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  This document was prepared under the
direction of William Kline, Office of Solid
Waste, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Washington, DC The document
was written by Heidi Schultz, with assis-
tance from Mark Lennon and Linda Saun-
ders, Eastern Research Group,  Arlington,
Massachusetts. The publication was illus-
trated by Elizabeth Stubbs and designed by
Richard Sarno. Photographs were provided
by the U S. Environmental Protection
Agency, the American Petroleum Institute,
the Boeing Company, International Busi-
ness  Machines Corporation, and Versar,
Inc The document has been reviewed by
the U S. Environmental Protection Agency
and approved for publication

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                         CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION                                              2
A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE                                  3
WHO IS COVERED BY THE NEW REGULATIONS?                3
SECONDARY CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS                  4
  Schedule for Phasmg-m Secondary Containment                       4
  Secondary Containment Technical Requirements                       5
  Ancillary Equipment                                            6
  Variances from Secondary Containment                              6
ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR
HAZARDOUS WASTE TANK SYSTEMS                           6
  Integrity Assessment for Existing Tank Systems                        8
  Design and Installation of New Systems or Components                 8
  Requirements for Tank System Inspections                           9
  Required Operating Procedures and Equipment                       11
  Responses  to  Leaks or Spills                                      11
  Closure and Post-Closure Requirements                             12
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS                                   13
FURTHER INFORMATION ON HAZARDOUS WASTE TANK
SYSTEM MANAGEMENT                                      14

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INTRODUCTION	
        One of the most common methods
        of storing or treating hazardous
        wastes is in tanks. While many
tank systems are capable of securely hold-
ing or treating hazardous wastes, many
others have been shown to leak wastes,
thereby presenting significant risks to the
surrounding community and environment
The major causes of tank system failure
include  corrosion, cracking or structural
failure of the tank or associated piping and
equipment;  improper installation, and oper-
ator errors such as overfilling, spilling, or
improper tank maintenance and repair
  To address the risks  posed by the storage
or treatment of hazardous wastes in tank
systems, the U S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (EPA) has developed a regula-
tory program that focuses on detecting
leaking  hazardous waste constituents before
they migrate to the surrounding soil, under-
lying ground water, or nearby surface
water Key goals of the protection strategy
are
   To prevent hazardous waste releases
    through specific requirements to main-
    tain the integrity of the primary con-
    tainment structure
   To detect releases from the primary
    containment structure by requiring
    secondary containment with release
    detection
   To ensure rapid, appropriate, and effec-
    tive responses to hazardous waste
    releases when they do occur
  This booklet provides an overview of
EPA's revised hazardous waste tank system
regulations, which were promulgated on
July 14, 1986. The booklet is geared pri-
marily to  individuals who own or  operate
hazardous waste tank systems, and to
Federal, State, and local government offi-
cials who  are responsible for regulating
hazardous waste tank systems The booklet
summarizes the most important program
elements,  including requirements for
   Secondary containment and release
    detection (including procedures for
    obtaining variances from the
    requirements).
   Assessment of tank system integrity (for
    example, leak testing and internal
    inspections)
EPA's new hazardous waste tank
system regulations are designed to
ensure that releases are detected
before they damage the environ-
ment and result m costly cleanup
measures The tank system being
installed here includes secondary
containment with a monitoring
device which will detect a hazard-
ous wastes leak immediately after
it occurs
                                                              Improper installation of a
                                                              hazardous waste tank system can
                                                              result m subsequent destruction ,
                                                              the tank and serious environmen
                                                              tal damage Frequently, the down
                                                              ward pressure exerted by earth
                                                              over a tank or the upward pres-
                                                              sure exerted by ground water
                                                              beneath a tank can cause it to
                                                              crack and split

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   Proper installation of new tank systems,
    including minimum design require-
    ments and corrosion protection
   Periodic tank system inspections.
   Tank system operation, including spill
    prevention practices and leak response
    procedures
   Proper closure and post-closure care
  This booklet also answers some fre-
 quently asked questions about the hazard-
 ous waste tank system regulatory program,
 and provides sources for further informa-
 tion about EPA's hazardous waste tank
 system regulations. While this booklet pro-
 vides an  overview of the regulatory pro-
 gram, the reader should consult the
 hazardous waste tank system  regulations
 themselves, which are described in detail in
 the July  14, 1988, Federal Register, for addi-
 tional information and requirements
 A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    In 1976, Congress passed the Resource
    Conservation and Recovery Act
    (RCRA), a law which had as its primary
 goals to conserve energy and natural
 resources and to ensure that wastes are
 managed in an environmentally sound
 manner.  Subtitle C of RCRA set forth
 requirements for EPA to  design a regula-
 tory program to ensure proper manage-
 ment of hazardous waste from the moment
 waste is generated until its ultimate dis-
 posal. To carry out RCRA's mandate, EPA
 developed regulations covering hazardous
 waste generation, transportation, treatment,
 storage, and disposal. These regulations
 included standards for the storage and
 treatment of  hazardous waste in tanks and
 focused on operating practices to prevent
 releases of hazardous waste to the environ-
 ment EPA then developed permitting stan-
 dards for hazardous waste tanks that could
 be entered for inspection. These standards
 emphasized the structural integrity of tanks
to protect against leaks, ruptures and tank
collapse,  and  required adequate tank
design, maintenance, and inspection
  Congress revised RCRA in 1980 and
again in 1984. The 1984  amendments,
referred to as the Hazardous and Solid
Waste Amendments (HSWA), significantly
expanded the scope of RCRA HSWA
   The  Permitting System
     All hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, including those facilities with haz-
   ardous waste tank systems, are subject to a permitting system that strives to ensure safe operation.
   Under this permitting system, facilities must meet general standards for proper waste management
   and requirements specific to the individual facility. Most hazardous waste tank systems currently
   operate under "interim status," which enables them to operate until their  permit applications are
   approved or denied. Such interim status facilities also must meet certain minimum technical require-
   ments  Congress established interim status recognizing that it would take many years for EPA and
   the States to issue permits. Interim status tank systems are subject to the revised tank system
   standards.
   The  Role of the States
     States are encouraged by RCRA to develop and  run their own hazardous waste programs in lieu
   of direct EPA implementation For States to receive authorization from EPA to implement their own
   programs, they must show that their programs are  as stringent as the EPA program. States that are
   authorized to implement RCRA operate the permitting system for hazardous waste tank systems in
   lieu of the Federal government.
     The July 14,1986, hazardous waste tank system  regulations were promulgated  under both RCRA
   and HSWA authorities. The  HSWA portion of the regulations were effective on January 12,1987. In
   unauthorized States, the RCRA portions of the regulations also were effective on January 12,1987.
   In unauthorized States, EPA administers both the new HSWA standards and the  RCRA standards;
   however, in authorized States, EPA implements only the HSWA standards while the  States implement
   the authorized programs. The new RCRA standards are effective in an authorized State as soon as
   the State adopts the standards; these new standards become part of the authorized program when
   EPA approves the program changes. Authorized States have one to two years from June 30,1987, to
   incorporate the RCRA regulations into their programs; therefore, the effective date of the RCRA-
   based regulations will vary from State to State.
directed EPA to develop permitting stan-
dards for hazardous waste storage tanks that
are located underground and that cannot be
entered for inspection. HSWA also directed
EPA to require that new,  underground tank
systems use approved leak detection systems
that are capable of detecting hazardous
waste leaks from a tank at the earliest possi-
ble time  In response to HSWA and to cer-
tain inadequacies of the standards, EPA
promulgated amendments to the tank stan-
dards on July 14,  1986, that established
new and revised requirements for hazardous
waste tank systems (including both
aboveground and underground systems)
Owners and operators of hazardous waste
tank systems in authorized States must
comply with these new and revised stan-
dards since the Federal effective date of the
standards was January 12, 1987
  Underground storage tank systems that
hold petroleum products  or hazardous sub-
stances, but not hazardous wastes, are regu-
lated under Subtitle I of RCRA. This
booklet does not address  these tank  sys-
tems  For more information on Subtitle I
regulations, call the RCRA Hotline at
800-424-9346
WHO IS COVERED
BY THE NEW  REGULATIONS?
        All new and existing tank systems
        that store or treat hazardous waste
        are covered by the July 14, 1986,
regulations unless they qualify for specific
exemptions described below (see the Ques-
tions and Answers section of this booklet
for more information on "new" versus
"existing" tank systems)  The regulations are
applicable to all hazardous waste tank facili-
ties that are permitted or seeking a permit,
as well as to facilities that accumulate haz-
ardous waste on-site in tank systems for less
than 90 days  The newly revised tank
system requirements do not apply to the
special category of generators called "small
quantity generators" These are generators
of between 100 and 1,000 kilograms of
hazardous waste per month that accumulate
less than 6,000 kilograms of hazardous
waste in tanks for less than 180 days (or
270 days if the waste must be shipped more
than 200 miles offsite) Only the limited
hazardous waste tank system requirements
preceding the July  14, 1986, regulations
apply to these small quantity generators
Generators of less than 100 kilograms of
hazardous waste per month are not
regulated

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  Tank systems include more than the
actual tank The tank system includes the
tank and any ancillary equipment, including
piping, fittings, flanges, valves, and pumps
used to distribute, meter, or control the
hazardous waste flow to or from the tank
In addition, sumps and their associated
trenches and pumps that are used to collect
hazardous waste for transport to a treat-
ment, storage, or disposal facility are
regulated
  The following exceptions should be
noted
   Tank systems used to manage recycled
    materials in a "closed-loop recycling
    system," in which all reclaimed material
    is returned to the original process and
    the means of conveying the  material  is
    completely enclosed, are exempt from
    the regulations.
   Tank systems used in certain wastewater
    treatment or elementary neutralization
    units are exempt from the regulations
   Tank systems and sumps that are an
    integral part of a secondary  contain-
    ment system to collect or contain haz-
    ardous waste releases are exempt from
    the secondary containment  require-
    ments of the regulations
   Tanks that are  situated inside a building
    with an impermeable floor and are used
    to store or treat hazardous waste that
    contains  no "free liquids" are exempt
    from the secondary containment  re-
    quirements of the regulations  To deter-
    mine if a waste contains free liquids, a
    specific EPA test called the Paint Filter
    Liquids Test must be performed This
    test is described in the Questions and
    Answers section of this booklet
    Generators that accumulate hazardous
    waste for less than  90 days must comply
    with most of the tank system rules
    (covering tank system integrity, design,
    and installation,  containment and detec-
    tion of releases, general operating re-
    quirements, inspections, and response
    to leaks or spills), but they need not
    comply with all  requirements covering
    financial responsibility and  closure and
    post-closure care.
Sumps, like the one shown here, are pits or reservoirs
that collect and temporarily hold any spilled hazard-
ous waste The two waste pumps m the foreground
transfer the waste from the pit to the storage tank
on the left
SECONDARY CONTAINMENT
REQUIREMENTS	
      Secondary containment requirements
      form the heart of EPA's approach to
      regulating hazardous v/aste storage
and treatment tank systems  In a secondary
containment system, two  impermeable bar-
riers are situated between  the wastes and
the external environment  (Figure 1) The
first or primary barrier is the wall of the
treatment or storage tank  itself The sec-
ondary barrier may be a second tank wall,
a concrete vault, a liner (for example, a
synthetic  membrane), or another device
approved  by the appropriate EPA region or
State permitting authority If a leak occurs
through the primary tank wall, the second-
ary containment barrier prevents the escape
of leaked  wastes to the environment  The
secondary containment system also provides
an  enclosed space  in which leaks from the
primary tank system can be easily  detected
and removed
Schedule for Phasing-in  Secondary
Containment
  Secondary containment allows hazardous
waste tank system owners or operators to
detect releases from the primary contain-
ment system and to clean up any waste
 before it escapes to the environment. For
this reason, the Federal regulations call for
tank  system owners or operators to provide
 secondary containment for all hazardous
waste tank systems according to a  phased
 schedule
                                             FIGURE 1
Primary Containment Only When an unprotectet
tank system leaks or ruptures, soil ma}! be
contaminated by waste In addition, waste may
migrate to ground water and/or surface water, thereb
posing a direct threat to human health and the
environment
                                                                                           Primary and Secondary Containment A tank
                                                                                           system with secondary containment provides an
                                                                                           additional impermeable barrier between the wastes
                                                                                           and the external environment, thereby preventing
                                                                                           contamination of soil and water resources

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Types of Secondary Containment Systems

Liners         A liner must be large enough to contain the entire contents of the largest tank
               within the liner system. The liner must prevent any lateral or vertical migration
               of wastes, and must be free of cracks or other gaps. The liner system also must
               be designed and constructed to prevent rainfall from entering the system (that
               is, the area should be graded so that rainfall drains away from the tank system,
               and the liner should include an impermeable cap so that rainfall will not perco-
               late into the system). If concrete is used as a liner, the same standards that are
               applicable to concrete  vaults (such as an impermeable interior coating and
               chemical-resistant water stops) are applicable to the liner. A leak detection
               system capable of detecting a leak from the primary tank within 24 hours must
               be installed.
Vaults         Like liners, vaults must be large enough to contain the entire volume of the larg-
               est tank enclosed by the vault, and must prevent the run-on and infiltration of
               precipitation. Vaults must be lined with an impermeable material that will not be
               harmed by the waste and will prevent wastes from migrating into the concrete.
               All expansion joints built into the concrete vault must be provided with water-
               and chemical-resistant water stops. If the vault is situated in saturated soils, an
               exterior moisture barrier (commonly a plastic membrane beneath the vault
               floor,  and an asphalt material applied with a brush or  as a spray on the vault
               walls) must also be provided to prevent water from migrating into the vault. A
               leak detection system capable of detecting a leak from the primary  tank within
               24 hours must be installed.
Double-Walled  Double-walled tanks must be constructed as a single,  integral structure in which
Tanks          the primary tank is completely enveloped by the outer tank so that  any liquid
               released from the primary tank will be completely captured and contained. A
               system that monitors continuously for leaks must  be installed between the inner
               and outer tanks. If the  outer tank wall is fabricated of  a material subject to cor-
               rosion and is going to be in contact with soil or water, the tank owner or opera-
               tor must hire an independent corrosion expert to certify that a corrosion
               prevention system has  been properly designed and installed.
               Here a synthetic membrane liner is
               installed to serve as a secondary containment
               barrier that will prevent leaking wastes from
               escaping to the environment
An 8,000-gallon tank holding waste
solvents hangs above a welded steel secondary
containment vault at this New York-based
manufacturing facility
*'  .V.  '*'-* > >-v ***
J *%..'-
This cutaway of a double-walled tank shows
the interstitial space between the inner and
outer walls
   ' Tank owners must install secondary
    containment for all new tank systems
    before accepting wastes for treatment or
    storage in those tanks systems

    Existing tank systems holding dioxm-
    contammg wastes must have secondary
    containment systems in place by Janu-
    ary 12, 1989  '

    In general, existing tank systems must
    have secondary containment before the
    system is 15 years old

Secondary Containment Technical
Requirements

   Secondary containment must consist of
one ot the following  a liner, a vault, a
double-\\ ailed tank, or another equivalent
device approved by the appropriate EPA
region or State permitting authority  The
same technical requirements that apply to
primary containment  structures also apply
to secondarv containment systems

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Ancillary Equipment
  Ancillary tank system equipment includes
piping, couplings, pumps, and valves that
are used to convey hazardous waste All
ancillary equipment is subject to the second-
ary containment requirements, except cer-
tain ancillary equipment that is above
ground and readily accessible for daily
visual inspection  Secondary containment
for ancillary equipment must satisfy the
same general technical requirements speci-
fied for the tanks themselves
Variances from Secondary Containment
  A tank system owner or operator may
petition the EPA region or State permitting
authority to obtain one of two variances
from the secondary containment
requirements
   "Technology-Based" Variance. The peti-
    tioner must demonstrate that alternative
    system design and operating practices,
    coupled with  facility location, will pre-
    vent the migration of waste to ground
    water or surface water at least as effec-
    tively as secondary containment
   "Risk-Based" Variance  The petitioner
    must demonstrate that a release of waste
    from the  tank system would not present
    a hazard to human health or the envi-
    ronment  This variance is not available
    for new underground tank systems
  Anyone applying for a variance must
notify the EPA region or State permitting
authority of his or her intention to do so
prior to the date that secondary contain-
ment is required  For existing tank systems,
this notification must be made at least two
years prior to the date that secondary con-
tainment must be provided  For new tank
systems, notification must be made at least
30 days prior to contracting for installation
of the tank system

ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR
HAZARDOUS WASTE TANK
SYSTEMS	

    In addition to the secondary contain-
    ment requirements, EPA's hazardous
    waste tank system  regulations stress the
importance of ensuring the integrity of the
primary containment structure  The regula-
tions address  the proper design, installation,
and operation of tank systems, including
   Integrity assessments for existing tank
    systems
Ancillary equipment web as piping must be supported and protected against damage due to settling, vibra-
tion, expansion. o> contraction Proper installation as shown on toy, is key to avoiding these problems
Improper installation, as shown ,' bottom . tan lead to premature failure of the system and to subsequent
I	J....,_....j._._/.   .  . 7
hazardous waste release to the environment
   Technical Requirements for Tank Systems
   (Including Ancillary Equipment and Secondary Containment)
     Material Compatibility  Both the primary ana the secondary containment structures must be
   constructed of or lined with a material that will not be adversely affected by the waste placed in
   the system
     Tank System Strength The primary and secondary containment systems must be strong and
   thick enough to withstand any foreseeable forces to which the systems may be subjected (for
   example, the pressures exerted by ground water, frost heave, or vehicular traffic over or around
   the tank system)
     System Foundation. The foundation or base for the system must be capable of preventing
   system failure due to settlement, compression,  or uplift
     Leak Detection. A leak detection system capable of detecting the failure of the primary con-
   tainment structure must be installed  The leak detection system must be capable of detecting  any
   accumulated liquid in the space between the primary and secondary containment structures
     Liquid Removal. The secondary containment system must be sloped or otherwise designed
   and operated so that all liquids entering the system may be efficiently collected and removed.

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Variance Petition
Information Requirements

Technology-Based Variance
   Nature and quantity of wastes to be
    stored or treated.
   Design and/or operating features that are
    proposed to be equivalent to secondary
    containment.
   Hydrogeologic setting of the facility,
    including the nature of soils and the dis-
    tance to the nearest ground or surface
    water
   All other factors that may influence the
    likelihood of release of hazardous waste
    and its subsequent migration to ground
    water or surface water.


Risk-Based Variance
   Possible adverse effects of a release on
    ground-water or surface water quality.
   Possible adverse effects of a release on
    current and future land use.
   Potential human health risks from expo-
    sure to released materials
   Potential for damage of animals, crops,
    and natural vegetation.
   Persistence and permanence of potential
    adverse effects of a waste release.
 Physical Integrity

Assessment

  If a tank can be entered, the owner or
operator may employ a physical integrity
assessment consisting of a visual inspection
and any physical or electronic tests required
to certify that the tank is fit to store or treat
hazardous wastes. The owner or operator
should first thoroughly clean the tank to pro-
tect the health of anyone entering the tank
and to facilitate a thorough inspection. The
inspection itself must be capable of detecting
any cracks or leaks in the tank, or any cor-
rosion or erosion that threatens to com-
promise the tank's integrity. All assessment
procedures, and the results of each periodic
assessment, must be certified  by an inde-
pendent, qualified, registered professional
engineer. A written record of the results of
these assessments must be kept on file at
the tank facility. In addition to leak test
and/or tank inspection  results, this  record
must document-
   Tank system design standards.
   Existing corrosion protection measures.
   Hazardous characteristics of the wastes.
   Age of the tank system.
  If an assessment reveals that a tank or
tank system component is leaking or is
otherwise unfit for use (that is, it poses a
threat of release in the near future), the
system owner or operator must follow
requirements for tank system shutdown and
repair, and in some cases, closure
All existing hazardous waste tank systems must be assessed to determine whether they are suitable for
treating or storing hazardous waste  Here, the integrity of an underground tank is being assessed via a tank
tightness test
FIGURE 2
  Schedule For Implementation of Federal
  Hazardous Waste Tank System Requirements
  Integrity Assessment (Note: This requirement
  does not apply to tank systems already provided
  with proper secondary containment.)
     Existing tank systems: Before January 12,
     1988. In general, this assessment must be
     conducted annually thereafter until secon-
     dary containment is provided.
  -  Tank systems that have received final per-
     mits: At least annually for tanks and/or com-
     ponents that cannot be entered for
     inspection. For enterable tanks, schedule to
     be developed in permit.
  -  Interim status/other tank systems:  At least
     annually for both enterable and nonenterable
     tanks, and for all ancillary equipment.
  Inspection of Operational Equipment (for
  example, spill or overflow controls,  pressure and
  temperature gauges)
    All tank systems: At least once each operat-
     ing day.
  Visual Inspection of Aboveground  Components
    All tank systems: At least once each operat-
     ing day.
Leak Detection for Secondary Containment
System
   Leak detection must be provided on a daily
    basis.
Inspection of Cathodic Corrosion Protection
   All tank systems: Within six months of
    installation. At least annually thereafter.
   For tank systems with impressed current
    sources:  At least once every two months.
Closure Plan
   Tank systems that are part of a facility
    having a  final permit: Closure plan must be
    incorporated in the permit.
   Interim status/other tank systems: Closure
    plan must be available on site during the
    active life of the facility, and must be submit-
    ted to EPA 45 days before closure actions
    are initiated.
   Generators that accumulate hazardous waste
    in tank systems for less than 90 days: Mini-
    mal closure requirements apply.

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   Design and installation of new systems
    or components.
   Requirements for tank system
    inspections.
   Required operating procedures and
    equipment.
   Responses to leaks or spills
   Closure and post-closure requirements
  A schedule for implementing the hazard-
ous waste tank system  requirements is
shown in Figure 2

Integrity Assessment  for Existing Tank
Systems
  For those existing tank systems without
secondary containment, tank system
owners or operators must have an indepen-
dent, qualified, registered professional engi-
neer perform an integrity assessment by
January  12, 1988 The integrity assessment
must determine if the tank system is leaking
or if a release is imminent  The professional
engineer must inspect the system compo-
nents to identify any weak areas in the pri-
mary containment system or other
conditions that may make the system unfit
for use In  addition to  the treatment or
storage tanks themselves, the integrity
assessment must cover all tank equipment
that is used to handle hazardous wastes
  If an underground tank cannot be physi-
cally entered for inspection, the owner or
operator must perform a leak test on the
tank and all ancillary equipment The test
should be capable of detecting leaks and
   Areas that Must be Addressed by the
   New Tank Integrity Assessment
     Design standards. The assessment must describe the standards to which the tank system and
   ancillary equipment will be designed and constructed.
     Waste characteristics.  Information must be specific enough to show that the structure or lining
   of the secondary containment system or component will not be adversely affected by the wastes.
     Factors affecting corrosion. If any metal component will contact soil or water, then the
   environmental factors influencing corrosion potential and the protective measures taken to pre-
   vent corrosion must be addressed in the assessment.
     Specific design considerations. The  assessment must address the following considerations (if
   applicable):
   -Vehicular traffic. For underground components that may be adversely affected by the overhead
     or nearby movement of motor vehicles, the assessment must describe design or operating
     characteristics to mitigate these impacts.
   -Tank foundations. These must be sufficient to support the weight of the full tank.
   -Tank system anchoring. Partially filled tanks, or tanks filled with low-density liquids, may liter-
     ally "float" as ground water rises around them, lifting them from their foundations and ruptur-
     ing connections with pipes and valves. Tanks also may be dislodged laterally by the force
     exerted by moving ground water (Figure 3). Anchoring must be sufficient to prevent tanks from
     becoming dislodged in saturated soil conditions, or in an active seismic zone.
   -Protection against frost heave. In regions  subject to prolonged freezing  temperatures, soils
     may buckle and warp as ground water freezes and expands. Under these conditions, under-
     ground tank components (and aboveground components on poorly designed foundations) may
     be  subject to severe stress. Tanks, foundations, and all system components must be designed,
     constructed, and installed to protect against collapse, rupture, or dislodgement in regions sub-
     ject to frost heave.
                                                              Here a worker cleans a tank
                                                              m preparation for inspection At
                                                              tanks must be thoroughly ventet,
                                                              prior to internal inspection to
                                                              protect workers from potential
                                                              atmospheric hazards, such as
                                                              flammable or toxic gases 01
                                                              inadequate oxygen
must take into account the effects that tem-
perature changes, vapor pockets, and other
variables may have on the test results
  If an underground tank can be entered,
the owner or operator may physically
inspect the tank in lieu of performing a leak
test Likewise, for other tanks
(aboveground, onground, and inground
tanks), a physical inspection of the tank
system  may be conducted in lieu of a leak
test In  most cases, the physical inspection
will involve entering the tank unless the
entire surface area of the tank (including the
bottom) is accessible for inspection

Design and Installation of New Systems
or Components
  The July  14, 1986, regulations contain a
number of requirements to ensure that new
tank systems or components are designed
and installed to protect human health and
the environment from accidental releases
of hazardous waste The key design require-
ment is that new systems or components be
provided with secondary containment This
requirement applies not only to new tank
systems, but also to
   Any tanks, piping, or other equipment
    installed as an expansion to an existing
    system.
   Any tanks or components installed to
    replace existing systems or their
    components
   Existing equipment moved or reinstalled
    to replace components of existing haz-
    ardous waste tank systems
   Any existing tank systems or compo-
    nents not historically used for hazard-
    ous waste treatment or storage, but into

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 FIGURES
Underground tanks must be properly anchored to
avoid being forced upward by the buoyant forces of
ground water Above, deadmen anchors are used to
offset buoyancy, while below a reinforced bottom hold-
down pad adds resistance to flotation
    which hazardous wastes have been or
    will be introduced after July 14, 1986.
  In short, secondary containment must be
provided for virtually any tank system com-
ponent installed, reinstalled,  replaced, or
first used for hazardous waste treatment or
storage after July 14, 1986 All tank system
design features and installation procedures
must be assessed and certified by an inde-
pendent, qualified, registered professional
engineer, and must include.
   Written Assessment and Certification of
    Acceptability Owners or operators of all
    new tank systems or components must
    obtain a written assessment, certified by
    an independent, qualified, registered
    professional engineer, attesting that the
    system or component is acceptable for
    the storage or treatment  of hazardous
    waste.
   Inspection During Installation  Either an
    independent, qualified installation
    inspector or an independent, qualified,
    registered professional engineer must
    inspect any new tank system or compo-
    nent before it is placed in service. The
    inspection must be planned and carried
    out to ensure that proper handling and
    installation procedures have been fol-
    lowed and that tank system integrity is
    intact when installation has been  com-
    pleted EPA's intention is that the
    inspector or inspecting engineer be on
    hand during the entire installation oper-
    ation to monitor compliance with
    proper installation procedures. The
    inspection must address all potential
    sources of damage to the system,
    including weld breaks, punctures,
    scrapes of protective coatings, cracks,
    corrosion, or other evidence of struc-
    tural damage or inadequate handling or
    inspection

   Tightness Test. A tightness test, which
    determines whether any leaks or gaps
    exist, must be completed before any
    new tank system or component may be
    covered, enclosed, or placed in service.
    Most tightness tests monitor changes in
    the volume or pressure held within the
    tank system, any loss of volume or drop
    in pressure may indicate that a leak
    exists The test results must be certified
    by an independent, qualified, registered
    professional engineer or by a qualified
    installation expert
    Backfill Requirements. Backfill must be a
    noncorrosive, porous, homogenous
    material. Backfill within a secondary
    containment system must be porous
    enough so that leaking wastes will dram
    promptly to the bottom of the second-
    ary containment device for detection
    and removal. Backfill must be installed
    completely around the tank and compo-
    nents, and must be compacted to ensure
    that the tank, piping, and any other
    new components are fully and uni-
    formly supported. In addition, backfill
    should be installed so that release detec-
    tion devices are not adversely affected
    Corrosion Protection If a new tank or
    component will be in contact with soil
    or water, or if any significant possibility
    of corrosion exists, the  tank system
    owner or operator must secure recom-
    mendations for corrosion protection
    from an independent, qualified corro-
    sion expert, and must install any equip-
    ment recommended by the expert.
    Corrosion protection may include
    cathodic  protection, corrosion-resistant
    construction materials,  corrosion-
    resistant coatings, and/or electrical iso-
    lation devices An independent corro-
    sion expert must supervise the
    installation of such equipment (if field-
    fabricated) and attest in writing both  to
    the design adequacy of the corrosion
    prevention measures and to their proper
    installation This written certification
    must be kept in the files of the tank
    system owner or operator

Requirements for Tank System
Inspections
  The July 14, 1986, regulations include
the following requirements  for regular
inspection of hazardous waste treatment or
storage tank system components
   Inspection  of Overfill Controls In general,
   spill and overfill prevention controls
   must be inspected at least once each
   operating day
   Review of Data from Operating Equip-
   ment. At least once each operating day,
   data gathered from operating equipment
   (for example, pressure or temperature
   gauges) must be reviewed.
   Inspection  of Release Detection Equipment.
   Release detection equipment associated
   with secondary containment must be
   inspected  daily.

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Corrosion
  Corrosion is one of the most common causes of tank system failure. Corrosion occurs when an
electrical current flows from a metal tank system to another object, removing some of the metal.
Corrosion removes material from one metal object (the "anode") and deposits it on another metal
object (the "cathode").  Differences in the electrical properties of the materials determine which
object acts as the cathode and which as the anode. The flow of electrical current is enhanced by
the soil's moisture content, acidity, and conductivity, as well as the contact of two dissimilar
metals. The visible results of corrosion are rusted areas or holes in the tank system. Although
both aboveground and underground components can corrode, corrosion of those components in
direct contact with soil or water is by far the greater concern (Figure 4).
  Corrosion may be  eliminated by properly applying cathodic protection, a technique for revers-
ing the natural flow of current, so that the current flows toward the tank instead of away from it.
One means of providing cathodic protection is to connect a "sacrificial anode" to the system. A
sacrificial anode is a metal which will corrode more readily than the tank system components it is
protecting. This device is termed a "sacrificial" anode because it is slowly consumed by corrosion
over time, and must eventually be replaced (Figure 5).
  In some situations, it may be more prudent to install an "impressed current" system. An
impressed current system uses an external power source to force the electric current to flow
toward the tank (Figure 6). This system is highly effective in preventing corrosion, but the source
of impressed current must be frequently inspected since any interruption in the forced flow of
electricity will allow corrosion of the tank system to occur.
  Other protective measures to safeguard the tank system against corrosion include corrosion-
resistant construction materials or coatings and electrical isolation devices.
               FIGURE 4
               Corrosion In most environ-
               ments, the natural flow of electric-
               ity is away from a metal tank
               The visible results of this current
              flow are rusted and corroded areas
               that become increasingly deep with
               time Corrosion can continue
               until it bores through a tank and
               creates a hole
' Inspection of Aboveground Tank Systems
 At least once each operating day, all
 aboveground portions of the tank
 system and its surrounding area must be
 visually inspected for any signs of leaks,
 spills, erosion, or corrosion, as well as
 any damage to system foundations,
 secondary containment systems, or
 other related structures or equipment.
 Aboveground ancillary  equipment that
 is exempt from secondary  containment
 requirements, however, must be
 inspected on at least a daily basis
' Inspection and Evaluation of Corrosion
 Protection  All cathodic  protection sys-
 tems must be inspected within six
 months of their installation to  ensure
 that they are functioning properly After
 this initial inspection, the cathodic pro-
 tection system must be inspected at least
 once every year All sources of
 impressed current employed in a
 cathodic protection system must be
 inspected and/or tested at least once
 every two months.
                                                                                               FIGURE  5
                                                                                               Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Pro-
                                                                                               tection  When two dissimilar
                                                                                               metals are connected to each other,
                                                                                               a current will flow from one to
                                                                                               the other Here a zinc or mag-
                                                                                               nesium rod attached to an under-
                                                                                               ground tank constructed of steel
                                                                                               causes the current to flow toward
                                                                                               the tank, thus protecting it from

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Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Impressed current systems use alternating current (AC) supplied by
an outside electrical source to prevent corrosion The AC is convened to direct current (DC) by a "rectifier" and
then flows to an anode  From the anode, current flows through the soil and to the tank system  Corrosion is
prevented because the current flowing to the tank system is greater than the current flowing away from it
  For all these aspects of tank system
inspection, the owner or operator must
document compliance in the written oper-
ating record of the tank facility

Required Operating Procedures
and  Equipment
  The hazardous waste tank system regula-
tions contain requirements that address the
ongoing operations of hazardous waste
treatment and storage tank systems  These
requirements govern  the nature of materials
that  may be introduced into the tank
system and the use of spill and overflow
prevention controls
   Materials Introduced into Tank Systems.
   No hazardous wastes or treatment re-
   agents that may jeopardize the integrity
   of a tank or its ancillary equipment may
   be  introduced into a tank system Reac-
   tive, ignitable, or incompatible wastes
   should not be placed in a hazardous
   waste tank system unless they can be
   safely stored  Ignitable or reactive mate-
   rials must be stored or treated to render
   them non-flammable or non-reactive, or
   must be stored or treated to protect
   them from igniting or reacting
   Spill and Overflow Prevention. Tank
    system owners or operators must pro-
    vide design and/or operating features to
    protect against the possibility of spills
    and overflows. Spill prevention controls
    should prevent the release of material
    during tank filling, contents transfer,
    and emptying. Overfill controls may
    consist of level sensing devices, high
    level alarms, automatic feed cutoff, or
    automatic  overfill bypass to a standby
    tank In uncovered tanks, sufficient free-
    board (that is, the vertical distance
    between the level of the waste and the
    top of the  tank wall) must be main-
    tained to prevent any spills from wind
    or wave action during tank operations
Responses to Leaks or Spills
  Tank system owners or operators must
take several steps to respond to a leak or
spill from  a hazardous waste treatment or
storage tank system-
  1  Prevent the flow or addition of waste  As
    soon as a leak or spill is detected, or a
    tank system or component  is deter-
    mined unfit for use, the flow of waste
    into or through the tank  system must
  be stopped. The tank system must be
  inspected to determine the cause of a
  leak or spill, or to pinpoint the nature
  and cause of the condition that has led
  to the system's being unfit for use.
2. Remove the waste. If a release has
  occurred from a primary containment
  system, the owner or operator must
  remove enough waste from the system
  to allow the cause of the release to be
  determined and to enable inspection
  and repair Wastes entering a secondary
  containment system must be immedi-
  ately removed. If a system or compo-
  nent is not yet leaking, but has been
  declared unfit for use, the owner or
  operator must comply with similar
  waste removal requirements.
3 Contain the release In the event of a
  leak or spill, the owner or operator
  must immediately make a visual
  inspection to identify any evidence that
  wastes have contaminated soil or sur-
  face water If visible contamination is
  detected, the owner or operator must
  immediately contain the contami-
  nation. Any contaminated soil or
  surface water must be removed and
  disposed of properly
4 Notify the EPA region or State permitting
  authority Within 24 hours of detecting
  a leak or spill, the tank system owner
  or operator must notify the EPA region
  or State permitting authority that a
  release has occurred. (If a "reportable
  quantity" of material as  specified under
  the Comprehensive Environmental Re-
  sponse, Compensation,  and Liability
  Act, was released, the owner or opera-
  tor should notify the National Response
  Center at 800-424-8802.) However,
  this preliminary notification is not
  required  if
       A tank system or component is
         unfit for use, but the system is
         not currently leaking
       A release has been completely
         contained within a secondary
         containment system
       The  release was less than  or
         equal to one pound and was
         immediately contained and
         cleaned  up

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     5. Provide a full report to the EPA region
       or State permitting authority Within
       30 days of detecting a release to the
       environment, the tank system own-
       er or operator must file  a complete
       report of the incident (this report is
       not required if the tank  system is
       exempt from the preliminary noti-
       fication requirements)

  After a spill, leak, or determination of an
unfit-for-use condition, the tank system
owner or operator may not return the
system to service until he or she has com-
plied with a number of specific  require-
ments  The requirements vary depending
on the type of problem

   If the cause of a spill is not related to the
    system's structural integrity, the system
    may be returned to service as soon as
    necessary repairs have been  made
    and/or necessary operating  modifi-
    cations have been implemented to pre-
    vent a spill recurrence
   If the system has secondary containment, it
    may be returned to service as soon as
    the primary containment  system  has
    been repaired and/or operating proce-
    dures have been modified to prevent a
    recurrence of the leak.
   If a leak occurs from a tank  system that
    does not have secondary containment, the
    system may not be returned to service
    until the leaking components have been
    repaired and provided with  secondary
    containment.  If the source of the leak is
    an aboveground component that can be
    inspected visually, the component must
    be repaired and may be returned to ser-
    vice without secondary containment. If
    the source of the leak cannot be
    inspected visually (for example, an
    underground  tank or underground
    piping, the bottom of a tank that sits on
    the ground, or a tank that is partially
    mground), the entire component must
    be provided with secondary
    containment
    Aboveground tanks and certain ancillary
    equipment that can  be visually
    inspected on a daily basis for leaks need
    not receive secondary containment
    (until  the date established by the
    schedule on page 5, or unless exempt)
    This equipment may be repaired and
    returned immediately to service as long
    as applicable certification requirements
    are met.
   When a leak occurs or an unfit-for-use
   condition exists in one or a few system
   components, only those components
   actually leaking (or unfit for service)
   must receive secondary containment
   before the system can be returned to
   service.
   If major repairs are required to restore the
   integrity of a leaking or unfit-for-use
   tank system or component, the owner
   or operator must obtain the certification
   of an independent, qualified, registered
   professional engineer that the repaired
   system is capable of handling hazardous
   waste without release for its intended
   life
  Full Report to EPA
    In the detailed report to EPA, the tank
  system owner or operator must provide the
  following information:
     Likely route of migration of the release.
     Characteristics of the local environment
     that might affect the migration and fate
     of spilled materials, including soil com-
     position, ecology, hydrogeology, climate,
     and  other factors.
     Results of any monitoring or sampling
     undertaken in response to the release.
     Proximity to downgradient drinking water,
     surface water, and/or population.
     Description of responses undertaken
     and/or planned.
Closure and Post-Closure Requirements
  Tank system owners or operators are sub-
|ect to many of the same closure and post-
closure requirements that apply to all other
hazardous waste treatment, storage, and dis-
posal facilities  These requirements include
preparing a closure plan and, where neces-
sary, providing post-closure care of the tank
system. The detail required in the closure
plan and the necessity for post-closure care
vary with the design of the tank system and
the extent of site contamination
  The closure plan must describe the steps
to be taken to close the system in an
environmentally responsible manner, and it
also must demonstrate that sufficient finan-
cial resources are available to do this  If
closure is initiated in response to a leak, a
spill, or a determination that a tank system
is unfit for use,  the owner or operator must
submit the closure plan to the EPA region
or State permitting authority as soon as he
or she has decided to close, rather than
repair, the system.
  In defining closure requirements, EPA
has divided tank systems into three broad
categories. The closure plans, closure activ
ties, and post-closure care requirements for
these systems are significantly different.
   Systems with Secondary Containment Al
    Contaminated Materials Can Be Decon-
    taminated or Removed The owner/ope
    ator must remove or decontaminate all
    waste residues, tank system compo-
    nents, soil, ground water, surface watei
    and other contaminated structures or
    equipment. All hazardous wastes must
    be properly disposed of or treated The
    owner or operator must fulfill all the
    planning, closure activity, cost estima-
    tion, and financial responsibility
    requirements that are applicable to all
    hazardous waste management facilities
   Systems with Secondary Containment Al
    Contaminated Materials Cannot Be Prac-
    ticably Removed or Decontaminated The
    owner or operator must close the
    system and provide post-closure care
    according to the regulations that goven
    hazardous waste landfills  This includes
    capping the site with an impervious
    barner, and providing long-term
    ground-water monitoring to detect any
    migration of wastes offsite The plan-
    ning and financial responsibility requm
    ments that apply to hazardous waste
    landfills also apply to the hazardous
    waste tank systems.
   Systems  Without Secondary Containment
    The owner or operator must prepare
    two closure plans the first plan should
    describe the closure activities to  be
    undertaken if all contaminated soils,
    structures, and equipment can be
    removed or decontaminated, the seconi
    "contingent" closure plan  must be pre-
    pared in case the removal and/or
    decontamination of all contaminated
    materials is not possible, and the systen
    must be closed as a hazardous waste
    landfill
   Generators that accumulate hazardous
waste for less than 90 days are exempt fron
the requirements to prepare closure plans,
however, they must comply with closure
performance standards and requirements fc
proper  disposal of contaminated equip-
ment, structures, and soil

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

How is a "sump" defined under the
regulations?
  A sump is any pit or reservoir that meets
the definition of tank, and those troughs
and/or trenches connected to it that serve
to collect hazardous waste for transport to
hazardous waste treatment, storage, or dis-
posal facilities.
What is the difference between "new"
and "existing" tank systems?
  A "new" tank system is one that will be
used to treat or store hazardous waste and
for which installation began after July 14,
1986 An "existing" tank system is one that
has been used to store or treat hazardous
waste prior to July 14, 1986, or for which
installation began on or before July 14,
1986. A tank system also is considered
"existing" if all Federal, State, and local per-
mits or approvals to begin construction of
the site or installation of the tank system
were obtained by July 14, 1986, andii, by
this date, either construction or installation
was begun and is continuing, or the owner
or operator contracted for construction or
installation to be completed in a reasonable
time.
If a RCRA permit was issued for a tank
system by EPA or an authorized State
after July 14, 1986, but before the Janu-
ary 12, 1987, effective date of the new
Federal tank system regulations, must
that permit incorporate EPA's new haz-
ardous waste tank system requirements?
  The  permit should have been written to
incorporate the currently effective regula-
tions However, RCRA also requires that
each permit contain terms and conditions
as necessary to protect human health and
the environment. If EPA issues the permit,
it will incorporate the new requirements
under this provision If allowed by State
law, the State may incorporate the new tank
regulations and other state-specific require-
ments  under this provision
  When the permit is reviewed (in 10 years
or less), all regulations in effect at the time
of the review must be incorporated into the
reissued permit (including the July 14,  1986,
tank system regulations). The 15-year age
limit phase-in for secondary containment
retrofitting for "existing" tank systems does
not apply to tank systems built after July
14, 1986, because these tank systems are,
by definition, "new" tank systems.
  Under the current regulations, a permit
may be modified, on the basis of subse-
quent regulatory changes, only with the
agreement of the permittee. However, EPA
proposed a change to this regulation in the
March 28,  1986, Federal Register. Under the
proposal, permits may be modified when
the standards or regulations on which the
permit was based have been changed by
statute or amended standards or
regulations.
How does the July 14, 1986, hazardous
waste tank system rule relate to other
rules affecting tanks?
  The July 14,  1986, rule was established
under RCRA's Subtitle C program for haz-
ardous waste management. RCRA's Subtitle
I program regulates hazardous substances
(other than hazardous wastes) and petroleum
products stored in tank systems that are 10
percent or more beneath the ground sur-
face The Subtitle I program does not apply
to underground storage tank systems that
contain nonpetroleum hazardous waste.
Certain provisions of the Subtitle I under-
ground storage tank program currently are
in effect, such as a provision limiting new
installations of unprotected underground
tanks.
  On October 9,  1986, EPA proposed
a rule that would require small quantity
generators of between 100 and 1,000
kg/month of hazardous waste to meet
requirements similar to those contained in
the July  14 rule. EPA is evaluating public
comments on this proposal.
  EPA currently is considering options for
regulating used  oil in tanks  It is not clear
at this point whether (or to what extent)
the July  14, 1986, rules or the Subtitle I
rules will apply to used oil stored in tank
systems.
What kind of services require an
"independent" professional?
  Assessment of existing tank system
integrity, as well as assessment of design and
installation of new tank systems or compo-
nents,  requires an independent, qualified,
registered professional engineer. An inde-
pendent, qualified, installation inspector,
however, also can certify to the proper
installation of new tank systems or compo-
nents.  Design and installation of corrosion
protection requires an independent corro-
sion expert.
Who may perform and certify the initial
and subsequent annual tank system
integrity assessments?
  It is the owner's or operator's responsibil-
ity to determine whether a tank system is
leaking or unfit for use. When conducting
the initial integrity assessment of a tank
system without secondary containment, an
independent, qualified, registered profes-
sional engineer must review and certify the
owner's or operator's written integrity
assessment. The initial integrity assessment
must be certified by a person who does not
have (or appear to have) a conflict of inter-
est. Employees of the owner or operator are
not "independent" and cannot certify the
integrity assessments.
Where the owner or operator cannot
inspect the bottom of a tank (for exam-
ple, a flat-bottom tank sitting on a con-
crete  pad), is inspection of the visible
portions of the tank satisfactory to detect
leaks and corrosion?
  All accessible and  visible aboveground
portions of a tank system must be inspected
at least once each operating day. In the case
where the tank bottom is obscured from
view, such an inspection is not feasible.
However, special efforts should be made to
carefully inspect for  any leakage around the
base of the tank, possibly indicating releases
from the tank bottom. Furthermore, when
secondary containment is provided, the
owner or operator must provide a leak
detection system capable of promptly
detecting any release from the tank bottom.
When must an owner or operator close  a
tank system?
  An  owner or operator must close a tank
system if ordered to  do so by a court or if
the facility loses its interim status In addi-
tion, an owner or operator must close a
tank system in  either of the following two
situations-
   Cessation of Treatment or Storage. When
   an owner or operator expects to cease
   handling hazardous waste in a tank sys-
   tem, he or  she must notify EPA 45 days
   prior to the date on which closure will
   begin. The owner or operator must be-
   gin closure within 30 days after the final
   volume of hazardous waste is placed in
   the tank system  If the owner or opera-
   tor can show that there is a "reasonable
   possibility" that the tank system will
   receive additional volumes of hazardous
   waste, closure may be delayed until no

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   later than one year after receipt of the
   most recent volume of hazardous waste
   Extensions beyond the one-year deadline
   may be granted at the discretion of the
   EPA Regional Administrator.
  ' Actual or Potential Leakage  If a tank
   system is found to be leaking or unfit
   for use, the owner or operator must
   close the tank system unless he or she
   can demonstrate that: (1) the cause of
   the leak was a spill that has not
   damaged the tank system integrity, or
   (2) the tank system can be  repaired to
   prevent additional leaks. For a tank
   system requiring repair, if the leak
   occurred from a tank system compo-
   nent that did not have secondary con-
   tainment, the owner or operator must
   provide that component with secondary
   containment before it is returned to  ser-
   vice. However,  if the leak occurred from
             an aboveground portion of the tank
             system that can be inspected visually,
             the tank system can be returned to ser-
             vice without secondary containment
             even if the repair is extensive. Any
             extensive repairs must be certified and
             any replacement equipment used in
             such repairs must  satisfy the require-
             ments for new equipment. If any of the
             preceding requirements cannot be met,
             the tank system must be closed.
          If an owner or operator plans to install
          secondary containment according to the
          schedule outlined on page 5, must the
          owner or operator prepare the contingent
          closure and contingent post-closure
          plans?
            Yes, the contingent closure  and contin-
          gent post-closure plans are required for all
          tanks not having secondary containment,
          even if the owner or operator plans to
          install secondary containment. The plans
                   are required until appropriate secondary
                   containment is installed.
                   What is the Paint Filter Liquids Test?
                     The Paint Filter Liquids Test is a labora-
                   tory test used to determine the presence or
                   absence of free liquids in hazardous waste.
                   The test is described on page 18 3 70 of the
                   April 30, 1985, Federal Register, and in EP/
                   Publication No. SW-846, Test Methods for
                   Evaluating Solid Wastes, Physical/Chemical
                   Methods. This publication can be obtained
                   by calling the U.S. Government Printing
                   Office (202-783-3238) and requesting
                   Order No. 955-001-000001.

                   How can I obtain further information
                   about the hazardous waste tank system
                   regulations?
                     You may call the EPA hotline at
                   1-800-424-9346 or 382-3000 (in Washing-
                   ton, DC ). You may also contact one of the
                   State or EPA regional offices listed below
EPA Regional Offices
REGION i
John F. Kennedy Federal Bldg
Boston, MA 02203
(617) 565-3715
REGION 2
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
(212)264-2525
REGION s
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
(215) 597-9800
REGION 4
345 Courtland Street, NE
Atlanta, GA 30365
(404) 347-4727
REGION 5
2 30 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL 60604
(312) 353-2000
REGION 6
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, TX 75202
(214)655-6444
REGION 7
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101
(913)236-2800
REGION s
999 18th Street
Denver, CO 80202-2405
(303)293-1603

REGION 9
215 Fremont Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415)974-8071
REGION 10
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
(206)442-5810

State Hazardous
Waste Agencies
ALABAMA
Land Division
Alabama  Department of
 Environmental Management
1751 Federal Drive
Montgomery, AL 36130
205-271-7730
ALASKA
Air and Solid Waste
  Management
Department of Environmental
  Conservation
Pouch O
Juneau, AK 99801
907-465-2666
AMERICAN SAMOA
Environmental Quality
  Commission
Government of American
  Samoa
Pago Pago,  American Samoa
  96799
Overseas Operator
ARIZONA
Office of Waste and Water
  Quality Management
Arizona Department of
  Environmental Quality
2005 N Central Avenue,
  Room 304
Phoenix, AZ 85004
602-257-2305
AKANSAS
Hazardous Waste Division
Arkansas Department of Po
  tion Control and Ecology
PO. Box 9583
8001 National Drive
Little Rock, AR 72219
501-562-7444

CALIFORNIA
Toxic Substances Control
  Division
Department of Health Servi
714/744 P Street
Sacramento, California 9581
916-323-2913 or 324-1826
State Water Resources
  Control Board
P.O Box 100
Sacramento, CA 95801
916-445-1553
COLORADO
Waste Management Division
Colorado Department of
  Health
4210 E  llth Avenue
Denver,  CO 80220
303-320-8333

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COMMONWEALTH OF THE
 NORTHERN MARIANA
 ISLANDS
Division of Environmental
 Quality
Department of Public Health
 and Environmental  Services
Commonwealth of the
 Northern Mariana Islands
Office of the Governor
Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950
Overseas Operator: 6984
CONNECTICUT
Hazardous Materials
 Management Unit
Department of Environmental
 Protection
State Office Building
165 Capitol Avenue
Hartford, CT 06106
203-566-4924
Connecticut Resource
 Recovery Authority
179 Allyn Street, Suite 603
Professional Building
Hartford, CT 06103
203-549-6390
DELAWARE
Division of Water Resources
PO Box 1401
Dover, DE 19903
302-736-5722
Hazardous Waste Management
 Section
Department of Natural
 Resources and Environmental
 Control
PO Box 1401
89 Kings Highway
Dover, DE 19903
302-736-4764

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Pesticides and Hazardous
 Waste Management
 B ranch/Superfund
Department of Consumer and
 Regulatory Affairs
5010 Overlook Avenue, S.W.,
 Room 114
Washington, DC 20032
202-767-8422
FLORIDA
Solid and Hazardous Waste
Underground Storage Tanks
Department of Environmental
 Regulation
Twin Towers Office Building
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, FL 32301
904-488-0300
GEORGIA
Land Protection Branch
Industrial and Hazardous
 Waste Management Program
Floyd Towers East
205 Butler Street, S E.
Atlanta, GA 30334
404-656-2833
GUAM
Guam Environmental
 Protection Agency
P.O. Box 2999
Agana, Guam 96910
Overseas Operator
HAWAII
Hazardous Waste Program
Department of Health
PO. Box 3378
Honolulu, HI 96801
808-548-6410
IDAHO
Hazardous  Materials Bureau
Department of Health and
 Welfare
Idaho State House
Boise, ID 83720
208-334-5879
ILLINOIS
Division of Land Pollution
  Control
Environmental Protection
  Agency
2200 Churchill Road,
  Room A-104
Springfield, IL 62706
217-782-6760
INDIANA
Indiana Department of
  Environmental Management
 105 South  Meridian Street
Indianapolis, IN 46225
 317-232-3210

IOWA
Hazardous  Materials Branch
USEPA Region 7
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101
913-236-2888
KANSAS
Bureau of Waste Management
Department of Health and
 Environment
Forbes Field, Building 321
Topeka, KS 66620
913-862-9360
KENTUCKY
Division of Waste
 Management
Department of Environmental
 Protection
Cabinet for Natural Resources
 and Environmental
 Protection
Fort Boone Plaza, Building 2
18 ReillyRoad
Frankfort,  KY 40601
502-564-6716
LOUISIANA
Office of Solid and Hazardous
 Waste
Louisiana Department of
 Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 44307
Baton Rouge, LA 70804
504-342-9079
MAINE
Bureau of Oil and Hazardous
 Materials Control
Department of Environmental
 Protection
State House Station 17
Augusta, ME 043 3 3
207-289-2651
MARYLAND
Maryland Waste Management
 Administration
Office of Environmental
 Programs
Department of Health and
 Mental Hygiene
201 West Preston Street,
 Room 212
Baltimore, MD  21201
301-225-5647
MASSACHUSETTS
Division of Solid and
  Hazardous Waste
Massachusetts Department of
 Environmental Quality
  Engineering
One Winter Street, 5th Floor
Boston, MA 02108
617-292-5589
MICHIGAN
Waste Management Division
Environmental Protection
 Bureau
Department of Natural
 Resources
PO. Box 30028
Lansing, MI 48909
517-373-2730
MINNESOTA
Solid and Hazardous Waste
 Division
Minnesota Pollution Control
 Agency
520 Lafayette Road, North
St. Paul, MN 55155
612-296-7282
MISSISSIPPI
Division of Solid and Hazard-
 ous Waste Management
Bureau of Pollution Control
Department of Natural
 Resources
PO. Box 10385
Jackson, MS 39209
601-961-5062
MISSOURI
Waste Management Program
Department of Natural
 Resources
Jefferson Building
205 Jefferson Street
PO Box 176
Jefferson City, MO 65102
314-751-3176
MONTANA
Solid and Hazardous Waste
 Bureau
Department of Health and
 Environmental Sciences
Cogswell Building, Room
 B-201
Helena, MT 59620
406-444-2821
NEBRASKA
Hazardous Waste Management
 Section
Department of Environmental
 Control
State House Station
PO. Box 948 7 7
Lincoln, NB 68509
402-471-2186

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NEVADA
Waste Management Program
Division of Environmental
 Protection
Department of Conservation
 and Natural Resources
Capitol Complex
201 South Fall Street
Carson City, NV 89710
702-885-4670
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Division of Public Health
 Services
Office of Waste Management
Department of Health and
 Welfare
Health and Welfare Building
Hazen Drive
Concord, NH 03 301
603-271-2942
NEW JERSEY
Division of Waste
 Management
Department of Environmental
Protection
32 East Hanover Street,
 CN-027
Trenton, NJ 08625
609-292-1250
NEW MEXICO
Groundwater and Hazardous
 Waste Bureau
Environmental Improvement
 Division
New Mexico Health and
 Environment Department
P.O Box 968
Santa Fe, NM 8 7 504-09 6 8
505-827-2918
NEW YORK
Division of Solid and
 Hazardous Waste
Department of Environmental
 Conservation
50 Wolfe Road, Room 209
Albany, NY 12233
518-457-6603
NORTH CAROLINA
Solid and Hazardous Waste
 Management Branch
Division of Health Services
Department of Human
 Resources
P.O Box 2091
Raleigh, NC 2 7602
919-733-2178
NORTH DAKOTA
Division of Hazardous Waste
 Management and Special
 Studies
Department of Health
1200 Missouri Avenue, Room
 302
P.O Box 5520
Bismarck, ND 58502-5520
701-224-2366
OHIO
Division of Solid and Hazard-
 ous Waste Management
Ohio Environmental Protec-
 tion Agency
361 East Broad Street
Columbus, OH 43215
614-466-7220
OKLAHOMA
Waste Management Service
Oklahoma State Department
 of Health
P.O. Box 5 3 551
1000 Northeast 10th Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73152
405-271-5338
OREGON
Hazardous and Solid Waste
 Division
Department of Environmental
 Quality
811 Southwest 6th Avenue
Portland, OR 97204
503-229-5356
PENNSYLVANIA
Bureau of Solid Waste
 Management
Pennsylvania Department of
 Environmental Resources
P.O. Box 206 3
Harnsburg, PA 17120
717-787-9870
PUERTO Rico
Environmental Quality Board
Santurce, PR 00910-1488
809-725-0439
RHODE ISLAND
Solid Waste Management
 Program
Department of Environmental
 Management
204 Cannon Building
75 Davis Street
Providence, RI 02 908
401-277-2797
SOUTH CAROLINA
Bureau of Solid and Hazardous
 Waste Management
Department of Health and
 Environmental Control
2600 Bull Street
Columbia, SC 29201
803-758-5681
SOUTH DAKOTA
Office of Air Quality and Solid
 Waste
Department of Water and
 Natural Resources
Foss Building, Room 217
Pierre, SD 57501
605-773-3153
TENNESSEE
Division of Solid Waste
 Management
Tennessee Department
 of Public Health
701 Broadway
Customs House, 4th Floor
Nashville, TN 37219-5403
615-741-3424
TEXAS
Division of Solid Waste
 Management
Texas Department of Health
1100 West 49th Street, 1-601A
Austin, TX 78756-3199
512-458-7271

Hazardous and Solid Waste
 Division
Texas Water Commission
PO. Box 13087, Capitol
 Station
Austin, TX 78711-3087
512-463-7760
UTAH
Bureau of Solid and Hazardous
 Waste Management
Department of Health
PO Box 16690
288 North 1460 West
Salt Lake City, UT
 84116-0690
801-538-6170
VERMONT
Waste Management Division
Agency of Environmental
 Conservation
103 South Mam Street
Montpeher, VT 05676
802-244-8702
VIRGIN ISLANDS
Department of Conservation
  and Cultural Affairs
PO Box 4399, Charlotte
St. Thomas, VI 00801
809-774-6420
VIRGINIA
Division of Technical Services
Department of Waste
  Management
Monroe Building, 11th Floor
101 North 14th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
804-225-2667
WASHINGTON
Solid and Hazardous Waste
  Management  Division
Department of Ecology
Mail Stop PV-11
Olympia, WA 98504
206-459-6316
WEST VIRGINIA
Waste Management Division
1260 Greenbrier Street
Charleston, WV 25311
304-348-5935
WISCONSIN
Bureau of Solid Waste
  Management
Department of  Natural
  Resources
PO. Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707
608-266-1327
WYOMING
Solid Waste Management
  Program
State of Wyoming
Department of  Environmental
  Quality
122 West 25th  Street
Herschler Building
Cheyenne, WY 82002
307-777-7752

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Further Information on Hazardous Waste
Tank System Management
U S Environmental Protection Agency Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment System, Standards for Hazardous Waste Storage and Treatment
Tank Systems Federal Register 51-25422-25488, July 14, 1986.
US Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. Technical Resource
Document for Storage and Treatment of Hazardous Waste in Tank
Systems EPA/530-SW-86-044, NTIS PB-87-134391. Washington,
DC
US Environmental Protection Agency. 1987 Technical Resource
Document for Obtaining Variances from Secondary Containment
Requirements for Hazardous Waste Tank Systems: Volume I  
Technology-Based Variance NTIS PB-87-158655. Washington, DC
U.S Environmental Protection Agency. 1987. Technical Resource
Document for Obtaining Variances from Secondary Containment
Requirements for Hazardous Waste Tank Systems: Volume II 
Risk-Based Variance NTIS PB-87-158663 Washington, DC
US Environmental Protection Agency 1987 Questions and
Answers Regarding the July 14, 1986, Hazardous Waste Tank
System Regulatory Amendments EPA/530-SW-87-12 Washington,
DC

National Response Center: 800-424-8802
(contact only in the event of a hazardous waste release)

EPA RCRA/Superfund Hotline: 800-424-9346 (toll free)
382-3000 (in Washington, DC)
(contact for further information about the hazardous waste tank
system  rules or the availability of the documents listed below)

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