytical   protocols  of  varying  sophistication
 used for the  determination of trace  organic  compounds in sediments.   Based
 on the QA evaluation of these  data,  a modified protocol was  recommended
 by Tetra Tech for  use in the  project  in coordination with  requirements
 of the U.S. EPA Contract Lab Program (CLP).  The method of standard additions
 used in this  protocol (the  isotope  dilution  technique using 54 labelled
 recovery  standards)  enabled the  correction  for target compound losses  during
 sample  workup.  Validation of this modified chemical  protocol was accomplished
 by a step-wise verification  of  compound recoveries during  each stage of
 the  protocol  before sample processing began.   Recoveries of >80 percent
 for  each  stage were  required  and  attained for  almost all  compounds in  tests
 with spiked blanks.

     The  contract laboratory performing  these analyses  followed routine
 QC guidelines defined by the  CLP  and include:

     •    Documentation of GC/MS  mass  calibration and abundance  pattern

     •    Documentation of GC/MS  response factor stability

     •    Internal  standard response and  retention time monitoring

     •    Reagent blank analysis

     •    Surrogate  spike  response  monitoring

     •    Matrix  spike  and  duplicate analysis (one each  per 20 samples).

     Specific  procedures  regarding the  laboratory performance  requirements
 are stated in the  IFB WA 84A-266  contract and in  special  analytical  services
 (SAS)  contract 864J.   Additional quality control  checks included  analysis
 of "blind" replicates for  sediment  and biological  tissue.  Because of the
 small  sample size,  no  "blind"  replicates or matrix spikes  were performed
 on the particulate filters.  A summary of available data on precision of
 recovery-corrected  concentrations in  different samples and the  recovery
of isotopically labeled recovery standards spiked in  each  sample is  provided

                                  2.40

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 in  Table 2.3.   Precision of  the  recovery-corrected values was calculated
 only when compounds were detected in  samples.   Not all chemicals were detected
 in  each set of replicate samples.

     A list of tentatively identified  compounds was compiled from detailed
 analysis of 17 preliminary samples.   The  compounds were specifically "searched"
 for in  all the  sample extracts.   All  the  spectral data for these compounds
 were manually examined.

 2.10.3  Trace Metals and Ancillary  Analyses

     The laboratories performing  these  analyses followed routine QC guidelines
 defined by the U.S. EPA contract  laboratory program and include:

     •    Documentation of  initial and continuing calibration for  each
          metal

     •    Documentation of instrument detection limits

     •    Procedural blank analysis

     •    Matrix spike and  duplicate analysis  (one each per 20 samples).

     Specific procedures  regarding the  laboratory performance requirements
 are stated in the IFB WA83-A125 contract and  special analytical services
 contract 864J.   Additional quality  control  checks  included the analysis
 of  "blind" replicates for  sediment  and biological tissue.   Duplicate blind
 replicates and matrix spikes were not  performed on the filters due to the
 limited sample size.  The  National  Bureau of  Standards standard reference
 material  (SRM) bovine liver was submitted for  analysis with the fish  livers.
 Oyster tissue SRM was submitted with fish tissue.   A summary  of available
 precision and recovery data  is provided  in  Table 2.4.   The results of the
 analysis  of the bovine liver SRM caused the  values for  arsenic and  lead
 in  fish liver to  be qualified as  questionable.

     The  precision of ancillary sediment data  accepted was within QA  require-
 ments as  demonstrated by replicate  analyses  for  percent solids  (mean ฑ
 2.7 RPD), volatile solids (mean  +. 2.3 RPD),  total  organic carbon (mean
ฑ 5.6 RPD), and  nitrogen (mean ฑ 3.6 RPD).   Sulfide  and oil  and grease
 analyses  showed greater variability with ฑ 39  RPD and ฑ 30 RPD, respectively.
 Sulfide  results are used only as a  semi-quantitative measurement in these
 reports  because of lab holding  time and preservation problems.

 2.10.4  Benthic Macroinvertebrates, Sediment Bioassays, and  Fish Histopathology

     The QA procedures for  these  analyses  are described in  Sections  2.4,
 2.5, and  2.6.


 2.11  RISK ASSESSMENT

     "Risk  assessment" is  a descriptive  term applied  to an analysis of
 hazard  potential  in an environment.  All risk  assessments  have  two elements
 in common:


                                  2.41

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          TABLE  2.4.   SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE PRECISION AND RECOVERY  DATA
                FOR COMMENCEMENT BAY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY SAMPLES
                  Precision (Mean  RPDja
Percent Recovery

Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryl lium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Iron
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Thai lium
Zinc
Surface
Sediment
+ 14
+ 8.1
+ 3.3
+ 2.4
+ 4.7
+ 6.3
+ 5.0
+ 5.5
T2.4
+ 2.7
T 8.2
+. 8.5
-
+ 17
+" 0
+ 36
English
Muscle
_
+_ 24
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+ 7.6
I 12
-
+_ 38
-
-
^7.0
Sole
Livers
_
+ 35
^46
-
+ 12
+ 29
T12
+ 56
+ 11
+ 7.3
T 5.6
T32
T62
+ 32
T 20
+ 20
Surface
Sedimentb
92
89
99
99
97
99
98
100
-
100
100
98
79
90
87
100
English
Muscle0
_
-
-
-
87
90
100
115
-
-
-
84
-
100
-
-
Sole
Livers^
_
3606
-
-
140
-
90
450e
100
-
-
-
_
_
-
64

a Precision determined by multiple sets of  replicate analyses.   Values
are mean relative percent  differences  in  sets of replicates  with detected
values.

b Recovery determined  by  multiple  analyses of matrix spike samples.
are mean relative percent  recoveries.
                  Values
c Recovery determined  by multiple analyses of standard reference material
(oyster tissue).   Values  are mean relative percent recoveries.

d Recovery determined  by multiple analyses of standard reference material
(bovine livers).   Values  are mean relative percent recoveries.

e Because of the  high  recoveries of arsenic and lead relative  to the certified
reference material,  all  data values  for these  substances  in  fish livers
were qualified as questionable.
                                  2.43

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          TABLE  2.3.   SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE PRECISION AND RECOVERY  DATA
                 FOR  COMMENCEMENT BAY ORGANIC CHEMISTRY SAMPLES
Phenols
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
Total PCBs
Phthalates
Miscellaneous compounds
  Benzyl alcohol
  Dibenzofuran
                              Surface
                             Sediments
              Subsurface
               Sediments
                  English Sole
                Muscle
Livers
                                  Precisions  (Mean Coefficient of Variation)
ฑ 52
ฑ 17
ฑ 25
ฑ42
+ 61
ฑ42
+ 18
ฑ 41
ฑ 15
+ 44
-
-
-
+_ 11 ^15
+ 100
  +_ 54
  + 17
   ฑ 42
    + 9
 + 34
Phenols
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
Phthalates
47  (59)
80  (99)
31 (120)
  71
                                               Percent Recoveryb
69  (67)       17   (67)
60  (94)       33   (98)
17 (140)       11  (124)
   59              44
a Precision determined  by multiple sets of  replicate analyses.   Value shown
is mean coefficient  of variation  in  sets of replicates with detected values
(recovery corrected).
b Values shown are mean percent recoveries of isotopically labeled compounds
added in quantities  within  a  factor of ten of the  lower  limit of detection.  The
values  in parentheses are the mean percent recoveries obtained from multiple
matrix spike samples.   The  matrix  spike compounds were added at  levels several
times higher than  the  isotope  recovery standards.
                                  2.42

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     •    An assessment  of  exposure to one or more substances

     •    An  assessment of  the hazard  associated with  exposure to
          a substance  or collection of substances.

These  two elements must then be  integrated into an  analysis of the level
of risk experienced  by a group,  or population.   This integration  can be
accomplished on different levels:  the risk to  each  exposed individual
over a lifetime  can  be calculated,  or  the cumulative risk to  the  entire
exposure population  can  be  predicted as the total  number  of illnesses expected
over a 70-yr period.

     Each major  step in  the risk assessment process  (i.e., exposure evaluation,
hazard evaluation, and risk calculation) is discussed  individually  in  the
following sections.

2.11.1  Exposure Evaluation

     This  analysis  addresses  three types  of exposure:   ingestion of fish
muscle tissue, ingestion  of  crab muscle tissue, and ingestion of fish livers.
Ingestion of fish  and  crab  muscle  tissues are analyzed differently from
ingestion of fish livers.

2.11.1.1  Exposure to  Contaminants  in Fish and Crab Muscle  Tissue--

     There  are  two  elements to assessing exposure to  the  population eating
fish and crabs from  Commencement Bay:  1) estimating the  exposure population
and 2)  estimating  the  rate of fish and crab ingestion.  Estimates of these
elements rely on data  from the Tacoma-Pierce County  Health  Department (TPCHD).

     The TPCHD conducted a  survey of recreational  anglers in 1981, questioning
survey participants  on the  amount and type of fish they catch, the frequency
of their fishing,  and  their plans  for  the catch  (whether they planned to
eat it).  This catch/consumption survey was conducted during the  late summer
and fall of that year, and  focused on shore fishing  activities.

     The  catch/consumption  survey is detailed  in a report by Pierce et
al. (1981).  The authors (Pierce et al. 1981) concluded that 2,900 persons
fished  the shores  of Commencement  Bay, with varying  frequency, in that
year.-  The estimate  did  not include  results of the abbreviated survey of
persons fishing from boats.   For this  analysis, results  from that part
of the survey have been  adjusted for seasonal frequency following the method
of Pierce et al. (1981)  for shore fishing.  The frequency of boat fishing
was assumed to  be equal to the  frequency of shore  fishing.   The  number
of persons fishing from boats (an estimated 1,170) was  added to the number
fishing from shore  to derive a  total  of 4,070  anglers.   It was assumed
that  the shore  fishing and  boat  fishing  populations did not  overlap and
that persons fishing  were not "double counted."  It is quite likely, however,
that  the addition  of boat anglers  resulted in an overestimate of total
exposed population.  Pierce et al.  (1981)  reported that the average  family
size  is 3.74 persons.   Assuming that  all  members of  a  family eat fish,
the total exposed population would be 4,070 x 3.74,  or  approximately  15,200
persons.

                                  2.44

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      Data from Pierce et al.  (1981) also enable estimation  of the frequency
 of  fishing, which (when combined  with  a value  from  the survey on  average
 catch per fishing trip)  can be keyed to the amount of fish  and crabs eaten.
 A frequency distribution  of fish  muscle tissue  ingestion rates from  this
 survey is presented  in  Table 2.5.   The  maximum ingestion rates reported
 by  Pierce et  al.  (1981)  are  used  throughout  this  report as a basis  for
 estimating contaminant  exposure.  The  risk assessment is  keyed to this
 table, because the risk to  persons eating Commencement Bay fish and  crabs
 daily is considerably different from the risk to persons fishing only once
 or  twice a year and eating  those  fish.   No data  on shellfish (i.e.,  crab)
 consumption  were  available  for Commencement Bay.   Consumption of crab was
 therefore assumed to follow a  distribution equal to fish consumption.

      Rates of fish and crab ingestion (g/day)  were multiplied by the average
 level of contaminant (ug/g  of  fish) to yield exposure (ug/day).  Exposure
 calculations  in  this assessment were based  on a number  of scenarios.  The
 average level  of contaminant in fish was calculated for:

      •    Each  station from  which  fish  or crabs were  collected for
          analysis

      •    Each  waterway  or study area (all  stations within that area
          combined)

      •    All  nearshore/tideflats stations  together.

 In  all  cases,  the  method  detection  limit was used  in  the calculation of
 means if a substance was  not detected.

      For  this analysis  it was assumed that  the  fish and crabs examined
 for contaminants were  representative of those ingested by persons fishing
 in  Commencement  Bay.  However,  all fish  analyzed were English sole,  which
 are not conmonly eaten and  are among  the  most  contaminated  fish species
 in  Commencement  Bay  (see  Section 3.6,  Bioaccumulation).   All  shellfish
 analyzed were  Dungeness crabs and rock crabs.  Data were  not sufficient
 to  state  that  crabs  were  either more  or  less  contaminated than other  types
 of  shellfish  in the  Bay.

 2.11.1.2  Exposure from Ingestion of Fish  Livers--

     A subgroup of special interest  in  this  assessment  was the population
 that eats  fish livers.  Although this group is believed  to be small,  its
 exposure  to  contaminants  in  Commencement Bay fish  may  exceed that of  the
 group eating muscle  tissue because many chemicals are  known  to  concentrate
 in  the liver.

     The assessment of exposure from eating livers was based on the  maximum
 observed  chemical  concentrations in  composite  samples  of  livers  from fish
 captured  at  the trawl transects in the bioaccumulation  study (see  Section
 3.6).   Means  were not  used because several  livers  were pooled  for each
 chemical  analysis, and  the maximum observed  values  actually  represent  the
mean of several  liver  samples.


                                 2.45

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             TABLE  2.5.   POPULATION EXPOSED BY CONSUMPTION RATE

Frequency
Daily
Weekly
Monthly
Bimonthly
Semiannually
Annual
Total
Frequency
Percent
0.2
6.6
11.4
7.3
17.2
57.3
100.0
Ingestion
Rate
1 Ib/day
1 Ib/wk
1 Ib/mo
1 lb/2 mo
1 lb/6 mo
1 Ib/yr

Intake
g/day
453.0
64.7
15.1
7.4
2.5
1.2

Population
Exposed
30
1,005
1,735
1,111
2,618
8,721
15,220
Reference:  Pierce et al. (1981).
                                    2.46

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     No data  on  the quantity  of  fish liver eaten were available.   It  was
therefore  assumed  that  the amount of  liver  eaten is proportional  to  the
amount  of fish muscle  eaten (i.e., that persons who eat fish livers  consume
the livers from all  fish they catch and consume).   The  average proportion
of  liver  weight  to muscle  weight for 13 species of Commencement Bay fish
is 0.12 (Gahler et  al.  1982), the factor used in this analysis in scaling
exposures.   Data on liver consumption rates as a function of muscle tissue
consumption  rates  are presented in Table 2.6.

2.11.2  Health Effects  (Hazard Assessment) Methodology

     Carcinogenic  and  noncarcinogenic health  effects of U.S. EPA priority
pollutants are summarized  in Table 2.7.  These effects are  associated with
different types  of data  and are treated  differently in the risk assessment
process.  Although  some  chemicals have  multiple effects,  only the most
significant (in  severity or  in terms of occurring at the lowest dose)  are
discussed.

     "Carcinogens"  in  this assessment are  substances that the U.S.  EPA
considers  possible  cancer-causing agents; they have not  been implicated
as  causes of cancer in  humans in all cases.  Most of the available data
are derived  from  animal studies, for  both  evidence and strength of carcino-
genicity.   It  is  generally assumed that carcinogens do not exhibit threshold
effects (i.e., any  exposure,  no matter  how low, can  be  associated with
a quantifiable  cancer risk).   The potency  of the carcinogen is expressed
as a risk score, which is the probability of effect per unit dose of chemical,
in  units  of (mg/kg/day) ~1.   The unit cancer risk scores in this study  are
those published by  the  U.S.  EPA's Carcinogen Assessment  Group (U.S.   EPA
1984).

     Noncarcinogens are usually  assumed to exhibit  thresholds (i.e., to
cause some ill effect only after a certain dose is exceeded).  That dose
is termed  the  No  Observed Effect Level  (NOEL).   Since NOELs have been derived
almost exclusively  from  studies of small mammals, the measured NOEL is
usually divided  by  a safety factor to  derive  a  level that can be considered
safe for humans.   The  safety  factor  takes  into  account  the variability
in  toxicity of  a chemical  between  the experimental  species  and  humans,
variability within the human population, and deficiencies in the experimental
data.   The  safety factor usually reflects a  chronic, 70-yr exposure.  This
resulting  value is termed the Acceptable  Daily  Intake  (ADI)  and was used
in this assessment.  Effects are considered possible in a sensitive subpopula-
tion when the exposure or dose exceeds  the ADI  (i.e., if the ratio of exposure
to  the  ADI  equals or  exceeds  1).  ADIs are set for chronic (i.e., 70-yr)
exposure.  Safety factors  range from  1 [for high-quality data, based  on
long-term human  exposure (usually occupational)] to 1,000 (if the original
health data  are from short-term studies of small lab animals).

2.11.3  Risk As sessmen t Ca1cu1 at ions

     The exposure  and  effects data discussed above were combined  in this
step of the  assessment to calculate risk to the  individuals ingesting fish
from Commencement Bay.  Risk  was  assessed on a chemical-by-cherrncal basis.
Chemicals  may interact with one another to  produce synergistic effects
(magnifying  the  probability  or severity of an  effect), additive  effects

                                  2.47

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       TABLE 2.6.   FISH  LIVER CONSUMPTION RATES

Frequency
Daily
Weekly
Monthly
Bimonthly
Twice/year
Yearly
Fish Consumption
g/day
453.0
64.7
15.1
7.4
2.5
1.2
Liver Consumption
g/day
54.4
7.8
1.8
0.9
0.3
0.1

Reference:   Derived from Pierce et al. (1981) and Gahler
et al.  (1982).
                        2.48

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TABLE 2.7.  A SUMMARY OF HEALTH EFFECTS DATA
     FOR  CARCINOGENS  AND NONCARCINOGENS
CHEMICAL
CARCINOGENS
acrylonitrile
aide in
arsenic
benzene
benzidine
beryllium
carbon tetrachloride
chlordane
chromium
hexachlorobenzene
dichloroethane (1,2)
trichloroethane (1,1,2)
tr ichloroethane (1,1,1)
tetrachloroethene
tr ichloroethene
tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2)
hexachloroethane
trichlorophenol (2,4,6)
chloroform
DDT
dichloroethylene (1,1 and 1,2)
dieldrin
dinitrotoluene
tetrachlorodioxin
diphenylhydrazine
halomethanes
heptachlor
heptachlor epoxide
hexachlorobutadiene
hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)
alpha
beta
gamma (Lindane)
dimethyl nitrosamine
diethyl nitrosamine
dibutyl nitrosamine
NN diphenylamine nitrosamine
N-nitrosodipropylamine
dibenzo (a , i ) pyrerve
benzo(a)pyrene
DEI IP
PCBs
toxaphene
tetrachloroethylene
trichloroethylene
vinyl chloride
BCEE
RISK SCORE
per mgAg/day
0.552
11.4
14
0.052
234
4.86
0.083
1.61
41
1.67
0.037
0.0573
0.0016
0.035
0.019
0.201
0.0142
0.0199
0.183
8.42
1.04
30.4
0.311
425000
0.768
0.183
3.37
3.76
0.0775
4.75
11.1
1.84
1.33
25.9
43.5
5.43
0.0049
31
476
11.5
0.0141
4.34
1.13
0.04
0.0126
0.0175
28
HEALTH
EFFECT
brain timers
liver tumors
skin cancer
leukemia
bladder cancer
leukemia
liver tunors
liver cancer
when inhaled; no value for ingested
liver tumors
circulatory henangiosar comas
hepatocellular carcinomas
liver tumors
liver tumors
liver tumors
hepatocellular carcinomas
hepatocellular carcinomas
hepatocellular carcinomas, adenomas
hepatocellular carcinomas
liver adenocarcinoma
kidney adenocarcinoma
liver tumors
mammary tumors, hepatocellular carcinoma
hepatocellular and other carcinomas
hepatocellular carcinomas and adenomas
liver tumors
hepatocellular carcinoma
hepatocellular carcinoma
renal tubular adenoma and carcinoma
liver tumors
liver tumors
liver tumors
liver tumors
liver cancer
liver cancer
bladder and esophogeal cancer
bladder tumors
mammary tunors and hepatocarcinoma in mice
lutvj cancer- inhalation
stomach papillomas, carcinomas
liver, kidney cancsr
hepatocellular carcinoma
hepatocellular carcinoma and adenoma
hepatocellular carcinoma
hepatocellular carcinoma
liver angiosarcoma
various carcinomas
                  2.49

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TABLE 2.7.   (Continued)
CHEMICAL
NONCARCINOGENS
ADI
ug/day
SAFETY HEALTH
FACTOR EFFECT
acrolein
ODD
DDE
a-endosulfan
b-endosulfan
endosulfan sulfate
endtin
endrin aldehyde
antimony
cadmium
chromium-VI
chromium-Ill
cyanide
lead
mercury
manganese
nickel
selenium
silver
thallium
zinc
fluorotrichloromethane
dichloroethane  (1,1)
dichloropropane  (1,2)
dichloropropane  (1,3)
dichloropropylene (1,3)
hexach1orocyc1opentadiene
bis 2-chloroisopropyl ether
chlorobenzene
dichlorobenzene  (1,2)
dichlorobenzene  (1,3)
dichlorot>enzene  (1,4)
trichlorobenzene (1,2,4)
ethylbenzene
nitrobenzene
toluene
total xylenes
phenol
chlorophenol
dichlorophenols
pentachlorophenol
nitrophenols
dinitrophenol
dimethylphenol
dinitro-o-cresol
diethylphthalate
dimethylphthalate
di-n-butylphthalate
di-n-octylphthalate
acenaphthene
fluoranthene
naphthalene
        1100   1000 unknown via oral exposure
        3010      1 hunched appearance,  increades urination
         350      1 hepatic necrosis in  rats
         280    100 brain and kidney damage
         280    100 brain and kidney damage
         280    100 brain and kidney damage
          70    100 nervous system,  leukocytosis, kidney  degeneration
          70    100 nervous system,  leukocytosis, kidney  degeneration
         292    100 altered blood chemistry
         700      ? renal tubular necrosis in humans
         175      1 kidney tubular necrosis
      357000      1 sterility
         330    100 hypoxia (oxygen  blockage)
         100      ? brain dysfunction and anemia  in humans
          20     10 ataxia,cerebellar atrophy,  impaired vision  in  humans
       10000      ? neurological dysfunction in humans
        1460   1000 fetal mortality  or reduced body weight
         700     10 liver and endrocrine gland effects
          16      5 kidney hemorrhage, liver,  stomach, and  intestine damage
          37   1000 nerve, kidney, liver, and stomach damage
       15000    100 copper deficiency and anemia  in humans
      201000     10 cardiac arrythmia
        8100      ? liver function changes
         980      1 liver function changes
         180   1000 liver function changes
         180   1000 liver function changes
          36    100 no oral effects  known
          70     10 no oral effects  known
        1008   1000 nervous systen depression;  liver, kidney  necrosis
      107000    100 cirrhosis of liver
      140000    100 cirrhosis of liver
      161000    100 cirrhosis of liver
         464     10 liver metalwli.sm changes in monkeys
        1600      1 weight increase, kidney effects
        4000     10 blood cyanosis in humans by inhalation  or dermal exposure
      134000    100 nervous system effects and cardiac arrythmia
      160000     10 maternal toxicity
        6800    500 kidney and liver damage
        6900   1000 increased nervous response in humans
        7000   10.00 convulsions in cats
        2100    100 micro-level changes  in human  liver and  kidney  via  inhalation
         140   1000 effects unknown
         140      1 numerous for 2,4- eyes, skin, nerves, liver, spleen in humans
        7000    190 liver, spleen pathology
          71     10 effects on human skin when inhaled
      875000    100 decreased growth
        1800     10 kidney effects on humans when inhaled
        1800     10 brain abnormalities  in humans when inhaled
        1800     10 effects unknown
          18      ? enzyme blood changes in humans when inhaled
         420      1 mortality at high dose via dermal contact
       18000     10 cataracts in humans  (inhalation), rats  (oral)
Reference:   U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency  (1983,  1984)
                                                 2.50

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 (combining  similar effects of two chemicals),  or  antagonistic effects (pre-
 venting an effect entirely or lessening its severity).   However,  evidence
 of these interactions is relatively weak.  Furthermore, while the combined
 effect of two chemicals may be known,  the  combined  effect of the complex
 mixture of Commencement Bay pollutants is unknown.

 2.11.3.1  Calculation of Carcinogenic Risk--

     The  first step in the assessment of carcinogenic risk was to calculate
 the exposure of an individual to a contaminant.  Exposure was calculated
 as:

                                 E = CI/W

 where:

     E = Exposure, mg/kg/day
     C = Contaminant concentration, mg/kg
     I = Ingestion rate, kg/day
     W = Human weight, kg  (assumed 70 kg).

 The exposure was then used to calculate individual risk as:

                                  Ri  =  BE

 where:

     RI = Individual  lifetime risk
      B = Risk score,  (mg/kg/day)"1.

     Individual  risk can  be multiplied by  the number  of persons exposed
 at that level to estimate  the total number  of  persons expected  to develop
 cancer among  the exposed population over  the 70-yr lifetime.  That calculation
 was not performed for all  chemicals  in  this risk assessment.  It  was  performed
 only for the  chemicals with  the highest absolute risks because other chemicals
 resulted in  very low  risks  that were  well below the health  risk criterion
 (i.e., one predicted  cancer  case in the exposed population).

 2.11.3.2  Noncarcinogenic  Risk  Calculations--

     Because  noncarcinogenic  chemicals  exert a threshold effect, the assessment
 of risk at a  calculated  level of exposure  was  performed by comparing the
 exposure  to  the ADI.   If  exposure  exceeded the  ADI,  all persons exposed
 at that level were  assumed to  be  affected.   If  exposure was  equal  to or
 less than  the ADI, none  of the  individuals were  assumed to  be  affected.
There  is  no provision  in this  method for  degree  of effect.   However, to
a  limited degree, the  ratio of exposure to the  ADI  indicates  the  weight
of evidence of projected effects.
                                  2.51

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2.12  SOURCE IDENTIFICATION

2.12.1  Sediment Chemistry

2.12.1.1  Surficial  Sediment Chemistry--

     All  source identification efforts were  initiated by  an  assessment
of the magnitude and spatial extent of contamination  in  the  surficial sediments
of defined problem areas.  The spatial gradient  of contamination was evaluated
to determine the probable location of the contaminant sources.  The implicit
assumption in this  evaluation was  that  sediments  with the  highest levels
of contamination (with  appropriate normalization,  as  discussed below)  were
closest to the contaminant sources.  It is recognized  that in certain high-
energy environments,  physical transport processes  may alter the contaminant
distribution so that  the greatest level of contamination  does  not necessarily
coincide with the location of the contaminant source.   Within  the waterways
of Commencement  Bay,  tidal  action  provides the only  effective mechanism
of contaminant dispersal.  Therefore, it is reasonable  to assume that environ-
mental  release  of a contaminant would  be reflected in nearby sediments,
particularly if  that  contaminant  has  a high affinity  for  adsorption  to
sediment  particles  or  organic matter,  as do  many of  the contaminants  of
concern.

     The  spatial gradient of  contamination was  used  both to determine the
location of contaminant sources  and to suggest probable routes of contami-
nation.   The guidelines  used   in this  assessment  are  shown below.  Final
determinations  of probable  sources  and  routes  of contamination required
the  integration  of  a  great  diversity  of  data and  final assessments were
made on a case-by-case  basis.  General guidelines  for source identification
efforts included:

     •    A localized area of contamination close  to  a  known industrial
          outfall, storm sewer, or other  discharge implicated  that
          discharge as  a potential source.

     •    A localized  contaminant  "hot  spot"  far from  any identified
          potential  source  suggested the  occurrence of  a  spill  or
          exposed sediments from an unidentified historical source.

     •    A localized  area  of contamination in  the  general vicinity
          of a  potential  source but not immediately adjacent  to  an
          outfall suggested groundwater as  one of  the potential sources.
          Historical  waste disposal practices on  nearby properties
          were examined.   A  spill or historical source  represented
          other  possible explanations.

     t    Contaminant  concentrations that decreased from  the mouth
          of the  waterway to the head suggested  either  the  presence
          of a  source very near the mouth or advection of  the contaminant
          into  the waterway from other areas.

     Sediment  contaminant concentrations are typically expressed as the
weight  of  the contaminant per dry weight of sediment  (hereafter referred
to as "dry-weight basis").  In some cases,  it  was  also valuable to normalize

                                  2.52

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the  concentrations  using  some other  sample variable (see Section 3.1.2).
For example, metals  concentrations  are  sometimes  shown  on  a dry-weight
basis  and normalized  to  percent fine-grained sediment  (silt and clay),
since metals generally  have a high  affinity for the  finer silt and  clay
particles.  This normalization is reported  in  the  present study of sources
only when the normalized data show a trend not apparent in the distribution
of dry-weight concentrations.  Organic compound  concentrations are typically
shown on a dry-weight  basis and normalized to the total  organic carbon
content of the sediments,  since the organic compounds of concern generally
have  a high affinity for  organic material.  Normalization of organic compounds
by sediment organic carbon content can help reduce the effects of variable
sediment texture on the  interpretation  of contaminant  spatial trends.
These data are also  useful  in evaluating the  influence of organic enrichment
on contaminant accumulations.

     Normalizations of sediment  chemistry  data to account for variations
in grain size or  organic carbon content are  used in interpretations  only
when they provide additional information not  apparent in the spatial  pattern
of dry-weight concentrations.  Large amounts  of wood chips  or  slag in the
sediments could also  reduce  the usefulness of these  normalizations.

     Throughout  the source evaluation section  (Section  7), two  formats
are used for presentation of surficial sediment  chemistry data:   1) a graph
of contaminant concentration  versus  distance from waterway mouth, and  2)
a plan view of the relevant study area showing location  of  the sampling
stations and the contaminant  concentrations at each station (Figure  2.8).
The concentration versus distance graphs  were used only for  long, linear
waterways (Hylebos  and City)  when contaminant gradients  along the length
of the waterway were  of primary interest.  Plan views were  used for all
areas of concern, and were particularly valuable in  identifying cross-waterway
gradients of contamination.  In some  cases, plan  views were  used during
data analysis and only  critical  features are  summarized in text.

     Three  data  types  are  differentiated on  the  graphs  of concentration
versus distance:  1)  quantified contaminant concentrations;  2)  "less than"
values when a single  compound was above a  detection limit and  below a quantifi-
cation limit or when  one member of  a compound group was unquantified; and
3) undetected values, in  which case the detection limit is shown.  Source
of the data is  further  differentiated on the  graphs.  In a  few  cases,  data
are  not  shown on the  figures  because they  were from laboratory analyses
with  disproportionately  high detection  limits.   Criteria  for exclusion
are provided below:

     •    For individual  substances (or traditionally defined  mixtures
          such as PCB  Aroclors),  undetected values at a  detection
          limit greater than 100 ppb  that also  exceeded the 80th percentile
          of detected values were eliminated  from the graphs.

     t    For groups of substances, data values for group  totals were
          excluded from graphs if:

               The average detection limit of  the individual  undetected
               components  exceeded  100 ppb, and
                                 2.53

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 o<
*5
.0
 O,
 a
 n
 v

I
 u
 o
 u
      700
       600 -
       500 -
       400-
300 -
       200 -
100 -
                                                      O  Tetri Tech Investigation - quantltated value
                                                      0  Other Investigations - quantltated value
                                                      A  Tetra Tech Investigation - less than value*
                                                      V  Other Investigations - less than value*
                                                      +  Tetra Tech Investigation • undetected value
                                                      X  Other Investigations - undetected value
                                                      a
                                                      o
o
o
                                             0  0
                                                                                                   (A)
                                   246
                                                  (Thousonds)
                                        Ft.  from  mouth  of waterway

                  •For single compounds a less than value Indicates the compound was present at a concentration
                   above the detection limit but below the quantHatlon Halt. For conpound groups* a less than
                   value Indicates one or nore members of the group was below the detection or quantltatlon Unit.
                    O Tetra Tech Investigation
                    * UOOE. 1984 data (not shown)
                    0 UOOE, historical data (not shown)
                    A EPA data
                    X Data fro* other agencies
                                                                                                       (B)
          Figure  2.8.   Examples  of surficial  sediment  chemistry  data.
                                                 2.54

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               The  sum of the detection limits  for undetected components
               in the group was greater than 50  percent of the total
               value for the group, and

               The  group sum  also exceeded  the 80th percentile  of
               group sums where all components  were  detected or where
               undetected components constituted less than 50 percent
               of the total.

     Plan views of the study area showing  station locations and contaminant
concentration  at each station (Figure 2.8)  were shown when  cross-waterway
gradients  provided the most information about source location.  Data shown
on these figures were subject to the same review  process described above.
"Less than"  or undetected values were indicated by "L" or "U," respectively.
Station locations are shown by symbols  indicating the  agency  responsible
for collecting the  data.

2.12.1.2  Sediment  Cores--

     Box core  and  gravity core  samples  were taken  to obtain information
on the vertical distribution of  contaminants within  the  sediments (see
Section 2.2.1)  and  on temporal changes in contaminant input to the  waterways.
Several guidelines  were used in this assessment:

     •    Greatest contaminant concentrations  in the uppermost horizon
          suggested an ongoing or a recent  contaminant input.

     •    Subsurface contaminant maxima  suggested that the greatest
          contaminant  inputs had  occurred historically or that the
          area had recently been covered by clean  material (e.g.,
          by dredging activity).

     •    Elevated contaminant concentrations  within a single discrete
          horizon  suggested  that a  spill,  or a discharge  of short
          duration was responsible.

     ง    Uniformly elevated  contaminant  concentrations  throughout
          the  sediment column suggested either long-term contaminant
          input,  contamination via groundwater percolating up through
          the  sediments, or mobility of the compound  in interstitial
          water.

For closely spaced core  samples (e.g.,  in lower  Hylebos Waterway), data
from only one representative core sample are  illustrated and the comparability
of the other cores  is discussed.  All  available core data were considered.

     Sediment  core data are usually presented  in tabular form in Section 7.
Data  from several compounds in multiple cores are presented  as  illustrated
as in  Figure  2.9.  A logarithmic scale was  used because contaminant  concen-
trations with  depth typically varied  over  an order  of magnitude  or more.
Although  concentrations  on  both a dry-weight  and normalized basis were
considered,  only concentrations on a dry-weight basis are shown  to  simplify
the graph.  Only  one contaminant concentration per horizon is  shown, since
sediments  from  throughout  the  horizon were  homogenized before  analysis.


                                  2.55

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TJ
O>
     1,000
      Concentration  (yg/kg)

              10,000
100,000
   0.2-
   0.4-
o.
O)
o
jLJL
                              Low molecular weight  PAH
                              High molecular weight PAH
       Figure 2.9.   Example of sediment core data illustrating con-
                    centrations of PAH with depth in sediment at a
                    site within Hylebos Waterway.
                               2.56

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 It  should be recognized  that contaminant concentrations could vary within
 any given depth  interval.

 2.12.2  Water Quality  Data

     Contaminant  concentration  of suspended particulates were determined
 for samples collected  during water quality surveys of  April  and August,
 1984.   For organic  compounds, the utility of these data  in source identifi-
 cations was limited  because concentrations were usually  below detection
 limits  (except for some  PAH).  Metals concentrations were typically above
 detection limits.   For contaminants with quantifiable concentrations, these
 data  were used as  ancillary information in source identification efforts.
 The data were used  to estimate the  importance of contaminant advection
 between Commencement Bay and the individual  waterways.

 2.12.3  Point Sources  and Runoff

     The contribution  of contaminants  by point sources and runoff was  assessed
 by use of loading  estimates.  These loading  estimates were  calculated from
 all available measurements of discharge flow rate and contaminant concentration
 in the Comnencement Bay database.  The  majority of discharge flow and  concen-
 tration  measurements in  the database  have come  from WDOE investigations
 (e.g., Class II  surveys) and Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats Remedial
 Investigation studies.   Other discharge-related data were available from
 surveys conducted by  U.S.  EPA, Tacoma-Pierce County Health  Department,
 and specific industries.   A thorough  discussion of the discharge-related
 data in the Commencement Bay database  is provided  in Tetra  Tech (1984b) .
 Data appear in Appendix XV.

     For  each contaminant of  concern, an  average loading was calculated
 for each discharge into the defined problem  area for which flow and concen-
 tration  data were  available.   Because  of the diversity of discharge data
 sources and the variability in data gathering and  reporting methods, guidelines
were  established  to ensure  consistency in calculating average contaminant
 loadings.   Procedures were established  to deal with:   1)  unmeasured flow
rates;  2)  undetected values;  3)  detected  but unquantitated concentrations
 ("less than" values) for single compounds;  4)  loading estimates for a contami-
 nant group when  one  or more members of the group were undetected; 5)  loading
estimates for a  contaminant  group when  one or more members  of the group
were  unquantitated; and 6)  loading  estimates for a contaminant group when
one or more members  of the  group were  unmeasured.  These  procedures are
discussed below  and  are illustrated in Figure 2.10.

     •    Unmeasured Flow  Rates:   An average contaminant loading for
          a discharge was determined by calculating an average of
          all  available flow measurements and  an average of all  concen-
          tration measurements  for  the contaminant of  concern.  The
          average  flow and  average concentration were then multiplied
          together, with  appropriate adjustments for units, to obtain
          an average  loading.  This procedure allowed maximum use
          of all available data.   In particular,  it  permitted the
          use of  concentrations  for which there was  no coincident
          flow measurement.
                                  2.57

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 I.  UNMEASURED FLOW RATES
                                                                          Contaminant
               Sampling                       Flow                        Concentration
                 Event                         (MSP)                           (uq/1)

                  1                           0.5                              9
                  2                           1.5                              S
                  3                       not icasured                         ZS

                                            I • 1.0                         1-13
                         Avg loading • 1.0 x 13 x 0.00834 - 0.11 Ibs/day
             0.00634 • conversion factor for Blcrograms to povmds and gallons to liters

 2.  UNDETECTED VALUES


                   1                           0.5                             2
                   2                           1.5                       undetected at 30
                   3                           1.0                             5
                                            7-1.0                        I . 3.5
                                   Avg loading • 0.029 Ibs/day


 3.  DETECTED Biff UHQUAKTITATED CONCENTRATIONS ("LESS THAN* VALUES) FOR SINGLE COMPOUNDS


                   1                           0.5                             2
                   2                           1.5                             10
                   3                         _ *-ฐ                             <9
                                            7-1.0                         7-<7
                                  Avg loading • <0.058 Ibs/day


 <•  IOAPIH6 ESTIMATES FOR A COHTAH1NANT 6ROUP WHEN ONE OR MORE MEMBERS OF THE 6ROUP HERE UNDETECTED


        Sailing             Flow          	Concentration hiq/1)
         Event               (H60)

            1                0.5
            2                1.5
            3                1.0

                          7 - 1.0                                               7-20
                                   Avg loading • 0.17 Ibs/day


 5.  LOADING ESTIMATES FOR A COKTAHINANT GROUP WHEN ONE OR MORE MEMBERS OF THE 6ROUP MERE UNQUAHTITATED


            1                0.5               10              10                 20
            2                1.5               25               5                 30
            3                1.0               10             <15                <25
                          7-1.0                                             I . <25
                                   Avg loading ป 0.21 Ibs/day


6.  LOADING ESTIMATES FOR A COHTAH1NAKT 6ROUP WHEN ONE OR MORE MEMBERS OF THE GROUP MERE PLEASURED


            1                0.5               10              10                 20
            2                1.5               11          not Measured            11
            3                1.0               15               5                 20
                          7-1.0                                             Tt  .  17
                                   Avg loading • 0.14 Ibs/day
Naphthalene
10
25
10
Phenanthrene
10
5
undet. at 30
Total1
20
30
10
•Concentrations of ซany compounds were sunned to obtain the total polycycllc aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)
 concentration though only two art shown here to simplify the presentation.
     Figure  2.10.    Examples  of procedures  used  in  calculating
                          average discharge  loads.
                                         2.58

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     •    Undetected Values:   Undetected values were not used  in calcu-
          lating average  concentrations and loadings.   It was  necessary
          to exclude these  observations because of the extreme variation
          in detection limits among the surveys included in the  Commence-
          ment  Bay  database.  The example  in Figure  2.10  (Case 2)
          is typical of  the  range of detection limits  found  in the
          database.   Chemical analyses of a particular discharge that
          were characterized by  high detection limits  are  so  noted
          in Section 7  (Source Evaluation), since the discharge could
          be a significant  but unquantified contaminant source.

     •    Detected but Unquantitated Concentrations for Single  Compounds:
          If a contaminant  concentration  exceeded a detection  limit
          but  was less  than a  quantitation  limit,  it  was  reported
          in the database as  less than the  quantitation  limit.   Such
          values were included when calculating an  average concentration
          or loading  since  it  is reasonable to  assume that the actual
          concentration  may be at  least  half the quantitation limit.


     •    Loading  Estimates for a  Contaminant Group When One or More
          Members of  the  Group Were Undetected:   See Undetected Values,
          above.  The total group concentration does not  include  undetected
          values,  but only measured  concentrations  or "less than"
          values.

     •    Loading  Estimates for a  Contaminant Group  When One or More
          Members of the Group Were Unquantitated:   When  the  concentration
          of one  or  more members of a contaminant group  were detected
          but Unquantitated ("less than"  value), the  quantitation
          limits  of  those  members  were  included  in  the total  group
          concentration.  The  group concentration was then  reported
          as less than a  specified value.

     t    Loading  Estimates for Contaminant  Group  When One or More
          Members of  the  Group Were Unmeasured:   When  the  concentration
          of a contaminant group in a discharge was  determined (e.g.,
          total  chlorinated  butadienes, total  PAH), the individual
          compounds  included in  the  group sum may  have varied from
          survey  to survey.   Analyses in which  more compounds of  the
          group  were measured will yield higher loading estimates
          than  analyses in  which  fewer compounds  were measured.   In
          practice, however, the actual bias  was minimal.  Since regulatory
          agencies  typically test  for an  established suite of compounds
          (i.e.,  priority pollutants),  there were relatively few instances
          in the  database when all  surveys  did  not  consistently measure
          the same suite  of  contaminants within a group.  For  the
          few instances when such  inconsistencies  did occur, effects
          on the  calculated  loading  were  noted  in the test.

     Source  loading  data for Commencement Bay are  of limited  and  uneven
quality.   This  factor often  constrained the  conclusions concerning  potential
sources.
                                 2.59

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 2.12.3.2  Average Mass Flux Estimates--

     After  initial  identification  of  probable sources  of a contaminant,
 a review was performed to  determine if the  suspected contaminant inputs
 adequately accounted for the observed  levels  of contamination.  This determi-
 nation was made using a mass flux  approach as a  first approximation only.
 These  calculations are not used  to  develop  a mass balance for contaminants
 in Commencement  Bay.  Limitations to the  use of this approach in data interpreta-
 tion  are summarized below after the following  discussion  of conceptual
 terms.

     If  the  mass of sediment  deposited  over  a given waterway within a  given
 time period  can  be established,  then the mass  of contaminant deposited
 within this area  can also be estimated.  The time frame to achieve a  given
 average contaminant concentration  can also be estimated.   The concentra-
 tion of a contaminant in surficial  sediments  can be expressed as:

 Contaminant Concentration = Contaminant  flux  to the sediment surface
                             Sediment  flux to the sediment  surface

 Rearranging the expression and including appropriate units  yields:

     Contaminant Flux (mg-cm'2-yr'1)  = Concentration fmg/kq) x
                                Sediment Flux (mg-cm'2-yr'l) x 10'6  kg/mg

 Sediment flux was the most  difficult to quantify but was  estimated  from
 the work of Carpenter et al.  (1985)  in  which  flux was   estimated for 44
 core samples taken throughout  Puget Sound.  Values ranged  from 46 to 1,200
 mgซcm~2-yr~l with  an average  of 336 mg-cm'^-yr"1.   Sediment accumulation
 rates in Commencement Bay waterways can be higher than those in the  main
 body of Puget Sound, because of  higher  inputs of terrestrial-derived particu-
 lates.  Despite  this limitation, the maximum  sediment  flux observed in
 the sound by Carpenter et al.  (1985)  (1,200 mg-cm'2-yr-l) was used to provide
 an order-of-magnitude estimate of  actual sediment flux in the waterways.

     Substituting 1,200 mg.cm-2-yr-l  in the equation above  yields:

 Contaminant Flux (mg.cm~2.yr-l)  =  Concentration (mg/kg)  x 0.0012 kg.an-2.yr-l

     This average contaminant  flux is the  mass of  contaminant that would
 have to be introduced to  the waterway to achieve the observed average level
 of sediment contamination, assuming  no advection into or out of the system.
 It is referred  to hereafter as  the concentration-derived  mass flux.  No
 assumptions were made regarding  the  actual distribution of the deposited
material  in the  waterway; the  calculations  reflect the  overall  average
 estimated flux  only.

     An average contaminant flux based on known loadings of the contaminant,
 referred  to  hereafter as  the source-derived mass  flux, can  be estimated
 if the surface  area  over  which the contaminant is deposited is known:

     Contaminant Flux (mg-c.n-2.yr-l) =   Loading (Ib/day) x 1.65x108
                      v        y    '   Surface area of deposition (cm2)

     where 1.65 x 10& is  a  coefficient to convert Ib to  mg  and  days to years.

                                  2.60

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       If it is assumed  that the contaminant is deposited  in  sediments
throughout  the waterway, the waterway  surface  area can be used in  the ex-
pression.   The  surface areas  used  in these  calculations were:  Hylebos
Waterway,  l.OxlO10 cm2; Sitcum  Waterway, 1.6xl09 cm2;  St.  Paul Waterway,
l.SxlO9  cm2;  Middle Waterway,  9.8xl08 crn^; and City Waterway, 4.5xl09 cm2.
No assumptions were made regarding the actual  depositional pattern  of the
contaminant within these areas.

     The average  contaminant concentration  in the waterway  was  determined
and used  to calculate a concentration-derived mass flux  (i.e.,  the mass
of the contaminant that would  have to be deposited in the waterway in a
given time  period  to attain the  observed average concentration).   The sum
of known  source loadings  for  the contaminant was then determined and used
to calculate a source-derived  mass  flux  (i.e.,  the mass of contaminant
estimated to be  entering the waterway  from  identified sources).

     Large  uncertainties are associated  with source loading  data and estimated
sediment  accumulation rates for  the nearshore/tideflats area of Commencement
Bay.   Therefore, the mass  flux approach  was used only to  evaluate data
gaps  in source loading information (i.e., whether major  sources were  unaccounted
for when  the source-derived mass  flux of  contaminants was  compared with
the average concentration-derived  mass flux).   The criteria  used to determine
these potential  data gaps were as  follows:

     •    When the source-derived mass flux was at least two orders
          of magnitude lower than  (i.e., less than  1  percent of) the
          sediment concentration-derived mass  flux, the  contaminant
          was  considered  to  have major unidentified sources.   The
          conclusion  that major  sources  remained  unidentified was
         made on the basis of mass  flux estimates only if this  condition
          was met.   Even given  the  uncertainties of the analysis,
          this conclusion is warranted  because  it identifies  a  potential
          data gap.

     •    When the source-derived  mass flux value was within two orders
          of magnitude of the value  for the sediment concentration-
          derived mass flux, the  two  values were considered comparable
          given  the  uncertainties of the  analysis.   No conclusions
          concerning sources were  made.

     •    When the source-derived  mass flux value exceeded the sediment
          concentration-derived  mass flux by more than two orders
          of magnitude, the two  values were still considered comparable
          within the uncertainty of the  analysis.   It  might have  been
          inferred that  the  identified sources  more than  accounted
          for the  observed contamination,  but sediment  accumulation
          rates  might have been  underestimated  and source  contributions
         might have been overestimated.   Hence,  no conclusions concerning
          sources  were made.

     Although the  calculations  and  comparisons discussed in this section
were made for  all  available data, only the  final results are summarized
in the source evaluation  section of this report.  If  a contaminant was


                                  2.61

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undetected in all  available source data sets,  no attempt was made to determine
mass flux estimates  for that contaminant.

2.12.3.3  Reference  Numbers--

     All  point  source and runoff discharges  to  the study area for which
loading data exist,  as  well  as some  groundwater seeps,  were identified
in Section 7 (Source Evaluation) by a five-character reference number (e.g.,
HK-052).  These  reference numbers were developed by the Tacoma-Pierce County
Health  Department during drainage system  investigations in which an attempt
was made to locate every seep, ditch, and drain  within the nearshore/tideflats
area  (Rogers et  al  .  1983).   The reference  system was expanded as part of
the present investigation  to include  additional discharges.   Throughout
the text, each discharge  is  identified  by  its reference  number and, if
available, a common  name (e.g., HM-028 = Morningside  Ditch)  or descriptor
(e.g.,  HY-018 =  8-in steep  pipe).   A corresponding map of each waterway
is also provided.

2.12.4  Groundwater  Sources

     There  is  evidence  of groundwater contamination within many portions
of the nearshore/tideflats area  because  of  past spills,  use of unlined
industrial  waste ponds,  and  landfilling  of hazardous materials.   Dames
and Moore (1982)  listed over 30 sites where  past  practices could be adversely
affecting groundwater quality.  However, as  noted  by Tetra Tech (1984b),
adequate assessment  of groundwater contamination is hampered by the absence
of  reliable groundwater flow information  throughout  most of the tideflats.
Existing data are inadequate  to  determine the magnitude  of groundwater
contamination, predict the  route of groundwater flow from a contaminated
area, or determine the loading of  contaminants  to  the waterways via groundwater.

     Local, state, and federal  agencies were contacted to obtain all available
well log data for  information on groundwater  flow, including  the Port  of
Tacoma,  Tacoma Public Utilities Department,  Pierce County Department of
Public Works, State  Department of Highways,  WDOE, and the  U.S. Geological
Survey.   From these  inquiries, it became apparent that  little well  log
data exist for  the tideflats west of the 1-5 corridor.   The  existing data
are spatially limited to  selected properties investigated  specifically
to assess the extent  of groundwater contamination.  These properties include:

     •    Occidental  Chemical  Corporation

     •    Three  Occidental  waste disposal  sites  (General Metals,  Dauphin,
          Petarcik)

     •    Pennwalt Corporation

     •    Kaiser Aluminum

     •    Allied Chemicals

     •    Georgia  Pacific

     ง    D Street Petroleum Storage Area

                                  2.62

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     •    Chemical Processors/Lilyblad  Petroleum

     •    Tar Pits site

     •    Tacoma Spur

     •    Union Pacific Railroad  yard

     t    Two U.S. Gypsum waste disposal  sites.

These  data were  used in source identification when appropriate.  For many
of these sites, the data were of  limited  utility because  of inadequacies
in sampling and/or analytical methodology.

2.12.5  Atmospheric Sources

     Available data from the Puget Sound  Air Pollution Control Agency (PSAPCA)
and the U.S. EPA Air Work Group were examined to evaluate atmospheric source
emissions in the  Tacoma area.   Relevant information was scarce.  PSAPCA
typically monitors total suspended  particulate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen
oxides,  volatile  organic compounds, and  carbon monoxide.  Very little data
are available from either PSAPCA or  U.S. EPA concerning the priority pollutants
and other contaminants identified to be of concern in the current investiga-
tions.  Limited metals data  were available from the high-volume filters
maintained around the Tacoma area by PSAPCA.  These instruments are designed
to collect the  small suspended  particulates  that would  travel far  from
the  Tacoma area  prior to deposition.  Corresponding data do not reflect
the contaminant input potentially resulting from large  particulates  that
would  be expected  to enter  the waterways directly from local industrial
fallout or through stormwater runoff (Nolan, J., personal communication).

2.12.6  Spills

     Files  of  both the  U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and WDOE were reviewed  to
obtain information on past spills of hazardous materials  in  the nearshore/
tideflats  area.  The USCG files  were not useful in providing the type  of
data required because of  imprecision in reporting the spill  location (i.e.,
to the nearest minute latitude and  longitude).   For example,  a spill  occurring
at 470 is1  N latitude  and  1220 26' W longitude could have occurred  in the
Puyallup  River;  St.  Paul,  Middle, or City  Waterway; or the southeast portion
of Commencement  Bay.

     WDOE Environmental  Complaint fields  from 1979 to 1985 were also  reviewed.
Within this  5-yr period,  WDOE received reports  of approximately  30 hazardous
material  spills that could  affect environmental quality  in the waterways
or along  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline.  Sulfuric acid  spills (mostly
from ASARCO)  constituted  approximately one-third of this total.  The  remainder
included  spills of  plating wastes, paint, solvents, caustic, creosote,
fungicide,  and sodium  chlorate.  In  addition,  about  35  petroleum  spills
in excess of 50  gal  occurred  in the nearshore/tideflats during this  same
period.
                                  2.63

-------
     Additional  spill-related information  was  obtained from WDOE  files
on specific  industries.   For  areas  of elevated  sediment concentrations,
files were  reviewed of all  nearby  industries  that might handle products
containing the contaminant  of concern.  This file  review uncovered many
additional spills not included in  the  Environmental  Complaint files.

2.12.7  Dredging

     The dredging  history  of the Nearshore/Tideflats area was reviewed
to help  interpret horizontal  and vertical contamination  gradients  observed
in the sediment core samples.   Maintenance dredging  activities were reviewed
and summarized in Dames and Moore (1981, 1982).   Information  on private
dredging activities within  the  nearshore/tideflats  area was  obtained by
a WDOE review of U.S. Army  Corps  of  Engineers (COE) and U.S.  EPA files.
All dredge  and  fill applications submitted to the COE from  1972 to the
present  were reviewed to  identify the industrial applicant,  the spatial
extent  of dredging activities,  and  the volume of material  intended for
removal. Since COE records  did not indicate whether  the intended  dredging
actually occurred  or how much of the material  permitted for  removal was
actually removed, this information was obtained  from  U.S.  EPA staff (Duane
Kama) or by phone calls to  the applicants.
                                2.64

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                               3.0  RESULTS
3.1  SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY
     The following  sections provide a summary of chemical results  for  over
190 surface and  subsurface  samples of  subtidal  sediments  collected from
Commencement Bay as part of the 1984 Superfund investigation.  An  additional
six sediment samples were  collected  from  Carr  Inlet reference stations
for complete chemical characterization.  These data include blank-corrected
analyses for the 13 U.S. EPA priority  pollutant metals, 3 additional metals
(including iron and manganese used  as natural indicators), 78 extractable
U.S. EPA priority pollutant compounds,  12  additional U.S.  EPA  Hazardous
Substance  List compounds,  and selected tentatively identified compounds
for which all  samples were analyzed.   Twenty of the samples were also  analyzed
for the 31  U.S.  EPA volatile priority  pollutants and/or 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-
dibenzodioxin.   The focus of these  sections  is to:

     •    Provide  a  chemical  perspective of Commencment Bay  study
          areas, including the  general  distributions,  concentration
          ranges, and frequencies of detection of chemical contaminants

     •    Define groups of chemicals with similar spatial  distributions
          in Commencement Bay sediments  and/or with similar chemical
          characteristics

     •    Determine the magnitude of contamination relative to conditions
          at Carr Inlet reference areas, and the significance of this
          contamination relative  to conditions at  all Puget Sound
          reference areas

     •    Condense the  list  of chemicals of concern to those detected
          in Commencement  Bay  study area  sediments  at  levels  that
          exceed Puget Sound reference area  conditions

     •    Provide  a  summary list  of Commencement Bay  study areas,
          segments within  areas,  and  individual  stations  with the
          highest levels of contamination for each chemical of concern.

3.1.1   Bulk Sediment Characteristics

     Conventional analyses of bulk  sediments  included determination of
the grain size distribution, and concentrations of oil  and grease,  volatile
solids, total  organic carbon, nitrogen, and sulfides.  Results  of these
analyses are summarized in Figures  3.1-3.5.  Original  data  for  individual
sediment samples are presented in Appendix III.
                                  3.1

-------
                        PERCENT FINE-GRAINED SEDIMENTS (>4)*
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	 	 T -
HY    BL
SI
                               Ml
SP    MD   Cl
RS
                                                              CR
                                                      RANGE

                                                      STANDARD DEVIATION
              a SHADED AREAS INDICATE THE PERCENTAGE OF CLAYS (

               DATA ARE FROM MARCH 1984 SEDIMENT ANALYSES ONLY (n=115)




              b LOCATION OF PUYALLUP RIVER INDICATED BY ARROW.

               STUDY AREAS SHOWN GEOGRAPHICALLY FROM NORTH (LEFT)

               TO SOUTH (RIGHT).
      Figure 3.1.   Total  average  percent fine-grained  material
                    (>4  phi) and average percent clay  (>8 phi) in
                    sediments from Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet
                    study  areas.
                                 3.2

-------
                        OIL AND GREASE
                                              4,300 - -
     3000-1
     2000-
g
LU


&
Q
o>
     1000 H
                                           if,
                                        UPPER RANGE 5,700
                                                          4,100
                                                      RANGE
                                                      200-500
HY    BL    SI     Ml
                                   PU
                                            MD    Cl    RS
CR
                                                       RANGE

                                                       STANDARD DEVIATION
             aDATA ARE FROM MARCH 1984 SEDIMENT ANALYSES ONLY (n = 115)


             b LOCATION OF PUYALLUP RIVER INDICATED BY ARROW.
              STUDY AREAS SHOWN GEOGRAPHICALLY FROM NORTH (LEFT)
              TO SOUTH (RIGHT).
        Figure 3.2.   Total average oil  and grease  concentrations  in
                      sediments  from Commencement Bay and Carr  Inlet
                      study areas.
                                     3.3

-------
                          O
COMMENCEMENT  O
      BAY
                   > 10% OC  5-10% OC  < 5% OC


                                        •   CLOSED CIRCLES > 10ppm SULFIDES



                                        O   OPEN CIRCLES < 10ppm SULFIDES
                                                                                               METERS
                                                                                            1000
       CITY
       WATERWAY
Figure 3.3.  Relative concentrations  of sediment organic
             carbon and sul fides  in  Commencement Bay  study
             areas  (January and March,  1984).

-------
UJ
•

in
            RUSTON
          N
          o
          I
          r
          0
        4000

          I  FEET
1	1  METERS


     1000
TACOMA
                                                                     O
                                                      COMMENCEMENT

                                                            BAY
                                                    > 10% OC   5-10% OC   < 5% OC



                                                                         •    CLOSED CIRCLES > 10ppm SULFIDES





                                                                         O    OPEN CIRCLES < 10ppm SULFIDES
                   Figure  3.3.   (Continued)

-------
                  RATIO OF
       % TOTAL VOLATILE SOLIDS
        TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON
    6.0-1
     5.0-
     4.0-
O
O
     3.0-
     2.0-
     1.0-
           HY
BL
SI
Ml A. MD
   PU
SP
Cl
RS
CR
               I  STANDARD DEVIATION


                 a LOCATION OF PUYALLUP RIVER INDICATED BY ARROW.
                  STUDY AREAS SHOWN GEOGRAPHICALLY FROM NORTH (LEFT)
                  TO SOUTH (RIGHT).
     Figure  3.4.   Comparison of the  average percent  total vola-
                   tile solids with average percent total organic
                   carbon  in sediments  from Commencement Bay and
                   Carr Inlet study areas.
                               3.6

-------
                       ATOMIC RATIO OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON
                       ATOMIC RATIO OF TOTAL ORGANIC N|TROGEN
     60-1
     50-
     40-
O
     30-
     20-
     10-
            HY
                              f.
BL
SI
Ml ^ SP
   pua
MD    Cl
RS
CR
                  EXCLUDES AN ANOMALOUSLY HIGH C/N RATIO OF 210 AT MD-13;
                  THE AVERAGE INCLUDING THIS VALUE IS 87 ฑ 110.
               I  STANDARD DEVIATION
                a LOCATION OF PUYALLUP RIVER INDICATED BY ARROW.
                 STUDY AREAS SHOWN GEOGRAPHICALLY FROM NORTH (LEFT)
                 TO SOUTH (RIGHT).
      Figure 3.5.   Comparison of the average atomic  carbon/nitro-
                    gen  ration (C/N)  in sediments from Commencement
                    Bay  and Carr Inlet study  areas.
                                 3.7

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3.1.1.1  Grain Size--

     The average percent of fine-grained material  (silt  plus  clay; >4 phi)
and the average percent of clay  (>8  phi)  in sediments  of each  study area
are displayed  in Figure 3.1.  The percent of fine-grained  material (primarily
silt) tended  to decrease north of the Puyallup River.   This decrease probably
corresponds with a decrease in the  load of silty  material  discharged by
the Puyallup  River  in  a  predominantly northward-trending plume.   Major
discharges  from stormwater drains at the head of City  Waterway  contributed
to the  observed accumulation of  fine-grained  sediments in that waterway.
 The range  and variability  in the percent of fine-grained  sediments along
the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline were similar to those  of reference sediments
from Carr  Inlet.  Sediments collected within Carr  Inlet  were  substantially
coarser than most sediments sampled in Commencement  Bay.   Effects  of this
difference  in grain size  on interpretations of chemical  and biological
data are discussed  in later sections.

3.1.1.2  Oil and Grease--

     Average oil  and grease concentrations (mg/kg dry sediment) for  Commencement
Bay study areas are presented in Figure 3.2.   Highest concentrations were
found  in  sediments from  City Waterway  and along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shoreline.   Oil and grease concentrations decreased  from  the  head  of City
Waterway to the mouth,  suggesting  a  substantial  contribution  from  drains
at the  head  of the  waterway.  Changes  in  the  spatial distribution  of oil
and grease  concentrations  along the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline suggest
multiple local  sources.   The highest  dry-weight  (DW) values  were  found
at  Station  RS-18  (4,100  mg/kg) off  the main ASARCO  plant outfall  and at
Station RS-16  (2,100 mg/kg) along the  shoreline  (see Figures 2.1-2.3 for
station  locations).  Average oil  and grease sediment  concentrations in
other study  areas were comparable to those measured  at Carr Inlet.

3.1.1.3  Total Organic Carbon and Sulfides--

     The extent of  organic enrichment in Commencement  Bay  surface sediments,
as indicated  by the  percent total organic carbon (TOC)  content,  is summarized
in  Figure 3.3.  Measured TOC  sediment  values ranged from <1  percent at
several  stations to 20.5 percent at Station RS-16 along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shoreline.   Sediments in the isolated Wheeler-Osgood branch of  City Waterway
were also highly enriched  (18 percent  TOC).   TOC levels  in the remainder
of  City  Waterway sediments  consistently declined from  8.9 percent  at the
head of the  waterway to 1.2 percent at the mouth.   Other study  areas  having
major variations in TOC content  included St. Paul  Waterway (TOC range  1.5-16
percent), and  Hylebos Waterway (TOC range 0.26-12 percent).

     Sediment  sulfide concentrations are summarized  in Figure 3.3  in relation-
ship to the  observed TOC concentrations.  Concentrations  of free su If ides
in Commencement Bay surface sediments indicated in Figure  3.3 were classified
as  either <10 or >_10 mg/kg  DW.  This general  classification of sediments
into groups of  "low"  and "high" sulfide content takes  into account  uncertainty
in analytical  results for most of the sulfide analyses performed  (see preser-
vation  discussion in Methods, Section  2.2).   The sulfide values reported
for samples collected in March, 1984 are considered  minimum estimates of


                                  3.8

-------
in situ  concentrations.  Maximum sulfide levels  were  reported for preserved
sediments collected during January,  1984 and ranged  up  to 710 mg/kg  DW
at Station CI-02.

     All Commencement Bay sediments with substantial organic enrichment
(i.e.,  >10 percent TOC)  also contained sulfides >_10 mg/kg DW, as did most
sediments with moderate organic enrichment (i.e., 5-10  percent TOC).  Low
concentrations of  sulfides  (i.e.,  <10 mg/kg DW) were measured  in  most
Cortmencement Bay sediments with low organic enrichment (i.e., <5 percent TOC).
Reference sediments  from Carr Inlet contained <6 mg/kg sulfides  and <0.3 percent
TOC.

     High-sulfide  sediments were found throughout  the  organically enriched
City Waterway, except at two stations at the mouth  of the waterway (Figure 3.3),
where TOC levels measured <3 percent.  Sediments  collected from all stations
within the adjacent Middle Waterway contained  high sulfides, as did sediments
from  the organically enriched Station  SP-14 in St. Paul Waterway off the
main  Champion International  paper  mill  outfall.  Low-sulfide sediments
were  found at all other  St.  Paul Waterway stations  and  at all stations
from Milwaukee  and Sitcum Waterways.  Low sulfide concentrations in  these
sediments coincided with  relatively  low TOC concentrations, an apparent
common characteristic  of  stations  near the mouth of the  Puyallup  River.
With  some exceptions, low sulfide levels were  also  found throughout Blair
Waterway, where TOC  averaged <1.5 percent.

     Sediment  sulfide concentrations in upper Hylebos Waterway were high
in the organically enriched sediments  off the Kaiser  Ditch.  Moderately
organically enriched sediments in the upper turning  basin of Hylebos  Waterway
off Hylebos Creek had  consistently  low sulfide concentrations.   Sulfide
concentrations  >10 mg/kg DW were found in several sediment samples collected
near  major outfalls  along Hylebos Waterway, and in some samples collected
outside the waterway mouth; most of these samples contained <5 percent TOC.

3.1.1.4  Total  Volatile Solids (TVS)--

     TVS measurements are often used instead of TOC measurements as a relatively
inexpensive means of testing  for organic enrichment.  TVS  is determined
by the  difference in the total weight of a sediment sample before and after
heating  at >_550ฐ C.  This technique is less  precise than the quantitative
determination  of TOC in a sample by  combustion,  and  can  overestimate the
actual  organic load because  of simultaneous volatilization of inorganic
sediment components with organic carbon and  non-carbon organic material.
The amount of  volatilized inorganic components  will  vary among sediments.

     Despite these  potential  limitations, a strong correlation was found
in the overall distribution of percent  TVS with  percent TOC in sediments
from  Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet.  The linear regression equation determined
for these data  is:

            TOC = -0.346  + 0.5051(TVS)        r?  = 0.81, n=144

The regression  predicts that  TOC is  approximately half  the observed TVS
value,  or that TVS overestimates TOC  by approximately  a  factor of two.
The variability  in the average ratio of percent  TVS to TOC among Commencement

                                   3.9

-------
Bay  study areas  is  demonstrated  in  Figure 3.4.   The greatest variability
in this ratio, approaching  100 percent,  was found  for sediments  from the
Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.  The average ratio  varied  among study areas
by a factor of approximately three.   There was no  consistent trend  among
study  areas between TVS/TOG variation  and grain  size  differences shown
in Figure 3.1, although  a high average  ratio of TVS  to  TOC was  observed
for  coarse sediments from the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline and  from Carr
Inlet.   TVS/TOC ratios exceeding an  order of magnitude were found  at  two
stations:  HY-46 in lower Hylebos Waterway and  RS-13 along the Ruston-Pt.
Defiance Shoreline (ratio of 15 and 13, respectively).

     The overall  strong  correlation of TVS with TOC  observed for Commencement
Bay and Carr  Inlet  sediments suggests  that TVS is a valuable indicator
of  organic enrichment  for general  purposes.  Because  of the range  and
variability in the ratio of TVS to TOC among sediments, direct measurements
of TOC  are used  in  this  report when calculating  chemical concentrations
normalized to  sediment organic content  for use in  source and biological
effects evaluations  (see discussion below in Section 3.1.2).

3.1.1.5  Total Organic Carbon/Nitrogen Ratios (C/N)--

     The average  ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) for  study area sediments,
after correction  for  differences in the atomic  weight of the two molecules,
is given in Figure 3.5.  Elevated sediment C/N  ratios,  which provide evidence
that carbon-rich  materials have been incorporated  into  the  sediments, have
been used as  a general  indicator of sediment contamination.  Examples of
sources of this material in urban discharges include coals, oils, and  paper
products.  Sewage effluents contain substantial  loads of carbon-rich material
(e.g.,  cellulose),  but  are also nitrogen-rich.   Therefore, although  an
elevated C/N  ratio  is  indicative of contamination,  a lower C/N ratio is
not proof that a  sediment is contaminant-free.

     The observed  average atomic C/N ratio for  Carr Inlet sediments (i.e., 8.5)
is typical of  marine  sediments.  The average atomic  C/N ratio for sediments
in all  Commencement  Bay study areas is substantially higher than reference.
These data suggest that carbon-rich materials  have  accumulated over most
of the  Commencement Bay  area.   This is  true  even  for sediments from some
stations located outside  of the mouths  of Hylebos and  Blair Waterways,
where atomic C/N  ratios ranged from 1.3 to 20.   Aside from  local  discharges,
a source of carbon-rich material in Commencement Bay sediments is accumulations
of Puyallup River  particulate material, which likely  contains coal  fragments
eroded  from upriver deposits (Barrick  et  al.  1984).

3.1.2  Normalization  of Chemical  Concentrations

     In this report,  chemical data are used  to:

     •     Determine the relative  magnitude of  contamination among
          Commencement Bay  areas and in  comparison  with reference
          conditions  at Carr Inlet

     t     Define  areas with problem sediments, where sediment toxicity
          or biological effects are  shown  to  occur above some threshold
          concentration of a chemical  in  sediments

                                 3.10

-------
     •    Evaluate  spatial and temporal  distributions of contaminants
          when tracing potential  sources of  contamination  (heavily
          contaminated  areas will  be  prioritized  for possible source
          control  even if no clear relationship  to  observed  sediment
          toxicity or  biological effects has  been established).

     To accomplish these  objectives, chemical  data must be normalized  to
account for physical and physicochemical differences among samples.  Otherwise,
these  differences  may mask potential trends in chemical  concentrations
that would be useful in interpreting environmental data.  Sediment chemical
concentrations in  this  report are expressed in three possible ways,  as
appropriate:   the mass of a  chemical relative to (1)  total sediment dry-weight,
(2)  total  weight  of the  fine-grained sediment  fraction, or (3) total  weight
of sediment organic  carbon.  These  normalizations are based on observed
and  theoretical  factors  known to  affect the quantity of  chemicals in a
given volume of sediment:

     1.   Most sediment  contaminants  are associated primarily with
          the solid material  in bulk sediments, not with the interstitial
          water.   Because the percent water content  can vary considerably
          among samples, wet-weight concentrations  are typically  poor
          indicators of the relative quantity of  chemicals among samples.

     2.   Fine-grained sediments naturally tend to accumulate more
          chemicals  than coarse-grained sediments because the  relative
          surface area available for adsorption  of  chemicals increases
          with decreasing grain size.

     3.   Many trace  chemicals are associated  and transported with
          organic  carbon-rich  particles  in  the  environment, or  can
          be bound by organic carbon in sediments.  Carbon-rich sediments
          tend to  contain a larger  quantity  of  these chemicals  than
          carbon-poor  sediments.

     The first major  use of chemical  data  in  this  report is to evaluate
the  relative magnitude  of contamination among Commencement  Bay areas.
Dry-weight  concentrations  were selected for this evaluation.  Changes  in
dry-weight concentrations  reflect  proportional changes  in  the relative
quantity  of chemicals at  different sites  because the bulk dry density  of
sediment  is nearly constant  at approximately  2.5 g/cm3 pn situ; Robbins
and Edgington 1975),  regardless of variations  in the grain size distribution.
For  example, 10 mg of copper  measured  in  a  sample containing 80 percent
sand would yield approximately the same  dry-weight concentration as   10 mg
of copper measured  in an equal  volume  of  sample  containing  80 percent clay.
The magnitude of  error associated with  the assumption of  equal density
among Commencement Bay  sediments  is probably  less than 50 percent,  given
the natural  variability  in  densities of common expandable  clays (e.g.,
montmoril linite)  and differences  in densities attributable to enrichment
of slag particles, for example,  in some  bulk  sediments.

     A  comparison  of contamination among Commencement Bay sites with reference
conditions  at Carr Inlet is  also made  on  a dry-weight basis in later sections.
Data presented in Figure 3.1 indicate  that much coarser sediments are found

                                 3.11

-------
 in  Carr Inlet than in  most  of Commencement Bay.   For the reasons just stated,
 comparisons of  dry-weight concentrations between the two areas provide
 a  reasonable estimate  of  the relative mass of  contaminants in fine-grained
 Corrmencement Bay  sediments  compared with those in  the coarse-grained sediments
 at  Carr Inlet.  Differences  in average grain size distributions are relevant
 in  interpreting  the  significance of  observed elevations  in  dry-weight
 concentrations.   Because  of  the lower capacity of sandy  sediments to accumulate
 and transport  pollutants  relative to fine-grained sediments, elevated
 contaminant  levels within sandy sediments  would not be expected, except
 at  sites directly adjacent to a contaminant discharge.   The  meaning of
 a  "significant"  elevation above reference  for dry-weight concentrations
 is  presented in  Section  3.1.3 (Sediment Metals)  and Section 3.1.4 (Sediment
 Organic Compounds).

     The  second major use  of chemical data in  this report is  to evaluate
 relationships among chemical concentrations,  sediment toxicity, and biological
 effects  to help  define  action  levels.   Only  a small portion of the  total
 amount of a contaminant  may be bioavailable (i.e., available  for direct
 contact  with organisms  either  through  surface contact,  respiration, or
 ingestion).  The bioavailable portion  of  the  total contaminant mass may
 also vary  among  sediments.  Hence, measurements of the  total sediment
 concentration  of a chemical  may  not correspond with changes  in observed
 toxicity  or biological  effects  among  different  sediment samples.  Sediment
 matrix effects  that alter the bioavailability  of contaminants include adsorption
 of  chemicals  onto sediment surfaces  and  absorption into  sediment matrices
 [e.g., fecal pellets  (Karickhoff and Morris  1985), humic  substances, or
 clay  lattices].  An  increase  in organic  carbon content, sediment surface
 area, or expandable clay  content may result  in contaminants  being  bound
 to  particles  in  such a  way that the  bioavailability of  the  contaminant
 is  reduced.

     For example,  a coarse-grained sediment with  a low dry-weight concentration
 of  a toxic contaminant  and  a fine-grained, organic-rich sediment with a
 high  dry-weight  contaminant  concentration may exhibit  similar toxicity.
 When normalized  to organic  carbon or percent  fine-grained material, the
 resulting normalized concentrations may  be similar, thus supporting the
 observed  similarity in toxicity.   This  situation would suggest  that similar
 available or  effective  amounts  of a  contaminant  were present in the two
 dissimilar bulk sediment samples.   The  bioavailability question may be
 resolved  by direct measurements of contaminant concentrations associated
 with different sedimentary components  (e.g.,  interstitial  water,  or a  specific
 size  or  density fraction  of  the sediment).   These  tests  were beyond the
 scope of  the present study.   Therefore,  the  approach here is  to examine
whether  increases in observed  toxicity  or biological  effects correspond
with increased contaminant concentrations of metals and/or  organic compounds
after normalization to organic  carbon or percent  fine-grained material.

     The third  major  use of chemical  data in  this report is  to  identify
potential  sources  of contamination.   For organic compounds,  these source
 identifications make use of  trends in sediment concentrations normalized
to dry weight  and  to total organic carbon content.  Interpretation of trends
in  metal  concentrations are  based  on  dry  weight and  normalizations to the
total  weight of  the fine-grained  sediment  fraction (>4 phi).   Inorganic
and organic  chemicals from pollution  sources tend to be  selectively enriched

                                 3.12

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in sediment participate fractions having a high  content of hydrous manganese
or iron oxides, high surface area, high organic  carbon content, or low density
(e.g.,  Lerman 1979; Thompson and Eglinton  1978; Karickhoff et al.  1979;
Prahl and Carpenter 1983).  Dilution of chemically enriched sediment fractions
with variable amounts of unrelated material during transport and deposition
can distort spatial  trends  when  interpreted on the basis  of dry-weight
concentrations.  Organic carbon or fine-grained sediment normalizations
are used primarily to factor out this variability in bulk  sediments when
patterns in dry-weight concentrations are not  apparent.  When a  clear gradient
in dry-weight concentrations is apparent, further  normalizations of chemical
concentrations may be unnecessary to  trace potential sources.  In  these
cases,  organic carbon or fine-grained sediment normalizations  can be used
to establish whether the major carbon  or fine-grained sediment source in
the area coincides with the source of contaminants.  For  example, a strong
gradient  in dry-weight  concentrations that  disappears after normalization
to organic carbon suggests that the pollutant  source is also a major source
of organic carbon.   The actual loading of contaminants on the organic carbon
may be  no different  than  that in some  other area with  lower dry-weight
concentrations.  Alternatively, a strong gradient  in dry-weight  concentrations
that reverses or intensifies after normalization to organic carbon suggests
that the  discharge contributes to increased  loadings of contaminants on
the sedimentary  organic carbon derived from a  separate source.

     No single  concentration  normalization is  used in this report to  the
exclusion of others  that  may offer  complementary information.  Because
organic  carbon  or fine-grained material  in sediments have a finite capacity
to bind contaminants  and potentially reduce their  bioavailability, sediments
that are  highly contaminated based on dry-weight and other normalizations
are of  greatest concern.   Conversely,  sediments with  low contamination
regardless of the normalization used are of lowest concern.

3.1.3  Sediment  Metals

3.1.3.1  Surface Sediments--

     Ranges  in  concentrations  (dry weight,  DW) of 16 elements in surface
subtidal sediments from Conmencement Bay and Carr Inlet are shown in Table 3.1.
These  elements  include the  13 U.S. EPA  priority pollutant metals.   Three
of these  "metals"   (antimony, arsenic,  and  selenium) are  classified  as
metalloids, which  are elements that do  not strictly occur  as metals in
the environment.  Following U.S. EPA convention  and for ease of discussion,
all of  these elements will be referred to as metals.

     The results  include data  for  two 1984  sediment surveys  conducted as
part of the Superfund investigation.  Additional data are  included from
1984 for  the Blair Waterway Dredging Survey  conducted as a combined  effort
between the Port of Tacoma  and this Commencement Bay Superfund project.
In addition to  the U.S. EPA  priority  pollutant metals, distributions of
iron and manganese were determined to  enable  a comparison  of levels of
predominantly naturally derived metals  among stations.  Iron and manganese
also form oxides that are important scavengers affecting  the  distribution
of other  metals.   Barium concentrations were measured to evaluate  if EP
(Extraction Procedure) toxicity tests  for barium would be  required  for
sediments  potentially requiring disposal  as hazardous waste.

                                  3.13

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     Most metals  were detected  in all samples.   Highest  concentrations
of metals were found  along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.   The distributions
of metals  that were  frequently detected over a range  of concentrations
or that were found  in  high concentration at a few sites  are discussed in
Section  3.1.5.   The remaining metals (i.e., selenium,  thallium) were either
undetected  at the  detection limits  stated in  Table  3.1, or were  rarely
found  in  high dry-weight concentrations (i.e., beryllium,  sliver).  Their
distributions are  summarized in this  section  and  these metals  will  not
be discussed further.

     Beryllium was  detected at most sites, but its  distribution was  relatively
uniform and  concentrations did not exceed 0.6 mg/kg DW.  Highest beryllium
concentrations were  found  in Hylebos Waterway and  near  the major outfalls
of the ASARCO plant on the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance  Shoreline.  Selenium  and
thallium concentrations  in sediments sampled directly off  the major outfalls
of the ASARCO plant were  elevated over an order of magnitude above typical
Commencement Bay  levels.   Selenium was  undetected at all  other  sites and
thallium was  not present at more than twice its detection  limit  (0.05 mg/kg DW)
at any  other site.   Silver  concentrations did not  exceed 0.6 mg/kg DW,
except in sediments  collected in January, 1984 from two City Waterway stations
(CI-02, CI-03)  where concentrations exceeded 2 mg/kg  DW.   Subsequent sampling
at nearby stations  in  March,  1984 did not show similar  levels.

3.1.3.2  Subsurface Sediments--

     Twenty-three  sediment  box  or gravity  cores of  1-6 ft  (0.3-1.8 m) in
length were analyzed  from Hylebos, Sitcum, St. Paul, Middle, and  City Waterways,
and  from  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline.  These cores were  collected
at 18 stations  in  13 areas where contaminated surface sediments were  found.
Additional  cores  of  up to  8 ft (2.4  m)  in length were collected using a
drilling rig at 17  sites in  Blair  Waterway as  part of a combined  effort
between  the Port  of  Tacoma and this  Commencement Bay  Superfund project.
Ranges in concentrations (DW) of inorganic chemicals  analyzed  in composited
sediments  from different core depths are summarized in Table 3.2.  Maximum
subsurface and surface  sediment concentrations can be  used  to  compare extreme
historical  and present conditions.  A comparison of mean subsurface values
with mean surface  values  from throughout the study area was not made because
cores were  collected only in  areas where substantial  contamination by inorganic
or organic  substances  was indicated in surface sediments;  surface sediments
were collected  from multiple  sites ranging from low to  high contamination.

     Maximum  subsurface concentrations  of  most elements  were  higher by
factor of 1.5 to 3  times the maximum surface concentrations reported in
Table  3.1.   These maximum  subsurface  and surface  sediment  concentrations
almost always occured  in  cores from along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.
Maximum iron and manganese concentrations in subsurface and surface sediments
from this area  also fell  within this range of differences.  These  elements
are  derived from  predominantly natural  sources that have  presumably been
reasonably  constant over  time, although natural variability in  accumulations
over  time  and among  different sediment types is expected.   Therefore, the
observed differences  may be related to natural  variability in  sediment
deposition, not to a  major change in the discharge of  metals  from  pollutant
sources.  Concentrations of  metals  (e.g., lead  and copper) also did  not


                                   3.14

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   TABLE  3.1.   CONCENTRATIONS OF U.S. EPA PRIORITY POLLUTANT TRACE  METALS
            AND ADDITIONAL METALS  IN  SURFACE SEDIMENTS (0-2 cm)
                   FROM COMMENCEMENT BAY AND CARR INLET

Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Thallium
Zinc
Range
(mg/kg dry wt)
U 0.10&- 420
2.4 - 12,000
5.1 - 150
U 0.02 - 0.55
U 0.1 - 180
5.4 - 62
4.9 - 14,000
6,200 - 120,000
4.4 - 6,200
55 - 750
0.01 - 52
6.9 - 350
U 0.05 - 26
0.02 - 2.4
U 0.10 - 3.2
15 - 4,200
Detection
Frequency3
142/148
148/148
129/129
145/148
144/148
148/148
148/148
148/148
148/148
148/148
147/148
147/147
12/148
138/148
19/148
148/148
Location
of
Maximum
RS-18
RS-17
RS-21
RS-21
RS-18
CI-02
RS-21
RS-21
RS-18
RS-18
RS-18
RS-21
RS-17
CI-02
RS-18
RS-21
a Detection frequency  includes  replicate samples; maximum of 10 percent
replication.  Original data  listed  in Appendix IV.

b U:  Undetected  at  the  detection  limit shown.
                                   3.15

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    TABLE 3.2.   U.S. EPA PRIORITY POLLUTANT  TRACE METALS AND ADDITIONAL
           METALS IN SUBSURFACE  SEDIMENTS FROM COMMENCEMENT BAY
Range
(mg/kg dry wt)
Antimony
Arsenic
BariumC
Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silverc
Thallium
Zincc
U O.lb-
1.4 -
9.2 -
U 0.05 -
U 0.10 -
8.9 -
10 -
8,700 -
U 2.0 -
63.0 -
U 0.04 -
0.36 -
U 0.05 -
U 0.05 -
U 0.1 -
18 -
200
30,000
460
1.0
280
130
36,000
190,000
10,000
1,900
21
930
26
18
2.0
13,000
Detection
Frequency3
93/130
130/130
129/130
114/130
81/130
130/130
130/130
130/130
125/130
130/130
98/129
130/130
8/130
77/130
6/130
130/130
Location
of
Maximum
RS-61-H3
RS-62-H1
RS-61-H3
RS-61-H1
RS-61-H1
RS-61-H1
RS-61-H1
RS-61-H1
RS-61-H1
RS-61-H1
RS-62-H2
RS-61-H1
RS-62-H2
RS-60-H1
RS-61-H1
RS-61-H5
a Detection  frequency  includes replicate  samples; maximum of 10 percent
replication.   Original sample data listed  in  Appendix IV.
b U:   Undetected  at the detection limit  shown.
c Ratios  of  maximum observed  subsurface to  surface concentrations were
greater  than  three for  only the following  metals:  barium (ratio 3.1);
silver (ratio 7.5); zinc (ratio 3.1).
                                3.16

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vary  substantially with  depth in cores  from Wheeler-Osgood Waterway,  the
middle of the  main channel of City Waterway,  and  St. Paul Waterway.

     All metal  concentrations  (DW)  in the bottom  interval analyzed from
cores drilled  in  Blair Waterway were comparable to Puget  Sound reference
conditions  (see Section 3.1.3.3).  Similarly low metal concentrations were
found in the bottom  interval  of box or  gravity cores  from  four stations
in Hylebos  Waterway (cores  HY-60, HY-60A, HY-61, and HY-62; Figure 2.3).
Concentrations of metals at the bottom  of four  cores were  within a factor
of two  of  Puget Sound  reference conditions (HY-63A, CI-60,  CI-62,  and  SP-
60).   Concentrations of  at least one metal  in the bottom of 11 other cores
were  greater  than two times maximum Puget Sound  reference conditions (cores
CI-61, CI-63,  HY-60B, HY-63, HY-63B, HY-63C,  MO-60, RS-60,  RS-61, RS-62,
and SI-60).

3.1.3.3  Sediment Metals of Concern--

     The range of  trace metal concentrations in sediments from Puget Sound
reference areas are  summarized in Table 3.3.  It  is assumed that the range
of reference  concentrations  provides a reasonable measure of the  possible
variability  in concentrations in relatively  uncontaminated  sediments.
Eight metals are  of  concern because their concentrations (DW)  in Commencement
Bay surface  sediments exceeded the range of concentrations  for Puget Sound
reference  areas.  These metals of concern  are  listed in Table 3.4.  Areas
containing  the most  contaminated sediments are also summarized in the table.
Distributions of these  elements within  Commencement Bay study areas  and
their relative importance in problem areas are discussed in Section  6.

     Concentrations of beryllium,  chromium, and  silver in Commencement
Bay surface  sediments  were within the ranges observed in Puget Sound reference
areas.   Thus, there  is no evidence  that surface subtidal  sediments  in
Commencement Bay  are contaminated by these three elements  above reference
conditions  and they have  not been defined as  metals of concern.   Silver
was found to be elevated above reference conditions in at least one  interval
of cores from Stations CI-60, CI-61,  HY-60B,  RS-60, RS-62,  and SI-60.
Therefore,  sediments contaminated with  silver may be exposed during  dredging
operations  in these areas.   Beryllium and  chromium concentrations  did  not
exceed the  range of Puget  Sound reference  conditions in any  subsurface
sample.

     Except for  stations directly off ASARCO plant outfalls  on the  Ruston-
Pt. Defiance Shoreline,  surface and subsurface sediments in Commencement  Bay
do not  appear to be contaminated by  selenium  or thallium at levels that
exceed Puget Sound reference conditions.   Given this distribution, selenium
and  thallium  are not classified as  chemicals  of general  concern.  High
concentrations of barium were found in  sediments  from a  few stations along
the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline,  at  levels  ranging from 10 to  22 times
reference conditions.  Barium concentrations in the remaining Commencement  Bay
study areas ranged from 2 to 8 times  reference  values (available only from
Carr  Inlet).    Optimal procedures for  the efficient digestion of barium
salts were  not available.  Hence, the concentrations reported may underestimate
the total in   both Commencement Bay and Carr  Inlet sediments.  However,
there are  no  known major  sources of barium  in the region  and barium is
not defined as a  contaminant of general concern.


                                 3.17

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               TABLE 3.3.   SUMMARY OF METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN
                 SEDIMENTS FROM PUGET SOUND REFERENCE AREAS
Range
(mg/kg dry wt)
Antimony
Arsenic
Beryllium
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Thallium
Zinc
U O.lb-
1.9 -
0.07 -
5.6 -
0.1 -
9.6 -
5 -
U 0.1 -
0.01 -
4 -
U 0.1 -
0.02 -
U 0.1 -
15 -
1.7
17
5.5
7.8
1.9
130
74
24
0.28
47
1.0
3.3
0.2
100
Mean
(mg/kg dry wt)
0.32C - 0.38
-------
             TABLE  3.4.   COMPARISON OF THE RANGE IN ELEVATIONS
        ABOVE REFERENCE  (EAR) FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN
            IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS  (0-2 cm) FROM COMMENCEMENT BAY





Antimony
Arsenic
Cadmium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Zinc





0.5
1.6
0.1
1.7
0.9
0.9
0.4
1.1


Elevation

Range
- 2,300
- 3,600
- 190
- 2,200
- 680
- 1,200
20
- 220


Above

Median
6.0
7.3
2.4
13
7.3
5.0
0.9
5.0


Reference3

Threshold**
9.3
5.0
2.0
12
2.6
6.5
2.7
5.3
Areas Where
Sediments
Exceeded
lOx
Threshold0
RS,HY
RS.HY
RS
IS
RS,CI,MD,SI
RS,HY,MD
none RS
RS

a Dry-weight concentration in Commencement  Bay  sediments divided  by  the
average concentration  measured  in six Carr Inlet reference sediments.

b The threshold  EAR is defined  as the ratio of the maximum reference sediment
concentration in  Puget Sound  divided  by the  average for  six  Carr Inlet
reference sediments.   Above  the threshold EAR, the dry-weight concentration
of a  Commencement Bay sediment  contaminant would exceed the maximum concentra-
tion  (or detection limit)  reported for any Puget Sound reference  site  listed
in Table 3.3.

c The  contaminant  EAR in sediments from at least one station in each  area
listed exceeded  the threshold  level  indicated  by  an order  of  magnitude.
Sediments in underlined  areas had  the highest  observed  values.  "None"
indicates that no sediment analyzed from Commencement Bay study areas  exceeded
the  threshold by  an  order of magnitude.  The area with the highest value
is still  listed.
                                  3.19

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 3.1.4  Sediment Organic Compounds

 3.1.4.1  Surface Sediments--

     Ranges  in concentrations (DW) for  the  133 U.S.  EPA organic priority
 pollutant and additional hazardous  substance  list  compounds analyzed in
 Commencement  Bay  and  Carr Inlet surface subtidal sediments  are summarized
 in Table 3.5.   These results  include data for the 1984  Blair Waterway Dredging
 Survey in which similar analytical methods were used.  Ranges in concentrations
 for an additional 14 tentatively identified compounds specifically  searched
 for  in GC/MS analyses of surface  sediments are presented  in Table 3.6.
 Most of these latter compounds  were not analyzed for  in  the  Blair  Waterway
 Dredging Survey.  Organic  compounds in tables used in this report are grouped
 with other chemically related  compounds  and, except for  pesticides,  are
 listed in order  of increased structural complexity  within each  group.
 Structures and molecular weights of  all  compounds discussed  are  shown in
 Appendix I.

     The most frequently detected  organic compounds in sediment samples
 were aromatic hydrocarbons containing one to six rings.   The distributions
 of these  and other compounds that were frequently detected or were detected
 at high concentrations  at a few sites are summarized  in  Section 3.1.5.3.

     Fifty-three compounds were  undetected  in all surface  sediments at
 the detection  limits summarized in Table 3.5.  Special  analyses were conducted
 for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in  32 sediment samples.  Dioxin
 was undetected  at a detection limit of <0.3 ug/kg DW in all cases.  Additional
 undetected  substances  include  most of the organonitrogen compounds (bases),
 pesticides,  and volatile compounds.  Volatile compounds were  analyzed  for
 at only  20  stations,  however.  Compounds  that were  only detected a  few
 times at low concentrations (i.e., <10 ug/kg DW)  include several substituted
 phenols and  halogenated ethers.  It cannot be determined if these 53 compounds
 contribute to observed sediment toxicity or biological effects if they
 are present at concentrations below the low part  per billion detection
 limits attained.  Within the scope of  the Superfund  investigation, these
 compounds  do not appear to be of major concern  for Commencement Bay.

     Pesticides were analyzed  by GC/MS in all  sediment  samples except those
 analyzed in  the Blair  Waterway Dredging Survey, which were analyzed  by
 electron  capture gas  chromatography (EC/GC).   The  GC/MS technique is  less
 sensitive than  pesticide  analysis by EC/GC,  but provides positive confirmation
 of compound  identifications.   Interfering substances can  result in false
 identifications using  EC/GC.   By using  GC/MS,  less sensitive pesticide
detection  limits were attained  than in most historical  analyses for Commencement
Bay,  all conducted using EC/GC.   However,  there were no confirmations  of
the high  historical concentrations in  intertidal  and subtidal  sediments
summarized by Johnson  et  al.   (1983)  (i.e., on the  order  of hundreds  of
ug/kg  DW for  pesticides  such as aldrin,  lindane,  or DDT).  The  only pesticide
detected and  confirmed  by  GC/MS identification was DDT at Station CI-01
 (50 ug/kg DW).  It  appears that  the previous EC/GC reports of substantial
pesticide  contamination in  some study areas  are incorrect, or at least
no longer apply to  current sediment conditions.   Recent pesticide analyses
using EC/GC reported  for  the 1984 Blair Waterway Dredging Survey are included

                                  3.20

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TABLE 3.5.  CONCENTRATIONS OF U.S. EPA ORGANIC PRIORITY POLLUTANTS AND
    ADDITIONAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE LIST (HSL) COMPOUNDS IN SURFACE
SEDIMENTS (0-2 cm)
Phenols (acids; 4)
65& phenol
HSL 2-methyl phenol
HSL 4-methyl phenol
34 2,4-dimethylphenol
Substituted Phenols (acids;
24 2-chlorophenol
31 2,4-dichlorophenol
22 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol
21 2,4,6-trichlorophenol
HSL 62,4,5-trichlorophenol
64 pentachlorophenol
57 2-nitrophenol
59 2,4-dinitrophenol
60 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol
58 4-nitrophenol
Low Molecular Weight Aromatic
55 naphthalene
HSL 2-methylnaphthalene

77 acenaphthylene
1 acenaphthene
80 fluorene
81 phenanthrene
78 anthracene
FROM COMMENCEMENT BAY AND CARR INLET
Range Detection
(ug/kg dry wt) Frequency^
U 1.0C- 2,100 134/158
U 0.6 - 100 72/143
U 1.0 - 96,000 114/143
U 0.5 - 210 36/158
10)
0.1 - U 25 8/158
0.1 - U 50 12/158
0.1 - U 50 3/158
0.2 - 160 12/158
U 10 - 150 2/126
0.1 - 860 45/158
0.1 - U 50 10/158
U 0.5 - U 190 0/32
U 0.5 - U 500 0/158
U 0.5 - U 1,900 3/158
Hydrocarbons (neutrals; 7)
U 0.5 - 5,500 153/158
1.0 U - 1,200 146/156

U 0.5 - 650 149/158
U 0.5 - 2,500 147/158
0.5 - 3,100 151/157
2 - 11,000 157/157
U 0.5 - 1,600 155/157

Location
of
Maximum
HY-16
SP-13
SP-14
RS-16

d
d
d
HY-31
MD-11
BL-30
d
undetected
undetected
Bll

CI-12
RS-18 &
CI-02
CI-21
RS-18
RS-18
RS-18
CI-21
High Molecular Weight Aromatic Hydrocarbons (neutrals; 10)
39 fluoranthene
84 pyrene
72 benzo(a) anthracene
76 chrysene
74 benzo(b) fluoranthene
75 benzo(k) fluoranthene
73 benzo(a) pyrene
83 indeno(l,2,3-c,d)pyrene
82 dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
79 benzo(g,h,i)perylene
11 - 8,100 158/158
11 - 5,800 158/158
4 - 3,500 155/156
U 5 - 6,100 155/156
RS-18
HY-19
HY-19
HY-16
Combined with benzo(k)fluoranthene
U 5 - 8,800 135/136
3 - 6,100 154/156
U 0.5 - 2,700 148/157
0.4 - 1,500 137/157
U 0.5 - 1,900 147/157
HY-16
HY-22
HY-22
HY-22
HY-16
                                3.21

-------
TABLE 3.5.  (Continued)
Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons (
26 1,3-dichlorobenzene

27 1,4-dichlorobenzene
25 1,2-dichlorobenzene
8 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene

20 2-chloronaphthalene
9 hexachlorobenzene (HCB)
Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
12 ehexachloroethane
xx trichlorobutadiene isomers
xx tetrachlorobutadiene isomers
xx pentachlorobutadiene isomers
52 hexachlorobutadiene
53 ehexachlorocyclopentadiene
Halogenated Ethers (neutrals; 5)
18 bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
42 bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether
43 bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane
40 4-chlorophenyl phenyl ether
41 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether
Phthalates (neutrals; 6)
71 dimethyl phthalate
70 diethyl phthalate
68 di-n-butyl phthalate
67 butyl benzyl phthalate
66 bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
69 di-n-octyl phthalate
Miscellaneous oxygenated compounds
54 isophorone
HSL benzyl alcohol
HSL benzoic acid
129 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-
p-dioxin
HSL dibenzofuran
neutrals; 6)
U 0.5 -

U 0.5 -
0.1 -
U 0.5 -

U 0.5 -
0.2 -
(neutrals; 3
U 0.5 -
U 0.5 -
U 10 -
U 10 -
U 0.5 -
U 0.5

0.2 -
U 0.5 -
U 0.5 -
U 0.5 -
U 0.5 -

B 0.5C-
B 0.5 -
B 0.5 -
U 0.5 -

210

290
350
260

U 25
730
plus CBD
2,800
43,000
18,000
3,600
940


U 50
U 400
91
U 25
U 25

1,100
120
9,800
890
B 0.5 -G 8,000
U 0.5 -
(neutrals; 5)
U 0.5 -
U 10 -
U 1.0 -

U 0.3 -
U 1.0 -
420

U 130
500
8,000

U 0.2
2,000

57/158

104/158
47/158
25/158

0/158
34/158
isomers)
4/158
54/145
84/145
46/145
33/158
0/18

4/158
1/158
1/140
0/158
0/158

78/157
37/157
94/157
51/150
61/157
33/155

13/157
87/126
63/143

0/32
131/143

BL-19
HY-31
CI-11
CI-16
HY-46 &
HY-22
undetected
HY-22

HY-22
HY-46
HY-46
HY-46
HY-46
undetected

d
d
B-14
undetected
undetected

HY-21
HY-48
CB-11
HY-35
CI-02
B-09

d
HY-21
BL-16

undetected
RS-18
                                  3.22

-------
TABLE 3.5.  (Continued)
Organonitrogen Compounds (bases; 13}

HSL  aniline
56   nitrobenzene
63   n-nitroso-di-n-propylamine
HSL  4-chloroaniline
HSL  2-nitroaniline
HSL  3-nitroaniline
HSL  4-nitroam"line
36  e2,6-dinitrotoluene
35   2,4-dinitrotoluene
62   n-nitrosodiphenylamine
37  el,2-diphenylhydrazine
 5   benzidine (4,4'-diaminobipheny1)
28   3,3'-dichlorobenzidine
U 1.0
U 0.5
U 0.5
U 50
U 50
U 50
U 50
U 0.5
U 0.5
0.2
U 0.5
U 0.5
U 0.5
- 1,400
- U 25
- U 50
- U 250
- U 250
- U 250
- U 250
- U 50
28
- 610
- 1,200

- U 500
3/143
2/157
2/151
0/126
0/126
0/126
0/126
8/157
3/157
31/157
4/158
0/13
0/139
CI-11
d
d
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
d
CI-01
RS-18
BL-12
undetected
undetected
Pesticides (neutrals; 18)

93   p,p'-DDE
94   p.p'-DDD
92  ep,p'-DDT
89   aldrin
90   dieldrin
91   chlordane
95   alpha-endosulfan
96   beta-endosulfan
97   endosulfan sulfate
98   endrin
99   endrin aldehyde
100  heptachlor
101  heptachlor epoxide
102  alpha-HCH
103  beta-HCH
104  delta-HCH
105  gamma-HCH (lindane)
113  toxaphene
U 0.01- U
U 0.03- U
U 0.01- U
U 0.01- U
U 0.01- U
U 10 - U
U 0.02- U
U 0.03- U
U 0.03- U
U 0.03- U
U 0.02- U
U 0.02- U
U 0.02- U
U 0.01- U
U 0.03- U
U 0.02- U
U 0.01- U
U 10 - U
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
22
5/157
4/158
11/158
1/158
0/158
0/158
0/157
0/157
0/157
0/158
0/157
1/158
0/158
0/158
0/158
0/158
0/158
0/32
d
d
d
d
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
d
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
PCBs (neutrals; used as total PCBs only)

xx   Total PCBs  (primarily 1254/1260)      4 -   2,000
113/144
HY-22
                                   3.23

-------
TABLE 3.5.  (Continued)
Volatile Halogenated Alkanes  (neutrals; 17)
     dichlorodifluoromethane (removed)
45   chloromethane
46   bromomethane
16   chloroethane
44   methylene chloride (dichloromethane)
     fluorotrichloromethane (removed)
13   l,l'-dichloroethane
23  echloroform
10   1,2-dichloroethane
11   1,1,1-trichloroethane
 6   carbon tetrachloride
48   bromodichloromethane
32   1,2-dichloropropane
51   chlorodibromomethane
14   1,1,2-trichloroethane
47   bromoform
15   1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane

Volatile Halogenated Alkenes (neutrals;

88   vinyl chloride
29   l,l'-dichloroethene
30   trans-l,2-dichloroethene
33   cis and trans-l,3-dichloropropene
87   trichloroethene
85   tetrachloroethene
Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbons (neutrals; 5)
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
6)
u
u
u
u
u
u
10
10
5
5
10
5
1.0
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

5
5
1.1
5
5
5


- U
- U

- U
- U
- U
- U
- U
- U
- U
- U
-
- U
- u

- u
- u
- u
- u
- u


10
10

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
38
10
10

10
10
10
10
10
- 210
 4   benzene
86   toluene
38   ethylbenzene
HSL  styrene (ethenylbenzene)
HSL  total xylenes
                                       U 0.15- U 10
                                       U 0.19- U 10
                                       U 0.08-   50
                                       U  20
                                       U  20 -  160
                                                          0/21
                                                          0/21
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36

                                                          0/21
                                                          0/36
                                                          3/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          2/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          1/36
                                                          1/36
                                                          0/36
                                                          0/36
                                                         11/36
 4/36
 3/36
11/36

10/21
Volatile Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons (neutrals; 1)

 7   chlorobenzene                      U   5 - U 10       0/36

Volatile Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds (base/neutrals;  2)

                                                           0/21

                                                           0/21

Volatile Ethers (neutrals;  2)
2   acrolein (an unsaturated aldehyde)  U  100
3   acrylonitrile (an unsaturated
    nitrile)                           U  100
     bis(chloromethyl)ether
19   2-chloroethylvinyl  ether
                                       U   5 - U 100
         undetected
         undetected
         undetected
         undetected
       not reported
         undetected
         undetected
            d
         undetected
         undetected
         undetected
         undetected
         undetected
         undetected
            B-ll
         undetected
         undetected
         undetected
            d
            d
         undetected
         undetected
            HY-17
   d
   d
   HY-17
undetected
   HY-17
         undetected



         undetected

         undetected
       not analyzed
         undetected
                                   3.24

-------
TABLE 3.5.  (Continued)
Volatile Ketones (neutrals;  4)

HSL  acetone                            U   20              0/20    undetected
HSL  2-butanone                         U   20              0/20    undetected
HSL  2-hexanone                         U   20              0/20    undetected
HSL  4-methyl-2-pentanone               U   20              0/20    undetected

Miscellaneous Volatile Compounds  (neutrals; 2)

HSL  carbon disulfide                   5      - U   10      9/20       d
HSL  vinyl acetate                      U   20              0/20    undetected


a Detection frequency includes  replicate samples; maximum of 10 percent
replication.  Original sample  data listed  in Appendix V.

b Indicates U.S. EPA priority  pollutant  number.

c Qualifiers -

     B:   Value corrected  for blank contributions  down to the  detection
limit shown.

     E:  Estimated value.

     G:  Estimated value  is  greater than the minimum shown.

     N/R:   Not reported.

     U:   Undetected  at  the detection limit stated (ug/kg or ppb dry weight
         sediment).

     Z:   Value corrected  for blank contributions; resulting value still
         exceeds the detection  limit.

d Compound detected  at concentration between the minimum  and  maximum detection
limits  shown at a few stations  only.

e Compounds detected only  under  special circumstances and were not included
in routine statistical  analyses of surface  sediments.
                                  3.25

-------
       TABLE  3.6.   CONCENTRATIONS  OF TENTATIVELY  IDENTIFIED COMPOUNDS
     IN SURFACE  SEDIMENTS  (0-2  cm)  FROM COMMENCEMENT BAY AND CARR INLET
                                            Range
                                        (ug/kg dry wt)
Detection
Frequency
 Location
of Maximum
Alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons

  1-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)benzene       Uป  - 6600     104/123       SP-14
  l.l'-biphenyl                           U   - 1100     102/123       RS-18
  2-methyl phenanthrene                   U   - 2400     102/122       RS-18
  1-methyl phenanthrene                   U   - 1300      85/122       RS-18
  1-methylpyrene                          U   - 1500      86/123       HY-17
  retene                                  U   - 2000     113/123       SI-15
  2-methylpyrene                          U   - 3400      93/123       HY-16

Diterpenoid hydrocarbons

  isopimaradiene                          U   - 5900     104/123       SP-14
  unidentified diterpene
       (possibly kaur-16-ene)             U   - 5200      97/123       SP-14

Substituted hydrocarbons

  dibenzothiophene                        U   - 1100      81/123       RS-18
  pentachlorocyclopentane (isomer)         U   -  270      37/123       HY-46

Miscellaneous oxygenated compounds

  2-methoxyphenol                         U   - 3900      60/119       SP-14
  9-hexadecenoic acid methyl ester         U   - 7300      99/123       HY-36
  coprostanol
    (a fecal sterol  indicator)             U   - 2800      62/123       SP-11
a U:  not  found during a mass spectral  search of a sample extract.   Actual
detection limits for tentatively identified compounds were  not assigned
in these cases.
                                  3.26

-------
in  the  Table 3.2 summary.   High pesticide  concentrations were not found,
although DDTs were  detected at  <1-14 ug/kg DW in a  few  samples, aldrin
was reported at <1 ug/kg  DW in three samples,  and heptachlor was reported
in one sample at 0.8  ug/kg DW and  in another at 1.5 ug/kg DW.  Neither
GC/MS analysis nor a  confirming EC/6C analysis  using  a column of differing
polarity were conducted  on these samples, as required  for verification
of these GC/EC  results.

3.1.4.2   Subsurface  Sediments--

     Subsurface  sediments were  collected from 13 areas with contaminated
surface  sediments,  in  addition to  the  more detailed  sampling conducted
as  part of the Blair  Waterway Dredging  Study  (see  discussion in Section
3.1.3.2).  Ranges in  concentrations  (DW) of organic  compounds analyzed
in composited sediments from different core depths are  summarized in Table 3.7.
Original data for individual samples are reported  in  Appendix V.  Data
for half of the  134  samples were derived from  the 1984  Blair Waterway Dredging
Survey,  although  not all  organic compounds  listed in Table 3.7 were analyzed
for in the dredging  survey.

     Aromatic  hydrocarbons were  the most frequently detected  compounds
in subsurface  sediments,  as they were in surface sediments.  Organic compounds
with  at least a fivefold  difference between the maximum concentrations
in subsurface and surface sediments  are indicated in  Table 3.8.  Ratios
of  subsurface to surface concentrations (DW)  are also shown.  As discussed
for metals (Section  3.1.3.2), this presentation of the  data is useful for
comparing maximum historical conditions with maximum current day conditions.

     Compounds  typically undetected or  reported only occasionally at  low
part per billion  concentrations in surface  and subsurface sediments include
nitrophenols, 2-chloronaphthalene,  halogenated  ethers, most organonitrogen
compounds, and  pesticides.  Volatile  compound analyses were conducted  on
only  one subsurface  sediment sample  collected at a  Hylebos Waterway site
heavily  contaminated with chlorinated ethenes.

     Organic  compound concentrations in  the bottom interval  of  most  of
the Blair Waterway Dredging Survey drilling cores did  not  exceed the  range
observed for Puget  Sound reference sediments. Exceptions included a slight
elevation of  PCB  1248  (35 ppb) at Station  B-04 and occasional elevations
of individual hydrocarbons, primarily naphthalene.  Hydrocarbon  concentrations
in the bottom interval  of all sediment  box and gravity  cores from  other
Commencement Bay areas  exceeded Puget Sound  reference conditions typically
by a factor of 2-10  (in some cases,  by  a  factor of  >10).   This was true
even  in  the  bottom interval  of the  eight cores  that had no evidence  of
metals contamination.

     Other organic  compounds  found at greater than reference  levels  in
the bottom interval of cores with no evidence of metals  contamination included
phenol and methylated  phenols, di-n-butyl,  di-n-octyl  and dimethyl phthalate
esters, benzyl alcohol, dibenzofuran, 1,3- and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, chlorinated
butadienes, and  hexachlorocyclopentadiene.   Total PCB contamination exceeding
Puget  Sound reference  conditions was  detected in the  bottom  interval  of
cores  at three  stations (CI-62, RS-62,  and  SP-60 at 310, 340,  and 210 ug/kg  DW,
respectively).

                                 3.27

-------
 TABLE  3.7.   U.S.  EPA ORGANIC  PRIORITY POLLUTANTS AND ADDITIONAL
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE LIST (HSL) COMPOUNDS IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS
FROM COMMENCEMENT BAY
Phenols
65C
HSL
HSL
34
phenol
2-methyl phenol
4-methyl phenol
2,4-dimethylphenol
Range Detection
(ug/kg dry wt) Frequency3

U l.Od- Z 6,100
-------
TABLE 3.7.  (Continued)
82
79
dibenzo( a, h) anthracene
benzo(g,h ,i)peryl ene
U 1.0 -
U 1.0 -
4,100
8,600
111/134
120/134
HY-60A-H1
HY-60-H2
Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons

26   1,3-dichlorobenzene
27   1,4-dichlorobenzene
25   1,2-dichlorobenzene
 8   1,2,4-trichlorobenzene
20   2-chloronaphthalene
 9   hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

12   hexachloroethane
xx   trichlorobutadiene isomers
xx   tetrachlorobutadiene isomers
xx   pentachlorobutadiene isomers
52   hexachlorobutadiene
53   hexachlorocyclopentadiene

Halogenated Ethers (neutrals; 5)

18   bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
42   bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether
43   bis(2-ch!oroethoxy)methane
40   4-chlorophenyl phenyl ether
41   4-bromophenyl phenyl ether

Phthalates

71   dimethyl phthalate
70   diethyl phthalate
68   di-n-butyl phthalate
67   butyl benzyl phthalate
66   bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
69   di-n-octyl phthalate

Miscellaneous oxygenated compounds

54   isophorone
HSL  benzyl alcohol
HSL  benzoic acid
129  2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-
     p-dioxin
HSL  dibenzofuran

Organonitrogen Compounds

HSL  aniline
56   nitrobenzene
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 10
U 10
U 10
U 1.0
- 1,400
- 12,000
- 1,900
490
- U 50
- 9,500
- U 220
- 92,000
-500,000
-130,000
- 57,000
N/Rd- E950
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 1.0
U 10
U 25
- U 20
- U 2,000
- U 110
- U 10
- U 10
- 13,000
500
- Z 2,200
460
- Z 9,000
410
- U 50
330
820
35/134
46/134
20/134
21/134
0/134
17/134
1/134
27/ 71
34/ 71
22/ 71
17/134
4/ 4
0/134
1/134
3/134
1/134
0/134
93/134
49/134
76/134
78/134
88/134
55/134
3/134
25/ 71
5/ 65
  3.9 -   1,700   70/ 71
U  20
U 1.0
U  40
U  10
O/ 71
0/134
                              CI-62-H1
                              CI-60-H2
                              CI-62-H1
                              HY-63-H3
                             undetected
                              HY-63-H2
                              HY-63B-H3
                              HY-63-H2
                              HY-63-H2
                              HY-63-H2
                              HY-63-H2
                             undetected
                                e
                                e
                                e
                             undetected
                              CI-62-H1
                              CI-62-H1
                              CI-62-H1
                              CI-60-H1
                              CI-60-H1
                              CI-60-H1
                        e
                      RS-61-H2
                      CI-60-H5

                     not analyzed
                      CI-63-H3
undetected
undetected
                                    3.29

-------
TABLE 3.7.  (Continued)
63
HSL
HSL
HSL
HSL
36
35
62
37
5
28

n-nitroso-di-n-propylamine
4-chloroaniline
2-nitroaniline
3-nitroanil ine
4-nitroaniline
2,6-dinitrotoluene
2,4-dinitrotoluene
n-nitrosodiphenylamine
1,2-diphenylhydrazine
benzidine (4,4'-diaminobiphenyl )
3,3' -dichlorobenzidine
n-nitrosodimethylamine
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U

U

1




1
1
1
1

1

.0
50
50
50
50
.0
.0
.0
.0

.0


- U
- U
- U
- U
-
-
-
- 1

- U

36
100
100
100
100
53
40
230
,300

200

11/134
O/ 71
O/ 71
O/ 71
O/ 71
1/134
1/134
49/134
4/134

O/ 78

M-02-H1
undetected
undetected
undetected
undetected
B-06-H2
B-03-H1
CI-61-H1
CI-61-H1
not analyzed
undetected
not analyzed
Pesticides

93   p.p'-DDE
94   p,p'-DDD
92   p.p'-DDT
89   aldrin
90   dieldrin
91   chlordane
95   alpha-endosulfan
96   beta-endosu1fan
97   endosulfan sulfate
98   endrin
99   endrin aldehyde
100  heptachlor
101  heptachlor epoxide
102  alpha-HCH
103  beta-HCH
104  delta-HCH
105  gamma-HCH (lindane)
113  toxaphene
PCBs (used as total PCBs only)

xx   Total PCBs  (primarily 1254/1260)   U 5.0 -17,000

Volatile Compoundsf
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.01-
.03-
.03-
.01-
.01-
.1 -
.01-
.03-
.02-
.03-
.02-
.01-
.01-
.01-
.03-
.02-
.01-
12 -
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
18
87   trichloroethene
85   tetrachloroethene
19,000,000
14,000,000
                 28/134
                 22/134
                 14/134
                  2/134
                  2/134
                  2/134
                  1/134
                  1/134
                  3/134
                  0/134
                  5/134
                  1/134
                  1/134
                  4/134
                  0/134
                  1/134
                  0/134
                  21 63
                 48/133
II  1
I/  1
             e
             e
             e
             e
             e
             e
             e
             e
             e
          undetected
             e
             e
             e
             e
          undetected
             e
          undetected
             e
HY-63-H1
HY-63-H1
a Detection frequency includes  replicate  analyses;  maximum  of  10 percent
replication.  Original  sample data listed  in  Appendix V.

b Locations are listed by area,  station number,  and horizon  (i.e., CI-62-H2
is City Waterway,  Station 62, second  horizon).
c Indicates U.S.  EPA priority pollutant  number.

                                    3.30

-------
TABLE 3.7.   (Continued)
d Qualifiers:

     B:  Value  corrected for  "blank" contributions down  to  the  detection
         limit.

     E:  Estimated  value.

     N/R:  Not  reported.

     U:  Undetected  at the detection limit stated (ug/kg or ppb dry  weight
         sediment).

     Z:  Value  corrected for  "blank" contributions; resulting  value still
         exceeds the  detection  limit.

e Compound detected at  low concentration between minimum and  maximum detection
limits at  a few  stations only.

f The  high concentrations of tri- and tetrachloroethene prevented  detection
of other volatile compounds at  low levels in the  single subsurface  sample
analyzed.   Blair Waterway volatiles data for Port of Tacoma Dredging  Survey
samples are not  reported, but volatiles were typically undetected at  5
ug/kg  in these samples.
                                   3.31

-------
     TABLE 3.8.  ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH AT LEAST A FIVEFOLD DIFFERENCE
       BETWEEN  MAXIMUM  SUBSURFACE  AND  SURFACE  SEDIMENT  CONCENTRATIONS

                           Ratio of Maximum Observed Concentrations3
                               {Subsurface Concentration Exceeds
                                  Surface Concentration)

            2-methyl phenol                     19
            2,4-dimethylphenol                 30
            2,4,5-trichlorophenol                8.1
            pentachlorophenol                  16

            2-methylnaphthalene                 6.8
            phenanthrene                        7.1
            anthracene                         16

            fluoranthene                       16
            pyrene                             22
            benzo(a)anthracene                 13
            chrysene                           11
            total benzofluoranthenes            7.5
            benzo(a)pyrene                      5.9

            1,3-dichlorobenzene                 6.7
            1,4-dichlorobenzene                41
            1,2-dichlorobenzene                 5.4
            hexachlorobenzene (HCB)            13

            trichlorobutadiene isomers          2.1&
            tetrachlorobutadiene isomers       28
            pentachlorobutadiene isomers       36
            hexachlorobutadiene                61

            dimethyl phthalate                 12
                                (Surface Concentrations Exceeds
                                   Subsurface Concentration)

            4-methylphenol                     0.11
            2,4,6-trichlorophenol               0.13C
            di-n-butylphthalate                0.2

            benzoic acid                       0.1
            aniline                            0.03C
a Maximum subsurface concentration divided by the maximum surface
concentration.

b Included for comparison with other butadiene isomers.

c Undetected in subsurface sediment; detection limit used for calculation,
                                  3.32

-------
3.1.4.3  Sediment Organic  Compounds of Concern--

     The  range of organic  compound concentrations in sediments  from Puget
Sound reference areas  is summarized in Table 3.9.  These data are compiled
from  this study (Carr Inlet)  as well as from previous investigations funded
by various agencies  throughout  Puget Sound.   Data for several  compounds
were  available  only  for  the current study of Carr Inlet  because full-scan
analyses were not always conducted  in  other  areas.   Detection  limits in
some  reference areas  exceeded 50 ug/kg DW for several compounds.   Detection
limits for recent Carr Inlet  samples ranged  from 0.5 to 50 ug/kg DW for
almost all compounds.   To  provide a comparable data set, a  maximum detection
limit of 50 ug/kg DW was set  for the  acceptance of data from  other reference
sites included in the  ranges  reported in Table 3.9.

     Eighteen organic compounds and compound groups  are of  concern because
their concentrations  (DW) in Commencement Bay  surface sediments  exceed
the concentration ranges for  Puget Sound reference sediments.  These organic
chemicals of concern are listed  in Table 3.10.   Compounds listed in  Table 3.10
were  detected at elevated  levels at  several stations within  an area, and
often in several  areas.  Chemicals with  similar  distributional  patterns
throughout Commencement  Bay sediments,  as  demonstrated by  statistical
correlations,  and/or with closely related chemical behavior (e.g., chlorinated
benzenes)  have  been  combined into contaminant groups for  ease  of analysis.
Results  of statistical  correlation analyses for inorganic and  organic
contaminants over the  entire  study area and within large areas (i.e., Hylebos,
Blair, and City Waterways) are presented Section 3.1.5.

     Of the  six  groups listed  in  Table 3.10,  only   the  phthalates do not
always show a spatial  correlation among  individual phthalates within  the
group.   The chlorinated  benzenes showed  good correlation among  individual
compounds (i.e.,  r=0.7  to  r=0.98) with the  exception of 1,3-dichlorobenzene
which was  moderatley  correlated (i.e.,  r=0.55  to  r=0.63).  This lack of
spatial  correlation is most likely  the  result of different sources  for
the chemicals rather  than  analytical variability.   Individual  components
of these groups will  be  discussed as appropriate w  hen specific contaminated
areas are reviewed.

     Organic  compounds  listed  in Table 3.5 as undetected in all  Commencement Bay
and Carr Inlet sediments are not considered to be  of  concern.  Substances
found at  only a few  stations at low parts  per  billion  levels  (and often
below the detection  limits of most other stations)  are also not of  general
concern.   Six compounds not  included in Table 3.10 were detected at levels
greater  than  the  maximum observed in  Puget  Sound reference  areas,  but only
in one or  two samples.   These  compounds  include 2,4,6-trichlorophenol,
2,4,5-trichlorophenol, bis-2-chloroethoxymethane, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, aniline,
and 1,1,2-trichloroethane.   While these  compounds  were not  detected at
a sufficient number of sites to warrant statistical  analysis of their spatial
distributions  and potential relationships to  sediment  toxicity or  biological
effects,  sites contaminated with these  compounds  will be  discussed.   The
possible  contribution  of these compounds to  observed  toxicity or biological
effects  at  these  selected sites will  also be  considered.
                                 3.33

-------
TABLE 3.9.  SUMMARY OF ORGANIC COMPOUND CONCENTRATIONS
     IN SEDIMENTS  FROM PUGET  SOUND REFERENCE AREAS
Substance*
Range
(ug/kg dry
wt)
Mean
(ug/kg dry wt)
Detection
Frequency
Reference
Sitesb
Phenols
65
HSL
HSL
34
phenol
2-methyl phenol
4-methyl phenol
2, 4-d imethyl phenol
U
U
U
U
10 -
10
10 -
1 -



U
62C

32
10
lid

14

- 376
—
- 20
—
3/13
0/4
2/4
0/6
1,2

1
1
,3







Substituted Phenols
24
31
22
21
HSL
64
57
59
60
58
Low
55
77
1
80
81
78
HSL
High
39
84
72
76
74
75
73
83
82
79
2-chlorophenol
2,4-dichlorophenol
4-chloro-3-methyl phenol
2,4,6-trichlorophenol
2,4,5-trichlorophenol
pentachlorophenol
2-nitrophenol
2,4-dinitrophenol
4,6-dinitro-o-cresol
4-nitrophenol
Molecular Weight Aromatic
naphthalene
acenaphthylene
acenaphthene
f luorene
phenanthrene
anthracene
2-methyl naphthalene
Molecular Weight Aromatic
fluoranthene
pyrene
benzo(a)anthracene
chrysene
benzo( b) f 1 uoranthene
benzo(k) fluoranthene
benzo(a)pyrene
i ndeno(l, 2, 3-c,d) pyrene
dibenzo( a, h) anthracene
benzo(g,h ,i) perylene
U
U
U
U
U


U
U
U
0.5 -
0.5 -
0.5 -
0.5 -
10
0.1 -
0.1 -
0.5
0.5 -
0.5 -
U
U
U
U

U
U

U
U
5
10
10
10

50
10

100
100





0.02




___
—
—
—
• _~
- 33
—
—
—
—
0/6
0/6
0/6
0/6
0/4
1/6
1/6
0/6
0/6
0/6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1




















Hydrocarbons
U
U
U
U

U

0.5 -
0.1 -
0.1 -
0.1 -
5 -
0.5 -
1 -
U
U
U


U

40
40
40
40
170
40
20
5.6
0.08
0.48
3.0
19
2.7
7.5
- 22
- 17
- 17
- 19
- 35
- 22
- 9.5
10/20
1/20
4/20
7/21
11/17
7/17
6/10
1,2,3,
1 ? }
1,2,3,
Al
1,2,3
1,2,3
1,4,
4,5,
4 S
4,5,
1
,6,7
,6,7
5,6
6
6
6




Hydrocarbons



U
U
U
U
U


7 -
8 -
4 -
5 -
5 -
5 -
0.37-
0.37-
0.4 -
3 -


U
U




U

100
120
40
40
94
94
40
30
5
20
32
30
3.7
6.4
17
17
9.3
7.4
0.08
3.8
- 41
- 41
- 23
- 26
- 33
- 33
- 10
- 9.2
- 4.1
- 7.2
17/22
16/22
8/17
8/17
12/21
12/21
10/14
6/12
1/5
2/6
Al
Al
1,2,3
1,2,3
Al
Al
1,3,4,
1,4,5
1
1,
1
1
,6,7
,6,7
1
1
5,6,
,6,7

7






7



                         3.34

-------
TABLE 3.9.   (Continued)
Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons
26 1,3-dichlorobenzene
27 1,4-dichlorobenzene
25 1,2-dichlorobenzene
8 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene
20 2-chloronaphthalene
9 hexachlorobenzene (HCB)
Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
12 hexachloroethane
xx trichlorobutadiene
xx tetrachlorobutadiene isomers
xx pentachlorobutadiene isomers
52 hexachlorobutadiene
53 hexachlorocyclopentadiene
Halogenated Ethers
18 bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
42 bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether
43 bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane
40 4-chlorophenyl phenyl ether
41 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether
Phthalate Esters
71 dimethyl phthalate
70 diethyl phthalate
68 di-n-butyl phthalate
67 butyl benzyl phthalate
66 bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
69 di-n-octyl phthalate
Miscellaneous oxygenated compounds
54 isophorone
HSL benzyl alcohol
HSL benzoic acid
129 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-
dibenzo-p-dioxin
HSL dibenzofuran
U 0.06- U 40
U 0.06- U 40
U 0.06- U 40
U 0.5- U 5
U 0.5- U 50
0.01- U 10

U 0.5- U 50
U 0.03- U 25
U 0.04- U 25
0.03- U 25
U 0.03- U 25
not analyzed

0.3 - U 10
U 0.5 - U 10
U 10
U 0.5 - U 5
U 0.5 - U 5

U 0.5 - U 50
9.0 - 11
U 20 - 760
U 0.5 - U 25
U 0.5 - U 25
U 0.5 - U 25

U 0.5 - U 130
U 10
U 25 - 430

not analyzed
U 5
Organonitrogen Compounds

HSL  aniline                        U 1.0
56   nitrobenzene                   U 0.5
63   n-nitroso-di-n-propylamine     U 0.5
HSL  4-chloroaniline                U  50
HSL  2-nitroaniline                 U  50
20
 5
10
                                                        0.004  -  19
                                                        0.004  -  19
                                                        0.004  -  19
                                                         0.07  -  3.5
                                                            4-18
                                                          160 - 170
                                                          210 - 216
1/18
1/18
1/18
0/6
0/6
6/12
1,2,3,4,5
1,2,3,4,5
1,2,3,4,5
1
1
1,4,5,6
...
0.27 -
1.6 -
0.15 -
0.07 -

7.9
9.2
7.7
8.5
0/6
5/12
5/12
5/12
5/12
1
1,4,5,6
1,4,5,6
1,4,5,6
1,4,5,6
                                                                           1/6
                                                                           0/6
                                                                           0/6
                                                                           0/6
                                                                           0/6
                           0/5
                           4/5
                           3/5
                           0/5
                           0/5
                           0/5
                           0/5
                           0/4
                           3/4
                                                                          0/4
0/6
0/5
0/5
0/4
0/4
                                            3.35

-------
TABLE 3.9.  (Continued)
HSL  3-nitroaniline                 U  50                    —          0/4          1
HSL  4-nitroaniline                 U  50                    —          0/4          1
36   2,6-dinitrotoluene             U 0.5 - U  10            ---          0/5          1
35   2,4-dinitrotoluene             U 0.5 - U   5            ---          0/5          1
62   n-nitrosodiphenylamine         II 0.5 - U   5            —          0/5          1
37   1,2-diphenylhydrazine          U 0.5 - U   5            ---          0/6          1
 5   benzidine (4,4'-diamino-
       biphenyl)                    U 0.5                    ---          0/2          1
28   3,3'-dichlorobenzidine         U 0.5 - U 100            —          0/6          1

Pesticides

93   p.p'-DDE                       U  10 - U  25            —          0/5          1
94   p.p'-DDD                       U  10 - U  25            —          0/6          1
92   p,p'-DDT                       U  10 - U  25            —          0/5          1
89   aldrin                         U  10 - U  25            —          0/6          1
90   dieldrin                       U  10 - U  25            —          0/6          1
91   chlordan                       U  10 - U  25            —-          0/6          1
95   alpha-endosulfan               U  10 - U  25            ---          0/5          1
96   beta-endosulfan                U  10 - U  25            —          0/5          1
97   endosulfan sulfate             U  10 - U  25            —          0/5          1
98   endrin                         U  10 - U  25            ---          0/6          1
99   endrin aldehyde                U  10 - U  25            —          0/5          1
100  heptachlor                     U  10 - U  25            —          0/6          1
101  heptachlor epoxide             U  10 - U  25            —          0/6          1
102  alpha-HCH                      U  10 - U  25            —-          0/6          1
103  beta-HCH                       U  10 - U  25            —          0/6          1
104  delta-HCH                      U  10 - U  25            ---          0/6          1
105  gamma-HCH (lindane)            U  10 - U  25            ---          0/6          1
113  toxaphene                      U  10                    —          0/2          1

PCBs

xx   Total PCBs  (primarily
       1254/1260)                     3.1 - U  20          1.8 - 12        7/19      1,2,3,4,6,7
Volatile Compounds
85 tetrachloroethene
38 ethylbenzene

U 4.1 - U 16
U 4.1 - U 16

0/8
0/8

2,3
2,3

a  Number indicates U.S. EPA priority pollutant number.  HSL indicates Hazardous Substance List
compound.

b  Reference sites:  1.  Carr Inlet   4.  Case  Inlet       7.  Nisqually Delta
                    2.  Samish Bay   5.  Port  Madison
                    3.  Dabob Bay    6.  Port  Susan


c  An anomalously high phenol value of 1,800 ug/kg dry weight was found at one Carr Inlet station.
For the purposes of reference area comparisons, this value has been excluded.

d  Mean calculated using 0.00 for undetected values.

e  Mean calculated using the reported detection limit for undetected values.

References:

     (Site 1)  This report; Mowrer et al. (1977).
     (Site 2)  Battelle (1985).
     (Site 3)  Battelle (1985); Prahl and Carpenter (1979).
     (Site 4)  Mai ins et al. (1980); Mowrer et al. (1977).
     (Site 5)  Mai ins et al. (1980).
     (Site 6)  Mai ins et al. (1981).
     (Site 7)  Barrick and  Prahl (in prep); Mowrer et al. (1977).

                                            3.36

-------
             TABLE  3.10.   COMPARISON OF THE  RANGE  IN ELEVATIONS
         ABOVE REFERENCE (EAR) FOR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS OF  CONCERN
                 IN SURFACE  SEDIMENTS FROM COMMENCEMENT BAY
Elevation Above Reference*
Range
phenol

2-methyl phenol
4-methyl phenol
2, 4-dimethyl phenol
pentachlorophenol
LMW aromatic hydrocarbons6

HMW aromatic hydrocarbons^
chlorinated benzenesQ
chlorinated butadienes*1
total phthalatesi
total PCBsJ
2-methyl naphthal ene
benzyl alcohol
benzoic acid
dibenzofuran
n-nitrosodipheny lamine

tetrachloroethene
ethyl benzene
total xylenes
0.1

0.1
0.08
0.07
0.01
1.1

1.0
0.1
0.03
0.01
0.5
0.3
1.0
0.01
0.3
0.07

1.0
1.0
1.0
57

- 14
- 7200
- 31
- 26
- 570

- 450
- 64
- 1100
- 36
- 330
- 330
- 50
- 55
- 540
- 150

- 21
5
8
Median
3.4

0.38
8.3
1.5
1.5
36.

59.
3.4
2.8
1.9
11
44.
2.3
0.17
30.
1.2

1.0
1.0
1.0
Threshold'
1.7

l.Od
1.6d
1.5 Threshold^
HY.BL.SP,
MD.CI
SP.CI.RS
ATL SP
RS
J3L.MD
RS,CI,HY,MD,
~~ SI.SP
ALL HY
noneTTY
HY,BL
TIT
W.RS
ALL RS
HY.CI.SP
T3U
ATL RS
RS,BL,CI,HY,
~ SI
HY
none HY
none W
a Dry-weight concentration  in  Commencement Bay  sediments  divided  by  the
average concentration measured in six Carr Inlet  reference sediments.

b The threshold EAR is defined as the ratio of the maximum reference sediment
concentration  in  Puget Sound divided  by the average for six  Carr Inlet
reference sediments.  Above the  threshold EAR, the dry-weight concentration
of a CorrnienceTient Bay sediment contaminant would exceed  the maximum concentra-
tion (or detection limit)  reported for any Puget  Sound reference  site  listed
in Table 3.9.
                                   3.37

-------
TABLE 3.10.   (Continued)
c The  contaminant EAR in  sediment from at least one station  in each area
listed exceeded  the threshold level by an order of magnitude.   Sediments
in underlined areas had the highest  observed values.  "ALL"  indicates that
at least some  sediment samples in all  areas  exceeded the threshold  by  an
order  of magnitude.  "None"  indicates that no  sediment values exceeded
lOx threshold; the area with the highest value is still listed.

d Compound  has  not been detected in any Puget Sound reference area to date.
The method detection limit has been  used for a threshold value.

e Low molecular weight  (LMW)  aromatic hydrocarbons (1-3 rings) include
naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,  and
anthracene.

f High  molecular weight (HMW)  aromatic hydrocarbons (4-6  rings) include
fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, total benzofluoranthenes-
benzo(a)pyrene,  indeno(l,2,3-c,d)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo-
(g,h,i)perylene.

9 Chlorinated benzenes  include 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene,
1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene.

h Chlorinated butadienes  include tri-, tetra-,  and pentachlorobutadiene
isomers, and hexachlorobutadiene.

* Phthalates  include dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-butyl, butylbenzyl, bis(2-
ethylhexyl), and  di-n-octyl  phthalates.

J Total PCBs  is the sum of the detected Aroclors, typically Aroclor 1254
and 1260.

^ Reference data not available;  value is based  on the method detection
limit of 10  ug/kg (dry weight).   These volatile  compounds were  undetected
at over 20 Commencement Bay sites.
                                 3.38

-------
 3.1.5   Priorltization of Areas Based on Sediment  Contamination

     To  prioritize problem  areas according  to  the steps outlined as  part
 of the Commencement Bay  Decision-Making  Approach  (Tetra  Tech 1984a), the
 extent of sediment  contamination was  examined on three  spatial scales:
 areas  (waterways and  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline),  segments within
 areas, and individual  stations.  Most  inorganic  and organic contaminants
 of concern (Tables 3.4  and 3.10) were distributed heterogeneously in Commence-
 ment  Bay sediments.  The following  sections provide a description of how
 study area segments were defined for use  in data  analysis  and  a discussion
 of  the results of spatial  correlation  analyses used to define groups  of
 chemicals having similar sources or fates.  Changes in concentrations  of
 individual  or groups of chemicals are  then  examined among  study areas,
 segments, and chemical "hotspots" within  segments to prioritize sediments
 by their level and  spatial extent of contamination.

 3.1.5.1  Definition of Study Area Segments--

     Commencement  Bay  study  areas  were divided  into  twenty segments  as
 shown in Figure 3.6 and  summarized in Table 3.11.  The major reason for
 defining segments was  to provide a means  of reporting major chemical, sediment
 toxicity, and biological  gradients within areas  that sometimes contained
 dozens  of stations  in  various  arrays.   Hence, small areas such as Sitcum,
 Milwaukee, St.  Paul,  and Middle Waterways  were not further divided.  Boundaries
 of  segments within  large areas were  generally established to define major
 zones of varying chemical contamination.   Contamination  from one group
 of chemicals sometimes extended well  past  a segment boundary defined  according
 to a zone of contamination for other  chemicals.

     At  a minimum, each segment  was  required to  contain  at least three
 stations (except segment CIS2 comprising  the isolated Wheeler-Osgood branch
 of City  Waterway).  Segments were also  required to  contain at least one
 station for  which complementary biolgical  and sediment toxicity data were
 available (except segment  BLS4 located in deep water outside of Blair
 Waterway).   Average concentrations of  chemicals  within segments are used
 in  later discussion to evaluate trends  in chemical  concentrations along
 areas.  "Hotspots"  of chemical contamination are evaluated at individual
 stations when  chemical gradients  are  apparent within segments.

 3.1.5.2  Spatial Correlations Among Sediment Contaminants--

     Linear  correlation  analyses  were conducted to define groups of  chemicals
 having similar sources  or depositional  fates.   All tests were based on
 Spearman's  correlation  test  (SPSS  1984).  Covarying  chemical  groups were
defined as those showing  a high  degree of  correlation in tests with  the
 entire data  set (maximum of  n=148,  including  replicate analyses), with
 Hylebos  Waterway data only (n=45),  with Blair  Waterway data only  (n=38),
or with  City  Waterway  data  only  (n=15).   Subsets  of the  entire  data set
were examined  to ensure that  apparent correlations were not artifacts of
 extreme concentrations in a single  area and  to discriminate local distribution
 patterns  within the larger waterways.   Scatterplots of  the concentrations
of chemicals  showing strong  correlations, and  those  having  unexpectedly
weak correlations,  were examined for outliers.   Correlations  of metals


                                 3.39

-------
   COMMENCEMENT
        BAY
                                                                                         HYS1
CIS3
   CIS1
         1 CITY l
         WATERWAY
                                                Area  segments  defined for Commencement Bay
                                                Superfund  data analysis.

-------
                   RSS3
u>
           RUSTON
          N
          0             4000
           '   '    I    ป   '  FEET
                    —1 METERS
                T
                     1000
                                                                  COMMENCEMENT
                                                                       BAY
TACOMA
                 Figure 3.6.   (Continued)

-------
     TABLE 3.11.  COMMENCEMENT BAY AREA SEGMENTS USED FOR  DATA ANALYSIS
            Segment
  Relevant Sediment Stations
HYLEBOS WATERWAY:

HYS1 -  Hylebos Upper Turning  Basin



HYS2 -  Hylebos Lower Turning  Basin



HYS3 -  Hylebos off Lincoln  Ave



HYS4 -  Hylebos above llth Street


HYS5 -  Lower Hylebos Waterway
HYS6 -  Outside Hylebos Waterway


BLAIR WATERWAY

BLS1 -  Blair Upper Turning  Basin



BLS2 -  Blair Waterway Lincoln to llth
BLS3 -   Lower Blair Waterway
BLS4 -  Outside Blair Waterway
HY-11,  HY-12,  HY-13,  HY-14, HY-
15,  HY-16, HY-17, HY-18, HY-19
[9 stations  including 3 biology]

HY-20,  HY-21,  HY-22,  HY-23, HY-
24, HY-25, HY-26
[7 stations  including 3 biology]

HY-01,  HY-27,  HY-28,  HY-29, HY-
30, HY-31
[6 stations  including 1 biology]

HY-32, HY-33,  (HY-34), HY-35
[4 stations  including 1 biology]

HY-02,  HY-03,  HY-36,  HY-37, HY-
38, HY-39,  HY-40,  HY-41, HY-42,
HY-43,  HY-44,  HY-45,  HY-46, HY-
47, HY-48
[15 stations including 5 biology]

HY-49, HY-50,  HY-51, CB-11
[4 stations  including 1 biology]
BL-01,  BL-11,  BL-12,  BL-13, BL-
14, BL-15, B-02, B-ll, B-12
[9 stations  including 3 biology]

BL-02,  BL-16,  BL-17,  BL-18, BL-
19, BL-20,  BL-21,  BL-22, BL-23,
BL-24,  BL-25,  BL-26,  B-03,  B-04,
B-07,  B-14,  B-15
[17 stations including 5 biology]

BL-03,  BL-04,  BL-27,  BL-28, BL-
29, BL-30, BL-31,  BL-32, B-09,
B-10,  B-17,  B-18
[12 stations including 4 biology]

CB-12, CB-13, CB-14
[3 stations; NO biology stations]
                                  3.42

-------
TABLE 3.11.   (Continued)
SITCUM WATERWAY  (SIS1):
MILWAUKEE WATERWAY  (MIS1)
ST. PAUL WATERWAY  (SPS1):
SI-11,  SI-12, SI-13, SI-14,  SI-
15
[5 stations  Including 3 biology]

MI-01,  MI-11, MI-12, MI-13,  MI-
14, MI-15
[6 stations  Including 3 biology]

SP-11,  SP-12, SP-13, SP-14,  SP-
15, SP-16
[6 stations  Including 5 biology]
MIDDLE WATERWAY  (MDS1):
MD-01,  MD-11,  MD-12, MD-13
[4 stations  including 1 biology]
CITY WATERWAY:
CIS1 -  City Waterway  above llth St,
CIS2 -  Wheeler-Osgood Waterway
CI-01,  CI-03, CI-11, CI-12,  CI-
13, CI-14,  CI-15, CI-17, CI-18
[9 stations including 3 biology]

CI-02, CI-16
[2 stations including 1 biology]
CIS3 -  City  Waterway below llth St.
CI-19,  CI-20,  CI-21, CI-22
[4 stations including 2 biology]
RUSTON-PT. DEFIANCE  SHORELINE:
RSS1 -  Eastern Shoreline
RS-02, RS-04,  RS-11,  RS-12,  RS-
13, RS-14, RS-15
[7 stations including 3 biology]
RSS2 -  Shoreline  at ASARCO outfalls
RS-03, RS-16,  RS-17,  RS-18,  RS-
19, RS-20,  RS-21
[7 stations including 3 biology]
RSS3 -  Pt. Defiance
RS-22, RS-24
[2 stations including 2 bioassay only]
                                  3.43

-------
and organic  compounds were  tested for  concentrations normalized to  dry
sediment weight,  to  total organic carbon  (TOC), and to  the  total percent
of fine-grained material.

     The strongest  correlations for most  substances were found when concen-
trations were  normalized to TOC (especially  organic compounds)  or percent
fine-grained  material (especially metals)  (see  Section 3.1.2).  Correlation
coefficients for  organic and inorganic  chemicals having moderate to strong
intercorrelations  (i.e.,  r  >0.7 to 1.0)  are  summarized in Appendix  II.
Inorganic chemicals  of concern with at  least moderate spatial  correlations
(i.e., r >0.7) among  chemical  pairs in  the total data set and  in data subsets
for Hylebos and City  Waterways were:

     •    Copper, lead,  and  zinc  (r=0.85  to 0.98, n=143 total  data
          set; r=0.73 to 0.88, n=45 Hylebos Waterway;  r=0.77 to 0.95,
          n=15 City  Waterway; all concentrations normalized to percent
          fine-grained material).

     Some strong  correlations  of  metal  concentrations in the entire data
set resulted simply  from  the  inclusion of  high concentration values  for
most  metals  at  stations off the ASARCO outfalls on the Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shoreline.  Copper,  lead, and zinc were the only metals of  concern whose
distributions  appeared to be well-cor related within most study areas (i.e., even
when Ruston-Pt. Defiance values were excluded),  although  their correlation
among  Blair  Waterway samples was poor  (i.e., r <0.4; n=38).  These  three
metals are treated in  later sections as  one  group for  ease  of analysis.
Compositional variations  among the metals in  areas such as  Blair Waterway
will be discussed  as  appropriate.

     Major organic  compound  groups showing the  best  correlations  among
compound pairs in  the entire data set were:

     •    Chlorinated butadiene congeners (tri-, tetra-,  penta-, and
          hexachlorinated butadienes;  r=0.97 to 1.0;  TOC  normalized
          concentrations; n=136)

     •    Chlorinated benzenes (r=0.55 to 0.98; TOC normalized concen-
          trations;  n=144)

     0    Low  molecular  weight aromatic  hydrocarbons (r=0.50 to 0.94;
          TOC  normalized concentrations; n=144)

     •    High molecular weight aromatic  hydrocarbons (r=0.59 to 0.94;
          TOC  normalized concentrations; n=144).

     Correlations were  often  strengthened when data subsets were examined
(e.g., intercorrelations among low molecular weight aromatic  hydrocarbons
in City  Waterway ranged  from r=0.83 to 0.98; n=15).  Weaker correlations
over the entire study area are attributed  to  changing compositions of  chemicals
emitted  by different sources among study areas.   Distributions of  three
of the chlorinated benzenes (i.e., 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene,
and 1,4-dichlorobenzene)  were well-correlated  with the distribution of
                                  3.44

-------
 chlorinated  butadienes (i.e.,  r >fl.89).   There was also an overlap in the
 distribution of low and high molecular weight  aromatic hydrocarbons, especially
 among 3- and 4-ring aromatic hydrocarbons.

     Compounds with  correlations  at  the  lower end  of the range reported
 for compound groups were often present in  low concentration  (e.g., dibenzo(a,h)-
 anthracene  in  the  high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbon group).  Such
 compounds are subject to greater  analytical  variability  than other compounds
 of the defined  groups.  Other  compounds  with lower correlations in these
 groups apparently have additional  sources not shared by  the other components
 (e.g.  1,3-dichlorobenzene in the chlorinated benzene group).  In the latter
 case, the defined groups are used in later  sections only  to indicate  the
 magnitude of contamination by the group; individual components of the group
 are analyzed separately during  source determinations  in  defined problem
 areas.

     Nonpriority pollutant hazardous substance list compounds and additional
 tentatively  identified compounds with  concentration  distributions  that
 tended to correlate with those of the  chemical groups already defined include:

     •    Dibenzofuran, and tentatively  identified compounds including
          dibenzothiophene,  2-methylnaphthalene, methylphenanthrenes,
          and biphenyl with aromatic hydrocarbons (especially 1- to 3-ring
          compounds; r=0.66 to 0.89;  TOC normalized  concentrations;
          n=121)

     •    Pentachlorocyclopentane (isomer; tentative  identification)
          with 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene,  hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichloro-
          benzene,  and chlorinated butadienes  (r=0.89 to  0.98;  TOC
          normalized concentrations; n=123).

     Concentrations  of some chemicals showed strong correlations  only  within
 a  single area (e.g., Hylebos  Waterway).  Those  combinations of inorganic
 and organic chemicals with  strictly local importance are discussed when
 individual  problem areas are  reviewed in  Section 6.

 3.1.5.3  Relative Magnitude  of Contamination Among Study Areas--

     Concentrations  of the  chemicals of concern listed in Tables  3.4 and 3.10
 (i.e., those found  at concentrations that exceed  Puget  Sound reference
 conditions)  varied in some  cases  over five orders of magnitude in Commencement
 Bay surface  sediments.   Concentrations  (DW)   of the  four  inorganic and  six
 organic  contaminants  listed in  Table 3.12 exceeded 1,000 times  reference
 conditions  at  individual Commencement  Bay stations.   Concentrations of
metals were elevated  to  this degree  only in sediments at three  stations
directly  off the  three  major  ASARCO outfalls on the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance
Shoreline.   Concentrations of  arsenic and antimony  averaged  over  all stations
 in segment RSS2 (Figure  3.6)  along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline were
also elevated over 1,000 times reference  conditions.

     Organic compound  concentrations exceeded 1,000  times reference conditions
only in sediments  from  selected stations in Upper  and  Lower Hylebos Waterway,
from stations directly  off the main  Champion International outfall in St. Paul
Waterway,  and from a single  station  directly off the main ASARCO  outfall

                                  3.45

-------
   TABLE  3.12.   SUMMARY  OF  CHEMICALS  WITH  ELEVATIONS  ABOVE  REFERENCE  (EAR)
            GREATER THAN l.OOOX IN SEDIMENTS FROM COMMENCEMENT BAY
 Chemicals Exceeding  l,000x  Reference
Station
 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS:

 benzo(a)pyrene
 4-methyl phenol
 2-methyoxyphenol
 phenanthrene
 trichlorobutadienes
 tetrachlorobutadienes
HY-22
SP-14
SP-14,-15
RS-18
HY-43,-46,-47
HY-46
 METALS:

 antimony
 arsenic
 copper
 mercury
RS-17,-18,-21
RS-17,-18,-21
RS-17,-18,-21
RS-18
 Chemicals Exceeding l.OOOx Reference9
Area or Segment
 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS:

 4-methylphenol
 2-methoxyphenol
St. Paul Waterway
St. Paul Waterway
 METALS:

 antimony
 arsenic
     RSS2
     RSS2
a Concentration averaged over all stations in the area or segments indicated,
                                    3.46

-------
on the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance  Shoreline.  Concentrations of two phenolic compounds
averaged over  all stations  in  St. Paul Waterway exceeded  1,000 times reference
conditions.

     Twenty-eight chemicals or chemical groups with sediment  concentrations
(DW)  at one or more stations that were elevated between  100 and  1,000  times
reference conditions at Carr Inlet are listed in Table 3.13.  Station locations
are also indicated.   All metals of  concern except nickel  were found at
these levels, primarily at  stations along the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline.
Similar elevations in concentrations of organic compounds  were more widespread
throughout the Commencement Bay study area (Table 3.13).

     Sediment concentrations between 100 and 1,000 times  Carr  Inlet reference
conditions were also observed for 17 of these 28 substances after averaging
over multiple stations  in an area  or  segment  (Table  3.14).  For metals,
such  high average  elevations were found only along the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shoreline, and in  segments RSS2 and  RSS3 of the shoreline.  For organic
compounds, such high average elevations were found in all  study  areas except
Blair  Waterway and  the  Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline (Table 3.14).  The
potential relationships  among these contaminants  and observed sediment
toxicity and  biological effects are discussed in Section  4.

     Distributions of eight major chemicals or chemical groups of concern
among Commencement Bay  study areas  are shown  in  Figures  3.7-3.14.   The
distributions of  these  chemicals give a  perspective  of  the major zones
of contamination  in Commencement Bay based on data collected under  this
investigation.  Distributions  of the  remaining chemicals  of concern are
addressed in  discussions  of problem  areas  (Section 6).  Each figure  has
two key features.   First, a pair of graphs is presented  for each contaminant
or contaminant group.  The upper graph of each  pair shows  the average magnitude
of contamination  expressed  as the elevation  above reference (EAR) concentrations
measured at Carr  Inlet.   For example, a concentration  of 100 ug/kg  in  the
study  area relative to  a  concentration of 20  ug/kg  in Carr Inlet would
result  in an EAR  of 5.   The same data are presented  in the  lower  graph
of each  pair, but  each  average EAR  has been recalculated as  a percentage
of the  largest average EAR observed  among  Commencement Bay areas.   This
later data format  is useful in visually demonstrating the relative contamination
among areas.

     Second,  to enable a  comparison of the relative magnitude  of contaminant
concentrations in  sediments containing  differing  amounts of fine-grained
material  and  organic  carbon, EAR reported in the figures  are based on ratios
of sediment concentrations normalized three different ways.  The  first
bar  shown for each  area represents  the magnitude of  EAR calculated using
study area and reference  area concentrations normalized  to total dry weight
of sediment.  EAR represented  by the  second bar are  based on a ratio of
concentrations normalized to the weight of the fine-grained  fraction  only.
The  third bar represents  the EAR based on concentrations  normalized to
the weight of the  total organic carbon in each sample.

     For example,  in  Figure 3.7 the sum of copper, lead,  and zinc dry-weight
concentrations averaged over all  sediments  collected  from  the Ruston-Pt.
Defiance  Shoreline  is 120 times higher (i.e., EAR=120) than the sum of
the average dry-weight concentrations  of these three metals  in sediments

                                 3.47

-------
  TABLE 3.13.  SUMMARY OF CHEMICALS  WITH  ELEVATIONS ABOVE REFERENCE (EAR)
     BETWEEN 100  AND  l.OOOX IN SEDIMENTS FROM COMMENCEMENT  BAY  STATIONS
Chemicals >100x and <1.000x Reference
             Station
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS:

aromatic hydrocarbons
   (4-6 rings; non-alky! ated)
aromatic hydrocarbons
   (1-3 rings; non-alkylated)
l,l'-bipheny!
bis(2-ethy!hexyl)phthalate
coprostanol
dibenzofuran
dibenzothiophene
1,2-dichlorobenzene

isopimaradiene
kaur-16-ene [tentative  id]




1-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl  benzene)

2-methylnaphthalene



4-methylphenol

2-methylphenanthrene
 BL-14; B-04; CI-01,02,03,11,12,
 CI-13,15,17,21,22;  HY-12 through
 26,33,36;  MD-11,12 ;  MI -1 1 ;
 RS-13,14,18,21; SI-11

 CI-01,02,11,12,15,17,21,22 HY-16,22,23;
 MD-11,12; RS-13,16,18,21;  SI-14;
 SP-13,14

 RS-18
 CI-12,13,15; HY-22
 BL-04;  CI-03,12; HY-03,41;  MI-01;
 SI-14; SP-11

 CI-11,15;  HY-22; MD-11,12;  RS-13,16,
 RS-18,21; SI-14; SP-13

 RS-18
 CI-16

 BL-01,04,13,32; CI-03,12,17,20;
HY-15,16,36,42,43,47;  MD-12;
MI-13,15; RS-04; SI-11,12; SP-11,12,14,15

BL-04; CI-03,11,20; HY-01,03,12,14,15,16,
17,22,25,28,29,31,33,35,37,40,41,42,43,47
MD-01,12; MI-11,15; RS-04; SI-11,12,15;
SP-11,12,14,15,16

SP-14; RS-16;  SI-11

BL-16; CI-02,03,11,12,15,16,17,18,21,22;
HY-22,26,36,39;  MD-11,12; MI-12;
RS-13,16,18,21; SI-14,15;  SP-13,14

SP-13,14

BL-01,04,24,32; CI-03,12,15,17  through 22
HY-14,15,16,17,22,30,31,34,36,43,45;
MD-11,12,13; MI-11,13;  RS-11,13,16,17,
RS-19,21; SI-11,12,14,15;  SP-11,12
                                   3.48

-------
TABLE 3.13.  (Continued)
2-methylphenanthrene
1-methylphenanthrene
1-methylpyrene
2-methylpyrene
n-nitrosodiphenylamine

Total chlorinated butadienes
Total PCBs
RS-18; SP-14
RS-18
HY-16,17,22; RS-18
CI-20; HY-15,16,21,36; RS-18
RS-18

HY-22,25,28,33,36,37, HY-39 through
43,45,47,48

HY-03,22,23,27,42
METALS:

antimony
arsenic
cadmium
copper
lead
mercury
zinc
HY-16; RS-19,24
RS-19,24
RS-17,18,21
RS-19
RS-17,18,19,21
RS-17,21
RS-17,18,21
                                  3.49

-------
              TABLE 3.14.  SUMMARY OF CHEMICALS WITH SEDIMENT
          ELEVATIONS ABOVE REFERENCE (EAR) BETWEEN 100 AND l.OOOX
             AVERAGED  OVER COMMENCEMENT  BAY AREAS  OR  SEGMENTS
Chemicals >100x and 
-------
TABLE 3.14.  (Continued)
total PCBs

METALS:

antimony


arsenic


copper


lead


mercury
      HYS2
Ruston-Pt. Defiance
  and RSS3

Ruston-Pt. Defiance
  and RSS3

Ruston-Pt. Defiance
  and RSS2

Ruston-Pt. Defiance
  and RSS2

Ruston-Pt. Defiance
  and RSS2
                                   3.51

-------
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                                3.52

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3.53

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                    3.54

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                        3.55

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3.56

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                                 3.57

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3.58

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3.59

-------
from Carr Inlet.   When  normalized to the total percent fine-grained material,
the sum of average concentrations  for copper,  lead, and zinc  in  Ruston-
Pt. Defiance Shoreline  sediments  is approximately 70 times  higher than
the average calculated for Carr Inlet sediments (i.e., EAR=70).   The  correspond-
ing EAR on an organic  carbon basis  is  19.  In general, the greatest variations
among waterways were  found for concentrations  normalized  to dry  weight,
and the  smallest  variations were  found  for concentrations  normalized to
organic carbon.

     Data  presented in Figures  3.7  and  3.8 show that  the average metals
contamination along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline is 5-50  times  higher
than  that in any  other  area, regardless of the  method of normalization.
This extreme elevation  in  one  study  area only is not seen for  low  and high
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comparatively low average elevations  (e.g., less  than 20  percent  of the
maximum EAR regardless  of  the  normalization)  of high molecular weight aromatic
hydrocarbons were found only in St.  Paul Waterway (Figure 3.10).

     Normalized  to sediment  dry  weight, average elevations  of all of the
chlorinated organic  compound groups  (i.e., PCBs, chlorinated benzenes,
and chlorinated  butadienes) were highest  in  Hylebos Waterway (Figures 3.11,
3.12,  and 3.13).   Average PCB concentrations  (DW)  in St. Paul  and City
Waterways, and  along  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline were  also elevated
an order of magnitude  over reference conditions (Figure 3.11).   Dry-weight
elevations of chlorinated  benzene concentrations did not  exceed an order
of magnitude, but the average  in several areas  approached the  average observed
in Hylebos Waterway (Figure  3.12).   Total  chlorinated butadienes were elevated
greater than an order of magnitude above reference conditions  only in Hylebos
Waterway sediments,  regardless of the concentration normalization used
(Figure 3.13).

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exceed 10 times reference conditions in any study area.  Average concentrations
of  phthalate esters  in  the Sitcum,  Milwaukee, and St. Paul Waterways were
less than reference conditions, regardless of  the concentration  normalization
used.

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format of each pair of  graphs  and the  use of three different concentration
normalizations  are  identical to those just described for Figures  3.7-3.14.
Data for segments  within each area are  arranged  from the mouth  of each
waterway (left) to the  head  (right), and from the eastern end of  the Ruston-
Pt. Defiance Shoreline  (left)  to the western  end (right).

     The high average EARs observed  for metals along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance
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3.15  and 3.16).    Average EARs  of  these  metals on  a dry-weight basis in
the waterways tended to increase  from the mouth  to the head of  larger waterways
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material  tended to be more constant  along the waterways.
                                  3.60

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3.64

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      Figure  3.20.  Elevations above  reference (EAR)  for total
                     chlorinated benzenes  by segment  in Commence-
                     ment  Bay study areas.
                                 3.66

-------
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                     phthalates  by segment  in Commencement Bay

     	study areas.	
                                3.68

-------
     A similar  tendency [i.e., higher EARs (DW)  away  from the mouths of
the waterways] was observed  for aromatic  hydrocarbons  (Figures 3.17 and
3.18).   An  upwaterway gradient was most distinct for high molecular weight
aromatic  hydrocarbon  EARs  normalized  to  dry  weight in  Hylebos Waterway
(Figure  3.18).   Although Hylebos Waterway  sediments contained the highest
observed  levels  of chlorinated organic  compounds, the spatial distributions
of PCBs,  chlorinated benzenes, and chlorinated butadienes were different
from  each  other within  Hylebos Waterway  (Figures 3.19-3.21).  Highest average
PCB  concentrations (DW) were found toward the  head of Hylebos Waterway,
but total  chlorinated butadiene and  benzene  concentrations  were substantially
more elevated  toward the mouth of Hylebos Waterway.

     The  distribution of phthalates  in  study area  segments is  shown in
Figure 3.22.  High levels  (DW) of phthalates  were observed  in sediment
samples  from  the head  of City Waterway  and  from Wheeler-Osgood Waterway
in organic-rich  sediments  that were contaminated with  other chemicals.
 Unlike any  of the other contaminant groups,  the highest sediment  elevations
of phthalates  (DW) was found in segment  HYS6  outside of  Hylebos  Waterway.
Sediment  samples from  segment BLS4,   outside  of Blair Waterway, had the
highest phthalate elevations in Blair Waterway.   This similarity between
the two waterways, and the relatively low contamination levels in the outermost
segments by other  chemical  groups commonly  associated with urban contamination,
suggests  that  phthalates have an independent  source  in this area.  A potential
contribution from natural sources cannot be ruled  out.   The low  phthalate
elevations  in  Sitcum,  Milwuakee, and St.  Paul  Waterways adjacent to the
Puyallup  River tend to  suggest that discharges  from the  Puyallup  River
are not the  source.

     The  relative magnitude of concentrations of other chemicals showing
distributions  similar to  those summarized  in  Figures  3.17-3.22 are not
shown.   Chemical  characteristics of   individual  sites  will be  summarized
in detail  in later discussions of problem areas (see Section 6).

3.1.6  Comparison with Historical Conditions

     Concentrations of most chemicals measured in the current investigation
of Commencement  Bay subtidal  sediments are  comparable  to  or  higher than
surface sediment values measured in recent  studies conducted by WDOE, U.S. EPA,
NOAA, and other groups.   Available historical  concentrations  of metals
and  organic compounds  in subtidal and intertidal sediments from Middle
and Milwaukee Waterways, and from along  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline
are  comparable  to or lower  than  those in  the present study.  High  levels
of chlorinated butadienes were observed  at a  single historical station
near  Old  Tacoma on the Ruston-Pt  Defiance Shoreline, but repeated sampling
did not confirm  the report.  Few historical data were found for  any sediment
contaminants along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline or for organic compounds
within Middle  Waterway.  Concentrations of chemicals  found during the
Commencement  Bay Deep Water Sediment Investigation  (Hileman and Matta  1983)
were lower overall than  those found in the  waterways during  the present
investigation.   Major  differences between historical and current results
for metals and organic compounds in the  remaining study areas are  summarized
below. Phthalate ester  concentrations  are  not compared because most historical
data were not  corrected for potential laboratory contamination.


                                 3.69

-------
3.1.6.1  City Waterway--

     A single  station with high PCB values (300-600 ug/kg DW) was measured
during 1980 NOAA studies west of the  llth Street Bridge  in  City Waterway
(Mai ins  et al. 1980).  Much  lower PCB  values were observed in sediments
from this area  in the  present study  (e.g., 20-100 ug/kg DW at Stations
CI-18, CI-19, and  CI-20).  A U.S. EPA 1981 study detected hexachlorobutadiene
(HCBD) (340 ug/kg  dry weight) at the mouth of City Waterway (U.S. EPA 1982);
HCBO  was undetected at  a detection  limit of 25 ug/kg DW in the  present
study.

3.1.6.2  St. Paul  Waterway--

     Historical  metals levels  in  sediments  from  St.  Paul Waterway were
somewhat  higher overall than the current findings, but were within a  factor
of 10.   PCBs had been detected in the middle of the waterway at 250 ug/kg
DW; the highest value in the current study was 79 ug/kg  DW near the  mouth
of the waterway.  PCBs were undetected in sediments from remaining stations
at a detection  limit of approximately  100 ug/kg DW.  A  single historical
pentachlorophenol  value of 840 ug/kg DW was not confirmed in recent samples;
pentachlorophenol  was undetected throughout the waterway at a detection
limit of  25-100 ug/kg DW.

3.1.6.3  Sitcum Waterway--

     Copper, lead, and zinc data collected by Tetra Tech indicate an increasing
gradient in the concentrations of these metals toward the head of the waterway.
Historical data indicate a more patchy distribution with elevated concentrations
along  the  north shore and in the northeast corner (U.S. EPA/DOE 1981 station).
There is  no consistent trend in concentration of those metals when all
data are  considered.  Concentrations  of several aromatic  hydrocarbons  in
a single historical sediment sample  collected during a 1981 U.S.  EPA/DOE
study near Station SI-14 were more than 10 times currently observed concen-
trations.  The unusually  high  proportion of benzo(a)pyrene  relative to
other aromatic hydrocarbons  in this  historical sample was  not found  in
the current samples from Sitcum Waterway.

3.1.6.4  Blair  Waterway--

     Historical  intertidal concentrations  of PCBs  at the north  Lincoln
Avenue drain (740  ug/kg DW)  were approximately 20 times  higher than  any
present  concentrations  in  Blair Waterway subtidal samples from the same
area.  Arsenic, chromium, copper,  lead, and  zinc concentrations at  two
historical  intertidal stations near the south Lincoln Avenue drain exceeded
10 times  currently measured subtidal values in the same area.  Station BL-14
toward the head of Blair Waterway  near the north shoreline had higher
concentrations of organic  compounds  (primarily hydrocarbons) than any historical
Blair Waterway  sample.

3.1.6.5  Hylebos Waterway--

     The  most  extensive  historical  data set for sediment contaminants was
collected in Hylebos Waterway.   At the head of the waterway (segment HYS1),
historical  contaminant concentrations were comparable to or less than those

                                 3.70

-------
measured  in  the  current studies, with the  exceptions of a single intertidal
sample near the Kaiser Ditch with high PCBs (980 ug/kg OW)  and intertidal
samples with  higher aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations,

     In the lower turning basin near Stations HY-20 to HY-26 (segment HYS2),
historical  intertidal sediment concentrations of  chloroform, arsenic, copper,
and mercury  exceeded currently measured subtidal sediment values, but  by
less than  a factor of 10, with the  exceptions  of chloroform (a factor  of
220 over  the detection limit of the current studies) and mercury (a factor
of 30).  All  historical intertidal  samples were collected  from the south
shore  of  the waterway.  Historical subtidal  sediment  concentrations  of
metals were comparable to those in the current study.  The maximum historical
concentration of PCBs in surface sediments within this area was 1150 ug/kg
DW, approximately half the 2,000 ug/kg DW measured at Station HY-22.

     Historical  sediment concentrations  of metals  and organic compounds
in segment HYS3 near the  Lincoln Avenue drain  were in  general agreement
with those from the current study.  Subtidal sediments from Station HY-27
in this segment contained relatively high concentrations of PCBs (860 ug/kg
DW).   Similarly  high concentrations were observed at a nearby historical
subtidal station  (>1,000  ug/kg DW),  but an  historical  intertidal sample
collected  near the Lincoln Avenue drain had much  lower concentrations (170 ug/kg
DW).  These data  suggest  that the  drain may  not be an  ongoing source  of
PCBs  to the  subtidal sediments, but that  older sediments contaminated  with
PCBs may have been exposed in the middle of the  waterway.

     PCB concentrations 10 times higher than those measured in the current
study were found in historical samples collected  in segment HYS4 near Station
HY-32.  Aldrin and alpha-HCH were  also  reported  in historical  samples,
but at concentrations near  the detection  limits attained  in  the  current
study.

     Concentrations  of lead 35  times greater  than  those measured in the
current study were found in historical  intertidal sediments on the south
side  of Hylebos  Waterway  near Station HY-42  (segment HYS5).  Historical
subtidal metal  concentrations were comparable to those in the current study.
Higher hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and PCB concentrations (3,300,
1,300, and 1,700  ug/kg  DW,  respectively) were reported historically  in
surface sediments (0-2  cm)  of  this segment  than  in the  current  study.
However, HCBD and HCB concentrations in the surface  interval of cores (e.g.,
0-15  cm)  collected during  the current study  in this area were comparable
or higher than those in historical surface samples.  Aldrin was also detected
at 62-950  ug/kg DW in historical intertidal and  subtidal  sediments collected
near HY-42,  although the  pesticide  was undetected in  the current study
at a detection limit of 50 ug/kg DW.  As previously discussed, the historical
reporting  of  aldrin may be a false EC/6C identification  of  an  interfering
chlorinated  substance.  There were no available historical  data within
segment HYS6, which is outside of Hylebos Waterway.

     With the  exception of unconfirmed reports of selected pesticides  (see
discussion in Section 3.1.4.1) in sediments from isolated stations, there
were  no organic  compounds  or metals  detected in historical  Commencement
Bay studies  that  were not also found in the current  studies.  Besides the
differences  summarized  in  this section, the  major difference between the

                                 3.71

-------
available  historical  studies  and the current study is that  a  wider range
of chemicals  were quantitated at typically  lower  detection limits  in  the
current study.

^3.1.7  Contamination  of Waterway Suspended Solids

     The water  quality study was  designed to provide a qualitative check
on the movement  of contaminated particulate  material among  Commencement
Bay waterways.   A survey of nine stations  (two depth intervals) was conducted
in April,  1984 during a flood tide and  high  flow from the Puyallup  River.
In August,  1984,  sampling  was conducted  at the same locatons  at ebb tide
and low flow  from the Puyallup River.   Stations were located  in the Puyallup
River  and  Hylebos, Blair, Sitcum, Milwaukee, and City Waterways  (see Figure
2.4).  Water  sampling in  the upper portions  of Hylebos, Blair,  and  City
Waterways  was conducted to characterize  the contaminant distribution within
these larger  waterways.

     For both April  and August  studies, the Puyallup  River samples had
the highest total suspended solids (TSS)  concentrations of all  samples
collected  (6.7  mg/L,  9.8 mg/L).  The  mouth of City Waterway had  the lowest
surface TSS load (1.2  mg/L).  Little difference was seen between April
and  August TSS  concentrations (except  for  the  Puyallup River  samples).
Vertical stratification  between the  surface and 5-m depth, as  measured
by TSS ratios, also remained fairly constant between April and  August.

     The April data showed the presence of both HPAH and LPAH (200-8,900 ug/kg
DW) and phthalates (380-36,000 ug/kg DW)  in all the sampled  waterways.
Other  organic  compounds detected included:  4-methylphenol  in the Puyallup
River (6,100  ug/kg DW), benzoic acid at the  head of Blair Waterway  (270,000
ug/kg  DW)  and  dibenzofuran at the head of  City Waterway  (810 ug/kg DW).
No other organic  compounds were detected above  the relatively  high  analytical
detection limits obtained for this survey  (500-50,000 ug/kg DW).   Concentration
gradients of  organic  contaminants  along  the  waterways  were  not  observed
for the April  study.

     Most metals were  detected  in the  particulate  samples.  Arsenic was
found in highest concentration (290 and  390  mg/kg DW for the  subsurface
and surface samples,  respectively) at the  head of Hylebos Waterway.   Arsenic
concentrations increased from the mouth  to  the  head of  Hylebos  Waterway.
A similar gradient was  observed in arsenic sediment concentrations  in Hylebos
Waterway.   However, the August particulate sample  data showed no  gradient
in arsenic  concentrations, and the concentrations at the  head  of  Hylebos
Waterway were much lower  than previously observed (6.2  and  100  mg/kg DW
for  the subsurface  and  surface samples,  respectively).  Concentrations
of arsenic  in particulate material within  Hylebos Waterway  appear to be
related to  existing Hylebos sources that fluctuate with time  rather than
to a source from outside of the waterway.   This conclusion is  consistent
with  the  findings of  a  recent report on  the  log sort yards  in the area
(Norton and Johnson 1985a).

     Organic compound  data  from  the  August sampling effort  provided more
information because of  an approximately  fivefold to tenfold increase in
analytical  sensitivity  compared with the  April study.  HPAH  and  LPAH were
the main organic compounds  detected at  the  mouths of  all the  waterways

                                 3.72

-------
sampled (43-6,600  ug/kg DW) .  Additional  compounds detected included:
4-methylphenol  at  the mouths of Sitcum  Waterway, Milwaukee  Waterway, and
the  Puyallup River (2,900-6,600 ug/kg DW); pentachlorophenol  at  the  head
of Blair Waterway  (440 ug/kg DW); phthalates  in  all waterway samples except
those  from Milwaukee Waterway (130-1,600  ug/kg DW); isophorone in  Sitcum
Waterway (170-610  ug/kg  DW);  and dibenzofuran  in Sitcum, Milwaukee, and
City Waterways,  and  the  Puyallup River (65-330 ug/kg DW).   No  other  compounds
were reported  in any sample above the approximate  250-5,000 ug/kg DW detection
limits attained  for  these particulate samples.

     There were no  apparent horizontal  concentration  gradients  in  Blair
or City Waterways  for any chemical  detected during the the  August sampling
period.   Concentrations of  HPAH  increased slightly towards  the head of
Hylebos Waterway (e.g.,  fluoranthene 610-4600 ug/kg DW).  A similar  gradient
of HPAH  concentrations was  observed  in Hylebos Waterway  sediments.  As
discussed previously for arsenic,  the observed distribution  of  HPAH on
Hylebos  Waterway particulate  material appears to  reflect  contributions
from intermittent  local  sources within Hylebos Waterway.   These  data do
not  suggest  that highly contaminated suspended particles  are moving out
of Hylebos  Waterway.  In general, the chemical  data  for suspended solids
show little  evidence of a major  transport of  contaminated  particles  into
or out of any of the the waterways  sampled.

     For both the April and August samples,  the concentrations (DW) of
organic chemicals  bound  to  suspended solids were more than  10 times higher
than the corresponding  sediment  concentrations.   The  concentrations of
metals bound  to  suspended solids were similar to  those measured in waterway
sediment samples.  The reasons for  this  relative  difference in concentrations
for organic  compounds and metals  have not been determined.  No major  qualitative
differences  in  the composition of related substances  (e.g.,  individual
PAH compounds)  were found  between  the contaminants on suspended solids
and  those in  the underlying sediments.

3.1.8  Summary

     A patchy distribution  of contamination was observed in  Commencement Bay.
Several contaminants were found  at  concentrations  in excess of 1,000  times
reference  conditions at a few locations.  As  a means of summarizing  this
variable distribution, chemicals or  chemical groups  of concern for  which
concentrations exceeded 80 percent  of the values  observed  in all  Commencement
Bay sediments analyzed are  listed (by station)  in Table 3.15.   Where the
80th  percentile value  did not exceed the  range observed for  Puget Sound
reference areas, a higher  percentile  was used.  The station  listing is
organized  by area and  segment  to  show  contiguous stations  with  high  levels
of contamination.

     The decision-making approach  specifies  that  stations with  chemical
concentrations exceeding the 80th percentile cutoff described  be  prioritized
for  evaluation  of potential source control.  This chemical  prioritization
of problem areas  will  be  incorporated with later evaluations  of the relation-
ships  among  sediment contamination, toxicity,  and biological  effects to
determine the final prioritization of problem areas for remedial  action.
                                 3.73

-------
TABLE 3.15.   STATION LOCATIONS AT WHICH SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS OF
     CHEMICALS EXCEEDED 80 PERCENT OF SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS
          MEASURED IN ALL COMMENCEMENT BAY STUDY AREAS
Segment Station
Hrsi HY-11 |gc
HY-12 b Hg HPA
HY-13 As Hg HPA
HY-14 b HPA
HY-1S HPA
HY-16 CPZ As LPAH HPA
HY-17 b CPZ |As) HPA
HY-18 b CPZ As Hg HPA
HY-19 b CPZ As HPA

HYS2 HY-20 As HPA
HY-21 As HPA
HY-22 b CPZ (As) Hg LPAH HPA
HY-23 b As Hg LPAH HPA
HY-24 b CPZ As Hg HPA
HY-25 LPAH
HY-26 IHPA
HYS3 HY-01 CPZ [As]
HY-27
HY-28 b
HY-29
HY-3U
HY-31
HYS4 HY-32 b Hg
HY-33 HPA
HY-34
HY-35
HYS5 HY-36 Hg
HY-37 b
HY-38
HY-39
HY-02
HY-40 |Hg]
HY-41
HY-42 b
HY-43 b
HY-44 b
HY-45
HY-03
HY-46 Hg
HY-47 b
HY-48
HYSb HY-49
HY-50 b
HY-51
CB-11
BLS1 BL-11 b As
B-ll
B-02
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PCB
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PCC
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TABLE 3.15.  (Continued)
Segment Station
SPS1 SP-11 b
SP-12 b
SP-13
SP-14 b
SP-lb b
SP-16 b

LPAH
LPAH
MOSI MD-ii ILPAH] HPAH
MD-Ol
MD-12 b CPZ LPAH
MD-13 [CPU As (Hg] LPAH
CISl CI-11 b
CI-12
CI-13 b
CI-14
CI-01
CI-lb
CI-17 b
CI-18
CI-03
CIS2 CI-02
CI-16 b
CIS3 Cl-19
Cl-20 b
Cl-21
CI-22 b
RSS1 RS-11
RS-12 b
RS-04
RS-13 b
RS-OZ
RS-14 b
RS-lb
RSS2 RS-16
RS-17
RS-20 b
RS-03
RS-19 b
RS-18 b
RS-21
RSS3 RS-24 b
RS-22 b

CPZ
CPZ
IP/
CPZ
CPZ
CPZ
CPZ
CPZ
[Hg] LPAH HPAH
LPAH 	
pg] LPAH IHPAHl
ICMil HPAH
LPAH
[Hg]
[HgJ LPAH
CPZ] Hg LPAH [HPAH] PCB
CPZ LPAH


LPAH IHPAHl
LPAH HPAH
Hg LPAH HPAH
CPZ
CPZ]
CPZ
CPZ
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MNOL BZAC IDBFI |BZOH| M
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MNOL

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IMNOLI BZAC DBF BZOH PHTH] |APAH|
BZAC PHTH!


EB RET MOX |COP|
EB MOX
EB MOX COP
EB |RET| MOX
EB MOX COP
IHETI MOX ICOPI
[QIB] MOX
RET |DIB| |HOX|
MOX

:B OIB , 	 ,
OIB [COPj
OIB MOX
MNOL BZOH PHTH 	 MOX
CBEN [DBF| BZOH |PHTH| DIB
PNOL MNOL DBF 	 APAH DTP RET DIB MOX
[APAH] [DTP] MEB RET [c5p]
CBEN IPNOLI MNOL [DBFJ 	 NOPA MEB
CBEN MNOL DBF |PHTH] iNOPAl DIB
	 BZAC
IPNOL! FATAH) IjjTgl M
MNOL DBF APAH
APAH
MNOL APAH
1 HNOL| |DBF| APAH
MNOL
PNOL | MNOLl |DBF| [PHTH] [M!
PHTH
CBEN PNOL DBF [ NOPA I [APAHl ME
DBF PHTH APAH
NDPA

IB I RET) IDIBI MOX
MOX
RET
|RET|
COP
RET
iBifirn OIB
B RET DIB
RET DIB


-------
 TABLE  3.15   (Continued)
a Abbreviations used  for chemicals  are  listed  below:

PRIORITY POLLUTANTS AND  ADDITIONAL  HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE LIST  COMPOUNDS  (analyzed
for at 138 stations except  as  noted)

     CPZ = Copper, lead, zinc
      AS = Arsenic
      HG = Mercury
    LPAH = Low molecular weight aromatic  hydrocarbons
    HPAH = High molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons
     PCB = Total PCBs
     CBD = Total chlorinated  butadienes
    CBEN = Total chlorinated  benzenes
    PNOL = Phenol
    MNOL = Methylated phenols
     PCP = Pentachlorophenol
    VOLA  = Tetrachloroethene, ethylbenzene,  total  xylenes  (analyzed  for at 20
stations only)
    BZAC = Benzoic acid  (analyzed  for  at  126 stations  only)
     DBF = Dibenzofuran  (analyzed  for  at  126 stations  only)
    BZOH = Benzyl alcohol (analyzed for at 126 stations only)
    phth = Total phthalates
    NPDA = n-Nitrosodiphenylamine

Tentatively Identified Compounds (analyzed for at  126  stations  only)

    APAH (alkyl PAH)     =    l,l'-biphenyl
                             2-methylphenanthrene
                             1-methylphenanthrene
                             1-methylpyrene
                             2-methylpyrene

     DTP                =    Isopimaradiene (diterpene)
                             unidentified diterpene  (possibly kaur-16-ene)

     MEB                =    l-methyl-2-(l-methylethyl)benzene

     RET                =    Retene

     DIB                =    Dibenzothiophene

     PCC                =    Pentachlorocyclopentane isomer

     MOX                =    2-methoxyphenol

     COP                =    Coprostanol

b Stations with synoptic chemistry, sediment toxicity, and biological data.

c Station locations where chemical  concentrations exceeded 90  percent  of values
observed in Commencement Bay  sediments  are boxed.
                                        3.77

-------
3.2  BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

3.2.1  Introduction

     Benthic infauna  are an  integral  part of  the Puget Sound  estuarine
ecosystem.  They consume organic materials  deposited  on  and in the sediments,
bioturbate  the sediments, promote nutrient  regeneration  from the sediments,
and are prey of higher  trophic level  organisms.   Benthic  organisms  are
relatively  sedentary,  and  cannot avoid  organic  materials and  chemical
contaminants that are deposited  on the bottom.   Because they are also sensitive
to  organic  enrichment and chemical  contamination of the sediments, benthic
organisms are an excellent indicator group by which  to assess the  area!
extent and magnitude of environmental  stresses  (Pearson  and Rosenberg 1978;
Wolfe et al. 1982).

     The  purpose of this section is  to  describe  the general characteristics
of benthic communities in  Commencement Bay waterways,  along the  Ruston-
Pt.  Defiance Shoreline, and  in the  Carr  Inlet  reference area.  An overall
characterization of benthic communities  in  Commencement Bay  and Carr  Inlet
is presented first, followed  by qualitative  comparisons of benthic communities
among and within these nine study areas.  A numerical  classification analysis
is  then  used to  identify the major  types  of  benthic  communities and their
distributions among the  study  areas.   Animal-sediment  relationships  are
explored with the aid of statistical  analyses to  identify sediment character-
istics that are important determinants  of  community structure within  and
among  the nine study areas.  Statistical  analyses  are also used to develop
indices of benthic degradation that are  later used as  decision criteria
(Section 3.2.7).  Finally, biological  conditions  observed during the present
study are compared with those observed  in 1950, to determine whether benthic
biological conditions have changed  since that time.

3.2.2  Characteristics of Benthic Communities in  Commencement Bay and Carr
Inlet

     During  this  study,  119,095  individuals  belonging  to 407 species were
collected from 56 sampling stations.   The best  represented  major taxonomic
groups  in the samples were the Polychaeta  (marine worms), Bivalvia (clams),
Nematoda (round worms),  Crustacea  (e.g.,  amphipods  and cumaceans), Echinodermata
(e.g., sea cucumbers and  brittle stars), Oligochaeta (e.g., tubificid worms),
and Sipuncula (marine worms).   Two species (i.e.,  the  polychaete Tharyx
multifilis and the bivalve mollusc  A x in o p s i da s er r i c a t a)  accounted  for
70,084  individuals  or 59 percent of  benthic organisms  collected (Table 3.16).
Because  of the preponderance of  these two species, annelids and bivalve
molluscs  were the  two best represented major  benthic groups.   Nematodes
were the third most abundant  major  benthic because densities at a few stations
were extremely high.   The fourth most  abundant  major group was the crustaceans,
represented primarily by  the  ostracods Euphilqmedes  producta and E_.  carcharo-
donta, and the tanaid Leptochelia  dubia.  Echinoderms and other major taxonomic
groups were present at low abundances  in the samples.   Ranked  mean abundances
of benthic taxa  at  stations in  Carr Inlet, and  at stations  in Commencement
Bay are given in Appendix XIII.  Counts  of infaunal  species in each  replicate
at each station  are also  listed.
                                  3.78

-------
      TABLE  3.16.   ABUNDANCES  AND  RANKS  OF  THE  10  NUMERICALLY  DOMINANT
                BENTHIC  TAXA  COLLECTED  IN  COMMENCEMENT  BAY
Taxona
Tharyx multifilis (Po)
Axinopsida serricata (Pe)
Nematoda
Macoma carlottensis (Pe)
Lumbrineris sp. gr. 1 (Po)
Capitella capitata (Po)
Euphilomedes producta (Os)
Euphilomedes carcharodonta (Os)
Leptochelia dubia (Ta)
Prionospio steenstrupi (Po)
Total
Abundance
42,106
27,978
9,784
4,351
4,018
2,771
2,289
1,836
1,242
1,148
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Proportion
of Total
Individuals
0.354
0.235
0.082
0.037
0.034
0.023
0.019
0.015
0.010
0.010
Cumulative
Proportion
0.35
0.59
0.67
0.71
0.74
0.76
0.78
0.80
0.81
0.82

a Po = Polychaeta; Pe = Pelecypoda; Os = Ostracoda; Ta = Tanaidacea.
                                   3.79

-------
3.2.3  Comparisons  Among  Study Areas

3.2.3.1  Numbers  of Species--

     Mean numbers  of species  (in some cases  higher taxa)  per  grab  sample
(i.e.,  per  0.06 m2)  and mean numbers of individuals/m2 varied considerably
among the study areas (Figure 3.23).  The highest  mean numbers  of species
were  along  the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline and  in Carr Inlet, where  they
averaged over 40 species per grab.   Mean numbers of species in Hylebos,
Blair,  Sitcum, Milwaukee, St. Paul, Middle, and  City Waterways were about
35-50 percent lower,  suggesting  that  some degree  of stress was occurring
throughout the waterways, compared with adjacent habitats.

     Tests for differences  in numbers of taxa and numbers of individuals among
the nine study areas were  conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis  test  [a nonpara-
metric  analog of  ANOVA  (i.e., analysis of variance)].  This  nonparametric
test was used in  lieu of  ANOVA because sample variances were  highly hetero-
geneous (i.e., varied  by  a factor >10) in both data sets.   Transformation
of  the  data using  the  relationship  Y  = logio(x+l)  failed to reduce the
heterogeneity of the variances to an acceptable level.  A posteriori multiple
range comparisons were conducted using the Mann-Whitney U-test, as recommended
by Winer (1971).

     Results  of the Kruskal-Wall is  test  and  subsequent multiple range
comparisons  indicated that  numbers of taxa were generally depressed within
the waterways  (Figure  3.23,  Tables  3.17,  3.18).   Numbers  of taxa were
significantly higher (P<0.05)  in  Carr Inlet than in City, Hylebos, Milwaukee,
Sitcum, and St. Paul Waterways.  The  multiple range tests  also indicated
that numbers of taxa at  stations along the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline
were higher  than  at stations  in  Hylebos Waterway.

3.2.3.2  Total  Abundances--

     Total  abundances (i.e.,  numbers of individuals/m2) also varied among
the nine Commencement Bay study areas (Figure  3.23).   Abundances tended
to be higher in Blair, Sitcum, Milwaukee, and City  Waterways  than elsewhere.
A Kruskal-Wallis test detected statistically  significant differences (P<0.05)
in  abundances among  the study areas.  Subsequent a posteriori  tests usinq
the Mann-Whitney U-test located statistically  significant differences (P<0.05)
among  11  pairs of  study  areas.  In general, abundances were  higher (P<0.05)
in Middle and Sitcum Waterways,  and  lower  (P<0.05)  in St.  Paul Waterway.
Extreme variations  in abundances among the stations in City Waterway (discussed
below) may account  for the  absence of statistically significant differences
(P<0.05) in  abundances between City Waterway and other study  areas.

3.2.3.3  Numbers  of Species  and  Abundances of Major Taxonomic  Groups—

     In general , trends in  numbers of species and abundances  for the major
taxonomic groups  (i.e.,  Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and  Echinodermata)
were  similar to those  shown in  Figure 3.23 for total  numbers of species
and total  abundances.  High  numbers of polychaete,  mollusc, and  crustacean
species (Figures  3.24,  3.25, 3.26) generally accounted for  the  high  degree
of species richness found along  the  Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline and in
Carr  Inlet.  Polychaetes  were  very abundant in the Hylebos,  Blair, Sitcum,

                                  3.80

-------
OJ
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MEAN NO. SPECIES
MEAN NO. INDIVIDUALS/m2 PER GRAB SAMPLE (0.06 m2)
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-------
           TABLE  3.17.   RESULTS OF KRUSKAL-WALLIS TESTS COMPARING
         NUMBERS  OF  TAXA PER GRAB SAMPLE AND NUMBERS OF INDIVIDUALS
                   PER  GRAB SAMPLE AMONG THE STUDY AREAS3
Test
No. Cases
Chi-squareb
Significanceb
No. Taxa/Grab Sample

No. Individuals/Grab
  Sample
   192



   192
   44.00
   38.48
    0.0000
    0.0000
a Each study area was characterized  by the values of  all  replicates collected
therein.

b Probability  that  rank  sums  are  approximately  the  same;  corrected for ties.
                                   3.82

-------
                TABLE  3.18.   RESULTS OF MANN-WHITNEY U-TEST MULTIPLE
           COMPARISONS OF NUMBERS OF  TAXA PER GRAB SAMPLE  AND  NUMBERS  OF
                 INDIVIDUALS PER GRAB  SAMPLE  AMONG THE  STUDY AREAS^
CI
BL nsb
CI
CR
HY
MD
MI
RS
SI
CI
BL ns
CI
CR
HY
MD
MI
RS
SI
No. Taxa/Grab
CR HY MD
ns ns ns
*c ns ns
* ns
ns




Sample
MI
ns
ns
*
ns
ns



No. Individuals/Grab Sample
CR HY MD MI
* ns ns
ns ns ns
ns ns
ns




ns
ns
*
*
ns



RS
ns
ns
ns
*
ns
ns


RS
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
*


SI
ns
ns
*
ns
ns
ns
ns

SI
ns
ns
*
*
ns
ns
*

SP
ns
ns
*
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
SP
*
ns
ns
*
ns
*
ns
*
a Each  study area  was characterized by  the  values of  all replicates collected
therein.

D ns = not significant.

c Each  test was considered  significant  (*)  if  P<0.00625.  This  significance level
is based on an experimentwise  error  rate  of P<0.05 and eight pairwise comparisons
for each study area with all  other  study  areas.

                                       3.83

-------
CQ


        40 T
        20 •
               HY    BL    SI    Ml    SP   MD   Cl   RS
                                            CR
                                 STUDY AREA
y 55
I
      12,000 -i
      10,000 -
       7,500 -
       5,000 -
       2,500 -
               HY    BL   SI    Ml   SP   MD  Cl   RS
                                            CR
                                 STUDY AREA
    Figure  3.24.
Mean number of  polychaete species per grab
sample and mean number of polychaete indi-
viduals^ in each  survey area.
                            3.84

-------






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              HY   BL   SI   Ml   SP  MD  Cl   RS
                                                           CR
                              STUDY AREA
  Figure 3.26.
                 Mean number of crustacean species per grab
                 sample  and mean number of crustacean indi-
                 viduals^ in each survey area.
                        3.86

-------
Milwaukee,  Middle,  and  City Waterways,  while molluscs  were  very abundant
in the Blair,  Sitcum, and Milwaukee Waterways.   Polychaetesand molluscs
accounted for  generally enhanced total numerical abundances  in  the waterways.
Echinoderms  exhibited  low numbers  of species  and  low abundances  in all
study areas  (Figure 3.27).

3.2.3.4  Numerically  Abundant Taxa--

     Abundances of the  five most abundant taxa (i.e., the  numerically dominant
taxa) in each  study  area are summarized  in Figure 3.28 and  Table 3.19.
(The data in Figure 3.28  and Table 3.19 are combined  for all  stations within
a study area and  are intended to give an overview of conditions  within
each  study  area.  Taxonomic composition and abundances  differed among the
stations within many of  the study  areas, and  will be discussed  below.)
Very high dominance (i.e., 63-95 percent) was exhibited  by benthic communities
in all study  areas except the Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline  (i.e., 36 percent)
and  Carr Inlet (i.e., 44 percent).   High  dominance  values may indicate
stressed conditions, since less tolerant species  are eliminated  and opportun-
istic  species tend  to achieve high abundances  (Pearson and  Rosenberg 1978;
Gray 1982).

     Taxonomic composition  and,  hence,  the feeding modes  of the dominant
species differed considerably among the study areas (Figure  3.28,  Table 3.19).
For  all  stations  combined,  the Hylebos, Blair, Sitcum,  Milwaukee, and,
to a lesser  degree, Middle Waterways were dominated by the surface deposit-
feeding polychaete Tharyx multifilis and the surface  detritus-feeding bivalve
mollusc Axi'nopsida serricata (see Fauchald  and  Jumars 1979;  Word  1980).
These  two species have  not  been identified  in  the scientific literature
as being opportunistic.   The St. Paul and City Waterways (for  all stations
combined) were dominated primarily by subsurface deposit-feed ing nematodes.
The subsurface  deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella c_a_p_Tt_ata_ was the  second
most  abundant taxon  in  the  St. Paul Waterway  and the  fourth  most abundant
taxon in Middle Waterway  (after nematodes,  J_. multifili^s,  and A_. serricata).
(Note  that  nematodes and Capitella capitata are not the  most  abundant taxa
throughout either  the St.  Paul or City Waterways, but are  extremely abundant
only  at  certain  stations.   This will be discussed  below.)  Both nematodes
and the polychaete C.  capitata^ are known to  reach very high abundances
in organically enrTched sedTments,  often  to   the  near  exclusion of other
taxa (Nichols  1972; Pearson and Rosenberg 1978;  Van  Es  et al.  1980).   The
dominance of these  two  taxa suggests that some sediments  in St. Paul and
City Waterways  are organically enriched.

3.2.3.5  Contaminant-Sensitive Taxa--

     Many echinoderm and crustacean species are sensitive  to contaminants
and environmental  disturbance (Reish  and Barnard  1979; Word  1978,  1980).
Although numbers  of  echinoderm species and abundances of  echinoderms were
too low in all  of  the study areas for useful  inter-area  comparisons  (Figure
3.27), abundances  of  amphipods (i.e., sensitive  crustaceans)  may be compared
among study  areas.   Data  in Table 3.20 indicate  that  amphipods  were abundant
only  in  Carr  Inlet  and  along the Ruston-Pt, Defiance  Shoreline, excluding
Station RS-18.   A  one-way ANOVA was  conducted  to  test  for differences  in
mean amphipod  abundances  among all Commencement  Bay study  areas and Carr  Inlet
using the data  in  Table 3.20.  Middle Waterway was deleted from the analysis

                                  3.87

-------

















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HY    BL    SI     Ml    SP    MD    Cl    RS


                      STUDY AREA
                                                           CR
        NUMBERS BESIDE THE BARS REFER TO SPECIES LISTED IN TABLE 3.19.
Figure 3.28.
       Mean abundances  per station of the five nu-
       merically dominant species per study area and
       the proportions  of total  infaunal abundances
       for which they account.
                        3.89

-------
     TABLE  3.19.   KEY  FOR  FIGURE  3.28

 1 = Tharyx multifills (Polychaeta)
 2 = Axinopsida serricata (Pelecypoda)
 3 = Lumbrineris sp. gr.  1 (Polychaeta}
 4 = Cirratulus cirratus  (Polychaeta)
 5 = Euphilomedes producta (Ostracoda)
 6 = Macoma carlottensis  (Pelecypoda)
 7 = Lumbrineris luti  (Polychaeta)
 8 = Nematoda
 9 = Capitella capitata (Polychaeta)
10 = Leptochelia dubia (Isopoda)
11 = Cossura soyeri (Polychaeta)
12 = Nephtys cornuta franciscana (Polychaeta)
13 = Mediomastus spp.  (Polychaeta)
14 = Euphilomedes carcharodonta (Ostracoda)
15 = Prionospio steenstrupi  (Polychaeta)
16 = Phyllochaetopterus prolifica (Polychaeta)
17 = Scalibregma inflatum (Polychaeta)
                  3.90

-------
TABLE 3.20.  NUMBERS OF AMPHIPODS COLLECTED AT EACH  OF THE
COMMENCEMENT BAY STATIONS (0.24-m2) SAMPLED IN MARCH, 1984
Station
HY-12
HY-14
HY-17
HY-22
HY-23
HY-24
HY-28
HY-32
HY-37
HY-42
HY-43
HY-44
HY-47
HY-50
BL-11
BL-13
BL-21
BL-25
BL-28
BL-31
SI-11
SI-12
SI-15

MI-11
MI-13
MI-15
Abundance
0
0
1
6
0
3
10
2
2
1
5
6
1
6
1
3
0
1
8
1
1
2
4

2
1
3
Station
SP-11
SP-12
SP-14
SP-15
SP-16

MD-12

CI-11
CI-13
CI-16
CI-17
CI-20
CI-22
RS-12
RS-13
RS-14
RS-18
RS-19
RS-20
CR-11
CR-12
CR-13
CR-14



Abundance
25
17
1
1
4

0

2
1
0
1
0
0
16
200
72
0
29
45
65
14
39
167



                            3.91

-------
 because there  was only one  data point for number of amphipods; a minimum
 of  two  points is necessary  to estimate the mean and standard deviation.
 The test found mean abundances to be  significantly different (P<0.05)  among
 the study areas.  A subsequent Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison
 test yielded two nonsignificant subsets of stations, based on a statistical
 significance level of P<0.05.   Subset  one consisted of the  Hylebos, Blair,
 Site urn, Milwaukee, St. Paul,  and  City Waterways, while subset two consisted
 of  the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline and Carr Inlet.  These results further
 substantiate the  hypothesis  that amphipod abundances are depressed in  the
 waterways relative to the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline and Carr Inlet.

     Because many amphipod species  are sensitive to contaminants, organic
 enrichment,  and  environmental  disturbance (Bellan-Santini  1980; Swartz
 et  al.  1982b; Oakden et al. 1984), it is probable that one or more of  these
 factors contributed to the depressed   amphipod  abundances  observed in the
 waterways.  Alternatively,  the  naturally occurring sandy sediments  found
 along the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance  Shoreline and in Carr Inlet might be expected
 to  support  larger amphipod  populations than the muddy sediments found  in
 the Comnencement Bay waterways.   A correlation analysis of amphipod abundances
 at  stations within the waterways (Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline and Carr Inlet
 excluded) with  percent sand  in the   sediments  was conducted  during this
 review.  Results were highly significant (P<0.0001).  Thus,  the lower amphipod
 abundance observed in the  Commencement Bay waterways may  be due to one
 or  more of types  of environmental  stress, or  to  differences in sediment
 characteristics.

 3.2.4  Comparisons Within  Study Areas

     Considerable variation in numerical abundances and  species composition
 occurred within each study area  (Figures 3.29-3.32, Table 3.21).   For example,
 benthic communities  along the Hylebos  Waterway  were dominated by Tharyx
 multifilis and Axinopsidaserricata,  but abundances of those  two species
 combined  varied  from 137 to  14,546/m2  among  the  stations  (Figure 3.29).
 Abundances of the five numerically  dominant species exceeded  4,0007m2 at
 most stations, but were depressed  below  this value in the vicinity of Stations
 HY-22,  HY-23, HY-32,  HY-37,  and  HY-44.   Greatly depressed  abundances often
 indicate excessively  enriched  sediments or the  presence of  contaminants
 (Pearson and Rosenberg 1978; Carriker  et al. 1982; Wolfe  et  al.  1982; Dillon
 1984).   The Tharyx-Axinopsida  community also occurred throughout Blair,
 Sitcum,  and Milwaukee  Waterways.   Abundances of the five  numerically dominant
 taxa were less variable within each  of these  waterways than  were those
 observed  in Hylebos  Waterway  (Figure 3.30), and  all  but  Station  BL-28 (near
 the East llth Street  Bridge) exhibited abundances of 8,000/m2  Or  greater.

     The benthic  community at the single station in Middle  Waterway also
was dominated by  Tharyx multifil is, with Axinopsida serricata  present as
the  fifth  most abundant  taxon (Figure 3.31).   Total  abundance  of the five
most abundant taxa  was somewhat lower at  the station in Middle Waterway
 than was typical  of those  in Blair, Sitcum,  and  Milwaukee  Waterways  (5,588/m2).

     Stations in  St.  Paul Waterway  supported very different benthic  communities
than those observed  in the waterways  north of  the  Puyallup River  (Figure 3.31).
At  none  of the  St. Paul Waterway  stations  was  a  Tharyx-Axinppsida  community
found.  Nematodes and the polychaete Capitella capvEata were the most  abundant

                                  3.92

-------
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BL-31  BL-28  BL-25  BL-21   BL-13  BL-11
                                                    SI-15   SI-12   SI-11
                                                                             MI-15   MI-13   MI-11
                                           STUDY AREA
      NUMBERS BESIDE THE BARS REFER TO SPECIES LISTED IN TABLE 3.21.
Figure 3.30.   Total abundances of numerically dominant species  at stations  in Blair,
               Sitcum, and  Milwaukee Waterways, and  the proportions of total  infaunal
               abundances for which they account.

-------







CO
vO
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16,000 -
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    SP-16  SP-15  SP-14  SP-12  SP-11
MD-12
CI-22   CI-20  CI-17   CI-16  CI-13   CI-11
                                      STUDY AREA

# CROSS WATERWAY TRANSECT

   NUMBERS BESIDE THE BARS REFER TO SPECIES LISTED IN TABLE 3.21.
Figure  3.31.   Total abundances of  numerically dominant species at stations in
               St. Paul,  Middle, and  City Waterways, and the  proportions  of total
               infaunal abundances  for which they account.

-------
O>
                               20,000 -
                               16,000 -
                            CO
                               12,000 -
O  8,000
oc
LU
CD
                               4,000 -
                                        700/0
                 43%
                35,	.17

                29

                28
                                                    440A

                                 % ซg*,8<
                                 41
                                 6
                                 40
17 35%

"H
                                                                   43
                                                                                    66%
                                                                                        46 56%
                                                                                             48 59% 50
                                        RS-12  RS-13  RS-14  RS-18  RS-19 RS-20
                                                       CR-11  CR-12  CR-13 CR-14
                                       CROSS WATERWAY TRANSECT

                                       NUMBERS BESIDE THE BARS REFER TO SPECIES LISTED IN TABLE 3.21.
                   Figure 3.32.   Total abundances of  the numerically  dominant  species  at stations along
                                   the Ruston-Pt. Defiance shoreline and in Carr Inlet and the  proportions
                                   of total  infaunal  abundances  for which they account.

-------
TABLE 3.21.  KEY FOR FIGURES 3.29 THROUGH 3.32
 1 = Tharyx multifilis (Polychaeta)
 2 = Axlnopslda serrlc'ata (Polychaeta)
 3 = Macpma carlottensis (Pelecypoda)
 4 = Euphilomedes producta (Ostracoda)
 5 = Lumbrineris sp. gr. 1 (Polychaeta)
 6 = Cirratulus cirratus (Polychaeta)
 7 = Psephidia lordj (Pelecypoda)
 8 = Euphilomedes carcharodonta  (Ostracoda)
 9 = Macoma obliqua (Pelecypoda)
10 = Lumbrineris sp. gr. 3 (Polychaeta)
11 = Prionospio steenstrupi (Polychaeta)
12 = Chaetozone spp. (Polychaeta)
13 = Odostomia spp. (Gastropoda)
14 = Cos sura s~pp. (Polychaeta)
15 = Euchone sp. A  (Polychaeta)
16 = Plsta cristata (Polychaeta)
17 = Notomastus tenuis (Polychaeta)
18 = Prax ill el la gracilis (Polychaeta)
19 = Glycera capitata (Polychaeta)
20 = Capitella capitata (Polychaeta)
21 = Nephtys cornuta^ franciscana  (Polychaeta)
22 = Nematoda
23 = Schistomeringos rudolphi  (Polychaeta)
24 = Gyptis brevipalpa (Polychaeta)
25 = Cancer sp. (Decapoda)
26 = Nephtys^ cornuta (Polychaeta)
27 = Macoma nasuta  (Pelecypoda)
28 = Leptochelia dubia (Tanaidacea)
29 = Platynereis ^icaniculata  (Polychaeta)
30 = Macoma nasutli  (Pelecypoda)
31 = Prionospio cirrifera (Polychaeta)
32 = Armandia breyis (Polychaeta)
33 = Tubificidae (01igochaeta)
34 = Mediomastus^ spp. (Polychaeta)
35 = Phot is breVipes (Amphipoda)
36 = Prionospio multibranchiata  (Polychaeta)
37 = Leptostylis villosa (Cumac'ea)
38 = Limnoria lignorum (Isopoda)
39 = Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea)
40 = Balanuj crenatus (Cirripedia)
41 = Pajeonotus bell is (Polychaeta)
42 = Pseudochftinopoma occidental 1_s_  (Polychaeta)
43 = PhyllochaetopterlTs prolifica
44 = Pplydora spp.  (Polychaeta)
45 = PhoTolde's aspera (Polychaeta)
46 = Amphiodi'a urtica (Ophiuroidea)
47 = Scalibregma inflatum (Polychaeta)
48 = Mitrella gouTdi (Pelecypoda)
49 = CapreVlidae (Amphipoda)
50 = Caprella mendax (Amphipoda)
                   3.97

-------
taxa  at  Station SP-15  in  the outer  portion of the waterway.  These two
taxa contributed most of the organisms collected at that  station and  were
present at a combined abundance of more than 8,000/m2.  AS  discussed above,
the numerical  dominance of nematodes  and  C_. capitata may  indicate highly
enriched  sediments.  The remaining four stations were dominated  by  an assortment
of polychaete, mollusc, and crustacean  species, all of which occurred  at
low combined abundances  (<4,000/nr).   Abundances of the five numerically
dominant  species at  Station SP-14, inshore of Station SP-15, were especially
depressed (92/m2), suggesting that  a high level of stress was occurring
at that station.  The very different suites of species  among the St.  Paul
Waterway stations  suggest  that sediment conditions were highly localized
and varied over  short distances.

     Benthic  communities along the length of City  Waterway changed markedly
in species composition and abundances.  Station CI-11,  at  the head of the
waterway, was a  nematode-Capitella capitata community in which the abundances
of nematodes alone exceeded 32,000/m?tAt Stations CI-13 and CI-16,  towards
the mouth of the waterway,  abundances of the numerically  dominant  taxa
become very reduced (<4,000/m2).  Tharyx multifJHs was the most abundant
taxon  at  Station C-13, while C. c a pi t at a  a rid n ema t od e s were the two  most
abundant taxa at Station  C^BT   Stations CI-17, CI-20, and CI-22 in the
outer  half of the City Waterway were dominated by T. multifilis and Axinopsida
serricata.   Combined numerical  abundances of The dominant taxa were about
8,OoO/m2 or greater, as  was  typical of Tharyx-Axinopsida communities in
Blair, Sitcum, and Milwaukee Waterways.   Changes in species compositions
and abundances  within City Waterway suggest that the greatest environmental
stresses occurred near the head of the  waterway, and that conditions improved
toward the mouth of  the waterway.

     Along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline, the Tharyx-Axinopsida corrounity
typical of the waterways  was  found  only at Station RS-12, located  near
City  Waterway.   Species composition  varied at the remaining stations along
the shoreline.  The most  striking aspect of the data in  Figure 3.32  is
the reduced abundances of  benthic  organisms at  Stations RS-19 and RS-20,
and the nearly abiotic sediments collected at Station RS-18.  Of the  four
replicate benthic grab samples collected  at Station RS-18,  only two contained
any macroinvertebrates  (i.e.,  a total  of seven organisms).  The virtual
absence  of benthic biota  in  the vicinity of Station RS-18 is indicative
of severe stress.

3.2.5  Classification Analyses

3.2.5.1  Introduction--

     Numerical  classification analyses group entities (in this case stations)
based  on  their attributes (in this case abundances of the  64  most abundant
taxa collected in the study).  They are effective because they reduce complex
data sets to groups  of entities with similar, and therefore  interpretable,
characteristics.

     The  classification analysis  conducted during this study involved two
steps.  The first was to generate similarity values for  all  possible pairs
of stations included in  the  analysis.   The Bray-Curtis Similarity  Index
(see Boesch 1977) was employed for  this purpose.  It uses both species

                                  3.98

-------
composition and  abundances of  the  individual species to estimate between-
site similarity.   The group  average clustering  strategy was  then applied
to  the  matrix of  similarity values to generate  a dendrogram of stations
(Figure 3.33).   Groups of stations (i.e.,  stations that are  most similar
in  species composition and abundance) may then be determined  based on selected
similarity levels.

     Ideally,  a  single similarity value should be selected  (albeit somewhat
subjectively) and all station groups  should be determined relative to that
value.   However,  a  single similarity level does  not yield  interpretable
station groups when the dendogram exhibits excessive "chaining",  or sequential
additions of stations or station  pairs  to the most similar group of stations,
as  in Figure 3.33.   Therefore, several  similarity levels have been selected
in  the following  interpretation of the  data in Figure 3.33.

     Although  56 stations  were   sampled during this survey, only data  from
54 stations were used  in the  classification  analysis and statistical  analyses
conducted during  this study.  Steep bottom  topography and very sandy sediments
were encountered  at the remaining two stations  off Pt. Defiance, so that
it  was  impossible to collect representative 0.06-m2 (0.6-ft^)  grab samples.
Therefore, those  two  stations were deleted  from further consideration.

3.2.5.2  Results--

     Results of  a normal  (Q-mode) classification analysis  using abundances
of  the 64 numerically dominant species  in the Commencement Bay  study areas
are shown in Figures 3.33 and  3.34.   The dominant  species  within  these
station groups, their mean abundances,  and mean total volatile  solids (TVS)
and  total organic carbon (TOC)  concentrations  for  the stations in  each
station group are given in Table  3.22.  Sediment grain  size  characteristics
of  the major station  groups  are summarized  in Figure 3.35.

3.2.5.3  Interpretation--

     Included  in Group  1 were  the  Blair  Waterway stations  (except  BL-28
near the outer bridge and BL-31 near the mouth of the waterway),  the Milwaukee
Waterway stations, the two inner  stations in the Sitcum Waterway, and Station
HY-50 off the mouth of the Hylebos Waterway.  The two co-dominant species,
Axinopsida  serricata and Tharyx multifi1 is,  accounted for  most of  the
individuals collected.  Sediments  within Group 1 were primarily sandy  silts,
with moderate organic levels (x=5.0 percent TVS, x=1.8  percent  TOC).

     Group 2 was  also dominated by Tharyx mult if i 1 is and Axinopsida serricata,
but abundances  of A.  serricata were about  five  times  lower than those of
J_.  multifilis.  Group 2 included four  stations in the outer  third  of  the
Hylebos Waterway,  Station  BL-31 near the mouth of Blair  Waterway, and Station
HY-24  in  upper Hylebos Waterway.   The  stations  in  Group 2  had  slightly
greater quantities of clay than  the stations  in  Group 1, but the major
difference was  the increased quantities of organic materials (x=6.3 percent TVS,
x=2.6 percent TOC)  compared with Group 1  (x=5.0 percent TVS, x=1.8  percent TOC).
     Station  BL-28 near  the  llth Street  Bridge was  an  outlier to  Groups
1 and  2.   It  was  also  co-dominated  by Axinopsida serricata  and Tharyx
multifilis, but at relatively  low  abundances"!the proximity of Station BL-28

                                  3.99

-------
% DISSIMILARITY STATION
100. 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 .00
II I I i i i I
J
rf
— c



rl
1 — L


. 1

| 	 1
H


i — i
	 1

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L| L





I i 	 , n, .-,

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1 ,_ 	 R q
HI — l = . ซ 1


I . 	 i 	 al 11







J SI - IS









i 	 HY - 12
1 — 	 HY - 14
„„--, HY - 22




, 	 SP 11 ฃ-
1 	 SP 12 U



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.: - .. CR 11
	 RS 13 -.
	 RS 14 '
	 D 11— T-
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1 1 | i l i l 1 i i 1
100. 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 .00
% DISSIMILARITY STATION
DOMINANT SPECIES ARE LISTED IN TABLE 3.22
COPHENIC CORRELATION COEFFICIENT: .9454
Figure 3.33. Results of a Q-mode classification analysis (Bray-Curtis
similarity index, group average clustering strategy) using
square-root transformed abundances of the 64 numerically
dominant infaunal species.
3.100

-------
COMMENCEMENT
      BAY
                                                                                PERCENT TOTAL
                                                                               VOLATILE SOLIDS
                                                                                    LESS THAN 2
                                                                                    2-4
                                                                                    4-6
                                                                                    6-8
                                                                                    8-10
                                                                                    10-12
                                                                                    12-14
                                                                                    OVER 14
                                                                        0               4000
                                                                        I    I     I    I    I  FEET
                                                                              T
                                                                                         	1  METERS
                                                    .^.                       o            1000
                                                    Qfซm  DOMINANT TAXA FOR EACH GROUP ARE LISTED IN TABLE 3.22.
                             Figure 3.34.
CITY
WATERWAY
                                                  Geographic distribution of station  groups 1-9,
                                                  plus outliers  (o),  in Commencement  Bay water-
                                                  ways (from Figure 3.33).  (Note:  group boun-
                                                  daries are uncertain.)

-------
   TABLE  3.22.   MEAN ABUNDANCES  (No./m2) OF  NUMERICALLY DOMINANT TAXA
AND MEAN  VALUES OF SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS  FOR  THE  MAJOR STATION GROUPS
       DEFINED BY  NORMAL  CLASSIFICATION ANALYSES (SEE FIGURE  3.33)
Station
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Out! iers
BL-28
CR-12
HY-23
RS-20
RS-18
SP-14
RS-19
Taxon
Axinopsida serricata
Tharyx multifilis
Macoma carlottensis
Lumbrineris sp. gr. 1
Euphilomedes producta
Tharyx multifilis
Axinopsida serricata
Lumbrineris sp. gr. 1
Euphilomedes producta
Macoma carlottensis
Tharyx multifilis
Axinopsida serricata
Macoma carlottensis
Nephtys cornuta franciscana
Tharyx multifil is
Lumbrineris sp. gr. 1
Tharyx multifil is
Macoma carlottensis
Nephtys cornuta franciscana
Leptochelia dubia
Prionospio steenstrupi
Axinopsida serricata
Mediomastus spp.
Platynereis bicaniculata
Prionospio steenstrupi
Leptochel ia dubia
Odostomia spp.
Tubificidae
Nematoda
Capitella capitata
Axinopsida serricata
Tharyx multifilis
Macoma carlottensis
Lumbrineris sp. gr. 1
Axinopsida serricata
Euphilomedes carcharodonta
Prionospio steenstrupi
Axinopsida serricata
Tharyx multifil is
Phyllochaetopterus pro! ifica
Polydora spp.
Leptostylis villosa
Limnoria lignorum
Amphipholis squamata
Nematoda
Tharyx multifilis
Balanus crenatus
Cirratulus cirratus
Paleonotus bellis

Total Volatile
Abundance/m2 Solids (%)
7 c.v.a 7 c.v.
5,357
4,837
745
612
348
6,453
1,362
438
242
135
5,833
603
378
220
3,152
252
397
192
148
660
315
288
1,273
808
707
453
270
210
19,823
4,548
1,258
495
412
308
792
420
325
217
75
337
200
4
4
4
45
20
775
470
217
55.5 5.0 45.5
64.3
75.3
67.4
86.7
47.0 6.3 41.8
63.9
40.8
47.4
45.0
62.1 9.0 47.3
79.4
18.9
52.8
37.6 10.3 18.8
29.3
73.4 8.3 60.1
81.0
87.6
151.4 1.1 0.3
72.4
94.8
2.0 15.6 59.2
56.0
86.0
53.0
30.0
1.0
101.5 8.9 73.1
37.8
1.9
0.3
10.5
1.5
19.6
44.3
1.0
Total Organic
Carbon (%)
"x c.v.
1.8 46.1
2.6 47.5
3.8 35.2
4.7 15.6
4.5 84.0
0.3 32.3
7.9 129.0
5.5 88.1
0.7
0.03
3.8
0.3
8.8
1.6
0.6
a c.v. = coefficient of variation.        7 in?

-------
                             SAND AND GRAVEL
SILT
                                                CLAY
            DOMINANT SPECIES FOR STATION GROUPS ARE LISTED IN TABLE 3.22.
        Figure 3.35.
Sediment grain size  characteristics  of the
major station groups defined  by normal classi-
fication analysis of the  benthic infaunal  data
in Commencement Bay study areas.
                                3.10;

-------
 to bridge supports,  the silty  sand  substrate  found  at that  station, and
 the  lower levels of organic materials (x=1.9  percent  TVS, x=0.7  percent
 TOC) suggest  that  sediment scouring occurs there.   Field  observations of
 scoured sediments  near these  bridges indicate  that passing  barges  have
 scraped bottom.   Such physical  disturbance may account for  the differences
 observed between Station BL-28  and Station Groups 1 and  2.

     Sediments near the  terminus of Hylebos  Waterway  (Station Group 4)
 contained much greater  quantities of organic materials (x=10.3 percent  TVS,
 x=4.7 percent TOC)  than did  stations near the mouth (Station  Groups 1 and 2).
 Faunal composition  also changed.  With the exception of  Station HY-12  near
 the  terminus  of the Hylebos  Waterway,  Tharyx mulifilis dominated benthic
 communities  in  the  upper third  of  the  waterway,  in the absence  of  high
 abundances of Axinopsida serricata.

     Groups  3 and  5 and  outlier Station HY-23 occur in  the middle reaches
 of the Hylebos Waterway.   Silty clay sediments were found at Station HY-23
 and  silty sand sediments were  found at stations in  Groups 3 and 5.   The
 sediments of Groups  3 and 5  and Station HY-23 were characterized by relatively
 high levels of organic materials  (x TVS=8.3-10.5  percent, x TOC=3.8-4.5
 percent), as were  the sediments of the upper waterway  (Station Group 4).
 Station HY-23 and  the stations in Group 5 were  all  characterized by low
 abundances of the dominant taxa.  Abundances of  Axinopsida serricata and
Inaryx  mult if 111s  were particularly low at Station  HY-23, averaging 13/m2
 and  75/m-i,  respectively.   Generally, abundances of  A. serricata decreased
 and  abundances of J_. multifilis increased from the mouth of the waterway
 to the  upper turning  basin.   Relative  changes  in the abundances of these
 two  species along the waterway  appear to  have provided  the discrimination
 between  Groups 3,  4,  and  5,   and Station HY-23.  Major  changes in species
 composition were not apparent.

     Group 6  included  all  Carr  Inlet stations  except CR-12, which was an
 outlier.  Group 6 stations were characterized by  sandy  sediments with low
 organic levels (x=l.l percent TVS, x=0.3  percent TOC).   The tanaid Leptochelia
dubia, the polychaete  Prionpspio steenstrupi,  and the  bivalve mollusc Axinopsi^a"
 serricata were the  numerical dominants  in  station  Group  6.  While /\. serricata
was  abundant  at many of the  Commencement  Bay waterway  stations, L. dubia
 and  ฃ.  steenstrupi were  not.   The abundance  of these  two latter species
distinguishes Stations  CR-11, CR-13,  and  CR-14 (Group  6).

     Group 7  consisted  of Stations RS-13 and RS-14  along the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance
 Shoreline.  Sediments  at  these two stations were highly enriched sands
 (x=15.6  percent TVS,  x=7.9 percent TOC), and  the  benthic communities  were
dominated  by  the polychaetes Mediomastus  spp.  and  Platynereis bicaniculata.
These  two  species were not  co-dominants  at any  other  station sampled during
the present  study.

     Group 8  consisted of  only  Station  CI-11  at the head of City Waterway
and Station SP-15 in the outer reaches  of  St.  Paul  Waterway.  Both stations
were dominated by   nematodes  and the polychaete Capitella capitata. which
occured  at  very high abundances (combined abundances >B,WQ/HP).  Sediments
at these  two  stations were  silty sands with relatively  high  proportions
of TVS  (x=8.9  percent)   and TOC  (x=5.5 percent).


                                 3.104

-------
     Faunal  and sedimentary  characteristics  documented at Station SP-15
 and CI-11 are better understood by  comparisons with  adjacent stations.
 In  outer St. Paul Waterway,  nearshore Station  SP-14  (an outlier) exhibited
 very low abundances.  Sediments at  Station SP-14 were  principally  wood
 chips  with silt, characterized by  very  high  levels  of organic materials
 (44.7 percent TVS,  16.0 percent TOC).  Farther offshore at  Station  SP-15,
 sediments were primarily wood chips with sand,  and  organic materials were
 present at lower concentrations  (8.9 percent TVS,  5.5 percent TOC).  Sediments
 at  Station SP-16 were sandy silt with yet lower concentrations of organic
 materials (3.6 percent TVS,  1.5 percent TOC).  Coincident with the reductions
 in  wood  chips and quantities of organic materials from Station SP-14 to
 Station SP-16,  abundances of infaunal organisms increased.  Almost no organisms
 occurred at Station  SP-14.  Nematodes and the polychaete Capitella capitata
 were abundant and numerically dominant  at Station  SP-15,  while farther
 offshore at Station SP-16,  the bivalve  mollusc Macoma carlottensis and
 the polychaete C_. capitata  were numerically dominant.  Thus,  there appears
 to  have  been a severe negative impact  in the vicinity of Station  SP-14,
 with conditions improving offshore.  This impact also appears to have extended
 into  the St. Paul Waterway  as evidenced by the low  abundances recorded
 at Stations SP-11 and SP-12.   Sediments  at Stations  SP-11  and SP-12  were
 partially composed  of wood  chips and exhibited  high concentrations  of TVS
 (7.9-8.6 percent) and TOC  (3.5-4.7 percent).  As  in most of  the waterways,
 the  polychaete Tharyx multifilis was  numerically dominant.  However, in
 contrast to the other waterways, it occurred  only  in  low  abundances,  a
 possible indication of stress.

     A similar gradation of sediment characteristics and species composition
 occurred along the  length of City Waterway.  Highest sediment organic  levels
 occurred at Stations  C-ll,  C-13, and  C-16 (x=11.4-17.3 percent TVS, x=6.5-10.9
 percent TOC).   Nematodes and Capitella capitata  dominated the communities
 at Stations C-ll and  C-16,  and were extremely abundant at Station C-ll.
 As noted  earlier, these taxa may reach  high densities  in  areas of  high
 organic enrichment. Tharyx multifilis  occurred  in place of nematodes and
 C_. capitata at Stations  C-13 and C-17.  It  occurred in much higher densities
 at Station C-17 (25,150/m2)  than at Station C-13 (l,433/m2).  Communities
 at these  stations appeared to be transitional between  those of Station
 CI-11 in  the upper waterway and Stations  CI-20 and CI-22 in the lower waterway.
 Lower waterway Stations CI-20 and CI-22  contained less  organic material
 (x=3.2-8.5 percent  TVS,  x=1.2-4.6 percent  TOC) in  the sediments than did
 upper waterway Station  CI-11 (13.5 percent  TVS,  8.9 percent  TOC) and  were
 dominated  by Axinopsida  serricata  and T. multifilis.  Stations CI-20 and
CI-22 were included in  Group  1, which  inHTcates that  the communities  in
 lower City Waterway were similar to those elsewhere  in the  waterways where
 organic  enrichment was moderate and other  possible sources of  stress  (e.g.,
 toxic substances) apparently were not severe.

     The four most unique stations  sampled  during the present survey  were
 the outlier Stations HY-23, SP-14 (nearshore in the outer reaches of  St.  Paul
Waterway),  RS-18,  and  RS-19.   All  but Station  RS-19 exhibited  very low
numerical  abundances  (<2,100/m2).  Tharyx multifilis and Axinopsida  serricata
were the  two most abundant taxa at Station  HY-23, but the remaining  thf'ee
stations  were  dominated  by an  assortment  of polychaete, mollusc, and crustacean
 species  that were absent,  or  occurred at very low  abundances, at  other
stations  in Commencement  Bay and  Carr Inlet  (Figures 3.29-3.32).  Very

                                  3.105

-------
low numerical  abundances,  unique combinations of numerically dominant  taxa,
or both accounted  for  the uniqueness  of these  stations in  the  results of
the classification analysis.

     Sediment  grain size  characteristics  at the low-abundance  stations
(i.e.,  Stations HY-23,  SP-14, and RS-18) ranged  from  clayey  silt to silty
sand.   TVS and  TOC content  of the sediments also varied considerably  (3.7-19.6
percent and 1.6-8.8 percent, respectively).  The only major  common character-
istic  which these  stations  shared was greatly depressed abundances of benthic
organisms compared with the other  stations sampled during  the  study.  As
noted  earlier,  very reduced abundances  indicate stressed conditions.

3.2.6   An imal-Sed iment Relationshi ps

    As noted  earlier, sediments were sandy along the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance
Shoreline and in Carr Inlet, whereas silty sands and sandy silts  predominated
in the  waterways  (Figure  3.35).  Changes in water  depth,  volatile  solids
content (Figure 3.36), total organic  carbon content  (Figures  3.37, 3.38,
3.39),  and the proportion of fine-grained materials (silt plus  clay)  in
sediments (Figures 3.40, 3.41, and 3.42) were also evident  within and among
the study areas.  While excess organic  materials and other  pollutants  (e.g.,
toxic  substances)  affected  species  composition  and  abundance  of  benthic
infauna within  each study area, the affinities of benthic species for particular
water  depths and sediment habitats cannot be ignored.

    The affinities of major taxonomic  groups for particular  sediment charac-
teristics are clearly illustrated by the  data in Figure  3.43.   Total numerical
abundances of all  benthic species,  polychaetous annelids, and  molluscs
are all significantly (P<0.01) correlated  with the proportion  of fine materials
in the sediments.

     Percent volatile solids,  percent total  organic carbon, percent  sand,
percent silt,  and  percent clay were  all tested  against abundances of the
major  taxonomic groups and  selected dominant taxa.  The grain size variables
appeared to explain a  substantial proportion of the variations in numerical
abundances of benthic organisms (Table 3.23).  Abundances of oligochaetes,
amphipods, and  Prionospio spp. were all positively correlated with  percent
sand  and  negatively  correlated with  percent  silt  or clay.   Conversely,
abundances of  polychaetes,  molluscs, Lumbrineris spp., Axinopsida serricata,
and Macoma _ca_r1ottensi_s_  were positively correlated with  percent silt  or
silt  plus clay, and negatively correlated with  percent sand.   Abundances
of Tharyx multifilis were positively correlated only with percent  clay,
and were negatively correlated with percent sand.

     It  is  apparent from these data (Figure 3.43, Table 3.23) that  sediment
grain size characteristics (or other factors with which these  characteristics
are highly correlated)  are  major determinants of benthic community structure.
The importance of these factors  relative to  organic enrichment  and the
distribution of toxic  substances in the sediments is difficult to demonstrate
conclusively because sediment grain size characteristics vary considerably
between  the waterways and adjacent shoreline areas.   Throughout the  entire
study  area, the abundances  of major  taxa and  dominant species appear to
best  reflect  changes  in grain size.  But within each  study area, the  degree


                                  3.106

-------
                                                                               PERCENT TOTAL
                                                                               VOLATILE SOLIDS
COMMENCEMENT
      BAY
      CITY
      WATERWAY
Geographic distribution of sediment  volatile
solids content.   (Note:  total  volatile  solids
boundaries are uncertain.)

-------
            8
          RUSTON
U>
O
00
                                                                    COMMENCEMENT
                                                                          BAY
                       4000
                     '    I  FEET
                                                  TACOMA
                        METERS
                    1000
                                                                                               PERCENT TOTAL
                                                                                               VOLATILE SOLIDS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LESS THAN 2
2-4
4-6
6-8
8-10
10-12
12-14
OVER 14
                  Figure 3.36.   (Continued)

-------
u>
o
UD
    13-



    12 •



    11-



    10-



     9-




O    8-



h-    7-



     6-



     5-



     4-



     3-



     2-



     1 -
                     LU
                     O
                     cc
                     111
                     o.
                                                                        ••
              2,000      4,000      6,000      8,000      10,000     12,000     14,000



                       DISTANCE FROM MOUTH OF WATERWAY (FEET)
                                                                                                    16,000
                   Figure 3.37.   Total organic  carbon content of the  sediments in  Hylebos Waterway.

-------
  o
  Ul
  o
  cc
  LU
  0.
2.3 •
2.2-
2.1 -
 2 -
1.9 -
1.8-
1.7-
1.6-
1.5 -
1.4 -
1.3 -
1.2-
1.1-
 1-
0.9-
0.8-
0.7-
0.6-
0.5-
0.4-
0.3-
0.2
              2,000         4,000          6,000         8,000         10,000
                    DISTANCE FROM MOUTH OF WATERWAY (FEET)
                                                                                   12,000
Figure 3.38.   Total organic  carbon  content  of the  sediments in Blair Waterway.

-------
8-

7 •

6 •

O
P 5-
H
UJ
OC 4 •
lit
Q.
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1,000 3,000 5,000 7,000
DISTANCE FROM MOUTH OF WATERWAY (FEET)

Figure 3.39.   Total organic carbon content of the sediments in City Waterway.

-------
zire
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      100
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      40-
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      20
                  2,000        4,000        6,000        8,000        10,000


                             DISTANCE FROM MOUTH OF WATERWAY (FEET)
12,000
Figure 3.41.   Percent fine-grained materials  (silt  plus clay)  in  the sediments of
               Blair Waterway.

-------
      90 1
      80
      70-
  CO
  HI
  2  60
  LL

  I-
  2
  111

  8  50
  HI
  CL
      40-
      30-
      20
        1,000
  3,000                  5,000


DISTANCE FROM MOUTH OF WATERWAY (FEET)
7,000
Figure 3.42.   Percent fine-grained materials  (silt plus  clay)  in the sediments  of
               City Waterway.

-------
             15,000 -|
             10,000 -
              5,000 -
              5,000 -
                       TOTAL BENTHOS

                       r, ซ 0.83**
OJ u 	 1 	 I 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1
(n
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POLYCHAETES *
rs = 0.90**
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MOLLUSCS
r, = 0.85**
                         20      40       60       80

                           PERCENT SILT AND CLAY
                                         100
Figure 3.43.
Correlations of numerical  abundances of all benthic
infauna, polychaetous  annelids, and molluscs  vs.  the
percent of fine-grained materials (silt plus  clay)
in the sediments  (** = P<0.01).
                             3.115

-------
    TABLE  3.23.   RESULTS  OF  PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION ANALYSES
    BETWEEN SEDIMENT  CHARACTERISTICS, AND ABUNDANCES OF MAJOR TAXONOMIC
    GROUPS AND NUMERICALLY DOMINANT TAXA (RUSTON-PT. DEFIANCE SHORELINE
                   AND CARR INLET STUDY AREAS DELETED)
Taxonomic Group
or Taxon
Polychaete abundance
Mollusc abundance
Oligochaete abundance
Amphipod abundance
Pric>nojฃio spp.
Lumbrineris spp.
Tharyx multifilis
Axinopsida serricata
Macoma carlottensis

% TOCa
ns
ns
ns
ns
+*
ns
ns
ns
ns
Sediment
% Sand
.*
_*
+*
+**
ns
_**
_**
_*
_*
Variable
% Silt
+**
+**
_*
_**
ns
+**
ns
+**
+*
% Clay
ns
ns
ns
_**
ns
+*
+*
ns
ns
a TOC = Total  organic  carbon.

b ns -  Not  significant at an experimentwise  error rate of P<0.05 (i.e.,
an error rate  of P<0.0125 for  each test).

c *  =  P<0.125; **  =  P<0.0025;  + = positive correlation; - = negative cor-
relation.
                                   3.116

-------
of organic  enrichment appears  to explain better much of the  variation in
community  structure and abundance.

     Data from Blair,  Hylebos, and City  Waterways  illustrate this point
well.   The proportions of fine-grained  sediments (silt plus clay) exhibited
large  fluctuations (more  than  60 percentage points) along  the lengths of
all  three  waterways (Figures 3.40,  3.41, 3.42).   The proportions  of total
organic  carbon in the sediments  also varied  considerably  in Hylebos and
City Waterways,  but not in  Blair Waterway  (Figures 3.37, 3.38,  3.39).
Total  organic  carbon ranged  from 3.1 to 12.2 percent in Hylebos Waterway
and  from 1.2 to 8.9 percent  in  City Waterway,  but only from 0.6  to 2.2
percent in Blair Waterway.

     If grain  size were the most important determinant of benthic  community
structure within each of the waterways,  dramatic changes in community  structure
would  have  been evident along the  lengths of all three waterways.  However,
as discussed  earlier, benthic  community structure was very  similar along
the length  of  Blair Waterway  (Figure 3.30).   Abundances  of  the dominant
species changed, but species composition did  not.  In Hylebos  and City
Waterways,  species composition and numerical  abundances  changed  greatly
(Figures 3.29,  3.30), and in a pattern  consistent with gradients of organic
enrichment  of  sediments,  wherein values decreased from the  heads  to the
mouths  of the waterways (see earlier discussion).  Thus, organic content
of the  sediments appeared to  account for a considerable amount  of  faunal
variation  within many of  the waterways.  Among the waterways,  however,
changes  in  sediment grain size appeared to be the major  determinant of
benthic community  structure.

3.2.7  Indices  for Decision Criteria

3.2.7.1  Introduction--

     To develop indices of benthic  degradation for use as decision  criteria,
abundances of major benthic invertebrate taxa at potentially  impacted sites
were compared  statistically with their respective abundances  at  reference
sites.   A statistically significant decrease  (P<0.05)  in  the abundance
of an  indicator  taxon was considered a benthic  impact (i.e.,  a  benthic
depression).   At  each station,  indicies were  based on the abundance of
the  total  assemblage (i.e., total taxa) and on the abundances  of polychaetes,
molluscs, and  crustaceans.   As a group, polychaetes, molluscs,  and crustaceans
accounted for  approximately 91 percent of the individuals  sampled  at the
48 study sites  throughout Commencement  Bay and Carr Inlet in March, 1984.
Echinoderms  and other miscellaneous taxa were not included as  indices because
they were rarely encountered during the study.

3.2.7.2  Reference Site Selection--

     Sediment  characteristics  at  Carr Inlet stations were similar to those
at stations  along the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance shoreline, but were considerably
different from those at most  stations in the Commencement  Bay waterways.
For  example,  percent fine-grained sediments (silt and clay)  in Carr Inlet
and the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline exhibited  ranges of 4-23 and 3-33
percent, respectively.  By contrast, percent  fine-grained sediments at
all  Commencement Bay waterway  stations except  Station HY-44  (6 percent)

                                 3.117

-------
ranged  from 26 to 89  percent.  Because  abundances of total assemblages,
polychaetes, and molluscs were positively correlated  (P<0.05)  with percent
fine-grained sediments  (see Figure 3.43, Section 3.2.6), sediment character
was a confounding  variable for evaluating contaminant  effects.  That  is,
differences between benthic  assemblages in  Carr Inlet and assemblages at
Commencement Bay waterway stations muddier than Carr  Inlet  stations could
result  from either contamination or differences in  sediment character.
Benthic assemblages in  Carr Inlet were therefore considered acceptable
reference conditions for stations along  the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance shoreline,
but inadequate  as  reference conditions for all Commencement  Bay waterway
stations except Station  HY-44.

     Because Carr Inlet could  not  be used as a  valid reference area  for
Commencement Bay waterway  stations,  Blair Waterway  was substituted as  a
best estimate of unimpacted waterway conditions.  This waterway was selected
because 1) it was  the least contaminated  chemically of the  seven waterways
(Section  3.1); 2) only one significant  bioassay result  (i.e., amphipod
mortality at Station BL-25) was found out of the  twelve  tested (i.e., amphipod
mortality and  oyster  larvae  abnormality at  six  stations) in March, 1984
(Section 3.3); and 3) percent fine-grained  sediment at Blair Waterway stations
spanned  a range  ( 37-84 percent) similar to that observed for all waterway
stations except Station  HY-44 (26-89  percent).  Thus,  all  Blair Waterway
stations except Station  BL-25 exhibited relatively low chemical  contamination,
no toxicity, and sediment characteristics similar to those found throughout
the other waterways.

     To help remove  the confounding effects of sediment character, Blair
Waterway stations  were  divided  into  three groups  representing different
ranges  of sediment characteristics.   Station  BL-25 was not used in this
analysis because a toxic response (amphipod mortality) was  found at that
site.   Reference  conditions with which potentially  affected  stations were
compared are presented in Table 3.24.   Note that Station HY-44 was compared
with Carr Inlet sites.

3.2.7.3  Statistical Comparisons--

     Log- transformed abundances of total  assemblages,  polychaetes, molluscs,
and crustaceans were compared between  potentially  impacted  and reference
sites using the  t-test.  Before each  t-test was conducted, an Fma){ test
was used to test for equality of variances.   For comparisons in which variances
were not  equal (P<0.05), an  approximate t-test (Sokal and Rohlf 1969)  was
used to compare mean values.

     Comparisons  of the four major  taxa at  the 39  potentially  impacted
stations  sampled in Commencement Bay  in March,  1984 are summarized in Table
3.25.  A  benthic  invertebrate  taxon was  considered numerically depressed
if its  mean abundance at a  potentially impacted station was statistically
significantly  lower (P<0.05)  than  its mean  abundance at the appropriate
reference station(s)  (see  Table  SB30),  or if it was absent from the potentially
impacted  site.  For the two stations  at  which a major taxon  was absent
(SP-14  and RS-18), a t-test could not  be conducted because the variances
equalled  zero.  However, if even  a single individual had been captured,
the mean  abundance would have differed significantly (P<0.05)  from reference


                                 3.118

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    TABLE  3.24.   PAIRINGS  OF  REFERENCE  STATIONS AND  POTENTIALLY  IMPACTED
                 STATIONS USED FOR STATISTICAL COMPARISONS
Reference      Range of                Potentially          Range of
Station(s)     % Finesa             Impacted Stations       % Fines9
  BL-28          37                SP-11, SP-12, SP-15      26-49
                                   CI-11, CI-22
                                   HY-14

  BL-11          55-64             SP-14, SP-16,            55-80
                                   CI-13, CI-16, CI-17,
                                   CI-20
                                   HY-12, HY-17,
                                   HY-22, HY-28, HY-32,
                                   HY-37, HY-42, HY-43,
                                   HY-47
                                   SI-11, SI-12
                                   MD-12
BL-13 84



CR-11 4-23
CR-12
CR-13
CR-14
HY-23,
SI-15
MI-11,
BL-25
RS-12,
RS-18,
HY-44

HY-24,

MI-13,

RS-13,
RS-19,


HY-50

MI-15

RS-14
RS-20


81-89



3-33



a
  Silt and clay.
                                   3.119

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    TABLE  3.25.   COMPARISONS  OF MEAN  ABUNDANCES  OF  BENTHIC  INVERTEBRATE
     TAXA BETWEEN  POTENTIALLY  IMPACTED STATIONS AND REFERENCE STATIONS2


    Potentially  Impacted                             Taxon                          Total
         Station             Total     Polychaeta     Mollusca       Crustacea      Depressions

          HY-12                                                                      0
          HY-14                                        *                              1
          HY-17                                        *                *              2
          HY-22                                        *                *              2
          HY-23                *b           *            *                              3
          HY-24                                                                      0
          HY-28                                                                      0
          HY-32                *                        *                *              3
          HY-37                                        *                              1
          HY-42                                                                      0
          HY-43                                                                      0
          HY-44                                                                      0
          HY-47                                        *                              1
          HY-50                                                                      0

          BL-25                                                                      0

          SI-11                                                        *              1
          SI-12                                                        *              1
          SI-15                                                                      0

          MI-11                                                                      ฐ
          MI-13                                                                      ฐ
          MI-15                                                                      0

          SP-11                                                                      0
          SP-12                                                                      0
          SP-14                *            DC           *                *              4
          SP-15                                        *                *              2
          SP-16                *                                                      1

          MD-12                                                                      0

          CI-11                                        *                             1
          CI-13                *            *            *                *              4
          CI-16                *            *            *                *              4
          CI-17                                                                      0
          CI-20                                                                      0
          CI-22                                                                      0

          RS-12                                                                      0
          RS-13                                                                      0
          RS-14                                                                      0
          RS-18                *            0            0                *              4
          RS-19                                        *                              1
          RS-20                                        *                             1


a Reference stations are listed in Table 3.24.

b An asterisk denotes  that  mean abundance of a major taxon  at  a  potentially impacted station
was  significantly lower  (P<0.05, experimentwise) than mean abundance at the reference station(s)
(i.e.,  a benthic  depression).

c 0  = A major taxon was absent from a  potentially impacted station (i.e., a benthic depression).
                                           3.120

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conditions.   Therefore,  absence of a major taxon  was  considered as severe
as a significantly  depressed  (P<0.05) abundance.

     No benthic  depressions were found at stations in  Middle and Milwaukee
Waterways.   In  Sitcum Waterway, single depressions  (Crustacea) were  found
at two  of  the  three stations (SI-11 and SI-12).   The  remaining four study
areas (Hylebos,  St.  Paul and City Waterways, and the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shoreline)  included  stations with multiple benthic depressions.

     In Hylebos  Waterway, a  cluster of stations (HY-17, HY-22, and HY-23)
with multiple benthic depressions was found near  the head  of the waterway.
In addition,  a single  station (HY-32) with multiple depressions was found
farther down the  waterway.

     In St. Paul Waterway, multiple benthic depressions were found at the
two stations  (SP-14  and SP-15) located closest to the Champion International
paper  mill.   Polychaetes were absent  from the station  located closest to
the mill (SP-14).   In addition, the number of depressions  per station showed
a decreasing  gradient  with  distance  from the mill.  No depressions were
found at stations located  within the waterway proper.

     In City Waterway, stations  with multiple  depressions were found near
the head of the  waterway (CI-13) and in the Wheeler  Osgood branch (CI-16).
No benthic  depressions were found at the mouth of the waterway.

     Along the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline, multiple benthic depressions
were found  only  at  the  station located closest to ASARCO (RS-18).   Two
taxa  (Polycheata and Mollusca) were absent from that  station.  No benthic
depressions were  found at  any of the  three stations located southeast of
ASARCO (RS-12,  RS-13, and  RS-14).

     Of the invertebrate  taxa  used as  indices in the foregoing analysis,
Mollusca was the  most sensitive indicator of benthic  impacts, with  15 of
the 39  stations showing  depressed  abundances of  this  taxon.  Crustacea
ranked second relative to  impact sensitivity, with  depressions at 10 stations.
Finally, total  taxa and  Polychaeta  were the  least sensitive indicators
of impacts, with  depressions found at only seven  and five  stations,
respectively.

3.2.8  Comparisons  with Past Studies

     The only benthic infaunal sampling undertaken along  the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance
Shoreline or  in  the  Commencement Bay Waterways that  is capable of providing
data  for  long-term comparisons was conducted by Orlob  et al. (1950) during
the summer  of 1950.  The utility of those data for comparisons with  present
conditions is  severely  limited for  several reasons.   First, the size of
the sampler was  not  stated and replicates were apparently not collected
at each  station.   Second, although  samples were  washed  on  screens, the
mesh size was not stated.  Third, only some of the organisms  in the  samples
were  retained  for  identification.  These limitations preclude quantitative
comparisons with  present biological conditions.   However,  some of the quali-
tative observations  made by Orlob et al. (1950)  are  informative.
                                 3.121

-------
     In general,  Orlob  et a!. (1950) collected  reasonably diverse assemblages
of benthic organisms  along most of the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance  Shoreline, with
the exception of  the  area near ASARCO (Station  RS-18 from the present  study).
No living benthic organisms  were  collected there in  1950  and only very
low numbers of benthic  organisms were collected during the present  study.
Reasonably diverse assemblages were also collected at the  mouths of major
waterways.   However,  sampling along  the  lengths  of  the Hylebos and  City
Waterways failed  to collect any benthic  macroinvertebrates in the upper
reaches  of either waterway.   Orlob et  al.  (1950) attributed the apparent
lack of benthic organisms in the upper Hylebos  Waterway  to "domestic  sewage
and industrial  wastes  from  various plants,  including two large chemical
firms."  The lack of  benthic invertebrates in the upper City Waterway was
attributed  to wastes  from a  meat packing  plant.   Sediments in this  area
exuded  a  strong odor  of hydrogen sulfide,  which  is consistent with extreme
organic enrichment.

     Although conditions  in the  vicinity of  Station  RS-18 do not  appear
to have improved during the 34-yr interval, some  improvement in upper Hylebos
and City  Waterways   seems  to  have occurred,  as these areas are no  longer
devoid  of benthic life.   However, due  to the very sketchy  nature of the
data collected by Orlob et al.  (1950), no  other  conclusions regarding temporal
changes are  appropriate.

3.2.9  Summary

     •     Benthic assemblages  in the  Commencement Bay waterways are
          distinct from assemblages in Carr Inlet and  the Ruston-Pt.
          Defiance Shoreline,  as evidenced by reduced numbers of species,
          high dominance, and  enhanced total  abundances  within the
          waterways

     t     Overall benthic  community characteristics in the  waterways
          are  indicative of environmental  stress that may be associated
          with toxic contamination,  sediment disturbance,  or physical
          characteristics (e.g.,  grain  size) of the sediments.   However,
          the overall  high abundances of  a  mixed  polychaete-mollusc
          assemblage  indicate that  any  broad-scale stresses are not
          sever.

     •     A  characteristic Th aryx-Ax i nops ida assemblage occurred  throughout
          much of the waterway area,  including Blair, Sitcum, and
          Milwaukee  Waterways, the mouth  of  City  Waterway, and the
          mouth of Hylebos Waterway.

     •     Within many of the waterways,  organic  content of the sediments
          appears to account for  a considerable amount  of faunal
          variation.   Among the waterways, changes in  sediment  grain
          size appear to be  the  major  determinant of benthic community
          structure.

     •     Excessive  organic enrichment  of  sediments appears to have
          been occuring at some stations  where nematodes  and  the polychaete
          Capitella  capitata exhibited very high abundances  (relative


                                 3.122

-------
          to the Tharyx-Axi nops i da community and communities in the
          control area), and comprised  most of  the  organisms collected.

     •    Stresses other  than those resulting  from organic enrichment
          appear to  have been occurring at a few stations in the waterways
          and  along  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline where  total
          abundances were very depressed (relative  to the Tharyx-Axinopsida
          community and  communities in  the control  area).

     •    Abundances  of major benthic  invertebrate taxa (i.e., total
          abundance,  Polychaeta,  Mollusca, and Crustacea) were not
          depressed significantly  (P<0.05) at any station in Middle
          or Milwaukee Waterways.  In Sitcum Waterway, single depressions
          (Crustacea)  were found at two of three stations.

     •    Multiple  benthic depressions  were found in Hylebos, St. Paul,
          and City Waterways, and along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.
          Areas having multiple depressions included the head of Hylebos
          Waterway  (HY-17, HY-22,  and  HY-23),  the middle of  Hylebos
          Waterway  (HY-32), the stations closest to  Champion International
          (SP-14 and SP-15), the  head  of  City  Waterway (CI-13), the
          Wheeler  Osgood branch  of City Waterway  (CI-16),  and the
          station closest to ASARCO (RS-18).

     •    Spatial  patterns  of benthic  depressions are  presented in
          Figure 3.44.

     t    Benthic biological conditions do not  appear to have  improved
          in the vicinity of Station RS-18 since it was  first  sampled
          in 1950.  Some improvement does appear  to  have occurred
          at the head  of Hylebos and City  Waterways  during this  time
          interval.

3.3  SEDIMENT TOXICITY

3.3.1  Introduction

     Sediment  toxicity tests  were conducted  as  part  of the Commencement
Bay Investigations  to  determine if  laboratory  exposures  of the  sediments
were  acutely  toxic to  representative  organisms.  The degree of sediment
toxicity was used in the decision-making approach as one  of  the indicators
to identify  and prioritize problem areas.

     Two separate  test procedures were conducted on each sediment sample:
the amphipod mortality bioassay and the oyster  larvae abnormality bioassay.
The amphipod bioassay  was used to measure a direct  lethal response.  Partial
life-cycle tests with oyster larvae  were used to measure the  induction
of abnormal development  in  developing  embryos  after  a 48-h exposure to
sediments.   Significant  oyster larvae  abnormalities compared  to  controls
are  indicative of chemical  toxicity  (Cardwell  et al.  1979; Chapman and
Morgan 1983).   Data on the relative survival  of  exposed  oyster  larvae  were
also collected  to aid  in the interpretation of  abnormality data.
                                 3.123

-------
                                                                   NO DEPRESSION

                                                                   1 DEPRESSION

                                                                   > 1 DEPRESSION
            COMMENCEMENT
                  BAY
ro
COMMENCEMENT
   BW
                   CITY
                   WATERWAY
                                             Figure 3.44.   Summary of spatial  patterns of benthic depres-
                                                            sions.

-------
     The  bioassays were  conducted  on  intact sediment samples (i.e.,  non-
dilution tests) and on sediment  samples  diluted with clean (i.e., reference)
sediments (i.e., dilution  bioassays).

3.3.2  Amphipod Sediment Bioassays

3.3.2.1  Non-Dilution Bioassays--

     Results of the  non-dilution amphipod bioassay  tests are summarized
in Table 3.26.  Clean sediment control mortality values ranged from  4  to
10 percent;  a  mean  mortality  of  10 percent  is considered acceptable for
amphipod sediment bioassay  controls  (Swartz  et  al. 1985).   Mortality  in
Cd-spiked sediments  was 94 percent, which is consistent with the expected
mortality rate.

     ANOVA  indicated  no  significant difference (P>0.05) in mean mortality
values among the clean sediment controls.  Results for Commencement Bay
sediments were  compared  with  those for the  reference area  (Carr Inlet)
using the t-test.  One reference sediment sample had an exceptionally  high
amphipod mortality (CR-11;  mean  mortality = 25 percent), that was significantly
higher than mortalities in  the other  three reference samples.   The overall
low survival resulted  from  a high mortality in only one of the five replicates
at this station.  Consequently,  this  sample was deleted from  the statistical
comparisons.   The subsequent  analysis indicated  that mortalities  in  18
test sediments were significantly different  (P<0.05, experimentwise error
rate) from the Carr Inlet  samples.

3.3.2.2  Dilution Bioassays--

     Results of the  amphipod  sediment dilution bioassays  are summarized
in Table 3.27.  Results indicate that  for five of the six sediments tested,
a 25 to  50 percent concentration of  test sediment (i.e., a 50 to 75  percent
dilution) was sufficient to  eliminate  the toxic response.  The only exception
was  combined sediment from  Stations  RS-18 and RS-19, which was  still highly
toxic at the lowest test sediment concentration (10 percent)  assayed.

     Comparison of the initial (non-dilution) bioassays on  these sediments
with results of the 100 percent  test  sediment concentration for  the dilution
bioassays indicated a  high  level of agreement (Table  3.28).  Ihe only exception
was sediment  from  Station CI-11,  which initially  gave a mean mortality
of 52.0  percent,  and subsequently gave a mean value of 25.0  percent.   This
difference is most  probably  due  to  a  reduction  in  toxicity  with storage,
a phenomenon documented by  Cummins  (Cummins, J., January, 1983-February,  1984,
personal  communication).  Test sediments used  for dilution bioassays  were
stored  for approximately 1 mo after collection.

3.3.3  Oj/ster Larvae Sediment Bioassays

3.3.3.1  Non-Dilution  Bioassays--

     Results of the non-dilution oyster larvae bioassay  tests  are summarized
in Table  3.29.   In  addition  to larval  numbers, oyster  embryo  response is
expressed  in terms  of  mean percent abnormal  larvae and mean percent mortality
(compared  to clean  seawater  controls).  Salinity,  pH, and dissolved  oxygen

                                 3.125

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TABLE  3.26.   SUMMARY  OF  NON-DILUTION AMPHIPOD  BIOASSAY  RESULTS
Station
HY-12
HY-14
HY-17
HY-22
HY-23
HY-24
HY-28
HY-32
HY-37
HY-42
HY-43
HY-44
HY-47
HY-50

B-03
B-04
B-19
B-10
BL-11
B-12
BL-13
B-15
BL-21
BL-25
BL-28
BL-31
SI-11
SI-12
SI-15

MI-11
MI-13
MI-15
SP-11
SP-12
SP-14
SP-15
SP-16
MD-12
Percent
Mortal ityป
16
9
19
36*
26*
19
8
20
18
37*
19
15
25
16

16
13
19
20
13
20
19
27*
14
28*
8
16
24
31*
25*

24*
14
20*
12
16 K
100*b
68*
27*
13
Station
CI-11
CI-13
CI-16
CI-17
CI-20
CI-22

RS-12
RS-13
RS-14
RS-18
RS-19
RS-20
RS-22
RS-24

CR-11
CR-12
CR-13
CR-14



Controls
Clean
Sediment

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
y
Cd-Spiked
Sediment



Percent
Mortality9
52*
20
14
17
30*
19

15
32*
20
95*
77*
5
10
28*

25
11
7
10







4
7
g
Q
4
10
8
9


94



            8 Percent mortality is based on five replicate samples per  station.  Asterisk
            denotes that mean mortality was significantly different (P<0.05 experimentwise)
            from the mean mortality of pooled replicates from CR-12, CR-13, and CR-14
            (i.e.,  9.3 percent, nซ15).

            b Because 100 percent mortality occurred for all five replicates at SP-1ซ,
            no variance about the mean existed and a t-test could not be conducted.
            However, the observed level of mortality was considered at least as severe
            as the  levels determined to be significant (P<0.05) at other sites.
                                        3.126

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TABLE 3.27.   SUMMARY  OF  AMPHIPOD  SEDIMENT  DILUTION BIOASSAYS
Station Test Sediment
Number Concentration3
HY-22
HY-22
HY-22
HY-22
HY-22
HY-22
HY-42
HY-42
HY-42
HY-42
HY-42
HY-42
BL-25C
BL-25
BL-25
BL-25
BL-25
BL-25
SP-14
SP-14
SP-14
SP-14
SP-14
SP-14
CI-11
CI-11
CI-11
CI-11
CI-11
CI-11
RS-18/19c'e
RS-18/19
RS-18/19
RS-18/19
RS-18/19
RS-18/19
100
75
50
25
10
0
100
75
50
25
10
0
100
75
50
25
10
0
100
75
50
25
10
0
100
75
50
25
10
0
100
75
50
25
10
0
Percent Mortality
Nb Mean SD
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
NDd
1
2
3
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
ND
2
2
3
3
3
31.0
26.0
25.0
18.0
20.0
10.0
35.0
27.0
26.0
9.0
7.0
3.0
ND
25.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
10.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
21.0
18.5
8.5
25.0
21.0
13.0
25.0
17.0
7.0
ND
100.0
90.0
98.5
55.0
8.5
2.6
2.8
2.3
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
0.9
2.4
1.8
1.7
0.9
ND
N/A
0.7
1.0
0.7
1.0
0
0
0.6
2.9
1.9
0.5
2.5
1.8
2.3
2.6
2.3
0.9
ND
0
1.4
0.6
2.6
1.2
     a Percent of  test sediments mixed  with West Beach control  sediments.
      The 0-percent concentration contains only control  sediments

      Number of replicate bioassays conducted at each sediment dilution.
      Each replicate bioassay was performed with 20 amphipods.

     c Insufficient  sediments for these samples for five  replicate
      at each sediment concentration.

     d ND = No data.

     e Samples RS-18 and RS-19 were combined due to a lack  of  sediments.
                                 3.127

-------
          TABLE 3.28.   COMPARISONS  OF  INITIAL  AND  DILUTION  BIOASSAYS  FOR
                 AMPHIPOD MORTALITY AND  OYSTER LARVAL  ABNORMALITY

Percent Amphipod Mortality Percent









a Assay
b un - r
Station
HY-22
HY-42
BL-25
SP-14
CI-11
RS-18/19
Seawater Control
Sediment Control
response to 100-percent
* r\ H a^ a
Initial Di
36.0
37.0
28.0
100.0
52.0
86 .Od
NAe
NA
test sediments

Oyster Abnormality
lution3 Initial
31.0
35.0
NDb
100.0
25.0
ND
NA
NA
(i .e., 0-percent

39.0
29.2
19.9
100 .Oc
63.0
58.1
4.1
10.1
control

Dilution3
ND
33.8
35.3
100. Oc
40.6
62.3
6.9
8.1
sediments) .

c Nominally  100  percent  abnormality  since  there  was 100  percent mortality.


d Mean  of  RS-18  and  RS-19  bioassay results.

g
  NA  =  not applicable.
                                      3.128

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TABLE 3.29.  SUMMARY OF NON-DILUTION OYSTER LARVAE BIOASSAY RESULTS
Station
HY-12
HY-14
HY-17
HY-22
HY-23
HY-24
HY-28
HY-32
HY-37
HY-42
HY-43
HY-44
HY-47
HY-50
B-03
B-04
B-09
B-10
BL-11
B-12
BL-13
B-15
BL-21
BL-25
BL-28
BL-31
SI-11
SI-12
SI-15
MI-11
MI-13
MI-15
SP-11
SP-12
SP-14
SP-15
SP-16
MD-12
Mean Number
of Larvae3
40
148
75
62
70
173
109
124
117
89
167
146
110
129
55
36
47
25
230
31
115
35
157
128
165
178
203
179
156
182
147
165
163
122
1
54
64
136
Percent Relative
Mortality13
46
64
82
85
83
58
73
70
71
78
59
64
73
69
40
61
49
73
44
66
72
62
62
69
60
57
51
56
62
56
64
60
60
70
99
87
84
67
Percent
Abnormal ityc
45.6*
25.4
41.0*
39.0*
35.5*
24.7
22.8
23.8
22.5
29.2
21.3
15.5
32.4*
26.4
13.4
24.3
20.2
30.2
17.5
17.8
21.0
26.1
22.9
19.9
15.9
18.1
16.0
18.1
16.2
22.6
16.1
16.8
20.7
29.9*
100.0*
61.9*
36.0*
23.7
                              3.129

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   TABLE 3.29.  (Continued)
   CI-11                 85                   79                   63.0*
   CI-13                 77                   81                   31.9*
   CI-16                 78                   81                   32.2*
   CI-17                148                   64                   22.0
   CI-20                 70                   83                   31.6*
   CI-22                179                   56                   20.3

   RS-12                152                   63                   21.9
   RS-13                111                   73                   30.1
   RS-14                178                   57                   18.1
   RS-18                 37                   91                   69.6*
   RS-19                 97                   76                   46.5*
   RS-20                240                   42                    8.6
   RS-22                256                   38                    8.5
   RS-24                146                   64                   21.3

   CR-11                175                   57                   16.8
   CR-12                203                   51                   11.3
   CR-13                191                   53                    9.9
   CR-14                180                   56                   14.3

Seawater
  control               411                    -                    4.1

Sediment
  control               313                   24                   10.1
a Numerals are the mean numbers of larvae  used  to determine abnormalities.
Means  are based on duplicate tests for  all  field stations  and on five tests
for the seawater and sediment controls.

b Percent of larvae that died  before  test was terminated, in terms of the
mean seawater control mortality which  was  assigned  a  value  of 0 percent.

c Percent of larvae showing developmental  abnormalities.  Asterisks denote
values significantly different (P<0.05 experimentwise)  from that  observed
in Carr Inlet (i.e., CR-11, CR-12, CR-13,  and CR-14 pooled).
                                   3.130

-------
remained at acceptable  levels [as defined  by  ASTM  (1983):  pH range 7.3-8.3;
salinity range  20-35 ppt; dissolved oxygen  range 4-12  mg/L]  in most test
containers, including  those eliciting  adverse larval response (pH range
7.3-8.0; salinity  range 27.5-28.5; dissolved oxygen range  4.0-7.8 mg/L).
The only  exceptions were samples from Stations  RS-18,  SP-14, SP-15,  HY-12,
HY-17, and CI-11, which had dissolved oxygen values below 4  mg/L at termination.

     Seawater  controls had  a mean  abnormality  rate  of 4 percent,  which
is well  below the  10 percent  abnormal  development criterion  suggested by
ASTM  (1983) as acceptable  for bivalve  larvae bioassay  controls.  Mean
mortality in the Cd-spiked  seawater was  100 percent,  and  mean mortality
in the  Cd-spiked  sediment was >99 percent.   These results are in agreement
with expected mortality  rates for the spiked  samples.

     Mortality  values generally  agreed with data  on abnormalities.  At
stations with mean abnormalities of <20 percent, mortality  rates were generally
low (i.e., <30  percent).

     Results for  Commencement  Bay  stations were  compared with those  for
the reference area (Carr Inlet) using the  t-test.  The  analysis indicated
that the mean abnormalities in 15 test sediments  were significantly different
(P<0.05, experimentwise  error rate) from those in the  Carr  Inlet samples.
Sediment samples displaying significantly increased oyster larvae abnormality
rates are identified in Table 3.29.

3.3.3.2  Dilution  Bioassays--

     Results of the oyster larvae sediment dilution bioassays are summarized
in Table 3.30.  Salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen values remained at acceptable
levels [as defined by ASTM (1983)] for samples from Stations HY-42, RS-18/19,
and BL-25.  However, dissolved oxygen  levels  for samples from Stations
CI-11 and SP-14 were  below  4 mg/L in all but the 90 percent dilutions with
clean material.   This  depression in  dissolved oxygen concentration  was
probably  caused  by the high organic  content of these sediments (9  and 16
ppm TOC, respectively).

     Results indicate that  oyster  abnormality  decreases with  declining
concentrations  of  test  sediments that were progessively  diluted with  clean
control  sediments. In  test sediments from Stations HY-42 and BL-25, dilutions
of 75-90 percent  were  required to reduce  oyster abnormality to control
levels.   For samples  from  Stations  SP-14,  CI-11, and RS-18/19, dilutions
greater  than 90 percent were  required to reduce sediment toxicity to control
levels.   Calculation  of 48-h  EC™ values  indicated  that  the  most toxic
sediments were those  from  Stations  RS-18/19  (ECso = 9.8 g/L) and SP-14
(EC5Q =6.8 g/L).  However,  it should be  noted that both of these sediments
were high in organic matter,  as well  as being high in contaminant concentra-
tions.

     Comparison of the initial  (non-dilution) bioassays on these sediments
with the results of the 100 percent  test sediment concentration for  the
dilution  bioassays indicated a high  level  of  agreement for three of five
sediments:  HY-41, SP-14, and RS-18/19 (Table 3.28).  Sediments from Station
BL-25 showed an  increase  in toxicity and  those from  Station CI-11  showed
a decrease in toxicity, which may be attributable  to the effects of sediment

                                 3.131

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 TABLE  3.30.   SUMMARY OF  OYSTER  LARVAE SEDIMENT DILUTION BIOASSAYS
Relative
Percent Mortality0
Station Test Sediment Number
Number Concentration3 Surviving"
HY-42
HY-42
HY-42
HY-42
HY-42
BL-25
BL-25
BL-25
BL-25
BL-25
SP-14
SP-14
SP-14
SP-14
SP-14
CI-11
CI-11
CI-11
CI-11
CI-11
RS-18/19
RS-18/19
RS-18/19
RS-18/19
RS-18/19
Seawater Control
Sediment Control
100
75
50
25
10
100
75
50
25
10
100
75
50
25
10
100
75
50
25
10
100
75
50
25
10
0
0
49
81
48
161
160
58
46
121
154
191
0
2
10
19
51
66
25
58
72
103
25
38
49
16
123
286
200
Mean
83.0
71.7
83.2
43.9
44.1
79.9
84.1
57.7
46.2
33.4
100.0
99.5
96.7
93.4
82.3
76.9
91.4
79.7
75.0
64.0
91.3
86.9
82.9
94.6
57.0
— —
30.1
SO
2.2
4.0
11.4
9.6
13.4
9.6
5.2
8.9
23.2
21.0
0
0.7
1.2
2.0
4.2
5.9
2.7
8.9
6.2
6.9
3.0
5.2
3.0
4.2
4.5
— _
5.4
Percent Abnormality'*
Mean
33.8
31.5
30.8
17.8
1.4
35.3
32.7
21.4
21.6
11.4
_.
66.7
84.5
36.2
24.0
40.6
41.1
37.8
40.0
25.0
62.3
62.8
50.4
55.7
25.0
6.9
8.1
SO
2.8
0
1.7
0.9
2.0
2.1
1.8
1.3
5.2
2.1
^_
0
1.7
4.1
6.9
2.4
1.5
3.2
1.0
7.5
1.3
0.4
4.4
2.1
5.4
0.4
1.3
a Percent of test sediments mixed with West Beach control sediments.
  The 0-percent concentration contained only control  sediments.

b Mean of two replicates after 48-h  exposure to sediments.

  Percent mortality  relative to the  mean number of surviviny embryos
  and larvae in the  seawater control.

ฐ Percent of surviving embryos and larvae that had not developed to
  straight-hinye stage.
                                      3.132

-------
storage (Cummins, J., January, 1983-February,  1984, personal communication).

3.3.4  Discussion

3.3.4.1  Amphipod Bioassays--

     The use of Rhepoxynius abronius  to determine the acute lethality of
field-collected sediments  has  been documented by Swartz  et al.  (1982a,
1985), Chapman  et al. (1982a,b), and Chapman and Fink (1984).  This  amphipod
species is  a  sensitive indicator of contaminated areas both  by its  absence
from  some  natural  populations  in such  areas  (Swartz et al. 1982a;  Comiskey
et al. 1984), and by  its response to contaminated  sediments  in laboratory
studies (Swartz et  al. 1985).

     In the present study, exposure  to sediments from 18 stations  of the
52 induced  statistically  significant  acute  lethality to  !?. abronius as
compared  to  a  reference  area  (Carr Inlet).   All areas tested,  with the
exception of  Middle Waterway (one station), contained one or  more  sampling
sites with  statistically significant amphipod  mortality.

     During the amphipod bioassays,  sediment sample  SP-14 from  the  area
of Champion International developed a white, gelatinous mass on the  sediment
surface.  This  mass was determined by microscopic examination to be  inhabited
by filamentous, colorless bacteria, which were probably sulfur bacteria.
Their  appearance  on the sediment surface indicated that the sediments  were
anoxic through  to the surface.  Vigorous aeration failed to oxygenate these
exposures.   The  amphipods more likely  died from anoxia in this sample  than
from other  causes.   Low  dissolved  oxygen was not a problem in any other
amphipod bioassay.

3.3.4.2  Oyster Larvae Bioassays--

     In the present  study, exposure to  sediments from 15 of the 52  stations
induced statistically significant oyster larvae abnormalities as  compared
to the  reference  area  (Carr Inlet).    Exposure  to sediments from four of
the eight areas in  Commencement  Bay tested induced  significantly increased
oyster larvae abnormalities:  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline,  St. Paul  Waterway,
City Waterway,  Hylebos Waterway.

     Water quality data taken  after  the 48-h bioassay  period indicated
that high larval  mortality and high abnormality rates from exposure to
sediments from  5 of  the 50 tested stations were at  least partly attributable
to low dissolved oxygen levels (3-4 mg/L at termination):   Stations SP-14,
SP-15, HY-12, HY-17,  and CI-11.   The very low  dissolved oxygen concentrations
at Station  RS-18 (<1  mg/L)  may  be  responsible for the bioassay  toxicity
observed.   All of these  stations had  organically enriched sediments  with
TOC concentrations  exceeding 5 ppm.

     In cases  of  low dissolved  oxygen during bioassay  exposures,  it is
not possible  to discriminate between potential effects of  lack of oxygen
and  toxic  chemical  contamination.  At Station  SP-14 there was  evidence
of stress due to low dissolved oxygen in both  the amphipod  and oyster  larvae
bioassays.   However,  at Stations HY-12 and HY-17 there were no statistically
significant amphipod mortalities, as  well  as no evidence  of stress due

                                 3.133

-------
 to  low dissolved  oxygen in the  amphipod exposure.  Therefore,  at  these
 sites the effects on oyster  larvae may have been the result  of low oxygen,
 At  Stations SP-15 and CI-11,  there were significant amphipod mortalities
 with no evidence of oxygen depletion.  These results indicate  the presence
 of  toxic contamination that  may have  also  caused the oyster larvae abnormali-
 ties.

 3.3.4.3  Dilution Bioassays--

     In both  amphipod  and  oyster larvae sediment  bioassays, dilution  of
 selected toxic sediments with clean  sediments  reduced toxicity.  Similar
 results were observed by Chapman and  Fink  (1984) in sediment dilution studies
 measuring sublethal  oligochaete  respiratory  response to  sediments from
 Elliott Bay.  In the amphipod bioassays, a 50-75 percent dilution was  generally
 sufficient to eliminate the  toxic  response.  Chapman and Fink  (1984)  found
 a 50 percent dilution was  sufficient  to eliminate the  toxic response  in
 oligochaete respiration bioassays.  However, in the oyster  larvae bioassays,
 dilutions  of 70-90  percent or greater were required to eliminate the  toxic
 response.  This difference is  not surprising, since the oyster larvae  bioassay
 is  more sensitive than the amphipod  or oligochaete respiration  bioassay
 (Chapman et al.  1984).

 3.3.4.4  Comparison of Bioassays--

     A comparative summary of sediment toxicity as determined by the amphipod
 and oyster larvae bioassays  is  presented in Figures 3.45-3.47.   Sediments
 from 24 of the 52 stations tested were  toxic in at least one of these two
 tests.   Similar  results were  obtained  for 10  stations by both methods,
 and  approximately equal numbers of samples were toxic by only one method
 (amphipod bioassay-seven samples;  oyster larvae bioassay-six samples).
The  level  of agreement for the  presence of toxic effects (10 of  23 tests
 or 43 percent)  between  the two  tests  is considered to be high,  considering
 the  two kinds of  response  (i.e.,  lethal and sublethal)  and  the two  life-
 stages (i.e., adult  organism  and fertilized  egg).   As noted  by  Chapman
 and Long (1983), different bioassay organisms and tests will  respond differently
 to the same sediment  sample, reflecting both their own uniqueness and  that
 of the sample.

     The relationship between amphipod mortality and oyster  larvae abnormality
 for individual  sampling  stations is  shown in  Figure 3.48.  Nonparametric
 statistical comparisons  using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient indicate
 a highly significant  degree  of  agreement between the two bioassay responses
 (P<0.0001).  This close  association of results is also indicated  by a coeffi-
 cient of determination  (R?)  of  0.725.  The slope of the regression relationship
was 1.02,  indicating  an  almost  equal  agreement  between the magnitudes of
the two responses.

3.3.5  Comparison  with  Historical Data

     Previous R.  abronius  sediment bioassay tests in Commencement  Bay have
been conducted "By  Swart z et  al.  (1982a),  who tested 175 sediment samples,
129 of  which  were from Commencement Bay waterways.   The  remaining samples
were from the  outer bay.   Two samples from the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline
were from  different  areas  than  those  sampled in the present  study.  Data

                                  3.134

-------
                 IZZ  AMPHIPOD MORTALITY


                      OYSTER LARVAE ABNORMALITY


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  Figure 3.45.
              Bioassay responses  to sediments  from  Hylebos
              and  Blair Waterways.
                              3.135

-------




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Figure 3.46.   Bioassay responses to sediments from Middle,
              Milwaukee, Sitcum, St.  Paul,  and City Waterways.
                        3.136

-------
               IZZ  AM PHI POD MORTALITY

                    OYSTER LARVAE ABNORMALITY

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  Figure 3.47.
                Bioassay responses  to  sediments from Ruston-
                Pt. Defiance Shoreline and  Carr Inlet.
                           3.137

-------
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          Figure 3.48.
Relationship between amphipod and oyster larvae
bioassay  results.
                                   3.138

-------
 for  125 of the  129  waterway stations  represent unreplicated samples.  Of
 the  129 waterway samples, the  results  for 78  (60  percent) exceeded the
 highest possible  control mortality, while 101 samples  (78 percent) were
 above the level detected  by ANOVA to be statistically significant for repre-
 sentative samples (Swartz, R., January 9-February 3,  1984,  personal communi-
 cation).  By contrast, in the  present  study only  15 of 44 samples  from
 the  waterways (34 percent) were  significantly lethal  by this  test.

     There  are three  primary  reasons for the  apparent differences between
 the  present study and previous work by Swartz et  al . (1982a).  First, the
 use  of replicated samples  in  the present study  enabled  more rigorous,  statis-
 tical determinations  of lethality.  Second, some  of  Swartz  et al.'s (1982a)
 samples were nearshore,  whereas the present study  collected all samples
 from offshore areas.  For instance, Swartz et al.  (1982a)  found  that nearshore/
 intertidal  sediments  near the Lincoln Avenue  drain in Blair Waterway were
 relatively lethal,  whereas  in the present study sediment  tested from  this
 area was  only collected  from mid-channel (Station BL-21),  and this material
 was  determined to be  nonlethal to the amphippds.  Third,  there was  a  3-yr
 time period between the two studies,  during  which time  sediment toxicity
 may  have dec!ined.

     In some  areas of overlap between the present  study and that of  Swartz
 et.  al. (1982a)  (e.g., Stations HY-22,  HY-23,  HY-25, SI-15, SP-14, and
 CI-11), sediments found  to  be particularly lethal  by  Swartz et al. (1982a)
 were also significantly lethal in the present study.   There are also areas
 of overlap where  relatively high mortalities were  recorded by Swartz et
 al.  (1982a), while  testing with amphipods in the present  study indicated
 no significant  lethality.   These areas include  Stations HY-17, HY-32, and
 CI-16.   It is possible that sediment toxicity in  these areas has been reduced
 due  to  dredging,  sedimentation, cessation of  contaminant inputs,  or other
 causes.  However, it  is also  possible  that these differences between the
 two  studies are simply  a function of  the patchy distribution of sediment
 toxicity in the waterways  (Swartz et al.  1982a).   Results  of  the replicate
 tests  conducted in  the  present study  should  be considered representative
 of present conditions  at the  stations tested.

     Oyster  larvae sediment bioassay tests in  Commencement Bay have  also
 been conducted  by Chapman  et  al.  (1983)  and Pierson  et  al. (1983).   The
 latter  investigators  tested nine stations in  Blair  and Sitcum Waterways
 using different  techniques than in the present study.  Unacceptably  high
 control  abnormalities (range  of means  was 12.4  to  100 percent)  negate the
 usefulness of  these data, and  this study  is not further  considered  herein.

     Chapman et  al.  (1983) tested  nine stations  using  the oyster  larvae
bioassay in  Commencement Bay waterways, including Hylebos,  Blair,  Sitcum,
and  City  Waterways.    Results  were compared using  subjective, rather  than
statistical, criteria.   Exposure to  sediments from  seven  of these  nine
stations  (78 percent) resulted in high  toxicity  compared to controls based
on >20 percent mean abnormalities.    Mean  control  abnormalities were
<2 percent.   In the  present study, 16  of  44  stations (36  percent)  were
significantly  toxic based on oyster larvae abnormalities.   As was  the  case
with the  amphipod  tests, there was an  apparent decrease in overall  toxicity
 in the present study  compared to previous testing.   Seven of the nine  stations
tested  by Chapman et  al.  (1983)  overlapped with  stations  in the present

                                  3.139

-------
study.   Results from five  of these were  similar in both studies (Stations
HY-14, HY-23,  HY-47, SI-15, CI-22).   Sediments  from two of  the nine common
stations (Stations  BL-21, CI-17) showed  relatively high toxicity in previous
studies but  no significant toxicity  in  the present study.   Whether there
has been  a  reduction in  sediment  toxicity between Chapman et al.'s (1983)
sampling in  August, 1982  and the present  sampling in March, 1984 cannot
be determined  based on comparisons between  only nine samples.

3.3.6  Summary

     •    Sediments from  24 of the 52 Commencement Bay sites tested
          had  statistically significant  toxicities  for one or  both
          of the bioassays when compared with  the Carr Inlet reference
          area (Figure 3.49).

     •    Ten of the sites  were toxic  in  both bioassays.  These sites
          were located in Hylebos Waterway, City Waterway,  St.  Paul
          Waterway, and on the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.

     •    Overall, there was good agreement between the two bioassays,
          especially as the toxic response  exceeded 50 percent.

     •    Dilution  bioassays indicated  that in  some areas  (e.g., Stations
          SP-14,  RS-18/19, CI-11)  the  sediments were  so toxic  that
          a  90 percent dilution was  not  sufficient to reduce toxicities
          to reference levels.

     •    Oyster larvae  abnormalities at some  of these highly toxic
          sites may have  been due  in  part  to low dissolved oxygen
          resulting from  high organic content of the sediments.  The
          amphipod  mortalities at Station SP-14 may have also  resulted
          from low  dissolved oxygen.

3.4  FISH ECOLOGY

3.4.1   Introduction
     This section  provides a description of general  characteristics  of
the total  demersal  fish assemblages and the English sole populations  sampled
at 17  trawl  transects in Commencement Bay  and Carr Inlet (see Section 2.6).
The total  assemblages in Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet  are  compared with
respect  to  species composition, species number,  species  diversity, and
total abundance.  English  sole populations in  Commencement Bay and Carr
Inlet  are compared with  respect to median  length, abundance, sex ratio,
and condition.   Finally,  results of  the present study  are  compared with
historical data  collected in Commencement Bay.

3.4.2  Total  Fish Assemblages

3.4.2.1  Species Composition--

     A total of 6,686  fishes, representing 17 families  and 40 species,
was sampled in this  study (Table 3.31).  Commencement Bay study areas  yielded
4,951  individuals and 38 species, whereas 1,735 fishes and 13 species were

                                 3.140

-------
U)
         •   NO SIGNIFICANT RESPONSE

         •   AMPHIPOD OR OYSTER LARVAE
             SIGNIFICANT RESPONSE

        A  AMPHIPOD AND OYSTER LARVAE
             SIGNIFICANT RESPONSE
             COMMENCEMENT
                   BAY
COMMCNCEMCNT
                  CITY
                  WATERWAY
                                            Figure 3.49.   Summary  spatial  patterns  of significant
                                                            bioassay responses.

-------
    TABLE 3.31.  RELATIVE ABUNDANCES  OF  FISHES CAPTURED IN
                COMMENCEMENT BAY AND CARR  INLET
Family
Equal idae
Rajidae
Chimaeridae
Clupeidae
Engraulidae
Batrachoididae
Gadidae
Zoarcidae
Embiotocidae
Bathymasteridae
Stichaeidae
Scorpaenidae
Hexagrammidae
Cottidae
Agonidae
Bothidae
Pleuronectidae
Species
Squalus acanthias
Raja rhina
Hydro! agus colliei
Clupea harengus
pa 1 1 a?i
Engraulis mordax
mordax
Porichthys notatus
Gadus macrocephalus
Merluccius productus
Microgadus prox Irons
Lycodopsis pacifica
Cymatogaster aggregata
Embiotoca lateral is
Rhacochilus vacca
Ronquilus jordani
Lumpenus sagitta
Sebastes auriculatus
Sebastes caurinus
Sebastes maliger
Sebastes melanops
Hexagrammos stelleri
Ophiodon elongatus
Chitonotus pugetensis
Enophrys bison
Leptocottus armatus
Scorpaenichthys
marmoratus
Agon ops is emmelane
Agonus acipenserinus
Citharichthys sordidus
Citharichthys stigmaeus
Eopsetta jordani
Glyptocepjialus zachirus
HippogTossoides
elassodon
Inopsetta •ischyra
Lepidopsetta bil ineata
Lyopsetta exilis
Microstomus pacificus
Parophrys vetulus
Platichthys stellatus
Pleuronichthys coenosus
Psettichthys
melanostictus

Relative Abundance (X)
Common Name Commencement Carr
Bay Inlet
spiny dogfish
longnose skate
spotted ratfish
Pacific herring
northern anchovy
plainfin midshipman
Pacific cod
Pacific hake
Pacific tomcod
blackbelly eelpout
shiner perch
striped seaperch
pile perch
northern ronquil
snake prickleback
brown rockfish
copper rockfish
quillback rockfish
black rockfish
whitespotted
green! ing
lingcod
roughback sculpin
buffalo sculpin
Pacific staghorn
sculpin
cabezon
northern spearnose
poacher
sturgeon poacher
Pacific sanddab
speckled sanddab
petrale sole
rex sole
flathead sole
hybrid sole
rock sole
slender sole
Dover sole
English sole
Starry flounder
C-0 sole
sand sole
TOTAL CATCH
0.1
2.3
2.1
a
0.1
a
0.1
4.3
1.5
0.6
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.1
a
0.6
a
0.2
0.1
0.6
0.1
1.1
a
a
2.7
0.4
a
a
3.9
a
13.8
0.2
7.6
55.6
0.4
0.1
0.4
4,951
0.1
0.2
5.6
0.3
0.1
0.2
1.7
25.0
0.4
65.8
0.3
0.2
0.1
1,735
<0.1 percent.
                           3.142

-------
captured in Carr Inlet.   Much  of  this discrepancy in catches resulted primarily
from the larger sampling  effort expended  in Commencement Bay (15 transects)
compared  to Carr  Inlet  (2 transects), but may  also have been partly due
to increased habitat complexity  (e.g., pilings, rocks, debris) in Commencement
Bay.

     The fish  assemblages  sampled in both Commencement Bay and Carr Inlet
were dominated by  pleuronectids (82.0 and 91.8  percent,  respectively).
The most  abundant  pleuronectids were English sole (55.6 and  65.8 percent,
respectively)  and  rock sole  (13.8 and 25.0 percent, respectively).

3.4.2.2  Assemblage Characteristics--

     Individual study areas  within Commencement Bay were compared qualitatively
with the Carr Inlet  reference  area  on the basis of three major characteristics
of fish  assemblages: total abundance, total number of species, and species
diversity (Figure 3.50).  The  latter parameter was represented by the Shannon-
Wiener  Index   (H1;  Shannon and  Weaver 1949).  For study  areas including
more than one  trawl  transect (Hylebos,  Blair, and  City Waterways; Ruston-
Pt. Defiance   Shoreline; and Carr  Inlet), the mean value of  all transects
within each area was considered for each  assemblage characteristic.

     For six  of the eight  Commencement  Bay  study areas, total abundance
of fish assemblages was over  twice as large as that in Carr Inlet (60 fishes/
100 m).  Only  Hylebos Waterway and Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline had abundances
similar to  that in Carr Inlet.  Total numbers of species in all  Commencement
Bay study  areas  (range  of 10.0 to  14.5) were relatively similar to  that
in Carr Inlet (10.5).  Diversity indices of fish assemblages in  all Commence-
ment Bay study areas were greater than  that in Carr Inlet (0.96).  Diversity
indices in  four of  the  eight study  areas  (Hylebos, Milwaukee, and  City
Waterways, and the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline)  exceeded that in  Carr
Inlet by a  factor  of 1.5  or  more.

     In summary,  fish assemblages in Commencement Bay study areas generally
were more abundant and more  diverse than  those in Carr Inlet.  Total numbers
of species were  similar among  all  areas.  Although these comparisons are
largely descriptive, they show no indication that the gross characteristics
of fish assemblages in Commencement Bay were negatively affected by chemical
contamination.   The relatively high  abundances  of demersal fishes  in  the
Commencement   Bay waterways may be  a  result of high abundances of benthic
macroinvertebrates in the area.   English sole  have been  shown to  prefer
cirratulid  polychaetes and molluscs as  prey items (Becker 1984).  Abundances
of both of these invertebrate  groups are  enhanced in Commencement Bay relative
to Carr Inlet, thus providing  a rich food  supply for bottom-feeding fishes.

3.4.3  English Sole Populations

3.4.3.1  Length Distribution--

     As shown  in  Section 3.4.2.1 English  sole was the most abundant species
in both Commencement Bay and  Carr  Inlet, accounting for 55.6 and 65.8 percent
(respectively) of  overall  assemblages.  Although relative  abundances of
English sole were  similar between the two  embayments, length distributions
of  captured fish  (Figure 3.51) were  significantly different (P<0.001,

                                 3.143

-------
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                                 STUDY AREA
      Figure 3.50.
                 Comparisons of major characteristics of fish
                 assemblages from Commencement Bay study areas
                 with those of the assemblage from Carr Inlet.
                                3.144

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-------
Mann-Whitney U-test).  Median length in Carr Inlet  (14.9 cm) was substantially
lower than that  in  Commencement Bay  (25.2 cm) because  populations  in  the
former  embayment were  dominated by young fish.   For example, fish smaller
than 20 on accounted for over 80 percent of the population in Carr  Inlet,
but only 4 percent  of  the population in Commencement Bay.  Ihis size discrepancy
probably arises  from the fact that  juvenile English sole prefer shallow
sandy  habitats  as nursery  areas (Ketchen 1956).  Thus, the muddy nature
and altered benthos  of  most areas sampled in Commencement Bay may be suitable
for adult English  sole,  but  largely unacceptable  for younger individuals.

     The large differences in median length  of English sole between Commencement
Bay and Carr Inlet  underline the value of setting a minimum size  (i.e.,
an  index of age)   limit for histopathological  analysis.  For instance, if
fish had been  selected randomly for this analysis, most individuals subsampled
from Carr Inlet would likely be smaller (and thus  younger) than those taken
from Commencement  Bay.  Because several  liver disorders  in English  sole
are  functions of  age  (e.g., Mai ins et al. 1982; McCain et  al. 1982; Section
3.5.5 of this study),  comparisons of prevalences of these conditions between
embayments would  be  strongly biased  by the different  age  distributions
of the  subsampled  fish.

3.4.3.2  Abundance--

     At  five  of the  eight  Commencement Bay  study  areas (Blair,  Sitcum,
St. Paul, Middle,  and City  Waterways),  English  sole  abundance was more
than twice that in Carr  Inlet (mean  of 28.9 fish/100  m)  (Figure 3.52).
The Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline was the only study area  in which English
sole abundance was  lower than that in Carr Inlet.   The trawl transect having
the greatest abundance of this species in both embayments  (498.3 fish/100 m)
was  BL70, at the mouth of  Blair Waterway.  The lowest  abundance in the
study (2.3 fish/100 m) occurred at Transect RS72, off Pt.   Defiance.  These
data indicate that, except for the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline, the Commence-
ment Bay study areas generally attracted considerably more English  sole
than did the reference area.   A possible explanation for this pattern is
that most of the Commencement Bay study areas support considerably  higher
standing crops  of English  sole prey  (i.e., benthic  invertebrates)  than
does Carr Inlet  (see Section 3.2).

3.4.3.3  Sex Ratio--

     As noted  previously (Section 2.6), sex was examined in all 1,020  English
sole subsampled  for histopathological  analysis.  However,  sex could  not
be distinguished  for 13  individuals  (8,  3,  1, and 1 from Trawl Transects
CI72, CI71, MD70,  and  RS70,  respectively).  To determine whether sex  ratios
varied  with the physical  characteristics of sediments at each study area,
the male percentages of  English sole  populations were compared with  the
fine-grained  (i.e., silt and clay)  fraction of sediments at all study areas
using Spearman's rank  correlation coefficient (rs).

     Male  percentages were significantly correlated (P<0.05) with percent
fine-grained sediments in a  positive direction (Figure 3.53).   Percentages
ranged  from 20.8  at  Carr  Inlet (12.2 percent  fine-grained sediments)  to
98.3 in Sitcum Waterway  (78.8 percent fine-grained sediments).  This same
pattern  was found by Becker  (unpublished)  for English  sole (>150  mm TL)

                                 3.146

-------
   250—1
   200 —
O
O  150

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1
CO
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   100-
    50-
          HY    BL    SI
        Ml  A SP    MD    Cl    RS
           PU
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                                STUDY AREA
      Figure 3.52.
Comparison of abundances of English sole from
Commencement Bay study areas with the abun-
dance from Carr Inlet.
                             3.147

-------
 at
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100 -



 90 -



 80 -



 70-



 60 -



 50 -



 40 '



 30 -



 20 -



 10 -
            10    20    30   40   50   60   70    80   90   100


                          PERCENT FINES
Figure 3.53.
          Comparison of male percentages  of English sole
          populations with fine-grained sediment frac-
          tions (silt plus clay)  using the Spearman rank
          correlation coefficient (rs).
                        3.148

-------
        350-n
        300-
        250-
     3 200-1
     t-
        150
         100 —
         50—<
	  CARR INLET (n = 25)
	COMMENCEMENT BAY (n = 601)

      MALES
        350—1
        300-
        250 —I
         200-^

         150 -J
         100 —
         50 —
               23 24 25 26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33 34
                	 CARR INLET (n = 95)
                	COMMENCEMENT BAY (n = 286}
                      FEMALES
               23 24 25 26  27  26  29  30 31  32 33 34

                            LENGTH (cm)
Figure  3.54.   Comparisons of weight-length relationships of
               male  and  female English sole captured in
               Commencement Bay  and  Carr Inlet.
                         3.150

-------
ones  common to both  studies.  Sizes of English sole from  the  present study
were based on all  fish  collected, whereas male percentages  were based  only
on those subsampled  for histopathological analysis.

     Size distributions at  both stations did not differ  significantly (P>0.05,
Mann-Whitney U-test) between the two studies (Figure 3.55).   In both  cases,
the difference in median  length between  studies  was less than 1 cm.  As
with median length, male percentages did not differ  significantly  (P>0.05,
2x2 contingency test)  between studies at  both stations.  Male percentages
in 1981 and 1984 were 81.4  and 73.1  (respectively)  in  City Waterway,  and
95.7 and 98.3 (respectively) in Sitcum Waterway.

     The observed similarities of median sizes and  male percentages between
1981 and 1984 suggest that, although most adult English sole migrate seasonally
(Ketchen 1956),  the  same population may utilize the  Commencement Bay waterways
each year.   If  this  supposition is correct,  it would imply  that these  fish
could be exposed to waterway contaminants for a number of years, and thereby
be susceptible  to  the negative consequences  that may result from long-term
contact with chemical contaminants.

3.4.4  Summary

     •    English sole dominated the demersal fish assemblage in both
          Commencement Bay and  Carr Inlet,  accounting for 55.6  and
          65.8  percent  (respectively) of each assemblage.

     •    Demersal  fish assemblages at the  eight Commencement  Bay
          study  areas generally  were more  abundant and more  diverse
          than  the assemblage in Carr Inlet.  By contrast,  total number
          of species was similar among all  areas sampled.

     •    English sole sampled in Commencement Bay were significantly
          larger (P<0.05) than conspecifics  collected in Carr Inlet.

     •    Abundance of English sole at five of the eight  Commencement
          Bay study areas  exceeded the abundance  in  Carr Inlet  by
          a factor of  two  or  more.   The Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline
          was the only  study area having a  lower abundance  than  Carr
          Inlet.

     t    The male-to-female ratio of English sole populations correlated
          significantly  (P<0.05) with percent fine-grained  sediment.

     t    Condition  (i.e., weight-at-length)  of  all  male and  most
          female English sole was  greater  in Commencement Bay  than
          in Carr Inlet.

     t    Length  and  sex   ratio  of  English  sole  in City and Sitcum
          Waterways did not differ significantly  (P<0.05)  between
          the present study and historical data collected 3 yr earlier.
                                 3.151

-------
     30-1
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     20-
     10-
                                                 CITY WATERWAY


                                                 1984 n = 197, MEDIAN

                                                 1981 n = 211, MEDIAN

                                                    (P>.05)
                                             25.5cm

                                             25.9cm
LU
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                                                 SITCUM WATERWAY


                                                 1984 n = 131, MEDIAN = 27.4cm

                                                 1981 n = 103, MEDIAN = 26.7cm

                                                    (P>.05)
                 12    16    20   24   28    32    36


                      TOTAL LENGTH (cm)
                                40
      Figure 3.55.
Comparisons of length  distributions  of English
sole captured in City  and Sitcum Waterways
during  1981 and 1984 using the Mann-Whitney
U-test.
                                3.152

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3.5  FISH HISTOPATHOLOGY

3.5.1  Introduction

     This section  presents the results of histopathological analyses conducted
on the livers  of the  1,020 English sole  subsampled  at  17  trawl transects
in Commencement  Bay and Carr Inlet (see Figure 2.6  in Section 2.1).  Grossly
visible external abnormalities found on the subsampled  fish are described
first.   The  kinds of  liver  lesions considered  in  this study are described
next.  The relationships of these lesions to sex and  age  of the fish  are
then  determined  so  that, if necessary,  these potential confounding factors
can be removed before lesion prevalences  in Commencement  Bay are compared
with  those in Carr  Inlet.   Lesion  prevalences based on Commencement Bay
as a whole, the  eight study areas within  the bay, and the  individual  trawl
transects within the  larger study  areas are then compared statistically
with prevalences  in  Carr  Inlet.  Finally, results of the present  study
are compared with  historical data collected in Commencement Bay.

3.5.2  External  Abnormalities

     Although this  study focused  on microscopic  pathological conditions
of the liver,  grossly visible external abnormalities of the 1,020 English
sole  subsampled  for  histopathological  analysis  were also recorded.  The
two most common  external abnormalities in English sole found in Puget  Sound
in  the  past  and  suspected  of resulting from chemical contamination are
skin tumors (i.e., angioepithelial  nodules, angioepithelial  polyps,  and
epidermal papillomas)  and fin erosion.  None of the  1,020 subsampled English
sole was affected by skin  tumors,  and  only 9 individuals (0.9 percent)
showed  confirmed cases of  fin erosion.  Thus, the fish subsampled in the
present study  were relatively unaffected by these  two kinds  of external
abnormalities.

3.5.3  Classification of Liver Conditions

     Over 50  types  of gross  and microscopic pathological conditions were
observed in the  livers of the 1,020 English sole  examined.   These conditions
ranged  from  common  parasitic infections to clearly  identifiable neoplasms.
This study emphasized four  lesion categories of unknown  etiology  (i.e.,
hepatic neoplasms, preneoplastic nodules, megalocytic hepatosis, and nuclear
pleomorphism).  The causes of these disorders are unknown.   It is possible
that they are  induced by chemical contaminants in the environment.  Moreover,
morphologically  similar  lesions have been induced  in  laboratory mammals
and fishes by  exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic  chemicals (Maiins
et al. 1984).   Each  of  the four lesion categories is described in the following
sections.

3.5.3.1  Hepatic Neoplasms--

     Several  kinds  of neoplasm  have been described in English sole.  Each
one is discussed separately.

     Liver Cell  Adenoma—Liver cell  adenomata are well-differentiated  nodules
of normal architectural appearance that generally measure  more than  1.0 mm
in  diameter  and  that compress, but do  not invade,  the surrounding tissue.

                                 3.153

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The margin  of the adenoma  is  distinct from the normal surrounding  tissue
and the tumor  may be recognized by an absence of melanin macrophage centers
(MMCs)  or  other hepatic  elements (e.g., pancreas).  These hypercellular
foci contain hepatocytes with reduced or  absent polarity, as well  as reduced
or  absent  iron pigment.  The  cells are monomorphic with enlarged  nuclei
and have variable staining patterns, ranging from basophilic to eosinophilic
or  vacuolated.  Sometimes multiple adenomata with different characteristics
may be seen within a single liver.

     Hepatoeellular Carcinoma--Hepatocellular carcinomata are tumors charac-
terized by  the presence  of  disorganized muralia and  irregular borders.
They grow  by  expansion and by invasion  into surrounding hepatic parenchyma.
The cells that constitute the tumor are  pleomorphic, slightly hypertrophic
hepatocytes that lack cellular polarity.  The cells are frequently anaplastic
and evidence an increased nuclearrcytoplasmic ratio.  Their staining patterns
vary  from  primarily basophilic to occasionally eosinophilic or vacuolated.
The cells most often are arranged in a trabecular pattern, but occasionally
may assume  a  pseudotubular  or solid pattern.  The nodules are most often
devoid of MMCs or other hepatic tissue elements.

     Cholangiocellular Carcinoma--Choiangiocellular carcinomata arise from
bile duct epithelium.  They  are invasive, often poorly differentiated neoplasms
with  irregular borders.  These tumors  may occur alone or may be mixed with
hepatocellular carcinomata.   In the more well-differentiated forms, the
tumors  assume a relative degree of glandular  organization  with clearly
visible tubules or ducts.   In less well-differentiated  forms, there is
only  a  faint  tendency to form ducts.  The epithelia that constitute the
tumor are cuboidal to  squamous, often  spindle-shaped  cells  embedded in
a thin fibrous stroma.  They are eosinophilic or amphophilic in well-differ-
entiated lesions, but  basophilic  in poorly  differentiated tumors.  The
nuclei  are small (relative to those of  hepatocytes), with reduced chromasia
and indistinct nucleoli.

3.5.3.2  Preneoplastic Nodules--

     Three  distinct cellular lesions appear in the livers of mammals exposed
to hepatocarcinogens:  clear, eosinophilic, and basophilic  nodules (Squire
and Levitt  1975;  Stewart et al. 1980).  These  lesions are recognized by
their staining characteristics and by  functional  anomalies that  can be
detected histochemically.   These lesion types may occur singly, in  pairs,
or all three   simultaneously in a  single  liver.   They  may also be  found
in  tissue  that contains  neoplasms.  These foci  typically measure  1.0 mm
or less in diameter and are  considered  to represent preneoplastic   steps
in the development of hepatocellular carcinomas.

     Clear Cell Focus--Clear  cell  foci are discrete, spherical nodules
characterized  by the apparent emptiness  of their cellular  cytoplasm.  The
cytoplasm  of  the  constituent  cells is filled  with vacuoles that  appear
clear ("empty") when stained by conventional techniques  (e.g., hematoxylin
and eosin).   The  foci are  distinct from the surrounding parenchymal cells
even if they have a high  degree of  vacuolization.   Histochemically, the
cells may contain glycogen or lipid.  The lesions do not compress the adjacent
tissue.
                                 3.154

-------
     Eosinophilic Nodule--Foci of  hepatocytes characterized by  intense
 eosinophilia are referred to as  eosinophilic  nodules (eosinophil ic hyper-
 trophy).  These  foci  are spherical,  non-compressing structures that  blend
 imperceptibly into the surrounding muralia.   In  some systems,  they elicit
 a  pronounced inflammatory/immunological response.  The foci contain hyper-
 trophic hepatocytes having eosinophilic  cytoplasm, but that  otherwise have
 normal  cellular characteristics.  These foci typically do not contain  MMCs.
 In trout, the intense eosinophilia has been shown to result from an  abundance
 of smooth endoplasmic reticulum  (Hendricks et al. 1984).

     Basophilic  Npdu1e--Basophilic nodules (hyperbasophilie foci) are discrete,
 spherical foci  (0.1-1.0 mm  in  diameter) that  contain  small,  basophilic
 hepatocytes.  In trout, the basophilia  has been shown to result from extensive
 quantities of granular endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes.  The foci
 are  non-compressing and grade  imperceptibly into the adjacent parenchyma.
 They typically  contain no MMCs  and may have  reduced hemosiderin levels
 in siderotic livers.  These foci  are  believed to be a signal  that neoplastic
 transformation is complete (Hendricks et al. 1984).

 3.5.3.3  Megalocytic Hepatosis--

     Megalocytic hepatosis  is  a degenerative lesion of the hepatocellular
 parenchyma that  is characterized by a marked  increase (two-  to  threefold)
 in the nuclear and cellular diameters of affected hepatocytes in  the  absence
 of cellular inflammatory responses   (Malins  et  al.  1982).   The nuclei of
 affected cells are vesicular  and  hyperchromatic, and the cytoplasm is generally
 eosinophilic and  often shows associated changes such as hydropic  degeneration
 or hyalinization.   Megalocytic hepatosis is often  found  in  association
 with altered MMCs, hemosiderois,  or  foci of hepatocellular  regeneration.
 This change is  considered to be a degenerative condition that  results from
 toxic injury.   It is not  a  proliferative lesion,  nor is it  considered to
 be a preneoplastic focus.

 3.5.3.4  Nuclear Pleomorphism--

     Nuclear pleomorphism  is  a condition occasionally  seen in hepatic tissue
 undergoing degenerative  changes.  The  condition, which  occurs  in  hepatocytes,
 is characterized  by increased nuclear diameter with no attendant increase
 in cellular diameter.  Nuclei are not considered  to  be pleomorphic  unless
 there is at least a threefold variation  in nuclear diameter  from  the smallest
 to the largest  nucleus in the  tissue.  This condition is  considered to
 be degenerative  and non-proliferative.

 3.5.4  Effects of Sex

     To determine whether any of the four kinds of  liver lesions  described
 previously occurred  more frequently in male or  in  female  English sole,
 the sex  distribution  of  fish having  each condition was compared with the
 sex distribution of all English sole examined from Commencement  Bay  (Table 3.32)
 using  a  2x2  contingency  formulation  and  the chi-square criterion.  Sex
distributions  for all four  lesion types were not  significantly different
 (P>0.05)  from the overall distribution  in Commencement Bay (Table 3.32),
 indicating  that  both  sexes  were similarly affected  by  these disorders.


                                 3.155

-------
       TABLE 3.32.  COMPARISONS OF SEX DISTRIBUTIONS  OF  COMMENCEMENT
       BAY  ENGLISH SOLE  HAVING VARIOUS KINDS OF LIVER LESION WITH THE
    SEX DISTRIBUTION OF ALL ENGLISH SOLE SAMPLED  IN COMMENCEMENT  BAYa'ฐ
                      Number (Percent) Having Each Condition
Liver Lesion                  Males          Females              Significance0
Hepatic neoplasms
Preneoplastic nodules
Megalocytic hepatosis
Nuclear pleomorphisms
20
76
60
25
(3.3)
(12.6)
(10.0)
(4.2)
5
38
37
17
(1.7)
(13.0)
(12.9)
(5.9)
ns
ns
ns
ns

a Overall Commencement Bay distribution was 601 males  and  286  females.

b Comparisons were made using a 2x2 contingency formulation and the  chi-square
criterion.  (Comparisonwise significance  level = 0.0125).

c ns = P>0.05. (experimentwise).
                                  3.156

-------
3.5.5  Effects of Age

     As noted  in Section 2.6, Malins et al.  (1982)  and  McCain  et  al.  (1982)
found that prevalences  of liver lesion in English sole  were substantially
lower  in  younger than in  older fish.  Because of this  age  dependence, only
larger (and thus older) English sole were subsampled for histopathological
analysis  in the  present  study (see  Section 2.6).  Using  a 225-mm minimum
size criterion, only  6  of the 950  (0.6 percent)  English sole  aged  in this
study  were less  than  3 yr old.  Seventy (6.9 percent) fish could  not be
aged because their otoliths  were either lost in the field or  were unreadable.

     To determine whether  prevalence of each of the four lesions  considered
in the present  study showed  a monotonic increase with age in  the aged English
sole  (>2  yr old) subsampled from Commencement Bay (n=837),  prevalence of
each disorder  was compared  with fish age using Spearman's rank correlation
coefficient (rs).   Because none of  these  disorders  showed  a sex-related
bias (see Section 3.5.4), fish were not stratified by sex in this  analysis.

     Prevalences of hepatic neoplasms and preneoplastic  nodules were signifi-
cantly correlated (P<0.05)  with fish age (Figure 3.56).   Neoplasm  prevalence
ranged  from 0  (age  3) to  5.0 (age >7)  percent and,  aside  from  a  slight
decline between ages  4  and  5, increased monotonically with fish age.   Preva-
lences  of preneoplastic  nodules increased  monotonical ly with age, ranging
from 5.7 (age  3) to 17.5 (age >7)  percent.

     Prevalences of  megalocytic  hepatosis  and nuclear pleomorphism did
not correlate  significantly (P>0.05) with fish age (Figure 3.56).   Although
prevalence of megalocytic hepatosis  steadily  increased  from 9.1 to 13.5
percent between ages  3  and  5, it declined slightly  to 12.6 percent at age
6 and  then decreased  dramatically to 5.6 percent at ages >7.  By contrast,
prevalence of nuclear  pleomorphism  was quite  stable  across age  groups,
ranging from 3.9 to 5.6 percent.

3.5.6  Spatial  Patterns of  Individual  Disorders^

     The primary goal   of  the  histopathological analysis  was to determine
whether English sole  from Commencement Bay exhibited significantly different
(P<0.05)  prevalences  of  liver lesions  than conspecifics from  Carr Inlet
(i.e., the reference  site).  Comparisons were made using a 2x2 contingency
formulation and the  chi-square criterion.  Spatial  patterns were  considered
on three scales:  by  embayment, by study area, and by trawl  transect within
each  larger study area (Hylebos,  Blair, and  City Waterways, and the Ruston-
Pt.  Defiance Shoreline).  Because  the four lesions considered in this  study
did  not  show  a sex  bias  (see Section 3.5.4), no corrections  were made for
differences in  sex distributions between the  reference site  and Commencement
Bay.   By  contrast,   because three of the lesions were positively  correlated
with age (see Section 3.5.5), age distributions of English sole from Commence-
ment  Bay  were compared with that in  Carr  Inlet  before histopathological
comparisons were made.
                                 3.157

-------
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-------
     To test  for age differences between English sole in  Commencement Bay
and Carr Inlet,  age distributions  were compared  between embayments  using
the Mann-Whitney  U-test.   Separate  comparisons were made  for each scale
of analysis (i.e., by embayment, study area, and transect).  Age distributions
of English sole from  all  of Commencement Bay,  from two study  areas (Blair
and Sitcum Waterways),  and  from three trawl transects within the  larger
study  areas (BL70,  BL71,  and BL72)  differed significantly (P<0.05) from
the age distribution in  Carr  Inlet.  In each case, median age  was greater
in Commencement Bay.   To  correct for  these age differences, the largest
fish from each Commencement Bay site  were eliminated  sequentially  until
the median age of  the  remaining distribution did not  differ significantly
(P>0.05) from that in Carr Inlet.  Using this approach,  47  fish were eliminated
from  the  total  Commencement Bay sample, 46 and 1  fish were  removed from
the distributions  in Blair  and Sitcum Waterways  (respectively), and  17,
9, and  3  fish were removed from the individual  samples at Transects BL70,
BL71, and BL72,  respectively.

3.5.6.1  Patterns Based  on  Embayments--

     Prevalences of the four  lesion categories in age-corrected samples
of English sole  from Commencement  Bay and Carr Inlet  are presented in Figure
3.57.  Occurrences  of hepatic neoplasms and nuclear pleomorphism were restricted
to Commencement  Bay fish.   The most frequently observed lesion categories
in English sole from  both  areas were preneoplastic  nodules and megalocytic
hepatosis.  Prevalences  of  three of the four liver conditions  (preneoplastic
nodules, megalocytic hepatosis, and nuclear pleomorphism)  were significantly
higher (P<0.05)  in Commencement  Bay  than in Carr  Inlet.   On a bay-wide
basis,  the prevalence  of  hepatic neoplasms was  not statistically elevated
in Commencement  Bay fish when compared to Carr Inlet.  On a bay-wide  basis,
the prevalence of hepatic neoplasms was not statisticaly elevated in Commence-
ment Bay fish  when  compared  to Carr Inlet.

3.5.6.2  Patterns Based  on  Study Areas--

     Prevalence  of  hepatic  neoplasms was not significantly different (P>0.05)
from that in Carr  Inlet  (0  percent)  at any of the eight Commencement  Bay
study  areas (Table 3.33).  The highest incidence  of hepatic  neoplasms in
Commencement Bay study  areas  (8.3 percent) was in  Middle Waterway, whereas
the lowest value (0 percent) was found along Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline.

     Prevalence  of  preneoplastic nodules was significantly different (P<0.05)
fron that in Carr Inlet  (5.8  percent)  only in Middle Waterway  (26.7 percent).
The  lowest incidence  of  preneoplastic  nodules  in Commencement Bay study
areas (6.6 percent)  was  found in Blair Waterway.

     Prevalence  of  megalocytic hepatosis was significantly different (PO.05)
from that in Carr  Inlet  (0.8 percent) at four Commencement Bay study  areas:
Hylebos  (18.3 percent),  Milwaukee  (16.7 percent), Middle (15.0 percent),
and Blair (11.9  percent) Waterways.  The lowest incidence of this disorder
in Commencement  Bay study areas (5.0 percent)  was  found  in St. Paul Waterway.

     As with  preneoplastic  nodules, prevalence of nuclear pleomorphism
was significantly different  (P<0.05)  from that in Carr Inlet  (0 percent)
only  in Middle Waterway  (10.0 percent).  Prevalences of  this disorder in

                                 3.159

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LU
o
z
ai
ai
15


14


13

12


11




9


8


7


6


5


4


3


2-

1 •

0
                       COMMENCEMENT BAY n = 853)


                       CARR INLET (n = 120)
                   #  P < 0.05


                   ns  P > 0.05
                ns
                 (0)
                             ]
                                                       (0)
                                    fif-
                           LIVER LESION
 Figure 3.57.
Comparisons  of prevalences of six  liver disor-
ders between English sole from  Commencement
Bay and Carr Inlet using a 2 X  2 contingency
test.  (Critical  chi-square = 3.84.)
                          3.160

-------
                           TABLE 3.33.  COMPARISONS OF PREVALENCES OF FOUR LIVER LESIONS BETWEEN
                              ENGLISH  SOLE FROM STUDY AREAS  IN COMMENCEMENT BAY AND CARR  INLET
CM
Study
Area
Hylebos
Waterway
Blair
Waterway
Sitcum
Waterway
Milwaukee
Waterway
St. Paul
Waterway
Middle
Waterway
City
Waterway
Ruston-
Pt. Defiance
Shoreline
Carr Inletc
Sample
Size9
180
134
(180)
59
(60)
60
60
60
120
180

120
Hepatic
Neoplasms
2.8
0.8
(3.3)
5.1
(5.0)
3.3
1.7
8.3
0.8
0

0
Percent of Fish
Preneoplastic
Nodules
13.3
7.5
(9.4)
18.6
(18.3)
15.0
16.7
26.7*
8.3
10.6

5.8
Having Each Condition*5
Megalocytic
Hepatosis
18.3*
12.7*
(11.1)
10.2
(10.0)
16.7*
5.0
15.0*
6.7
5.6

0.8
Nuclear
Pleomorphism
5.6
4.5
(6.1)

5.1
0
5.0
10.0*
3.3
2.8

0
                   a Sample sizes  in  Blair  and  Sitcum Waterways were reduced when age distributions
                   were adjusted  (see  text for  explanation).   Unadjusted values  are given
                   in parentheses.

                   b An asterisk denotes  that a prevalence  was  significantly different  (P<0.05)
                   from that  at  Carr  Inlet.   (Comparisonwise  significance  level =  0.0031).

                   c Reference area.

-------
the remaining Commencement Bay study areas  were  less than 6 percent, with
the lowest value  (0 percent) found in Milwaukee  Waterway.

     English  sole  from Middle Waterway had  the greatest number (3) of signif-
icantly elevated  (P<0.05) liver lesions in  Commencement Bay.  These included
preneoplastic nodules, megalocytic  hepatosis, and nuclear pleomorphism.
Fish from Hylebos, Blair, and Milwaukee Waterways had  significantly elevated
levels  of only megalocytic hepatosis.   Finally, fish  from  St. Paul and
City Waterways and Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline did not have significantly
elevated levels of any of the four lesions  considered.

3.5.6.3  Patterns  Based on Trawl Transects--

     Prevalences  of  hepatic neoplasms, preneoplastic nodules, and nuclear
pleomorphism  were  not significantly different (P>0.05)  from those  in  Carr
Inlet  at  any of the 11 trawl  transects  in  Commencement Bay (Table 3.34).
Transects having the highest  prevalence of each disorder were HY71 (neoplasms
- 6.7 percent), RS70  (preneoplastic nodules -  18.3  percent), and HY70 (nuclear
pleomorphism  - 8.3 percent).

     Prevalence of megalocytic hepatosis was significantly different (P<0.05)
from that in  Carr  Inlet at all three transects  in  Hylebos  Waterway  (HY70,
71, and  72), at two of the three transects in Blair Waterway (BL70 and
71), and at one of the three transects along Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline
(RS70).   The highest incidence of this disorder at a trawl transect within
a Commencement Bay study area (26.7  percent)  was  at  HY70,  and the  lowest
value (0 percent)  was at RS71.

     When lesion  prevalence  in areas with multiple  trawl samples is examined
on a trawl sample basis  rather than  on an overall  area basis, the  only
differences  occurred in  Blair Waterway  and along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shoreline.  In these two  areas, there is evidence  of  spatial gradients
in  the  prevalences of megalocytic hepatosis.   Although Blair Waterway had
an overall significant elevation in megalocytic   hepatosis,  the prevalence
of  this  lesion was low and not significantly different  from Carr Inlet
(P>0.05)  near the waterway mouth.  Along the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline
the overall prevalence of megalocytic hepotosis  was not significantly elevated.
However, the individual  trawl site nearest the mouth of City Waterway displayed
a statistically significant  elevation (P<0.05) in the  lesion prevalence.

3.5.7  Spatial Patterns of Fish Having One  or  More  Major Lesion

     To construct  a  single  index  representing the  prevalence of possible
contaminant-induced liver  lesions  in  English  sole from  Commencement  Bay
and Carr  Inlet,  the number of fish  having  one or  more of the four liver
lesions was calculated.  Because many  fish were afflicted  with more  than
one type of lesion, the number of fish having  one or more of the four lesions
is less than  would be calculated by simply  summing the  prevalences of  the
individual lesion types.   This index  thus  represents the  actual number
of afflicted   fish, rather  than the  number of  afflictions.   Comparisons
between prevalences of fish  having one or more major lesions in Commencement
Bay and Carr  Inlet were made using a  2x2 contingency formulation  and  the
chi-square criterion.


                                3.162

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                        TABLE  3.34.  COMPARISONS OF PREVALENCES OF FOUR LIVER  LESIONS  BETWEEN
                        ENGLISH SOLE FROM  TRAWL  TRANSECTS  IN COMMENCEMENT BAY AND CARR INLET
u>
a\
u>
Trawl
Transect
HY70
HY71
HY72
BL70
•
BL71

BL72

CI70
CI72
RS70
RS71
RS72
CR70 and 7K
Sample
Sizea
60
60
60
43
(60)
51
(60)
57
(60)
60
60
60
60
60
120
Heptatic
Neoplasms
0
6.7
1.7
2.3
(8.3)
0
(0)
0
(1.7)
1.7
0
0
0
0
0
Percent of Fish Having
Preneoplastic
Nodules
13.3
15.0
11.7
11.6
(16.7)
5.9
(8.3)
3.5
(3.3)
6.7
10.0
18.3
8.3
5.0
5.8
Each Condition'1
Megalocytic
Hepatosis
26.7*
15.0*
13.3*
14.0*
(13.3)
19.6*
(16.7)
3.5
(3.3)
10.0
3.3
11.7*
0
5.0
0.8
Nuclear
Pleomorphism
8.3
0.5
3.3
7.0
(10.0)
5.9
(5.0)
1.8
(3.3)
5.0
1.7
5.0
0
3.3
0
             a  Sample sizes  in Blair Waterway were reduced  when  age  distributions were
             adjusted  (see text for explanation).   Unadjusted  values  are given  in  paren-
             theses.

             b  An  asterisk denotes that a prevalence was significantly  different (P<0.05)
             from  that at Carr  Inlet.   (Comparisonwise significance  level =  0.0023).

             c  Reference area.

-------
      Prevalence of fish having one or more  lesions was significantly different
 (PO.05) from that in Carr Inlet (6.7 percent)  at five of the eight Commencement
 Bay study areas  (Figure 3.58):   Hylebos, Blair,  Sitcum, Milwaukee,  and
 Middle Waterways.  Prevalence in  Commencement  Bay study  areas was highest
 (40.0 percent) in Middle Waterway and  lowest (13.3 percent) in City Waterway.

     Within  the larger  Commencement  Bay  study areas (i.e. Hylebos,  Blair,
 and  City Waterways, and the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline), prevalence
 of  fish having one or more  lesions (Figure  3.58) was significantly different
 (P<0.05) from that in Carr  Inlet  at all three  trawl transects in Hylebos
 Waterway (HY70,  71,  and 72), at two  transects in Blair Waterway (BL70  and
 71), and at one transect  along Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline  (RS70).  Prevalence
 at  Commencement Bay transects was highest  (33.3 percent) at HY70 and  lowest
 (7.0 percent) at BL72.

     In general, prevalences of  fish  having  one or more lesions at trawl
 transects showed patterns similar to those  of their respective larger study
 area.   However,  there were two  exceptions.  First, prevalence at BL72  (7.0
 percent) was almost as low  as  that in Carr Inlet,  whereas  prevalence  in
 the  entire Blair Waterway (20.9 percent) was significantly different (PO.05)
 from that at the reference  area.  By contrast,  prevalence  at RS70 (26.7
 percent)  was significantly different (P<0.05)  from that at Carr  Inlet,
 whereas overall prevalence  along Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline (15.6 percent)
 was  not significantly different (P>0.05) from that at the reference area.

 3.5.8  Fish Condition Comparisons

     To examine whether Commencement Bay  English sole with hepatic lesions
 exhibited reduced condition  (see  Section 3.4.3.4)  relative  to  conspecifics
 without  these lesions,  weight-at-length (WAL)  values of these two  groups
 (stratified by sex)  were  compared using regression  analysis.   Weight and
 length  values for  all fish were log-transformed and least-squares  linear
 regression lines were calculated  (cf. Ricker 1975).   Regression lines for
 fish  with and without lesions were tested for coincidence using the  Z test
 (Kleinbaum and Kupper 1978).

     For both sexes, the  slopes and y-intercepts of the regression equations
 for fish with and  without hepatic lesions did  not differ significantly
 (P>0.05, Table 3.35).   Each  pair  of regression lines can therefore be considered
 coincident.   Thus,  English  sole with hepatic lesions did not exhibit reduced
 condition relative to conspecifics  without  lesions.

 3.5.9  Comparisons  with Historical  Data

     Most historical  studies  of  liver disorders  in  English sole from Puget
 Sound have been  conducted  by Dr.  Donald C. Mai ins  and his associates at
 the Environmental  Conservation Division of the  Northwest  and Alaska  Fisheries
 Center of NMFS.   As  mentioned previously (Section  2.6), all abnormal  liver
 conditions  observed  in  the present  study were  independently verified by
 the chief pathologist of  Mai ins1  group.   Although  this intercalibration
 procedure ensured  that  consistent classifications  of liver disorders were
made, direct  comparisons of  results of the present study  with data  collected
 in  the  past  by Mai ins et  al. (1980,  1982,  1984)  are  limited  by several
 additional  factors.   First,  and perhaps foremost,  is the fact  that Malins

                                  3.164

-------
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-------
    TABLE 3.35.  COMPARISONS OF WEIGHT-LENGTH REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS^
    BETWEEN ENGLISH SOLE WITH LESIONS  AND CONSPECIFICS WITHOUT LESIONS

Sex
Male


Female



Lesionb
absent

present
absent

present
Number
Sloped
of fishc b(S.
471

130
217

69
2.

2.
2.

2.
68

65
66

74
E.)
(0.

(0.
(0.

(0.
Y-Intercepte
Significance a(S.E.)
045)
ns
088)
066)
ns
101)
-4.

-4.
-4.

-4.
32

24
22

44
(0

(0
(0

(0
Significance
.109)

.214)
.162)

.248)

ns


ns

a Regression equations  were based on log-transformed weights  and  lengths,
and comparisons  were  stratified by sex.

b Presence or absence  of one or more of the following hepatic  lesions:
neoplasms,  preneoplastic  nodules, megalocytic hepatosis, and nuclear pleo-
rnorphisms.

c Only fish from Commencement  Bay were  considered.

d The  slopes (b)  for each  sex were compared using the Z test.   The  standard
error (S.E.)  of  each  slope  is  given in  parentheses,  ns = P>0.05.

e The y-intercepts  (a)  for each sex  were compared using the  Z  test.  The
standard error  (S.E.) of each  intercept  is given in parentheses,  ns =
P>0.05.
                                  3.166

-------
et al.  (1980,  1982,  1984) included all age groups  of  English sole (including
fish less than Syr  old) when calculating prevalences,  whereas, by  design,
almost  all  of the 950  fish aged in  the  present study  (99.4 percent) were
at least 3 yr  old.   As shown by Mai ins et al.  (1982), McCain et al.  (1982),
and the  present study  (see Section  3.5.5), several liver conditions are
positively related to fish age.  Thus, prevalences reported in the  present
study are likely to be substantially  higher than those found by Mai ins
et al.  because of the exclusion of the youngest fish  (i.e., <3 years  old)
from the present  study.

     A  second  major limitation  to  intercpmparisons with historical data
arises  from  differences  in  sampling  locations.   As  shown in the  present
study,  prevalences  of liver disorders can vary dramatically over relatively
short distances.  For  example, the incidence of  megalocytic hepatosis declined
by 11.7  percent between Transects  HY70  and HY71  in Hylebos Waterway and
by 16.1 percent between Transects BL71 and BL72  in Blair Waterway  (Table 3.32).

     A  third  type  of limitation  to  intercomparisons with historical data
is based on  temporal differences.  It  is likely that  seasonal or interannual
differences among  studies  would influence  observed prevalences to some
degree.   For  instance, Malins et al.  (1980) found  that prevalence of megalocytic
hepatosis in  English sole at Commencement Bay stations declined from winter
to summer, and then  increased in fall.  In addition, McCain et al.  (1982)
found a  significant decrease in the  prevalence of  hepatic  neoplasms in
English  sole from Sitcum Waterway between 1979 and 1983.

     Given  the above limitations,  results  of the  present study and those
found by Malins et al. (1984) were only compared qualitatively.  Prevalences
of the  four  lesions  considered earlier (i.e.,  hepatic neoplasms, preneoplastic
nodules, megalocytic  hepatosis, and  nuclear  pleomorphism) were compared
between  the present study  and that  of Malins  et  al.  (1984) at the three
areas of Commencement Bay common to both studies  (Figure 3.59).  Although
Malins  et al.  (1980) did not sample fish in Carr Inlet, two of their reference
stations were  located in an adjacent embayment,  Case  Inlet.  Because  these
two embayments are morphologically similar,  prevalences of liver disorders
were compared between them. Because Malins et al. (1980) pooled the prevalences
of nuclear  pleomorphism with those  of megalocytic  hepatosis (Myers, M.,
9 January 1985, personal communication), data  from the present study  were
modified  in a similar manner.  Results from Malins et  al.  (1984) were taken
from Table III, and represent data  pooled  across  four sampling  periods
(winter, spring,  summer, and fall) from 1979 to 1982.

     As  expected,  prevalences  of all three  liver  lesions generally were
higher  in the  present study than were  those found  by Malins et al.  (1984;
Figure  3.59).  However, the  relative  magnitudes of  each  condition across
different areas was  quite similar between studies. In  general, prevalence
of each  disorder was at or close to  0  percent  in Carr  and  Case Inlets.
The one exception was preneoplastic nodules in  Carr Inlet, where a prevalence
of approximately  6 percent was found in the present study.   For both studies,
prevalences  of all three lesions reached their highest  respective  levels
in either Hylebos Waterway or the  remaining Commencement Bay waterways.
Finally,  prevalences along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline of all  three
lesions  in  both studies were intermediate in magnitude  between prevalences
in the  reference  areas and those in the waterways.

                                  3.167

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                   PRESENT STUDY
                                             MALINS ET AL. (1984)
25

20'

15

ID-

 S'

 0
                              HEPATIC NEOPLASMS
             (0)  (0)
    25


-------
     The observed  similarities between  the spatial distributions of the
the three hepatic lesions  found in the present  study and those  found by
Mai ins  et  al.  (1984) 2-5 yr  earlier imply that  these patterns are real
(not  spurious)  and  that they are quite stable  temporally.  This  suggests
that the causes of the lesions  may be localized within  the  overall study
area.

     Because most  adult English  sole migrate to deeper  water in winter
(Ketchen 1956;  Miller et al.  1977), it is  somewhat  surprising that  this
movement does not obscure the observed spatial patterns of  lesion prevalence.
There  exist several possible  explanations  for  the  persistence  of these
patterns.   First,  fish having  lesions  may not migrate.   If the  lesions
indicate that a fish  is in poor health, it is possible that affected  individuals
do not  have  the stamina to undertake migration.   However,  this  explanation
does  not seem plausible because of  the apparently  normal  condition  factors
of English sole with hepatic  lesions.   A second possibility  is that the
same  individuals return to  the same locality  every  year  following over-
wintering.   Although English  sole have exhibited  some  degree of homing
ability (Day  1976), the precision with which these fish can  relocate  a
localized  area is  unknown.  A third possibility is that  lesions  are  rapidly
induced in  a  single season.  Thus,  an  individual  would only have  to enter
a lesion-causing area during a single migration cycle, rather than returning
year after year,  or permanently residing in the area.   The strong age dependence
of hepatic  neoplasms and preneoplastic nodules suggests  that  exposure to
lesion  inducers must occur  over several years.  However, it could  be  that
older  fish  are  less resistant to lesion induction  (e.g., as part  of senescence)
and therefore exhibit higher lesion prevalences  than younger individuals
after  a  single exposure period.   Although the lesion  induction process
in English  sole cannot be explained at present,  it  seems  clear from  this
study  and  Mai ins  et al. (1984) that this process  is highly dependent upon
spatial  locations.

3.5.10   Summary

    •    Four  kinds of  hepatic  lesions were considered  in  this study:
         hepatic neoplasms, preneoplastic nodules, megalocytic hepatosis,
         and nuclear pleomorphism.

    •    For all  data pooled  within Commencement  Bay,  prevalences
         of preneoplastic  nodules,  megalocytic hepatosis, and  nuclear
         pleomorphism were significantly elevated  (P<0.05)  compared
         to prevalences  in Carr  Inlet.

    t    Based on  the eight Commencement Bay study  areas,  prevalences
         of  preneoplastic nodules and  nuclear pleomorphism were
         significantly  elevated  (P<0.05) only in  Middle Waterway,
         and prevalence  of megalocytic hepatosis  was significantly
         elevated  (P<0.05) in Hylebos,  Blair,  Milwaukee, and Middle
         Waterways.

    •    Based  on  individual  trawl transects  within the larger study
         areas  (i.e., Hylebos, Blair, and  City Waterways,  and  the
         Ruston-Pt.  Defiance  Shoreline), prevalence of megalocytic

                                3.169

-------
          hepatosis  was  significantly elevated (P<0.05)  at  all transects
          in Hylebos Waterway  (HY70, 71,  and  72), at two  transects
          in Blair  Waterway (BL 70 and 71), and at  Transect  RS70 along
          the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.

     •    Prevalences of  hepatic  neoplasms were  not significantly
          elevated  (P<0.05) for  all  data pooled within Commencement
          Bay,  the  eight study areas, or the individual  trawl transects
          when  compared with prevalences in  Carr Inlet.

     t    Prevalence  of  fish having  one or more  of the  four hepatic
          lesions was  significantly elevated in  Hylebos, Blair, Sitcum,
          Milwaukee,  and  Middle Waterways (based  on study  areas) and
          at HY71,  HY72, BL71, BL72, and RS70 (based on  trawl transects
          within  the larger  study areas).  Spatial  patterns  based
          on fish having significantly elevated (P<0.05)  prevalences
          of one or more  of  the four lesions are summarized in Figure
          3.60.

     •    Results of  the  present study  were compared with  historical
          data  collected by Malins et al.  (1984).  Absolute values
          of the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms, preneoplastic nodules,
          and megalocytic hepatosis in the present study were generally
          larger than those  found by  Malins et al. (1984).  However,
          this discrepancy may be largely the  result of different
          age distributions of English sole  sampled  by the  two studies.
          By contrast  with  absolute values,  the relative magnitudes
          of lesions prevalences across areas were very  similar between
          the two studies.  In both studies,  prevalences  were lowest
          at reference sites, highest in the Commencement Bay waterways,
          and intermediate  in magnitude along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance
          Shoreline.

3.6  BIOACCUMULATION

3.6.1  In trod u c t i on

     Bioaccumulation  studies were  conducted as part of this investigation
to determine if  sediment or water contaminants are accumulated in the tissues
of indigenous  organisms.  The  specific objectives of these studies were
to:

     •    Determine  if measurable concentrations of  priority  pollutants
          and other  substances (as were measured in  sediment samples)
          are present  in organism tissues

     •    Determine if there  are statistically significant  elevations
          in measured tissue  contaminants in  the Commencement  Bay
          study area when compared with the  Carr Inlet reference area

     •    Collect  data for use in an  endangerment assessment to assess
          risks to public health  from  ingestion  of contaminated seafood
                                    3.170

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         Ql (p < 05> SIGNIFICANT LESION PREVELANCE


         O (p > -05) NO SIGNIFICANT LESION PREVELANCE
            COMMENCEMENT
                  BAY
co
•
t—•
•vl
                                                                                                             METERS
                                                                                                         1000
                  CITY

                  WATERWAY
Figure 3.60.   Summary  of areas having  significantly elevated
               prevalences of one or more hepatic  lesions in
               English  sole.

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     a    Collect data for  use  in the decision-making approach  to
          identify  and prioritize  problem areas  within Commencement
          Bay.

     Bioaccumulation studies were conducted  on  two species:  English sole
(Parophrys vetulus)  and  cancrid crabs  (Cancer  spp).   English sole were
selected  for study because they live in direct contact with the sediments,
are relatively  sedentary (compared to pelagic fish species), are abundant
in the  waterways, and have been  shown  in  previous studies (e.g., Gahler
et al. 1982)  to accumulate sediment contaminants.   Cancrid  crabs also live
in direct contact with the sediments and provide an assessment of possible
differences between bioaccumulation in fishes and  Crustacea.

3.6.2  Metals in Fish Muscle

     Results of analyses of  inorganic substances  in  English sole muscle
tissue are presented  in Table 3.36.   In  general,  the concentrations were
relatively homogeneous among study areas, and  there were few cases in which
Commencement  Bay fish displayed elevated concentrations  relative to Carr
Inlet  reference values.   Statistical  analyses  using the  Kruskal-Wal lis
test indicated  no significant  (P>0.05) overall  differences in tissue concen-
trations among  study  areas for the following  inorganic substances:  antimony,
cadmium, chromium,  nickel, and zinc.  Several inorganic  substances  (i.e.,
arsenic,  lead, and  silver) actually displayed  significantly (P<0.05) lower
concentrations  in some Commencement Bay fish  when  compared  with reference
concentrations.

     The  only  two metals with significantly elevated tissue concentrations
in any Commencement Bay area relative to Carr Inlet were mercury and  copper
(Table 3.36).  Although mercury displayed relatively little overall variability
among areas (i.e.,  average concentrations of  42-87 ug/kg  wet weight),  its
within-area  variability  was also low.   English  sole from Hylebos Waterway
had significantly higher mercury levels than  conspecifics  from Carr  Inlet,
even  though  the tissue mercury levels were only elevated by about 1.5 times
(81 vs. 55 ug/kg wet  weight).  No other study areas  had significantly elevated
mercury levels when compared with reference values.  Copper concentrations
were significantly elevated in fish  from Sitcum and  St.  Paul Waterways
and the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline.  Highest average  copper concentrations
(346 ug/kg wet  weight) occurred in fish from  St. Paul Waterway.

     Because of its  widespread  presence in  Commencement  Bay  sediments,
arsenic was of  special  concern relative to  potential  bioaccumulation  in
resident  fishes.  The results  of this  study indicate that arsenic is  not
being accumulated  by English sole  in  Commencement Bay  at levels  higher
than  would be  expected  in  uncontaminated  areas of Puget Sound.  Most of
the English sole collected in this study had  muscle arsenic  levels of 1-10
mg/kg wet weight, with occasional  higher  concentrations  of 15-32 mg/kg
wet weight.  The highest average arsenic concentration (7.9 mg/kg wet weight)
was measured in English  sole from  Carr  Inlet.   This high value resulted
in part from  the fact that the overall  maximum  arsenic  concentration  of
32 mg/kg wet  weight was also detected in the  Carr  Inlet  samples.  Statistical
analyses indicated  that English sole  from Hylebos, City,  Milwaukee,  and
Sitcum Waterways had  significantly (P<0.05) lower  muscle  arsenic concentrations
than English  sole from Carr Inlet.

                                 3.172

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u>
                            TABLE  3.36.  MEAN CONCENTRATIONS  (mg/kg WET WEIGHT) OF INORGANIC
                                        SUBSTANCES  IN ENGLISH SOLE  MUSCLE  TISSUE
Arsenic
Carr Inlet 7.9
Hylebos Waterway <3.o
Blair Waterway 5.7
Site urn Waterway 
-------
3.6.3  Metals  In  Crab Muscle

     Crabs were  relatively rare  in  the Commencement Bay Waterways and too
few were collected  to  obtain replicate  samples at  all  sites.  Dungeness
crabs were rare and  could not be collected consistently for tissue analysis.
Therefore, rock crabs  (Cancer spp.)  were collected for  tissue analyses
in many  areas.   Because of these limitations,  statistical analysis of the
crab bioaccumulation data is not appropriate.   Inspection of the mean values
for the crab data  indicates, however,  that the  concentrations of most inorganic
substances were relatively homogeneous among  sampling sites (Table 3.37).

     Arsenic  concentrations were  less  variable  in the tissues  of crabs
than  in those from  English sole, with individual muscle tissue concentrations
ranging  from  0.75 to 3.5  mg/kg wet  weight.   Mean arsenic concentrations
from  the waterways  (1.2-2.9 mg/kg wet weight) displayed no apparent elevations
relative to  the Carr  Inlet samples  (average of 2.4 mg/kg  wet weight).
Crab muscle concentrations of chromium,  copper, nickel,  silver, and  zinc
displayed similar  patterns.  For these metals, mean  concentrations in crabs
from Commencement  Bay were  not more  than about two times the Carr  Inlet
reference concentration.  A single crab from  St.  Paul Waterway had a cadmium
concentration  of  0.620 mg/kg wet weight,  about  four times  the  average  Carr
Inlet  cadmium concentration.   This  value  is within the overall range of
cadmium concentrations observed in  Carr  Inlet, however,  and  would  not  be
considered as evidence  of elevated  cadmium  bioaccumulation in St. Paul
Waterway.

     Lead  and mercury data for crabs indicate  possible elevation of tissue
concentrations in  the waterways.   The lead  concentrations  in crabs  from
Sitcum and City Waterways were about 4.6  and  2.6  times higher, respectively,
than the Carr  Inlet  values  (Table 3.37).   Maximum lead  concentrations  in
these two areas (City, 1.65 mg/kg wet  weight; Sitcum, 2.05 mg/kg dry weight)
were  well above the range observed in Carr  Inlet  (0.14-0.35 mg/kg wet weight).

     Although only one crab sample  was collected  from Hylebos Waterway,
its mercury concentration (0.220 mg/kg  wet  weight) was  about five  times
the  average  concentration measured  in  Carr  Inlet samples.  It should be
noted that maximum mercury concentrations in Milwaukee  and  Sitcum  Water-
ways also exceeded 0.2 mg/kg wet weight.

3.6.4  Organic Compounds  in Fish Muscle

     Of the 100  U.S.  EPA organic priority pollutants analyzed for, 84 were
not detected in any of the English sole or crab samples  analyzed.   A  list
of the undetected  compounds and their  analytical  detection limits is presented
in Table 3.38.

     Although high  molecular weight PAH (HPAH)  occurred in sediments  of
some waterways at  concentrations up to 1,000  times beyond reference concen-
trations,HPAH  were not detected in any of the 85  fish muscle tissue samples.
Detection limits  for HPAH were typically  10 ug/kg wet weight.   The absence
of these  compounds  in fish tissue is  expected  due to their rapid metabolism
by the mixed-function-oxidase system.  PAH metabolites  were  not analyzed
as part  of this  study.  However, available  evidence indicates that HPAH

                                 3.174

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Ul
                                  TABLE 3.37.   MEAN CONCENTRATIONS (mg/kg WET WEIGHT) OF
                                        INORGANIC SUBSTANCES IN CRAB MUSCLE TISSUE
Species^ n
Carr Inlet
Hylebos Waterway
Blair Waterway
Site urn Waterway
Milwaukee Waterway
St. Paul Waterway
Middle Waterway
City Waterway
R
R
D
D
D
R
M
M
7
1
1
4
5
1
2
5
Arsenic
2.4
2.0
1.2
2.1
1.3
1.5
1.9
2.9
Cadmium
0.148
0.015
0.092
0.048
<0.013
0.620
0.175
0.083
Chromium
<0.24b
0.26
0.22
0.26
U0.14
0.25
0.25
0.22
Copper Lead
8.1
9.1
4.9
8.3
7.9
6.1
9.0
7.2
<0.20
0.23
0.18
0.93
0.31
0.14
0.32
0.53
Nickel
<0.107
0.220
U0.076C
U0.075
U0.075
U0.075
<0.127
U0.075
Silver
0.197
0.028
0.130
0.139
0.160
0.073
0.129
0.157
Zinc
47.4
44.0
43.0
37.7
36.2
36.0
42.0
43.8
Mercury
<0.045
0.220
U0.040
0.167
<0.110
U0.040
<0.050
0.068
    a  Species:   D =  Dungeness crab,  R - rock crab, M = mixed species.

    b  U  =  Undetected in at least one sample.  Detection limit used in calculation
    of mean.

    c  U  =  Undetected at the detection limit shown.

-------
         TABLE 3.38.  U.S. EPA PRIORITY POLLUTANTS NOT DETECTED IN
    ANY  FISH  OR  CRAB  MUSCLE  TISSUE  SAMPLE  AT ANY  OF  17 TRAWL TRANSECTS
Phenols  (acids; 2 of 2)               Typical Detection Limit3

     phenol                                    U  20
     2,4-dimethylphenol                        U  20

Substituted Phenols  (acids; 8 of 9)

     2,4,6-trichlorophenol                     U  20
     p-chloro-m-cresol                         U  20
     2-chlorophenol                            U  20
     2,4-dichlorophenol                        U  20
     2-nitrophenol                             U  20
     4-nitrophenol                             U 100
     2,4-dinitrophenol                         U 100
     4,6-dinitro-2-methylphenol                U  25

Low Molecular Weight Aromatic Hydrocarbons (neutrals; 5 of 6)

     acenaphthene                              U  10
     acenaphthylene                            U  10
     anthracene                                U  10
     phenanthrene                              U  10ฐ
     fluorene                                  U  10

High Molecular Weight PAH  (neutrals; 10 of 10)

     fluoranthene                              U
     benzo(a)anthracene                        U  10
     benzo(a)pyrene                            U  10
     benzo(b)fluoranthene                      U  10
     benzo(k)fluoranthene                      U  10
     chrysene                                  U  10
     benzo(g,h,i)perylene                      U  10
     dibenzo(a,h)anthracene                    U  10
     indeno(l,2,3-c,d)pyrene                   U  10
     pyrene                                    U  10

 Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons (neutrals;  4 of 6)

     1,2,4-trichlorobenzene                    U  20
     2-chloronaphthalene                       U  10
     1,2-dichlorobenzene                       U  20
     1,4-dichlorobenzene                       U  20

Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (neutrals;  2 of 3)

     hexachloroethane                          U  40
     hexachlorocyclopentadiene                 N/A
                                   3.176

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TABLE 3.38.  (Continued)
Halogenated Ethers (neutrals; 5 of 5)

     bis(2-chloroethyl)ether                   U  20
     4-chlorophenylphenylether                 U  20
     4-bromophenylphenylether                  U  20
     bis(2-chloroisopropyl)ether               U  20
     bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane                U  20

Miscellaneous oxygenated compounds (neutrals; 2 of 2)

     2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin       N/A
     isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-            U  10
                       cyclohexene-1-one)

Organonitrogen Compounds (bases; 8 of 8)

     benzidine (4,4'-diaminobiphenyl)          N/A
     3,3'-dichlorobenzidine                    N/A
     2,4-dinitrotoluene                        U  20
     2,6-dinitrotoluene                        U  20
     1,2-diphenylhydrazine (hydrazobenzene)    U  10
     nitrobenzene                              U  20
     n-nitrosodiphenylamine                    U  10
     n-nitrosodipropylamine                    U  20

Pesticides (neutrals; 18 of 18)

     aldrin                                    U  50
     dieldrin                                  U  50
     chlordane                                 U  50
     4,4'-DDT                                  U  50
     4,4'-DDE                                  U  50
     4,4'-DDD                                  U  50
     alpha-endosulfan                          U  50
     beta-endosulfan                            U  50
     endosulfan sulfate                        U  50
     endrin                                    U  50
     endrin aldehyde                            U  50
     heptachlor                                U  50
     heptachlor epoxide                        U  50
     alpha-HCH                                 U  50
     beta-HCH                                  U  50
     delta-HCH                                 U  50
     gamma-HCH                                 U  50
     toxaphene (camphechlor)                    U  50
                                     3.177

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TABLE 3.38.  (Continued)
Volatile Halogenated Alkanes (neutrals; 16 of
carbon tetrachloride
1,2-dichloroethane
1,1,1-trichloroethane
1,1-dichloroethane
1,1,2-trichloroethane
1 , 1 ,2,2-tetrachl oroethane
chloroethane
chloroform
1 ,2-dichloropropane
methylene chloride (dichloromethane)
chloromethane
bromomethane
bromoform
bromodichloromethane
dichlorodifluoromethane
ch 1 orod ibromomethane
17)
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
NR
U
U
U
U
U
U

5
10
5
5
5
5
10
5
10

10
10
10
10
IOC
5
Volatile Halogenated Alkenes (neutrals; 5 of 6)

     1,1-dichloroethene                        U   10
     trans-l,2-dichloroethene                  U    5
     cis and trans-l,3-dichloropropene         U   10
     trichloroethene                           U    5
     vinyl chloride                            U   10

Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbons (neutrals; 1 of 3)

     benzene                                   U    5

Volatile Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons  (neutrals;  1)

     chlorobenzene                             U    5

Volatile Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds (base/neutrals; 2)

     acrolein (an unsaturated aldehyde)        U 100
     acrylonitrile (an unsaturated nitrile)    U 100

Volatile Ethers (neutrals; 2)

     2-chloroethylvinyl ether	U 100	

a U = Undetected at the detection limit stated  (ug/kg or ppb wet weight tissue)
  NR  = Not reported or all data rejected during QA review.
  N/A = Not analyzed.

D Detected at <50 ppb in a single crab at MD-70C.

c Removed from priority pollutant list.


                                   3.178

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 metabolites  are present primarily in the  liver and bile,  which are the
 primary  sites of metabolism and excretion  (Stein et al. 1984).

      Sixteen organic compounds were detected  in one or more tissue samples.
 Of this group, several phthalate esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl  phthalate,
 butylbenzyl  phthalate)  and  volatile compounds (toluene and fluorotrichloro-
 methane) were detected in only a few samples at  very low concentrations
 and  were therefore not subjected to detailed analyses.  The following  11
 organic  compounds were detected at  sufficient  frequencies and concentration
 to be subjected to statistical  evaluation:  tetrachloroethene, ethylbenzene,
 hexachlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobutadiene,  naphthalene,
 bis(Z-ethylhexyl)  phthalate,  di-n-butyl phthalate, di-n-octyl  phthalate,
 DDE,  and total PCBs.

      Muscle tissue  concentrations  of the most  commonly detected organic
 compounds in English sole  are  presented  in Table 3.39.  Average concentrations
 of  organic  compounds by study area (i.e., waterways, Ruston-Pt. Defiance
 Shoreline and Carr Inlet)  are presented in  Figures 3.61-3.67.   Statistical
 analyses of muscle tissue  data  indicated that only four compounds had signifi-
 cant  differences (P<0.05) in  Commencement Bay  study areas  when compared
 to the Carr  Inlet reference  area:   naphthalene, bis(Z-ethylhexyl)  phthalate,
 di-n-butyl phthalate, and  total  PCBs.  Concentrations of organic  compounds
 in English  sole muscle tissue  are  compared by study area in the following
 paragraphs.

      Although several low molecular weight  chlorinated compounds were detected
 in fish muscle tissue, most  of  these  compounds displayed very discontinuous
 distributions,  with only a few detected values.   Hexachlorobenzene and
 hexachlorobutadiene were detected  in only  two  fish from  Station HY-72  in
 Hylebos Waterway.   In  both cases,  these compounds  were detected near  or
 below the normal detection  limit.   The mean concentrations of hexachloro-
 butadiene and  hexachlorobenzene  in Hylebos Waterway were very  similar  to
 those in other Commencement  Bay locations or in the reference  area (Figure
 3.61).   It should be noted,  however, that  the mean concentrations are based
 on the analytical detection  limits.   The actual levels of these two compounds
 in those areas may have  been  considerably less than the detection  limits.

     Tetrachloroethene was  detected in all four areas sampled for volatile
 organic compounds  (Figure 3.62).   Highest muscle tissue concentrations
 (mean of 80 ug/kg  wet  weight) were measured  in  Hylebos Waterway, where
 this  compound was  detected  in  seven of  the  eight English  sole sampled.
 Lower tissue concentrations of tetrachloroethene were measured  in St. Paul
 and City Waterways.   Although  concentrations of  this compound  were over
 an order of magnitude greater  in Hylebos  Waterway  than in  Carr Inlet, there
 were  no statistically  significant  differences among areas  because of  relatively
 high  variability and  low sample  sizes  (i.e., only four  fish per area for
 volatile compounds).

     Ethylbenzene,  another volatile compound, showed  a similar distribution
 in that it  was detected  in six of the eight English sole  sampled in Hylebos
 Waterway.  However,  the mean  concentration of ethylbenzene  in Hylebos Waterway
 English sole  was  only 17 ug/kg  wet weight.  Lower  tissue concentrations
were measured in  English sole from City and St. Paul  Waterways.  Ethylbenzene


                                 3.179

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TABLE 3.39.   CONCENTRATIONS (ug/kg wet  weight)  OF ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS
       IN ENGLISH  SOLE MUSCLE TISSUE AT  ALL 17 TRAWL  TRANSECTS
Trawl
Transect
CR70
CR71
HY70
HY71
HY72
BL70
BL71
BL72
SI70
MI70
SP70
MD70
CI70
CI72
RS70
RS71
RS72
1,3-Dichloro
benzene
U 20*
U 20
U 20
U 20
U 20
U 20
U 20
U 20
<66
U 20-250
U 20
U 20
U 20
<54
U 20-190
<134
U 20-530
U 24
U 20-U 40
U 20
U 20
Naphthalene
U 10
<98
U 10-320
U 10
U 10
<88
U 10-160
<30
U 10-110
<27
U 10-95
U 10
<18
U 10-84
<1,364
U 10-2.100
U 10
U 10
<64
U 10-210
<381
U 10-1,800
U 10
U 10
U 10
Total
PCB
<40b.c
U 20-60d
<32
U 20-40
536
70-1,300
300
60-500
159
65-310
<276
U 20-580
236
130-490
248
130-400
172
50-540
100
30-200
40
20-70
170
40-270
470
160-670
238
90-540
107
30-220
58
30-100
40
20-80
Di-n-butyl
Phthalate
U 10
<32
U 10-120
1,584
720-2,500
3,120
1,600-4,000
<22
U 10-70
<1 ,035
U 10-3,200
128
10-600
U 10
U 10
<70
U 10-310
U 10
U 10
4J 10
U 10
332
U 10-1,300
U 10
U 10
Bis(2-
ethylhexyl)
Phthalate
<60
U 10-Z260*
U 10
<52
U 10-220
<42
U 10-170
U 10
394
190-690
334
190-460
541
265-810
U 10
182
100-220
U 10
U 10
<482
U 10-980
70
10-310
<508
U 10-2,100
<30
U 10-110
<228
U 10-1,100
    8  U = Undetected at the detection limit shown.
    b  < = Undetected in at least one sample.  Detection  limit used to calculate mean.
    c  Mean concentration.
    d  Range.
    e  Z - Value corrected for blank contributions.
                                   3.180

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                                                       HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE
                            LU


                            tD


                            I5
                            "B)
                            a.
                                100 -i
                                80-i
60 -
40 -
20-
                                      HY    BL    SI     Ml    SP    MD    Cl    RS
                                                          CR
u>
•
•—•
00
                            g
                            LU



                            LU


                            D)
                                100-1
                                80-
60-
40-
                                20-
                                                        HEXACHLOROBENZENE
                                      HY    BL    SI     Ml    SP    MD    Cl     RS
                                                          CR
                                                       COMPOUND UNDETECTED IN ALL SAMPLES
                   Figure 3.61.  Concentrations of hexachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene in English
                                 sole muscle tissue.

-------
                                                    TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
                             100 -|
00
ro
                          O

                          III



                          UJ


                          O)
—
-



••



;. • '*•• • .
• • •:; '




....; ..
, 	 ,
                                   HY
SP
Cl
CR
                 Figure 3.62.   Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene in English  sole muscle tissue.

-------
                                                     PENTACHLOROPHENOL
                          h-
                          g
                          in
                          LD


                          O)
                          m
                          O)
                          3.
                              100 -i
 80-
                              60 -
40-
 20 -
                                    HY    BL    SI    Ml    SP    MD   Cl    RS
                                                           CR
00
                          CJ
                          LU


                          tn


                          S1
                          O)
                          3.
100


 80-


 60


 40


 20


 0
                                                     1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE
                                    HY    BL
                  SI
Ml    SP   MD   Cl
RS
                                                    COMPOUND UNDETECTED IN ALL SAMPLES
CR
                 Figure 3.63.   Concentrations  of pentachlorophenol and 1,3-dichlorobenzene  in  English
                                sole muscle tissue.

-------
                                NAPHTHALENE
   1400 -i
   1300-
   1200-
X
o
111
UJ


0)  300
   200-
    100 -
          HY    BL    SI    Ml    SP    MD    Cl    RS
                                            CR
                          *  AREAS SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM REFERENCE (P<0.05)


                         [~~| COMPOUND UNDETECTED IN ALL SAMPLES
      Figure  3.64.
Concentrations of naphthalene in English sole
muscle  tissue.
                               3.184

-------
                                                       DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE
00
en
                            X
                            o
                            LU

                            H
                               1600-1
                               1500-
                                400-
                                300-

                                200-
                                100-
                                       HY    BL    SI    Ml    SP    MD   Cl    RS
                                      CR
                                                     D
# AREAS SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM REFERENCE (P<0.05)

  COMPOUND UNDETECTED IN ALL SAMPLES
                   Figure 3.65.   Concentrations  of di-n-butyl  phthalate  in  English sole  muscle tissue.

-------
                                                   BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE
00
01
                               500—1
                               400-
                           O
                           UJ  300-
                           111
                               200-
                               100 —
                                      HY    BL    SI    Ml    SP    MD    Cl     RS
CR
                                                      *  AREAS SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM REFERENCE (P<0.05)

                                                     I""")  COMPOUND UNDETECTED IN ALL SAMPLES
                   Figure 3.66.   Concentrations of  bis(2-ethylhexy1)  phthalate  in  English sole muscle
                                  tissue.

-------
                                                TOTAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB)
                                400 —
00
--J
                                300 -1


                             h-


                             o
                             ID


                             1- 200
                             LU
                                 100 -
                                       HY    BL    SI    Ml    SP    MD   Cl    RS
CR
                                                       *  AREAS SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM REFERENCE (P<0.05)
                    Figure 3.67.  Concentrations  of total PCBs  in  English sole muscle tissue.

-------
was  not  detected  in  English sole from  Carr  Inlet  at a detection limit of
5 ug/kg wet weight.

     1,3-Dichlorobenzene was  detected only  in  fish from City and Sitcum
Waterways.  Although  this  compound occurred at concentrations up to 530 ug/kg
wet  weight in City Waterway, its detection was limited  to 3 of 10 fish
in that area.  Thus,  the average  tissue concentration  in City Waterway
was only about five times the reference value (Figure 3.63).

     Pentachlorophenol was  detected in only  one fish from Blair Waterway
at a concentration  of  480 ug/kg wet weight.   In  all other samples, detection
limits ranged from  40  to 80 ug/kg wet weight.

     Naphthalene was the only  aromatic hydrocarbon detected  in  English
sole muscle tissue.  Detection limits for aromatic hydrocarbons were typically
10 ug/kg wet weight.  Naphthalene was not detected in English sole muscle
samples from Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline, St. Paul Waterway, or Middle
Waterway.  Relatively low  average  tissue concentrations  (<50 ug/kg wet
weight) were measured  in Hylebos, Blair, and Sitcum Waterways, and  in  Carr
Inlet.   Most of the  fish  from these  areas had  no  detected  naphthalene,
with occasional  fish having measured  concentrations of  100-300 ug/kg  wet
weight.

     The  highest average naphthalene concentration (1,300 ug/kg wet weight)
was measured in  English sole from Milwaukee Waterway (Figure 3.64).   Four
of the five fish  from  this waterway had naphthalene concentrations of 1,000-
2,100 ug/kg wet  weight.   Statistical analyses revealed that the Milwaukee
Waterway sole had  significantly (PO.05)  elevated  naphthalene levels when
compared with Carr Inlet  samples.  None of the other study areas were signifi-
cantly (P>0.05)  different from Carr Inlet.

     The average  naphthalene concentration in English sole from City Waterway
was 220 ug/kg wet weight.  These sample results  are not statistically  sig-
nificant because  only  2 of the 10 fish sampled  displayed elevated naphthalene
concentrations (>75  ug/kg wet weight).   Naphthalene was  undetected  in  4
of the 10 fish from  City Waterway.

     No  pesticides were detected using 6C/MS  in  fish muscle tissue samples
from the study areas  (Table 3.38).  GC/MS detection  limits  for pesticides
were typically 50 ug/kg wet weight.

     Because  of  previously documented pesticide  contamination of sediments
and organism tissues in Commencement  Bay,  fish muscle  samples were  also
analyzed by GC/EC to measure pesticide  concentrations at lower detection
limits, typically  ranging  from 0.8  to 12 ug/kg wet weight.   Pesticides
analyzed by GC/EC  included:  p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD,  p,p'-DDT, hexachlorocyclo-
hexane (lindane), aldrin, and dieldrin.

     Of  the  six  pesticides analyzed by GC/EC,  only DDE was detected in
any of the English  sole  muscle samples.   Average  DDE  concentrations  in
Commencement Bay  study areas ranged from 3.0 to  11.2  ug/kg wet weight (Table
3.40).   Highest  concentrations were measured in  fish  from  Hylebos and  City
Waterways, with  maximum values of 30 and  24 ug/kg wet weight, respectively.
Although the tissue  concentrations of  DDE  were relatively  low throughout

                                3.188

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      TABLE 3.40.  CONCENTRATIONS OF p,p'-DDE  IN
              ENGLISH SOLE MUSCLE TISSUE
Concentration (ug/kg wet weight)
Area Mean Range
Carr Inlet
Hylebos Waterway
Blair Waterway
Sitcum Waterway
Milwaukee Waterway
St. Paul Waterway
Middle Waterway
City Waterway
Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shorel ine
<1.8
<6.8b
9.2b
6.0
6.1
<3.0
3.1
11. 2b
<5.3
U 0.8-3.99
0.9-30
1.0-18
1.6-16
1.9-12
1.0-U 8.0
1.3-4.2
1.7-24
U 1.0-19

a U = Undetected at detection limit indicated.

b Significantly different from Carr Inlet, P<0.05 experi-
mentwise error rate.
                        3.189

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the study area,  statistical analyses revealed  significant elevations  (PO.05)
in Hylebos,  Blair,  and City Waterways.   Four of  the Hylebos  tissue samples
had relatively high DDE detection limits  of  8.0 ug/kg wet weight.  Removal
of these values  from the Hylebos sample reduced  the mean DDE concentration
to 6.4  ug/kg wet weight  and  eliminated  the statistical significance for
Hylebos  Waterway.

     All six  phthalate esters were detected in one or more of the  English
sole muscle  tissue  samples.  Concentrations of four phthalates (di-n-octyl,
dimethyl, diethyl, and butyl  benzyl) were  relatively homogeneous among
sampling sites,  and none of the Commencement  Bay areas were significantly
(P>0.05) different  from Carr Inlet.

     The remaining  two phthalates [di-n-butyl  and bis(2-ethylhexyl)] displayed
statistically significant  (P<0.05) differences among  sampling sites,  but
their occurrences were highly dissimilar.   Di-n-butyl phthalate was detected
in fish from  Hylebos, Blair, and Milwaukee Waterways, the Ruston-Pt.   Defiance
Shoreline,  and Carr Inlet  (Figure 3.65).   Of these areas,  only  Hylebos
Waterway (mean concentration of 1,575 ug/kg wet weight) was significantly
(P<0.05)  different from  Carr Inlet.   However, some fish from both  Hylebos
and Blair Waterways  contained relatively high concentrations of this compound
(maximum  of 4,000 ug/kg  wet  weight).  Di-n-butyl phthalate was  also most
prevalent  in Hylebos Waterway, where it was detected in 11 of the 15  English
sole  sampled.  The average  concentration in  Blair Waterway English sole
muscle tissue was less than that in Hylebos Waterway,  and  it was  detected
in only  4 of 15  fish.

     Bis(2-ethylhexyl)  phthalate  was detected in  Blair, Milwaukee, and
City Waterways,  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline, and Carr Inlet (Figure
3.66).  This compound was noticeably  absent  in fish from Hylebos  Waterway.
Statistical  analyses indicated that fish from  Blair and Milwaukee Waterways
had significantly elevated muscle tissue  concentrations when compared with
those  from Carr Inlet.  Highest concentrations  of bis(2-ethylhexyl)  phthalate
were  measured in Blair Waterway (mean of 423  ug/kg wet weight),  where all
15 fish  sampled had detectable  levels.   The  compound was detected  less
frequently in the other areas.

     Polychlorinated  biphenyls  (PCBs) were  the most frequently detected
organic  compound  in samples of English  sole muscle tissue.   At a detection
limit of  20 ug/kg wet weight, 81  of  the 85 fish analyzed had detectable
levels of PCBs.  The prevalence of these compounds also  enabled clear  statis-
tical  separation  of study  areas based on fish  muscle concentrations.

     PCBs were  detected  at relatively low levels (30-60 ug/kg wet  weight)
in 7 of  the  10 English sole from Carr Inlet.   For the remaining three  fish
from  Carr  Inlet, PCBs were undetected at  20  ug/kg wet weight.  Statistical
comparisons  of Carr Inlet with Commencement Bay areas  indicated that  sole
from  Hylebos, Blair, Sitcum, and City Waterways had significantly elevated
muscle concentrations  of  PCBs (Figure 3.67).  Evaluation of geographic
trends  indicated that highest PCB concentrations occurred in  sole from
Hylebos  and  City  Waterways.  Lowest  levels were measured  in intermediate
areas,  especially Milwaukee  and St.  Paul Waterways.  Fish collected along
the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline also  had  relatively low PCB levels.


                                 3.190

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     English sole from Hylebos Waterway had an  overall  average PCB concentration
of 332 ug/kg wet weight.   This tissue level is  approximately  an order of
magnitude higher  than that measured  in Carr  Inlet.  There was  considerable
variability, however, in  PCB concentrations among English sole from Hylebos
Waterway (range of 60-1,300  ug/kg wet weight).  The maximum PCB level  for
Hylebos Waterway fish was also the  highest concentration  observed for the
study.  Moreover, no other fish muscle samples contained more  than
800 ug/kg wet weight of PCBs.

     Within  Hylebos  Waterway, there  appeared to be a gradient  of declining
PCB concentrations in English sole from the waterway head to the  mouth.  This
apparent gradient was not statistically distinguishable, however.   It  should
also be noted that  even at  the uppermost Hylebos  trawl  site  (HY70), two
of  the five fish  had muscle  PCB  concentrations of less than 100 ug/kg wet
weight.

     English sole from  City Waterway were more consistently elevated in
muscle PCB concentrations than those from Hylebos  Waterway.   The average
concentration  in  City Waterway samples  was 354  ug/kg wet  weight,  with 9
of the 10 fish  exceeding 150 ug/kg wet weight.   English sole  collected
near  the head  of  City Waterway (CI70) also had higher PCB levels than sole
collected near the  waterway  mouth (Trawl Transect CI72).

     English sole collected  near the Old Tacoma fishing pier (Trawl  Transect
RS70) had PCB levels of 30-220 ug/kg wet weight.   PCB concentrations in
fish  muscle tissue  appeared  to decline  with  proximity to Pt.  Defiance.
PCB concentrations  in English  sole  collected  from  the Pt. Defiance trawl
transect (RS72) were only 20-80  ug/kg wet weight, and were  indistinguish-
able from the tissue levels  measured in Carr Inlet.

     Hydrophobic organic  compounds such as PCBs tend to be associated with
the lipid fractions of organism tissues.   Measured  tissue concentrations
of organic  contaminants can  therefore  be highly influenced by  the  amount
of lipid material  in  the  sample.  To evaluate  whether  or not  observed dif-
ferences  in  tissue  contaminant levels  resulted from differences  in lipid
content, the  fish tissue  data  were  re-evaluated based  on the lipid content,
as measured  by  total  extractable organic material.   Overall,  concentrations
of extractable  organic material in  English  sole  muscle ranged from 1.0
to 6.5 percent (Table 3.41).   Average concentrations were relatively consistent
among study  areas,  however,  and ranged from 2.1  to 3.1 percent.   None  of
the English  sole muscle samples  from  Commencement  Bay  had significantly
different (P>0.05)  lipid  levels than samples from Carr Inlet.

     To further  evaluate  the  influence of lipids on  organic priority pollutant
levels, the individual pollutant  concentrations for each  sample were  normalized
to the mass  of extractable organic materials.   Lipid-normalized concentrations
were then subjected  to statistical  analyses to evaluate differences  among
study areas.   These  analyses showed overall patterns similar to  those resulting
from analyses of uncorrected concentrations,   although several noticeable
differences  existed.   Reanalysis of the lipid-normalized data  did  not reveal
a  statistically  significant  (P>0.05) increase  in naphthalene concentrations
in English  sole from  Milwaukee Waterway,  although  the  elevations above
reference for non-1ipid-normalized  (24 times)  and  lipid-normalized  (26
times)  naphthalene  levels were similar.   As was the  case  for  non-normalized

                                 3.191

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  TABLE  3.41.   TOTAL  EXTRACTABLE  ORGANIC  MATERIAL IN
              ENGLISH SOLE  MUSCLE TISSUE
Total Extractable
Organic Material (percent)
Area
Hylebos Waterway
Blair Waterway
Sitcum Waterway
Milwaukee Waterway
St. Paul Waterway
Middle Waterway
City Waterway
Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Mean
3.0
2.3
3.1
2.6
2.4
2.5
2.1
3.2
Range
2.2-6.5
1.5-3.7
2.2-4.1
2.4-2.8
1.4-3.2
1.9-3.2
1.0-2.8
1.9-5.7
 Shoreline

Carr Inlet                    2.5               1.9-3.8
                        3.192

-------
data,  naphthalene  levels in four  of  the five English  sole from Milwaukee
Waterway considerably  exceeded the range of concentrations measured  at
Carr  Inlet.  Therefore,  the 1ipid-normalized naphthalene data suggest con-
siderably elevated levels  in Milwaukee Waterway fish.   The  lack of statistical
significance results from  the relatively low sensitivity  of the nonparametric
Mann-Whitney U-test  to detect differences when the  number  of tied  values
is decreased (as was the case for lipid-normalized  data).

     Statistical  analysis of both lipid-normalized  and non-1ipid-normalized
data for PCBs and  bis(2-ethylhexyl)  phthalate indicated some differences
between  the two data sets.   The differences in PCB concentrations between
samples from Sitcum  Waterway and Carr Inlet were  only marginally significant
in  the  non-normalized  results, but not significant  in the lipid-normalized
results.   Therefore, the apparent elevation in PCB  levels may result  from
the high lipid content  of  Sitcum  Waterway fish.  PCB levels  in English
sole from Hylebos, Blair,  and City Waterways were  significantly elevated
relative to Carr Inlet  samples for both data sets.   Fish from Milwaukee
Waterway did not display significantly (P>0.05) elevated lipid-normalized
levels  of bis(2-ethylhexyl)  phthalate.   However, English sole from City
Waterway had statistically  higher concentrations of lipid-normalized bis(2-ethyl-
hexyl)  phthalate  than did reference fish.  This  difference was not detected
in analysis of non-1 ipid-normalized data.   In summary,  analyses of  lipid-
normalized tissue contaminant data revealed only one case [bis(2ethylhexyl)
phthalate] in which  a statistically significant (P<0.05)  elevation relative
to  the  reference value was observed that was not  also detected in the non-
normalized data.   The significant PCB elevations for  both  nornalized and
non-normalized data  in fish from Hylebos,  Blair,  and  City Waterways indicates
that these elevations are  not due to sampling of  fish  with  higher  lipid
contents.

     Ages  of  English sole used  for bioaccumulation  studies ranged from
3 to 10 yr.  Because of the variability in fish  age,  an  evaluation was
conducted to determine whether differences in tissue contaminant levels
among  areas would  result from differences  in the  age  composition of English
sole samples.

     The  age  composition of the  English sole samples by area is presented
in Table 3.42.  The mean age of English sole samples  was  relatively consistent
among  study areas,  and  ranged from 5.0  to 6.3yr.   Overall, English sole
used for tissue analyses  ranged from 3 to 10 yr of age.  Analysis of variance
of  these data indicated  no  significant  (P=0.549) differences among the
mean ages of English sole from the study  areas identified  in Table  3.42.
It  is  especially important  to note that the mean age of the  Carr Inlet
reference sample (5.7 yr) was very similar to the overall mean  age (5.5 yr).
Therefore, there is no evidence that the observed differences in  tissue
contaminant levels in English sole resulted from different age composition
of the samples.

3.6.5   Organic Compounds in Crab Muscle

     Only  six  organic  compounds  were  detected in samples of crab  muscle
tissue.   The detected compounds included two low molecular weight aromatic
hydrocarbons (phenanthrene  and naphthalene),  one high molecular  weight
aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), three  phthalate esters  [bis(2-ethylhexyl),

                                 3.193

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TABLE 3.42.  AGE COMPOSITION OF ENGLISH SOLE SAMPLES
          USED  FOR  BIOACCUMULATION ANALYSES
Study Area
Hylebos Waterway
Blair Waterway
Site urn Waterway
Milwaukee Waterway
St. Paul Waterway
Middle Waterway
City Waterway
Ruston-Pt. Defiance
Shoreline
Carr Inlet
All areas
Mean Age
5.1
6.3
5.6
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.0
5.5
5.7
5.5
Range
3-7
4-10
4-7
4-6
4-6
3-7
4-8
3-8
3-8
3-10
                       3.194

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di-n-butyl, and di-n-octyl  phthalates], and PCBs.  Phenanthrene and fluoranthene
were detected only in Middle Waterway  crabs  at  low concentrations (29 and
48  ug/kg wet  weight, respectively)  and will  not be discussed  further.
Similarly, di-n-octyl phthalate  was detected at  low levels in  Carr Inlet
crab samples only.  Average concentrations of the remaining phthalate esters,
naphthalene, and PCBs are presented  in Table 3.43.

     In crab muscle samples, highest concentrations of naphthalene (1,200 ug/kg
wet weight) were measured in Milwaukee Waterway, a pattern similar to that
in  English sole.   However, naphthalene was only  detected in one of the
five crabs analyzed from Milwaukee  Waterway.

     Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl  phthalate  were both detected
at relatively high concentrations  in  the Carr  Inlet crab samples  (Table 3.43).
The only possible evidence of elevated phthalate levels in  crab tissue
is  for di-n-butyl  phthalate in Hylebos Waterway.  The presence of high
levels of this  compound in Hylebos Waterway is consistent with  the English
sole data.

     PCBs  were detected  in crab tissue  samples from all  study  areas except
for a  single crab sample  from  Hylebos  Waterway.  However, it should be
noted  that the  analytical detection limits were unusually  high (120 ug/kg
wet weight) for the single  Hylebos  crab sample.   Maximum PCB  concentrations
in  crabs were generally less than  those measured in English sole.  Average
PCB concentrations in waterway crabs ranged  from  1 to 10 times  Carr  Inlet
values.   Highest  overall  concentrations (mean  of 232  ug/kg  wet weight)
were measured in crabs from Sitcum  Waterway.  These samples were from four
large  Dungeness  crabs (of legal  size  for recreational catch)  collected
near the head of the waterway.   Because most of  the other crabs collected
in  the waterways  were considerably  smaller, the PCB concentrations in the
Sitcum Waterway crabs may be more representative of the range of  PCB levels
in  edible-size crabs.

3.6.6  Comparison with Other Studies

     The  only  other major bioaccumulation study in Commencement Bay fishes
was done by Gahler et al.  (1982).   This  study  involved the collection of
92  fish  and crab muscle tissue  samples from four Commencement Bay  locations
(i.e.,  Hylebos  Waterway, City Waterway, Old Town Dock,  and Pt.  Defiance
Dock)  and a reference site at Discovery Bay.   Samples were analyzed for
the full  suite  of U.S.  EPA  priority pollutants.   Test species varied  among
sampling sites  and included English sole, walleye pollock, greenling, Pacific
hake, Pacific cod, and several other  flatfish.  English sole were consistently
sampled by Gahler et al.  (1982)  at  all five sites and can  be directly compared
to the  results  of this study.

     Evaluation  of the Gahler  et  al.  (1982)  data indicates  that tissue
levels  of contaminants in English sole muscle were generally two  to  three
higher than contaminant  levels in other species.   Therefore, English sole
serve as a conservative model  for  potential bioaccumulation  in other  Commence-
ment Bay species  and enable consistent comparisons among areas.  Concentrations
of inorganic substances reported by  Gahler et al.(1982) in English  sole
muscle tissue  are  presented in Table 3.44.  In  general, only chromium and
nickel  displayed  tissue  concentrations consistently greater than two  times

                                 3.195

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TABLE 3.43.  CONCENTRATIONS  (ug/kg wet weight) OF SELECTED
          ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS IN CRAB MUSCLE TISSUE
Area
Carr Inlet
Hylebos Waterway
Blair Waterway
Site urn Waterway
Milwaukee Waterway
St. Paul Waterway
Middle Waterway
City Waterway
Naphthalene
Ua 10
U 10
U 10
<20
U 10-25
<248
U 10-1,200
U 10
U 10
U 10
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)
Phthalate

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VO
                               TABLE 3.44.   CONCENTRATIONS (mg/kg wet weight) OF METALS  IN
                                     COMMENCEMENT  BAY  ENGLISH  SOLE  MUSCLE  TISSUE  AS
                                           DETERMINED  BY  GAHLER  ET  AL.  (1982)

Hy 1 ebos
n=5
City
n=5
Old Town
Dock
n=3
Pt. Defiance
Dock
n=3
D1 scovery
Bay
n=3

Median
Mean
Maximum
Median
Mean
Maximum
Median
Mean
Maximum
Median
Mean
Maximum
Median
Mean
Maximum
As
4.1
4.9
7.3
4.5
5.1
8.6
3.2
2.9
3.4
7.9
8.6
14.6
3.6
3.2
4.1
Cd
0.008
0.008
0.011
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.004
0.007
0.012
0.006
<0.006
0.008
Cr
0.15
0.23
0.62
0.24
0.31
0.64
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.22
0.28
0.41
0.07
0.06
0.07
Cu
0.26
0.28
0.31
0.27
0.32
0.50
0.40
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.39
0.49
0.40
0.42
0.44
Pb
0.21
0.25
0.36
0.32
0.32
0.45
0.55
0.58
0.69
0.72
3.9
10.4
0.46
0.46
0.61
Hg
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.09
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
N1
1.2
1.3
1.4
0.52
0.65
1.2
0.45
0.46
0.48
0.43
0.52
0.73
0.17
0.23
0.33
Zn
5.0
5.1
5.6
5.0
5.5
7.7
6.0
5.9
6.3
7.0
6.5
7.3
4.7
5.2
7.0

-------
 the reference values.   Arsenic was elevated in bottomfishes  from the Pt.
 Defiance  Dock  (2.7-4.0 times reference concentrations),  but did  not  display
 substantial  elevations at the other sites.   Gahler et al. (1982) also collected
 limited samples of Dungeness crab muscle tissue from the  study area.  Chromium,
 copper,  and  lead  were  elevated about  two to five times reference concen-
 trations,  suggesting increased bioaccumulation of  these metals  in  Hylebos
 and  City  Waterways.

     The  possible  low-level elevations of  chromium, copper,  and arsenic
 at Commencement Bay sites  sampled by Gahler et  al. (1982)  are not substantiated
 by  the results  of the  present study.  Average  arsenic levels  in English
 sole from  the  Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline area (6.3 mg/kg wet  weight)
 were slightly less than those detected by Gahler et  al. (1982)  (8.6 mg/kg
 wet weight).   However, the ranges of values  for both  studies are similar,
 and  the combined results indicate no significant  elevations in tissue arsenic
 levels  in  fishes from Commencement Bay.

     The  Gahler et  al.  (1982)  results indicate that chromium and nickel
 tissue  concentrations were about two to six times  higher  in some Commencement
 Bay  sites relative to Discovery Bay.  These apparent elevations are not
 supported  by the results of the present  study.  Chromium and nickel  concen-
 trations   in English sole muscle were very  consistent among sampling areas.
 Since the  Gahler et al. (1982)  results indicate  only  relatively minor elevations
 of  these  metals,  it is concluded that  chromium  and nickel are not elevated
 in Commencement Bay fishes.

     The  organic pollutant bioaccumulation results of Gahler et al. (1982)
 are similar to the results of this study in  that  relatively few contaminants
 were consistently detected in fish muscle tissue.   Compounds detected  consist-
 ently  included PCBs, phthalates, and DDT residues.  Similarities between
 the results of Gahler et al.  (1982)  and  this study  include:

     •    Hexachlorobenzene  and chlorinated ethyl enes were detected
          only in Hylebos Waterway fishes.

     •    Highest  PCB levels with similar maximum  values were measured
           in fish from City  and  Hylebos  Waterways  (Table 3.45).

     •     DDT  residues were  measured  in low  concentrations  throughout
          the study area.

     •     Phthalates were detected at  several  locations in  the study
          area.

     •     There was no  evidence  of excess accumulation of hexachlorobuta-
          diene in  fish  muscle.

     Major differences  between the  two studies  include the detection by
Gahler  et  al. (1982)  of  higher hexachlorobenzene levels  (up  to 150 ug/kg
wet weight)  in English sole from  Hylebos Waterway.  Gahler et al.  (1982)
also detected low levels  of DDT,  DDE,  and ODD  in fish muscle,  whereas this
study detected  only the  DDE form  of the  pesticide.
                                  3.198

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         TABLE 3.45.   CONCENTRATIONS (ug/kg wet weight) OF PCBs AND
             HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN FISH MUSCLE TISSUE IN HYLEBOS
          AND CITY WATERWAYS AS DETERMINED BY 6AHLER ET AL. (1982)
PCB
Area
Hylebos Waterway


City Waterway


Old Town Dock


Pt. Defiance Dock


Fish Species
Whitespotted
green! ing
English sole
Pacific stag-
horn sculpin
English sole
Walleye pollock
Pacific cod
English sole
Pacific hake
Walleye pollock
English sole
Walleye pollock
Pacific staghorn
sculpin
Mean
860
550
260
190
170
37
120
93
24
330
58
49
Range
540-1,120
130-1,030
170-340
54-360
17-530
36-38
91-160
50-140
17-33
100-640
17-130
45-52
HCB
Mean Range
59 14-96
110 56-150
31 28-34
uai
U 1
U 1
U 1
U 1
U 1
U 1
U 1
U 1
U = Undetected at detection limit shown.
                                    3.199

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     Gahler et  al.  (1982) measured  higher  PCB  levels in English sole from
the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline than  were  measured  in  this study.   For
the samples  collected  in  1981, the muscle tissue concentrations of PCBs
in English sole from the Ruston-Pt. Defiance area  ranged from 91 to 640 ug/kg
wet weight.   For the present study,  English  sole collected  in the same
area in 1984 had  PCB  levels of 20 to  100  ug/kg wet weight.   The reasons
for these apparent differences are unknown.

     Malins et  al.  (1982) reported  PCB concentrations  ranging  from 160
to 850 ug/kg wet  weight in English sole muscle  samples from  Commencement
Bay.  The location and time of collection of  these samples were not reported
by Malins et al.  (1982), however.  Since Malins et al.  (1980,  1982)  have
previously  collected fish  from Hylebos and City Waterways,  it is assumed
that at least some of the five samples  came from these areas and  were probably
collected  around 1981.   The  PCB values reported  by Malins  et al.  (1982)
for English  sole  are  within the range  of  values measured  in the present
study for Hylebos and City Waterways.

3.6.7  Summary

     •    With the exception of copper, metal  concentrations in English
          sole muscle tissue were relatively homogeneous  among  study
          areas.  For these  metals  there was no evidence of excessive
          accumulation  in Commencement Bay fish when compared  with
          those  from  the Carr Inlet reference area.  The maximum  average
          concentrations of most metals in  Commencement Bay fish  were
          less  than 2  times  the  average  reference  concentration.
          Copper was significantly elevated (3-9 times reference)
          in fish from several areas  of Commencement Bay.

     •    The  only metals displaying  elevated concentrations in  Commence-
          ment Bay crabs were  lead  and mercury.  Maximum elevations
          of these metals  in crab muscle were about  five times  reference
          concentrations.

     •    There  was no evidence of arsenic  accumulation above reference
          levels  in  fish or crabs from Commencement Bay.

     9    Only 10 organic  compounds  were detected in more than a few
          fish samples from Commencement Bay.

     •    The  only aromatic hydrocarbon detected  in English sole muscle
          was naphthalene, which occurred  at relatively high concentrations
          in City and Milwaukee Waterways.

     t    The  chlorinated  compounds hexachlorobenzene and hexachloro-
          butadiene were detected only  at relatively low concentrations
          (about 40  ug/kg wet weight) in  two  of  five English  sole
          from a  single Hylebos Waterway trawl.

     •    PCBs were  detected in all  fish sampled  in Commencement Bay
          and  occurred  at maximum  concentrations  (approximately 10
          times  reference) in English sole  from  Hylebos and City Waterways.


                                 3.200

-------
The only  pesticide detected  in Commencement  Bay sole was
DDE, which  occurred at relatively low concentrations  (generally
<10 ug/kg  wet  weight) throughout the study  area.

PCBs were the only organic  compounds consistently detected
in Commencement Bay crabs.   PCB concentrations  in crabs
were generally less than concentrations in  English  sole.
                       3.201

-------
      4.0   CONTAMINANT, TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL  EFFECTS  RELATIONSHIPS


4.1  INTRODUCTION

     Quantitative relationships  among the contaminant, toxicity, and biological
effects variables  used in the  Commencement  Bay  Superfund  Investigation
are  examined  in  this section.   In Section  5,  these variables are used
independently to assess environmental hazards and to prioritize  study  areas.
The data analyses conducted  in Section 4 are designed to meet two objectives:

     1.   To determine levels  of  sediment contamination above which
          significant toxicity or biological effects would be expected
          to occur

     2.   To identify contaminants of concern from the numerous  contami-
          nants detected  at  elevated concentrations  in  Commencement
          Bay sediments.

     These  objectives were  met by evaluating  whether there was increased
toxicity or biological  effects  with increasing sediment contaminant concentra-
tions.  Both statistical  and  nonstatistical approaches were used to investigate
these relationships.   The Commencement  Bay database includes sediment chemistry
and biological  information at sites  displaying  a wide range of sediment
contaminant levels.   Therefore,  these data were used to determine threshold
effect levels of contaminants or  contaminant groups that could be used
to evaluate potential  toxicity or biological  effects at  sites  where only
sediment chemistry data were  available.

     For a  given area (e.g., a  waterway), these relationships will  identify
the contaminants  that  seem to be most responsible for any observed toxicity
or biological  effects.   In this study,  it was assumed that  contaminants
displaying monotonically  increasing  relationships with a toxic or biological
effect had a higher  relative  priority (i.e., a higher potential  for being
a causative agent)  than contaminants displaying no discernible relationships
with effects.

     This  section  also examines  the interrelationships among  some  of the
important  toxicity  and biological  variables  (i.e., benthic  infauna  vs.
bioassays, and bioaccumulation vs. histopathology in English sole).  The
objectives of these  assessments are  to evaluate  the relative merits  of
the independent biological  measurements and to  develop recommendations
for future use  of these variables.

4.2  RELATIONSHIPS  AMONG CONTAMINANTS, TOXICITY,  AND BENTHIC  EFFECTS

     This  section  examines the correspondence among  concentrations of sediment
contaminants and  occurrences of  significant sediment toxicity  and benthic
effects  (defined in  Sections 3.2  and  3.3).   Concentrations  [dry-weight
(DW)]  of at least  one  organic or inorganic contaminant were elevated  above
Puget  Sound reference  conditions in  surface sediments from all Commencement Bay


                                  4.1

-------
 stations.  Significant toxicity  or  benthic effects were observed  at  29 of
 the 52 Conmencement Bay stations where  bioassays and benthic infaunal  studies
 were  conducted.   Hence, elevated chemical concentrations did  not always
 result in  statistically significant effects.  Sources of variability  associated
 with  contaminant-benthic  infauna  relationships included random variability
 at each benthic station.  Benthic sampling was conducted synoptically  with
 chemical  sampling,  but used  different grab samples.  This variability was
 a smaller factor in contaminant-toxicity relationships because  bioassays
 were  conducted  on homogenized  aliquots of the same sediment sample  taken
 for chemical analysis.

      Toxicity and benthic  "apparent effect thresholds" (AET) for  chemical
 contaminants are derived in this section by comparing the magnitudes of
 chemical  contamination between three  groups of  sediments:   1) sediments
 that  do not exhibit  toxicity,  2)  sediments that  do not  exhibit  benthic
 effects,  and 3)  sediments that do exhibit toxicity or  benthic  effects.
 Chemicals with  concentrations  exceeding an AET are summarized  for  each
 station where significant toxicity  or  benthic effects were observed.

      Because of the wide variation  in  chemical composition among Commencement
 Bay areas, it is unlikely that  a  single contaminant or group of contaminants
 was  associated with all observed toxicity or benthic effects.  Therefore,
 the spatial distributions of chemical  concentrations exceeding  an AET were
 compared with gradients of  sediment toxicity and benthic responses at closely
 spaced stations.   This comparison was  used to  determine which,  if  any,
 chemical concentration gradients  corresponded to toxicity or effects gradients
 within small areas.  Chemicals  with concentrations that exceeded  AET and
 correlated with  toxicity  or  benthic effects gradients  at  affected  sites
 received the highest  priority for source evaluation  in later sections.

 4.2.1  Correlation of Indicators

     Sediment  toxicity  was observed at 25  of 52  stations in  Commencement
 Bay study  areas, as evidenced  by statistically  significant mortality in
 the amphipod bioassay or abnormality in the oyster  larvae bioassay. Significant
 benthic effects  were  observed at  18 of the 50 stations sampled  for  benthic
 infauna.  Benthic  effects were  defined as a statistically significant depression
 in the abundance  of  one or more major  taxa relative to  conditions  at  a
 reference  area with sediments of  similar texture.   Variations  in the  concen-
 trations of sediment contaminants at biological  stations were examined
 to identify correspondence between contaminant concentrations  and observed
 toxicity or benthic effects.  Because sediment characteristics  (i.e., total
 organic carbon, percent fine-grained  material)  may influence the  toxic
 response of organisms  to a contaminant, relationships among  sediment contami-
 nation, sediment toxicity, and benthic effects were  evaluated using contaminant
 concentrations  normalized  alternatively to sediment dry weight,  total  organic
 carbon, and  percent fine-grained  material.

     Where synoptic biological  and  chemical  data were collected, significant
 toxicity in  both bioassays  as well  as  benthic effects were  observed at
 all but one station  where  the  dry-weight  concentration of  at least one
metal  or organic compound exceeded  1,000 times reference conditions  (i.e.,
 chemicals  listed  in  Table  3.12 in Section  3.1.5.3).   The exception was
 Station HY-43, where  trichlorinated  butadiene concentrations  were  nearly


                                   4.2

-------
 2,000 times  reference conditions, but neither  bioassays  nor benthic effects
 were  significant.   In other sediments where there  were  no significant  toxic
 responses  or benthic effects, concentrations  of  organic compounds (besides
 chlorinated butadienes) ranged from  1  to  <400 times reference conditions
 and  concentrations  of metals were <50 times reference conditions.

      Sediment toxicity  and the  number of significant benthic effects were
 highest  in  the most chemically contaminated study  areas.  Toxicity increased
 and  abundances  of major  taxa decreased  with  increasing concentrations of
 some  contaminants over the entire study area.   Examples of this relationship
 are  given  in  Figure 4.1.  A  common characteristic of these plots was con-
 siderable scatter in the magnitude of sediment  toxicity and taxa abundances
 at  lower chemical  concentrations.   When  trends  were observed, the minimum
 toxicity  increased and the maximum abundances decreased at higher contaminant
 concentrations.   When data  from all  study areas were plotted together for
 a given  contaminant, there was no  clear  trend in the  values of maximum
 toxicity or minimum abundances over the concentration range of the contaminant.
 This latter  feature  is consistent with the conclusion that no one contaminant
 or contaminant group correlated with  the effects observed in all areas.

      In  some  cases  there was random  scatter  in  the values up to a certain
 contaminant concentration.  Above that  concentration, there  was an  rapid
 change to  uniformally high  toxicity  or  low  abundances  at  the few most
 contaminated sites.  If the high  contaminant  levels were  associated with
 the  effects observed, the abrupt change in the scatter suggested  an  "effect
 threshold" for the contaminant.  These  potential  "effect  thresholds"  are
 evaluated in the following section.

 4.2.2  Apparent Chemical  Effect Thresholds

     The  use  of synoptic chemical, toxicity, and benthic infaunal  data
 in predicting concentrations of  contaminants  (e.g., lead)  above which toxicity
 and  benthic  effects  would be expected is shown in  Figure 4.2.  Results
 from all  52 Commencement  Bay stations with  concurrent chemical,  toxicity,
 and  benthic data  were used in  this evaluation.  Benthic infauna data were
 not collected  for  two stations  along  the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance  Shoreline
 (RS-22 and RS-24).

     The range in lead concentrations  (DW) at biological  stations is  shown
 in Figure 4.2 for three  groups of sediment samples.  The  first group  consisted
of the 32  stations  where no  statistically significant  benthic  effects were
observed.  The lead  concentration  for this  "no benthic  effects"  group ranged
from  8.3 to 300 mg/kg  DW.  The  second group consisted  of the 28 stations
where  no statistically significant sediment toxicity was observed  in  bioassays.
The  lead  concentration  for this  "no  toxicity"  group ranged from 8.3 to
660 mg/kg DW.   The  third group  consisted of the 29  stations where  either
statistically  significant  sediment toxicity or benthic  effects were observed.
The lead  concentration  for this "affected"  group  of stations  ranged  from
11 to 6,250  mg/kg  DW.

     Some stations were  included in more than one group.   For example,
significant  sediment toxicity   was  observed at 9  of the  32 stations  that
exhibited no significant benthic  effects.  These nine stations were included
in both the "no benthic  effects"   group and in  the "affected" group.   Likewise,


                                  4.3

-------
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6300ppm
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	 • 	 	 	 APPARENT
POTENTIAL SCALE BENTHIC
EFFECT EFFECT
THRESHOLD THRESHOLD
i i i

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APPARENT
TOXICITY
THRESHOLD


T 10000
MAXIMUM
OBSERVED
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BIOLOGICAL
STATION
       Figure 4.2.  Example use of synoptic benthic effects and  sediment  toxicity data  to
                    determine apparent chemical  effect thresholds.

-------
 the 23 Commencement  Bay stations where neither significant benthic  effects
 nor sediment  toxicity  were observed were included  in  both  the  "no benthic
 effects"  group  and  in  the "no toxicity" group.  The  range of lead concentrations
 for these 23  stations  was 8.3 to 300 mg/kg DW.

      The  concentration range of lead for the  "affected"  group  of  sediments
 indicated that  significant  sediment  toxicity or  benthic  effects did not
 occur at  the Commencement  Bay biological  stations  when lead  levels were
 below  11  mg/kg DW  (EAR =  1.2).  This  level defined  a "potential  effect
 threshold"  (i.e., higher lead concentrations  may have  resulted  in significant
 sediment toxicity or benthic effects).  This threshold  was  termed  "potential"
 because  toxicity  or  benthic  effects  were  found  at  some, but  not  all, of
 the stations  with higher  lead concentrations.   The  toxicity  or benthic
 effects observed at these stations could have resulted  from other contaminants
 or  conditions.

     A toxicity "apparent effect threshold" (AET)  was defined  as the contaminant
 concentration above which  significant  sediment toxicity would always  be
 expected  (Figure 4.2).  Similarly, benthic  AET was  defined  at the contaminant
 concentration above which significant benthic  effects  would always be  expected.
 The toxicity  AET and benthic AET may or may not  occur at the  same concentration
 of  a chemical.  For example, significant benthic  depressions were  observed
 at  all seven  stations with  lead concentrations  greater  than 300 mg/kg DW
 (EAR = 33).   Significant sediment toxicity  was  also observed at all  three
 stations  with  lead concentrations greater than 660 mg/kg DW (EAR = 72).
 These  effect  thresholds were termed  "apparent" because  significant  toxicity
 or  benthic effects were not  found at  some stations with equal  or lower
 lead concentrations, while  significant  sediment  toxicity or  benthic effects
 were found at  all  stations with higher  concentrations.  These empirical
 relationships  do  not prove that contaminants  found above an AET were
 responsible for the observed  toxicity or benthic  effects.  Within the limits
 of  this data set, chemicals  present  above this concentration were associated
 exclusively with problem sediments  having  significant  toxicity or depressed
 benthic infaunal abundances  (or  both).   Because of this  association, all
 chemicals present  above an  AET were defined as  problem chemicals requiring
 further evaluation.

     Major sources of variability in  determining AET  include:   1) the
 statistical error (P<0.05) associated with  the significance of bioassay
 and  benthic  infauna  results,  and  2)  the analytical  error associated with
 the quantification  of  chemical  results.   The  analytical precision  attained
 typically  ranged from  5 to  50 percent  (relative percent difference)  depending
 on the chemical.  The  accuracy  of  the organic compound results was  improved
 by use of  isotope dilution mass  spectroscopy  to provide a minimum correction
 for compound recovery  (see Methods Section  2.2).

     The AET determined in this  section do  not distinguish potential  synergism
 and  other factors that  may contribute  to observed toxicity or benthic effects
at one station but  not  at another.   The contribution of these factors  cannot
be determined  from  the  data available.  With the existing data,  the  approach
does provide a means of prioritizing the  list of potential  problem chemicals
by giving  less weight  to  those for which  contradictory evidence was found
at stations without  significant  toxicity  or benthic effects.
                                  4.6

-------
     The approach  shown in Figure 4.2 was  used  to identify toxicity and
benthic AET for  all chemicals  of concern  summarized  in  Section 3.1  (see
Tables 3.4 and 3.10),  in addition to tentatively  identified organic compounds
detected at multiple sites  (see Table 3.6).   These  AET  expressed on  a  dry-
weight  basis are summarized for metals and  organic  compounds in Tables 4.1
and 4.2.  Where  the observed effect threshold for sediment toxicity differed
from  that  for  benthic  effects, both  AET  are shown.  Biological stations
where  each contaminant exceeded either AET are  also identified.  Corresponding
AET for conventional variables (e.g., total organic carbon) are summarized
in Table 4.3.

     One or more metals  exceeded an AET in  sediments  from stations in Hylebos,
Sitcum, and City Waterways, and along  the  Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline.
Several metals had different sediment toxicity and  benthic effects thresholds.
Without exception, the AET was higher for sediment  toxicity than for benthic
effects, suggesting  that  benthic  effects  were more  sensitive to metals
than were bioassay responses.

     One or  more organic  compounds or compound  groups exceeded an AET at
stations in Hylebos, Sitcum, St. Paul,  and  City Waterways, and along the
Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.  AET were usually higher for benthic effects
than  for sediment toxicity  where  there  were differences  between these
indicators.  These data suggest that bioassay responses were more sensitive
to organic compound contamination than were  benthic effects.

     Chemicals  with  concentrations that exceeded  an AET (DW) at each of
the 29 stations  exhibiting a significant toxic response  or  benthic  effect
are summarized  in Table 4.4.  Concentrations of  one  or more metals exceeded
these  levels at 41 percent (12/29) of the affected stations.  Organic compounds
were  found above an  AET  at  76 percent (22/29)  of  the stations.  Wherever
sediment toxicity and benthic effects were observed  together, at least
one chemical exceeded  an  AET (DW) .   Likewise, wherever both amphipod and
oyster larvae biossay results were  significant, some  chemical exceeded
an AET, even when no significant benthic effects  were observed.

     No  chemicals exceeded an AET  (DW) at  21 percent (6/29) of the stations
exhibiting a significant toxic response or  benthic effect.   Four of these
six stations were unusual in that the only  effect observed was significant
amphipod mortality.  These  four stations (B-15,  BL-25,  MI-11, and  MI-15)
were  the only stations  with significantly  toxic  sediments of all biological
stations in Blair and  Milwaukee Waterways.   The  mean  amphipod mortality
at these four stations ranged from 20 to 32  percent.  A common characteristic
among  these stations was the presence  of fine-grained  material in  excess
of 80  percent (82, 88, 86, and 85 percent,  respectively).  Sediment contami-
nation in both Blair and Milwaukee  Waterways was  relatively low compared
with other Commencement  Bay areas.  Moreover, no  significant benthic effects
or oyster larvae abnormalities were  observed at any  biological  station
in either  waterway.  These data  suggest  that  the amphipod  bioassay may
be responsive to high levels of fine-grained  material in  sediments in addition
to chemical contamination.  Ott (1985) also  found  that Rhepoxinius abronius
in bioassays appear to respond negatively  to high 1 eve!s  of fine-grainecf
material.   Alternative explanations  for  the patterns observed in Blair
and Milwaukee Waterways  include:
                                   4.7

-------
                               TABLE 4.1.  APPARENT EFFECT THRESHOLDS FOR  POTENTIAL  PROBLEM
                                                METALS NORMALIZED TO  DRY WEIGHT
00
APPARENT
EFFECT
THRESHOLD
METALS (mg/kg)
Antimony 5.3/3.1




Arsenic 93/85







Cadmium 5.8




Copper 310








BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
AND CONCENTRATIONS
EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
(mg/kg)
RS-22
RS-24
RS-19
RS-18

HY-17
HY-22
RS-20
SI-11
RS-24
RS-19
RS-18

CI-13
RS-24
RS-19
RS-18

RS-24
RS-19
RS-18






5.3
26
36
420

86
90
90
93
700
1,500
9.700

6.7
9.6
16
180

390
2,200
11,000






APPARENT BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
EFFECT AND CONCENTRATIONS
THRESHOLD EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
METALS (mg/kg) (mg/kg)
Lead 660/300 CI-13
SI-12
RS-24
SI-11
CI-11
RS-19
RS-18

Mercury 0.59/0.52 CI-11
RS-20
CI-13
RS-19
RS-18

Nickel 39 CI-11
SP-14
HY-22
HY-23
RS-18

Z1nc 490/260 HY-17
CI-11
SI-12
SI-11
RS-19
RS-18
RS-24
450
500
530
660
720
1,000
6,300

0.53
0.59
1.1
3.2
52

40
40
52
56
93

270
320
340
490
910
3,300
1,600
                    a  Where two values are shown, the one on left Is  the toxldty threshold and the one on right Is the benthlc effects
                    threshold.   The  lower  of  these paired  values  1s  underlined.   Where  only  one  value  Is  shown,  the  two  apparent
                    thresholds  are Identical.

-------
                      TABLE  4.2.   APPARENT  EFFECT  THRESHOLDS  FOR  POTENTIAL  PROBLEM
                                   ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS  NORMALIZED TO  DRY WEIGHT
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Phenol





2-Methyl phenol


4-Methylphenol




LMU aromatic hydrocarbons


HMU aromatic hydrocarbons




Chlorinated benzenes






Chlorinated butadienes

Total phthalates



Total PCBs

Benzyl alcohol

APPARENT BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
EFFECT AND CONCENTRATIONS
THRESHOLD EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
(ug/kg) (ug/kg)
420/1, ZOO HY-12
HY-22
CI-11
CI-20
SP-14

63/72 RS-I8
RS-I3

670 SP-I6
CI-16
SP-15
SP-14

5,200 SP-14
RS-18

12.000/17.000 HY-14
HY-17
HY-22
RS-18

270/400 RS-18
HY-47
HY-42
CI-11
CI-16
HY-22
h f
47,000ฐiC NONE

3.400/5.200 CI-13
HY-22
HY-12

420/1,100 HY-42
HY-23
HY-22
130 SP-16
CI-11
500
530
1,100
1.200
1,700

71
71

890
1,200
2,600
96,000

6,100
20.000

17,000
18,000
30,000
31.000

290
310
400
430
680
1,300



3,600
3,700
5,200

1,100
1,500
2.000
130
140
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Olbenzofuran

Aniline

N-N1trosod1phenylam1ne



Tetrachloroethene


Ethylbenzene

Total xylenes

l-Methyl-2-(l-methyl-
ethyl) benzene6




2-Methoxy phenol*


l.l'-B1phenylซ



Dlbenzothlophene*



Pentachlorocycopentane*

Dlterpenold hydrocarbons
Isoplmardlene6
Unidentified f
d1terpenee>r
Retene6

APPARENT
EFFECT
THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
540

U 20d

28



140


37

120


2.300/1.100




930


260/270



240/250


k f
72b.c


1,500
2,000
1.200/2.000

BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
AND CONCENTRATIONS
EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
RS-18

CI-11

RS-24
SI-12
CI-16
RS-18
HY-23
HY-17

HY-17

HY-17


SP-15
SI-11
HY-17
SP-14

SP-15
SP-14

CI-20
SP-14
RS-18

CI-20
HY-22
RS-18

NONE


SP-14
SI-12
SP-14
SP-16
SI-15
2,000

1,400

40
130
220
610
170
210

50

160


1,400
2,300
2,800
6.600

1,500
3.900

270
310
1.100

250
320
1,100




5,900
2,100
5,200
1.700
2,000
* Where two values are shown, the one on left Is  the toxlclty  threshold and the one on  right Is the benthlc effects threshold.  The lower of
these paired values  1s underlined.  Where only one value 1s shown, the two apparent thresholds are  Identical.
D No apparent toxlclty threshold was observed for  this chemical.  The value shown 1s the maximum concentration  observed.
c No apparent benthlc effects threshold was observed for this chemical.  The value shown Is the maximum concentration observed.
d Aniline was undetected at 20 ug/kg DW at all stations except  CI-11.
• This compound was  Identified by matching  the sample spectra with  library  reference  spectra. The  Identification  Is considered  tentative
because standards  of this compound are not routinely analyzed.
' Possibly kaur-16-ene.

-------
  TABLE   4.3. APPARENT  EFFECT  THRESHOLDS FOR CONVENTIONAL  VARIABLES
       PARAMETER
APPARENT
EFFECT
THRESHOLD3
BIOLOGICAL  STATIONS AND
CONCENTRATIONS  EXCEEDING
      THRESHOLD
       Total volatile solids  (%)

       Total organic  carbon (%)

       Nitrogen (%)
       Oil and yrease  (my/kg)
22.2

lb.1

0.28
2.200/4.300
SP-14

SP-14

CI-13
CI-11
CI-16
SP-14
HY-47
SP-16

CI-16
Cl-13
RS-18
B-15
CI-11
   44.7

   16

    0.29
    0.3b
    0.49
    0.79
    0.89
     1.2
3,300
3,400
4,100
4,300
b,700
a Where two  values  are shown, the one on  left  1s  the toxIcUy threshold  and the one
on right 1s the benthlc effects threshold.   The  lower of these  paired values Is  underlined.
Where only one value Is shown, the two apparent thresholds are  Identical.
                                         4.10

-------
TABLE 4.4.  SUMMARY OF EFFECTS AND POTENTIAL PROBLEM CHEMICALS
      AT  BIOLOGICAL STATIONS  (NORMALIZED  TO  DRY WEIGHT)
Toxic ity
and/or
Effect*
0
M
0 M C
0 A M C
0AM P T
M C T
M
A
0 M
A
A
C
A C
A
A
A
0
0 A M C P T
0 A M C
0 A T
0AM
0 M C P T
0 M C P T
0 A
0 A
0 A M C P T

0AM
M
Ae
Station
HY-12
HY-14
HY-17
HY-22
HY-23
HY-32
HY-37
HY-42
HY-47
B-15
BL-25
SI-11
SI-12
SI-15
MI-11
MI-15
SP-12
SP-14
SP-15
SP-16
CI-11
CI-13
CI-16
CI-20
RS-13
RS-18

RS-19
RS-20
RS-24
Chemical13 Exceeding An Apparent Effect Threshold
PNOLC, PHTH
HPAH
LPAH, PCE, XYL, EBEN, ASd, Znd, MBEN
PNOLC, HpAH, PHTHC, TPCB> CBEN, HCBD, Asd, Ni , DIB
HPAHd, TPCB> PCE, Ni


TPCB, CBENC, HCBD
CBENC, HCBD, N
0 & Gc

ASd, Pbd Znd MBENd
NDPA, Pba, Znd, DTPc
RETAC



4MNOL, PNOL, LPAH, Ni , MBEN, MOX, DTP, BIPH, TVS, TOC N
4MNOL, MBENb, MOX
4MNOL, BZOH, RETC, N
PNOLC, BZOH, ANIL, HPAHd, CBEN, Hgd, Pb, Ni , Znd, O&G, N, S
PHTHC, cd, Pbd, Hg, O&G, N, S
4MNOL, CBEN, NDPA, O&G, N, S
PNOLC, BIPHC, DIBC,
2MNOLC
2MNOL, NDPA, LPAH, HPAH, CBENC, BIPH, DIB, QBp, $b , As
Cd , Cu , Pb , Ah , Ni , Zn
Sb. As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn
Asa, Hgd
NDPA, Sb, As, Cd, Cu, Pbd, Zn
                           4.11

-------
TABLE 4.4.  (Continued)
a  0 = oyster abnormality
   A = amphipod mortality
   M = mollusc abundance
   C - crustacean abundance
   P = polychaete abundance
   T = total benthic abundance

D  PNOL = phenol
   HPAH = high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons
   PCE  = tetrachloroethene
   XYL  = total xylenes
   EBEN = ethylbenzene
   MBEN = 1-methyl-2-(methyl ethyl)benzene
   PHTH = total phthalates
   TPCB = total PCBs
   CBEN = total chlorinated benzenes
   HCBD = hexachlorobutadiene
   MPYR = methylpyrene
  MPHEN = methylphenanthrenes
    DBF = dibenzofuran
   NDPA = n-nitrosodiphenylamine
    DTP = isopimaradiene (diterpene)
          unidentified diterpene (possibly kaur-16-ene)
    RET = retene
  4MNOL = 4-methylphenol
  2MNOL = 2-methyl phenol
   LPAH = low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons
    MOX = 2-methoxyphenol
   BIPH = l.l'-biphenyl
    TVS = total volatile solids
    TOC = total organic carbon
   BZOH = benzyl alcohol
   ANIL = aniline
    DIB = dibenzothiophene
    O&G = oil and grease
     Pb = lead
     As = arsenic
     Zn = zinc
     Ni = nickel
     Hg = mercury
     Cd = cadmium
     Sb = antimony
     Cu = copper
      N = total nitrogen
      S = total sulfides

c Chemical exceeded  apparent effect threshold for toxicity only.

d Chemical exceeded  apparent effect threshold for benthic abundance only,

e No benthic abundance data available for RS-24.
                                            4.12

-------
     •    The amphipod  bioassay results  from these stations may have
          reflected  synergistic or additive  effects of chemicals present
          at low concentrations relative to other Commencement Bay
          sites.

     t    The bioassay  response may have resulted from the presence
          of some unmeasured chemical  whose spatial  distribution  does
          not covary with  those of the over 150 chemicals  measured
          in this study.

Because  there were no  corroborative data  from the oyster larvae bioassay
or any benthic indicator,  these alternative explanations  do not appear
as plausible as the grain  size explanation.   The only other  occurrence
of a significant amphipod bioassay response in the absence of other toxicity
or benthic  effect responses was at Station  SI-15 at the mouth of Sitcum
Waterway (average mortality = 25 percent).  This station  also had a high
percentage  of fine-grained  material (81 percent), and retene (tentative
identification)  was the  only chemical elevated  at this  station above its
toxicity AET.  Although chemical  toxicity may be a factor  at SI-15,  it
is possible that  the single bioassay response at these five stations reflects
grain  size  factors only.   Sediment from four  other biological  stations
in the Commencement Bay  studies had a  fine-grained material  content ranging
from 82  to  89 percent, yet did not exhibit significant amphipod mortality.
Therefore, if grain size factors do influence amphipod  bioassay results,
a consistent pattern among all fine-grained sediments has not  been demonstrated.

     Significant  oyster larvae  abnormality was observed at two stations
where no other toxic or  benthic response  was  found.  One  of  these stations
(HY-12)  had a high percentage of fine-grained material (78 percent), but
the other station did not (SP-12; 49 percent).  Oyster larvae abnormalities
were generally higher in sediments with  higher TOC levels (e.g., Figure 4.1).
This correspondence was  not observed between amphipod mortality and TOC.
Sediments from Stations  HY-12 and SP-12 were moderately enriched with organic
carbon (5.7  and  4.7 percent, respectively).  This organic  enrichment may
have  been a factor  in  the oyster larvae results.  There  were no  other
physicochemical  factors  consistent between these stations.   No chemical
exceeded an  AET  (DW) at  Station SP-12  (Table 4.4).

     Significant  benthic effects  without sediment toxicity were observed
at four stations (Table  4.4).  No chemical  exceeded an AET (DW) at Stations
HY-32  or HY-37.  The presence of multiple  benthic depressions observed
at Station HY-32  was the  only such occurrence  in the absence  of a significant
bioassay response.  Stations SI-11 and RS-20 had a single significant depression
of Crustacea and Mollusca, respectively.   In each case,  the  concentration
of at least  one  metal exceeded an AET  (DW).

     Toxicity and  benthic  AET  for metals and organic compounds normalized
to the sediment  organic  carbon content are  summarized in Tables 4.5 and 4.6.
A summary of chemicals with concentrations  exceeding an  AET normalized
to TOC at each of the 29 stations exhibiting  a significant  toxic response
or benthic  effect is given  in Table 4.7.  Analogous results for chemicals
normalized to percent fine-grained material  are  given in Tables  4.8, 4.9,
and 4.10.   The  format  of these tables and the approach used to determine
"apparent effect thresholds" were the  same  as for Tables 4.1, 4.2,, and 4.4.


                                 4.13

-------
                        TABLE 4.5.  APPARENT EFFECT  THRESHOLDS FOR  POTENTIAL
                              PROBLEM METALS NORMALIZED  TO ORGANIC CARBON
APPARENT
EFFECT
THRESHOLD
METALS (mg/kg)
Antimony 1,900/200




Arsenic 32.000/3,200





Cadmium 1.100/580





Copper 49.00/9.700






BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
AND CONCENTRATIONS
EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
(mg/kg)
RS-22
RS-24
RS-18
RS-19

SI-11
RS-22
RS-20
RS-24
RS-18
RS-19
RS-22
RS-20
RS-24
RS-18
RS-19

SI-12
SI-11
RS-22
RS-24
RS-20
RS-18
RS-19
1,900
3,000
4,800
6,200

4,400
30,000
32,000
88.000
110.000
270,000
780
1.100
1,200
2,100
2.800

12,000
14.000
31 ,000
48.000
49,000
130,000
390,000
APPARENT BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
EFFECT AND CONCENTRATIONS
THRESHOLD EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
METALS (mg/kg) (mg/kg)
Lead 35.000/14.000 SI-11
SI-12
RS-22
RS-20
RS-24
RS-18
RS-19

Mercury 210/77 RS-20
~ RS-19
RS-18
Nickel 6.800b/6>300 RS-20

Zinc 72.000/12.000 SI-12
SI-11
RS-18
RS-20
RS-22
RS-19
RS-24




31,000
32,000
35.000
28.000
66,000
71.000
180.000

210
550
590
6.800

22.000
23,000
38,000
50.000
72 ,000
160.000
200,000




a Where  two values are shown, the one  on  left Is the toxlclty threshold  and the one on right  Is the benthlc  effects threshold.
The lower of these paired values  Is underlined.  Where only one value  Is shown, the  two apparent thresholds are  Identical.

b No apparent toxlclty threshold was observed for this chemical.  The  value shown  1s the maximum concentration observed.

-------
                            TABLE 4.6.    APPARENT EFFECT  THRESHOLDS FOR  POTENTIAL  PROBLEM
                                      ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS  NORMALIZED  TO ORGANIC CARBON
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Phenol
2-Methylphenol
4-Methylphenol




LMU aromatic hydrocarbons
HHU aromatic hydrocarbons



Chlorinated benzenes

Chlorinated butadienes
Hexachlorobutadlene


Total phthalates

Total PCBs

Benzyl alcohol
Olbenzofuran


APPARENT
EFFECT
THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
39,000b>c
5.300/10.000C
37.000/81.000




370.000/530.000|:
960.000/1. 500. 000C



20.000/<21 ,000<:

1.600,000
9.600/11.000


310.000b/290.0QO

Z5. 000/46 .000C

5.000
15.000/58.0QOC


BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
AND CONCENTRATIONS
EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
NONE
RS-13
SP-16
RS-13
SP-15
SP-14

RS-13
RS-13



RS-13

HY-ซ7
HY-42
HY-47
HY-22
RS-19
RS-20
HY-23
HY-22
HY-42
SP-16
RS-19
RS-18
RS-13

10,000
61 ,000
81 .000
1,300.000
590,000

530,000
1,500,000



21.000

2,500,000
11,000
16,000
16,000
300.000
310,000
40.000
45,000
46,000
8,800
19,000
23,000
58,000
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Aniline
N-Nltrosodlphenylamlne
Tetrach 1 oroethene

Ethylbenzene

Total xylenes

1-Methy l-2-( 1-methyl-
ethyljbenzene*



2-Methoxyphenol*


l.l'-Blphenyl*


Dlbenzothlophene*

Dlterpenold hydrocarbons
Isoplmaradlene'
Unidentified .
dlterpene8'1

Retene*


APPARENT
EFFECT
THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
U 7.700d
ll,OOOb(C
22,000b'e

3.800b'c

12.000b>c

UO.OOQP/35.000



23,000


7.000/12.000*


8.200/14.000

74,000b'c
71.000/69.000

57.000/81.000


BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
AND CONCENTRATIONS
EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
CI-11
NONE
NONE

NONE

NONE

SI-11
SP-15
HY-17
SP-14
SP-14
SP-15
SP-16
RS-13
RS-18

RS-18
RS-13
RS-19
NONE
HY-47
SI-12
SI-11
RS-13
SI-15
SP-16
16,000







110,000
68.000
54,000
41.000
24.000
73.000
23.000
12.000
12,000

12,000
14,000
17.000

87,000
130,000
71,000
65,000
81,000
120,000
• Where two values are shown,  the one on left  Is the toxlclty  threshold and the  one on right Is the benthlc effects  threshold.  The  lower of these
paired  values Is underlined.  Where only one value Is shown, the two apparent thresholds are Identical.
b No apparent toxlclty threshold was observed for this chemical.  The value shown Is the Maximum concentration observed.
c No apparent benthlc effects threshold was observed for this chemical.  The value  shown Is  the maximum concentration observed.
d Aniline was undetected at values ranging up to 7,700 ugAg OC at all stations except CI-11.
' This compound was  Identified by matching the saiple  spectra with library reference spectra.  The  Identification Is considered  tentative because
standards of this compound are not routinely analyzed.
f Possibly kaur-16-ene.

-------
               TABLE  4.7.   SUMMARY OF EFFECTS AND POTENTIAL PROBLEM CHEMICALS AT
                      BIOLOGICAL  STATIONS  (NORMALIZED TO ORGANIC  CARBON)
Toxicity
and /or
Benthic Effect^
0
M
0 M C
0 A M C
0AM P T
M C T
M
A
0 M
A
A
C
A C
A
A
A
0
0 A M C P T
0 A M C
0 A T
0AM
0 M C P T
0 M C P T
0 A
0 A
0 A M C P T
0AM
M
Ae
Station
HY-12
HY-14
HY-17
HY-22
HY-23
HY-32
HY-37
HY-42
HY-47
B-15
BL-25
SI-11
SI-12
SI-15
MI-11
MI-15
SP-12
SP-14
SP-15
SP-16
CI-11
CI-13
CI-16
CI-20
RS-13
RS-18
RS-19
RS-20
RS-24
Chemical0 Exceeding An Apparent Effect Threshold



HCBD, TPCBb
TPCB


HCBD, TPCBC
HCBD, CBEN


ASd, Cud, Pbd, Znd
Cud, Pbd, Znd
RETC



4MNOL, MOX
4MNOL, MOX
4MNOLC, BZOH, MOX, RET
ANIL



2MNOLC, LPAHC, HPAHC, CBEN, DBFC, BIPHC, DIBC, RETC
DBFC BIPHC, DIBC, sbj As f cd , Cu , Pb, Hg , Znd
PHTHQ, DBFC, DIB> Sbj AS cd , Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn
PHTHd, Asd, Cdd, Cud, Pbd, Hgd, Nid, Znd
Sb, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn
NOTE:  See Table 4.4 for footnotes.
                                         4.16

-------
                            TABLE 4.8. APPARENT EFFECT THRESHOLDS FOR POTENTIAL PROBLEM
                                     CHEMICALS NORMALIZED TO FINE-GRAINED MATERIAL
METALS
Antimony





Arsenic





Cadmium





Copper




APPARENT
EFFECT BIOLOGICAL STATIONS AND
THRESHOLD CONCENTRATIONS EXCEEDING
(mg/kg) THRESHOLD (mg/kg) METALS
410/11 RS-20
~ RS-24
RS-22
RS-19
RS-18

6,600/160 RS-20
RS-24
RS-22
RS-18
RS-19

170/25 RS-20
~ RS-24
RS-22
RS-19
RS-18

6,800/550 RS-24
RS-20
RS-22
RS-18
RS-19
31 Lead
160
410
1100
1300

1,500
4.400
6,600 Mercury
29.000
48,000

52 Nickel
60
170
500
550
Z1nc
2,400
2.400
6.800
34,000
70,000
APPARENT
EFFECT BIOLOGICAL STATIONS AND
THRESHOLD CONCENTRATIONS EXCEEDING
(mg/kg) THRESHOLD (mg/kg)
7,700/790 SI-11
RS-20
RS-22
RS-24
RS-18
RS-19
CI-11

11/3.6 RS-20
RS-22
RS-19
RS-18
780b/250 RS-18
RS-20
RS-19
RS-22

16.000/640 CI-11
RS-20
RS-18
RS-24
RS-22
RS-19
830
1,300
7,700
3,300
19.000
32.000
1.800

10
11
100
160
280
330
720
780

830
2.400
10.000
10.000
16,000
28,000
a Where two  values are shown,  the one on left  1s  the toxldty  threshold and  the  one on right Is the benthlc effects  threshold.  The  lower of these
paired  values Is  underlined.  Where only one value  Is shown, the two apparent thresholds  are  Identical.

b No apparent toxldty threshold was observed for this chemical.  The vlaue shown 1s the maximum concentration observed.

-------
                     TABLE  4.9.    APPARENT  EFFECT  THRESHOLDS  FOR  POTENTIAL  PROBLEM
                          ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS NORMALIZED TO  FINE-GRAINED  MATERIAL

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Phenol



2-Methylphenol
4-Methylphenol





LMU aronatlc hydrocarbons


HMU arcMtlc hydrocarbons



Chlorinated benzenes

Chlorinated butadienes

Hexachlorobutadlene


Total phthalates

Total PCBs



lenzyl alcohol


Dlbenzofuran



Aniline
APPARENT
EFFECT
THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
3.800b/l .800



780b/570
1.200/4.500





16.000/29.000


42.000/82.000



2.300b/1.200

82,000b>c

2,000b/580


21.000

1,200/1.400



780b/180
•^_~

960/3.200



1)1600"
IIOL06ICAL STATIONS
AND CONCENTRATIONS
EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
SP-14
CI-11
RS-19
RS-22
RS-22
SP-16
CI-16
RS-13
SP-1S
SP-14

RS-13
RS-19
RS-1B

RS-13
RS-18
RS-19

HY-22
RS-22
NONE

HY-22
RS-22

RS-19

HY-42
HY-23
HY-22

SP-14
RS-19
RS-22
RS-13
RS-19
RS-18

CI-11
2,600
2.800
3.100
3,800
780
1.600
1,600
4,500
10.000
140,000

29.000
40,000
61,000

82,000
93,000
98.000

1.800
2.300


970
2,000

54,000

1.400
1.700
2.600

240
310
780
3.200
3.400
6,000

3.600
APPARENT
EFFECT
THRESHOLD
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (ug/kg)
N-N1trosod1phenylaBlne 500
h r
Tetrachloroethene 1,000 •
(or other volatile*)
l-Methy1-2-(l-ซethyl-
•thyl)benzenee 2.900/2.000




2-Methoxyphenole 1.700

l.l'-Blphenyie 460/640




2-Hethy1phenanthrenee 930/1.400



l-Methy1pyreneซ 500/600





Dlbenzothlophene8 430/780


K f
Pentachlorocyclopentane* 130D'e

Dlterpenold hydrocarbons
Isop1marad1enee 2.700
Unidentified . 3,500
d1terpene*'T

Retene* 2.300/3.600C


BIOLOGICAL STATIONS
AND CONCENTRATIONS
EXCEEDING THRESHOLD
(ug/kg)
RS-18

NONE

si-n
HY-17
SP-15
SP-14

SP-15
SP-14
SP-14
RS-13
RS-19
RS-18

HY-22
RS-13
RS-19
RS-18
RS-13
HY-22
HY-17
RS-18
RS-19

CI-11
RS-19
RS-18

NONE


SP-14
SP-15
SP-14

RS-19
SP-16
RS-13
1.800



2,900
4,200
5,400
9.900

5,800
5,900
470
640
720
3.300

980
1,400
3,100
7,200
800
1,600
2,200
2,600
2.800

480
3,000
3,300




8,900
4,200
7,800

3.000
3.100
3.600
• Where two values  are shown,  the one on  left  1s the toxldty threshold and  the one on  right Is the  benthlc effects threshold.   The lower  of these
paired  values  1s underlined. Where only one value Is  shown, the two apparent thresholds are Identical.
b No apparent  toxlclty threshold was observed for this chealcal.  The value shown Is the nxtwrn concentration observed.
c No apparent  benthlc effects threshold was observed for this chenlcal.  The value shown Is the MaxlMum  concentration observed.
d Aniline was  undetected at concentrations  ranging up  to 360 ug/kg fine grained Material at all stations except CI-11.
ซ This  compound was Identified by  Hatching the sample spectra with library  reference spectra.  The Identification 1s considered tentative because
standards of this compound are not routinely analyzed.
' Possibly kaur-16-ene.
                                                               4.18

-------
         TABLE  4.10.   SUMMARY OF EFFECTS AND POTENTIAL PROBLEM CHEMICALS AT BIOLOGICAL
                        STATIONS  (NORMALIZED TO FINE-GRAINED MATERIAL)
Toxic ity
and/or
Effects
0
M
0 M C
0 A M C
0AM P T
M C T
M
A
0 M
A
A
C
A C
A
A
A
0
0 A M C P T
0 A M C
0 A T
0AM
0 M C P T
0 M C P T
0 A
0 A
0 A M C P T

0AM

M
Ae
Station
HY-12
HY-14
HY-17
HY-22
HY-23
HY-32
HY-37
HY-42
HY-47
B-15
BL-25
SI-11
SI-12
SI-15
MI-11
MI-15
SP-12
SP-14
SP-15
SP-16
CI-11
CI-13
CI-16
CI-20
RS-13
RS-18

RS-19

RS-20
RS-24
Chemical*3 Exceeding An Apparent Effect Threshold


MBEN, MPYR
CBENd, HCBDd, TPCB, MPHENC, MPYR
TPCB


TPCBC



MBENd, Pbd





PNOLd, 4MNOL, BZOHd, MBEN, MOX, BIPH^, DTP
4MNOL) MBEN, MOX
4MNOLC, RETC
PNOLd, DIBC, Pbd, Znd

4MNOLC

LPAHC, MPYRC, HPAHC, 4MNOLC, DBFC, BIPHC, MPHENC, RETC
LPAH, HPAH, NDPA, DBF, BIPH, DIB, MPHEN, MPYR, Sb, As, Cd
Cu, Pb, Hg, Znd
LPAH, HPAH, PHTH, PNOLd, DBF, BZOHd, BIPH, DIB, MPHEN, RETC
MPYR, Sb, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Nid, Zn
Sbd, Asd, Cd<3, Pbd, Hgd, Nid, Znd
SBd, Asd, Cdd, Cud, Pbd, Znd
NOTE:  See Table 4.4 for footnotes.
                                            4.19

-------
The rationale  for  evaluating potential contaminant relationships with sediment
toxicity and biological effects based on these normalizations was summarized
in Section  3.1.2.  Briefly,  effects may be produced  by contaminants found
in low concentration  when normalized  to dry weight  but  present  in  high
concentration when normalized to organic carbon or fine-grained sediments
(two major chemical binding factors in sediments).

     The purpose of Tables 4.5-4.10 is to compare the distribution of potential
problem chemicals  with that indicated in Table 4.4 for  dry-weight normalized
concentrations.   Chemicals exceeding an AET at selected  stations regardless
of the method  of normalization  included:

     •    Chlorinated  compounds, including total  PCBs and hexachlorobutadiene

     •    Low  and  high molecular weight PAH

     •    4-Methylphenol

     •    Bis-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate and di-n-butylphthalate esters

     •    All  metals  of  concern, including antimony, arsenic,  cadmium,
          copper,  lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc.

     Organic  carbon  and  percent  fine-grained  material normalizations did
not reveal any chemicals above either their toxicity or benthic  AET at
the six stations (20 percent) discussed previously where AET were not exceeded
on a dry-weight basis.  Chemicals were below both AET at 48 percent  (14/29)
of the "affected"  stations when normalized to total  organic carbon.  Chemicals
were below both AET  at the same percentage of stations (different  distribution)
when  normalized  to percent fine-grained material.   For most sediments with
multiple toxicity  and  benthic effects, chemicals  exceeded an AET regardless
of normalization.  An obvious exception was City Waterway,  where none of
the sediments, including  three  samples with multiple significant bioassay
and  benthic  responses,  had  chemicals exceeding  the toxicity or benthic
effects AET when normalized to  organic  carbon.   These three  stations had
high  concentrations  of  both chemicals (DW) and  organic carbon.  These data
suggest either that high  concentrations (DW) of  chemicals  were  associated
with  effects  regardless of  organic  carbon-normalized concentrations, or
that observed effects resulted solely from organic enrichment.   The relation-
ships  among  these factors for City Waterway are discussed in  the following
section.

     Some chemicals  listed  in Tables 4.7 and  4.10 were present  at low
concentration  (DW), but were found at relatively  high  levels  with  respect
to  the organic carbon  content or  percent fine-grained  material  of the
sediments.  For example, at  Station  RS-13,  2-methylphenol  was the only
chemical  elevated above the sediment toxicity threshold when normalized
to dry-weight  (Table 4.4).  After normalization to organic  carbon or percent
fine-grained  material, concentrations of eight chemicals or chemical groups
exceeded an AET at Station RS-13.  For the purpose of identifying potential
problem chemicals, all  chemicals  shown in Tables 4.4, 4.7,  and 4.10 were
evaluated further.   In  the following  section,  a  correspondence  between
site-specific gradients of chemical concentrations and toxicity or benthic
effects is shown for several of these chemicals.

                                 4.20

-------
     Chemicals  of concern defined in  Section 3.1 that never exceeded  an AET
(regardless  of  concentration normalization)  are summarized  in  Table 4.11.
These chemicals were not  considered to have a  high priority for  further
evaluation of their potential relationship to sediment toxicity or benthic
effects, even  when found  at  high elevations above Puget Sound  reference
conditions.

4.2.3  Correspondence Among Chemical,  Toxicity  and Benthic Effects  Gradients

     Gradients  in  toxicity and  benthic  effects were  observed  along four
transects in Commencement Bay study areas.   These included a  cross-channel
transect of stations in Hylebos Segment 2 (HY-22, HY-23, HY-24),  a transect
of stations  in  St. Paul  Waterway  (SP-14, SP-15,  SP-16, SP-12,  SP-11) , a
transect at the head of  City Waterway in  Segment 1 (CI-11, CI-13,  CI-17),
and a transect  running offshore along the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline
in Segment  2  (RS-18, RS-19,  RS-20).  Stations located on these  transects
included 11  of  the 29 stations with significant sediment toxicity  or  benthic
effects  and  all  of the stations with the most extreme effects (e.g., sediment
toxicity exceeding 50  percent mortality  and abnormality  plus  multiple
depressions  of  the five  benthic indicators).

     In  this section,  concentration gradients of  chemicals  exceeding an
AET are  correlated with  toxicity and benthic effects gradients along each
transect.  The  discussion focuses on chemicals  with concentrations  exceeding
apparent effect thresholds  regardless of  the normalization used.  The
substantial  change in  DW  concentrations of these chemicals along the four
transects resulted in clear trends for potential problem  chemicals in each
area.   Linear  correlation  analysis  and factor analysis (varimax  rotation)
of data  subsets  were used to corroborate possible relationships  among the
chemical, toxicity, and  benthic effects  variables that are summarized in
the summary  plots within these sections.

4.2.3.1   Hylebos Waterway--

     Within Hylebos  Waterway, multiple significant bioassay responses and
benthic  effects  were observed only at  Stations  HY-22 and HY-23 in  Segment 2.
 Toxicity and benthic effects generally decreased cross-channel  from  Station
HY-22 to Station HY-24 (e.g., see  Figures 3.44 and 3.49 in  Section 3.3).
Total PCBs  and hexachlorobutadiene  exceeded apparent effect  thresholds
for either sediment toxicity or benthic effects regardless of normalization
at Station  HY-22 (Tables  4.4, 4.7,  and 4.10).   The correspondence among
total PCB concentrations, amphipod mortality, and oyster larvae  abnormality
is shown in  Figure 4.3 for these stations.

     Stations  HY-42,  HY-43, and  HY-44  constituted a second cross-channel
transect in  Hylebos Segment 5.  Total PCBs were also elevated  above the
AET  at  Station HY-42 regardless of  the means of normalization.   Total PCB
data for these  latter three stations  are also  included  for  comparison in
Figure  4.3.   Amphipod  mortality and oyster  larvae abnormality  decreased
with decreasing  PCB concentrations (DW) along both transects.
                                 4.21

-------
           TABLE 4.11.  CHEMICALS OF CONCERN WITH CONCENTRATIONS
                NEVER EXCEEDING  APPARENT EFFECT THRESHOLDS
Chemical  of Concern^           Concentration  Range With No Effects Observed
                                          (ug/kg dry-weight)


Beryllium                                     80 -    450
Chromium                                    5,400 - 37,000
Silver                                        80 -    560
1 ,3-Dichlorobenzene
Butylbenzyl phthalate
Di-n-octyl phthalate
Diethyl phthalate
Trichlorinated butadienes
Tetrachlorinated butadienes
Ut>



U
U
1
14
6
2
5
10
170
470
420
73
- 30,000
- 14,000
a  Chemicals of concern  are  those present  in  at least some Commencement
Bay sediments at concentrations that  exceed  all Puget Sound  reference
conditions.

b  U:  Undetected at the  detection limit  indicated for the  lower range
of concentrations.
                                   4.22

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-------
     Although  concentrations  of other chemicals exceeded  the  toxicity AET
along both transects,  only  PCBs showed strong  linear relationships along
both transects.   For  example, although hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) concentrations
exceeded the toxicity  AET at Stations HY-22 and HY-23 in  Segment 2, and
at Station HY-42 in Segment 5, and corresponded  generally to  observed  toxicity,
the relationships  within  each transect differed.

     Linear trends did not  emerge for  several other contaminants with concentra-
tions (DW) exceeding  an AET at Station HY-22.  For example,  although phenol
concentrations  exceeded the threshold, a linear  exposure-response relationship
was not observed (Figure  4.3).

     Mollusca  was the only  taxon significantly depressed  at stations over
the entire length  of  Hylebos Waterway.  Total mollusc abundance  consistently
decreased with  increasing total PCB concentrations at Stations HY-24,  HY-23,
and HY-22  (e.g.,  Figure  4.4).   Total infauna  and  polychaete  abundances
were  significantly depressed only  at  Station  HY-23 along this transect,
although the overall  chemical contamination at  Station HY-22  was  higher.
These latter variables showed no  linear relationship with PCB concentrations.
The abundances  of total  taxa and polychaetes  decreased  with  increasing
nickel  concentrations (DW)  along  the  transect as shown  in  Figure 4.4.
The linear correlation of these relationships improved after  normalization
to organic carbon, but  nickel  exceeded its AET at Station HY-22 and HY-23
only when  normalized  to  dry-weight.  Changes  in arsenic  or  other metal
concentrations  (DW) did not correspond with observed  benthic  effects gradients.

     Within  Hylebos  Waterway,  stronger  relationships were found between
contaminants and sediment toxicity than  between  contaminants  and  benthic
effects.   Organic  compounds, especially PCBs, dominated the  list of  potential
problem chemicals  in  the  waterway.  Although metals contamination  in upper
Hylebos Waterway was significant,  toxicity or benthic  effects gradients
did not appear  to  correspond with concentration  gradients  of metals, with
the possible exception of nickel.

4.2.3.2  St. Paul  Waterway —

     Within  St. Paul Waterway,  100  percent mortality and abnormality and
significant depressions  of all  major taxa groups  were found  at  Station
SP-14  off the  main  outfall  of  Champion International.  Organic enrichment
resulting  in sediment  anoxia may  have  contributed to the observed  effects,
at least at SP-14 (see  Figure  3.3).  Station  SP-15, located on a  transect
away  from the main outfall also had high mortality and abnormality (>50  percent)
and  exhibited   significant depressions of Mollusca and Crustacea.   Organic
enrichment (only 2.1  percent TOC) did not appear to be a  factor  at this
station.  TOC, total  volatile  solids  (4.3 percent)  and   sulfide content
(minimum estimate  of  2.6  mg/kg DW) resembled those found in  sediments from
nonurbanized regions  of Puget Sound.   Therefore, given the gross physicochemical
differences observed  at SP-14 and SP-15, the observed high  level  of  toxicity
and  benthic effects  at  both these  stations did  not appear to be related
solely to conventional  factors (e.g.,  organic enrichment).

     4-Methylphenol was found at  elevated concentrations (DW) that decreased
with  distance from Station SP-14 off the  main outfall.  The linear  relationship
of sediment toxicity to 4-methylphenol concentration at  the five  stations

                                  4.24

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 in St. Paul  Waterway (Figure  4.5) suggested  that the toxicity gradient
 resulted from 4-methylphenol or from a contaminant with a spatial  distribution
 similar to  that  of 4-methylphenol.  Extrapolation of this  strong  trend
 [excluding the high concentration  (and 100  percent mortalitiy and  abnormality)
 found  at Station  SP-14] suggest that  100 percent mortality and abnormality
 might  be expected  at 4-methylphenol concentrations exceeding 4,000 and
 4,800  ug/kg  DW, respectively.

     2-Methoxyphenol  and phenol were  also elevated above an AET regardless
 of concentration normalization along this transect, but did not show the
 consistent  gradient with sediment toxicity as  found  for 4-methylphenol
 (Figure 4.5).  Retene concentrations,  which  peaked at Station SP-16, correlated
 negatively with the toxicity  and benthic  effects gradients.

     Benthic effects  in  St. Paul  Waterway, were not  correlated as well
 with  individual contaminant concentrations as  were sediment toxicity
 indicators.  All  four major benthic  taxa were significantly  depressed at
 Station SP-14.  Total crustacean abundances  consistently  increased  with
 decreasing  4-methylphenol  concentrations  (Figure 4.6),  although mollusc
 abundances did not.   Mollusc  abundances  were best correlated  with the
 distribution of the tentatively  identified l-methyl-2-(l-methylethyl)benzene
 (Figure 4.6).  Total taxa and polychaete abundances showed no consistent
 trend  with  any contaminant  concentration along the transect, although both
 indicators were significantly depressed at  Station SP-14, where highest
 concentrations of  several  of  the contaminants were found.  There were no
 strong  correlations between  indicators of  sediment toxicity or benthic
 effects and indicators of organic enrichment (i.e., TOC,  TVS).

     Organic compound  contamination  apparently was  a major factor associated
 with significant  toxicity  and benthic effects  in  St.  Paul  Waterway.   Except
 for nickel  (at Station  SP-14  only),  no metals exceeded either AET in the
 waterway, and nickel  did not correlate with observed effects.  4-Methylphenol
 was the only contaminant having  a concentration  trend  consistent with the
 toxicity trend along the  entire  waterway.  Concentrations  of  this  alkylated
 phenol  also showed  some  relationship with the observed change in crustacean
 abundances.  Two tentatively identified organic  compounds had  stronger
 correlations with  the depressions  observed for  molluscs.  Total taxa and
 polychaetes also may have  been affected by these  contaminants,  but  a clear
 relationship was  not apparent.

 4.2.3.3  City Waterway--

     Multiple  sediment toxicity and benthic effects were observed in  City
 Waterway.   Effects decreased  with distance  from the  head of the  waterway
 (Stations  CI-11,  CI-13,  and CI-17).   Severe effects were also observed
 at the single biological  station in the Wheeler-Osgood  branch of the waterway,
but sediments in this  isolated arm of City Waterway  appeared to  be chemically
distinct from those  in the main portion  of the waterway and are  not included
 in the  following discussion.

     Unlike  the areas  already discussed, there were  no  chemical  contaminants
that exceeded either AET in City  Waterway  when normalized to percent  TOC,
even at the  most severely  affected stations.   The decline in sediment toxicity
away from the head of  City Waterway  was  accompanied  by  a decline  in  TOC,


                                 4.26

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as shown  in Figure  4.7.   A similar decline was observed for lead and  zinc
concentrations (DW).   The  observed  toxicity  correlated more closely with
TOC than with any other contaminant.  There are insufficient data to determine
whether the observed  toxicity resulted from toxic contaminants or organic
enrichment, although  TOC levels were nearly twice as high at some stations
in other waterways without significant toxicity or benthic effects.   At
the head  of City  Waterway, the source of organic  enrichment appeared  to
be the source of toxicity, as well  as  the cause of depressed abundances
of molluscs and Crustacea (e.g., Figure 4.8).  An exception to these  trends
was observed for polychaete abundances, which were most depressed at Station
CI-13.   Polychaete  abundances decreased in direct proportion to increasing
mercury concentrations, as shown in  Figure 4.8.

4.2.3.4  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline--

     High  levels of all  metals and several organic compounds were observed
at Station RS-18, located directly  off the main outfall  of ASARCO along
the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.   Concentrations of  all of these contaminants
generally decreased along an onshore-offshore transect of biological stations
including RS-18, RS-19, and RS-20.   This decrease in contamination corresponded
to a decrease in sediment  toxicity and benthic effects along  the transect.
The strongest  linear  correlations between contaminant concentrations  and
sediment toxicity were found for mercury and low molecular weight PAH (LPAH),
which had identical distributions along this transect.  Plots for  concentrations
of mercury normalized to  DW and percent fine-grained material are shown
in Figure 4.9.  LPAH showed a similar trend with  sediment toxicity regardless
of the method of normalization.   A decrease  in sediment toxicity along
the transect also corresponded with  a general  decrease  of arsenic  concentrations
normalized to DW (Figure 4.9).  However, following normalization to organic
carbon  or percent fine-grained material, the  linear trend  was disrupted.
The distribution for arsenic was typical of  that observed for most other
contaminants (i.e., a general linear trend only when concentrations  were
normal i zed to DW).

     Mollusc  and polychaete  abundances decreased to zero with increasing
concentrations of most  contaminants  along the RS-20, RS-19, RS-18 transect
(Figure 4.10).   The major difference  in the relationships was that mollusc
abundances appeared to  decrease exponentially  while polychaete abundances
decreased linearly  with concentrations (DW) of various metals and organic
compounds.  Total crustacean and total taxa abundances were higher at RS-19
than  at RS-20,  which  did not correspond  with  the concentration gradients
of any contaminant normalized to dry weight.

4.2.4  Summary

     A general correspondence of higher sediment  contaminant concentrations,
higher sediment toxicity,  and lower  benthic infaunal abundances was observed
throughout the study area.  Toxicity or benthic AET (i.e., the concentration
above which all  sediments had significant  toxicity or  benthic effects,
respectively) were  exceeded by a number of chemicals at most, but not  all,
of the 29 biological stations exhibiting significant  effects.  The six
stations  that did  not have any chemicals above their toxicity or benthic
AET (DW) were unusual in  that the effects recorded  by one biological indicator
were not reflected by significant responses by the other biological indicators.


                                  4.29

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1.5
Figure 4.8.   Correlation plots of  benthic indicators and
              selected chemicals  at the head of City Water-
              way (Stations CI-11,  CI-13,  and CI-17).
                          4.31

-------
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 Most of these  stations exhibited toxicity  by  the amphipod bioassay only,
 and the toxicity may have been related  to  the high  percentage of fine-grained
 material (>80  percent) at  each  station.   A  difference  in the toxicity and
 benthic  effects threshold for several  chemicals suggests  that the bioassays
 were more sensitive to organic compound  contamination and benthic depressions
 were more sensitive to metals contamination.

     An  analysis of  effects gradients  was  possible  along four transects
 of biological  stations  in  Commencement  Bay.  Strong  relationships  were
 observed for a limited number  of the chemicals that  exceeded an AET in
 each of these areas.  Patterns consistent with exposure-response relationships
 included:

     •    PCB concentrations, sediment toxicity,  and mollusc abundance
          along a Hylebos Waterway  transect

     •    4-Methylphenol concentrations,  sediment  toxicity, and crustacean
          abundance along a  St.  Paul Waterway  transect

     •    Organic enrichment,  lead,  zinc, sediment toxicity, mollusc
          abundance, and crustacean abundance along  a  City Waterway
          transect

     t    Mercury concentrations  and polychaete abundance along the
          same City Waterway transect

     •    Mercury and LPAH  concentrations, and sediment toxicity along
          a Ruston-Pt. Defiance  transect  leading offshore

     •    Most  metal  and organic  compound concentrations with mollusc
          and polychaete abundances along the  same Ruston-Pt. Defiance
          Shoreline transect.

     The stations along  these four  transects included  those stations with
 the most extensive toxicity  and  benthic effects  observed  in  Commencement
 Bay.  Sediment toxicity tended  to correlate better with contaminant concentra-
 tions than  did benthic effects.   Because bioassays were  conducted on an
 aliquot of the  same homogenized sediment sample used for chemical  analyses,
 whereas benthic samples  were collected synoptically with the bioassay-chemistry
 samples, but were  not the   identical sediments, some  of the  variability
 associated  with  contaminant-benthic infauna relationships may reflect random
 variability at the site.

 4.3  COMPARISON  OF BIOASSAY  RESPONSES  WITH BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES

     This section examines  the  degree of  consistency  between bioassays
and benthic  infauna  as indicators of environmental contamination.   In the
present  study,  each  indicator was used to  determine  a different  type of
response.  Bioassays represented the acute (i.e.,  hours  to days)  responses
of individual  species  (i.e., Rhepoxinius  abronius,  Crassostrea  gigas) to
sediment removed from  its  natural setting, whereas benthic  infauna  represented
the in  situ  chronic  (i.e., weeks to months)  responses of  groups  of  organisms
 (i.e.,  major taxa).   The primary objective of the  following  comparisons
is to determine  whether  the  two indicators gave similar patterns  with respect


                                 4.34

-------
to  identifying contaminated areas.   If  the patterns  are similar, future
studies may be  able  to  rely on only one of these  indicators.   Comparisons
were  based on  the  48  stations at which  both indicators were evaluated in
March, 1984.

4.3.1  Correlation of Indicators

     Amphipod  mortality and  oyster  abnormality were correlated with the
abundances  of five major benthic invertebrate taxa (total taxa, Polychaeta,
Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata) using the  product-moment correlation
coefficient (Table  4.12).   All but  one  of the  correlation  coefficients
(total taxa-oyster abnormality) was negative.  However, none of the coefficients
was  significant  (P>0.05).  These results indicate that  simple linear relation-
ships  did  not  exist between bioassay responses and  the  abundances of major
benthic invertebrate taxa.

4.3.2  Comparison of Bioassays with Benthic Groupings

     Values of amphipod mortality and oyster abnormality  were compared
with the groupings of  stations determined by  classification analysis of
benthic  invertebrate  assemblages (Section 3.2).  This  comparison was made
to determine whether stations with different benthic  assemblages  (based on
species  composition and abundance) exhibited different  (or characteristic)
bioassay responses.

     Results were similar for both the amphipod and oyster bioassays (Figure
4.11).  Bioassay values for Groups I-VII overlapped considerably,  indicating
that characteristic  bioassay responses did not correspond to these different
benthic assemblages. All bioassay values  for  Groups I-VII  were  less  than
50 percent.

     Bioassay  values  for Group VIII and  the three ungrouped  (i.e., unique)
stations (RS-18, RS-19, and SP-14) did not overlap with values from  Groups
I-VII  and, except  for  oyster abnormality at RS-19 (47 percent), exceeded
50 percent.  Benthic assemblages at all of these stations were considerably
different  from those found at the remaining stations sampled  in this study.
Group VIII consisted of Stations CI-11 and SP-15, where  nematodes and Capitel la
capitata dominated benthic  assemblages.  Also, abundances  of molluscs at
CI-11  and  SP-15 (4 and  50  individuals/m2, respectively) were third and
fifth lowest in  the study.  Stations RS-18 and SP-14 had  the lowest  abundances
of  total  benthic  invertebrates (29  and  133 individuals/m2, respectively)
in the  study.   In addition, polychaetes and molluscs were  absent from Station
RS-18  and  molluscs were  absent from  Station SP-14.   These were the only
stations at which these major taxa were  absent.   Finally, Station  RS-19
had  the  fourth lowest  abundance of  molluscs (33  individuals/m2) in the
study.  Thus, bioassay  values greater than 50  percent  identified tne  most
unique (and  presumably most severely impacted)  benthic assemblages in the
study.

4.3.3  Comparison of Significant Responses

     The relationship  of significant and  nonsignificant  amphipod  and oyster
larvae bioassay results  (Section  3.3)  to presence or  absence  of  one or
more  significantly depressed benthic  invertebrate  taxa  (Section 3.2) at


                                 4.35

-------
  TABLE 4.12.  CORRELATIONS'*  OF  ABUNDANCES OF MAJOR BENTHIC  INVERTEBRATE
        TAXA WITH AMPHIPOD MORTALITY AND OYSTER LARVAE ABNORMALITY

Taxon
Total taxa
Polychaeta
Mollusca
Crustacea
Echinodermata
Amphipod
-0.
-0.
-0.
-0.
-0.
Mortality
04
23
24
10
21
nsb
ns
ns
ns
ns
Oyster
0
-0
-0
-0
-0
Abnormal
.00
.22
.33
.22
.22
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ity






a The product-moment  correlation coefficient was calculated  for the  48
stations at  which benthic  infauna and  bioassays were  both  evaluated  in
March, 1984.

b ns =  not  significant  at  an experimentwise  error rate of 0.05.   Critical
correlation  coefficient = 0.37.
                                    4.36

-------
      100 H
      75 -
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   0.
      25 -
                 AMPHIPOD MORTALITY
                                 I
                                          SP-14

                                          RS-18
 RS-19



CI-11

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                                   CI-11
                                    +

                                   SP-15
                                          RS-18 '
                                    RS-19 •
      I'-l'.l
                       IV   V   VI   VII  VIII  UNGROUPED
                     STATION GROUPS
Figure 4.11.
       Ranges of bioassay responses for the  station
       groupings based on classification analysis of
       benthic assemblages.
                       4.37

-------
the 48 study  sites sampled  in  March is presented  in Figure 4.12.   The
distributions of responses for both bioassays were  very  similar.  Amphipod
mortality was  consistent  with benthic depressions at  66.6 percent (32/48)
of the stations, whereas  oyster abnormality was  consistent at 79.2 percent
(38/44)  of the  stations.   Amphipod  mortality and oyster abnormality did
not confirm the presence  of one or more benthic  depressions at 18.8 percent
(9/48)  and 12.5 percent (6/48) of the stations, respectively.  Conversely,
amphipod mortality  and  oyster  abnormality did not confirm the absence  of
benthic  depressions  at  14.6 percent (7/48) and  8.3 percent (4/48)  of the
stations, respectively.

     Results  of these comparisons suggest  that  the amphipod and  oyster
bioassays are similarly accurate in confirming impacts on  benthic inverte-
brates.   However,  this  accuracy  is  less than 70 percent for the amphipod
bioassay and less than  80 percent for the oyster bioassay.

4.3.4  Summary

     Simple  linear relationships were not found between abundances of major
benthic invertebrate taxa and  either  amphipod mortality  or  oyster larvae
abnormality.  Bioassay  values  less than 50 percent were not able to distinguish
or  characterize different  benthic  assemblages.   Bioassay values greater
than 50 percent accurately identified  the most  unique  (and  probably most
severely impacted)  benthic assemblages in the  study.   Significant amphipod
mortalities and  oyster abnormalities corresponded  with the  presence  of
one  or  more significant depressions  of major benthic  invertebrate taxa
at 66.6 and 79.2 percent  (respectively) of the stations  sampled.

4.4  COMPARISONS OF LESION PREVALENCES IN ENGLISH SOLE WITH CHEMICAL CONTAMI-
NANTS IN SEDIMENTS

     Mai ins  et al . (1984)  found  that prevalences of total hepatic lesions
in English sole from 32 stations in Puget Sound  were positively correlated
(P<0.05, Spearman  rs) with sediment concentrations  of PAH  and metals.
To test whether similar relationships existed in the present study, prevalences
of  English sole with  one or more of the four hepatic lesions (Section 3.5)
were compared with  sediment  concentrations of  major classes  of chemical
contaminants at stations  near the trawl transects.  Chemical groups included
PAH, metals (except  iron  and manganese) ,  PCBs,  chlorinated  benzenes, and
phthalates.   Comparisons were based  on  16 stations  (Carr Inlet plus  the
15 trawl  transects  in Commencement  Bay)  and were made  using  the Spearman
rank correlation coefficient.  Each correlation  was tested at a comparisonwise
error rate of 0.01  so that the experimentwise rate  was 0.05.   The critical
rs value for each comparison was 0.62.

     Although  all  five  correlations were positive (Figures 4.13 and  4.14),
none was  significant (P>0.05).  The highest correlations were found between
lesion prevalence and PAH (rs=0.55) and lesion prevalence and PCBs  (rs=0.50).

     Several  factors limit comparisons between  results of the present  study
and those of  Malins  et al. (1984).  Although lesion classifications were
standardized between  studies, prevalences were based  on  different age
distributions  of English  sole.  Because prevalences of  at  least two kinds
of lesions are functions of  age (Section  3.5), between-study differences


                                  4.38

-------
  BIOASSAY
  RESPONSE
                 BENTHOS AND BIOASSAY CONSISTENT

                 BENTHOS AND BIOASSAY INCONSISTENT

                 TOTAL NO. STATIONS EVALUATED = 48



                 AMPHIPOD MORTALITY



                   BENTHIC DEPRESSION


                      YES        NO
              YES
              NO
                 OYSTER ABNORMALITY
  BIOASSAY
  RESPONSE
                   BENTHIC DEPRESSION

                      YES        NO
              YES
              NO
Figure 4.12.
Correspondence between stations  having  signifi-
cant (P<0.05) bioassay responses and  stations
having significant (P<0.05)  benthic depressions.
                         4.39

-------
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     10-
                                           rs = 0.55 ns
                                  • Cl 70
                                  Cl 72
               5        10       15       20       25

              PAH CONCENTRATION (mg/kg DW)
                                           rs = 0.19 ns
                                                        (1,894)



                                                        (3.206)
               200       400       600       800

             METALS CONCENTRATION (mg/kg DW)
                                                   l
                                                 1,000
Figure 4.13.
              Correlations  of lesion prevalence in English
              sole with  sediment concentrations of PAH  and
              metals,  ns  = P>0.05, experimentwise.
                          4.40

-------
   40-



   30 -



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      g       CHLORINATED BENZENES CONCENTRATION
      J                      0-g/kg DW)
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                                             rs = 0.16 ns
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              PHTHALATES CONCENTRATION (p0.05,  experimentwise.
                           4.41

-------
 in  age distributions  may have  influenced correlation results.   Also, the
 suite of compounds  used in the  correlation  analyses were not  identical
 between studies.   Thus,  between-study differences in correlation  results
 may have been due partly to differences  in the  chemical groups with which
 lesion  prevalences were compared.

     Correlations between  lesion  prevalence and PAH and metals  in  the present
 study were evaluated qualitatively  to determine  whether they showed any
 similarities  to the patterns  found by Malins  et al. (1984).   As noted
 previously, Malins et al.  (1984)  found significant correlations (P<0.05)
 for these chemical groups, whereas the present study did not  find  significant
 correlations (P>0.05).

     The observed correlation  with metals showed no similarities with the
 results of Malins et al. (1984).  The correlation coefficient in the  present
 study was 0.19, compared with  the value of 0.54 found by Malins  et  al. (1984).
 Furthermore, lesion  prevalence at the two stations  with the highest  metals
 concentrations  (11.7  and 8.3 percent) were similar to the prevalence found
 at the  reference site (6.6 percent).

     By contrast with  metals concentrations, the observed correlation with
 PAH concentration showed several  similarities  with the results  of  Malins
 et  al.  (1984).   The  correlation coefficient in  the present study (0.55)
 was similar to the value found by Malins et al. (1984)  (0.58).  The  reason
 the former coefficient was  not significant whereas the latter coefficient
 was significant is due  largely to differences  in  sample size between  the
 present study  (n=17)  and  Malins et  al.  (1984)  (n=32).   As it stands, the
 correlation coefficient  in the present study  (0.55)  is very close  to  the
 critical  coefficient  for  significance (0.62).   Furthermore, if the only
 two apparent outliers  to  a monotonically increasing  trend of  lesion  prevalence
 with  increasing  PAH  concentration  (Stations CI-70 and  CI-72) are  removed
 from the analysis, the  correlation coefficient increases to  0.82, and becomes
 highly  significant  (P<0.001, experimentwise).  It is interesting that the
 only two apparent outliers are  both  from City Waterway.  This  suggests
 that  patterns  in this  waterway are  unique compared to  those of the other
 study  areas.  That is,  although PAH concentrations  at both trawl  transects
 in City Waterway were  ranked second  and  third  in magnitude in  the entire
 study, lesion prevalence was not exceptionally high (10.0  and 16.7 percent).
 Although  Malins  et  al . (1984)  also  found  that  PAH concentrations  in City
 Waterway (i.e.,  Station 23)  ranked  second in magnitude in their  study,
 they did not present the lesion prevalence specific to that station.

     In summary, lesion prevalence in the  present study  did not correlate
 significantly (P>0.05) with sediment concentrations  of PAH,  metals,  PCBs,
 chlorinated benzenes, and phthalates.  If the pattern  found for City Waterway
 is considered unique  and is  removed  from consideration,  the  correlation
between lesion  prevalence and PAH concentration becomes highly significant.

4.5  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOACCUMULATION AND SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION

    This  section examines the relationships between  sediment contamination
 and bioaccumulation in  English sole and crabs.   The  objectives are to identify
the sediment contaminants that are available  for bioaccumulation in indigenous
                                 4.42

-------
organisms and to  determine sediment contaminant  levels above which significant
bioaccumulation occurs.

4.5.1  Inorganic  Substances

     Sediments throughout the Commencement Bay waterways had varying elevations
of inorganic  substances, with concentrations generally less than 25 times
reference  values.  Highest sediment concentrations of inorganic substances
occurred along the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline, where concentrations
of arsenic,  copper, and  lead were two to three  orders of magnitude higher
than reference values.   Despite these  levels  of sediment contamination,
fishes  and  crabs from  Commencement Bay  showed little evidence of tissue
accumulation  of inorganic substances.

     The only cases in which  muscle tissue concentrations of  inorganic
substances  were not  homogeneous among study areas  were for copper in English
sole muscle  tissue, and lead and mercury in crab  tissue.  Areas of elevated
copper concentrations in English sole muscle (Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline,
Sitcum  and  St. Paul Waterways) also  displayed elevated copper levels  in
sediments (>10 times the reference level).   English sole  from other areas
with high  sediment  copper levels (e.g., Middle  Waterway) showed no evidence
of muscle tissue  bioaccumulation.   Fish  from  Middle Waterway had highly
elevated  concentrations  of copper  in  liver  tissue, however.  Therefore,
there is a  good relationship between elevated tissue levels of copper and
corresponding sediment contamination.

     The higher  lead concentrations in  crabs from Sitcum and City Waterways
are consistent with  the  relatively  high  sediment lead concentrations  in
these areas.  City and Sitcum Waterways  both had  average  lead sediment
concentrations  about 40 times that of the  reference  area and were considerably
higher  than those  of any other waterway.

     Mercury  tissue  concentrations were  highest  in crabs from Hylebos Waterway.
Although sediment  mercury levels were elevated in  this area (approximately
3.5 times  reference concentrations),  the highest overall sediment mercury
concentrations were  measured in Middle Waterway.   Crabs from Middle Waterway
showed  no evidence of excess mercury levels. Therefore, there is no apparent
overall  relationship between mercury bioaccumulation by crabs  and sediment
contamination.

     The overall  pattern  apparent from the metals data is that organisms
with elevated tissue concentrations  were  generally collected in areas  of
measured  sediment  contamination.   Similarly, organisms  with low tissue
metal levels were  collected  from  areas  of low sediment  contamination.
However, a  lack  of correspondence  is  indicated by the occurrence of  fish
and crabs with little or no tissue contamination  from areas with contaminated
sediments.   This relationship is shown in Figure 4.15 for Hylebos Waterway
English  sole.  In  this waterway, lead, mercury,  and arsenic were measured
at about 10  times  reference  levels in  the sediments.  However, there was
no corresponding   evidence  of  elevated  fish muscle tissue levels (i.e.,
<1.5 times reference).   Of the metals,  copper  was  the most  elevated  in
Hylebos  Waterway   sediments  (approximately 19  times reference) and  also
displayed  a  moderate increase in  fish muscle tissue (approximately 5.5
times  reference).

                                  4.43

-------
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                               10
                                                         100
                                                                                   1000
                                     EAR — SEDIMENT
Figure 4.15.   Relationship of  sediment  contamination to bioaccumulation in English
              sole in  Hylebos  Waterway.   EAR  is  the ratio of contaminant concentra-
              tions in Hylebos Waterway to  those in Carr Inlet.

-------
4.5.2  Organic  Substances

     As was discussed  in Sections  3.2  and 3.6, numerous organic  substances
have been  detected at elevated concentrations  in waterway  sediments.  Few
organic compounds, however,  are bioaccumulated  in the muscle tissue of
indigenous fish and crabs.   Examples of  organic compounds  that occur in
some waterway areas at average sediment  concentrations greater than 100 times
reference values, yet are not detected in fish  or crab muscle tissue include:
high molecular weight  PAH,  tri- and  tetrachlorobutadienes, dibenzofuran,
4-methylphenol, and 2-methylnaphthalene.

     The  chlorinated  compounds  hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene
were detected at low levels only in  English  sole from Hylebos  Waterway.
Contamination  of sediments  by these  compounds  was restricted  to Hylebos
Waterway.   Therefore, the  observed bioaccumulation of hexachlorobenzene
and  hexachlorobutadiene  corresponded directly  to the measured sediment
contamination.

     The  bioaccumulation of other  organic  compounds did not display  such
clear relationships with levels of  sediment  contamination.   Naphthalene
was  significantly elevated  in English  sole from Milwaukee  Waterway and
also occurred at apparently elevated concentrations in fish from City Waterway.
Although these  two  areas had substantial sediment contamination by naphthalene
(140 and 288 times  the reference levels, respectively),  fish from other
waterways with high sediment naphthalene levels did not display  comparable
tissue accumulation.  Naphthalene has a relatively low  bioaccumulation
potential  and  should also be readily metabolized by fishes.  The high muscle
tissue levels  in  English sole from Milwaukee  and City Waterways may  have
resulted from  very  recent exposure of the  fish  to water or sediment-associated
naphthalene.

     Phthalates were also significantly  elevated in English sole from several
waterway areas.  Di-n-butyl  phthalate  was measured at a  relatively  high
concentration  in Hylebos  Waterway  fish.  However, this compound was not
substantially elevated (i.e., <3 times reference)  in the  sediments of any
waterway.  Bis-2(ethylhexyl)  phthalate  showed some correspondence between
sediment contamination  and bioaccumulation, but an overall  pattern was
not  clear.   For  the phthalates in  general,  high sediment levels did not
reliably predict potential bioaccumulation in  fishes.  Factors that could
account for the absence  of a quantitative  relationship include:

     •    Occurrence of  substantial  water-mediated uptake

     •    Failure to identify "hot spots"  of sediment contamination

     •    Documented occurrence of high  phthalate levels in Commencement
          Bay  sediments  outside of the waterways.

     For  the organic  compounds, Hylebos  Waterway English sole had the  most
detected compounds  in muscle tissue.  Many of the organic  compounds  also
occurred  at  or near maximum levels in  Hylebos  fish.  As is indicated in
Figure 4.15,  sediment elevations of organic compounds in  Hylebos Waterway
ranged  from 1  or 2 times reference levels (e.g., pentachlorophenol) to  >300


                                  4.45

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times reference levels  (trichlorobutadienes).  Most of the compounds detected
in sediments displayed  no  elevations in fish muscle tissue, however.

     The absence of bioaccumulation of many organic compounds  results from
two factors:  low bioaccumulation  potential  and  metabolism.   Many  of the
lower molecular weight  compounds detected in the sediments have low empirically
determined  bioconcentration  factors,  and therefore  would not  be expected
to accumulate to high levels in organism tissues.   Examples of this group
of compounds includes pentachlorophenol, dichlorobenzenes, and  trichloro-
butadienes.  Alternatively, PAH have  a  high potential  for uptake that is
offset by the ability of fishes and Crustacea  to  rapidly metabolize  these
compounds.   Experimental  evidence  indicates that  rapid uptake of PAH by
fishes is balanced by a rapid metabolism and  excretion of metabolites  in
the bile (e.g., Stein et al.  1984; Varanasi and Mai ins 1977).

     PCBs displayed  substantial accumulations in both sediments  and organism
tissues from the  study  area.  Unlike PAH, PCBs are not rapidly  metabolized
by organisms and  tend to accumulate in tissues.  In Commencement Bay waterways,
PCBs occurred in  muscle tissue of  fishes  and  crabs at concentrations  up
to 10 times reference levels.  Similar results have been observed in studies
of Los Angeles harbor where,  although  sediments  are contaminated by both
PCBs  and PAH, resident  fishes only  show evidence of PCB bioaccumulation
(Gossett et al. 1983).

     PCBs were subjected  to more detailed  evaluations of sediment-tissue
relationships because of  their occurrence throughout the study area and
their  relative health hazard.  A comparison of elevations above reference
for PCBs in sediments and  English sole muscle tissue  is presented in  Figure
4.16.  For  Commencement Bay  waterways, increasing tissue PCB levels generally
corresponded with increasing sediment contamination.  St. Paul Waterway
did not fit this  trend  (i.e., there was no evidence of elevated bioaccumulation
although sediments appeared  to be contaminated).  Examination of  the sediment
data  for St. Paul  Waterway indicated  that, due to laboratory problems,
PCBs were undetected at five of the  six stations.   For  these  cases, the
analytical  detection limits  for PCBs were exceptionally high (90-180 ug/kg).
Thus, the apparently high sediment  PCB concentrations  resulted from an
average of  several high detection limit values that were used as a conservative
estimate of the maximum potential concentration of PCBs.  This data problem
was  limited to the five  stations in  St. Paul Waterway.  Because of the
uncertainty  in  the levels of  sediment PCBs in that area, the St. Paul Waterway
data were excluded from statistical analyses of the sediment-tissue relation-
ships.

     Statistical  analyses  (Pearson  correlation) of the data  presented in
Figure 4.16  indicated that  PCB elevations in muscle tissue were significantly
correlated  (r=0.82, P<0.05) with sediment elevations.  This  relationship
showed that as sediment PCB  levels exceeded 10 times  reference (>60 ug/kg),
the  sole muscle  tissue concentrations were approximately 10 times reference
or greater  (>360  ug/kg  wet weight).  Bioaccumulation  of PCBs to  such  levels
in seafood organisms  would result  in  a  substantial  risk to  individuals
eating relatively large amounts of locally caught seafood (see Section 5).
                                  4.46

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100
HI

o
00

5

HI

o
co

I
CO
_i
O

UJ
EAR
_i
O
 1.0
           • THIS STUDY

           A HISTORICAL DATA
                          BL-
                             SI
                             Ml
                                     Cl
                                 MD
                                      •is
                                      HY
   1.0
                                  10
                           EAR — SEDIMENT
                  # SEE DETECTION LIMIT DISCUSSION IN TEXT
                                                                100
 Figure  4.16.
Relationship of PCB contamination of  sediments
and fish  muscle tissue  for Commencement  Bay
waterways.
                            4.47

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4.5.3  Summary

     There were  no  generalized quantitative relationships  between metals
concentrations in sediments and in fish  tissues.  These results  are consistent
with the  ability of fishes to regulate metals, especially in  muscle tissue.
For organic  substances, there were  apparent relationships between  sediment
and tissue  levels of chlorinated compounds.   For PCBs,  substantial bio-
accumulation  to  concentrations about 10 times  reference  levels  occurred
at average sediment concentrations  exceeding 60 ug/kg.


4.6  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH HISTOPATHOLOGY

     This section  examines the relationship between tissue contamination
in English sole  and the occurrence of  hepatic lesions.  The primary  objective
is to  determine whether  there are  relationships between  the accumulation
of contaminants  in liver  tissue and  the presence of liver  abnormalities
such as neoplasms or megalocytic hepatosis.  The occurrence  of such relation-
ships could  then  be used to identify  possible  causative  agents  in hepatic
diseases of  fishes and to identify  problem contaminants in the study area.

4.6.1  Inorganic  Substances

     Data for  several  inorganic  constituents in  fish  liver samples did
not pass the project quality control  checks  and  were therefore  considered
to be  of questionable quality.  Data quality problems were associated with
high variability of replicate samples and  lack of accuracy for  a bovine
liver  standard.  Questionable data existed for arsenic, chromium, lead,
and selenium.

     Liver  composite  concentrations for  metals with  acceptable data are
presented in Table 4.13.  Data are  presented for normal and abnormal  liver
composites  to  enable comparisons of inorganic  contaminant  concentrations
among study  areas and to  evaluate whether  increased contaminant levels
are  associated with hepatic  lesions.  Concentrations of the  five metals
(cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, and mercury) were  very similar among normal
English sole liver samples from Carr  Inlet, the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline,
and the waterways.  Although not presented  in Table  4.13, liver  concentrations
of these metals were similarly consistent among  normal English  sole from
individual waterways.

     Concentrations of cadmium, nickel,  mercury,  and zinc in  abnormal liver
composites were also similar among lesion categories and  were  similar to
concentrations in normal  livers.  Therefore,  for these metals there is
no evidence  of  differential bioaccumulation  relative to study  area or to
health of the fish.

     Copper  concentrations were  similar  among  sample  groups except_for
a considerably  elevated  average concentration in the  fish with various
hepatic  abnormalities  from  the Commencement  Bay waterways (Table 4.13).
Examination  of  the data  indicated that this  elevation was entirely the
result  of a very high  copper concentration (189 mg/kg wet  weight) in the
abnormal liver  sample  from Middle Waterway.   Normal English sole livers
from Middle Waterway had  a  copper  concentration  of 4.4 mg/kg  wet weight,

                                 4.48

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TABLE 4.13. AVERAGE METAL CONCENTRATIONS (mg/kg wet weight)
          IN ENGLISH SOLE COMPOSITE LIVER SAMPLES
Liver
Condition
Normal
Normal
Normal
Neoplasms
Megalocytic
hepatosis
Multiple
lesions
Various
abnormal ities
Location
Waterways
Carr Inlet
Ruston-Pt.
Defiance
Waterways
Waterways
Waterways
Waterways
n
12
2
3
1
3
4
4
Cadmium
0.42
0.41
0.56
0.21
0.37
0.46
0.48
Copper
5.1
7.2
10.1
3.4
5.5
5.9
51
Nickel
0.40
0.39
0.46
0.23
0.60
0.69
0.72
Zinc
19.9
24.6
25.3
21.0
15.0
19.0
22.2
Mercury
0.075
0.060
0.097
0.088
0.086
0.098
0.106
                             4.49

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which  was similar  to those from Carr  Inlet  (7.2 mg/kg wet weight).  Middle
Waterway sediments had the highest copper  concentrations among the waterways.
These  data suggest  that fish  with hepatic  lesions in Middle Waterway are
accumulating excess levels of copper in their  livers.

4.6.2  Organic Substances

     Analyses of nonvolatile organic compounds  in English sole liver composites
resulted in few compounds being detected.  Detection limits for these compounds
typically ranged from 25 to 100 ug/kg wet  weight, although detection limits
for pesticides ranged from 100 to 200 ug/kg wet weight.  Detected compounds
included  phenol,  naphthalene,  hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorobutadiene
(HCBD), di-n-butyl  phthalate, benzyl  alcohol,  and PCBs.  In the 35 samples,
phenol and di-n-butyl  phthalate were detected  only twice  each, with no
apparent relationship to  liver condition.   HCB (130-260 ug/kg wet weight)
and  HCBD  (71-170  ug/kg  wet  weight) were  detected only in fish livers from
Hylebos Waterway.  Each of these compounds  was detected at  similar concen-
trations in both normal  and  diseased liver  samples from Hylebos Waterway.

     Naphthalene was detected  at concentrations of 30-240 ug/kg wet weight
only in normal livers from Carr  Inlet and several waterways.  Benzyl  alcohol
was detected in  12 of the 35 samples at concentrations of 220 to 14,000 ug/kg
wet weight.

     Of the  organic  compounds, PCBs were  the most frequently detected (all
35 samples) and  were  measured at the highest  concentrations,  ranging  from
220 to 11,000 ug/kg wet weight (Table 4.14).  When compared to concentrations
from Carr  Inlet, PCBs were  clearly elevated  in  both normal  and diseased
livers from English sole  in Commencement Bay waterways.  Average concen-
trations in both  diseased  and normal  livers  from the waterways were typically
about  2,000 ug/kg wet weight.  Fish  with  normal livers, megalocytic hepatosis,
neoplasms, and various other abnormalities all  had similar  PCB levels  in
their  livers.   Fish  with multiple hepatic  lesions from the waterways had
the highest average  (4,500  ug/kg wet  weight)  and maximum  (11,000  ug/kg
wet  weight)  liver PCB  concentrations.  Normal English sole collected from
the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline had liver  PCB levels that were intermediate
between those measured in fish from  the waterways and those from Carr Inlet.

     These data indicate that sole  in the  waterways are accumulating higher
levels of  PCBs in their livers relative to  reference levels in Puget Sound.
Relatively high  concentrations (about 2,000 ug/kg wet weight) were consistently
measured in both  normal  and  abnormal  livers.   Although  the highest  PCB
levels occurred in  fish with multiple hepatic lesions, there is no overall
indication of  higher  PCB  concentrations in  livers of diseased fish.

     The relationship between  tissue contamination and fish histopathology
was investigated further  by  evaluating the occurrences of  liver lesions
in the 85 English sole  used for muscle tissue  bioaccumulation  studies.
As was  indicated in Section  3.6,  few contaminants displayed elevated concentra-
tions  relative  to reference conditions  in  Commencement Bay  sole muscle
samples.  Moreover, several  of the detected organic  compounds  were  found
at low levels  in only a few fish from selected sites.  PCBs,  however, were
detected in almost  all English sole  tested  and were significantly elevated
in several  Commencement Bay waterways.  PCBs also pose the greatest public

                                  4.50

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TABLE 4.14.  TOTAL PCB CONCENTRATIONS (ug/kg wet weight) IN ENGLISH
                    SOLE  COMPOSITE LIVER SAMPLES

Liver
Condition
Normal
Normal
Normal
Neoplasms
Megalocytic
Hepatosis
Multiple
Lesions
Various
Abnormal ities
Location
Waterways
Carr Inlet
Ruston-Pt.
Defiance
Waterways
Waterways
Waterways
Waterways
n
12
2
3
1
3
4
4
Mean
2,012
260
866
1,800
1,990
4,500
1,925
Range
1,000-4,600
220-300
620-1,037
—
970-2,900
1,900-11,000
1,100-3,000
                               4.51

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health  risk of the contaminants bioaccumulated by  Commencement Bay English
sole.  Therefore,  data  on PCB levels  in  muscle tissue  were compared  with
liver  histopathology  results to determine whether muscle  tissue from fish
with liver lesions also had elevated contaminant levels.

     The 75 English sole collected from Commencement Bay  for bioaccumulation
studies are categorized according to the occurrence  of major hepatic  lesion
types  in  Table 4.15.  For preneoplastic lesions  and megalocytic hepatosis,
lesion prevalences were lower in fish with muscle  tissue  PCB concentrations
<100  ug/kg wet weight than  in fish with PCB levels >100 ug/kg wet weight.
However, statistical  analyses using the G-test of all tTTree lesion categories
indicated that lesion prevalence was  independent (P>0.05) of PCB levels.
Thus, there is  no  clear relationship between uptake  of  PCBs  and occurrence
of  liver  lesions.  English sole with all three major  lesion types can have
either low or  high PCB  concentrations in their muscle tissue.

     Although  aromatic  hydrocarbons have been implicated  as  causative agents
in the development  of  fish hepatic  lesions  (Mai ins  et al.  1984),  these
compounds are rapidly metabolized and do not generally accumulate in fish
muscle tissue.   In this study, naphthalene was the only aromatic hydrocarbon
measured  at detectable  levels in English sole muscle.   Naphthalene was
detected relatively infrequently and occurred consistently in high concentra-
tions  only in four English  sole from  Milwaukee Waterway.  Therefore, the
naphthalene data were not appropriate for statistical  analyses of disease
prevalence. Qualitative examination of the histopathological data indicates,
however, that  two  of the  four English  sole from Milwaukee Waterway  with
high  naphthalene  concentrations also  had megalocytic hepatosis.  One of
these sole also had hepatic neoplasms and preneoplastic lesions.

4.6.3  Summary

     There  were  no generalized  patterns  of  higher levels of contaminants
in fish livers  with serious lesions when compared to  normal livers.  Although
fish  with multiple hepatic  lesions had the highest liver concentrations
of PCBs, substantially elevated PCB  levels occurred  in  both normal  and
abnormal livers in English sole from the waterways.
                                  4.52

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  TABLE 4.15.   OCCURRENCES OF MAJOR HEPATIC LESIONS RELATIVE TO MUSCLE
        TISSUE  PCB  LEVELS  IN  ENGLISH  SOLE  FROM  COMMENCEMENT BAY
                      	Lesion  Category	
      Muscle                                                    Megalocytic
PCB Concentration        Neoplasm          Preneoplastic          Hepatosis
(ug/kg wet weight)     Yes        No        Yes        No        Yes        No
<100
100-399
MOO
1
0
1
31
30
12
3
5
2
29
25
11
1
5
2
31
25
11
                                   4.53

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                       5.  PUBLIC HEALTH  ASSESSMENT
 5.1  INTRODUCTION
     The  results of this  study and previous investigations  have shown that
various  inorganic and  organic  contaminants are bioaccumulated  by Commencement
Bay  fishes and  shellfish.  The objective of the public  health assessment
is to determine if there  are  significant health risks  associated with  con-
sumption of fish  and  shellfish from  Commencement  Bay.   This assessment
used data on tissue concentrations  of  contaminants  collected in  1984  as
part  of the bioaccumulation studies  (see Section  3.6)  and data on fish
catch/consumption from  a 1981 survey  by the Tacoma-Pierce County  Health
Department.

     Only  one  exposure  route (i.e., eating non-salmonid fish, fish livers,
and crabs from Commencement Bay) was considered  in  the assessment.   Other
possible exposure routes  (e.g., drinking water, inhalation) were not considered.

     English  sole and crab  were  selected  for  these analyses because  of
their availability in the project area and because they live  in close  asso-
ciation with contaminated bottom  sediments.  Although  English sole are
not commonly caught by  local  fishermen,  they were  used  as a conservative
estimate of the maximum contaminant levels that would be  expected to occur
in edible fish  tissues.   Data from a previous study  (Gahler et al.  1982)
have  shown that  concentrations of PCBs and arsenic  are two to three times
higher in English sole  than in commonly caught fish  such as walleye pollack,
hake, and cod.

     The remainder of this  section is a summary of the assessment of human
health risks conducted  for the Commencement Bay  study.  The detailed results
are contained in  a separate report prepared under  the  Commencement Bay
project (Versar,  Inc. 1985).

5.2  SUMMARY OF  RESULTS

     As indicated in  Section 3.6,  English sole  and crabs  from Commencement
Bay contained  higher concentrations  and  a wider  variety of  organic  compounds
than  conspecifics from  the  Carr Inlet  reference area.  There was little
difference between  Commencement Bay  and  Carr Inlet in the concentrations
of metals in fish and crab tissues.

     Risk assessments  for carcinogens and  noncarcinogens were  based  on
the range of fish  consumption rates presented  in Section  2.11.  Of the
total  exposed  population  of 15,220 persons,  only 30 persons experienced
the maximum consumption rate of 1 Ib/day.   From  the  same population, 1,735
persons consumed  1  Ib/mo.  Approximately 82 percent of  these exposed  population
(12,500 persons)  consumed less than  1 Ib/mo.

     In subsequent discussions,  individual  carcinogenic risks are  presented
as a probability of  contracting cancer resulting  from the specified  exposure.


                                    5.1

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These  risks are presented as negative exponents, where,  for example, 10"6
represents a 1  in  1 million chance of contracting cancer.

5.2.1  Carcinogens  in  Fish  Muscle Tissue

     At the  maximum fish consumption rate of 1 Ib/day,  estimated  individual
lifetime  risks would  exceed 10'6  for six carcinogens  (Table 5.1:  PCBs,
arsenic, hexachlorobenzene,  hexachlorobutadiene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)  phthalate,
and  tetrachloroethene.   At  this high consumption  rate,  individual risks
would  range from 10~5 to  10~3.  At  a fish consumption  rate of  1 Ib/mo,
only PCBs and arsenic  would exceed the  10~6 risk level.

     For a given consumption  rate, estimated individual  risks from consuming
Commencement Bay fish  muscle  would exceed those  for  consuming Carr Inlet
fish for three  of  the  above six carcinogens:  PCBs, bis(Z-ethylhexyl) phthalate,
and tetrachloroethene.    Comparative  risks for these compounds at the maximum
1  Ib/day consumption rate are:

                                               Individual  Risk
             Chemical              Commencement  Bay            Carr  Inlet
     PCBs                              6x10-3                  IxlO-3
     bis(2-ethylhexyl)  phthalate        2x10-5                  3xlO~6
     Tetrachloroethene                 1x10-5                  3xlO~6

     Estimated  individual risks  from consuming fish from  Commencement Bay
and Carr Inlet  for  arsenic  were similar, although  Carr Inlet risks  were
slightly  higher.   At  the maximum 1  Ib/day ingestion rate,  risks for  arsenic
would be:   Commencement Bay,  4xlO"4; Carr Inlet, 7xlO"4.

     Hexachlorobutadiene  and  hexachlorobenzene were detected  in  2 of 15
English sole analyzed  in Hylebos Waterway, but  not in other areas.   These
compounds were present  in the two Hylebos Waterway  fish  at concentrations
near the lower  limit  of analytical detection.   The estimated  risk  from
eating  these two fish was similar to the risk from eating fish from Carr
Inlet since it was assumed that  all contaminants were present  in concentrations
equal  to  the detection  limit.  Hylebos  Waterway remains  unique, however,
with respect to  the presence  of these two chemicals.

     Fish tissue  concentrations and hence the associated risk for consuming
fish varied  somewhat among  the Commencement Bay  Waterways.  For  PCBs,  the
suspected  carcinogen representing the greatest individual risk, fish consumed
from City  and Hylebos  Waterways represented the  greatest risk.   For PCBs,
risks  associated with eating fish from Hylebos  and  City Waterways were
about 10 times  higher  than  those for fish from Carr Inlet.   Risks  associated
with PCBs  decreased with distance from City Waterway towards Pt. Defiance.

     Estimated  individual risks for all chemicals in the  Pt. Defiance area
were similar to  those  in the  Carr Inlet reference area.  For arsenic,  the
risks  were similar throughout the project area at the  reference area.
Estimated risks for  bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ranged from 2x10-5 (City,
Milwaukee,  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline) to 3xlO"6 fHylebos Waterway and
Carr Inlet)  at  the  1 Ib/day consumption rate.  Tetrachloroethene was  only
analyzed  for in four  areas.  At the  maximum consumption rate, estimated
risks  would range from 2x10-5 (St. Paul, Hylebos)  to  3x10-6 (Carr  Inlet).
                                    5.2

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              TABLE 5.1.  ESTIMATED INDIVIDUAL LIFETIME RISKS
                FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN FISH MUSCLE TISSUE
Chemical
1
	Consumption Rate
 Ib/day             1  1
1 Ib/mo
 2x10-4
PCB
Arsenic
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorobutadiene
bis(Z-ethylhexyl) phthalate
Tetrachloroethene
 6x10-3
 4x10-4
 1x10-4
 2x10-5
 2x10-5
 1x10-5
                    4xlO-6
                    7x10-7
                    6x10-7
                    5x10-7
                                      5.3

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Hexachlorobutadiene  and  hexachlorobenzene were  detected in  fish muscle
tissue only in Hylebos  Waterway.

     Estimated  individual  risks for two carcinogens found  in  the  sediments
but not detected  in  fish muscle tissue would exceed  10~6 under the conservative
assumption that  the  compounds are  present in  fish muscle tissue at the
detection limit:  polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)  and  n-nitrosodi-
propylamine.   At  the  1  Ib/day consumption rate, individual  risks  associated
with these compounds  would  range from 3 to 4xlO"3.  However, neither compound
would be expected to  be present in  fish muscle  tissue at concentrations
near the detection limit.

     A primary  objective  of  the  Commencement Bay project  was  to  determine
if any fish tissue contaminant resulted in the  prediction of  one or more
excess cancer cases  in  the  exposed population.  This  assessment was accomplished
by applying the individual risks for each carcinogen to the exposed population
estimated from the catch/consumption survey (see Section 2.11).   The highest
estimated incidence  of  cancer in the exposed population of 15,220 persons
was  between  one  and  two  cases in  70  years, attributable to  PCBs causing
cancer of the liver  (Table 5.2).   All available  data indicate  that the
chemical  associated with  the highest individual  lifetime  cancer risk  is
PCBs; the next  highest  risk is attributable to arsenic.  The maximum  predicted
cancer  cases attributable  to the two chemicals over a 70-yr exposure  period
are  indicated in  Table 5.2.  Only  for PCBs did the predicted number of
cases exceed  one, even  with  the conservative approach taken  in this  assessment
(continuous exposure  for 70  yr, etc.).   As arsenic exposure  is predicted
to result in fewer  than one case in 70 yr, and it ranked the  second highest
in individual risk,  no other chemical is expected to produce cancer in
the exposed population  under the circumstances presented in  this  assessment.

5.2.2  Noncarcinogens  in Fish Muscle Tissue

     Three chemicals were  present in fish muscle at levels  that  would  cause
exposure to exceed the Acceptable Daily  Intake (ADI)  at the 1 Ib/day  consumption
rate:  antimony,  lead,  and  mercury.

     Tissue concentrations  of these  chemicals were very similar  among project
areas and at  the  Carr  Inlet reference site.   Therefore, the  ADIs  would
be exceeded at both Carr Inlet and Commencement Bay for the 1  Ib/day consumption
rate.

     Limiting  consumption  of  fish  to one-half pound per  day  would  result
in exposure less  than the ADI for all of these chemicals.   However,  health
risks  at  this consumption rate would still exist due to the  presence  of
carcinogens.

5.2.3  Carcinogens in Crab Muscle Tissue

     For  PCBs  and arsenic, estimated  individual risks from consuming  crabs
from Commencement Bay  were approximately the  same as those  from eating
fish.   Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate represented a higher risk  in crabs  than
in fish.  Average risks for  Commencement Bay, based on a consumption rate
of 1 Ib/day of crab muscle,  would be as follows:
                                    5.4

-------
                TABLE 5.2.  PROJECTED LIFETIME CANCER CASES
                            FOR PCBs  AND ARSENIC
Consumption
Frequency
(1 Ib)
PCBs
Daily
Weekly
Monthly
Bimonthly
Twice/yr
Yearly
TOTAL
Arsenic
Daily
Weekly
Monthly
Bimonthly
Twice/yr
Yearly
Fish
Intake
(g/day)

453.0
64.7
15.1
7.4
2.5
1.2


453.0
64.7
15.1
7.4
2.5
1.2
Exposure
(mg/kg/day)

1.36x10-3
1.94xlO"5
4.53x10"^
2.22x10"=
7.50x10-ฐ
3.60xlO"6


3.16x10"^
4.51x10"ฐ
1.05x10"?
5.16x10";
1.74x10";
8. 37x1 O"8
Individual
Risk

5.90xlO"5J
8.42x10"*
1.97x10":
9.63x10"=
3.26x10"=
1.56xlO"5


4.42x10"*
6.31x10 ;?
1.47x10"=
7.22x10"ฐ
2.44x10"ฐ
1.17xlO"b
Exposed
Population

30
1,005
1,735
1,111
2,618
8,721
15,220

30
1,005
1,735
1,111
2,618
8,721
Predicted
Cancer
Cases

0.18
0.85
0.34
0.11
0.09
0.14
1.69

0.01
0.06
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.01
TOTAL
15,220
0.13
                                     5.5

-------
               PCBs                               3x10-3
               Arsenic                            2x10-4
               Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate         3x10-6

     Risks for all  other  carcinogens were less than 10"6.   Only PCBs resulted
in average individual risks  from  eating Commencement Bay crabs  that were
greater  than the risks  from eating  Carr Inlet  crabs.   The  average  risk
for Commencement  Bay  crabs due to PCBs was about three times  the Carr Inlet
risk.  Within Commencement Bay, highest PCB risks were for crabs from  Sitcum
Waterway.  The risks  associated with bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were  higher
from eating Carr  Inlet  crabs  than Commencement Bay crabs.

5.2.4  Noncarcinogens in  Crab Muscle^

     At  the  maximum consumption rate of  1  Ib/day,  calculated exposures
would exceed the ADI  for the  following contaminants:  antimony,  lead,  silver,
zinc,  and mercury.  For these metals,  the ADIs  were exceeded  for crabs
from both Commencement  Bay and Carr  Inlet.  For  most of the metals,  the
differences between  Carr  Inlet and Commencement Bay were slight.  The maximum
difference between  Commencement Bay  and the  reference area was  for lead,
where crabs from  Sitcum Waterway  exceeded the ADI by a factor of 4.2.

     Limiting consumption  of  crabs from  either Commencement Bay  or  Carr
Inlet to 1 Ib/wk or  less would  result in all  noncarcinogenic  exposures
being below the ADI.

5.2.5  Consumption  of Fish Livers

     Twenty-one chemicals were detected in at least one fish  liver composite
sample from Commencement  Bay.  Four of the detected chemicals are  considered
to be carcinogens:   PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorobutadiene, and arsenic.

     At  the  maximum consumption rate of  0.12 Ib/day, consumption  of  PCBs
in fish  liver resulted  in   a predicted individual lifetime  risk  of  2xlO"2.
This risk is  higher  than the corresponding risk from  consuming PCBs  in
fish muscle  tissue  (6xlO~3) because of the much higher  PCB levels  in  fish
liver.   The predicted risk level  for PCBs in  Commencement Bay fish  livers
is also  about 15 times  higher  than the corresponding risk  for fish  livers
from Carr Inlet.

     Maximum predicted  carcinogenic risks for hexachlorobenzene  and hexachloro-
butadiene in  fish  liver  were about  the same  as  the corresponding risks
for fish muscle (10"4 and 10"5, respectively).  All  other predicted carcinogenic
risks were much lower than these  levels.

     These maximum predicted risks are associated with a high assumed  con-
sumption rate (i.e.,  eating  almost 2 oz of liver every day).   The  predicted
risks  would  be much lower   for  less  frequent  consumption  of fish  livers.
This  worst-case scenario was used, however, because of the absence of available
information on fish  liver consumption for Commencement Bay.

     The  ratios  of exposure to  ADI for all noncarcinogens  present  in  fish
livers  from Commencement  Bay  were less than  0.1.   Therefore, even  at the
                                    5.6

-------
maximum consumption  rate of 0.12 Ib/day, no human  health  effects attributable
to these chemicals would be expected.

     Of the  chemicals detected  in fish livers  from  Commencement Bay, PCBs
pose the greatest potential risk to public health.   Although the maximum
predicted  risk (10~2) Was  associated  with  a high  consumption rate, even
much less frequent consumption of fish liver would result in a substantial
predicted risk.
                                    5.7

-------
           6.0  PRIORITIZATION OF PROBLEM AREAS AND CONTAMINANTS
6.1  INTRODUCTION

     Results  from previous sections on chemistry,  toxicity, and biological
effects are integrated  in this section to identify  and  prioritize  problem
areas  for source evaluation.  The decision-making  approach for the ranking
of problem areas  is  presented in detail in Tetra  Tech  (1984a) and summarized
in Figure 6.1.  The first  step of  this  procedure was  to assemble "action
assessment" matrices  of the independent indicators  used to characterize
Commencement  Bay sediments and biota.  These data were  compared among areas
and evaluated  for:

     •    The significance of each  indicator relative to  reference
          conditions

     •    The combination of significant indicators that characterized
          each area

     •    The  relative  magnitudes of significant  indicators.

     Two  levels  of  spatial resolution of contaminant effects were provided
by these matrices.   First, average conditions were compared among the  eight
Commencement  Bay study  areas (i.e.,  the seven waterways and the Ruston-
Pt. Defiance Shoreline).  Second, average conditions were compared  among
segments  within study areas  to define general trends  in the larger areas
(Hylebos,  Blair,  and  City Waterways, and the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline).
Action-level  guidelines were then applied to identify and rank study areas
and segments of concern.   A widespread problem or a "hot spot" of  major
significance occurred within each study area or segment of  concern.

     Using  all  available data  [including  acceptable   historical data and
data from the  quantitative relationships (Section  4)]  the spatial extent
of each problem area  was then defined.  "Hot spots"  of strictly  local  signifi-
cance that were not  reflected in average conditions  at  the  study  area  or
segment  level were  also defined.   Problem areas were then ranked according
to severity of observed contamination,  toxicity, and biological effects.
Potential  problem chemicals were also identified and ranked.  On the basis
of these rankings, potential sources  of characteristic  chemicals  in  each
problem  area  were evaluated (Section 7).   Finally, priorities for remedial
action  were recommended (Section 8),  based on the relative magnitude  of
problems,  the  spatial extent of the problem area, and  the degree of confidence
that sources of potential problem chemicals had been identified.

6.2  IDENTIFICATION OF  PROBLEM AREAS

6.2.1  Action  Assessment Matrices

     The initial  identification  of problem  areas was conducted using  an
action  assessment matrix (Table 6.1).   Average elevation above reference
(EAR)  values  for different  indicators of sediment contamination, sediment

                                  6.1

-------
                         ASSEMBLE ACTION ASSESSMENT
                                 MATRICES
                         APPLY ACTION LEVEL GUIDELINES
                           IDENTIFY STUDY AREAS AND
                            SEGMENTS OF CONCERN
O
U
A
N
T
I
T
A
T
I
V
E

R
E
L
A
T
I
O
N
S
H
I
P
S
                                                                          RANK STUDY
                                                                          AREAS AND
                                                                           SEGMENTS
                                                                           (AVERAGE
                                                                          CONDITIONS)
AND
H
I
S
T
O
R
I

A
L
                  >
                                   DEFINE EXTENT OF
                                 PROBLEM AREAS WITHIN
                               STUDY AREAS AND SEGMENTS
                                  RANK PROBLEM AREAS
                                  (WORST CONDITIONS)
    I
                  >
                                   IDENTIFY POTENTIAL
                                  PROBLEM CHEMICALS IN
                                    PROBLEM AREAS
I	I
                           RANK PROBLEM CHEMICALS
                         CONDUCT SOURCE EVALUATIONS
                            FINAL PRIORITIZATION OF
                             PROBLEM AREAS FOR
                               REMEDIAL ACTION
     Figure  6.1.   Evaluation and prioritization  of problem  areas
                    and chemicals.
                                    6.2

-------
   TABLE 6.1.   ACTION  ASSESSMENT  MATRIX OF SEDIMENT  CONTAMINATION,  SEDIMENT TOXICITY,
               AND  BIOLOGICAL  EFFECTS  INDICES  FOR COMMENCEMENT  BAY  STUDY AREAS
STUDY
VARIABLE Hylebos Blair
SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY
Sb
As
Cd
Cu+Pb+Zn
Hg
Ni
Phenol
Pentachl orophenol
LPAH
HPAH <
Chlor. benzenes
Chlor. butadienes
Phthalates
PCBs
4-Methyl phenol
Benzyl alcohol
Benzoic acid
Dibenzofuran
Nitrosodiphenylamine
Tetrachloroethene
SEDIMENT TOXICITY
Amphipod bioassay
Oyster bioassay
INFAUNA0
Total benthos
Polychaetes
Molluscs
Crustaceans

10.
12.
2.4
10.
8.1
1.4
< 6.4
1.7
<45.
120.
9.9
130.
4.0
<48.

<7.3
5.0
< 0.7
29.
2.1
12.

2.1
2.2
1.2
0.6
^W
4.0
l!9
4.8
< 3.7
0.7
< 5.2
< 2.3
<28.
<42.
< 4.4
<12.
< 2.2
< 3.2
25.
< 2.4
< 0.6
1.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Site urn
8.0
11.
2.8
24.
5.0
0.6
4.3
< 2.1
<68.
<65.
2.6
|< 2.4 |
< 0.58
10.
2.4
< 0.5
73.
< 7.3
U 1.0
0.7
0.4
1.4
AREA
Milwaukee
3.6
3.6
1.7
3^8
0.8
<60.
<68.
< 2.5
< 1.2
< 0.66
13.
3.4
< 0.7
u i!o
L4
0.8
0.7
1.1
0.4
ELEVATIONS3
St. Paul Middle City Ruston
4.2
2.2
1.7
5.5
5.1
0.8
U l'.9
<73.
<27.
< 1.8
< 1.3
< 0.56
L300.
< 6.7
< 1.0
1 52.
U 1.2
U 1.0
1 4.8
3.8
1.9
1.5
1 6.8
1.0
1
9.3
9.6
2.8
18.
26.
0.7
11.
5.6
<110.
< 97.
< 6.1
< 6.8
< 5.1
8.5

< 33.
3.3
U 0.1
< 1.0
1.4
1.8
1.5
0.7
5.4
4.6


7.0
7.5
5.5
22.
10.
1.4
9.4
< 1.9
<120.
<140.
< 9.0
< 1.9
< 7.1
<12.

30.
4.7
< 1.6
58.
14.
U 1.0
2.7
2.6
0.7
0.8
U2


510.
620.
27.
120.
160.
2.8

4.5
< 1.0
<87.
<85.
< 3.3
< 1.7
4.5
19.

<10.
< 1.2
< 0.5
<160.
<22.

3.9
2.2
0.6
0.5
1.2
0.7
REFERENCE
VALUED
110. ppb
3370. ppb
950. ppb
35000. ppb
40. ppb
1740. ppb
< 33 ppb
U 33. ppb
< 41. ppb
< 79. ppb
U 21. ppb
U 62. ppb
< 280. ppb
< 6.0 ppb
< 13. ppb
U 10. ppb
< 140. ppb
U 3.7 ppb
U 4.1 ppb
U 10. ppb
9.3 S
13.0 X
d
d
d
d
FISH PATHOLOGY
 Lesion prevalence

FISH BIOACCUMULATION
2.7
1.7
2.1
6.7
Copper
Mercury
Naphthalene
Phthalates
PCBs6
DDE

5.6
1.5

21.
9.2
3.8







1.0
0.93
0.41
11.
7.0
5.1

1 4.0 | 2
0.80 1
0.33 24
0.53 3
f 4.8 | 2

3 | 9.1 I 1.0 3
6 0.76 1.3 0
0.19 0.19 4
.6 0.41 0.41 6
.8 1.1 4.7 9
.4 1.7 1.7 6

.8 I 2.5 |
.82 0.96
.1 0.19
.7 5.6
.8 1.9
.2 2.9

U 38. ppb
U 55. ppb
< 54. ppb
< 74. ppb
< 36. ppb
< 1.8 ppb

8  Boxed  numbers  represent elevations of chemical  concentrations  that exceed all Puget Sound reference area values,
and statistically significant  toxicity and biological effects at the P<0.05 significance level compared with reference
conditions.  The "U" qualifier  indicates the chemical was undetected and the detection limit is shown.   The "<" qualifier
indicates  the chemical was  undetected at one or more  stations.  The  detection limit is used in the calculations.

I*  Elevation above reference (EAR) values shown for each area are based on Carr Inlet reference values  for each variable
except for benthos (see footnote d).

c  Infauna EAR  are  based  on the elevation in biological  effects represented by reductions in infaunal abundances
relative to reference conditions.  EAR for all  other  variables reflect an increase in the  value of the variable at
Commencement Bay compared with  reference conditions.

<*  See Table 6.7 for a summary  of reference benthic values used for  groups of stations with similar grain size.

e Locations where PCB concentrations are significantly elevated also pose a significant  health risk  to the  exposed
population (see Table 6.8 guidelines).
                                                   6.3

-------
toxicity,  and biological  effects  (i.e., infaunal  abundance, and English
sole histopathology and muscle bioaccumulation)  are summarized  for  each
study  area in Table 6.1.  Reference  values are also presented.  Indicators
are defined in the decision-making approach document (Tetra Tech  1984a).
Original  values for an  indicator  can be obtained  by multiplying the EAR
reported in the table by  the appropriate reference value.  Similar  data
averaged  over study area  segments in Hylebos, Blair, and City Waterways,
and the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline are summarized in Tables  6.2-6.5.
Waterway  segments are arranged  from  the mouth (left) to  the head (right).
Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline segments  are arranged from Pt. Defiance (left)
to  the  eastern shoreline  off City Waterway  (right).   Histopathology and
bioaccumulation data for  English  sole are not  presented in these latter
matrices,  but are used  only  when  averaged over  an entire study area to
indicate broad-scale biological effects.  Mean  reference values  used  to
calculate  benthic infauna  EAR are presented  in  Table  6.6.  These values
differed among  study areas and segments  because of the grain  size differences
summarized  in  Table 6.7.

     The average concentration of several organic compounds was significant
 i.e., exceeded all Puget Sound reference conditions)  in all study areas
 Figure 6.1).  Average metals contamination was significant in all  areas
except St.  Paul Waterway.   Blair and Milwaukee  Waterways had the least
chemical  contamination, based on  number and magnitude of significantly
elevated chemical indices.   Average sediment  toxicity was statistically
significant (P<0.05 experimentwise, t-test)  in  all areas  except Middle
Waterway.   Average toxicity, as indicated by both  kinds  of bioassay, was
significantly elevated  only  in  Hylebos and  City Waterway study areas.
Elevations  of benthic effects, as  indicated  by  depressions abundances,
were  statistically significant (P<0.05 experimentwise, t-test) in Hylebos,
Sitcum, St. Paul, Middle, and City Waterway.

     The average prevalence of  lesions  (discussed in Section 3.5.6) was
statistically  significant  (P<0.05 experimentwise, 2x2  contingency test)
in  all  study  areas except  St. Paul  and City Waterways, and the Ruston-Pt.
Defiance Shoreline.  Bioaccumulation in English  sole muscle tissue was
statistically  significant (P<0.05) in  all study areas except Middle Waterway.

     The largest number  of significant indicators was observed in Hylebos
Waterway (significant EAR  for 18 chemicals or groups of chemicals, and
seven  toxicity or  biological  effects indicators).  The  lowest number  of
significant indicators averaged over  a study  area was found in  St.   Paul
Waterway  (significant EAR  for eight  chemicals or groups  of chemicals, and
three significant toxicity or biological effects indicators).

     Contamination, toxicity,  and benthic effects  were heterogeneous within
the larger  study areas  (Tables 6.2-6.5).  For  example,  although Hylebos
Waterway as a whole exhibited the  largest number  of significant indicators
and chemical contamination was  evident  throughout  the waterway, there was
no  significant toxicity in Segments HYS3 or  HYS4 and no significant benthic
effects in  Segments HYS3 or HYS6.   In  general,  chemical  contamination  in
Hylebos Waterway was most extensive  at  the head of the waterway, with additional
                                   6.4

-------
TABLE 6.2. ACTION  ASSESSMENT MATRIX OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION, SEDIMENT TOXICITY,
         AND  BIOLOGICAL  EFFECTS INDICES FOR COMMENCEMENT  BAY STUDY AREAS
H Y L
VARIABLE HY-6
SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY
Sb |10. |
As 4.9
Cd | 2.5 |
Cu+Pb+Zn 4.3
Hg 3.1
Ni 0.7
Phenol 5.9
Pentachlorophenol < 2.1
LPAH <19.
HPAH <19.
Chlor. benzenes < 2.9
Chlor. butadienes <11.
Phthalates <11.
PCBs <10.

4-Methyl phenol j5_
Benzyl alcohol 6.4
Benzoic acid < 0.6
Dibenzofuran | 14. I
Nitrosodiphenylamine U 1.2
Tetrachloroethene —
SEDIMENT TOXICITY
Amphipod bioassay 1.7
Oyster bioassay I 2.0 |
INFAUNAC
Total benthos 0.6
Polychaetes 0.4
Molluscs 0.8
Crustaceans 0.3
E B 0 S
HY-E

4.5
i.'e
7.8
11.
1.2
< 4.7
< 1.8
<43.
<58.
16.
<290.
< 2.6
I <49.

< 4.6
< 5.3
< 0.6
I 33.
< 1.4
| < 1.8

2.4
1.9
1.2
0.6
1 4.7
1.7
S




















E G M
HY-4

6.8
7.0
2.0
7.8
7.0
1.1
3.4
< 2.4
<52.
<99.
< 7.6
110.
< 2.1
pltT"

18.
3.5
< 0.5
34.
< 6.8
—

2.1
1.8
3.5
1.4
44.
14.
E N T E L E
HY-3

8.3
2!o
10.
6.6
1.4
1< 5.01
<0.98
<27.
<68.
< 5.9
1 55. 1
< 1.5

< 4.6
< 3.0
< 0.6
18.
< 3.5
3.3

0.9
1.8
0.7
0.3
4.4
0.7
VAT
HY-2

8.2
19.
3.1
14.
8.0
2.3
< 4.4
U 1.7
<73.
<220.
< 6.8
80.
< 6.3
110.

< 5.0
< 9.8
< 1.5
1 42.
U 1.2
2.2

2.7
2.5
27
-------
TABLE 6.3.  ACTION ASSESSMENT MATRIX OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION,  SEDIMENT TOXICITY,
         AND BIOLOGICAL  EFFECTS INDICES FOR COMMENCEMENT  BAY STUDY AREAS
BLAIR SEGMENT
VARIABLE BL-S4 BL-S3
SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY
Sb 3.9 2.5
As 3.2 3.4
Cd 1 2.51 l< 2.3]
Cu+Pb+Zn 2.5 3.1
Hg 1.5 < 2.4
Ni 0.7 0.7
Phenol | 2.6| < 5.9
Pentachlorophenol U 2.0 < 3.0
LPAH < 6.3 <26.
HPAH < 3.7 <35.
Chlor. benzenes U 1.4 < 2.7
Chlor. butadienes < 1.4 |< 3.7|
Phthalates l< 5.8| < 1.4
PCBs 1.3 |< 5. 6l

4-Methyl phenol g.Q <17.
Benzyl alcohol 6.1 < 2.2
Benzole acid < 0.3 < 1.4
Dibenzofuran | 5.2) I 26. I
n-Nitrosodiphenylamine U 1.2 < 1.0
Tetrachloroethene --- —
SEDIMENT TOXICITY
Amphipod bioassay — 1.7
Oyster bioassay --- 1.6
INFAUNAC
Total benthos --- 1.0
Polychaetes --- 1.0
Molluscs --- 1.0
Crustaceans — 1.0
E L E
BL-S2

5.1
8.9
2.2
5.6
4.6
0.7
< 5.0
< 2.4
<32.
<45.
< 6.8
< 2.4
< 2.8
j< 6.6|

14.
< 2.3
< 5.7
28.
< 4.0
U 1.0

2.1
1.6

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
V A T I 0 N S3
BL-S1

4.1
| 11. |
2.0
5.6
3.6
0.8
|< 4.4|
< 1.1
<23.
<45.
< 1.8
U 1.7
< 3.7
< 6.6

< 9.0
< 2.0
< 0.7
1 19- 1
< 1.4
U 0.5

1.9
1.4

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
REFERENCE
VALUE b

110. ppb
3370. ppb
950. ppb
35000. ppb
40. ppb
1740. ppb
< 33. ppb
U 33. ppb
< 41. ppb
< 79. ppb
U 21. Ppb
U 62 . ppb
< 280. ppb
U 6. ppb
< 13. ppb
U 10. ppb
< 140. ppb
U 3.7 ppb
U 4.1 ppb
U 10. ppb

9.3 %
13.0 %

d
d
d
d
    a  See Table  6.1  for footnotes.
                                        6.6

-------
TABLE 6.4. ACTION  ASSESSMENT MATRIX OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION,  SEDIMENT TOXICITY,
         AND BIOLOGICAL  EFFECTS INDICES FOR COMMENCEMENT  BAY STUDY AREAS
CITY S E G M E
VARIABLE CI-S3
SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY
Sb 4.9
As 5.6
Cd 3.8
Cu+Pb+Zn 10.
Hg 6.1
Ni 0.9
Phenol 11.
Pentachlorophenol < 1.8
LPAH <120.
HPAH 130.
Chlor. benzenes < 3.6
Chlor. butadienes | < 2.4|
Phthalates < 2.7
PCBs [ < 7.9|

4-Methyl phenol IQ_
Benzyl alcohol 3.0
Benzole acid < 1.5
Dibenzofuran | 52. |
n-Nitrosodiphenylamine U 1.5
Tetrachloroethene —
SEDIMENT TOXICITY
Amphipod bioassay 2.6
Oyster bioassay 2.0
INFAUNA ฐ
Total benthos 1.0
Polychaetes 1.1
Molluscs 1.0
Crustaceans 0.5

N T
CI-S2
5.4
6.8
6.5
28.
6.8
1.5
<10.
2.1
<110.
160.
27.
< 0.8
< 9.2
20.

45.
U 1.0
< 0.2
72.
32.
U 1.0
1.5
1 23"

6.8
4.6
24.2
6.1

E L




















EVA
CI-S1
loT"
4.9
2.5
26.
3.1
0.7
8.7
< 1.9
<120.
140.
< 7.5
< 2.0
< 9.
12.

<41.
6.2
< 1.8
58.
<15.
U 1.0
3.2
3.0

0.5
0.5
7.7
2.5

T I 0 N S3





















REFERENCE
VALUE b
110. ppb
3370. ppb
950. ppb
35000. ppb
40. ppb
1740. ppb
< 33. ppb
U 33. ppb
< 41. ppb
< 79. ppb
U 21. ppb
U 62 . ppb
< 280. ppb
< 6. ppb

< 13 ppb
U 10. ppb
< 140. ppb
U 3.7 ppb
U 4.1 ppb
U 10. ppb
9.3 %
13.0 %

d
d
d
d

      See Table 6.1   for footnotes.
                                       6.7

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TABLE 6.5  ACTION  ASSESSMENT MATRIX OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION,  SEDIMENT TOXICITY,
         AND BIOLOGICAL  EFFECTS INDICES FOR COMMENCEMENT  BAY  STUDY AREAS
RUSTON SEGMENT ELEVATIONS3
VARIABLE RS-S3 RS-S2 RS-S1
SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY
Sb 140.
As 120.
Cd 6.2
Cu+Pb+Zn 42.
Hg 6.9
Ni 1.1
1100.
1400.
58.
260.
370.
4.9
8.6
1 5.7 I
1.8
I 6.1 1
5.8
1.2
Phenol 1.4 | TF] | 4.5]
Pentachlorophenol U 1.1 < 1.1 < 0.9
LPAH < 3.5
HPAH 6.4
<150.
130.
<51.
<68.
Chi or. benzenes U1.4 <4.1 <3.0
Chlor. butadienes < 1.5
Phthalates < 2.4
PCBs < 1.9
4-Methyl phenol y 0.8
Benzyl alcohol U 1.0
< 2.1
< 6.9
41.

< 7.8
< 1.2
< 1.3
< 3.0
< 2.4

<16.
< 1.8
Benzole acid U 0.2 < 0.8 < 0.2
Dibenzofuran < 3.0
n-Nitrosodiphenylamine < 5.5
<160.
<22.
|<36. |
U 0.9
Tetrachloroethene — — —
SEDIMENT TOXICITY
Amphipod bioassay 2.0 | 6.5| 2.5
Oyster bioassay 1.1 3.2 | 1 . 8 |
c
INFAUNA
Total benthos --- | 2. 2 1 0.4
Polychaetes — 1.6 0.3
Molluscs --- | 14.6| 0.6
Crustaceans --- 2.0 0.4
REFERENCE
VALUE b

110. ppb
3370. ppb
950. ppb
35000. ppb
40. ppb
1740. ppb
< 33. ppb
U 33. ppb
< 41. ppb
< 79. ppb
U 21. ppb
U 62. ppb
< 280. ppb
U 6. ppb
< 13. ppb
U 10. ppb
< 140. ppb
U 3.7 ppb
U 4.1 ppb
U 10. ppb

9.3 %
13.0 %


d
d
d
d
  a  See Table 6.1
for footnotes.
                                        6.8

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            TABLE  6.6.   MEAN  REFERENCE VALUES USED TO CALCULATE
              ELEVATIONS ABOVE REFERENCE  FOR  BENTHIC  INFAUNA
Reference
Group3
A
B
C
D
E
F
Stations
Included
BL-11, BL-21
BL-31
BL-13
CR-ll.CR-12
CR-13,CR-14
BL-28, BL-11
BL-21, BL-31
BL-28, BL-11
BL-21, BL-31
CR-ll.CR-12
CR-13.CR-14
BL-11, BL-21
BL-31, BL-13
Percent
Finesb
55-64
84
4-21
37-64
4-84
55-84
Mean
Total
10,983
10,604
3,683
9,013
9,331
10,889
Benthic Invertebrate Abundance/m2
Polychaetes
4,254
4,400
1,644
3,452
3,642
4,291
Molluscs
6,049
5,933
1,016
4,980
5,171
6,020
Crustaceans
635
217
934
529
467
530
a  Different groupings  of the  reference stations in Table 3.24 were formed
to represent the different  benthic  habitats  included in  Commencement  Bay
study areas and  segments.

b  The  range of percent  fine-grained material (i.e., silt and clay) present
in sediments sampled  at the reference stations.
                                    6.9

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  TABLE 6.7. IDENTIFICATION OF REFERENCE  GROUPS  USED  TO  CALCULATE  BENTHIC
     ABUNDANCE ELEVATIONS ABOVE REFERENCE FOR  STUDY AREAS  AND SEGMENTS
Study Area/               Percent  Fine-Grained
Segment3                       Material**               Reference Group0
Hylebos                          6-86                       E
Sitcum                          76-81                       F
Milwaukee                       85-89                       B
St. Paul                        26-67                       D
Middle                             56                        A
City                            28-80                       D
Ruston-Pt. Defiance              3-33                       C
HYS1
HYS2
HYS3
HYS4
HYS5
HYS6
CIS1
CIS2
CIS3
RSS1
RSS2
48 - 79
76 - 86
61
61
6 - 78
86
39 - 78
74
28 - 80
13 - 29
3 - 33
D
F
A
A
D
B
D
A
D
C
C
a  Blair  Waterway  and  Segments BLS1,  BLS2,  and  BLS3  are  not  listed because
their component  stations  (except BL-25)  were considered representative
of reference conditions.  No benthic  data were  collected for BLS4  or RSS3

b  The  range of percent fine-grained material  (i.e.,  silt and  clay) present
in sediments sampled in  each study area or segment.

c  Reference groups are  defined in Table 6.6.
                                   6.10

-------
high values for selected  chemicals  in  Segment HYS5 near  the mouth of the
waterway.

     Relatively  lower levels  of chemical  contamination  were  observed in
the adjacent Blair  Waterway.  These lower contaminant levels corresponded
to a lack  of significant  toxicity or benthic effects indicators when averaged
over any segment  (Table 6.3).  Within City Waterway (Table 6.4),  contamina-
tion,  toxicity, and  benthic effects were highest near the head and within
the Wheeler-Osgood  branch of the  waterway.  The mouth of City Waterway
was comparable in number  and  magnitude of significant indicators  with Segment
RSS1 along the eastern  Ruston-Pt.  Defiance  Shoreline  (Table  6.5).   The
extreme metals contamination  and  high level of organic compound contamination
within Segment RSS2  corresponded with the largest number and highest average
magnitude  of toxicity  and benthic effects indicators along the Ruston-
Pt. Defiance Shoreline.

6.2.2  Application  of  Action  Levels to Determine Problem Areas

     Action-level  guidelines  are summarized in Table 6.8. A problem area
requiring  further evaluation  is  identified when  values  for three or  more
indices are significantly  elevated.   Using this guideline, problem areas
were indicated within  all Commencement Bay study  areas and  segments  shown
in  Tables 6.1-6.5.   Several of the segments within the larger  study areas
met this criterion only  when  study  area-wide values for English sole pathology
and  bioaccumulation  were considered.   According to Table 6.8  guidelines,
significant bioaccumulation  of  PCBs  in Hylebos,  Blair, Sitcum, and  City
Waterways may warrant  source  identification based solely on the prediction
of possible significant  health effects.

     Six  segments within  the  larger study areas had  significant EAR_for
all three  of the  site-specific  indicators  (contamination, sediment toxicity,
and benthic effects)  including:

     ง    Segments HYS1,  HYS2, and HYS5 in Hylebos Waterway

     •    Segments CIS1  and CIS2  in City Waterway

     •    Segment RSS2 along  the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.

     A  problem area  was  also  indicated  in Segment HYS4  of Hylebos Waterway
based on mollusc abundances being depressed  by greater  than  95 percent
relative  to reference  conditions  (i.e.,  EAR >20).  According  to guidelines
in Table 6.8, this condition indicated a problem area  regardless of the
values  for other indicators.

6.2.3   Ranking of Study  Areas and Segments

     As discussed, average  conditions  in  all  study areas  and segments exceeded
the thresholds required  for further definition of  problem areas  for source
evaluation.  Criteria presented  in  Table 6.9 were  applied to action assessment
matrices  (Tables 6.1-6.5) to rank study areas  and  segments.  These rankings
were  based on average conditions in each  area, and provide  an overview
of the relative contamination and  contaminant  effects throughout  Commencement
Bay.  This relative ranking process was  independent from  the action guidelines

                                   6.11

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                    TABLE  6.8.  ACTION-LEVEL GUIDELINES
Condition Observed
Threshold Required  for  Action
  I.   Any THREE  OR MORE  significantly
      elevated  indices9

 II.   TWO significantly  elevated
      indices

      1.   Sediments contaminated, but
          below  80th percentile PLUS:

          Bioaccumulation without an
          increased human health risk
          relative to that  at the
          reference area, OR

          Sediment toxicity with less
          than 50  percent mortality
          or abnormality, OR

          Major  benthic  invertebrate
          taxon  depressed, but by less
          than 95  percent.

      2.   Sediments contaminated but
          below  80th percentile PLUS
          elevated fish  pathology
          Any TWO  significantly ele-
          vated  indices, but NO ele-
          vated  sediment contamina-
          tion
Threshold  exceeded,  continue with
definition  of problem  area
No immediate action.   Recommend
site for future monitoring.
Threshold for problem  area definition
exceeded  if elevated  contaminants
are considered to be  biologically
available.   If not, recommend site
for future monitoring.

Conduct  analysis of  chemistry to
distinguish  site from adjacent
areas.   If  test fails,  no immediate
action warranted.  Otherwise, threshold
exceeded  for characterization  of
problem  area.   Re-evaluate signifi-
cance  of chemical  indicators.
III.   SINGLE  significantly elevated
      index
      1.   Sediment  contamination
If magnitude of contamination exceeds
the 80th  percentile for  all  study
areas,  recommend  area  for  potential
source  evaluation at a low priority
relative to areas  exhibiting contam-
ination  and effects.
                                  6.12

-------
TABLE  6.8.   (Continued)
      2.   Bioaccumulation
      3.   Sediment toxicity
      4.   Depressed benthic abundance
      5.   Fish pathology
Increased  human  health  threat,
defined  as:   Prediction  of >_ 1
additional cancer  cases  in  the
exposed  population for significantly
elevated carcinogens, OR

For  noncarcinogens,  exceedance
of the  acceptable  daily  intake
value is required.

Greater  than  50  percent response
(mortality or abnormality).

95 percent depression or greater
of a  major taxon (equals an EAR
of 20 or greater).

Insufficient as a single indicator.
Reconmend site for future monitoring.
Check adjacent  areas for significant
contamination, toxicity, or biological
effects.
a Combinations of significant indices are from independent data types (i.e.
sediment chemistry, bioaccumulation, sediment  toxicity, benthic infauna,
fish pathology).


Significant  indices are defined  as  follows:

Sediment chemistry = chemical  concentration at  study  site exceeds highest
value observed  at any Puget Sound reference area.

Sediment toxicity, benthic abundance, bioaccumulation, and pathology  =
statistically significant (P <0.05)  difference between study area and reference
area.
                                 6.13

-------
     TABLE  6.9.   SUMMARY OF RANKING CRITERIA FOR SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION,
                TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  INDICATORS
Indicator
Criteria
                                              Score
Total Metals
 Contamination
             ficant
Total Organic Compound
 Contamination
Toxicitya
Macroinvertebrates
 (Abundance)b
Bioaccumulation
 (Fish Muscle)
Fish Pathology
  (Liver Lesions)^
  Concentration not signi
  Significant; EAR <10
  Significant; EAR 10-<50
  Significant; EAR 50-<100
  Significant; EAR >100

  Concentration not significant
  Significant; EAR <10
  Significant; EAR 10-<100
  Significant; EAR 100-<1000
  Significant; EAR >1000

  No significant bioassay response
  Amphipod OR oyster bioassay significant
  Amphipod AND oyster bioassays significant
  >50 percent response in EITHER bioassay

  No significant depressions
  1 significant depression
  2 significant depressions
>. 3 significant depressions
>. 1 taxon with >_ 95% depression

  No significant chemicals
  1 significant chemical
  2 significant chemicals
2. 3 significant chemicals
  Significant bioaccumulation of >_ 1  chemical
     posing a human health threat0

  No significant lesion  types
  1 significant lesion type
  2 significant lesion types
2. 3 significant lesion types
2. 5% prevalence of hepatic neoplasms
Maximum Possible Score
0
1
2
3
4

0
1
2
3
4

0
2
3
4

0
1
2
3
4

0
1
2
3
                                     0
                                     1
                                     2
                                     3
                                     4

                                   24
a  Toxicity based on  amphipod mortality  and oyster  larvae abnormality bioassays.
b  Taxa considered were total benthic  taxa, Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea.
*•  As defined  in Table 6.8:  Action-Level  Guidelines.
"  Lesions considered were  hepatic  neoplasms, preneoplastic nodules, megalocytic
hepatosis, and nuclear pleomorphisms.
                                   6.14

-------
used  to define problem  areas.  A separate ranking  of  defined problem areas
within each study  area  is  presented in Section 6.4.   That ranking  is  based
on the maximum contamination and effects observed  in each problem area.

     Results of the ranking of study areas and segments  for chemical contamina-
tion are given in  Table 6.10.  Scores noted in Table 6.9  were based  solely
on the  magnitude  of chemical  contamination.  The scale  used for metals
differed from that for  organic compounds  to provide better resolution  of
the typically smaller range in metals concentrations among waterways compared
with that of organic compounds.  Separate  rankings are  given in Table  6.10
based on the average EAR of metals, organic compounds,  and the sum of metals
and organic compounds.   When  study  areas or segments had  the same  score
for the magnitude  of chemical contamination, the areas were further prioritized
by the number of chemicals with significant EAR.   For example, the  average
metals  contamination  in  sediments from Hylebos,  Middle,  City, and Sitcum
Waterways was of the same  order of magnitude (i.e.,  EAR  10-<50) resulting
in a  score of 2 for each waterway.   Of these waterways,  Hylebos Waterway
had the largest number  of metals or groups of metals (5)  with significant
EAR and Sitcum Waterway had the least (3).  Although Middle and City Waterways
had the same score for  metals contamination and the  same  number of metals
with  significant  EAR  (4),  Middle Waterway was  ranked higher because the
absolute magnitude of  contamination  in  Middle Waterway  was higher  than
that in City Waterway.  This sequential evaluation of chemical contamination
was used  to rank   all  study  areas and segments  relative  to  each other.
Segment RSS2 along  the  Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline had the highest overall
level  of contamination, while Blair Waterway, Milwaukee Waterway, and the
eastern shoreline  of the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline  had the lowest overall
levels of contamination.

     A separate ranking of study  areas  and segments  by the average number
and magnitude of statistically significant (P<0.05) sediment toxicity and
biological  effects is given  in  Table 6.11.   For toxicity and biological
effects indices, areas  were scored primarily by the number  of significant
indicators.  As shown in Table 6.9, the  highest  score of 4 in the toxicity
and biological  effects  indices was assigned for special  concerns related
to the  severity of the  toxic  response  or biological effect.   No attempt
was made to resolve tied scores among  segments in  Table  6.11  as was  done
for chemical contamination  ranked in Table  6.10.  Based on this scoring,
Sitcum Waterway was ranked highest of  all study areas, primarily because
PCB bioaccumulation posed potential  health concerns  and hepatic neoplasms
exceeded 5 percent  prevalence.   Sitcum Segment SIS1  and  Hylebos Segment
HYS2  ranked the highest  for  toxicity and biolgical  effects on a segment
basis.  Average conditions along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance  Shoreline ranked
lowest  among study areas, and  Segments  RSS1 and  RSS3 ranked lowest among
segments.  When  contributions from  fish  pathology and bioaccumulation indices
were  removed,  Hylebos and City  Waterways  ranked  the highest among study
areas  and  also  contained the highest ranked segments for combined toxicity
and benthic  effects.

     Scores  for study  area segments  based on the maximum observed values
at any station  within the  segment for  contamination, sediment toxicity,
and benthic effects indices  are listed  in Table  6.12.   Maximum observed
conditions  within   each segment  were  used for scoring the site-specific
indices so  that worst-case conditions of problem areas within each segment

                                  6.15

-------
         TABLE 6.10.  RANKING OF  STUDY  AREAS  AND SEGMENTS BY AVERAGE MAGNITUDE
                    AND NUMBER OF  SIGNIFICANT  SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS
           Total  Metals3
                  Total  Organic  Compounds3
                                          Total Chemicals3
 Area    Number of
  or    Significant
Segment   Metals    Score
Ruston

Hylebos
Middle
City
Sitcum
5
4
4
3
Blair       1
Milwaukee   1
2
2
2
2

1
1
                  Area     Number  of
                   or    Significant
                 Segment   Compounds  Score
St. Paul
0
St. Paul

Hylebos
City
Middle
Ruston
Blair
Sitcum
Milwaukee
13
12
10
10
11
10
 7
3
3
3
3
                                     Area    Number of
                                      or    Significant
                                    Segment  Chemicals   Score
                                              Ruston
                                                16
Hylebos
City
Middle
Sitcum
St. Paul
Blair
Milwaukee
18
16
14
13
7
12
8
5
5
5

4
4

3
3
RSS2
RSS3

HYS1
MDS1
CIS2
HYS2
SIS1
CIS1
HYS3
HYS5
BLS1

HYS4
CIS3
HYS6
BLS2
RSS1
MIS1
BLS4
BLS3


SPS1
6
5

5
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
1

3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1


0
4
4

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1


0
SPS1

CIS1
HYS2
HYS5
HYS4
HYS1
RSS2
CIS2
MDS1
CIS3

BLS2
SIS1
HYS3
HYS6
BLS3
BLS1
MIS1
RSS1


BLS4
RSS3
7

12
11
11
11
10
10
10
10
9

12
10
10
10
9
8
7
6


5
2
4

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2


1
1
RSS2

HYS1
HYS2
CIS1
CIS2
MDS1
HYS5
RSS3

HYS4
SIS1
HYS3
CIS3
BLS1
SPS1

BLS2
HYS6
BLS3
MIS1
RSS1

BLS4
16

15
15
15
14
14
14
7

14
13
13
12
9
7

14
12
10
8
8

6
7

5
5
5
5
5
5
5

4
4
4
4
4
4

3
3
3
3
3

2
3  Number  of significant chemicals  (metals or organic compounds)
and groups  of chemicals  listed  in  the action  assessment matrices
Total  chemicals are  the  sum  of metals and organic compound scores.
in Table 6.9.
                                                        includes individual
                                                         (Tables 6.1-6.5).
                                                         Scores are defined
                                      6.16

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TABLE 6.11.  RANKING OF STUDY AREAS AND SEGMENTS BY THE AVERAGE MAGNITUDE
               OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Scored
Area
or Sediment Macro- Muscle Liver
Segment Toxicity invertebrates Bioaccumulation Pathology
Sitcum
Hylebos
City
Blair
Middle
Milwaukee
St. Paul
Ruston
HYS2
SIS1
CIS2
HYS4
HYS5
HYS1
CIS1
HYS6
CIS3
RSS2
MDS1
HYS3
MIS1
BLS1
BLS2
BLS3
SPS1
BLS4
RSS1
RSS3
2
3
3
2
0
2
2
2
3
2
2
0
3
2
2
2
3
4
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
-b
2
0
1
1
1
0
2
0
1
0
3
1
4
4
1
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
_-b
0
-b
4
4
4
4
0
2
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
0
4
2
4
4
4
1
4
1
1
4
1
0
1
4
1
0
0
1
4
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
4
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
Total
11
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
11
11
10
9
9
8
8
7
7
7
6
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
3
1
 Scores are defined
 No data available.
in Table 6.9.
                                  6.17

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             TABLE 6.12.  RANKING OF STUDY AREA SEGMENTS  BY MAXIMUM OBSERVED
                 SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION, TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Maximum Chemical
Segment
HYS1
HYS2
HYS3
HYS4
HYS5
HYS6
BLS1
BLS2
BLS3
BLS4
SIS1
MIS1
SPS1
MDS1
CIS1
CIS2
CIS3
RSS1
RSS2
RSS3
Metals
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
3
2
2
2
4
4
Organic
Compounds
3
3
3
2
4
2
3
3
2
2
3
3
4
3
3
3
2
3
3
2
Score3
Total
5
5
5
4
6
4
5
5
3
3
5
4
6
6
6
5
4
5
7
6

Bioassay
2
3
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
— b
2
2
4
0
4
2
3
3
4
2
Maximum
Benthos
4
4
0
4
1
0
0
0
0
_.b
1
0
4
Od
4
4
0
0
4
— b
Toxicity/Effects Score3
Muscle
Bioaccum
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
1
0
4
4
4
1
1
1
Liver
Pathology
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
0
4
0
2
0
0
0
0
Total
11
12
5
9
8
5
5
7
5
5
11
5
9
4
12
12
7
4
9
3
TOTAL
SCORE3
16
17
10
13
14
9
10
12
8
8C
16
9
15
10
18
17
11
9
16
9
3  Segments defined  for data analysis were scored by the maximum observed level  of contamina-
tion, toxicity,  or benthic effects at  any station  within the  segment.  Bioaccumulatioi
and  pathology scores  reflect average waterway  conditions only.   Scores are defined ii
Table 6.9.

b  No data  available.

c  Based on partial  set of toxicity/effects indicators

d  Benthic depressions  were significant (rank=2)  for Station  MD-12 in Middle Waterwa;
when tested among waterways, but not among all stations because  of  the effect  of multipli
comparisons on the  critical  t-value  for the respective significance tests (i.e., waterwa,
versus station level).
                                        6.18

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were  considered.  Scores  for fish liver pathology and muscle bioaccumula-
tion in Table 6.12  still reflect the average  conditions observed throughout
each  study area.  Scores  for all five indicators are summed in Table 6.12
by segment to combine  information for all  available indicators.  Segments
are  listed in Table  6.12  in geographic  order rather than  rank order to
facilitate comparisons  of conditions within a  study area and between adjacent
study areas.

     After segments were prioritized according  to average conditions (Tables
6.10, 6.11) and worst-case conditions  (Table 6.12), results of the  two
methods  were compared (Figure 6.2).  Selected  segments in Hylebos, Sitcum,
and City  Waterways  and Segment RSS2 along  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline
scored  high  by both  methods.  Milwaukee Waterway (MIS1), Blair Waterway
segments, and Segment  RSS1  on the  eastern Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline
scored low by both methods.

6.3  SPATIAL  EXTENT AND RANKING OF PROBLEM AREAS

     Although  chemical  contamination data are available for all sediment
samples collected, toxicity and macroinvertebrate  abundance data are available
only  for some of the samples.  The chemical data set is therefore the most
useful for defining the spatial extent  of problem areas,  and was used  to
delineate the areas  indicated in Table 6.13.   All available data were used,
including predictions of  problem  sediments based on sediment chemistry
at  non-biological stations and quantitative relationships (Section 4) that
defined apparent effect  thresholds  for  chemicals.  Segments containing
each  problem area were ranked according to the "maximum" score for worst-
case conditions  in  the segment (Table 6.13).   The top eight  problem  areas
all  exhibited significant contamination,  sediment toxicity, and benthic
effects,  in addition  to having at least one significant  indicator of  fish
pathology or  bioaccumulation.  The  lowest  ranking problem areas were contained
in segments that  did  not exhibit significant  sediment toxicity or benthic
effects.   Based solely on quantitative relationships, significant toxicity
or benthic infaunal effects would be  predicted at the stations indicated
in Table  6.13 if  biological data were collected.

     The  spatial  extent  and  general priority  for source evaluation of all
problem areas identified in Commencement Bay  are summarized  in Figure  6.3.
Problem  areas defined only  by mid-channel stations in the current study
were assumed  to  extend from shoreline to shoreline, unless  historical  data
indicated otherwise (e.g., nearshore historical  samples were uncontaminated).
At the highest  priority sites, at least four  indicators were  significant,
including all  three  site-specific indicators.   Eight problem areas received
highest priority for  source  evaluation,  including three  within Hylebos
Waterway, two within City Waterway, and one within each of Sitcum and St. Paul
Waterways and along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.   The second priority
sites  are "hot spots" where chemical contamination exceeded an "apparent
effect threshold" (AET), and both bioassays  were significant or multiple
benthic  depressions  were  observed within  the problem area.   Four problem
areas received  second  priority for  source  evaluation, including one  each
within Hylebos, Middle, and City Waterways,  and  at Station  RS-13 along
the eastern Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.
                                 6.19

-------
                           SCORE"
    SEGMENT
RE'

14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
y f f * f ;
^ •> > '
•
' , ,
^ ' , *
\
', ,
%
v.v ^ ,
'<*/ฃ•( ^ ~> •, •. .
SEGMENT
HYS2
SIS1, CIS2
HYS5, RSS2
HYS4, CIS1, HYS1
SPS1
MDS1, CIS3
HYS6
HYS3, BLS1, RSS3
BLS2, BLS3
Ml^l
RSS1 Rl S4
AVERAGE
RANK
METHOD
                              17


                              16


                              15


                              14


                              13


                              12


                              11


                              10


                              9
                                            -^
CIS1


HYS2, CIS2


RSS2, SIS1, HYS1


SPS1
HYS4


BLS2
          BLS1


 RSS3, RSS1, MIS1, HYS6


 BLS2, BLS4
                                    MAXIMUM
                                    RANK
                                    METHOD
      •SCORES ARE SUMS FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS
      FROM TABLES 6.10 AND 6.11

      "SCORES ARE SUMMARIZED IN TABLE 6.12
Figure 6.2.   Relative  ranking of  study area segments by average
              and maximum observed contamination, toxicity, and
              biological  effects.
                           6.20

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	TABLE 6.13.  DEFINITION AND  RELATIVE  RANKING OF PROBLEM AREAS

                  Total
   Segment       Contaminant-
  Containing   Toxcity-Effects
 Problem Areaa     Scoreb        Stations  Included  in Problem Areac
CIS1
HYS2
CIS2
RSS2
SIS1
HYS1
SPS1
HYS5
HYS4
BLS2
CIS3
MDSie
HYS3e
BLSie
RSS3
RSS1
MISie
HYS66
BLS36
BLS46
18
17
17
16
16
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
10
10
9
9
9
9
8
8
CI-ll,CI-12,CI-13,CI-14,CI-15,CI-18d
HY-20,HY-21,HY-22,HY-23
CI-02,CI-16
RS-03,RS-16,RS-17,RS-18,RS-19,RS-20,RS-21
SI-11,SI-12,SI-13,SI-14,SI-15
HY-11,HY-12,HY-13,HY-14,HY-15,HY-16,HY-17,
HY-18.HY-19
SP-13,SP-14,SP-15,SP-16
HY-03,HY-36,HY-38,HY-39,HY-40,HY-41,HY-42,
HY-45,HY-46,HY-47
HY-32.HY-33
BL-04,BL-16,BL-18,BL-19,BL-20,BL-23,BL-26,B-15
CI-20,CI-21
MD-11,MD-13
HY-27,HY-31
BL-01,BL-14
RS-22,RS-24
RS-13
RS15f
-none-
CB-11
BL-27,BL-29,BL-30
CB-12

a  Problem  areas encompass  all  stations sampled  in  1984 only in Segments HYS1,
SIS1,  CIS2,  RSS2, RSS3, and possibly MDS1  (Station MD-12  in  this segment was
close  to the AET  for  several chemicals).

b  Total  scores  using the maximum rank  method are summarized in Table 6.12.
Segments are listed by decreasing magnitude of these scores.

c  Stations shown  have  sediment concentrations  (by various normalizations)  of
some chemical  above its  AET  defined in  Section 4.  Biological data were not
available for all stations listed.

d  Station  CI-18 may not  be contained in the same problem area defined for the
remainder of the  Segment  CIS1 stations listed.
                                  6.21

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TABLE 6.13  (Continued)
e  No  stations with  biological  data in these  segments  had  sediment chemical
concentrations exceeding  their  AET.

f  This station had  significant organic and metals contamination only  when normalized
to percent fine-grained material.  There  were no  biological data  available  so
no total  toxicity-effects score has  been  determined.  Station RS-15 is considered
a separate potential  problem  area  in Segment RSS1  from that defined by Station
RS-13.
                                   6.22

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              COMMENCEMENT
                    BAY
                               HIGHEST PRIORITY PROBLEM AREAS

                               SECOND PRIORITY PROBLEM AREAS

                               POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREAS
                               (NO CONFIRMING BIOLOGICAL
                               DATA AVAILABLE)

                               POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREA BY
                               HISTORICAL DATA ONLY

                               CHEMICALS EXCEED APPARENT
                               EFFECTS THRESHOLD

                               CHEMICALS BELOW APPARENT
                               EFFECTS THRESHOLD
ro
co
                      CITY
                      WATERWAY
                                                 Figure 6.3.
Definition and  prioritization of  Commencement
Bay problem areas.

-------
                    RUSTON
no
            N
            o
            I
            r
            o
                                       COMMENCEMENT
                                              BAY
   4000
J	I  FEET
TACOMA
 1
                            METERS
1000
                                       HIGHEST PRIORITY PROBLEM AREAS

                                       SECOND PRIORITY PROBLEM AREAS

                                       POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREAS
                                       (NO CONFIRMING BIOLOGICAL
                                       DATA AVAILABLE)

                                       POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREA BY
                                       HISTORICAL DATA ONLY

                                       CHEMICALS EXCEED APPARENT
                                       EFFECTS THRESHOLD

                                       CHEMICALS BELOW APPARENT
                                       EFFECTS THRESHOLD
                      Figure  6.3.   (Continued),

-------
      Third  priority  sites  included those where chemical contamination  exceeded
 an  AET,  and  one of the bioassays was significant or a single  benthic taxon
 was significantly depressed  in the problem area.  Two problem areas received
 third  priority for source  evaluation, including one within  each  of Segment
 BLS2 in  Blair Waterway and Segment RSS3 along the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.
 Significant  amphipod bioassay responses  were  observed at  two  stations  in
 Milwaukee Waterway but no  chemicals were found above their AET.   As discussed
 in  Section  4, these  amphipod responses  may have  resulted  from  effects  of
 grain size.  The lowest priority sites for source evaluation included  those
 where  no sediment toxicity  or benthic  effects  were observed, but where
 additional  chemical data suggested that toxicity  or benthic  effects may
 have occurred at non-biological  stations.  The remaining six areas in Table 6.13
 fell into  this  priority  category, including two  potential problem  areas
 within Hylebos  Waterway,  three areas  within  Blair  Waterway,  and  second
 potential problem area within Segment RSS1 on the  eastern Ruston-Pt. Defiance
 Shoreline (Station RS-15).   This latter area did not exhibit highly elevated
 concentrations of contaminants on a dry-weight basis, but AET were exceeded
 after  the data were  normalized to percent fine-grained material  or organic
 carbon content.

     Problem area boundaries shown in Figure 6.3 were  extended, as appropriate,
 where historical data suggested that a problem existed.  According to  action-
 level  guidelines in Table 6.8, amphipod  toxicity data  from Swartz et al. (1982)
 showing >50 percent response would identify historical problem  sediments.
 Historical chemical  concentrations that  exceeded an  AET were also considered
 appropriate for defining problem area boundaries.   In general,  these historical
 toxicity and chemical  data  reinforced  current  observations.   The  problem
 area in Segment HYS2 was  expanded slightly as  result of these comparisons,
 and historical  high toxicity  (>50 percent mortality)  in the upper  turning
 basin of Segment  HYS1 reinforced a decision to extend the problem area
 to  include the  entire segment.   High  toxicity also  was reported at the
 head of Milwaukee Waterway, at the Lincoln Avenue Drain on the  north  side
 of  Blair Waterway,  and at  a drain near the head  of St. Paul  Waterway.
 Present data for sediments  near these locations did  not indicate  a  problem.

     Source evaluations  are recommended for  at  least the  14 problem areas
 in  priority categories  1,  2,  and 3 discussed in this  section.

 6.4  CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF  PROBLEM AREAS

     This section summarizes chemical  characteristics of  the  14 problem
 areas reconmended for source evaluation (Section 6.4).   Chemical characteristics
 of  the  remaining problem  areas  also are summarized briefly.  This analysis
was conducted 1)  to  identify  chemicals present  at  high concentrations within
each problem area and 2)  to identify  chemicals that appear either to distinguish
problem areas from one  another  or  to  establish  apparent  relationships  among
them.  In Section 6.5,  quantitative  relationships  among  contaminants, sediment
toxicity, and biological  effects  are  used  to prioritize potential problem
chemicals in each  problem area.

     To provide  a reasonably  consistent data  set for comparing the  chemistry
of problem areas, the analysis is based primarily upon data  from the March, 1984
sediment  survey.  These  data were  collected synoptically  using similar
procedures,  and were  analyzed  by  the  same  laboratory,  therefore, they should

                                  6.25

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have  the lowest intra-sample variance  due  to  other factors besides  field
variability.   Distributions of the measured  chemicals also  reflect those
of unmeasured chemicals  from similar sources and  results must be interpreted
within this context.

6.4.1  Hylebos Waterway

     Two high priority problem  areas were identified within Segments HYS1
and HYS2 of upper  Hylebos Waterway.   The  entire reach of  upper Hylebos
Waterway was highly  contaminated with HPAH and most of the metals,  although
the concentrations  of only some metals exceeded toxicity or benthic effects
AET.   Distributions of these chemicals  were not clearly separated between
the two segments.   Both groups of substances  (especially  HPAH)  exhibited
high EAR near two sites, one along the south side of the channel at Stations
HY-15  and HY-16, and  a  second on the  south side at Station HY-22.   Compositional
differences   in the  HPAH  and  LPAH between these  two sites indicated that
the PAH did not necessarily originate from the same source.   Compositional
similarities were generally  too weak to establish a clear  relationship
between the HPAH at the  sites, supporting  the  definition of  two problem
areas.  Metals in the sediments of upper Hylebos Waterway exhibited  a general
spatial distribution  similar to that of the  PAH.   Arsenic  and  copper were
present  at relatively  high  levels compared to those of the other metals,
but only arsenic was  present at concentrations  above toxicity or benthic
effects  AET.   Although this  composition was not observed  at most  stations
in Commencement Bay, it was  characteristic  of  some sediments  along the
Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline, as discussed  in  Section 6.4.8.   PCB and
chlorobenzene concentrations were elevated  above AET only  in  the Segment
HYS2  problem area,  distinguishing this problem area from that  in Segment
HYS1.   Sediments from Station HY-27  in Segment  HYS3 also  contained high
PCB concentrations  that exceeded toxicity AET.  There was no evidence that
the problem area in  Segment  HYS2 extended to  include the  "hot spot"  in
Segment HYS3.

     A "hot  spot"  problem area  was identified in Segment HYS4  of Hylebos
Waterway, east of the llth Street Bridge (Stations HY-32 and  HY-33).  This
segment  included  a  long  reach of waterway  with  few sampling  stations.
Concentrations of metals and chlorinated compounds  in this area  increased
toward  adjacent segments, indicating that advective transport from outside
of the segment may  have  contributed many of  these substances.   The PAH,
however, exhibited  high EAR at Station HY-33,  and decreased  in concentration
with distance  from  this station.   HPAH at  Station HY-33 were unique because
of the high EAR for benzo(a)pyrene compared to those of other HPAH.  Finally,
4-methylphenol was  present  at  Station  HY-33  at  the highest EAR observed
for that compound  in Hylebos Waterway.  This concentration did  not exceed
either the toxicity  or benthic effects AET.  Sediment concentrations  appeared
to show  a  decreasing gradient  with distance from Station HY-33.  While
sediment from  this  problem area generally did not  contain chemicals with
high  EAR,  gradients for  the  PAH and 4-methylphenol indicated presence of
a nearby source.  The limits  of the "hot spot"  were poorly defined, but
could  have  extended from approximately the llth Street Bridge  east to Station
HY-32.

     A high priority problem area  was identified  in Segment HYS5, west
of the llth  Street Bridge.  While cross-channel sampling was  limited, sediments

                                  6.26

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from  the southern  side of the waterway appeared  to be more contaminated
than those from the middle  or  north side.  A single  sample from  the large
shallow area on the north  shore  (HY-02)  indicated that this area was uncontami-
nated (i.e., no concentrations exceeded  the range of concentrations observed
in  any  Puget Sound  reference area).  Anomalously low EAR for all chemicals
were measured  at  Station HY-44.   The simplest  explanation  is  that this
station contained  relict  sediments either dumped at the site in  a dredging
operation or exposed by ship scour.   Concentrations of the majority of
the  chemicals measured in  sediments  along the south shore were not greatly
elevated above  reference conditions, although selected chlorinated compounds
were  present in the highest concentrations observed  throughout Commencement
Bay.  Their spatial  distributions  were not as  simple as might  have been
expected if all  compounds  had  originated from a single source.   Intertidal
and shallow subtidal  sediments along  the southern  shore about 3,000 feet
from  the waterway mouth were highly  contaminated with chlorinated ethenes.
The concentrations of these  compounds  sometimes eceeded toxicity and benthic
effects AET by several orders of magnitude.  These very  high contaminant
levels were restricted to the nearshore area,  and  declined  rapidly with
distance offshore  and  alongshore.   Chlorinated butadiene  concentrations
exhibited the strongest single gradient, maximizing at Stations HY-43,
HY-46,  and HY-47  (all  contiguous nearshore stations on the south side of
the channel).   Only  concentrations  of HCBD exceeded AET in this  area.
Concentrations of  a tentatively identified pentachlorocycolpentane  isomer
and many of the chlorinated benzenes  were elevated above AET at Station
HY-46  and also at Station  HY-36, near the llth Street Bridge.  PAH concen-
trations were also elevated  near the llth Street Bridge.

6.4.2  Blair Waterway

     Blair  Waterway was relatively   uncontaminated  in comparison with most
other areas examined in Commencement Bay.  Sediment toxicity was  only observed
at two stations  in Segment BLS2 from Lincoln Avenue Drain to the llth  Street
Bridge.   In general, chemicals in Blair Waterway  sediments  were either
uniformly or patchily distributed.  Concentrations of 4-methylphenol  exhibited
an apparent gradient  from a  maximum near Lincoln Avenue to a minimum toward
the mouth of the  waterway.  In  contrast, 2-methoxyphenol showed an opposite
gradient, indicating possible  advective transport into this reach from
areas  near the mouth of the  waterway.  Pentachlorophenol was found in high
concentration at two  stations  in Blair Waterway (Stations BL-18 and BL-30)
but was not detected  in  the  surrounding sediments.  Probably the most  unique
feature of sediments  in  Segment BLS2  was the high  EAR  for  1,3-dichloro-
benzene.  While much  higher  EAR were observed for other chlorinated benzenes
in other study  areas, the highest  concentrations of 1,3-dichlorobenzene
were found in  Segment  BLS2.  A clear gradient of decreasing  concentrations
was observed in  this  segment from a maximum at  Station BL-19  in the middle
portion of the waterway  to a minimum near the mouth.   High  concentrations
were also found  in sediments from the   south side of the waterway in Segment
BLS2 (BL-19,  BL-20,  BL-21,  and BL-24).  Pentachlorophenol and  1,3-dichloro-
benzene were detected in sediments from only a few other locations  in Commence-
ment Bay.  There were insufficient biological  stations with high concentrations
of these compounds to determine their  AET for the study area.    A  potential
problem area defined by  these  compounds may extend  from about  1,000 ft
east to 500 ft  west of Lincoln Avenue   in mid-Blair Waterway.   This  potential
problem area does  not have a high priority for  source evaluation.

                                 6.27

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6.4.3  Siteurn Waterway

     A high-priority problem area  was  defined for all of Sitcum Waterway.
Bioaccumulation of  PCBs  in  fish muscle  tissue  and a high  prevalence of
hepatic  neoplasms were  major  factors that  increased the ranking of this
problem area relative to others.   Sitcum  Waterway  sediments  differed from
those in neighboring waterways primarily  in the much higher EAR for essentially
all of the metals.   Based on the  most recent  samples, metals  were  present
at  high  EAR at the head  of  the waterway and decreased  in  concentration
toward the mouth.  A more patchy distribution of metals  is  indicated by
historical data.  In consideration of  all  available data, no trends are
evident.   However, the concentrations of  several  metals  in both data sets
exceed AET (i.e.,  arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc).   The relative concentrations
of arsenic, copper,  lead, and zinc in Sitcum Waterway sediments were similar
to  those measured  in sediments  from the  head of City Waterway, except that
arsenic and copper were slightly more enriched  in Sitcum  Waterway.   Most
of  the  organic compounds were  present  at  low  EAR compared with those in
many other areas  of Comnencement  Bay.   Both the LPAH and HPAH had two maxima,
one  near the head of the waterway in conjunction with  the  high EAR for
metals, and one  near  the  mouth  at Station  SI-14.  PCBs were detected in
Sitcum Waterway sediments  but  concentrations did not exceed either the
80th percentile  value for all of  Comnencement  Bay sediments or the  toxicity
or benthic effects AET for PCBs.

6.4.4  Milwaukee Waterway

     Milwaukee  Waterway was one  of the least contaminated areas sampled
in Commencement  Bay.  The waterway was considered a potential  problem area
primarily because of consistently high accumulations of  naphthalene in
fish muscle tissues  (typically  >1,000  ug/kg wet weight),  a significant
prevalence of  liver lesions,  and  sediment  contamination exceeding Puget
Sound reference  area conditions.   Elevations of metals in Milwaukee Waterway
sediments were uniformly low.   LPAH concentrations decreased slightly from
the head  of the  waterway to the mouth, and were the only  U.S.  EPA  priority
pollutants with concentrations that exceeded  the 80th  percentile value
for all  Commencement Bay sediments.  Concentrations of  2-methoxyphenol
(tentative identification) were  high  at most stations, possibly representing
material  transported from St.  Paul Waterway (see Section  6.4.5).   Most
of the phenols and chlorinated benzenes (primarily 1,4-dichlorobenzene)
had low EAR and  no clear spatial  trends in Milwaukee Waterway.   Detectable
quantities of 1,3-dichlorobenzene, a  comparitively rare compound  in Commencement
Bay, were found  in the waterway  sediments.   No  substances  with  high  EAR
were  observed,  and the  substances that were detected did not exhibit hot
spots, gradients,  or other  trends that would indicate  a  major source in
the  waterway.  No chemicals exceeded  their toxicity or benthic effects
AET in Milwaukee Waterway.

6.4.5  St. Paul  Waterway

     A high-priority  problem area  was  defined  near the mouth of St. Paul
Waterway.  Sediment contamination in  this  problem area differed considerably
from  that in all other  Commencement Bay areas.   None of the HPAH, PCBs,
metals,  or chlorinated benzenes  were particularly enriched  at the  site,

                                 6.28

-------
except  for limited  copper enrichment  (below its AET)  at Station SP-14,
off the outfall of  the Champion International  pulp mill.   Methylated phenols
(especially 4-methylphenol)  and LPAH were the characteristic contaminants
found in the problem  area.  Concentrations of  these compounds all  exceeded
toxicity  and benthic effects AET near  the  outfall  and  decreased abruptly
away from the outfall.  Many additional hydrocarbon and  substituted phenols
were probably present  in  these sediments but were  not  directly measured.
It was  apparent from  the  data from  St.  Paul  and  adjacent waterways  that
at least 2-methoxyphenol  had been transported  to other areas  of Commencement
Bay.

6.4.6  Middle Waterway

     All  of  Middle Waterway was defined as a second-priority problem area.
Contaminants present in high concentration included copper,  arsenic, mercury,
PAH, substituted  phenols, and chlorobenzenes.   Pentachlorophenol was detected
at the head of  the  waterway  (Station MD-11) at 620 ug/kg DW.   This concentration
was similar to that at two  stations in Blair Waterway.  These three stations
were the only Commencement  Bay stations where  pentachlorophenol concentra-
tions  exceeded 150  ug/kg  DW.  There were no  biological data available from
any of these stations, which limited the analysis of AET  for  pentachlorophenol.
Few  other areas  in  Commencement Bay had as  much diversity  in the spectrum
of compounds present  at high EAR.  Concentrations  of  copper, arsenic,  and
mercury increased regularly from the head to maximum values near  the mouth
(Station MD-13),  while lead (and to  a lesser extent  zinc) concentrations
peaked  in the middle of the waterway at Station MD-12.   The EAR of copper,
arsenic, and mercury  were among the highest observed  in this study  beyond
Segment 2 of the  Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline, although arsenic  concentrations
were below toxicity and  benthic effects AET.   Copper and mercury  values
exceeded their AET  at Station MD-13.

     LPAH  decreased slightly  in  concentration from the head to  the mouth
of Middle Waterway.   LPAH (and HPAH) concentrations exceeded toxicity  and
benthic effects  AET only  at Station  MD-11.  The highest concentration of
PAH in  either the present or historical data set was found at this  station.
The  composition  of these PAH was similar to that observed in City  Waterway,
with naphthalene,  2-methylnaphthalene, and phenanthrene exhibiting  the
highest EAR.  HPAH  also decreased  in  concentration  from  the head to the
mouth of the waterway  but the composition  differed along the waterway.
HPAH in sediments near the  head and the mouth  of the waterway were  dominated
by pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene and had  low levels of methylpyrenes.   Similar
relative concentrations were observed in the Wheeler-Osgood branch of City
Waterway.  Sediments  from Station MD-12 in the  center of  the waterway  had
higher  relative concentrations of  methylpyrenes and benzo(a)pyrene than
sediments from  the  other stations.  The relative  composition  of  these  compounds
at MD-12 was simlar to  that noted  in  sediments from Station CI-17 in the
middle  of City Waterway.

6.4.7  City Waterway

     Two  high-priority  problem  areas were  defined  in  City Waterway, one
at the  head of the  main channel of  the waterway,  and a second within  the
Wheeler-Osgood branch.   High EAR for aromatic hydrocarbons,  chlorobenzenes,
some metals, and  phenols  were found in both problem areas.  Concentrations

                                 6.29

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of these  substances  also exceeded toxicity and  benthic effects AET in these
areas.   Within the waterway, lead exhibited one of  the  most consistent
concentration gradients  of any substance in  any Commencement Bay study
area.   Sediment  lead  concentrations at the head  of  the  waterway were  among
the highest observed  beyond Segment 2 of the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.
Lead  concentrations decreased regularly from a maximum  at Station  CI-11
to levels comparable with  the remaining study area toward the mouth of
the waterway.  A similar gradient in  percent organic  carbon was observed
from the  head of the waterway to the mouth.   PAH concentrations generally
decreased  from the head  of  the waterway along the main  channel of  City
Waterway.   Maximum PAH concentrations were observed at Station CI-12 rather
than  CI-11.   Chlorinated  benzenes, especially  1,4-dichlorobenzene,  were
found  at  high concentration in the main channel of City Waterway at the
head  of the  waterway  only.

     EAR for metals and HPAH in the Wheeler-Osgood problem area were comparable
to those at  adjacent  stations in the main channel.  Selected chlorobenzenes
and 4-methylphenol were found at high concentrations  in this problem area,
with  clear gradients  of decreasing  concentrations with distance from  the
Wheeler-Osgood  branch  in  the main  city waterway channel.   These latter
compounds  distinguished  Wheeler-Osgood from the rest of City Waterway.
The full  extent of  the  possible contamination is uncertain because of the
limited number of samples collected.

     A potential  hot spot  including Stations  CI-20  and CI-21 was defined
near the mouth of  City Waterway.  High  levels (but below AET) of 2-methoxyphenol
were present in sediments  from the mouth of  the waterway, and may have
resulted from  transport into the waterway from the  St.  Paul Waterway problem
area.   With the exception  of PAH, which were elevated in this area above
their toxicity and benthic effects AET, most other chemicals detected appeared
to be  part  of a gradient  of decreasing concentrations from the middle and
head  of City Waterway.

6.4.8  Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline

     Sediments  within Segment  RSS1  of the Ruston-Pt.  Defiance Shoreline
were  not extensively  sampled, but a single station was found to have  high
EAR for  a few chemicals  in an area of otherwise low concentrations.  The
concentration  gradients observed along  the shoreline  for  most substances
(i.e.,  PCBs,  metals, and  at least  some of the substituted phenols) were
consistent with  transport from other areas as the dominant source of contam-
ination.  PAH  and  1,4-dichlorobenzene concentrations were elevated at  Station
RS-13.   An accurate  estimate of the  spatial  extent  of  the contaminated
area  near  RS-13  was not possible because of limited sampling.

     The most extreme metals  contamination in Commencement Bay was found
in the high-priority problem  area defined within  Segment RSS2.  Contamination
of all  metals in this problem area was highest at  stations directly off
the three  outfalls of  the ASARCO smelter.  It is unclear whether one  large
or three smaller,  nearshore  "hot spots" were present, because samples  between
the outfalls were not  collected.  Concentrations of metals decreased rapidly
both alongshore (toward  Stations RS-16 and  RS-24)  and  offshore (toward
Station RS-19 and RS-20).  The metals contamination  in the "hot spot" defined
within Segment RSS3 off of Pt. Defiance is believed to  be associated exclusively

                                  6.30

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 with slag  or  spilled ore,  because of the granular nature  of  the  sediment.
 If  the  high  concentrations found in  the  problem  area  within  Segment RSS2
 were also  associated with the smelter slag or ores, then  the spatial  extent
 of  the  contaminated area could be defined by the physical  presence of slag
 or  ores.   However, the high  EAR  were  likely associated  with  an  effluent
 component,  so the area of extreme EAR  associated with  this source may be
 limited  to  near the main outfalls.   The defined problem  area was  also  highly
 contaminated with a number of organic compounds,  including PAH, PCBs, and
 1,4-dichlorobenzene.  The  spatial distribution of these compounds was not
 as  uniform  as observed for the metals, but showed variable maxima at each
 outfall station.  The contaminated area probably extended east from Segment
 RSS2  some distance along the shore  but did not extend to Station  RS-15.

 6.5  RANKING OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM CHEMICALS IN PROBLEM AREAS

      The previous  section described the distributions of major  chemical
 contaminants that helped distinguish problem areas.   This  section integrates
 results  from quantitative relationships developed in Section 4 to prioritize
 potential problem chemicals identified in each problem  area.  The  approach
 used  to  reduce the possible list of problem chemicals is shown  in Figure 6.4.
 Chemicals that were undetected in a problem area were eliminated from con-
 sideration  as problem chemicals. Some chemicals were detected sporadically.
 The detection  limit attained  for  these  chemicals was  always  lower than
 the apparent effect thresholds determined  in  Section 4.1.

      Chemicals of  concern were defined in  Section 3.1 as chemicals with
 concentrations exceeding all Puget Sound reference conditions.  These chemicals
 were  not necessarily considered problem chemicals  associated with environmental
 effects, because most sediments in  Commencement Bay  were contaminated  above
 reference conditions and only some of  these sediments exhibited toxicity
 or benthic effects.  As shown  in Figure 6.4,  chemicals detected at concentra-
 tions that exceeded  80 percent of the  values determined for all Commence-
ment Bay  stations were of greater concern.   Source evaluations  may be conducted
 by  WDOE when sediments  exceed this  level  of  contamination,  even  if toxicity
or  biological effects  are not  observed  (e.g., Table 6.8 Action-Level
Guidelines).

      In  all  cases, the 80th  percentile  value for chemicals in Commencement
 Bay was  lower than the apparent effect threshold defined  in  Section 4.1.
These thresholds reflected  the observation that high levels of some  contaminants
were found in sediments  that  exhibited no  observable toxicity or  benthic
effects.  Because the apparent effect threshold was  defined at the contaminant
concentration above which  toxicity  or benthic  effects were always observed,
chemicals present above  the threshold are  potential  problem  chemicals (Figure
6.4).  Apparent effect  thresholds were  established for each  chemical  based
on  a  data  set that included  all  stations  where synoptic chemical, toxicity,
and  benthic  effects data were  collected.   For  sediments that had no correspond-
ing toxicity or benthic  effects data,  it was  assumed that these same apparent
effect thresholds could be applied to the  available chemical data  as  predictors
of potential problem sediment  conditions.

     Finally,  the highest priority  chemicals  shown in Figure  6.4 are those
that were present  above  an  AET  in a  problem  area and that  also  exhibited
a concentration  gradient  corresponding to  observed  changes  in  toxicity

                                  6.31

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              CHEMICALS DETECTED
u>
ts>
CONCENTRATION EXCEEDS REFERENCE

CONCENTRATION EXCEEDS 80TH PERCENTILE
        i
AET  EXCEEDED
        i
CONCENTRATION GRADIENT CORRESPONDS
        TO EFFECTS GRADIENT
                                                              CHEMICALS
                                                                 OF
                                                              CONCERN
                                                              PROBLEM
                                                              CHEMICALS
             Figure 6.4.  Prioritization of chemicals.

-------
or benthic  effects.  For  example, a strong  linear relationship was found
between sediment  toxicity in Hylebos Waterway  and  PCB concentrations (Section
4.2.3).   Other  contaminants  were found  above  apparent effect thresholds
in the same  problem  area  but none showed as  strong  a  relationship with
the observed  toxicity.   Therefore, PCBs  are potential problem chemicals
with  the highest  priority for source evaluation in that problem area because
they  have a demonstrated  correspondence with the observed toxicity.  Some
unidentified contaminant with a similar distribution as  the PCBs may have
been  the  actual problem  chemical.  Source identification for PCBs would
still  be recommended  based on the assumption that the problem chemical
came  from the same  source,  and that corrective action at the source  may
effectively  control  its release.

     Potential  problem chemicals in each problem  area  defined in Table 6.13
are summarized in Table 6.14.  Problem areas  identified within each segment
listed  are  ordered  in descending rank.  Three  priorities of chemicals  are
given  for each problem area.  Priority 1 chemicals were present above  an
AET and their  distributions corresponded  with gradients of observed toxicity
or benthic effects.   Priority 2 chemicals were also  above an AET  in  the
problem  area, but  these chemicals either showed  no particular relationship
with  gradients of observed toxicity  or  benthic effects,  or insufficient
data  were available  to evaluate their correspondence with  gradients.  Chemicals
with concentrations that were predicted to  be above  apparent effect thresholds
at non-biological   stations  were placed  no higher than Priority 2 because
of the lack  of biological  data.  Finally, chemicals  with  concentrations
above apparent   effect thresholds at only  one station within the problem
area  are shown in Table 6.14 as Priority  3.  Problem areas  that were  small
hot spots often had  chemical  contamination  that exceeded apparent effect
thresholds at  only one station.  A fourth category of  chemicals not  shown
in Table  6.14 consisted  of  all other chemicals  with  concentrations in  the
problem area that exceeded the 80th percentile  value for all  Commencement
Bay sediments  but did  not exceed an apparent  effect threshold.  All measured
chemicals with  concentrations (DW) that exceeded the 80th  percentile criteria
were  summarized  in Table 3.15 in at the end of  Section  3.

     Within each priority group  in  Table  6.14, chemicals are  listed in
descending order  of  their "toxicity significance  factor"  (TSF) when a factor
could  be  determined.  Available toxicity  significance factors for these
chemicals or chemical groups are listed in Appendix I.   These TSF factors
represent a combined index  of the potential mammalian toxicity resulting
from the consumption of contaminated seafood and  the potential for contaminant
uptake  by indigenous organisms.  The order of  chemicals within a priority
group  therefore   reflects  a first-order approximation  of  their relative
health hazard.

     Priority  1  chemicals were identified in  six  of the eight highest priority
problem areas  (i.e.,  problem areas exhibiting  significant  contamination,
toxicity, and benthic effects as well  as  significant bioaccumulation or
liver  lesions  in  English sole).  These chemicals  included:

     •    Mercury, lead, zinc, and arsenic

     t    PCBs,  4-methylphenol, LPAH,  and HPAH.


                                  6.33

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               TABLE 6.14.   POTENTIAL  PROBLEM  CHEMICALS  IN PROBLEM AREAS
  Segment
 Containing
Problem Areaa
(in rank order)
                Potential  Problem  Chemicals**
    CIS1
    HYS2
    CIS2
    RSS2
Priority 1:   Hg, Zn, Pb [TOC<*]C
Priority 2:   HPAH,  Cd, Ni,  Cu,  LPAH,  2-methylphenol, 4-methyl-
             phenol, phthalate  esters [oil  &  greasejc
Priority 3:   dichlorobenzenes,  N-nitrosodiphenylamine, [aniline,
             benzyl  alcohol]0

Priority 1:   PCBs
Priority 2:   HPAH,  Ni , As, tetrachloroethene [Hge, Cue,  Zne,
             Pbe (intertidal  sediments  only)]
Priority 3:   HCBD,  chlorinated  benzenes, phthalate  esters,
             phenol [benzyl  alcohol,  dibenzothiophene,  methyl-
             phenanthrenes, methylpyrenes]c

Priority 1:   none
Priority 2:   HPAH,  Cd, Cue, zn f dichlorobenzenes,  LPAHe,
             Pb, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, 4-methylphenol ,
             phenol  [biphenyl,  TVS,  TOC,  oil  & grease]c

Priority 1:   Hg, As, LPAH
Priority 2:   HPAH,  PCBs, Cd,  Ni, Cu,  Zn,  Pb,  Sb [dibenzofuran]C
Priority 3:   dichlorobenzenes,  N-nitrosodiphenylamine, 2-methyl-
             phenol, 4-methylphenol, phthalate esters,  [1-methyl-
             (2-methylethyl)benzene,  biphenyl,  dibenzothiophene,
             methylphenanthrenes, retene, methylpyrenes]C
    SIS1
    HYS1
    SPS1
Priority 1:   none
Priority 2:   Ase, Cue, Zn,  Pb
Priority 3:   N-nitrosodiphenylamine [dibenzofuran, l-methyl-(2-
             methylethyl)benzene,  diterpenoid  hydrocarbons]0,
             LPAH, HPAH

Priority 1:   HPAH,  As, Zn  (limited evidence of a gradient
             for  each with  one or more  toxicity/effects
             indicator)
Priority 2:   phenol, Sb
Priority 3:   Phthalate esters,  ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethene,
             [xylenes, 1-methyl-(2-methylethy 1) benzene ,
             methylpyrenes, TVS]C

Priority 1:   4-methylphenol
Priority 2:   [benzyl alcohol, 1-methyl(2-methylethyl)benzene,
             2-methoxyphenol]C
Priority 3:   Ni ,  LPAH,  2-methylphenol, phenol  [biphenyl,
             diterpenoid hydrocarbons,  retene, TVS,  TOC]C
                                  6.34

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TABLE 6.14.   (Continued)
    HYS5       Priority 1:   PCBs
               Priority 2:   HCBD, chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated ethenes
                            [pentachlorocyclopentane isomer]c, pt>
               Priority 3:   Hg,  HPAH6,  Cuez Zne, LPAHe,  phenol  [benzyl
                            alcohol,  biphenyl "
    HYS4
 (hotspot)
    BLS2
(no action)
    CIS3
 (hotspot)


    MDS1
    HYS3
 (no action)
    BLS1
 (no action)


    RSS3
 (hot spot)
    RSS1
 (hot  spots)
Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:
Priority 1:
Priority 2:

Priority 3:
Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:

Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:
Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:

Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:

Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:

Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:
none
none
HPAHe, PCBse, HCBD, LPAHe, N-nitrosodiphenylamine
[benzyl  alcohol,  dibenzofurane^ pentachloro-
cyclopentane isomer, methypyrenes]c

none
dichlorobenzenes, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, 4-methyl-
phenol, phenol
As,  HCBD, pentachlorophenol,  2-methylphenol,
oil & grease

none
HPAH, LPAH
PCBse, ine^ phenol [biphenyl, dibenzothiophene]c

none
Hg, Cu
HPAH, As, Zn, dichlorobenzenes,  LPAH, pentachloro-
phenol,  Pb,  4-methylphenol, phenol [dibenzo-
thiophene, diterpenoid hydrocarbons, methylpyrenes]c

none
PCBs, As, Zn
n-Nitrosodiphenylamine

no toxicity/effects observed at  stations tested
none
HPAH, phenol

none
As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, N-nitrosodiphenylamine,  Sb
none

none
none
Station  RS-13 hotspot:   HPAH, dichlorobenzenes,
LPAH, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol  [dibenzofuran,
biphenyl, methylphenanthrenes, retene,  methyl-
pyrenes]c
Station  RS-15 hotspot:   As, HCBD,  Cd,  Ni,  Cu,
Zn, phenol (these chemicals  exceed AET at RS-15
only after normalization  to  percent fine-grained
material  or to organic carbon content)
                                  6.35

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TABLE 6.14.   (Continued)
    MIS1       No chemicals  found  above apparent effect levels at stations
 (no action)    sampled  in  Milwaukee Waterway
HYS6
(no action)
BLS3
(no action)
BLS4
(no action)
Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:
Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:
Priority 1:
Priority 2:
Priority 3:
no toxicity/effects observed
none
phthalate esters
at station tested
no toxicity/effects observed at stations tested
none
pentachlorophenol , 2-methyl phenol , 4-methyl phenol
no biological data available
none
phthalate esters


a  See  Table 6.13 for ranking of  problem areas.  Problem areas encompass
all stations sampled  in 1984  only  in  Segments HYS1, SIS1, CIS2,  RSS2, RSS3,
and  possibly MDS1  (Station MD-12  in this segment was close  to apparent
effect thresholds for several chemicals).

b  Concentrations of  these  chemicals exceeded an apparent effect threshold
(by various normalizations)  in  sediment from  at  least  one  station in the
defined problem area.  Chemicals are  listed in  each priority group in descending
order  of  their  calculated toxicity significance  factor,  if  available.
Stations with and without  biological  data  area included.  Priority 1 chemicals
showed a concentration  gradient with toxicity or biological effects gradients.
Priority  2 chemicals  were above apparent effect  thresholds  at more  than
one station within the  problem  area,  but either  no gradient  corresponding
to that for toxicity/effects  was observed, or  no biological data were available
to assess gradients.  Priority 3 chemicals were above apparent effect thresholds
at one station only within the  problem area.

c  Toxicity significant factors were not  available for the chemicals listed
in brackets.  These chemicals have not been prioritized  relative to other
chemicals  in the same priority  group.

d  TOC  concentrations did not exceed  an AET in  the problem  area defined
in Segment  CIS1 but the  TOC concentration gradient corresponded with observed
changes  in effects  (e.g., sediment toxicity).   This correspondence may
result from the  covarying distribution  of TOC  with other  contaminants,
including  lead and zinc.

e  Chemical elevated  above an AET  in the defined problem area only on the
basis of historical  data.
                                  6.36

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All of  these chemicals  are recommended for source evaluation.  Priority 1
chemicals  were  not  identified in any of the remaining twelve problem  areas
with  lower  priorities for  source evaluation.   For 10 of  these areas, there
were not enough  stations  to  establish  correspondence between toxicity or
benthic effects  and  sediment contamination.

     Priority 2  chemicals were identified in all eight of  the highest priority
problem areas.   Priority  2 chemicals were also  identified in three of the
problem areas  with  lower  priorities  for source evaluation (i.e., problem
areas  within Segments BLS2,  CIS3, and RSS3).  In addition  to the chemicals
listed as  Priority  1, these  included:

     •    Cadmium,  nickel, and antimony

     •    HCBD, chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated ethenes, phenol,
          2-methylphenol, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, dibenzofuran,  and
          selected phthalate  esters  (e.g.,  bis-(2-ethylhexyl)  and
          di-n-butyl  phthalates)

     •    Selected  tentatively identified compounds.

These  chemicals are recommended  for  source  evaluation where sufficient
spatial data are available to indicate sources.  Priority  3 chemicals were
identified  in  each  problem area  except Milwaukee Waterway and Segments
CIS2 (City Waterway)  and  RSS3 (Pt. Defiance-Ruston Shoreline).   The  latter
two problem areas  had  no Priority 3 chemicals because all potential problem
chemicals were elevated at more  than one station in  the problem  area.
The potential  problem area in Milwaukee Waterway had no  chemicals elevated
above an AET.  Priority 3 chemicals not already included  in the  Priority 2
group  are:   pentachlorophenol, aniline, and selected tentatively identified
compounds.  These chemicals  are not recommended  for source identification
unless  their occurrence  at  a single station in a problem  area  is associated
with a potential  source that is not necessarily indicated  by other chemicals
(e.g. pentachlorophenol  in the problem  area within Segment BLS2).  Priority 2
and 3 chemicals  with spatial distributions  that are poorly defined are
still recommended for potential source  identification when additional concern
has been placed  on  their  potential  for effects in fish (e.g., accumulations
of benzyl  alcohol in fish livers discussed  in Section 4.6.2).

     Chemicals  present  below apparent effect thresholds  but above the  80th
percent value for all Commencement  Bay  sediments are recommended  for  source
identification when they appear to be  highly characteristic of a particular
problem area and potential sources  (e.g., TOC at the head  of City Waterway).

6.6  SUMMARY

     Fourteen problem areas  (including  isolated "hot spots") were recommended
for priority source evaluation.  The  remaining 7 of the total  21  problem
areas  identified were not  recommended for high priority  source  evaluation.
Six of these lowest priority areas contained  stations  where contaminant
concentrations  exceeded AET, but no confirming biological  data were available.
The seventh area not recommended for priority source evaluation  (Milwaukee
Waterway)  contained no  chemicals measured above their AET.


                                  6.37

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     Potential problem chemicals of varying priorities for source identification
were also identified in each of the 14 areas  recommended  for priority source
evaluation.  Eight problem  areas have the  highest  priority  for  immediate
source evaluation.   These problem areas are  located  in  Hylebos,  City, Sitcum,
and St.  Paul Waterways and along  the Ruston-Pt. Defiance Shoreline.  Eight
problem chemicals  were identified in six  of these  latter problem  areas
that have the highest priority for  source  identification  because of apparent
correspondences  with observed toxicity or benthic effects.
                                  6.38

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