United States          Administration And     EPA205-R-93-001
              Environmental Protection      Resources Management    January 1993
              Agency            (PM-225)
&EPA      FISCAL YEAR  1994
                  JUSTIFICATION OF APPROPRIATION
                   ESTIMATES FOR COMMITTEE ON
                        APPROPRIATIONS
                                         Rvcyctod/ftocyotabte
                                         PrinHd on papv 1M COM*
                                         •t l«Mt 50% rwcyctod KMT

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate
                                                                          page

SUBJECT INDEX                                                               1

SUMMARY                                                                   1-1

AIR                                                                       2-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Air Quality Research  .......................    2-13
   Acid Deposition Research  .....................    2-28
   Global Change Research  ......................    2-33
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning  and  Standards  .....    2-39
      Emission Standards and Technology Assessment  .........    2-40
      State Program Guidelines and Air Standards Development  ....    2-44
   Mobile Source Air Pollution Control and Fuel Economy .......    2-47
      Mobile Source Program  Implementation  .............    2-49
      Emission Standards,  Technical Assessment and Characterization .    2-50
      Testing, Technical and Administrative Support .........    2-53
      Emissions and Fuel Economy Compliance .............    2-55
   Resource Assistance for State, Local &  Tribal Agencies  .....  .    2-59
      Resource Assistance  for State, Local & Tribal Agencies    .  .  .    2-€0
   Air Quality Management  Implementation   ..............    2-65
      Air Quality Management Implementation .............    2-66
   Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment  ............    2-71
      Ambient Air Quality  Monitoring   ................    2-72
      Air Quality and Emissions  Data Management and Analysis  ....    2-74
   Atmospheric Programs  .  ......................    2-79
      Acid Rain Program  .......................    2-80
      Stratospheric Protection Program   ...............    2-83
      Global Change Program  .....................    2-84
   Indoor Air Program  ........................    2-89
      Indoor Air Program   ......................    2-90
ENFORCEMENT
   Enforcement   ...........................  •    2-95
      Stationary Source Enforcement  .................    2-96
      Mobile Source Enforcement  ...................    2-100

WATER QUALITY                                                            3-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Water Quality Research  ......................    3-13
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Water Quality and Grants  Program Management  ...........    3-31
      Great Lakes Program  ....  ..................    3-32
      Chesapeake Bay Program  ....................    3-35
   Engineering & Analysis ......................    3-39
      Engineering and Analysis   ...................    3*40
   Grants Assistance Programs  ....................    3-43
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation  (Section 106)  .....    3-44
      Clean Lakes Program  ....  ..................    3-46
   Water Quality Strategies  Implementation  .............    3-47
      Wetlands Protection  ......................    3-49
                                              U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                              Region 5, Library  PL-12J)
                                              77 West  Jackson Boulevard, 12to Floqr
                                              Chicago,  tl_  60604-3590

-------
                                  of. Contents
*
                                  (Continued)
  ?                                                                       Pace

      Nonpoint Source Management Grants 	   3-52
      Wetlands Implementation  Program 	   3-53
  ;_-iOil spills Program   	   3-54
      Ocean Disposal Permits   	   3-55
      Environmental Emergency  Response & Prevention 	   3-57
  . ;  'Water' Quality Criteria,eStandards & Applications	   3-57
   .Wafcer Quality Monitoring arid Analysis  	   3-61
  17 "Coastal'Environment Management	   3-62
   •f•;Assessment and Watershed Protection	   3-65
   Municipal Source Pollution  	  ,  	   3-71
  3;  ^Municipal Pollution Control  	   3-72
ENFORCEMENT
   ;Wa|er Quality Enforcement	   3-77
  *,*-  "Water-Quality Enforcement	   3-78
         Quality Permit Issuance   	   3-81
      'Water Quality Permit Issuance  	   3-82


DRINKING WATER                                                           4-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
  'Drinking Water Research   	   4-11
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   .Criteria, Standards and Guidelines 	   4-23
   ?-vrDrinking Water Implementation	   4-24
  Jf£ r'Drinkirig Water Criteria  .  :  ".		   4-27
   'State Program Resource Assistance   	   4-31
      .Public'Water Systems Supervision Program Grants	   4-32
      Underground Injection Control Program Grants  ...  	   4-34
   -;v"tSpecia'l Studies arid Demonstrations	   4-36
   'Grcjund Water Protection	   4-39
   7",  ..Ground- Water Protection	;	   4-40
ENFORCEMENT
   Drinking Water Enforcement  	   4-45
   C'JDr inking Water Enforcement	   4-46


HAZARDOUS WASTE.                   ,                                     5-1
   r'*- '{<      *
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Hazardous Waste Research  	   5-11
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies  	   5-25
   rt- Regulations, Guidelines  and  Policies -  Hazardous Waste  ....   5-27
   j>/Regulations, Guidelines  and  Policies -  Air  and Radiation  ...   5-30
  "":-'•  'Regulations, Guidelines  and  Policies -  Water	   5-30
   t:  Regulations, Guidelines  & Policies - Underground Storage Tanks    5-31
  -"J^naricial Assistance	'.. 'r	   5-35
   /'Hazardous Waste Management Financial Assistance to States . .  .   5-36
  s&';: Jjnderground Storage Tanks State Grants  ,. ". .... .  . ,...>j	   5-39
  'Hazardous Waste Management  Strategies Implementation, .  	   5-41
   /Hazardous Waste Management Strategies Implementation  	   5-42
   Emergency Planning/Community Right-to-kriow - Title ill 	   5-45
ENFORCEMENT                           .,._l7r..rjr j,f-j ri--.-,^ >r •:...
   "Hazardous Waste Enforcement  .  .  . ".//. ,.f.. <.,, .u£:.,s-\-»  ......   5-51
    -••Hazardous Waste Enforcement  .  . .  •"•""• r^j-rac -;va:s	   5-52

-------
                                      of Contents
                                   (Continued):'
                                                                             Paoe

PESTICIDES                                           .,         ,,c, ,  -_,,,,. 6-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT                            ^  J '           .  ;'"":'
   Pesticides Research	  *. .   6-13
ABATEMENT  AND CONTROL                  .                       "         .  --
   Registration, Special Registration and Tolerances	. r_.'„ "*' 6-27
      Registration, Special Registration  and Tolerances	 ".   6-28
   Generic Chemical Review	1 . " 6*-31
      Generic Chemical Review	;,.......,.. '..'.'. 16-32
   Pesticides Program Implementation  .  .  .  /	',.  .,_ ,  . .;  ""6-35
      Pesticides Program Implementation	..'.'.'.  ,.' .   .6-36
      Pesticides Program Implementation Grants	'." -,'-  6^38
ENFORCEMENT                            .                       ,         ••"" I"* £-? r'*
   Pesticides Enforcement	^ ^ .  .  .  :  .  .....  v;g*41
      Pesticides Enforcement	  ./"'. . .....  .  .  . .   6-42
      Pesticides Enforcement Grants	  -1. .  .	,6-44


RADIATION                                                              .     7-.1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT                               ._,,,   . ,	:.   _.- vl
   Radiation Research	,. tAf"'l:"T^ ~~  .. ,,,  "".,.7-'2>:. £
      Radiation Research	.'"..'„'..,.,,.' ^,, ]7,*'iO
ABATEMENT  AND CONTROL                            ,.   .       , .?"      '"  -,'~^'•-.<•
   Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines  .-.._..  .  .  ,  .  ..V.^JJt-lS
      Radiation Criteria,  Standards and Guide"l£ne$ ;';-j: 'J"- .r..-?• •  ',' *\r- ' 7-16
   Radiation Program Implementation   .    .  ..... i,;*:*'  •  •--:"-•' •  -,-.c   T"21
      Radiation Program  Implementation  .  .  .  f_ !•',"?':f'a.''. .''rs^'",_.. ,. .'"., 7s"3'2
      Radon Action Program Implementation  -• .'^f''. . ;;'  .  £%•';",.  •'!.,' ".*' >;.-7-24
   Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment;- AH. :/ .  . • ^~,j. '.'.-. •-._.^'* ^-27
      Radon Action Program	-.-''.'-: ' ?£ .''.   .
      Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment. . .   i.
      Radon State Grant  Program . .   .....,..,


MOLTIMEDIA                                            "^

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Multimedia Research   	
      Multimedia Research 	 .
      Headquarters Expenses	
      Lab  & Field Expenses	
ABATEMENT  AND CONTROL                                    ,  J   ',- •  ;•- ^, ;;r;;j",. '
   Environmental Review  and Coordination   ....  .' . . .  ." .  .""I  .r ./V-'.-. = ? - 3'5
   Office  of Cooperative Environmental Management  . . .  .  .  .'  V. ~.  ".*.!. ^; 8-41
   Academic Training Grants	,......_..'.., J".."^7."f;"."-'8'-45
   Regional Multimedia Programs	..."....... '..1..T, "-?,-.; 8-47
   Analytical Environmental Services  .	  ~.^*p.'".*'.V","*J8-51
   Border  Environmental  Activities  . .  .  .  . .  •,_.-'• •  -  *'-'-\:%"'"'  ^r'"'"""-,-?"*^^
   Pollution Prevention  Activities  .-V- .  .  . .J .^ . .' .;'..  .!".-•'.,,..J^,," y*"" 8-57
      Pollution Prevention State Grants  . -.  . .  .'":* . .'.  .'.".  '.''Vj-~'. nV|-58
      Office of Pollution Prevention • .r'/(.\. .  ..  .... .\.  '*'*~ 3~;... .,"~ ?8-S9
      Pollution Prevention- Projects :. .  . •.  . ,  "V ;:* .;;.  .  .  -3 -- ~i"'.~ "^,,; f.'6^-
ENFORCEMENT              :  '    -    *'• '-"• "'   '"'     *-' "*  •'**-'"• •    u ",    ~^J.-v;"IU<".7
   Enforcement Policy and Technical Support  . .  .  . . .
      Enforcement Policy and Operations  .  .  . .  .  'j;
      Criminal Enforcement Program	::''l' : : ".  .  .  .  .  .'" . /   .8-69

-------
                                    
-------
                                     of Contents
                                  (Continued)
                                                                           Page

      Office  of  International Activities   ............  .  .-.'•- 10-42
   Office of  Policy,  Planning and Evaluation   ............  10-45
      Program Management - Policy,  Planning and Evaluation  .....  1°-47
      Office  of  Policy Analysis ................ _•_ .-..  '.'.  io-48'
      Office  of  Regulatory Management and Evaluation  ........  1.0-51
      Office  of  Strategic Planning & Environmental Data ...... '• .  10-54
   Office of  Administration and Resources Management  ........  10-57
      Program Management -Administration and Resources Management   .  .  W--GO
      Financial  Management - Headquarters  ............  .  .  i;0-'6f
      Office  of  the Comptroller ................... •  10-62
      Office  of  Environmental Equity  .............  ...  10-63
      Human Resources Management  ................  .  .  10-64
      Organization and Health Services  ...............  10-65
      Contracts  and Grants Management - Headquarters  ...  .....  10-67
      Facilities Management and Services   ...............  10"- 68
      Information Systems and Services  ...............  10-69
REGIONAL MANAGEMENT
   Regional Management  .......................  10-73
      Resource Management - Regions .................  id -76
      Contracts  and Grants Management - Regions ....... '  :.  .....  .  10-77
      Regional Counsel  ............. ,  ...... *-. u-  .  .  10-77
      Regional Management ........... ...  ........  10-78
      Planning,  Evaluation and Analysis - Regions  .  .  ,  - ...... -.  -.  10"- 79
      Financial  Management - Regions  . .  .............  »; .-'* 10-81
      Human Resources Management -  Regions  .............  10-82
      Administrative Management - Regions  ..............  10-82
SUPPORT COST                                                    -    ;.,£ ._.-„.-, -"i_
   Support Costs  ..........................  10-85
      Lab Support - Pesticides and Toxic Substances  ...... i .- ,C>V'- -lO-'S'T1-'
      Professional Training .................  i=>?.:  .--M .T xor* gg?
      Nationwide Support Services .........  -.....;* ;v. &••."* ~'XOt89
      Headquarters Support Services ............... . *:.  /^  40-90
      Regional Support Services ...............  ;  .  .  ,  f."-.?1Xf-91
      Lab Support - Air and Radiation ............  -..'..  -l'0-92
      Automated  Data Processing Support Costs  .- ...... -•*  . •<.*' '. , .-ft~; ±0^93


BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES                                       "   i '  - -il-p;f.«

   New Facilities ..............  ;. .  .  ^.. .  ^  ..... -•; .- - ia-7
      New Facilities  .  .  . .  ........  -. .....  ......#*•  11-8
   Repairs and Improvements ........ ............... %ll-9
      Repairs and Improvements  .....  ....... ,  .  .*..,-.  .  -  ..  11^10

CONSTRUCTION  GRANTS (WATER INFRASTRUCTORE)           , •         ..         1,2:'1

   Water Infrastructure .......  .-.  . .  .-.,.-.  .  .  ,  .  .,...,  .  ^.1*2 -7
      Clean Water State Revolving Fund „ -.  . .  .1.  . i .  .  ,  .  .  -. :  .  ,  ,  12 - 8
      Water Quality Management Cooperative Agreements  ........   12-9
      Mexican Border Projects ....... .........  .....  12^10
      Special Needs Programs  ...... -7 .  ,t...  ?-'-  ........  12-11
   Drinking Water State Revolving Fund  ...... .'*•-<••>  .........   12-12'
      Drinking Water State Revolving Fund  . , . :y ;^.Ti;r.  .....  .  -.-.  12^12

-------
SUPERFUND
Table of Contents
   (Continued)
                                           Page

                                         13-1
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Hazardous Substance Research 	  13-11
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESPONSE
   Hazardous Substance Response 	  13-23
      Hazardous Spill and Site Response  	  13-24
   Hazardous Substance Response - Support 	  13-35
      Hazardous Substance Response - Office of Water  	  13-36
      Hazardous Substance Response - Office of Air and Radiation   .  .  13-37
Hazardous Substance Response - Interagency  	  13-41
      Department of Health and Human Services 	  13-43
      Department of Justice 	  13-46
      United States Coast Guard 	  13-46
      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 	  13-47
      Department of the Interior	13-48
      Federal Emergency Management Agency	13-49
      Occupational Safety and Health Administration 	  13-50
ENFORCEMENT
   Hazardous Substance Response - Enforcement 	  13-53
      Hazardous Substance Technical Enforcement 	  13-55
      Hazardous Substance Legal Enforcement 	  13-57
      Hazardous Substance Criminal Enforcement Program  	  13-60
      Hazardous Substance Technical Support	13-62
      Hazardous Substance Federal Facilities Enforcement  	  13-63
MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT
   Hazardous Substance Management and Support 	  13-69
   '•  Hazardous Substance Financial Management - Headquarters ....  13-74
      Hazardous Substance Financial Management - Regions  	  13-75
      Hazardous Substance Administrative Management - Headquarters   .  13-76
      Hazardous Substance Administrative Management - Regions ....  13-77
      Hazardous Substance Contracts and Grants
        Management - Headquarters	13-78
      Hazardous Substance Contracts and Grants
        Management - Regions	13-79
      Hazardous Substance Support Services - Nationwide/Headquarters   13-79
      Hazardous Substance Support Services - Regions  	  13-80
      Hazardous Substance Computer Services 	  13-81
      Hazardous Substance Legal Services - Headquarters 	  13-81
      Hazardous Substance Legal Services - Regions  	  13-82
      Hazardous Substance - Office of the Inspector General 	  13-83
      Hazardous Substance - Office of Policy,  Planning and Evaluation  13-85
      Hazardous Substance - Office of the Comptroller 	  13-87
      Hazardous Substance - Office of the Administrator	13-88
      Hazardous Substance - Office of Research and Development  .  .  .  13-90
      Hazardous Substance - Analytical Environmental Services ....  13-91


LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS                                      14-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   LUST Research	14-7
      LUST Research	14-8
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   LUST Guidelines and Implementation	14-11
      Guidelines and Implementation - LUST Trust Fund	14-12

-------
                              Table of  Contents
                                  (Continued)
                                                                          Page

ENFORCEMENT
   LUST Enforcement	14-15
      LUST Legal Enforcement	14-16
MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT
   LUST Management and Support	14-19
      LUST Support Services - Headquarters/Nationwide  	   14-21
      LUST Administrative Management  -  Headquarters  	   14-21
      LUST Administrative Management  -  Regions	14-22
      Legal Services  - Office of General Counsel   	   14-22
      Office of the Inspector General -LUST  	   14-23
OIL SPILLS RESPONSE                                                    15-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Oil Spill Response Research   	  15-7
OIL SPILL RESPONSE AND PREVENTION
   Oil Spill Response and Prevention   	  15-11
      Environmental Emergency Response and Prevention  .  .  	  15-12
ENFORCEMENT
   OPA - Enforcement	15-15
      OPA - Enforcement Policy and Operations	  15-16
      OPA - Crimical Enforcement Program	  15-16
MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT
   OPA - Management and Support	15-19..
      Oil Spill Response - Nationwide Support Services   .  	  15-20
      Oil Spill Response - Headquarters Support Services   	  .15-20
      Oil Spill Response - Regional Support Services  	  .  15-20
      Office of Administrative Law Judges (Oil Pollution Act)	15-20

                                                                       • 7
SPECIAL ANALYSES

EPA ORGANIZATIONAL CHART	,	16-1
EPA REGIONAL OFFICES - LOCATIONS  .	16-2
SUMMARY OF RESOURCES - BY APPROPRIATION	  16-3
SUMMARY OF RESOURCES - BY MEDIA	  16-6
OBJECT CLASSIFICATION - BY APPROPRIATION	16-10
PERMANENT POSITIONS BY GRADE - BY APPROPRIATION	16-15
AVERAGE GRADE AND SALARY  	  16-23
SUMMARY OF STATE GRANTS	16-24


AGENCY USER FEES	17-1

-------
AIR
                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION  AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate

                            Subject Index by Media

                                                            Page
Acid Deposition (Acid Rain) 	  2-7,19,28-32,80,83
Allowances, Sulphurdioxide  	  2-7,80,81
ADVOCATE	2-23
Air Quality Monitoring  	  2-6,20,21,72-75
Air Toxics  	  2-6,19,20,41-43,51
Alternative Fuel  	  2-23,24
Best Available Control Measures (BACM)  .  .  	  2-45,67
Carbon Monoxide (CO)  	  2-44,46
Clean Fuels 	  2-6,23
Clean Vehicles  	  2-6,23
Compliance Monitoring Inspections 	  2-96-98
Control Technology Guideline (CTG)  	  2-41
Consulting Services - Air	2-10
Enforcement - Air	2-8
Fuel Economy  	  2-23,55,57
Global Climate Change (Greenhouse Gas Emissions)  .  .  .  2-8,16-18,33,34,84-88
Grand Canyon Visability Commission  	  2-63
Green Programs (Lights,  Computers, etc.)  	  2-8,84-88
Health Effects Institute - Air  	  2-22,23,25
Indoor Air  	  2-9,24-25,90-94
Inspection and Maintenance Program - Air  	  2-49-50,52
In-use Emission Factors 	  2-55-57
Lead Substitute Fee - Gasoline Additives  	  17-2
Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)  	  2-7,20,40-43
Methane Emissions 	  2-8,16,85-87
Mobile Source Enforcement  	  2-100
Mobile Source Pollutants   	  2-49-52
Modeling Air Quality	'	2-72,75
Montreal Protocol 	  2-7
Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory  	  2-23-24,53-55
Motor Vehicle & Engine Compliance Program Fee 	  2-10;17-1
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  ....  2-5,21,22
Natl. Emission Standards - Haz. Air Poll.  (NESHAPs)  .  .  2-44-46,96-100
New Source Performance Standards  (NSPS)  	  2-44-46
Nitrogen Oxide  	  2-22,41
Ozone (Ground Level)  	  2-18,19,36,44-46
Par.ticulate Matter (PM-10)  	2-41,45,66,68-69,97
Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT)  ....  2-62,67
State Grants - Air	2-60-63
State Implementation Plans (SIPs)  	  2-21,44-46,49-50,
                                                           53,67-69,73,96
State Operating Permits 	  2-61-63
Stationary Source Enforcement 	  2-10,91-94
Stratospheric Ozone 	  2-8,18-19,36,83
Tampering and Fuel Switching  	  2-97-100
Volatile Organic Compound  (VOC) 	  2-41-43,53,60,66,96

                                      8

-------
                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
WATER QUftLITY

Chesapeake Bay Program  	  3-8,22,31,34-35,37
Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Reduction Strategy  	  3-35,36
Clean Lakes 	  3-11,43,46,67,68
Coastal Environment Management  	  3-17,61
Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) 	  3-5,6,44,45,58,59,74,
                                                           78,79,82-84
Construction Grants Management  	  3-73,74
Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106) .  3-43-45
Corps of Engineers  	  3-49,50,55-57,73,74
Effluent Guidelines 	  3-40,41,83
Enforcement - Water Quality 	  3-45,77,78,79
Great Lakes Program 	  3-8-9,18,19,22-24,
                                                           31-35,69
Gulf of Mexico  	  3-8,9,22,63,64,89
Indian Tribes - Water Quality 	  3-44,50,54,74
Mexican Border  	  3-8
National Estuary Program  	  3-62-65
Near Coastal Waters 	  3-64,65
Nonpoint Sources	3-5,6,17,23,49,
                                                           51-53,64,66-69
NPDES Permits 	  3-44,45,78,80,81-83
NPDES Permit Fee	17-2
Operator Training - Water Qualty  	  3-72,74
Pretreatment  	  3-83,84
Sludge Management 	  3-25,59
State Revolving Funds 	  3-12,52,72-74
Storm Water 	  3-5,44,45,74,79,82-84
Toxic Pollutant Controls  	  3-45,82,84
Water Quality Research  	  3-13,14,16,26,27
Wetlands (Section 404)  	  3-8,9,19,20,47,49-54

DRINKING WATER

Agriculture Chemicals	  4-15
American Wat^e (forks Association	4-18,38
Class V W«im	4-7,47
Comprehenai^«||*St*te Ground Water Protection Programs  .  4-6,7
Disinfectantl^frisinfection by-products  ........  4-6,8,14,16-18,
                                                           26,28,40
Drinking Water Implementation 	  4-6
Enforcement 	  4-32,33,36,38,
                                                           45-47
Ground-Water Activities 	  4-7,18,40
Health Advisories 	  4-27,29
Health Effects - Drinking Water 	 .  4-17
Indian Tribes -Drinking Water 	  .....  4-34,47
National Environmental Training Centers 	  4-38
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations 	  4-25-28,34,48
National Rural Water Association  	  4-37,40

-------
                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
                                                            Page
Public Water Systems Supervision  	  4-25,32-34,48
Rural Community Assistance Programs 	  4-37
Small Business Development Act of 1982	4-20
Special Studies and Demonstrations  	  4-36
Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) 	  4-6-8,25,26,32-34,38,
                                                           46
Underground Injection Control 	  4-6,18,34-36,40,47,48
Wellhead Protection	4-6-8,13,18,19,-37

HAZARDOUS WASTE

Air Emission Standards (RCRA) 	  5-30
BioRemediation  	  5-8,18
Chemical Emergency Planning  	  5-46
Clean Air Act - Community Right-to-know 	  5-8,46,48
Compliance Inspections  	  5-37,52,54
Corrective Action (HSWA)  	  5-6,36,52
Enforcement - Hazardous Waste 	  5-6,37,46
Hazardous Waste Research  	  5-11,16
Incineration  	  5-27,36
Innovative/Alternatives Technologies  	  5-22,23,28
Land Disposal Regulation  	  5-7,28,29,31
Listing/Delisting	«.	5-48
Municipal Solid Waste Research  	  5-15
Municipal Waste Incineration  	  5-15
Permitting - Hazardous Waste  	  5-28,42
Policy and Guidance - Hazardous Waste 	  5-5,27
Pollution Prevention (RCRA)  	  5-20,28,36,53
POTW Requirements - Hazardous Waste 	  5-28
Quality Assurance - Hazardous Waste 	  5-42
RCRA Fees	17-2
Regulations Development - Hazardous Waste 	  5-7,27
Reports to Congress - Hazardous Waste 	  5-29
Solid Waste (RCRA)  	  5-28,42
State Authorizations  	  5-37,53
State Grant* - Hazardous Waste  	  5-28,36
Subtitle D Criteria 	  5-27
Title III - Hazardous Waste	5-7,46
Underground Storage Tanks - Regulations and Guidelines   5-7,32
Underground Storage Tanks Grants  	  5-32,39

PESTICIDES

Antimicrobial Strategy  	  6-28,43
Biotechnology 	  6-19
Biological Pesticides 	  6-29
Certification and Training   	  6-8,36-38
Consulting Services - Pesticides  	  6-9
Data Call-in  	  6-30,32
Dietary Risk Exposure System  	  6-32
Disposal  	  6-7,33,34

                                      10

-------
                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
                                                            Page

Emergency Exemptions  	  6-29
Endangered Species  	  6-30,34,36-39
FIFRA '88   	  6-5-8,32,33,43,44
Food Safety	6-30
Good Laboratories Practices 	  6-42,43
Ground Water - Pesticides 	  6-20,33,36-39
Human Exposure Research 	  6-21
Maintenance Fee 	  6-32-34;17-1
Material Weaknesses 	  6-28,42,43
National Pesticide Survey 	  6-34
Neurotoxicology Research  	  6-22
Pesticides Labelling  	  6-29,30
Pesticides Program Implementation 	  6-36
Pesticide Tolerance Fee 	  6-28-30;17-1
Reregistration  	  6-6,29,32-34,42,43
Registration Fee  	  6-32-34;17-1
Reproduction Toxicology Research  	  6-22
Special Reviews 	  6-32-34
State Grants - Pesticides 	  6-38,39,44
Tolerances  	  6-28-30
Worker Protection 	  6-33,34,36-39,44

RADIATION

Electromagnetic Radiation Fields (EMR)  	  7-12
Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring Sys.(ERAMS)   7-11,13,31-33
Nevada Nuclear Test Site  	  7-11,31
Radioactive Waste Standards 	  7-7,16
Radiological Emergency Response Plans 	  7-22,23,31
Radionuclide NESHAPS  	  7-5,16,22
Radon Action Program  	  7-6,25,30
Radon Proficiency and Testing Fee 	  7-29,-17-2
Radon Mitigation Research 	  7-7
Radon State Grants  	  7-24,33,34
Waste Isolation Pilot Project 	  7-5,16,18

MULTIMEDIA

Academic Training Grants  	  8-45,46
Border Environmental Activities 	  8-55
Case Referrals  	  8-72,74
Center for Environmental Research 	  8-27
Cross Programs  	  8-29,66,67
Core Research - Risk Reduction  	  8-15,22,23
Criminal Investigations 	  8-69
Ecological Risk Assessment  	  8-15
Ecosystems	8-15
Enforcement Policy and Operations 	  8-65
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)   8-15
Environmental Review and Coordination 	  8-36
Environmental Analytical Services 	  8-5,52

                                      11

-------
                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
                                                            Page

Environmental Technology Initiative 	  8-23
Exploratory Research   	  8-27
Federal Facility Compliance 	  8-75
Grants and Centers	8-27
Health Effects  	  8-21
Health Risk Assessment  	  8-22
Human Exposure Research 	  8-20
Indians Programs  	  8-36
Lead and Other Heavy Metals	8-26
Mexican Border/NAFTA   	  2-63,67,74
National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC)  . .  .  8-73
National Enforcement Training Institute  (NETI)  ....  8-68,73,74
NEPA Compliance Program 	  8-36,39
Office of Cooperation Environmental Management  ....  8-41,42
Office of Enforcement   	  8-35,63
Operating Expense - Field and Lab 	  8-32,33
Operating Expense - Headquarters  	  8-32,33
Pollution Prevention Activities 	  2-26/8-23,57,58
Pollution Prosecution Act	  8-66
Quality Assurance and Monitoring System  	  8-29
Regional Multimedia Programs  	  8-47,48
Small Business Innovation Research  	  2-22;3-27;4-20;
                                                           5-23;6-23;7-13;
                                                           8-24;9-26;13-20
Technology Transfer 	  8-25

TOXIC SUBSTANCES

Adipose Tissue Survey	  9-39
Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA)  ....  9-5,41,51
Asbestos in Public Buildings  	  9-41
Asbestos-in-Schools Loans and Grants  	  9-30
Asbestos Research 	  9-21
Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act (ASHAA)  	  9-5,41
Asbestos  Accreditation Programs  	  9-30,41
Biotechnology 	  9-15,18,19,40
Biotechnology Research  	  9-18
Credit Refasp	9-42
Ecological Kick Assessment  	  9-7,9,16-18
Enforcement - Toxic Substances  	  9-50
EPCRA (Emergency Planning & Community Right
  to Know Act) -Enforcement	9-54
EPCRA - Research Support	9-20
EPCRA - Toxic Release Inventory 	  9-20,46,54
Existing Chemical Review  	  8-38
Exposure Monitoring Research  	  9-22
Interagency Testing Committee (ITC)  	  9-35,36
Lab/Data Integrity  	  9-50
Lead - Based Paint Abatement	9-27
Neurotoxicology Research  	  9-23
New Chemical Follow-up  	  9-40

                                      12

-------
                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
                                                            Page

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS)  	  9-38
Pre-Manufacture Notice Fees 	  9-8;17-1
Regional Toxics Program 	  9-42
Residential Lead-based Paint Hazard
   Reduction Act (Title X)  	  9-5,27,37
Risk Assessment - Toxic Substances  	  9-39
SARA Section 110 Toxicological Profiles 	  9-39
Significant New Use Rule  (SNUR)	9-40
Test Guidelines	9-36
Test Rules  	  9-35,36

MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

Agency-wide Strategic Plan  	  10-54
Buildings and Facilities  	  11-1,2,5
Civil Rights  	  10-18,29
Contracts and Grants Management 	  10-58,67,73,77
Environmental Appeals Board 	  10-28
Environmental Education 	  10-25
Environmental Education Foundation  	  10-17,21
Environmental Equity  	  10-57,63
Environmental Statistics  	  10-54
Integrated Contracts Management System  	  10-89
International Activities  	  10-41,42
New Facilities  	  11-7,8
Office of Administration  and Resources Management .  .   .  10-57
Office of General Counsel 	  10-37-39
Office of Inspector General 	  10-33-36
Office of Small & Disadvantaged Business Utilization   .  10-17,22
Pollution Prevention - OPPE	10-48
Regional Management   	  10-73,78
Repairs and Improvements  	  11-9,10
Science Advisory Board  	  10-18,31
Support Costs   	  10-85

CONSTRUCTIOH GRANTS (WATER INFRASTRUCTURE)

Colonias  .,,	12-9
Clean Water SRF	12-5
Drinking Water SRF  	  12-5,6,8,12
Mexican Border Projects 	  12-6,10
Needs Survey	12-5
Pretreatment  	  12-10
Set-Asides - Construction Grants  	  12-9
Six Coastal Cities  	  12-8,9
Special Needs Programs  	  12-5,11
Tijuana Internatinal Treatment Plant   	  12-6,9,11
Title II Closeout	12-5
Title VI SRF	12-5
Water Quality Cooperative Agreements  (104 b)  	  12-9
                                       13

-------
                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
                                                            Page
SUPERFUND
Alternative Technologies  	  13-20,55
Analytical Environmental Services 	  13-71,91
Biomediation  	  13-16,17
CERCLA  	  13-60,61,64-67
Contracts and Grants Management 	  13-69,78,79
Cost Recovery - Superfund   	13-55
Criminal Investigations - Superfund 	  13-60
Enforcement - Superfund 	  13-53
Enforcement Response Team 	  13-24,25
Exploratory Research  	 	  13-21
Federal Facility Enforcement  	  13-63
Health Research - Superfund 	  13-18,19
Interagency - Superfund 	  13-41-50
Minority Research Program 	  13-15
Office of Inspector General Superfund 	  13-83-85
Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study  	  13-53,54
Remedial Design/Remedial Actions  	  13-30,31
Remedial Support  	  13-30-32
Removal Support 	  13-30-33
Response Management 	  13-23-30
Research and Development - Superfund  	  13-14
Risk Assessments  	  13-17,19
SACM	13-57,58
SITE Program  	  13-15,16
SBIR	13-20
University Research Centers 	 ...  13-21

LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK

Cooperative Agreements - LUST 	  14-5,12,13
Corrective Action   	  14-5,6,12
Enforcement - LUST  	  14-5,6,15,16
Guidelines - LUST 	  14-11,12
Management - LUST 	  14-6,19-23
Office of In»p«ctor General - LUST	14-23
Research Df*»lopment - LUST	14-7-10
Technical Support - LUST  	  14-10,16,70

OIL SPILL RESPONSE

Administrative Law Judges 	  15-19,20
Area Contingency Plans  	  15-3,4,12-14
Bioremediation  	  15-4,8-14
Enforcement 	  15-3,4,12-17
Environmental Appeals Board 	  15-3,12
Facility Response Plan  	  15-3,4,12-14
Oil Pollution Act 	  15-3,12-14
Oil Spill Trust Fund - Support  	  15-19-21
                                      14

-------
                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
Research and Development - Oil Spills 	  15-7-10
Spill Prevention, Control and Counter Measures  ....  15-11,12

USER FEES

Lead Substitute Gasoline Additives  	  17-2
Motor Vehicle Testing Fee	17-1
NPDES Permits Fee	17-2
Pesticide Maintenance Fee 	  17-1
Pesticides Registration Fee 	  17-1
Pesticides Tolerance Fee  	  17-1
Pre-Manufacture Notice Fee	17-1
Radon Proficiency and Testing Fee	17-2
RCRA Fees	  17-2
                                       15

-------
                        ENVIRONMENTAL PI

                           Alphabetic SutHact Index
                                                            Page
Academic Training Grants   	  8-45,46
Acid Deposition  (Acid Rain)  	  2-7,19,28-32,80,83
Adipose Tissue Survey	9-39
Administrative Law Judges  	  15-19,20
ADVOCATE	2-23
Agency-wide Strategic Plan   	  10-54
Agriculture Chemicals 	  4-15
Air Emission Standards  (RCRA)  	  5-30
Air Quality Monitoring   	  2-6,20,21,72-75
Air Toxics  	  2-6,19,20,41-43,51
Allowances, Sulphurdioxide   	  2-7,80,81
Alternative Fuel  	  2-23,24
Alternative Technologies   	  13-20,55
American Water Works Association   	  4-18,38
Analytical Environmental Services  	  13-71,91
Antimicrobial Strategy   	  6-28,43
Area Contingency Plans   	  15-3,4,12-14
Asbestos Accreditation Programs 	  9-30,41
Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act  (AHERA)   .  .  .  .  9-5,41,51
Asbestos in Public Buildings   	  9-41
Asbestos-in-Schools Loans and Grants  	  9-30
Asbestos Research 	  9-21
Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act  (ASHAA)   	  9-5,41
I

Best Available Control Measures  (BACM)   	  2-45,67
Biological Pesticides 	  6-29
Bioremediation   	  5-8,18;8-14;13-16,17,•
                                                           15-4
Biotechnology 	  6-19;9-15,18,19,40
Biotechnology Research	9-18
Border Environmental Activities  .	8-55
Buildings and Facilities   	  11-1,2,5


£

Carbon Monoxide  (CO)  	  2-44,46
Case Referrals   	  8-72,74
Center for Environmental Research  	  8-27
CERCLA   	  13-60,61,64-67
Certification and Training   	  6-8,36-38
Chemical Emergency Planning  	  5-46
Chesapeake Bay Nutrient Reduction Strategy  	  3-35,36
Chesapeake Bay Program   	  3-8,22,31,34-35,37
Civil Rights  	  10-18,29
Class V Wells	4-7,47
Clean Air Act- - Community Right-to-know	5-8,46,48
Clean Fuels 	  2-6,23
Clean Lakes 	  3-11,43,46,67,68
Clean Vehicles   	  2-6,23
Clean Water SRF	12-5
Coastal Environment Management   	  3-17,61
Colonias	12-9

                                      16

-------
Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO)  .............  3-5,6,44,45,58,59,74,
                                                           78,79,82-84
Compliance Inspections  ................  5-37,52,54
Compliance Monitoring Inspections ...........  2-96-98
Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection Programs   .  4-6,7
Construction Grants Management  ............  3-73,74
Consulting Services - Air ...............  2-10
Consulting Services - Pesticides  ...........  6-9
Contracts and Grants Management ............  10-58, 67, 73, 77, -13-
                                                           69,78,79
Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106)  .  3-43-45
Control Technology Guideline  (CTG)  ..........  2-41
Cooperative Agreements - LUST .............  14-5,12,13
Core Research - Risk Reduction  ............  8-15,22,23
Corps of Engineers  ..................  3-49,50,55-57,73,74
Corrective Action   ..................  14-5,6,12
Corrective Action  (HSWA)  ...............  5-6,36,52
Cost Recovery - Superfund   ..............  13-55
Credit Reform .....................  9-42
Criminal Investigations ................  8-69
Criminal Investigations - Superfund ..........  13-60
Cross Programs  ....................  8-29,66,67
Data Call-In   .....................  6-30,32
Dietary Risk Exposure System   ..........  ...  6-32
Disinfectants/Disinfection by-products   ........  4-6,8,14,16-
                                                           18,26,28,40
Disposal   .......................  6-7,33,34
Drinking Water Implementation  .............  4-6
Drinking Water SRP   ..................  12-5,6,8,12


1

Ecological Risk Assessment   ..............  8-15;9-7,9, 16-18
Ecosystems   ......................  8-15
Effluent Guidelines  ..................  3-40,41,83
Electromagnetic Radiation Fields  (EMR)   ........  7-12
Emergency Exemptions   .................  6-29
Endangered Species   ..................  6-30,34,36-39
Enforcement  ......................  4-32,33,36,38,45-
                                                           47;15-3,4,12-17
Enforcement  - Air  ...................  2-8
Enforcement  - Hazardous Waste  .............  5-6,37,46
Enforcement  - LOST   ..................  14-5,6,15,16
Enforcement  Policy and Operations  ...........  8-65
Enforcement:  fcsponse Team  ..  ..............  13-24,25
Enforcement-*  Superfund  .  .  ..............  13-53
Enforcement  - Toxic  Substances  ............  9-50
Enforcement  - Water  Quality  ..............  3-45,77,78,79
Environmental Analytical Services  ...........  8-5,52
Environmental Appeals  Board  ..............  10-28;15-3,12
Environmental  Education  ................  10-25
Environmental  Education Foundation  ..........  10-17,21
Environmental  Equity  .................  10-57,63
Environmental  Monitoring and Assessment  Program (EMAP)   8-15
Environmental  Radiation Ambient Monitoring Sys. (ERAMS)   7-11,13,31-33
Environmental  Review and Coordination .........  8-36
Environmental  Statistics   ...............  10-54
Environmental  Technology Initiative ..........  8-23
EPCRA (Emergency Planning  &  Community Right
   to Know  Act)  -Enforcement  ..............  9-54
EPCRA -  Research Support   ...............  9-20

                                       17

-------
EPCRA - Toxic Release Inventory  	  9-20,46,54
Existing Chemical Review   	  8-38
Exploratory Research  	  8-27;i3-21
Exposure Monitoring Research   	  9-22


£

Facility Response Plan  	  15-3,4,12-14
Federal Facility Compliance 	  8-75
Federal Facility Enforcement   	  13-63
FIFRA '88   	  6-5-8,32,33,43,44
Food Safety	6-30
Fuel Economy  	  2-23,55,57


Q.

Global Climate Change (Greenhouse Gas Emissions)   .  .  .  2-8,16-18,33,34,84-88
Good Laboratories Practices 	 ....  6-42,43
Grand Canyon Visability Commission	  2-63
Grants and Centers	8-27
Great Lakes Program 	  3-8-9,18,19,22-24,31-
                                                           35,69
Green Programs (Lights,  Computers, etc.)  	  2-8,84-88
Ground Water - Pesticides  	  6-20,33,36-39
Ground-Water Activities 	  4-7,18,40
Guidelines - LUST 	  14-11,12
Gulf of Mexico  	  3-8,9,22,63,64,89


H

Hazardous Waste Research   	  5-11,16
Health Advisories 	  4-27,29
Health Effects  	  8-21
Health Effects - Drinking Water  	  4-17
Health Effects Institute - Air   	  2-22,23,25
Health Research - Superfund 	  13-18,19
Health Risk Assessment	8-22
Human Exposure Research 	  6-21;8-20


I

In-use Emission Factors 	  2-55-57
Incineration  	  5-27,36
Indian TribM -Drinking Water  	  4-34,47
Indian TribMl - Water Quality  	  3-44,50,54,74
Indians Programs	8-36
Indoor Air ."„	2-9,24-25,90-94
Innovative/Alternatives Technologies  	  5-22,23,28
Inspection and Maintenance Program - Air  	  2-49-50,52
Integrated Contracts Management System  	  10-89
Interagency Testing Committee  (ITC)   	  9-35,36
Interagency -  Superfund 	  13-41-50
International  Activities   	  10-41,42


L

Lab/Data Integrity  	  9-50
Land Disposal  Regulation   	  5-7,28,29,31
Lead and Other Heavy Metals	8-26
Lead Based Paint Abatement	9-27
Lead Substitute Fee -  Gasoline Additives	17-2

                                      18

-------
Lead Substitute Gasoline Additives  	  17-2
Listing/Delisting 	  5-48


M

Maintenance Fee 	  6-32-34;17-l
Management - LUST	14-6,19-23
Material Weaknesses 	  6-28,42,43
Maximum Achievable Control Technology  (MACT)   	  2-7,20,40-43
Methane Emissions 	  2-8,16,85-87
Mexican Border	3-8
Mexican Border/NAFTA  	  2-63,67,74
Mexican Border Projects 	  12-6,10
Minority Research Program  .  	  13-15
Mobile Source Enforcement  	  2-100
Mobile Source Pollutants   	  2-49-52
Modeling Air Quality  	  2-72,75
Montreal Protocol 	 	  2-7
Motor Vehicle & Engine Compliance Program Fee  	  2-10,-17-1
Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory	  .  2-23-24,53-55
Motor Vehicle Testing Fee	17-1
Municipal Solid Waste Research  	  5-15
Municipal Waste Incineration  	  5-15


N

National Ambient Air Quality Standards  (NAAQS)  . .  .  .  2-5,21,22
National Emission Standards  - Haz. Air Poll.  (NESHAPs)   2-44-46,96-100
National Enforcement Investigation Center  (NEIC)  ...  8-73
National Enforcement Training Institute  (NETI)  . .  .  .  8-68,73,74
National Environmental Training Centers  	  4-38
National Estuary Program   	  3-62-65
National Pesticide Survey  	  6-34
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations 	  4-25-28,34,48
National Rural Water Association  	  4-37,40
Near Coastal Waters 	  3-64,65
Needs Survey	12-5
NEPA Compliance Program 	  8-36,39
Neurotoxicology Research   	  6-22;9-23
Nevada Nuclear Test Site   	  7-11,31
New Chemical Follow-up  	  9-40
New Facilities  	  11-7,8
New Source Performance Standards  (NSPS)  	  2-44-46
Nitrogen Oxide  	  2-22,41
Nonpoint Source*  	  3-5,6,17,23,49,51-
                                                         53,64,66-69
NPDES Permit*	3-44,45,78,80,81-83
NPDES Permifefrfl*	17-2
Office of Administration and Resources Management  ...  10-57
Office of Cooperation Environmental Management   ....  8-41,42
Office of Enforcement    	  8-35,63
Office of General Counsel  	  10-37-39
Office of inspector General 	  10-33-36
Office of Inspector General - LUST	14-23
Office of Inspector General Superfund  	  13-83-85
Office of Small & Disadvantaged Business Utilization   .  10-17,22
Oil Pollution Act 	  15-3,12-14
Oil Spill Trust Fund - Support   	  15-19-21
Operating Expense - Field  and Lab  	  8-32,33
Operating Expense - Headquarters   	  8-32,33

                                       19

-------
Operator Training - Water Qualty   	  3-72,74
Ozone  (Ground Level)   	  2-18,19,36,44-46


£

Particulate Matter  (PM-10)   	  2-41,45,66,68-69,97
Permitting - Hazardous Waste   	  5-28,42
Pesticide Maintenance Fee 	  17-1
Pesticide Tolerance Fee  	  6-28-30;17-l
Pesticides Labelling   	  6-29,30
Pesticides Program Implementation  	  6-36
Pesticides Registration Fee  	  17-l
Policy and Guidance - Hazardous Waste  	  5-5,27
Pollution Prevention Activities 	  2-26;8-23,57,58
Pollution Prevention - OPPE	10-48
Pollution Prevention (RCRA)   	  5-20,28,36,53
Pollution Prosecution Act 	  8-66
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS)   	  	  9-38
POTW Requirements - Hazardous Waste	5-28
Pre-Manufacture Notice Fees  	  9-8/17-1
Pretreatment  	  3-83,84,-12-10
Public Water Systems Supervision   	  4-25,32-34,48


Q.

Quality Assurance and Monitoring System	8-29
Quality Assurance - Hazardous Waste  	  5-42


R

Radioactive Waste Standards  	  7-7,16
Radiological Emergency Response Plans  	  7-22,23,31
Radionuclide NESHAPS   	  7-5,16,22
Radon Action Program   	  7-6,25,30
Radon Mitigation Research	7-7
Radon Proficiency and Testing Fee	7-29,-17-2
Radon State Grants  	  7-24,33,34
RCRA Fees	17-2
Reasonably Available Control Technology  (RACT)  . .  .  .  2-62,67
Regional Management    	  10-73,78
Regional Multimedia Programs   	  8-47,48
Regional Toxics Program  	  9-42
Registration Fee  	  6-32-34/17-1
Regulations Development - Hazardous Waste  	  5-7,27
Remedial Deaign/Remedial Actions   	  13-30,31
Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study   	  13-53,54
Remedial Support  	  13-30-32
Removal Support 	  13-30-33
Repairs and Improvements  	  11-9,10
Reports to Congress - Hazardous Waste  	  5-29
Reproduction Toxicology Research   	  6-22
Reregistration  	  6-6,29,32-34,42,43
Research Development - LUST  	  14-7-10
Research and Development - Oil Spills  	  15-7-10
Research and Development - Superfund   	  13-14
Residential Lead-based Paint Hazard
   Reduction Act (Title X)   	  9-5,27,37
Response Management 	  13-23-30
Risk Assessment - Toxic Substances	9-39
Risk Assessments  	  13-17,19
Rural Community Assistance Programs  	  4-37
                                      20

-------
SACM	13-57,58
SARA Section 110 Toxicological Profiles 	  9-39
SBIR	13-20
Science Advisory Board  	  10-18,31
Set-Asides - Construction Grants  	  12-9
Significant New Use Rule (SNUR)	9-40
SITE Program  	  13-15,16
Six Coastal Cities  	  12-8,9
Sludge Management 	  3-25,59
Small Business Development Act of 1982	4-20
Small Business Innovation Research  	  2-22;3-27;4-20;
                                                           5-23;6-23;7-13;
                                                           8-24;9-26;13-20
Solid Waste (RCRA)  	  5-28,42
Special Needs Programs  	  12-5,11
Special Reviews 	  6-32-34
Special Studies and Demonstrations  	  4-36
Spill Prevention, Control and Counter Measures  ....  15-11,12
State Authorizations  	  5-37,53
State Grants - Air	2-60-63
State Grants - Hazardous Waste  	  5-28,36
State Grants - Pesticides 	  6-38,39,44
State Implementation Plans  (SIPs)  	  2-21,44-46,49-50,
State Operating Permits	2-61-.63
State Revolving Funds 	  3-12,52,72-74
Stationary Source Enforcement 	  2-10,91-94
Storm Water 	  3-5,44,45,74,79,82-84
Stratospheric Ozone 	  2-8,18-19,36,83
Subtitle D Criteria 	  5-27
Support Costs    	  10-85
Surface Water Treatment Rule  (SWTR)  	  4-6-8,25,26,32-34,38,
                                                           46

I

Tampering and Fuel Switching  	  2-97-100
Technical Support - LUST  	  14-10,16,70
Technology Transfer 	  8-25
Test Guidelines	9-36
Test Rules  	  9-35,36
Tijuana Internatinal Treatment Plant   	  12-6,9,11
Title II Closeout	12-5
Title III - Hazardous Waste	5-7,46
Title VI SRF	12-5
Tolerances  	  6-28-30
Toxic Pollutant Controls  	  3-45,82,84


2

Underground Storage Tanks -  Regulations and Guidelines   5-7,32
Underground Storage Tanks Grants  	  5-32,39
Underground Injection Control 	  4-6,18,34-36,40,47,48
University Research Centers  	  13-21


Y

Volatile Organic  Compound  (VOC)  	  2-41-43,53,60,66,96
                                       21

-------
w

Waste Isolation Pilot Project  	  7-5,16,18
Water Quality Cooperative Agreements  (104 b)   	12-9
Water Quality Research   	  3-13,14,16,26,27
Wellhead Protection 	  4-6-8,13,18,19,37
Wetlands (Section 404)   	  3-8,9,19,20,47,49-54
Worker Protection 	  6-33,34,36-39,44
                                      22

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY



                             1994  Budget  Estimate



                              Table of Contents



                                                                         Paoe



SUMMARY                                                                  1-1

-------
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          FISCAL YEAR 1994 BUDGET REQUEST

      The President's 1994 Budget Request for the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) totals $6,363,482,500, supported by 17,469 workyears.  This represents an
overall decrease of $528,941,500 from the 1993 current estimate.  The following
chart provides a summary of budget authority for EPA's twelve appropriations.  The
1994 President's Request column below, and throughout this document, includes
resources requested as part of the President's Investments Program.
                                 Budget Authority
                               (dollars in thousands)
Program and
  Research Operations

OIG - General Fund

OIG - Trust Funds

Research & Development

Abatement, Control
  and Compliance

Buildings & Facilities

AC&C Loan Account

Oil Spill Response

Superfund

LUST Trust Fund

Water Infrastructure
  Financing

Drinking Water SRF

1994 REQUEST
1993
Enacted
823,607.0
42,799.0
0.0
323,000.0
1993
Current
Estimate
823,607.0
26,419.0
16,380.0
323,000.0
1994
President
Request
859,170.4
28,246.3
16,947.7
353,565.0
Increase/
Decrease
1993 vs 1994
+35,563.4
+1,827.3
+567.7
+30,565.0
1,318,965.0

  134,300.0

   31,225.0

   20,000.0

1,573,528.0

   75,000.0
 1,318,965.0  1,367,535.1    +48,570.1

   134,300.0     18,000.0   -116,300.0

   31,225.0          0.0    -31,225.0

   20,000.0     21,239.0     +1,239.0

1,573,528.0'  1,496,400.0    -77,128.0

   75,000.0     75,379.0       +379.0
2,550,000.0   2,550,000.0  1,528,000.0 -1,022,000.0

        0.0           0.0    599.000.0   +599.000.0

6,892,424.0   6,892,424.0  6,363,482.5   -528,941.5
     1  Superfund 1993 current estimate does not include $11.7 million  in  carryover
distributed  in  the  Agency's operating plan.   Those  resources are included  in  the
program element descriptions contained in this Budget.
                                        1-1

-------
and benefit costs and travel.  The decrease in workyears reflects a government-wide
reduction that  is  part of the President's  program  to reduce the  size and  cost  of
government.

      Please  note  that  throughout this  document the  1992 Actuals  and the  1993
President's Budget Request  for the Program and Research Operations Account   (PRO)
represent  the  "old"  Salaries  and Expenses  Account  (S&E).    For 1993,  Congress
restructured and renamed the Agency's  accounts.   The PC&B and travel costs formerly
funded in S&E are now  funded  in PRO.   The expense costs  once funded  in S&E  are now
funded within the Abatement  Control and Compliance Account.    The  1993 Enacted,  1993
Current Estimate, and  1994 President's Request column* reflect this change.

OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL -  GENERAL AND TRUST FUNDS

      The Agency requests a total  of $45,194,000 for the two Office of the Inspector
General (OIG)  appropriations:  Office of Inspector General, $28,246,300, and Inspector
General Trust Funds,  $16,947,700.   This represents an increase of $2,395,000  (5.0%)
above the 1993  current estimate.

      With the  OIG Appropriation,  the OIG will continue the implementation of the
Chief  Financial Officers  Act for audits of  Agency  financial  statements.  Audit
coverage  of  Agency  contracts will expand.    Resources from  the OIG  Trust  Fund
Appropriation consists of  $16,278,600 from  Superfund and $669,100 from LUST.  The
Superfund resources will expand audit  coverage of critical  Superfund  contracts and
investigation of the Contract Laboratory Program,  as  well  as conduct performance
audits and  investigations.    The   LUST funds  will support  continued contract and
management audits and expansion of LUST investigations.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

      For 1994,  EPA  is  requesting $353,565,000  for the Research and Development
appropriation,  an increase of  $30,565  (9.5%) over the  1993  current estimate.  This
appropriation finances research contracts, grants and  agreements with universities
and private  industry,  as well  as in-house activities,  to  produce the  scientific
knowledge  and  technologies  necessary  for  regulating,  preventing  and abating
pollution.

      Increases are provided in 1994 for enhancements  to risk-based media research
to strengthen the Agency's  research program;  for  the support of the Environmental
Monitoring and Assessment Program  (EMAP); for technology innovation development to
provide  clean  technologies   for small  business   and  improving   international
competitiveness of U.S.  environmental technology.   Additional resources  are being
provided  for  Federal Coordinating Council  on Science  and  Engineering Technology
(FCCSET)  for the Agency's Supercomputer and high speed communications link and for
advances in manufacturing, biotechnology, and global climate.  Finally,  resources are
provided to evaluate  and improve the lab structure within Research  and Development.

ABATEMENT. CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

      The  Agency  is  requesting  $1,367,535,100   for  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation, an  increase of $48,570,100  (3.7%)over  the 1993 current
estimate.  This appropriation funds contracts, grants, cooperative agreements for
pollution abatement, control and compliance activities, and administrative activities
of the operating programs.   The 1994  request  includes resources to implement the
                                     1-3

-------
Clean Air  Act Amendments  of  1990,  enhance  the  Agency's ecosystem approach  for
addressing water quality pollution, and provides technical assistance  and outreach
to states and localities.  Specific programs include pollution prevention, the Great
Water Bodies programs,  the  Agency Lead strategy program and strategic  investments
that will result in significant environmental returns.

BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

      The  Agency  is  requesting   $18,000,000 for  the  Buildings  and  Facilities
appropriation.  This  represents a decrease of $116,300,000 (64.6%) below  the 1993
current estimate.  This appropriation finances the construction of new facilities and
the repair, improvement, alteration,  and purchase  of fixed  equipment for facilities
which the Agency currently leases  or which are Federally owned.  The requested level
will permit the Agency to  continue to ensure healthy and safe working conditions.  It
will also provide for the build-out and design of new facilities.

OIL SPILL RESPONSE

      The 1994 President's  Budget provides $21,239,000 for the Oil Spill  Response
appropriation.  This  account,  with its increase of $1,239,000 over  1993,  provides
resources  to support  the  review and approval of facility  plans to  respond  to
releases.   The 1994  Oil  Spill Response program will  focus  on preventing harmful
releases  of  oil  and  petroleum  products,   providing  nationwide  capability  for
containment  and  removal of releases that  occur,  and minimizing the environmental
damage resulting from oil spills.  The Agency will  continue to use its  enforcement
authorities  to  compel compliance  with  the Oil   Pollution  Act  by  coordinating
enforcement  and response activities with other federal and state agencies.

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE SUPERFUND

      The President's 1994 Budget  request of $1,496,400,000 for Superfund represents
a decrease of $88,828,000  (5.6%) from the 1993 current estimate.  The reduced funding
will not  impair the  momentum  of  site completions  due to  the Agency's  efforts  to
continue  shifting  cleanup  financing  from  the   Trust  Fund  to  polluters,  and
streamlining the Superfund  process.   The decrease  in workyears is  a result of the
government-wide reduction  in  workyears that  is  part of the President's program to
reduce the size and cost of government.

      In  1994,  the Superfund  Enforcement  program  will  place special  emphasis  on
monitoring existing  settlements for compliance and reaching  settlements with small
contributors at Superfund  sites.  The  Department of Justice  will receive  $32.3
million to ensure adequate  support for the  steadily increasing Superfund caseload.

      The Agency will oversee the  increasing number of Federal facility cleanups and
ensure  expeditious and environmentally sound  review and  restoration  at closing
military  bases.   Increased emphasis continues to be placed  on  Superfund research,
particularly in  regard  to  bioremediation,  groundwater  contamination,  and  new
technology.

      The  Agency's   Superfund Accelerated  Cleanup   Model   (SACM),   focusing  on
streamlining and  accelerating   cleanups,  will  be  fully  implemented  in  1994.
Specifically,  SACM  streamlines the site assessment and remedy selection processes,
increases  the  use  of removal   authority  to  reduce risks  quickly,  and  brings
responsible  parties  into  the  cleanup  process sooner.   Focus  will  continue to be


                                     1-4

-------
placed on managing "classical" emergencies or time critical responses where there is
no responsible party and no -state or local response alternative.

LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (LUST)

      The Agency  requests  $75,379,000  in 1994.   This  appropriation supports  an
effective response program  for  the prevention  and remediation  of releases  from
leaking underground storage tanks containing petroleum and other hazardous material.
For 1994, the Agency continues to support  state and territory efforts to develop and
implement  comprehensive LUST programs  by providing  Federal  assistance  through
cooperative agreements, which  comprise 85% of the total  LUST budget.   In 1994,  the
Agency will emphasize work on streamlining state procedures for site closures,  site
assessments and  cleanup plan  reviews.   The Agency will continue to emphasize  an
enforcement  strategy  which  focuses  on  achieving  voluntary  compliance  and  the
promotion of innovative information on enforcement and remediation technologies.

WATER INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCING

      The  1994 budget request  is  $1,528,000,000  for  the  Water  Infrastructure
Financing (formerly  the  State Revolving Funds/Construction Grants) account.   This
request  includes  $1,198,000,000  for Clean Water  State Revolving Funds,  requiring
authorizing legislation; $150,000,000  for Mexican Border projects, which  includes
$70,000,000 for construction at the International Wastewater Treatment Plant to treat
Tijuana sewage that currently flows  into the United States at San Diego,  $60 million
for U.S.  colonias and an  additional  $20 million for  several  other high  priority
border wastewater projects; $100,000,000 for the construction of secondary treatment
for one  or more  cities with extraordinary secondary treatment needs and  high  user
charges; and $80,000,000 for non-point source grants.

DRINKING WATER STATE REVOLVING FUNDS

      The Administration requests $599,000,000 for the Drinking Water State Revolving
Funds account.  This new program requires  authorizing  legislation.   These resources
will provide  low  interest  loans to help  municipalities  comply with Safe  Drinking
Water Act requirements.
                                     1-5

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

         Summary of Budget Authority,
       Obligations, Outlays, and Workyears
               By Appropriation

           .   (dollars in thousands)

Salaries and Eipemea/Program and
Research Operation!
Budget Authority. 	 $
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears 	
Office of Inspector General •
General Funds
Budget Authority 	 $
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears 	
Office of Inspector General -
Trust Funds
Budget Authority. 	 $
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears 	
Research and Development
Budget Authority 	 S
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Abatement, Control and
Compliance
Budget Authority 	 S
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Building and Facilities
Budget Authority 	 S
Obligations 	 	
Outlays. 	
Ofl Spffl Response
Budget Authority 	 S
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears 	
Budget Authority 	 S
Obligations
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears. —
Total Workyears. 	
Actual
1992
1,035,549.0 $
1 030 674 4
1 065 788 0
12,0263
12,593 9
25,623.0 S
249269
26,669.0
264.9
267.8
15,577.0 S
13,524 9
12 1120
95.2
95.2
318,400.0 S
3124068
251 8150
1.116,842.0 S
1 105 145.2
942^95.0
39300.0 S
32,617 7
16.412.0
18,434.0 S
18,434.0
8,6040
70.0
70.0
19,400.0 S
18,0077
2,147.0
0.9
0.9
PresBud
1993
1,157,064.0 S
1 1570640
1 1256180
13359.2
13 359.2
29,715.0 S
297150
287150
300.0
300.0
15,643.0 S
156430
15351 0
160.5
160.5
338,500.0 S
3385000
3187150
1,091,860.0 S
1 091 8600
1 0599310
42,100.0 S
42,1000
31.525.0
23,340.0 S
233400
180980
89.8
89.8
0.0 S
00
0.0
0.0
0.0
Enacted
1993
823,607.0 S
8236070
879 056 0
13,298.7
13,298 7
26,419.0 S
264190
268490
300.0
300.0
16,380.0 S
163800
143540
160.5
160.5
323,000.0 S
3230000
3140690
1318,965.0 S
1 3189650
1447 428 0
134,300.0 S
1343000
554070
20,000.0 S
200000
165450
89.8
89.8
31,225.0 S
31,2250
13,682.0
0.0
0.0
Current
Estimate
1993
823,607.0 S
823 6070
879 056 0
13,237.6
13 2376
26,419.0 S
26410 O
26 8490
297.0
297.0
16,380.0 $
163800
14 3540
158.9
158.9
323,000.0 S
3230000
3140690
1,318,965.0 S
1 3189650
1,2474280
134,300.0 S
1343000
554070
20,000.0 S
200000
165450
89.0
89.0
31425.0 S
31,2250
13,682 0
0.0
0.0
Request
1994 1
859,170.4
BCQ nr\A
88D OB? n
13,038.7
i •* nit i
28,246.3
")O -JAjl 'i
37 .wo n
287.0
287.0
16,947.7
169477
1A *K ft
162.0
162.0
353,565.0
353 565 0
343 039 0
1,367,535.1
1 367 535 1
1 365 541 0
18,000.0
180000
798940
21,239.0
21,2390
19 1550
87.6
87.6
0.0
00
18,5240
0.0
0.0
                     1-6

-------

Hazardous Substance
Supernmd
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyean 	
Total Workyean 	
LUST Trust Fund
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears 	
Drinking Water - SRF
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Actual
1992
S 1,600,128.0 $
1,782,868.5
1,290,670.0
3,387.8
3,535.6
$ 75,000.0 S
75,383.0
67,289.0
79.2
82.7
S 0.0 S
0.0
0.0
PresBud
1993
1,750,000.0 $
1,750,000.0
1,526,864.0
3.604.4
3,604.4
75,000.0 $
75,000.0
86,772.0
95.4
95.4
0.0 S
0.0
0.0
Enacted
1993
1,585,228.0 S
1,585,228.0
1,599.263.0
3,604.4
3,604.4
75,000.0 S
75,000.0
74,331.0
95.4
95.4
0.0 S
0.0
0.0
Current
Estimate
1993
1,585,228.0 S
1.585,228.0
1,599,263.0
3,568.4
3,568.4
75,000.0 S
75,000.0
74,331.0
94.3
94.3
0.0 S
0.0
0.0
Request
1994
1,496,400.0
1,496,400 0
1,598,724.0
3,514.4
3,514.4
75,379.0
75 379 0
75,315.0
93.1
93.1
599,000.0
599,000.0
23.960.0
Construction Grants/Water
Infrastructure Financing

Budget Authority	
S   2,400.000.0 S   2,500,000.0 S   2,550.000.0 S   2.550,000.0 S   1,528,000.0
Outlays 	
Ocean Dumping Fund
Obligations 	
Permanent Workyean 	
Total Workyean 	
Tolerances
Revolving Fund
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Misc. Contrlb. Funds
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Reregistranon A Expedited
Processing Revolving Fund
(FIFRA)
Obligations 	 	 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyean 	
Total Workyean 	
Asbestos hi schools fund
Outlays. 	
Reimbursements - S&E
Obligations 	
Permanent Workyean 	
Total Workyean 	
2,420,825.0
S 747.8 S
11.5
11.5
S 1,104.0 S
m.O)
"*/
S 0.0 S
0.0
S 21,930.7 S
7,887.0
256.3
2643
S 21284.0 S
S 24,058.0 S
822
82.7
2,171.438.0
0.0 $
0.0
0.0
1200.0 S
(200.0)
V™ /
10.0 S
10.0
0.0 S
1,480.0
226.0
226.0
17229.0 S
36,575.0 S
82.0
82.0
2,397,297.0
0.0 S
0.0
0.0
1200.0 S
(200.0)
y*vv.ws
10.0 S
10.0
0.0 S
3,872.0
226.0
226.0
17229.0 S
25.000.0 S
142.5
142.5
2,397297.0
0.0 S
0.0
0.0
1200.0 S
(200.0)
\* **"*•*'/
10.0 S
10.0
16,492.0 S
3,872.0
211.6
211.6
17229.0 S
25,000.0 S

2,565.011.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1,400.0
0.0
10.0
10.0
0.0
1,357.0
206.0
206.0
4,000.0
25,000.0
80.0
80.0
                                                       1-7

-------

Actual
1992

PrcsBud
1993

Enacted
1993
Current
Estimate
1993

Request
1994 1
Reimbursements - Superlund

Obligations .............

Pennanent Workyears .....
Total Workyears .........

Reimbursements - R&D

Obligations ............
  180,291.0 S     30,000.0 S      30,000.0 S     30,000.0 $
        5.7
        5.7
   14.525.0  S
      0.0
      0.0
                   0.0
                   0.0
                                       0.0
                                       0.0
5,000.0 S     25,000.0 S      25.000.0 S
                                  30,000.0

                                       0.0
                                       0.0
                                                25,000.0
 Obligations
Pesticide Registration Fees
(Receipts requiring Appropriation action)

 Budget Authority	
 Outlays	
    1,531.0 S
        0.0
        0.0
      0.0 S     50,000.0 S      50,000.0 S      50.000.0
TOTAL. EPA

 Budget Authority	
 Obligations	
 Outlays	

 Pennanent Workyears
 Total Workyears	
6,664,253.0 S
6,968,934.2
6,133,786.0

   16,280.0
   17.0103
(15,000.0)
(15,000.0)
7,00*222.0 S
7,096,007.0
6,386,546.0

   17,9173
   17,9173
                   0.0
                   0.0
6,904,124.0  S
7,035,334.0
6,659,192.0

   17,9173
   17,9173
                                       0.0
                                       0.0
                                       0.0
                                       0.0
                             6,904.124.0 S   6,363,482.5
                             7,051.826.0     6,494,892.5
                             6,659,192.0     7,019,676.0
                                17,738.0
                                17,738.0
                                              17,468.8
                                              17,468.8
                                                         1-8

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Summary of Budget Authority,
     Obligations, Outlay*, and Workyears
               By Media
            (dollars in thousands)

Ajr
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Water Quality
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Drinking Water
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Hazardous Waste
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Pesticides
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Radiation
Budget Authority. 	
Obligations. 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Actual
1992

S 518,801.3 S
503,410.4
453,577.2
2,044.0
2,1362

S 461,571.6 S
459,5892
381345.6
2,132.9
2222.2

S 142,5753 S
140226.7
131,101.8
719.3
756.4

S 335,629.6 S
325324.1
332279.7
1,527.9
1,601.4

$ 117.195.4 S
122240.1
113398.5
8312
856.7

S 38,752.7 S
38250.0
38,621.4
211.5
218.7
PresBud
1993

560,192.1 S
560,192.1
541,759.9
2390.4
2390.4

449,140.4 S
449,140.4
406,615.1
2373.9
2373.9

146,681.9 S
146,681.9
144,048.4
800.4
800.4

344,651.9 S
344,651.9
341.973.1
1,687.9
1,687.9

128.834.4 S
128,834.4
126,8462
903.6
903.6

40,085.6 S
40.085.6
32,645.8
2442
2442
Enacted
1993

521,128.1 S
521,128.1
517,762.4
2341.5
2341.5

479250.1 S
479250.1
447224.9
2356.0
2356.0

144,710.4 S
144,710.4
144,751.9
791.8
791.8

312,063.1 S
312,063.1
307,863.0
1,650.6
1,650.6

119326.0 S
119326.0
119,7762
885.9
885.9

32,970.4 S
32,970.4
34,7202
231.9
231.9
Current
Estimate
1993

518267.3 S
518267.3
512,900.4
23452
23452

484,900.8 S
484,900.8
451,503.6
2326.1
2326.1

145343.8 S
145343.8
144,974.5
789.7
789.7

314,549.7 S
314,549.7
311227.5
1,649.9
1,649.9

119,196.4 S
119,196.4
119,9892
886.5
886.5

34,765.9 S
34,765.9
34,758.1
235.7
235.7
Request
1994

551,674.8
551,674.8
552,1182
2301.5
2301.5

464,4032
464,4032
387,1772
2206.9
2206.9

143,849.8
143,849.8
144,7072
768.0
768.0

320,463.1
320,463.1
322,161.9
1,6012
1,6012

124,415.5
124,415.5
125,476.7
866.9
866.9

35348.5
35348.5
35,675.0
288.7
288.7
                  1-9

-------
                                      Summary of Budget Authority,
                                    Obligations, Outlays, and Workyean
                                               By Media
                                           (dollars in thousands)

Multimedia
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyean 	
Total Workyears
Toric Substances
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyean
Management and Support
Budget Authority. 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyean 	
Total Workyean
frifldlnp and Faculties
Budget Authority. 	
Obligations. 	
Outlavs 	


S 217,892.5 S
222,012.3
184,0307
847.5
889.5

S 176,107.3 S
160,408.5
136,862.6
829.8
856.9

S 533,622.3 $
538.133.7
526.101.0
3,218.8
3394.6

S 39300.0 S
32,617.7
16.412.0
Pro Bud
1993

2534223 S
253,522.3
254590.2
A*^Vy*/7V.A
1.024.7
1.024.7

126,9047 S
126,904.2
125,890.7
902.9
902.9

589,0457 S
589,0457
575,480.7
3.421.0
3,421.0

42,100.0 S
42,100.0
31.525.0
Enacted
1993

251,549.5 S
251,549.5
250788 2
A-rVp*OO.A
1,015.4
1,015.4

155,892.2 S
155,8927
138,015.9
8957
8957

5763267 $
5763267
562,7263
3,5207
3,5207

134300.0 S
134300.0
55.407.0
Current
Estimate
1993

253,668.5 S
2?7 ££0 <
4J<•} AQt t
AJA.fyj.*!
1,021.3
1,0213

1563297 S
1563292
1 •/Ut«7A7*A
138383.9
892.4
892.4

566,194.4 $
566 1944
-H^jf.iy».*»
556 8963
•/«7\)tO7U.«J
3,476.8
3,476.8

134300.0 S
134300.0
554070
Request

322,009.6
fn fvio £
j£t,uuy.o
11< QdA A
Ji3,yy4.4
1,094.9
1.094.9

139,0777
1 10 O77 ">
U7.1/7 / .4
1 SK V>< A
1 JO.JvJ.*t
841.9
841.9

587775.1
««7 07 c |
Jo/X/j.l

-------
                                         Summary of Budget Authority,
                                       Obligations, Outlays, and Workyears
                                                   By Media
                                               (dollars in thousands)

Construction Grants/Water
Infrastructure Financing
Budget Authority. 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Ocean Dumping Fund
Obligations 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Tolerances
Revolving Fund
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Reregfctration A Expedited
Processing Revolving Fund
(FIFRA)
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Asbestos in schools fund
Outlays 	
ReJmbursemcnts-SAE
Obligations 	
Permanent Workyears.....
Total Workyears
Reimbursements- Superftmd
Obligations 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears
Reimbursements- R&D
Obligations 	
Reimbursements - ACAC
Actual
1992

S 2,400,000.0 S
2310,757.6
2,420,823.0
S 747.8 S
11.5
11.5

S 1,104.0 S
(11.0)
S 0.0 S
0.0
S 21,930.7 S
7,887.0
2563
2643
$ 21,284.0 $
S 24,058.0 S
82.2
82.7
S 180,291.0 S
0.0
0.0
S 14,525.0 S

PresBud
1993

2,500.000.0 S
2,500,000.0
2,171,438.0
0.0 S
0.0
0.0

UOO.O S
(200.0)
10.0 S
10.0
0.0 S
1,480.0
226.0
226.0
17,229.0 S
36,575.0 S
82.0
82.0
30,000.0 S
0.0
0.0
5,000.0 S

Enacted
1993

2,500,000.0 S
2,500,000.0
2371,797.0
0.0 S
0.0
0.0

UOO.O
(200.0)
10.0 $
10.0
0.0 $
3.872.0
226.0
226.0
17,229.0 S
25,000.0 S
142.5
142.5
30,000.0 S
0.0
0.0
25,000.0 S

Current
Estimate
1993

2,500,000.0 S
2^00,000.0
2371,797.0
0.0 S
0.0
0.0

UOO.O S
(200.0)
10.0 S
10.0
16,492.0 S
3,872.0
211.6
211.6
17,229.0 S
25,000.0 S
8U
8U
30,000.0 S
0.0
0.0
25,000.0 S

Request
1994

2,047,000.0
2,047,000.0
2,588,971.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1,400.0
0.0
10.0
10.0
0.0
1357.0
206.0
206.0
4,000.0
25,000.0
0.0
0.0
30,000.0
0.0
0.0
25,000.0

Obligations	
1,531.0 S
0.0 S     50.000.0 S     50,000.0 S     50,000.0
                                                      1-11

-------
                                          Summary of Budget Authority,
                                       Obligations, Outlays, and Workyean
                                                    By Media
                                               (dollars in thousands)

Actual
1992

PresBud
1993

Enacted
1993
Current
Estimate
1993

Request
1994
Pesticide Registration Fees
(Receipts requiring Appropriation action)

 Budget Authority	
 Outlays	

ORD Recession

Budget Authority

ACAC Recession

Budget Authority

TOTAL, EPA

 Budget Authority.	
 Obligations	
 Outlays	

 Pennancnt Wontyears	
 Total Workyean
       0.0 S
       0.0
    2,100.0
    5,800.0
6,664,253.0 S
6,968,934.2
6,133,786.0

   16.280.0
   17,0103
  (15,000.0)$
  (15,000.0)
       0.0
       0.0
    0.0 S
    0.0
    0.0
     0.0
    0.0 S
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
    0.0
7,008,222.0 S   6,904,124.0 S  6,904,124.0 S  6363,482.5
7,096,007.0     7,035334.0    7,051,826.0     6,494,892.5
6386,546.0     6^59,192.0    6,659,192.0     7,019,676.0
   17.9173
   17.9173
17,9173
17,9173
17,738.0
17,738.0
17,468.8
17,468.8
                                                        1-12

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate

                                    of Contents
                                                                         Page

ME                                                                      2-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Air Quality Research .......................   2-13
   Acid Deposition Research  .....................   2-28
   Global Change Research  ......................   2-33
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards .....   2-39
      Emission Standards and Technology Assessment  .........   2-40
      State Program Guidelines and Air Standards Development  ....   2-44
   Mobile Source Air Pollution Control and Fuel Economy .......   2-47
      Mobile Source Program Implementation  .............   2-49
      Emission Standards,  Technical Assessment and Characterization .   2-50
      Testing, Technical and Administrative Support .........   2-53
      Emissions and Fuel Economy Compliance .............   2-55
   Resource Assistance for State, Local & Tribal Agencies ......   2-59
      Resource Assistance for State, Local & Tribal Agencies    ...   2-60
   Air Quality Management Implementation  ..............   2-65
      Air Quality Management Implementation .............   2-66
   Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment  ............   2-71
      Ambient Air Quality Monitoring  ................   2-72
      Air Quality and Emissions Data Management and Analysis  ....   2-74
   Atmospheric Programs .......................   2-79
      Acid Rain Program .......................   2-80
      Stratospheric Protection Program  ...............   2-83
      Global Change Program .....................   2-84
   Indoor Air Program ........................   2-89
      Indoor Air Program   ......................   2-90
ENFORCEMENT
   Enforcement  ...........................   2-95
      Stationary Source Enforcement .................   2-96
      Mobile Source Enforcement ...................   2-100

-------
APPROPRIATION
                                                         AIR
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development

TOTAL, Air
     $132,195.7  $149,659.7  $141,571.8  $141.253.8  $146.610.6    $5,356.8   -$3,049.1

     $277,798.8  $306,098.3  $279,808.9  $277,266.1  $311,654.6   $34,388.5    $5,556.3

      $93,415.9  $104,434.1   $99.747.4   $99,747.4   $93.409.6   -$6.337.8  -$11.024.5

     $503,410.4  $560.192.1  $521,128.1  $518,267.3  $551,674.8   $33,407.5   -$8,517.3
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS

OUTLAYS

AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
        2.075.3
        2,167.7
2,390.4
2,390.4
2,370.0
2,370.0
2,345.2
2,345.2
2,301.5
2,301.5
-43.7
-43.7
-88.9
-88.9
     $453.577.2  $541.759.9  $517,762.4  $512,900.4  $552,118.2   $39,217.8   $10,358.3

Reauthorization of the Clean Air Act expired September 30,  1981.   The Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1990 reauthorize the Air program at such sums as may be necessary for  all
Fiscal Years through 1998.
                                                        2-1

-------
                                  PRES.
                                 BUDGET    ENACTED
                                  1993      1993
                                                          AIR
                        CURRENT
                        ESTIMATE
                          1993
                                                                         DIFFERENCE
                     ENACTED VS
                     PRES. BUD
                       EST. VS
                      PRES. BUD
                     EST. VS
                     ENACTED
 APPROPRIATION
  Program & Research
   Operations
  Abatement Control and
  Compliance
  Research & Development

 TOTAL, Air
 PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 TOTAL WORKYEARS
                                                (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
$149,659.7  $141,571.8  $141,253.8   -$8,087.9   -$8,405.9     -$318.0

$306,098.3  $279,808.9  $277,266.1  -$26,289.4  -$28,832.2   -$2,542.8

$104,434.1   $99,747.4   $99,747.4   -$4,686.7   -$4,686.7

$560,192.1  $521,128.1  $518,267.3  -$39,064.0  -$41.924.8   -$2,860.8
   2,390.4
   2,390.4
2,370.0
2,370.0
2,345.2
2,345.2
-20.4
-20.4
-45.2
-45.2
-24.8
-24.8
        The following points list the major reasons that the dollars devoted to this media have changed from
submission of the President's FY 1993 Budget Request  to the FY  1993  Current  Estimates.

        PROGRAM AND RESEARCH OPERATIONS

        o       Congressional  restructuring of former  Salaries and Expenses account

        o       Redirection  to Administrator's Priorities

        ABATEMENT. CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

        o       Congressional  restructuring of account

        o       General Agency Reduction

        o       Redirection  to Administrator's Priorities

        o       $10.OH  in funding for Multi-Lateral Fund denied by Congress

        o       $7.8M in Congressional Directives

        RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

        o       Congressionally directed projects for  the Adirondack Destruction Assessment Program, National Acid
                Precipitation  Assessment Program, Global Warming and Stratospheric Ozone Mitigation Research, Indoor
                Air Research,  the Liquified Gaseous Fuels Spills Test Facility, and the Ultraviolet Monitoring
                Center, were funded.

        o       Reductions made to meet FY 1993 Congressionally appropriated funding level included: Global Climate
                Change, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Acid Depostion, Air Toxics, Criteria Air Pollutants, and
                Pollutants from Motor Vehicles.
                                                        2-2

-------
                                                 MEDIA BRIDGE TABLES

MEDIA: AIR
                                                                  MEDIA
                                           PRO             AC&C             R&D                 Total
FY 1993 CURRENT ESTIMATE                 $141,254         $277,266         $99,747            $518,267

  Changes by Category:

        Workforce Costs (+/-)            +$5,356                                              +$5,356

        Legislative Initiatives (+/-)                      +$8,500                            +$8,500

        Program Initiatives (+/-)                         +$17,704         +$5.500            +$23,204

        Discontinuation of Specific
        Increases to  FY 1992 Request {-)                   -$7,800         -$4,950            -$12,750

        Others (+/-)                                      +$15,985         -$6,888             +$9,097


FY 1994 PRESIDENT'S BUDGET               $146,611         $311,655         $93,410            $551,675
                                                        2-3

-------
                                      AIR
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      The Clean Air Act authorizes a nationwide program to reduce air pollution
through air quality planning, regulation, enforcement, and research.  In November
1990 the President signed the Clean Air Act Amendments  of  1990 (CAAA), which
expanded requirements and capabilities to clean  our nation's air.  In implementing
the Act,  EPA will use  not  only traditional  approaches for  controlling air
pollution,  but  will  also strive  to harness  the power  of the  marketplace,
encourage local initiatives, and emphasize pollution prevention.   Since 1990,
EPA has proposed or  finalized  rules that will  remove three quarters of the 57
billion  pounds  of  air pollutant  reduction mandated  by the Act.   EPA will
emphasize implementation of the finalized rules and completing work on remaining
regulations. In addition to carrying out the CAAA, EPA will expand its efforts
to analyze and address indoor air quality problems.

      EPA's  goals  for  1994  include reducing  health and  environmental risks
through:  (1) further empowering states to attain National Ambient Air Quality
Standards; (2) implementing new clean vehicle and fuel programs; (3) developing
and implementing national  air  toxic standards; (4)  developing  state and local
operating permit and fee programs;  (5)  carrying out a market-based acid rain
emissions   trading  system;   (6)    implementing   domestic   rules   and  U.S.
responsibilities under the revised Montreal  Protocol for reducing stratospheric
ozone depletion;  (7) implementing new enforcement authorities and  approaches; (8)
increasing technical support to  state indoor air  programs;  and (9) conducting
research to  provide  strong scientific and technical bases  for  regulatory and
nonregulatory programs.

Attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards

      Polluted air creates high health  and environmental risks.   To  protect
health  and  welfare  EPA set National Ambient   Air Quality Standards  for six
pollutants:  ozone,  carbon monoxide, particulate  matter  (PM-10),  lead, sulfur
dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.  Nonattainment of the standards is  most widespread
for the first three  pollutants.   Today,  almost 100 areas in the United States
fail to meet the national health standard for ozone; more than 40 areas fail to
meet the health  standards for carbon monoxide; and  over 60 areas  exceed the
health standards for PM-10.

      The primary mechanisms provided by the Clean  Air  Act to achieve clean air
standards are state implementation plans and federal rules and guidance.   In 1994
EPA will help states  develop expanded, more  stringent  state implementation plans
that will further  reduce pollutant emissions  from both  stationary and mobile
sources.     The  Agency  will   issue guidance  for   state  control  strategy
demonstrations,  provide states with technical aid and guidance for instituting
or enhancing mobile and stationary source pollution controls, and encourage the
use of market-based approaches where appropriate.   In 1994 the Agency also will
provide grants to states,  helping them build their capacity to meet the expanded
requirements and responsibilities of the CAAA.
                                      2-5

-------
      In 1994  EPA will  develop national guidelines  and standards  for major
stationary sources where emissions contribute to ozone, PM-10, sulfur dioxide,
and nitrogen oxide pollution.   To  support state efforts to control stationary
sources the Agency will develop control technique guidelines for major pollution
source groups.   The Agency will  also continue to develop new source performance
standards that  apply nationwide.  The Agency  will emphasize pollution prevention
in support of state efforts and development of national standards.

      To help states  revise their implementation plans to meet new requirements
EPA will expand work on emission inventories, assure quality data, and develop
tracking procedures.  Complete and comprehensive emission inventories are key to
the development of sound  and enforceable state plans, effective regulations, and
meaningful  measures   of   progress  for  achieving  clean  air.    Accurate  and
comprehensive  emission  inventories are  also integral to  the success  of  new
market-based pollution control approaches.

      EPA  also will  help states  upgrade  and  expand  air quality monitoring
systems.   States  will  continue an initiative begun in  1991  to systematically
replace worn-out  air quality monitors.   Accurate air  quality measurements are
essential  in developing  state plans and evaluating their effectiveness.

Establishing New  Clean Vehicles and Fuels Programs

      Air pollution from mobile  sources accounts for over half of the nationwide
emissions of ozone precursors (volatile organic  compounds and nitrogen oxides),
carbon monoxide,  and air toxics.   Because mobile source emissions account for
such  a large percentage of the total  air  pollution problem,  reducing these
emissions  holds the greatest potential for cleaning our nation's air.

      The  CAAA require significant changes in vehicle control technologies and
fuel types and  expansion  of state control programs.  EPA and the states will work
together to carry out an aggressive mobile source pollution abatement program.
The new  Act requires EPA to adopt about 60  new mobile source rules covering:
reformulated gasoline, leaded gasoline, clean alternative fuels, vehicle fleet
requirements,, vehicle emission standards, and state program requirements. States
must establish clean fuels programs and new or  enhanced vehicle inspection and
maintenance programs.

       In 1994 the Agency will continue development  of rules to reduce emissions
from non-road engines.  In addition, EPA will increase support to states for new
and enhanced programs for clean fuels and vehicles and for vehicle inspection and
maintenance.

Implementing National Air Toxics Standards

       According  to industry estimates, more than  2.4  billion pounds of toxic
pollutants were emitted into the atmosphere  in 1989.  These emissions may result
in a variety of  adverse  health  effects including cancer, reproductive  effects,
birth  defects,  and respiratory  illness.   The CAAA direct EPA to control 189
hazardous  air  pollutants through technology based  standards over the  next  10
years.


                                      2-6

-------
       In early 1994 EPA will issue Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)
 standards for 40 categories of polluters that account for the most health risk.
 During 1994 the Agency will also continue work on MACT standards required within
 four years of enactment.  To set MACT standards, EPA must gather information on
 toxics emissions, manufacturing processes, pollution controls, and environmental
 and control costs. As part of the standards development, the Agency will examine
 process  changes,  substitution  of feedstocks,   and  other pollution  prevention
 options.  EPA will  continue implementation of the early reductions  program to
 accelerate emissions reductions by facilities that would be subject to the next
 phase  of MACT standards.

       In 1994 EPA will also address  air toxic source  groups  not  covered by the
 MACT provisions,  but  included in other new Clean Air Act requirements.   These
 sources include commercial and  industrial solid waste incinerators and medical
 waste  incinerators.  EPA will also continue assessments  of  air toxic  deposition
 in the Great Lakes.

 Establishing Operating Permit and Fee  Programs

       The CAAA provide for state and local  operating permit and fee programs to
 enhance the effectiveness of programs for reducing acid rain,  attaining National
 Ambient  Air  Quality  Standards,  and  controlling  air  toxics.   When  fully
 implemented, the permit program will consolidate requirements  for reducing  air
 emissions and ensure that the regulated community has a clear, consistent picture
 of applicable rules.

       In 1994 EPA will  work with state and local agencies to establish operating
 permit programs.  States must submit their permit program plans to EPA late  in
 calendar 1993.  EPA will issue comprehensive guidance and undertake outreach  and
 training efforts  to  help state and  local  agencies  implement their  permitting
 programs.

 Implementing a Market Based Acid  Rain Emissions Trading System

      Acid  rain causes  damage to  lakes,   forests,  and man-made structures;
 contributes to reduced visibility; and is suspected of causing damage  to  human
 health.  The  acid rain provisions of  the  CAAA will  reduce  acid rain  causing
 emissions through an innovative market-based emission allowance program that will
 provide  affected  sources  with  flexibility   in  meeting  required   emission
 reductions.   A successful  allowance trading system  will  minimize  compliance
 costs,  maximize economic  efficiency,  and allow for growth.  The new Act  requires
 a permanent 10 million ton reduction in sulfur dioxide  and  a two million ton
 reduction in nitrogen oxides.   The acid rain  program  is already being seen as a
model for regulatory reform efforts here and abroad.

      In 1994 EPA will complete testing and begin operating the first  stage of
what will become by 1996 an integrated acid rain data system.  The Agency will
track  hourly emissions  data  from  each  certified  source,   track  allowance
 allocations and transfers, and process permits for Phase I sources.

      Upon promulgation of  the opt-in and nitrogen oxides control  rules,  the EPA
will review and approve permit applications and  compliance plans, and continuous

                                     2-7

-------
emissions monitor certifications.  EPA will continue to promote energy efficiency
as a compliance strategy.  Finally, the Agency will continue development of an
ongoing acid rain program evaluation component and participate in the National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program.

Reducing Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

      For every one percent drop in the level  of stratospheric ozone there will
be an additional million cases of skin cancer. The CAAA codify and  expand upon
the revised Montreal Protocol negotiated to protect the stratosphere and reduce
health and  environmental risks.   The amendments establish  deadlines  for the
complete phase-out of two groups of ozone depleting chemicals.

      Recent  scientific data  suggest that ozone depletion  is  substantially
greater than previously  estimated.  Based on  this new data,  EPA will focus on
four program areas in 1994:  earlier domestic and international elimination of
chlorofluorocarbons  (CFCs), halons, and methyl chloroform; further  limitations
on hydro-fluorocarbons (HCFCs), more intensive recycling programs in the United
States and  abroad;  and  earlier voluntary  phase-out  of  CFCs and  HCFCs  from
developing countries. The EPA budget reguest will  provide  United States support
for a multi-lateral  fund to help  developing  countries shift away  from ozone
depleting chemicals.

Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

      In U.S. Views,  the basis for  the U.S.  action plan to move towards the Rio
goals of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, EPA proposed voluntary programs
to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.  EPA's proposals account for 70 percent
of the reductions necessary to meet the U.S.  goal.  In 1994  EPA will support four
major components of  the U.S.  Views  proposals:   Green  Lights,  Energy  Star
Buildings, Energy Star Computers, and methane programs  such as National Gas Star
and Agstar.   Efforts will include:   (1) expanding marketing to get corporations
and  others   to upgrade  their  lighting  facilities;   (2)  supporting  program
development  for  Energy  Star Buildings  to assure cost-effective decisions  to
reduce energy use in  buildings;  (3)  enhancing  program implementation to,support
green program partners in achieving their commitments  to save energy; and, (4)
expanding methane reduction programs  to profitably  capture and use  methane
emissions from landfills, coal mines,  natural  gas pipelines,  animal waste, and
livestock by providing technical support,  removing institutional obstacles such
as property rights  issues  and  fair  pricing from  utilities, and  recruiting
partners for these voluntary programs.

Implementing New Enforcement Authorities

      The CAAA restructure, strengthen, and expand both EPA  and state enforcement
authority.   New  types of programs, such  as the allowance program  for  ozone-
depleting chemicals, the market-based acid rain  program, the  state operating
permit program, and the clean vehicles and fuels program, require new approaches
to enforcement.   EPA will  also maintain and strengthen  existing  enforcement
capabilities to assure compliance with revised state plans and federal rules.
                                      2-8

-------
      In 1994  EPA will continue  to support state  development  of enforceable
emission reduction rules  and  operating  permit  programs.   The Agency will also
implement the compliance monitoring  and inspection targeting program to increase
the effectiveness of inspection resources.

      EPA will carry out  an expanded CFC compliance program through increased
inspections of sources and initiation of enforcement actions.  The Agency will
also begin implementation  of the field citation program with efforts concentrated
in nonattainment  areas.   In  addition,  the Agency will monitor  the  status of
compliance of sources subject to the Phase I acid rain requirements.  The Agency
will assure  that  large utility steam generating  units  install  the continuous
emission monitoring systems needed  to carry out the acid rain program.

      EPA  will continue to shift  enforcement  activities  to  areas  of highest
potential environmental benefit and stress greater coordination among regional
and state programs.

Addressing Exposure to Indoor Air

      According  to  a  Science  Advisory  Board report,  indoor   air  pollution
represents one of the  most  significant  public  health risks facing the Agency.
In 1994 EPA will initiate a program to increase public awareness of residential
indoor air pollution and  demonstrate how environmentally "healthy" housing can
be competitive in the housing market.  The Agency will continue a national study
of indoor air quality in large buildings.  The major objectives of the study are
(1) to develop baseline information on the factors believed to determine indoor
air quality and assess  their relationship to occupant health symptoms and  (2) to
improve  and  standardize the  indoor air quality  investigative approach.   The
Agency will  also  continue an inventory  of indoor air emission sources to help
provide  consumers with the ability to  select  lower  emitting products for the
indoor environment and to encourage manufacturers to produce such products.

      EPA will enhance the ability of its regional offices to help  states address
indoor air pollution by providing improved training capabilities.   The Agency
will also  continue to  operate the  Indoor  Air Quality Information  Center to
provide  information to a  growing body of users.

Providing a  Strong Scientific and Technical Basis for Regulatory Programs

      The Office of Research and Development (ORD)  will support the Office  of Air
and Radiation by providing health and ecological effects data, monitoring methods
and support, models, assessments, emission reduction technologies, and quality
assurance in support of the regulatory,  policy, and  public  information needs of
the air program.  Several significant changes are  reflected in this submission,
including an increase in new research needed to fulfill the requirements of the
CAAA, and expansion in global climate change research.

      The  Agency  is proposing  an enhanced research program to  implement the
requirements of the CAAA with particular emphasis on low-level or  boundary layer
tropospheric  ozone,  visibility, and air  toxic research.   This  research will
include  programs to strengthen the foundation to address the global concerns of
stratospheric  ozone  depletion and  climate change;  understand and predict the

                                      2-9

-------
effects of acid deposition; investigate toxic air pollutants and develop new risk
assessment methods; conduct additional research to  address the  human health and
environmental risks posed by criteria air pollutants; and understand emissions
and air quality effects under the rapid dynamics of changing fuel composition and
vehicular technologies.

      The Agency is proposing an initiative for global change research as part
of  a  coordinated,  multi-institutional  effort  to  develop and  provide  the
scientific basis to assess, evaluate, and predict ecological and environmental
consequences  of  global  change.   Research  will  focus  on key processes that
influence or govern earth system behavior, studying biogeochemical cycling and
carbon cycle dynamics, investigating atmospheric processes, conducting ecological
research, monitoring work to identify how  rapidly global ecological systems are
changing,  and studying  the effects  of   increased  UV-B on  human health  and
sensitive aquatic ecosystems.  ORD will specifically enhance research for early
detection of the greenhouse signature, ecological research, and expanded earth
systems modeling research.

      The indoor air research program will identify,  characterize, and compare
the health risks  associated with exposures to indoor air  pollutants so that risk
assessors and risk managers can make informed decisions to protect public health.
ORD will  provide critical scientific  information  to EPA program  offices  and
strategies.    Researchers  will  address  source  characterization,   exposure
assessment,  health effects,  risk  assessment, and solutions  to prevent  and
mitigate indoor pollutants in residences and office buildings.

Consulting Services

      The Office of Air and Radiation will fund a limited amount of consulting
services in 1994.  Section 117 of the Clean Air Act requires consultation with
appropriate advisory committees prior to publishing any New Source Performance
Standard  or National Emission  Standards  for Hazardous  Air Pollutants.   The
National Air  Pollution  Control Techniques Advisory Committee  is  comprised  of
members  from industry,  environmental  groups,  academia,  and  state  and  local
governments.  The committee typically meets three or four times per  year  to
review the technical basis of federal emission standards.

      A few  small  management service contracts will be awarded  in  1994.  The
purpose  of  these  contracts will  be  to  provide specialized  expertise  in
environmental economics  needed to assess  the economic impacts  and benefits of
various  source  standards  and  other  regulatory  actions.   The  assessment  of
economic impacts and benefits is required by Executive Order 12291.

Fees

      In 1994 the Agency expects to collect  $10,300,000  in fees from the mobile
source program,  including fuel economy, certification, and recall  (funded  in the
mobile source enforcement program)  programs.
                                     2-10

-------
                                      AIR

                                      CURRENT               INCREASE ( + )
                           ACTUAL   ESTIMATE   ESTIMATE    DECREASE (-)
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES          1992       1993      1994      1994 VS 1993

National Ambient Air
Quality Standards
Number of Pollutants
  Covered (Cumulative)          666              0
Proposals*	         1          0         1             +1
Promulgations*  ....         0          2         1             -1

New Source Performance Standards
Number of Source Categories
  Covered (Cumulative)         66         67        70             +3
Proposals**	         0          2         0             -2
Promulgations	         1          3         2             -1

National Emission Standards
for Hazardous Air Pollutants
Number of Source Categories
  Covered (Cumulative)         33         33        75           +42
Number of Pollutants
  Covered (Cumulative)          7          7       152          +145
Proposals**	         1          5        11             +6
Promulgations	         0          3         4             +1

Acid Rain and Stratospheric
Ozone Rules
Proposals	        4          5         1             -4
Promulgations	        2          9         3             -6

Enforcement Actions - Stationary Sources
Inspections 	     2,675      2,809     2,809              0
Notices of Violation  .      407        501       526           +25
Administrative Orders .      339        440       575          +135
Civil Litigation  ...        87         78        70             -8
Criminal Litigation . .         7          7         7              0

Enforcement Actions - Mobile Sources
Assembly Line Audits  .        16         14        14              0
Production Compliance
  Audit	           1          2         2              0
Recall Investigations .        38         32        32              0
Notices of Violation
  Tampering/Fuel Switching   173        150       150              0
*   Revisions or reaffinflations
**  New source categories and revisions.  NESHAPs include air toxic standards
    developed under other regulatory authorities
NOTE:  All outputs are incremental except as indicated.

                                     2-11

-------
2-12

-------
                       EMVIRONKENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                              T«hie of Contents

                                                                         Page

AIR

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Air Quality Research 	   2-13
   Acid Deposition Research  	   2-28
   Global Change Research 	   2-33

-------
                                                        AIR
                                               Air Quality Research
ACTUAL PRES. ENACTED
1992 BUDGET
1993


(DOLLARS
PROGRAM
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST INCREASE
1994 DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
IN THOUSANDS)




Air Quality Research
 Program & Research           $25.117.6   $27,434.6   $27,186.8   $27,118.6   $28,289.8    $1,171.2      $855.2
  Operations
 Research & Development       $60,107.7   $68,403.9   $63,154.3   $63,154.3   $59,154.5   -$3,999.8   -$9,249.4
                       TOTAL  $85,225.3   $95,838.5   $90,341.1   $90,272.9   $87.444.3   -$2,828.6   -$8,394.2

Acid Deposition
Research
 Program & Research            $1,959.5    $2,021.0    $2,403.4    $2,400.1    $1,138.8   -$1,261.3     -$882.2
  Operat i ons
 Research & Development       $11,583.9   $12,830.2   $13,283.1   $13,283.1    $9.747.6   -$3,535.5   -$3,082.6
                       TOTAL  $13,543.4   $14,851.2   $15,686.5   $15,683.2   $10,886.4   -$4,796.8   -$3.964.8


Global Change Research
Research
 Program & Research            $2,781.1    $2,548.6    $2,544.6    $2,540.6    $2,952.6      $412.0      $404.0
  Operations
 Research & Development       $21,724.3   $23,200.0   $23,310.0   $23,310.0   $24,507.5    $1,197.5    $1,307.5
                       TOTAL  $24,505.4   $25,748.6   $25,854.6   $25,850.6   $27,460.1    $1,609.5    $1,711.5

TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $29,858.2   $32,004.2   $32,134.8   $32,059.3   $32,381.2      $321.9      $377.0
  Operations
 Research & Development       $93,415.9  $104,434.1   $99,747.4   $99,747.4   $93,409.6   -$6,337.8  -$11,024.5

Air Quality Research   TOTAL $123,274.1  $136,438.3  $131,882.2  $131,806.7  $125,790.8   -$6,015.9  -$10,647.5

PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Air Quality Research
Acid Deposition
Research
Global Change Research
Research
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Air Quality Research
Acid Deposition
Research
380.4
30.2
34.6
445.2

390.6
30.4
426.6
30.9
38.9
496.4

426.6
30.9
415.6
33.9
38.9
488.4

415.6
33.9
410.1
33.4
38.9
482.4

410.1
33.4
402.3
14.9
37.4
454.6

402.3
14.9
-7.8
-18.5
-1.5
-27.8

-7.8
-18.5
-24.3
-16.0
-1.5
-41.8

-24.3
-16.0
Global Change Research             35.5        38.9        38.9        38.9        37.4        -1.5        -1.5
Research

TOTAL UORICYEARS                   456.5       496.4       488.4       482.4       454.6       -27.8       -41.8
                                                       2-13

-------
                                      AIR

                             Air Quality Research

                               Principal  Outputs
1994  o     First External Review Draft  of  Revised Ozone Air Quality Criteria
            Document (AQCD),  to be released for public comment and CASAC review.

      o     Implementation of  Audit  Program for Primary  Air Monitoring Sites
            (PAHS) in the Enhanced Ozone Monitoring Network.

      o     Emissions characterization from DOE vehicles using alternative fuels
            in the Washington, D.C.  area.

      o     Report to  Congress;  Preliminary Research Results on  Area  Source
            Toxic Exposures and Risk (Urban Air Toxics).

      o     Completion of Inhalation  Reference Concentrations for All Hazardous
            Air Pollutants for which Appropriate Inhalation Data Exist.

      o     Interim human exposure assessment for vehicle emissions of met Hanoi,
            formaldehyde, benzene,  and carbon monoxide in residential garages.

      o     Development  of  Bio-Response Methods  for  characterizing  indoor
            pollutant sources.

1993  o     Assessment of "Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking:  Lung
            Cancer and Other Disorders."

      o     Characterization of tailpipe emissions from "real-world" vehicles
            measured in tunnels and on roadsides.

      o     National source emission inventory for Atlanta, GA.

      o     Report to CASAC on Acid Aerosols Measurement.

      o     Development of standardized  study protocol  and  quality assurance
            plan for indoor air quality building studies.

      o     Report describing  possible  development  and  reproductive  effects
            associated with methanol.

1992  o     Alternative Air Quality indicators for  a secondary federal standard
            for ozone.

      o     Protocol for testing the degradation of EPA certified woodstoves.

      o     Development of data and methodologies that improve our understanding
            of the underlying mechanisms  that lead  to  lung function changes and
            morbidity in humans exposed to ozone.

                                     2-14

-------
Completed inhalation reference concentration (RfC) evaluations (non-
cancer health effects)  for 42 air toxics  substances  named by the
CAAA of 1990.

Completed  a  hazard ranking  of  carcinogens on  the Clean  Air  Act
Hazardous Air Pollutant  list, representing a comparative analysis of
about 100 carcinogens.

Completed studies on emissions of oxygenated fuels under a variety
of driving conditions.
                         2-15

-------
                                     AIR
                             Air Quality Research
BUDGET REQUEST

1994 Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $87,444,300 and 402.3 total workyears for
1994, a  decrease of  $2,828,600  and 7.8  total  workyears  from  1993.   Of the
request,   $28,289,800  will  be   for   the  Program  and  Research  Operations
appropriation,  and  $59,154,500  will  be  for  the Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents  an increase of $1,171,200  in the Program and
Research Operations appropriation, and decrease of $3,999,800 in the Research and
Development appropriation.  The increase to the Program and Research Operations
appropriation reflects additional personnel compensation and benefits (PC&B), and
travel expenses associated with funding ORD's  staff of scientists, managers and
support  personnel   in  areas such  as  quality  assurance,  extramural resource
management, and  high priority research.   The  decrease  for the  Research and
Development appropriation reflects the redirection of research resources to other
higher  priority  activities,   offsetting  additional  resources  provided  for
Tropospheric Ozone  and Visibility research.   The  decrease in total workyears
reflects base  redirections to  support priority initiatives where scientific
information is needed to address higher health and environmental risks as well
as the overall reduction in Federal workyears directed by the President.

1993 Budget

      The Agency is allocating a total  of  $90,272,900 and 410.1 total workyears
for  this program,  of which   $27,118,600  is from the  Program  and Research
Operations appropriation, and $63,154,300 is from the Research and Development
appropriation.

FY 1992 Budget

      The Agency obligated a total of $85,225,300 and 390.6 total workyears for
this program  element,  of which $25,117,600 was from the Program and Research
Operations appropriation, and  $60,107,700  was  from  the Research and Development
appropriation.

RESEARCH ISSUES

      The sections below describe research program issues by each fiscal year:

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

1994 Program Request

      ORD will initiate Phase III of a landfill demonstration project which is
investigating the potential for reducing methane emissions while producing energy

                                     2-16

-------
by  using the waste  methane as the  fuel for  a  commercially available  200-kW
phosphoric acid fuel cell.  The third phase is a one year test of the fuel  cell
energy recovery concept where  data  on the performance  of the gas pretreatment
system and energy produced by the fuel cell will be collected and evaluated.  ORD
will  also  focus on the design phase of the  second fuel cell energy  recovery
demonstration which will evaluate the feasibility of  using waste methane gas  from
Baltimore's Back River Wastewater Treatment Plant in a fuel cell.  Engineers  will
concentrate  on  the design  of  the  gas treatment system (which will require a
different type  of gas pretreatment system than  the one used for the  landfill
demonstration)  and tests  will be initiated  to establish the performance of
different components of the system.

      ORD  will  also  continue further  application  studies  of fuzzy  logic
principles to enhance the efficiency of large  alternate  current induction motor
operation to reduce energy consumption.  Researchers will  seek agreements to
conduct  cooperative demonstrations of this technology with industry.

1993  Program

      In FY  1993, ORD is conducting cooperative research to demonstrate methods
and  technologies to  reduce methane  emissions while recovering energy at  a
wastewater  treatment  facility and  at  a  landfill.   EPA/ORD has   identified
Baltimore's  Back River Wastewater Treatment Plant as the site  for the anaerobic
digestion demonstration.  Site personnel are taking  a comprehensive  look  at the
overall system conceptual  configuration and preparing for the next developmental
phases of the demonstration.  The landfill demonstration,  being conducted in
southern  California,  has  successfully  completed   fabrication  of  the  gas
pretreatment  system  and the fuel  cell,  both  of which  have  passed   acceptance
tests.   The  next phases  of  the  project  are focused  on completion  of site
preparation  for the pretreatment module  and fuel cell power plant and further
testing of critical components of the system.

      Congressional Directives. A total of $1,500,000  is  for the Congressionally
directed projects for  Fuel Cell  Demonstrations  ($1,200,000) and  for Global
Warming and Stratospheric Ozone Mitigation Research  ($300,000).

1992 Accomplishments

      Efforts devoted to global mitigation research in FY 1992 focused on:  (1)
evaluating methods for reducing emissions of methane from landfills,  coal mines,
and anaerobic digestion; and 2)  demonstrating the use of solar photovoltaics  (PV)
in end-use (retail) applications.   Researchers initiated a program to evaluate
the feasibility of using methane gas from the anaerobic digestion of  solid waste
as a  fuel option  for  a phosphoric acid fuel  cell  (PAFC)  power plant and have
identified the City of  Baltimore's Back  River Wastewater Treatment  Plant as  a
feasible site for  such a demonstration. ORD initiated the design of the landfill
demonstration gas pretreatment  system as well as construction and testing for the
next  phases  of  the  demonstration  project.    Researchers  also   conducted
investigations of nitrogen flooding to enhance  methane recovery from underground
coal seams.  Solar photovoltaics research focused on transforming solar radiation
directly into electric power (PV conversion)  as  a means for displacing fossil
fuels.   Several power pack PV systems  (approximately  10 kW) were placed at

                                     2-17

-------
selected retail locations to determine how well they can reduce the peak power
load and improve the load by shifting demand usage.

STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION

1994 Program Request

      ORD will continue to evaluate alternative chemical technologies which can
be  used   to  replace   current   uses   of  chlorofluorocarbons   (CFCs)   and
hydrochlorof luorocarbons (HCFCs).  This research directly supports implementation
of requirements in both the Montreal  Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act
Amendments  (CAAA)  to phase-out consumption and  use of these  ozone depleting
compounds (ODCs)  in prescribed time frames.  Using data from modelling, initial
property testing, and small scale end-use applicability testing  of new chemicals
and mixtures,  researchers expect  to  identify and evaluate  the most promising
candidates to replace CFCs and HCFCs used in refrigeration,  space cooling, and
insulation systems.  The goal will be  to identify those compounds which have zero
ozone  depletion  potential  and do not  pose any  other adverse  risks  to the
environment.  ORD  will  continue to coordinate  this research with industry and
academia.

1993 Program

      ORD is evaluating alternative chemical technologies which can be used to
replace current uses of CFCs and HCFCs. Emphasis is placed  on modelling, initial
property testing, and small scale end-use applicability testing  of new chemicals
and mixtures.   ORD  conducts  this research through  cooperative  ventures with
industry and academia, which helps to  ensure that the most promising alternatives
are adequately evaluated and that the permanent solution chosen  for a given end-
use is commercialized as quickly as possible.  Work  on disposal options is also
underway  including investigating  the environmental  impacts  and feasibility of
thermal incineration as a  disposal technique.

      ORD is  also  investigating  several  new classes of chemicals which can be
used  as  possible  substitutes  for  Halon-1301  as  a  total  flooding  fire
extinguishing agent and explosion suppression/prevention agent.  The  performance
of the most promising chemicals are being evaluated at an intermediate  (field)
scale to confirm earlier laboratory performance studies.   These studies include
improved  delivery  systems which  could  improve  performance.    This  work  is
conducted cooperatively with  industry through the Halons Alternatives Research
Corporation  (HARC).

      Congressional  Directives.  A total  of $200,000 is for  the Congressionally
directed project for Global Harming and Stratospheric Ozone Mitigation Research.

1992 Accomplishments

      ORD has identified several alternative chemicals as  possible replacements
for  current  uses  of CFCs and HCFCs.   Laboratory  testing and  modeling was
conducted to determine the potential applicability  of  these new chemicals to
specific  end-use applications.  Screening tests were conducted  to determine the
chemical  and physical   properties   (flammability,  acute  toxicity,   thermal

                                      2-18

-------
 conductivity,  ect.)  of the new chemicals selected as promising  candidates  for
 long-term replacement  of  ozone  depleting  substances.  In  addition,  research on
 disposal techniques  for ozone depleting substances was  conducted with  emphasis
 on characterizing hazardous emissions associated with the thermal destruction of
 ozone depleting  substances.

 ACID DEPOSITION

 1994 Program Request

      These resources  are being moved into the  Acid Deposition program element
 to continue related  high  priority research.

 1993 Program

      ORD is conducting a risk  assessment of ozone on forests which is looking
 at the  influence of other stressors  that  co-occur  with ozone,  and  how they
 influence tree response to ozone.   Researchers  use this  information to  evaluate
 the  importance of acidic inputs and  their  role in  influencing overall forest
 susceptibility to air  pollution.

 1992 Accomplishments

      In FY 1992, aquatic monitoring and  effects research centered on surface
 waters and high  elevation lakes and streams.  Research  included the design  and
 implementation of a  regional network  to detect  and quantify regional trends  in
 the acid-base  status of  sensitive  surface waters and sampling of lakes in  the
 northeastern United  States.  Researchers continued ongoing monitoring  programs
 to assess long-term  trends in the acid-base status of 90  surface waters in  the
 Northeast, Midwest,  and West.  In addition, a program was developed to determine
 whether  acidic  deposition causes significant  episodic  acidification during
 snowmelt in sensitive  surface waters  in the high elevation West.

      Acid  deposition  modeling  research  included  development  of  modeling
 approaches to project the long-term effects  of nitrogen  deposition on sensitive
 soils and aquatic ecosystems.   These  efforts will provide initial estimates of
 effects from nitrogen deposition for  future  EPA  and National Acid Precipitation
 Assessment Program (NAPAP) assessments for Congress.

 AIR TOXICS

 1994 Program Request

      In FY 1994, ORD will conduct research to obtain and assess the data needed
to focus  on air toxics  problems  and to prevent or control the significant
problems through technically and economically efficient means.  ORD will develop
 and  validate   source measurement  methodologies  for  ambient  air toxics  and
 individual source emissions to  support regulatory requirements under the Clean
Air Act Amendments  (CAAA). These  methods will  be incorporated  into emissions
 standards as  a means  of  measuring  compliance,  assessing emissions  levels  of
 stationary sources,  and for assessing  environmental results.  Work is planned to
 acquire toxicological  test data and emissions  research  data  in  support of the

                                     2-19

-------
second phase of regulation addressing residual risk and in  support of the Great
Waters and Urban Toxics program.

      Urban toxics/area  sources research will  focus  on improving monitoring,
modeling, atmospheric  chemistry,  and emission  inventory work  to identify the
degree and nature of urban toxics contamination.  ORD will also concentrate on
Great  Waters  research  to  investigate  relative  loading  of  toxics  from  air
deposition vs. water contamination, the transport and fate of pollutants through
the  food chain to  human/animal/plant targets,  and to identify  the emission
sources responsible for any  significant air deposition.  Newly acquired data and
methods will be used to assess biological effects of HAPs to determine effects
to humans or the environment.

1993 Program

      ORD conducts  research under the CAA  and its amendments to  address  key
scientific questions about the nature and extent of  the  air toxics problem,  the
technologies for prevention and control of significant emissions, and the methods
of analysis and measurement needed by the Federal,  state,  and local agencies
implementing the terms of the CAA.  Research is being conducted to develop source
test  methods   (emissions  measurement),   emission factors  techniques,  and  to
evaluate new processes,  control equipment, and process management practices for
Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards.  These standards are set
for major sources emitting one or more of the 189 listed hazardous air pollutants
(HAPs) and will address the greater part  of existing risk from major sources.

      Scientists are providing expert consultation on hazard and risk decisions
about hazardous air pollutants and  hazard  and risk ranking for  early rules.
Research projects are  being conducted to assess  air toxics deposition in  the
Great Lakes and other protected waters,  and to support the mandated urban  air
toxic strategy. Substantial efforts  are  ongoing to provide basic toxicological
data, hazard assessment methods and risk assessments to focus on the significant
problems to maximize effectiveness of activities in addressing risk.

      Congressional Directives.  A total of $1,850,000 is for the Congressionally
directed project for Air Toxics Spill Dispersion Tests.

1992 Accomplishments

      Researchers began  developing,  evaluating,  and  standardizing  monitoring
systems  for  measuring HAPs in  ambient   air,  including selective  detectors,
portable monitors, advanced methods to deal with special conditions imposed by
complex mixtures of chemicals, and quality assurance methodologies for new and
existing methods.  Methods were also developed to improve emissions estimates for
specific air toxic source categories to support development  of the national area
source strategy mandated  under the  1990  CAAA and the Great Lakes  Study.   To
support the revamped air toxics regulatory approach in the 1990 CAAA, research
was conducted on innovative  air toxic control approaches  applicable to source
categories (including area sources) as well as demonstrations of source reduction
approaches for  auto body refinishing and wood  furniture  coating  operations.
Technical assistance to  state and local   agencies was  expanded to  address  the
expected increase in requests for technical information due to the 1990 CAAA.

                                     2-20

-------
      The  Interdivisional Air  Toxics  Program  evaluated  cancer  and  various  non-
cancer effects of key hazardous air pollutants and mixtures of  pollutants.   ORD
also  prepared  final  reports  on  the  health effects  and  methodologies  for
identifying  major sources of  carcinogenic chemicals emitted  into the air  or
arising from atmospheric transformation.  Researchers studied mutagenicity,  DNA
adduct dosimetry, and carcinogenicity of complex mixtures of source emissions and
ambient urban toxic air pollutants.  For listed air toxics,  inhalation reference
concentrations   (RfCs)  (noncancer  assessments)   and cancer  unit   risks  were
developed  to  support hazard ranking for source modifications, lesser quantity
cutoffs,  source  category listing/delisting,  and  air toxics listing/delisting
petitions.

CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

1994 Program Request

      This research  will  enable  the  timely  conduct  of  mandated  periodic
review/revision  of criteria  for primary  and secondary National  Ambient Air
Quality  Standards  (NAAQS),  related  technical   support   for  other  mandated
activities, and provide the tools needed to ensure effective  development of and
compliance with State Implementation Plans  (SIPs).  ORD will dedicate additional
funding to address the human health and environmental  risks posed by  criteria air
pollutants, with particular emphasis on tropospheric ozone and visibility issues.
Two new epidemiology  studies are expected  to  be initiated on ozone  and reports
from epidemiology  studies on the effects of acid aerosols (and other  criteria
pollutants) on children will be prepared.

      Ecosystems research will include preliminary analyses of various indices
or  forms  for a  secondary  ozone standard  to  protect crops  and  tree  species.
Research will also continue to improve the accuracy of zone ecorisks assessment
modeling by quantifying influences of multiple environmental stresses  on long-
lived tree species.  Several reports and analyses will be prepared to facilitate
visibility modeling and support the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport  Commission.
The atmospheric aerosol  program will provide a  users'  guide to an aerosols model,
information on optimal techniques for measuring organic aerosols, a  comparison
of urban  and rural organic aerosols, and a  personal exposure model for  acid
aerosols.  Research will progress on developing a first external review draft of
the Air Quality  Criteria Document  (AQCDs)  for ozone  to support NAAQS  decision
making.

      Increased research to facilitate attainment of air quality objectives is
expected to provide a  volatile organic compound (VOC)  emissions tracking system,
fully validate a new  method for  measuring VOC emissions,  and initiate work on
analytical techniques for  low level  concentrations  of a  variety  of nitrogen
oxides.  Research concentrating on sensitivity analysis  of the Regional Oxidant
Model and development of a "MODEL 3" Framework will  facilitate improvements in
source, fate,and transport modeling.  The recently developed  03 UV DIAL will be
used in the  Southern Oxidant  Study to investigate the  interaction of a power
plant plume with the  urban plume of Nashville, TN. Fluid modeling  experiments
will be conducted to adopt point-source regulatory models to complex  terrain and
building wakes.
                                     2-21

-------
1993 Program

      In FY 1993, research addressing criteria air pollutants remains  focused on
efforts to conduct timely periodic review/revision of criteria for primary and
secondary NAAQS, related support for other mandated activities, and providing the
tools to  ensure effective  development  of and  compliance with  SIPs.   Health
effects studies of  ozone in  humans and animals are intended to improve dosimetry
models,  provide risk  assessment  models,  and  improve  understanding  of the
relationship to chronic disease processes of ozone  induced lung inflammation
observed at ambient levels.  EPA is co-funding several major epidemiology  studies
to  improve  understanding   of  the health  effects  of  ozone, acid  aerosols,
particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide.  Ecological effects  studies are  focused
on  improving ozone  ecorisk assessment by  understanding and quantifying the
influence of multiple stressors (drought, temperature, ect.)  on the response of
long-lived tree species to ozone.  The AQCD for NOX is being put into final  form,
and an updated revision of  the O, AQCD is  being  initiated.

      Workshops  are being  conducted  on  the southwest  desert  and national
visibility to identify highest priority research needs and to coordinate  EPA and
non-EPA programs.   Acid aerosols studies will provide information  on atmospheric
neutralization of  acid aerosols and an exposure/health database  for  subsequent
epidemiological evaluation of PM/acid  aerosols health effects.  Priority  is also
assigned to improving the scientific  foundation  for more effectively  addressing
the  ozone  non-attainment   problem.    This  includes research  to   facilitate
attainment  of  air quality  objectives,  to provide  improved remote  monitoring
methods for  ozone  (UV-DIAL),  improved mobile source emissions inventories,   a
natural source  emission  inventory to support the Southern  Oxidants Study,  an
expanded  national  ambient  air  performance  audit  program,  and  selected
certification  methods.   Research  also  focuses  on improving source, fate and
regional transport models,  especially as related to ozone  and particulates, and
on  point source  models using the EPA  Fluid  Modeling  Facility.   Emissions
reduction and control research is designed to improve ozone  prevention  and
control technology for nitrogen oxides.

      Congressional  Directives. A total of $200,000  is for  the Congressionally
directed project for Airshed Modelling on the Illinois/Missouri  Border.

1992 Accomplishments

      Monitoring support was provided on  atmospheric processes  and  monitoring
methodologies  to  support  new  and   existing NAAQS.    Researchers  evaluated
analytical systems for measuring criteria pollutants  in ambient air and developed
standard methods for measuring acid aerosols. Health research focused on  three
major areas: 1) acute and chronic health effects of  NAAQS  pollutants  (primarily
Os, NO,, acid aerosols, particulate) in test animals and humans; 2) extrapolation
models;  and 3)  acute and  chronic health effects from exposure to "real world"
levels  of oxidants.   Ecological research centered  on the effects of ozone on
forest  tree  species  in  response to a  suite   of  exposure combinations and
concentrations, duration of exposure  at various concentrations, and varying tree
age.  Assistance was provided to support the MOHAVE  study mandated by Congress
of the effects of the Mohave power plant on visibility in the Grand Canyon. EPA
                                      2-22

-------
also released an external review draft of the NOX AQCD for public comment and
CASAC review.

      Research was  conducted to improve emission estimation methodologies  for
criteria  pollutants  and their  precursors  and to  evaluate  and demonstrate
technologies and prevention approaches to reduce emissions of VOCs, SO,, NOX,  and
PM  from major  point and area  sources.   Control/prevention research   included
innovative  control  approaches  for  VOC  area  sources and  SO,/NO, controls  for
industrial facilities, approaches to reduce VOCs emitted from non-process related
solvent usage, and pilot scale evaluations of the ADVOCATE process at  the  TVA 10
Mwe Shawnee plant.   Also, support was provided on atmospheric and monitoring
methodologies for New Source Performance Standards (NSPSs) and SIPs to  assure
attainment  and maintenance of ambient air standards.   As  designated by  the 1990
CAAA, ORD .conducted major studies of ozone formation in the Southeast  as part of
the Southern Oxidant  Study.   Additional  work included air dispersion  modeling
experiments, testing and model development to modify  existing regulatory  models
and to  support PM-10 regulatory activities,  and upgrading of both regional  and
urban particulate models.

POLLUTANTS  FROM MOTOR VEHICLES

1994 Program Request

      Mobile sources research will seek  to better understand emissions and  air
quality under the  rapid dynamics of  changing fuel  compositions and vehicular
technologies, with  particular emphasis  on alternative  fuels  and  reformulated
gasolines.  Research on emissions characterizations and air quality will help to
confirm/evaluate the  results of mandated  emissions testing by industry,   and
develop analytical methods for EPA-required certification tests.   Research will
also produce new data on emissions from  alcohol fuels that will be compared to
those for conventional  fuels to estimate air quality impacts.

      Human  exposure   research  will  concentrate  on  required  development,
improvement, and verification  of exposure-prediction models to provide  needed
data to augment  the very  limited  quantitative  exposure  assessments  for fuel
emissions.     Monitoring   will  also   be   conducted   within  high-exposure
microenvironments (e.g. personal garages, inside cars).  In the area of  health
effects,  research will  focus on characterizing the  potential  for methanol to
cause  developmental effects,  and  revision  of   the  quantitative  cancer risk
assessments  for  important mobile source air toxics  (benzene  and butadiene).
EPA/ORD will also co-fund the Health Effects Institute (HEI) along with  the auto
industry to enhance  mobile source health effects  research  by funding researchers
from universities and other institutions.

1993 Program

      This research program focuses on emissions, air quality,  human exposure,
health effects,  and  scientific assessments  of vehicular fuels.   Emissions
characterization and  air  quality  research  is  concentrated  on  revising  and
validating  emissions models  using studies characterizing real-world  vehicular
emissions.   Researchers  are also  looking  at  laboratory-based  emissions  of
reformulated  gasolines  and  alternative fuels   to  illustrate the  important

                                     2-23

-------
correlation  of fuels and  operating conditions to  emissions characterization
models.  Significant progress is anticipated on characterizing microenvironments
of importance  to  human  exposure and incorporating these research efforts into
exposure models for air toxics emitted from vehicles.

      ORD conducts health effects studies on inhaled methanol vapor to provide
data on potential developmental effects in animals as well as the extrapolation
research needed to assist in interpreting the correlation between the methanol
animal studies and humans.  EPA/ORD  also provides  support  to  HEI  to enhance
health effects research.  The "Research Strategy in Alternative Fuels" is also
being developed,  which  eventually will  be used to generate an international
research agenda  so that data provided by non-EPA organizations will  be more
useful to EPA  and its goals.

1992 Accomplishments

      In FY 1992, research focused on  evaporative  and exhaust emissions with an
emphasis on alternative  fuels.    Emissions  research  studied  gasoline-fueled
vehicle emissions,  including evaporative  hydrocarbon emissions  as  a result of
refueling,  running losses, long-term standing, and tailpipe emissions  at elevated
ambient temperatures.  Research was also conducted to determine human exposure
to mobile source emissions of CO, benzene, and other volatile organics.  EPA's
in-house  health  program  conducted  research   to evaluate  the  increase  in
mutagenicity of emissions and developed new molecular methods to understand the
relationship   between  exposure,  dosimetry  and  risk  for  mobile  sources.
Significant  progress  was   also   achieved  in   understanding  the  potential
developmental effects resulting from methanol.

      Research was initiated to reassess the cancer unit risks of  two major fuel-
related  carcinogens,  and noncancer chronic  exposure health  assessments  were
developed for MTBE (a widely used fuel oxygenate) and diesel emissions.  EPA/ORD
also provided  support to HEI which focused on  wide-ranging  investigations of
health effects associated with various mobile source pollutants, including diesel
exhaust,  aldehydes, and expansion of its research on alternative fuels.

INDOOR AIR

1994 Program Request

      While we have considerable information about indoor pollutants, research
is needed  to  further  identify,  characterize,  and compare  the health  risks
associated with exposures to indoor air pollutants.  In FY 1994,  ORD will focus
on understanding the relative contributions of  organic vapors and particulate
matter to observed  signs and symptoms  associated  with  air pollution exposures
inside residences  and  office  buildings.    Researchers  will  address  source
characterization,  exposure  assessment, health  effects,  risk assessment,  and
solutions to prevent and mitigate indoor pollutants.

      Research devoted to source characterization and pollutant  transport will
be conducted to understand pollutant emissions and transport from indoor sources
under various  environmental conditions.   ORD will also develop,  validate,  and
compare measurement techniques and monitoring protocols for indoor air quality

                                     2-24

-------
in large buildings.   Indoor air health effects research will provide a better
understanding of  the  health effects resulting from indoor exposure to organic
vapors, including the dimensions and implication of organic vapor-induced  signs
and symptoms.   Research devoted to preventing and mitigating indoor pollution
risks  will  focus on  source  control/prevention,  effective energy-efficient
ventilation approaches, and air cleaning techniques.  ORD will also demonstrate
prevention approaches to reduce emissions associated with textiles and composite
wood products.

1993 Program

      ORD  has  targeted source  characterization research on  indoor sources of
chemical and biological contaminants and the factors that affect emission rates.
Emphasis is placed on  developing measurement techniques and  monitoring protocols
to assess  indoor exposures, and on  developing the methods  to test and evaluate
various indoor air control technologies to prevent  and mitigate pollutants.  This
program also focuses  on identifying the health effects and characterizing the
risks associated with exposures to  indoor air pollutants.

      Congressional Directives.  A total of  $700,000 is  for the Congressionally
directed projects  for Indoor Air Research.

1992 Accomplishments

      Researchers  evaluated emissions  from  a variety  of  indoor  sources and
collected data on compounds  emitted, emission rates of  these compounds, emission
rate decay, and the interaction of source emissions with indoor surfaces.  Indoor
air mitigation research  focused on alternative indoor air quality approaches such
as source  management,  ventilation strategies,  and  air  cleaning  devices.   The
results of these studies for large buildings are being used to develop guidance
on the most effective design and operation of large  buildings to minimize human
exposure to indoor air  pollutants.   Indoor  air health research  focused on the
study of  indoor VOCs through  human clinical  studies of the neurobehavioral,
physiological,   and   immunological  effects   of  VOC   mixtures.     A   risk
characterization  methodology  was also  developed  to  assess  non-cancer  health
effects associated with different  indoor air pollution  exposures in a variety
indoor environments.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1994 Program Request

      In FY 1994, this research will be redirected into  Multimedia Research where
it is more appropriately funded to continue environmental equity research.

1993 Program

      The Agency  is conducting research in support of  the larger Agency-wide
initiative on  Environmental Equity to  determine  if disparities exist in the
exposure to environmental pollutants experienced  by racial minorities  and the
economically disadvantaged.  This program investigates  the relationship between
existing exposure data and demographic data from the 1990 U.S. Census and/or the

                                     2-25

-------
1990 Donnelley Marketing Information System.  This information is expected to
yield  both national  and regional  specific insights  into the  occurrence of
inequities in exposures to environmental pollutants.

1992 Accomplishments

      Investigations were initiated into the relationship that exists,  if any,
between  the  sources  and  magnitude of  pollutant  emissions  from  industrial
facilities  and  the  socioeconomic  and   racial   distribution  of  surrounding
communities.  Research  efforts also focused on  integrating  data from the EPA
Toxic Release Inventory and the U.S. Census and Donnelly Marketing Information
Services.

POLLUTION PREVENTION

1994 Program Request

      No work will  be conducted  in  this  area  in  Air Quality.   These resources
will  be  redirected  to  support cross-media  pollution  prevention  research
activities in the Multimedia Pollution Prevention Program.

1993 Program

      These  funds  support  the  Source Reduction Review  Project through  the
development  of  pollution prevention  options for outyear Maximum  Achievable
Control Technology standards.  Characterization methods are also being developed
for emissions from consumer aerosol products that are used indoors.

1992 Accomplishments

      There were no Air Quality resources in Pollution Prevention in FY 1992.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES/SBIR

1994 Program Request

As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-219),
EPA will allocate  1.50% of its extramural Research and Development  budget  for the
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)  Program.  These funds will be used to
support small businesses engaged in the development of equipment for pollution
abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental trends
and conditions.  Under this program, ORD will take advantage of unique solutions
to Air  Quality  Research problems and  other environmental issues that  may  be
offered by the private sector.   Resources will be identified in  the operating
plan and consolidated into the Multimedia  Program  Element once enactment occurs.

1993 Program

As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-219),
EPA is allocating  1.50% of its extramural Research and Development  budget  for the
Small Business  Innovation Research  (SBIR)  Program.   These funds are  used  to
support small businesses engaged in the development of equipment  for pollution

                                     2-26

-------
abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental trends
and conditions.   Under this program, ORD is  able  to take advantage of unique
solutions to pesticide related problems and other environmental  issues that may
be offered by the private sector.

1992 Accomplishments

Resources  and  accomplishments  supporting  this  program  were budgeted  in the
Multimedia program element for 1992.

INFRASTRUCTURE

1994 Program Request

      Adequately funded infrastructure is critical to ORD' s success in conducting
the  quality  science  needed  to  assure  that  the  Agency' s  decisions  are
scientifically  sound.  The most  critical part of ORD1 s  infrastructure  is its
staff.   The  assumption  underlying  all our research  activities includes  a
productive workforce.

      ORD  has  established a cohesive,  cross-cutting  issue  for infrastructure
based upon the importance  of  this  activity  to planned and ongoing research
activities.  Program and Research Operations (PRO) appropriation funding for the
Air Quality Research PE will be  centralized within the infrastructure issue to
provide improved management for  ORD'  s personnel  compensation and benefits, and
travel costs associated with managing research programs.

1993 Program

      ORD' e current infrastructure program provides compensation and benefits,
and travel for ORD  scientists  and  engineers.    ORD' s  workforce  carries out
scientific programs in support of the Agency' s mission.

1992 Accomplishments

      ORD funded  its workyears  in  scientific  support of  the Agency' s mission,
providing the necessary personnel compensation and  benefits,  and travel for ORD
scientists and engineers.
                                     2-27

-------
                                     AIR

                           Acid Deposition Research

                               Principal Outputs

1994  o     Data and results from air and surface water monitoring programs.

      o     Assessement  results  of  Congressional  questions  on  protective
            standards and trading of SO, for  NO,.

      o     Development  of  a  framework  for  an  integrated assessment  of the
            impact of emissions reductions through Title IV of the CAAA.
1993  o     Analyze and  prepare a  statistical  summary of  the FY  92 CASTNET
            monitoring data.

      o     Prepare a statistical summary of the FY 92 data on aquatic effects
            monitoring.

      o     Report assessing the impact the implementation of the CAA has had on
            the nation's atmosphere, and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

      o     Complete development of a mountain cloud deposition sampler.


1992  o     Completed development and external peer review of the Regional Acid
            Deposition Model (RADM 2.6).

      o     Completed  the  southeast  demonstration project  under  the forest
            health monitoring program using various established and new forest
            health indicators.

      o     Completed  1991  statistical  summary   of  various   forest  indices
            defining forest health.
                                     2-28

-------
                                      AIR

                            Acid Deposition  Research
BUDGET REQUEST

1994 Budget Request

      The Agency  requests a total of $10,886,400 and 14.9 total workyears  for
1994,  a  decrease of  $4,796,800 and 18.5  total  workyears from  1993.   Of  the
request,   $1,138,800   will  be   for   the   Program  and  Research  Operations
appropriation,  and  $9,747,600  will  be  for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This represents  a  decrease of  $1,261,300  in the Program  and
Research Operations appropriation, and a decrease of $3,535,500 in the Research
and  Development  appropriation.    The decrease  to  the Program  and  Research
Operations  appropriation reflects  redirection of  personnel compensation  and
benefits  (PC&B),  and travel  expenses  associated with  funding ORD's  staff of
scientists, managers and  support  personnel  for this  program.   The decrease  for
the Research and Development appropriation reflects the  redirection of research
resources  to higher  priority  research  activities.    The  decrease  in total
workyears  reflects base  redirections to  support priority  initiatives where
scientific information is needed to address higher health and environmental risks
as well as a result of the government-wide workyear reduction to reduce the size
and cost of government.

1993 Budget

      The Agency  is allocating a  total of  $15,683,200 and 33.4 total workyears
for this program  element, of which $2,400,100 is from the Program and Research
Operations appropriation, and $13,283,100  is from the Research and Development
appropriation.

FY 1992 Budget

      The Agency  obligated a total of  $13,543,400 and 30.4 total workyears  for
this program  element,  of which  $1,959,500 was from the  Program and Research
Operations appropriation, and $11,583,900 was from the Research and Development
appropriation.
RESEARCH ISSUES

      The sections below describe research program issues by each fiscal year:


ACID DEPOSITION

1994 Program Request

     In  FY  1994,  acid deposition  research  will move  towards  assessing  the
benefits resulting from acid  deposition  controls.   The  Office of Research and

                                     2-29

-------
Development  (ORD)  will  reconfigure the current wet  and  dry acidic deposition
monitoring network.   This reconfiguration will refocus  monitoring efforts to
specifically address  regional  and ecosystem issues  to better  use the current
capabilities of  ORD  monitoring sites.  Research  investigating the impacts of
ambient acid aerosols on human  health will  be highlighted as recommended by the
Science Advisory  Board  (SAB)  in their discussion of Priority  Research Areas.
Assessment activities in FY 1994 will rely upon data  collected  by aquatics
monitoring through the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP),
continued forest  monitoring  in cooperation with the  U.S.  Forest Service, and
improved benefits estimation.  ORD's modeling research will also provide vital
information in support of acid deposition assessment activities.

      Continuous emission monitoring  (OEM)  research will evaluate flow monitor
performance using improved velocity measurement procedures and determination of
total system bias. These monitors provide the Agency the  means  to monitor power
plant emissions,  evaluate the  effectiveness of advanced NO, burner controls,
produce preliminary estimates of  the  effects of SO, and  NO, trading on surface
water acidification,  and conduct  field studies for  evaluating the effects of
acidic deposition  on  tree growth.  Control technology research will  use data
collected  from the  completed   Limestone  Injection  Multistage Burner  (LIMB)
demonstration  and other technology  demonstrations  to  further evaluate  the
performance of low-NO, burner control technology.

      Visibility  research  will  conduct   studies  to  better  understand  the
relationship between  acid  aerosols and visibility.   Aquatics  and terrestrial
effects research will begin revisiting sites originally measured in  1990 as part
of the Forest Health Monitoring program for purposes of establishing .trends in
FHM  indicators,  while  a field study will be  initiated to provide  improved
information on the response of  surface waters to nitrogen deposition.

FY 1993 Program

      In FY 1993,  acid deposition research concentrates on supporting regulatory
activities in  several areas.  ORD  is reviewing the  current  acidic deposition
monitoring network to determine the most cost effective way to limit network
costs in support of CASTNET, and to more accurately establish status and trends
of acid deposition and  atmospheric  constituents.   The data collected supports
various other  programs   including  the National Acid  Precipitation Assessment
Program  (NAPAP),  EMAP,  and CAA assessments.   Recognizing that  visibility is
generally  the   first  indicator   of  atmospheric   change   in  acid  aerosol
concentrations, ORD is also evaluating locations for new visibility monitoring
sites to better establish the relationship between  acid aerosols and visibility.

      Control technology research  is directed primarily toward completion of the
LIMB demonstration project and  promoting the development and demonstration of
other innovative  low-cost  technologies.   The Agency  also  performs studies to
further investigate and  improve the accuracy of CEM measurements in accordance
with regulatory commitments.

      ORD's aquatics and terrestrial effects research concentrates on improving
watershed models of chronic acidification  to project the long-term effects on
sensitive  soils  and  aquatic  ecosystems.    Assessments  are  conducted on the

                                     2-30

-------
environmental  impacts  and trends of  changes in acid  deposition  on sensitive
ecosystems  and supports  activities  to assess  ecosystem response  to change.
Modeling activities are focused on the impacts of atmospheric emissions  which
is  critical   for  establishing  monitoring  networks,   determining  spatial
distributions of acidic constituents, and understanding the transport and fate
of pollutants.

      Congressional Directives.  A total of $1,000,000 is for the Congressionally
directed projects for the Adirondack  Destruction Assessment Program  ($500,000),
and the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program ($500,000).

FY 1992 Accomplishments

      In FY 1992, EPA's operational network of 51 dry deposition monitoring sites
collected  air  quality,   meteorological,  and vegetation data  necessary  for
estimating dry  deposition as  an  important component of total deposition.   EPA
provided support for 7-9 sites of the National Acid Deposition Program/National
Trends Network  (NADP/NTN), as well as other wet deposition monitoring networks
in the United States (U.S.).  EPA also developed responses to issues raised by
State-of-Science and Technology  and  Integrated Assessment reports prepared by
NAPAP.  Control technology research focused on designing and testing  an advanced
low-NOx coal firing system for tangential utility boilers  at Yorktown, Virginia.
This  jointly  funded government  and  industry   large-scale  demonstration  is
important  because  approximately  45  percent  of   U.S.   utility  boilers  are
tangentially-fired.  Equipment installation  for the  Yorktown LIMB demonstration
was completed, and testing which  began in FY 1992  is  expected  to be completed in
FY 1993.

      Aquatic  and  terrestrial  monitoring  activities  continued  in FY  1992,
investigating the  effects of  acid  deposition on  leaching of  critical elements
from soils  and  the impact on forest  growth which will be used  to develop and
evaluate appropriate models.  Other monitoring efforts provided information on
changes and trends  in chemical conditions in acid sensitive ecosystems.  Research
continued  to perfect  the  Regional  Acid Deposition Model/Engineering  Model
(RADM/EM) to estimate deposition to sensitive receptor areas in both the U.S. and
Canada.  The RADM was used to study various control strategies  and to  interpolate
data  from the  monitoring network,  as  well  as  answer  inter-program  effects
questions about oxidant, volatile organic emissions (VOCs), acid deposition, and
nitrogen loading.
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES/SBIR

1994 Program Request

      As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-
219), EPA will allocate 1.50% of  its extramural Research and Development budget
for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.  These funds will be
used to  support  small businesses engaged in the development  of  equipment for
pollution abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental
trends and conditions.  Under  this program,  ORD  will  take  advantage of unique
solutions to Acid  Deposition Research  problems  and  other environmental issues

                                     2-31

-------
that may be offered by the private sector.   Resources will be identified in the
operating  plan  and consolidated  into  the Multimedia  Program  Element  once
enactment occurs.

1993 Program

      As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982  (Public Law 97-
219), EPA is allocating 1.50% of its extramural  Research  and  Development budget
for the Small Business  Innovation Research  (SBIR) Program.  These funds are used
to support small businesses engaged in the development of equipment for pollution
abatement and control, and instrumentation  for monitoring environmental  trends
and conditions.   Under this program, ORD  is able  to take advantage  of  unique
solutions to pesticide related problems and other environmental  issues that may
be offered by the private sector.

1992 Accomplishments

      Resources and accomplishments supporting this program were budgeted in the
Multimedia program element for 1992.
INFRASTRUCTURE

1994 Program Request

      Adequately funded infrastructure is critical to ORD1 s success in conducting
the  quality  science  needed  to  assure  that  the  Agency' s  decisions  are
scientifically  sound.  The most critical  part  of ORD1 s infrastructure is its
staff.   The  assumption  underlying  all  our research  activities includes  a
productive workforce.

      ORD has established a cohesive,  cross-cutting  issue  for infrastructure
based upon  the  importance  of  this activity to planned and  ongoing research
activities.  Program and Research Operations (PRO) appropriation funding for the
Acid Deposition Research PE will be centralized  within the infrastructure issue
to provide  improved management for ORD' s personnel compensation and benefits, and
travel costs associated with managing research programs.

1993 Program

      ORD1 s current infrastructure program provides compensation and benefits,
and  travel  for ORD  scientists and  engineers.   ORD' s  workforce  carries out
scientific programs in support of the Agency' s mission.

1992 Accomplishments

      ORD funded its workyears in  scientific support  of the Agency' s mission,
providing the necessary personnel compensation and benefits, and travel for ORD
scientists and engineers.
                                     2-32

-------
                                      AIR

                            Global Change Research
                               Principal Outputs

1994  o     Complete analysis of land cover and changes in southern Mexico as a
            prototype  study in the North  American Landscape Characterization
            Program.

      o     Biogenic and anthropogenic carbon budgets  (pools and fluxes) for the
            United States,  Russia, and  Brazil.

      o     Summarization   of  field  study  results  of  carbon   storage  and
            greenhouse  gas fluxes in  tundra,  taiga, temperate,  and  tropical
            ecosystems.

      o     Assessment of sensitivity of carbon biospheric storage and fluxes to
            climate change  in temperate regions.

      o     Assessment  of  effects of climate  change on  northern  freshwater
            fisheries.

1993  o     Complete national analyses of methane emissions from coal mining and
            natural gas operations.

      o     Report on the biospheric  fate of  selected  CFC  substitutes and their
            degradation properties.

      o     Report on the short-term epidemiology study of UV-B induced health
            effects in humans living in the southern tip of Chile.

      o     Technology assessment of biomass utilization for direct and  indirect
            electricity generation and  for production of  liquid fuels for the
            transportation and utility sectors.

      o     Assessment of effects of projected climate change on rice genotypes.

1992  o     Assessment of potential benefits of managing U.S.  forests to store
            additional atmospheric carbon.

      o     Assessment  of  potential  benefit  of  managing  soils  to  store
            additional atmospheric carbon.

      o     Completed predictive modeling studies on  the  amount of additional
            carbon that might be released to the atmosphere if climate changes
            cause a displacement of temperate and high-latitude forests.

      o     Performed field measurements of the flux of CO2, N2O,  and CH4 between
            selected terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere.

      o     Developed biogeochemical process model for the  soil carbon cycle and
            related biospheric feedbacks.

                                     2-33

-------
                                      AIR

                            Global Change Research
BUDGET REQUEST

1994 Budget Request

      The Agency requests  a  total  of  $27,460,100 and 37.4 total workyears for
1994, an increase of $1,609,500 and a decrease of 1.5 total workyears  from 1993.
Of  the  request, $2,952,600  will  be for  the Program and Research Operations
appropriation,  and  $24,507,500  will  be  for  the  Research and  Development
appropriation.   This represents an  increase of  $412,000 in the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation,  and increase of $1,197,500 in the  Research and
Development appropriation.  The increase to the  Program and Research Operations
appropriation reflects additional personnel compensation and benefits (PC&B), and
travel expenses associated with funding ORD's staff  of scientists, managers and
support  personnel  in  areas  such  as   quality assurance, extramural resource
management,  and high priority research.   The  increase  for the Research and
Development  appropriation reflects additional   resources for  Global  Climate
research partially offset by redirection of other research resources to higher
priority research  activities.   The decrease  in  total workyears reflects base
redirections to support  priority  initiatives where  scientific  information is
needed to address higher  health and environmental risks as well as the result of
the  government-wide reduction in  workyears  that  is  part of the  President's
program to reduce the size of the  and cost of government.

1993 Budget

      The Agency is allocating a total of $25,850,600 and 38.9 total workyears
for this program element, of which $2,540,600 is from the Program and Research
Operations appropriation, and $23,310,000 is from the Research and Development
appropr iat ion.

FY 1992 Budget

      The Agency obligated a total of  $24,505,400 and 35.5 total workyears for
this program  element,  of which $2,781,100 was  from the  Program and Research
Operations appropriation, and $21,724,300  was from the Research and Development
appropriat ion.

RESEARCH ISSUES

      The sections below describe research program issues by each fiscal year:

GLOBAL CLIMATE

1994 Program Reguest

      Global climate research is focused on understanding  the  effects of climate
change on the terrestrial biosphere and predicting the extent  of such biospheric

                                     2-34

-------
effects in the future.  Research investigating processes and effects will focus
on key physical, chemical, biological, ecological, and human controlled processes
that influence or govern  Earth system behavior.   This will include studies on
biogeochemical cycling and carbon cycle dynamics, their resultant feedback to the
climate system, investigations into the atmospheric processes influencing global
warming and cooling, and studies on  ecosystem effects and vegetative responses.
Ecological  research efforts  will be  refocused and  new experiments  will  be
intiated to study the transient effects of climate change and the responses of
ecosystems.

     Monitoring work in FY 1994 will use remote sensing  efforts and atmospheric
measurements to identify how rapidly global ecological systems  are changing, and
what their relative  contributions are to changing atmospheric burdens of relevant
trace gases.  These monitoring activities will further  characterize landscapes
of North America, continue monitoring biomass burning   and land cover changes,
and  initiate  an  assessment activity to optimize monitoring efforts  for early
detection of the greenhouse  signature.  Working with the  International Geosphere
and  Biosphere Program and  the World Meteorological Organization, this early
detection activity will focus on major earth systems which can rapidly respond
to climate change (atmosphere, cryosphere, oceans, and terrestrial biosphere),
use  models to identify  unique greenhouse gas warming  responses, and design
appropriate observational programs to detect the predicted signals.

      State-of-science assessments will be conducted to  support the internation
Intergovernmental Panel  on Climate  Change  (IPCC)  efforts to  re-evaluate  the
likely  impacts  of  climate  change   and effective mitigation and  adaptation
responses.  ORD will also expand investment in modeling research to accelerate
development of a framework for earth systems modeling,  focusing on the need to
couple  terrestrial  biospheric  response  to  atmospheric  and  oceanic  general
circulation models.   Such modeling capability is essential  if we are to predict
global climate change with  the accuracy and  resolution required for  assessing
climate change  impacts  and developing effective response  strategies.   Global
research is in support of the FCCSET initiative and U.S.  Global Climate Research
Program.

1993 Program

      In FY  1993,   global  climate research  provides  the scientific basis  to
assess, evaluate, and predict the ecological and environmental consequences of
global change. Processes and effects research concentrates  on investigating the
sources, sinks, pools, and  fluxes of  greenhouse gases,  both natural  and human
influenced.  This research program also investigates the response of vegetation
to climate change from  the plant scale to the  landscape and  regional  scales.
Studies are performed to investigate  the tropospheric chemistry  of greenhouse and
other trace gases and begin the process of quantifying climate induced biospheric
feedbacks.

      Monitoring research includes landscape characterization  of North America
to provide the necessary data for predicting the influence of  land use changes
on carbon  fluxes, as  well as  monitoring  of  biomass  burning and  forest cover
changes.  ORD modeling investments are focused on developing  the framework to
                                     2-35

-------
demonstrate the  feasibility  of fully coupled three-dimensional  models of the
earth system through development key components for such a modeling framework.

1992 Accomplishments

      In FY 1992, research activities centered on reducing several major areas
of  uncertainty  regarding  global  climate change.    Researchers studied  the
influence  of  the terrestrial  biosphere on the  carbon cycle,  which included
quantifying the  role of the  terrestrial biosphere as  a global sink as well as
quantifying  the  dynamic biofeedbacks  of  carbon dioxide  and methane  to the
atmosphere.  Several reports were produced in FY  1992 addressing forest growth,
soil carbon cycle,  and related feedbacks  in  U.S. agroecosystems.  Researchers
also investigated global warming potentials for gases other  than carbon dioxide,
focusing on quantifying interactive atmospheric chemistry and developing models
to  predict tropospheric  concentrations  and lifetimes of gases.   In addition,
evaluations were conducted on the ability  of EPA  atmospheric models to simulate
transformations  of urban carbon compounds and NO, into greenhouse gases.

      The potential effects of global change were also studied, emphasizing the
identification of  vulnerable natural systems  and estimating the effects for
predicted  changes.  Finally, emission factors were developed for  anthropogenic
sources of methane and nitrous oxide,   along with reports  addressing national
estimates  of current and future U.S. emissions of methane from coal mining, and
global estimates of current  emissions of methane from landfills.
STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION

1994 Program Request

      Stratospheric ozone research will focus on: 1) investigating the effects
of  increased  UV-B  on  human  health  and  sensitive  aquatic ecosystems;  2)
establishing  a  ground-based UV-B monitoring  network to provide  data on UV-B
exposure;  and  3)  evaluating  the fate  of industry  and  government proposed
replacements  for  ozone depleting compounds (ODCs) to  ensure they do not pose
other  environmental  risks.    Health  effects   research  will  conduct  human
immunosuppression  studies  to define the basic  mechanism which causes UV-B to
induce adverse  effects  in humans  and the extent  to which this influences human
susceptibility to infections.  In addition,  ORD will conduct studies to determine
if  UV-B  exposure reduces  the  effectiveness  of  vaccines  and  conduct UV-B
epidemiology  studies.   Aquatic  effects  research  will  focus  on  laboratory
experiments to define the impact of increased UV-B on phytoplankton productivity
and include field experiments on the effects of higher UV-B exposure on sensitive
near-coastal  ecosystems.

      ORD will  also support ground  based  UV-B  monitoring research,  including
efforts to establish several monitoring sites and agreements with  other  federal
agencies  and nations to share information on UV-B levels.  ORD will also  conduct
research  on the atmospheric transformation and  ecological effects of CFC/HCFC
replacement substances.  This  research will help determine the atmospheric  fate
of  proposed replacements for ODCs and the  environmental risks associated with
these  compounds and their degradation products.  Researchers will continue to

                                      2-36

-------
develop a multimedia  exposure  model  to predict  environmental  concentrations  of
replacement  compounds and  their  degradation  products.

1993 Program

       In  FY  1993,  researchers  continue  to investigate  critical  human and
ecological effects  caused by  increased  levels  of  UV-B which are reaching the
Earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion.  The health effects program
concentrates on determining the  extent to  which UV-B induces  immunosuppression
in  humans,   including  defining the   mechanism   which  causes  this  effect.
Investments  in aquatic effects research center on how phytoplankton  species are
adversely impacted  by elevated UV-B radiation levels and evaluating how  these
effects indirectly  impact  an entire  ecosystem.

       ORD also conducts research on the  atmospheric transformation and ecological
effects of CFC/HCFC replacement  substances.  This  research helps determine the
atmospheric  fate and environmental risks of volatile compounds which are  expected
to be  used as replacements for ODCs.  Researchers are also working to develop a
multimedia   exposure  model  which  predicts   environmental  concentrations  of
replacement  compounds and  their  degradation  products.

       Congressional Directives.  A total of $700,000 is for the Congressionally
directed project for  the National Ultraviolet Monitoring Center.

1992 Accomplishments

       In  1992,  EPA provided data  to support major scientific  assessments as
scheduled under  the Montreal  Protocol  to  determine  whether:   1)   additional
chemicals should be regulated, 2)  the regulatory  schedule should be modified,
and 3)  greater or  lesser  controls should  be imposed on regulated chemicals.
Planning was initiated for establishing  a  UV-B monitoring network and exposure
index.  Health researchers  examined the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on the
human  immune system,  while ecological  studies  were  conducted  on  the adverse
impacts associated with increased UV-B on phytoplankton species and the  indirect
impact  on an entire  marine  ecosystem.    These   results  will  allow EPA  to
scientifically evaluate overall policy implications  as new scientific information
is developed.

      Research was also conducted to predict the atmospheric fate of replacement
chemicals and to determine the potential ecological impacts of the quantity of
these compounds which could be released  into the environment.


INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES/SBIR

1994 Program Request

As mandated by the  Small Business Development Act  of  1982  (Public Law 97-219),
EPA will allocate 1.50% of its extramural Research and Development budget for the
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.  These funds will be used to
support small businesses engaged in the development of equipment for pollution
abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring  environmental trends

                                     2-37

-------
and conditions.  Under this program, ORD will take advantage of unique solutions
to Global Change Research problems  and other environmental issues that may be
offered by the private  sector.   Resources will be identified in the operating
plan and consolidated into the Multimedia Program Element once enactment occurs.

1993 Program

As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982  (Public Law 97-219),
EPA is allocating 1.50% of its extramural Research and Development budget for the
Small  Business  Innovation  Research (SBIR)  Program.   These  funds  are  used to
support small businesses engaged in the development of equipment for pollution
abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental trends
and conditions.  Under  this program,  ORD is able to take advantage of unique
solutions to pesticide related problems and other environmental  issues that may
be offered by the private sector.

1992 Accomplishments

Resources  and accomplishments  supporting this program  were budgeted  in the
Multimedia program element for  1992.
INFRASTRUCTURE

1994 Program Request

      Adequately funded infrastructure is critical to ORD' e success in conducting
the  quality  science  needed  to  assure  that  the  Agency1 s  decisions  are
scientifically  sound.  The most  critical  part of ORD1 s  infrastructure is its
staff.    The  assumption  underlying   all  our  research  activities  includes  a
productive workforce.

      ORD has  established a cohesive,  cross-cutting  issue for infrastructure
based  upon the importance  of  this  activity to planned  and ongoing  research
activities.  Program and Research Operations  (PRO) appropriation funding for the
Global Change Research PE will  be centralized within the infrastructure issue to
provide  improved management  for  ORD'  s personnel  compensation and  benefits, and
travel costs associated with managing research programs.

1993 Program

      ORD1 s current  infrastructure program provides compensation  and  benefits,
and  travel for  ORD scientists  and   engineers.   ORD' s workforce carries out
scientific programs  in support of the Agency' s mission.

1992 Accomplishments

      ORD funded  its workyears in scientific  support of the Agency1 s mission,
providing the necessary personnel compensation and benefits, and travel for ORD
scientists and  engineers.
                                      2-38

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate
                                    of Contents

                                                                         Page
AIR
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards 	   2-39
      Emission Standards and Technology Assessment   	   2-40
      State Program Guidelines and Air Standards Development  ....   2-44
   Mobile Source Air Pollution Control and Fuel Economy 	   2-47
      Mobile Source Program Implementation  	   2-49
      Emission Standards, Technical Assessment and Characterization  .   2-50
      Testing, Technical and Administrative Support  	   2-53
      Emissions and Fuel Economy Compliance	   2-55
   Resource Assistance for State, Local & Tribal Agencies 	   2-59
      Resource Assistance for State, Local & Tribal Agencies    ...   2-60
   Air Quality Management Implementation  	   2-65
      Air Quality Management Implementation 	   2-66
   Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment  	   2-71
      Ambient Air Quality Monitoring	   2-72
      Air Quality and Emissions Data Management and Analysis  ....   2-74
   Atmospheric Programs	   2-79
      Acid Rain Program	   2-80
      Stratospheric Protection Program  	   2-83
      Global Change Program 	   2-84
   Indoor Air Program	   2-89
      Indoor Air Program	   2-90

-------
                                                        AIR
                                Air Quality & Stationary Source Planning & Standards
ACTUAL PRES. ENACTED
1992 BUDGET 1993
1993
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993
REQUEST INCREASE
1994 DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM




Emission Standards &
Technology Assessment
 Program & Research            $9,723.2   $10,513.1    $9,777.0    $9,781.3   $10,079.4      $298.1      -$433.7
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $21,293.4   $23,928.7   $18,087.9   $18,080.4   $19,944.9    $1,864.5    -$3,983.8
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $31,016.6   $34,441.8   $27,864.9   $27,861.7   $30,024.3    $2,162.6    -$4,417.5

State Program
Guidelines & Air
Standards Development
 Program & Research            $7.351.2    $7.956.3    $7.152.3    $7,072.0    $7,196.5      $124.5      -$759.8
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $7,077.4    $7,675.3    $5,863.0    $5,859.9    $6.556.5      $696.6    -$1.118.8
 Coinpl isnce
                       TOTAL  $14,428.6   $15,631.6   $13,015.3   $12,931.9   $13,753.0      $821.1    -$1,878.6


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $17,074.4   $18,469.4   $16,929.3   $16,853.3   $17,275.9      $422.6    -$1,193.5
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $28,370.8   $31,604.0   $23,950.9   $23,940.3   $26,501.4    $2,561.1    -$5,102.6
 Coinpl i ance

Air Quality &          TOTAL  $45,445.2   $50,073.4   $40,880.2   $40,793.6   $43,777.3    $2,983.7    -$6,296.1
Stationary Source
Planning & Standards

PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Emission Standards &
Technology Assessment
State Program
142.3

112.7
153.0

116.7
148.5

114.8
146.9

113.6
156.0

111.7
9.1

-1.9
3.0

-5.0
Guidelines & Air
Standards Development

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         255.0       269.7       263.3       260.5       267.7         7.2        -2.0


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Emission Standards &              149.5       153.0       148.5       146.9       156.0         9.1          3.0
Technology Assessment

State Program                     115.1       116.7       114.8       113.6       111.7        -1.9         -5.0
Guidelines & Air
Standards Development

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   264.6       269.7       263.3       260.5       267.7         7.2         -2.0
                                                       2-39

-------
                                      AIR


            Air Quality & Stationary Source Planning and Standards


Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $43,777,300  supported by  267.7 total
workyears for 1994,  an increase of $2,983,700 and 7.2 total  workyears from 1993.
Of the  request,  $17,275,900 will be  for the Program  and  Research Operations
appropriation and $26,501,400 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.    This represents  an  increase  in  the  Program and Research
Operations  appropriation  of  $425,600 and  an  increase  of $2,561,100  in the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.


EMISSION STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $30,024,300  supported by  156.0 total
workyears  for this  program,  of  which $10,079,400 will be  for the  Program and
Research Operations  appropriation  and $19,944,900 will be  for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.   This  represents  an increase from  1993 of
$298,100 in  the  Program and Research Operations appropriation  for increased
workforce  costs,  an  increase of  $1,864,500 in  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation for Clean Air Act activities, and an increase of 9.1 in
total workyears.

      In 1994 in order to implement the  Clean Air Act  Amendments of 1990, EPA
will focus  on promulgating Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards
for about 20 source  categories (4-year standards)  and continue work  on about 61
source categories (7-year category).  The Agency  will review the MACT regulatory
schedule and make adjustments as appropriate.  The  Agency will  develop a program
to review and respond to the  concerns and recommendations of  the National Academy
of Science Risk Assessment Review study to be completed in 1993.

      In 1994 significant funds will be focused  on completion of a preliminary
report to  Congress  by  November  1993  to  identify  at  least  30  hazardous air
pollutants representing the greatest threat to public health  in  the  largest
number of urban areas.  This  information will allow EPA  to better understand the
nature of  the air toxics problem in  urban  areas  and to begin immediately to
develop a comprehensive national strategy by November 1995 for  controlling these
area sources.   The  strategy will focus  on a limited number of urban areas
including Chicago, Houston,  and Baltimore.

      The available data on atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants
to the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain, and  some  U.S. coastal waters
obtained in 1993  will  be reviewed and summarized  in the  first report  to Congress
to be submitted  in  early  1994 (reports due every two  years thereafter).   The
report will identify air toxics sources, potential  control or emission reduction

                                     2-40

-------
options, and whether Title III provisions are adequate to prevent  serious public
health or environmental effects.  Work will continue on expanding the scope of
the analyses to include more U.S. coastal waters.

      The  municipal  waste  combuster  (MWC)  II  and  III  standards will  be
promulgated in 1994.  Work will then  focus on assisting states in implementing
the standards.  Work will also begin on  developing standards for  commercial and
industrial solid waste incinerators.  In addition, medical waste  standards will
be promulgated in 1994.  Significant funds are requested for completing the study
of all  air toxic emissions  from utilities in  1995.   The  study will include
alternative control strategies and a  recommendation whether a MACT standard is
warranted.  In addition, a study of mercury emissions from electric utility steam
generating  units, MWCs,  and other  sources,  including  area  sources will  be
completed at the end of 1994 and the results summarized  in a report to Congress
in early  1995.   The study will  include emissions, health  and  environmental
effects, control  technologies and costs.

      In  1994 final  guidance  will be  completed for use by state  and  local
agencies in implementing the modification requirements  (section  112(g))  and in
obtaining approval and delegation of Federal air toxic programs  (section 112(1)).

      Six final control technology guidelines  (CTGs)  will  be published in 1994.
Work on CTGs  for  the wood furniture,  aerospace, and shipbuilding industries is
on a later schedule (early 1995) due to  the need to coordinate with section 112
MACT standards being developed for the same categories.  A MACT standard will be
developed for autobody refinishing in lieu of  a  CTG.  Final alternative control
technology (ACT) documents will  be published for industrial cleanup solvents and
pesticides in lieu  of CTGs.   Final ACT  documents will  be published for major
nitrogen  oxide (NOx) and  volatile  organic compound  (VOC)  sources.  Work  on
developing consumer  product  standards will begin in  1994.   Additionally,  the
Agency will  focus on revising the New  Source  Performance Standard  (NSPS)  for
electric utilities (Subpart Da)  as required by Title V.  The  major focus will be
on the NOx NSPS.  The sulfur dioxide NSPSs are to be  revised in accordance with
the deletion of the percent reduction provisions of section 111, and the NOx NSPS
are to be revised based on new, more  efficient, control alternatives.

      In 1994 EPA will continue to provide support to Regional  Offices and state
and local air pollution control agencies in their implementation  of programs to
control air  toxics, VOC,  and PM-10  emissions  through  the operation of  four
technical centers and clearinghouses. The Agency will operate a  small business
technical  assistance  service  in  coordination  with the existing  technical
assistance centers to provide technical guidance on control technology, pollution
prevention,  and  chemical  emergency  prevention,  and  consideration of  small
business needs and concerns, i.e., regulations that affect them.

1993 PROGRAM

      In 1993 the Agency is allocating a total of $27,861,700 supported by 146.9
total workyears  for this  program, of which  $9,781,300  is from the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and $18,080,400 is from the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.
                                     2-41

-------
      In 1993 the major focus of the program  is implementation of the Clean Air
Act Amendments of 1990, particularly requirements for reducing air toxics through
development of MACT standards for high priority pollutants and source categories.
The EPA is giving high priority to promulgating MACT standards for the hazardous
organic National Emission  Standards for  Hazardous  Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40
source categories), coke ovens, and dry cleaners.  The Agency is also focusing
on development of MACT standards for additional categories to help meet the four-
year  deadline in  the Act and  is continuing work  on  standards  for  source
categories to meet the seven-year deadline. In addition, the Agency is providing
technical assistance to states and local agencies in implementing  the promulgated
MACT standards.

      In addition,  this is  a critical year for the Early Reductions Program.  The
Agency has  received approximately 70  applications that must be processed.   A
permit rule for  these sources must also  be  promulgated  because the operating
permits programs will not  be in place soon enough.

      In  1993 EPA  is  continuing development of  standards  for medical waste
incinerators  and municipal waste combustors  and performing the  screening study
on  other  waste combustors  required by the Clean  Air Act; development of final
guidance  for  the implementation of section 112(g) of  the Act, "Modifications;"
and final guidance for states to use in  obtaining approval and delegation of
Federal air toxic  programs under section 112(1);  and  supporting the National
Academy of Sciences in their  review  of  EPA's risk assessment  procedures and
methods.  The Agency is continuing the assessment of emissions of hazardous air
pollutants  from  electric  utilities  and increasing efforts  to  assess  the
concentrations of air toxics in the ambient  air in urban areas.  Also,  several
monitoring, modeling, and emission inventories efforts are also continuing in the
Gulf of Mexico.

      To help states address ozone nonattainment problems, EPA is continuing: (1)
development of CTGs for 13 categories of  sources of  volatile organic compounds
(VOCs); (2)  an ACT document for sources  of nitrogen  oxides  and a jet aircraft
study  of  nitrogen oxide  emissions;   (3)  efforts  to complete  a  study on VOC
emissions from consumer commercial products; and  (3) development of standards for
marine vessels and architectural and industrial coatings.   EPA's revision of the
NSPS for electric utilities and the utility boiler operator certification program
are also  ongoing.

      The EPA is continuing implementation support to  state programs through the
operation of  four  centers and clearinghouses and  through the publication of
implementation support and technology transfer documents for air toxics, ozone,
and PM-10  control.   The  Agency  is  also  continuing to assist states in the
development of permit programs for  air  toxics.   In addition, the Agency is
initiating support to states in providing  compliance and technical assistance to
small businesses that must comply with Clean Air Act requirements.

      Congressional Directives;   The Agency  is increasing  efforts to  study the
deposition of hazardous  air pollutants  in  the Great  Lakes,   particularly in
developing and analyzing  toxic data bases for the  Great  Lakes.


                                     2-42

-------
1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992  the  Agency obligated a total of  $31,016,600 supported by 149.5
total workyears for this program,  of which $9,723,200 was  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $21,293,400  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1992  the  major  focus  of  the program  was implementation of Title III,
"Hazardous Air Pollutants," of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, particularly
requirements for reducing air toxics through development of MACT standards for
high priority  pollutants and source categories.   The EPA published an initial
list of source categories for which MACT standards must be developed and a draft
regulatory schedule for the promulgation of MACT standards for all listed source
categories.  The Agency focused on development  of MACT standards to meet the two-
year and four-year  deadlines and also began developing MACT standards to meet the
seven-year deadline.   The Agency proposed standards  for major and  area  dry
cleaning sources and completed  the Early Reduction Program rule to give industry
incentives  for voluntarily  achieving  reductions  in  emissions  of toxic  air
pollutants.   The  Agency developed  draft  interim pollutant petition  process
procedures  to  respond to  petitions  to  add  or delete  pollutants and  began
developing source  category delisting petition guidance as well.

      In 1992 EPA promulgated emission standards under section 111 for calciners
and dryers.   The Agency continued:   (1) work on a study  on the deposition of
hazardous air  pollutants in the Great  Lakes;  (2)  development of standards for
medical  waste  incinerators  and  MWCs;  (3) development  of  guidance for  the
implementation of the "Modifications" provisions of  section 112(g) and of a draft
rule providing state  program  guidance under  section  112(1)  of the Act,  (4)
support  to  the National Academy  of  Sciences in  their  review of  EPA's  risk
assessment procedures  and methods; and  (5) work on a study of the emissions of
hazardous air pollutants from electric utilities.

     EPA also  continued development of CTGs  for 11  source  categories  of  VOC
emissions and an alternative control technology document for sources of nitrogen
oxides; initiated the development  of CTGs  for  two additional source categories;
continued preparation  of a  study of  VOC emissions  from  consumer commercial
products; and development of standards for marine vessels.   The Agency continued
work on a revision to  the NSPS for reducing emissions from electric utilities.
Additionally,  development  of  RACMs and  BACMs  for  major PM-10 sources  that
contribute to PM-10 nonattainment in specific geographic areas continued.

     EPA provided implementation support to state programs  through the operation
of  four  information  centers  and  clearinghouses  and  the  publication  of
implementation support and technology transfer documents for air toxics,  ozone,
and PM-10 control.   The  Agency also assisted  states in developing  their small
business technical assistance  programs for the implementation of  air  toxics
rules.
                                     2-43

-------
STATE PROGRAM GUIDELINES AND AIR STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $13,753,000  supported by  111.7 total
workyears  for  this  program, of which  $7,196,500 will be  for the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and  $6,556,500  will be  for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $124,500
in the Program and Research Operations due to increased workforce costs, $696,600
in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation and a decrease of 1.9
workyears  from 1993.  This program focuses on implementing  requirements of the
Clean  Air  Act Amendments  of 1990  for meeting  National  Ambient  Air Quality
Standards  (NAAQSs) and establishing state operating permit and fee programs.  The
decrease in workyears is a result  of  the government-wide reduction in workyears
that  is  part  of the President's  program to  reduce the size  and cost  of
government.

      In 1994 EPA will take final action to revise or reaffirm the primary NAAQSs
for sulfur dioxide,or to repropose a  new short-term standard,  and will complete
its review of the carbon monoxide (CO)  NAAQS.  The Agency will develop revised
"significant harm" levels for sulfur  dioxide and  issue implementation guidance.
The Agency will provide benefits, health, and Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA)
support for Federal and state rulemaking activities, including development of New
Source  Performance   Standards   (NSPSs)  and  National  Emission Standards  for
Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs).   Reviews of the NAAQS for  ozone, PM-10, and
nitrogen dioxide will be underway.

      EPA will develop rules and provide states with the guidance, assistance,
and training needed to implement the SIP activities  required by the new Clean Air
Act.   The  Agency will  review and  approve  initial SIP  submittals and,  if
necessary,  develop Federal rules and sanctions for disapproved SIPs.  The Agency
will issue  economic incentive rules,  revise the list of nonattainment areas based
on new air  quality data or changes to the NAAQSs,  and  assist  ozone transport and
visibility commissions.   The Agency will provide  states with the procedures,
techniques, and assistance needed  for determining required emission reductions;
developing market-based  approaches  for improving  air  quality;  evaluating and
selecting   alternative   control   measures;   preparing   control   strategy
demonstrations; analyzing transport  strategies in  the Northeast; implementing
effective tracking mechanisms; and assisting in the identification,  adoption, and
implementation of non-traditional control measures that will directly involve the
public (e.g., transportation controls and consumer solvent  substitution).  The
Agency will review state plans for small business technical  assistance programs
and approve or disapprove the submittals.

      EPA  will provide  states  with the guidance,  assistance,  and training to
implement  new requirements  for  operating permits and fees  and will review and
approve or  disapprove state operating permit program submittals. The Agency will
propose  rules  for  issuing Federal  operating permits  in   the  absence of  an
acceptable state program.  The Agency also will provide guidance and assistance
to Regions and states for permitting  new sources.   The Agency  will issue rules
                                     2-44

-------
to implement a variety  of  changes in the new clean Air Act for the new  source
review program.

      EPA will complete a report to Congress on the impact of  the  Clean Air Act
on visibility.  The Agency will provide guidance on integration of sulfur control
programs (e.g., SIPs and acid rain).   The Agency will also provide training to
states through  short courses,  self-study  courses, videos, and workshops for
implementing Clean Air Act requirements.

1993 Program

      In 1993 the Agency is allocating  a total of $12,931,900 supported by 113.6
total workyears for  this program, of which $7,072,000 is from the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $5,859,900 is from the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993 EPA will provide states with  guidance and  other  assistance  needed
to implement the new Clean Air Act  requirements for state operating permit and
fee programs,  including general  permits,  enabling legislation,  fee recovery
requirements, and monitoring/reporting requirements.   The Agency will propose
rules to implement a variety of changes to  the new  source review program  in the
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.  The Agency will also propose  rules to simplify
the new source review program and  to provide guidance for best  available control
technology  (BACT).   The  Agency  will  continue to  provide new source   review
guidance and assistance to  Regions and  states and support to national litigation
over current rules.

      In 1993 EPA will complete review of the NAAQS for  ozone  and the  secondary
SO2 standard.  The Agency  will repropose or  promulgate revised or reaffirmed
primary NAAQSs for sulfur dioxide.

      EPA  will  continue to  develop  the guidance  and  regulations  needed  to
implement the SIP  activities under the new Clean  Air Act.  This  will include
"General Preamble" addenda providing guidance  for  NO, controls in ozone  SIP's,
serious PM-10 areas,  and lead nonattainment areas,  proposed general conformity
and economic incentive  rules, final  sanctions criteria, revising and issuing the
list  of  nonattainment  areas,  and  assisting  ozone and  visibility  transport
commissions.  The Agency will develop procedures and techniques for determining
required  emission reductions;  evaluating  and selecting  alternative control
measures;  preparing  control  strategy  demonstrations;  analyzing  transport
strategies  in the   Northeast;  and  identifying,   adopting,   and  implementing
nontraditional control  measures  that will  directly involve the public   (e.g.,
transportation controls and consumer solvent substitution).  The Agency also will
develop  best available  control  measure  (BACM)  and  other PM-10  guidance  on
woodstoves,  prescribed  burning,  agricultural  activities,  fugitive  source and
nontraditional source control measures (e.g.,  street  cleaning), and secondary
particle formation.

      EPA will continue to administer a review process for SIPs  submitted by
states.  EPA will review and approve or disapprove the  initial SIP submittals.
If necessary, the  Agency will impose  sanctions and develop Federal  rules for

                                     2-45

-------
disapproved SIPs.  The Agency will continue to implement innovative measures to
reduce the  backlog of  SIP revisions and  expedite processing,  including the
operation of a computerized SIP tracking and information system.
1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992  EPA obligated a total  of $14,428,600 supported  by  115.1 total
workyears to this program, of which $7,351,200 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and $7,077,400 was  from  the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.  In 1992 EPA gave highest priority to implementation of new Clean
Air Act requirements, including designation and classification of nonattainment
areas; preparation  of  guidance on developing SIPs  for PM-10,  sulfur dioxide,
lead, ozone, and carbon monoxide;  promulgation of operating permit and fee rules;
and development  of guidance for state small business assistance programs.
                                      2-46

-------
                                                        AIR
                                Mobile Source Air Pollution  Control &  Fuel Economy

PROGRAM
Mobile Source Program
Implementation
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Emission Standards,
Technical Assessment &
Character i zat i on
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Testing, Technical &
Administrative Support
Program & Research
Operat i ons
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Emissions & Fuel
Economy Compliance
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
TOTAL:
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
ACTUAL
1992
PRES.
BUDGET
1993
ENACTED
1993
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993
REQUEST
1994.
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)


$769.2



$769.2



$8,194.1

$21,983.9

$30,178.0


$8,351.2

$1,592.7

$9,943.9


$3,128.9

$227.1

$3,356.0

$20,443.4

$23,803.7


$2,869.9



$2,869.9



$11,161.4

$17,423.7

$28,585.1


$6,572.3

$2,600.2

$9,172.5


$2,967.9

$263.1

$3,231.0

$23,571.5

$20,287.0


$2,724.0

$2

$2,724.2



$8,175.0

$12,939.7

$21.114.7


$5,476.5

$3,453.3

$8,929.8


$2,777.7

$434.8

$3,212.5

$19,153.2

$16,828.0


$2,723.5

$2

$2,723.7



$8,176.9

$12,780.9

$20,957.8


$5,466.6

$3,448.0

$8,914.6


$2,783.7

$430.3

$3,214.0

$19,150.7

$16,659.4


$2,985.1

$2

$2,985.3



$9,085.8

$13.841.0

$22,926.8


$6,378.9

$10,889.6

$17,268.5


$2,898.4

$427.1

$3,325.5

$21,348.2

$25,157.9


$261.6



$261.6



$908.9

$1,060.1

$1,969.0


$912.3

$7,441.6

$8,353.9


$114.7

-$3.2

$111.5

$2,197.5

$8,498.5


$115.2

$2

$115.4



-$2,075.6

-$3,582.7

-$5,658.3


-$193.4

$8,289.4

$8,096.0


-$69.5

$164.0

S94.5

-$2,223.3

$4.870.9
 Compliance

Mobile Source Air
Pollution Control &
Fuel Economy
TOTAL  $44,247.1   $43,858.5    $35,981.2   $35,810.1   $46,506.1   $10.696.0    $2.647.6
                                                      2-47

-------
                                                        AIR
                                Mobile Source Air Pollution Control  &  Fuel  Economy
ACTUAL PRES. ENACTED CURRENT
1992 BUDGET 1993 ESTIMATE
1993 1993


(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
REQUEST INCREASE
1994 DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE


INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB


Mobile Source Program
Implementation

Emission Standards,
Technical Assessment &
Characterization

Testing, Technical &
Administrative Support

Emissions & Fuel
Economy Compliance

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS

TOTAL WORKYEARS
Mobile Source Program
Implementation

Emission Standards,
Technical Assessment &
Characterization

Testing, Technical &
Administrative Support

Emissions & Fuel
Economy Compliance

TOTAL UORKYEARS
 15.1
121.2
113.0
 43.9
293.2
 15.6
131.8
118.4
 50.2
316.0
 52.4
146.9
104.2
 47.7
351.2
 52.4
146.9
104.2
 47.7
351.2
 52.1
148.4
                        104.2
 47.7
352.4
 52.1
148.4
104.2
 47.7
352.4
                                     51.6
                                    146.9
                        103.2
                                     47.2
                                    348.9
                                     51.6
                                    146.9
103.2
                                    47.2
348.9
                                     50.8
                                    143.7
                                                101.1
                                     46.5
                                    342.1
                                     50.8
                                    143.7
                                                101.1
                                    46.5
                                                                                 342.1
-8
•3.2
•2.1
-7
6.8
-8
3.2
2.1
-7
6.8
-1.6
-3.2
-3.1
-1.2
-9.1
-1.6
-3.2
-3.1
-1.2
-9.1
                                                       2-48

-------
                                      AIR


             Mobile Source Air Pollution Control and Fuel Economy

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $46,506,100  supported by  342.1 total
workyears for 1994, an increase of $10,696,000 and a decrease of 6.8 workyears
from 1993.   Of  the request, $21,348,200 will be  for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $25,157,900 will be for the  Abatement, Control and
Compliance  appropriation.   This represents  an  increase of  $2,197,500  in the
Program and Research Operations appropriation and an increase of $8,498,500 in
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1994 the Agency expects to collect $10,300,000 in  fees from the mobile
source program,  including fuel economy, certification, and recall  (funded in the
mobile source enforcement program) programs.


MOBILE SOURCE PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $2,985,300 supported by 50.8 total workyears
for this  program, of which $2,985,100  will  be for the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation  and  $200  will be  for the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $261,600 in the Program
and Research Operations  appropriation, no change in the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation, and a decrease of 0.8 total workyears.  The increase
reflects increased workforce costs and the decrease  in workyears  is a result of
the government-wide reduction  in  workyears that is part of the President's
program to reduce the size and cost of government.

      In 1994 the Regional program will continue to  provide policy guidance and
technical support to states developing and implementing I/M programs as part of
their SIPs.  Approximately 38 SIPs will  need to be reviewed and approved.  The
Regional program will continue to provide guidance in the development of mobile
source emissions  inventories,  transportation control measures,  and conformity
determinations.  They also will continue to support the states in the development
and implementation of other programs mandated by the CAAA.

      EPA Regional offices will provide  technical guidance to those states and
localities that are required under  the CAAA to implement new or enhanced vehicle
I/M programs.  In 1994 an additional 22 cities and areas,  which do not currently
have new basic inspection programs, will be required  by the CAAA to implement the
new program, and approximately 75 existing basic areas will need  to upgrade I/M
programs to meet  the new I/M rule  requirements.  The Regions will continue to
review  program  proposals and  implementation  plans  and  provide  appropriate
guidance.
                                     2-49

-------
1993 Program

      The Agency  is  allocating a total of $2,723,700  supported by 51.6 total
workyears for this program, of which $2,723,500 is from the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $200 is from  the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      In 1993 the Regional program will continue  to provide policy guidance and
technical  support to  states  developing  and  implementing  motor  vehicle  I/M
programs as part of their SIPs.  The Regions will continue to provide guidance
in the development of mobile source emissions inventories, transportation control
measures, and conformity determinations.  They also will continue to support the
states in the development and implementation of other programs mandated by the
CAAA, including the oxygenated  fuels and clean fuel fleet programs.  The Regions
will continue to review program proposals and implementation plans and provide
appropriate  guidance.   The  Regions will  continue  to audit  individual state
programs and make determinations as to consistency with implementation plans and
program effectiveness.  The Regional program will support  compliance monitoring
of the enhanced I/M program implementation.  In 1993 an additional 51 cities and
areas, which do  not  currently  have existing  or basic inspection programs,  are
required by the CAAA to implement the new program.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency obligated a total of $769,200 supported by 15.6  total workyears
for this program, all of which was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

      The  Regional program provided policy guidance  and  technical support to
states developing  and implementing motor vehicle  I/M programs as part of their
SIPs.   The  Regions  provided  guidance in the  development  of  mobile  source
emissions   inventories,   transportation  control   measures,   and  conformity
determinations.    They  also  supported the  states  in  the development  and
implementation of other programs mandated by  the  CAAA,  including the oxygenated
fuels and clean fuel fleet programs.  The Regions reviewed  program proposals and
implementation plans and provided appropriate guidance.   The Regions  audited
individual  state  programs  and  made  determinations  as  to  consistency with
implementation plans  and  program effectiveness.


EMISSION STANDARDS.  TECHNICAL  ASSESSMENT  AND CHARACTERIZATION

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency  requests a  total  of $22,926,800  supported  by  143.7 total
workyears  for this program, of  which $9,085,800 will be for the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and  $13,841,000  will be  for the Abatement,
Control and  Compliance  appropriation.   This represents an increase of $908,900
in the  Program  and  Research Operations appropriation,  and  an  increase of
$1,060,100 in the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation, and a decrease
of 3.2  total workyears.   The increases reflect  additional workforce costs and
additional resources for implementation of enhanced inspection/maintenance (I/M)

                                      2-50

-------
programs.  The decrease in workyears is a result of the government-wide reduction
in workyears that is part of the President's program to reduce the size and cost
of government.

       In 1994 the Agency will continue regulatory work with the revision of motor
vehicle and fuel standards that are already in place, and the development of new
programs  to address  persistent  air  quality problems.   EPA  will  promulgate
emissions standards for motor vehicles fueled with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
and Liquefied Petroleum Gases  (LPG), emission control standards  for  designated
non-road engines, and methanol test procedures, and will propose non-road marine
standards.   EPA will also  promulgate  standards  and  sale requirements  for  the
California  pilot program,  conversion standards  for the clean fuel fleets,  and
final  standards  for the reformulated gasoline/complex model  in response to  the
mandates of the  Clean Air Act  Amendments of 1990  (CAAA).

       The  emission factor  program will continue  its efforts  to  improve  the
availability  of data on the  contributions of  mobile sources  to  air  quality
problems by focusing work on assessing the potential impact of new clean vehicles
and  fuels,  and on non-road sources.   This program  collects data  from  in-use
vehicles to assess the impact on emissions  from using oxygenated fuels and other
fuels  that have  been  reformulated to  be  less  polluting.   The program also
collects emissions data from in-use vehicles representing the new technologies
required to meet the more  stringent emission standards  mandated by the  CAAA.
Work will continue to refine air quality projections and update the mobile source
air quality model, MOBILEX.

       The Agency will focus on the  implementation of enhanced I/M programs  and
will continue  to review state  implementation plans  (SIPs).  EPA will  provide
technical  support  to  states and  local  agencies  in the  implementation of high
technology-based  I/M  programs and state and  local  clean fuels/vehicles  fleet
programs, including the development of market incentives to provide economically
efficient ways to implement the requirements of  the Clean Air Act.  In 1994, an
additional 22 cities and areas, which do not currently have new basic  inspection
programs,  will  be  required  by the  CAA  to  implement  the  new program,  and
approximately 75 existing basic areas will  need  to upgrade I/M programs  to meet
the new I/M rule requirements.

1993 Program

       The Agency is allocating  a total of  $20,957,800 supported by 146.9 total
workyears for this program,  of  which $8,176,900 is from the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation and  $12,780,900  is  from the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

       In 1993 the mobile source program will  continue to develop the emission
standards  mandated by   the CAAA  (e.g.,  reformulated   gasoline,  unregulated
pollutants, and hydrocarbon  reactivity from clean fuels). The Agency continues
developing test protocols to assess the emission impact  of  new fuels and fuel
additives prior to registration and will promulgate the final rule. As a follow-
on to  the mobile  source air  toxics  study,  required  by the  CAAA  and  to be
published in 1993, EPA is developing emission control strategies for those  air

                                     2-51

-------
toxics from mobile  sources that warrant control.  EPA  will propose emissions
standards for motor vehicles fueled with CNG and LPG.  in addition, the Agency
will promulgate  evaporative emissions  standards for motor  vehicles (running
losses) to control  excessive hydrocarbon emissions  and  will propose emission
control standards for designated non-road engines.

      The emission  factor  program continues its efforts,  at reduced resource
levels, to  improve the  availability  of data  on the contributions  of  mobile
sources to air quality problems  by  focusing work on assessing  the potential
impact of new clean vehicles and fuels.   This program collects data from in-use
vehicles to assess the  impact on emissions from using  oxygenated fuels and other
fuels  that  have  been  reformulated to  be  less  polluting.   The  program also
collects emissions data from in-use vehicles representing the new technologies
required to meet  the  more stringent emission  standards  mandated  by the CAAA.
Work continues to refine  air quality projections and update MOBILEX.  The Agency
is also testing  the extent to  which  light-duty truck controls  last  the full
useful life of the vehicle and new technology developed for heavy-duty vehicles
reduces emissions.

      EPA is developing technical guidelines for the  clean  fuel programs (e.g.,
reformulated gasoline,  fuels and fuel additives, oxygenated and other fuels, and
the California pilot program) at the state and  local level.  The Agency will
propose clean  fuel  vehicle standards  and promulgate  clean fuel  vehicle credit
programs  (for  fleets  and California  programs).    Also,  EPA   will  issue  a
supplemental proposal and promulgate final  standards  for reformulated gasoline.
The enhanced I/M  regulations will be promulgated.  The Agency will continue to
review SIPs and to provide  technical support to states and local agencies in the
implementation of high technology-based I/M programs and state and local clean
fuels/vehicles fleet programs, including the development  of market  incentives to
provide economically efficient  ways to implement the requirements  of the new
CAAA.   Emissions benefits  from these  programs  will depend  largely  on the
effectiveness of  their implementation.

      Congressional Directives.    Congress  has  provided  $550,000  in 1993 for a
high altitude in-use vehicle compliance  program and for a high altitude research
center.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency obligated  a total of  $30,178,000  supported by 131.8 total
workyears  for this program,  of  which  $8,194,100 was  from the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $21,983,900 was from  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1992  the mobile source standards  program emphasized control of ozone
precursors and air  toxics  (e.g., reformulated gasoline, assessing unregulated
pollutants, and characterizing hydrocarbon reactivity from clean  fuels).  As a
result of  regulatory development  work  on  Low  Emissions  Vehicles (LEVs), EPA
proposed clean fuel vehicle credit programs  (for fleets and California programs).
The  emission  factor program focused  on emissions from  in-use  vehicles using
oxygenated fuels, variables related to non-federal test procedure conditions, and

                                     2-52

-------
new technology heavy-duty engines.   In addition, the Agency published a study of
emissions  from non-road vehicles,  showing  that these  sources  account for 18
percent of the existing  inventories  of nitrogen oxides  and volatile organic
compounds  (VOCs).  The Agency continued  the  assessment of emissions performance
of the  in-use fleet  for  updating the  MOBILEX  model used by  state and local
agencies to calculate emissions.

      EPA proposed regulations requiring that all gasoline sold in the nine worst
ozone nonattainment areas be reformulated to be less polluting and published the
final rule for the oxygenated fuel program.  Additionally,  the Agency continued
to work on proposed emissions standards for motor vehicles fueled with CNG and
LPG.   These  rules were  developed  to  supplement  established  standards  for
methanol-fueled vehicles.   The  Agency continued work on a study of  air toxics
related to mobile sources  to determine if additional emission  standards  for non-
criteria  pollutants were needed.   Work continued on rules  to  control excess
evaporative emissions  from  motor vehicles  (running losses),  and on  developing
test protocols to assess  the emission  impact of  new fuels and fuel additives
prior to registration.

      Support  to  implement  and review  SIPs  continued with emphasis  on  I/M
programs  for  in-use vehicles.   The enhanced  I/M regulations  were proposed.
Technical  support was  provided to  state  and  local jurisdictions  enhancing
existing  programs  (approximately  47   programs  in  serious  or  worse  ozone
nonattainment  areas)  or developing  new programs (approximately 64  new basic
programs in moderate pzone nonattainment areas).  In  addition, EPA performed 15
I/M audits.
TESTING. TECHNICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $17,268,500  supported by  101.1 total
workyears  for  this  program, of which $6,378,900  will be for  the  Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and $10,889,600 will be  for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $912,300
in the Program and Research Operations appropriation,  an increase of $7,441,600
in the Abatement, Control  and Compliance  appropriation,  and a decrease of 2.1
total workyears.  The increases reflect increased workyear costs and the  need to
provide laboratory equipment and facilities to implement the  CAAA.  The decrease
in workyears is a result of the government-wide reduction in workyears that is
part of the President's program to reduce the size and cost of government.

      In 1994  this  program will  continue to provide  testing,  technical,  and
administrative support to the operating programs of the Office of Mobile Sources.
Implementation  of new test procedures  resulting  from setting the  standards
mandated by the CAAA will continue.  Testing on in-use vehicles in support of the
emissions factors and recall programs will continue at a reduced level.  EPA will
perform approximately 1,000 in-use tests.  In addition, the Agency will perform
approximately 1,000  certification  and fuel economy tests at the National Vehicle
and Fuels Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) to support the compliance  program.   In

                                     2-53

-------
1994, at least 80% of the new light-duty vehicle  (LDV) fleet will be  certified
in compliance with the new LDV emission standards.  Testing and analysis of fuel
samples collected for enforcement purposes  (including volatility and  oxygenate
control) will  continue.   Additionally,  EPA will  continue to perform tests on
in-use heavy-duty engines to support the implementation and enforcement of the
new standards for these engines.

      New leased office space will be provided to  replace  trailers.  Laboratory
facilities will be expanded  and upgraded.   New equipment will be purchased to
provide testing and  technical  support for the  new  test  requirements for cold
testing, evaporative emissions,  and other mandates of the  CAAA.  These upgrades
will return the NVFEL  to  its place as the  premier vehicle and fuels  emissions
testing facility in the country.

      Activities will continue to provide support for:  automated data processing
(ADP)  timesharing  services,  local  area   networks  (LANs),   laboratory  data
acquisition,  and  computer operations;  testing of  motor vehicles  to measure
emissions  and fuel  economy; quality  assurance  and control  and  correlation
services for  EPA and  industry  testing  programs; maintenance  and  engineering
design of  emission  testing equipment; and  personnel,  safety,  administrative,
environmental compliance, and facilities support services.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating  a  total of  $8,914,600 supported by  103_2 total
workyears for this program, of which $5,466,600 is from the Program Research and
Operations  appropriation  and $3,448,000  is  from the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      In  1993  this  program  continues  providing  testing,  technical,  and
administrative support to the operating programs of the Office of Mobile Sources.
Planning for the implementation of new test procedures resulting from setting the
standards mandated by the CAAA continues.  Testing on in-use vehicles in support
of the emissions factors and recall programs will continue at a reduced level.
EPA will perform approximately 1,200 in-use tests. In addition, the Agency will
perform 800 certification and  fuel economy tests at the  NVFEL to  support the
compliance program as  it  addresses the new standards that  vehicles  must meet
starting in 1993  for model year  1994.   Testing and analysis  of fuel samples
collected for enforcement purposes (including  volatility and oxygenate control)
continues.   Additionally, EPA continues  performing  tests  on in-use heavy-duty
engines to support the implementation and enforcement of the new standards for
these engines.

      General  activities  continue to  provide  support  for:    ADP  timesharing
services, LANs, laboratory data acquisition, and computer operations; testing of
motor vehicles to measure emissions  and fuel economy; quality  assurance and
control  and  correlation  services  for  EPA  and  industry  testing  programs;
maintenance and engineering design of emission testing equipment; and personnel,
safety,  administrative,  environmental  compliance,  and  facilities  support
services.
                                     2-54

-------
1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency obligated a total of $9,943,900 supported by 118.4 total
workyears  for this program,  of which  $8,351,200 was  from the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $1,592,700  was  from the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      This program provided testing,  technical,  and administrative support to
recall, tampering/fuel switching,  standard  setting, emissions characterization,
technology  assessment,  clean  fuels/vehicles,  fuel  economy,   in-use  vehicle
emissions assessment,  certification, and inspection/maintenance.

      Testing support to the certification, fuel economy, and in-use compliance
and assessment programs produced 2,149 tests.  Routine testing and analysis of
approximately  2,500  fuel  samples  collected  in  the  field were  completed to
continue  enforcement   of  fuels regulations  for  volatility  and contaminants.
Correlation programs to maintain equivalent  test procedures between manufacturers
and EPA continued.  Test equipment maintenance, calibration, and repair services
were provided.  The adequacy of existing procedures  and equipment to test newer
technology was  evaluated.   When necessary, new equipment  and  procedures were
designed.

      The Agency provided support to:  ADP timesharing services,  laboratory data
acquisition,  LANs, and computer operations;  quality assurance  and control and
correlation  services  for EPA  and  industry testing  programs;  maintenance and
engineering design of emission testing equipment; environmental compliance, and
facilities support services.
EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY COMPLIANCE

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $3,325,500 supported by 46.5 total workyears
for this  program, of  which  $2,898,400 will be  for the  Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $427,100 will be for  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents an increase of $114,700 in the Program
and Research Operations  appropriation,  a  decrease of $3,200 in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, and a decrease of 0.7 total workyears.  The
increase reflects increased workforce costs and the decreases are a result  of the
government-wide reduction in workyears that is part of the President's program
to reduce the size and cost of government.

      The emissions certification program will expect to oversee more than 100
original equipment  manufacturers and to issue certificates  of compliance for
light-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines, and motorcycles.   In  1994  at least 80%
of the new LDV fleet will be certified in compliance with the new  LDV emission
standards.  Participation in the certification program by importers reselling
vehicles will continue at a stabilized level.  The mobile sources  fees program
will result in estimated  collections of $10.3 million in fees associated with the
issuance of certificates of conformity for motor vehicles and engines.

                                     2-55

-------
      The  in-use  assessment  program will continue to work on the Federal Test
Procedure  (FTP) to  determine if the driving cycles and test parameters  remain
representative  of  in-use conditions.    A  revised  FTP will  be  proposed  if
warranted.   In  addition, rules to  incorporate  into  the FTP an inspection and
maintenance  short test  cycle  to  improve the effectiveness  of inspection and
maintenance programs will be promulgated.

      The  statutory fuel economy  information program will continue to produce
labels, Corporate Average Fuel  Economy (CAFE) calculations, and data for the Gas
Mileage Guide,  in accordance with the revised  CAFE  and fuel economy labeling
requirements.

1993 Program

      The  Agency  is allocating a total  of  $3,214,000  supported  by 47.2 total
workyears for this program, of  which $2,783,700 is from the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation and   $430,300  is   from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The  emissions certification  program  expects to  oversee more  than 100
original equipment  manufacturers  and to  issue  certificates  of compliance for
light-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines,  and motorcycles.  Participation  in the
certification program by importers reselling vehicles is expected to continue at
a stabilized level.  The mobile sources  fees program will collect an estimated
$9,278,600 in fees associated with the issuance of certificates of conformity for
motor vehicles and engines.

      The in-use assessment program  continues working on the  FTP to determine if
the  driving  cycles  and test parameters   remain  representative  of   in-use
conditions.  The Agency will publish the FTP study and make the determination on
whether the FTP should be revised.  In addition, rules to incorporate into the
FTP an inspection and maintenance  short test  cycle to improve the effectiveness
of inspection and maintenance programs will be proposed.  New requirements for
on-board diagnostic systems will be promulgated.

      The statutory fuel economy information program continues producing labels,
CAFE calculations,  and  data  for the Gas  Mileage Guide,  in accordance with the
revised CAFE and  fuel economy labeling requirements.   EPA  will  promulgate
revisions  to  light-duty  durability  procedures.    Revisions  will  include
improvements  to the  current mileage  accumulation cycle  and provisions  for
alternative accelerated durability procedures.

1992 Accomplishments

      The  Agency  obligated  a  total  of  $3,356,000  supported  by 50.2  total
workyears  for  this  program,  of  which  $3,128,900 was  from the Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $227,100  was  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      Work continued  on suspected problems  with manufacturers' use  of defeat
devices.    The  emissions certification program  assessed  the  validity  of

                                     2-56

-------
applications  for certification  of  100 original  equipment manufacturers  of
light-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines, and motorcycles.  Reforms implemented
during  the  last  several  years,  including  abbreviation  of  certification
procedures, revision of the application format, and computerization of much of
the data communication between EPA and manufacturers, has eased EPA's workload
and reduced the  burden on manufacturers.   Participation in the certification
program by independent commercial importers (ICIs) has stabilized.  EPA issued
56  certificates  of  conformity  to  ICIs.    Certification  engineering  review
continued  to  deter  the  production  of  vehicle  designs  incapable  of  meeting
emission standards.   The  mobile sources  fees program collected $851,300 in fees
associated with the issuance of certificates of conformity for motor vehicles and
engines.

      New standards  for carbon monoxide emissions in cold ambient conditions were
promulgated.  In addition, the rule to implement the mobile  source fees program
was promulgated.   Light-duty durability procedures revisions were promulgated.
The statutory  fuel   economy  information program was  carried out,  with  1,522
labels, 32 CAFE calculations, and data for the Gas Mileage Guide.
                                     2-57

-------
co
in
 I
CM

-------
                                                        AIR
                               Resource Assistance For State, Local & Tribal Agencies

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REG     1994 REQ
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Resource Assistance For
State, Local, and
Tribal Agencies
 Abatement Control and       $163,818.9  $174,550.0  $176.171.7  $174.588.6  $172.888.6   -$1,700.0   -$1,661.4
 Compliance
                       TOTAL $163,818.9  $174,550.0  $176,171.7  $174.588.6  $172.888.6   -$1.700.0   -$1.661.4

Training
 Program & Research              $293.8
  Operat i ons
                       TOTAL     $293.8


TOTAL:
 Program & Research              $293.8
  Operations
 Abatement Control and       $163,818.9  $174,550.0  $176,171.7  $174,588.6  $172,888.6   -$1,700.0   -$1,661.4
 Compliance

Resource Assistance    TOTAL $164,112.7  $174,550.0  $176,171.7  $174,588.6  $172,888.6   -$1,700.0   -$1,661.4
For State. Local and
Tribal Agencies


PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Training                            4.0

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS           4.0


TOTAL UORKYEARS
Training                            4.1

TOTAL UORKYEARS                     4.1
                                                       2-59

-------
                                      AIR
           Resource Assistance for State, Local and Tribal Agencies

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of  $172,888,600  supported by no workyears for
1994, a  decrease  of  $1,700,000 and no change in  workyears from 1993.   of the
request,  $172,888,600  will  be  for  the  Abatement,   Control   and  Compliance
appropriation.   This represents  a decrease of  $1,700,000  in  the Abatement,
Control  and Compliance appropriation.


RESOURCE ASSISTANCE FOR STATE. LOCAL AND TRIBAL AGENCIES

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of  $172,888,600  all  of which   will be for the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an decrease of
$1,700,000 which will reduce the Agency's efforts in PM-10 SIP development and
regional ozone modeling, and the initiation of state air permit fee programs.

      In 1994 the  multi-state,  state, local and tribal agencies will continue to
play a primary role in implementing the new Clean  Air Act amendments.  EPA will
support  these  efforts through grants awarded  under authorities  provided  by
sections 103, 105, 106 and 112 of the Act.  The agencies will continue efforts
to attain the ozone NAAQSs, giving priority to completing and  submitting revised
SIPs with attainment  demonstrations  due in November 1994.   The agencies will
develop and submit SIP revisions to account  for 15 percent reductions in volatile
organic compounds  (VOCs).  The agencies will also  continue to develop projected
attainment  year  inventories  and  develop  and  implement  programs  to  track
reasonable further progress  (RFP)  and to provide for the  annual  reporting of
emission statements by source operators.

      State and local agencies will focus on implementation of regulations for
both stationary and  mobile sources.   These  include  inspection  and compliance
activities for Class A  and Class B VOC sources and  nitrogen oxides  sources.
Upgrading and  replacing ozone and carbon  monoxide  monitoring networks will
continue.   Activities in  the Northeast resulting  from establishment of  the
Northeast Transport Commission and the follow-on efforts of the regional ozone
modeling efforts  (ROMNET) will continue.  Programs for enhanced ozone sampling
and for long-term  sampling of ozone precursors will continue.  State and local
agencies will continue to implement programs for assessing and reducing exposure
to air toxics.  Efforts associated with the air toxics early reduction program
will continue including the  review and processing of permit  applications from
candidate sources.   PM-10  SIP development activities will continue  for  areas
designated  as  "serious"   nonattainment   areas  and  for   newly  designated
nonattainment areas.   Quality assurance and quality control efforts relating to
emissions inventories for ozone, carbon monoxide,  and PM-10 will continue.
                                     2-60

-------
      State and local agencies will continue to develop and begin implementation
of operating permit program requirements for major sources of criteria pollutants
and air toxics. Operating permit program activities will be continued to provide
for review of submitted permit programs, implementation of approved programs and
support  for  development of  programs in  states  where programs  have not  been
submitted. Outreach and training programs for states developing and implementing
permit  programs will  be  provided.   Acid rain program  development will  also
continue.  States will continue to operate sulfur  dioxide  and  PM-10 monitoring
networks and inspect major sulfur  dioxide and PM-10 sources.   State prevention
of significant deterioration  and new  source review programs will  also  continue
as well as continued  support for  Indian tribes.   Support will continue  for
visibility monitoring  in  Class  I  areas  and  for  the Grand  Canyon  Visibility
Commission .   Support will also continue for upgrading existing  air pollution
control  training courses  with an  emphasis  on  providing  delivery of  courses
addressing the  new  Clean Air  Act  needs and requirements.  Studies  and  control
strategy planning will continue to address the U.S.-Mexico border  air  quality
problem.  Efforts are continued at the state level to provide for staff training,
inspection, and outreach to address stratospheric  ozone depletion.   States  and
selected local agencies will provide technical assistance and guidance to small
manufacturing  and  business   establishments  that  may  be  affected   by   the
requirements of the new Clean Air  Act.

1993 Program

      In 1993 the Agency is allocating a total of $174,588,600  all of which will
be from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.  These resources  are
supporting implementation  of   new  or  expanded  Clean Air  Act  requirements  for
operating permit  programs, mobile source controls,  small  business technical
assistance, early reductions  activities,  market-based approaches, phase-out of
chlorofluorocarbons, and enhanced  ozone monitoring networks.

      In 1993 the state and local  agencies continue  to  play a primary  role in
implementing the new Clean Air Act amendments.   State  and local agencies  are
continuing efforts  to  attain the  ozone  and carbon  monoxide  NAAQSs,  giving
priority  to  completing and  submitting  revised  Ozone  SIPs   with  attainment
demonstrations.  The agencies are developing and  submitting  SIP revisions to
account  for   15 percent  reductions  in  volatile  organic compounds   (VOCs).
Activities in  the  Northeast   resulting  from establishment  of  the Northeast
Transport Commission continue and  the follow-on  efforts of the regional ozone
modeling efforts  (ROMNET)  are being completed.   States are  also  developing
projected attainment year inventories and developing and implementing programs
to track reasonable further progress  (RFP) and to provide for source operators
to submit annual emission statements.

      State and local agencies are adopting and implementing regulations for both
stationary and mobile sources.  These new regulations are  resulting in inspection
and compliance activities for  Class A and Class B VOC sources and nitrogen oxides
sources.  Ozone and carbon monoxide monitoring networks  continue to be upgraded
and obsolete  equipment replaced.  Enhanced ozone sampling networks and networks
for long-term sampling of  ozone precursors are being established.   State and
local agencies are implementing programs for assessing and reducing  exposure to

                                     2-61

-------
air toxics.  Efforts associated with the air toxics early reduction program have
expanded  and include the  review and  processing  of permit  applications from
candidate  sources.   PM-10  SIP  development  activities   continue   for  areas
designated  as  "serious" nonattainment areas.   States are  providing quality
assurance and quality  control reviews of emissions inventories for ozone, carbon
monoxide, and PM-10.

      State and local  agencies continue to develop operating permit programs for
major sources of criteria pollutants and air toxics.  Operating permit program
activities have expanded to provide for development of approvable interim permit
programs and outreach and training programs.  The development  of state acid rain
programs continue.  States continue to operate and maintain sulfur dioxide and
PM-10 monitoring  networks  and operate quality assurance  and quality control
programs  for these networks.   States  continue to maintain  the  prevention of
significant  deterioration  and new source  review programs as well  as provide
support for Indian tribes.   Support  is  being provided for visibility monitoring
in Class I areas and for the Grand Canyon Visibility  Commission.  The upgrading
of existing  air pollution  control training courses and the development of new
courses addressing the new Clean Air Act needs and requirements is in  the third
year of a three-year effort.  New efforts have been initiated  at the state level
to provide for  staff training, inspection,  and outreach  to address stratospheric
ozone depletion.  States and selected local agencies are initiating new programs
to provide technical assistance and guidance to small manufacturing and business
establishments that may  be  affected by the  requirements  of the new Clean Air Act.
Studies and control strategy planning are  being expanded to further address the
U.S.-Mexico border air quality problem.

      Congressional Directives.   A total of $1,700,000 is being provided for two
special  projects:   A  PM-10  ambient  air  quality  study  in  Central Valley,
California and additional  funding for  the Northeast  States for Coordinated Air
Use Management  (NESCAUM) for interstate pollution  control  and ozone reduction.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency allocated a total of $163,818,900 all of which was from
the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.

      In 1992 the control agency support program focused on implementation of the
requirements contained in the new Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.  A principal
portion of that effort was the development  and  implementation of strategies to
attain NAAQSs for ozone and carbon monoxide.  Base year  emissions  inventories in
ozone and carbon  monoxide  nonattainment areas were developed and updated with
particular emphasis on expanding the inventories to include small point sources
and  source category tracking requirements.   Included  in  this effort were the
initial  efforts at developing projection year  inventories for ozone.   States
adopted and implemented additional stationary  and mobile source control programs
in  1992,  including reasonably available control technology (RACT) for existing
and  new  VOC stationary sources  and  enhanced  vehicle inspection/maintenance
programs.   States also  continued their efforts  in evaluating the effectiveness
of  current VOC control  programs in order  to better  account for  the overall
reductions in emissions.   The Northeast Transport Commission  was established to

                                     2-62

-------
oversee and coordinate efforts to further identify ozone transport and to assess
control options  for the  northeast areas.   Ozone  and  carbon monoxide monitoring
networks  were upgraded  and  expanded  and  obsolete  monitors  continued to  be
replaced.  Initial design and planning efforts for  the enhanced ozone/precursor
networks were completed.   Both the inspection and compliance level of Class A and
B VOC sources continued  to  improve  in  1992.

      State and  local agencies  continued development of programs for assessing
and reducing exposure to air toxics and developed strategies  for achieving both
near-term  and  long-term  air toxic reductions.  States developed demonstration
programs to  incorporate  market based  incentive  programs  to  aid in  compliance
efforts  associated with  smaller  toxic point  and  area sources.   States  also
continued  development and upgrading of their air toxics programs to  provide for
the implementation of the hazardous air pollutant provisions of the Clean Air Act
amendments.  States also  developed and implemented the air toxics Early Reduction
Program.   Inspection  and  compliance  activities  associated with  sources  of
hazardous  emissions expanded.   Initial development of an urban air  monitoring
network began in 1992.   States  continued  their efforts in developing operating
permit programs.

      States  prepared and  submitted  required  SIPs  for  areas designated  as
nonattainment  for  PM-10.  In addition,  states  updated and  performing  quality
assurance  reviews of emissions inventories associated with these SIPs.   Efforts
continued  by  the states  to achieve and  maintain  the NAAQS  for  lead  through
coordinated activities that  addressed  source inspections, monitoring,  and  SIP
planning.  States  continued to  expand  staff capabilities to better  coordinate
acid rain  activities with EPA and provided review  and verification of  utility
data.  States continued to operate sulfur dioxide and PM-10 monitoring networks
and  inspect  major  sulfur dioxide  and  PM-10  sources.   State prevention  of
significant deterioration and new  source review programs also continued.  Support
for Indian tribes  increased  to  allow for identification  and  assessment of  air
quality problems on Indian lands.

      Increased support was  provided for expanding visibility  monitoring  in both
the northeast and western Class  I  areas.  The Grand Canyon Visibility  Commission
was established  to  coordinate  efforts  by those  affected  states  to  address
visibility problems in the Grand  Canyon.   Resources were directed specifically
to assessing the  air quality problems associated with the U.S.-Mexico  border and
to the development of control strategies to address these problems.  Existing air
pollution training courses were upgraded and new  courses are being developed to
addressing the  needs and requirements  stipulated  in the new Clean Air Act
amendments.

      Congressional Directives;   A  total  of $2,074,900 was provided for three
special projects:  Northeast interstate nonattainment and visibility problems,
the South  Coast  Air Quality  Management District's  alternative fuels options
demonstration project, and a small business technical assistance program.
                                     2-63

-------
TRAINING

1994 Program Request

      This program does not exist in FY 1994.

1993 Program

      The  Agency request  for this  program is  included  under  State Program
Guidelines and Air Standards Development.

1992 Accomplishments                     x

      THe Agency allocated a total of $293,800,  supported by 4.1 total workyears
to this program, all of which  was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

      In 1992, the Agency trained and provided self-instructional materials to
persons involved  in  air pollution  control  at the state and  local  level.   The
program developed and  revised short  courses  to  address the  Clean Air  Act
Amendments of 1990.  Some technical  support  was also provided to the states and
Regions for specialty workshops and training courses.
                                     2-64

-------
                                                        AIR
                                      Air Quality Management Implementation
ACTUAL
1992
PRES.
BUDGET
1993
ENACTED CURRENT REQUEST
1993 ESTIMATE 1994
1993
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Air Quality Management
Implementation
Program & Research $18,470.9
Operations
Abatement Control and $1,167.6
Compliance
TOTAL $19,638.5
$21,590.3
$322.9
$21,913.2
$22,271.6 $22,191.9 $22,841.0
$936.9 $963.7 $357.3
$23,208.5 $23,155.6 $23,198.3
$649.1
-$606.4
$42.7
$1,250.7
$34.4
$1,285.1
TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $18,470.9   $21,590.3   $22,271.6   $22,191.9   $22,841.0      $649.1    $1,250.7
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $1,167.6      $322.9      $936.9      $963.7      $357.3     -$606.4       $34.4
 Compliance

Air Quality Management TOTAL  $19,638.5   $21,913.2   $23,208.5   $23,155.6   $23,198.3       $42.7    $1,285.1
Implementation


PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Air Quality Management
Implementation
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS
327.0 394.2 398.7 394.8 388.7 -6.1 -5.5
327.0 394.2 398.7 394.8 388.7 -6.1 -5.5

Air Quality Management            341.2       394.2       398.7      394.8       388.7         -6.1        -5.5
Implementation

TOTAL UORKYEARS                   341.2       394.2       398.7      394.8       388.7         -6.1        -5.5
                                                       2-65

-------
                                      AIR
                     Air Quality Management Implementation
Budget Request
      The  Agency requests  a total  of $23,198,300  supported by  388.7 total
workyears for 1994, an increase of $42,700 and a decrease of 6.1 workyears due
to  the Administration's  government streamlining  efforts.    Of  the request,
$22,841,000  will be for the Program and Research Operations appropriation and
$357,300 will be for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.  This
represents an increase in the Program and Research Operations appropriation of
$649,100 due to increased  workforce costs and  a  decrease  in  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation of $606,400.
AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $23,198,300  supported  by  388.7  total
workyears  for this  program,  of which $22,841,000 will be  for  the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $357,300 will be for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $649,100 for the
Program and  Research  Operations appropriation to reflect  increased workforce
costs  and  a decrease  of  $606,400  in the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
Appropriation.    The  decrease  of   6.1  total  workyears  is  a  result of  the
government-wide reduction in workyears that is part of the President's program
to reduce the size and cost of government.

      In 1994 the Regional  air quality management program  will continue to focus
on providing assistance to the states in developing ozone state implementation
plans (SIPs)  to implement the many  requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments
of 1990.   The  Regions will oversee the development of  plans  to  achieve a 15
percent reduction in volatile organic compounds (VOCs),  data bases and control
strategies needed to demonstrate attainment and the development of SIP revisions,
and state programs  for the reporting of annual emission statements by operators
of sources of VOCs  and nitrogen oxides.   During 1994 the  Regions will review
state submitted regulatory changes for approvability.

      Regional Offices will  also provide  assistance  and  guidance  to states in
developing processes and methods to allow for the  periodic updating  (every three
years) of emissions  inventory data for ozone, carbon monoxide, and size-specific
particulate matter (PM-10).  In order to provide the capability to track actual
emissions reductions and to verify the states' reasonable  further progress (RFP)
requirements, efforts  will be directed at development and implementation of RFP
tracking systems.
                                     2-66

-------
      Requirements for PM-10 will focus on developing attainment demonstrations
in areas classified as "serious."  Assistance will be provided to state and local
agencies in developing regulations to implement best available control measures
(BACM) for PM-10 sources.

      Regions will continue efforts to help  states to remove sulfur dioxide SIP
deficiencies in  order to provide  a compliance  base for  sources  applying for
operating permits.

      States must establish operating permit program requirements for all major
stationary sources.  Regional Offices will be required to provide assistance and
guidance to states as they develop and implement operating permit programs.  As
permit programs  are  submitted  by the states,  Regional  Offices will review the
acceptability  of permit  programs and  take rulemaking action  to  approve  or
disapprove them.  Regional Offices will also develop and  implement audit programs
to oversee state permitting activities.

      During 1994 EPA Regions  will integrate  the  administration of toxics and
permits programs since operating  permit program applies  to  sources of air toxics
as well  as  sources of the criteria pollutants.   With  an  expanded  universe of
sources to permit and provisions and stipulations in the Clean Air Act that allow
toxic  sources  to  seek  early reductions  in emissions, Regional Offices  will
provide review of  these  toxic  source requests and assess  alternate compliance
programs for sources. Efforts  will also be continued in support of an air toxic
deposition study in the Great Lakes.

      Regions will provide guidance and support to states  in establishing small
business technical assistance programs.  Efforts will also continue to assess air
quality and emissions along the U.S. - Mexico border and begin to develop shared
control strategy responsibilities.

1993 Program

      In 1993 the Agency  is allocating a total  of $23,155,600 supported by 394.8
total workyears to this  program,  of which $22,191,900  is  from the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $963,700  is from the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993 the Regional air  quality management program  continues to focus on
providing assistance to the states in developing ozone/carbon monoxide SIPs to
implement the many requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.  These
requirements  include developing  and  adopting  reasonably  available  control
technology  (RACT)  regulations  for  newly  designated  nonattainment  areas,
completing the correction to RACT regulations in existing nonattainment areas,
completing base year emission inventories to reflect 1990 emissions and expanding
inventories to include additional sources based upon the requirements stipulated
by the area's classification (i.e. moderate, serious, severe or extreme).   The
Regions are working with  the  states to develop emission  inventory data bases and
control  strategies  that are needed to demonstrate  attainment.    Regions  are
providing assistance in  the  development of  SIP revisions  and programs for the
submission of  annual emission  statements  by operators of sources  of VOCs and

                                     2-67

-------
nitrogen oxides.   Regions are also  performing  detailed reviews  of  base year
inventories and continue to expand programs to quality assure critical inventory
components.    State  submitted  regulatory  changes  are  being  reviewed  for
approvab i1ity.

      Regional Offices are also providing assistance and guidance to states in
developing processes and methods to allow for the periodic updating (every three
years) of emissions  inventory  data for  ozone, carbon monoxide,  and  PM-10.   In
order to  provide the capability to  track actual  emissions reductions  and to
verify the  states'  RFP requirements, Regional  efforts are being directed at
development and implementation of RFP tracking systems.

      Assistance  is  being provided  to state and  local  agencies in  developing
regulations to implement reasonably available control measures  (RACMs) for PM-10
sources and for the development of SIP revisions for lead. Regions are reviewing
PM-10 and lead SIP revisions  and  preparing rulemaking packages addressing these
SIP revisions.

      Regions  are expanding  efforts  to help states  remove  sulfur dioxide SIP
deficiencies  in order to provide a  compliance  base for sources  applying for
operating permits under the soon to be implemented permit programs.

       Under the permit programs, states must establish  operating permit program
requirements for  all major stationary sources.  Regional Offices are providing
assistance and guidance to states as they develop and implement operating permit
programs.  A  number  of  states  do not have sufficient legislative authority to
meet all the requirements  of the operating permit program as defined in the Clean
Air Act  Amendments of 1990 Regional Offices are  working with these states to
review legislative authorities  and provide assistance in assuring state law meets
the  legal requirements of  the operating  permit  program.   As  interim permit
programs are  developed  by the  states,  Regional  Offices are reviewing them for
acceptability.  Regional offices are also reviewing  source permits issued under
such programs.   Regional  Offices are beginning  to develop and implement audit
programs to oversee  state permitting activities.

      Regional offices are integrating the administration of toxics and permits
programs since operating permit program  applies to sources of air toxics as well
as sources of the criteria pollutants.  With an  expanded universe  of  sources to
permit and  provisions and stipulations in the Clean Air Act  that allow toxic
sources  to  seek early reductions in emissions,  Regional Offices are providing
expanded  review  of  these toxic source  requests  and  are  assessing alternate
compliance  programs for  these sources.   Efforts are  also being expanded to
support  an air toxic deposition  study in  the Great Lakes.

      Regions  are providing guidance and support to states in establishing small
business technical assistance programs.  Efforts are  being expended to assess air
quality  and emissions along the  U.S.  -  Mexico border and begin  the development
of shared control strategy responsibilities.
                                      2-68

-------
      Congressional Directives;  In 1993 a total of $600,000 is being provided
to fund an alternate fuels demonstration project for the South Coast Air Quality
Management District.

1992 Accomplishments

      In  1992 the  Agency allocated a total of  $19,638,500 supported by 341.2
total workyears to this program,  of which  $18,470,900  was  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $1,167,600 was  from the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1992 Regions were involved in implementing the requirements of the Clean
Air Act Amendments of 1990.   Guidance and  assistance was provided to the states
in a number of areas including emissions inventory quality  assurance and quality
control, correction of existing VOC stationary source regulations, and procedures
and  techniques  for  determining  required  emission reductions.   Additionally,
Regions also provided assistance in evaluating and selecting control measures,
and preparing attainment demonstrations.  Many  of  the state and local control
regulations were reviewed for effectiveness.

      Regions reviewed state submitted SIPs  and  rulemakings were initiated as a
result of  these reviews.  SIP  revisions  reviewed included VOC rule correction
revisions and PM-10 SIPs for moderate nonattainment areas.   Regions continued to
work  closely with  state agencies  regarding  emissions inventory  management.
Regions  provided  quality  assure  guidance to  states  and  worked   to  ensure
correction  of identified deficiencies  in the  various state  submitted  draft
inventories prior to their formal submission.   Guidance was provided to states
for VOC and PM-10 emissions inventories.  Regions provided assistance in refining
base year inventories,  tracking RFP requirements  and completing projection year
inventories.   Follow-on activities  regarding  regional transport work  in  the
northeast  continued along  with  the  establishment  of  the Northeast  Transport
Commission.   Regions  provided  guidance and  assistance to  states for  the
development and submission of SIPs for PM-10 nonattainment areas designated as
"serious."   Technical  assistance and support  was provided to  state  and local
governments  regarding  the  development and implementation of operating  permit
programs  for  both  criteria  pollutants and air toxics.  Regions  also provided
assistance   in   reviewing   existing   state   legal   authorities  needed   for
implementation of the operating permit program.  Regions provided guidance and
oversight  to states as  they developed  their  early reduction  toxic  programs.
Regions provided support to state and local programs to control air toxics under
the new Act,  as  well as supporting state efforts to  mitigate  high-risk urban
impacts.  Efforts were  initiated  this year to study air toxic deposition in the
Great Lakes.  Assistance was also  provided  in  revising sulfur  dioxide SIPs to
ensure compliance with  the integrated sulfur dioxide program.  A number of other
ongoing air quality management activities continued including review/oversight
of  the  air  grants process, providing  support  to  Indian tribes,  supporting
litigation activities,  and  supporting state  new  source review and prevention of
deterioration programs.

      Congressional Directives;  In 1992  a total  of $600,000 was provided for a
multi-year study on high  risk pollution in the Baton Rouge/New Orleans  corridor.

                                     2-69

-------
(O
 I

-------
                                                        AIR
                                       Trends  Monitoring &  Progress Assessment

ACTUAL PRES.
1992 BUDGET
1993
ENACTED CURRENT
1993 ESTIMATE
1993
REQUEST INCREASE
1994 DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Ambient Air Quality
Monitoring
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
$4,655.0 $5,219.6
$96.7 $122.8
$4,751.7 $5,342.4
$5,136.2 $5,136.2
$188.5 $198.8
$5,324.7 $5,335.0
$5,447.3 $311.1
$198.8
$5,646.1 $311.1
$227.7
$76.0
$303.7
Air Quality &  Emission
Data Management &
Analysis
  Program & Research            $6,809.3    $7,895.0    $7,091.7    $7,071.6    $6,955.5     -$116.1     -$939.5
  Operations
  Abatement Control and        $23,092.9   $26,398.4   $19,160.1   $19,256.2   $19,875.6      $619.4   -$6,522.8
  Compliance
                       TOTAL  $29,902.2   $34,293.4   $26,251.8   $26,327.8   $26,831.1      $503.3   -$7.462.3


TOTAL:
  Program & Research           $11,464.3   $13,114.6   $12,227.9   $12,207.8   $12,402.8      $195.0     -$711.8
  Operations
  Abatement Control and        $23,189.6   $26,521.2   $19,348.6   $19,455.0   $20,074.4      $619.4   -$6,446.8
  Compliance

Trends Monitoring &    TOTAL  $34,653.9   $39,635.8   $31,576.5   $31,662.8   $32,477.2      $814.4   -$7,158.6
Progress Assessment

PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Ambient Air
Monitoring
kir Quality
Quality
& Emission
82
104
.5
.9
95
115
.3
.8
95.1
111.2
94.1
110.1
92
108
.7
.5
-1.4
-1.6
-2.6
-7.3
Data Management &
Analysis

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         187.4       211.1       206.3       204.2       201.2        -3.0        -9.9


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Ambient Air Quality                88.2        95.3        95.1        94.1        92.7        -1.4        -2.6
Monitoring

Air Quality & Emission            108.3       115.8       111.2       110.1       108.5        -1.6        -7.3
Data Management &
Analysis

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   196.5       211.1       206.3       204.2       201.2        -3.0        -9.9



                                                       2-71

-------
                                    AIR
                  Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $32,477,200  supported by  201.2 total
workyears for 1994,  an increase  of  $814,400 and a decrease of  3.0 workyears  from
1993.   The decrease  in workyears  is a result of the government-wide reduction
in workyears that is part of the President's program to reduce the size  and  cost
of government.  Of the request,  $12,402,800 will be for the Program  and  Research
Operations appropriation and $20,074,400 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance  appropriation.    This   represents  an increase  in the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation  of $195,000 due to increased workforce costs
and  an  increase  of  $619,400  in  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $5,646,100 supported by 92.7 total workyears
for this  program,  of which  $5,447,300 will be  for the  Program  and Research
Operations appropriation and $198,800 will be for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.    This  represents an  increase  of $311,100  for the
Program and Research Operations appropriation for increased workforce costs, no
change in the Abatement,  Control and Compliance Appropriation, and a decrease of
1.4 total workyears which  is a  result of  the  government-wide  reduction in
workyears that is part of the President's program to reduce the  size and cost of
government.

      In 1994 the ten EPA Regional Offices will  continue  overview and management
of  state  air  monitoring programs  including grants  review,   coordination of
emission and air quality  data bases, and validation of data from  the National Air
Monitoring System (NAMS) and the State and Local Air Monitoring System (SLAMS)
data base.   Data  analyses  including  air quality  trend  information will be
developed as input to the Regional Trend Reports.

      In the area of quality assurance, significant resources will be used for
on-site systems audits of state networks and monitors.  In addition, the Regional
laboratories will continue to  participate in the national  air audit program.
Size-specific particulate matter  (PM-10) monitors established  or  moved during
1993 will  require review and  site visits to  verify  compliance with EPA air
monitoring regulations.  Reviews  of  PM-10  ambient data  and sampling frequency
will be performed and will include data critical  to classification determinations
and identification of possible control strategies. The Regions  will continue to
provide quality assurance support  to  Indian  tribal  units and  to  assist in
developing ambient monitoring programs.
                                     2-72

-------
      Technical  oversight  and  support will  be provided  to  state  and  local
programs  in  refining  and  validating data  bases  needed  to  prepare  state
implementation plans  (SIPs) for 97 ozone  areas  and 42 carbon monoxide  areas.
Support to the upgrading of  the ambient networks for these areas will be expanded
with  special  emphasis on planning and implementing enhancements to ozone  and
precursor networks  in areas classified as "serious,"  "severe" and  "extreme."
Efforts for 1994  will  focus  on assisting state and local agencies in establishing
the second  sites in each area, providing  consultation on the acquisition  and
operation of state-of-the-art equipment for sampling volatile organic  compounds,
assisting in the  refinement  of quality assurance programs, and fostering programs
to analyze  ambient precursor data.

      The Agency's toxic  monitoring program will continue with  support to  pilot
programs for  organics,  support to other state  and  local  sampling on methods,
siting and quality assurance, and support  to control agencies in evaluating  the
impact of specific toxic  emission sources and refining toxic emission data bases.
Support will  also be given to new Agency  efforts  to establish ambient toxics
sampling in the vicinity of the Great Lakes and other major boundary waters.  To
address key requirements of section 815 of  the 1990 Amendments,  the Regions will
expand their support to ambient sampling programs along the U.S. - Mexico border.
Support will  be provided  in several  border areas  and will  focus on network
planning, program oversight,  and providing guidance to Mexican environmental
staff.

1993  Program

      In 1993 the Agency is allocating a total of $5,335,000 supported by 94.1
total workyears  for this program, of which $5,136,200 will be  from the Program
and Research Operations  appropriation  and  $198,800 will be from the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993 the ten  EPA Regional Offices will  continue overview and management
of  state  air  monitoring programs  including grants  review,  coordination  of
emission and air quality data bases,  and  validation of data from the NAMS  and
SLAMS data base.   Data analyses  including  air quality trend information will be
developed as input to the Regional Trend Reports.

      In the area of quality assurance, significant resources will be used  for
on-site systems audits of state networks and monitors.  In addition,  the Regional
laboratories will continue to participate in the national air audit program. PM-
10 monitors established or moved during 1992 will require review and site visits
to verify  compliance  with  EPA air monitoring  regulations.   Reviews of PM-10
ambient data  and sampling  frequency will  be  performed and  will  include data
critical to classification determinations and identification of possible control
strategies.

      During 1993 the Regional Offices will continue oversight  of a toxic pilot
program for organic species in ten cities  established in 1992.  Initially, the
organics collected  at these sites are only being analyzed  for toxic species.
During  the  summer  of  1993 these  sites  will  become  part  of  the  enhanced
ozone/precursor  network.   Resources  will  also  be  used  to  provide  moni-

                                     2-73

-------
toring/quality assurance support and technical assistance to states in evaluating
the source impact of specific toxic air pollutants from sources considered  for
regulation under  state control programs.  Support for  state and local toxics
efforts in urban areas will continue with management, coordination,  and technical
assistance provided to complete or refine toxics emission  data  bases and to
improve state and local ambient monitoring capabilities.

      Technical oversight and support will be provided  to state/local programs
developing data bases needed to prepare SIPs.  This will include data bases  for
97  ozone areas  and 42  carbon monoxide areas  as well  as  additional areas
identified through recent exceedances.  Significant support is being  provided in
planning  networks  and selecting  the  initial  sites  for  enhanced ozone   and
precursor networks  to  be established  in 1993.   Oversight  of revisions to  the
carbon  monoxide and ozone ambient networks  will continue with emphasis  on
evaluating  networks   for   nonattainment   areas   designated  since  1991   and
implementing corrective actions.  The Regions will continue to provide quality
assurance support to Indian tribes and to assist  in developing tribal monitoring
programs.  To address key requirements  of section  815 of the 1990 amendments,  the
Regions are supporting  ambient  sampling programs along the  U.S. - Mexico border.
Support  will  be  provided  in  three  border areas and  will focus  on  network
planning, program  oversight,  and  providing guidance  to Mexican environmental
staff.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992,  the Agency obligated a total of $4,751,700 supported by 88.2 total
workyears, of which $4,655,000  was  from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $96,700 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1992 the Regional  Offices coordinated  the  collection,  validation  and
submission of ambient  data  with emphasis on areas developing revised  SIPs  for
ozone and carbon monoxide.  Ambient network support focused on eliminating  air
monitoring sites having marginal utility and  in  identifying changes needed to
adequately monitor  current or  projected areas  of  ozone  and carbon  monoxide
nonattainment.   In addition, the Regions assisted states  in implementing network
plans  for  ambient  monitoring  of  PM-10,  completing  quality assurance plans
necessary  to  meet  EPA requirements,  and  in updating multi-year  plans   for
replacement of ambient monitors and related equipment.  On-site audits of  285
monitors were  conducted including 121  newly  established PM-10  samplers.   The
Regions also assisted 25 state and local agencies in assessing potential risks
from toxic pollutants  through  ambient sampling  and 12  agencies  in  developing
emission inventories.  The  Regions also  provided quality  assurance  support to
Indian tribes and assistance in developing tribal monitoring programs.
AIR QUALITY AND EMISSION DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $26,831,100  supported  by  108.5  total
workyears  for  this  program, of which $6,955,500  will be for the  Program and

                                     2-74

-------
Research Operations  appropriation and $19,875,600 will  be for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents a decrease of $116,100 for
the Program and Research Operations appropriation, an increase of  $619,400 for
the Abatement,  Control and  Compliance appropriation,  and a  decrease  of 1.6
workyears from 1993.  The decrease in workyears is a result of the government-
wide reduction in workyears that is part of the President's program to reduce the
size and cost of government.

      The increases will allow support of modifications to EPA data systems which
will support the Regional Offices and states  in management  of operating permits
information.  Emission Testing support to  the development of Maximum Achievable
Control  Technology  (MACT)  standards will be decreased.   All  three  of the
Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) Subsystems will be maintained and
guidance will be provided to users. Two states and three to five  additional local
agencies will be provided  with access to the  Facility Subsystem (AFS). New
software to support  high  priority reports  and  analyses  will  be implemented
including modifications to AFS which  will support Regional Office  and state
management  of data on operating permits.   Additional AIRS software  to track,
summarize, and display  air quality and emission data relating to ozone, carbon
monoxide and  PM-10 regulatory programs will be developed.

      Support of Headquarters,  Regional Office, and state and local modeling of
both criteria and toxics pollutants will be continued as  will ongoing efforts to
evaluate model accuracy and provide refined models and guidance.  Implementation
of the Agency's toxic monitoring strategy will continue and  include  planning and
coordination of efforts to establish toxic  sampling in the vicinity  of the Great
Lakes  and  other major  boundary waters.    Support  to the  development  of  MACT
standards will be  continued  through accelerated  programs to  test  candidate
sources and  develop  test  methods.  Technical support to  state and local  test
programs will be continued.  The program will continue emission tests of selected
criteria pollutant sources and to publish  emission  factors  and related guidance
to support  state toxics programs.  The program will  also  continue to prepare
analyses of  ambient  and emission  trends,  issue status  and trends reports, and
provide national oversight of SIP ambient monitoring.

      Technical support to the ozone/carbon monoxide program will be continued
at a high level in seven critical areas:  (1) Refinement of baseline  software for
storing, retrieving,  and analyzing emissions inventory  data on smaller (area)
sources and for mobile  sources.  This will complement related EPA capabilities
for handling inventory data  from large (point) sources;  (2)  Technical support to
state and local programs to enhance carbon monoxide, ozone, and ozone precursor
monitoring  networks;  (3)  Technical support  to the application of urban  grid
models in about 30  ozone areas;  (4) National  oversight and  quality assurance of
the SIP (baseline)  emission  inventories  and  support  to  the  development  of
periodic inventories  and  other data  bases which will be  used for attainment
demonstrations;  (5)  Development of VOC,  nitrogen oxides  and  carbon  monoxide
emission factors;  (6) refinement and management of systems for tracking future
reductions to baseline  emissions;  and (7)  technical  support to application of
EPA's Regional Oxidant Model in the Southeast, Northeast, and Midwest.
                                     2-75

-------
      The program will continue to provide technical guidance to Regional Offices
and state and local agencies in applying PM-10 dispersion and receptor models,
applying PM-10 emission  factors  and  inventory guidance,  evaluating monitoring
networks and ambient data,  conducting special  studies, and applying methods for
testing  sources  of  particulates.    Efforts  to  develop  emission  factors for
additional PM-10 source categories will be continued. Guidance will be provided
concerning the application of improved factors and dispersion models in assessing
the air quality impact of emissions from surface coal mines.

1993 Program

      In 1993 the Agency  is allocating a total of  $26,327,800 supported by 110.1
workyears for this  program,  of which $7,071,600 will be from the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and  $19,256,200 will be  from  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993 active support  is provided for implementation  of the  Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1990.  Emphasis will be  placed  on  developing required rules and
guidance on modeling and monitoring,  participation in several required studies
and  on  generally  providing  expanded  technical  support  to  the  ozone/carbon
monoxide program  and to the toxics  program.   For the ozone/carbon  monoxide
program, implementation support will  focus  on:  completion of baseline software
for a new system for storing,  retrieving, and  analyzing emissions inventory data
on  smaller  (area)  sources  and  on  mobile  sources; issuance  of final  rules
requiring the establishment of long-term networks  for sampling ozone precursors,
and technical support to the planning and implementation of enhanced networks;
technical  support to  the application of  urban grid  models  used in  ozone
attainment demonstrations; provision of technical and operational  support to
state/local  modeling  efforts  for   both   carbon  monoxide   and  ozone  areas;
continuation of work on long-term application of Regional Oxidant Models in three
regions; continuation of programs for managing, tracking,  and quality assuring
emission inventory data  including data  quality reviews of  SIP inventories for
national consistency.  Also,  efforts will be initiated to develop prescriptive
requirements for preparing point and area source inventories in the future.

      Efforts to develop  improved methods for compiling future PM-10 inventories
will be  continued as will efforts to  develop and issue emission factors for
significant sources of particulates.   Support of Headquarters, Regional Office
and state/local  modeling  of both criteria and toxic pollutants will be continued
as will  ongoing efforts to evaluate model accuracy and provide refined models and
guidance.   Implementation  of  the  Agency's  toxic  monitoring  strategy  will
continue.  The program will  also continue to  prepare analyses  of ambient and
emission trends, issue status and trends reports and provide  national oversight
of  SIP  ambient  monitoring. Additional  analyses  will be done for a completed
study of the impact of emissions from  the Mohave Power Plant  on visibility in and
near Grand Canyon National Park.

      Air toxics  support  will  continue in  four areas:    (1)  development of
emission test methods for MACT standards to  be issued within four  and  seven years
of  enactment;  (2)  provision of technical  support  to states on test  method
application; (3) development  of emission factors to support state implementation

                                     2-76

-------
of toxics programs; and (4)  dispersion analyses  for proposed MACT standards and
guidance for screening analyses.

      The AIRS Subsystems will be maintained and  guidance provided to users.  Six
to eight additional agencies will be provided access to the Facility Subsystem
and  new  software to  support  high  priority   reports  and  analyses will  be
implemented.  Special assistance and additional AIRS software will be provided
to facilitate the quality assurance of emission inventories for ozone and carbon
monoxide and their incorporation in  AIRS.  The program will complete development
of the initial software to allow the review of operating permit  applications and
the tracking of key events within AIRS and through micro-computer software for
non-AIRS users.

      Congressional  Directives;    A  total  of  $550,000  is  provided  for
Congressionally directed projects:   $150,000 to identify and evaluate sources of
visibility  impairment  in Class I areas,  and  $400,000 to  conduct  air quality
studies in the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

1992 Accomplishments

      In  1992  the Agency obligated a total of  $29,902,200  supported by 108.3
total  workyears,  of  which  $6,809,300  was from  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation  and $23,092,900  was from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      In 1992 comprehensive user support and enhanced software was provided to
50  agencies  using the AIRS Air Quality  Subsystem.   Additional  emission and
compliance data bases were converted and refined and the baseline software and
files for the AIRS Facility Subsystem were enhanced.   AIRS Facility Subsystem
user training was provided to staff from Regional Offices, 15 states,  1 territory
and 12 local agencies.  User support was provided to 51 agencies that opted to
access the Facility Subsystem  directly.   To support future inventory efforts,
development was accomplished on a system for storing and retrieving  area source
and mobile source data.  Support was  provided to  future ozone and carbon monoxide
SIP revisions with emphasis on  guidance  for preparing  emission inventories,
review of  draft  inventory components, assistance in  preparing data bases and
applying  grid and statistical models,  and application  of  Regional  Oxidant
Modeling analyses to support the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission and state
control  strategy  planning  by the  states. Other  major  activities included:
significant efforts on the initial software for storing and managing operating
permits information within  AIRS;  publication of the Air Quality and Emissions
Trend Report for  1990; development of new PM-10 emission factors for eight source
categories; technical support to the Regional Offices  and states on  application
of  factors  for   PM-10  and  other  pollutants;   and  emission  test  support  to
Headquarters  offices  developing  emission  standards  and  to  state  and  local
agencies in applying test methods.

      Congressional Directives;   $700,000 was provided to evaluate visibility
impairment in Class I  areas  and to refine dispersion  modeling techniques used in
such assessments.
                                     2-77

-------
oo
 I
CN

-------
        AIR
Atmospheric Programs

PROGRAM
Acid Rain Program
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Stratospheric
Protection Program
Program & Research
Operat i ons
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Global Change Program
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
TOTAL:
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
Atmospheric Programs TOTAL
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Acid Rain Program
Stratospheric
Protection Program
Global Change Program
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Acid Rain Program
Stratospheric
Protection Program
Global Change Program
TOTAL WORKYEARS

ACTUAL
1992
$3,702.1
$5,416.6
$9,118.7

$3,067.3
$15,947.8
$19,015.1
$6,769.4
$21,364.4
$28,133.8
52.4

35.7
88.1
54.1

39.8
93.9

PRES.
BUDGET
1993
ENACTED
1993
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
$4,686.3 $4,033.7 $4,013.0
$6,481.8 $6,250.7 $6,198.8
$11,168.1 $10,284.4 $10,211.8

$3,944.5
$28,126.9
$32,071.4
$8,630.8
$34,608.7
$43,239.5
65.8

52.7
118.5
65.8

52.7
118.5


$4,463.9
$22,534.3
$26,998.2
$8,497.6
$28,785.0
$37,282.6
65.7

62.7
128.4
65.7

62.7
128.4
2-79

$4,449.5
$21,683.5
$26,133.0
$8.462.5
$27,882.3
$36,344.8
65.1

62.1
127.2
65.1

62.1
127.2

REQUEST
1994
$4,330.9
$6,529.9
$10,860.8
$2,173.6
$20,371.4
$22,545.0
$2,402.5
$22,554.6
$24,957.1
$8.907.6
$49,455.9
$58,362.9
63.1
30.7
33.9
127.7
63.1
30.7
33.9
127.7

INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 CE
$317.9
$331.1
$649.0
$2,173.6
$20,371.4
$22.545.0
-$2,047.0
$871.1
-$1,175.9
$444.5
$21,573.6
$22,018.1
-2.0
30.7
-28.2
5
-2.0
30.7
-28.2
5

INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 PB
-$355.4
$48.1
-$307.3
$2,173.6
$20,371.4
$22,545.0
-$1,542.0
-$5,572.3
-$7,114.3
$276.2
$14,847.2
$15,123.4
-2.7
30.7
-18.8
9.2
-2.7
30.7
-18.8
9.2


-------
                                      AIR


                             Atmospheric Programs

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $58,362,900 and 127.7 total workyears for
1994, an  increase  of $22,018,100 and  0.5  total workyears from  1993.   Of the
request,  $8,907,600  will   be  for  the  Program   and  Research  Operations
appropriation, and $49,455,900 will be for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents an  increase of  $444,500  in the  Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation  and  an  increase  of   $21,573,600  in  the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.


ACID RAIN PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total of  $10,860,800  and 63.1  total workyears for
this program,  of which $4,330,900 will  be  for the Program and Research Operations
appropriation and $6,529,900 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This represents an increase of $317,900 for  Program and Research
Operations, an increase of $331,100  for Abatement, Control  and Compliance and a
decrease  of  2.0  total  workyears.   The increase in  Abatement, Control  and
Compliance will support  efforts  to  implement the acid rain  rulemaking agenda
within the Regions.  The decrease in workyears is a result of the government-wide
reduction in workyears that is part of the President's program to reduce the size
and cost of government.

      In 1994 the acid rain program will continue to provide both guidance for
sources and administrative procedures for Headquarters, Regions, and states on
the  implementation of  Continuous  Emissions  Monitoring  (CEM)  certification,
alternative monitoring systems, computerized emissions reporting and tracking,
permitting for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen  oxide,  state program development for
Phase II allowance transactions, auctions and sales,  conservation verification
protocol, opt-ins and environmental and economic program evaluation.

      The acid rain program will conduct the annual auction as well as the annual
direct sale of allowances.  The program will review and  approve applications for
allowances from independent power producers and  small diesel refineries as well
as  applications for  allowances from  the Conservation and Renewable  Energy
Reserve.   The  acid  rain program will  review,  approve,   and  record  official
transfers of allowances at the request of  affected  sources.   In addition, the
program will offer implementation training.

      In  1994  the  program will operate the integrated acid  rain data system,
including: tracking hourly emissions data from each certified source;  tracking
allowance allocations and transfers, including results of the  annual auction and
sales; and permit processing for each Phase I source.

                                     2-80

-------
      The  acid  rain program will  review and approve  permit applications and
compliance plans, and OEM  certifications.   The  primary tasks that the program
must perform to make the national market-based system work include:

      — Review and issue Phase I permits
      — Review and approve over 2,000 CEM certifications
      — Review and approve up to 50 state authorization documents
      — Review opt-in applications and issue permits
      — Process emissions monitoring data and permits  information  for the acid
      rain data system

1993 Program

      In 1993 the Agency is allocating a total of  $10,211,800 supported by 65.1
total workyears to  this program,  of which $4,013,000  is  from  the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $6,198,800 is  from the  Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.

      During  1993,  the  acid  rain  program  is  shifting  its  emphasis  toward
operational   issues  —   from   "rule  writing"  to   "rule  implementation."
Specifically, the program is focusing resources  in five operational areas:  (1)
processing permits; (2)  managing the allowance system;  (3) certifying CEMs; and
(4) evaluating the effectiveness of the acid rain program.

      The  acid  rain  program  is  issuing  both  guidance  for  sources  and
administrative  procedures  for  headquarters,  Regions,   and  states  on  the
implementation of CEM certification,  alternative monitoring systems, computerized
emissions  reporting and tracking,  permitting for sulfur  dioxide and nitrogen
oxides, allowance transactions,  auctions  and sales, conservation verification
protocol, and state program development.

      The majority of the 263 Phase I units require Agency action for permits and
CEMs during  1993  in order to meet  their  statutory deadlines.   In addition,
because over 2,000 Phase II CEMs must be certified by the end of  1994, the acid
rain program expects sources to request certification of a large number of Phase
II CEMs in 1993.

      In March 1993  the acid rain program is conducting the first annual auction.
In June the first  annual direct sale of allowances will be held.   The program is
processing applications  for allowances from independent power producers and small
diesel refineries as well as applications for allowances from the conservation
and renewable energy reserve.   The acid rain program  is  beginning to review,
approve, and record official transfers of  allowances at the request of affected
sources.  In addition,  the program offers limited implementation training.

      The program is developing, testing and will begin operation of  initial acid
rain data systems  for tracking hourly emissions data  from each certified source;
tracking allowance  allocations and  transfers, including  results of the annual
auction and sales; and tracking permit processing for each Phase I source.
                                     2-81

-------
      The program is also continuing to develop  an ongoing acid rain  program
evaluation  component,  and  continuing  participation  in  the  National  Acid
Precipitation Assessment  Program.   The  acid rain program continues to  work on
reports to Congress on the industrial sulfur dioxide emissions  inventory and on
the  feasibility  of  an acidic  deposition  standard.    The acid  rain  program
continues to promote  energy conservation and encourages the improvement of energy
efficiency as a compliance strategy.

      Under the U.S. - Canadian Bilateral Air Quality Committee, the  acid rain
program is preparing the second biannual report on the progress  of the  acid rain
programs in both  countries.

      Congressional  Directive;  A total of  $750,000 for the Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation is for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment
Program.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency obligated a total of $9,118,700  supported by 54.1 total
workyears, of which $3,702,100 was  from the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $5,416,600 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The  acid rain program  continued to implement  the statutory mandate
established in Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 by proposing a
series of  major  regulations  including:  (1) permitting  	 which  includes  a
source's emissions control plans and requirements and allows a source to benefit
from the allowance trading  system;    (2) allowance  tracking and transfers 	
which provides  a  source the flexibility to meet  its  sulfur dioxide emissions
limitation requirements economically while providing environmental accountability
for collective compliance  with the national cap on sulfur dioxide emissions; (3)
continuous emissions  monitoring 	 which not only ensures  source compliance but
also instills confidence in the market-based  approach by certifying the existence
of the commodity  being traded; and  (4) excess  emissions  	 which defines the
consequences for  failing to comply with the acid rain program's sulfur dioxide
and nitrogen oxides emissions requirements.

      The program began development of an ongoing acid rain program evaluation
component  and  continued  participation  in  the  National  Acid Precipitation
Assessment Program.  In addition,  the acid rain program initiated work on reports
to Congress required  by statute.  The program also promoted energy conservation
and encouraged the improvement of energy efficiency  as a compliance strategy.

      Under the U.S.  - Canadian Bilateral Air Quality Committee, the acid rain
program prepared  the first  biannual  report on  the  progress of  the  acid  rain
programs in both countries.
                                     2-82

-------
STRATOSPHERIC PROTECTION PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      In  1994  the Agency  requests for  this program  a total  of $22,545,000
supported by 30.7 total workyears, of which $2,173,600 will be for the Program
and Research Operations appropriation and $20,371,400 will be for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  The stratospheric protection program is
a new program element in 1994.   In 1993 the stratospheric protection program is
a component of the Global Change program element.

      The United  States has signed  the  Montreal Protocol  on  Substances that
Deplete the Ozone Layer.  In accordance with agreements made under the Protocol
and its amendments, the EPA will implement and enforce rules, support domestic
implementation of rulemakings under the Protocol,  continue refinements, initiate
risk and economic assessments to monitor progress made under the Protocol, and
coordinate  with  other  groups  and  countries   on  technical  and  scientific
developments and use of alternative chemicals to curtail ozone depletion.

      The Montreal  Protocol Multilateral  Fund  is  used to  provide  financial
assistance to developing countries to help pay for meeting the incremental cost
of shifting away from ozone depleting chemicals.  In addition, the Multilateral
Fund provides resources to expand the  Parties to the Montreal Protocol to include
all developed countries, all major regional economic integration organizations,
and all major developing countries.  In 1994 the Environmental Protection Agency
has budgeted $17 million dollars for the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund.

      In  1994  the  stratospheric protection  program  will  expand  outreach
activities.   These  activities are  critical to a smooth  transition out  of
chlorofluorocarbons  (CFCs)  and methyl  chloroform  in 1996.   The goal of the
outreach program is to assist small companies and industries in shifting out of
the use of ozone depleting substances.   The program will also increase efforts
to minimize impacts of a phase-out on existing capital equipment by encouraging
timely  shifts  to retrofits  or replacements.    In  addition,  the Agency will
continue to develop guidance materials on the phase-out of CFCs.

      The Significant New Alternatives Program (SNAP) program, required under the
Clean Air Act, will be established to review the environmental and health effects
of safe  substitutes  to be used  in place of ozone depleting  substances.   The
program will include a comprehensive evaluation  of developing substitutes, and
examine the environmental benefits and hazards of  using (or not using) substitute
chemicals.  A list of safe substitutes will be developed and made available to
industry as they begin to transition into the use of chemicals and manufacturing
processes that are safer to human health and  the  environment.  The program will
work to remove institutional/regulatory roadblocks to allow full implementation
of CFC alternatives by reforming standards and codes currently restricting the
use of  promising alternative refrigerants,  foam blowing  agents,  solvents and
halons.   Finally,  a  program  will  be  established  to  ensure   that  federal
procurement policy specifies the  use of  energy efficient,  CFC-free technology
that is cost effective.
                                     2-83

-------
1993 Program

      In 1993 the stratospheric protection program is a component of the global
change  program element.   The program  plan for  the stratospheric  protection
program is described within the global  change program  element for  1993.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the stratospheric protection program was a component of the global
change program  element.   The  accomplishments for the stratospheric  protection
program are described within the global change program element for  1992.


GLOBAL CHANGE PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total  of  $24,957,100 and 33.9 total workyears for
this program,  of which $2,402,500 will be for the Program and Research Operations
appropriation and $22,554,600 will  be for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This represents a decrease  of $2,047,000 for Program and Research
Operations, an increase of $871,100 for  Abatement, Control  and Compliance and a
decrease of 28.2  total  workyears.   The decreases reflect  the movement of the
stratospheric protection  program out  of the global  change program element in
1994.  Excluding the stratospheric protection program, in 1994 the global  change
program reflects an  increase of $14,242,500 for Abatement, Control and Compliance
and an increase of 2.5 total workyears.  The increase in Abatement, Control and
Compliance reflects  a significant expansion to EPA's voluntary, profitable "Green
Programs."

      The  "Green  Programs" focus  on energy-efficient technologies that  can
dramatically reduce energy consumption  and  prevent  pollution  while delivering
better  products to the marketplace.   Use  of  energy-efficient  technologies
everywhere they are  profitable can  dramatically reduce electricity requirements
and  emissions  of sulfur  dioxide,  nitrogen  oxides,  and  carbon  dioxide.   In
addition to preventing  the emission of air pollutants,  saving  energy  through
energy-efficient  products also  reduces  the  environmental damage  caused  by
electricity generation.

      Over the  past two years the  global change program  has launched  highly
successful pollution prevention programs.  The programs are voluntary, profitable
partnerships between the private sector and the  federal government.  EPA will
work with the Department of the Interior and other Federal Agencies to implement
these Green Programs in the Federal sector.

      The 1994 global change program will expand in three specific  areas.   First,
the Green Lights program,  a voluntary program  for installing  energy-efficient
lighting wherever it is profitable, will augment its marketing and sales effort,
intensify its implementation assistance, and launch new auditing and technical
assistance programs. Special emphasis will be placed on accelerating investments
corporations have already committed to make in contracts with  EPA.

                                     2-84

-------
      Second,  in  the area of energy productivity  and pollution prevention, a
series of programs including Energy Star Buildings (heating, ventilation and air
conditioning), Energy  Star Computers,  and Residential  (e.g.  "Golden  Carrot")
programs  are  aimed at increasing the productivity  of energy systems  wherever
profitable.  In the buildings area, EPA will significantly augment its marketing
and  sales effort,  intensify its  implementation  assistance,  and  launch new
auditing  and  technical assistance programs.   As a  result of its efforts, the
program anticipates  a  major increase in  electronics used for speed control in
ventilating and air  conditioning systems, significant price reductions, and an
expansion of manufacturing capacity for energy efficient products.   In  terms of
Energy Star Computers,  the program will target a community-based outreach program
to  local  vendors  and  users of computer  equipment.   Up to one-third of all
computer equipment is bought and sold in small retail outlets that are currently
unaware of the economic and environmental benefits  of Energy Star equipment. In
the  residential  sector, the  focus  will   be  to begin providing  incentives  to
builders and vendors to begin development of innovative financing  mechanisms for
advanced heat pumps, water  heating systems, increased insulation, and  a number
of additional residential technologies (including those using natural  gas).

      Finally, the 1994 program will expand the methane  program.  Since methane
has energy value,  its  emission to  the  air is equivalent to energy evaporating
before use. Lack of motivation and know-how, as well as institutional obstacles,
have prevented this resource from  achieving effective utilization.  The methane
program will seek to profitably capture this "lost energy"  in five areas: coal
mines, natural gas, agricultural wastes, livestock and landfills.  The coal mines
component will be aimed at generating methane  capture in Appalachia during coal
mining.  The natural gas program is a voluntary effort with industry that will
be aimed  at accelerating  investments to  reduce pipeline leaks in the  U.S. and
increase exports  to the former Soviet Union of this technology. The agricultural
wastes component focuses efforts on accelerating farmer  utilization of  waste as
an  energy source  by  investing in  collection  systems  and  generators and/or
absorption refrigeration.  The livestock program will aim at partitioning carbon
to  useful products  (milk  and meat) by  nutritional  supplements and/or range
improvements.  Finally, in the area of landfills, the 1994 program will aim at
helping small communities meet local energy demand and the need  for acceptable
landfills by creating  a recovery industry profitable for these communities.

1993 Program

      In 1993 the Agency is allocating  a  total  of $26,133,000 supported by 62.1
total workyears  to this program,  of which  $4,449,500 is  for the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation  and $21,683,500 is for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.

      In  1993  the focus  of the  global  change program is on  four voluntary
programs.   First,  the "Green Lights"  program  is  successfully working  with
industry to implement high-efficiency lighting in major U.S. corporations.  High-
efficiency lighting systems have been demonstrated to lower electricity costs,
improve lighting quality  and  increase  worker  productivity.  Over 750  partners
have already committed to the "Green Lights" program.  EPA  is also working with
other Federal Agencies to implement the Green Programs in the Federal  sector.

                                     2-85

-------
      Second, the Energy Star Computers program is a voluntary program working
with  computer equipment manufacturers  to achieve efficiency improvements  in
computer products by  1995.   Partnerships  with 40 manufacturers will introduce
desktop computers that can cut energy use by 50% without  sacrificing performance
or raising  prices.   Third,  the  Energy Star Buildings  program  is a voluntary
program  working  with  corporations   to   install  highly-efficient  heating,
ventilation,  air  conditioning  and  water  heating  technologies,  achieving
reductions in energy consumption at a profit.

      Fourth, the Methane program is focusing on reductions in'methane emissions
from  coal  mining, natural  gas  pipelines,  agricultural waste,  livestock and
landfills.   Significant  methane  emission  reductions  are possible at a profit.
However, market obstacles exist in the development and deployment of technologies
and techniques to control methane emissions.  Obstacles include:   (1) access and
dissemination of information, (2) development of financing, and (3) regulatory
and legal issues.  In  1993  the global  change program is expanding the methane
program  to   institute  support  systems to  remove institutional  obstacles and
financial disincentives to capturing profitable emission reductions for methane.
This involves working with industry representatives to outline major obstacles
and to design and implement effective solutions.

      In 1993 the stratospheric protection program is focussing on four program
response  areas:    (1)  earlier  domestic  and  international  elimination  of
chlorofluorocarbons  (CFCs),  halons,  and  methyl   chloroform;   (2)   further
limitations  on hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs); (3) more intensive recycling
programs  in the  U.S.  and  abroad;  and  (4)  earlier  voluntary phaseout  from
developing nations of CFCs and HCFCs.

      The stratospheric protection  program continues  to  work  on  recycling
rulemakings that require EPA to set the lowest achievable emissions  for CFC-using
equipment, to restrict the  sale of small canisters containing CFC refrigerants,
and to set safe disposal requirements of refrigerants.  The national recycling
program will also investigate options to recycle or recover chemicals at disposal
and to expand the list of recyclable chemicals to include HCFCs.  In addition,
full implementation of the  national  recycling program, as required by the Clean
Air Act, will be  implemented for the  major air-conditioning and refrigeration
sectors to minimize the costs of  the phase-out required under the amendments to
the Protocol and the Clean Air Act.  The stratospheric protection program is also
working on a rule to establish the SNAP program which will list  safe alternatives
to ozone depleting substances.

      In  addition  to  the   above  regulatory  activities,  the  stratospheric
protection program is  engaged in many outreach activities.   The  goal  of this
campaign is  to educate  the industries on the upcoming  phaseout  schedule for CFCs
and to encourage the industry to begin to conserve existing supplies of CFCs and
begin to purchase replacement equipment.  A similar campaign is planned for the
general public in the spring of 1993.   The  goal is to educate the public on the
legal maintenance and repair of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment and
proper disposal of appliances with refrigerants.
                                     2-86

-------
      The  management  of existing  halon  supplies  is  another  1993  program
initiative.  The development of  halons  will  be phased out in 1994.  The halon
banking initiative keeps track of existing halon quantities, educates halon users
on the  proper handling  of  halon emissions,  and encourages  organizations to
transition to the use of halon alternatives.   Halons that are replaced by the use
of a  halon substitute are  banked and  made  available only  for critical  fire
protection needs.

      In  1993  the stratospheric  protection  program ia  continuing to provide
technical  data,  technical  support,  and regulatory  initiatives  to  meet  the
implementation requirements of the Montreal Protocol. In addition, the program
provides  financial support through  a  multi-lateral  fund to  help developing
countries  finance  the  incremental cost of shifting  away from ozone depleting
chemicals.

      Congressional Directive;  A total of $2,750,000 for  the Abatement, Control
and  Compliance  Appropriation  is for  two:   methane  energy   and  agriculture
development and green market incentives promotion.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency obligated a total of $19,015,100 supported by 39.8 total
workyears, of which $3,067,300  was from  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $15,947,800 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      To  implement the Clean  Air Act  Amendments of 1990, the  global change
program collected  production,  import, and use data  on regulated chemicals and
prepared periodic  reports to Congress based  on this information.   The program
responded  to  petitions that requested that EPA expedite  the  schedule for the
phase-out of ozone depleting chemicals, and evaluated exemptions to  the schedule
for medical purposes, fire suppression, essential uses, and national security.

      The global  change program facilitated national and international technology
transfer through ad-hoc  working  groups  and trade  conferences and, through the
implementation of the Multi-lateral Fund under the Protocol.  The program also:
(1) participated in scientific  and technical assessments that  are required under
the Montreal Protocol, (2) facilitated the transfer of technologies to developing
countries, and (3)  maintained its lead role in meetings of the Protocol members.

      The global  change program expanded the tracking and administrative controls
used to operate the regulatory program.   To fully implement the amendments to the
Montreal Protocol  and  the  new  Clean Air Act,  the administrative  controls and
tracking  system  required   incorporation  of  additional   chemicals,  regulated
companies, and more frequent electronic  reporting  by  companies.  More effective
communication with the U.S.  Customs Bureau will be required to monitor possible
import violations.

      To address global warming issues,  the program evaluated options to reduce
production of  greenhouse gases by stabilizing methane from livestock and coal
mining and prepared  reports as required under the Clean  Air  Act.   The program
expanded efforts  to promote cost-effective  energy  conservation and pollution

                                     2-87

-------
prevention.  The program examined renewable  sources of energy such as an energy
efficient lighting program and energy efficient appliances and equipment in the
residential and commercial sectors.
                                     2-88

-------
                                                       AIR
                                               Indoor Air Program
ACTUAL PRES. ENACTED CURRENT REQUEST
1992 BUDGET 1993 ESTIMATE 1994
1993 1993
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Indoor Air Program
Program & Research $1,540.5 $2,191.5 $2,021.9 $2,021.0 $2,040.6
Operations
Abatement Control and $5,021.6 $5,911.5 $4,127.7 $4,127.2 $4,828.4
Compliance
TOTAL $6,562.1 $8,103.0 $6,149.6 $6,148.2 $6,869.0
TOTAL:
Program & Research $1,540.5 $2,191.5 $2,021.9 $2,021.0 $2,040.6
Operations
Abatement Control and $5,021.6 $5,911.5 $4,127.7 $4,127.2 $4,828.4
Compliance
Indoor Air Program TOTAL $6,562.1 $8,103.0 $6,149.6 $6,148.2 $6,869.0
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Indoor Air Program 20.4 32.5 31.4 31.1 31.0
TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS 20.4 32.5 31.4 31.1 31.0
TOTAL UORKYEARS
INCREASE INCREASE
DECREASE DECREASE
1994 REQ 1994 REQ
VS VS
1993 CE 1993 PB


$19.6 -$150.9

$701.2 -$1,083.1

$720.8 -$1,234.0

$19.6 -$150.9

$701.2 -$1,083.1

$720.8 -$1,234.0

-1 -1.5
-1 -1.5

Indoor Air Program
21.3
32.5
31.4
31.1
                                               31.0
                                                 -1
                                               -1.5
TOTAL UORKYEARS
21.3
32.5
31.4
                                                                     31.1
            31.0
                                                                                               -1
                                                                      -1.5
                                                      2-89

-------
                                      AIR

                                  Indoor Air
Budget Request

In  1994  the Agency  requests a  total of  $6,869,000  supported by  31.0 total
workyears, of which $2,040,600 will be for the Program and Research Operations
appropriation and $4,828,400 will be  for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase  of $19,600  in the  Program and
Research Operations  appropriation,  an increase of  $701,200  in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, and a decrease of 0.1 total workyears.


INDOOR AIR PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

In  1994  the Agency  requests a  total of  $6,869,000  supported by  31.0 total
workyears, of which $2,040,600 will be for the Program and Research Operations
appropriation  and  $4,828,400 will  be for  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase  of $19,600  in the  Program and
Research Operations  appropriation,  an increase of  $701,200  in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, and a decrease  of 0.1 total workyears.  The
increase in the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropriation will support the
Building Assessment Survey Evaluation  (BASE) and outreach efforts to address the
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) issue.   The decrease in workyears is a result
of the government-wide reduction in workyears  that  is  part of the President's
program to reduce the size and cost of government.

      In recent years, comparative risk studies performed by EPA and its Science
Advisory Board have consistently ranked indoor  air pollution among the top five
environmental risks to public health.  Working in close cooperation with other
EPA offices, other  federal agencies,  and the private sector,  the  goal of the
indoor air program  is to reduce human exposure to  air  pollutants  in offices,
homes, schools and other indoor environments where they live, work and play.  The
primary pollutants  of concern indoors include:   ETS,  volatile organic compounds,
biological  contaminants,  combustion gases,  respirable  particulates,  lead,
formaldehyde, asbestos and radon.

      In 1994 the indoor  air program  will  be  developing training programs and
other outreach strategies to ensure that key audiences access and implement core
guidance on  improving indoor air quality.   Audiences targeted  with  specific
guidance documents and training or outreach programs include school facilities
managers, architects and design engineers, new home buyers, stationary engineers,
physicians and other health care professionals, government officials and other
decision makers with responsibility for determining or implementing smoking
                                     2-90

-------
policies in indoor spaces.  These audiences will  be reached through cooperative
agreements and partnerships with multiplier groups.

      A  key  outreach  initiative  will  be  the  continued  development  and
implementation of a partnership program similar to EPA' s successful Green Lights
program  which will  allow  partners to  implement voluntary,  incentive-based
initiatives to improve indoor air quality through memoranda of understanding with
EPA.  The program will seek partners who commit to institute certain essential
indoor air  and pollution  prevention  measures derived  from  EPA' s publication
entitled  Building Air  Quality:    A Guide for  Building Owners  and Facility
Managers.  After an initial pilot phase of the program in 1993 with owners and
managers of  commercial  buildings,  the program will  move to  implementation in
1994.  Additional phases of the partnership program may include partnerships for
schools and public buildings.

      Building on its first and highly successful year of operation in 1993, the
indoor air  quality INFO  clearinghouse  will  continue  to operate to meet  the
growing  demand for  indoor air  information  through publications and  direct
telephone response to public concerns.  The clearinghouse will be a source for
EPA indoor air related training schedules and materials, and will provide support
information to aid in the  implementation of the partnership program.

      Public  sector training will  continue to receive attention as  states and
localities pursue  the development  of  staff capabilities to solve  indoor  air
quality problems.  Building on regional training approaches initiated in 1992 and
expanded in 1993,  deliveries of training for public sector environmental health
officials, for owners and managers of public and commercial buildings,  and for
other related indoor air quality professionals will be continued through training
institutions  such  as the  Regional  Radon  Training Centers and  other training
providers.  A public sector training needs assessment conducted in   1993 will
identify additional curriculum development  and delivery needs  to be addressed in
1994 and beyond.

      The brochure What You Can Do About Secondhand Smoke, targeted to address
the general public,  will  be used as the centerpiece of  an active campaign to
inform the public about the  health hazards presented by environmental  tobacco
smoke  (ETS)  in indoor  air.   A  cooperative agreement with the  American Lung
Association initiated in FY 1993 will develop an information campaign targeted
to minorities and high risk populations to alert them about the documented health
risks posed  by ETS exposure.  The Guide to  Smoking Policies, targeted to private
sector businesses, will be used  in developing partnerships with businesses to
promote fair  and effective smoking policies.   Additional efforts will  develop
information materials encouraging  action  by parents  and institutions  serving
children  to  protect children  from  ETS  exposure,   assist  state  and  local
governments in developing effective regulations protecting non-smokers from ETS
in public access facilities,  provide guidance  on  construction of smoking rooms,
and share information and experiences with the international  community.

      The indoor  air program  will also  continue to provide  leadership  and
coordination of indoor air quality issues within the federal government through
                                     2-91

-------
its provision of staff and dollar support to the interagency Committee on Indoor
Air Quality (CIAQ).

      The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) program, which is a
national study of indoor air  quality  in public and commercial buildings, will
build upon the 1993  pilot study and begin its first full year  of  a three to five
year investigation.   The program will  develop baseline information on factors
believed to  affect  indoor  air quality in large  buildings  and  assess  their
relationship to occupant health symptoms. These data will reside in a publicly
accessible data base.  The planning phase for  extending BASE to include schools
will conclude in preparation for future implementation.

      In cooperation with other EPA offices and outside groups,  the indoor air
program will  complete the  planning stage  for construction  of its test  and
demonstration house  (s). These residences are designed to demonstrate features
which promote  healthy indoor  air quality while  incorporating radon resistant
construction and high energy efficiency.

      The multi-year development of a comprehensive inventory of indoor pollutant
source emissions will enter its third year of activity.  The program will perform
tests on paints  and  coatings  to determine  their emissions contribution to the
indoor environment.  The database will be finalized.

1993 Program

      In 1993 the Agency is allocating a total of $6,148,200 supported by 31.1
total workyears, of which  $2,021,000 is for the Program and Research Operations
appropriation  and $4,127,200  is  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

      In 1993 the indoor air program is completing core guidance documents and
developing training  and outreach programs  for audiences  such  as  owners  and
managers of public and commercial buildings;  architects and  design engineers;
school  facility managers;  homebuilders;  public  sector  environmental  health
officials;  physicians and other health care professionals, and decision makers
with responsibility for smoking policies inside buildings.  These efforts will
be accomplished in partnership with the trade and professional organizations that
represent the intended target audiences.

      One example of a key  outreach program  under  development  is  a voluntary
partnership program  with  owners and  managers of  large  commercial  buildings.
Participants will be asked  to commit to key  indoor air pollution prevention,
operation  and maintenance,  and problem  resolution approaches  based on  the
guidance in  EPA1 s  "Building  Air  Quality:  A Guide for  Building  Owners  and
Managers."

      In the  beginning of  1993  the program  launched  the Indoor Air  Quality
Information Clearinghouse, which provides a range of information  services to the
public, federal, state and local indoor air personnel,  the private sector, and
the research community. The services  are being modified and expanded to better
serve the needs of the users.

                                     2-92

-------
      The  Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE)  Program (a national
 study of  indoor air quality in public and commercial buildings)  will complete
 planning this year and conduct a  pilot  study,  in preparation for  the planned
 three to  five year study.  The two  major objectives of the study  are to:  (1)
 develop baseline information on the factors  believed to determine  indoor  air
 quality  in large  buildings  and assess  their  relationship to occupant  health
 symptoms; and (2) improve and standardize the IAQ investigative approach.  During
 FY 1993, data from the  pilot  study will  be used to  refine  the  study design  and
 protocol.  The  information from  the study  will be  useful to  public  health
 departments   and  building   diagnosticians;   to  indoor  air/health   effects
 researchers;  to ventilation engineers and building designers; and, as input  for
 the  further development of Federal guidance on  indoor air  quality issues.

      Public  sector training continues to receive increasing attention as states
 and  localities pursue the development of staff capabilities to  solve indoor  air
 quality  problems.   Building  on regional training approaches begun in 1992,
 additional providers of training are being selected and  supported to create  and
 deliver training  based  on guidance provided by  the  indoor  air program.

      The multi-year development of a comprehensive inventory of indoor pollutant
 source emissions  has entered  its second  year.   A  source-ranking database which
 considers  such  factors  as emissions,  extent of  use, environment,  and  potential
 health  effects is  being  developed  and  will  provide the  means  to prioritize
 actions on source emissions.  The growing body of information compiled is being
 put  to  a  variety of uses,  and is   providing   information needed  to drive
 continuing non-regulatory dialogues with manufacturers to create lower-emitting
 products.

      In January  1993 EPA issued  a major assessment of  the respiratory health
 effects of passive smoking, declaring second hand smoke a Group A  or known human
 carcinogen, and estimating that 3,000 cases of  lung cancer and 150,000-300,000
 cases of childhood respiratory infections are  due to secondhand smoke  exposure.
 The  indoor air  program  is preparing  a brochure on reducing exposure to second
 hand smoke and a guide to developing  effective smoking policies and  is  planning
 to enter  into  cooperative arrangements  with  key  organizations such  as   the
 American Lung Association and the  DHHS Office on Smoking and Health.

      The Agency is cooperating with  other EPA offices and outside groups in  the
 design and construction of a demonstration/test  house which will include indoor
 air quality,  radon resistance,  and  energy efficiency features.  Both the process
 of building  the house  and the finished  house  itself will  afford the Agency
 opportunities to increase public awareness about  residential indoor air pollution
 and energy conservation issues, while demonstrating to homebuilders, appliance
 and  consumer  goods  manufacturers,  the lending community, and home buyers,   the
 cost effectiveness and compatibility of  sound  energy utilization and indoor  air
 quality approaches.

      The Agency continues to provide leadership and coordination  of indoor  air
 quality  issues within  the  federal   government through  its  support  of  the
 Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality, ensuring that all federal agencies
with interest, expertise,  and  responsibility for indoor air  quality are aware of

                                     2-93

-------
one another's activities,  and  are  given the opportunity to participate in the
development and execution of one another's agenda.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated a total of $6,562,100 supported by 21.3 total
workyears to this  program, of which $1,540,500 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $5,021,600 was  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      Early in 1992, the indoor air program published a major guidance document
for the owners and managers of large public and commercial buildings. The guide,
"Building  Air  Quality," was  aggressively promoted for use nationwide  and  a
companion training course was made widely available.

      In 1992 the  regional training centers, selected to develop and offer indoor
air quality training courses in 1991, were maintained and the network expanded.

      The program initiated the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE)
Program, a study of  indoor air quality in public and commercial buildings.  This
program will investigate public and commercial buildings to  provide the data
needed to  define  the indoor air quality of the nation's  building stock.   The
study design  and draft  protocols   including  an occupant questionnaire,  were
developed through the consensus of national  experts.

      Expansion  of  the  regional  training  center  curriculum  through  the
development of targeted courses for specific  indoor air quality audiences has
created a  strong  foundation for an effective  partnership with state and local
authorities.  At  the same  time, initiation  of an  indoor  air  source emissions
inventory provided an  important tool for  consumers and key  decision-makers to
select lower emitting materials in the  indoor  environment.  This is a crucial
element in an effective national response to indoor air quality concerns.
                                     2-94

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate

                                    n-F Contents

                                                                         Page
ENFORCEMENT
   Enforcement	   2-95
      Stationary Source Enforcement 	   2-96
      Mobile Source Enforcement                                         2-100

-------


ACTUAL
1992





PRES.
BUDGET
1993


AIR
Enforcement
ENACTED CURRENT
1993 ESTIMATE
1993




REQUEST INCREASE
1994 DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE


INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Stationary Source
Compliance
 Program & Research           $19,288.5   $22,353.5   $21.524.5   $21,546.1   $22,619.8    $1,073.7      $266.3
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $6,045.9    $6,302.9    $4,666.1    $4,663.7    $6,015.1    $1,351.4     -$287.8
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $25,334.4   $28,656.4   $26,190.6   $26,209.8   $28,634.9    $2,425.1      -$21.5

Mobile Source
Enforcement
 Program & Research            $6,992.3    $7,733.9    $6,811.0    $6,761.2    $6,794.1       $32.9     -$939.8
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $5,016.3    $5,990.1    $4,994.0    $4,985.9    $6,375.6    $1,389.7      $385.5
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $12,008.6   $13,724.0   $11,805.0   $11,747.1   $13,169.7    $1,422.6     -$554.3


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $26,220.8   $30,087.4   $28,335.5   $28,307.3   $29,413.9    $1,106.6     -$673.5
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $11,062.2   $12,293.0    $9,660.1    $9,649.6   $12,390.7    $2,741.1       $97.7
 Compliance

Enforcement            TOTAL  $37,343.0   $42,380.4   $37,995.6   $37,956.9   $41,804.6    $3,847.7     -$575.8


PERMANENT UORKYEARS


                                                                                  379.5        -5.8       -13.0


                                                                                  109.0        -1.8       -15.3


                                                                                  488.5        -7.6       -28.3
                                                                                  379.5         -5.8       -13.0


                                                                                  109.0         -1.8       -15.3


                                                                                  488.5         -7.6       -28.3
Stationary Source
Compliance
Mobile Source
Enforcement
TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Stationary Source
Compliance
Mobile Source
Enforcement
TOTAL UORKYEARS
342.4
111.5
453.9

358.6
113.9
472.5
392.5
124.3
516.8

392.5
124.3
516.8
389.2
111.9
501.1

389.2
111.9
501.1
385.3
110.8
496.1

385.3
110.8
496.1
                                                       2-95

-------
                                      Air

                                  Enforcement

Budget Request

    The Agency requests a total of $41,804,600 supported by 488.5 total workyears
for 1994, an increase of $3,847,700 and a decrease of 7.6 total workyears from
1993.  The decrease in  workyears  is a result of  the government-wide reduction in
workyears that is part  of the President's program to reduce the size  and cost of
government.  Of  the request,  $29,413,900  will  be for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $12,390,700 will be  for  the Abatement, Control and
Compliance  appropriation.    This represents an  increase  in  the Program and
Research Operations appropriation of $1,106,600  and an increase in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation of $2,741,100.


STATIONARY SOURCE ENFORCEMENT

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total of  $28,634,900  supported by 379.5  total
workyears for  this  program,  of which $22,619,800 will be  for the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation and  $6,015,100  will  be for the  Abatement,
Control and Compliance  appropriation.  This represents an  increase of $1,073,700
for the Program and  Research Operations appropriation due  to increased workforce
costs,  an  increase  of $1,351,400  in the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance
appropriation, and a decrease of 5.8 in total workyears from 1993,  as a result
of the government-wide reduction in workyears  that  is part of the President's
program to reduce the size and cost of government.  The increase will support an
expanded  chlorofluorocarbon  (CFC)  compliance  program  and   case  development
efforts.

    In 1994 compliance monitoring and enforcement efforts (in concert with the
states) will  continue  to ensure the compliance of  sources  covered  by  state
implementation plans  (SIPs),  New  Source Performance  Standards  (NSPSs)  and
National   Emission  Standards   for  Hazardous   Air  Pollutants   (NESHAPs).
Implementation of the  strategies for  addressing  multi-state  and  multi-program
violators and  for corporate-wide patterns of non-compliance  will  continue,  as
will  initiatives  to  enforce  the  newly  adopted  NESHAPs  standard.     The
implementation of an expanded CFC compliance program will be supported through
increased  inspections   of   sources  and  initiation  of  enforcement  actions.
Additional resources will focus on monitoring the status of compliance of sources
subject to the phase I acid rain requirements and on the implementation  of an EPA
wide  goal  of  improving  data quality  from  sources  applying  for permits  and
reporting their compliance.

      A comprehensive program to determine the effectiveness of volatile organic
compounds (VOC) rules, implementation of  the compliance monitoring and inspection
targeting program to ensure better use of inspection resources, and workshop and

                                     2-96

-------
technical support will be emphasis areas.   Efforts to enhance VOC compliance in
ozone  nonattainment  areas,  including  small  VOC   sources,  will  continue.
Inspections that may result in the need to issue administrative  orders and  the
processing of  litigation referrals will  be conducted at major sources.  State
program building will be a high priority in an expanded SIP  assistance program
for assuring the enforceability of new requirements.   Support will continue  for
inspections and  enforcement  of  the CFC program, as  well  as the expanding  air
toxics program.  Implementation of the field citation program will commence with
focused enforcement efforts  concentrated in  nonattainment areas where EPA  has
primacy.   Continuing  support will  be  provided  for  the development  of   the
operating permits program.   Headquarters and Regional contract resources will
support training for increased permitting  inspections, administrative orders,  and
litigation referrals due to newly regulated sources.

    We will continue  to explore  opportunities to solve significant multimedia
environmental  problems  when  addressing  violating sources.      We  will also
continue our analyses of major sources and their  compliance practices.  We will
examine risk  and compliance concerns and  develop  strategies to address them.
These  could  include  geographic,  industrial  or  corporate  type  initiatives.
Rulemaking activities will also continue to ensure prompt implementation of Clean
Air  Act  requirements.   This will  include the  promulgation of  the enhanced
monitoring  and   compliance  certification  provisions,   the  citizen  suits
requirements, the awards program,  the field citation  program  and the contractor
listing regulations.  There will also be activity in the development of guidance
and training material for the implementation of these programs.

1993 Program

      The Agency allocated a total  of  $26,209,800  supported by  385.3  total
workyears to this program, of which $21,546,100 is from the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation and $4,663,700 is  from  the Abatement,  Control   and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993  the  national  compliance program, primarily  through the  ten  EPA
Regional Offices, is implementing compliance monitoring and enforcement efforts
to ensure the compliance  of SIP, NSPS, NESHAP, and stratospheric ozone protection
sources.   Implementation of  the  strategies  for the NESHAP  for the asbestos
demolition and renovation program,  radionuclides,  and benzene  continues.   A
comprehensive program to determine the effectiveness  of rules is being expanded
to cover  VOC  sources  and other  pollutant categories. Implementation  of   the
compliance monitoring and inspection targeting program to ensure better use of
inspection resources  continues  as well as conducting workshops and providing
technical support.  Resources are  directed toward implementation of an effective
enforcement program for  reducing  ozone in nonattainment areas.

      In the area of  PM-10,  the  Regions  are  reviewing proposed PM-10 SIPs  for
enforceability and ensured compliance of sources subject to newly promulgated
PM-10 SIPs.  Enforcement of continuous emission monitoring (CEM) requirements  for
federally regulated sources continues.   Regions  are  providing support  for the
phase-down of CFC production to control importation of CFC  chemicals and support
the development and implementation of recycling regulations required by changes

                                     2-97

-------
in the CAA of 1990.   In  addition, state program building is being emphasized in
an expanded  SIP  assistance  program  for  assuring the  enforceability  of new
requirements in training and  in the  focus of resources for targeting compliance
efforts toward significant multimedia environmental problems.

      In 1993 EPA Headquarters  continues to participate  in the development of
policy guidance, planning, and budgeting activities, and the review of selected
Regional activities and program performance.  Headquarters  is also assuring the
enforceability  of  proposed Agency  regulations  under Title III  (NESHAP) and
prevention of significant deterioration programs; managing the National Asbestos
Registry System (NARS) and the compliance portion of the Aerometric Information
Retrieval System (AIRS); managing the level of effort contracts; and conducting
technical studies.  Headquarters continues the implementation of the technical
agenda  by developing jointly with  the Regions a planned list  of  technical
projects to be initiated in 1993. In addition, this program area will assure the
successful  implementation of the revised  asbestos demolition  and renovation
strategy, the woodstove NSPS  and the CFC phase-out and use restriction program.

      During  1993,  EPA  Headquarters is  ensuring  enhanced VOC  compliance by
providing VOC technical and training support to  the Regions and state agencies,
issuing policy guidance, monitoring  compliance and enforcement activities, and
overview of the implementation of the rule-effectiveness protocol.  In addition,
Headquarters  is continuing the  implementation  of the laboratory  program for
woodstove testing, reviewing applications for woodstove certification, monitoring
certification tests, and certifying production lines.  The woodstove program is
moving  into  the second  phase of certification  and enforcement  including the
implementation of the Random Compliance Audit and the Selective Enforcement Audit
programs.  The national enforcement strategy to address nationwide non-compliance
issues continues and is  being  expanded to include additional types of industries
which have a nationwide  impact on air quality.

      Support for the stratospheric ozone protection program is being continued
through  participation in rule  development  and  the preparation  of compliance
monitoring strategies and guidance for automobile, commercial and residential air
conditioning,  and refrigeration recycling programs.  This is in addition to  a
doubling of the number of production facilities which occurred in 1992 and  which
must  still be  monitored as a result of  revisions to  the Clean Air Act  and the
Montreal Protocol.  Review of the phase-out of CFCs and halons through monitoring
compliance of manufacturers and  importers continues with the identification of
violators and  appropriate enforcement actions.

      Support is being provided to ensure adequate direction and oversight of air
toxics  compliance  and  enforcement  efforts  resulting  from  new legislative
requirements,  particularly in those states  where delegations of authority for
both  existing and prospective standards have  not been  requested.  EPA  is also
actively  pursuing the implementation of the early reductions  program  for air
toxics.

       Implementation of the  administrative enforcement requirements resulting
from  the  new Clean  Air  Act is continuing.  Also,  activity  is continuing in the
development  of a field  citation program for enforcement  of the Clean  Air Act

                                      2-98

-------
requirements  for  stationary sources,  citizen award provisions,  citizen suit
guidelines, and contractor listing procedures.  The implementation of regulations
for enhanced monitoring and compliance certification authority is continuing.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992  the  Agency obligated a total of  $25,334,400 supported by 358.6
total  workyears,  of  which  $19,288,500  was  from the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $6,045,900 was  from  the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      The major activities in the ten Regional Offices included the enforcement
of VOC source requirements in ozone nonattainment areas, the implementation of
a comprehensive program  to  determine if  adopted VOC measures were effectively
implemented and the conduct  of  VOC compliance workshops to improve inspection
quality  to enable state and local  air pollution  agencies to improve their
technical  capabilities.    Identification and  enforcement  actions were taken
against 765 significant violators,  a 26 percent increase over the previous year.
VOC enforcement  involved addressing  323 significant violators,  a 42 percent
increase over VOC violators addressed  in the previous year.  Federal enforcement
actions  focused on major violating sources in nonattainment areas.  EPA worked
closely with the states on finalizing the guidance on "timely and appropriate"
enforcement actions to address the most  significant environmental problems.

      In 1992,  EPA Headquarters  continued  oversight of Regional  programs to
assure consistency  of rules and guidance through programmatic reviews and reviews
of certain classes  of  enforcement actions.  The headquarters' program continued
to  assure  the enforceability of proposed EPA  regulations; managed  the AIRS
Facility Subsystem;  managed  the  level  of effort  contract support  program;
developed technical and program guidance; and conducted planning and budgeting
activities.

      Also in 1992, EPA Headquarters  initiated several workgroups to implement
the major provisions of Title VII of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.  This
effort   focused   on   enhanced   monitoring   and   compliance   certification,
administrative penalties, field citation, awards, citizen suits and contractor
listing.

      Implementation  of  the  compliance monitoring  and inspection  targeting
strategy continued.  The Administrative  Penalty Program resulted in the filing
of 100 administrative  complaints.  Included as  a result of the 1992  Clean Air Act
Administrative  Case   Initiative  were  52 cases  with penalties  in  excess  of
$4,000,000.  Implementation of the NSPS woodstoves program continued,  including
the review of applications  for woodstoves  certification,  the monitoring of
certification tests, and  the evaluation of test results.  Headquarters continued
oversight and evaluation of Regional Random Compliance Audits and state efforts
to implement the rule-effectiveness assessments.

      In 1992,  Headquarters continued to monitor the enforcement programs  for PM-
10 and lead for national consistency issues.  A national enforcement strategy for
lead sources was continued to assure  full compliance with emission limitations

                                      2-99

-------
and  to  adopt  additional measures  in geographical  areas  still  experiencing
violations of the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

      Support for the stratospheric ozone protection program was expanded through
participation in rule development and the preparation of compliance monitoring
strategies  and  guidance  for  automobile,  commercial  and  residential  air
conditioning, and refrigeration recycling  programs.   This  is in addition to a
doubling of the number of production facilities which were monitored as a result
of revisions  to the Clean Air Act  and the Montreal Protocol.  Review  of the
phase-out of CFCs and halons  through monitoring compliance of manufacturers and
importers was increased with a growth  in the number of violators identified and
enforcement actions taken.

      Support was provided  to ensure adequate direction and oversight  of air
toxics  compliance  and  enforcement  efforts  resulting  from new  legislative
requirements, particularly in  those states where  delegations of authority for
both existing and prospective  standards will  be requested.   EPA also actively
pursued the implementation of the early reduction program for air toxics.  The
Agency  initiated a major  enforcement strategy  initiative  to address  non-
compliance issues dealing with the woodproduct industry.
MOBILE SOURCE ENFORCEMENT

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $13,169,700 supported by 109.0 total work
years for this program,  of which $6,794,100 will be for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $6,375,600 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $32,900 in the Program
and  Research  Operations  appropriation,  an  increase  of   $1,389,700  in  the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation, and a decrease of 1.8 total work
years.   The increases  reflect additional  workforce costs  and  the additional
resources needed to continue the implementation of the  Clean Air Act Amendments
of 1990  (CAAA).   The  decrease  in workyears  is a result of the  government-wide
reduction in workyears that is  part of the President's program to reduce the size
and cost of government.

      In  1994 the light-duty  recall program will  continue investigations of
suspect light-duty vehicle classes, with related diagnostic evaluation and remedy
development  work,  and   high   mileage,  light-duty  truck classes.   The  fuel
inspection  program will continue to enforce the  more  stringent Phase II fuel
volatility  requirements and sample for other fuel  additives by  collecting fuel
samples from refiners, importers, distributors, and retail outlets throughout the
country.   Expanded fuel enforcement will address  fuel quality issues for all
conventional  fuels,  including  volatility,  diesel  fuel sulfur,  and oxygenates.
Tampering  inspection  programs  will continue as a  deterrent to the removal of
emission  control  components  from  vehicles.   The fuel  and  fuel  additives
registration  program  activities will be augmented  by the implementation of the
new testing protocols program  for fuel and fuel additives.


                                     2-100

-------
      The EPA recall program will investigate approximately 30 suspect light-duty
vehicle classes.   In addition, the Agency will  conduct two investigations to
assess compliance  with  the more stringent full  useful  life standards of high
mileage, light-duty truck classes.  The Agency will continue its investigative
efforts of heavy-duty gasoline  engine classes but at a reduced level. The Agency
will  also  continue  investigations  into the  operations of  importers  of non-
conforming  vehicles  to  ensure that  certification  procedures  are adequately
implemented.   The Selective  Enforcement Audit (SEA)  program will  conduct
approximately six  audits  of  light-duty vehicle manufacturer facilities,  eight
audits  of  heavy-duty manufacturer  facilities,  and two production compliance
audits in support of  the non-conformance penalties (NCPs) program to ensure that
new production vehicles and engines meet emissions and NCP requirements.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $11,747,100 supported by  110.8 total
workyears for this program, of which  $6,761,200 is from the Program  and Research
Operations  appropriation and  $4,985,900  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA implemented the oxygenated fuel provisions of the CAAA allowing the use
of marketable oxygen  credits  from gasolines with higher oxygen content to offset
the sale or use of gasoline with a lower oxygen content in 39 areas throughout
the country.  Fuel samples will be collected from all points in the distribution
chain to ensure that  appropriate oxygen levels are present in gasoline to reduce
carbon monoxide emissions at cold temperatures. The fuel inspection  program also
continues to enforce the more stringent Phase II fuel volatility requirements and
samples  for other fuel  additives by  collecting fuel  samples  from refiners,
importers, distributors, and retail outlets throughout the  country.  The Agency
continues to investigate reported  incidents of tampering and to issue violations
both to fleet operators and individuals who violate the  provisions of the CAAA.

      The  EPA recall program  will continue  to investigate  approximately  32
suspect light-duty vehicle classes.   The Agency will continue its investigative
efforts of heavy-duty gasoline engine classes but at a reduced level. The Agency
will  also  continue  investigations  into the  operations of  importers  of non-
conforming  vehicles  to  ensure that  certification  procedures  are adequately
implemented.  The SEA program will conduct approximately six audits of light-duty
vehicle  manufacturer  facilities,  eight  audits of  heavy-duty  manufacturer
facilities, and two production compliance audits in support of the  NCP program
to  ensure  that  new  production vehicles  and engines  meet emissions  and  NCP
requirements. The Agency will promulgate regulations for revised volatility, for
lead  substitutes,  and for the revised fuel  and  fuel  additives registration.
Additionally, EPA will provide oxygenated fuels guidance, and will promulgate the
oxygenated labelling regulations.

1992 Accomplishments

      The  Agency obligated a  total of $12,008,600  supported by  113.9  total
workyears for this program, of which $6,992,300 was from the Salaries and
                                     2-101

-------
Expenses  appropriation and  $5,016,300 was  from the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA promulgated rules allowing the use of marketable oxygen credits from
gasolines with higher oxygen content to offset  the sale or use of gasoline with
a lower oxygen content for 39 areas throughout the country.  The fuel inspection
program began to enforce the more stringent Phase II fuel volatility requirements
and also sample for alcohol and other fuel additives by collecting approximately
8,000 fuel samples from  refiners,  importers,  distributors,  and retail outlets
throughout the country.  These inspections led to approximately 100 notices of
violations.  A total  of 585  tampering investigations resulted in 173 notices of
violation.  The Agency audited the  incidence of tampering and fuel switching at
10 sites  primarily to gauge the effectiveness of the  anti-tampering programs
implemented by state and local jurisdictions.

      The EPA recall  program investigated 36 suspect light-duty vehicle classes
and carried out related diagnostic  evaluation and remedy development work.  The
Agency  also  conducted two  investigations to  assess  compliance with  the more
stringent full useful life standards of high mileage,  light-duty truck classes.
In  addition,  the Agency implemented  a small heavy-duty  recall  program and
conducted one investigation of heavy-duty engine classes.  The Agency continued
investigations into the  operations  of importers  of non-conforming vehicles to
ensure that certification procedures are adequately implemented. The SEA program
conducted three audits of light-duty vehicle manufacturer facilities, 12 audits
of heavy-duty manufacturer  facilities,  and one production  compliance audit in
support of the NCP program  to  ensure that new  production  vehicles and engines
meet emissions and NCP requirements.
                                     2-102

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                              Tgh*le of Contents

                                                                         Page

WATER QUALITY                                                            3-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Water Quality Research	   3-13
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Hater Quality and Grants Program Management	   3-31
      Great Lakes Program	   3-32
      Chesapeake Bay Program	   3-35
   Engineering & Analysis	   3-39
      Engineering and Analysis  	   3-40
   Grants Assistance Programs 	   3-43
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106) 	   3-44
      Clean Lakes Program	   3-46
   Water Quality Strategies Implementation  	   3-47
      Wetlands Protection 	   3-49
      Nonpoint Source Management Grants  	   3-52
      Wetlands Implementation Program 	   3-53
      Oil spills Program	   3-54
      Ocean Disposal Permits  	   3-55
      Environmental Emergency Response & Prevention 	   3-57
      Water Quality Criteria, Standards & Applications  	   3-57
   Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis	   3-61
      Coastal Environment Management  	   3-62
      Assessment and Watershed Protection 	   3-65
   Municipal Source Pollution 	   3-71
      Municipal Pollution Control 	   3-72
ENFORCEMENT
   Water Quality Enforcement	   3-77
      Water Quality Enforcement	   3-78
   Water Quality Permit Issuance	   3-81
      Water Quality Permit Issuance 	   3-82

-------
APPROPRIATION
                                                     WATER QUALITY
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development
 Construction Grants
 Oil Spills Trust Fund

TOTAL. Water Quality
     $128,766.7  $138,440.1  $136,297.8  $136,177.5  $138,879.9    $2,702.4      $439.8

     $315,235.3  $273,763.4  $259,158.4  $264,930.4  $231,845.4  -$33,085.0  -$41,918.0

      $15,587.2   $17,275.8   $16,716.8   $16,716.8   $13,677.9   -$3,038.9   -$3,597.9
                              $50,000.0   $50,000.0   $80,000.0   $30,000.0   $80,000.0
                  $19,661.1   $17,077.1   $17,076.1              -$17,076.1  -$19,661.1

     $459,589.2  $449,140.4  $479,250.1  $484,900.8  $464,403.2  -$20,497.6   $15,262.8
 Ocean Dumping Fund
         $619.9
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS

OUTLAYS

AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
        2,146.0
        2,235.3
2,373.9
2,373.9
2,356.0
2,356.0
2,326.1
2,326.1
2,206.9
2,206.9
-119.2
-119.2
-167.0
-167.0
     $381,345.6  $406,615.1  $447,224.9  $451,503.6  $387,177.2  -$64,326.4  -$19,437.9

Authorization for the Clean Water Act as amended in 1987 expired on September 30,  1989.
Reauthorization is pending.
                                                        3-1

-------
                                                          WATER QUALITY
                                  PRES.               CURRENT
                                 BUDGET    ENACTED    ESTIMATE
                                  1993      1993        1993
                                                                         DIFFERENCE
                                    ENACTED VS
                                    PRES.  BUD
 EST. VS
PRES. BUD
EST. VS
ENACTED
 APPROPRIATION
                                                (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
  Program & Research
   Operations
  Abatement Control and
  Compliance
  Research & Development
  Construction Grants
  Oil Spills Trust Fund

 TOTAL, Water Quality
 PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 TOTAL WORKYEARS
$138,440.1  $136,297.8  $136,177.5   -$2.142.3   -$2.262.6     -$120.3

$273,763.4  $259,158.4  $264,930.4  -$14,605.0   -$8,833.0    $5.772.0

 $17,275.8   $16,716.8   $16,716.8     -$559.0     -$559.0
             $50,000.0   $50,000.0   $50,000.0   $50,000.0
$19,661.1
$449,140.4
2,373.9
2,373.9
$17,077.1
$479,250.1
2,356.0
2,356.0
$17,076.1
$484,900.8
2,326.1
2.326.1
-$2,584.0
$30,109.7
-17.9
-17.9
-$2,585.0
$35,760.4
-47.8
-47.8
-$1.0
$5,650.7
-29.9
-29.9
        The following points  list the major reasons that the dollars devoted to this media have changed from
submission of the President's FY 1993 Budget Request to the FY  1993  Current  Estimates:

        ABATEMENT. CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

        o        +$42 M  in Congressional  add-on projects.

        o        -$29 M  in Congressionally directed  reductions.

        o        -$26 M  transferred  to Construction  Grants  for Nonpoint Source Grants.


        PROGRAM AND  RESEARCH OPERATIONS

        o        -$5.1 M for  Agency  Priorities.


        RESEARCH AMD DEVELOPMENT

        o        +$525 K for  Congressional  add-on projects  for the NAS Wetlands Study and Great Lakes Research.
        o        Congressionally directed add-ons for Great  Lakes research, Zebra Mussels research, the Water
                 Environment  Research Foundation, the Center for Analysis of Environmental Change, and nutrient
                 loading research in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay.

        o        Congressionally directed general reductions to the Research and Development appropriation.

        OIL SPILL RESPONSE

        o        -$2.6 M in Congressionally directed reduction.
                                                         3-2

-------
        MEDIA  Water Quality

        NPM   Water
FY 1993 CURRENT ESTIMATE

  Changes by Category:

Workforce Costs (+/-)

Legislative Initiatives (+/-)

Program Initiatives (+/-)
Discontinuation of Specific
Increases to FY 1993 Request (-)

Others (+/•)
FY 1994 PRESIDENT'S BUDGET
                                                     MEDIA BRIDGE TABLES
                         Water Quality


  PRO              AC&C            W_i£       R&D            Oil     Total

$136,177.5     $264,930.4      $50,000.0    $16.716.8    17,076.1   $484,900.8
                                                            $0.0     $2,185.1

                                                            $0.0     $2,000.0

                                                            $0.0    $37,827.1

                                                            $0.0   -$44,854.9
$2,702.4
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
138,879.9
-$517.1
$2,000.0
$7,577.1
-$41,980.0
-$165.0
$231,845.4
$0.0
$0.0
$30,000.0
$0.0
$0.0
$80,000.0
$0.0
$0.0
$250.0
-$2,874.9
-$413.8
$13,677.9
                                                            $0.0   $464,403.2
                                                            3-3

-------
n

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      The fundamental  philosophy behind the  1994 water  quality program is an
ecosystem-based,  risk-targeted  approach to pollution  prevention and control.
This approach  consists of a  continued focus  on our  existing,  and expanding,
statutory responsibilities for traditional pollution sources, and an increased
emphasis on our most significant non-traditional unaddressed pollution source,
wet  weather runoff  (stormwater,  nonpoint source  [NFS]  and  combined  sewer
overflows [CSOs]).

      Over  the  past  two decades the  water program has  made  great  strides in
improving the  nation's water  quality, a  success  which can  be attributed to
nationwide  regulations limiting point source discharges  from  industrial  and
municipal facilities.  Through legislation such as the Water Quality Act of 1987,
which amended the Clean Water Act (CWA),  our responsibilities  continue to grow.
The CWA ratified existing programs such as technology-based and water quality-
based effluent limits for point source  dischargers,  and provided  new tools, such
as mandatory  permits  to  control sewage sludge  contamination,  administrative
penalties to  streamline  enforcement  actions,  and the  State  Revolving  Fund
program,  which  authorized  funds for  municipal  wastewater treatment.   Other
statutory mandates have been added through the Great Lakes Critical Programs Act
(GLCPA),  Water  Resources Development  Act of 1992 and  the Coastal Zone  Act
Reauthorization Amendments  (CZARA).    During  1994  we  will continue to  place
emphasis on our traditional, legislatively-mandated programs which are crucial
to maintaining the improved water quality the nation enjoys today.

      However, many  significant  water  quality challenges remain.   Wet weather
runoff is a major cause of impairment  of our  nation's waters.  High volumes of
pollutants  are  carried into surface  waters  due to  everyday  flows from  the
landscape and  as  rains temporarily  overflow the  traditional water  quality
infrastructure of storm and  sanitary  sewers.   The  results  pose risks to human
health, threaten aquatic habitats and public water  supplies, and impair the use
and enjoyment of  surface  waters.  The 1994 program places strong emphasis on
working with states,  Tribes  and local governments to develop needed programs for
stormwater,  CSOs,  sludge use and disposal,  and nonpoint sources, and to provide
them with the  necessary science and  data  to develop, defend and effectively
implement those programs.

      EPA carries out these programs  at the national level  and through specific
geographic initiatives targeting critical watersheds.  To further the strategic
goals of the water program in 1994 and beyond we must maintain  a  strong national
program on which states and localities  can  base their implementation efforts.

1994 PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

      EPA is working with other  Federal, state and local agencies and private
interest groups and  citizens to refocus and  operate  existing water pollution
control programs  in  a  more comprehensive and coordinated  manner.   There  is a
growing consensus that our remaining water quality problems can best be solved
by increasing  our focus on  basin-wide approaches  that  take  into  account  all

                                      3-5

-------
pollution sources in a watershed and target actions for coordinated responses by
all interested parties.

      The 1994 program strengthens the base upon which the Watershed Protection
Approach  (WPA)  is  built  by shifting  resources  and  adding new  resources to
accelerate  the  development  and  implementation  of  national  programs  for
monitoring,  permitting,  and  enforcing  permit   conditions  with  respect  to
stormwater and  CSO discharges, and  sludge use and disposal.   These national
programs will be developed  with the  increased involvement of key stakeholders
including state and local governments, industry and environmental organizations.

WET WEATHER RUNOFF

      Also, the Agency will begin the watershed restoration grants program, in
which Clean  Water  Act Section 319 funds  will be targeted  to  specific state-
designated local watershed projects designed to restore wetlands, stream banks,
shorelines, seagrass beds and other aquatic habitats.  Such watershed projects
will include: restoration of riparian habitats in man-altered watersheds; urban
lake renewal; improvement  and restoration of important wetland habitats; shaping
or restoration of altered stream channels  and  riparian habitats; and protection
and restoration of eroding  shorelines and their habitats.

      The  Agency will  also provide   section  319  grants  to assist  states in
implementing their EPA-approved nonpoint source (NPS) management programs.  In
1994, these grants are supporting continuing  statewide base NPS implementation
activities, including the  upgrade  of the level and  quality of NPS controls being
applied  in the  high priority watersheds to reflect  the best  economically
achievable management measures  available.   In  particular, these funds are being
focused on several specific priority NPS categories —  agriculture, silviculture,
urban, and hydro-modification — in cooperation with other Federal agencies to
begin implementation of the Agency's  management measures guidance for coastal
areas developed under the  Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments  (CZARA) of
1990.

      Our  monitoring support  will  help states  begin  to use  environmental
indicators and other "non-traditional" monitoring  approaches that are essential
to watershed-based data  collection, analysis and decision-making consistent with
the WPA.  These approaches are being considered by  the Interagency Task Force on
Monitoring (ITFM).

      The water quality standards  program will focus on developing guidance and
providing  assistance and training  to  state  and local  communities.    These
activities will  strengthen  states' abilities  to adopt  water quality standards
reflective of  wet  weather events  and assist  states, within  the total maximum
daily load framework, to develop permit limits addressing water quality standards
for wet weather runoff,  including  CSOs.   It will provide the primary analytical
basis for  developing watershed-specific  prevention and  control  strategies and
trading schemes.

      We will develop scientifically  sound and easily  usable models for waste
load allocations and mixing  zones.  Effective and scientifically defensible waste
load  allocations for CSOs, stormwater discharges,  and load  allocations for

                                      3-6

-------
agricultural  and other  nonpoint  sources  will  be  developed  and  applied in order
to more effectively control these sources.  The Agency will undertake a variety
of activities to control wet weather discharges in accordance with CWA mandates
and WPA goals.
ADDRESSING STATUTORY MANDATES

      To  meet the statutory mandate  of Section 304(m) of  the CWA, which was
subsequently  incorporated in the 1992  Consent  Decree between EPA  and Natural
Resources Defense Council, the Agency must develop effluent limitation guidelines
for industries that present the most  significant risk to public health and the
environment.   The development  of these  guidelines  is supported by detailed
engineering,  economic and statistical analyses and analytical methods  for toxic
and hazardous pollutants.   Potential impacts on other environmental media are
considered as virtually all guidelines are developed in coordination with other
media.  Pursuant to the Water Resources  Development Act of 1992, the Agency must
develop  a comprehensive  national survey  of sediment  quality.   The resulting
contaminated  sediment  inventory will serve  to  target water quality standards
adoption and  control program implementation.

MEETING SCIENCE AND DATA  NEEDS

      The  water  quality program  will  focus  on  improving  the  quality  and
application of our scientific and technical  tools.  These tools underlie water
programs, support water quality  decisions and are essential to the  protection of
human  health  and the  environment.     In  particular, efforts  will  focus  on
scientific improvements in assessing human and ecological risk and  contamination
of  fish  and  sediment;  controlling  and preventing  industrial toxic releases;
assisting and guiding in implementation of these  tools; and measuring the success
of our prevention and control programs.

      The  Agency  will enhance  its  scientific  capabilities  for developing
consistent  methodologies for human  health  and ecological  risk  assessments,
specifically through development of environmental indicators.  This focus will
support development of  improved methods to  quantify  and  describe risks.   The
program will support application of new risk studies, microbiological quality of
water research and microbial methods  development.   Similarly, in the wetlands
program, a  categorization approach will be  implemented as  a means to better
tailor regulatory efforts  to the functions and values of these natural resources.

      The quality and access to water quality data systems will be  improved to
facilitate public use of these systems and ensure national  consistency.  We will
enhance the effectiveness of targeted  nonpoint source  implementation, including
needed changes to U.S. Geological Survey systems.  We will continue to emphasize
greater consistency in water quality data  collected  by the  states under  CWA
section 305(b).   Improving  this data will strengthen our  basis for targeting
resources among different watersheds and geographic areas.  These efforts are key
because our ability to defend project selections  based  on baseline environmental
data will largely dictate  our success in evaluating these efforts in the future.
                                      3-7

-------
      The Agency will also focus on ecosystem management.   The tools that enable
Regions and states to assess environmental impacts on a. system-wide base include
scientifically sound national water quality criteria; tools to tailor criteria
to site-specific circumstances; methods for assessing the health of ecological
communities and models to  predict the  impact  of  stressors on  ecosystems.   EPA
will work with  states and dischargers  to  revise  criteria to reflect increased
knowledge of environmental and human health  impacts  and under the Total Maximum
Daily Load program identify:  (1) the site-specific needs for pollution control
and (2) the most effective means of obtaining water quality objectives.

SPECIAL PROGRAM WATER QUALITY EFFORTS

      In  1994,  the emphasis  is  on  activities that  address significant human
health needs or ecological threats identified in targeted watersheds.

      The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) will continue to be guided
by  Five-Year-Strategy goals  for toxics  reduction and habitat  protection and
restoration.   GLNPO  is  leading state and Federal air and water programs  in a
joint  effort  to  develop  integrated open  water,   tributary,   biota,   and air
monitoring  in  the Great  Lakes Basin to develop  baseline information on toxic
loadings and concentrations.  Habitat protection and restoration projects in the
Basin  will  support   healthy  and  diverse  communities,   emphasizing  habitats
necessary to maintain bio-diversity in the Great Lakes Basin.

      The Chesapeake Bay Program Office  (CBPO)  will  encourage private sector
involvement  in nonpoint  source pollution  efforts  throughout  the  watershed.
Outreach efforts will encourage expanded public involvement in efforts to reduce
the  effects of  nonpoint  sources of  pollution.   The  CBPO will  continue its
nutrient reduction effort to meet the goal of a 40-percent reduction by the year
2000  through  the  implementation   of  tributary-specific nutrient  reduction
strategies.

      Efforts  by  the Gulf of Mexico Program will target the most critical and
vulnerable marine life with pollution prevention  and control activities so  as to
expand  shellfish-growing  waters.    Support will  continue for demonstration
projects  and   other  important efforts  of  the  Gulf  Program's  technical
subcommittees.

      The  Agency will address  environmental  problems at  the  Mexican Border,
including major water-related sanitation issues raised by the Integrated Border
Environmental  Plan  (IBEP).   The 1994  program supports  the effort  to provide
needed services to U.S. colonias and Mexican border  cities through construction
of  wastewater  treatment  facilities  funded  under  the  Water  Infrastructure
Financing  (WIF)  appropriation.

      Working  with the Army Corps of Engineers and  other Federal agencies, EPA
will  continue  to build   a  strong, consistent  wetlands  protection program.
Consistent  with the watershed  protection  approach,  the wetlands program will
direct its  efforts to those wetlands at greatest risk.  Activities will include
continued enhancement of our state partnerships, including attention to  sound
management  of  the  state grants program  and  development of  State Wetlands
Conservation Strategies.

                                      3-8

-------
WATER QUALITY RESEARCH

      The water quality research program will develop and improve scientific data
and technologies to help protect and enhance the designated uses of our nation's
waters and related ecosystems, including research on  coastal  and marine waters,
large lakes and rivers,  wetlands,  contaminated sediments,  aquatic  eco-criteria,
nonpoint sources  of pollution, habitat  and bio-diversity,  and wastewater and
sludge.

      To help  implement a national policy  of "no net  loss  of wetlands," the
Agency  is  carrying  out  a multi-year  research  plan  endorsed  by the Science
Advisory Board  in 1991 to develop a risk-based approach for wetland protection
and  management.  Research  will  be  conducted to  describe the water quality
functions of wetlands, develop the methods for assessing the cumulative impacts
of  wetlands  losses,  and evaluate the  creation  and  restoration  of wetlands.
Increased  resources will  be used  to  evaluate  the   restoration  potential  of
agriculturally  converted wetlands in the prairie pothole  region.

      The Agency will also conduct research to improve our  ability  to understand
and predict the impact of human activities on large lakes and rivers by focussing
on  the  Great Lakes  and  extrapolating results to  other  lakes  and  rivers.   The
research program is designed to develop the  scientific data needed to establish
realistic ecological and public health goals  for such ecosystems,   help develop
a management program that strategically  directs resources, and provide ecological
indicators that document progress toward achieving these  goals.

      The agency  research program will develop aquatic  eco-criteria and other
methods  for  assessing   and  predicting  the  long-term  cumulative effects  of
anthropogenic stresses on the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico,  and  other coastal
and marine ecosystems.  Research will be conducted to  develop  and  apply a risk-
based framework to  identify and prioritize the major  risks to habitat and bio-
diversity.  The scale and intensity of habitat modification and the subsequent
loss and degradation of critical natural functions has become immense  in the
United  States,  with  long-term adverse  consequences to  both  ecological and
socioeconomic values.

      Work will continue to  provide the scientific  and  engineering  basis  to
effectively  protect  benthic  habitats  and  implement  pollution   control  and
prevention strategies that  will  someday obviate  the  contaminated  sediment
problem.  The Agency will also carry out research to develop the technology and
methods necessary to ensure the most cost effective   and  environmentally sound
management and  disposal of wastewater  and  sludge, including  research  on wet
weather discharges and innovative treatment technologies and pollution prevention
for industrial wastewater processes.

      The Agency  will continue  to develop the  scientific data  necessary  to
prevent or reduce nonpoint sources of  pollution by  focusing  research  on the
environmental  and ecological  impacts  of alternative agricultural management
systems.  The  research,  carried out in  conjunction with  USDA,  will  study the
ecological benefits from new farm and  watershed  management  methods including
those promoted  for voluntary adoption throughout the midwest.
                                      3-9

-------
Consulting Services Activities

      The Agency uses consulting resources to  fulfill  the requirements of its
authorizing  legislation.   Specifically, EPA uses  these  resources  to provide
technical assistance to Regions, states, and local governments; collect data and
monitor background levels as a basis  for future regulatory actions; and conduct
studies and analyses which support new programs.
                                     3-10

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

INCREMENTAL OUTPUTS
ACTUAL
 1992
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1993
ESTIMATE
  1994
INCREASE(+)
DECREASE (-)
1994 vs.1993
Ocean Pumping Dredged Material
Permit Review

Ocean Dumping
Site Designations
 187
  237
  230
Ocean Discharge Criteria Eval,
General
Major
Minor

Construction Grants
Awards

Active Construction
Workload  (BOY)
   3
  21
  23
  31
3839
Permits Issued by EPA Municipal '
Major                          173
Sludge Requirements             50

Non-Municipal 2
Major                          152
General                         13

Adiudicatorv Hearings
Settled                        116

Enforcement Actions
Inspections                   2068
Admin Compliance Orders        759
Admin Penalty Orders           233
Civil Litigation                57
Criminal Litigation             28

Clean Lakes
Projects/Studies/Assessments    90

Water Quality Criteria
Aquatic Life                     4
Sediment                         0
    5
   24
   23
   15
 3070
              149
              150
              150
               50
              150
             2305
              675
              235
               91
               32
               85
                4
                5
    3
   20
   13
   10
 2180
              160
              225
              170
              100
              150
             2400
              555
              354
               73
               34
                                      -7
                                      -1
  -2
  -4
 -10
                                      -5
                                                                  -890
             +11
             +75
             +20
             +50
                0
                0
              +95  3
             -120  4
             +119
              -18
               +2
                          -85
              -4
              -5
                                     3-11

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY


                                          CURRENT
                              ACTUAL      ESTIMATE
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES             1992         1993

CUMULATIVE OUTPUTS

Operation SRF Programs 6        51           51

Effluent Guidelines Categories
New Final Rules "               51           52

Regulations /Support Documents
for Sludge Reuse/Disposal        4            3

NPDES State Approvals           39           40

General Permit State Programs   32           35

National Estuary Projects       17           18

Water Quality Criteria
Aquatic Life                    39           43
Sediment                         05
                                                      ESTIMATE
                                                        1994
                                                         51
                                                         52
INCREASE(+)
DECREASE (-)
1994 vs.1993
                                                         41

                                                         38

                                                         21
                                                         43
                                                          5
   -2

   + 1

   +3

   +3
    0
    0
1.    Manors —The permit issuance total  for major municpals issued by EPA will
      increase slightly over this three year period as Regions are beginning to
      be able to  handle the more complex permits and states  have  adopted new
      water quality standards which will be reflected as necessary.

      Sludge — Both majors and minors are combined as one number.

2.    Manors — The permit issuance total for major non-municipals issued by EPA
      decreases as states are able to handle  more complex permits.

      General —  1993  general  permits will cover storm water dischargers.   A
      general permit  is an administrative mechanism to allow the state or Region
      to cover more than one discharger  with  similar characteristics  with one
      permit   (e.g.,   storm  water  discharges  associated   with   industrial
      activities,  boat yards, fish hatcheries).

3.    Includes inspections for sludge.

4.    Outputs for majors only.

5.    Fifty states and Puerto Rico have operational  SRF  programs.

6.    Offshore Oil and  Gas only; other rules are revisions to categories already
      counted in the 51 .
                                     3-12

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget  Estimate

                              Table of Contents


                                                                         Page

WATER QUALITY

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Water Quality Research	   3-13

-------
                                                         UATER  QUALITY
                                                   Water Quality  Research
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                                (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Water Quality Research
  Program & Research           $12.895.3   $15,375.6   $14.994.8   $14,925.7   $15,398.5      $472.8       $22.9
  Operations
  Research & Development       $15,587.2   $17,275.8   $16,191.8   $16,191.8   $13,677.9   -$2.513.9   -$3.597.9
                       TOTAL  $28,482.5   $32.651.4   $31,186.6   $31,117.5   $29,076.4   -$2,041.1   -$3,575.0

Congressional Directive
  Water
  Research & Development                                  $400.0      $400.0                 -$400.0
                       TOTAL                             $400.0      $400.0                 -$400.0

Congressional Directive
  Water
  Research & Development                                  $125.0      $125.0                 -$125.0
                       TOTAL                             $125.0      $125.0                 -$125.0


TOTAL:
  Program & Research           $12,895.3   $15,375.6   $14,994.8   $14,925.7   $15,398.5      $472.8       $22.9
  Operations
  Research & Development       $15,587.2   $17,275.8   $16,716.8   $16,716.8   $13,677.9   -$3,038.9   -$3,597.9

Water Quality Research TOTAL  $28,482.5   $32,651.4   $31,711.6   $31,642.5   $29,076.4   -$2,566.1   -$3.575.0


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Water Quality Research            207.6       236.9       226.3       223.5       214.2        -9.3       -22.7

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         207.6       236.9       226.3       223.5       214.2        -9.3       -22.7

TOTAL WORKYEARS
Water Quality Research            219.0       236.9       226.3       223.5       214.2        -9.3       -22.7

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   219.0       236.9       226.3       223.5       214.2        -9.3       -22.7
                                                       3-13

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY

                            Water Quality Research

                               Principal Outputs

1994s o     Initial report  on  the  state of scientific information relating  to
            the causes of toxic and nuisance algal blooms in coastal waters

      o     CIS-based Decision Support System for Midwestern Watershed
            Management Planning

      o     Watershed Landscape Design for Aquatic, Terrestrial, and
            Groundwater Improvements for Walnut Creek

      o     Standard methods for in situ capping of sediments

      o     Standard chronic toxicity methods for selected benthic species


1993; o     Completion of Green Bay mass balance model

      o     Completion of Green Bay pelagic food web model

      o     Report on  organic contaminant  and  heavy metal  concentrations  in
            zebra mussel tissue from western Lake Erie

      o     Revised guidelines for the development of aquatic  life water quality
            criteria

      o     Completion  and delivery  of  report on  Phase  I  of  the  coastal
            Biomarkers Research Program

      o     Model for predicting toxicity of PAH contaminated sediments in the
            field

      o     SAB Briefing Report:  Proposed Methods for Deriving Sediment Quality
            Criteria for metals.

      o     Development and testing of  marine microcosm conditions  needed to
            simulate  site-specific  coastal  habitats   for  the   purpose  of
            quantifying  risks  to  marine  systems   posed   by  anthropogenic
            pollutants.

      o     Report on  state-of-the-science  review on stressors,  impacts,  and
            indicators of function of  urban emergent wetland  types.

1992; o     SAB Briefing  Report:  SAB Briefing  Report:    Technical basis  for
            Sediment Quality Criteria  for non-ionic organic  chemicals

      o     Report on  synthesis  of  methods  to  predict  bioaccumulation  of
            sediment pollutants

                                     3-14

-------
      A  Synoptic  Approach to  Cumulative Impact Assessment:  A Proposed
      Methodology for Wetlands and Watersheds
o     Completed  field  study  of   subsurface-flow  constructed  wetlands
      systems for use in developing preliminary design guidance.

o     Report on sludge incineration studies

o     RREL Treatability Data Base Version 4.0.

o     Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and
      Estuarine Environmental Samples

o     Report  on bioassessment  protocols to  support  implementation  of
      biocriteria

o     Completed  the  design  and  testing  of  methods  to  assess  the
      time-to-recovery of Boston Harbor sediment communities.

o     Pathogen risk assessment methodology for landfilled sludge.

o     Provide technical  support to the  regions  and states  on  existing
      water quality standards and revise ambient water quality criteria as
      necessary.
                               3-15

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY


                            Water Quality Research
BUDGET REQUEST

1994 Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $29,076,400  supported by  214.2 total
workyears  for 1994,  of  which $15,398,500  will be for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $13,677,900 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation.   This represents  an increase  of  $472,800 in  the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation, a decrease of $3,038,900 in the Research and
Development appropriation, and a decrease  of 9.3 total workyears.  The increase
to  the  Program  and Research  Operations  appropriation reflects  additional
personnel compensation and benefits (PC&B),  and travel expenses associated with
funding ORD's staff of scientists, managers  and support personnel in such areas
as quality assurance, extramural resource management, and high  priority research.
The  decrease for the  Research  and  Development  appropriation  reflects  the
redirection of resources to  higher priority activities which is partially offset
by  an increase  for wetlands  research.   The decrease  for  the Research  and
Development appropriation reflects the elimination of Congressionally directed
projects  funded  in  1993  and the  redirection  of  resources  to support  the
Multimedia Program Element.

1993 Budget

      The Agency is allocating a  total of $31,642,500 supported by 223.5 total
workyears for this program element, of which $14,925,700 is from the Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation  and  $16,716,800 is  from  the Research  and
Deve1opment appropriat ion.

1992 Budget

      The  Agency  obligated  a  total of $28,482,500  supported by 219.0 total
workyears for this program element, of which  $12,895,300 was from the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and $15,587,200  was  from  the Research  and
Development appropriation.
RESEARCH ISSUES

      The sections below describe research program issues by each fiscal year:

COASTAL AND MARINE

1994 Program Request

      Coastal and marine ecosystems are at risk from long-term cumulative effects
of multiple pollutant  discharges  and habitat degradation.  Stresses on these

                                     3-16

-------
 systems  include point  and non-point  (including  atmospheric)  inputs of  toxic
 wastes and excess nutrients,  eroding sediment, and the effects of coastal wetland
 and  bottom  habitat degradation.   We do  not  know  the capacity  of  coastal
 ecosystems to assimilate pollutants and other stresses without significant loss
 of  ecological integrity,  productivity and sustainability.   To protect  these
 ecosystems,  ORD  is  conducting  research which  will produce methods to identify,
 assess, predict and manage the  cumulative effects  of human activities on coastal
 and marine ecosystems.   The  products  of this  research  will  provide  EPA  regions
 and coastal states with conceptual, analytical, and practical tools to assess the
 relative  effects of nutrients,  organic  matter,  toxic chemicals,  and  other
 anthropogenic   stresses  on   coastal  systems.     These  tools  will   include
 dose-response models for nutrients and toxic chemicals, system-level indicators
 of pollution-related problems,  and standard analytical methods.  These  methods
 will  provide the  scientific basis  for cost-effective  protection  of  coastal
 ecosystems through  correctly-targeted pollution control measures and resource
 management.

      1994 will  be  a transition year  in which the focus of  research will  begin
 to shift from individual stressor research to  a more integrated program aimed at
 understanding the cumulative impacts  of multiple stresses.  The research  will be
 organized  around a  matrix of  program areas  (problem  characterization, marine
 ecological processes,  risk assessment) and specific  threats  to coastal  water
 quality and  ecological integrity (nutrient and  organic overenrichment,  toxic
 chemical contamination,  eutrophication, and toxic algal  blooms).  In this way,
 researchers will focus on the highest priority threats  to coastal ecosystems as
 identified in EPA Report on the Quality of the  Nation's Water (the 305(b)Report).
 Another component of the research program will address the monitoring activities
 necessary to implement  the National Coastal Monitoring Act  of  1992.

 1993 Program

      ORD is conducting research to develop methods for assessing and predicting
 the long-term accumulation effects of multiple anthropogenic stresses on  coastal
 and marine ecosystems.  Researchers are carrying  out work in the area of  toxic
 chemical contamination to produce reports on the occurrence and effects of  toxic
 chemicals in free-ranging  marine  mammals and  other endangered  species;  methods
 for assessing biological and  ecological impacts of drilling waste in  the  Gulf of
 Mexico; better understanding of the effects  of toxic chemicals  (including PCB's)
 on the reproductive  systems of marine  fish; chemical markers of  pollution  sources
 in   marine   environments;   and  biological  mechanisms    (biomarkers)   of
 chemical-induced cancers  in  marine shellfish.  ORD is also supporting  further
 development and delivery of technical  assistance  to coastal states  and  regions
 for the application of mathematical  models of ocean  outfalls plumes in  areas
 including Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, Santa Monica  Bay, and San  Diego Bay.
 In the area of ecological processes, researchers are completing  a microcosm-based
 study of  the time-to-recovery  of Boston Harbor  and planning work on marine
 ecological processes in the Massachusetts Bays region.  ORD is also  conducting
 risk assessment case studies in Portsmouth Harbor, NH, and Greenwich Bay, RI.,
 and carrying out new research activities in  the  areas of  nutrient   pollution,
 organic overenrichment, and toxic algal blooms, and national coastal  ecosystems
monitoring.
                                     3-17

-------
      Congressional Directives.  A total of  $400,000  is for the Congressionally
directed project  for  a  nutrient  loading research project in Boston Harbor and
Massachusetts Bay.

1992 Accomplishments

      Researchers produced several peer-reviewed reports in the area of toxic
contamination including reports on the reproductive effects of PCB's on marine
fish, Outfall Plume Modeling Manual for computer models of pollutant transport
and fate from ocean outfalls,  and  Synthesis of Methods  to Predict Bioaccumulation
of  Sediment Pollutants.   In  the area  of  ecological processes,  researchers
developed  a CAT-scan method  for  quantifying  community-level  responses  to
pollution of marine benthic communities, and a report on the importance of the
seawater surface microlayer on the sea-air exchange of PCB's in New Bedford
Harbor.
LARGE LAKES AND RIVERS

1994 Program Request

      ORD will conduct research to improve our ability to understand and predict
the impact of human activities on large lakes and rivers.   The large lakes and
rivers of the Nation are subject to disturbances from the activities of man that
result in loadings of toxic chemicals and nutrients as well as loss of habitat
and the invasion of non-indigenous species.  For the purposes of the ORD research
effort,  the  Great  Lakes  and the  rivers serving  as connecting channels  are
considered to represent both the geographic target of research and the model from
which to extrapolate the approaches and results to other lakes and rivers.   In
addition to persistent chemical  insults,  the  Great Lakes have been subjected to
a variety  of physical  and biological alterations  including the  invasion  of
non-indigenous  nuisance species  such  as  the zebra mussel  and major  losses  of
wetlands and shoreline structure which impact on the  sustainability of the lake
ecosystems.

      The ORD research program is designed to develop the scientific data needed
to establish realistic ecological and public health goals for such ecosystems,
to help develop a management program that strategically directs resources,  and
provides ecological indicators  that document progress toward  achieving these
goals.  Researchers will focus on: developing mass balance and food web models
to establish and predict relationships of chemical  loadings (emphasizing both
sediment and  atmospheric  loadings)  to residues in aquatic  life and  wildlife;
developing watershed  models  to understand  and predict  the relationship  of
watershed conditions and management activities to loadings into rivers and lakes;
determining the ecosystem effects of exposure  to chemicals and changes in habitat
conditions;  validating fate  and transport  models  used  to predict  chemical
residues in fish;  and  evaluating the impact of new invading species on existing
ecological relationships.
                                     3-18

-------
 1993  Program

       Results from the multi-agency Green Bay (Lake Michigan) mass balance study
 are being made available to lake managers planning future studies in support of
 lake-wide management plans, and to local  regulatory agencies responsible for the
 clean-up of the Fox River.  This study will show the utility of the mass balance
 approach in addressing and prioritizing  remedial actions  for large systems.  The
 model incorporates  the  importance  of  sediment  resuspension  and  sediment
 contamination in predicting residues in fish over a twenty-five year timeframe.
 Researchers  are initiating work on the design of an atmospheric data collection
 program  for the  coupling of atmospheric  input  models  to  water quality  mass
 balance food chain residue models.

       Congressional Directives.  A total of $1,000,000  is for the Congressionally
 directed  projects for continued  research on zebra mussels ($250,000) and  for
 research  in  support of the Great  Lakes National Program  office ($750,000).

 1992  Accomplishments

       ORD developed hydrodynamic driven  sediment models for use in understanding
 the role  of  sediments  in controlling fate of toxic substances.  Sediments  are
 known to  contain tremendous  reservoirs  of  toxic  substances  that continue to
 recontaminate the water columns and biota well after the sources of contamination
 have  been eliminated.  During 1992,  a management  level mass balance  food chain
 model for Lake  Michigan was  completed  and presented  to the  Lake Michigan
 Management Committee.  The model results  are  being used to design future loading
 and open lake monitoring  studies.
WETLANDS

1994 Program Request

     Wetlands are the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and
contribute to environmental  quality  by purifying water,  storing flood waters,
recharging groundwater, and providing  habitat.  Despite growing recognition of
their ecological value, there was a net loss of over 2.6 million acres between
the mid-1970's and mid-1980's.  To help implement a national policy of "no net
loss of wetlands, ORD is carrying out research  to  develop a risk-based approach
for wetlands protection and management. Research goals are to:  1) determine how
wetland functions contribute to environmental quality,  both individually and as
an  aggregate  within  the  landscape,   and  develop methods  for assessing  and
enhancing function; 2) quantify the effects of stressors and landscape factors
on wetland functions and  use  the  information to  assess the risks  posed by the
associated loss of wetlands and their  functions; 3) develop design guidelines and
performance criteria to reduce risk through wetland restoration and creation; and
4) improve the design and performance of  wetlands constructed or  restored for
water quality  improvement  and identify the  ecological risks and benefits of their
use.

      ORD will  continue  to  carry out the  multi-year wetlands research  plan
endorsed by the SAB in 1991.   Increased resources will be used to evaluate the

                                     3-19

-------
restoration potential of agriculturally converted wetlands in the prairie pothole
region.   This research will  support  the Food Securities  Act and the Northern
Waterfowl Reserve.  Researchers will also fully implement another major study of
the wetlands of the prairie pothole region.  This study will include landscape
and  site-specific work  on wetland  function,  and  an  evaluation  of  wetland
restoration in the  region.   The  results from this multi-scale study  will be
integrated  into  a risk assessment  for the region.   ORD  will also study the
ecological consequences of wetlands constructed to treat wastewater and begin to
revise the 1988 design manual  for this type of  constructed wetland.  Researchers
will complete the first studies to develop an approach  to setting priorities for
siting restoration projects in watersheds in the arid West.

1993 Program

      ORD La carrying out the five-year wetlands research  plan endorsed by the
SAB in 1991. Workers are continuing to identify the functions of individual and
small groups of  wetlands  and how they are  affected by environmental impacts.
They are  developing  information  needed to characterize and  compare levels of
function attainable in populations of natural, restored, and created wetlands.
Researchers  are   developing  methods  for assessing  and protecting landscape
function in the prairie pothole region.   ORD is also continuing to evaluate the
performance of wetlands constructed  for  wastewater  treatment and  to  propose
improved  designs for  such systems.   Researchers will use  the  research  on
landscape function,  wetlands  function, and characterization and restoration to
develop and test a risk-based approach to wetland management.

1992 Accomplishments

      1992 was a year of transition from the research conducted under the five
year plan adopted in 1986  to  the  research proposed in the  new five  year plan.
In concluding  the work under the  1986 plan,  researchers  completed two major
studies which represented a synthesis of the major research work.   An Approach
to Improving Decision Making in Restoration and Creation uses the results of five
years of research evaluating wetland mitigation projects to  illustrate a strategy
that uses monitoring of populations  of natural wetlands  and projects to develop
performance criteria and design guidelines.  The Synoptic Approach to Cumulative
Impact Assessment documents a method  for rapidly  assessing impacts  of wetland
loss on the landscape that uses readily available data.  Results of research done
over the past  five years are used as case studies to illustrate how the approach
can be used at a variety of scales.

CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

1994 Program Request

      Toxic chemicals and conventional pollutants have steadily accumulated in
the  sediments  of coastal, estuarine  and freshwater  ecosystems over  the past
century.  Studies by the  Office of Water and  the  National  Academy of Sciences
indicate that the extent of sediment contamination may  be large with potentially
far reaching effects.  It  appears that sediments at hundreds of locations across
the country, in all types of waterbodies, are contaminated at levels that will
harm benthic and other aquatic communities; and potentially threaten human health

                                     3-20

-------
and wildlife  due to bioaccumulation of sediment contaminants through the  food
chain.    ORD  is  carrying out  research  to  provide  the scientific  basis  to
effectively protect benthic habitats through meaningful regulatory practices as
identified  through the  Agency's  Contaminated Sediment  Management Strategy.
Research results will provide the scientific and engineering basis to implement
pollution  control  and  prevention  strategies  that  will someday  obviate  the
contaminated  sediment problem.

      ORD research  will  focus on development and validation of scientific  and
engineering   approaches   to   identify  contaminated   sediments   in   aquatic
environments; assess their potential impact on aquatic life,  wildlife, and human
health;  and  remediate  contaminated  sediment  sites  in a  cost-effective  and
environmentally  consistent manner.

      Researchers  will  develop and  validate  methods  for  deriving  national
sediment quality criteria for the protection of  aquatic life,  wildlife, and human
health.  They will develop assessment methods to predict the  fate and effects of
contaminated  sediments in aquatic  systems, including the potential  of sediment
associated contaminants to bioaccumulate in human food chains. Researchers will
also develop  methods to  identify toxic  constituents in  sediments and determine
contaminant sources to aquatic  systems.

      ORD  will  conduct  develop and  evaluate  innovative  and  cost effective
remediation techniques,  such  as in situ contaminant biological treatment,  and
metals treatment and reclamation, for freshwater  marine  and estuarine habitats.
Rates of natural recovery of benthic communities will also be examined to insure
that appropriate remediation options are considered.

1993 Program

      Researchers are focusing on the development and validation of  methods  for
deriving national sediment quality criteria for the  protection of aquatic life,
wildlife, and human health.   They are developing  chemical  specific sediment
quality criteria documents for endrin, dieldrin, fluoranthene, phenanthrene,  and
acenapthrene.   To  improve assessment  methods,   they  are  developing   chronic
sediment toxicity tests.  For remediation research, they  are completing a report
on biological treatment of sediments.

1992 Accomplishments

      Researchers  completed  laboratory and  field studies on  the equilibrium
partitioning  approach for deriving sediment  quality criteria for  dieldrin  and
endrin.   They  also  completed  research  on  ionizable  organic  partitioning,
including solubility coefficients  relationships and initiated research  to
assess treatment techniques for the remediation of contaminated sediments.

AQUATIC ECOCRITERIA

1994 Program Request

      Aquatic ecosystems  are sensitive to pollution and disturbance  and, as such,
serve as a sentinel in assessing the health of our ecological  resources.  Aquatic

                                     3-21

-------
communities will likely be among the first to show the  impacts of global climate
change.  Current scientific  knowledge  allows EPA to control specific pollutants
in our waters through  the use  of  water  quality criteria,  and to control toxic
discharges  using toxicity-based  permitting of  point  sources of  pollution.
However,  scientific  knowledge  is  insufficient  to  formulate  comprehensive
approaches to protect aquatic ecosystems from the cumulative impact of diffuse
sources  of  pollution and from a large  variety  of non-pollutant  stresses or
disturbances.  To overcome this problem, ORD must develop the scientific basis
to extend the concepts of water quality  criteria to that of ecological criteria
which address multiple impacts over larger spatial scales.

      Aquatic ecocriteria research is designed to extend  the concept of water
quality  criteria by developing analogous  ecological  criteria to  protect the
environment  from  any  stressor  which  diminishes  ecosystem  integrity.    By
developing such criteria, ORD will create the required next  generation of methods
and guidance to identify risks  associated with human activity to shape pollution
prevention programs and to  select  restoration approaches in areas of diminished
ecological  integrity.   Ecological criteria must  apply  to specific geographic
regions  and this work will initially focus primarily on the Gulf of Mexico and
to  a lesser extent  the Great  Lakes.    Subsequent  work will  include aquatic
ecocriteria for the Chesapeake Bay.

      ORD will conduct studies  in  all five areas that make  up aquatic ecological
criteria.   These  include  chemical criteria,  complex  effluent,  biocriteria,
ecosystem criteria, and ecosystem diagnostics.  The main emphasis in the chemical
criteria will be  reduce the uncertainties  associated  with some of the criteria
for important chemicals. Specifically, researchers will conduct studies to more
accurately express the bioavailability form of the  heavy metal criteria. Workers
conducting complex effluent research will focus  on developing methods to identify
chemicals that bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms and wildlife. Researchers will
also develop indicators for  biological criteria for near coastal  areas  and large
lakes; initiate diagnostic procedures to identify the causes of aquatic  community
dysfunction for headwater rivers and large lakes; and identify ecosystem criteria
(which  include  many  of the determinate  factors controlling  the biological
communities  present)  for rivers  and  large lakes.  Additional  effort will be
placed on identifying ecological measurements that will assist in determining the
ecological  condition,  and  causes  of that condition,  of marine communities and
ecosystems.

1993 Program

      ORD  is initiating a  major effort to develop  aquatic  ecocriteria with
initial  focus  on  the  Gulf  of Mexico  and the  Great Lakes.  Researchers are
beginning work to provide fundamental knowledge of the  ecology of near Gulf Coast
ecosystems  to  better enable formulations  of ecological risk assessment.   The
research will  provide tools to assist the Agency is  determining how  effective
management  decisions  are in protecting  estuaries including: 1) development of
procedures  to  measure the  current health,  predict future health and  to assess
recovery of estuaries  (a diagnostics protocol will be  field tested to assess its
applicability  and  predictive capability);  2) identification and prioritization
of  the  causes  of impact on  the biotic communities, e.g.,  point and  non-point


                                      3-22

-------
 toxics;  and 3)  determination of the tolerance limits of major floral and fauna
 communities and establishment of effective biocriteria to protect the biota.

      Work in the Great Lakes  watershed  is focusing on  low  order  (headwater)
 streams  and Great Lakes coastal wetlands.  Researchers studying low order streams
 will extend previous work in the Saginaw River Watershed dealing with biocriteria
 evaluation and the relationship  between  watershed  land use practices  and  the
 nature and degree of aquatic ecological disturbances in low order streams.  Great
 Lakes coastal wetlands are  an integral component of the Great Lakes ecosystem for
 which much more study  is  required.  Scientists  are directing their  research
 efforts  on  such wetlands towards developing a  classification system for defining
 the ecological integrity of these wetlands, developing indicators of disturbance,
 and developing  restoration strategies for degraded wetlands in the Great Lakes.
 Results  of the research on  both wetlands and low order streams in the Great Lakes
 region is  expected to be transferable to a large extent to other regions of  the
 United  States.   This work  will be integrated with other  components of  the
 ecocriteria program further  along in development (e.g. biocriteria).   It will
 also  be  coordinated   with   research   on  other  wetlands,   non-point   source
 contaminants  and global  climate change  effects.

 1992 Accomplishments

      Researchers  completed  initial work  to  develop  ecocriteria  including:
 extensive biological, chemical and physical characterization of the very diverse
 Saginaw  River  MI  water shed through  field  sample collection  and analysis;
 development of  a GIS system to receive and integrate information on  terrestrial
 and aquatic,  natural and human-activity related features  of the watershed;  and
 development of  program plans  for the in-house and extramural  components  of  the
 ERL-Duluth  ecocriteria program.  Other accomplishments  included: development of
 six chemical-specific criteria for aquatic life and development of the first four
 chemical-specific criteria for  the protection of Great Lakes wildlife.
NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION

1994 Program Request

      Reports by the Office of Water,  Science Advisory Board  (SAB), the States,
and GAO have identified nonpoint source pollution (NFS) as the largest remaining
category of contamination threatening our nation's  water  quality.  ORD research
efforts on NFS  focus on agriculture and the most pervasive pollutants — nitrogen
and pesticides.   Agriculture NFS is the  largest NFS, affecting about 50 to 70
percent of the impaired surface waters.

      ORD will conduct research on the environmental and ecological impacts of
alternative agricultural management  systems being implemented as part  of the
President's Water Quality  Initiative  for agricultural systems administered by
USDA.   This  effort,  the Midwest  Agriculture Surface/Subsurface  Transport and
Effects Research program (MASTER)  is being carried out in  close cooperation with
the USDA and USGS.   The research is being  conducted  in  concert  with the USDA
Management Systems  Evaluation Area  (MSEA)  Program  in  the  midwest,  and will
concentrate on  the water quality and ecological benefits of watershed management

                                     3-23

-------
approaches.   The  research in 1994 will study the ecological benefits  from  new
farm  and  watershed management methods  including  those promoted for voluntary
adoption  throughout  the  midwest.   Water  quality  impacts  from  agricultural
chemicals,  sediment,  and  habitat alteration will be measured and  assessed  for
experimental  watersheds and extrapolated to similar midwestern conditions.  A
companion piece of this work  focusing on drinking water aspects of the problem
is funded under the Drinking  Water Research budget.

1993 Program

      ORD  is  initiating  a  limited  research  effort  to  study  the  impact  of
multimedia  nitrogen on estuarine  and near coastal ecosystems, particularly the
Chesapeake Bay.  Researchers are  developing a framework for mass balance studies
to enable allocation of source loads among the various  media including watershed
drainage, atmospheric deposition, and point sources.   The study will  include
sources from  and  assimilation by various land types (e.g. forests, croplands,
etc.), municipal  and industrial   discharges and various  air  emissions  (autos,
power plants, etc.).   Future work on this research initiative would allow EPA and
the  States  to  evaluate  the  ecological consequences  of  alternative  nitrogen
control options and to select the wisest combinations of policies.

      The MASTER  program  was  entirely  funded  in  1993  under the Drinking Water
Research budget.  A shift of part of the resources for the MASTER program from
Drinking Water Research to Water Quality Research is  being made in  1994  to
properly reflect the fact  that the MASTER program also deals with surface water
quality research  issues.

1992 Accomplishments

      The MASTER  program was  entirely  funded  in  1992  under the Drinking Water
Research budget.
HABITAT/BIODIVERSITY

      ORD will carry out the second year of  a research plan to assess the major
threats to habitat/biodiversity.  The scale and intensity of habitat modification
and the subsequent loss  and degradation of critical natural functions has become
immense  in the  United  States,  with long-term  adverse consequences  to  both
ecological and  socioeconomic values.   ORD  is  developing methods  and  data to
support risk-based approaches to habitat assessment, management, and monitoring.
The assessment component will rank relative risks to major habitat types based
on their associated value and  major  stressors.   The  management component will
evaluate  how high  value habitats  will  respond  to  specific protection  and
restoration strategies.   The monitoring component will develop landscape level
indicators of habitat condition in coordination with EMAP.

      Researchers  will   develop  and apply a  hierarchical,  landscape-scale
assessment framework to prioritized relative risks to habitat and biodiversity
considering value, exposure to anthropogenic  stresses,  and restoration potential.
Pilot studies will be carried out to ascertain the best methods and data bases
to conduct a  national  comparative risk assessment  for habitat and biodiversity.

                                     3-24

-------
The pilot studies will use species occurrence data from The Nature Conservancy
and National Heritage Programs; 2) habitat and landscape data  from the Advanced
Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)  satellite land classification data base
and Fish  and  Wild Life Service   Gap  Analysis  Project vegetation maps; and 3)
stressor data on housing, population census variables by townships, groundwater
data, transportation  data  and other stressor information  when available.  The
pilot studies will include Idaho-Oregon,  Southern California, Utah,  Chesapeake
Bay  Watershed/Pennsylvania,  as  well  as  a  national study to  assess  the
consistency,  comparability and interpretability  of  the  AVHRR  satellite land
classification system.

1993 Program

      ORD is  initiating work to  develop and apply  a  risk-based framework to
identify  and  prioritized the  major  risks to habitat  values,  including wetland
habitats. ORD has formed a biodiversity research consortium to  develop generally
accepted data bases and  analytical methods  for assessing  and  managing risks to
biodiversity.   Initially,  membership will include  the  US Fish  and Wildlife
Service,  the  USDA   Forest  Service,  the  USDI  Geological  Survey,  the  US
Environmental  Protection  Agency,   and   The  Nature  Conservancy   (TNC)  who
additionally represent the Network of State Natural  Heritage  Programs.  In the
future, membership may be expanded to  include the Bureau of Land Management, the
National  Park  Service,  National  Oceanic  and  Atmospheric  Administration,
Department of Defense, the Smithsonian Institution, and additional governmental
agencies and non-governmental organizations.  Although the program's  objectives
are national in  scope, several scientific  issues will  be addressed initially and
resolved in an integrated series  of   pilot projects.    These pilot studies were
initiated in 1993 and  will  be completed over a three-year period  (1993-95).  The
pilot studies will enable us to make  an informed judgment about  the most rigorous
methods and suitable databases to  use  for  a national scale  analysis.   All of the
information to be gathered in  this  study will be synthesized  to help make the
decision on the best  direction for the national implementation.

      Congressional Directives.  A total  of $250,000  is for the Congressionally
directed  project  for  the Center  for  the Analysis of  Environmental  Change to
provide comprehensive approaches needed for the wise  management of the Columbia
and Snake rivers ecosystem resources.

1992 Accomplishments

      There was no funding for this activity in 1992.

WASTEWATER AND SLUDGE

1994 Program Request

      EPA will carry out research to  develop the technology  and  methods necessary
to ensure the most  cost effective  and  environmentally   sound  management  and
disposal of wastewater and sludge.   Wastewater and Sludge research  focuses on
three research areas:  1) municipal  wastewater/sludge treatment,  2)  urban wet-
weather  discharges   and  3)  industrial  wastewater  management.    Municipal
wastewater/sludge management includes: monitoring methods  and  quality assurance

                                      3-25

-------
for microbiological  and chemical methods,  sludge pathogen and  chemical risk
assessment, municipal wastewater sludge disposal including beneficial use. Urban
wet-weather  discharges research  focuses  on  monitoring  methods  and quality
assurance  for  microbiological  methods,  risk  assessments and  reduction  of
discharges from urban sources. Industrial wastewater treatment research includes
monitoring methods and  quality assurance,  pollution prevention for industrial
wastewater processes and innovative treatment technologies.

1993 Program

      ORD is placing primary emphasis on research which supports the Office of
Water in the development of Section 503 Sludge regulations.   Workers  are carrying
out research,  development, and demonstration activities which stress development
and evaluation of specific gene probes for pathogens, risk assessment methods for
pathogens, and the fate of  and techniques  for controlling pathogens in sludge
prior to its final disposition.   Researchers are continuing studies on annual
water pollution performance evaluations and  the annual  Discharge Monitoring
Report-QA performance evaluations for the QA reference  materials program.  They
expect to complete the  following products: development of gene probe methods for
Shigella, Salmonella, and viruses; a pathogen risk assessment methodology  for the
landfilling of municipal sludge; and a preliminary evaluation of best management
practices for stormwater pollution control.

      Congressional Directives.   A total of  $700,000  is  for the Congressionally
directed project for the Water Environment Research Foundation.

1992 Accomplishments

      Wastewater and sludge research products  have been used by the EPA program
offices,  Regions,  States,  local governments  and the industrial  sector  for
regulation and management of wastewater and sludge.  Researchers developed sample
processing  procedures  for recovering  intestinal  viruses   from wastewater  and
sludge  and a  method for  non-radioactive  detection  of Norwalk viruses  from
wastewater  sludge.    They  also   completed  a  preliminary human  health  risk
assessment for viruses  in municipal sludge applied to land  and developed new and
revised  analytical  methods  for  the NPDES  Point  Source  and  Nonpoint  Source
programs which reduce or eliminate hazardous laboratory waste,  lower detection
limits  and meet  requirements of EPA's  Environmental Monitoring Management
Council.

POLLUTION PREVENTION

1994 Program Request

      No work  will be  done in Water Quality Research  in  1994.   Resources are
being moved to pollution prevention research in  the Multimedia Program Element.

1993 Program

      Support  is being provided  for research on  the assimilative  capacity of
subsurface soils for agricultural chemicals.
                                     3-26

-------
1992 Accomplishments

      There were no Water Quality Research resources in the pollution prevention
research area in 1992.
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

1994 Program Request

      As mandated by the Small Business Development Act  of  1982  (Public Law 97-
219), EPA will allocate 1.50% of its extramural Research and Development budget
for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)  Program.  These funds will be
used to  support  small businesses engaged in  the  development  of equipment for
pollution abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental
trends and conditions.   Under this program,  ORD  will take advantage of unique
solutions to water quality problems and other environmental issues that may be
offered by the private  sector.   Resources will  be identified in the operating
plan and consolidated into the Multimedia Program Element once enactment occurs.

1993 Program

      As mandated by the Small Business Development Act  of  1982  (Public Law 97-
219), EPA is allocating 1.50% of its extramural Research and Development budget
for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.   These funds are used
to support small businesses engaged in the development of equipment for pollution
abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental trends
and conditions.   Under  this program, ORD is  able  to take  advantage of unique
solutions to water quality related problems and other environmental issues that
may be offered by the private sector.

1992 Accomplishments

      Resources and accomplishments supporting this program were budgeted in the
Multimedia program element for  1992.
INFRASTRUCTURE

1994 Program Request

      Adequately funded infrastructure is critical to ORD's success in conducting
the  quality  science  needed  to  assure  that  the  Agency's  decisions  are
scientifically  sound.  The most critical  part of ORD's  infrastructure is its
staff.   The  assumption  underlying  all  our research  activities  includes  a
productive workforce.

      ORD has  established a cohesive,  cross-cutting  issue for infrastructure
based upon  the importance  of  this activity  to planned and  ongoing research
activities.  Program and Research Operations appropriation funding for the Water
Quality Research PE will be centralized within the infrastructure issue to
                                     3-27

-------
provide improved management for ORD's personnel compensation and benefits, and
travel costs associated with managing research programs.

1993 Program

      ORD's current infrastructure program provides compensation and benefits,
and travel  for ORD  scientists and  engineers.    ORD's workforce  carries out
scientific programs in support of the Agency's mission.

1992 Accomplishments

      ORD funded its workyears  in  scientific  support  of the Agency's mission,
providing the necessary personnel  compensation and benefits, and travel for ORD
scientists and engineers.
CROSS PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      EPA will continue to produce and improve standardized analytical methods
for  quantifying  pollutants  or  their metabolic  products  in  fresh  water,
wastewater, biological tissue sediment, and sludge.  Researchers will focus on
the development  of  more sensitive and lower  cost  chemical  analytical methods
required to detect substances at concentrations compatible with federal and state
water quality criteria.  The goal is to provide analytical methods which minimize
or  eliminate the use of  hazardous  solvents and  reagents, thereby reducing
exposure by laboratory workers and minimizing waste which must be disposed of in
accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations.

1993 Program

      This  activity  provides  analytical   chemical  methods  for  quantifying
pollutants or their metabolic products in  fresh water,  wastewater, biological
tissue, sediment, and sludge.  These standardized methods ensure comparability
of ambient water quality monitoring  data generated  by the EPA and the  regulated
community.  Currently  available methods are being revised to improve sensitivity
and robustness, reduce costs, and increase ease of use.

1992 Accomplishments

      A  compilation  of  analytical  methods to  determine  a  wide variety  of
pollutants  in  marine  water  was  provided  to  the  Regions.    ORD  completed and
delivered five improved methods that significantly reduce the use of  hazardous
organic solvents and  chemicals used as reagents.
1993 Research and Development Congressional Directives in the Office of Water

1994 Budget Request

      No funds requested for this program in 1994.

                                     3-28

-------
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES STUDY OF WETLANDS

1993 Program

Congressional Directive.  A total of $400,000 if for the Congressionally directed
"Study of Wetlands Characterization" to the National Academy of Sciences.


GREAT LAKES RESEARCH WITH INTERNATIONAL JOINT COUNCIL

1993 Program

Congressional Directive.   A total of $125,000  is for the Council of Great Lakes
Research Managers to coordinate research on Great Lakes Basin issues.
                                     3-29

-------
3-30

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents


                                                                         Page

WATER QUALITY

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Water Quality and Grants Program Management   	   3-31
      Great Lakes Program	   3-32
      Chesapeake Bay Program  	   3-35
   Engineering & Analysis	   3-39
      Engineering and Analysis	   3-40
   Grants Assistance Programs 	   3-43
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106) 	   3-44
      Clean Lakes Program	   3-46
   Water Quality Strategies Implementation  	   3-47
      Wetlands Protection 	   3-49
      Nonpoint Source Management Grants  	   3-52
      Wetlands Implementation Program 	   3-53
      Oil spills Program	   3-54
      Ocean Disposal Permits  	   3-55
      Environmental Emergency Response & Prevention 	   3-57
      Water Quality Criteria, Standards & Applications  	   3-57
   Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis	   3-61
      Coastal Environment Management	   3-62
      Assessment and Watershed Protection 	   3-65
   Municipal Source Pollution 	   3-71
      Municipal Pollution Control 	   3-72

-------
                                                        WATER QUALITY
                                         Water Quality And Grants Program Management
ACTUAL
1992
PRES.
BUDGET
1993
ENACTED CURRENT REQUEST INCREASE
1993 ESTIMATE 1994 DECREASE
1993 1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Great Lakes Program
Program & Research $3,140.3
Operations
Abatement Control and $9,608.0
Compliance
TOTAL $12,748.3
Chesapeake Bay Program
Program & Research $2,035.1
Operations
Abatement Control and $16,531.6
Compliance
TOTAL $18,566.7


$3,562.2

$10,873.7

$14,435.9

$1,545.6

$18,248.8

$19,794.4


$3,121.8 $3,069.1 $2,894.6 -$174.5

$15,856.3 $15,856.3 $11,538.0 -$4,318.3

$18,978.1 $18,925.4 $14,432.6 -$4,492.8

$872.9 $872.9 $741.7 -$131.2

$20,017.5 $20,017.5 $19,209.7 -$807.8

$20,890.4 $20,890.4 $19,951.4 -$939.0


-$667.6

$664.3

-$3.3

-$803.9

$960.9

$157.0
TOTAL:
 Program & Research            $5,267.3    $5,107.8    $3,994.7    $3,942.0    $3,636.3     -$305.7   -$1,471.5
  Operat i ons
 Abatement Control and        $26,169.6   $29,122.5   $35,873.8   $35,873.8   $30,747.7   -$5,126.1    $1,625.2
 Compliance

Water Quality And      TOTAL  $31,436.9   $34,230.3   $39,868.5   $39,815.8   $34,384.0   -$5,431.8      $153.7
Grants Program
Management

PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Great Lakes Program
Chesapeake Bay Program
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Great Lakes Program
Chesapeake Bay Program
TOTAL WORKYEARS
45.5
18.2
65.0

47.1
19.0
67.4
48.4
12.0
60.4

48.4
12.0
60.4
49.4
12.0
61.4

49.4
12.0
61.4
48.4
12.0
60.4

48.4
12.0
60.4
48.4
12.0
60.4

48.4
12.0
60.4
                                                       3-31

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY

                   Water Quality & Grants Program Management
Budget Request
      The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  §34,384,000  supported  by  60.4 total
workyears for 1994, a decrease of $5,431,800.  Of the request, $3,636,300 will
be for the Program and Research Operations appropriation and $30,747,700 will be
for  the Abatement, Control and  Compliance appropriation.   This  represents a
decrease of $305,700 in the Program and Research Operations  appropriation and a
decrease of $5,126,100 in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
GREAT LAKES PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  $14,432,600 supported  by  48.4  total
workyears  for  this program, of which  $2,894,600  will  be for the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and $11,538,000 will be  for  the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation.  This represents a decrease of $174,500
in Program and  Research Operations and a decrease of $4,318,300 in Abatement,
Control, and Compliance.  This decrease reflects the elimination or completion
of 1993 Congressional directives more  appropriate for state and local government.

      Great Lakes National Program Office  (GLNPO)  activities  will continue to be
guided   by  5   Year   Strategy  goals   for   toxics  reduction   and  habitat
protect ion/restorat ion.

      GLNPO is leading State and Federal air and water programs in a joint effort
to develop integrated open  water, tributary,  biota,  and air monitoring in the
Great  Lakes  Basin to  develop baseline  information  on toxic  loadings  and
concentrations.  Activities in 1994 include intensive Lake Michigan monitoring
to quantify toxic pollutant sources and loads for the targeting of reduction
efforts and the establishment of baseline  information. Toxic pollutant screening
will continue  for  Lake  Superior tributaries and will begin  for Lake Ontario.
Satellite air deposition stations on Lakes Michigan and Superior will continue
to supplement air toxic deposition monitoring done at master
stations, while  preparations are  made  to enhance  satellite  station support in
Lakes Superior and Ontario.   Open  water surveys will  be conducted on each Great
Lake for toxics  and for indicators  of trophic condition and biological integrity.
Identification of sources and quantification of loadings will
continue to support  remedial efforts and  allow measurements of environmental
progress under  Lakewide Management  Plans (LaMPs)  and  Remedial  Action  Plans
(RAPs).

      Pursuant to the Science Advisory  Board's recommendation of improving data
integration and analytical methodologies,  GLNPO will be providing  better and more
efficient access to existing information  to States and Regions.  Resources will

                                     3-32

-------
establish  the capability for the management  of information pertaining to  the
loadings,  fate,  and transport of toxic  substances  and  will
support  state and Regional hardware, training,  and infrastructure to  provide
basin-wide sharing of  environmental data.  Increased resources to data management
will  improve EPA's knowledge base and  be  used to deliver the data management
system to  states and  other Great Lakes  partners, enhancing the decision-making
of environmental managers.

      Under  a coordinated habitat protection  strategy  involving GLNPO,  states,
other  Federal organizations, and  private entities, the  most  important  Basin
habitat  sites will be  identified and  protection/restoration  activities will
commence.  Restoration and protection will  continue at habitat projects begun in
1993 to address  significant losses of habitat quality and  quantity in  the  Great
Lakes Basin.  Projects will support healthy and diverse communities, emphasizing
habitats necessary to maintain biodiversity in  the  Great  Lakes Basin.

      GLNPO's Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS)  program
(demonstrating alternative  technologies  for  the  remediation  of contaminated
sediments) will  issue its final report  to  Congress  on  its findings.   The  Great
Lakes sediments  program will continue to support state  and local groups  needing
contaminated  sediment characterization  and assessments leading to remediation
projects.  GLNPO will make necessary field sampling  support available,  as well
as sediment expertise  (through direct technical support, guidance documents, case
studies, and  workshops).

      GLNPO  will  continue  assisting  the Regions  and  states  in  developing
cross-media  efforts  to  use tools  such  as  LaMPs  and RAPs while  continuing
technical and management support for pollution prevention and control activities.
Specific pollution  prevention support  targeted at  reductions of Great Lakes
critical pollutants will be provided through state projects.    LaMPs will be
completed  or  nearing  completion  for  Lakes Michigan, Ontario,  and Superior and
will be  under development for Lake  Erie.   GLNPO  will continue  assisting the
states and Regions  in completing RAPs  for Areas of Concern  with assistance in
identifying  environmental  problems,  causes  of  use impairment,  and  specific
remedial measures.

1993 Program

      The  Agency is allocating a total  of $18,925,400 supported by 48.4 total
workyears for this program, of which $3,069,100 is from the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and  $15,856,300 is  from  the  Abatement,  Control, and
Compliance appropriation.

      In support  of the 5 Year Strategy goal for toxics reduction, GLNPO leads
state and Federal air  and water programs in a  joint  effort  to develop integrated
open water,  tributary, biota,  and  air monitoring  in the  Great  Lakes  Basin to
develop  baseline  information  on  toxic  loadings  and  concentrations.    1993
activities include shakedown and screening level monitoring for Lake Michigan,
toxic pollutant  screening  for Lake  Superior,  and  integrated  monitoring  plan
development for Lakes  Ontario and Erie.  Nine  satellite air deposition stations
on Lakes Michigan and Superior will supplement air toxic deposition monitoring
done at the five master  stations.  Open  water  surveys will be conducted on each

                                     3-33

-------
of  the Great  Lakes  for toxics  and for  indicators  of trophic  condition  and
biological integrity.  Identification of sources and quantification  of  loadings
will support remedial efforts and allow measurements of environmental  progress
under LaMPs and RAPs.

      GLNPO is working jointly with state and Federal environmental  programs to
afford environmental managers organized  access  to existing Agency data on  the
Great Lakes and to establish an architecture  for  loadings information  in 1993.
These are initial components of the Great Lakes multi-media environmental data
management and analysis system.

      In support of the  5 year Strategy goal of habitat protection/ restoration,
GLNPO is completing  five restoration  and protection  actions for high priority
Basin habitat to address significant losses of habitat quality and quantity in
the Great Lakes Basin.   Other habitat  related activities supporting the habitat
goal  of  the  5 Year  Strategy include  development of  a  coordinated  habitat
protection  strategy  with  states,  other Federal  organizations,  and  private
entities.  GLNPO's Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS)
program  (demonstrating  alternative  technologies   for   the  remediation  of
contaminated sediments) is assisting  state  and  local  groups with contaminated
sediment characterization and assessments, representing the shift in this program
to technology  transfer.   GLNPO is also  preparing  final ARCS reports required
under the Great Lakes Critical Programs Act.

      GLNPO is continuing assistance to Regions and states  in the development of
LaMPs for Lakes Michigan, Ontario,  and Superior,  and is initiating the LaMP for
Lake Erie in 1993.  GLNPO is assisting the states and Regions  in completing RAPs
for Areas of Concern through  the  identification of environmental  problems and
causes of use impairment and identification of specific remedial measures.

      Congressional Directives.  A total of $4,460,000 is for Congressionally-
directed projects,  including the  clean-up of  contaminated sediments  in  the
Buffalo River;  GLNPO activities,  including enhanced -monitoring; Great Lakes
modeling activities;  and  support of  the  Lake  Superior  Binational  program,
including a mercury study.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency  obligated a total  of  $12,748,300  supported  by 47.1
total workyears for this program,  of which $3,140,300 was from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $9,608,000  was  from  the  Abatement,  Control,  and
Compliance appropriation.

      This program orchestrated completion of the Great Lakes 5 Year Strategy  (to
focus on toxic  reduction, habitat protection/restoration, and  species diversity)
among 15  state, Federal, and tribal organizations.  In support of that Strategy,
the program championed integrated, multi-agency planning in the Great Lakes with
a strong monitoring component.  Working with Canada,  GLNPO
satisfied Great Lakes  Critical  Program Act  requirements  for establishing air
toxics monitoring stations on each of the  Great Lakes.  GLNPO also conducted open
water surveys on each Lake for toxics and for indicators  of trophic condition and
biological integrity.

                                     3-34

-------
      Working  with state and Federal  partners,  GLNPO completed on-site  field
scale demonstrations of contaminated sediment remediation technology (including
bio-remediation)  in satisfaction  of the  Great  Lakes  Critical  Programs Act.
Utilizing public/private partnerships, GLNPO supported development of a listing
of priority Great Lakes habitat sites and protection/restoration demonstrations
at seven sites.  GLNPO also  supported the Regions and states with development of
Remedial Action  Plans  and Lakewide Management Plans.
CHESAPEAKE BAY PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency  requests  a  total of  $19,951,400  supported  by  12.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $741,700 will be for Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $19,209,700 will be for  the  Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents a decrease  $131,200 in the Program and
Research Operations appropriation, and a decrease of  $807,800  in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This decrease reflects the elimination ar
completion of 1993 Congressional  directives more appropriate for state and local
governments.  There is an increase  for habitat restoration.

      The  Chesapeake  Bay  Program  will  continue  to provide  technical  and
management support for pollution prevention and control  activities to protect
living  resource critical  habitats, surface  water,  and  ground  water  in  the
Chesapeake Bay watershed.  Implementation of nonpoint source nutrient pollution
control projects through  state implementation grants and toxicity assessments of
living resource habitats will be ongoing, but will place added emphasis on the
private sector  role,  including  opportunities  for trading.    To  improve water
quality,  the program will  establish  baywide  living resource  distribution,
abundance, and species diversity restoration goals.  Activities to address toxics
will involve a balance of research, monitoring, and actual  prevention and control
projects as dictated  by the amended Toxic Reduction  Strategy.   New projects to
improve living resources  through improved fish passage and habitat construction
will be developed.

      The Chesapeake Bay  Program will  fulfill priority program tasks, including
development of a "Tool Chest" of computerized information assistance to expand
the ability  of  local  governments to meet environmental  goals.   Resources are
provided for outreach and expanded public involvement in  programs to reduce the
effects of nonpoint sources of  pollution.  The Agency will escalate the pace of
the Nutrient Reduction Program to meet  the  goals of  a 40 percent reduction of
nutrient levels by the year 2000 through the implementation of tributary-specific
nutrient reduction strategies.   As  a  result,  modelling and monitoring efforts
will be increased in tributaries.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total  of $20,890,400 supported  by 12.0 total
workyears for this program, of which  $872,900 is for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation  and $20,017,500  is for  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

                                     3-35

-------
      The Chesapeake Bay Program is  continuing to provide interstate leadership
and technical and managerial  support  for  the  pollution prevention and control
activities of numerous agencies for the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay and its
living resources.  Traditional  coordination efforts  among  the Program and Bay
states are being expanded to include and integrate other EPA  programs and Federal
agencies.   The  possibility of  reducing  nutrient  loads faster  and more cost-
effectively through pollution reduction trading is being investigated.

      Implementation of the Basin-wide Nutrient Reduction  Strategy continues.
To stay on course for achieving  the  goal of a 40 percent reduction  in nutrients
entering the Bay by the year 2000, the program is accelerating the pace  of point
and nonpoint source programs.   Implementation grants  to  state  agencies  for
nonpoint source pollution control yield a  greater targeting of resources to the
highest areas of pollutant load based upon monitoring data.  These grants also
provide for standardization of nutrient management methods on  farmlands as well
as expanded  marketing of  these  methods to the private  sector and the public.
Special emphasis is  placed  on refining environmental indicators,  modeling and
management of air sources of nutrients and toxics, and integrating the multiple
NPS control  authorities of EPA and other Agencies.

      Activities to address toxics involve a balance of  research, monitoring and
actual prevention and control  projects.  A reevaluation  of the  Basin-wide Toxics
Reduction Strategy is being completed. The program is expanding the monitoring
network to include air deposited-toxics.

      Bay modeling and management strategies are being refined to incorporate new
information  about the impact of  Clean Air Act  Amendments requirements.   Special
emphasis is being placed on refining environmental progress  indicators,  modeling
and  management  of  air  sources  of   nutrients  and  toxics.    Cross-program
coordination is also being enhanced through the continued integration  of water
quality and  living resources management activities.

      The program is establishing quantitative Bay-wide restoration goals for the
diversity, abundance and  distribution of  living  resources.  Implementation of
species management plans is being accelerated.  The program  is  fostering habitat
enhancement through priority fish passage projects, by the refinement of  wetlands
inventories  in the region and by efforts  to restore submerged  grasses.  Work on
the oyster reef demonstration, funded in  the  1992 and 1993 appropriations, will
yield valuable experience for  reversing the precipitous decline in  this  critical
commercial species.

      Congressional  Directives;   A  total  of  $1,100,000 is for Congressionally
directed projects.  These activities are  oyster reseeding in  the Chesapeake Bay
and the development of a  strategy to  enhance and protect the  Potomac River.

1992 Accomplishments

      The  Agency obligated  a  total  of   $18,566,700  supported by  19.0 total
workyears  for this  program,  of  which $2,035,100 was  from  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $16,531,600  was  from  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance  appropriation.


                                      3-36

-------
      The  Agency  continued  to  meet  its  expanded responsibilities  under the
Chesapeake Bay Agreement in concert with the States of Pennsylvania,  Maryland and
Virginia;  the  District of Columbia;  and  the Chesapeake  Bay  Commission.   The
Program  continued management  of  state coordination,  computer services/data
management, administrative and public information support.

      Program participants completed a  reevaluation of the 1987 goal to reduce
nutrient levels to the  Bay by 40 percent between  1985 and 2000.  As a result, the
Executive Council adopted amendments to the 1987 Agreements which reaffirm the
40 percent goal, commit to at least that level post-2000,  recognize the need to
act to reduce the contribution of air sources of nitrogen  to the Bay, adopt the
first  specific living  resource  goal,   dealing  with  Bay  grasses,  and require
tributary specific plans for nitrogen reduction by August 1993.

      Toxic   studies,    expanded   monitoring    data,   pesticide   management
demonstrations and use surveys, analytical  capabilities surveys and toxic loading
inventories were a part of the continued implementation of  the Basin-wide Toxics
Reduction  Strategy that ultimately refined and  redirected  the Strategy and
improved  regulatory  efforts.   New  elements  introduced  through outreach and
negotiation  placed a  greater emphasis on pollution  prevention  aspects and
voluntary reductions of  toxics through  outreach and  negotiation.   A scheduled
reevaluation of the Toxics Reduction Strategy was being developed for adoption
by the program  committees.   Efforts continued to integrate and coordinate the
work  of  the  other   EPA  programs  in  support of  the  program.     Targeted
implementation projects by other programs continued to expand using models and
protocols developed to date  for the National Pollutant Discharge  Elimination
System and Federal facility  compliance  improvements,  air deposition modeling,
Clean Air Act impacts  analysis, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program
(EMAP) environmental indicators and wetlands baseline determinations.  Efforts
continued to focus to  a  greater  extent  on the  funding of pollution prevention
projects.
                                     3-37

-------
3-38

-------
                                                        WATER QUALITY
                                                  Engineering and Analysis

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REQ     1994 REQ
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Engineering and
Analysis
 Program & Research            $4,601.6    $5,742.4    $4,695.6    $4,688.6    $5,290.5      $601.9     -$451.9
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $12,533.3   $15,884.1   $10,211.9   $12,818.6   $16,721.3    $3,902.7      $837.2
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $17,134.9   $21,626.5   $14,907.5   $17,507.2   $22,011.8    $4,504.6      $385.3


TOTAL:
 Program & Research            $4,601.6    $5,742.4    $4,695.6    $4,688.6    $5,290.5      $601.9     -$451.9
  Operat i ons
 Abatement Control and        $12,533.3   $15,884.1   $10,211.9   $12,818.6   $16,721.3    $3,902.7      $837.2
 Compliance

Engineering and        TOTAL  $17,134.9   $21,626.5   $14,907.5   $17,507.2   $22,011.8    $4,504.6      $385.3
Analysis


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Engineering and                    59.1        74.0        73.3        73.3        73.3                      -7
Analysis

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS          59.1        74.0        73.3        73.3        73.3                      -7

TOTAL WORKYEARS
Engineering and                    61.5        74.0        73.3        73.3        73.3                      -7
Analysis

TOTAL WORKYEARS                    61.5        74.0        73.3        73.3        73.3                      -7
                                                       3-39

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY

                            Engineering & Analysis
Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $22,011,800 supported  by  73.3 total
workyears  for  1994.   Of the  request,  $5,290,500 will be  for  the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation  and $16,721,300 will be for the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation.   This  represents an  increase of $601,900
in the Program Research Operations appropriation and $3,902,700 in the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation.
ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS

1994 Program Request

      In 1994, the Agency requests a total of $22,011,800 supported by
73.3 total workyears  for this program of which $5,290,500 will be for the Program
and Research Operations appropriation and $16,721,300 will be for the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $601,900
in Program and Research Operations appropriation and $3,902,700 in the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation.   The  increases support rising workyear
costs and additional  funding required to meet  court ordered effluent guidelines.

      As required by  the EPA-NRDC Consent  Decree and 304(m) plan, the Agency will
continue to  develop  effluent  guidelines  for industries  that  present the most
significant risk to  public health and the  environment.   These regulations are
supported  by  engineering,  economic, and statistical analyses,  including the
development of analytical methods for toxic and non-conventional pollutants.

      In 1994 the Agency will propose rules for 4 industries:  pulp and paper;
pesticides formulating and packaging; centralized waste treatment (formerly waste
treatment  -  Phase I); and pharmaceutical manufacturing.   The  program will
continue  the development  of  the  guidelines  started  in 1993  (landfills and
incinerators (formerly waste treatment - Phase  II),  industrial laundries, and
transportation equipment cleaning), with  a  heavy emphasis in 1994 on wastewater
testing at facilities to determine the performance of the various technologies
being used. Development will continue on  rules for the metal products machinery,
and coastal oil and gas industries.

      Where  possible,  guideline  development  activities  will  be  done  in
cooperation with other agency  programs.   The pulp and paper and Pharmaceuticals
guidelines will  be  coordinated  with  the  Office of  Air Quality  Planning and
Standards; the centralized waste treatment rule with the Office of Solid Waste
and Emergency Response; and the pesticides rule with the Office of Prevention,
Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

      The  Agency  will continue  with  the  studies begun  in  1993  and initiate
studies of two additional industrial categories.  In addition, the Agency will

                                     3-40

-------
 continue  to support the Effluent Guidelines Task Force.  The  Agency will also
 continue  to provide information and technical assistance to the wider Caribbean
 and  Eastern European nations to  manage discharge of industrial wastewater  in
 their waters.

 1993 Program

      In  1993,  the  Agency  is  allocating a  total  of  $17,507,200 supported by
 73.3 total workyears for  this  program, of which $4,688,600  will  be from the
 Program  Research Operation appropriation  and  $12,818,600  will  be from the
 Abatement,  Control, and Compliance  appropriation.

      In  accordance with the  EPA-NRDC Consent Decree and the  304(m)  plan, EPA
 plans to promulgate final regulations for three industrial categories:  offshore
 oil  and  gas, pesticides manufacturing, and  organic  chemicals, plastics, and
 synthetic  fibers.  In   addition,  the  Agency  continues   the   development   of
 regulations for six additional industrial categories: pulp and paper;  pesticides
 formulating and packaging;  centralized waste treatment (formerly waste treatment-
 Phase I); machinery, manufacturing and rebuilding; Pharmaceuticals; and coastal
 oil and gas.  These industrial  categories  have been assessed by EPA  to present
 the greatest existing risk to human health and the environment. As required  in
 the Consent Decree  and  304(m) plan, new guidelines  are  being initiated in 1993
 for landfills and incinerators (formerly waste treatment - Phase II),  industrial
 laundries,  and  transportation  equipment   cleaning  facilities.    The   Agency
 continues  work on  two  studies  begun  in  1992  and  initiates  studies  of two
 additional  industrial  categories.  In  addition  a new  Effluent Guideline Task
 Force, mandated by the Decree, convenes in 1993 to advise the Agency  on long-term
 strategy  for the program.

      The   development   of  analytical  methods,   analytical  service support,
 technical assistance to permit writers and publicly owned treatment  works  (POTW)
 operations  continue to  be high EPA priorities in 1993.

 1992 Accomplishments

      In  1992,  the  Agency allocated a  total  of  $17,134,900  supported by 61.5
 total workyears for this program, of which $4,601,600 was  from  the  Salaries and
 Expenses  appropriation  and $12,533,300  was from the Abatement,  Control, and
 Compliance  appropriation.

      The effluent guidelines  program successfully reached a settlement with the
 Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)  that required the Agency to:   continue
 the development of nine  rulemakings; begin development of three  additional rules
 in 1993;  continue and initiate eleven industry studies to determine  industries
 for future regulation;  and develop nine  additional rules between 1995 and 2003.
 The settlement agreement also established a Task Force to advise the Agency on
 the effluent  guidelines process.   In  conjunction  with these activities,  in
 January 1992 the Agency  published  the 1993 304(m)  plan which included  the  court-
 ordered schedule for rulemaking activities.

      Rulemakings  continued  for the  following  nine   industrial  categories:
pesticides manufacturing; offshore oil and gas; pulp and paper;  coastal oil and

                                     3-41

-------
gas; organic chemicals;  Pharmaceuticals;  pesticide  formulating and packaging;
waste treatment and metal products  and  machinery.   The Agency negotiated with
NRDC the extension of the final promulgation date for the offshore oil and gas
rule to January 1993 and the proposed pesticide manufacturing rule was published
in March 1992.  Further, the  Agency negotiated with the Environmental Defense
Fund and the National Wildlife  Federation a  final  settlement  agreement on the
content and schedule  for  the proposed pulp and paper  rule.  The Agency initiated
a petroleum refining  study  and a metal finishing  study  in 1992.  These projects
developed several analytical methods to support regulatory development activities
for the pulp and paper, pesticide manufacturing and oil  and gas  industries.  All
regulatory activities were  supported by  economic  and regulatory impact analyses
and were coordinated with other EPA headquarters and  regional offices; e.g., the
Office  of  Water initiated  a cooperative  effort with  the  Office of  Air and
Radiation to do a joint OAR/OW pulp and paper industrial rulemaking.
                                      3-42

-------
PROGRAM
                                                        WATER QUALITY
                                                 Grants Assistance Programs
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Control Agency Resource
Supplementation
(Section 106)
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
       $81,854.7   $81,700.0   $81,659.1    $81,659.0    $81,700.0       $41.0

TOTAL  $81,854.7   $81,700.0   $81,659.1    $81,659.0    $81,700.0       $41.0
Clean Lakes Program
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $6,859.5

TOTAL   $6,859.5
$4,000.0    $4,000.0

$4,000.0    $4,000.0
-$4,000.0

-$4,000.0
TOTAL:
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
       $88,714.2   $81,700.0   $85,659.1    $85,659.0    $81,700.0    -$3,959.0
Grants Assistance      TOTAL  $88,714.2   $81,700.0   $85,659.1    $85,659.0    $81,700.0    -$3,959.0
Programs
                                                       3-43

-------
                                WATER  QUALITY

                          Grants Assistance Programs
Budget Request
      The Agency requests a total  of  $81,700,000 supported by 0 total workyears
for 1994,  a  decrease of $3,959,000  of  which,  all will be  for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  The decrease results from the elimination
of Congressionally  directed programs more appropriately funded  by  state and
local governments.
CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION (SECTION 106)

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of  $81,700,000 for  the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $41,000 which restores
the reduction resulting from Congressionally-directed general reductions in 1993.

      Section  106 grants  will   continue  to support  water pollution control
programs operated by State, interstate and territorial agencies and approximately
60  Indian  tribes qualified under  Section  518(e).   Grantees will  continue to
improve  their  abilities to  assess water  quality  conditions  and  trends,  and
conduct comprehensive monitoring  to identify areas impaired by point  and nonpoint
source toxic pollutants.  Improvements  will be made in response to EPA guidance
responding  to the  recommendations  of the  Intergovernmental  Task  Force on
Monitoring.   The States will continue to administer water quality standards
programs that reflect refinements to  human  health and aquatic life criteria and
develop  new standards  based  on  criteria  that  consider the  entire ecosystem
including habitat, wildlife, and biological criteria.

      Under the  Office  of  Water's  Wet  Weather  Flow effort, authorized States,
primarily under  general permitting authorities,  will be  issuing  permits that
incorporate  the  new  stormwater  pollution  control  criteria.   States, located
primarily in the  Northeastern United States, will implement an expedited Combined
Sewer  Overflow  (CSO)  control program  and will work to  develop  appropriate
controls for CSO discharges taking place during wet weather events.  Authorized
States  will emphasize  reissuance  of  expiring  NPDES  permits  that  incorporate
toxic/toxicity-based  limits  and  will modify permits  to incorporate new limits
based on findings from water quality  analyses.  Grantees will continue to focus
on selected high  priority permit modifications for Publicly Owned Treatment Works
(POTWs) to  address pretreatment  requirements.

      States and qualified Indian  Tribes  will  undertake activities to address
priority ground water protection needs  as  they develop comprehensive approaches
to  implementing  the Agency's Ground Water Strategy for the 1990s.
                                     3-44

-------
1993 Program

      In 1993, the Agency is  allocating a total of $81,659,000 for this program,
all of which  is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      States are implementing water quality-based controls for toxic discharges
in high priority waters, and are continuing to assess water quality conditions
and trends. States are also conducting comprehensive monitoring (including water
column, biotic integrity, fish tissue and sediment) to justify risk-based control
decisions at sites impacted by toxic and conventional  pollutants.  Grantees are
administering water quality  standards programs that focus on  new standards for
toxic pollutants based on EPA water quality criteria guidance and EPA review of
standards, as required by the statute.

      States  are  continuing  to  emphasize  reissuance of expiring NPDES permits
that incorporate toxic/toxicity based limits and  are modifying other permits as
needed.  Resources are redirected at the State-level to ensure that statutory and
regulatory deadlines are met for  implementation  of  stormwater,  CSO and  sludge
permitting programs.   Grantees are  also  focusing on  selected,  high priority
permit modifications for POTWs to address pretreatment requirements.  States are
continuing  to develop  and  implement  comprehensive  ground  water  protection
programs which serve as State-level mechanisms to integrate Federal ground water
activities.

      States and qualified Indian tribes are assessing their total ground water
efforts; comparing them against the  strategic activities to a comprehensive
resource protection approach; identifying gaps and necessary actions.  States are
also enhancing their efforts to incorporate wellhead protection activities and
pesticide management plans into their comprehensive programs.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated a total of $81,854,700 for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      Section 106 grants  provided funding assistance for water pollution control
programs  operated  by  63  States,  interstate  and  territorial  agencies  and
approximately 60  qualified Indian  tribes.   Water quality programs  focused on
meeting  legislative requirements and presidential  mandates  related  to toxic
contamination, nonpoint sources, wetland losses,  coastal and marine pollution,
stormwater, CSOs, and enforcement.  States administered water quality programs
which emphasized sustaining ecological resources and protecting human health and
welfare through  the protection, restoration, and enhancement of the Nation's
water resources.   States devoted resources  to geographically targeted watersheds
to improve water quality in critical areas.

      EPA  developed  permit programs to address  CSOs,  stormwater,  and sludge.
States focused permitting, compliance,  pretreatment and enforcement activities
in waters at highest risk, particularly in critical aquatic habitats.  Monitoring
and assessment data were used to establish priorities for needed control measures
and to develop wasteload allocations for permits,  states continued to develop
CGWPPs, to assess their ground water resources, to evaluate or rank the highest

                                     3-45

-------
risk  contaminants,  and establish  priorities and  approaches to  ground water
protection.
CLEAN LAKES PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      No funds are requested for this program.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating $4,000,000 for this program from the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency  is supporting state  lake  programs through a  combination of
assistance  (1)  for  state-wide  programs to assess and  classify  lakes, develop
state-wide protection programs, support volunteer efforts, and coordinate lake
protection with other water resource programs;  and (2) for specific  lake projects
selected based on  a  competitive evaluation of environmental and public benefits.

      Congressional Directives.  A  total  of  $4,000,000 is for Congressionally
directed Clean Lakes activities.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency  obligated  $6,859,500  for this  program  from  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The Clean Lakes program supported state-EPA cooperative agreements under
section 314 of  the  Clean Water Act.  The agreements were used  to support the
highest  priority  Phase  I  lake   diagnostic   feasibility studies,   Phase  II
implementation activities to restore and protect lake water quality and Phase III
post-restoration monitoring projects to enhance the scientific basis for various
lake restoration methodologies.  Projects were selected based on an evaluation
of the environmental and public benefits of state Clean Lakes proposals.
                                     3-46

-------
                                                        WATER QUALITY
                                          Water Quality Strategies Implementation
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Wetlands Protection
 Program & Research            $9,299.4   $10,639.5   $10,760.7   $10,757.0   $11,349.7      $592.7      $710.2
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $6,779.5    $7,463.0    $8,108.2    $8,027.8    $5,864.4   -$2,163.4   -$1,598.6
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $16,078.9   $18,102.5   $18,868.9   $18,784.8   $17,214.1   -$1,570.7     -$888.4

NonPoint Source Grants
 Abatement Control and        $52,524.6   $26,000.0                                                  -$26,000.0
 Compliance
 Construction Grants                                  $50,000.0   $50,000.0   $80,000.0   $30,000.0   $80,000.0
                       TOTAL  $52,524.6   $26,000.0   $50,000.0   $50,000.0   $80,000.0   $30,000.0   $54,000.0

Wetlands Program
Implementation - Grants
 Abatement Control and         $8,499.9   $10,000.0   $10,000.0   $10,000.0   $10,000.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $8,499.9   $10,000.0   $10,000.0   $10,000.0   $10,000.0

Oil Spills Program
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
                       TOTAL

Ocean Disposal Permits
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Ocean Dumping Fund              $619.9
                       TOTAL   $8,403.7    $8,582.8    $7,651.7    $7,797.8    $8,076.3      $278.5     -$506.5

Environmental Emergency
Response & Prevention
 Program & Research            $3,230.6
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $9,579.0
 Compliance
 Oil Spills Trust Fund                    $19,661.1   $17,077.1   $17,076.1              -$17,076.1  -$19,661.1
                       TOTAL  $12,809.6   $19,661.1   $17,077.1   $17,076.1              -$17,076.1  -$19,661.1

Water Quality Criteria,
Standards and
Applications
 Program & Research            $6,843.7    $7,472.9    $7,659.2    $7,635.0    $7,435.6     -$199.4      -$37.3
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $9,366.8   $10,246.7   $11,597.1   $11,549.8   $10,962.6     -$587.2      $715.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $16.210.5   $17,719.6   $19,256.3   $19,184.8   $18,398.2     -$786.6      $678.6
$285.5
$285.5
$2,710.7 $3,125.9 $2,953.4 $2,953.0 $3,190.1
$5,073.1 $5,456.9 $4,698.3 $4,844.8 $4,886.2


$237.1 $64.2
$41.4 -$570.7
                                                       3-47

-------
                                                       WATER QUALITY
                                         Uater Quality Strategies Implementation

ACTUAL
1992
PRES.
BUDGET
1993
ENACTED
1993
CURRENT REQUEST
ESTIMATE 1994
1993
INCREASE INCREASE
DECREASE DECREASE
1994 REQ 1994 REQ
VS VS
1993 CE 1993 PB
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
TOTAL:
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
Construction Grants
Ocean Dumping Fund
Oil Spills Trust Fund
Water Quality TOTAL
Strategies
Implementation
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Wetlands Protection
Ocean Disposal Permits
Environmental Emergency
Response & Prevention
Water Quality Criteria,
Standards and
Applications
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Wetlands Protection
Ocean Disposal Permits
Environmental Emergency
Response & Prevention
Water Quality Criteria,

$22,084.4

$92, 108.4


$619.9

$114,812.7



164.0
56.3
54.6

109.5


384.4

169.1
58.7
58.7
113.7

$21,238.3

$59,166.6



$19,661.1
$100,066.0



184.9
50.3
84.8

120.1


440.1

184.9
50.3
84.8
120.1

$21,373.3

$34,403.6

$50,000.0

$17,077.1
$122,854.0



184.5
50.3
84.8

119.0


438.6

184.5
50.3
84.8
119.0

$21,345.0 $21,975.4

$34,422.4 $31,713.2

$50,000.0 $80,000.0

$17,076.1
$122,843.5 $133,688.6



184.5 184.5
50.3 50.3
84.0

116.0 114.0


434.8 348.8

184.5 184.5
50.3 50.3
84.0
116.0 114.0

$630.4 $737.1

-$2,709.2 -$27,453.4

$30,000.0 $80,000.0

-$17,076.1 -$19,661.1
$10,845.1 $33,622.6



-4

-84.0 -84.8

-2.0 -6.1


-86.0 -91.3

-4

-84.0 -84.8
-2.0 -6.1
Standards and
Applications

TOTAL WORKYEARS                  400.2       440.1       438.6       434.8       348.8       -86.0       -91.3
                                                      3-48

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY

                    Water Quality Strategies Implementation
Budget Request

      The Agency  requests a  total of  $133,688,600  supported by  348.8 total
workyears for 1994.  This represents an increase of $10,845,100 and a decrease
of 86.0 total workyears  from 1993 of which $17,076,100 and 84 workyears decrease
is a result of transfer of the Environmental Emergency Response and Prevention
program to the new Oil Spills Response appropriation.  There is an increase of
$30 million  for  Nonpoint Source Grants in  the  Water Infrastructure Financing
appropriation.  Of the request, $21,975,400 will be for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $31,713,200 will be for the  Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents an increase of $630,400 in the Program
and  Research  Operations appropriation,  an  increase  of  $2,709,200   in  the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation  and $80 million will be  for the
Water Infrastructure Financing appropriation  (formally Construction Grants).
WETLANDS PROTECTION

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $17,214,100  supported by  184.5  total
workyears  for this  program,  of which  $11,349,700 will  be  for the Program and
Research appropriation  and  $5,864,400 will be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents an increase of $592,700 in Program and
Research Operations and a  decrease of  $2,163,400  in  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance.   This  decrease reflects  the elimination  or  completion  of  1993
Congressional directives more appropriate for state and local governments.  There
is an increase for the wetlands program.

      Headquarters and the Regions will continue to build a strong, consistent
regulatory (Clean Water Act Section 404) wetlands protection program working with
the Army Corps of Engineers  (COE)  and other Federal agencies, with particular
emphasis on tailoring wetlands protection activities to reflect the  functions of
wetlands at specific geographic areas/sites.   EPA will proceed with development
of a wetlands categorization approach under the Section 404  program.  Consistent
with the watershed protection approach, the program will direct its efforts to
those wetlands at greatest risk.  Specific guidance, assistance and oversight for
this risk based approach will be provided.

      The Agency  will provide continued assistance to state wetlands programs,
including increased attention to management of the state grants program.  This
will include support for developing guidance on new state Section 404 assumption
regulations.  There will be significant attention  paid to providing national
guidance on  State Wetlands  Conservation  Strategies  (including non-regulatory
components  and   landowner  incentives),  and  on the  integration  of  wetlands
protection with other ongoing programs, such as watershed protection.
                                     3-49

-------
      The Agency, along with other Federal agencies such as the Departments of
Agriculture and Interior, will continue work on targeted outreach/education on
wetlands  issues.   Headquarters  will support  Regional  strategies  for direct
communication  with  their  agricultural  communities  to  address  the  types of
farming, wetlands and  kinds of issues that are endemic to the Regions; these
include  wetlands  locations,  values,  regulatory  requirements  and  project
alternatives.  A key objective is to convince the public,  including  farmers, that
wetlands possess great value in their natural state.

      EPA will provide increased support for improving the scientific information
base  for  wetland  evaluation methods,  categorization,  mitigation  banking,
monitoring and ecological indicators.

      The Agency will continue to support strong state programs through grants,
technical assistance and technology transfer.  EPA will assist states developing
and implementing comprehensive state  wetlands protection plans, ensure a strong
state role  in wetlands assessment and mitigation banking,  and support cross-
Regional geographically targeted/watershed  initiatives,  aimed at risk reduction
in high priority areas.   These initiatives will  link  state planning efforts, the
advance   identification   (ADID)   process,   education/outreach  actions,   and
cooperative efforts among all levels of government and the private sector.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $18,784,800 supported by 184.5 total
workyears for this program, of which $10,757,000 is from the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation and  $8,027,800  is from the  Abatement,   Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993, the Agency  is continuing at  a  reduced level to build a strong,
consistent  Section  404  regulatory  program  working with  the  Army  Corps of
Engineers and other  Federal agencies.  The Agency is  coordinating Federal agency
support  for the National  Academy of Sciences wetlands delineation  study as
directed by Congress.  Implementation of a watershed management approach to the
protection/maintenance of  water  quality and  protection  of  wetlands values and
functions is  continuing  and  expanding.

      Support to states and Indian tribes is continuing to  grow as  they build on
anticipatory  approaches  to wetlands  protection with increased  use of advance
identification  (ADID),  special  area  management plans,  and comprehensive state
wetlands conservation plans, among others.  The  ADID  process is a unique tool for
achieving several objectives in a given geographic  area;  it  involves both an
extensive  public education  and  outreach effort  and contains  the elementary
components of a wetlands  classification method at a particular watershed or site.
The Corps of Engineers  (COE)  is increasingly willing to support  ADIDs because the
result may be a general permit for the geographic area, thus eventually reducing
the permitting workload  for  the Corps.

      The Agency  is continuing to develop guidance regarding  use of wetlands
mitigation  banking  systems.   Such  systems  can provide  scientifically sound
compensation  for  the  unavoidable   loss  of  wetlands   in  which  compensatory
mitigation  for more than one project  is  aggregated and effected  in advance  at a

                                      3-50

-------
single large site.  This can both provide environmental benefits and streamline
the permit review process.  A guidance document  for  field staff, issued jointly
with the COE,  will clarify the  appropriate role  of mitigation banking in the
Section 404 program.

      Building on wetlands  indicators work begun  in  1992, Great Lakes wetlands
protection activities will  establish  baselines  for  habitat restoration in the
Great Lakes Basin by identifying  indicator plants and animals.  The program is
also developing  inventories of habitat areas necessary  for the prevention of
species loss  or  decline.   The Agency is supporting the preparation  of state
protection  strategies  based  upon status and trends analyses of  Great Lakes
wetlands and tributary habitats.

      Congressional Directives.   A total of  $3,100,000 is  for Congressionally
directed  projects,  including the  Susquehanna  River  Wetlands Demonstration,
Hayward Marsh Wetlands, McKenzie  River Basin Wetlands Study, Warrenton, Oregon
Wetlands, Canaan  Valley,  West Virginia Wetlands, and  the  New Mexico Colonias
Wetlands Demonstration Project.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the  Agency obligated a total  of  $16,078,900 supported by 169.1
total workyears for this program, of which  $9,299,400 was from  the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and $6,779,500 was  from the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1992, the Agency worked  with other Federal agencies to ensure a sound
and consistent Federal approach to wetlands protection, assist with comprehensive
planning for Federal land management agencies, and provide appropriate levels of
compliance  monitoring  and  enforcement.   The  program  continued to  improve
consistency with the COE  under the Section 404 regulatory program.

      The Agency placed a high priority on implementing a watershed protection
approach, which seeks to integrate EPA  programs, along with other Federal agency,
state, and local  programs, to  address watershed protection in a  holistic manner.
The integration of point  and  nonpoint source controls with wetlands protection
can greatly enhance the  prevention of pollution  and the  reduction of risks to
public health and the environment.  Wetlands protection  activities were included
as components of a number of  watershed initiatives.

      The wetlands program  worked with the  Marine and Estuarine Protection
Program to  implement  the  improved test  methods and  procedural  guidance on
sediment criteria and disposal of dredged material in coastal waters, and began
development of comparable methods and guidance applicable to inland waters.

      EPA continued to  assist in the development of state  and local  wetlands
protection programs through the Regions and states, including the development of
state water quality standards  in several states.  Continued focus was placed upon
anticipatory approaches to wetlands protection, including advance identification.
The Agency implemented a variety  of projects aimed at protecting special wetland
ecosystems such as those  in coastal Louisiana.
                                     3-51

-------
      EPA disseminated new technical tools emerging from the Agency's research
efforts in the areas of wetlands  restoration  and cumulative impact assessments.
EPA played an active role in  international activities, seeking opportunities to
share U.S. experience and expertise with others, especially developing countries.


NONPOINT SOURCE MANAGEMENT GRANTS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $80,000,000 for this program for the Water
Infrastructure  Financing  appropriation.     This  represents  an  increase  of
$30,000,000 for watershed restoration grants.

      The Agency and the states will continue to target high priority watersheds
and  state  nonpoint  source  (NFS)  management  program  needs,  consistent  with
approved state Section 319 NFS programs.  Additional targeted grant funding will
be provided to support specific watershed restoration projects.

      In 1994, a significant portion of  Section 319  funds  will  be targeted to
specific state-designated local watershed projects  designed  to restore wetlands,
streambanks, shorelines, seagrass beds and other  coastal and  inland habitats.
Such watershed projects will include: restoration  of riparian habitats in man-
altered watersheds; urban lake renewal; improvement and restoration of important
wetland habitats; shaping or restoration of altered stream channels and riparian
habitats; and protection/restoration of eroding shorelines and their habitats.

      These grants  will also support continuing  statewide  NFS  implementation
activities.   This  will  include  the upgrade of the  level  and quality  of NFS
controls being  applied in the  high priority  watersheds  to reflect  the  best
economically achievable  management  measures  available.   In particular,  these
funds will be focused on several specific priority NFS categories — agriculture,
silviculture, urban, and hydromodification — in cooperation with other Federal
agencies to begin  implementation of state coastal nonpoint  source management
programs under the Coastal  Zone Act  Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) of 1990.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a  total  of  $50,000,000 for this program from the
Construction Grants/State Revolving Fund appropriation.

      These  funds  support   state   implementation  of  their  Section  319  NFS
management programs. Headquarters and the Regions,  based  on  careful analyses and
oversight of state Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 319 management plans and grant
submittals, is selecting  state  NFS  activities for funding which:   1) support
development of effective pollution prevention mechanisms to minimize generation
of NFS pollution at  the source,  with  emphasis on  high  priority  watersheds; 2)
support  innovative state approaches  to  resolve  NFS  agriculture,  mining and
forestry problems in  high priority watersheds; 3) assure performance, continuity,
and self-sufficiency of NFS programs at the state  level through hiring of staff
and establishment of  state-wide programs for education, technical assistance, and
technology transfer; and, 4) support fully integrated urban pollution programs

                                     3-52

-------
in high priority watersheds  by  enhancing CWA section 319 programs designed to
address  urban  stormwater  not  regulated  by  National  Pollution  Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permits.

      Congressional Directives;   A total of §24,000,000 was directed by Congress
to increase nonpoint source grants under CWA Section 319.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency obligated a  total of $52,524,600 for this program,  all of which
is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency  and states  targeted  high priority watersheds  and statewide
activities for the abatement  and  prevention of NFS pollution.  Projects included
provisions  for:    (1) on-site assistance,  education,  outreach  technology and
information transfer; (2) innovative prevention and control techniques;  (3) state
and local regulatory and enforcement mechanisms;  (4)  programs and techniques to
avoid groundwater contamination; and (5) institutional and financial arrangements
that lead to long-term water  quality improvements.  All  activities selected for
funding achieved discrete, measurable  results that  reduce risk to the aquatic
environment or human health and  advanced  states toward effective implementation
of comprehensive NPS  management programs (including,  as  appropriate, groundwater
protection).

WETLANDS IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM GRANTS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $10,000,000  for  this  program, all of which
is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.  There is no change
from 1993.

      States will continue to move toward the goal of no net loss of wetlands by
strengthening their protection programs.  Grant funds will be provided under the
authority of Clean Water Act  (CWA)  Section  104, which calls for Federal, state,
and local cooperation in conducting and promoting pollution prevention, reduction
and  elimination activities.    These activities  may  include  investigations,
experiments, training, demonstrations  and  studies.   Wetlands  grants to states
will  support  such  projects   that  assist  states  in their  efforts to  assume
responsibility  for the  CWA   section  404 regulatory program.    Projects  that
integrate state, local and private  sector programs and  activities that focus on
integrated protection efforts in priority watersheds will be of highest priority.
The Agency will  also continue to  place emphasis on encouraging and supporting the
efforts of Indian tribes to develop  and implement effective wetlands protection
programs.

      The Agency will expand  the number of states  developing comprehensive state
wetlands protection  plans and provide  funding  for  state demonstrations  that
support geographically-targeted  watershed initiatives aimed at risk reduction in
high priority areas.   Focus will be  placed  on state and  Indian initiatives that
link planning efforts, education and outreach actions  and cooperative efforts
among all levels of government and the private sector.

                                     3-53

-------
1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $10,000,000 for this program, all of
which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      States are continuing to move toward the goal of no net loss of wetlands
by strengthening their protection programs.   Grant  funds are being used for a
wide variety  of activities,  including  examining  the feasibility  of assuming
responsibility  for administration  of  the  Section  404  program.    States  are
developing water quality  standards for wetlands, incorporating wetlands  into the
Section 401 state water quality certification  process, developing comprehensive
statewide or geographically targeted wetlands protection management plans,  and
working with local governments and citizen groups to  promote wetlands protection
programs.  Projects that  integrate  state,  local  and  private sector programs and
activities and that focus on integrated protection efforts in priority watersheds
are  a  high  priority.   The  Agency is  placing emphasis  on encouraging  and
supporting the efforts  of  Indian  tribes to  develop and  implement effective
wetlands protection programs.

      The Agency hopes to expand the number of states developing comprehensive
state wetlands conservation plans that link planning  efforts, education/outreach
actions and cooperative  efforts among all levels of government and the private
sector.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency obligated a total  of $8,499,900 for this program, all of which
was from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1992, EPA received 157 grant applications from 43 states,  29  tribes, and
2  territories.   Eighty  grants were  awarded to  41 states,  9  tribes,  and 1
territory.  These grants  supported  demonstration projects, outreach activities,
investigations  and training  programs.    Examples  of funded  activities were:
development of state wetlands conservation plans or plan components;  wetland
water quality standards;  evaluation of assumption of the  Section 404 regulatory
program; and  integration of wetlands protection into watershed  projects.   In
addition, several states  used the grants to support wetlands mitigation  banking
programs.
OIL SPILLS PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      The Agency did not request funds for this program in 1994.

1993 Program

      The Agency did not request funds for this program in 1993.
                                      3-54

-------
1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency obligated a total $285,500 for this program in the Abatement,
Control and  Compliance appropriation.   The Agency continued  support for the
Alaska Restoration Task Force which included review of restoration feasability
studies and  the  development of  the  restoration  planning process  to ensure
consistency with EPA policy.
OCEAN DISPOSAL PERMITS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $8,076,300 supported by 50.3 total workyears
for  this  program, of which  $3,190,100 will be  for the  Program  and Research
Operations appropriation and $4,886,200 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents an increase of $237,100 in Program and
Research Operations and a $41,400 increase in Abatement, Control and Compliance
to support increased workforce costs.

      The Agency will propose revised regulations for management of dredged
material disposal including ocean disposal site designation and ocean disposal
of dredged materials.  The Agency will develop,  with the Army Corps  of Engineers
(COE), long-term management strategies for dredged materials.  In addition, ocean
disposal sites  will  continue to be monitored.  Headquarters  will continue to
implement an environmentally protective ocean dumping program  and assist in the
development/implementation of the  Agency's contaminated sediment  strategy.   A
comprehensive management plan will be completed for dioxin which will serve as
an example  for  other  contaminants found  in  sediments.   The  plan  will address
management as well as technical  issues  related to contaminated sediments. Joint
efforts with  the  COE will  continue  in  the management  of  dredged  material
disposal.    Joint guidance  documents will  be drafted on (1)  site designation,
management and monitoring, and  (2)  the role and technical aspects of capping.
A  memorandum of understanding  (MOD)   will be  developed  that  will  address
management interactions between the two agencies and enforcement activities.  The
Agency, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, will develop a compliance and
enforcement improvement  program  for  ocean dumping  to  reduce the risk to human
health and aquatic life.  This  program includes guidance, training and public
awareness and  support from  Headquarters  for  Regional permit  and regulatory
compliance  actions.   The Agency  will  work  with  the  COE  to  develop improved
procedures for identifying illegal ocean  dumping of dredged materials and with
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration  (NOAA)  and the U.S. Coast Guard
(USCG) on improving surveillance capabilities.

      Headquarters will continue  to control marine debris by identifying sources
and developing and implementing control programs.   As an example, the Agency is
developing a demonstration program for  beach clean  up activities in two coastal
states. The demonstration will serve to reduce marine debris,  assess sources of
marine debris,  and educate and involve  the public in maintaining beach quality.
A national marine debris strategy will be produced with Regional assistance.
                                     3-55

-------
      The Regions will continue ocean  disposal  site management and monitoring
activities to ensure compliance and  enforcement  of  ocean dumping criteria and
permit requirements.  The Regions will continue to implement the Ocean Dumping
Ban Act (ODBA) by working with former sludge dumpers  to ensure implementation of
long-term alternatives to ocean dumping and by analyzing data collected at the
disposal site.

1993 Program

      The Agency is  allocating  a  total of  $7,797,800 supported  by 50.3 total
workyears for this program, of which $2,953,000 is from the Program and Research
and Operations  appropriation,  $4,844,800  is  from  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency is developing a proposal to revise the Ocean Dumping regulations
on disposal  site designation and  dredged material disposal.   A  regulation is
being proposed  that  will  amend  the list of ocean dumping sites  to update and
correct the  list.   Work  continues  on  developing regulations  under  the Shore
Protection Act to address  the transport of waste materials by vessels in coastal
waters.   Regions  are continuing  site  designation  actions and are initiating
efforts with the Corps of  Engineers  to conduct  site monitoring.   Headquarters
continues to support Regional implementation of the regulations through training,
technical assistance, and the monitoring capability of the Ocean Survey Vessel
Anderson.  Headquarters continues to evaluate requests for ocean dumping permits
such as deep ocean disposal of contaminated materials or intentional spills of
oil for research purposes.

      The Agency continues to meet the  requirements  of ODBA.  Sludge dumping at
the 106 Mile Site ceased in June 1992, but monitoring and  assessment of findings
continues.  Regional oversight  of  the  nine municipalities continues to assure
that the enforcement agreement schedules are met for  implementation of long term
sewage sludge disposal activities.

      The  Agency  continues  to  participate  in  activities  under the  London
Convention  of  1972  (previously  called  the  London  Dumping Convention),  the
International Convention  for the  Prevention of Pollution from Ships,  and the
Cartagena Convention to preserve  coastal  and  marine environments.  Major 1993
efforts are needed in development of amendments to the London Convention of 1972.
1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated a total of $8,403,700 supported by 58.7 total
workyears  for this program,  of  which $2,710,700  and  49.1 FTE  were from the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  $5,073,100 was from the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation and  $619,900 and 9.6 FTE were from the Ocean Dumping
Fund.

      Support for ODBA programs continued in management and oversight of sludge
dumper operations and in monitoring at the disposal  site to assure compliance and
to evaluate the effects of dumping.   Sewage sludge  dumping  stopped on June 30,


                                      3-56

-------
1992.  Additional  support  for Region II continued for monitoring of nearshore
waters to address problems on the New York-New Jersey beaches.

      Headquarters prepared  a  draft  document  on plastic pellets in the marine
environment which provided guidance to industry on pollution prevention measures.
The annual beach clean-ups  of marine debris and the marine debris information
center were co-sponsored with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

      The Regions continued their role in the development of environmental impact
statements for ocean dredged material disposal sites, permit review, and in site
management and monitoring as more interim dredged material disposal sites were
designated  as final  sites.    The  Agency,   in  cooperation with  other Federal
agencies, began to develop a compliance  and  enforcement  improvement initiative;
worked with the Corps of Engineer to develop  improved procedures for identifying
illegal  ocean  dumping  of  dredged   materials;   and  worked  toward   improved
surveillance programs.
ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE & PREVENTION

1994 Program Request

      The Agency is requesting funding for this program in 1994 under the new Oil
Spills medium.

1993 Program

      In  1993,  the Agency  is  allocating a total  of  $17,076,100  ($12,108,900
extramural and $4,967,200 intramural) supported by 84.0 total workyears  for this
program from the  Oil  Spill Response Trust Fund.   This  is  the first year that
resources for this program are provided from the Oil Spill Response Trust Fund.
Previously resources from the Salaries and Expenses and Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation supported the program.  For a detailed explanation of
the activities expected to  be  completed  this  year  please refer to the new Oil
Spills medium.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated $12,809,600 supported by 58.7 total workyears
for this  program,  of  which  $9,579,000  was   from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance  appropriation  and  $3,230,600 was   from the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.  For a detailed explanation of the  activities completed in 1992
please refer to the new oil Spills medium.
WATER QUALITY CRITERIA. STANDARDS AND APPLICATION

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $18,398,200  supported by  114.0 total
workyears  for this program,  decrease of  $786,600.   Of the request, $7,435,600
will be for the  Program  and Research Operations appropriation and $10,962,600

                                     3-57

-------
will  be  for  the  Abatement,   Control,  and  Compliance  appropriation.    This
represents a decrease of of 2  total  workyears  and  $199,400 in the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and a decrease of $587,200 in the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation.  The decrease in total workyears and in
the Program and Research Operations  appropriation  reflects the elimination of
wildlife  criteria  development and  adjustments made to  workyear costs.   The
decrease  in the  Abatement,  Control and Compliance  appropriation reflects the
elimination or completion of 1993  Congressional directives more appropriate for
state and local governments.

      An  increasing Agency priority is the focus on ecosystem management.  The
tools that enable Regions and states to assess environmental impacts on a system-
wide  basis  include' scientifically  sound  national water quality  criteria,
including  nutrient  criteria;  tools  to  tailor  criteria  to  site-specific
circumstances; methods for assessing the health of ecological communities; and
models to predict the impact of stressors on ecosystems.   In 1994, the ongoing
development of those tools to  facilitate ecosystem decision making will be the
top program priority.

      Through the program, EPA will work with states and dischargers to complete
revision to the human health and ambient water quality criteria methodologies to
reflect increased knowledge of environmental and human health impacts. Work on
development and implementation of  revised criteria developed using these revised
methodologies will be initiated under a  comprehensive framework which considers
the entire ecosystem,  including habitat  and  aquatic life.   The framework will
also  be  used to guide the development  and implementation  of  the other water
quality criteria activities that the Agency will  be  continuing and expanding in
1994.  These  include biological  criteria,  nutrient criteria,  dissolved oxygen
criteria, sediment criteria and criteria for  specific bioaccumulative compounds
such  as dioxins and  PCBs.

      In  conjunction with this activity  and pursuant to  the  Water Resources
Development Act of 1992,  the Agency will develop a comprehensive national survey
of sediment quality. The resulting inventory will serve to  target the adoption
of water  quality standards and modify implementation of control programs.

      The Agency, under the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)  program, identifies
the site-specific  needs  for pollution control  and the most effective means of
obtaining water quality objectives.  In 1994, the focus of  this program will be
to  improve and make more user  friendly existing  models;  develop additional
models;  and  issue  guidance  within  the  TMDL  framework  to assist  states in
developing cost effective permit limits that meet  water quality standards for wet
weather runoff, including CSOs.   In  conjunction  with this  activity, assistance
and training  will be provided to strengthen states'  abilities to adopt water
quality standards  reflective  of wet  weather events.

      According to the Science Advisory Board,  human consumption  of  fish  is the
primary route of exposure to  carcinogens  in surface water.  This poses special
concerns  because a large segment of the disadvantaged, minority public  eat large
quantities  of  fish  that are contaminated  with  cancer  causing  compounds.
State/local abilities  to  identify the risks are  limited and there is a little
                                      3-58

-------
consistency in  how  pollutants are managed.   EPA  will  develop consistent risk
assessment methodologies for  fish advisories that states have requested.

      Development of Round  II  sewage sludge regulations will continue.  The Round
II regulation will reassess those aspects of Round I  risk assessment which were
identified as having the greatest uncertainty and evaluate additional pollutants
for regulation.   Work will begin on  a  comprehensive ecological evaluation of
sludge  management  practices  to  provide additional  input  for  the  Round  II
regulation.   Activities  to assist  states to adopt  and utilize numeric toxic
standards and identify priorities for the 1994-1996 triennium will also  continue.

1993 Program

      The Agency  is allocating a total of $19,184,800 supported by 116.0 total
workyears  for this  program,  of  which 7,635,000 is  from Program and Research
Operations  appropriation  and $11,549,800  is  from Abatement,  Control,  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The  Agency,  in  1993,  plans  to propose  the  Great  Lakes  Water Quality
Initiative guidance and the associated human health,  aquatic  life, and wildlife
criteria.  EPA plans to issue the  contaminated sediment  management  strategy;
propose final sediment criteria documents for five organic compounds; and present
the methodology for  sediment quality criteria for metals for  the Agency's Science
Advisory Board in 1993.  The Agency continues to work with states  to develop and
implement narrative biological measures.  Work on biological criteria continues:
completion of criteria  for streams; draft  of  criteria  for lakes,  reservoirs,
estuaries and  near  coastal waters;  and  the initiation  of  criteria for rivers.
The Agency is continuing to work  with states and dischargers  on providing input
which leads to final guidance on aquatic life criteria for metals. Work on other
types of water quality criteria is focused on:  revision of  the human health and
aquatic  life  criteria  methodologies;  a comprehensive ecological  assessment
methodology that provides a framework for future development  and implementation
of water quality criteria;  dissolved oxygen criteria for marine waters; wildlife
criteria methodology and the  development of a database which facilitates site-
specific wildlife criteria.   Work  is  being initiated  to develop a  policy  to
address the integrated application of various types of water quality.

      The Final  Round I  sludge  regulation was  signed  by the Administrator  on
November 25,  1992  and  published in  the Federal  Register  in  February 1993.
Comments on the cadmium criteria in the final Round I Sludge  regulation  are being
addressed and work is being initiated on developing a comprehensive  ecological
evaluation of sludge management practices. A schedule and list of pollutants for
Round II is being developed in accordance with the Consent Agreement.

      Final water quality standards  to cover states that failed to adopt numeric
toxic standards were published on December 22, 1992.  In conjunction with this
activity, EPA works  with states and Regions to identify  priorities for  the 1994-
1996 triennium  and  continues  to  provide training for  Tribes that  qualify for
treatment  as  states.   The Agency  also continues to:   review  standards  for
implementing  recommendations  for  wet  weather/CSO  standards;   implement  the
agreement between the Agency  and the Fish  and  Wildlife Service  (FWS) and the
National Marine Fisheries Service  (NMFS)  and the water quality standards aspects

                                     3-59

-------
of the Endangered Species Act;  develop new  fish consumption rates used in water
quality criteria;  and work  with Regions/states to  develop TMDLs  to support
integrated watershed approaches.

      Congressional Directive.   A total of $2,700,000 is  for the Congressionally
directed project, Coastal Sediment Decontamination Program.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated  a total  of  $16,210,500  supported by 113.7
total workyears for this program, of  which  $6,843,700 was from the Salaries and
Expense  appropriation • and  $9,366,800 was  from the  Abatement, Control,  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency continued to work on developing guidance for use by states to
adopt minimum standards to protect the Great Lakes.   The  draft Great Lakes Water
Quality Initiative guidance  was completed  at the end of 1992.   Human health,
aquatic  life  and wildlife criteria  were developed to  support  this guidance.
Interim guidance on Interpretation and Implementation of Aquatic Life Criteria
for Metals was issued  in  May  1992 and the  draft contaminated management strategy
was published in March 1992.  Draft  sediment  criteria for organic chemicals and
a state-of-the art methodology  for deriving sediment quality criteria for metals
were  completed.   The  Agency  continued to develop methodologies for biological
criteria;  completed  a preliminary  revision of  the methodology  for  deriving
ambient water quality criteria  for human health; and, on  June 5,  1992, published
interim guidance an aquatic life criteria for metals. Work on the final Round I
sludge  regulation was  completed at the  end  of  1992  for  signature by  the
Administrator and promulgation  early  in 1993.

      Proposed water quality  standards to cover states that fail to adopt numeric
toxic standards  were  published on November 19,  1992.   The  Agency continued to
work  with  states and  Regions  to  develop  their  water quality programs  by
organizing and participating in conferences, workshops  and meetings to discuss
water quality  issues.   EPA  continued to examine the  appropriateness of water
quality criteria,  standards  and TMDL policy  and guidance as it relates to wet
weather discharges.  The Agency developed  an electronic bulletin board on fish
advisories  and  evaluated the fish consumption rate used in  the water quality
criteria for possible revision.  EPA also  signed a  joint guidance with FWS and
the NMFS on coordination of  the requirements of the Endangered  Species Act and
the Clean Water  Act with the water quality criteria and standards program.
                                      3-60

-------
                                                        WATER QUALITY
                                             Water Quality Monitoring & Analysis
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Coastal Environment
Management
 Program & Research            $8.471.9    $9,755.9   $10,324.0   $10,372.9    $8,776.2   -$1,596.7     -$979.7
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $41,342.2   $38,129.0   $34,368.2   $37,688.0   $32,171.1   -$5,516.9   -$5,957.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $49,814.1   $47,884.9   $44,692.2   $48,060.9   $40,947.3   -$7,113.6   -$6,937.6

Assessment and
Watershed Protection
 Program & Research           $15,651.0   $16,992.3   $16,542.7   $16,532.5   $17,341.1      $808.6      $348.8
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $14.683.2   $16,157.3   $26,750.3   $27,106.4   $11,313.4  -$15,793.0   -$4.843.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $30,334.2   $33,149.6   $43,293.0   $43,638.9   $28,654.5  -$14,984.4   -$4,495.1


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $24,031.0   $26,748.2   $26,866.7   $26,905.4   $26,117.3     -$788.1     -$630.9
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $55,995.4   $54,286.3   $61,118.5   $64,794.4   $43,484.5  -$21,309.9  -$10,801.8
 Compliance

Water Quality          TOTAL  $80,026.4   $81,034.5   $87,985.2   $91,699.8   $69,601.8  -$22,098.0  -$11.432.7
Monitoring & Analysis


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Coastal Environment               134.9       166.6       165.4       166.4       139.4       -27.0       -27.2
Management

Assessment and                    244.5       262.8       262.0       262.0       284.0        22.0        21.2
Watershed Protection

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS         378.1       429.4       427.4       428.4       423.4        -5.0        -6.0


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Coastal Environment               138.6       166.6       165.4       166.4       139.4       -27.0       -27.2
Management

Assessment and                    255.2       262.8       262.0       262.0       284.0        22.0        21.2
Watershed Protection

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   392.5       429.4       427.4       428.4       423.4        -5.0        -6.0
                                                       3-61

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY

                      Water Quality Monitoring  & Analysis
Budget Request
      The  Agency requests  a total  of $69,601,800  supported by  423.4 total
workyears for 1994,  a decrease of $22,098,000 and a decrease of 5 total workyears
from 1993.   Of the request, $26,117,300 will be  for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $43,484,500 will be for  the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This  represents a decrease of $788,100  in the Program
and Research Operations appropriation  and  a decrease of $21,309,900  in the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
COASTAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $40,947,300  supported  by  139.4  total
workyears  for  this  program, of which $8,776,200  will be for  the  Program and
Research Operations  appropriation  and $32,171,100 will be  for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents decreases of 27.0 total
workyears,  $1,596,700  in Program  and Research Operations  and  $5,516,900 in
Abatement, Control and Compliance reflecting a reduced effort in  the Near Coastal
Water Program;  and  efforts  to support the  Florida Keys Marine Sanctuary; the
Saginaw River  Watershed;  Maumee  River and  Bay; the  Rio Grande Coastal Impact
Monitoring Station;  the National Estuary Program,  including Buzzards Bay, Long
Island Sound,  and Puget Sound; and Great Lakes Basin erosion activities that were
1993 activities.

      The Agency will continue to guide and support 21  existing estuary projects
in the National Estuary Program (NEP) under Section 320 of the Clean Water Act
(CWA).  As part of  the  NEP, Comprehensive Conservation  and Management  Plans
(CCMP) are being developed  to  protect  and enhance  water quality  and living
resources of these targeted  estuaries.  The CCMPs are  developed  in three phases:
1) priority problem identification;  2)  characterization  of water  quality and
living resources; and 3)  development  of a  management plan which addresses the
identified problems.

      Limited resources are  requested for transferring lessons learned from CCMP
development among the NEPs and other important estuaries and  water bodies.  This
activity has been undertaken through a separate Near Coastal Waters Program that
is now consolidated with the National Estuary Program.

      The  program  will  continue  to support  coastal  and  marine  regulatory
responsibilities under the Clean Water Act; these  programs manage point source
discharges to  marine waters.  The 301(h)   program  provides  an  opportunity for
municipalities to avoid secondary treatment when it is shown that treatment is
not  necessary  to protect coastal  waters.   Activities will  include continued
review of Section 301(h) marine discharges for the  ten remaining waiver requests

                                     3-62

-------
and waiver extensions.  The Agency will continue to improve the integration of
CWA Section 403 ecological risk-based decision-making into the Section 402 permit
program to more effectively and efficiently implement the permit review mandates
of Section 403.

      The Agency  will  work with Department of the Interior (DOI) to  implement the
Clean Vessel Act  (CVA) guidelines and will work with the Regions on needs for no
disposal zones.

      The  Agency will  continue to support  the  Great Lakes  States  in  the
development  and  implementation of  Remedial Action Plans   (RAPs)  for Areas of
Concern  (AOCs).  The  program  will  continue to improve integrated, multi-media
approaches to reducing mass loadings of critical pollutants in order to restore
beneficial uses in geographically targeted areas.  An important component of this
effort will be enhanced public involvement in all phases of RAPs.

      Through the continued coordination  of  load  reduction actions with other
Federal,  state and  local entities,  EPA will  further reduce  mass loadings of
critical pollutants across the Great Lakes Basin.  In addition,  EPA intends to
enhance the integration of base program activities,  under all relevant statutory
authorities  (e.g., CWA, CAA,  CERCLA, RCRA, TOSCA,  FIFRA,  EPCRA)  which are the
foundation for achieving specific lakewide goals and objectives.   By targeting
specific  program enhancements,  EPA and  the states  will  accelerate  ongoing
prevention, control, abatement and remediation  actions.  Ultimately, this program
will enhance the  Agency's ability to realize the goals and objectives of both the
CWA and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.

      Support continues for the Gulf of Mexico  Program, through  the Office of
Water  in coordination  with   Regions  IV and  VI,  with  a   special  emphasis  on
shellfish water restoration,  habitat protection  and restoration, beach clean up
activities, public education  and outreach projects, and initiatives to improve
nonpoint source controls.  In addition,  several demonstration projects to restore
habitat and improve water quality are being implemented.  Activities to identify
data needs of the Gulf Coast environmental decision makers  and to  determine the
role for the Gulf Program in coordinating  geographic information systems in the
Gulf  states  are also  continuing.    The Program  continues to   support  the
characterization of Gulf problems and development of Action Agendas to address
these problems through increased cooperation with Federal,  state and private
partners.

1993  Program

      The Agency is allocating a total  of $48,060,900 supported by 166.4 total
workyears for this program, of which $10,372,900  is from the Program and Research
Operations appropriation  and  $37,688,000  is  from the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency is  continuing to  guide  and  support the  21  estuaries  in the
National Estuary Program; three of  the 21 were  added in early 1993.  In 1993,
Narragansett  Bay completed  its CCMP and  San  Francisco Bay,  Albemarle-Pamlico
Sound, and Long Island Sound are completing their CCMPs.  The Regions are working
with the states on data and information  exchange on key technical, scientific and

                                     3-63

-------
infrastructure  issues.   The NEP  and Near  Coastal  Waters  (NCW)  Programs are
integrating with the NFS control programs, wetlands protection,  and point source
programs, emphasizing watershed protection approaches.

      Efforts in the Gulf of Mexico Program will continue to target protection
of the most  critical  and vulnerable marine life  through  work  on the nutrient
enrichment project,  marine debris action plan and habitat degradation activities.
Activities to identify data needs of the Gulf Coast environmental decision makers
and to determine the role the Gulf Program should play in coordinating geographic
information systems in the  Gulf states  will continue.  The Program will also
continue existing  support  of BAYWATCH,  beach cleanup  activities,  the Florida
Marine Key  Sanctuary  water  quality plan, coastal erosion projects,  and other
efforts of the technical committees.

      In  the secondary  treatment  waiver program,  Headquarters  continues  to
support Regional implementation  of waiver applications,  secondary equivalency
determinations,  and permit  reissuance  activities.    In   addition,  the  Agency
continues work  on  critical  regulatory,  programmatic and  technical guidance to
facilitate the performance of 403 ocean discharge criteria  reviews and decision-
making.   The Phase II  Report  to  Congress  on  application of  section  403  to
dischargers in estuarine waters is being completed.

      The  Agency is assisting  the Department  of Interior  in  development  of
guidance under the Clean  Vessel  Act.  The guidance is for state  programs to fund
pump out  facilities for  boat sewage wastes and will be used by  the Agency in
focussing efforts under CWA  312 to establish comprehensive programs for marine
sanitation  devices (e.g.,  public  education,  no discharge  zones).   The OSV
Anderson  is continuing to  provide support for  coastal   and ocean  surveys  to
support  environmental  management  decisions  in  the  NEP,   NCW,  and  403/301(h)
programs.

      The Agency is providing funds and  technical assistance to the Great Lakes
States  for the  development  and implementation  of  RAPs  for the 31  US AOCs.
Remedial Action Plans are intended to ensure reduced loadings of  toxic pollutants
in targeted geographical areas, such that beneficial uses are restored consistent
the CWA and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.   Of primary concern to the
states and EPA  is the elimination  of adverse risks resulting from the presence
of contaminated  sediments in all AOCs.

      The Agency is continuing to work with Great Lakes States to refine Lakewide
Management Plans (LaMPs) for the reduction of loadings of toxic pollutants for
Lake Superior and Michigan, including publication of  the final Lake Michigan LaMP
in  the Federal  Register;  to complete  conversion of the Lake Ontario Toxics
Management  Plan into a  LaMP;  and, to  begin  development  of a  Lake Erie LaMP
identifying pollutants impairing beneficial uses.  Consistent with the LaMPs, the
Agency and the states are implementing coordinated monitoring programs for air,
water,  biota,  and   sediments for the  open waters, nearshore, tributaries, and
harbors of Lake Michigan, Ontario and Superior to establish baselines, identify
sources,  quantify  loadings,  and target  load reduction  activities.

       Congressional Directives.   A total of §5,150,000 is  for Congressionally
directed projects,  including: support for the National Estuary Program,  including

                                      3-64

-------
Buzzards Bay,  Long Island Sound,  and  Puget Sound; Great  Lakes Basin erosion
activities; the  Florida Keys  Marine  Sanctuary;  the  Saginaw  River Watershed;
Maumee River and Bay; and the Rio Grande Coastal Impact Monitoring Station.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated  a  total of $49,814,100 supported by 138.6
total workyears for this program,  of  which  $8,471,900  was from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $41,342,200  was from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency continued to provide support to the  17 management conferences
in the NEP; the Buzzards Bay CCMP was completed.  One new estuary was added to
the NEP, Peconic Bay, New York,  and nominations were solicited and reviewed for
three additional NEPs early 1993.  A comprehensive programmatic guidance  on NCW
program strategies was completed and distributed to the Regions.  Implementation
of completed Regional Near Coastal Water  strategies was initiated.  To test the
effectiveness of various pollution prevention approaches, grants were provided
to  state and  local  governments  for  selected  action demonstration  projects
identified as national priorities  in NCW strategies or  through the NEP projects.
Efforts to develop  comprehensive  technical assistance and  outreach strategies
were initiated to assist NEPs and NCW programs in dealing with coastal problems.

      The Agency continued development of  regulations,  technical guidance and
support documents and management of a national data base in support of coastal
and marine  regulatory responsibilities including  secondary  treatment waivers
(Section 301[h]), ocean discharge criteria (Section 403[c]) and marine sanitation
devices  (Section  312).   The  Agency continued development  of  a  strong overall
framework for marine ecological risk  assessment under  301(h)/403 and conduct of
ocean and coastal surveys by the OSV Anderson to support environmental management
decisions in NEPs, NCW,  and  301(h)/403 programs.

      The Agency assisted state development and  implementation of RAPs for AOCs
resulted in the completion of  seven  Stage  I and  two Stage  II  RAPs.  A total of
nine RAPs  were submitted  to the  International  Joint Commission  for review.
Implementation  activities were undertaken  by  EPA,  the  states   and  other
responsible parties in these and other AOCs.

      The Agency published the draft  Lake Michigan  LaMP in the Federal Register
for public review and comment,  began  efforts to convert the Lake Ontario Toxics
Management Plan into  a  LaMP,  and  began development of the  Lake Superior LaMP.
Load reduction actions are underway in all Lakes.
ASSESSMENT AND WATERSHED PROTECTION

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $28,654,500  supported  by  284.0  total
workyears  for this  program,  of which $17,341,100 will be  for  the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation  and $11,313,400 will be  for the Abatement,
Control  and Compliance  appropriation.    This  represents  an  increase  of  22

                                     3-65

-------
workyears and $808,600 in the Program and Research Operations appropriation; and
a decrease of $15,793,000 in Abatement, Control and Compliance.  This decrease
reflects completed funding  for  a  lake/watershed  management in Region V; water
quality  projects  on  the   Tar  Pamlico  River,  Grand   River   and  on  the
Oklahoma/Arkansas  border;   Lake restoration  activities  in   Lakes  Roosevelt,
Onondaga,  Decker,  Ponchartrain,  Black Hawk  and Champlain;  St.  Croix River
International Waterway Commission; New  Jersey  lake  water activities;  and a
nonpoint source pollution study in conjunction with  Nebraska, Iowa and Kansas
that were 1993 activities.   There  is an increase to assist states by providing
information  for  decision  using total  daily  maximum load  (TMDL)  analysis and
watershed monitoring.  The workyear increase will provide technical support for
the nonpoint source grants.

      Working with  a wide  range  of government and private  stakeholders,  the
Agency will  support  policy, outreach  and technical assistance  activities to
strengthen state implementation of watershed  planning,  monitoring,  lakes,  and
coastal/inland nonpoint source  (NPS) control programs,  including compliance with
statutory mandates.

      This will  be  an important   year  for implementing  watershed  protection
approaches.   As  one important action in  this area,  states  will submit lists
(required under Clean Water  Act Section 303(d)) of their second round of waters
targeted for development of total maximum daily loadings (TMDL) in April 1994.
The Agency will  review and  approve these state lists, assuring  they reflect
watershed priorities  and  remaining control needs.   The states will  be fully
engaged  in developing TMDLs in priority  watersheds to support  water quality
decision-making, including addressing complex pollution problems,  such as storm-
related loadings and habitat impacts.   Many states will tackle these challenges
for  the first  time  and  the  Agency  will be  providing   increased  technical
assistance and policy guidance to  ensure that  approvable TMDLs  are developed to
support watershed protection.   The Agency will provide technical assistance to
state watershed efforts to clean-up and preserve lakes  consistent with our lakes
strategy proposed in  1993.

      Using the NPS  Strategy developed in 1993,  the  Agency will  work with the
states to  better integrate  state  coastal and inland  NPS  programs,  including
consistent use of Coastal Zone  Act Reauthorization  Amendments of 1990  (CZARA)
management measures and better utilization of  other Federal, state, and private
NPS   initiatives.     Working   with  the   National  Oceanic   and  Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA), final procedures for reviewing and approving initial state
coastal NPS program submissions  will be developed and used.  Consistent with the
1993 NPS Strategy, the Agency will work  with states both to  improve their Section
319 NPS programs and to develop, as appropriate, their coastal NPS  programs.  The
Agency will strengthen our oversight of  Section 319 grants,  including restoration
projects.  The Agency  will  begin threshold reviews of the coastal programs and
provide  technical  assistance  to   the  states.    The  effectiveness  of initial
voluntary action projects under the Agricultural Pollution Prevention Strategy
will be evaluated by  the Agency, with  successful approaches transferred to new
projects.

      The  Intergovernmental Task  Force on  Monitoring (ITFM) Water  Quality,
chaired by the EPA and including representatives of eight Federal agencies and

                                     3-66

-------
eight states, will further refine and begin implementing a national monitoring
strategy, including monitoring  site  design,  comparable methods, data sharing,
environmental indicators, and reporting.  Support will be provided to selected
states to test the effectiveness  of  the ITFM strategy.  The Agency will begin
implementing our  five-year water  monitoring  plan,  including updating national
monitoring guidance based on interagency and  state recommendations.  The Agency
will  develop  guidance  for  using   and  reporting  environmental  indicators.
Guidelines for the national Clean Water Act (CWA) Section  305(b)  biannual report
of  state water quality  status  will  be significantly updated  consonant with
findings of the ITFM.   The Agency  will continue  supporting volunteer monitoring
through  further  technical  assistance  and  guidance.    The modernization  of
STORET/BIOS/ODES  [the national water quality and biological data systems] will
reach the  50 percent  completion  stage, with a fully renovated  system  to  be
operational by 1998.

1993 Program

      The Agency  is allocating a total of $43,638,900  supported by 262.0 total
workyears for this program, of which  $16,532,500  is from the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation  and $27,106,400  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency  is tailoring our outreach and technical assistance to support
states'  evolving  operation of base  monitoring,  water  quality planning and NPS
control  programs  consistent   with   watershed   protection.     This  includes
implementation  of a  national  program   to  identify  priority   watersheds  for
targeted/integrated management programs, with emphasis  on developing watershed-
based TMDLs.  The Clean Lakes program continues  to provide technical assistance
to states to encourage  stronger state-wide programs  and better ties to volunteer
efforts.  Future directions  for the lakes program are being developed in a Lakes
Strategy.

      The  national NPS  program  is  continuing to  support state  watershed
protection   through   guidance,   technical   assistance,   workshops,   and   a
clearinghouse.  Working with  other  Federal  agencies,  the Agency continues our
Federal  alliances to  focus Federal  policies,  programs,  and resources  on  NPS
efforts in state-targeted watersheds. Specifically, the Agency  is working with
NOAA to  implement CZARA NPS requirements  in coastal   areas  and with  the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA)  on their Water Quality  Initiative  to assure
effective linkages of both efforts to state CWA Section 319 programs.  The Agency
is also developing a strategic plan that takes into account  lessons learned from
the  first  years  of NPS  program  implementation and  that  guides  mid-course
corrections to improve program effectiveness.

      The Agency is establishing a slower pace to develop the system architecture
for  a  modernized  STORET/BIOS/ODES   data system.   The  Agency is  developing
indicators to assess ecological integrity and cost-effective rapid bioassessment
methods to determine aquatic  ecosystems  stresses as a basis for targeting and
evaluating watershed protection initiatives.   The Agency continues chairing the
Interagency  Task  Force  on  Monitoring,  which  is  developing  a  nation-wide
monitoring strategy for integration of regional data collection and reporting.
                                     3-67

-------
The Agency  is  supporting  volunteer  monitoring  activities  through technical
assistance and guidance.

      Support is being given to the Agency's Agricultural Pollution Prevention
Strategy by formulating new initiatives with key Federal agencies with emphasis
on nutrient management plans implemented through USDA's Water Quality Initiative
and state CWA Section 319 programs.  The Agency is also working with the Forest
Service on reducing significant ecological  risks, including developing specific
habitat protection approaches for timber operations.

      The Regions  are implementing special geographic  initiatives reflecting
priorities in individual regional strategic plans.

      Congressional Directives.  A total of $13,820,000 is for Congressionally
directed projects.   These activities are: lake/watershed management  in Region V;
water  quality projects  on the Tar  Pamlico  River,  Grand River  and  on  the
Oklahoma/Arkansas  border;   Lake restoration  activities  in  Lakes  Roosevelt,
Onondaga,  Decker,  Ponchartrain,  Black Hawk  and  Champlain;  St.   Croix River
International Waterway Commission; New Jersey lake  water activities;  and  a
nonpoint source pollution study in conjunction with Nebraska, Iowa and Kansas.

1992 Accomplishments

      The  Agency  obligated a  total of $30,334,200 supported by  255.2 total
workyears  for this program,  of which  $15,651,000  was  from the  Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation and $14,683,200 was  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The  Agency  placed  renewed  emphasis  on  the  water  quality  planning
requirements of CWA Section 303(d) to support the watershed protection approach.
Revised regulations were issued and states began identifying targeted watersheds
for TMDL development.   Outreach  and technical assistance efforts were undertaken
to implement the new regulations and support TMDL development.  The Agency made
substantial progress  in  clarifying its  mission and  opportunities in protecting
habitat  and ecosystems. The  Clean Lakes   program  continued  providing  limited
technical and programmatic  support.

      The Agency emphasized NPS pollution reduction  activities under the CWA for
those  watersheds  where water  quality was most threatened.   Continued direct
support to states went to integrated, cooperative efforts to implement statewide
and geographically-targeted controls.  Special emphasis was on controlling non-
traditional,  high-risk pollution sources which threatened or degraded priority
watersheds  identified in state  CWA Section 319 programs.  A national Volunteer
Action Project was  initiated to build a consensus among Federal agencies,  states,
local government and private citizens on actions needed for watershed protection.
Under  CZARA,  the Agency substantially developed final NPS management measures
guidelines  for the  coastal  zone.

      The Agency continued the transition of the national monitoring program from
the  limited chemical-specific  assessments needed  for individual point source
control  decisions  to  a broader ecologically-based approach.   Program shifts
within  base resources  included increased  emphasis  on a watershed approach  in

                                      3-68

-------
water quality assessment, targeting,  and  evaluation activities to support the
Agency's  watershed  protection  approach  and  related nonpoint  source control
program needs.  STORET/BIOS/ODES modernization efforts were continued.
                                     3-69

-------
U)
 I
-J
o

-------
                                                        WATER QUALITY
                                                  Municipal Source Control

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REQ     1994 REQ
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Municipal Pollution
Control
 Program & Research           $20,390.4   $20,404.3   $20,912.0   $20,931.6   $21,100.1      $168.5      $695.8
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $26,029.7   $19,442.6   $22,148.4   $22,141.0   $17,155.2   -$4,985.8   -$2,287.4
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $46,420.1   $39,846.9   $43,060.4   $43,072.6   $38,255.3   -$4,817.3   -$1,591.6


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $20,390.4   $20,404.3   $20,912.0   $20,931.6   $21,100.1      $168.5      $695.8
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $26,029.7   $19,442.6   $22,148.4   $22,141.0   $17,155.2   -$4,985.8   -$2,287.4
 Compliance

Municipal Source       TOTAL  $46,420.1   $39,846.9   $43,060.4   $43,072.6   $38,255.3   -$4,817.3   -$1,591.6
Control


PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Municipal Pollution               327.5       355.0       354.6       340.4       340.4                   -14.6
Control

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         327.5       355.0       354.6       340.4       340.4                   -14.6


TOTAL UORKYEARS
Municipal Pollution               339.5       355.0       354.6       340.4       340.4                   -14.6
Control

TOTAL UORKYEARS                   339.5       355.0       354.6       340.4       340.4                   -14.6
                                                       3-71

-------
                                 WATER  QUALITY

                           Municipal Source Control

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $38,255,300  supported by  340.4 total
workyears for 1994,  a decrease of $4,817,300.  Of the request, $21,100,100 will
be for the Program and Research Operations appropriation, and $17,155,200 will
be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an
increase of $168,500 for the Program and Research Operations appropriation, and
a decrease of $4,985,800 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.


MUNICIPAL POLLUTION CONTROL

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $38,255,300  supported by  340.4 total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which  $21,100,100 will  be  for the Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation and  $17,155,200 will  be  for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $168,500
in the Program  and Research Operations appropriation and a decrease of $4,985,800
in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.   The  increase in Program
and Research Operations  results  from an adjustment made to fully fund the 1994
workyears.  The  decrease  in  Abatement,  Control and Compliance results from the
completion of Congressionally-directed  add-ons for Wastewater Operator Training,
EPA's  National  Training  Center at  West  Virginia University,   Small  Flows
Clearinghouse at West Virginia University,  EPA's  Water Conservation Task Force,
Rural Community Assistance Program, alternative wastewater treatment  technologies
such   as   solar   aquatics,   an  innovative/alternative  wastewater  treatment
demonstration project in  the Florida Keys, a national demonstration project of
onsite wastewater treatment  technologies and management systems, a Small Towns
Environmental Program to  aid small  communities in new approaches to design and
construct  water  and wastewater  systems  and  for the Association  of  State and
Interstate Water Pollution Control  Administrators.

       In 1994,  fifty states and Puerto Rico will have operational  State Revolving
Funds  (SRF)  programs.    The Agency will  continue to  support  the  states in
implementing existing SRFs,  assuring  that limited  funds  are  applied  to the
highest  priority risk-based  needs  for wastewater  treatment,  nonpoint source
control  and  estuarine  protection.   EPA  will  initiate the  inclusion  of safe
drinking  water projects  under the new  Drinking Water State Revolving Fund  (DW-
SRF).  The Agency will  amend existing  regulations and guidance  and support the
States in identifying drinking water priorities and projects.  Using as  much of
existing  SRF financial  framework as possible,  the Municipal Pollution  Control
program  will  work closely with  the Drinking  Water program  and the States to
initiate  loans for  drinking  water facilities.

       The Agency will continue to promote alternative sources of  financing to
assist  the  states   in   supplementing  funds  available  under  planned   Federal
capitalization   authorizations,  with particular  emphasis  on  financing  small

                                     3-72

-------
community needs.  A  new  1994  Needs Survey will focus on assessing the capital
financing needs for  safe drinking  water facilities.

      Although  funding  for construction  grants  ended in  1990,  including the
205(g) set-aside, over 3,000 remaining projects will  require ongoing management
in 1994.  Headquarters will continue to direct the prompt completion and closeout
of active construction projects and resolution of audit problems, and support the
States in  planning,  managing, data  processing and  reporting  on the on-going
construction grants  activities.  Regional staff will work directly with states
on the  expeditious  completion  of the program as  well as  provide technical
assistance to states and  small communities.  The Corps of Engineers  continues to
play a major role in assisting EPA and the states  in  completing and closing out
the construction grants program.   The  Agency will continue to manage the Water
Quality Grants  (Section  106)  programs and the Indian  set-aside program under
Section 518 of the Clean Water Act.

      To assure  that the  national investment in wastewater  treatment  infra-
structure is  protected,  EPA will  continue to  emphasize state-based municipal
water pollution prevention programs that focus on preventive measures rather than
more  expensive  corrective actions  which  could  require  capital  financing.
Headquarters will continue to direct  operations and maintenance (O&M), operator
training, small community outreach, water use efficiency and municipal financing
including  public/private   partnerships   to   address  needs.     In  addition,
Headquarters  will  continue science  and  data  enhancements  through technology
transfer to encourage the beneficial  use of sewage sludge.  The Agency will also
support  the  wet  weather   programs   by   evaluating  existing  and  innovative
technologies and promoting the most promising and cost effective approaches to
reduce ecological risks.  '

      The Agency  will  enhance its support  in the U.S./Mexico Border  area in
fulfillment of EPA's Integrated  Border Environmental Plan  to address the very
serious  and  persistent  health  problems  associated  with  inadequate  sewage
treatment along the  Mexico border  region and the U.S. Colonias.

1993 Program

      The Agency is  allocating a total of $43,072,600 supported by 340.4 total
workyears for this program, of which $20,931,600 is from the Program  and Research
Operations appropriation  and $22,141,000  is  from the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      With 51 wastewater  SRF programs operating, the  Agency continues to manage
the implementation of SRF programs as states switch to more complex SRF financing
proposals.   Although funding for  the  construction  grants  program  ended in 1990,
the traditional program management workload of  state  oversight responsibilities
remains high,  as Regions address over 3,800 active grant projects.  EPA continues
to direct  the prompt  completion and  closeout of ongoing grant  projects and
resolution of audit  problems.  In  addition, EPA is managing the administration
of major grants  totaling $345,500,000 to six  coastal  cities;  $102,500,000 in
support of  the U.S./Mexico  Border projects; and another $108,000,000 in support
of projects representing unique Congressional priorities.
                                     3-73

-------
      Funds allocated for the Corps of Engineers Interagency Agreement support
personnel  to  provide  construction  management  and  completion  and  closeout
assistance  to  EPA  and  the  states.    Set-aside  funding  is  continuing  for
construction  of treatment  facilities  for Indian  tribes  and Alaska  Native
Villages.  The Agency is finalizing the 1992 Needs Survey which is expanded to
include extensive modeling of CSO,  stormwater and other SRF expanded eligibility.

     In  1993  program emphasis will be directed toward the  enhancement  of wet
weather program activities, which includes technical assistance on constructed
wetlands and  sewage  sludge,  and promoting the CSO  and stormwater  programs by
evaluating  existing  and  innovative technologies.   The  Agency continues to
implement municipal water pollution prevention programs, including O&M, water use
efficiency,  operator  training,  small  community  outreach,  and municipal  and
public/private partnerships.

      The Agency continues  to  implement the U.S./Mexico Border Integrated Border
Environmental  Plan  which  addresses the  very  serious  and persistent  health
problems  associated  with  inadequate  sewage  treatment   in  Tijuana,  the  U.S.
Colonias and  other  high  priority projects along  the U.S. Mexico Border.   In
addition, the Agency is initiating the development of an  industrial wastewater
pretreatment training program for Mexico.

      Congressional Directives.   A  total  of  $8,050,000 is for Congressionally
directed projects for:  Wastewater Operator Training ($1,350,000), EPA's National
Training  Center  at  West  Virginia   University   ($1,000,000),   Small   Flows
Clearinghouse at West Virginia University ($1,000,000), EPA's Water Conservation
Task Force ($350,000), Rural Community Assistance Program ($250,000), alternative
wastewater  treatment  technologies  such  as  solar  aquatics  ($1,000,000),  an
innovative/ alternative wastewater treatment demonstration project in the Florida
Keys ($500,000), a national demonstration project of  onsite wastewater treatment
technologies and management systems ($1,500,000), a Small Towns Environmental
Program to aid small communities in new approaches to design and construct water
and  wastewater  systems  ($700,000),  and   for  the  Association  of  State  and
Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators ($400,000).

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992,  the Agency  obligated a  total  of $46,420,100 supported by 339.5
total workyears for this program,  of which $20,390,400 was from  the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and $26,029,700  was from  the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA managed two large financial assistance programs  emphasizing the prompt
completion of construction grants projects and implementation and oversight of
SRF programs.  The Regions emphasized traditional construction grants management
activities which addressed a  workload of over 4,800 grant projects.  Under the
Indian set-aside program, funding  was provided to a total of 30  Indian tribes and
23 Alaska Native Villages.   The $13,000,000 allocated for  the Corps of Engineers
Interagency Agreement supported  161 total workyears and  provided construction
management assistance to EPA  and  the states.
                                     3-74

-------
      EPA promoted the development of state  programs  related to municipal water
pollution prevention, water conservation and technology  transfer to assure that
the national  investment  in wastewater  treatment  infrastructure  is protected.
$1,950,000 was  targeted  to operator training grants  for  onsite  assistance to
small communities.   EPA  provided  increased  information  and assistance to help
municipalities  address alternative  financing methods for  wastewater treatment
needs.
      The Agency supported the CSO program in evaluating  existing and innovative
technologies and promoting the most promising and cost effective approaches to
reduce ecological risks.  Headquarters coordinated research, technology transfer
and outreach activities with other  agencies and national organizations, including
the Small Flows Clearinghouse.
                                     3-75

-------
3-76

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget  Estimate

                                    of Contents
                                                                         Page

WATER QUALITY

ENFORCEMENT
   Water Quality Enforcement  ....................   3-77
      Water Quality Enforcement ...................   3-78
   Water Quality Permit Issuance  ..................   3-81
      Water Quality Permit Issuance .................   3-82

-------
                                                        WATER QUALITY
                                                 Water Quality Enforcement
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Water Quality
Enforcement
 Program & Research           $21,671.1   $22,737.3   $22,696.7   $22,689.3   $23,332.4      $643.1      $595.1
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $6,238.3    $7,138.3    $5,142.3    $4,651.3    $4,959.5      $308.2   -$2,178.8
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $27,909.4   $29,875.6   $27,839.0   $27,340.6   $28,291.9      $951.3   -$1,583.7


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $21,671.1   $22,737.3   $22,696.7   $22,689.3   $23,332.4      $643.1      $595.1
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $6,238.3    $7,138.3    $5,142.3    $4,651.3    $4,959.5      $308.2   -$2,178.8
 Compliance

Water Quality          TOTAL  $27,909.4   $29,875.6   $27,839.0   $27,340.6   $28,291.9      $951.3   -$1,583.7
Enforcement


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Water Quality                     395.0       403.4       401.7       392.6       386.7        -5.9       -16.7
Enforcement

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         395.0       403.4       401.7       392.6       386.7        -5.9       -16.7

TOTAL WORKYEARS
Water Quality                     416.2       403.4       401.7       392.6       386.7        -5.9       -16.7
Enforcement

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   416.2       403.4       401.7       392.6       386.7        -5.9       -16.7
                                                       3-77

-------
                                 WATER  QUALITY

                                  Enforcement
Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $28,291,900  supported by  386.7 total
workyears for 1994, a decrease of 5.9 total workyears from 1993. Of this request
$23,332/400 will be for  the Program and Research Operations appropriation and
$4,959,500   will be  for the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance appropriation.
This represents an increase of  §643,100  for the Program and Research Operations
appropriation,  and  an  increase of  $308,200  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.
WATER QUALITY ENFORCEMENT

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $28,291,900  supported by  386.7 total
workyears  for this  program,  of which $23,332,400 will be  for the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and  $4,959,500  will be  for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $643,100
for the Program and Research Operations appropriation; an increase of $308,200
for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation;  and a decrease of 5.9
total workyears reflecting reduced activity supporting compliance reviews.

      The enforcement priority for the Agency will be the issuance of enforceable
schedules to meet Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) requirements.  Approximately 110
administrative  orders will  be issued  to  municipalities  to set schedules for
implementing actions  necessary to correct  compliance  problems  resulting from
CSOs, and approximately 30 facilities will  be  subject to enforcement actions as
a result of the  dry  weather enforcement initiative.   EPA will monitor compliance
with schedules  for  the remaining 42 National Municipal Policy facilities.

      The Agency will  continue to promote the use of some multi-media inspections
and enforcement actions.   EPA will  also  initiate  enforcement actions  against
municipalities  or  industrial users who   fail  to  implement  approved local
pretreatment programs or to comply with pretreatment requirements.  All instances
of  significant  noncompliance will be responded to  on  a  timely  basis and some
violations  of  new program requirements (sludge, stormwater)  may be addressed
where there are problems in  a  particular watershed.

      The Agency will  continue  to develop and implement an approach for measuring
the  loadings  of toxic pollutants  to waterbodies as a means  of measuring the
environmental benefits of  the National  Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
 (NPDES) program and for use in targeting enforcement and permitting priorities.
Efforts  to improve public  access  to the  Permit Compliance System (PCS) will
continue.  The Agency will expand  the number of environmental projects  sought in
enforcement settlements.
                                      3-78

-------
1993 Program

      The Agency  is allocating  a total  of  $27,340,600  supported  by  392.6  total
workyears for this program,  of which $22,689,300 is from the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation and  $4,651,300  is  from the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA is tracking compliance with schedules to attain final effluent limits
for approximately  89 National Municipal  Policy  (NMP) facilities  which have  not
yet completed  construction  and  is  working with states to implement  individual
Municipal Water Pollution Prevention  (MWPP) programs.

      The  Agency  is revising  the  definition of  reportable noncompliance  and
significant noncompliance for Publicly  Owned Treatment Works  (POTWs)  violating
pretreatment requirements and modifying  oversight  procedures  for pretreatment,
providing  additional  flexibility  through  a  variety  of  onsite   inspection
techniques.

      The Agency will continue  to address  noncompliance  by municipalities with
approved  pretreatment   programs  and   will  conduct   pretreatment   and  NPDES
inspections, although contract inspections  will be eliminated.  Some multi-media
inspections and enforcement cases will  augment the base  program.

      The  enforcement  program  will  initiate  activity   in  the  area of  CSO
requirements through an  enforcement initiative addressing dry weather overflows.
Enforcement of the new sludge technical regulations will be limited to violations
causing substantial environmental problems.  Timely and appropriate enforcement
action is being taken in all instances  of  significant  noncompliance.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated  a total  of $27,909,400 supported by 416.2
total workyears for this program, of which  $21,671,100 was from the Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation   and  $6,238,300  was  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      During  FY   1992,  37  of   the  remaining  129  major  facilities  completed
construction to attain  final  effluent limits.  Contempt actions were  initiated
against 3  major  facilities  for failure  to  comply  with NMP  schedules.    EPA
supported implementation of  the MWPP  program  promoting  national consistency  and
conformance with MWPP guidance,  in order to  prevent  pollution by anticipating
design capacity overload in POTWs.   The Agency continued to focus on  municipal
facilities to ensure compliance with  final effluent  limits.

      In the area of pretreatment, EPA emphasized compliance for IDs with Organic
Chemicals, Plastics and  Synthetic Fibers pretreatment  standards and assessed  the
compliance status of lUs through a statistical survey.    It conducted  its third
pretreatment enforcement initiative which  included actions by EPA,  states,  and
local  governments against  354  noncompliers and  54  municipalities  and   300
industrial users.  In  1992,  EPA began the development of  policy and guidance
needed to  implement  the new  sludge  technical  regulations.    In  addition,  EPA
drafted strategies for enforcing storm water and CSO requirements.

                                     3-79

-------
      In 1992,  the overall rate of significant noncompliance (SNC) of major NPDES
permittees under the Clean Water  Act  remained  steady  at  9%.   In addition, the
municipal SNC  rate  for  the  quarter ending June 30 was the  lowest  in 7 years.
EPA's formal enforcement activities included 1,477 administrative and judicial
actions, which includes actions against minors.

      PCS was expanded to incorporate latitude/longitude data for a portion of
the minor facilities to  provide integrated environmental geographic information
and support  environmental  indicators.   EPA completed the first pilot test of
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)  to increase speed and accuracy of data entry.
EPA also completed  a feasibility study to determine a strategy for public access
and began implementation.
                                     3-80

-------
                                                        WATER  QUALITY
                                               Water  Quality Permit  Issuance
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Permit Issuance
 Program & Research          -$17,825.6   $21,086.2   $20,764.0   $20,749.9    $22,029.4    $1,279.5      $943.2
  Ope rati ons
 Abatement Control and         $7,446.4    $7,023.0    $4,600.8    $4,569.9     $5,364.0      $794.1   -$1,659.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $25,272.0   $28,109.2   $25,364.8   $25,319.8    $27,393.4    $2,073.6     -$715.8


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $17,825.6   $21,086.2   $20,764.0   $20,749.9    $22,029.4    $1,279.5      $943.2
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $7,446.4    $7,023.0    $4,600.8    $4,569.9     $5,364.0      $794.1   -$1,659.0
 Compliance

Water Quality Permit   TOTAL  $25,272.0   $28,109.2   $25,364.8   $25,319.8    $27,393.4    $2,073.6     -$715.8
Issuance


PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Permit Issuance                   325.8       374.7       372.7       372.7       359.7        -13.0        -15.0

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS         325.8       374.7       372.7       372.7       359.7        -13.0        -15.0


TOTAL UORKYEARS
Permit Issuance                   335.5       374.7       372.7       372.7       359.7       -13.0        -15.0

TOTAL UORKYEARS                   335.5       374.7       372.7       372.7       359.7       -13.0        -15.0
                                                       3-81

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY


                         Water Quality Permit Issuance
Budget Request
      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $27,393,400  supported by  359.7 total
workyears  for 1994,  an increase  of $2,073,600  and a  decrease of  13 total
workyears  from 1993.  Of the request,  $22,029,400 will  be for the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and  $5,364,000  will  be  for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $1,279,500
and an increase of $794,100, respectively.
PERMIT ISSUANCE

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $27,393,400  supported  by  359.7  total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which $22,029,400 will be  for  the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and  $5,364,000  will  be  for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an  increase of $1,279,500
in the Program and  Research Operations appropriation,   which  results from an
increased cost in salaries, and an increase of $794,100 in  the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation which responds to the need for technical assistance
for implementing the NPDES program,  and a decrease of 13  total workyears which
reflects a de-emphasis in oversight of state delegated programs.

      EPA will focus on controlling wet weather run-off through Combined Sewer
Overflow  (CSO)  and  stormwater permitting,  encouraging  the beneficial  use of
sludge through sludge  permitting,  and  controlling  toxic  discharges through
support of  water quality-based permitting  and pretreatment.   The Agency will
issue permits to stormwater dischargers and  establish  effective stormwater
programs within existing Regional/ state National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES)  programs.    The Agency will  work to  use  stormwater pollution
prevention plans as  the approach to control  non-traditional  sources. To support
states,  the Agency will develop guidance on stormwater permitting, develop model
permits based on stormwater group  applications,  and provide  assistance  and
outreach to assure effective stormwater  programs  are  implemented.   Where EPA is
the permitting authority,  the Agency will  issue permits to large and medium
municipal separate storm sewer systems and issue general  industrial stormwater
permits for group applications.   The  Agency  will also work with the states to
issue CSO permits and  oversee implementation of the revised  CSO policy  to ensure
national consistency.

      The Agency will also focus  on upgrading existing permits to control toxic
discharges  and  will   continue  to stress  water  quality-based permitting  to
implement  new toxic water quality standards  adopted by  states over  the last
several years.   As  a  result of  the  stormwater  requirements,  the  universe of
69,000 permitted discharges covered  under  the traditional NPDES  program  has
increased several times.   In addition,  the  new sewage sludge regulations will

                                     3-82

-------
involve  approximately  15,000  Publicly  Owned Treatment  Works  (POTWs)  and an
additional 5,000 sewage sludge treaters.  This growth of the universe of permits
is particularly significant  in light  of  the additional emphasis on  control of
toxic discharges and the resultant complexity in permit requirements.  The Agency
is emphasizing pollution prevention in permit issuance.

      The Agency will promote  the beneficial use of sludge by implementing the
sludge  permitting program  and  will  support  the  states  in  getting  sludge
permitting  program approval,  either  as  part  of  their  NPDES  authority or
separately.  The Agency will  issue permits for treatment works  treating domestic
sewage in a phased approach,  first where site-specific requirements  are needed
and then as NPDES permits  are  reissued.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $25,319,800  supported by 372.7 total
workyears for this program,  of which  $20,749,900  is from the Program Research
Operations  appropriation  and  $4,569,900  is from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      For  stormwater  permitting, the  Agency is  focusing  on issuing  in  non-
authorized States and assisting authorized  states  in issuing general  stormwater
permits  for  industrial activities,  providing stormwater  permit training,  and
developing model  permits  to  cover  groups  of industrial  dischargers covering
44,000  facilities.   The  Agency is completing  and beginning to  implement an
accelerated national CSO strategy which emphasizes  issuing  permits  first to the
most environmentally significant CSOs.

      The Agency and states are continuing  to reissue permits  to meet state and
national toxic water quality standards and to implement new  effluent guidelines.
The Agency  expects that regions  and  states will  be  issuing  about  1400 major
permits.  In addition, the Agency anticipates that oil and gas drilling platforms
in coastal Texas and Louisiana will be permitted for the first  time.   To support
this effort,  the Agency is conducting permit  quality  reviews as well as providing
technical  assistance  and  training for  permit  writers which  focuses on water
quality-based  toxics  controls,  energy  sector permit  requirements, pollution
prevention, and new effluent guidelines.   In addition,  the  Agency  is  continuing
to  realign its  permitting issuance  activities  in  accordance  with watershed
approaches.

      The Agency is assisting POTWs to develop/modify local limits  which control
toxic  and/or  hazardous  pollutants  in accordance  with  revised  pretreatment
requirements  and  ensuring compliance with  CSO, stormwater,  sludge, and water
quality-based limits in  POTW  permits.

      With promulgation of the sewage sludge technical standards and the expected
increased workload of sewage sludge permits, the Agency is  focusing  on outreach
and  training  and  on  assisting  states  to  develop sewage  sludge  permitting
programs.   Until states apply for  and are  authorized  to  manage  state sewage
sludge programs, the Agency  is responsible  for all  sludge  permit  issuance.
                                      3-83

-------
1992 Program Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency  obligated  a  total  of  $25,272,000 supported by 335.5
total workyears for this program, of which $17,825,600 was from the Salaries  and

Expenses  appropriation and  $7,446,400  was  from the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      Activities supporting permit  programs included reissuance of NPDES permits
to  include  control  of toxic  pollutants  (258 by  EPA  and  1,078  by authorized
states), review and evaluation of pretreatment programs, and issuance of final
general  stormwater  permits for  12 non-authorized  states  for  industrial  and
construction  activity.   In addition,  the Agency conducted  nine workshops on
developing permits to implement toxic water quality standards,  four workshops on
the basic NPDES program,  50 workshops  on pretreatment,  and three workshops on
pollution prevention.

      In the stormwater program, the Agency received and began processing over
1250 storm water group applications and conducted  28 stormwater workshops in 20
cities  and  10  EPA Regions.  The Agency  responded to over  46,000 calls  on the
stormwater  hotline.    To  develop  an   accelerated  CSO  strategy, the  Agency
coordinated a negotiated policy dialogue between the regulators and the regulated
and environmental communities.   The Agency also  developed strategies  for the
implementation  of the sludge  permitting program  and  proposed  sludge  permit
regulations to establish a phased permitting program.
                                     3-84

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget  Estimate

                              Table of Contents


                                                                         Page

DRINKING WATER                                                           4-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Drinking Water Research   	   4-11
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Criteria, Standards and Guidelines 	   4-23
      Drinking Water Implementation 	   4-24
      Drinking Water Criteria 	   4-27
   State Program Resource Assistance	   4-31
      Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants 	   4-32
      Underground Injection Control Program Grants  	   4-34
      Special Studies and Demonstrations  	   4-36
   Ground Water Protection   	   4-39
      Ground Water Protection 	   4-40
ENFORCEMENT
   Drinking Water Enforcement 	   4-45
      Drinking Water Enforcement  	   4-46

-------
APPROPRIATION
                                                   DRINKING WATER
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development

TOTAL, Drinking Water
      $43,017.5   $47,894.9   $47,516.4   $47,406.3   $49,515.0    $2,108.7    $1,620.1

      $85,884.6   $88,113.8   $88,042.7   $88,786.2   $86,017.6   -$2,768.6   -$2,096.2

      $11,324.6   $10,673.2    $9,151.3    $9.151.3    $8,317.2     -$834.1   -$2,356.0

     $140,226.7  $146,681.9  $144,710.4  $145,343.8  $143,849.8   -$1,494.0   -$2,832.1
 FIFRA Revolving Fund
         $149.7
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORICYEARS

OUTLAYS

AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
          722.0
          759.1
800.4
800.4
791.8
791.8
789.7
789.7
768.0
768.0
-21.7
-21.7
     $131,101.8  $144,048.4  $144,751.9  $144,974.5  $144.707.2     -$267.3

Authorization for the Safe Drinking Water Act expired on September 30, 1991.
Reauthorization is pending.
 -32.4
 -32.4

$658.8
                                                        4-1

-------
                                                          DRINKING UATER
                                  PRES.
                                 BUDGET
                                  1993
             ENACTED
              1993
       CURRENT
       ESTIMATE
         1993
                                                                         DIFFERENCE
       ENACTED VS
       PRES. BUD
        EST. VS
       PRES. BUD
         EST. VS
         ENACTED
 APPROPRIATION
                                                (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
  Program & Research
   Operations
  Abatement Control and
  Compliance
  Research & Development

 TOTAL, Drinking Uater
 PERMANENT UORKYEARS
 TOTAL UORKYEARS
 $47,894.9   $47,516.4   $47.406.3     -$378.5     -$488.6

 $88,113.8   $88,042.7   $88,786.2      -$71.1      $672.4

 $10,673.2    $9,151.3    $9,151.3   -$1,521.9   -$1,521.9

$146,681.9  $144.710.4  $145,343.8   -$1,971.5   -$1,338.1
     800.4
     800.4
791.8
791.8
789.7
789.7
-8.6
-8.6
-10.7
-10.7
                                              -$110.1

                                               $743.5



                                               $633.4
-2.1
-2.1
        The following points  list the major reasons that the dollars devoted to this media have changed from
submission of the President's FY 1993 Budget Request to the FY 1993 Current Estimates:

        ABATEMENT. CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

        o        +$6.8 M for  Congressional  add-on projects.

        o        +$0.4 M from Uater  Quality to support  meeting court ordered deadlines for NPDURs
                 promuIgat i ons/proposaIs.

        PROGRAM AND RESEARCH  OPERATIONS

        o        -$212 K for  redirected  for Agency  prtorites.

        RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

        o        Congressionally directed  add-on for the Uater Environment  Research Foundation.

        o        CongressionaIly directed  general reductions to the Research and Development appropriation.
                                                         4-2

-------
                                                 MEDIA BRIDGE TABLES
MEDIA  Drinking Water

NPM   Water
FY 1993 CURRENT ESTIMATE

  Changes by Category:

Workforce Costs <+/-)

Legislative Initiatives (+/-)

Program Initiatives (+/•)

Discontinuation of Specific
Increases to FY 1993 Request (-)

Others <+/->


FY 1994 PRESIDENT'S BUDGET
                                                    Drinking Water
    PRO

$47,406.3



 $2,108.7

     $0.0

     $0.0

     $0.0


     $0.0


$49,515.0
   AC&C

$88,786.2



   $477.2

     $0.0

 $3,552.0

-$6,800.0


     $2.2


$86,017.6
    R&O

 $9,151.3



     $0.0

     $0.0

 $1,000.0

  -$575.0


-$1,259.0


 $8,317.3
  Total

$145,343.8



  $2,585.8

      $0.0

  $4,552.0

 -$7,375.0


 -$1,256.8


$143,849.8
                                                         4-3

-------
4-4

-------
                                DRINKING WATER

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) mandate dramatic
changes in nationwide  safeguards  for  drinking water and establish new Federal
enforcement  responsibility in the  event of  state inaction.   The amendments
require regulation of  a  specified list of priority contaminants, tripling the
number of  contaminants previously regulated. The amendments also require control
of 25 more contaminants every three years.

      To  meet  these  mandates  requires  greater  scientific   data   and  more
sophisticated analyses, including the establishment and acceptance of criteria
for what  constitutes a potential risk.    Besides  health  and  occurrence data
analyses,   new  analytical  methods  and  economic  assessment models  must  be
developed, and new treatment technologies assessed.

      As  of  1994,   EPA  will   have  promulgated   regulations   controlling  86
contaminants.  Because these regulations will  prevent  over  500 cancer  cases and
over 200,000 non-cancer cases of disease each year, the ability of the  states to
adopt  and  implement  these  regulations  is   critical.  To  ensure  effective
implementation,  and  to bolster our state/federal partnership,  EPA  is  taking
action on four major fronts: increasing state  grants;  supporting state capacity
building efforts  (including development and implementation of a  Drinking Water
State  Revolving  Fund);   setting  priorities;  and  advocating   and  supporting
aggressive implementation  and timely enforcement.

      In 1993 moderate increases to the drinking water grant program helped to
communicate  a continuing  Federal  commitment to  the program.    States  also
increased their  own funding.   In 1992,  19 states  sought  additional  funding,
primarily through user and service fees.   Thus far,  11 states have  received
increases totalling  $7  million.  EPA continues  to work with other  states to build
their financial  capacity  and mobilize outside resources to  meet the  drinking
water program challenges,  especially for small systems.

      Even with  this continued commitment, implementation and  enforcement of
existing  drinking water  regulations   is  falling  drastically  behind as  more
requirements become  effective.   To help states balance the  workload, EPA has
developed a priority setting plan  intended to  focus state and Federal resources
on the  greatest  public health  threats  first,  giving states  time  to  build
additional resources for carrying out the program.

      As we work with states to develop and implement drinking water programs,
EPA is also demanding a strong enforcement presence to ensure that water supplies
meet SDWA  requirements.  Noncompliance is expected to escalate with the increase
in monitoring and treatment/control  needs.  Technical assistance  to systems will
be provided,  but aggressive enforcement is expected where noncompliance persists.
EPA will continue to provide technical  and enforcement support  to states, but
will also take direct enforcement actions where a state is unable or unwilling
to do so.
                                      4-5

-------
      As in the drinking water program,  states are facing increasing challenges
in preventing  contamination  of  ground water resources.   State  ground water
programs vary considerably from one state to another and are often a patchwork
of federal,  state and  local source  control  efforts,  focusing  on individual
sources of contamination rather than the resource as  a whole.  The task to pull
together these  pieces  into an integrated program was first  identified in the
Administrator's Ground Water Protection Strategy in July 1992, and EPA recently
issued final guidance on Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection Programs.

      In 1994 the ground water protection program will provide technical support
to states for developing and implementing the ground water, wellhead protection
(WHP) and underground injection control  (UIC) programs.  Having issued the final
guidance, EPA will provide very limited assistance and support to  states as they
work  to develop  and implement  Comprehensive  State  Ground Water  Protection
Programs  (CSGWPPs).     Where  appropriate  within  CSGWPPS,  EPA  supports  the
development of  state  and  local projects for identification and delineation of
wellhead protection areas to protect ground water.  EPA and the states are also
implementing the Underground Injection Control program to control contamination
from discharges to underground sources of drinking water.   Particular emphasis
is on shallow injection wells, since injection  into these wells enters shallow
aquifers, thereby rapidly impacting drinking water supplies.  Therefore, shallow
wells pose the greatest threat to public and private wells.

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

Drinking Water Implementation

      EPA will  increase support  to  develop a  stronger  scientific basis in the
drinking water program to ensure proper limits and requirements are developed to
protect public health. This support will include  the development of an occurrence
data  base and  analytical models  used to  determine which contaminants  pose
significant health threats.  Assessments of chemical contaminants will continue
to focus on carcinogenic risks, but must also be expanded to include other risks
such as neurotoxic, and  reproductive/ teratogenic risks.  The major contaminants
remaining to be addressed in  1994 include arsenic, disinfectant/disinfection by-
products, Phase VIB and ground water disinfection rules.   In addition, EPA will
continue the mandated triennial review of treatment technology innovations.

      In 1994, all states  should have approved  programs for Total Coliform and
Surface Water Treatment Rule  (SWTR).  EPA will be completing extension agreements
and will be continuing approval of primacy applications for the Lead and Copper,
Phase II and Phase V  rules.  Work will begin on training states and public water
systems (PWSs) on the implementation, enforcement and data reporting requirements
for the Radionuclides rule,  which will be promulgated in spring  1993.

      EPA workload will increase as implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act
regulations escalates.  Although the primary responsibility for  implementation
falls on the states,  due to the complex technical nature of these rules and the
need for individualized solutions for each system, EPA will provide assistance.
EPA  will also provide  new financial support to aid  state implementation and
enforcement efforts and to reduce or eliminate primacy returns and/or withdrawals
which would otherwise occur.  Beginning  in 1994 a Drinking  Water State Revolving

                                      4-6

-------
Fund (DW-SRF) will be introduced.  The drinking water implementation program will
provide assistance for the development, management and oversight of this  fund.
The fund will provide  loans,  through individual state DW-SRF programs to help
municipalities comply with Safe Drinking Water requirements.

      States and EPA will continue to work with public water systems to provide
training  and additional  technical  assistance,  whether  by  simply  answering
technical questions on the telephone or making a system visit.  Of particular
concern will  be  small  systems.  Given  the  sheer number  of small systems, and
their general  lack  of sophistication  and  resources, EPA  and  states  face the
immense challenge of developing  an approach that will enable small systems to
upgrade treatment and monitoring capability to meet  the new requirements.

      In  1994 the  drinking  water enforcement  program will  continue  to  be
emphasized.   EPA is dealing  with widespread  noncompliance  problems  that are
expected to increase as new requirements become effective.  A crucial activity
in  1994 will  be providing  case  support  for  the  SWTR.    We expect  to take
enforcement actions against some of the largest municipal systems, and EPA will
take a direct role to ensure  compliance schedules are negotiated and orders are
issued for the maximum  protection of the consumer.  EPA will achieve an increase
in the number of administrative enforcement actions  and will pursue Department
of Justice referrals for an increased number of civil referrals.  Effective and
increased use of  section  1431  orders to protect  against substantial and imminent
endangerment will be a priority.   In the UIC program, emphasis will shift from
enforcement actions against Class II oil and gas injection  wells toward Class V
shallow injection wells.

      EPA will also improve the existing drinking water data system to provide
more complete and accurate assessments,  which will assist in initial SRF project
screenings.   Concurrently, EPA will  aggressively pursue development  of a more
modern system. As more regulations are  implemented, the amount of drinking water
data will grow significantly  and EPA must ensure that the data will be of high
quality and  easily  accessible for use  and  analysis.  EPA  will work  with the
states to modify their systems to accommodate the reporting requirements from the
new regulations,  as well as adopting the new national data system which EPA is
developing.
Ground Water Protection

      Given the complexity of the ground water resource, the institutional and
organizational  barriers  within most  states regarding  ground water,  and the
pollution prevention aspect,  the states will face a major challenge in producing
complete and implementable CSGWPPs  that  cover  all programs that impact ground
water.  Having  completed  the final  guidance in 1993,  EPA will provide limited
support to states  for their continued ground water efforts,  including developing
and implementing Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection Programs (CSGWPP).
EPA will continue to encourage states to incorporate wellhead protection programs
wherever appropriate into the overall comprehensive effort.
                                      4-7

-------
      EPA will  continue  to oversee and/or directly  implement  the Underground
Injection Control  program, providing  technical  and financial  assistance and
ensuring compliance.  EPA has  direct implementation responsibility for 16 state
programs covering 115,000 wells.  In FY 1994, EPA will focus on the management
of Class V  shallow injection wells.   EPA will also prepare revisions  to the
regulatory controls for Class II oil and gas  related  injection wells.  EPA will
review and approve state primacy revisions to adopt the new UIC regulations.
Research and Development

      The Agency will continue to focus research on alternative drinking water
disinfectants.  Because of increased concern about the potential adverse effects
of  chlorine,  many municipalities  will begin using  ozone and  chloramine for
drinking water disinfection.   Increased resources will  be used  to initiate
research in comparative risk modeling in order to be able to identify the risk
tradeoff between safe  microbial  levels  and  acceptable  risks from exposures to
disinfection/disinfection by-products.    Other  drinking  water  research  will
concentrate  on filling  critical  data  gaps  in the  areas of  microbiologic,
epidemiologic, comparative risk analysis, and chemical analytical methods.

      The Agency focuses ground water research relating to wellhead protection
and  underground  injection   control  on  four research areas:  prevention  of
subsurface contamination, subsurface characterization,  subsurface transport and
transformation, and subsurface microbial ecology.  WHP  research concentrates on
developing and evaluating  improved methods for delineation  and management of
wellhead protection areas.  UIC research is focused on evaluating technologies
for  closing  of abandoned wells and determining  the  mechanical  integrity of
injection wells.

      The  Agency,  working  with  USDA   and  USGS,   is   studying  the  impact  of
agricultural chemicals and management practices on the quality of ground water
and surface water.  This is a major source of concern because of the threat to
drinking water supplies and the potential for  ground water contamination in the
food/agriculture production  process.   The program will examine the impact of
alternative farming and watershed practices.

Consulting Services

      The Agency uses  consulting resources  to fulfill  the requirements of its
authorizing  legislation.   Specifically,  EPA  uses these  resources to provide
technical assistance to Regions, states  and local governments; to  collect data
and monitor background  levels as a basis for  future regulatory actions; and to
conduct studies and analyses which support new programs.
                                      4-8

-------
                                    DRINKING WATER
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
ACTUAL
 1992
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1993
ESTIMATE
  1994
INCREASE*
DECREASE-
 1994 VS.
   1993
Incremental Outputs

UIC Permit Determinations

- for existing and new
  facilities, by primacy
  states  	
- for existing and new
  facilities, by EPA  	

UIC Mechanical Integrity
  testing 	
13,584

   411


37,080
   6,094

     516


  25,355
PWS Primacy Development
  Grants to Indian Tribes
   6,094

     516


  25,355
      0

      0
Enforcement Actions - PWS

Notices of Violation . . .
Administrative Orders . .
Civil Litigation (new) .
Criminal Litigation ....

n/a
**/ &
1,495
361
6
0

n/a
"/ a
592
380
7
0

n/a
**/ a
748
480
9
0


156
100
2
0
Enforcement Actions - UIC
Inspections ............
Notices of Violation . . .
Administrative Orders . .
Civil Ligation (new) ...
Criminal Liaation 	
67,481
n/a
146
12
0
56, 144
n/a
137
6
0
56 144
J W / A"*"*
n/a
137
6
0

0
0
0
Cumulative Outputs

PWS Primacy States 	
UIC Primacy States (full
 and partial programs) ..
Designated Sole Source
 Aquifers 	
Approved State Wellhead
 Protection Programs
Water Quality Criteria
 Human Health 	
55
36/6
58
26
108
55
36/6
69
34
108
55
37/6
80
42
118
0
1/0
11
8
10
                                         4-9

-------
4-10

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget  Estimate

                              Table of Contents


                                                                         Pace

DRINKING WATER

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Drinking Water Research   	   4-ll

-------
PROGRAM
                                                        DRINKING WATER
                                                   Drinking Water Research
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
                              $10,393.1   $11,186.2   $10,962.4   $10,904.7   $11,334.9
Drinking Water Research
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Research & Development       $11,324.6   $10,673.2    $9,151.3    $9,151.3    $8,317.2
                       TOTAL  $21,717.7   $21,859.4   $20,113.7   $20,056.0   $19,652.1
TOTAL:
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Research & Development

Drinking Water
Research
                              $10,393.1   $11,186.2   $10,962.4   $10,904.7   $11,334.9

                              $11,324.6   $10,673.2    $9,151.3    $9,151.3    $8,317.2

                       TOTAL  $21,717.7   $21,859.4   $20,113.7   $20,056.0   $19,652.1
                                               $430.2
                                               $148.7
                                                                                            -$834.1    -$2,356.0
                                                                                            -$403.9    -$2.207.3
                                               $430.2      $148.7

                                              -$834.1    -$2,356.0

                                              -$403.9    -$2,207.3
PERMANENT WORKYEARS


Drinking Water Research           164.2       171.2

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         164.2       171.2
                                                          166.4

                                                          166.4
                        164.3

                        164.3
                        157.6

                        157.6
                         -6.7

                         -6.7
                        -13.6

                        -13.6
TOTAL WORKYEARS


Drinking Water Research

TOTAL WORKYEARS
                                  170.8

                                  170.8
171.2

171.2
166.4

166.4
164.3

164.3
157.6

157.6
-6.7

-6.7
-13.6

-13.6
                                                       4-11

-------
                                DRINKING WATER

                            Drinking Hater  Research

                               Principal Outputs

1994; o     Completion of pilot studies on ozone and its use in drinking water
            treatment system

      o     Pharmacokinetics  of bromodichloromethane  research  to  develop a
            physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for BDCM

      o     Develop/validate models for risk  assessment comparative potencies
            for cancer and non-cancer endpoints

      o     Final  Report -  Result of  National Survey of Groundwater Viral
            Pathogens

      o     Watershed Landscape Design for Aquatic, Terrestrial, and Groundwater
            Improvements for Walnut Creek

1993; o     Development  and distribution of EPA-NET,  a computer program which
            simulates the  propogation of  contaminants in the  drinking water
            distribution system as a function of system hydraulics

      o     Final  Report  -  Multiplication  of  Legionella  in  Amoebae  and
            assessment of strain virulence

      o     Finalization -  Health Risk Assessments  for VIB  contaminants and
            chlorine and chloramines.

      o     Toxicity of Dichloroacetec Acid Report on Health Effects research on
            dose-response and mechanism of action DCA

      o     Preliminary environmental assessment of Walnut Creek, IA.

      o     Report  on methods  for delineating  wellhead protection  areas in
            fractured bedrock.                •»

      o     Walnut .Creek Watershed:  Description of  Site, Observations,  and
            Protocols

      o     Assist in workgroup for the Phase VI-A Disinfection and Disinfection
            By-Products  rule which will be proposed for regulation.

1992; o     Completion of Phase V  Drinking Water Documents

      o     Participated in  Phase VI-B workgroup  for  defining the  next 25
            chemicals to be regulated under the SDWA and develop the health risk
            assessment documentation for these chemicals.
                                     4-12

-------
Provided guidance on monitoring strategies for wellhead protection
areas.

Technical assistance rendered  and  report  on research conducted on
the South American cholera epidemic.

Report on the reproductive and developmental effects of bromo- and
chloro acetic acids.

Status  report  on the  Epidemiology Research Program,  including a
report on the Iowa chlorine and bladder cancer study, and possible
future epidemiological studies on chloramination and ozonation.

Interim performance evaluation for ozone,  chlorine dioxide,
and chloromines as alternative disinfectants.

Report  on evaluation  of  a major test kit  for  analyses  of lead in
drinking water

Report of disinfection by - product precursors by nanofiltration

Report  on Numerical Codes for Delineating  Wellhead  Protection in
Agricultural Regions Based on the Assimilative Capacity Criterion.
                         4-13

-------
                                DRINKING WATER

                            Drinking Water  Research
BUDGET REQUEST

1994 Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $19,652,100  supported by  157.6 total
workyeare for 1993, of which $11,334,900  will  be for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $8,317,200 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase of $430,200 for the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation, a decrease of $834,100 for the Research and
Development appropriation, and a decrease  of 6.7 total workyears  from 1992.  The
increase to the Program and Research Operations appropriation reflects additional
personnel compensation and benefits (PC&B),  and travel expenses associated with
funding ORD's staff of scientists,  managers  and support personnel in such areas
as quality assurance, extramural resource management, and high priority research.
The decrease for the Research and Development appropriation reflects a reduction
for  nonpoint  sources research  which is  partially  offset by an  increase for
drinking water  pollution and disinfectants  research.   The decreases  for the
Research and Development appropriation reflects the redirection of resources to
support Multimedia Program Element, a reduction  relating to the transfer from the
Drinking Water Research to the Water Quality  research program element part of the
cost  of the  Midwest  Agricultural   Surface/Subsurface  Transport and  Effects
Research (MASTER) program dealing with surface water quality research and the
elimination of Congressionally directed projects funded in 1993.

1993 Budget

      The Agency is allocating a total of $20,056,000 supported by 164.3 total
workyears  for this  program element, of which  $10,904,700 is  from  Program and
Research  Operations appropriation  and $9,151,300  is  from  the Research and
Development appropriation.

1992 Budget

      The  Agency obligated  a  total of $21,717,700 supported by  171.4 total
workyears  for this  program  element,  of which $10,393,100 was from Program and
Research Operations appropriation and  $11,324,600  was  from the Research and
Development appropriation.

RESEARCH ISSUES

      The sections  below  describe research program  issues by each fiscal year:
                                     4-14

-------
NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION

1994 Program Request

      Reports by the Office of Water,  Science Advisory Board  (SAB), the States,
and GAO have identified nonpoint source pollution (NFS) as the largest remaining
category of contamination threatening  our nation's  water  quality,  including
drinking  water.    NFS pollution  is  caused  by  agriculture,  urban  runoff,
atmospheric   deposition,   highway   maintenance,   hydromodification   (stream
channelization,  flood  prevention,  lake  drainage),  silviculture,  construction
practices,  land disposal  activities,  and mining.  Current estimates assign 45
percent of the impaired estuarine area, 76 percent of the impaired lake area, and
65 percent of the impaired river miles to NFS causes.  ORD research efforts on
NFS initially focus on agriculture since it is the  largest NFS, affecting about
50 to 70 percent of the impaired surface waters.  EPA and USGS

have also documented the high  levels of pesticides found in drinking water wells
and aquifers.

      ORD  will  continue   research  begun   in  1992  to  study the  impact  of
agricultural chemicals and management practices on the quality of groundwater and
surface water.  Agrochemical contamination is a major  source  of concern because
of  the  threat to  drinking water supplies  and  the potential for groundwater
contamination in the food/agricultural production process.  The research project,
the Midwest Agriculture Surface/Subsurface Transport and Effects Research program
(MASTER) will be carried out in close  cooperation with the USDA and USGS and is
part of the Water  Quality Initiative  for agricultural systems administered by
USDA.   Researchers, using  a  watershed  approach,  will assess the  impacts  of
agricultural management practices including developing an improved understanding
of  conditions  under which agrochemicals  move through the ground and surface
water.  This work will provide policy  and decision-makers with models, decision
aids, and  assessment  tools which will improve our  ability to select  the best
agricultural management practices  to  protect our  water  resources and support
rationally  and  environmentally compatible  food, fiber,  and  timber production
policy development.  A companion piece  of this  work focusing on surface water
aspects of the problem is funded under the Water Quality Research budget.

FY 1993 Program

      ORD is studying the  impact of agricultural contamination on the quality of
groundwater and drinking water supplies under the MASTER program.  Researchers
are concentrating on an initial assessment of the environmental condition of the
Walnut Creek Experimental Watershed in Iowa. The assessment will identify what
is known about relating alternative agricultural  management practices to ground
water and drinking water supplies in midwestern regions.

FY 1992 Accomplishments

      The MASTER program  was  developed  for the  midwest and implementation was
initiated by a joint agreement among EPA, USDA,  and the USGS.  A peer-reviewed
research plan  was developed  and data collection and  assessment  studies were
started.

                                     4-15

-------
DRINKING WATER POLLUTANTS AND DISINFECTION

1994 Program Request

      The Drinking Water Pollutants and Disinfection Research Program is designed
to provide scientific  and technical  support to help EPA identify and regulate
drinking water contaminants and otherwise ensure the safety of our public water
supplies  in cost  effective  ways.    The  SAB  has  identified  drinking water
contaminants as  one of those areas  having the greatest risk to human health
because large populations are exposed directly to various agents, some of which
are highly toxic.  The program conducts research on health effects, microbiology,
risk assessment, treatment technology, and chemical analytical methods.

      Advances  in  science  technology and risk  assessment  have  indicated that
potentially adverse human health risks may be associated with disinfectants and
their by-products, and especially with the use of chlorine  based compounds, the
most widely  used disinfectant type.    Because  of increasing  concerns over the
possible  health risks associated with  disinfectiqn,  EPA has  established an
standards setting agenda for disinfectants and disinfectant by-products (D/DBPs).
Furthermore, EPA is also  under court order to issue regulations on some of these
D/DBPs by  June of 1995.   However,  we lack the  scientific data to promulgate
comprehensive and fully applicable regulations to guide public water supply users
on the use of alternative disinfectants.  A long-term research program is crucial
before such regulations can be promulgated.  Hence the 1995 regulations will only
be part of the  problem.  Thus, a stepped-up research program in 1994 is essential
to meet this regulatory time  frame.

      ORD will conduct research in support of this regulatory effort  including
studies to determine the  health risks associated with alternative disinfectants
such as ozone, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, disinfectant combinations, granular
activated  carbon,  and membrane  filtration.   The work will  also allow us to
maximize  feasibility/cost  considerations based  upon  science facts.   This is
important  since  costs  of implementing alternative disinfections processes are
estimated at $2-3 billion.

      As part  of this effort, ORD will  initiate research  in comparative risk
modeling in order to be able to identify the risk tradeoff between safe microbial
levels  and  acceptable  risks  from   exposures  to  D/DBPs.   Better data  on
disinfectant efficacy,  by-product formation, health effects, risk assessment, and
control technology are required to allow a comprehensive assessment of the risks
associated  with exposure  to microbes  versus  toxic  chemicals  formed  in the
disinfection process.

      At present, there is a lack of pertinent microbiological and chemical risk
assessment data and methods.  For example, data on viruses are sparse  for surface
water and groundwater. The amount of pathogenic organisms  (viruses, protozoans,
or cysts) that must be encountered to  cause an infection is  not well understood.
There  are also  significant  uncertainties regarding alternative disinfectants
 (other than chlorination) and their byproducts, such as how byproducts are formed
or controlled.

      Under  the SDWA,  the Agency is required to establish Maximum Contaminant

                                      4-16

-------
Level  (MCL) and  Maximum Contaminant  Level Goals  (MCLG)  for  drinking  water
contaminants which may result  in  adverse health effects.  ORD will  continue  to
conduct  research to  provide the  scientific  and technical  support for  these
regulations.

      Research will  be conducted to reduce or minimize risks through  control
technology  and alternate treatment.  Data will also be developed  on  the  hazards
and  risks  associated with these  alternate treatments.   For example, there  is
increasing  concern  about the  deterioration  of water  quality  after the  water
enters the  distribution system and before it reaches the consumer.   Alternative
disinfectants  such  as ozone may be  very  effective  in reducing disinfection
(halogenated) by-product problems but may encourage regrowth of microorganisms
in  the  system.   ORD will  conduct research  to help  define the role  of the
distribution  system  (including  residual  interactions with  pipeline  biofilm
kinetics) in contributing to the  deterioration of water quality and to  provide
guidance as to how to minimize quality deterioration in distribution systems.

1993 Program

      Researchers are focusing on developing a better understanding of the health
risks from exposure to both microbes and disinfectants and to use this knowledge
in  developing a  quantitative comparison  of  the various  levels  of   control
necessary to minimize these risks.  Key activities center around research  studies
to evaluate the  formation of toxic substances  within the distribution system
including microbes (biofilm formation) and the use of innovative technology such
as membranes to  minimize risk as well as  validate  alternate treatment trains
(i.e.,  ozone  plus  chlorine  and/or chloramine).   Researchers  are  developing
analytical  methods  to standardize measurement  of D/DBPs and  their breakdown
products and various synthetic organic contaminants identified in vib.

      In the areas of health effects research, researchers are conducting  studies
to  develop dose-response data   on  various  pathogens  such as  Giardia and
Legionella.   These  studies are  designed  to evaluate  both infectivity and
virulence.  The studies are also  being conducted to evaluate dose-response and
mechanism of action  for dechloroacetic acids.  Researchers are carrying out risk
assessment  research  which  uses  dose-response data  from  both  microbes and
chemicals to design  comparative risk models  for trade off analysis.  Specific
research will focus  on the  development of  comparative potency assessments for
specific health effects/endpoints; cancer,  non-cancer and microbial.

      ORD is providing support for regulatory  efforts such  as the Groundwater
Disinfection Requirements (GWDR)  and the development of MCLs and MCLGs  for the
Phase VIB Chemical Contaminant Rule. ORD is  developing toxicological, microbial',
and epidemiological data to determine the human health effects of contaminants
in public  drinking  water to support  the  preparation of  health  risk criteria
documents and the setting of MCLs  by the Office of Water  (OW).  Under the GWDR,
public systems using ground water  will be required to disinfect unless it can be
shown that  the source water  is not significantly  vulnerable to  virus or other
contamination.  Currently, more than 50% of public systems using ground water do
not disinfect.  Annual costs to implement the GWDR could range from $200 million
to $1 billion.   ORD is developing data to better characterize virus  fate and
transport through aquifer movement to enable OW  to  identify which systems are

                                     4-17

-------
vulnerable to virus and other contamination.  This work will both protect public
health by identifying vulnerable systems and avoid the imposition of unnecessary
disinfection costs and  risks on  other  local water systems.

      ORD is also developing technologies for detecting and removing contaminants
from public drinking water and distribution systems.  The SDWA amendments mandate
the regulation of more than  125 compounds by 1994.  ORD research is providing the
support  necessary for the development and evaluation of detection  and removal
technologies for many of  these compounds.

      Researchers  are   developing  standardized  analytical  procedures   for
determining  contaminants  in drinking water  that  are  both  technically  and
economically feasible, and which meet laboratory analysis and on-site monitoring
needs.  ORD carries out a quality assurance/quality control program to ensure the
quality  of drinking  water   analytical  data  and provides  quality control  and
performance evaluation  samples and calibration standards to Federal,  State and
local laboratories.

      Congressional  Directives.   A total of $575,000 is for the  American Water
Works Association Research  Foundation.

1992 Accomplishments

      Major accomplishments include the development of  test methods for zonated
by-products;  validation of radiation  research and methods;  completion of  an
interim  performance  evaluation  for ozone, chlorine dioxide and  chloramines;
development of  final  Health Risk Assessments for Phase  V chemical contaminants;
development  of  occurrence data on Giardia and Cyptosponidium; completion  of a
pilot  study  on  ozonation  and   secondary  treatment  of   chlorine/chloramine;
completed a cancer bioassay on health effects of dichloroacetic acids;  completed
a risk assessment/risk characterization report on chlorine and chloramines; and
completed  disinfection  studies  for characterizing inactivation of  Hepatitis A.
 GROUNDWATER

 FY 1994  Program Request

       EPA will  conduct research to protect underground drinking water sources in
 support  of  regulatory, enforcement, and management decisions required under the
 SDWA.   Such research is essential since groundwater is the  source  of drinking
 water  for 50 percent of  the population as well  as the water  source  for much of
 the nation's agricultural production.  Groundwater is a significant, yet poorly
 understood, pathway  for contamination of drinking  water.  Researchers will carry
 out the  work  in  four basic  areas:  prevention  of  subsurface  contamination,
 subsurface  monitoring  and  characterization,    and  subsurface  transport  and
 transformation, and  remediation of subsurface contamination.

       The  research  will  primarily support two program areas, water wellhead
 protection (WHP),  and underground  injection controls (UIC).  EPA will carry out
. research to provide  technical  information to local wellhead protection managers
 on the approaches available for identifying, assessing and managing the potential

                                      4-18

-------
risks from different sources of contamination to wellhead water.   Research will
also be conducted in support of the UIC regulatory program of OW.   This work  is
important since approximately 40 percent of the chemical waste generated  in the
United States is disposed of by  injection into the subsurface, and because there
are a number of unresolved scientific questions regarding the risks involved with
disposing of wastes through  underground injection.

      Researchers will  complete field evaluation of models for predicting the
transport and  fate of  viruses  in the subsurface;   evaluation of the  use  of
drilling fluids for plugging abandoned wells; and basic studies on the sorption
and  degradation of organic  contaminants  in the  subsurface.   Researcher will
continue to work on  the development  and  evaluation of  improved methods  for
delineating wellhead  protection areas; testing  of  new methods for evaluating
mechanical  integrity  of  injection wells;  development of  monitoring network
designs for monitoring wellhead protection areas;  development of decision support
systems for assessing the vulnerability of ground water to different potential
sources   of  contamination;   and   incorporating  chemical   and  biological
transformation  processes  into models  for predicting the fate and transport of
contaminants in the subsurface.

1993 Program

        ORD is carrying out  groundwater research in four basic areas: prevention
of subsurface  contamination, subsurface monitoring  and characterization,  and
subsurface  transport   and   transformation,   and  remediation  of  subsurface
contamination.  Prevention of subsurface contamination research is centered in
two areas, wellhead protection and underground injection control methods.  WHP
research  concentrates  on  developing  and  evaluating  improved  methods  for
delineation and management  of  wellhead  protection areas.     UIC research  is
focused on evaluating technologies for closing of abandoned wells and determining
the  mechanical  integrity  of  injection  wells.   Subsurface  characterization
research involves  development  of  improved  methods  for monitoring WHP  areas.
Subsurface  transport   and   transformation  research   focuses  on  sorption,
biotransformation, facilitated transport, and other physical/chemical processes
such as hydrolysis which affect  the fate and  transport  of organic chemicals and
viruses in  the  subsurface.   Limited work is  being initiated to develop  and
evaluate  bioindicators  for  determining the  impact  of  man's activities  on
subsurface microbial communities.

1992 Accomplishments

EPA completed a long-term research effort to  develop a model for predicting the
transport of viruses in the soil. Researchers initiated wellhead protection work
to develop and evaluate improved delineation methods in Florida,  Indiana, Kansas,
and Utah and  completed five regional  case studies on  monitoring of  wellhead
protection areas.  They also completed chemical and biological processes research
on the role of facilitated transport and anaerobic transformations on the fate
and transport of  contaminants  in the  subsurface.   ORD testing of the  oxygen
activation method for determining  the  mechanical integrity of injection  wells
resulted in EPA approval  of the  method  for  determining water  flow  through
channels adjacent to the injection well bore.
                                     4-19

-------
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

1994 Program Request

      As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982  (Public Law 97-
219), EPA will allocate 1.50% of  its extramural Research and Development budget
for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)  Program.  These  funds will be
used to  support  small businesses engaged in the  development  of equipment for
pollution abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental
trends and conditions.   Under this program,  ORD  will take advantage of unique
solutions to drinking water problems and other environmental issues that may be
offered by the private  sector.   Resources will be identified in the operating
plan and consolidated into the Multimedia Program Element once enactment occurs.

1993 Program

      As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982  (Public Law 97-
219), EPA is allocating 1.50% of  its extramural Research and Development budget
for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)  Program.  These funds are used
to support small  businesses engaged in  the development of equipment  for pollution
abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental trends
and  conditions.   Under this program,  ORD is able to take advantage of unique
solutions to drinking water related problems and other environmental issues that
may be offered by the private sector.

1992 Accomplishments

      Resources and accomplishments supporting this program were budgeted in the
Multimedia program element for 1992.

INFRASTRUCTURE

1994 Program Request

      Adequately funded infrastructure is critical to ORD's success in conducting
the  quality  science  needed to assure that  the  Agency's  decisions  are
scientifically  sound.  The most  critical part  of ORD's  infrastructure  is its
staff.    The assumption  underlying   all  our research  activities  includes  a
productive workforce.

      ORD  has established a  cohesive,  cross-cutting issue  for infrastructure
based  upon the  importance  of this activity to planned  and  ongoing research
activities.   Program  and Research Operations  appropriation  funding  for the
Drinking Water Research  PE will  be centralized within the infrastructure issue
to provide improved management for ORD's personnel compensation and benefits, and
travel  costs associated with managing research programs.

1993 Program

      ORD's  current  infrastructure program provides  compensation  and benefits,
and travel  for  ORD  scientists  and   engineers.   ORD's workforce carries out
scientific programs  in support of the Agency's mission.

                                      4-20

-------
1992 Accomplishments

      ORD funded its workyears  in  scientific  support of the Agency's mission,
providing the necessary personnel compensation and benefits, and travel for ORD
scientists and engineers.
                                     4-21

-------
M
10

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget  Estimate

                                    of Contents
                                                                         Page

DRINKING WATER

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Criteria, Standards and Guidelines ................   4-23
      Drinking Water Implementation .................   4-24
      Drinking Water Criteria ....................   4-27
   State Program Resource Assistance  ................   4-31
      Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants ........   4-32
      Underground Injection Control Program Grants  .........   4-34
      Special Studies and Demonstrations  ..............   4-36
   Ground Water Protection  .....................   4-39
      Ground Water Protection ....................   4-40

-------
                                                        DRINKING WATER
                                        Drinking Water Criteria, Standards & Guidelines
ACTUAL
199Z



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Drinking Water
Implementation
 Program & Research           $13,888.5   $15,115.5   $15,066.0   $15,033.4   $16,735.8    $1,702.4    $1,620.3
  Operat i ons
 Abatement Control and        $10,053.8   $11,229.8    $7,715.9    $8,678.8   $12,014.5    $3,335.7      $784.7
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $23,942.3   $26,345.3   $22,781.9   $23.712.2   $28,750.3    $5,038.1    $2,405.0

Drinking Water Criteria
 Program & Research            $1,051.7    $1,211.4    $1,004.0    $1,004.5    $1,097.1       $92.6     -$114.3
  Operations
 Abatement Control and           $850.1      $747.5      $383.1      $412.2      $770.8      $358.6       $23.3
 Compliance
 FIFRA Revolving Fund             $75.4
                       TOTAL   $1,977.2    $1,958.9    $1,387.1    $1,416.7    $1,867.9      $451.2      -$91.0


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $14,940.2   $16,326.9   $16,070.0   $16,037.9   $17,832.9    $1,795.0    $1,506.0
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $10,903.9   $11,977.3    $8,099.0    $9,091.0   $12,785.3    $3,694.3      $808.0
 Compliance
 FIFRA Revolving Fund             $75.4

Drinking Water         TOTAL  $25,919.5   $28,304.2   $24,169.0   $25,128.9   $30,618.2    $5,489.3    $2,314.0
Criteria, Standards &
Guidelines

PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Drinking Water
Implementation
Drinking Water Criteria
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Drinking Water
Implementation
Drinking Water Criteria
TOTAL WORKYEARS
220.9
14.6
235.5

236.4
14.6
251.0
251.8
15.5
267.3

251.8
15.5
267.3
250.5
15.2
265.7

250.5
15.2
265.7
250.5
15.2
265.7

250.5
15.2
265.7
263.5
15.2
278.7

263.5
15.2
278.7
13.0 11.7
-3
13.0 11.4

13.0 11.7
-3
13.0 11.4
                                                       4-23

-------
                                DRINKING WATER

                       Criteria, Standards & Guidelines
Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $30,618.2  and 278.7 workyears for 1994, an
increase of $5,489,300  and 13.0 total workyears from 1993.   Of this request,
$17,832,900 will be  for the Program and Research Operations appropriation and
$12,785,300 for  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance  appropriation.   This
represents an  increase  of $1,795,000 for the  Program and  Research Operations
appropriation  and  $3,694,300  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropr iat ion.
DRINKING WATER IMPLEMENTATION

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $28,750,300 and 263.5 total workyears for
1994, an  increase  of $5,038,100 and 13.0  total workyears from 1993.   Of the
request,  $16,735,800  will  be  for   the   Program  and  Research  Operations
appropriation and $12,014,500 will  be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This represents an  increase of  $1,702,400 for the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $3,335,700 for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance  appropriation.    The  increased  workyears  will  be  directed  at
developing, managing and  overseeing the technical  aspects of the new Drinking
Water State Revolving Fund.   The  increase in the Program and Research Operation
appropriation  reflects increased  personnel  costs and  the  increase  in  the
Abatement, Control  and Compliance  appropriation supports  new scientific data
collection and analysis work and modernization of the drinking water data system.

      In  1994,  EPA will continue to develop  a stronger  scientific  basis for
identifying which contaminants need to be  controlled  and  at what levels.  The
Agency will place additional emphasis on development of an occurrence data base
and the analytical models  used to determine which contaminants pose significant
health threats in geographically  targeted areas. As EPA implements the mandate
of the Safe Drinking Water Act to promulgate an additional  25 contaminants every
three years,  we want to  be  certain that  the contaminants  regulated  pose the
greatest risk.  EPA will also reevaluate the economic impact assessment models
and  input assumptions, particularly financial and  operating data, in order to
improve the economic cost/benefit analysis for future regulations.  EPA will also
begin a triennial review of  innovations in  technology, as  required by SDWA, and
will  develop and  initiate  a  process  for  discovering  low cost/off-the-shelf
technology approaches to achieving various aspects of compliance (e.g. monitoring
and treatment).  In  1994, EPA will publish the third drinking water  priority list
and will re-propose the sulfate rule.   A rule revising the Maximum Contaminant
Levels  (MCL)  for aldicarb,  aldicarb   sulfoxite  and  aldicarb sulfone  will  be
promulgated.
                                     4-24

-------
      In 1994,  EPA will have  completed all extension  agreements  and will be
continuing approval  of  primacy applications for Lead  and  Copper and Phase II
rules.  EPA  will  be completing extension agreements  for  the remainder of the
states for Phase V and will be heavily involved in primacy application approvals.
As the  Radionuclides rule is  promulgated  in spring 1993, work  will  begin on
training states and public water systems on  the  implementation, enforcement and
data reporting requirements  for this rule.

      Beginning in 1994, a Drinking Water State Revolving Fund ( DW-SRF) will be
established  after  enactment of  authorizing language.    The drinking  water
implementation program  will  provide technical assistance  for the development,
management and  oversight of  this fund.  The fund  will provide loans, through
state DW-SRF programs to help municipalities comply with Safe  Drinking Water Act
requirements.

      This data system will support initial  screening  for DW-SRF projects based
upon compliance.  Additionally, in 1994 EPA will support a continuation of the
development of the new national data system which will provide  the data necessary
to  properly  manage  the  drinking  water  program,  including information  on
compliance and enforcement.  EPA will  also work  with states to modify the their
data systems to incorporate  the new requirements while also considering system
implications of the upcoming new national data system.  With the number of new
rules in  place, Regions will  conduct an increased number of data audits  to
maintain or  improve data quality.

      A primary emphasis in 1994 will be strengthening implementation of the new
drinking water regulations. EPA will continue to provide assistance and guidance
support for  Total  Coliform and Surface Water Treatment Rule  (SWTR)  as well as
supporting newer  regulations,  such  as the Lead and Copper treatment  rule and
Phase II.   Because of  the number of  contaminants regulated  in  1994,  and the
complexity of some of the  regulations, EPA will  work with the states to ensure
appropriate  implementation  of  the Public  Water  System  Supervision  Program
Priority Guidance which identifies "must do" activities and provides states some
flexibility  in addressing  national program requirements.  This is a short-term
response to  enable  states to  build  sufficient program capacity, with  EPA's
support, to  implement and  enforce all aspects of all rules.

      Requests  by  states  and  local water systems  for  training  and  technical
assistance are expected to  accelerate.  EPA will  develop more innovative methods
for producing and distributing training materials.  Technical assistance needs
for  Lead  and  Copper  will  grow  significantly  in  1994  as  the  monitoring
requirements and corrosion control studies are developed.  Although the primary
responsibility for these decisions falls on the  states, EPA expects to provide
ongoing support to Regions  and states because of the complex technical nature and
the need for tailored solutions specific to each system.  Mobilization efforts
will move  from  generic  subjects  and issues  and  focus  on specific identifiable
problems in targeted areas.

      EPA will work with additional tribes, to offer implementation and technical
support, with  the goal of these tribes achieving Treatment  as a  State  (TAS)
status.
                                     4-25

-------
1993 Program

      In  1993,  the Agency  allocated a total  of $23,712,200  and 250.5 total
workyears  for  this program,  of which  $15,033,400 was  from the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $8,678,800 was from the Abatement Control
and Compliance appropriation.

      The program is working to promulgate the Phase V and the Radionuclide rules
and is proposing the arsenic, disinfectant/
disinfection by-products, Phase VIB,  and  ground water disinfection rules.  In
addition,  EPA  is working to  improve its  scientific  data  base  from  which to
determine  occurrence of  contaminants  and  set exposure levels.   The program is
undertaking a  review  of existing data, analytical  methods,  risk and economic
considerations to provide a more  solid  foundation for future regulations.  In
response to Congressional directives,  EPA is developing two  reports to Congress.
The first  one  is  a  report on  recommendations for reauthorization of the SDWA.
The second report examines the risks and costs  of radon.

      EPA is heavily involved with program implementation activities.  Guidance
on Phase V implementation is being developed.  Volume  II  of the Lead and Copper
Implementation Manual, which provides guidance for corrosion control, is being
finalized  and published.  EPA is developing guidance on new regulations and is
conducting training for Regions, states and public water systems on Surface Water
Treatment, Phase II, Phase V,  and Lead and Copper Rules.  EPA is also expanding
the current Federal data system  to  incorporate new requirements and continues
limited work on developing a new Federal system, as well as  improving state data
systems.

      The  Agency  is actively involved  in tracking and  evaluating filtration
decisions  for  the Surface  Water Treatment Rule  (SWTR),  as well as evaluating
monitoring results from large  and medium systems for the Lead and Copper Rule to
determine compliance.   We are also negotiating extension agreements for the Lead
and Copper, Phase II and Phase V rules.  The Agency is reviewing and approving
state  primacy  revision  applications, with  most  of  the  workload for  Total
Coliform, SWTR, Lead and Copper, and modest work for Phase II and Phase V rules.
Additionally, we are working with tribes to directly implement the drinking water
program  and to   assist  in  developing  applications  for  Treatment  as  State
applications.

1992 Accomplishments

      In  1992, the Agency  allocated $23,942,300  supported  by  236.4  total
workyears for this program, of which  $13,888,500 is from the  Salaries and Expense
Appropriation  and $10,053,800 is from  the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      The program continued providing oversight to the  primacy states by issuing
guidance  and reviewing state regulations and primacy  revision  packages.   All
states had adopted the Volatile Organic Chemical and Public Notice regulation;
46 states adopted the Surface Water Treatment Rule;  48 states adopted Total
Coliform  Rule; 15 states adopted Phase II Rule; and 12 states adopted the Lead
and Copper Rule.  EPA directly  implemented essential  activities,  to assure at

                                     4-26

-------
least  minimal  compliance  with the new  requirements,  in  primacy states  with
approved time extensions, as well as in non-primacy states and on Indian lands.
Technical assistance was provided to the  states on the lead testing protocol and
remedial action guidance for  lead contaminated drinking water, and to ban  lead
content plumbing  supplies.   The Agency focused on state implementation  of the
filtration  and disinfection  requirements for surface water  systems  and  the
revised total coliform standards. Improvements were made to the PWS data system
to expand and  improve date entry and quality control.

      EPA continued mobilization strategies and technology transfer activities
for  states  and water systems to build  state  capacity,  promote  institutional
changes, and encourage  adoption of  innovative technologies for small systems,
especially those  systems which  have had  chronic compliance problems.  Fourteen
states  achieved  increased  funding through appropriations  or  user fees   in  the
amount  of  an  additional  $18,000,000  to support  their state  drinking water
programs.
DRINKING WATER CRITERIA

1994 Program Request

      In 1994, the Agency requests a total of $1,867,900 supported by 15.2 total
workyears for this program of which $1,097,100 will  be  for the Program Research
Operations appropriation  and  $770,800  will  be for the Abatement, Control, and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents an increase  of  $92,600 in Program
Research  Operations and  $358,600  in  the  Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance
appropriations.  This increase supports increased workforce costs.

      EPA will  continue  to make progress  on the  review and  development  of
drinking  water  regulations under  the  Safe  Drinking  Water Act.    Criteria
documents, Maximum  Contaminant Level Goals  (MCLGs)  and health advisories will
support  promulgation of  final  radionuclide  National  Primary  Drinking  Water
Regulations (NPDWRs) early in 1994.  Additional work will focus on the review of
comments  and  the  development of MCLGs,  health  criteria  documents  and risk
characterizations in support  of the  proposed  arsenic  NPDWR,  the final sulfate
NPDWR, and the final Phase VI A (disinfectants  and disinfection by-products) and
Phase VI B (other organic and inorganic contaminants) NPDWRs.  A final decision
on whether to revise the fluoride regulation will be made, and, if appropriate,
work will start on the development of a proposed  rulemaking for public comment.
As new information becomes available, other NPDWRs will  be reviewed to determine
if revisions are warranted in accordance with  the triennial review requirements
of the Safe  Drinking Water Act.  Work will continue  to support Agency positions
in potential litigation on previously promulgated MCLs and MCLGs  (e.g. aldicarb,
atrazine, nickel,   and  beryllium).    The  development  of  new  revised  health
advisories for unregulated  drinking  water contaminants  will  continue  and the
program will also continue to take a lead role  in the development  of World Health
Organization drinking water guidelines.

      In anticipation that ozonation will increase significantly as a result of
revised  disinfection and disinfectant  by-product (D/DBP)  standards, work  on
comprehensively assessing the health impacts and risks of  ozone by-products will

                                     4-27

-------
increase.    Further,  in  recognition  of  the   impact  that  relative   source
contribution  (RSC)   assumptions  have  on  current  and  future  drinking water
standards, efforts to more precisely determine RSCs will be expanded.  Work will
also continue  on  refining risk assessments  and  characterizations for  complex
classes  of drinking  water contaminants  such as  D/DBPs,  and  radionuclides,
atrazine, and arsenic.
1993 Program

      In  1993,  the Agency  is allocating  $1,416,700  supported by  15.2 total
workyears for the program, of which $1,004,500 is  from the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation and $412,200  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency plans to simultaneously propose the Disinfectants/Disinfection
By-Product, Ground Water  Disinfection  (Phase VI A)  and  additional organic and
inorganic chemical contaminants from the Safe Drinking Water Act Priority List
(Phase VI B).  Risk Assessments, health criteria documents and MCLGs are being
developed to support these proposed rules.  Special emphasis is being given to
the ozonation by-product risk assessment  in order  to ensure that the Phase VI A
regulation does  not increase  the  risk  of  disease  from pathogens;  i.e. disease
causing microorganisms.

      MCLGs and  health criteria documents are being developed  to support the
final radionuclide and the proposed arsenic regulations.  Additionally, a report
examining the relative risks and costs  of  controlling radon is being completed,
pursuant to the  1993 Appropriations Act.

      In response to potential litigation, EPA is reviewing new information on
pesticides (aldicarb and atrazine) and metals (nickel and beryllium) to determine
whether this information will have an impact on the recently promulgated MCLGs.
The Agency  is also reviewing the health  basis  for the fluoride  standard to
determine whether this standard is still protective of human health.  The Agency
continues actions to review  and revise these risk assessment methodologies.  The
revised methodologies will be used in developing current and future NPDWRs.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency obligated a total $1,977,200 and  14.6 total workyears for this
program, of which $1,051,700 was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation,
$850,100  was  from the  Abatement,  Control, and Compliance  appropriation,  and
$75,400 was from the Registration and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund.  Total
workyears included 13.6 from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and 1.0 from
the Registration and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund.

      In July  1992, the Agency published   final  Phase V NPDWRs, which include
MCLGs,  and health criteria documents  for  23 organic and  inorganic chemical
contaminants.       Work    continued   to   support   development    of   the
Disinfectant/Disinfection By-Product,  Ground Water Disinfection  Regulations
(Phase VI A) and additional  organic and inorganic chemical contaminants from the
Safe Drinking Water Act Priority List (Phase VI B).  EPA also developed MCLGs and

                                     4-28

-------
health criteria documents for sulfates, arsenic, and radionuclide NPDWRs to be
proposed or promulgated in 1993 and 1994.

      Health advisories provided information to states  and local authorities on
health effects of unregulated drinking water contaminants.   In 1992, the Agency
published.two books: Drinking Water Health Advisories for Inorganic. Pesticide.
and Organic Contaminants  and Munitions. Vol. I.  In  addition, health advisories
were completed and/or reviewed for 14 other drinking water contaminants.
                                     4-29

-------
4-30

-------
                                                        DRINKING WATER
                                       Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance


                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REQ     1994 RED
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB


                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)


PROGRAM
Public Water Systems
Supervision Program
Grants
 Abatement Control and        $50,027.8   $58,900.0   $58,864.9   $58,862.7   $58,900.0       $37.3
 Conpl iance
                       TOTAL  $50,027.8   $58,900.0   $58,864.9   $58,862.7   $58,900.0       $37.3


Underground Injection
Control Program Grants
 Abatement Control and        $10,546.5   $10,500.0   $10,480.3   $10,302.3   $10,500.0      $197.7
 Coinpl iance
                       TOTAL  $10,546.5   $10,500.0   $10,480.3   $10,302.3   $10.500.0      $197.7


Special Studies &
Demonstrations
 Abatement Control and         $6,050.0      $500.0    $4,500.0    $4,500.0      $500.0   -$4,000.0
 Conpl iance
                       TOTAL   $6,050.0      $500.0    $4,500.0    $4,500.0      $500.0   -$4,000.0



TOTAL•
 Abatement Control and        $66,624.3   $69,900.0   $73,845.2   $73,665.0   $69,900.0   -$3,765.0
 Compliance

Drinking Water State   TOTAL  $66,624.3   $69,900.0   $73,845.2   $73,665.0   $69,900.0   -$3,765.0
Program Resource
Assistance
                                                        4-31

-------
                                DRINKING WATER

                       State Program Resource Assistance
Budget Request

       The Agency  requests a  total of  $69,900,000  for  1994,  representing a
decrease of $3,765,000 from 1993.  All of the request will be for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.
PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS SUPERVISION PROGRAM GRANTS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $58,900,000  for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation. This represents
an increase of $37,300 from 1993, which reflects a restoration of 1993 program
reductions.

      State workload will increase dramatically in  1994 as states deal with the
implementation requirements of the new regulations.  In the short-term, states
will  use  the  Public Water  System  Supervision  (PWSS)  Priority Guidance  to
prioritize activities as they develop their program  capabilities  and develop
alternative funding  mechanisms.   Program  priorities,  project identification,
policies  and  guidance  must  also be  established  so  that  states will  have
appropriate mechanisms in place to fund drinking water projects as expeditiously
as possible.

      In 1994, many states will adopt rules and accept full responsibility for
the Lead and  Copper  Treatment,  Phase II and Phase V rules.   Many  states will
request extensions for new rules, in particular, the Radionuclides and the Phase
V rule  for those remaining states which did  not adopt the rule.   During the
extension period, the states will have limited implementation responsibilities
for  the   new  rules,  but will  be  undertaking   the  necessary  technical,
administrative and/or legal changes to receive primacy.  States will also be
heavily  involved in  implementing the  Surface Water  Treatment Rule (SWTR),
including making the remainder of the determinations for filtration and ground
water systems under the direct influence of surface water.  The Lead and Copper
rule will require a large workload as corrosion control decisions must be made,
treatment  determinations reached for large and medium  systems  and monitoring
results received for small systems.

      Aggressive  enforcement  will  continue for  systems that  must  meet  the
requirements  of  the  SWTR.  States  will take  enforcement actions  against all
systems that do not meet the filtration deadline and any already filtered systems
that fail to meet the SWTR performance criteria.

      These new SDWA regulatory requirements will place additional demands on the
states to provide outreach to public water systems, to provide increased training
and technical assistance, whether by  simply answering technical questions on the

                                     4-32

-------
telephone or making a system visit.  Of particular concern will be small systems.
Given the sheer number of small systems,  and their general lack of sophistication
and resources, states face the immense challenge of developing an approach that
will enable  small  systems  to  upgrade to meet the new requirements.   This will
demand training, technical assistance, on-site visits and periodic phone calls
to work with small  systems.

      Also,  state  data  systems  must be  adapted to handle data  for all the new
contaminants.  States without automated data systems will work  to develop such
systems to handle the vast amounts of monitoring, violation and enforcement data
being generated.  They will be working with EPA Regions to ensure compatibility
and provide for the automated transfer of data  between the state system and the
current and  future  national systems.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating  a total of $58,862,700 for this  program, all of
which will be  from the  Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.   PWSS
grants  support 55  state  primacy programs  and two state programs  where  EPA
directly implements the  programs.  PWSS grants also provide direct implementation
and program development for Indian tribes.

      Several  new  drinking water  regulations have been promulgated,   including
Surface Water Treatment, Total Coliform,  Volatile Organic Chemicals, Phase II and
Lead  and Copper.   Primacy  states  must  adopt the legal  and  administrative
authorities to enforce these new requirements and provide  assistance to drinking
water systems  to comply with  the  new requirements.  This  includes   upgrading
individual state data  management  systems,  laboratory certification, on-site
evaluations and technical assistance, especially with respect to monitoring by
small systems, and  compliance activities and enforcement actions.

      States are working under negotiated extensions to build program capability
to adopt  and implement  the Total Coliform, Surface Water Treatment,  Lead and
Copper and Phase II rules.  These rules are complex and states  are struggling to
meet all the requirements within the given time frames.   In December  1992,  the
two-year extensions for Total Coliform and SWTR expired and states should have
rules in place to  assume full  responsibility  for  these two  rules.  As systems
become more  familiar with Total  Coliform,  EPA  expects  a constant  but  lower
workload  for the  states.    For SWTR,  however, the  workload  remains heavy.
Initially, the decisions were made on which surface water systems would have to
put filtration in  place.   Now  a portion of the determinations on which ground
water systems  are  under the direct  influence of surface  water are being  made.
This information will be needed for future filtration decisions.

      States are also confronting the need to  increase their enforcement efforts
as the  number of  contaminants regulated  increases and  system noncompliance
escalates.   By June 1993,  surface water systems required to  filter  must  have
their filtration system in place.   In addition, systems already  filtering must
meet the stiffer performance criteria under SWTR.   The enforcement workload for
this one rule alone will be burdensome.   States must also evaluate monitoring
data from large  and medium systems  for  the Lead and Copper  Treatment rule  and
enforce against systems failing to monitor.

                                     4-33

-------
      Many primacy states  are  experiencing difficulty in establishing capable
program  to implement  the  new requirements  and are  facing  serious funding
shortfalls. States will continue to work with EPA to implement  the Public Water
Supply Supervision (PWSS) Priority Guidance which  identifies "must do" activities
and provides some flexibility in addressing program requirements.  Current EPA
estimates  are  that  at  states  are  facing a  shortfall of  about $200,000,000
annually between available and needed resources.  EPA  is working  with  states to
develop alternative  financing  programs,  promoting  mobilization and technology
transfer and exploring low cost technology options.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992,  the Agency allocated  a total of $50,027,800 for this program, all
of which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      Public water system grants continued to support 55 state primacy  programs,
two EPA direct  implementation programs and programs on Indian lands.  Grant funds
provided  for  laboratory  certification,   on-site  evaluations  and   technical
assistance, sanitary surveys and compliance and enforcement actions.  States and
EPA  assisted  communities  and  systems  affected by  continuing  incidences  of
contamination  threatening public  health.    Systems  in violation  of National
Primacy Drinking Water Regulations either received technical assistance to bring
them into compliance or were placed on formal compliance schedules.

      States supervised compliance with drinking water regulations, revised their
legal  authorities to  accommodate  new regulations,  expanded  state  staff and
laboratory  capability to meet  new  requirements  and continued an  emphasis on
compliance.    EPA assisted approximately 46  states  toward adoption  of new
requirements for SWTR, 48 states with Total Coliform, 15 states with Phase II and
12  states  with Lead  and  Copper.   States were heavily involved in evaluating
public water systems  and determining filtration  requirements.

      States aggressively pursued legislative and institutional changes to help
enable  them to gain  additional resources and address small system  problems.
Fourteen states received additional resources as a result of these efforts and
numerous states sought legal authority to  ensure that  small  systems would have
the technical, financial and management requirements  to ensure  viable  programs.
UNDERGROUND  INJECTION  CONTROL  PROGRAM GRANTS

1994  Program Request

       The Agency requests a total of $10,500,000 for this program,  all of which
will  be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
an increase  of $197,700  from 1993, which restores the grant reduction in 1993.

       Underground  Injection Control (UIC)  grants  will continue  to  support
programs  to  protect  underground   sources  of drinking water   (USDW)   from
contamination through underground injection in all 57 states and territories,  as
well  as on Indian lands.   Where states and Indian tribal authorities have failed

                                     4-34

-------
to  assume  UIC  primacy,  EPA  will  use grant  allotments  to  support direct
implementation of Federal UIC requirements.

      In addition to  basic program operations, states  and Regions will  focus
their attention  on  locating  and  assessing priority  shallow injection wells,
especially Class IV wells and endangering Class V  wells.   Examples  include some
industrial, storm and agriculture drainage wells,  automobile service station
wells and injection wells located in proximity to drinking water wells.   These
pose the highest risk to the public and will require immediate closure.  States
will continue to emphasize  outreach activities and efforts to encourage  local
jurisdictions to help in addressing the shallow injection well problem.  States
will undertake increased  enforcement  actions,  particularly for shallow wells,
including expediting remedial actions and obtaining higher penalties.

      In 1994, the Agency will promulgate revisions to the regulations on oil and
gas injection wells (Class  II) and a new regulation covering  shallow injection
wells  (Class  V).   Primacy states  will have  270  days to  adopt  these new
regulations.  They will submit state primacy revisions for review and approval
by EPA.   It is estimated that  many of the states  will  experience difficulty
adopting the new regulations on shallow injection  wells and will negotiate time
extensions with the Regions.

1993 Program

      In 1993,  the Agency  is allocating a total of  $10,302,300 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      UIC grants support  41 primacy  states,  35  full and 6  partial.   EPA is
responsible for direct  implementation  in  the  remaining  states and Indian land
programs, 16 full and 6 partial programs  plus the Osage Reservation, and uses
grant resources to support  direct implementation of Federal UIC requirements.

      Primacy  states   and  EPA  are   responsible  for  making   new  permit
determinations,   evaluating  appeals  on  previous   denials,  and  reviewing
applications to modify existing permits,  including hazardous waste Class I well
petitions.  The states and Regions supervise injection practices  in the field by
witnessing  mechanical  integrity tests,  inspecting  and  reviewing  plugged and
abandoned injection wells, reviewing well  records, and tracking compliance with
regulatory requirements and permit conditions.

      The Agency is proposing regulations on  shallow injection  wells in 1993,
which for'the first  time will limit the injection of wastes.  States and Regions
continue to focus  their  efforts  on  locating  and assessing  priority shallow
injection wells, especially storm drainage and agriculture drainage wells and
those wells which are in proximity to drinking water wells and pose the highest
risk to  the public.  When  Class  IV wells are  located  or Class V  wells  that
endanger underground sources of drinking water or sensitive ecosystems, states
and Regions require immediate closure.  States and Regions are targeting priority
enforcement efforts against violations of shallow well requirements.  They are
also emphasizing outreach activities and efforts to encourage local jurisdictions
to help in addressing the shallow injection well problems.
                                     4-35

-------
1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated a. total of $10,546,500 for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      States and Regions continued to issue or deny new permits, evaluate appeals
on  previous  denials,  and  review applications  to  modify  existing  permits,
including hazardous  waste Class  I  well petitions.   In  assuring  that  permit
conditions were being met, the states and Regions continued to review monthly,
quarterly, and  annual  reports from operators and conducted  inspections.   The
states and Regions continued  to  supervise injection practices  in the field by
witnessing  mechanical  integrity tests,  inspecting  and reviewing  plugged and
abandoned injection wells,  reviewing well records, and tracking compliance with
regulatory  requirements  and  permit  conditions.   Grant  funds  also supported
technical assistance to operators, maintained well inventory data, and supported
regulatory  changes to accommodate new  EPA  requirements  and guidelines.   The
states continued to implement  the enforcement role through field presence and by
initiating appropriate enforcement actions.

      States  and  Regions  initiated  programs  to  address contamination problems
from  shallow injection wells which  threaten underground  sources  of drinking
water.  Contaminants such as benzene, organic solvents, and

other toxic  chemicals, which  pose known health  and  environmental threats, are
found in fluids injected in these wells.

      Administrative Orders (AOs) and/or legal actions were initiated by state
programs  against  owners   and   operators  in  violation  of  UIC  regulatory
requirements.   This included preparing public  notification of  violation and
intent to issue AOs, and conducting public hearings.

      The states  and EPA completed  13,584  permit determinations  for  new and
existing wells and conducted evaluations to determine if permit requirements were
being met.   In addition,  37,080 mechanical  integrity tests  were conducted to
ensure the  integrity of wells.   The states  and  EPA also  focused on compliance
activities through increased  field inspections and enforcement actions.  Other
activities included the review of monitoring reports and maintenance of inventory
data.

SPECIAL STUDIES AND DEMONSTRATIONS

1994 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $500,000 for this program, all of which will
be  from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents a
decrease of $4,000,000 from 1993.  This decrease reflects the  Agency's effort to
achieve maximum leverage with  limited resources and the belief that the recipient
organizations can and  should  secure additional  funding through organizational
dues, training  fees and other mechanisms.

      In 1994, EPA will continue to fund organizations that address the problems
of  small  rural  community  water  systems.    Through training  and technical

                                     4-36

-------
assistance, small rural communities will have improved operational, technical and
financial  capabilities  for operating their  drinking  water systems.  The  NRWA
grant  will provide  funding  for 47  state non-profit  associations to provide
operator training and technical assistance.   The RCAP grant will provide funding
for compliance training  and  technical and managerial assistance in support of
systems and community decision-makers.  Through another grant to NRWA,  EPA will

promote  the Wellhead  Protection program by  funding training  and  technical
assistance to 100 communities to establish  local wellhead  protection  programs.

1993 Program

     In 1993, the Agency is allocating  a total of $4,500,000 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  These
funds  provide $3,800,000 to the National Rural  Water Association  (NRWA),  and
$700,000 to the Rural Community Assistance Program  (RCAP).

      EPA  provides  technical  assistance and training to small rural community
water systems through grants to the  National Rural Water  Association (NRWA) and
the national Rural  Community  Assistance Program (RCAP).   These grants promote
small system compliance by helping owners and operators  enhance their system's
physical,  financial and managerial  infrastructure and  operation.   In  1993,
systems in 48  States will be  served by 46  state NRWA associations.   The six
regional RCAP affiliates serve 26 states.
                                                 •
      Congressional  Directives.  A  total of  $4,000,000  is for Congressionally
directed  projects with  the  National  Rural Water  Association and the  Rural
Community Assistance Program.

1992 Accomplishments

     In 1992,  the Agency  obligated a total of $6,050,000 for these programs, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.   These
funds included $700,000 for the RCAP to foster small  system compliance; $300,000
to NETA; $3,800,000 to the  NRWA to provide training  and technical assistance to
support small  system compliance and $1,250,000 to the American  Water  Works
Association  Research Foundation to  support  development of  drinking  water
regulations.

     In 1992, the NRWA  and its  46  state affiliates conducted a total of  792
technical  assistance and training  sessions  including: 472 technical  training
sessions; 201 jointly sponsored specialized training sessions with other  state
and Federal  agencies; and 119  SOWA training  sessions.   In  addition,  NRWA
affiliates provided a total of 13,102 hours of on-site technical assistance to
address individual rural water system problems related  to  compliance, operations
and maintenance,  finance and management.

      In  1992, the RCAP provided  community-specific training  and compliance
assistance to small system owners, operators and community  leaders  in 128  small
rural communities in 24 states and Puerto Rico.  Assistance included diagnosing
compliance problems and identifying solutions, compliance training, developing
institutional capacity   to meet  compliance  standards,  conducting  watershed

                                     4-37

-------
surveys,  consolidating  or   restructuring  current  water
establishing and maintaining responsible financial and mana
assisting in properly operating and maintaining systems aft
compliance.  RCAP also assisted specific state and local regu
identified problems and needs.  RCAP  published 18 new issu
Water Bulletin  and distributed  7,000 copies  to  small sys
governing board members,  and worked with  the  National  Tra
state training coalitions in providing regulatory training

      In 1992, NETA completed  the  state regulatory users  p<
Regulations  Compliance Training  Project.    The  Regulator'
National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water  Regulations
reference on all the maximum contaminant levels of the SOW.
seven study  aid modules  include the  Introduction to the
Contamination Control  act. Surface  Water Treatment Rule.  Tj
Lead and  Copper Rule. Chemical  Rules. Transient  Non-Corona
Regulations, and the Compliance and Enforcement Under the
Act.   Each  module  consists  of  a  video tape  highlighting
information and a learner's guide that provides concise but c
the subject along with activities to reinforce the learning
books and modules were distributed to  state and local  regula
environmental training centers, the National Training Coali
affiliates, and to trainers upon request. Also, NETA began  tt
of study aids and developed educational materials for the Surl
Rule and the Lead and Copper Rule.

      A field test of a new and unique EPA-developed computer
by the American Hater Works Association Research Foundation.
levels of  virus contamination in vulnerable  ground waters.  Ti
be used to calculate disinfection requirements for the develc
water disinfection rule.
ply  services,
it systems,  and
>ming back  into
/ agencies  with
 the Community
 operators  and
 Coalition  and
.all systems.

n of the Water
ndbook  on   the
des a complete
ulations.   The
 and  the Lead
Coliform Rule.
 Water Systems
Drinking Water
 most  critical
;te coverage of
ctives.  These
offices, state
and its member
Bator's series
'ater Treatment
. was conducted
study assessed
formation will
: of the ground
                                     4-38

-------
                                                        DRINKING WATER
                                                    GroundUater Protection
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Ground-Water Protection
- FIFRA Fund
 Program & Research           $12,791.5   $14,225.5   $14,429.9   $14,412.5   $13,666.8     -$745.7     -$558.7
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $8,306.4    $6,236.5    $6,031.7    $6,010.1    $3,183.2   -$2,826.9   -$3,053.3
 Conpliftnce
 FIFRA Revolving Fund             $74.3
                       TOTAL  $21.172.2   $20,462.0   $20,461.6   $20,422.6   $16,850.0   -$3.572.6   -$3,612.0


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $12,791.5   $14,225.5   $14,429.9   $14,412.5   $13,666.8     -$745.7     -$558.7
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $8,306.4    $6,236.5    $6,031.7    $6,010.1    $3,183.2   -$2,826.9   -$3,053.3
 Conpliflnce
 FIFRA Revolving Fund             $74.3

Ground-Water           TOTAL  $21,172.2   $20,462.0   $20,461.6   $20,422.6   $16,850.0   -$3,572.6   -$3,612.0
Protection


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Ground-Water Protection           229.9       252.0       249.9       249.9       221.9       -28.0       -30.1
- FIFRA Fund

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         229.9       252.0       249.9       249.9       221.9       -28.0       -30.1

TOTAL WORKYEARS
Ground-Water Protection           240.0       252.0       249.9       249.9       221.9       -28.0       -30.1
- FIFRA Fund

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   240.0       252.0       249.9       249.9       221.9       -28.0       -30.1
                                                       4-39

-------
                                DRINKING WATER

                            Groundwater Protection
Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total  of  $16,850,000, and 221.9 total workyears for
1994, a  decrease of $3,572,600 and  28.0 total workyears  from 1993.   Of the
request,   $13,666,800  will  be   for  the   Program  and  Research  Operations
appropriation and $3,183,200 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents  a  decrease  of $745,700  in the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation, and a decrease of $2,826,900 in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.
GROUND WATER PROTECTION

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total  of  $16,850,000, and 221.9 total workyears for
this  program,  of  which  $13,666,800 will  be  for  the  Program and  Research
Operations appropriation and $3,183,200 will be for the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents a decrease of $745,700 for Program and
Research  Operations,  a  decrease  of $2,826,900  for  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance and a decrease of 28.0  total workyears.  The decrease in Program and
Research  Operations reflects  decreased  personnel costs  associated  with  the
reduction in the oversight of state Underground Injection Control (UIC) programs.
The decrease also reflects an elimination of coordination for Comprehensive State
Ground Water Protection  Programs  (CSGWPP) across  all  EPA programs  that impact
ground water,  as well  as  with other Federal agencies, while maintaining limited
support for state efforts.   The decrease  in  Abatement,  control and Compliance
represents the completion of Congressionally-directed activities for the Spokane
Aquifer, the algae crisis in West Maui,  the National Rural Water Association's
programs  for ground water protection,  the Calumet Lake  Groundwater  Study and
support for public information in the UIC program.

      EPA will respond to specific state concerns as they develop and implement
their Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection Programs (CSGWPP).   EPA will
issue two of the six guidance documents which cover the strategic activities of
a CSGWPP.   In  1994, EPA  will continue to  emphasize the importance  of Wellhead
Protection Programs (WHP) for pollution prevention.  EPA expects to approve eight
additional state WHPs, bringing the total to 42.  Emphasis in the WHP is shifting
from  state  program  approvals to  providing  technical  assistance  for  the
implementation of  local  WHPs.   EPA  will continue  to promote  the program by
developing guidance addressing technical issues, pollution prevention in wellhead
programs, and by transferring the  information gained from earlier WHP projects.

      In  1994, new  UIC  regulations will be  promulgated  for  the management of
Class V shallow injection wells as well as revisions to the regulatory controls
for Class II oil  and gas  related injection wells.  Primacy states will  have 270
                                     4-40

-------
days to adopt these new regulations.  EPA will begin working with states to adopt
the new rules.   It is estimated that many of the states will experience
difficulty adopting  the new regulations  on shallow injection  wells  and will
negotiate time extensions with EPA.

      EPA will  continue  to conduct data integrity audits to gauge state progress
in implementing recommended changes for data management systems.  EPA will also
provide technical assistance to  selected  states for upgrading data management
systems to incorporate the new regulations.  The Agency will continue UIC program
oversight responsibilities  by  negotiating workplans with  UIC primacy states,
awarding UIC grants, providing technical assistance and conducting UIC program
evaluations.   This  program will  coordinate  with  the RCRA  program in  the
development of hazardous waste rules and  the  implementation of those rules at
injection well operations.

      In the 23 non-primacy UIC programs,  EPA will be directly responsible for
all  aspects  of  the  program   including  inspections,  reporting  and  data
verification, compliance  reviews and education and  outreach  to the regulated
community.   The  Regions  will  aggressively involve the  regulated community,
apprising  them  of   their  responsibilities  under  the new regulations,  and
monitoring and tracking their  compliance  efforts.   In a  similar  fashion,  the
Regions will assist  Indian tribes in  implementation of these program changes and
requirements.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $20,422,600 supported by 249.9 total
workyears for this program, of which $14,412,500  is from the Program  and Research
Operations  appropriation  and $6,010,100  is from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA is providing assistance to states in the development and implementation
of Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection Programs  (CSGWPP). EPA issued the
final national guidance for CSGWPPs,  which defines the  six  strategic activities
of a CSGWPP and  identifies adequacy criteria.   The  Agency is also working to
provide greater  integration and  consistency  within  its  ground-water related
programs,   as  well  as with  other  Federal  Agencies'  programs, to facilitate
comprehensive protection at the state level.

      The  Agency  continues  to  assist   states   in  their  development  and
implementation of Wellhead  Protection  Programs  (WHP)  and  expects  to approve 8
additional state  programs  in 1993.   EPA  continues to  promote  the program by
issuing guidance addressing technical considerations involved in WHPs, including
delineating wellhead protection areas and inventorying sources of contamination.

      EPA is continuing to improve the collection and accessibility of ground-
water information. The Agency is issuing guidance for the collection of data for
national and state ground-water environmental indicators.  EPA is developing and
implementing policies on cross-program integration of ground-water  data, and is
promoting state use of Geographic Information Systems  (CIS) as a priority setting
and decision making tool for state and local officials.
                                     4-41

-------
      EPA is continuing management,  oversight and tracking responsibilities for
the Underground Injection Control  (UIC) program, including securing the closure
of shallow injection wells which endanger ground water.  The Agency oversees UIC
programs in 41 primacy  states  (35  full and  6  partial)  and directly implements
Federal programs in states and on Indian lands which do not have primacy  (16 full
and 6 partial, plus the Osage Reservation).   The Agency is proposing revisions
to the regulations on oil and gas injection wells (Class II) and a new regulation
covering shallow injection wells (Class V).

      Congressional Directives; A total of $2,800,000 from the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation is for the Congressionally directed projects on the
Spokane Aquifer, for the algae crisis in West Maui,  to fund the National Rural
Water Association's programs for ground water  protection,  to  fund the Calumet
Lake Groundwater Study and to support public information in the UIC program.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the  Agency obligated a total of $21,172,200  supported by 240.0
total workyears for this program, of which $12,791,500 was from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation,  $8,306,400 was from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance
appropriation  and  $74,300 was  from the Registration  and Expedited Processing
Revolving Fund.  Total workyears included 239.0 from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and 1.0 from the Registration and Expedited Processing Revolving
Fund.

      In 1992, EPA conducted roundtables with the states and Federal agencies and
provided assistance to states in the development of Comprehensive State Ground
Water Protection Programs (CSGWPP).   EPA issued the draft national guidance for
CSGWPPs,  and  provided  assistance,  including mapping  of   aquifer  systems,
conducting  resource assessments,  developing   source  control  strategies,  and
determining vulnerability characteristics.  EPA developed  and began implementing
policies on cross-program integration of ground-water data and  promoting the use
of GIS.

      The  Agency   continued  to   assist  states   in  their   development  and
implementation of wellhead protection (WHP) programs.  EPA approved an additional
9 state WHP programs during 1992,  bringing the total to 26.  EPA also promoted
the program by funding local WHP demonstration projects.  EPA  maintained its
efforts  in  Sole Source Aquifer  (SSA) designations.    The Agency  continued to
review  projects financially assisted by the  Federal government  on  or  near
designated SSAs.

      EPA continued to directly implement 23 Federal UIC programs, 16 full and
6 partial plus the Osage Reservation, in states and on Indian lands which do not
have  primacy.   Direct  implementation  activities  focused on  making  permit
determinations  as well as  ensuring adherence  to permit  conditions  and other
regulatory requirements by  conducting field inspections,  witnessing mechanical
integrity tests,  and  reviewing well record reports.   The Agency  continued to
review primacy applications, and provide guidance and grants as  appropriate.  EPA
                                     4-42

-------
provided technical assistance to primacy  states  and ensured that the programs
continued to meet the minimum regulatory requirements.

      For  activities related  to  the  1988  FIFRA  amendments,   1.0  workyears
supported  hydrogeological  and related  technical assistance in  the  pesticide
registration process.
                                     4-43

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget  Estimate

                                     f Contents
                                                                         Pace

DRINKING WATER

ENFORCEMENT
   Drinking Water Enforcement ....................    4-45
      Drinking Water Enforcement  ..................    4-46

-------
                                                        DRINKING UATER
                                                  Drinking Uater Enforcement

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 RED     1994 REQ
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Drinking Water
Enforcement
 Program & Research            $4,892.7    $6,156.3    $6,054.1    $6,051.2    $6,680.4      $629.2      $524.1
 Abatement Control and                                    $66.8       $20.1      $149.1      $129.0      $149.1
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $4,892.7    $6,156.3    $6,120.9    $6,071.3    $6,829.5      $758.2      $673.2


TOTAL:
 Program A Research            $4,892.7    $6,156.3    $6,054.1    $6,051.2    $6,680.4      $629.2      $524.1
  Operations
 Abatement Control and                                    $66.8       $20.1      $149.1      $129.0      $149.1
 Compliance

Drinking Water         TOTAL   $4,892.7    $6,156.3    $6,120.9    $6,071.3    $6,829.5      $758.2      $673.2
Enforcement


PERMANENT UORICYEARS
Drinking Uater
Enforcement
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL UORICYEARS
Drinking Water
Enforcement
TOTAL UORICYEARS
91.7
91.7

96.6
96.6
109.9
109.9

109.9
109.9
109.8
109.8

109.8
109.8
109.8
109.8

109.8
109.8
109.8
109.8

109.8
109.8
-1
-1

-1
-1
                                                       4-45

-------
                                DRINKING WATER

                                  Enforcement
Budget Request

      The Agency requests a  total  of  $6,829,500 and 109.8 total workyears  for
1994, an increase of $758,200 from  1993.  Of the request,  $6,680,400 will be  for
the  Program and Research  Operations  appropriation  and  $149,100  will  be  for
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of
$629,200 for the Program and Research  Operations appropriation and  $129,000  for
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
DRINKING WATER ENFORCEMENT

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total  of  $6,829,500 and 109.8 total workyears for
1994, an increase of $758,200 from  1993.  Of the request,  $6,680,400 will be for
the  Program and Research  Operations  appropriation  and  $149,100  will  be for
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of
$629,200 for the Program and Research  Operations appropriation and  $129,000 for
the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation,  both of  which support
increased personnel costs and administrative expenses.  Although no workyears are
increased, the program emphasis is shifting from technical assistance and support
to one of increased enforcement presence and actions.

      In 1994 EPA  will  seek  improved  compliance across all systems.  EPA will
place priority on regulations that  reduce the risks of acute health  effects from
drinking water contaminants;  this includes Total Coliform and nitrates. EPA will
also enforce the monitoring and reporting requirements of the complex Lead and
Copper rule against medium-sized systems  (serving from 3,300 to 50,000 people)
and begin equivalent enforcement against small  systems (those serving less than
3,300 people).  EPA will continue to  provide Federal enforcement  for specific
rules where the state has obtained a time extension for adoption.

      A very resource-intensive activity in 1994 will be enforcing the Surface
Water Treatment Rule (SWTR).   Approximately 1,330 systems,  including many large
cities, are expected  to miss the June 1993, deadline that requires  previously
unfiltered surface water systems to have installed treatment.  EPA will ensure
that enforcement actions  are pursued  wherever  the state does not  have primary
enforcement authority or whenever the  state does not  take timely or appropriate
enforcement action.  EPA will also issue enforcement  actions against previously
filtered systems which do not meet  the new, more stringent standards and a state
either cannot or will not take enforcement actions.

      EPA will  achieve  a significant  increase  in the number of administrative
enforcement actions (Notices of Violations, Administrative Orders and complaints
for penalty).  Effective use of Section  1431 orders which are used in situations
of  imminent and substantial  endangerment  will  be a priority.   EPA will also

                                     4-46

-------
pursue Department of Justice  (OOJ)  referrals for an increased number of civil
cases.

      The  national data system  will  be  adapted  to  include  reporting  for
contaminants  covered  under the Radionuclides  rule.  Efforts  to improve data
quality will  continue  by working with  Regions and states  to  ensure full and
accurate reporting  of  violations and enforcement actions.   Data verification
audits  will   continue  along  with  follow-up   activities  to  insure  that
recommendations are being implemented.

      The  priorities  for the underground  injection control (UIC) enforcement
program in 1994 will continue  to reflect a focus on controlling  injection in the
high-priority  Class V wells.   Emphasis  will  shift  from  enforcement actions
against Class  II oil and gas  injection  wells toward Class V shallow injection
wells.  The UIC program will implement a second round of  national  orders against
major  oil  companies  with Class  V injection  wells at  company-owned service
stations.  In  addition, EPA will coordinate efforts with the Office of Federal
Facilities Enforcement to identify UIC violations at federally owned or operated
facilities and investigate  the necessity for closure of Class V wells not in
compliance  with  UIC   regulations.      Where  EPA  has  direct  implementation
responsibilities we will take enforcement actions, as well  as in  primacy states
when they  fail to take timely and appropriate action.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a  total  of $6,071,300 supported by 109.8 total
workyears for this program,  of which $6,051,200 is from the  Program and Research
Operations  appropriation  and $20,100  is  from  the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA  is working  with states  to adopt  new enforcement  authorities  and
establish  programs to  carry  out new  requirements.   The Agency  is focusing
enforcement attention on state efforts to implement  the  SWTR and  Total Coliform
(TC) rules.  In 1993 we are beginning implementation of  the Lead  and Copper and
Phase II standards  and are negotiating time extension agreements to allow primacy
states time  to build additional  program  capability.    In  the  interim,  EPA is
enforcing against violations of the  new requirements.  For nonprimacy  states and
Indian tribes, the Agency is implementing all new requirements for the SWTR, TC,
Lead and Copper and Phase II regulations.

      Given the large increase in program requirements and costs, some  states are
considering withdrawing as the primary enforcement agent of  their  drinking water
program.   If   this happens, implementation and enforcement of  existing as well
as  new program requirements  will be thrust upon EPA.   EPA  is developing a
contingency plan to address this situation, but if it occurs EPA will have a very
difficult  time running a state program and will focus on addressing minimum
requirements,  including enforcement.

      We  are  working  to improve  the existing  data system  since  compliance
assessment  will depend to  a large extent  on monitoring  data collected from
drinking water systems. The expanding universe of drinking water systems and the
large  increase in  the number of  contaminants  analyzed  make an efficient data

                                     4-47

-------
system imperative.  Similarly, quality assurance of  data  is necessary  to ensure
the reliability of the data and thus increase confidence in the system.

      In the  UIC program, EPA  is accelerating  activities to enforce against
violations of  shallow injection well  requirements.   The Agency  is  targeting
priority enforcement at shallow wells endangering underground sources of drinking
water  and sensitive  ecosystems.   To determine  compliance,  the Agency is
continuing to ensure testing for mechanical integrity and reviewing  and  approving
permit  requirements  and  applications  for  oil  and gas,  mining  and shallow
injection wells.  The monitoring of deep disposal wells also continues in order
to adequately provide for protection of underground sources of drinking water.

      EPA  is developing  additional  management tools  to promote effective,
consistent enforcement actions.  EPA is developing guidance and pursuing multi-
media opportunities, encouraging the use of section 1431 emergency powers, and
stepping in with federal enforcement where states are not willing or able to take
appropriate actions.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992,  the Agency allocated a total of $4,892,700 supported  by 96.9 total
workyears  for  this  program,  all of which  was from the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriat ion.

      The focus  of  the drinking water enforcement  program remained on systems
that were significant noncompliers (SNC),  defined on the basis of  relative risk
to human health posed by different kinds of violations of the National Primary
Drinking Water  Regulations  (NPDWRs).   While SNCs  are the  first enforcement
priority,  all  systems  in  violation  were  subject  to  enforcement action,
particularly those  systems about  to  become SNCs or  causing a public  health
threat.  EPA issued administrative orders  (AOs)  or initiated court actions when
states  failed  to do  so.    In  addition,  the Agency  conducted  administrative
hearings and assessed penalties for AO noncompliance.

      Federal enforcement efforts in 1992 increased significantly.   In  1992 PWSS
program, EPA issued  539 proposed administrative orders,  352 final administrative
orders,  9  emergency orders,   13  civil  referrals and 32  complaint for penalty
orders.  In the UIC  program,  1992 was also a strong year, with  settlement of the
5X28 precedent  setting case  which issued AOs against  ten major oil companies.
The UIC  program obtained  its  first felony  conviction.   The Regions issued 145
proposed  administrative  orders,   77  final  administrative orders,   12  civil
referrals and assessed $241,515 in penalties.  The Agency also conducted 12 data
audits and uncovered a wide variety of problems  on both reporting  data into the
data system as well as interpreting the rule and understanding how and what to
report.
                                     4-48

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents


                                                                         Page

HAZARDOUS WASTE                                                          5-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Hazardous Waste Research  	     5-11
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies   	   5-25
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Hazardous Waste  ....   5-27
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Air and Radiation  .  .  .   5-30
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Water  	   5-30
      Regulations, Guidelines & Policies - Underground Storage Tanks    5-31
   Financial Assistance 	   5-35
      Hazardous Waste Management Financial Assistance to States .  .  .   5-36
      Underground Storage Tanks State Grants  	   5-39
   Hazardous Waste Management Strategies Implementation 	   5-41
      Hazardous Waste Management Strategies Implementation  	   5-42
   Emergency Planning/Community Right-to-know - Title III  	   5-45
ENFORCEMENT
   Hazardous Waste Enforcement  	   5-51
      Hazardous Waste Enforcement 	   5-52

-------
APPROPRIATION
                                                    HAZARDOUS WASTE
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development
 Oil Spills Trust Fund

TOTAL, Hazardous Waste
      $94,436.3  $106,440.0   $99,127.8   $98,832.4  $101,274.4    $2,442.0   -$5,165.6

     $196,907.0  $211,303.0  $184,653.3  $187,435.3  $200,442.1   $13,006.8  -$10,860.9

      $33,980.8   $24,344.1   $26,166.4   $26,166.4   $18,746.6   -$7,419.8   -$5,597.5
                   $2,564.8    $2,115.6    $2,115.6               -$2,115.6   -$2,564.8

     $325,324.1  $344,651.9  $312,063.1  $314,549.7  $320,463.1    $5,913.4  -$24,188.8
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS

OUTLAYS

AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
        1,527.9
        1,601.4
1,687.9
1,687.9
1,665.6
1,665.6
1,649.9
1,649.9
1,601.2
1,601.2
-48.7
-48.7
-86.7
-86.7
     $332,279.7  $341,973.1  $307,863.0  $311,227.5  $322,161.9   $10,934.4  -$19,811.2

The Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended expired on November 8,  1988.   Reauthorization is
pending.
                                                        5-1

-------
                                                          HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                                                        DIFFERENCE
                                  PRES.                CURRENT
                                 BUDGET     ENACTED     ESTIMATE
                                  1993      1993         1993
                                    ENACTED VS
                                    PRES. BUD
                                   EST. VS
                                  PRES. BUD
                                   EST.  VS
                                   ENACTED
 APPROPRIATION
                                                (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
  Program & Research
   Operations
  Abatement Control and
  Compliance
  Research & Development
  Oil Spills Trust Fund

 TOTAL, Hazardous Waste
 $106.440.0   $99,127.8    $98,832.4    -$7,312.2    -$7,607.6      -$295.4

.$211,303.0  $184,653.3   $187,435.3   -$26,649.7   -$23,867.7    $2,782.0

  $24,344.1   $26.166.4    $26,166.4    $1,822.3    $1,822.3
   $2,564.8    $2,115.6     $2,115.6      -$449.2      -$449.2

 $344,651.9  $312,063.1   $314,549.7   -$32,588.8   -$30,102.2    $2,486.6
 PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 TOTAL WORKYEARS
    1,687.9
    1,687.9
1,665.6
1,665.6
1,649.9
1,649.9
-22.3
-22.3
-38.0
-38.0
-15.7
-15.7
        The following points list the major reasons that the dollars devoted to this media have changed from
submission of the President's FY 1993 Budget Request  to the FY  1993  Current  Estimates.

        PROGRAM AND RESEARCH OPERATIONS

        o Changes were made to the Program to reflect mandated Congressional reductions.

        o Current estimate levels assume approximately 3%  lapse of Headquarters FTE, 2% lapse of Regional FTE.


        ABATEMENT. CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

        o The Hazardous Waste Program absorbed a portion of the Agency's mandated Congressional appropriation
        reduction and add-ons.

        o Redirection to Administrator's Priorities.


        RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

        o Due to the mandated Congessional reductions and/or adds, changes were made to the Program.


        OIL SPILL RESPONSE

        o Changes were made to  reflect mandated Congressional reductions.
                                                         5-2

-------
                                                 MEDIA BRIDGE TABLES


                                 HAZARDOUS WASTE

                                       PRO          AC&C         R&D        Oil         TOTAL

FY 1993 CURRENT ESTIMATE           $ 98,832.4   $187,435.3    $26.166.4   $2,115.6   $314,549.7

  Changes by Category:

  Workforce Costs  (+/->             +$3,008.6        +$7.3                   +$4.0     $3,019.9

  Legislative  Initiatives  (+/-)

  Program Initiatives (+/-)           -$566.6   +$14,073.1    +$1,500.0               $15,006.5

  Discontinuation  of  Specific
   Increases to FY  1993 Request  (-)                -$1,000.0    -$5,650.0               -$6,650.0

  Others (+/-)                                     -$73.6    -$3,269.8  -$2,119.6    -$5,463.0

FY 1994 PRESIDENT'S BUDGET         $101,274.4   $200,442.1    $18,746.6          0   $320,463.1
                                                         5-3

-------
5-4

-------
                               HAZARDOUS WASTE
Overview and Strategy

      The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  (RCRA) of 1976, as revised by
the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984, provides the legislative
mandate for a nationwide program to protect human health and the environment from
the risks of improper management of hazardous and solid wastes.  The goals of the
Act are to: ensure protective management of hazardous waste from generation to
disposal;  ensure adequate and safe management  and disposal capacity for solid
wastes;  and prevent and detect leakage from underground storage tanks  (USTs).

      The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, Title III of the
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, establishes a framework for
addressing  risks posed by hazardous  chemicals  present in communities.   This
program provides  for development of state and local response plans to prevent,
protect, and  inform the  public in the event of a chemical release emergency.
Prevention components of the program were strengthened under the Clean Air Act
accidental  release provisions  which  mandated  that  facility  owner/operators
prepare  risk management  plans to  prevent,  detect,  and  respond  to  chemical
accidents.

      The Agency  continues to refine program strategies to direct both private
and public  resources to  address  high  environmental risk,  while  eliminating
unnecessarily burdensome  requirements.   In  the solid waste  program,  ongoing
efforts to  develop risk-based management  standards for hazardous waste will
continue.   In  the  underground storage  tanks   (UST)  and  Title III  programs,
resources will be directed towards those areas where  the threat  of  a release is
most significant.

      To ensure that program implementation is both equitable  and efficient, the
Agency is employing the  following strategies:   1)  focus  limited resources on
areas  presenting  the highest risk  to  human health and  the  environment;
2)strengthen state environmental programs  to leverage the Federal investment;
3) emphasize prevention,  minimization and recycling in all our work and balance
scarce  resources with  site  cleanup;    4)  develop  new,  and  revise  existing
regulations  to  incorporate the  latest  science and  technology for the safe
disposal and processing of hazardous waste;   5)  conduct scientific research and
encourage  use  of  promising new  technologies;   and  6)   strengthen  contract
management controls to ensure that  resources  expended yield the  maximum benefit
to the Agency.

FY 1994  Program Highlights

      EPA's major responsibilities include supporting and sustaining states in
the performance of their  environmental  management  responsibilities.  The Agency
will maintain the current level of  resource for  state grants.  EPA's objectives
with the  states continues to  be  focused on:   1) increasing the  reliance on
existing state authorities to accomplish RCRA environmental  goals;   2) enhancing
the state capabilities and supporting further authorization of state programs to
implement RCRA requirements;  and 3) strengthening coordination  and integration

                                      5-5

-------
of EPA and state activities to ensure the efficient and effective utilization of
resources.

      The Agency,  in partnership with  the  states,  will continue  to  focus on
permitting high risk facilities.  Emphasis  will  be  placed  on taking action to
prevent  and  reduce  risks at  closed  and closing  land disposal  facilities.
Emphasis in the corrective action program will continue to be on implementation
of facility  stabilizations  and long term remediations.   To  assist  states in
assuming implementation of the  corrective action program,  resources are being
provided to facilitate development of comprehensive state groundwater protection
plans.  In the enforcement program, the focus on pollution prevention and waste
minimization  in  inspection  targeting  and  in   enforcement  settlements  will
continue.

      The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 mandate that EPA monitor
the activities of  importers/exporters of hazardous waste.  The level of activity
has  grown as the  amount  of waste  being exported  and  imported continues to
increase as a result of new  international agreements such as the North American
Free  Trade  Agreement (NAFTA),   the Organization  for Economic  Cooperation and
Development  (OECD), and the  Basel agreements.  Enforcement activities will be
further reinforced through training efforts with U.S.  and Mexican Customs,
U.S.  Coast Guard,  other Department of  Transportation offices and EPA Regional
Offices.  In  implementing the NAFTA agreement, resources will be directed towards
transfer  of  technology  and  information  in  cooperation  with  the  Mexican
government.

      The Agency's commitment to non-hazardous waste management activities will
continue  as  Regions  and states work to  implement the revised municipal waste
management  criteria and  capitalize  on  the increased  national attention to
municipal waste recycling and source reduction.

      To  promote  the  development  of  viable  recycling  markets,  resource
investments will support activities including: 1)  providing technical assistance
and  outreach to businesses  on  source  reduction  and recycling,  2) collecting
economic data on markets for  recyclables, and 3) expanding markets for secondary
materials.

      In FY 1994, the Agency will make strategic investments  to advance important
Administration objectives, while reorienting base programs to achieve maximum
risk  reduction.  In support  of the Administration's free trade initiative with
Mexico and Canada, the  Agency  will place increased  emphasis on monitoring the
transboundary movement of  waste as outlined in the Integrated Environmental Plan
for  the US-Mexican  border   area and  in  Annex  III of  the  current  US-Mexico
bilateral  agreement.    Technical assistance  to  the  Mexican  government  will
continue as part of a coordinated effort to strengthen hazardous waste management
and enforcement.   The program will also continue to conduct border checks with
U.S.  Customs officials, provide training to other  U.S.  and Mexican government
agencies,  administer  the  notification and  "consent to  receive" certification
programs, and assist Mexican officials  in locating inactive and abandoned waste
sites within the border area.
                                      5-6

-------
      In the  Underground Storage  Tanks (UST) program,  the focus  will  be on
preventing, detecting, and  correcting  leaks  from USTs containing petroleum or
other hazardous substances.  Major program activities in FY 1994 will include:
state  program development  and approval,  compliance and  enforcement efforts
relating to UST leak detection requirements,  and  corrective  action streamlining
projects.  The Agency will continue to monitor and evaluate state implementation
and  enforcement  activities,   and  provide   ongoing  technical  information,
assistance, and training to  enhance state capabilities.  Emphasis will  be placed
on compliance monitoring, joint inspections,  and  enforcement activities in high
risk areas.

      In FY 94, the  Title III program will focus on minimizing the potential for
chemical accidents  in high risk areas.   The Agency will begin  to  evaluate
relative risk and  susceptibility to  chemical accidents  as  well  as provide
assistance to states in targeting specific industries, facilities, and chemicals
that present  a substantial  risk.   Particular attention will be given to areas
with a high concentration of  chemical  facilities.  In these areas, the Agency
will provide  assistance  in  developing projects to enhance accident prevention,
preparedness,  and response  capabilities.  Enforcement activities will continue
to target  potential high risk violators and  encourage innovative settlement
agreements  to  support  state  and  local  program  implementation.    In  the
international  area, the program  will  continue  to  implement  Rio Agenda  21
initiatives to reduce the  risk of chemical  accidents  by  promoting community
right-to-know principles in chemical  management programs  in  Mexico, Canada,
Eastern Europe, and developing  countries.

Implementing  a Responsive National Regulatory Program

      The  Agency is  committed  to the review  of  and  revision  of  existing
regulations   to  eliminate unnecessarily burdensome requirements and to better
address environmental risk.  Reform efforts will include establishing risk based
management standards for  hazardous waste, eliminating unnecessary delay  and costs
in the corrective action program, and streamlining the hazardous waste permitting
process.

      In addition to these  program revisions, the hazardous  waste regulatory
program will  continue  to respond to existing  statutory and new court-ordered
deadlines for  completing the remaining  requirements mandated in HSWA.   Towards
that  end,  the  Agency will  perform  preliminary  listing studies  and develop
regulations to list  as hazardous the specific  wastes named in HSWA.   In follow-up
to these and  earlier listings, the Agency will develop treatment standards for
those wastes  designated  as  hazardous since the enactment of HSWA.  The program
will  also  implement  the  land disposal  restrictions  program by  processing
treatment capacity and no migration petitions.  Final standards will be issued
for air  emissions from seven types of  hazardous  waste treatment,  storage and
disposal facilities  (surface impoundments, landfills, wastewater treatment tanks,
waste piles,  land treatment facilities, pre-treatment facilities, and transfer
operations).

      Other significant  regulatory efforts include the Phase  II Land Disposal
Rule and a  proposed  rule  on  the management of  munitions and ordnance  as required
by the  Federal Facilities  Compliance Act of 1992.   As part of  our effort to

                                      5-7

-------
realize sound environmental management, the Agency will accelerate the collection
and analysis of environmental data.

      In 1994 the Agency will continue to meet the  statutory deadlines under the
Clean  Air Act  accidental  release provisions.   Efforts  will  focus  on:  1)
promulgating  regulations and  developing  guidance  that  require owners  and
operators of facilities to develop risk management  plans to  prevent, detect, and
respond to accidental releases into the air;  2) provide support and establish
a liaison  role  with the Chemical  Safety and Hazard Investigation Board;   3)
develop  industry and  chemical specific  technical  guidance,  in response  to
hydrofluoric acid study recommendations;   4)  encourage  states to take ownership
of  the program;   and  5)  develop  and review  options to improve  government
efficiency identified in the study on Federal authorities for hazardous materials
accident safety mandated by the Clean Air Act.
Supporting the Regulatory Program Through Research and Technology Transfer

      The hazardous waste research program provides the scientific and technical
information necessary to support the development and implementation of hazardous
waste regulations, and provides the information to EPA Regional offices, state
and local governments, private industry, and other decision-makers.  Research is
conducted in several  areas:  Ecological  risk assessment methods,  groundwater,
municipal solid  waste,  hazardous waste,  surface  cleanup,  bioremediation,  and
international and domestic technology transfer.

      As part of  its  effort  to  promote technology innovation,  the Agency will
continue the development of bioremediation as a viable alternative.  Field scale
research will be  initiated on groundwater  and aquifer remediation, biofiltration
of contaminated air and gasses,  biotreatment of  surface soils, soil  in the vadose
zone,  sediments  and  sludge,   and   hazardous   liquid  wastes.    Funding  for
bioremediation is derived  from three  separate media:  RCRA  Hazardous Waste,
Superfund, and Oil Trust Fund.   The  initiative  proposed for  1994 will be funded
from the hazardous waste medium.

      Successful  demonstration  of  bioremediation  technology  will  have  a
significant  impact  upon the  feasibility,  speed,  and  cost  of  cleanup  of
contaminated  soils  and groundwater,  especially  if  the  remediation  can  be
conducted on site.
                                      5-8

-------
                                HAZARDOUS WASTE
ACTUAL 1
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES 1992
Regulations
RCRA Standards .... 19
Proposals ....... 8
Promulgations 	 11
CURRENT INCREASE ( + )
SSTIMATE ESTIMATE DECREASE (-)
1993 1994 1994 VS 1993

23 27 +4
13 12 -1
10 15 +5
Effl. Stds. Decision Doc.
Effl. Stds. Data Summaries.

UIC Petition Reviews

Implementation

Guidance Documents  ..         11           11          10           -1
Reports to Congress .  .          0            1           1            0

State Authorization (cum.)
      Base Program  .  .         48           48          48            0
      HSWA Cluster I   .         16           25          33           +8

Final Permit Determinations  2,653        3,030       3,342         +312
and Closures (Cumulative)

Ongoing Permit Processing      757          810         828          +18

UIC Permit Revisions

Enforcement/Corrective Action
      Inspections ....   13,756       14,042      14,042            0
      Administrative
      Orders  	      1,166        1,315       1,315            0
      Civil Litigation         161          183         183            0
      Criminal
      Litigation  . .  .        144          132         132            0

      Monitoring of
      Corrective Action
      Activities  . .  .        607          769         824          +55

      POTW Corrective
      Measures  ....
                                      5-9

-------
5-10

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents


                                                                         Page

HAZARDOUS WASTE

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Hazardous Waste Research  	   5-11

-------
PROGRAM
                                                        HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                                   Hazardous Waste Research
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Hazardous Waste
Research
 Program & Research
  Operat i ons
 Research & Development
 Oil Spills Trust Fund
       $14,392.8   $15,465.0   $14,912.9   $14,882.0   $14,994.0
                                               $112.0
                    $2,564.8    $2,115.6    $2,115.6
                                              -$471.0
       $33,980.8   $24,344.1   $26,166.4   $26,166.4   $18,746.6   -$7,419.8   -$5,597.5
                                            -$2,115.6   -$2,564.8
                       TOTAL  $48,373.6   $42,373.9   $43,194.9   $43,164.0   $33,740.6   -$9,423.4   -$8,633.3
TOTAL:
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Research & Development
 Oil Spills Trust Fund

Hazardous Waste
Research
       $14,392.8   $15,465.0   $14,912.9   $14,882.0   $14,994.0
                                               $112.0
                                              -$471.0
       $33,980.8   $24,344.1   $26,166.4   $26,166.4   $18,746.6   -$7,419.8   -$5,597.5
                    $2,564.8    $2,115.6    $2,115.6               -$2,115.6   -$2,564.8

TOTAL  $48,373.6   $42,373.9   $43,194.9   $43,164.0   $33,740.6   -$9,423.4   -$8,633.3
PERMANENT WORKYEARS


Hazardous Waste
Research

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS

TOTAL WORKYEARS
           229.3
           229.3
236.6
236.6
221.5
221.5
                                               219.0
                                               219.0
204.6
                                    204.6
                                                -14.4
            -14.4
-32.0
-32.0
Hazardous Waste
Research

TOTAL WORKYEARS
                                  235.1
           235.1
                       236.6
236.6
            221.5
221.5
                                                                      219.0
                                               219.0
                        204.6
                                    204.6
                                                                       -14.4
                                    -14.4
                        -32.0
                                                                                   -32.0
                                                       5-11

-------
                                HAZARDOUS WASTE

                           Hazardous Waste Research

                               Principal Outputs
1994  o  Complete  two  Municipal  Innovative  Technology  Evaluations  (MITE)
         projects. The first is the evaluation of the effectiveness of material
         recovery facilities and the second is the effectiveness of weight-based
         collection  systems  as  a waste reduction measure.

      o  Make  recommendations  for criteria  to  assure  safe  utilization  of
         municipal waste  combustion residues.

      o  Report on the design and operation of a municipal solid waste landfill
         as  a biochemical reactor for the generation  of methane  for energy
         recovery.

      o  Conduct seminars on GIS-Techniques for characterization of groundwater
         contamination.

      o  Provide Regions and States a report on factors that effect the mobility
         of metals from solidified ash stabilized treated wastes.

      o  Complete  methods manual  for  providing guidance to the Regions  and
         States for preparation of solids and  non-aqueous samples for inorganic
         analysis.

1993 o   Complete  two  Municipal  Innovative  Technology  Evaluations  (MITE)
         projects. One on automated sorting of plastic containers and the second
         on  Laboratory testing  of plastic  materials recycled from  the waste
         steam.

      o  Complete report  on  good combustion practices.

      o  Conducted   seminars  on  measurement  methods   for  hazardous  waste
         treatment.

      o  Complete  an assessment  of  available  data on  source  of  toxics  in
         municipal solid  wastes.

      o  Publish  a report on use of  good combustion practices for controlling
         organic  emissions from municipal waste incinerators.

      o  Complete a  liner leak  survey  for hazardous waste landfills.

      o  Submit the  annual report  on Quality control samples for RCRA Appendix
         VIII  Chemicals.

      o  Complete  a software  system  which provides  support for sighting  of
         hazardous waste  management facilities.

                                     5-12

-------
      o  Complete   shake  flask  protocols   used  for  early   screening  of
         bioremediation  potential.

      o  Complete dispersant users manual

      o  Complete  evaluation  of  bioremediation  procedures  for  open  seas
         applications.

1992 o   Improved compound identification  in  the  contract  laboratory program.

      o  Completed  report on  Bioremediation  of  the  Exxon Valdez  Oil  Spill:
         Monitoring  safety and efficacy.

      o  Developed   methodologies  for  terrestrial   indicators  for  use  in
         ecological  assessments at hazardous  waste sites.

      o  Prepared  risk  assessment  reports   on  potential  hazards  of  common
         recyclables and on composting.

      o  Prepared  the   technical  support document   for  corrective  action
         regulatory  impact analysis.

      o  Completed  a  feasibility  study  on  the  development  of methods  for
         detection of dioxin and mercury using continuous emissions monitoring
         technology.

      o  Improved compound identification  in  contract  laboratories.

      o  Conducted  seminars  on:  design,  operation,  and closure  of Municipal
         Solid  Waste  Landfills;   operation  parameters  for  Hazardous  Waste
         Combustion  Devise; and Corrective Action Stabilization  Technologies.

      o  Provided performance  data on  incineration  of RCRA listed  waste for
         aluminum pot wastes.

      o  Completed studies on monitoring, safety and efficacy of bioremediation
         at the Valdez oil spill.

      o  Completed the evaluation of laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests
         on various  types of oil and an evaluations of plunging water jets for
         diverting spilled oils on large rivers.

      o  Verified  product performance  obtained  from  shake flask  laboratory
         studies, and microcosm studies.
                                     5-13

-------
                                HAZARDOUS WASTE

                           Hazardous Waste Research
BUDGET REQUEST

1994 Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $33,740,600  supported  by  204.6 total
workyears  for 1994, of which $14,994,000  will  be  for the Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $18,746,600 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation.   This represents  an  increase  of  $112,000 in the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation, a  decrease of $7,419,800 in the Research and
Development appropriation, and a decrease of 13.4 total workyears from 1993.  The
decrease is a result of a shift of 1 FTE and $2,115,600 from the Hazardous Waste
program  element to  the  Oil  Spills  Liability Trust Fund.    The  decrease in
workyears  is a  result of the government-wide reduction in workyears that is a
part of  the President's  program  to  reduce the size and cost  of  government.
Increases to the Program and Research Operations appropriation reflect additional
personnel compensation and benefits (PC&B), travel expenses associated with fully
funding ORD's staff of scientists, managers and support personnel in such areas
as quality assurance, extramural resource management, and high priority research.

1993 Budget

      The Agency is allocating $41,048,400 supported by 218.0 total workyears for
this program element,  of which $14,882,000 is from the  Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $26,166,400  is from  the Research and Development
appropriation.  Additionally, $2,115,600 and 1 workyear funding is provided by
the Oil Spills  Liability Trust Fund.

1992 Budget

      The  Agency obligated  a  total  of  $48,373,600  supported by  235.1 total
workyears  for this program  element, of which $14,392,800 was from the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation and $33,980,800 was from the Research and Development
appropriation.

GROUNDWATER

1994 Program Request

      ORD's  groundwater  research  will  address:  remediation  of  subsurface
contamination;   subsurface monitoring  and characterization;  and subsurface
transport  and  transformation.  Current research efforts  will  be increased for
remediation  of  subsurface  contamination.   Efforts  involve  the development,
demonstration,  and evaluation of corrective action technologies for remediating
RCRA sites.  Subsurface monitoring and characterization will develop additional
field-portable  measurement  devices for locating Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL)
contaminants in the subsurface, develop innovative test methods,  and technologies

                                     5-14

-------
for monitoring  and  characterizing  the subsurface.   Research  on underground
storage tank  leak  prevention efforts will address  internal  and external leak
detection and cause of tank and piping failures in new systems for existing as
well as developing alternative fuels.  Subsurface transport and transformation
research will continue to  predict the transport  and fate  of metals  in the
subsurface, test mathematical models used for regulatory and remedial decision
making, and predict contaminant behavior in the subsurface.

1993 Program

      ORD scientists are developing and testing practical models for predicting
the transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface; developing detailed
data on the transport  and transformation  of  metal  and organic contaminants to
incorporate  into  predictive  subsurface   and multimedia  models  for  making
regulatory decisions regarding hazardous wastes.  Scientists are also developing
and  evaluating  technologies   for   remediation  of  RCRA  sites,  evaluating
mathematical models used  for Agency decision making, and improving our ability
to characterize and monitor hazardous waste sites in more cost/effective and non-
invasive ways.

1992 Accomplishments

      Researchers achieved significant advances in developing improved methods
for sampling for metal  contaminants in ground water  and predicting the transport
of metal and organic contaminants in the subsurface.   A prototype model for EPA
to use in predicting the  transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface
was developed and  laboratory facilities  to  test the model  were constructed.
Improved protocols  for monitoring  leaks  from underground storage  tanks were
completed. Remediation technologies such as soil vapor .extraction, soil washing,
thermal desorption, in-situ  bioremediation for the cleanup of  UST and RCRA sites
were investigated.  Equipment for in-place  screening for PCB's in soil and ground
water was improved and draft standards for soil core  monitoring, soil pore-liquid
monitoring, and  soil gas  monitoring were completed.  Methods  for preventing,
detecting, and locating leaks from underground storage tanks were published.

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

1994 Program Request

      The Municipal Solid  Waste  (MSW) research program will  address six research
areas with the principal  users being the Regions and local governments.   These
areas are:  1) source  reduction  research  includes   investigating  the  sources,
quantities, and  fate of waste material and exploring potential  ways to reduce
costs borne by local governments without negative impact to the environment; 2)
recycling   research   includes   collection,   processing,   marketing,   and
remanufacturing; 3) thermal destruction research will center on air pollution
control   technology,   sampling   and  analysis   methods,   and  on   residue
characterization, treatment, and  utilization; 4) landfill  research focuses on
improved design, emissions control, performance,  and monitoring; 5) innovative
technology research will continue  to be  carried   out  through the  Municipal
Innovative  Technology  Evaluation  (MITE)   program   which  provides  systematic
evaluation of promising new management systems, technologies,  and techniques for

                                     5-15

-------
handling MSW;  and 6)  comparison  of MSW management  options will  provide the
framework necessary for decision officials to evaluate alternative risks and make
the most reasonable waste management selection.

1993 Program

      ORD is emphasizing research on source reduction and recycling of Municipal
Solid Waste. This research includes efforts to reduce the level  of toxics in MSW
residues,  assesses processes  for  conversion of  biomass  to useful products,
analyzes compost properties for use in the development of products, and evaluates
reuse options  for  combustion  ash.   Land disposal  research is concentrating on
bioreactors.   The Municipal  Innovative Technology Evaluation   (MITE) program
includes use of a Municipal Recycling Facility to  collect data on emissions and
integrate  the research  to develop  comparative  risk  assessment methods for
recycling  facilities based on field data.

      ORD's  municipal  solid  waste  research  program is  identifying mutagenic
compounds  in Municipal Wasted Combustor emissions to  improve  the  health risk
assessments  for   such   facilities.  Researchers  are  conducting  studies  to
characterize  leachate  from municipal  land fills,  with specific  emphasis  on
metals,  organics  and  variations in  leachate.  Scientists  are  also  studying
continuous emission monitors for dioxins/furans mercury.

Congressional  Directives     A combined total  of $850,000 is provided  for a
Congressionally-directed research on Sulfonated Plastics and Tires and for the
Urban Waste  Center at the University of New Orleans.

1992 Accomplishments

      Municipal  solid  waste  research provided  a  number of accomplishments: a
report on  the  potential  hazards of municipal waste recycling and composting; a
strategy for the monitoring of Appendix  IX  compounds  at  municipal waste ash
monofills;  and  a  feasibility study  on the  development  of  methods  for the
detection   of   dioxin   and  mercury using  continuous  emissions  monitoring
technologies.  Scientists also completed  field tests  to  evaluate  the  use  of
powdered activated carbon for  controlling mercury emissions from municipal  waste
combustors  using  spray  drier/fabric  filters,   and  tested for the  effects  of
monofills  leachates on three clay soils and three geosynthetics.

HAZARDOUS  WASTE

1994 Program Request

      The ORD Hazardous Waste research program addresses: Technology; Monitoring
and Quality Assurance; Waste Minimization;   Risk Assessment/Ecological  risk;
Large Volume/Industrial Waste; and  University Research  Centers.   Technology
research will center  on continuing treatment,  storage,  and  disposal issues.
Monitoring and Quality assurance will  focus  on improving existing analytical
methods  and developing standard methods for new  classes  of compounds.   Waste
minimization research  conducted  under  this issue  is directed at hard to  treat
wastes.  Risk assessment research will ensure the development of hazardous  waste
management practices  to protect  human health and the  environment.    Large

                                     5-16

-------
volume/industrial waste, although in its infancy,  focuses on low toxicity wastes.

1993 Program

      ORD  researchers  are conducting  assessments  of  existing  and  emerging
technologies to improve treatment for gaseous,  liquid,  and solid waste  streams.
The major  focus  is  placed on stabilization of hazardous wastes.  Incineration
research includes laboratory and  pilot-scale incineration  studies to determine
the performance  on a  range  of thermal treatment  devices. Waste minimization
research focuses on minimization assessments and increasing efforts to deal with
hard-to-treat  hazardous  wastes.   Scientists  are  using  the  multimedia site
assessment model to support hazardous waste management decision QA research to
focus on  improving  matrices  and  expanding the universe of material for which
quality  control  samples  are  available.  The  technology  transfer  program  is
assisting the Regions, States,  municipalities and industry to implement  improved
methods and practices developed by the Agency.  ORD is supporting activities at
the Institute  for  Environmental  Issues and Policy Assessment  at the  Southern
University  of Louisiana  to   enhance  participation  of   minority  scientists,
engineers, and students in environmental areas.

Congressional Directives

    A combined total  of  $4,800,000  is provided  for Congressionally-directed
research at the Center for Environmental Management at Tufts University, and the
University of North Dakota for Energy and Environmental research.

1992 Accomplishments

      Major 1992 accomplishments  included the Annual Report on Quality Control
Samples for RCRA  Appendix  VIII  Chemicals; a feasibility study on the development
of  methods for  detection on  dioxin and  mercury  using  continuous emissions
monitoring technologies and a manual  on preparation of soil sampling protocols.
ORD also prepared a technical support document  for  corrective action regulatory
impact analysis, and  conducted workshops  on management  of mercury and arsenic
wastes.

      During 1992  oil spills  research  was funded within  the  Hazardous  Waste
program element.  Accomplishments stemming from this  funding included verifying
product performance obtained  from shake  flask laboratory studies,  microcosm
studies,  and  environmental  models  in a  contained  open water  environment.
Researchers  also  developed  and  tested  product  delivery  vehicles   such  as
encapsulation in microcosms to estimate field performance without environmental
risk.   Other  accomplishments include the  evaluation of  laboratory dispersant
effectiveness tests on various  types of oil and an evaluations of plunging water
jets for diverting spilled oils on large rivers.

SURFACE CLEANUP

1994 Program Request

      Surface Cleanup  research focuses on: site characterization, monitoring, and
quality assurance;  and on RCRA corrective  action and technical support.   Site

                                     5-17

-------
characterization,  monitoring,  and  quality  assurance  research  focuses  on
determining the type and extent of contamination, and assessment techniques to
improve screening and reduce the cost of laboratory analyses.  Corrective action
and technical support programs provide scientific and engineering expertise to
selected hazardous waste sites.

      Scientists will develop sampling protocols  for volatile organic compounds
in soil and improve sampling techniques for heterogeneous hazardous wastes.  ORD
will provide technical support to approximately 80 hazardous waste sites.

1993 Program

      The Surface Cleanup Hazardous Haste technical support program is providing
Regional Offices  and other site  remediators with engineering  assistance and
technical  information.   Site-specific technical assistance to  EPA's remedial
project managers and RCRA permitters address issues from site characterization
for  treatment technology  selection  to  evaluations  of  full-scale  technology
implementation.   Particular emphasis  is placed on the evaluation or  use of
treatability studies for technology screening,  selection and design, and on the
evaluation  of  innovative treatment technologies  such  as vacuum extraction and
bioremediation.    The  monitoring program  emphasizes  ecological  assessment
technical support and technical support for the Regions.

1992 Accomplishments

      ORD provided long term assistance to 59 sites under the START program and
128 short term responses to Regional Project Managers as part of the Engineering
Tech Support  Program.   The  program produced 14 special investigatory reports;
completed the  annual report on quality control samples for RCRA Appendix VIII
chemicals  and the  feasibility study  on the  development  of  methods  for the
detection of. dioxin and mercury using continuous emission monitors. Manuals were
produced on soil  sampling  for volatile organic  compounds  and  for  vadose zone
monitoring.

BIOREMEDIATION

1994 Program Request

      This  research supports  the Administrations  cross-cutting initiative on
Bioremediation and is included as part of the Federal Coordination Committee on
Science and Technology  (FCCSET).

      Bioremediation  is an  engineered  process that  uses microorganisms to
decompose toxic hazardous compounds to improve  environmental quality and reduce
human risk.   The process residues are  typical  non-toxic and easy to introduce.
Bioremediation technologies should be less disruptive to the environment and less
expensive  than other treatment options,  such as excavation, incineration, and
landfilling.

      ORD'8 bioremediation researchers will study basic biodegradation pathways
of hazardous chemicals, discover and characterize organisms capable of degrading
such chemicals, and develop and use protocols for testing efficacy and toxicity

                                      5-18

-------
of bioremediation products.   The  highest  priority chemicals for study will be
organic solvents and halogenated aromatic  hydrocarbons.  An  important component
of this research is the field evaluation of bioremediation processes on priority
chemical spills.

      Scientists will initiate research on munitions wastes.   The first priority
will be to understand the microbial biodegradation processes on nitroaromatics.
Most of  these wastes are  located on military bases  and  involve contaminated
soils,  sludges,  and  sediments.  Hence,  field research will be  conducted in
cooperation with DoD facilities when possible.

      Oil Spills Liability Trust  Fund research  for  1994 is  described in a new
media section for oil spills.

1993 Program

      ORD is  documenting biochemical studies  which  reveal  mechanisms by which
bacteria degrade man-made chemicals and processes in which organisms degrade one
chemical while utilizing  another as a  nutrient.  This information  is instrumental
in projecting new strategies  for bioremediation necessary to  predict and degrade
specific hazardous chemicals and their complex mixtures.

      Research is being conducted  to understand the genetic and biological basis
for biodegradation reactions. This understanding will lead to the  rational design
and construction of new gene combinations for degradation of persistent and toxic
chemicals.

      Research  on  enzymes is  being  undertaken  to  determine their  value and
effectiveness in transforming hazardous chemicals into less toxic or innoxious
products.

      ORD  scientists  using  Oil  Spills  Liability  Trust  Fund  resources  are
developing protocols for  spills to open waters, shorelines, marshes/wetlands, and
terrestrial environments.  This research includes developing decision trees or
simplified  expert systems  for each of  these  categories  to  force rational
consideration  of  factors that  are  key to the  success of  remediation  of oil
spills.  Such factors may include oil composition, adverse  weather conditions,
logistics, geomorphology  of the impacted area,  presence of natural oil degraders,
levels of particulates, and sensitive resources.  Scientists  are  also cataloging
and  indexing  historical records  and  establishing  correlations between  the
conditions of the case histories and the actions taken.  In the event of a new
spill, action may be possible through pattern-matching.  Other benefits of this
cataloging are  the  documenting of methods to keep  bioremediation products in
contact with the spill as long as possible.

1992 Accomplishments

      Significant  headway   has  been  made  in  development   of  tools  and
infrastructure necessary to launch a  meaningful  bioremediation research program
addressing  hazardous wastes.   Examples  of  headway included:  development of
methods for examining microbial community structure and for optimizing stability
and performance of degradative activities; identification of  methods and systems

                                     5-19

-------
for immobilization of microorganisms for use in field and bioreactor treatment
systems;  characterization of systems for inserting gene sequences to activate
expression of degradative genes  under  differing environmental conditions; and
identification of techniques  and tools  for  characterization and monitoring of
anaerobic degradative microbial communities.

      Trust  fund accomplishments  include  completion  of  safety  and efficacy
studies  at  Prince  William  Sound,  and  evaluation  studied  on  dispersant
effectiveness.
HEALTH EFFECTS

1994 Program Request

      No funding has been requested for Hazardous Waste Health Effects issue in
1994, because  the research to  evaluate  the relationship between  exposure to
incineration residuals containing metals and the delivered dose will be completed
in 1993 and a report issued.

1993 Program

      Health Effects research to evaluate the relationship between exposure to
incineration residuals containing metals and the delivered  dose is drawing to
completion.

1992 Accomplishments

      Researchers published an  article  on  the results of a  workshop  on Metal
Bioavialability and Deposition Kinetics.
POLLUTION PREVENTION

1994 Request

      ORD scientists will develop advanced materials to reduce pollution at the
source, gather  and disseminate  information  through the  pollution prevention
information  center (PPIC),  and hold  workshops and  conferences  to  transfer
technical information on such things as how to reduce hazardous waste streams.
More environmentally friendly products will  be  developed.   Cleaner production
technologies, processes, and products will also be developed and demonstrated.

1993 Program

      Research  continues   to   provide  leadership  in  the   development  of
methodologies such as life cycle assessment,  process simulation and design, and
measurement of pollution prevention that enable planning,  implementation, and
accounting  for  pollution  prevention.    Support continues  for the  Pollution
Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC)  that gathers and shares successful
pollution prevention techniques  from and with the  public  and  private sectors,
both domestic and international.  Past projects are being evaluated  to help plan

                                     5-20

-------
future research.  Research is being initiated to evaluate pollution prevention
technologies in conjunction with other Federal agencies on Federal facilities.

      Congressional Directives.   A total of  $700,000  is  for Congressionally-
directed research at  the Iowa Reduction Center. This  research  is focusing on
recycling and reuse technology development.

1992 Accomplishments

      EPA  published the  Facility Pollution  Prevention Guidance  Manual  that
assists in identifying opportunities for pollution prevention, a manual on Life
Cycle Assessment: Inventory  Guidelines and Principles, and  a  dozen industry-
specific pollution prevention guidance manuals.
ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency will conduct in-house research for hazardous waste on methods
needed to  assess  the exposure,  hazard, and risk  to  ecological  resources from
multiple threats.  The  framework  for  analysis  will  be natural watersheds at a
variety of geographic scales.

      This research  will  use current achievements to  develop a new holistic,
integrated program  designed  to  utilize  a new  generation  of  computer-based
analysis and decision tools tailored to the information needs  and authorities of
Federal, State,  and  local  resource  managers.   Researchers   will  examine the
synergy between eutrophication, toxicity, and habitat loss; they will design a
new generation of ecologically-capable watershed models grounded in geographic
information systems  (GIS)  technology and  individual-based ecological approaches
that will evaluate stressors in a whole-system perspective.

1993 Program

      Ecological risk assessment methods research focuses on three main research
areas.     They   are:  Stressor   and  system-specific  methods,   integrated
biologeographical/watershed methods,  and biogeographical implementation.  This
research evaluates  models describing  the  formation of biological  species of
metals, performs decision model testing,  and develops predictive models for the
toxicity of chemical mixtures.

1992 Accomplishments

      Terrestrial research focused on the  contamination of plants with Dioxin
(2,3,7,8-TCDD).   Researchers  examined  the  effects  of the  leaf  surface of
vegetation on Dioxin uptake rate,  and  studied the photodegradation of Dioxin on
the leaf surface.  The Agency organized workshops and symposia to transmit EPA
computer technology to state and industrial users, and to better understand the
role, uses,  and state-of-the-art in uncertainty  analysis  for ecological risk
assessment.
                                     5-21

-------
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

1994 Program Request

      Technology Transfer  activities  will provide seminars on  RCRA Subpart X
Alternative Technologies;  seminars  on GIS techniques  for  characterization of
groundwater contamination; a personal  computer  system on CERCLA/RCRA soils data
management; and guidelines  for management of common  hazardous wastes found in
developing countries.   Workshops and software packages will  be developed for
remedial action  technology selection and costing procedures, and  CD  ROM and
accompanying  user  guides  will  be  developed  for  subsurface  characterization
techniques.

1993 Program

      Information is disseminated on approaches to identify and quantify energy
and  resource  usage  as  well as  waste  emissions and  there  effects  on  the
environment.  Information is combined  from existing data bases on construction,
operation, and maintenance costs of successful remedial action technologies to
develop  life-cycle  design.  Information is  also   assembled  on  treatment
technologies  and expert  system  decision rules  for developing  "alternative
treatment train" solutions in meeting cleanup objectives.

1992 Accomplishments

      Accomplishments  included  conducting technology  transfer  seminars  on
operational parameters for hazardous waste combustion devices, RCRA corrective
action  stabilization   technologies,   design/operation/closure  of  municipal
landfills,  integrated  solid  waste  planning,   and  statistical  analysis  of
groundwater monitoring data.  Technology transfer documents  were produced for
organic  air  emissions  from  waste  management  facilities and a  groundwater
information tracking system with statistical analysis capability was completed.

ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF TOXIC CHEMICALS

1994 Program Request

      Scientists  will  continue   development  of  the  "System  for  Predicting
Environmental Fate Constants"  (SPARC) which provides a computer model to estimate
key chemical properties required to describe physical and chemical processes that
affect the transport and transformation of organic pollutants in the environment.
Predictive capability will extend to essentially any organic compound and will
be derived from its chemical structure.   Conditions applied to the model (i.e.,
temperature, pressure, and  acidity) will span  ranges typical of environmental
application.  Researchers will expand the SPARC model  to include mixed solvents,
such as crude oil and PCBs.

1993 Program

      Researchers are conducting experiments to further develop SPARC models and
to increase their accessibility and  application through  local, on line computer
systems and an international computer network,  INTERNET.

                                     5-22

-------
1992 Accomplishments

      No resources were provided for this Issue in FY 1992

INFRASTRUCTURE

1994 Program Request

      Adequately funded infrastructure is critical to ORD's success in conducting
the  quality  science  needed  to  assure  that  the  Agency's  decisions  are
scientifically  sound.  The most critical  part of ORD's  infrastructure is its
staff.   The  assumption  underlying  all  our research  activities includes  a
productive workforce.

      ORD has  established a cohesive, cross-cutting  issue  for infrastructure
based upon  the importance  of  this activity  to planned and  ongoing research
activities.  Intramural funding for the Hazardous Waste Program Element will be
centralized within the  infrastructure issue  to  provide improved management to
ORD's personnel compensation and benefits, and travel costs.

1993 Program

      ORD's current infrastructure program provides compensation and benefits,
and  travel  for ORD  scientists and  engineers.   ORD's  workforce  carries  out
scientific programs in support of the Agency's mission.

1992 Accomplishments

      ORD funded its workyears  in  scientific support  of  the Agency's mission,
providing the necessary personnel  compensation and benefits, and travel for ORD
scientists and engineers.

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

1994 Program Request

      As mandated by Public Law 102-564, the Small Business Innovation Research
Program  (SBIR)  will  receive  1.50%  of  the  Agency's  extramural  research
appropriation.  This will  support small businesses engaged in the development of
equipment for pollution abatement and control and process instrumentation.  Under
this program, the Agency can take advantage of unique solutions to remediation
issues that may be offered by the private  sector.  Resources will be identified
in the operating plan and consolidated in the Multimedia Program Element once
enactment occurs.

1993 Program

      As mandated by Public Law 102-564, the Small Business Innovation Research
Program  (SBIR)  will  receive  1.50%  of  the  Agency's  extramural   research
appropriation to support small businesses engaged in the development of equipment
for pollution abatement and control and process  instrumentation.  As  in 1992
                                     5-23

-------
these resources will eventually be consolidated in the Multimedia Program Element
before the end of fiscal year 1993.

1992 Accomplishments

      Resources and accomplishments supporting this program were consolidated in
the Multimedia Program element for 1992.
                                      5-24

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

      1994  Budget  Estimate

       Table of Contents
                      Hazardous Waste
                      Air and Radiation
                      Water  	
HAZARDOUS WASTE

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies
      Regulations, Guidelines & Policies - Underground Storage Tanks
   Financial Assistance  	
      Hazardous Waste Management Financial Assistance to States . .  .
      Underground Storage Tanks State Grants  	
   Hazardous Waste Management Strategies Implementation 	
      Hazardous Waste Management Strategies Implementation  	
   Emergency Planning/Community Right-to-know - Title III 	
                                                  Page
5-25
5-27
5-30
5-30
5-31
5-35
5-36
5-39
5-41
5-42
5-45

-------
                                                        HAZARDOUS  WASTE
                                      Waste Management Regulations,  Guidelines & Policies

ACTUAL
1992
PRES.
BUDGET
1993
ENACTED
1993
CURRENT REQUEST
ESTIMATE 1994
1993
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 PB
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies-Hazardous
Waste
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies-Air and
Radiation
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies- Water
Program and Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Regulations, Guidelines
and Policies - Underground
Storage Tanks
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL




$20,606.3

$42.866.6

$63,472.9



$583.8

$2,499.0

$3,082.8


$638.2



$638.2



$3,631.0

$4,525.5

$8,156.5




$23,428.0

$44,883.7

$68,311.7



$886.3

$1,673.3

$2,559.6


$543.8



$543.8



$4,110.1

$4,165.8

$8,275.9




$18,616.6

$35,545.8

$54,162.4



$565.3

$1,664.3

$2,229.6


$678.5

$4

$678.9



$3,895.3

$2,985.2

$6,880.5




$18,569.8 $18,789.3

$35,437.2 $44,642.3

$54,007.0 $63,431.6



$566.6

$1,726.9

$2.293.5


$678.5 $585.9

$5 $7.8

$679.0 $593.7



$3,887.7 $4.002.3

$2,985.0 $2,981.5

$6,872.7 $6,983.8




$219.5

$9,205.1

$9,424.6



-$566.6

-$1,726.9

-$2,293.5


-$92.6

$7.3

-$85.3



$114.6

-$3.5

$111.1




-$4,638.7

-$241.4

-$4,880.1



-$886.3

-$1,673.3

-$2,559.6


$42.1

$7.8

$49.9



-$107.8

-$1,184.3

-$1,292.1
TOTAL:
 Program & Research
  Operat i ons
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance

Waste Management
Regulations,
Guidelines & Policies
       $25.459.3   $28,968.2   $23,755.7   $23,702.6    $23,377.5

       $49,891.1   $50,722.8   $40.195.7   $40.149.6    $47,631.6
 -$325.1   -$5.590.7

$7,482.0   -$3,091.2
TOTAL  $75,350.4   $79,691.0   $63,951.4   $63,852.2    $71,009.1    $7,156.9    -$8,681.9
                                                       5-25

-------
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
                                                        HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                      Waste Management  Regulations, Guidelines & Policies
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies-Hazardous
Waste

Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies-Air and
Radiation

Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies-Water

Regulations, Guidelines
and Policies - Underground
Storage Tanks
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
273.1       275.3       285.5        283.7       264.8
  9.0        13.0
 13.1
10.0
 56.3        66.4
            13.0
 9.9
            12.9
 9.9
            65.7       65.1
9.9
                       64.0
                                               -18.9
                       -12.9
351.5       364.7       374.1        371.6       338.7
                        -1.1


                       -32.9
-10.5



-13.0



   -1


 -2.4


-26.0
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies-Hazardous
Waste

RCRA Regulatory Program
Air and Radiation

RCRA Regulatory Program
Water

Regulations, Guidelines
and Policies - Underground
Storage Tanks

TOTAL WORKYEARS
282.2       275.3       285.5       283.7       264.8
  9.4
 13.3
13.0
10.0
13.0
                          9.9
12.9
                         9.9
 59.3        66.4        65.7        65.1
                         9.9
                                    64.0
364.2       364.7       374.1       371.6       338.7
                                                                                              -18.9
          -12.9
                                    -1.1
                                               -32.9
-10.5



-13.0


   -1


 -2.4



-26.0
                                                       5-26

-------
                                HAZARDOUS WASTE


            Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines, and Policies

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $71,009,100 and 338.7 total workyears for
1994, an increase of $7,156,900 and a decrease of 32.9 total workyears from 1993.
Of the  request,  $23,377,500 will  be for the  Program  and Research Operations
appropriation and $47,631,600 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents  an decrease  of  $325,100 in the  Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation, and an  increase  of  $7,482,000  in  the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES. AND POLICIES — HAZARDOUS WASTE

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $63,431,600 and 264.8 total workyears for
this  program,  of  which  $18,789,300 will  be  for  the  Program and Research
Operations appropriation and $44,642,300 will  be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance  appropriation.   This  represents an  increase  of $219,500  for the
Program and Research Operations appropriation, $9,205,100 for Abatement, Control
and Compliance, and a decrease of 18.9 total  workyears from the 1993  levels.  The
increase in Program and  Research  Operations reflects  full funding  of the FY94
FTE.  The increase in Abatement, Control and Compliance supports Agency efforts
in  non-hazardous   waste  recycling  and  market  development,  hazardous  waste
incineration regulatory enhancements, other regulatory reform efforts, as well
as environmental restoration technology developments pursuant to the President's
technology initiative. The  decrease in workyears is a result of the government-
wide reduction in workyears that is part  of the President's program to reduce the
size and cost of the government and a transfer of 15 workyears to the Regions for
implementation of regulations that have been developed.

      In FY 1994 the Agency will  complete a 2 year initiative to address high
priority  regulatory reform  activities  which will  reduce overly  burdensome
regulations.  These efforts will  include: promulgation of the Hazardous Waste
Identification Rule,  which allows  low-risk wastes to  be excluded  from  RCRA
regulation; tailored standards which will remove unnecessary barriers in the safe
use of hazardous waste in the production of cement and other building materials;
suspension of the  Toxicity Characteristic for petroleum contaminated media; and
streamlining of the post-closure permitting process.  In addition, proposals will
be made for further modification of the definition  of  solid  waste (reduced
requirements  for  low-risk  storage  and metals  reclamation);  and  enhanced
flexibility in the permit system.

      The Agency will continue work on major HSWA regulations and will fulfill
the requirements of the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) settlements, including
promulgation of the final listing of dioxin-containing wood preserving wastes;
and proposals of listing  determinations  for  carbamates, organobromines, azo and
benzine dyes,  solvents 3, and anthraquinone dyes.  The Agency will also intensify

                                     5-27

-------
analysis  and review  of  standards  to  ensure  the  safety  of existing  waste
incinerators in light of technological innovation and more substantial data on
risks posed by incineration.

      The  Agency   will   initiate  an   integrated   cross-program  Innovative
Environmental  Technology   program  to   support  the  President's  technology
initiative.  The program's focus is  to work with other Federal agencies and the
private sector to develop and implement new environmental technologies that will
lower  costs,  increase  effectiveness, and  further  environmental  compliance.
Potential  examples  include developing  continuous  air  emission monitors  for
incinerators, field evaluations of the efficacy of rapid site characterization
methods  and  joint  projects  with  companies to  address  the high  costs  of
restoration and  site assessment.  The Agency will use intergagency agreements and
other appropriate financial mechanisms to provide funds to other federal agencies
to implement this initiative.

      Pollution prevention will remain a high priority as the Agency continues
efforts to integrate waste minimization components into permitting and regulatory
development, and gather and  analyze data on the success of national efforts.  In
1994, efforts will be made to encourage commitments from industries in various
sectors to reduce, reuse and recycle  both  consumer and industrial materials.  The
Agency will continue to work toward improving  States'  capabilities to administer
the  RCRA  program.     Indian   lands  programs   will  receive  support  in  the
implementation  of  Subtitles C  and  D.  The  Agency  will  provide guidance  and
technical assistance to ensure adequate implementation of RCRA regulations for
the permitting of boilers and  industrial furnaces,  management of contaminated
soil and debris, and corrective action.

      The Agency will  continue efforts to address solid waste issues of national
concern  by serving as  a technical clearinghouse  for  municipal solid  waste
management information,  options, and guidelines. The Agency will assist States
and  Indian tribes  as they  assume responsibility in  implementing the revised
landfill  criteria.    Support  will  include  technical assistance  to  ensure  a
nationally consistent program while  addressing specific regional concerns.  The
Agency will  assist  States  in  developing and getting  approval  for  solid waste
management plans.

      A strong municipal solid  waste technical assistance program for State and
local  governments   and  the general public  will continue,  with a   focus  on
developing an improved infrastructure for recycling.  The Agency will focus on
promoting business utilization of the increasing quantity of recyclable materials
being collected, as well as sharing waste prevention strategies that result in
real savings to businesses.

      The  Agency,  in  partnership with the states,  will continue to  focus on
permitting high  risk  facilities.  Emphasis will be  placed  on taking action to
prevent  and reduce risks  at  closed and closing  land disposal  facilities.
Emphasis in the corrective action program will continue to be on implementation
of facility  stabilizations  and long  term remediations.   To  assist  states in
assuming implementation of  the  corrective action program,  resources  are being
provided to facilitate development of comprehensive state groundwater protection
plans.

                                     5-28

-------
      The Agency will continue to fund the waste export program addressing our
responsibilities under the  Basel  Convention  and the North American Free Trade
Agreement, and provide technical support to programs which address unique threats
to sensitive geographic areas.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $54,007,000  and 283.7 total workyears
for  this program,  of which $18,569,800  is  from  the  Program  and  Research
Operations  appropriation  and $35,437,200 is  from the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      Current operations include providing direction and technical guidance for
the national hazardous waste management program.  In FY 1993, the Office of Solid
Waste began a  2 year initiative to  provide  regulatory reform to the regulated
community.  Other activities for FY 1993 include promulgation of a regulation for
containerized liquids in  landfills;  proposed Phase 2 land disposal restrictions
for  newly identified wastes  (which  includes  treatment  standards  for  wastes
brought under RCRA regulation by the toxicity characteristic);  revised treatment
standards  for  contaminated soil; streamlined  mixed waste  requirements;   and
definitions for corrective action management units and temporary units which will
facilitate  completion of  corrective actions.   Further activities include the
issuance of the 1993 Capacity Assurance Plan Guidance and  the making  of a fossil
fuel  regulatory determination.    In  addition,  EPA will  produce  a Report  to
Congress and regulatory determination on cement kiln dust.

      The Agency will continue the regulatory development processes initiated in
1992 to  finalize  and  repromulgate hazardous waste  regulations  that have been
remanded in court decisions.  Other significant regulatory efforts include the
Phase II Land Disposal Rule and a proposed rule on the management of munitions
and ordnance as required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act of 1992.  As
part of the Agency effort to realize sound environmental management, the Agency
will accelerate the collection and analysis of environmental data.

      Congressional Directives.   A total of $2,000,000 for the Congressionally
directed Erie-Lackawanna Institute grant was finalized in October, 1992.

1992 Accomplishments

      In  1992  the  Agency obligated  a total of  $63,472,900 supported  by 282.2
total workyears for this program, of which $20,606,300  was  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $42,866,600  was  from  the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      Activities completed in FY 1992  include:  the listing of coke and coke by-
products and chlorinated toluenes; promulgation of a rule for leak detection for
new  land  disposal  facilities;  Phase 1 land disposal restrictions for newly
identified wastes;  and  development of used oil management  standards.   Other
activities included the financial responsibility rules for third party liability,
revision to the Biennial  report  to enhance current  data  gathering efforts;   a
listing determination for used oil;  and  location standards for hazardous waste
facilities.

                                     5-29

-------
      In the municipal solid waste program, activities included:  promulgating
the revised criteria for municipal solid waste landfills;  providing necessary
support to implement these revised criteria;  providing technical assistance and
support for the implementation of Federal procurement guidelines;  producing and
distributing brochures  and  technical guidance regarding  source  reduction and
recycling.  In addition,  the Agency provided support for regional efforts to
create market incentives for municipal solid waste recycling.
REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES. AND POLICIES — Air and Radiation

1994 Program Request

      The Agency is not  requesting any funds in 1994 in support of this program.
Phase  III work  under RCRA  to address  residual  risk  for hazardous  organic
constituents  is  expected to be  completed by early  1994.   Therefore,  we are
phasing out resources in this program element.

1993 Program

      In 1993, the Agency is allocating  a  total of  $2,293,500 supported by 12.9
total workyears  to this program,  of which  $566,600  is  from the  Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $1,726,900  is from the Abatement, Control
and compliance appropriation.

      In 1993 the Agency continues to  support the promulgation of regulations for
the second phase of standards for sources at hazardous waste treatment, storage,
and disposal facilities  (TSDFs).   Phase II includes tanks,  containers, surface
impoundments,  and  miscellaneous  units.   Work  includes  holding workshops  to
provide technical support for states  and regional offices in implementing these
TSDF regulations.

1992 Program

      In 1992 the agency obligated a  total of  $3,082,800 supported by 9.4 total
workyears to this program,  of which $583,800  was  from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and  $2,499,000 was  from  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      In 1992 work focused  on promulgating the second phase  of standards for the
other sources  at TSDFs.  Additional  work  on developing  regulations to protect
public health for individual hazardous air pollutants form TSDFs also continued
in  1992.   Resources  will  be  provided  for  data  collection to  develop these
regulations for these toxic pollutants.

REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES. AND POLICIES — WATER

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $593,700 and 9.9 total workyears for this
program,  of  which  $585,900 will  be  for  the Program and  Research Operations
appropriation  and  $7,800 will be for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance

                                     5-30

-------
appropriation.  This represents a decrease of  $92/600  for the Program/ Research
and Operations appropriation and an increase of $7,800 for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance.

      The Agency will complete petition reviews for the continued injection of
mining and mineral processing wastes that are losing Bevill-exempt status.  In
addition, the Agency will  also begin  reviewing  petitions for  the continued
injection of  future wastes that will  be  listed on a  staggered  Land Disposal
Restrictions  schedule.   These will be, primarily,  additional  wood preserving
wastes, certain inorganic wastes and  other petroleum refining wastes.  Before
approving any new petitions or petition modifications,  EPA will ensure that any
prior  releases have  been  dealt with  according to  the RCRA  Section 3004(u)
corrective action plan requirements.

1993 Program

      In 1993, the Agency is allocating $679,000 supported by 9.9 total workyears
for this program, of which $678,500 is  from the Program and Research Operations
appropriation  and   $500   is   from  the  Abatement,   Control   and  Compliance
appropriation.

      The Agency  is  focusing  on  new petitions for  continuing  the injection of
mining and mineral processing wastes which are losing Bevill-exempt status, and
those wastes  classified  as hazardous under the Toxic Characteristic Leaching
Procedure (TCLP). EPA is also continuing to process  modifications  for previously
approved petitions and defending litigation challenging prior petition decisions.
Implementation of the corrective action program continues to  ensure that any
prior or current releases are being mitigated.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated $638,200 and 13.3 total workyears for this
program all of which was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

      Facilities disposing of untreated hazardous waste into injection wells must
demonstrate "no  migration"  from the injection  zone  for as long as  the waste
remains hazardous.  In 1992, the Agency  completed final approval  of an additional
7 no-migration petitions, submitted by deep well operators for exemptions from
Land Ban prohibitions for hazardous waste  disposal, bringing the national total
of approved petitions to 43.  Review continued for an additional 14 petitions.
The Agency also completed action on seven petition revisions,  modifications or
reissuances and provided litigation support against  one no-migration petition
approval.  EPA also promulgated final rule revisions for casing log inspections
for Class I hazardous waste wells.

REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES.  AND POLICIES — UNDERGROUND STORAGE
TANKS (UST)

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $6,983,800 supported by 64.0 total workyears
for this  program, of which $4,002,300 will  be  for  the Program and Research

                                     5-31

-------
Operations appropriation and $2,981,500 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This  represents an increase  of $114,600  for the
Program and  Research Operations  appropriation  and decrease of  $3,500 to the
Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation and 1.1 workyears. The  increase
in Program and Research Operations reflects full funding of the 1994 FTE.  The
decrease in workyears is a result  of the government-wide reduction in workyears
that  is  part  of the  President's program  to  reduce  the  size  and  costs of
government.

      In  1994,  EPA will focus on four priority areas of the  program:  state
program approval, streamlining of  corrective actions, leak detection compliance
and enforcement, and preparation  for the 1998 tank system upgrading deadline.

      The Agency will continue to work with  states to ensure  progress toward
developing adequate authorities and enforcement capabilities to enable the states
to apply for state program approval.  In FY 1993, substantial progress was made,
with 11 states gaining final approval, one state with tentative approval and 15
applications under  review.  In FY 1994,  EPA will assist remaining states in
targeted efforts to overcome barriers to state program approval.

      Corrective action streamlining of administrative and enforcement processes
will continue to be one of EPA's highest priorities.  The Agency will work with
states to develop approaches that  focus technical oversight  on the highest risk
sites, yet ensure that cleanups at  all sites progress toward completion.  Efforts
will also focus  on  increasing the knowledge and use of innovative technologies
and approaches to UST  cleanups.

      The FY  1993 emphasis on leak detection compliance  and  enforcement will
continue  as  the  final  phase-in date  occurs  in December  of 1993.   Expedited
enforcement and  other  site inspection tools,  procedures and assistance will be
offered  to state  UST programs.   The UST program will  continue  to provide
technical assistance  to tribal governments and  tribal tank owners/operators in
the Western Regions.

      Preparation for  the  1998 tank system upgrading deadline will begin in FY
1994.  Studies on what has been effective  in states with earlier  deadlines will
be  conducted,  and  outreach materials  will be  developed  for  tank  owners and
operators to encourage voluntary  compliance.

1993 Program

      The  Agency  requested a  total  of  $6,872,700  supported by  65.1  total
workyears for this program, of which $3,887,700 was for the Program and  Research
Operations  appropriation  and  $2,985,000  was for  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      In  1993,  EPA continues to focus  on three priority areas of the  program:
state program  approval,  streamlining of corrective actions, and  leak detection
compliance and enforcement.

      The Agency La  implementing a  national program  by  ensuring that  states
continued to work toward meeting the conditions  for state program approval.  The

                                     5-32

-------
number of federally-approved state programs is increasing as states complete the
legislative  and regulatory  changes required to meet  the Federal  objectives for
state program approval, and as they develop adequate enforcement authorities and
capacity.  The Agency continues to assist in the development of UST programs that
are not yet  candidates  for  approval.

      EPA continues  to work with states to streamline their corrective  action
processes and to identify new technologies and approaches for corrective actions.
Approximately  half  of  the  states  are  estimated  to   have  undergone  some
streamlining efforts.

      The Agency is continuing its efforts to develop  improved procedures for the
leak detection compliance and enforcement  component  of the program.  Expedited
methods of enforcement and site inspection procedures are being emphasized.   The
UST program  continued to provide  technical program development assistance to
tribal governments and  tribal tank owners/operators  in the Western Regions.

1992 Program

      The Agency obligated a total  of $8,156,500 supported by 56.3 workyears, of
which $3,631,000 was  from the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation  and $4,525,500
was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency continued to support the priority program areas:  streamlining
of corrective actions, state program approval, and leak detection  compliance and
enforcement.

      EPA continued its corrective action work by  supporting development  of  new
corrective action  technologies  and working with  states  and  local government
agencies to  streamline  corrective  action processes.   In  conjunction with this
effort, the  Agency continued  to work on  a number of different site
investigation and field measurement techniques.   For example, Lab-in-a-Bag, a
portable field screening system for volatile organic contaminants, was developed
under the Federal Technology Transfer Act.  EPA focused its efforts on techniques
such as these because accurate and  reliable information from field measurements
expedites decisions about the degree and extent of contamination and speeds up
the corrective action process generally.

      The Agency developed  management tools, e.g., the State Program Approval
Handbook to facilitate state program approval and  worked with states to develop
applications as part of this overall effort.  In 1992, approximately 15  states
submitted draft  applications for   approval.   Also,  an  additional two  state
programs were approved and this number was expected to increase.   Prior to 1992,
four state applications were approved.

      In  the  area of  leak  detection  compliance  and  enforcement,  Federal
assistance was provided through grants and funding for regional projects which
focused on  improving enforcement methods.   The  Agency leveraged  its limited
resources by developing and promoting improved technical  methods,  focusing on
improving site inspection and enforcement methods and procedures.
                                     5-33

-------
      The program supported states as  they  developed financial responsibility
(FR) requirements that met the Federal objectives. EPA assisted owners/operators
in interpreting both technical  and financial responsibility regulations through
guidance documents,  brochures,  and other outreach activities.
                     \
                                      5-34

-------
                                                        HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                                     Financial  Assistance

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REQ     1994  RED
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993  PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Hazardous Waste
Management Financial
Assistance To States
 Abatement Control and        $90,565.0   $93,274.7   $92,950.0   $92,949.7   $92,949.7                 -$325.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $90,565.0   $93,274.7   $92,950.0   $92,949.7   $92,949.7                 -$325.0


Underground Storage
Tanks State Grants
 Abatement Control and         $9,056.0    $9,000.0    $8,994.7    $8,994.7   $8,994.7                  -$5.3
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $9,056.0    $9,000.0    $8,994.7    $8,994.7   $8,994.7                  -$5.3


TOTAL:
 Abatement Control and        $99,621.0  $102,274.7  $101,944.7  $101,944.4  $101,944.4                 -$330.3
 Compliance

Financial Assistance   TOTAL  $99,621.0  $102,274.7  $101,944.7  $101,944.4  $101,944.4                 -$330.3
                                                       5-35

-------
                                HAZARDOUS  WASTE


                             Financial Assistance

Budget Request

      The Agency  requests a total of  $101,944,400 for this program from the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This reflects a funding level
equal to that provided in 1993.  This includes $92,949,700 for Hazardous Waste
(RCRA) state grants and $8,994,700 for Underground Storage Tank state grants.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO STATES

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of  $92,949,700 for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      Funding is  provided to assist  the states in their  continued efforts to
develop  legislation  and regulations to  achieve  consistency with  the Federal
hazardous  waste  management  program.    States  continue  to  be  the  primary
implementers of RCRA, and most states have received authorization for the base
program.  Increasingly, states manage key hazardous waste information systems,
such as the maintenance of baseline and trend data  as well as the management of
a national data base of waste generation, management and capacity information.

      Resources  will  be  provided  to  address  environmentally  significant
facilities, in line with the program's risk-based approach.  Priority will remain
with  the  processing  of post-closure permits for land disposal  facilities to
ensure  adequate monitoring  and to address  potential  contamination  at  these
facilities.    The importance of  maintaining  hazardous waste  disposal  and
incineration  capacity   is  addressed   through  ongoing   efforts   to  permit
environmentally sound  facilities.  The  states  will process modifications to
operating permits.   In addition, the states  will  also continue to review and
approve closure plans for incinerators and storage  and treatment facilities and
process appeals to permit decisions as they arise.

      The States will continue to be  responsible  for a majority of the mandated
inspection and  enforcement work.  Inspections will emphasize  compliance with
facility-specific  permit  requirements.    The States,  in  conjunction with the
Agency, will  continue  to  inspect all Federal treatment,  storage,  and disposal
facilities and will emphasize facility-specific permit requirements.

      In  coordination  with the Agency,  the  States  will  conduct stabilization
activities at corrective  action  facilities where appropriate.  The States will
continue to conduct oversight of long-term cleanup at facilities with the highest
environmental priority and greatest  risk of  non-compliance.  The  States will
continue  to direct resources towards community  relations activities to ensure
sufficient public  awareness  and  involvement.
                                     5-36

-------
      The  States  will participate,  to the  extent  possible,  in  the Agency's
enforcement  targeting  efforts by  focusing  on  specific  handler  types  and
industries, to leveraging resources to the fullest extent possible.  In FY 94,
resources will continue to be targeted at generators with the greatest pollution
prevention potential  as well  as  facilities  that  are  in  non-compliance with
corrective action orders and permit conditions. States will elevate the priority
of certain geographic areas to reflect their environmental  significance and/or
derived environmental benefits. Targeted geographic areas include:  the Gulf of
Mexico, Mexican  Border, and the  Chesapeake Bay.   The States will conduct a
comprehensive inspection  and enforcement  program and,  where necessary,  ensure
that remediation  activities  required of handlers  in  the high-risk  geographic
areas are carried out according to the order or permit requirements.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $92,949,700 for this program,  all of
which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993, the Agency continues to provide funding to assist the states in
their  continued  efforts to develop  legislation and regulations  necessary to
achieve equivalence with the Federal hazardous waste management program.  Most
states are authorized for  the base RCRA program and will continue to develop the
capability to adopt corrective action and other provisions of HSWA.

      The  Regions continue  to work  with  states  to  address  environmentally
significant  facilities.   Resources are provided for states to  process post-
closure permits for land disposal facilities in order to ensure monitoring and
other post-closure requirements, and to address potential contamination at these
facilities.  Resources are provided for the states to maintain hazardous waste
disposal  and incineration  capacity  by permitting environmentally  sound  new
facilities.  The states are processing modifications to  operating permits, which
need revisions due to changes in facility processes, facility expansions, and the
need to incorporate corrective action  provisions as warranted.  Resources are
also provided to perform stepped up levels of permit reviews, modifications, and
post-closure permits  at facilities  in the Gulf  of  Mexico  region.   The  states
continue to review and  approve closure plans for incinerators  and storage and
treatment facilities, and process appeals to permit decisions,  as necessary.

      In  1993, the states  are conducting  compliance  monitoring  inspections,
taking enforcement actions and  requiring corrective action in high-risk areas of
long standing Agency concern.   These areas  include  the Gulf of  Mexico,  the
Chesapeake Bay, Puget Sound and the  Caribbean.   The states also continue to
conduct enhanced  levels  of  enforcement and  corrective action activities at
facilities within the Great Lakes Basin.  The number of enforcement/corrective
action inspections increased by 123 inspections from 1993 to 1994.

      The program leverages  its resources by targeting its activities. In 1993,
the Agency is  emphasizing identifying and  taking  enforcement  actions against
those  facilities  with the  greatest  potential  to have   concrete  pollution
prevention conditions included in  settlement agreements  and  those with  the
greatest multi-media impact.  The program also focuses on identifying and taking
                                     5-37

-------
enforcement actions against those facilities in non-compliance with corrective
action or other permit conditions.

      Many facilities have been assessed and prioritized for corrective action.
The states continue to conduct  stabilization  activities  as well as make final
remedy selections.  The states target their corrective action resources  such that
those facilities that  are the most environmentally  significant are addressed
first.

      Information management resource  continues to fund national implementation
of  the  Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Information  System  (RCRIS),  the
hazardous waste data management  system that is greatly expanding the states' and
EPA's ability to input and retrieve information critical to successful program
management.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated  a total of $90,565,000 for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The  states  proposed  legislation and  upgraded  regulations to achieve
equivalence with the Federal hazardous waste management program, and applied to
EPA for authorization to  administer the program.

      Permitting efforts were directed toward environmentally significant storage
and treatment facilities, processing  modifications  to existing  permits,  and
incorporating pollution prevention  conditions  into permits where appropriate.

      The  states  conducted  approximately  95% of  the  compliance  monitoring
inspections  performed,  with  emphasis  on conducting  inspections of  new RCRA
handlers and facilities entering the regulated community as a result of  new rules
and  listings.   The  new rules and  listings included  the organic  toxicity
characteristic and wood preserving listings.  In addition, the states within the
Great Lakes  Basin conducted  intensified  levels of  inspections and  initiated
enforcement and corrective action as appropriate.

      The Agency and the  states  implemented an integrated enforcement/  pollution
prevention  program which includes:   1)  inspections of targeted groups  of
generators;   2)  searches for facilities operating  illegally  outside  the RCRA
system;   and 3) incorporating  pollution prevention  conditions in enforcement
settlements where  appropriate.

      The states placed increased emphasis on completing facility assessments and
prioritizing  facilities  for corrective action.  Long-term corrective measures
were  continued  at  facilities where they were already imposed,  but the program
focused  on  addressing those facilities posing the  most  significant threat to
human  health  and  the   environment   first.     Where  appropriate,  facility
stabilization was  encouraged.
                                      5-38

-------
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS GRANTS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $8,994,700 for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
no change from the FY93  level.

      These resources will be  given to state and territorial programs to provide
a base level of funding  for core program activities.  These activities include
management of  notification data, enforcement of  leak detection and financial
responsibility requirements,  and oversight of tank installations, closures and
corrective actions.  States that have not yet applied for state program approval
will  also use  these funds to develop  adequate  authorities  and  enforcement
capabilities, and to prepare  applications.

1993 Program

      The Agency is  allocating a total  of  $8,994,700  for this program,  all of
which is from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The resources are providing states with a base of funding for core program
development activities, such as state program approval.  States not yet ready to
seek program approval are continuing to develop and update their  legislative and
regulatory standards, including technical standards, leak detection, financial
responsibility,  and  corrective action  requirements.   Additionally,  states
continue to work on achieving compliance with tank closure, installation, leak
detection, and pressurized piping requirements.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency obligated a   total of  $9,056,000,  all of which was  from the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      States used these grant  funds for core program development with a focus on
the development of an effective prevention  program.   Program development work
focused  on  notification  requirements,  new  tank  installation  and  operations
standards, leak detection, tank closure, and corrective action.  Emphasis was
placed on developing and implementing State-specific legislation  and regulations
to ensure state programs met  the Federal objectives.

      To supplement Federal funds, states developed independent  funding sources
from tank fees,  state taxes, and gasoline taxes.  Other  funding mechanisms were
pursued, as well.   Independent  funding is  essential  to the  success  of  state
prevention programs  as  UST  grant funds provide  only  "seed  money"  of  about
$162,500 per state and $137,500 per territory.
                                     5-39

-------
5-40

-------
                                                        HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                    Hazardous Waste Management Strategies Implementation

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REO     1994 RED
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Hazardous Waste
Management
Strategies
Implementation
 Program & Research           $21,684.9   $23,261.0   $24,392.0   $24,305.1   $25,321.6    $1,016.5    $2,060.6
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $11,603.8   $13,493.9   $10,008.6   $10,337.0   $13,592.7    $3,255.7       $98.8
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $33.288.7   $36,754.9   $34,400.6   $34,642.1   $38,914.3    $4,272.2    $2.159.4


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $21,684.9   $23,261.0   $24,392.0   $24,305.1   $25,321.6    $1,016.5    $2,060.6
  Operat i ons
 Abatement Control and        $11,603.8   $13,493.9   $10,008.6   $10,337.0   $13,592.7    $3,255.7       $98.8
 Compliance

Waste Management       TOTAL  $33,288.7   $36,754.9   $34,400.6   $34,642.1   $38,914.3    $4,272.2    $2,159.4
Strategies
Implementation


PERMANENT VORKYEARS
Hazardous Waste                   380.7       423.1       417.3       413.1       413.7           6        -9.4
Management
Strategies
Implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         380.7       423.1       417.3       413.1       413.7           6        -9.4


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Hazardous Waste                   409.5       423.1       417.3       413.1       413.7           6        -9.4
Management
Strategies
Implementation

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   409.5       423.1       417.3       413.1       413.7           6        -9.4
                                                       5-41

-------
                                HAZARDOUS  WASTE


             Hazardous Waste Management Strategies Implementation

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $38,914,300  supported by  413.7 total
workyears  for  1994, an  increase of  $4,272,200  from 1993.   Of  the request,
$25,321,600 will be for  the Program and Research Operations appropriation and
$13,592,700 will be  for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  The
number of workyears in 1994 is maintained at current 1993 levels.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $38,914,300 and 413.7 total workyears for
this  program,  of which  $25,321,600   will be  for  the  Program  and Research
appropriation and $13,592,700 will be for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents  an  increase of  $1,016,500 for the Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation,  $3,255,700   for Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance from 1993 levels, and 0.6 total  workyears.  The  increase in Abatement,
Control and  Compliance  supports Agency efforts to  encourage  commitments from
industry to reduce,  reuse and recycle consumer and industrial materials.

      Permitting activities will  continue to focus  on high risk facilities as the
most effective means to protect human health and the  environment.  Resources are
provided for the Regions to work with States to maintain hazardous waste disposal
and incineration capacity  by permitting environmentally  sound new facilities.
The Regions will coordinate closely with  authorized States  in permitting priority
storage and  treatment  facilities as well as  land disposal facilities needing
operating or post-closure permits.

      Joint  Region  and  State  program  implementation will  continue.   Shared
implementation serves to build State capability and supports the transition to
full State authorization.  In addition to continuing emphasis on reviewing and
approving closure plans for hazardous waste facilities, the Regions will process
appeals to permit decisions  and will  coordinate closely with the  States on
complex cases  and  new  regulatory  provisions.    Support  will continue  to be
provided to augment  Superfund resources  targeted for  oversight and coordination
of  the  States'  development  and maintenance  of  Capacity Assurance  Plans,  as
required   by   the   Superfund  Amendments  and  Reauthorization   Act   (SARA).
Accountability  issues  are  addressed through  continued  emphasis  on enhanced
information systems as tools for decision-making and program monitoring.

      The Regions will continue municipal  solid waste (Subtitle D) activities to
address issues  of increasing national concern.   Resources will  be provided to
support existing recycling and  source  reduction  programs  through targeted
technical  assistance,  the development  of viable recycling market  models and
enhancements to the Federal  sector recycling and  source reduction programs.

                                      5-42

-------
Special attention will be given to developing recycling market  infrastructure in
tandem with local communities and sharing source reduction strategies that result
in real cost savings to businesses.

      Program activities will continue to address the need for environmentally
protective  oil  and  gas exploration  and  production  and mining  practices by
assisting  State  efforts  to  develop  environmental  guidelines,  (including
groundwater protection measures) for  impacted  regions  (Alaskan  North Slope,
California's Elk Hills).  State capabilities will be developed through training
programs, and Regions will continue outreach and technology transfer projects in
the areas of waste minimization and management.

1993 Program

      In 1993, the Agency is allocating a total of $34,642,100 and  413.1 total
workyears for this program, of which $24,305,100  is from the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation  and $10,337,000  is from the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA Regional offices are  working  with states  to address facilities in a
manner  consistent with the  implementation  of  the  RCRA  strategic management
framework, and its emphasis on addressing  facilities in priority order based on
risk ranking.   They also continue processing  post-closure  permits (including
corrective action provisions) for high priority land disposal facilities.  The
Regions  are working with states  to  maintain hazardous  waste  disposal  and
incineration  capacity  by  permitting  new  facilities.    They are processing
modifications to operating permits, which may need revisions  due to changes in
facility processes,  facility expansions, and the need to incorporate corrective
action provisions as warranted.

      The Regions are assisting states and Indian tribes as they revise statutes
and regulations in accordance with the new national Subtitle  D  criteria, and are
reviewing  State  program revision  packages.  The  Regions are  also providing
technical and financial support  to states and other eligible organizations, such
as municipalities and  universities,  that  are  interested in pursuing unique
projects that will support recycling and source reduction goals.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency  obligated  a total of $33,288,700  supported by 409.5
total workyears for  this program, of which $21,684,900 was from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $11,603,800 from the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      Permitting efforts focused on ensuring adequate  post-closure care of land
disposal facilities, as well as processing environmentally significant storage
and treatment facility permits.  The Regions processed those  portions of permits
for which  states  were not  yet  authorized,  and provided technical oversight of
state  work.   The Regions supported  the   enhancement  of state  capability by
providing assistance with  state regulatory and  legislative  development.   This
provided  a  framework  for   ensuring  national  program  consistency and  will
ultimately allow states to run the hazardous waste program independently.  The

                                     5-43

-------
Regions  worked with  states and  other organizations,  through technical  and
financial assistance,  to  implement the recommendations of the Agency's solid
waste Agenda  for  Action,  which calls  for  a national program  to  minimize  the
generation of solid waste and promote recycling where economically feasible.
                                     5-44

-------
PROGRAM
                                                        HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                      Emergency Planning/Community Right-To-Know -  Title III
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Emergency Planning
Community Right To Know
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $3,143.5    $4,874.5    $3,569.3    $3,561.1     $3,638.1

        $4,089.4    $7,358.0    $6,284.6    $6,240.8     $6,261.0
                       TOTAL   $7,232.9   $12,232.5    $9,853.9    $9,801.9    $9,899.1
                                               $77.0   -$1,236.4

                                               $20.2   -$1,097.0

                                               $97.2   -$2,333.4
TOTAL:
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance

Emergency Planning
Community Right To
Know
        $3,143.5    $4,874.5    $3,569.3    $3,561.1     $3,638.1

        $4,089.4    $7,358.0    $6,284.6    $6,240.8     $6,261.0


TOTAL   $7,232.9   $12,232.5    $9,853.9    $9,801.9     $9,899.1
                                               $77.0    -$1,236.4

                                               $20.2    -$1,097.0


                                               $97.2    -$2,333.4
PERMANENT WORKYEARS


Emergency Planning
Community Right To Know

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS

TOTAL WORKYEARS
Emergency Planning
Community Right To Know

TOTAL UORKYEARS
            43.0
            43.0
                                   45.4
            45.4
59.5
                        59.5
                        59.5
59.5
                                    60.3
                                    60.3
                                                           60.3
                                    60.3
                        59.7
                        59.7
                                                59.7
                        59.7
58.8
                                                            58.8
                                                                                   58.8
58.8
-9


-9




-9


-9
                                                       5-45

-------
                               HAZARDOUS WASTE

            Emergency  Planning/Community Right-to-Know  - Title  III
Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $9,899,100 supported by 58.8 total workyears
for 1994.   Of the  request,  $3,638,100 will be  for the  Program  Research and
Operations appropriation and $6,261,000 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This reflects an increase of $77,000 in the Program
Research and  Operations  appropriation,  $20,200 in  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation and a decrease of 0.9 workyears from 1993.  The increase
in Program Research and Operations reflects full funding of the 1994 FTE.  The
Abatement, Control and Compliance increase reflects  increases in expenses.  The
FTE reduction is due to the government-wide reduction in workyears.
EMERGENCY PLANNING/COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW - TITLE III

1994 Program Request

      In 1994,  the Agency will continue to develop approaches  in high risk areas
for gauging the relative risk and vulnerability for chemical accidents.  Using
these  approaches,  the program  will  assist  states  in  targeting  specific
industries, facilities and  chemicals that pose substantial risk, particularly if
clustered  geographically.    In  1994,  EPA  will  assist  local governments  in
developing projects to build their accident prevention, preparedness and response
capabilities with special  focus  on areas  with  high concentrations of chemical
facilities.  The projects,  which will  result  in  products  for dissemination to
other communities around the country, must demonstrate how implementation will
reduce or  minimize  the risk associated with  a chemical accident.   They will
address  a  number of  chemical  emergency  areas:   hazards  analysis;  emergency
response simulations,  chemical  accident prevention  issues;  innovative uses of
Title III facility/chemical data, improving information management  capability of
State  Emergency Response  Commissions  (SERCs)  and  Local  Emergency  Planning
Committees (LEPCs),  developing/enhancing state and local enforcement programs,
and increasing public outreach and Community Right-to-Know (CRTK)  programs.

      In addition to high risk areas, the Agency will continue to support states
and local governments who have special requirements for assistance  in individual
emergency planning needs.   EPA will work with states to select a core program of
technical assistance activities and provide training and guidance  to help SERCs
and LEPCs build and improve their emergency preparedness programs.

      Title III enforcement activities will continue to support the objectives
of the program by focusing on high risk  areas and  on facilities  that present
substantial risks.   EPA will  continue to emphasize  integration  of Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act  (EPCRA)  enforcement activities in the
Agency's multi-media enforcement efforts.
                                     5-46

-------
      In 1994, EPA will continue efforts begun in FY 1993 to implement the Rio
Declaration through work with international organizations.  Through this effort,
the  Agency will  assist in  strengthening the  capacity of  the  international
community to prevent  and respond  to environmental disasters.  Activities will
focus on reducing the risk  of chemical  accidents by integrating CRTK principles
into chemical management programs with Mexico and Canada,  Eastern Europe and
developing  countries.   Technical  assistance  will be  provided  to appropriate
international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), United  Nations Environment  Program (UNEP),  and the United
Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE), to produce a guidance document
for governments outlining key components of a comprehensive CRTK program.

      Early in the fiscal year the  chemical accidental release prevention program
will promulgate the risk management plan regulation and technical guidance that
require  owners  and operators of  facilities  to develop  risk management plans
(RMPs).  As a result, in FY 1994 approximately 140,000 facilities will have to
register with EPA and begin developing their RMPs.  The Agency will continue to
encourage states  to accept  and manage  the prevention program and will provide
assistance  in building  the  state  program  infrastructure.   Elements of a state
program must include:  registration procedures for new facilities,  submission of
RMPs; auditing measures; public access; and funding mechanisms.  EPA will focus
on providing training and technical assistance to  states in accident prevention
techniques, registration of facilities.  The Agency will also review and approve
accidental release prevention programs submitted by states.

      In response to recommendations issued in EPA's hydrofluoric acid study, the
Agency will begin developing industry and chemical specific technical guidance
to  prevent accidents  at  high-risk  facilities.    The  guidance will  target
facilities  considered particularly vulnerable to chemical  accidents  and will
assist them in developing their risk management programs.

      The  Chemical  Safety   and  Hazard Investigation  Board  is expected  to  be
operating in 1994.  Once formed, the Agency will  coordinate activities to ensure
effective  use  of  information  gathered by the Board,  provide  assistance  in
conducting  investigations,  and  respond to Board  requests  for  information and
assistance.

      Finally,  continuing   analysis,  development and review  of options  for
improving government efficiency will be undertaken on issues identified by the
study on Federal authorities for hazardous material accident safety mandated by
the  Clean  Air Act.   Efforts  will  be  devoted to consolidating  the  disparate
facility contingency planning requirement  and determining  the potential for a
federal  baseline standard.   Activities  will  also  focus  on  implementing  a
coordination plan for government contingency planning at Federal,  state and local
levels.

1993 Program

      In 1993, the Agency is allocating a  total of $9,801,900 supported by 59.7
total workyears, of  which $3,561,100 is from the  Program Research and Operations
appropriation and $6,240,800 is  from the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

                                     5-47

-------
      In 1993, EPA is devoting efforts to building state and local capabilities
to implement  the  emergency  planning  and community  right-to-know program, with
emphasis on high  risk geographic  areas.  With more  than 3,800 Local Emergency
Planning Committees (LEPC's) in varying stages of implementation, the Agency is
focusing on high risk areas and States and communities that have special needs
for assistance. To meet these needs,  the Agency is working with States to select
a core program of  technical assistance activities —  emergency planning, hazards
analysis, simulation exercises, emergency plan review, information management and
risk communication — to assist State Emergency Response Commissions  (SERCs) and
(LEPCs).  To support these activities, the program is  updating emergency planning
guidance, reviewing  and  modifying training programs,  developing  workshops on
chemical hazard analysis and developing and supporting simulation exercises to
test  emergency response  plans.   The Agency  is  also developing  workshops on
information management techniques  for organizing and using hazardous chemical
facility reporting information to present to State and local emergency personnel.
In addition,  EPA will continue to carry out its emergency planning initiative,
which provides funding to States to  develop  emergency planning and community
right-to-know projects.

      Utilizing EPCRA/CERCLA Section 103 enforcement authorities, the Agency is
emphasizing enforcement  actions  against facilities   and industries  which pose
significant risks to the  environment.   Data  bases providing  information on
chemical  use  by  industries  continue to be up-graded  for use  by enforcement
personnel in  targeting potential high risk violators.

      EPA continues to evaluate chemicals against the criteria of the extremely
hazardous substances list and continues work on proposed rule on flammable and
explosives in 1993.  The  program continues to work on possible additions to the
EHS list based upon the physical hazards posed by a chemical (e.g. reactives) and
on long-term  health effects from a short-term exposure.

      In 1993, the Agency is taking initial steps to  implement activities under
Rio  Agenda 21 to  develop  policies, guidance,  training and assistance  to
developing countries.  The work builds upon such efforts as the Organization for
Economic  Cooperation and Development  (OECD)   Guiding  Principles on  Chemical
Accident  Prevention,   Preparedness,   and  Response  and UNEP's  Awareness  and
Preparedness  for  Emergencies  at  the Local  Level (APELL).  In addition,  under
NAFTA "parallel track" activities, the Agency is broadening its efforts in the
area of chemical emergency preparedness, prevention  and response from along the
U.S./Mexico  border  to the  interior of  Mexico.    Activities  also  include
strengthening international  emergency response  capabilities, by working with such
newly  established  organizations  as  UN's  Center   for  Urgent  Environmental
Assistance.

      EPA  continues to  develop the  Clean  Air Act (CAA) Accidental  Release
Prevention program.   In  1993, the  list of  regulated substances  and  the risk
management  program rules will  be  finalized.   Technical guidance to  assist
regulated facilities in establishing their risk management program and model risk
management plans  to assist  certain  industries  will  be  developed.   The program
will also evaluate the need  for additional technical  standards and guidance for
the  prevention,  detection,   and  response to  accidental  release  of regulated
substances.   EPA will complete  and  make  recommendations on  the  reduction of

                                     5-48

-------
hazards and  risks  associated with hydrofluoric acid  and  begin a study of the
risks posed  from the accidental  release  of hydrogen sulfide.   The Agency is
providing  guidance  and  assistance  to  the  States  and  encouraging  State
administration  of  the  prevention program  by preparing  States and  LEPCs to
receive, review and use facility  risk management plans.  The program is in the
process of developing  specific training courses  to assist SERCs, LEPCs, small
businesses, and State air  programs in understanding and using the information in
a risk management plan.   The Agency is  also assisting States in  the regulatory
development of State programs  to  encourage their acceptance and  implementation
of the accidental release prevention program.

      The  Chemical  Safety  and Hazard  Investigation  Board  is  expected  to be
established  in  1993.    In anticipation of this,  and  as indicated  by  the CAA
Amendments, EPA is providing assistance in organizing  and developing procedures
and processes  for  Board start-up.  Once  established,  the Agency will provide
support by conducting investigations and providing analyses and response  to Board
recommendations to improve  chemical safety.

      EPA is also completing a study mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments,
to review Federal authorities  governing hazardous  materials accident safety.
The four primary issues under study  include:  multiple and overlapping facility
contingency planning requirements; the  need for coordination of Federal, State
and local contingency plans; multiple hazard classification systems and the need
for international coordination; and the need for coordination and streamlining
of multiple agencies' accident databases.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated $7,232,900 supported by 45.4 total workyears,
of  which  $3,143,500  is  from  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$4,089,400 is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1992,  EPA  implemented the  emergency planning initiative  it  began in
1990,  which  provides direct  funding  to  States and  Indian Tribes  to  develop
emergency planning and community right-to-know projects.  Utilizing chemical risk
as a criterion,  the  Agency awarded  a total of sixteen projects to  States and
Tribes.   Project areas funded  included  improving preparedness planning in high
risk areas,  hazards analysis,  information  management, outreach and enforcement.
While the  projects  funded  by  these grants are for  the benefit of  the grant
recipient, results  of  the  projects will  be shared with  other  States and LEPCs to
assist them in implementing Title III.

      The Agency also developed two  new publications to assist State, local and
Tribal officials in carrying out their emergency preparedness programs.  One was
designed for Indian Tribes to assist them in understanding their responsibilities
under the Emergency Planning and  Community  Right-to-Know  program.   The other,
developed as a  result of  Title III  focus  group sessions,  categorizes existing
emergency preparedness publications to  assist  SERCs and  LEPCs  in implementing
specific components of Title III.   In  the area of  information management,  EPA
continued its  research and development of the  Computer  Aided  Management  of
Emergency Operations  (CAMEO)  system.    CAMEO is  a  management  tool  used  by
emergency response personnel to obtain  descriptions of  the  characteristics of

                                     5-49

-------
chemical releases based on the constituents of  the release and to assist in the
integration of information they receive from Title III reporting  facilities.  In
addition, EPA in cooperation with NOAA, released an updated and improved version
of CAMEO late in the year.

      EPA continued aggressive enforcement under EPCRA/CERCLA Section 103.  The
Regions issued 49 Administrative complaints with proposed penalties  in excess of
$3 million.  In addition, the Regions successfully completed 32 administrative
actions with final penalties of more than $500,000.

      In 1992  the  Agency also initiated development  of  two major regulations
required under the Clean Air Act accidental  release prevention provisions.  One
establishes a list (with associated thresholds)  of at  least  100 substances that
could cause death,  injury or other serious adverse effects to human health or the
environment. This  rule was proposed  in January 1993.   The  other rule requires
owners  and  operators sources  who  have a regulated  substance at or  above the
threshold to develop a risk management program and submit  a risk management plan
for the prevention  of accidental releases.  It is anticipated that this rule will
be proposed in  1993.  As required  by the Clean Air  Act,  the Agency also began
developing technical and programmatic guidance.   The programmatic guidance will
assist  States  in developing,  implementing and  enforcing  an  accidental release
prevention  (ARP) program.  Technical guidance focuses on providing information
to the  regulated community on how to comply with the ARP program requirements.

      In addition,  two studies mandated by the Clean Air Act were also undertaken
in 1992.  The first  addresses the growing concern over hazards associated with
hydrofluoric  acid.   It  includes  information   on  the chemical's  properties,
manufacturing processes,  industrial uses,  transportation and accidental releases.
The final report and recommendations will be completed  in  FY 93.   The second
study   reviews   federal   authorities  governing  hazardous   materials  safety
responsibilities.   It focuses  on  issues  that  impact government  efficiency and
effectiveness in administering safety responsibilities.  It is also  scheduled to
be completed in FY 93.
                                     5-50

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                                    of Contents
                                                                         Page

HAZARDOUS WASTE

ENFORCEMENT
   Hazardous Waste Enforcement  ...................   5-51
      Hazardous Waste Enforcement ..................   5-52

-------
                                                        HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                                  Hazardous Waste Enforcement

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REO     1994 RED
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Hazardous Waste
Enforcement
 Program & Research           $29,755.8   $33,871.3   $32,497.9   $32,381.6   $33,943.2    $1,561.6       $71.9
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $31,701.7   $37,453.6   $26,219.7   $28,763.5   $31,012.4    $2,248.9   -$6,441.2
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $61,457.5   $71,324.9   $58.717.6   $61.145.1   $64,955.6    $3,810.5   -$6,369.3


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $29,755.8   $33,871.3   $32,497.9   $32,381.6   $33,943.2    $1,561.6       $71.9
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $31,701.7   $37,453.6   $26,219.7   $28,763.5   $31,012.4    $2,248.9   -$6,441.2
 Compliance

Hazardous Waste        TOTAL  $61,457.5   $71,324.9   $58,717.6   $61,145.1   $64,955.6    $3,810.5   -$6,369.3
Enforcement


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Hazardous Waste                   523.4       604.0       592.4       586.5       585.4        -1.1       -18.6
Enforcement

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         523.4       604.0       592.4       586.5       585.4        -1.1       -18.6

TOTAL WORKYEARS
Hazardous Waste                   547.2       604.0       592.4       586.5       585.4        -1.1       -18.6
Enforcement

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   547.2       604.0       592.4       586.5       585.4        -1.1       -18.6
                                                       5-51

-------
                               HAZARDOUS WASTE


                          Hazardous  Waste Enforcement

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $64,955,600 supported by  585.4 total
workyears  of which  $33,943,200 is  for the Program  and  Research Operations
appropriation and $31,012,400 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase of  $1,561,600 for the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $2,248,900 for the Abatement/ Control and
Compliance appropriation.


HAZARDOUS WASTE  ENFORCEMENT

_19_94_ Pjroqram Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $64,955,600 supported by  585.4 total
workyears  of which  $33,943,200 is  for the Program  and  Research Operations
appropriation and $31,012,400 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase of  $1,561,600 for the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $2,248,900 for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  In response to the federal workforce reduction plan
workyears have been reduced from the FY93 levels  by 1.1 FTE.  The increase in the
Program and Research Operations appropriation reflects  full funding of the 1994
FTE.   The  increase  in  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation
supports increased corrective action activity.   The decrease in workyears is a.
result  of  the  government-wide  reduction  in  workyears  that  is  part  of  the
President's program to reduce the size and cost of government.

      Compliance monitoring and enforcement actions will continue against those
handlers and non-notifiers presenting the greatest threat to human health and the
environment.  The Agency will strive  to ensure that releases from environmentally
significant facilities are detected and addressed while those in significant non-
compliance will be addressed by administrative and judicial enforcement actions.
Federal, State,  and  local  facilities  that  store, treat, and/or  dispose of
hazardous waste will continue to be  inspected either by  authorized States or the
Agency  as  required  by  HSWA  and   the  Federal  Facilities   Compliance  Act.
Inspections of commercial land disposal  and treatment facilities continue to be
conducted twice per year to ensure compliance with the Super fund Off-Site  Policy.
In unauthorized  States the Agency will bring enforcement actions for violations
of HSWA provisions.

      Federal compliance monitoring and enforcement will be used to enhance and
complement State efforts as the States continue to assume the responsibility for
the bulk of the mandated  inspection  and enforcement work.   Oversight inspections
will be conducted as  appropriate and assistance will be given  to improve State
program capacity.

      Promotion of effective working relationships with facility owners/operators

                                     5-52

-------
will continue in order to determine the nature and extent of contamination and
to develop corrective action alternatives that are protective of human health and
the environment  while minimizing the  financial  responsibility of the Federal
government for remediation.  Resources  will continue to be directed to community
relations activities  to  ensure sufficient public awareness and involvement in
this process.    Additional  resources  are directed towards  corrective action
activities in FY94.

    The  Agency  will continue to  provide  the  States  the needed technical
enforcement assistance and training they require.  The Agency will also support
the States in their increased corrective action oversight responsibilities.  In
concert with the States,  the Agency will conduct  inspections at newly regulated
handlers and non-notifiers as  appropriate.  The program will continue to support
on-going  remedy  selection  and  clean-up   for  high  priority  facilities.
Implementation and enforcement of  Subtitle D regulations on Indian Lands will
continue.  Inspections will emphasize  compliance with  facility-specific permit
requirements at any permitted  facilities.

      Monitoring of State progress will continue through program evaluation.  The
Agency will continue  to support the States as they strive towards achieving full
Hazardous and Solid Waste Act  (HSWA) authorization.

      The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 mandate that EPA monitor
the activities of importers/exporters of hazardous waste.  The level of activity
has grown  as the  amount of  waste being  exported  and  imported  continues  to
increase as a result of new international agreements such as the  NAFTA, OECD, and
Basel agreements.  Enforcement activities will  be  further reinforced through
training efforts with U.S.  and Mexican Customs,  US Coast Guard,  Department of
Transportation and EPA Regional Offices.  In implementing the NAFTA  agreement,
resources will be  directed towards transfer of  technology  and information in
cooperation with the Mexican government.

     The program will continue to implement  an .integrated RCRA enforcement
Pollution Prevention Strategy which includes the  development of a RCRA-specific
policy  on   incorporating   pollution   prevention  provisions   in  enforcement
settlements, while supporting the Office of Enforcement's  broader efforts in
promoting Pollution Prevention conditions in enforcement agreements.  In FY 94
resources will  continue to  focus  on  generators with the  greatest pollution
prevention potential  as  well  as towards facilities that are in non-compliance
with corrective  action  orders and permit  conditions.   Pollution prevention
conditions will be integrated  into enforcement settlements and agreements.

      An on-going  training  program, designed  to enhance Regional senior and
middle management staff contract management capabilities, will be  implemented.
Contracts management  support will be increased to ensure  strict compliance with
contracting regulations.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $61,145,100 supported by 586.5 total
workyears of which  $32,381,600 is for the  Program  and  Research Operations

                                     5-53

-------
appropriation  and $28,763,500  is  for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      In 1993,  the program is placing increased emphasis on conducting compliance
monitoring, taking enforcement actions, and requiring corrective action in high-
risk areas  of  long standing Agency concern.  These  areas  include the Gulf of
Mexico, the Chesapeake Bay, Puget Sound,  and  the Caribbean.  The Agency  will also
continue to conduct enforcement and corrective action at facilities within the
Great Lakes Basin.

      The program continues to leverage its resources by targeting its compliance
monitoring  and enforcement  activities.   In 1993,  the program  is focusing on
identifying and taking enforcement  actions against facilities in non-compliance
with corrective action orders, permit conditions or closure requirements.  The
Agency  is  also focusing on identifying and  taking  enforcement action against
those  facilities  with  the  greatest  potential  to have  concrete  pollution
prevention conditions included in settlement agreements and against those with
the greatest multi-media impact.  The Agency is beginning development of guidance
to  assist in  the identification  of  facilities  prior to a  release  so  that
appropriate action can  be taken  to avoid or minimize accidental releases.   In
FY93 resources are also directed  towards  the  implementation of  the Federal
Facilities Compliance Act.

      Assessment and prioritization of facilities  not characterized in FY92 for
corrective  action  continues  in  1993.   The Agency continues to emphasize site
stabilization  activities and final remedy selections  and  implementation.   In
keeping with Agency policy,  corrective  action resources are  focusing first on
addressing facilities that are most environmentally significant.

      In 1993, the Agency is, in coordination with Mexican officials, finalizing
and implementing  the  Integrated Border Plan as well  as increasing  levels of
training, including development  of  a training video for U.S. and Mexican Customs
officials.   The development of  an import/export  database for  tracking waste
movement across the border will continue.   In addition the program in planning
for the implementation of OECD and  Basel agreements.  The program  is continuing
to  track and  monitor  the activities of  the Interstate Oil  and  Gas Compact
Commission  (IOGC).

      The Agency continues its training program for inspectors and enforcement
officials,  emphasizing  Boilers  and   Industrial  Furnaces  (BIFs),  groundwater
monitoring, and  civil  penalty policy as well as  offering  advanced inspectors
training.

      Congressional Directives;  A total  of $1,000,000 is for the Congressionally
directed study of the Fresh Kills Landfill  .

1992 Program Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency was obligated a total of $61,457,500 supported by 547.2
total workyears, of which $29,755,800 was from the Salaries and Expenses
                                     5-54

-------
appropriation and  $31,701,700 was from the  Abatement,  Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      The Agency completed the bulk of the facility assessments and implemented
the national corrective action prioritization criteria to ensure that facilities
posing the  greatest risks to the environment and human  health  are addressed
first. The  Agency  also  implemented its corrective action stabilization strategy
to ensure that facilities are addressed in  a timely manner.  Long-term corrective
measures continued at facilities where they have already been imposed, but the
Agency's  focus  shifted to ensure that facilities posing the most significant
threat are addressed first.

      The Agency inspected new RCRA handlers resulting from new waste listings
and rules to ensure that a. strong message was sent to potential violators that
the new regulations were being vigorously  enforced.  The  new rules and listings
include the organic toxicity characteristic and hazardous waste fuel rules, as
well as the mixed waste and wood preserving listings.

      The Agency implemented an integrated RCRA enforcement pollution prevention
program  which  included  conducting  targeted  inspections of  generators  and
initiating searches for facilities operating  illegally outside the RCRA system.
Where possible,  enforcement  settlements resulting from  violations  discovered
during generator and non-notifier  inspections (or any other enforcement actions)
integrated pollution prevention conditions.

      The program,  in  coordination with the  Office of Water  and  the Office of
Enforcement,  conducted   intensified   levels   of  inspections   and  initiated
appropriate administrative and  judicial  enforcement at  facilities  within the
Great Lakes  Basin.  Corrective action,  either through enforcement or permits, was
imposed at the most environmentally significant facilities.

      The Resource Conservation  and  Recovery  Act  (RCRA) Inspector  Training
Institute continued to  provide  training  to ensure  a  consistent  inspection
program.   New training modules included topics such as the air  emissions rule and
incinerator regulations.  The  first training program utilizing a new interactive
video was conducted on  "Land Disposal Restrictions."
                                     5-55

-------
5-56

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents


                                                                         Page


PESTICIDES                                                              6-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Pesticides Research  	   6-13
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Registration, Special Registration and Tolerances  	   6-27
      Registration, Special Registration and Tolerances 	   6-28
   Generic Chemical Review   	   6-31
      Generic Chemical Review 	   6-32
   Pesticides Program Implementation  	   6-35
      Pesticides Program Implementation  	   6-36
      Pesticides Program Implementation Grants   	   6-38
ENFORCEMENT
   Pesticides Enforcement 	   6-41
      Pesticides Enforcement  	   6-42
      Pesticides Enforcement Grants 	   6-44

-------
APPROPRIATION
                                                      PESTICIDES
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development

TOTAL, Pesticides
      $50,737.0   $58,508.5   $54,754.9   $54,669.2   $54,962.2      $293.0   -$3,546.3

      $63,963.2   $61,744.2   $56,559.5   $56,515.6   $61,482.2    $4,966.6     -$262.0

       $7,539.9    $8,581.7    $8,011.6    $8,011.6    $7,971.1      -$40.5     -$610.6

     $122,240.1  $128,834.4  $119.326.0  $119.196.4  $124,415.5    $5,219.1   -$4,418.9
 FIFRA Revolving Fund
      $18,244.5
                      $13,748.0
                                 -$13,748.0
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS

OUTLAYS

AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
        1,071.0
        1,104.1
1,129.6
1,129.6
1,111.9
1,111.9
1,098.1
1,098.1
1,072.9
1,072.9
-25.2
-25.2
-56.7
-56.7
     $113,398.5  $126,846.2  $119,776.2  $119,989.2  $125,476.7    $5,487.5   -$1,369.5

Authorization for the Federal Insecticide. Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) expired on
September 30, 1991.  Reauthorization is pending.
                                                        6-1

-------
                                                          PESTICIDES
                                                                         DIFFERENCE
                                  PRES.
                                 BUDGET    ENACTED
                                  1993      1993
                             CURRENT
                             ESTIMATE
                               1993
                     ENACTED  VS
                     PRES.  BUD
                       EST.  VS
                      PRES.  BUD
                     EST. VS
                     ENACTED
 APPROPRIATION
                                                (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
  Program & Research
   Operations
  Abatement Control and
  Compliance
  Research & Development

 TOTAL, Pesticides
      $58,508.5   $54,754.9  $54.669.2    -$3,753.6    -$3,839.3       -$85.7

      $61,744.2   $56,559.5  $56,515.6    -$5,184.7    -$5,228.6       -$43.9

       $8,581.7    $8,011.6    $8,011.6      -$570.1      -$570.1

     $128,834.4  $119,326.0  $119,196.4    -$9,508.4    -$9,638.0      -$129.6
  FIFRA Revolving Fund
                              $13,748.0
                                  $13,748.0   $13,748.0
 PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 TOTAL WORKYEARS
        1,129.6
        1,129.6
1,111.9
1,111.9
1,098.1
1,098.1
-17.7
-17.7
-31.5
-31.5
-13.8
-13.8
        The following points  list the major reasons that the dollars devoted to this media have changed from
submission of the President's FY 1993 Budget Request to the FY 1993 Current  Estimates.


PROGRAM AND RESEARCH OPERATIONS

                 o       The FY 1993 Current Estimate reflects increased workforce costs.


ABATEMENT. CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

                 o
The FY 1993 Current Estimate reflects Congressionally directed reductions to this account.
as well as Agency investments in Safer Pesticides and NAFTA activities.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

                 o
Congressionally directed add-ons for neurotoxicology research  for
biotechnology/bioremediation research.

Congressionally directed general reductions to the Research and Development appropriation.
                                                         6-2

-------
                                                 MEDIA BRIDGE TABLES

MEDIA:  PESTICIDES

NPM :  OFFICE OF PREVENTION, PESTICIDES AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES
FY 1993 CURRENT ESTIMATE

  Changes by Category:


        Workforce Costs (+/-)
        Legislative Initiatives (+/-)

        Program Initiatives (+/-)

        Discontinuation of Specific
        Increases to  FY 1993 Request (-)

        Others (+/-)

FY 1994 PRESIDENT'S BUDGET
     PRO

$54,669.2
  +$293.1
     $0.0

     $0.0
  AC&C

$56,515.6
     $0.0
     $0.0

 +$5000.0
   PESTICIDES

   R&D              Total

 $8,011.6     $119,196.4
   -$40.5
     $0.0

+$1,000.0
 +$252.6
    $0.0

+$6000.0
$0.0
$0.0
$54,962.2
$0.0
-$33.4
$61,482.2
-$650.0
-$350.0
$7,971.1
-$650.0
-$383.4
$124,415.5
                                                        6-3

-------

-------
                                  PESTICIDES
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      Pesticides  can be  both beneficial  and  hazardous  substances.   Almost
everyone uses or  is  exposed  to the use of pesticide products.  Pesticides are
also major  contributors to  groundwater  pollution and  agricultural  runoff to
surface water.  At the same time, pesticide products provide benefits to society,
contributing to agricultural productivity and controlling human diseases.

      EPA's authority to regulate pesticides is set forth  in two statutes.  The
Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)  governs the licensing
or registration of pesticide  products.  Sections 408 and 409 of  the Federal Food,
Drug and Cosmetic  Act (FFDCA) regulate the level of pesticide residues  in raw and
processed agricultural commodities.

      FIFRA. Under FIFRA, all pesticides must be registered with EPA before they
may be sold or distributed in the United  States. EPA operates under an overall
risk/benefit standard for pesticide registration.  Pesticides must perform their
intended  function when  used according  to  label  directions,  without  posing
unreasonable risks of adverse effects on human health  or the  environment.   In
making pesticide registration decisions, EPA is  required to take into account the
economic, social,  and environmental costs and benefits of pesticide use.  This
is a task of enormous scope and  complexity.   OPP  regulates over  1,000 active
ingredients, included in approximately 25,000 registered products, which account
for about two billion pounds of pesticide active ingredient use each year.

      Amendments  to  FIFRA  in 1988 substantially  strengthened EPA's  pesticide
regulatory authority, principally in the following areas:

o     The 1988 amendments accelerate the reregistration process for scientific
      review and  assessment  of  previously  registered pesticides  by  requiring
      completion  of this task within nine years.

o     EPA is required to give accelerated review to applications for initial or
      amended registration of products which are similar to pesticides already
      registered  with EPA.

o     The 1988 law also authorizes the  collection of  fees which  provide both
      staff and contract resources to support reregistration activities.

o     EPA's responsibilities and  funding requirements  were also substantially
      changed for the storage and disposal  of pesticides whose registrations
      have been suspended and canceled.   The law also places limitations on the
      availability of funding to indemnify certain owners of suspended and
      canceled pesticides.

      FFDCA.  Under the  FFDCA, EPA sets tolerances,  or maximum  legal limits, for
pesticide residues on food commodities marketed in  the U.S.  Before a pesticide
can be registered under  FIFRA for use on a food or feed crop, EPA must either

                                      6-5

-------
establish a tolerance or, if appropriate,  grant an exemption from the tolerance
requirement.

      The Agency's 1994 budget for the pesticide program includes the following
elements:  (1)  Registration,  Special Registration  and Tolerances,  including
registration of new products and control  of pesticide residues in the food chain,
(2) Generic  Chemical Review,  including review and  reregistration  of existing
products,  (3)  Pesticide  Program  Implementation,  including  encouragement of
correct uses of pesticides, (4) Pesticides Enforcement, including the enforcement
of pesticide regulations,  (5) Research  and  Development to support and improve
EPA's  ability to  evaluate  the risks  and benefits  of  pesticides,  and  (6)
consulting services.

      The overall strategy for 1994 emphasizes:  (1) the pesticide reregistration
program  under  FIFRA  '88;  (2) improving  dietary  risk evaluation  methods  and
updating  the Dietary Risk  Evaluation  System  (DRES);  (3)   implementing  the
antimicrobial strategy  and  improving the procedures  used  to  document product
effectiveness;  (4) provision  of critical  assistance to  the states for  the
certification  and  training  of  pesticide  applicators;   and  (5)  enhancing
enforcement activities to respond to material weaknesses in the  laboratory data
integrity program.

Registration. Special Registration and Tolerances

      FIFRA and FFDCA authorize  EPA to set the terms  and conditions  of pesticide
registration, marketing, and use.  Under the registration program, new pesticide
products are registered on the basis of  data reviewed  by Agency  scientists, and
current  registrations are  amended  to  add  new  uses  and/or new formulations.
Manufacturers are  required  to conduct a full range of health and environmental
testing before marketing  their  new products.   This  testing uses sophisticated
methodology and techniques,  enabling the Agency to more accurately determine the
potential for groundwater contamination,  residues on  food or  feed, worker and
applicator exposure, environmental risks,  and  chronic  and acute  health hazards.

      The registration program also includes special  registration and tolerance-
setting activities.   The special registration program continues to perform an
auxiliary function by permitting certain uses of unregistered pesticides for
experimental purposes and emergency pest situations.   It also provides oversight
and guidance to state registration and experimental use permit  functions.  The
tolerance program  establishes safe and enforceable maximum permissible residue
levels (or, in some instances, exemptions  from tolerance requirements) for both
active and inert pesticide ingredients in or on raw agricultural  commodities and
processed foods.

      The   1994  budget  request   emphasizes   (1)   supplemental   pesticides
reregistration activities, and (2) continued implementation of  the antimicrobial
strategy to ensure the efficacy of registered disinfectants.

Generic Chemical Review  (including Rereoistration)

      The  registrations of the  majority  of existing  pesticide chemicals are
supported  by data bases  which the  Agency  has found  insufficient by today's

                                      6-6

-------
scientific standards to support the required determination of "no unreasonable
adverse effects." The Generic Chemical Review program is designed to remedy this
problem  by requiring  the upgrading  of the  scientific data  base supporting
registrations, reviewing  available data about each chemical,  and  formulating
scientifically   based   regulatory  positions   to  guide   the  modification,
cancellation, or reregistration of  existing products and the registration of new
products.  The 1988 FIFRA amendments contain provisions for a greatly  accelerated
five-phase reregistration program, expedited  processing of certain  types of
registration applications, a new system for collecting and administering fees,
and  significant  revisions  to  the indemnification and disposal  program  for
pesticides suspended and cancelled after enactment of the 1988 amendments.  The
fees mandated by  these amendments are to be used to supplement appropriated funds
to carry out reregistration and expedited processing.

      The Generic Chemical Review program contributes to the safety  of the food
supply  through  the reregistration program  and  special  reviews, in  which
pesticides suspected of causing unreasonable adverse effects undergo intensive
risk/benefit analysis.  This may result in changes to the terms and conditions
of their use.  The  Generic  Chemical Review  program also includes the disposal
program.  Funds  are requested to ensure the continued safe storage  of national
2,4,5-T/Silvex stocks in 1994.   No  funds are requested  at this time for disposal
of the remaining stocks,  as for disposal is not likely to begin in  1994, given
that characterization of 2,4,5-T/Silvex stocks stored at the Texas Environmental
Services (TES) facility must be  completed, exploration of a disposal  method must
yield an acceptable disposal option, and a permitted facility must  be found to
dispose of the material.

      Characterization  of the  stocks  stored at TES  is necessary  due  to  the
different composition of these stocks  as compared  to those previously stored at
Dyers Warehouse.

      The  resource  request in  1994 increases  funding  for activities  in  the
reregistration program  and  also provides  for improvements in the Dietary Risk
Evaluation System (ORES).  DRES is an important database that is used  to evaluate
pesticide risks based on dietary variation and will be particularly important in
assessing risks to children.

Pesticides Program Implementation

      In 1994 the Agency will  continue to emphasize the  field implementation of
activities related to protection of groundwater, endangered species,  and workers
exposed to pesticides.  With the publication of the Worker Protection Rule in
1992, the upgrade of certification and training regulations,  and the  publication
of the Groundwater  Strategy in  1991,  Regional  and state implementation of the
pesticides programs has  risen dramatically.   The  scope  of  the  risks  from
pesticides in  the field  is substantial.   About  150 pesticides  are potential
leachers, and 46 have been found in groundwater.  There are 10.5 million private
wells and 94,600 community wells in the United States and 130 million people are.
dependent  on groundwater for their water  supply.  Approximately  2.3 million
workers, on  the approximately  1  million agricultural  establishments  in  this
country, are exposed to pesticides during  application.   Resources provided in
1992 and  1993 have  enabled the Regions and states to  begin  addressing these

                                      6-7

-------
problems.    In  so  doing,  the  Agency  is moving  away  from the  traditional
Headquarters command and control approach to a much more geographically targeted
and sophisticated approach  in which risk management decisions are made closer, to
the source.

      Under  this  program,  EPA is  continuing to promote the correct  uses of
pesticides.  To achieve this goal, EPA has cooperative agreements with State Lead
Agencies to certify applicators to  use  Restricted Use Pesticides.  EPA provides
grants to the states to support this activity.  Certification grants help support
54 applicator certification programs  in participating states and  territories and
Federally  administered  programs  in  Colorado and Nebraska.   The  1994 budget
request includes provision  of funds to provide critical support to the states for
the certification and training program.

      EPA  also  has  an  interagency agreement  with  the  U.S.  Department  of
Agriculture to provide training to pesticide applicators by working through State
Cooperative  Extension  Services.    Regional  offices also provide  technical
assistance to states on pesticide issues.

Pesticides Enforcement

     The enforcement provisions of FIFRA are carried out primarily through the
cooperative  efforts  of  the states  and  territories  and  Indian Nations,  under a
program   of  cooperative   enforcement   agreements   established   with   EPA.
Participating   states   and  territories   conduct  use   inspections,   inspect
pesticide-producing  establishments,  maintain marketplace surveillance,  and
inspect dealers  and  users  of restricted-use  pesticides.   In most instances in
which violations are detected,  the  states and territories develop and prosecute
enforcement  cases  as appropriate.   In a  limited numbers  of cases,  states and
territories may refer cases to  EPA  for action.  The Agency encourages the states
and territories to design and operate their enforcement programs so as to place
greatest  emphasis  upon compliance with  the  use provisions  of  FIFRA,  thereby
producing  the greatest  environmental  benefit.   The  Agency will  continue to
support and  manage these cooperative efforts  in 1994.

     The Agency  conducts Federal pesticides  compliance  monitoring programs in
cases  in  which states  or  territories  are  unable  or  unwilling  to  support
comprehensive compliance monitoring programs of their own.   Federal programs in
such instances include use investigations, import and export surveillance, and
the preparation and prosecution of  enforcement cases. Other activities that are
exclusively  the  responsibility of  the Agency include providing technical and
compliance assistance to the states,  the regulated community and the public, and
operating  an automated data system  which maintains  information on compliance
inspections,  enforcement actions,  and pesticide production.  Headquarters also
directs the OPPTS laboratory data integrity program, under which private testing
laboratories are inspected  to determine compliance with Good Laboratory Practices
(GLP) regulations, audits are conducted,  in-process studies are reviewed and the
scientific accuracy  of  completed test studies is verified.
                                      6-8

-------
Research and Development

      The Office of Research and Development (QRD)  will  continue to support the
Office of  Prevention,  Pesticides  and  Toxic Substances  (OPPTS)  by performing
research in a number of environmental areas related to pesticides.  Scientists
will focus on nonpoint sources  of  pollution to field test and validate models
developed for predicting  the  leaching  and runoff of pesticides and nutrients,
mostly nitrates, applied over relatively large geographical areas.  Ecological
risk  assessment methods  will  enhance  site-specific  or geographic-specific
evaluations of  pollutants to enhance  human health status and to protect the
environment.  Research will provide knowledge on the potential risks posed by the
release of biotechnology products into the environment.  This complete the yearly
maintenance and update of the pesticide treatability database.  Human exposure
investigation will develop methods  to measure the exposures of human populations
to environmental chemicals from  all sources and routes of exposure.  Research in
health effects will emphasize the  development  of animal toxicologic  and human
clinical data  and models;  efforts will focus on  environmental  epidemiology,
including  the development  and  assessment  of  biomarkers.   New  and  expanded
research begun in FY 1993 will continue in neurotoxicology on the identification
of   susceptible   populations,   neurodegenerative   diseases,   and   in-vitro
neurotoxicology.  Scientists will develop methods to predict environmental and
human health impacts related  to research on the  environmental review of toxic
chemicals.  Researchers will conduct studies on alternative reproductive and in-
vitro  neurotoxicity  test methods; ecology  research will emphasize  advanced
structure activity relationship (SAR)  techniques, and  physical  and  chemical
identification data for transportation and fate analysis.

Consulting Services

      Consulting services are utilized by the Agency to support the Scientific
Advisory  Panel  which,  in accordance  with section  25(d) of  FIFRA,  provides
comments, evaluations and  recommendations on actions and regulations proposed by
the Agency.  By using these  services, the Agency  can ensure that its regulatory
program continues to be based on sound science.
                                      6-9

-------
                                  PESTICIDES
                              ACTUAL
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES            1992

Special Review
 Decisions	           10

New Chemical and
 Biochemical Microbial
 Agent Reviews	          374

Old Chemical Reviews...        2,400

Amended Registration
 Reviews	        7,291

New Use Reviews	          288

Emergency Exemption
 Reviews	          334

Experimental Use
 Permit Reviews	          321

24(c) State
 Registration Reviews..          514

Temporary Tolerance
 Petition Reviews	           57

Tolerance Petition
 Reviews	          411

Inert Ingredient
 Reviews	            10

Reregistration Eligibility
 Document	            15
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993
ESTIMATE
1994
INCREASE (+)
DECREASE (-)
1994 vs 1993
   228

 2,032


 6,379

   280


   364


   305


   430


    57


   413


    10


    20
   228

 2,032


 6,379

   280


   364


   305


   430


    57


   413


    10


    38
   +18
                                     6-10

-------
                                  PESTICIDES
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
ACTUAL
  1992
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1993
ESTIMATE
    1994
INCREASE (+)
 DECREASE(-)
1994 vs 1993
Incremental Outputs
Producer Establishment
Use/Reentry and Experimental
Marketplace
Import Inspections a/ .......
State Applicator License
and Record Inspections. ....
State Dealer
Record Inspections. ........
Federal Laboratory
Inspections. ...............
Test Studv Audits 	
25,800
13,700
511
19,500
7,800
67
315
25,800
13,700
500
19,500
7,800
64
306
25,800
13,700
500
19,500
7,800
64
306
* 1992 Actuals include state-funded inspections.
                                     6-11

-------
6-12

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents
                                                                         Page
PESTICIDES
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Pesticides Research  	   6-13

-------
PROGRAM
                                                        PESTICIDES
                                                   Pesticides Research
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 RED
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
                               $6,130.2    $7,183.8    $7,014.1    $7,014.1    $6,209.7     -$804.4
Pesticides Research
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Research & Development        $7,539.9    $8,581.7    $8,011.6    $8,011.6    $7,971.1
                       TOTAL  $13,670.1   $15,765.5   $15,025.7   $15,025.7   $14,180.8
                                                         -$974.1
                                                                                             -$40.5     -$610.6
                                                                                            -$844.9   -$1,584.7
TOTAL:
 Program & Research            $6,130.2    $7,183.8    $7,014.1    $7,014.1    $6,209.7
  Operations
 Research & Development        $7.539.9    $8,581.7    $8.011.6    $8,011.6    $7,971.1

Pesticides Research    TOTAL  $13,670.1   $15,765.5   $15,025.7   $15,025.7   $14,180.8
                                                                                            -$804.4     -$974.1

                                                                                             -$40.5     -$610.6

                                                                                            -$844.9   -$1,584.7
PERMANENT WORKYEARS


Pesticides Research

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
                                   99.3

                                   99.3
110.9

110.9
108.1

108.1
107.6

107.6
89.0

89.0
-18.6

-18.6
-21.9

-21.9
TOTAL UORKYEARS


Pesticides Research

TOTAL WORKYEARS
                                  105.5

                                  105.5
110.9

110.9
108.1

108.1
107.6

107.6
89.0

89.0
-18.6

-18.6
-21.9

-21.9
                                                        6-13

-------
                                  PESTICIDES

                             Pesticides Research

                              Principal Outputs

1994;o    Reproductive and Chronic Exposure Tests of the  Effects of Microbial
          Pest Control Agents (NPCAs)  on Avian Species.

     o    Interim Protocol:  Measuring  the Effects of Transgenic  Bt  Toxin on
          Beneficial Invertebrates.

     o    Manual  Methods  for  Quantifying   Dislodgeable  Surface  Pesticide
          Residues.

     o    Preliminary Report on Microlevel Human Activity Patterns for Use in
          Exposure and Risk Assessment.

     o    Report on Cholinesterase Inhibition  as a Valid Indicator or Exposure.

     o    Develop a Quantitative Weight-of-Evidence Scheme for General Toxicity
          Using Data on Effects Other Than Cancer.

     o    Study on the Influence of  Age as a Risk Factor in Neurotoxicity Risk
          Assessment.

1993;o    Report on Ecological Risk Assessment of Watersheds and River Basins:
          Management Needs and Research Opportunities Workshop Report.

     o    Field Evaluation of  LERAM:   The Littoral  Ecosystem Risk Assessment
          Model.

     o    Relationships Between  Pesticide Effects on Birds in  the  Field and
          Laboratory Toxicity.

     o    Report on the Fate  and  Survival of  Bacterial  Microbial Pest Control
          Agents (MPCAs) in Aquatic Environments.

     o    Report on Geographic Methods to Assess Ground Water Vulnerability to
          Pesticides.

     o    Report on a Comparison of Methods for Quantifying Dislodgeable Surface
          Residues.

     o    Evaluation  of DNA Adducts  as  Biomarkers  of  Exposure  in  Pesticide
          Applicators.

     o    Report   on   Preliminary   Dermal   Exposure   Measurement   Studies:
          Environmental Concentrations and Human Activity Patterns.

     o    Guidance   for  Neurotoxicity  Risk  Assessment  of  Cholinesterase
          Inhibitors.

                                     6-14

-------
1992;o    Risk Assessment Methodologies that Integrate Effects and Exposure Data
          to Determine  the Fate  and Effects  in Marine  Microcosms of  Toxic
          Substances,  Including Pesticides.

     o    Report on Validation of Hazard Assessment Predictions of Environmental
          Effects of Pesticides in Estuarine Systems.

     o    Effects, Persistence,  and Distribution of Azinphos-methyl in Littoral
          Enclosures.

     o    Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Embryos of  the Island Silverside Fish
          (Menidia beryllina).

     o    The Effect  of  Bacillus Thuringiensis var  kurstaki on  a  beneficial
          insect, the Cinnabar Moth (Lepidoptera:   Arctiidae).

     o    Report on the Genetic Analysis of Human Cells Exposed to Genetically
          Engineered Baculovirus.

     o    Report on the Interpretation  of Immunotoxicity Testing in Terms  of
          Enhanced Risk of Disease.

     o    Report on the Genetic Analysis of Human Cells Exposed to Genetically
          Engineered Baculovirus.

     o    Dermal Exposure  Assessment:   A Literature Review.

     o    Compendium of Body Burden Biomarkers  for Pesticides.

     o    Strategy  for  Research  to  Support   the  Development  of  Exposure
          Monitoring  and  Assessment  Guidelines  for  Pesticides and  Consumer
          Products in Residential Environments.
                                     6-15

-------
                                  PESTICIDES
                              Pesticides  Research
BUDGET REQUEST

1994 Budget Request

     The Agency requests  a total of $14,180,800 and  89.0  total workyears for
1994, a decrease of $844,900 and 18.6 total workyears from 1993.   Of the request,
$6,209,700 will be for the Program and Research Operations appropriation, and
$7,971,100  will  be  for  the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.    This
represents  a decrease  of  $804,400 in  the Program  and  Research  Operations
appropriation,  and a  decrease  of $40,500  in the  Research and  Development
appropriation.   The  decrease  in workyears  reflects  a  shift in the Agency's
strategy towards greater cross media research through  the multimedia program as
a more effective method of scientific inquiry into environmental problems than
the single media approach traditionally followed by  the  Agency.  The shift in
work years is primarily for the high priority Ecosystems initiative in Multimedia
research.

1993 Budget

     The Agency is allocating  a  total  of $15,025,700 supported  by  107.6 total
workyears for this program element, of  which $7,014,100 is  from  the Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation  and  $8,011,600  is from  the Research and
Development appropriation.

1992 Budget

     The  Agency  obligated  a  total of  $13,670,100  supported  by 105.5 total
workyears for this program element,  of which $6,130,200 was  from  the Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation, and  $7,539,900 was  from the Research and
Development appropriation.
RESEARCH ISSUES

     The sections below describe research program issues by each fiscal year:


COASTAL AND MARINE

1994 Program Request

     There will be no pesticide resources in this issue in 1994.

1993 Program

     There are no pesticide resources in this issue in 1993.

                                     6-16

-------
1992 Accomplishments

     Research  developed methodologies  for  risk  assessments  that integrated
effects and  exposure  data,  with special emphasis on  determining the fate and
effects in  marine microcosms  of toxic  substances,  including  pesticides and
sediments contaminated with PCBs and metals.
NONPOINT SOURCES

1994 Program Request

     ORD research efforts on NFS initially are focusing on agriculture because
it is the largest NFS, affecting about 50 to  70 percent of the impaired surface
waters.  EPA and the US Geological Survey (USGS) also have documented the high
levels of pesticides found in drinking water wells and aquifers.

     The Agency will conduct research to field test  (validate) models developed
for  predicting the  leaching  and runoff  of  pesticides and  nutrients,  mostly
nitrates, applied over relatively large geographical areas.  The  major effort is
in validating models that project the probability of groundwater contamination
from new pesticides evaluated under FIFRA.  Probability sampling of groundwater
systems within the context of national sampling frames like EMAP will be compared
to  levels  predicted  by the  models to  be  validated.   Studies will  compare
groundwater contamination incidence and concentration  levels  based on the soil,
climate, agricultural practices,  and chemical properties involved.  The endpoint
indicators used and results obtained will be evaluated for possible incorporation
into  the Environmental  Monitoring and  Assessment  Program  (EMAP).   A  major
component of this research will be a pilot validation study in concert with EMAP
and the United States Department of Agriculture  (USDA) in selected agricultural
regions of North Carolina.

1993 Program

     Researchers are employing refinement and use of predictive models and
techniques to  address transport, degradation,  fate and residual  problems of
pesticides,  and  determining the  factors that  impair  important environmental
processes.  Investigation is focusing on how pesticide  insults are expressed in
various habitats.  Researchers are identifying the most  effective approaches and
preventive measures to decrease pesticide use and prevent contamination problems.
Additional research  is being  conducted to study the  movement  of pesticides
through  the  environment  in order  to determine  the eventual  disposition of
pesticides in the environment.

1992 Accomplishments

There were no pesticide resources in this issue in 1992.
                                     6-17

-------
ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS

1994 Program Request

     The Agency will conduct research on methods needed to assess the exposure,
hazard, and risk to ecological resources from the multiple threats present under
real-world conditions,  including those related to pesticides.  The framework for
analysis will be natural watersheds at a  variety of geographic  scales, from local
drainage basins through major watersheds, as defined by the US Geological Survey
(USGS) Hydrologic Accounting Units and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Major Land Resource Areas.   Research  will combine monitoring programs, analysis
techniques for stressor-specific exposures and hazards related to pesticides, and
the ecorisk guidelines under development for  Agency-wide use in ecological risk
assessment.

     This  research  will use current achievements  to develop an  innovative,
holistic, integrated program designed to use  a new generation of computer-based
analysis and decision tools  tailored to the information needs and authorities of
federal, state, and local resource managers.   These new tools will incorporate
the  results of  stressor-specific  analysis in the  context  of specific  local
geographic  conditions  and  constraints.   Researchers  will examine  the synergy
between  eutrophication,  toxicity,  and  habitat  loss; they will  design a  new
generation  of  ecologically-capable  watershed  models  grounded in  geographic
information systems (CIS) technology  and individual-based ecological approaches
that will evaluate stressors, such as pesticides, in  a whole-system perspective.
Researchers will assemble the CIS databases and framework needed to support the
watershed-scale analysis program.

1993 Program

     ORD is  initiating a triad of  interrelated  innovative  responses to   the
Agency's customary  "command and control"  approach that has  fostered  a narrow
focus on individual  "media" in both  its operations  and in  its organizational
structures.  Researchers are developing  an  ecological  indicators and monitoring
program as part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP),
Risk  Assessment  Forum  standard   protocols  for  conducting  ecological  risk
assessments,  and an "Ecorisk" program  of  ecological risk assessment methods
research.

     Research results from the  Ecorisk program ultimately will redefine the way
the  agency conducts its fundamental business of  assessing  and managing  the
ecological risks of  pesticides and other toxic substances.  This research begins
from  a biogeographical  "watershed"   focus,  replacing the traditional  narrow
"media" focuses, encouraging genuinely ecological approach to agency regulatory
responsibilities. The watershed approach promotes integration across media (both
stressor and habitat)  to  define  aggregate  ecological  risks,  and  places  the
"media"  risks in the  larger context.  This biogeographical  context  promotes
efficient   allocation  of risk management  resources  to  maximize  environmental
protection,  allowing  local  pollution control authorities to  more  effectively
identify  and  rank  significant  hazards to  their  resource  base.    National
regulatory  programs are able  to  understand the true  significance  and  risk
reduction opportunities of pesticides in geographically diverse settings.

                                      6-18

-------
1992 Accomplishments

     Understanding  the hazards,  pathways,  exposure  models  and  the  fate of
pesticides  is  paramount to  offering control  and management solutions.   EPA
conducted laboratory and field studies to verify field versus laboratory findings
and  establish  a  basis for  predicting pesticide  impacts.   Studies included
determining which bioindicators best assess the condition of habitat; determining
the effects of pesticides on persistence and distribution  of biota in littoral
sites; and studying, identifying, classifying and determining the chemical impact
on long-term survival of terrestrial wildlife.

     Research employed refinement and use of predictive models and techniques to
address  transport,  degradation,  fate  and  residual  problems  of  pesticides.
Scientists determined the factors that impair important environmental processes
and the way in which pesticide insults are expressed in various habitats.
ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS

1994 Program Request

     Through  this  research,  the  Agency  will  be  supporting  the  Federal
Coordinating  Council  for   Science,   Engineering,   and  Technology  (FCCSET)
Biotechnology crosscut initiative.   Information is lacking  on  the effects on
higher  organisms of  a  wide  variety  of  microorganisms that may be used as
biological  control  agents  (BCAs).   Research  will  focus  on the  genetic and
molecular basis of infectivity, pathogenicity, and allergenicity of biological
control  agents,  and  will  develop  methods that  determine their  host  range.
Researchers will use experimental results to develop protocols for testing the
effects  of  microorganisms on  beneficial  and  non-target  invertebrate species
(i.e., honeybees, predatory ants, spiders,  estuarine  crustaceans) and vertebrate
species  (fish and surrogates for humans).

     Scientists   will   investigate  the   potential  effects   of  introduced
microorganisms on freshwater, marine,  and terrestrial ecosystem inhabitants by
employing existing single-species,  multi-species, and site-specific microcosm
tests.   Experiments  also may modify these  surrogate  environmental systems to
mimic ecosystems of concern.  Researchers will incorporate improvements in the
procedures developed  from these investigations into new testing methods, and fate
and effects predictive mathematical models.

     Plants have been engineered in a variety of ways to be pesticidal, resistant
to diseases, tolerant to  herbicides, to produce materials useful  to man, such as
Pharmaceuticals, and to degrade or otherwise remove hazardous  chemicals from the
environment.  The introduction of foreign genes into plants for these purposes
requires the assessment of possible adverse effects in the environment.  With the
increased funding in 1994,  researchers  will conduct  experiments on  the fate and
effects of genes introduced into  host plants.   Initial efforts will concentrate
on pesticidal plants into which have been  inserted Bacillus thurinaiensis genes
that produce an insect toxin.  The objective of this research is to assure the
safety of such products.
                                     6-19

-------
1993 Program

     EPA is supporting the FCCSET  Biotechnology  crosscut  initiative with this
research.    Researchers  are  examining  the  toxicological,  behavioral,  and
pathologic  effects on  individual  species exposed  to specific natural  and
genetically engineered biological control agents/ such as microbial pest control
agents  (MPCAs),  insect  growth regulatory hormones,  and pesticidal  plants.
Scientists are continuing  tests on biological control  agents  (BCAs).  Pesticides
are being examined  for potential adverse human health effects in order to produce
protocols that can be used to evaluate the effects of these products.  Single-
species  and multi-species microcosms  will be used  as well  as  site-specific
microcosms, such as littoral enclosures  for freshwater, marine,  and estuarine
systems, to develop methods for predicting the fate and effects of an introduced
biological  control agent  on  those environments.  Test  organisms include non-
target, beneficial arthropods; other invertebrates; birds; and fish.

     Congressional Directive.  A total of  $250,000 is for the Congressionally
directed increase in biotechnology to expand research  in the ecological effects
of large-scale releases of engineered organisms with  respect to biogeochemical
processes, effects on community structure,  trophic interactions,  and ecosystem
health.

1992 Accomplishments

     Research culminated in a number of products, including  reports on biological
control agent  research  needs,  findings on the fate  and survival of bacterial
MPCAs  in  aquatic environments, a  bioassay for testing the  lethal  effects of
fungal pathogens on the predatory beetle Hippodamia convercrens.  a bioassay for
testing the lethal effects of  bacterial  pathogens on beneficial  Diptera using
Voria  ruralis.  and  the  effects  of environmental  stress  conditions on  the
susceptibility of  Voria ruralis  (Diptera:  Tachinidae) to  bacterial infection.
This research  was  conducted in support  of the  FCCSET  Biotechnology crosscut
initiative.
GROUNDWATER

1994 Program Request

     There will be no pesticides resources in this issue in 1994.

1993 Program

     There are no pesticides resources in this issue in 1993.

1992 Accomplishments

     Research was  initiated to compare existing on-farm  wells  with stainless
steel  monitoring  wells  used  for  sampling  ground  water  for  nitrates  and
pesticides.  Scientists began developing sufficient data for testing a ground-
water nitrate/pesticide model on a watershed scale using samples from existing
wells.

                                     6-20

-------
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

1994 Program Request

     There will be no pesticides resources in this issue in 1994.

1993 Program

     There are no pesticides resources in this issue in 1993.

1992 Accomplishments

     Research resulted in the revision of the pesticides treatability data base.


HAZARDOUS WASTE

1994 Program Request

     This  is  a  level-funded  activity  which  continues  to  provide  yearly
maintenance and update of the pesticide treatability database.

1993 Program

     Research  is  focusing  on  the  maintenance and  update  of  the  pesticide
treatability database.

1992 Accomplishments

     Researchers updated the pesticide treatability database.


HUMAN EXPOSURE

1994 Program Reguest

     ORD will  develop a manual of methods  for quantifying  the dislodgeable
residues from  indoor and  outdoor surfaces  available  for dermal  contact  and
transfer.   Scientists  will  produce  a  compendium  of  passive  and  personal
techniques for monitoring inhalation exposure. Investigators will  issue a report
on approaches for estimating and predicting total human exposures via multiple
pathways.  Studies will be  initiated to determine the frequency and duration of
the use of pesticides in and around the home to assess the direct contact with
chemicals of users  and the passive exposures of non-users.   Researchers will
develop standard activity scenarios and exposure related  factors  for use in the
development of exposure assessment guidelines for pesticides.

1993 Program

     ORD  researchers  are  developing  effective  tools  and  techniques  for
estimating, with known certainty, the  distribution of  the nation's population
exposed to environmental pollutants, including pesticides.   Studies  are being

                                     6-21

-------
conducted to detect changes and trends in those distributions.  Research is being
conducted on test methods,  exposure monitoring, exposure modeling, and exposure
assessment.  Scientists are developing and testing immunobased personal exposure
monitoring (PEM)  devices to obtain data for exposure monitoring, including dermal
exposure.

1992 Accomplishments

     Scientists initiated studies to evaluate and further develop measurement and
analytical methods for use  in  monitoring  residential exposures  to pesticides,
with an emphasis  on the quantification of surface residues.  The results of these
studies were published.  Researchers  implemented preliminary studies to develop
protocols  for  measuring  dermal exposure to pesticides and  herbicides  used in
residential environments.  Results indicated that  the dermal route is likely to
be  important and  that micro-level activity patterns  need to be  quantified,
especially for children.  Work continued  on the  development of  immunochemical
personal exposure monitors (PEMs) for use in exposure monitoring.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1994 Program Request

     The epidemiology research program will investigate the effects of pesticides
on agricultural workers,  and their spouses and children.  Neurotoxicity research
in the laboratory will complement field studies by investigating relationships
between  pesticide exposure  and  susceptible  populations,  such as  females,
offspring, and aging adults.  Reproductive and developmental pesticide toxicity
research  will  explore  the consequences  of in  utero  exposure  to  offspring
development.

1993 Program

     New research addresses three major topics identified by committees of the
Federal Coordinating Council on Science, Engineering,  and Technology (FCCSET) to
support  expanded neurotoxicology  research:  1)  identification of  susceptible
populations, 2)  neurodegenerative diseases, and  3)  in-vitro  neurotoxicology.
Researchers  are  evaluating techniques to  extrapolate between  animal  and human
health effects, and between high and low  dose exposures used in animal toxicology
of pesticides.   Expected accomplishments include guidance to EPA's  Office of
Prevention,  Pesticides and Toxic  Substances (OPPTS)  for the interpretation of
data regarding cholinesterase  inhibitors.

     Congressional Directives.   A total of $400,000 is for the Congressionally
directed increase in  neurotoxicology will expand research into the relationships
of repeated, low-level exposure to pesticides, drinking water contaminants, and
metals to the development of neurological disorders.

1992 Accomplishments

     Research was begun on evaluating techniques to extrapolate between animal
and human health effects, and between high and low dose exposures  used in animal
toxicology of pesticides.  There were no significant outputs.

                                     6-22

-------
POLLUTION PREVENTION

1994 Program Request

     Resources  are  being moved  to  Pollution  Prevention  in Multimedia  to
consolidate the pollution prevention research.

1993 Program

     Three Administrator's pollution prevention set-aside fund projects continue
in 1993. One project is looking at ways to improve bioregulation processes which
cause pesticides  to biodegrade  more rapidly  in the field, thereby reducing
potential contamination.  A second  project is  to  develop databases and computer
models to reduce groundwater contamination from pesticides, providing decision-
makers with information on the appropriate application of agricultural chemicals.
A  third project  is developing  a  pesticide  hazard index  and a  registry  of
pesticides  to  improve  the condition of the Chesapeake Bay by  identifying and
promoting the use of pesticides which have the least adverse  impact on the bay.
These projects will be completed in 1993.

1992 Accomplishments

     There were no pesticide resources in this issue in 1992.


INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

1994 Program Request

     As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982  (Public Law 97-
219), EPA will allocate 1.50% of its  extramural Research and Development budget
for the Small Business  Innovation Research (SBIR)  Program.  These funds will be
used to  support  small  businesses engaged in  the  development of  equipment for
pollution abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental
trends and  conditions.  Under this program, ORD  will take advantage of unique
solutions to  pesticide problems and other environmental  issues that  may  be
offered by the private  sector.   Resources will be identified in the operating
plan and consolidated into the Multimedia Program  Element once enactment occurs.

1993 Program

     As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982  (Public Law 97-
219), EPA is allocating 1.50% of its  extramural Research and Development budget
for the Small  Business Innovation Research (SBIR)  Program.   These funds are used
to support small businesses engaged  in the development of equipment for pollution
abatement and control,  and instrumentation for monitoring environmental trends
and conditions.   Under  this  program, ORD is  able to take  advantage of unique
solutions to pesticide  related problems and other environmental issues that may
be offered by the private sector.
                                     6-23

-------
1992 Accomplishments

     Resources and accomplishments supporting this program were budgeted in the
Multimedia program element for 1992.
ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF TOXIC CHEMICALS

1994 Program Request

     Research  will  focus  on  the health  effects  of potentially  neurotoxic
chemicals, with special emphasis on the adversity of cholinesterase inhibitors
and the development of effective testing methodologies. Scientists will develop
test methods and interpretive models, including the development and validation
of  in  vitro  methods,   guidance  documents  on how  to  conduct and  interpret
neurotoxicity tests, and the health assessment of cholinesterase inhibitors.

1993 Program

     Researchers are developing and validating cellular and molecular endpoints
for  screening and  characterizing neurotoxic agents,  and  studying  structure
activity  relationships  (SARs)  and  mechanisms  of  action.    Scientists  are
developing tests which evaluate the relevant biological processes for a problem
area,  such  as male  reproductive  functions.  The  results of  those  tests are
compared to the test results  of known  pesticide  toxic agents to determine the
sensitivity  and biological  validity  of  the  bioassays  under consideration.
Research is developing methods to evaluate the integrity of the immune system of
rats,  using  known  or  suspected  immunotoxicants  to  identify  the  immunotoxic
potential of pesticides.

1992 Accomplishments

     Researchers  provided data  interpretation  guidance to  EPA's Office of
Prevention,   pesticides  and  Toxic  Substances   (OPPTS)   on  "Interpreting
Immunotoxicity Testing in Terms of Enhanced Risk  of  Disease".   A second product
was a computer software package for OPP and the EPA regional offices, "Computer-
based  Matching of  Genetic  Activity Profiles (GAPS)  for the Local Area Network
(LAN)".
INFRASTRUCTURE

1994 Program Request

     Adequately funded infrastructure is critical to ORD's success in conducting
the  quality  science  needed  to  assure  that  the  Agency's   decisions  are
scientifically  sound.   The most critical part  of  ORD's infrastructure is its
staff.    The  assumption  underlying  all our research  activities  includes  a
productive  workforce.

     ORD has established a cohesive, cross-cutting issue for infrastructure based
upon the importance of this activity to planned and ongoing research activities.

                                      6-24

-------
Program and Research Operations appropriation funding for the Pesticide Research
PE will  be centralized  within the  infrastructure  issue to  provide improved
management  for  ORD's personnel  compensation and  benefits, and  travel costs
associated with managing research programs.

1993 Program

     ORD's current infrastructure program provides compensation and benefits, and
travel for ORD scientists and engineers.  ORD's workforce carries out scientific
programs in support of the Agency's mission.

1992 Accomplishments

     ORD funded  its workyears  in scientific support of the Agency's mission,
providing the necessary personnel compensation and benefits, and travel for ORD
scientists and engineers.
                                     6-25

-------
6-26

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents
                                                                         Page
PESTICIDES
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Registration, Special Registration and Tolerances   	   6-27
      Registration, Special Registration and Tolerances  	   6-28
   Generic Chemical Review  	   6-31
      Generic Chemical Review  	   6-32
   Pesticides Program Implementation  	   6-35
      Pesticides Program Implementation 	   6-36
      Pesticides Program Implementation Grants  	   6-38

-------
                                                        PESTICIDES
                                      Registration, Special Registration & Tolerances

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REQ     1994 REQ
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Registration, Special
Registration, and
Tolerances
 Program & Research           $14,471.0   $16,146.1   $15,298.7   $15,350.4   $16,152.4      $802.0        $6.3
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $6,429.8    $5,466.7    $4,460.2    $4,411.9    $5,411.9    $1,000.0      -$54.8
 CofnpL iance
                       TOTAL  $20,900.8   $21,612.8   $19,758.9   $19,762.3   $21,564.3    $1,802.0      -$48.5


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $14,471.0   $16,146.1   $15,298.7   $15,350.4   $16,152.4      $802.0        $6.3
  Operations
 Abatement Control and         $6,429.8    $5,466.7    $4,460.2    $4,411.9    $5,411.9    $1,000.0      -$54.8
 Compliance

Registration, Special  TOTAL  $20,900.8   $21,612.8   $19,758.9   $19,762.3   $21,564.3    $1,802.0      -$48.5
Registration &
Tolerances


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Registration, Special             242.1       258.9       250.9       252.6       252.6                    -6.3
Registration, and
Tolerances

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         242.1       258.9       250.9       252.6       252.6                    -6.3


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Registration, Special             251.8       258.9       250.9       252.6       252.6                    -6.3
Registration, and
Tolerances

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   251.8       258.9       250.9       252.6       252.6                    -6.3
                                                       6-27

-------
                                  PESTICIDES


              Registration,  Special  Registration,  and  Tolerances

Budget Request

     The  Agency requests  a total  of  $21,564,300  supported  by  252.6  total
workyears for 1994,  which represents no increase in workyears from 1993.  Of the
request,  $16,152,400  will  be   for   the  Program  and  Research  Operations
appropriation, and $5,411,900 will be  for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents an increase  of $802,000 for  the Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation,  and  an  increase  of  $1,000,000 in  the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.


REGISTRATION. SPECIAL REGISTRATION.  AND TOLERANCES

1994 Program Request

     The  Agency requests  a total  of  $21,564,300  supported  by  252.6  total
workyears for this  program,  of which $16,152,400 will be for  the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation,  and $5,411,900 will be  for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.   This represents an increase of $802,000
for the Program and Research Operations appropriation,  an increase  of $1,000,000
in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation, and no increase of total
workyears.  The  increase in  the  Program and Research Operations appropriation
reflects full funding of  the workforce.  The increase for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation reflects emphasis on antimicrobials.

     In 1994, the Agency expects to conduct 148  reviews  of  new  chemicals,  80
reviews of biochemical/microbial agents, 2,032 reviews of old chemicals, 6,379
amended registration  reviews,  280 new use reviews,  and 413  tolerance petition
reviews.  The  emphasis  on  approval  of  new chemicals  and   new  uses will  be
continued in 1994 to permit more rapid market entry of new,  safer products.

     In 1994, the Agency is requesting an  additional $1,000,000 in this program
for antimicrobials.  These additional funds will support implementation of the
antimicrobial strategy and will address material weaknesses identified  under the
Federal Managers Financial Integrity Act  (FMFIA).

     The Agency will continue to ensure that tolerances reflect  the most current
regulatory status of each active  ingredient, including revocation of tolerances
on  canceled  pesticides  and  tolerance  reassessments  in  conjunction  with
reregistration  reviews.    Tolerance  fees  will be  increased  in  1994  by  the
percentage of the General Schedule  (GS) pay raise.

1993 Program

     In 1993, the Agency  is allocating a total of $19,762,300  supported by 252.6
total workyears for this program, of which $15,350,400 is  from the Program and
                                     6-28

-------
Research Operations appropriation and $4,411,900 is from the Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1993, emphasis  is on biological pesticides, which comprise the  single
fastest growing  segment  of  new pesticide registration  activity.   The  Agency
continues to emphasize the regulatory implications of biological pesticides, and
where  appropriate,  speed  the  experimental  use  and  registration  of these
pesticides.  These products include natural and genetically engineered  microbial
pesticides, biochemical pesticides and  plants genetically engineered to  produce
pesticides.

     Resources are permitting  further implementation of  the  1987 antimicrobial
strategy.  Among  the  objectives identified in the strategy is the revision or
update  of  efficacy  test  methodology  and  performance  standards to   assure
reproducibility of efficacy  tests.

     Increased emphasis is being given to groundwater contamination,  including
registrant  monitoring,  more  extensive  use of  environmental  fate  test data,
geographical  restrictions,  and  restricted use  classifications.    This helps
prevent future  environmental clean-up problems.   Continued emphasis  is being
placed on improvement of  information on product labels.

     Regional liaison continues to  be  improved  by working closely  with  the
Regional pesticide experts and other Regional staff to improve Regional  and state
understanding of national  regulatory activities, and by obtaining their input on
policies  and reviews  affecting  their  mission.    This  liaison is   improving
oversight of section 18 experimental use  permit reviews and section 24(c) special
local need programs.

     To prevent circumvention of section 3 registration requirements,  stringent
criteria for granting section  18 exemptions, such as consideration of progress
towards permanent registration and clarification of "emergency"  and "significant
economic loss" as criteria used in considering emergency exemptions,  continues
to be  applied.   Headquarters  continues to  work closely with  the  Regions  and
states to monitor emergency exemptions and special  local needs.

     The Agency is continuing to ensure that tolerances reflect  the most current
regulatory status of each  active ingredient, including revocation of tolerances
on  canceled  pesticides  and  tolerance  reassessments  in  conjunction  with
reregistration reviews.    Tolerance fees are being increased in 1993 by the 3.7
percent General Schedule  (GS) pay raise.

1992 Accomplishments

     In 1992, the  Agency  obligated a total of  $20,900,800 supported  by 251.8
total workyears for this program, of which $14,471,000 was from  the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $6,429,800  was  from the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     In 1992, ongoing pre-market registration reviews of human and environmental
risks associated  with the introduction or  expanded use of  pesticides  in  the
market place  and  the  encouragement of  safer  pesticide  substitutes,   including

                                     6-29

-------
biological and biotechnology products, continued. Registration review continued
to emphasize protection of groundwater, workers, and endangered species, with an
increased emphasis in food safety.

     Special registration of pesticides, including experimental use, emergency
use, and state registration of pesticides continued.  Headquarters continued to
provide  guidance and  enhanced regional  and  state  participation  with  these
functions.

     Further implementation of the 1987 antimicrobial strategy continued.  Among
the objectives identified in  this strategy,  was  the  revision or update of
efficacy  test methodology and performance  standards  to assure  reproducible
efficacy tests.

     Tolerances  reflected  the most current  regulatory status  of  each active
ingredient  and  through  the  testing  of  analytical  methods,  ensuring  that
established  tolerances  can  be  adequately  enforced.    Inert   ingredients  of
toxicological concern were  listed on pesticide product labels and underwent data
call-ins.  Tolerance fees were  increased by 4.2% to  reflect the General Schedule
(GS) pay raise.
                                     6-30

-------
PROGRAM
                                                        PESTICIDES
                                                 Generic Chemical Review
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REO
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Generic Chemical Review
 Program & Research
  Operat i ons
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 FIFRA Revolving Fund         $16,302.5                           $13,748.0              -$13,748.0
                       TOTAL  $63,018.9   $45,767.3   $40,093.9   $53,721.8   $42,314.5   -$11,407.3   -$3,452.8
       $21,414.6   $23,495.3   $20,983.7   $20,863.6   $20,737.7

       $25,301.8   $22,272.0   $19.110.2   $19,110.2   $21,576.8
                                              -$125.9   -$2,757.6

                                             $2,466.6     -$695.2
TOTAL:
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 FIFRA Revolving Fund

Generic Chemical
Review
       $21,414.6   $23,495.3   $20,983.7   $20,863.6   $20,737.7     -$125.9    -$2,757.6

       $25,301.8   $22,272.0   $19,110.2   $19,110.2   $21,576.8    $2,466.6      -$695.2

       $16,302.5                           $13,748.0              -$13,748.0

TOTAL  $63,018.9   $45,767.3   $40,093.9   $53,721.8   $42,314.5  -$11.407.3    -$3,452.8
PERMANENT UORKYEARS


Generic Chemical Review

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS

TOTAL UORKYEARS


Generic Chemical Review

TOTAL UORKYEARS
           544.4

           544.4




           554.2

           554.2
561.3

561.3




561.3

561.3
555.1

555.1




555.1

555.1
540.7

540.7




540.7

540.7
534.9

534.9




534.9

534.9
-5.8

-5.8




-5.8

-5.8
-26.4

-26.4




-26.4

-26.4
                                                       6-31

-------
                                  PESTICIDES

                            Generic Chemical  Review

Budget Request

          The Agency requests a total of $42,314,500 and 534.9 total workyears
for 1994, a decrease of $11,407,300 and a decrease of 5.8 total workyears from
1993.   Of  the request,  $20,737,700 will  be  for the  Program  and  Research
Operations appropriation,  and $21,576,800 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation,  a decrease of $125,900 and an increase of $2,466,600
respectively.  The decrease in workyears reflects the President's commitment to
reducing the size of the federal workforce.


GENERIC CHEMICAL REVIEW

1994 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of  $42,314,500  and 534.9  total workyears for
this  program,  of  which  $20,737,700 will  be for the  Program  and  Research
Operations appropriation,  and $21,576,800 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  Total workyears will include 328.9 for the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and 206.0 supported by the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide,  and Rodenticide  (FIFRA)  Revolving  Fund  (formally  known as  the
Reregistration and  Expedited  Processing Fund).   This  represents a decrease of
$125,900 in the Program and Research Operations  appropriation,  an increase of
$2,466,600  in  the  Abatement, Control,  and  Compliance  appropriation,   and  a
decrease of  5.8 total  workyears.   The  increase  in  Abatement,  Control,  and
Compliance  reflects  increased   funding  of   activities  supporting  pesticide
reregistration.  The decrease in workyears reflects the President's commitment
to reducing the size of the Federal workforce.

     The Agency's emphasis on pesticide reregistration is reflected in the 1994
budget request.  Resources requested, and additional resources provided by the
FIFRA revolving fund, will support completion of final call-ins for additional
required data.    Resources will  also support  38  reregistration eligibility
decisions (REOs),  which includes final data and a  decision on the reregistration
of  the pesticide.  As data gathered through the  reregistration process  is
reviewed, the Agency expects some pesticides will continue to meet the triggers
for special reviews. The projected number of special review outputs for 1994 is
eight.

     $1,500,000 of  this request is  for additional reregistration activities.
This  amount,  with  increased revenues from  maintenance fees,  will  keep the
reregistration of chemicals on the current schedule.  The FIFRA Fund will support
206.0 workyears in  1994.

     Other increases in 1994  will  provide for improvement  of the Dietary Risk
Exposure System  (DRES).   An  additional  $1,000,000 for DRES  will improve our
ability to evaluate risks  posed  through diet by providing improved precision of
food consumption data for infants and children.

                                     6-32

-------
     The Agency will continue to provide safe storage for  the remaining  2,4,5-
T/Silvex stocks, pending identification of an appropriate disposal method and a
permitted  facility.   Additionally,  Phase III  of the  disposal    regulations,
Standards for Storage, Mixing/loading, Transportation and Disposal of Pesticides,
will be issued in FY 1994.

1993 Program
     The Agency is allocating a total of $53,721,800 and 540.7 total workyears
for  this program,  of  which $20,863,600  is  from the  Program  and Research
Operations  appropriation,  $19,110,200  is  from  the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance  appropriation,  and $13,748,000  is  from the FIFRA Revovling Fund.
Total workyears  will include 329.1  from  the Program  and  Research Operations
appropriation and 211.6 will be FIFRA Fund supported.

     In 1993, the Agency is making reregistration decisions  on List B documents.
The Agency expects that 20 Reregistration Eligibility Documents (REDs) will be
completed as work  pertaining to  the  1988  FIFRA Amendments  continues.   Eight
Special  Reviews  are projected  for 1993.   Special Reviews  are  a major risk
reduction vehicle and will be increasingly required as data is reviewed during
the reregistration process.

     Worker  Protection Standards  for  Agricultural  Pesticides  (40  CFR 170),
governing pesticide-treated  field  reentry  intervals,  protective clothing,  and
label warnings, were published as a final regulation in October 1992.

     As of December 31, 1992, 99%  of  the known dinoseb  stocks had been disposed
of.  Pesticide disposal funds are being used for the continued safe storage of
the remaining stocks of 2,4,5-T/Silvex.  Storage needs  for  the remaining 2,4,5-
T/Silvex products continue until proper disposal can be arranged.

     Section  19  of  the 1988  amendments  to  FIFRA mandated  that  the  Agency
promulgate regulations  for  the  storage  and disposal of pesticides.   Proposed
regulations will be issued in three phases.   The Agency  expects to publish Phase
I, Procedural rules for suspended/ cancelled/recalled pesticides and Phase II,
Standards for pesticide containers and bulk containment in 1993.

     Environmental  indicators  are being  evaluated  for  their  feasibility  in
measuring the effectiveness of the program's efforts to achieve the objectives
of the OPPTS Four Year Strategy, particularly in the areas of reducing pesticide
risks to public  health and  the environment.   Program activities  in 1993  are
focused on accomplishing the goals and objectives outlined in the strategy.

     The Agency is continuing efforts in international coordination to ensure
consistency of decisions and science data with CODEX, the General Agreement on
Tariff and Trade (GATT), and import/export policies.  This initiative includes
coordination with  the  European Community  on its  reregistration  efforts,  and
expanded technical assistance through the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
and the Peace Corps.
                                     6-33

-------
1992 Accomplishments

     In 1992, the  Agency obligated a total of  $63,018,900  supported by 554.2
total workyears for this  program, of which $21,414,600 was from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation,   $25,301,800  was  from the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance  appropriation,  and  $16,302,500  was  from the FIFRA fund.   Total
workyears included 333.3  from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and 220.9
supported by the FIFRA Fund.

     The  Agency  continued work pertaining  to the 1988  FIFRA  Amendments,
completing 15 REDs. Funds from both Salaries and Expenses appropriations and the
FIFRA Fund were utilized  to accomplish these tasks.   EPA  completed its Phase IV
review  for  List B  chemicals,  and  began the process  of  making  reregistration
decisions on some of the  List B documents.   Ten  Special Reviews were undertaken
in 1992.  Special Reviews are a major risk reduction vehicle, and continue to be
generated primarily from data reviewed during the reregistration process.

     The Agency  continued  its  disposal responsibilities  for the remaining two
pesticides  suspended and canceled  prior to  1988:   dinoseb and 2,4,5-T/Silvex.
The  disposal  of dinoseb  stocks, which  began  in 1990, was 98%  complete  as of
September of 1992.  The disposal of 2,4,5-T/Silvex stocks previously stored at
Byers  Warehouse was  completed  in February 1992.    These  stocks  represented
approximately one  half of the total 2,4,5-T/Silvex stocks.

     1992 was the first implementation year for the program's  Four Year Strategy.
Program activities focused on accomplishing the goals and objectives outlined in
the  strategy,  particularly reducing  pesticide risks  to  public  health and the
environment.  This included the implementation of  environmental indicators to
measure progress towards these goals.

     The Regional-state  capabilities  initiative, begun  in 1990  to address the
problems  of   groundwater   protection,   protecting  endangered   species  from
pesticides, and promoting the safety  of pesticide applicators  and farm workers,
continued in 1992.  This  initiative strengthened EPA's field presence providing
state and local  solutions to area-specific problems.

     Phase II of the National Pesticide Survey  (NFS) was released  in January 1992
to the public simultaneously with transmittal to the  FIFRA Scientific Advisory
Panel  (SAP).   Phase II of the  NPS entails  detailed investigation of possible
associations between pesticides  and nitrate detections in drinking water wells
and  factors such as groundwater  sensitivity, chemical use and well conditions.
Phase I findings were distributed to the Regions, states, and other interested
parties in  1991.
                                     6-34

-------
                                                        PESTICIDES
                                             Pesticides Program Implementation

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST     INCREASE     INCREASE
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994       DECREASE     DECREASE
                                           1993                   1993                    1994 REO     1994 REQ
                                                                                             VS           VS
                                                                                          1993 CE      1993 PB

                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Pesticides Program
Implementation
 Program & Research            $2,490.2    $3,413.2    (3,334.6    $3,334.3    $3,387.7       $53.4      -$25.5
  Operations
 Abatement Control and                                     $3.1        $3.1        $3.1                    $3.1
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $2,490.2    $3,413.2    $3,337.7    $3,337.4    $3,390.8       $53.4      -$22.4

Pesticides Program
Implementation - Grants
 Abatement Control and        $14.193.8   $15,778.9   $15,202.0   $15,201.4   $16,201.4    $1,000.0      $422.5
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $14,193.8   $15,778.9   $15,202.0   $15,201.4   $16,201.4    $1,000.0      $422.5


TOTAL:
 Program & Research            $2,490.2    $3,413.2    $3,334.6    $3,334.3    $3,387.7       $53.4      -$25.5
  Operations
 Abatement Control and        $14,193.8   $15,778.9   $15,205.1   $15,204.5   $16,204.5    $1,000.0      $425.6
 Compliance

Pesticides Program     TOTAL  $16,684.0   $19,192.1   $18,539.7   $18,538.8   $19.592.2    $1,053.4      $400.1
Implementation


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Pesticides Program                 45.8        59.2        59.1        58.5        57.7          -8        -1.5
Implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS          45.8        59.2        59.1        58.5        57.7          -8        -1.5


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Pesticides Program
Implementation
TOTAL WORKYEARS
46.8

46.8
59.2

59.2
59.1

59.1
58.5

58.5
57.7

57.7
-8

-8
-1.5

-1.5
                                                       6-35

-------
                                  PESTICIDES


                       Pesticides  Program  Implementation

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of  $19,592,200  supported  by a 57.7 total of
workyears for 1994, an increase of $1,053,400  in funds and a decrease of 0.8 in
workyears from  1993.   Of the request, $3,387,700 will be for the Program and
Research Operations appropriation, and $16,204,500 will  be  for the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation, representing an increase of $53,400 for
the Program and Research Operations appropriation  and an increase of $1,000,000
in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation from 1993.  The decrease
in workyears  reflects  the President's commitment to reducing  the  size of the
Federal workforce.


PESTICIDES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $3,390,800 supported by 57.7 total workyears
for this  program,  of  which  $3,387,700 will  be  for  the Program  and Research
Operations appropriation and $3,100 will  be  for the Abatement,  Control, and
Compliance appropriation. This request represents  an increase of $53,400 for the
Program and Research Operations appropriations and a  decrease of  0.8 in total
workyears  from 1993.    The  increase  for  the  Program and Research Operations
account reflects an increase in  workforce costs.  The  decrease  in workyears
reflects  the  President's commitment  to  reducing  the  size  of   the  Federal
workforce.

      In  1994,  the Agency will  continue  to  address  concerns about pesticide
threats to groundwater, endangered species, and workers occupationally exposed
to  pesticides.    The  Agency  will   also  continue  to  build Regional/state
capabilities  in the areas of groundwater, worker protection,  and endangered
species, as well as continue to provide national leadership and coordination of
this initiative. EPA will develop guidance packages and training and educational
materials,  organize national  meetings and workshops,  and  provide technical
assistance.  In this area, EPA will also continue  joint coordination with other
Federal agencies,  especially  the United States Department of Agriculture.

      This initiative includes revisions to the Certification and Training  (C&T)
Regulations  (Part  171), which governs the  sale of restricted use pesticides to
non-certified  persons.   Regional workyears  are requested  for   groundwater,
endangered  species,  and  worker  protection.  The Regional office staff will
implement  the major initiatives underway  in  EPA, including Worker Protection
Standards, the Groundwater  Strategy,  the  Groundwater Restricted Use Rule, the
Endangered Species Protection Program, and the Non-Point Source Management and
Wellhead Protection plans.  These initiatives represent major  regulatory  and
                                     6-36

-------
program changes.  The 1994 C&T program will support 54 applicator programs in 49
states, the District of Columbia and several territories.

      Headquarters and Regional office staff will continue to develop and manage
national  training programs  for  the  certification  &  training,  groundwater,
endangered species and worker protection programs in cooperation with the U.S.
Department of Agriculture/State Cooperative Extension Services  (USDA/SCES).

      EPA and the USDA will be jointly developing pesticide education programs
to protect groundwater, workers and endangered species.  Further, national and
joint workshops on certification and training will be organized by program staff
in cooperation with USDA/SCES.

1993 Program

      In 1993, the Agency is allocating  a total of $3,337,400  supported by 58.5
total workyears for  this program,  of which $3,334,300 is from the Program and
Research Operations appropriation  and $3,100 is from the Abatement, Control, and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993, the Agency is continuing to build on the initiative begun in 1990
to  strengthen Regional/state  capabilities to  respond  to  increasing  public
concerns about groundwater contamination by pesticides, protection of endangered
species  from  pesticides,  and  safety  of  workers  occupationally  exposed  to
pesticides.    The Regional  office staff  continues  to  implement  the  major
groundwater initiatives begun  in  EPA,  including  the Groundwater Strategy,  the
Groundwater Restricted Use Rule, and the Non-Point Source Management and Wellhead
Protection Plans.   For the  worker protection program,  states  are  conducting
activities to carry out the  Worker Protection  Standard which was  signed  in
calendar year 1992.  The Agency is disseminating information on the new Standard
and continues  to  develop training materials required by the program.   For the
Endangered  Species   Program,   Regional  staff  continue   to  implement   the
geographically targeted program in high priority areas, manage program grants,
continue education and outreach,  assist  states  in developing and implementing
state-initiated plans,  and coordinate map review within the states.  Headquarters
and Regional  staff  are  continuing to manage  the certification  and training
program in cooperation with the USDA/SCES, and provide technical assistance on
pesticide issues.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated a total  of $2,490,200 supported by 45.8 total
workyears for  this program,  all  of which  was from  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

      In 1992, the regional  staff continued to  provide technical expertise on
specific  issues  relating  to the  use  and  application  of  pesticides.    They
continued to  work with the various officials  in each  state  to implement  the
Regional/state capability initiative in the areas of  protection of groundwater,
workers occupationally exposed to pesticides,  and endangered species.
                                     6-37

-------
      The Agency continued to refine the interim voluntary programs and state-
initiated plans for endangered species,  and  expanded the scope of the voluntary
programs through the development of more maps and county bulletins, pending the
issuance of the Federal Rule outlining the final program.

      Headquarters staff directed the development of training materials in the
areas of groundwater, endangered species,  and worker safety.
PESTICIDES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION GRANTS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $16,201,400  for this program, all of which
is for  the  Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation  and represents an
increase of $1,000,000 from 1993.

      Resources will be used to continue implementation of the pesticide program
in the  states  and on  Indian tribal  lands.    States and  Indian  tribes  are
instrumental in  working  with the Regions  and  the public in  addressing site-
specific pesticides issues.  The Regions will continue assisting the states in
keeping the public and users informed on pesticide issues.   The implementation
of the Worker Protection Standard will  continue to be of primary emphasis.  The
Regions will continue assistance to  the states, particularly in the development
of training  materials  and communication efforts.   In the  endangered species
program, which enters its first full year as an enforceable program, the Regions
will provide assistance  in the development  of protection plans to meet state-
specific needs.  In the groundwater program, the Regions will continue to work
with all  fifty (50)  states and  some Indian Tribes  in the development  of  and
review of Generic State Management Plans. Additional resources will also enable
the  states  to provide state grants for increased efforts  to  implement  the
certification  and training   program,   including  pesticide  risk  reduction in
specific geographic areas.

      States will  continue  to carry out the Certification  and Training (C&T)
Program in cooperation  with the Agriculture/State Cooperative Extension services
(USDA/SCES).  Efforts will continue to strengthen implementation of the C&T Part
171 regulations and  improve communications  with  the states  and public on food
safety  issues.   The  1994 budget request includes $1,000,000 more for the C&T
program than  was provided.   Additionally,  states  will continue  to strive to
ensure that  applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides  (RUPs) are knowledgeable in
all the program  initiatives of groundwater, worker protection and endangered
species.

1993 Program Request

      In 1993, the Agency is allocating a total of $15,201,400,  all of which is
from the  Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.    These resources
support certification  and training  programs, as  well  as  programs initiated in
1992 to strengthen state  capabilities to address problems in the protection of
groundwater.   In  1993,   full  scale implementation of the  Worker  Protection

                                     6-38

-------
Standard began. States are continuing to complete their implementation strategy,
including a communications program, an education program, and cooperation with
other Federal  and state agencies.

      The Agency continues to carry out cooperative agreements with  State Lead
Agencies (SLAs) to certify applicators to use RUPs.  The Agency provides grants
to states to support this activity.   Under the guidance of the Regions, states
are   implementing  certain   program  improvements,   revising  certification
examinations to strengthen state capabilities to address problems in groundwater,
endangered species, chronic  health effects,  workers occupationally exposed to
pesticides, and other topics.  EPA established an interagency agreement with USDA
to provide training to pesticide applicators by working through State Cooperative
Extension  Services.    Resources  will   be  used  for  the  development  and
implementation of training programs for non-agricultural (e.g. structural, urban)
applicators.   In  1993, states  are continuing to implement the Regional/state
capability initiative.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated a  total of $14,193,800  for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      Major emphasis continued in the area of building Regional/state capability.
Regional  Offices continued  to  negotiate  with  states  to  modify  cooperative
agreements to  incorporate  changes set forth in  the regulations  by developing
grant  and  cooperative agreement  guidance packages;    providing  technical
assistance to the Regions and states;  and developing national training programs
and materials for the  certification, groundwater, endangered species and worker
protection programs. Regional Offices also acted as reviewers on grant packages
and outputs.

      EPA continued its interagency agreement with USDA to provide training to
pesticide applicators through an  interagency agreement with USDA/SCES.   Funds
provided through  a cooperative  agreement with  USDA/SCES helped  support  the
applicator training programs.
                                     6-39

-------
*»
o

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget  Estimate

                              Table of Contents
                                                                         Page
PESTICIDES
ENFORCEMENT
   Pesticides Enforcement 	   6-41
      Pesticides Enforcement  	   6-42
      Pesticides Enforcement Grants 	   6-44

-------
                                                       PESTICIDES
                                                  Pesticides Enforcement


PROGRAM
Pesticides Enforcement
Grants
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Pesticides Enforcement
FIFRA Funds
Program & Research
Operat i ons
Abatement Control and
Compliance
FIFRA Revolving Fund
TOTAL
TOTAL:
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
FIFRA Revolving Fund
Pesticides Enforcement TOTAL
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Pesticides Enforcement
FIFRA Funds
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS
ACTUAL PRES. ENACTED CURRENT REQUEST INCREASE
1992 BUDGET 1993 ESTIMATE 1994 DECREASE
1993 1993 1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)



$15,771.9 $15,974.1 $15,842.6 $15,842.4 $15,842.4

$15,771.9 $15,974.1 $15,842.6 $15,842.4 $15,842.4


$6,231.0 $8,270.1 $8,123.8 $8,106.8 $8,474.7 $367.9

$2,265.9 $2,252.5 $1,941.4 $1,946.6 $2,446.6 $500.0

$1,942.0
$10,438.9 $10,522.6 $10,065.2 $10,053.4 $10,921.3 $867.9

$6,231.0 $8,270.1 $8,123.8 $8,106.8 $8,474.7 $367.9

$18,037.8 $18,226.6 $17,784.0 $17,789.0 $18,289.0 $500.0

$1,942.0
$26,210.8 $26,496.7 $25,907.8 $25,895.8 $26,763.7 $867.9

139.2 139.3 138.7 138.7 138.7

139.2 139.3 138.7 138.7 138.7

INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB




-$131.7

-$131.7


$204.6

$194.1


$398.7

$204.6

$62.4


$267.0

-6

-6

Pesticides Enforcement             145.3       139.3       138.7       138.7       138.7                      -6
 FIFRA Funds

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   145.3       139.3       138.7       138.7       138.7                      -6
                                                      6-41

-------
                                  PESTICIDES

                            Pesticide Enforcement
Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $26,763,700  supported by  138.7 total
workyears for 1994,  an increase of $867,900.  Of the request,  $8,474,700  will be
for the Program and Research Operations appropriation and $18,289,000 will be for
the Abatement, Control, and  Compliance appropriation, an increase of $367,900 in
the Program and Research Operations appropriation and an increase of $500,000 in
the Abatement, Control,  and Compliance Appropriation.
PESTICIDES ENFORCEMENT

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $10,921,300  supported by  138.7  total
workyears  for  this  program, of which  $8,474,700  will be for  the  Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and  $2,446,600  will be for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $367,900
for the Program and Research Operations  appropriation and an increase of $500,000
in the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropriation.  The increase in Program
and Research Operations  reflects  increased workforce costs.   The  increase in
Abatement,   Control,  and  Compliance augments  the  laboratory data  integrity
program.

     In 1994, Headquarters will provide overall program guidance and management,
will assist in developing new  and revised regulations,  and  develop compliance
monitoring strategies and enforcement response policies.  Headquarters staff will
also provide guidance  and general oversight of the  Federal/state  cooperative
enforcement agreement program,  and technical and analytical support  for Regional
activities.

     Headquarters will  direct the OPPTS laboratory data integrity program, which
inspects  private  testing  laboratories  to  determine  compliance  with  Good
Laboratory Practices (GLP) regulations, audits  in-process  studies, and verifies
the scientific accuracy of completed test  studies.  This program was designated
a material  weakness under the Federal Managers  Financial Integrity Act (FMFIA).
Headquarters will continue to implement the corrective actions associated with
this program to effectively enforce data integrity and GLP requirements under the
pesticide reregistration program.  The 1994 budget  request  includes  $500,000 for
the development of automated inspection and study audit tracking and targeting
systems for the GLP program. In 1994,  five existing Memoranda of Understanding
(MOUs) with foreign countries will  continue to be implemented to assure continued
international GLP cooperation.
                                     6-42

-------
     Tracking  and  enforcement of  pesticide reregistration  requirements will
continue.  Monitoring of  suspension/cancellation  of pesticides and associated
disposal  activities  will  continue  in response  to the  increased enforcement
requirements of the accelerated reregistration of pesticides.  Headquarters will
conduct grant guidance and state liaison activities to assure that reregistration
decisions are enforced by states.

     Regions will manage and oversee the state and  Federal pesticide enforcement
cooperative agreement program. States and Indian Tribes not currently involved
with the cooperative agreement program will be encouraged to participate by the
Regions.   Regions  will  continue to  provide  enforcement training  and policy
guidance to the states for state worker protection regulations and pesticides in
groundwater compliance strategies.  State inspector training will be coordinated
through the Regions to ensure that  the statutes are  properly enforced and cases
are  legitimately developed.   The  Regions will conduct  inspections  in states
without cooperative enforcement agreements.

      Technical and compliance assistance will be conducted at the Regional level
to disseminate the information to the regulated community, the public, and the
states.   In  the  laboratory  data  integrity program,  three  Regions  support
Headquarters by conducting inspections to monitor compliance with Good Laboratory
Practices (GLP) regulations at laboratories engaged in testing in response to
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) data requirements.

1993 Program

      In 1993,  the  Agency is allocating a total of $10,053,400 supported by 138.7
total workyears for this program,  of  which $8,106,800 is from the Program and
Research Operations appropriation and $1,946,600 is  from the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.

      In  1993,  the Agency is continuing to emphasize state  participation in
pesticide compliance monitoring and enforcement activities through cooperative
enforcement agreements.  There are  55 cooperative enforcement agreements with
states and territories and 12 additional agreements with Indian Tribes and tribal
organizations.   Federal compliance  monitoring  activities continue  in states
without cooperative agreements.

      Other  Federal  responsibilities include import  and export  surveillance,
technical and compliance assistance to the  states and the regulated community,
and operation of computer systems maintaining pesticide producer establishment
and  production records and  other related enforcement  data.   Headquarters
continues to address the corrective actions associated with the laboratory data
integrity program  and antimicrobial program which was identified as a material
weakness under FMFIA.

1992 Accomplishments

      In  1992,  the Agency obligated a total of  $8,496,900 supported by 145.3
total workyears for this program, of which $6,231,000  was from  the Salaries and
Expense  appropriation  and $2,265,900  was  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and

                                     6-43

-------
Compliance appropriation.  Twenty-six of these workyears were supported by the
Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund.

      A total of 55 cooperative enforcement agreements were in place with states
and  territories,  plus  another  12  agreements  with  Indian Tribes  and tribal
organizations.   As  part  of  the  cooperative  agreement  program,  the Agency
supplemented training for state inspectors, chemists and case development staff.

      In 1992, the Regions provided inspector training, grant oversight,  incident
investigations,  technical assistance  and guidance  to states,  the regulated
community, and the public to obtain compliance with FIFRA.  The Regions worked
with states to prepare for full compliance implementation of the pesticides in
groundwater strategies and worker protection regulations.
PESTICIDES ENFORCEMENT GRANTS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of  $15,842,400  for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The  Agency will  continue  cooperative  enforcement  agreements with  55
participating states and territories, and 12 agreements with Indian Tribes and
tribal organizations.  The cooperative enforcement agreement program continues
to be  the primary  means  for  ensuring public and environmental  safety from
hazardous pesticides by enforcing the requirements of the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).

      State  activities  will  include  pesticide producer  establishment  and
marketplace inspections, applicator license and record inspections, dealer record
inspections, and agricultural and non-agricultural use inspections.

      States will implement worker protection enforcement activities under state
implementation plans.  States will also continue to implement state management
plans for the pesticides in groundwater strategies.

1993 Program

      In 1993,  the Agency  is allocating a total  of $15,842,400 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993, the Agency  is  continuing  55  cooperative enforcement agreements
with states and territories, and 12 additional agreements with Indian Tribes and
tribal organizations.   These agreements emphasize user  compliance  with label
directions for proper use and application, as well as manufacturer adherence to
product  formulation  requirements under FIFRA.    Inspections  also  address
applicator  licenses  and records,  producer  establishments, marketplaces,  and
pesticide dealers. The states are increasingly emphasizing agricultural and non-
agricultural use inspections in the expectation  that use compliance produces the
greatest overall  environmental benefit.   States continue to  implement state

                                     6-44

-------
implementation plans for worker protection and develop state management plans for
pesticides in groundwater strategies.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992, the Agency obligated a total of $15,771,900 for this program, all
of which was  from  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.  These
funds supported pesticides enforcement activities in 55 states and 12 tribes.

      States  conducted inspections for compliance with pesticides  labels.   In
addition, states  also worked to develop  implementation  strategies  for worker
protection regulations  and  pesticides  in groundwater.   State  programs  also
focused on lawn care use violations and disinfectant efficacy testing.
                                     6-45

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents
                                                                         Page


RADIATION                                                                7-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Radiation Research 	   7-9
      Radiation Research  	  7-10
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines  	   7-15
      Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines  	  7-16
   Radiation Program Implementation    	    7-21
      Radiation Program Implementation 	  7-22
      Radon Action Program Implementation   	  7-24
   Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment  	   7-27
      Radon Action Program	7-28
      Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment	7-31
      Radon State Grant Program 	  7-33

-------
APPROPRIATION
                                                      RADIATION
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development

TOTAL, Radiation
      $13,966.7   $16,722.6   $14,W2.7   $15,195.7   $14,097.3   -$1,098.4   -$2,625.3

      $22.631.8   $20,770.7   $17,879.0   $19,471.5   $21,251.2    $1,779.7     $480.5

       $1,651.5    $2,592.3       $98.7       $98.7                  -$98.7   -$2,592.3

      $38,250.0   $40,085.6   $32,970.4   $34,765.9   $35,348.5      $582.6   -$4,737.1
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS

OUTLAYS

AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
          278.7
          286.1
325.2
325.2
319.9
319.9
316.9
316.9
288.7
288.7
      $38,621.4   $32,645.8   $34,720.2   $34,758.1    $35,675.0
-28.2
-28.2
-36.5
-36.5
                                               $916.9    $3,029.2
Authorization for the Indoor Radon Abatement Act  expired on September  30,  1991.  All other
authorization except for Research and Development is by virtue of  the  Appropriation Act.
The Environmental Research, Development and Demonstration Act  expired  September 30, 1981.
Reauthorization is pending.
                                                        7-1

-------
                                                          RADIATION
                                  PRES.
                                 BUDGET    ENACTED
                                  1993      1993
                       CURRENT
                       ESTIMATE
                         1993
                                                                         DIFFERENCE
                   ENACTED VS
                   PRES. BUD
                     EST. VS
                    PRES. BUD
                    EST. VS
                    ENACTED
 APPROPRIATION
                                                (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
  Program & Research
   Operations
  Abatement Control and
  Compliance
  Research & Development

 TOTAL, Radiation
 PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 TOTAL WORKYEARS
$16,722.6   $14,992.7   $15,195.7   -$1,729.9   -$1,526.9      $203.0

$20,770.7   $17,879.0   $19,471.5   -$2,891.7   -$1,299.2    $1,592.5

 $2,592.3       $98.7       $98.7   -$2,493.6   -$2,493.6

$40,085.6   $32,970.4   $34,765.9   -$7,115.2   -$5,319.7    $1,795.5
    325.2
    325.2
319.9
319.9
316.9
316.9
-5.3
-5.3
-8.3
-8.3
-3.0
-3.0
        The following points list the major reasons that the dollars devoted to this media have changed from
submission of the President's FY 1993 Budget Request  to the FY  1993  Current  Estimates.

        PROGRAM AND RESEARCH OPERATIONS

        o        Congressional  restructuring of former  Salaries and Expenses account

        o        Redirection  to Administrator's Priorities

        ABATEMENT. CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

        o        Congressional  restructuring of account

        o        General Agency Reduction

        o        Redirection  to Administrator's Priorities

        RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

        o        Reductions made to the Research and Development appropriation to meet FY 1993 Congressional funding
                 levels, included the elimination of Radon mitigation research and Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)
                 research.
                                                        7-2

-------
                                                 MEDIA BRIDGE TABLES
MEDIA: RADIATION
                                          PRO

FY 1993 CURRENT ESTIMATE                 $15,195.7

  Changes by Category:

        Workforce Costs (+/-)            -$1,098.4

        Legislative Initiatives (+/-)

        Program Initiatives (+/-)

        Discontinuation of Specific
        Increases to FY 1992 Request (-)
        Others <+/-)
FY 1994 PRESIDENT'S BUDGET
                        MEDIA

                AC&C            R&D         Total

                $19,471.5        $98.7     $34,765.9



                                          -$1,098.4
$14,097.3
+$1,296.0


  -$600.0

   +$83.7


$21,251.2
                                -$98.7
+$1,296.0


  -$600.0

    -15.0


$35,348.5
                                                        7-3

-------
 I
r-

-------
                                   RADIATION
I.  OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      The Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA)  program to protect the public
health and environment from adverse effects  of radiation exposure is derived from
several statutes including:  the Indoor Radon Abatement Act; the new Clean Air
Act Amendments of 1990; the Atomic Energy Act; the Public Health Service Act; the
Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act; the Marine Protection,  Research, and
Sanctuaries Act; and  the  Superfund Amendments  and Reauthorization Act.   These
Acts authorize a wide range of  regulatory,  assessment, assistance,  and research
activities.  The Agency also performs some oversight functions for programs with
enforcement authority vested in other agencies.

      EPA's radiation program has four major objectives:

      o     Reduce  adverse  health  effects  and  environmental  impacts  from
            radiation exposure through a program of standards and guidelines.

      o     Assess and quantify  existing  and emerging  radiation  problems  and
            their potential impact.

      o     Respond to issues of serious public concern.

      o     Maintain  the  capability  to  respond  to  emergencies  and  to  aid
            development  and  testing  of  federal,  state,  and  local  plans  for
            emergency response.

      To  accomplish  these objectives, EPA assesses and  regulates sources  of
airborne  radionuclides;  evaluates and  regulates  radioactive  waste disposal;
provides site assessments and radiochemical analyses of environmental samples;
operates the Radon Action Program; operates the Environmental Radiation Ambient
Monitoring System (ERAMS);  develops protective action guides to provide guidance
to officials on  preventive and remedial  actions; and responds to radiological
emergencies.  In 1994, the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air  (ORIA) will give
priority to the areas described below.

II.  FY 1994 PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

Implement Existing Standards and New Requirements.

      In  1994  EPA  will  continue  to  concentrate  on  addressing  airborne
radionuclides,   establishing   standards  for   radioactive  waste  management,
developing  federal guidance,  and strengthening  preparedness for radiological
emergencies.  The Agency will continue to promote the transfer of implementation
responsibilities for the  radionuclide National Emission  Standards for Hazardous
Air Pollutants (NESHAPs)  to the states, and will continue to develop guidance on
the clean-up of residual radioactivity. Our activities include issuing standards
and guidance to limit human radiation exposure and  overseeing the activities of
the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  (WIPP).
                                      7-5

-------
      Over 20,000  sites,  including  DOE facilities and over  100  nuclear power
reactors, exist where  radioactive materials are used.  Many  of  these will be
candidates for  decommissioning over  the  next  several  decades.    Billions of
dollars  potentially could  be wasted by  the use  of inappropriate  clean-up
standards.   In  1994 EPA will  continue to develop cleanup criteria for sites
contaminated with radionuclides that will provide clear and consistent cleanup
standards.

      The Agency  will  emphasize  enhancements  to its radiological emergency
preparedness  program through  training,  field  exercises,  and replacement of
obsolete equipment in the radiation laboratories.  EPA has the  lead in responding
to foreign-source  accidents that affect the U.S.  and leads the post-emergency
response effort in the event of a domestic accident.

Address Radon Exposure in Structures.

      Over time,  the Radon Program  strategy  has  evolved to  include  four key
elements:

o     guiding scientific and policy principles that make up the heart of radon
      "messages" communicated to the public;
o     a  decentralized  system  for  influencing the  public  that  consists  of
      multiple, highly respected organizations that can deliver radon messages
      through established channels to targeted audiences;
o     a continuum of strategic approaches  for  reducing radon risks ranging from
      public information efforts that let  people make  their own decisions about
      the need to test and fix their homes to regulatory approaches that require
      testing and/or mitigation; and
o     a strong focus on the most promising strategic approaches.

      As part of  the Radon  Program's continual evaluation and adjustment, the
program  conducted a program review in conjunction with  the  Office of Policy,
Planning and Evaluation (OPPE) in 1992.  The review recommended that the Radon
Program place a strong emphasis on five key areas which hold the greatest promise
for achieving risk reduction:

o     Focus on the greatest risk first,
o     Promote radon  resistant new construction,
o     Support   testing  and  mitigation   in  connection  with   real  estate
      transactions,
o     Continue national media efforts  and  focus on high risk  areas, and
o     Develop a coordinated research  plan.

      In 1994 the Radon Action Program will continue to implement  the activities
authorized by the Indoor Radon Abatement Act  (IRAA) and  any new  legislative
mandates.  IRAA activities include the State Indoor Radon Grant (SIRG) Program,
the National  Radon Proficiency Programs,  the Regional Radon  Training Centers,
work in schools, promotion of model building standards, and  technical assistance
to build capabilities at the state and local  level.
                                      7-6

-------
      The Radon  Program will also focus on  achieving results by tracking and
setting goals for environmental indicators which include: numbers of homes and
schools tested and mitigated,  homes  built  using radon resistant features, and
number of jurisdictions requiring radon-resistant new construction features. The
Radon Program is working with  regions and  states to develop and track similar
measures.   The  Radon Program  will also increase  its efforts in  the  area of
environmental equity by working with  organizations  which  specialize  in reaching
minority populations and developing messages and utilizing communication channels
which are most effective  in reaching minorities.

Provide Technical Assistance for Federal Facility Clean-up and Storage

      EPA  will  continue  to provide  coordination,  oversight, technical, and
laboratory  support  among regional  and  headquarters  offices  to  ensure that
radioactively contaminated federal facilities are cleaned up to acceptable risk
levels consistent with the requirements of the federal facility agreements.

      The program is  composed  of  two primary elements: development of overall
guidance  and  laboratory  support that  are  applicable  to  all  federal facility
sites;  and development   of  operational  controls  for site  characterization,
sampling,  handling,  analysis,  treatment,   and  disposal   of  mixed  wastes
(combinations of radioactive waste and hazardous chemicals).  The latter is of
particular concern for DOE sites because many have  substantial amounts of mixed
wastes.

      As directed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act,
EPA will work to implement high level waste standards  and criteria.  Under the
WIPP  legislation,  over  the next  few years,  the  Agency is  responsible for
approving (or disapproving) the Test Phase Plan and the Retrieval Plan, reviewing
whether DOE has complied  with the No-Migration Determination clause, providing
comments  on  DOE'S  Performance  Assessment  Report,  and certifying  whether the
facility complies with final disposal regulations.

Conduct Research to Support the Radiation Program.

      ORD  will   continue to  monitor  off-site  areas,  under  a  reimbursable
arrangement with DOE at the Nevada Test Site and other test locations, to provide
the data  needed  by policy-makers  to  make  decisions  regarding the  control of
public exposure to radioactive  materials.   This support consists of a radiation
safety  monitoring program;  operation of  environmental sampling  networks;
interaction with the general public to maintain public confidence and support;
laboratory analyses sufficient to immediately assess the impact of an inadvertent
release of radioactivity; determination of radionuclide body burdens  in off-site
residents; veterinary investigation of claims of alleged  radiation injury; and
the maintenance of all data in computerized data bases.
                                      7-7

-------
                                   RADIATION
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

Cumulative Outputs

FR Notices  	

Proposals 	

Promulgations/Neg. Det
             ACTUAL
              1992
                3

                1

                2
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE  ESTIMATE
  1993      1994
  7

  4

  3
3

1

2
       INCREASE  (+)
       DECREASE  (-)
       1994 VS 1993
-4

-3

-1
Key for Cumulative Outputs:
      1992:
      1993:
      1994:
1 proposed rule for NRC licensees
1 final rule for Elemental Phosphorous
1 final rule for Phosphogypsum

1 high level waste standard proposed
1 high level waste standard promulgated
2 final rules for NRC licensees
1 proposed rule for NRC licensees
1 proposed rule for UMTRCA requirements
1 final Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act standard
promulgated
1 proposed rule for WIPP test and retrieval plan

1 compliance criteria rule proposed
1 WIPP test and retrieval determination promulgated
1 NRC licensees final rule promulgated
                                      7-8

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents
                                                                         Page
RADIATION
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Radiation Research 	   7-9
      Radiation Research 	  7-10

-------
PROGRAM
                                                        RADIATION
                                                   Radiation Research
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 RED
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Radition Research
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Research & Development        $1,651.5
                       TOTAL   $2,907.3
        $1,255.8    $1,523.6    $1,477.8    $1,477.4
                    $2,592.3
                    $4,115.9
           $98.7
        $1,576.5
           $98.7
        $1,576.1
                   -$1,477.4   -$1,523.6

                      -$98.7   -$2,592.3
                   -$1,576.1   -$4,115.9
TOTAL:
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Research & Development

Radiation Research
        $1,255.8    $1,523.6

        $1,651.5    $2,592.3

TOTAL   $2,907.3    $4,115.9
        $1,477.8    $1,477.4

           $98.7       $98.7

        $1,576.5    $1,576.1
                               -$1,477.4   -$1,523.6

                                  -$98.7   -$2,592.3

                               -$1,576.1   -$4,115.9
PERMANENT UORKYEARS


Radition Research

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
            20.7

            20.7
23.4

23.4
23.1

23.1
23.1

23.1
-23.1

-23.1
-23.4

-23.4
TOTAL UORKYEARS


Radition Research

TOTAL UORKYEARS
            21.1

            21.1
23.4

23.4
23.1

23.1
23.1

23.1
-23.1

-23.1
-23.4

-23.4
                                                        7-9

-------
                                  RADIATION

                              Radiation Research

                               Principal Outputs

1994  o     Annual report for calendar year 1994 on off-site surveillance around
            the Nevada Test Site.

1993  o     Report on ambient  impacts of  active  soil depressurization ground-
            level exhaust systems used in radon mitigation.

      o     Report on  the evaluation of  radon permeability  through concrete
            slabs.

      o     Annual report for calendar year 1993 on off-site surveillance around
            the Nevada Test Site.

1992  o     Report on radon reduction via natural ventilation.

      o     Fourth annual international symposium on radon and radon reduction
            technology.

      o     Report  on  radon  reduction  measures  demonstrated  in  attached
            dwellings.

      o     Update of radon reduction technology,  for existing houses, technical
            guidance (First Volume).

      o     Annual report for calendar year 1992 on off-site surveillance around
            the Nevada Test Site.
                                     7-10

-------
                                   RADIATION
                              Radiation Research
BUDGET REQUEST

1994 Budget Request

      The Agency  requests a  total  of 59.5  total  workyears for  1994  under a
reimbursable arrangement with the Department of Energy (DOE).  This represents
a decrease of $1,576,100 and 24 total workyears from 1993, of which $1,477,400
was from the Program and Research Operations  appropriation and $98,700 was from
the Research  and  Development appropriation.   The  decrease  to  the Program and
Research  Operations  appropriation  reflects  the  redirection  of  personnel
compensation and  benefits  (PC&B),  and travel expenses associated with funding
ORD's staff of scientists, managers and support personnel. The decrease for the
Research  and  Development appropriation  reflects  the redirection  of research
resources to higher priority  research activities.  The decrease reflects a shift
in  the Agency's  strategy  toward  greater  cross-media  research  through  the
multimedia  program as  a more  effective  method   of  scientific  inquiry  into
environmental problems than the single media  approach traditionally followed by
the Agency as well as the result of a government-wide reduction in workyears that
is part of the President's program to  reduce  the size  and  cost of government.

1993 Budget

      The Agency  is allocating a total of $1,576,100 and 83.5 total workyears,
of which $1,477,400 is from the Program and Research Operations appropriation,
and $98,700 is from the Research and Development appropriation.

FY 1992 Budget

      The Agency obligated a total of $2,907,300 and 80 total  workyears, of which
$1,255,800 was  from  the  Program and  Research  Operations  appropriation,  and
$1,651,500 was from the Research and Development appropriation.
RESEARCH ISSUES

INDOOR AIR & RADIATION

1994 Program Request

      These resources will be  redirected  into Air Quality Research to conduct
related indoor air engineering research, and into  Multimedia Research to better
manage cross program quality assurance efforts.
                                     7-11

-------
FY 1993 Program

      The Office of Research and Development (ORD) is scaling-back investments
devoted to radon mitigation in FY 1993.  Research activities are being conducted
in-house in order to phase-out  efforts  for both existing and new houses, non-
residential buildings,  and laboratory bench studies devoted to radon.  Research
efforts to identify radon mitigation alternatives are also being phased-out.

      ORD's electromagnetic field (EMF)  research is using funds appropriated in
FY 1992 to determe possible relationships  between exposure  to EMF and adverse
human health effects.  The emphasis of this research is on 1) identification of
biological mechanisms which can  explain the progression from exposure to disease
outcome; and 2)  human exposure assessment.  Research in these two areas will help
to reduce uncertainties in the  risk assessment of EMF.

      EPA continues  to provide  technical expertise and  guidance to Regional,
State, and contractor  laboratories for radiochemical analyses of environmental
samples.  EPA scientists conduct inter-laboratory comparison studies to provide
data on the precision of radioactivity measurements in  milk, drinking water, and
air.

FY 1992 Accomplishments

       Researchers studied the processes influencing radon entry to provide the
scientific basis for developing new or improved radon reduction methods and to
develop and demonstrate techniques to cost effectively  reduce indoor air levels.
Specific research included bench and pilot scale testing to simulate the relative
importance of aggregate  and surrounding soil on  the  radon  entry process,  and
demonstrations  to define  the  ability of  active soil depressurization  (ASD)
systems to consistently achieve levels  < 1 pCi/L in homes,  schools,  and other
structures.  Researchers also focused on determining the durability and failure
rate of currently applied mitigation systems.    Evaluations were conducted on
innovative mitigation  system designs as  well  as demonstrations  of ASD  and
Heating,Ventilation,  and Air  Conditioning  (HVAC)  control  systems as  radon
mitigation options for schools.

      Electric  and magnetic  field research  (EMF)  centered  on major  issues
identified in the Agency's  research  strategy and those recommended by SAB for
determining  plausible biological  mechanisms   and   conditions   under  which
electromagnetic radiation may promote or induce cancer.

      EPA also provided technical expertise and guidance to Regional, State, and
contractor laboratories for radiochemical analyses of environmental samples.  EPA
scientists conducted inter-laboratory comparison studies to provide data on the
precision and accuracy  of radioactivity measurements in milk,  drinking water, and
air.
                                     7-12

-------
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES/SBIR

1994 Program Request

      As there are no extramural resources in Radiation Research in FY  1994, no
resources will be identified to contribute to the SBIR program.

1993 Program

As mandated by the Small Business Development Act of 1982  (Public  Law  97-219),
EPA is allocating 1.50% of its extramural Research and Development budget for the
Small  Business  Innovation Research  (SBIR) Program.   These  funds  are  used to
support small businesses engaged in the  development of equipment for pollution
abatement and control, and instrumentation for monitoring environmental trends
and conditions.   Under  this program, ORD is  able to  take advantage of unique
solutions to pesticide related problems and other environmental  issues  that may
be offered by the private sector.

1992 Accomplishments

Resources  and  accomplishments  supporting this program  were budgeted in the
Multimedia program element for 1992.
INFRASTRUCTURE

1994 Program Request

      These resources will be redirected into other program elements in FY 1994
to address higher health and environmental risks.

1993 Program

      ORD1 8 current infrastructure program provides compensation and benefits,
and  travel  for ORD  scientists and  engineers.    ORD1 s workforce  carries  out
scientific programs in support of the Agency' s mission.

1992 Accomplishments

      ORD funded its workyears  in  scientific support of the Agency1 s mission,
providing the necessary personnel  compensation and benefits, and travel for ORD
scientists and engineers.
CROSS PROGRAM

FY 1994

      The Off-Site Monitoring program will  provide the data needed by policy-
makers to make decisions regarding the control of public exposure to radioactive
materials resulting from nuclear testing activities,   since  the creation of the
Agency  in 1970, the  EPA has  conducted off-site  monitoring support  under  a

                                     7-13

-------
reimbursable  arrangement with  DOE at  the Nevada  Test Site  and  other test
locations.   This support consists  of  a radiation  safety  monitoring program;
operation of environmental sampling networks; interaction with the general public
to maintain  public  confidence and support; laboratory  analyses sufficient to
immediately  assess  the  impact of  an   inadvertent  release  of  radioactivity;
determination of  radionuclide body burdens in  off-site  residents; veterinary
investigation of claims of alleged radiation injury; and the maintenance of all
data in computerized data bases.

FY 1993 Program

      EPA continues  to monitor off-site areas for DOE at the Nevada Test Site and
other test  locations and provides  the data  needed by policy-makers  to make
decisions regarding  the  control of public exposure to  radioactive materials.
This support consists  of a  radiation  safety  monitoring program,  a long-term
hydrological monitoring program, a human surveillance investigation  program, and
maintenance of the radiation data base.

FY 1992 Accomplishments

       EPA conducted off-site monitoring efforts for the DOE at the Nevada Test
Site and  other  test  locations.   ORD   support  consisted  of radiation  safety
monitoring, long-term hydrological monitoring, human surveillance investigations,
and maintenance of the radiation data base.
                                     7-14

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents
                                                                         Page
RADIATION
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines 	   7-15
      Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines  	  7-16
   Radiation Program Implementation    	    7-21
      Radiation Program Implementation 	  7-22
      Radon Action Program Implementation   .  	  7-24
   Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment   	   7-27
      Radon Action Program	7-28
      Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment	7-31
      Radon State Grant Program	7-33

-------
               RADIATION
Radiation Criteria, Standards & Guidelines


PROGRAM
Radiation Criteria,
Standards & Guidelines
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
TOTAL:
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
Radiation Criteria, TOTAL
Standards & Guidelines
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Radiation Criteria,
Standards & Guidelines
TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
TOTAL UORICYEARS
Radiation Criteria,
Standards & Guidelines
TOTAL UORKYEARS
ACTUAL PRES. ENACTED CURRENT
1992 BUDGET 1993 ESTIMATE
1993 1993
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

$4,042.8 $4,416.3 $4,124.6 $4,359.3
$2,070.5 $2,194.4 $1,598.8 $3,197.8
$6,113.3 $6,610.7 $5,723.4 $7,557.1
$4,042.8 $4,416.3 $4,124.6 $4,359.3
$2,070.5 $2,194.4 $1,598.8 $3,197.8
$6,113.3 $6,610.7 $5,723.4 $7,557.1

57.4 61.6 59.6 59.0
57.4 61.6 59.6 59.0

60.2 61.6 59.6 59.0
60.2 61.6 59.6 59.0
REQUEST INCREASE
1994 DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE


$4,060.3 -S299.0
$2,599.6 -$598.2
$6,659.9 -$897.2
$4,060.3 -$299.0
$2,599.6 -$598.2
$6,659.9 -$897.2

58.0 -1.0
58.0 -1.0

58.0 -1.0
58.0 -1.0
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB


-$356.0
$405.2
$49.2
-$356.0
$405.2
$49.2

-3.6
-3.6

-3.6
-3.6
              7-15

-------
                                   RADIATION

                 Radiation Criteria,  Standards,  and  Guidelines

Budget Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $6,659,900 supported by 58.0 total workyears
for 1994.   Of the  request,  $4,060,300 will be for the  Program  and Research
Operations appropriation and $2,599,600 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents a decrease of $299,000 in the Program
and Research Operations appropriation,  a decrease of  $598,200 in the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation, and a decrease of 1.0 total workyear.

RADIATION CRITERIA. STANDARDS. AND GUIDELINES

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $6,659,900 supported by 58.0 total workyears
for 1994.   Of the  request,  $4,060,300 will be for the  Program  and Research
Operations appropriation and $2,599,600 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents a decrease of $299,000 in the Program
and Research Operations appropriation,  a decrease of  $598,200 in the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation, and a decrease  of 1.0 total workyear.  The
decrease in workyears is a result of  the government-wide reduction in workyears
that  is part  of  the President's program to  reduce  the size  and cost  of
government.

      In 1994  EPA  will continue to  concentrate on three  major program areas:
addressing airborne radionuclides, establishing  standards  for radioactive waste
management, and developing federal guidance. The Agency will continue to promote
the transfer of  implementation  responsibilities for  the radionuclide National
Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs)  to the states.

      The Agency will continue to develop guidance on the clean-up of residual
radioactivity.   Over  20,000  sites,  including  Department of  Energy  (DOE)
facilities and over 100 nuclear power  reactors, exist where  radioactive materials
are used.  Many  of these  will be candidates  for decommissioning over the next
several decades.   Billions of dollars potentially could be wasted by inadequate
clean-up efforts.

      As directed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  (WIPP)  Land Withdrawal Act,
EPA will work to implement high level waste standards and criteria.  Under the
WIPP  legislation,  over  the next  few years,  the Agency is  responsible  for
approving (or disapproving) the Test Phase Plan and the Retrieval Plan, reviewing
whether DOE has complied with the No-Migration Determination clause,  providing
comments on DOE's Performance Assessment Report,  and certifying  whether the WIPP
facility complies with final disposal regulations.

      As part  of its nuclear accident response  efforts, EPA will  implement
interim protective  action guides for ingestion (food  and water)  pathways and
develop a training program and  conduct  field  exercises for implementing these
protective action guides.

                                     7-16

-------
      The Agency will continue to enhance its mathematical modelling techniques
and evaluate new scientific literature to improve the basis for radiation risk
assessments.   This  supports  radiation  risk  assessment needs  across several
program areas including groundwater, drinking water, soil, and air.

      The Agency  will also continue  to support the  congressionally mandated
National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study on  the  scientific basis for developing
standards for commercial waste disposal  at the Yucca Mountain site.  Increased
emphasis will also be placed on finalizing low level waste disposal standards.

      In  1994  EPA  will  also  perform  exposure  assessment,  modeling,  and
measurement  studies  to identify  and  characterize sources  of electromagnetic
radiation.    The  Agency  will  distribute  and continue  to  develop  public
information/outreach materials  to assist states and regions  in responding to
public inquiries.

1993 Program

      The Agency  is  allocating a total  of  $7,557,100  supported by 59.0 total
workyears for this program,  of which $4,359,300 was for  the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation and  $3,197,800 is  for the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993 EPA  is continuing to concentrate on three  major  program areas:
addressing airborne radionuclides, establishing  standards for radioactive waste
management, and developing federal guidance.  The Agency continues to promote the
transfer of implementation responsibilities  for  the radionuclide NESHAPs to the
states.

      EPA  is promulgating  final  standards for  the  disposal  of  high-level
radioactive wastes.  The Agency  is also continuing  to  develop guidance on the
clean-up of residual  radioactivity.  Over 20,000 sites,  including DOE facilities
and over 100 nuclear  power reactors, exist where radioactive materials are used.
Many of  these will  be  candidates for  decommissioning over the  next several
decades. Billions of dollars potentially could be wasted by inappropriate clean-
up standards.

      As part  of  its nuclear  accident  response efforts, EPA  is implementing
interim protective action  guides for  ingestion (food  and water)  pathways and
developing a training program for implementing these protective action guides.

      The Agency is continuing to enhance its mathematical modeling techniques
and evaluate new scientific literature to improve the basis for radiation risk
assessments.   This  supports  radiation  risk  assessment needs  across several
program areas including groundwater, drinking water, soil, and air.

      The Agency is also continuing to support the congressionally mandated NAS
study on the scientific basis  for developing standards for  commercial  waste
disposal at the Yucca Mountain site.
                                     7-17

-------
      Congress enacted legislation in  1992  for  evaluating the Waste Isolation
Pilot Plant (WIPP) radioactive waste  disposal  site  in New  Mexico.  As a result,
EPA has gained oversight authority for the DOE waste disposal activities at WIPP.
In 1993. these efforts are funded by DOE on a reimbursable basis and will include
four major rulemakings: high level waste disposal  standards, approval/disapproval
of DOE's test and retrieval  plan,  compliance  criteria,  and a final compliance
determination.  In 1993  the Agency will make a determination on  the test and
retrieval plan and propose compliance criteria.

      In  1993  EPA  is  also  performing  exposure   assessment,  modeling,  and
measurement studies to identify  and characterize  sources  of electromagnetic
radiation.  The Agency is  also  distributing  and  continues  to develop public
information/outreach materials to assist  states and Regions in responding to
public  inquiries.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency obligated a total of $6,113,300  supported by 60.2 total
workyears  for this  program,  of  which $4,042,800   was  from  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $2,070,500 was  from  the  Abatement,   Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1992, EPA continued the implementation  of  the Clean  Air Act Amendments
of 1990.  Activities included evaluating the adequacy of the  Nuclear Regulatory
Commission  (NRC)  program to achieve the  goals  of  the new Act.   In addition,
implementation  of existing radionuclide NESHAPs continued.   These activities
included:  providing technical  assistance;  establishing training programs for
implementation  at  the  regional  and  state levels;  and   providing  technical
assistance to inspection teams.   Headquarters also  continued  to assist regions
with the  technical review  of modification,  construction,  waiver,  and variance
applications.  EPA investigated additional source categories, such  as rare earth
processing  and geothermal  electrical production.   In  addition, the  Agency
continued to promote the transfer of  NESHAPs implementation responsibilities to
the states.  This effort  included  distributing the grants for state programs for
the radionuclide  NESHAPs.

      EPA  issued  protective action guides  for  ingestion  (food and water) and
recovery.  The  Agency initiated a training  program for the recovery protective
action  guide.   In  addition,  the  Agency initiated  the  development  of  a  draft
interim protective  action  guide for accident  contamination recovery,  and
completed a training program for the early phase and relocation protective action
guides.

      The Agency  continued  to enhance  its mathematical modeling techniques and
evaluate  new scientific  literature  to improve  the basis  for radiation risk
assessments.   This  supported  radiation risk assessment  needs across several
program areas including groundwater, drinking water, soil, and air.
                                      7-18

-------
      EPA  also   evaluated  the   scientific   literature  on   the  potential
carcinogenicity of electromagnetic radiation.   EPA conducted field measurement
surveys and modeling  studies to investigate particular  source  problems.   The
Agency began to develop  informational materials for the public such as handbooks
on sources of exposure,  a question and answer document, and a brochure for the
general public.
                                     7-19

-------
7-20

-------
                                                        RADIATION
                                            Radiation Program Implementation

                                ACTUAL     PRES.     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST
                                 1992     BUDGET       1993      ESTIMATE      1994
                                           1993                   1993
                                                                   INCREASE
                                                                   DECREASE
                                                                   1994 REQ
                                                                      VS
                                                                   1993 CE
                                                         INCREASE
                                                        DECREASE
                                                         1994 REQ
                                                           VS
                                                         1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Radiation Program
Implementation
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
Radon Action Program
implementation
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
          $751.3      $931.1      $940.3      $940.3
                                    $9.0
                        $9.0
                                  $951.9
                        $9.0
TOTAL     $751.3      $931.1      $949.3      $949.3      $960.9



        $1,642.4    $2,196.3    $2,122.3    $2,122.3    $2,291.8

                                    $3.3        $3.3        $3.3

TOTAL   $1,642.4    $2,196.3    $2,125.6    $2,125.6    $2,295.1
                                                                       $11.6
                                                                                              $11.6
                                              $169.5
                                                                                             $169.5
                                   $20.8

                                    $9.0

                                   $29.8



                                   $95.5

                                    $3.3

                                   $98.8
TOTAL:
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $2,393.7    $3,127.4    $3,062.6    $3,062.6    $3,243.7

                                   $12.3       $12.3       $12.3
Radiation Program      TOTAL   $2,393.7    $3,127.4    $3,074.9    $3,074.9    $3,256.0
Implementation
                                              $181.1
                                                                      $181.1
                                              $116.3

                                               $12.3


                                              $128.6
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Radiation Program
Implementation

Radon Action Program
implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
            12.9
            30.7
            43.6
17.0
40.1
57.1
16.6
40.0
                                                           56.6
                                                16.4
39.6
            56.0
            16.2
                                                           39.0
                                                            55.2
-2


-6


-8
  -8


-1.1


•1.9
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Radiation Program
Implementation

Radon Action Program
implementation

TOTAL UORKYEARS
            12.9
            32.7
            45.6
                        17.0
40.1
57.1
                                    16.6
                                    40.0
56.6
                                                16.4
                        39.6
56.0
                                                            16.2
                        39.0
                                                                                   55.2
-2


-6


-8
  -8


-1.1


-1.9
                                                       7-21

-------
                                   RADIATION

                       Radiation Program Implementation

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $3,256,000 supported by 55.2 total workyears
for 1994.   Of the  request,  $3,243,700 will be  for the  Program  and Research
Operations appropriation  and $12,300 will be  for the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an  increase of $181,100 in the Program
and Research Operations appropriation, no change in the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation,  and a decrease of 0.8 total workyears.

RADIATION PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests  & total of $960,900 supported by 16.2 total workyears
for 1994.   Of  the request,  $951,900 will  be  for  the  Program  and  Research
Operations appropriation  and $9,000  will  be for  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents  an increase of  $2,600 in the Program
and Research Operations appropriation, no change in the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation,  and a decrease of 0.2 total workyears.  The decrease
in workyears is a result of the government-wide reduction in workyears that is
part of the President's program to reduce the size and cost of government.

      In 1994 regional  offices  will review  and test  state  emergency response
plans.  If accidental releases of radioactivity occur, the regions will assist
state agencies  in  interpreting  Agency information  and  guidance  and present
information regarding  radiation levels to the  public.    Regional  staffs will
participate and assist states  in  identifying  and  assessing  sites  that are
contaminated with radioactivity and serve as  a liaison between headquarters and
field operations in remedial action programs for sites in their regions.

      Regional  offices  will continue to work  with their states  to encourage
delegation of authority for the radionuclide National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs)  including  the development and implementation
of training modules for  each subpart of the act and assistance in development of
the model  state  program.    Regions will  also  review and  make  decisions on
applications from regulated facilities for construction permits, modifications
to facilities,  and waivers and exemptions.  Regional  staff provide technical
assistance  for  enforcement  activities  and necessary   coordination  between
headquarters and radiation facilities when  the national program  is directly
involved in implementing radionuclides NESHAPs.  Finally, the regions, along with
headquarters,  will assist  the states in developing permitting programs under the
new Act.

      The regions will provide information  on issues related to electromagnetic
field exposures.   Technical  assistance  will be  provided to state  and  local
radiation programs  in  their investigation of special problems  and sources of
electromagnetic fields.
                                     7-22

-------
1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating  a total  of  $949,300 supported  by 16.4 total
workyears for this program, of which $940,300 was for the Program  and Research
Operations appropriation and $9,000 was for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriat ion.

      In 1993 regional offices are reviewing and testing state emergency response
plans.  If accidental releases of radioactivity occur, the'regions will assist
state  agencies  in  interpreting  Agency  information  and guidance  and  present
information  regarding  radiation  levels to the  public.    Regional  staffs
participate  and assist  states in  identifying  and  assessing sites that  are
contaminated with radioactivity and serve as  a liaison between headquarters and
field operations in remedial action programs for sites in their Regions.

      Regional offices continue to work with their states to encourage delegation
of  authority  for  the   radionuclide  NESHAPs  including  the development  and
implementation of training modules for each subpart of the act and assistance in
development of the model state program.   Regions also review  and make decisions
on applications  from regulated facilities for construction permits, modifications
to facilities,  and  waivers and exemptions.   Regional  staff  provide technical
assistance  for  enforcement  activities  and necessary  coordination  between
headquarters and radiation facilities  when  the national program  is directly
involved in implementing radionuclides NESHAPs.  Finally, the regions, along with
headquarters, assist the states in developing permitting  programs under the new
Act.

      The regions provide information on issues related to electromagnetic field
exposures.   Technical  assistance is  provided  to state and  local radiation
programs  in  their  investigation  of  special   problems   and  sources   of
electromagnetic fields.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency obligated a total of $751,300 supported by 12.9 total
workyears for this  program, all of which was  from  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

      In 1992 the regions participated  fully  in all aspects of the radionuclide
NESHAPs implementation program. Many state radiation  programs were  not adequate
to  assume  delegated  authority  for  implementing  the   radionuclide  NESHAPs.
Consequently, the Agency  took primary  responsibility  for  implementing  the
program.  Much of the task fell on the regional offices.  The regional offices
performed many of the initial permitting functions while at the same time worked
to  strengthen  state  radiation  programs to accept  delegated  authority  for
implementing the radionuclide NESHAPs.   The regions also reviewed applications
from regulated facilities for construction permits, modifications  to facilities,
and waivers and exemptions.  Regional staff also provided technical assistance
for radionuclide NESHAPs enforcement activities.
                                     7-23

-------
      The testing and evaluation of  state emergency response planning continued
to be  an  important element of  regional  operations,  along with  the review of
updated plans.  EPA continued to assist states in the development of radiological
emergency response plans and formally reviewed these plans along  with other
federal agencies.  Also, the regions were involved with state agencies and the
public in presenting and interpreting Agency information and guidance regarding
radiation problems in their area.

      The Regions continued to be the primary reviewers of environmental impact
statements for radiation facilities, such  as  commercial  nuclear power plants,
uranium mines  and  mills,  and  radioactive waste  disposal  facilities.   They
responded to special problems involving actual or potential radiation releases
or exposures.
RADON ACTION PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $2,295,100 supported by 39.0 total workyears
for  1994.   Of  the  request,  $2,291,800 will be  for the  Program  and Research
Operations  appropriation and  $3,300  will be for  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents an increase of $169,500 in the Program
and Research Operations  appropriation, no change in the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation, and  a decrease of 0.6 total workyears.  The decrease
in workyears is a result of the government-wide reduction in workyears that is
part of the President's  program to reduce the size and cost of government.

      In 1994 regional staff will continue to work through partnerships developed
with states to implement the Agency's Radon Action Program.  Regional staff will
work with states to design and implement effective programs for reducing radon
health risks to the public.

      The regions will continue to be the  focal point  for  implementation of the
State  Indoor Radon Grant  program.   Regions review  state  grant applications
against established criteria and ensure that grant funds  are used effectively.

      The regions will work with the headquarters program,  the states, and  local
governments in the design and implementation of efforts  to assess and remediate
radon problems in schools.  The regions will continue to provide direct oversight
to the Regional Training Centers,  which also conduct testing for the national
Radon Contractor Proficiency Program.  The regions will also work with states and
local  governments  to  promote  addressing radon in  connection with real estate
transfers and to promote the adoption of radon building  standards.  The regions
will continue to provide advice and assistance to states that want to establish
additional  consumer protection  functions,  such  as  licensing  measurement and
mitigation contractors.

      The regions will continue to provide information to  states  and members of
the  public and  participate and  conduct  educational programs,  symposia, and
workshops for state and  local  officials,  contractors, and the public.

                                      7-24

-------
1993 Program

      The Agency  is  allocating a total of  $2,125,600  supported by 39.6 total
workyears for this program, of which $2,122,300 is for  the Program  and Research
Operations appropriation and $3,300  is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      In  1993  regional  staff  are  continuing to  work through  partnerships
developed with states to implement the Agency's Radon Action  Program.  Regional
staff work with states to conduct EPA-assisted statewide surveys, and help states
that have completed their surveys to interpret  the results and design effective
follow-up programs.

      The regions continue to be the  focal point for implementation  of the radon
state  assistance  program.   Regions review state grant  applications  against
established criteria and ensure  that grant  funds  are used effectively.

      The regions work with  the headquarters  program, the  states,  and local
governments in  the design  and implementation of surveys in schools to further
identify elevated radon  levels.  The regions  provide  direct oversight to the
Regional Training Centers,  which also conduct  testing  for  the national Radon
Contractor Proficiency Program.   The regions  also work with states  and local
governments for the adoption of radon building  standards and  provide advice and
assistance to  states that  want  to  establish  additional  consumer protection
functions, such as licensing measurement and mitigation contractors.

      The regions continue to provide information to states and members of the
public participating and conducting educational  programs, symposia, and workshops
for state and local officials, contractors, and the public.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the  Agency  obligated a total of $1,642,400 supported by 32.7 total
workyears for  this program, all  of  which  was  from  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

      The regional activities  of  the  Radon  Action Program  focused  on  the
dissemination of technical  skills and information to the states to develop their
radon capabilities.   These activities included helping  the  states design and
implement surveys, providing assistance  to  states  in  their development of radon
monitoring capabilities, overseeing  the Regional  Radon Training Centers which
provide measurement and mitigation training, administering the state assistance
program in cooperation with headquarters, and providing  technical assistance as
requested.  The regions  continued to be the focal point for implementing the
State Grant program.   Regions reviewed state applications against  established
                                     7-25

-------
criteria and ensured that grant funds were used effectively.  Support was also
provided to the states to help them deal with the most critical radon problems
as  they are  discovered;  this  support  is  aimed  at promoting  state  self-
sufficiency.  The regions also distributed EPA's public information materials,
developed local public information campaigns, and participated in numerous radon
public awareness activities (speeches, talk shows, school presentations, media
interviews, etc.).  Regional personnel addressed public interest groups, the real
estate and construction industries, and others interested in the public health
benefits that can be realized by reducing radon exposures.
                                     7-26

-------
                                                       RADIATION
                                        Radiation Environmental  Impact Assessment

PROGRAM
Radon Action Program
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Radiation Environmental
Impact Assessment
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
Radon Targeted State
Assistance
Abatement Control and
Compliance
TOTAL
TOTAL:
Program & Research
Operations
Abatement Control and
Compliance
Radiation TOTAL
Environmental Impact
Assessment
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Radon Action Program
Radiation Environmental
Impact Assessment
TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Radon Action Program
Radiation Environmental
ACTUAL
1992
PRES.
BUDGET
1993
ENACTED
1993
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993
REQUEST
1994
INCREASE INCREASE
DECREASE DECREASE
1994 REO 1994 REO
VS VS
1993 CE 1993 PB
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

$3,129.5

$12,814.8

$15,944.3


$3,144.9

$42.7

$3,187.6


$7,703.8

$7,703.8

$6,274.4

$20,561.3

$26,835.7



46.6
43.2

89.8

46.8
45.0

$3,683.3

$10,388.0

$14,071.3


$3,972.0

$30.3

$4,002.3


$8,158.0

$8,158.0

$7,655.3

$18,576.3

$26,231.6



51.1
51.0

102.1
J
51.1
51.0

$3,062.7

$7,598.5

$10,661.2


$3,265.0

$511.4

$3.776.4


$8,158.0

$8,158.0

$6,327.7

$16,267.9

$22,595.6



49.8
49.8

99.6

49.8
49.8

$3,044.9

$7.595.5

$10,640.4


$3,251.5

$507.9

$3,759.4


$8,158.0

$8,158.0

$6,296.4

$16,261.4

$22,557.8



49.3
49.3

98.6

49.3
49.3

$3,390.2

$8,925.1

$12,315.3


$3,403.1

$1,556.2

$4,959.3


$8,158.0

$8,158.0

$6,793.3

$18.639.3

$25,432.6



48.2
48.3

96.5

48.2
48.3

$345.3 -$293.1

$1,329.6 -$1,462.9

$1,674.9 -$1,756.0


$151.6 -$568.9

$1,048.3 $1,525.9

$1,199.9 $957.0






$496.9 -$862.0

$2,377.9 $63.0

$2,874.8 -$799.0



-1.1 -2.9
-1.0 -2.7

-2.1 -5.6

-1.1 -2.9
-1.0 -2.7
Impact Assessment

TOTAL UORKYEARS                   91.8       102.1        99.6       98.6        96.5        -2.1        -5.6
                                                      7-27

-------
                                   RADIATION

                             Radon Action Program
Budget Request
      The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  $25,432,600  supported  by  96.5 total
workyears  for  1994.   Of the  request,  $6,793,300 will be  for the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and $18,639,300 will  be for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an  increase of $496,900
in the Program and Research Operations appropriation,  an  increase of $2,377,900
in the Abatement,  Control, and Compliance appropriation, and  a decrease of 2.1
in total workyears.
RADON ACTION PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  $12,315,300 supported  by  48.2  total
workyears  for  1994.   Of the  request,  $3,390,200 will be  for  the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and  $8,925,100  will be  for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $345,300
in the Program and Research Operations  appropriation, an increase of $1,329,600
in the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropriation, and a decrease of 1.1
in total workyears.   The  increase  in  the Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance
appropriation will restore 1993 reductions in the Radon  Proficiency programs and
partially  restore  resources  for  public information efforts.   The decrease in
workyears is a result  of the government-wide reduction in workyears that is part
of the President's program to reduce the size and cost of government.

      In 1994 the Radon Action Program will continue to  refine the assessment of
the scope  and  magnitude  of the nation's radon problems in homes  and schools.
This includes efforts  to further refine identification of high risk radon areas.

      The  Agency will also continue to offer radon testing,  mitigation,  and
prevention training through the  Regional  Radon Training  Centers  and various
workshops.   The Agency will work with state and local governments, building code
organizations, and construction industry groups to promote  the adoption of radon
resistant building codes.

      The Agency will continue to operate the national RMP and RCP programs to
provide  information  to  the  states and  the  public  on   the  proficiency  of
measurement and mitigation firms.  EPA will also provide assistance to  states in
dealing  with  critical  radon  problems and  support  the   development of  the
capabilities of state programs through oversight of the state grant program.

      The  program will provide  quality  assurance/quality control  on  sample
analysis and provide direct sample analysis,  where necessary.   The Agency will
continue to operate the national radon information clearinghouse and maintain the
national radon database.   The Agency will  continue to collect user fees for its
proficiency (RCP and RMP) programs.

                                     7-28

-------
      The Agency will continue its work with national non-profit organizations
to promote public action at the community level, particularly in high-risk radon
areas.  In support of its public information brochure on addressing radon during
real estate transactions, the Agency will conduct workshops for the building,
real estate,  and banking communities  to provide  information  on radon health
risks, potential liabilities, prevention and reduction methods  and costs.

1993 Program

      The Agency  is allocating a  total of $10,640,400 supported by 49.3 total
workyears for this program,  of which $3,044,900 is for the Program and Research
Operations  appropriation and  $7,595,500  is  for  the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993 the Radon Action Program has continued to assess the nation's radon
problems  in  homes and  schools.   This  includes  completing the  national map of
radon zones and other efforts to identify high risk radon areas.   The Agency also
completed the data analysis for the national survey of radon in schools and is
issuing a report.

      The  Agency is continuing  to offer  radon mitigation  and prevention on
training through the Regional Radon Training Centers and various workshops.  The
Agency  has expanded  work with  state  and local  governments,  building  code
organizations, and construction industry groups to promote the adoption of model
building codes.

      The  program is providing  quality  assurance/quality  control  on sample
analysis  and provide direct  sample  analysis,  where  necessary.   The Agency
continues to operate the national  radon information clearinghouse; maintain the
national radon database; evaluate the capability of measurement and mitigation
devices, technology, and firms and make the information available to the States
and public (through the  RCP and RMP programs);  and provide national oversight to
the State grant program.  The Agency also plans to begin collecting user  fees for
its proficiency  (RCP and RMP) programs.

      The Agency  continues its work with National Non-Profit Organizations to
promote  public  action  at the  community  level.    In support  of its public
information brochure on  addressing  radon  during real estate transactions,  the
Agency is developing training and workshops for the building, real estate,  and
banking  communities  to  provide information on radon health risks,  potential
liabilities, prevention and reduction methods and  costs.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency obligated a total of $15,944,300 supported by  46.8 total
workyears to this program, of which $3,129,500 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $12,814,800 was from the Abatement,  Control and  Compliance
appropriation.
                                     7-29

-------
      In 1992 EPA continued the Radon Action Program through partnerships with
states to minimize the health risks  of radon exposure.  The Agency continued to
assess the nation's radon problems in homes, schools, and other public buildings.
EPA provided assistance to states in  the design and execution of state-wide radon

surveys, as well as to two Indian nations and continued its mapping activities
to facilitate targeting of resources.

      The national RCP program continued to evaluate the capability of mitigation
firms and made the information available to the states and public.  EPA provided
radon mitigation and prevention training through regional training centers, which
provide hands-on radon measurement, mitigation, and prevention training to state
personnel, private contractors, and home builders.  The Agency developed draft
national  model  building  standards  for  preventing  radon  problems  in  new
construction.  The Agency also worked with building code organizations and local
governments to promote the adoption of these model standards.

      The Agency  continued to  operate  the national  RMP  and  RCP  programs  to
provide  information  to  the  states  and  the  public  on   the  proficiency  of
measurement  and mitigation  firms.   EPA also provided  assistance to states  in
dealing with critical radon problems and the development of the capabilities of
state  programs through  oversight of the state  grant program.    The  Agency
developed  a   national  radon   database   and   a  national   radon  information
clearinghouse.  The Agency also worked to promulgate user fee regulations.

      EPA completed revisions to the revised edition of the public information
brochure,  "A  Citizen's  Guide  to  Radon."    The updated brochure  includes
information  on health risks to special populations,  costs and  feasibility  of
radon  mitigation, and a series  of recommended  action levels.    The  Agency
continued the  national media campaign in cooperation  with the  Ad Council and
cooperative  agreements with  the  American Lung  Association and  the American
Medical  Association  to  conduct  public  education  and information programs.
Cooperative agreements were initiated with other organizations,   including: the
American Public Health Association, the  National Association  of Counties, the
American College of Preventive Medicine, the Consumer Federation  of America, and
the  National  Civic  League.   Other  public  information activities included the
development of information and  audiovisual materials for target  audiences, co-
sponsoring regional meetings with selected national organizations, and sponsoring
a national radon  symposium.

      State programs  funded through the  federal grants  included  activities such
as  carrying  out  radon surveys;  establishing radon assessment,  mitigation, and
control  programs; developing  public information and educational materials;
developing  data  storage  and management  systems; operating radon hotlines; and
purchasing analytical equipment.  Under this program element, headquarters, in
cooperation with the regions,  administers the grant funds, develops the specific
criteria used  to  evaluate state grant applications,  and reviews  applications.
                                      7-30

-------
RADIATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $4,959,300 supported by 48.3 total workyears
for  1994.   Of  the  request,  $3,403,100 will  be for the  Program and Research
Operations appropriation  and $1,556,200 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $151,600 in the Program
and  Research  Operations  appropriation,  an  increase  of  $1,048,300  in  the
Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation,  and a decrease of  1.0 total
workyears.  The increase in  the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation
will support replacement  and essential enhancements in laboratory equipment to
support radiological emergencies.  The decrease  in workyears is a result of the
government-wide reduction in workyears that is part of the President's program
to reduce the size and cost of government.

      The EPA  plays a significant  role  in  preparing for,  and responding to,
accidental releases of radioactive material into the environment.  The Federal
Radiological Emergency Response Plan  (FRERP) delineates EPA's role, along with
the roles of  several other federal agencies,  such as the NRC, DOE, HHS, and FEMA,
that could be involved in responding to a radiological incident.  According to
the FRERP, EPA's role includes: 1) leading the federal response to an incident
involving releases from foreign-source accidents affecting the U.S.,  such as a
Chernobyl-type  event;  2)  assisting DOE in monitoring and analysis during the
emergency phase of an  accident; 3) leading the post-emergency response effort if
needed;  and  4)  developing and assisting  in the implementation of protective
action guides for radiation protection during an emergency.

      EPA's  Radiological  Emergency  Response  Team consists   of  staff  from
headquarters,  ORIA  laboratories,  and the  regional  offices.    ORIA's  two
laboratories maintain mobile radiological laboratories and support vehicles as
well as an inventory of field instruments to support EPA's role.

      Based  on  internal  evaluations, the Radiological  Emergency Preparedness
Program was identified as an Agency-level weakness under the Federal Managers'
Financial Integrity Act.   Two areas of equipment were found to require updating
and/or replacement  in order to rectify this assessment.   The equipment areas
included the analytical  and detection equipment and the  mobile laboratories.
Replacement of  the analytical and detection equipment is needed to provide field-
based monitoring teams an improved scientific basis to assess radiation levels
at accident sites.  Replacement of aging mobile laboratories will enable field
monitoring teams to move  quickly with the necessary equipment.  The new mobile
laboratory will provide mechanical reliability and the ability to be airlifted
to remote sites.

      EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) and the
Las Vegas Facility (LVF) provide radiological emergency response and measurement
programs.   The  facilities   assume  the lead responsibility  for  EPA's  field
measurements in emergency situations involving releases of radioactivity to the
general environment.  Work will continue to  improve the Environmental Radiation
Ambient  Monitoring System  (ERAMS).    The facilities also conduct  field  and

                                     7-31

-------
laboratory  measurement  and  analyses to  support environmental  radioactivity
standards and to provide a basis for evaluating environmental radiation sources.
Studies are conducted in radioactively  contaminated  areas that include mining
sites, construction sites,  uranium and plutonium operations, and various other
areas.

1993 Program

      The Agency  is  allocating a total of $3,759,400  supported  by 49.3 total
workyears  of which  $3,251,500  is  for  the   Program  and  Research Opera.tions
appropriation  and  $507,900   is  for  the  Abatement,   Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      In 1993 the Agency is working to enhance its ability to respond to nuclear
accidents.  This effort includes the training of  additional radiation staff and
the evaluation  of the mobile laboratories and field  instruments for equipment
refitting or  replacement.

      As a major component  of the overall  nuclear accident response capability,
ERAMS operates  268 stations  to sample  air,  precipitation,  surface water,  and
milk.  Work will begin to include soil samples in  the system. These  stations not
only routinely provide information on ambient radiation levels but also have the
capability  to provide near real-time information on radiation levels resulting
from nuclear  accidents.  In  addition, Agency  staff periodically participate in
tests  that measure  Federal   emergency  response  capabilities  to  ensure  that
personnel and equipment are  maintained  in a state of readiness.

      EPA continues technical analyses and associated  quality assurance programs
in  support  of regulatory development and  implementation efforts.   The Agency
continues support for radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants  (NESHAPs)  implementation  through  compliance  field  studies  and
completes background information documents for high-level  radioactive waste.  EPA
provides laboratory  support, including  analysis  of air samples,  to states and
regions  for  implementation   of  radionuclide NESHAPs.    The   Agency  provides
laboratory  support to states and Indian nations  requiring technical assistance
to  address  unique radiation  problems.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency obligated a total of $3,187,600 supported by 45.0 total
workyears  for  this  program, of which  $3,144,900 was from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $42,700 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      In  1992 EPA continued to support  the  development,  implementation, and
enforcement of  standards and guidance.  This  included  support  for  implementing
NESHAPs for airborne radionuclides  and collecting and analyzing air  samples from
facilities  to verify compliance  with  existing standards.

      EPA  continued to maintain emergency response  capabilities at two field
locations and headquarters and participated in field  exercises  scheduled by the
FEMA.  Other activities included coordinating EPA regional review and testing of

                                      7-32

-------
state  emergency  response  plans;  assisting  other  EPA  offices  and   state
radiological programs; and operating the ERAMS.

      Analytical support  for  the development of protective action guides also
continued.  Other activities included offering training and technical support to
states  and  Indian   nations   having   other  problems  related  to  radiation
contamination.  Support provided to radiation regulatory activities focused on
the implementation of NESHAPs  and the development of final rules for the disposal
of high-level  radioactive waste.   Specific activities in  support  of NESHAPs
implementation included field studies around regulated facilities to determine
compliance;  development  of   analytical  procedures;  and  adaption of  complex
computer models for easy  use  by states and  industry.
RADON STATE GRANT PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $8,158,000 for this program, all of which
is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents no
change from 1993.

      In 1994 EPA will continue to provide financial support to states to assist
them in the development  and  implementation  of programs to assess and mitigate
radon.   State programs  funded through these federal  grants  will  continue to
include  activities  such  as   carrying  out  radon  surveys;  establishing  radon
assessment, mitigation, and control programs;  developing public information and
education materials; developing data storage and management systems; operating
radon hotlines; and purchasing analytical equipment.

      Headquarters,  in cooperation  with  the regions,  will continue to develop
criteria used  to evaluate state  use of  grant  funds.  Administration  of the
program will again emphasize risk targeting and include consideration of whether
states  have  made  reasonable efforts  to   ensure  adoption  of  radon  model
construction  standards and  techniques.   State  implementation  of  previously
awarded radon grant  funds will be reviewed and given consideration as new funds
are distributed.

1993 Program

      The Agency is allocating a  total  of $8,158,000  for  this program,  all of
which is from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1993 EPA is continuing to provide financial support to states to assist
them in the development  and  implementation  of programs to assess and mitigate
radon.  State programs funded through these federal grants continue to include
activities such as carrying  out  radon  surveys;  establishing radon  assessment,
mitigation, and control  programs;  developing  public  information  and education
materials;  developing data  storage and  management  systems;   operating  radon
hotlines; and purchasing analytical equipment.
                                     7-33

-------
      Headquarters, in cooperation with the  regions,  is  continuing to develop
criteria used  to evaluate state  use of grant  funds.   Administration  of the
program emphasizes risk targeting and includes giving consideration to whether
states  have  made  reasonable  efforts  to   ensure  adoption  of  radon  model
construction  standards  and  techniques.   State implementation of  previously
awarded radon grant funds are being reviewed and are being given consideration
as new funds are distributed.

1992 Accomplishments

      In 1992 the Agency obligated a total of $7,703,800 for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In  1992 state  programs  funded  through  these  federal grants  included
activities such  as  carrying  out radon  surveys;  establishing radon assessment,
mitigation, and control programs;  developing  public information and educational
materials;  developing data  storage  and management  systems; operating radon
hotlines;  and  purchasing analytical equipment.   Under this  program  element,
headquarters, in cooperation with the regions, developed the specific criteria
used  to  target  resources  based on  risk,  evaluate state  grant  applications,
reviewed  applications,  and  administered  the grant  funds.   The Agency also
evaluated the states use of previously awarded radon grant funds as  new  funds are
distributed.
                                     7-34

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994 Budget Estimate

                                    of Contents
                                                                         Page

MULTIMEDIA                                                              8-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Multimedia Research  .......................   8-9
      Multimedia Research ......................   8-10
      Headquarters Expenses .....................   8-32
      Lab & Field Expenses  .....................   8-33
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Environmental Review and Coordination  ..............   8-35
   Office of Cooperative Environmental Management ..........   8-41
   Academic Training Grants .....................   8-45
   Regional Multimedia Programs ...................   8-47
   Analytical Environmental Services  ................   8-51
   Border Environmental Activities  .................   8-55
   Pollution Prevention Activities  .................   8-57
      Pollution Prevention State Grants ...............   8-58
      Office of Pollution Prevention  ................   8-59
      Pollution Prevention Projects .................   8-61
ENFORCEMENT
   Enforcement Policy and Technical Support .............   8-63
      Enforcement Policy and Operations ...............   8-65
      Criminal Enforcement Program  .................   8-69
      Technical Support   ......................   8-73
      Federal Facilities Enforcement  ................   8-75

-------
APPROPRIATION
                                                      MULTIMEDIA
ACTUAL
1992

'

PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Program & Research
  Operations
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
.Research & Development
 Oil Spills Trust Fund

TOTAL, Multimedia
      $59,544.6   $69,597.9   $65,290.0   $65.424.2   $74,339.1    $8,914.9    $4,741.2

      $24,612.0   $28,088.6   $37,529.8   $39,514.6   $51,427.2   $11,912.6   $23,338.6

     $137,855.7  $155,764.4  $148,657.7  $148,657.7  $196,243.3   $47,585.6   $40,478.9
                      $71.4       $72.0       $72.0                  -$72.0      -$71.4

     $222,012.3  $253,522.3  $251,549.5  $253,668.5  $322,009.6   $68,341.1   $68,487.3
 FIFRA Revolving Fund
 Ocean Dumping Fund
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS

OUTLAYS

AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
$239.8
$127.9
853.1
895.2
1,024.7 1,025.4
1,024.7 1,025.4
1,021.3 1,094.9
1,021.3 1,094.9
73.6
73.6
70.2
70.2
     $184,030.2  $254.590.2  $250,288.2  $252,495.4  $315,994.4    $63,499.0  $61,354.2

All authorization except for Research and Development is by virtue of the Appropriation Act.
The Environmental Research, Development and Demonstration Act expired September 30,  1981.
Reauthorization is pending.
                                                        8-1

-------
                                                         MULTIMEDIA
                                                                        DIFFERENCE
                                  PRES.                CURRENT
                                 BUDGET     ENACTED     ESTIMATE
                                  1993      1993         1993
                                    ENACTED  VS
                                    PRES.  BUD
                                   EST. VS
                                 PRES. BUD
                                   EST.  VS
                                   ENACTED
 APPROPRIATION
                                                (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
  Program & Research
   Operations
  Abatement Control and
  Compliance
  Research & Development
  Oil Spills Trust Fund

 TOTAL, Multimedia
 $69,597.9   $65,290.0   $65,424.2   -$4,307.9   -$4,173.7      $134.2

 $28,088.6   $37,529.8   $39,514.6    $9,441.2   $11,426.0    $1,984.8

$155,764.4  $148,657.7  $148.657.7   -$7,106.7   -$7,106.7
     $71.4       $72.0       $72.0          $6          $6
$253,522.3  $251,549.5  $253,668.5   -$1,972.8
                                     $146.2     $2,119.0
 PERMANENT UORKYEARS
 TOTAL UORKYEARS
   1,024.7
   1,024.7
1,025.4
1,025.4
1,021.3
1.021.3
7
7
-3.4
-3.4
-4.1
-4.1
        The following points  list the major reasons that the dollars devoted to this media have changed from
submission of the President's FY 1993 Budget Request to the FY  1993 Current  Estimates.

PROGRAM AND RESEARCH OPERATION

        o        The 1993 Current  Estimate  reflects  the restructuring of the Salaries and Expenses appropriation,
                 general  congressional  reductions  and  increased workforce costs.


ABATEMENT CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE


        o        The 1993 Current  Estimate  reflects  Congressionally directed add-ons for pollution state grants, the
                 New Jersey Institute of Technology, and the New  Jersey Small Business Pollution Prevention Strategy,
                 and reflects reductions taken as  a  result  of Congressional direction to reduce the Abatement Control
                 and Compliance account.


RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

        o        The 1993 Current  Estimate  reflects  Congressionally directed add-ons for the Pollution  Prevention
                 Research and Development Center,  the  Polymer Research Center,  the Experimental Program to Stimulate
                 Competitive Research (EPSCOR),  and  the Southwest Environmental Research Center.

        o        The 1993 Current  Estimate  reflects  Congressionally directed and  general reductions to  the Research
                 and Development appropriation,  including Operating Expenses.
                                                         8-2

-------
                                               MEDIA BRIDGE  TABLE






                                                   MULTIMEDIA




                                    PRO         AC&C        R&D        Oil         Total
FY 1993 CURRENT ESTIMATE
Changes by Category:
Workforce Costs (+/-)
Legislative Initiatives (+/-)
Program Initiatives (+/-)
Discontinuation of Specific
Increases to FY 1992 Request
Others (+/-)
$65,424.2

$8,914.9
$0.0
$0.0
<-) $0.0
$0.0
$39,514.6

$1.4
$1,500.0
$24,261.2
-$9,850.0
-$4,000.0
$148,657.7

$0.0
$0.0
$54.829.7
-$5,450.0
-$1,794.1
$72.0

$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
-$72.0
$253,668.5

$8,916.3
$1,500.0
$79,090.9
$15,300.0
-$5,866.1
FY 1994 PRESIDENT'S BUDGET      $74,339.1    $51,427.2    $196,243.3     $0.0    $322,009.6
                                                       8-3

-------
 I
00

-------
                                   MULTIMEDIA
OVERVIEW AND  STRATEGY

      The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Multimedia Program consists of
activities that promote an integrated approach to environmental problems and that
provide cross-media  support  to Agency  programs.  The Multimedia Program covers
three Agency functional areas.  These areas are: 1) the Research and Development
Function, 2) the Abatement and Control Function, and 3) the Enforcement Function.

Research and  Development  Function

      The Multimedia Research Program consists of activities that cross  program
and media research boundaries.  These activities include:  (1) the Environmental
Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) designed to determine the condition of
our  nations's  ecological  resources,   provide  information  to  evaluate  the
effectiveness of environmental policies, and help identify emerging environmental
problems before they become  widespread;    (2) the development  of methods  for
measuring human exposure to environmental pollutants,  studies that measure actual
human exposures, and models  that predict  human exposures;  (3) the development,
application,  and assessment  of tools  designed  to prevent  the generation  of
pollution; (4) exploratory grants and centers that  provide fundamental research
upon which applied environmental research is  built;  (5) the  development  of  the
biological basis and methods  for improved health risk assessment;  (6) research
and  assessment on  Lead and  other  heavy  metals;  (7)  technology transfer  to
Regions,  States,  local  governments  and  the  international   community;   (8)
innovative  technology  programs  designed  to  stimulate  and   facilitate  the
development and commercialization of environmentally  relevant technologies;  (9)
programs  and  systems  to  assure  the  quality of   the  Agency's scientific
information;  and  (10)  the development  of models that incorporate advances  in
computing and  communications technologies into EPA's environmental assessment
applications.  Many  of these  activities expand the fundamental  scientific base
necessary to formulate solutions to existing  and emerging problems.

      The Multimedia Research  Program also  provides  for  operating expenses
necessary to fulfill the Agency's research mission.  These expenses maintain  the
Agency's  research  infrastructure  such  as  laboratory  supplies,  equipment,
automated data processing, and  human resources development.

Abatement and Control Function

      The Environmental Review  and Coordination Program accomplishes  statutory
objectives under the authority  of the National Environmental Policy Act  (NEPA)
and Section 309 of the Clean  Air Act, and  includes three program  activities  as
well as support for Regional  multi-media projects.  The  NEPA Compliance program
assures EPA's actions comply with the intent of the Act.  This includes reviews
that are  the  functional  equivalent for  those Agency  programs  that  are  not
specifically covered by  NEPA.  The Environmental  Review  program ensures that
Federal agencies carry out their activities in an environmentally  sound manner
pursuant to the National Environmental  Policy Act and Section 309  of the Clean
Air Act.

                                     8-5

-------
      The Indians  program develops and  implements  policies for  dealing with
environmental problems  on Indian lands.   Regional  interdisciplinary projects
enable  rapid response  to unique cross-media  environmental problems.   EPA's
technology transfer activities are intended to improve efficiency and performance
in environmental programs technology transfer and information exchange.

      The Office of Toxic Substances and the Pollution Prevention Division merged
in 1992  to form the  Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics  (OPPT).   The
Pollution Prevention Division's program includes the  development and integration
of multi-media pollution prevention approaches  in national, Regional, and state
environmental  programs  through  both regulatory   and  voluntary  actions  by
businesses, other Federal agencies, and citizens.  The main focus in 1994 will
be to advance the understanding and application of the pollution  prevention ethic
throughout society through:  making prevention  the principle of first choice in
the mainstream work of  the Agency;  identifying and  pioneering  new cross-media
environmental approaches and programs; developing partnerships  in technological
innovations  with the private  sector  and with other Federal  agencies;  using
information as a tool for promoting prevention and for measuring progress; and
supporting a network of preventive programs  among states and local governments.
The  Agency  will coordinate  Federal  and  international pollution  prevention
activities by exchanging  ideas and approaches to promote pollution prevention.

      In  1994, OPPT's Pollution  Prevention  program's main  emphasis will be to
continue  to promote  the  implementation  of established pollution prevention
policies.   The  Pollution  Prevention  Grants program makes  matching  grants to
states  to promote source  reduction techniques by businesses,  and to support
pollution prevention initiatives that address the transfer of potentially harmful
pollutants across  all environmental media — air, land, and water.  The grants
are awarded under  the authorities of section 5 of the Pollution Prevention Act
Of 1990  (PPA).

      In 1994, the Office of International Activities (OIA) will  begin to develop
Phase II of the  Integrated Border Environmental Plan. Phase II will build upon
the environmental activities completed in Phase I of the IBEP.  Also the Agency
will support NAFTA parallel track activities.  During President  Clinton's recent
meeting  with Mexico's  President  Salinas  the  need  for  an additional  "side
agreement" for the environment was strongly emphasized.  Funding will  be used to
promote broader Mexico country-wide initiatives under the proposed U.S. - Mexico
Environmental Cooperation Agreement .

      In  1994, the Office of the Administrator will continue to  develop programs
that  identify,   document,  and disseminate  information  on  selective exemplary
practices in Cooperative  Environmental  Management.  The  Regional Multimedia
Programs  will  provide the needed resources for the  Regional offices to handle
risk-based priorities that are geographically unique to the Regions, and are not
adequately  addressed  by the Agency's national  programs.  For Analytical
                                      8-6

-------
Environmental Services, Regional media programs require technical expertise for
primary  field  investigations,  compliance  monitoring,  sample  collection  and
transport,   laboratory  analyses,  data   analysis   and  evaluation,   quality
assurance/quality control oversight, environmental emergencies and Geographical
Information  Systems,  the  national Drinking  Water  Laboratory  Certification
Program, and technical assistance to State  drinking water laboratories.


Enforcement Function

      Enforcement Policy  and Operations provides consistent  direction to  EPA
enforcement for all  non-Superfund media to assure the most effective possible
stewardship  of  EPA's enforcement responsibilities  as they  contribute to  the
protection of environmental quality.   To accomplish this goal,  it establishes
compliance  monitoring and  enforcement  priorities,  policies,  and  procedural
guidelines so that enforcement actions  are  properly selected  and  prepared;  and
establishes measures to ensure policies  and procedures are correctly implemented
by the media enforcement programs and Regional offices.  It conducts all legal
case  development,  litigation, and  adjudicatory hearing activities  for media
enforcement programs, including oversight of evidence gathering,  preparation and
management of  cases,  and referral  of  cases to the Department  of Justice  for
litigation.

      The  Criminal   Enforcement  Program   provides  for  the   investigation,
preparation, and referral of cases involving  criminal violations of environmental
statutes.  It also acts to forcefully deter criminal  violations of  environmental
laws by serving notice that willful  statutory violations will  be met with harsh
sanctions in terms of both  fines  and  jail  terms.   This program works in close
partnership with Federal and State law enforcement  agencies  to ensure  full
compliance of environmental laws.

      The National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) provides specialized
technical  expertise  for  all media  in support  of  EPA civil  and  criminal
enforcement case preparation  activities nationwide.   NEIC serves  as a point of
coordination and support  for complex investigations  having a national impact on
environmental enforcement.

      The Federal Facilities Enforcement Program ensures that Federal facilities
and  Government-Owned-Contractor-Operated   (GOCO)   facilities  conduct  their
activities in an environmentally  sound manner and comply with  all  environmental
statutes and  regulatory  requirements.   EPA's Federal  Facilities multi-media
enforcement strategy is based  on the ability to provide technical assistance and
to track inspection  and  compliance  activities.  The  strategy also  emphasizes
prioritized  enforcement   which   focuses Regional  enforcement  and  oversight
resources on  federal  facilities  that  are targeted  for  having historical non-
compliance and serious violations.

Consulting Services;  No consulting service activities in this program.
                                      8-7

-------
03
 I
CD

-------
                       ENVIRONMEMTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1994  Budget Estimate

                                    of Contents
                                                                         Pace

MULTIMEDIA

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Multimedia Research  .......................   8-9
      Multimedia Research ......................   8-10
      Headquarters Expenses .....................   8-32
      Lab & Field Expenses  .....................   8-33

-------
                                                        MULTIMEDIA
                                                   Multimedia Research
ACTUAL
1992



PRES.
BUDGET
1993


ENACTED
1993



CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1993


REQUEST
1994



INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 CE
INCREASE
DECREASE
1994 REQ
VS
1993 PB
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)


PROGRAM
Multimedia Research
 Program & Research           $14.260.3   $15,080.9   $14,984.9   $15,167.2   $21,368.7    $6,201.5    $6,287.8
  Operations
 Research & Development       $96,096.5  $107,697.4  $103,110.1  $103,110.1  $141,676.3   $38.566.2   $33,978.9
                       TOTAL $110,356.8  $122,778.3  $118,095.0  $118,277.3  $163,045.0   $44,767.7   $40,266.7


Headquarters Expenses
 Research & Development        $4.667.3    $5,479.5    $5,456.8    $5,456.8    $5,402.0      -$54.8      -$77.5
                       TOTAL   $4,667.3    $5,479.5    $5,456.8    $5,456.8    $5,402.0      -$54.8      -$77.5

Lab & Field Expenses
 Research & Development       $37,091.9   $42,587.5   $40,090.8   $40,090.8   $49,165.0    $9,074.2    $6,577.5
                       TOTAL  $37,091.9   $42,587.5   $40,090.8   $40,090.8   $49,165.0    $9,074.2    $6,577.5


TOTAL:
 Program & Research           $14,260.3   $15,080.9   $14,984.9   $15,167.2   $21,368.7    $6,201.5    $6,287.8
  Operations
 Research & Development      $137,855.7  $155,764.4  $148,657.7  $148,657.7  $196,243.3   $47.585.6   $40,478.9

Multimedia Research    TOTAL $152,116.0  $170,845.3  $163,642.6  $163,824.9  $217,612.0   $53,787.1   $46,766.7



PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Multimedia Research               195.8       225.6       228.6       231.4       317.9        86.5        92.3

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         195.8       225.6       228.6       231.4       317.9        86.5        92.3



TOTAL WORKYEARS
Multimedia Research               199.0       225.6       228.6       231.4       317.9        86.5        92.3

TOTAL UORKYEARS                   199.0       225.6       228.6       231.4       317.9        86.5        92.3
                                                        8-9

-------
                                     MULTIMEDIA

                                 Multimedia Research

                                  Principal Outputs

1994  o     National Academy of Sciences "Comprehensive Review of EMAP" Report

      o     Final Program Plan for the Carolinian Province Demonstration Project

      o     Report on Dynamical Aspects of Biodiversity and Environmental Relations

      o     Initial Report on the National Human Exposure Assessment  Survey  (NHEXAS)
            Pilot Test

      o     Report on the Agricultural Health Study:  Pilot  Pesticide Exposure Studies
            in Iowa and North Carolina

      o     Final Report on the National Human Activity pattern Survey

      o     Report on the NHANES III Data Collection

      o     Conference: New and Innovative Monitoring Methods

      o     Final Report  on Pollution Prevention  Opportunities  for  Out-Year  Source
            Reduction Review Project MACT

      o     Final Feasibility  Report on  Phase II  Field  Evaluation  of Gold  Needle
            Calibration Method for Portable XRF Paint-Lead Measurements

      o     Provision of Remaining Standard Reference Materials (SRM's) for Laboratory
            Paint-Lead Analyses for  Use in Supporting Accreditation Program for Paint-
            Lead Measurements

      o     Performance Evaluation Materials (PEM's) to Support Field  Methods  Use  of
            Portable XRF and/or Test Kits for Paint-Lead Measurements

      o     Annual Report on Exploratory Research Grants Program

1993  o     Annual Statistical Summary for Forest Health Monitoring

      o     Report on 1992 Agroecosystems Pilot in North Carolina

      o     Data Summary for 1992 Great Lakes Pilot

      o     Annual Statistical Summary for Virginian Province

      o     Annual Statistical Summary for Louisianian Province

      o     Draft Design for National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)
                                        8-10

-------
o     Report on the Agricultural Health Study: Pilot Pesticide Exposure Studies
      in Minnesota

o     Report on the Relationship between Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) pollutant
      releases  and  the  Geographic Location  of  Minority  and  Disadvantages
      Populations

o     Draft Final Report  on Pollution  Prevention  for  Out-Year Source Reduction
      Review Project MACT

o     Design for Pollution Prevention Guidance Manual

o     Workshops:-  Pollution  Prevention for  Small  Industrial  Operations  and
      Municipalities

o     Feasibility  Report  on  Phase  I  Laboratory  Evaluation of  Gold  Needle
      Calibration Method  for Portable XRF Measurement of Paint-Lead

o     Standard Reference Materials  (SRM's) of Powdered  Paint  (i.e., 1-3 different
      SRM's) for Laboratory Analysis of Paint-Lead

o     Preliminary Field Evaluation  of New EPA Quantitative Test Kit-Based Method
      for Rapid Measurement of Lead in Paint

o     Annual Report on Exploratory Research Grants Program

o     Annual  cycle of  Blood Chemistry  Parameters  in  Striped  Mullet  (Mugil
      cephalus) and Pin fish (Lagodon rhomboides)  from the Gulf of Mexico

o     Environmental  Monitoring   and Assessment  Program  Estuaries  Component:
      Louisianian Province: 1991 Demonstration Field Activities Report

o     Northeast Lakes  1991 Pilot  Report  of  the  Environmental Monitoring  and
      Assessment Program

o     Biologically-Based Dose-Response Models  for Developmental Toxicity:  Final
      Report

o     Biologically-Based Dose-Response Models for Neurotoxicity: Program overview
      and project summaries

o     The Impact of Research Results on Improving Risk Assessment: Examples

o     Final Developmental Toxicity Risk Assessment Guidelines

o     Final Exposure Assessment Guidelines

o     Final Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment

o     Facility Pollution Prevention Guide
                                  8-11

-------
o     American Institute of Architects, Environmental Resource  Guide Quarterly
      Subscription Service

o     Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles

o     Seminars: Integrated  Solid  Waste Management for Rural, County and  Local
      Governments

o     Workshops:  Pollution  Prevention for  Small  Industrial  Operations  and
      Municipalities

o     Awarded 56 SBIR contracts

o     Manual: Wastewater Treatment/Disposal for Small Communities

o     Annual Report on the Exploratory Research Grants Program

o     Start-up Support to Four New Academic Research Centers

o     Summary of Awards Under the Small Business Innovation Research Program

o     Optimized  Several Air  Quality Models  for Computation  on Coarse  Grain
      Parallel Processors

o     Converted  Water  Quality  and  Ground Water  Models  to  High  Performance
      Computing Environments

o     Initiated Efforts to Evaluate the Performance of a Variety of Atmospheric
      Chemistry Algorithms on Massively Parallel Architectures.
                                   8-12

-------
                                  MULTIMEDIA


                              Multimedia Research

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total of  $217,612,000 supported by  317.9 total
workyears  in  1994.   Of the request,  $21,368,700 will be  for the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and  $196,243,300 will be  for Research and
Development appropriation.   This represents an  increase  of $6,201,500 and an
increase of  86.5 in  total workyears  from 1993  in the Program and Research
Operations appropriation  and a  increase  of $47,585,6000 in  the Research and
Development appropriation.


MULTIMEDIA RESEARCH

1994 Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of  $163,045,000 and 317.9  total workyears for
1994, an increase of  $44,767,700 and 86.5 total  workyears  from  1993.   Of the
request,   $21,368,700  will  be   for   the  Program  and  Research  Operations
appropriation,  and  $141,676,300 will  be  for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents  an increase of  $6,201,500  in the Program and
Research Operations appropriation, and an increase of $38,566,200 in the Research
and  Development appropriation.    The  increase  in  the  Program  and Research
Operations appropriation reflects base  redirections of full-time-equivalents to
support new investments for ecological risk assessment methods,  the Environmental
Monitoring and Assessment  Program (EMAP), and the Agency's Technology Innovation
initiative.  The increase  in the Research and Development appropriation reflects
new  investments  in  ecological risk assessment methods,  EMAP, human exposure,
innovative technologies, exploratory research grants, and quality assurance.

1993 Budget

      The Agency is  allocating a  total  of  $118,277,300 supported  by 231.4 total
workyears for this program element, of which $15,167,200 is from the Program and
Research Operations  appropriation and  $103,110,100  is from  the Research and
Development appropriation.

1992 Budget

      The  Agency obligated a total of $110,356,800 supported by  199.0 total
workyears for this program element, of which $14,260,300 was  from the Salaries
and Expenses  appropriation and $96,096,500 was from the Research and Development
appropriation.
                                     8-13

-------
RESEARCH ISSUES

      The sections below describe research program issues by each fiscal year:


AQUATIC ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA

1994 Program Request

      Under Annex 3 of the 1980 United States-Peoples  Republic of China  (US-PRC)
Environmental Protection Protocol  the Agency will continue  its collaborative
efforts with the PRC.  This will include studying toxicity testing methods and
bio-monitoring  techniques  for  industrial  effluents  and determining  mercury
criteria in rivers and sediments.

1993 Program

      The  Environmental  Protection  Agency  (EPA)  is  collaborating with  PRC
scientists and engineers to  study  toxicity testing methods,  ocean and coastal
aquatic  environmental  impacts  from  discharges,   pollutant   transport  and
transformation processes and other programs.

1992 Accomplishments

      EPA and PRC  scientists collaborated to  investigate water quality in the
Zhenjiang Harbor,  predict environmental  impacts  and  evaluate  water management
options for Bosten  Lake, study metal pollution  in the laboratory  and Poyang Lake,
and evaluate the effect of  climate change on water  resources  in  the Urumchi,
Manasi,  and Kaidu-Peacock  Rivers  watershed.   Two  symposia  were held  and
proceedings prepared for publication.
NONPOINT SOURCES

1994 Program Request

      The Agency will continue a joint research project with the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA) to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate integrated
farm management  systems.   EPA will document the  environmental  and ecological
benefits of  reducing chemical use. The  research  will be  integrated  into the
Midwest Agrichemical Surface/Subsurface Transport  and Effects Research (MASTER)
and the USDA's Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) field programs.

1993 Program

      The EPA and the USOA  are initiating  a joint research effort to develop,
evaluate, and demonstrate integrated farm management systems.  EPA and the USOA
are  designing  projects that  can reduce excess chemical  inputs  to  farm and
watershed  systems  while  maintaining  productivity  and  profitability.    When
projects are selected, the data on their sustainability will be collected by the
USDA, and  EPA will  document  their effectiveness  in  reducing  and preventing
pollution within the agricultural sector.

                                     8-14

-------
1992 Accomplishments

      The were no Multimedia resources for this activity in 1992.


ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS

1994 Program Request

      The Agency will initiate efforts to  re-orient and integrate the extensive
but fragmented  on-going  ecological research currently funded by  the EPA,  the
Department's of Interior, Energy,  and Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration.   The  goal is to concentrate  the  combined talents
throughout government and the  academic community  on  a research and monitoring
program  that  will generate  the scientific base  necessary to  understand  and
predict  the  interaction of  man's activities  on  the  condition of  2-3  major
ecosystems whose  sustainability is seriously  at risk.  The results  will help
define criteria for environmental quality and provide the scientific basis for
decision-making to protect the ecosystems.

1993 Program

      The use of  biochemical,  histological  and distributional  changes in fish
populations as indicators of ecological condition  are being investigated.  This
is used in the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's (EMAP) surface
waters program.

1992 Accomplishments

      Agency researchers further developed biological markers and indicators of
environmental stress. Tools  for the aquatic bioassessment  of zooplankton, fish,
macroinvertabrates, periphyton, and benthic metabolism were improved.  Biomarkers
of the health status of  fish were  developed to  a stage in which application and
testing  in field trials is  now feasible.   Researchers also studied tools to
validate  "early warning" biochemical and cellular  approaches  to detect  and
quantify damage to reproductive success of wildlife.


ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

1994 Program Request

      The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) will continue
to  strengthen  its research base by  increasing cooperative  relationships with
university scientists and building  a core  of  expertise  at the program's new
scientific  center.   Research will  refine   biological  indicators,  support
investigations into ecological processes that will  facilitate the development of
new indicators, continue to test EMAP in the field,  and demonstrate how EMAP fits
into the Agency's ecological risk assessment process.

      The program has added  landscape  ecology to its seven areas of ecological
research, and will begin to  explore  resource  condition at landscape scales of

                                      8-15

-------
resolution.  EMAP will also strengthen  is cross-program coordination activities
to facilitate national and multiple-resource assessments.

      The Regional EMAP (R-EMAP) program, which is designed to demonstrate EMAP's
utility for resolving issues of Regional, state, and local importance, will add
three more  projects to  include  all EPA Regions.   The  seven  R-EMAP projects
initiated in 1993 will continue through the end of 1994.   The three new projects
will be completed in 1995.

1993 Program

      EMAP is intensifying its research program  in response  to issues raised in
the  program's field  demonstrations and pilot  studies  and in  accordance  to
numerous peer-reviewed recommendations, including those in the National Research
Council's Interim Report.  All EMAP resource groups are increasing investments
in priority research  projects.   Focal studies include  experimentation  with
alternative sampling designs in EMAP-Estuaries,  and the program-wide refinement
of indicators to ensure that those selected are  sensitive to ecological changes
induced by stress as opposed to natural  variation.  EMAP is also lengthening from
two  to  three years  the  program's  pilot and  demonstration periods  that  test
sampling and  analysis.  The  change will  permit more complete  exploration  of
research questions before proceeding to full implementation.

      EMAP  is  also   investing  significant  resources  in  "its  program-wide
integration components. The information management group is finalizing its five-
year strategy.   The Assessment  and Reporting  team is developing  a prototype
integrated assessment for an inland  mega-region  and is finalizing the program's
communication/client strategy.

      EMAP is continuing to expand geographically.  New field projects will focus
on  indicator  testing  in  Midwest  agroecosystems,  mid-Appalachian  streams.
Southeast estuaries, and Lake Superior.  The Regional EMAP  (R-EMAP) program is
also being initiated and seven projects  have been selected in various EPA Regions
to demonstrate EMAP technology, methods  and concepts at Regional,  state and local
scales.  These projects, involving significant state participation, will explore
associations between  observed  ecological condition and  a variety of potential
stressors.

1992 Accomplishments

      EMAP expanded its resource monitoring to include Arid Ecosystems, the Great
Lakes,  and Agroecosystems.  Its coverage included all  seven ecosystem groups and
35 states.  EMAP-Landscape Characterization continued investigating the use of
remote sensing techniques to determine land use and land cover attributes and the
extent of ecological resources.  EMAP conducted applied research in the areas of
environmental statistics,  ecological indicators development,  remote sensing,
landscape ecology, and ecological risk characterization.  The research program
utilized in-house  staff,  scientists from  other Federal  agencies,  and  over 40
universities.   EMAP  continued  to  expand its  cooperative  efforts  with  other
Federal  agencies  and EPA Regional and  Program Offices.   Over  a dozen Federal
agencies participated  in EMAP.
                                     8-16

-------
GLOBAL CLIMATE RESEARCH

1994 Program Request

      Resources  for  this activity  will  be moved  to the Air  Quality Program
Element in 1994.

1993 Program

      The Agency is investigating the application of fuzzy logic principles to
improve the  efficiency of  large  alternate current  (AC)  induction motors and
thereby reduce energy consumption.  Fuzzy logic is a mathematical approach which
uses  approximate  reasoning to  resolve  complex  programming  problems.    For
instance,  a  fuzzy  logic controller  being developed  uses  a  set  of control
functions or rules to intelligently control adjustable speed drives  (ASD) and
optimize energy efficiency.

1992 Accomplishments

      The  Agency  completed initial  development  of  computer software  which
simulates the use of  fuzzy logic principles to improve the efficiency of a large
AC induction motor.  A motor laboratory was also established to support future
testing of the fuzzy  logic  controller on an actual AC adjustable speed motor.
STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION

1994 Program Request

      There will be no Multimedia resources in 1994 for this activity.

1993 Program

      This activity is moved to the Air Quality Program Element in 1993.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency evaluated  the  performance of proposed alternatives for Halon
1301, which is used as a total flooding fire extinguishing agent and explosion
suppression/prevention agent.  Results revealed that all of the best candidate
replacement chemicals  (perfluorocarbons,  fluoroethers,  and fluorobromoethers)
perform worse than Halon 1301, requiring up to three times the volume to provide
the same level of fire protection.


AIR TOXICS

1994 Program Request

      Resources  for  this activity  will  be moved  to  the Air  Quality Program
Element in 1994.
                                     8-17

-------
1993 Program

      The  Agency continues  its  efforts  to  reduce  air  toxic  emissions from
industrial solvent use through demonstration and evaluation of emerging pollution
prevention options.  Information being  collected  on available lower-polluting
alternatives to toxic organic solvents,  typically used as metal degreasers and
adhesives, will be made available through  reports, manuals, and/or demonstrated
approaches for air toxic standards.

1992 Accomplishments

      The  Agency  initiated  an  organic   solvent   reduction  program  and  an
investigation  of industrial  pollution  prevention  opportunities  in  selected
industrial categories.   Specific industrial  projects included ways to improve
pollution prevention measurement techniques, process simulation evaluations, and
innovative technology demonstrations.
CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

1994 Program Request

      Under Annex  I  of  the US-PRC Environmental Protection Protocol, EPA will
continue to collaborate with PRC scientists and engineers to quantify the effects
of ambient acid, particulates, and sulfur dioxides on children's lung functions
in Chinese cities.

1993 Program

      The  US and  PRC scientists  are  collaborating to  conduct a  full scale
"Children's Lung Function Study"  and are developing a quality assurance plan for
the monitoring  program.   The Chinese  National Environmental Protection Agency
(NEPA) is sponsoring lectures in Chinese  cities  to introduce American Pollution
Monitoring equipment.

1992 Accomplishments

      Pilot  study  results  from  the  "Children's  Lung  Function  Study"  were
published  and  four  cities  (Chongqing,  Guangzhou,   Lanzhou,  and  Wuhan)  were
prepared for full  scale  study to  begin in  1993.


INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

1994 Program Request

      Under Annex  I  of  the US-PRC Environmental Protection Protocol, EPA will
continue to collaborate with the PRC to study the human health effects of indoor
coal burning.  Resources for the application of  pollution prevention  techniques
in the manufacture on textiles and wood  products are moved to the Air  Quality
Program Element.

                                     8-18

-------
1993 Program

      In support of a larger goal to reduce the  indoor air emissions associated
with home and office furnishing,  research is  underway to identify approaches to
reduce emissions from residual solvents, finishes and coatings associated with
textile manufacturing.  Products which incorporate textiles are known to cause
indoor air  pollution problems and  have  been the focus of  recent  attempts to
construct "clean buildings."  Selected categories of textile products are being
evaluated and ranked according to their emission potential.  A similar approach
is being used to identify and develop pollution prevention options for composite
wood products (i.e. particle board) which are known sources of indoor volatile
organic emissions including formaldehyde.

      EPA  is  collaborating  with  PRC  scientists  and engineers  to  conduct
epidemiological, air monitoring,  and biomarker studies to assess human exposure
and  health  effects  of  indoor  coal  combustion.   This  project  provides  an
opportunity  to  apply and validate biomarkers in  a  human  population with high
exposure to environmental carcinogens and with high lung cancer rates.
1992 Accomplishments

      A  catalog of  the  emissions  associated  with major  classes  of  indoor
materials  and  products  was  completed and  a  handbook  summarizing  the  data
collected was prepared.   The  Agency,  in collaboration with PRC scientists and
engineers:  (1)  finalized  the  design  of,  and  made  plans  for,   new  a  new
epidemiological study and two  human biomarker studies in Xuan Wei; (2) conducted
a workshop for human sample collection and quality assurance in Xuan  Wei; and (3)
published three peer-reviewed journal  papers on chemical  characterization of
genotoxic compounds associated with lung cancer in Xuan Wei and on DNA abducts
in placentas as a biomarker for exposure to environmental carcinogens.
GROUNDWATER

1994 Program Request

      There will be no Multimedia resources in 1994 for this activity.

1993 Program

      There are no resources in 1993 for this activity.

1992 Accomplishments

      The Agency collaborated with PRC scientists to publish a journal article
on  the  bilateral  research on wastewater  land treatment.   The  program also
provided Technology Transfer Information Packets on bioremediation, bioventing,
soil gas sampling and land treatment.
                                     8-19

-------
HUMAN EXPOSURE

1994 Program Request

      Uncertainties about exposure to  environmental  pollutants  is the weakest
link the  risk  assessment  paradigm.    EPA's  human  exposure  research program
develops tools  and  techniques to estimate, with known  certainty,  total human
exposure to  environmental  pollution  and detect changes  and trends  in those
exposures  through  and  integrated program of  exposure  assessment,  exposure
monitoring,  methods development and  exposure modeling.   The  National Human
Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), a long-term program to assess the status and
trends in exposures of both the general population and highly exposed subgroups,
will implement a Regional scale pilot study and produce a status  report on human
exposure in  that Region.   In addition,  the Agency  will:  develop  a manual of
methods for quantifying the dislodgable residues from indoor and outdoor surfaces
available  for  dermal  contact and transfer; summarize field  tested biomarkers
techniques for estimating human exposures; produce a compendium of passive and
personal techniques for monitoring inhalation exposure;   summarize methodologies
for  estimating human exposure via ingestion;  produce  a  report on innovative
methodologies for quantifying human activity patterns will be produced; prepare
a final report  from the  1992-1993  National Human Activity Pattern Survey; and
issue a report on approaches  for estimating and predicting  total  human exposures
via multiple pathways.  The Agency will  initiate Phase II of an exposure field
study in the Rio Grande Valley region near Brownsville, Texas.  Researchers will
begin  assessing  exposures  of  the   region's population to   the  pollutants
characterized  in Phase I of the study.

1993 Program

      EPA  is testing the feasibility and design of the National Human Exposure
Assessment Survey  (NHEXAS).   This  include studies  of source characterization,
statistical design, activity patterns  surveys, microenvironment measurements, and
total human exposure and biological measurements.  The Agency is initiating Phase
I of an  exposure study in the Rio Grande  Valley near  Brownsville, Texas.  In
Phase I, concentrations  of  pollutants  in air  and water will be determined and
used in  combination with an inventory of available information  to develop  a
comprehensive  hazard identification.

      In addition, data is being collected that will assist in developing multi-
pathway exposure models.   Methods development expands  from  inhalation as the
route of exposure to cover both ingestion and dermal contact.  Biological  methods
(biomarkers) development continues to investigate the use  of  breath, tissue and
body fluids  as vehicles for measuring  exposures.   Modeling  efforts expand to
consider  non-air  pathways  and  initiate efforts to develop  a multi-pathway
exposure model.

1992 Accomplishments

      Preliminary design features  of NHEXAS were completed and  plans  for  field
studies  to test these design concepts  were developed.   Work continued on the
development  of chemical  and biological measurement and analytical  method