United States
                  Environmental Protection
      Solid Waste and
      Emergency Response
                                                   Spring 1993
 « EPA     Su pertu nd At  Work
                  Hazardous Waste Cleanup Efforts Nationwide
   Old Midland Products
        Site Profile
 Site Description:
 Former wood preserving plant in
 Yell County, Arkansas
 Site Size: 38 acres
 Primary Contaminants:
 Pentachlorophenol (PCP)
 and polynuclear aromatic
 hydrocarbons (PNAs)
 Potential Range of Health Risks:
 Liver, kidney, or central nervous
 system disorders from direct
 contact with contaminants
 Nearby Population Affected:
 1,500 residents within four miles
 Ecological Concerns:
 Petit Jean River ecosystem via
 Keeland Creek
 Year Listed on NPL: 1984
 EPA Region: VI
 State: Arkansas
 Congressional District: 2
   Treating Lagoon Liquids At Old Midland Products Site
liquid from
pumped into
Success In Brief

Superfund Site Clean

Enough for Unrestricted Use?
  The Old Midland Products site in Yell County, Arkansas was con-
taminated by hazardous chemicals from operations of a wood preserving
plant. The US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked closely
with the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology (ADPCE)
to select a cleanup plan to remediate the site, allowing unrestricted use
by 1998. EPA and ADPCE actions consisted of:
  • Treating over 11 million gallons of contaminated surface water ,
    and lagoon liquids;                                     *
  • Employing a highly efficient, transportable incinerator to destroy
    more than 85,000 tons of contaminated soil and lagoon sludges
    over a short period of time;
  • Installing recovery wells to treat an estimated 450,000 gallons of
    contaminated ground water; and
  • Maintaining effective community relations with local residents to
    address their concerns and involve them in the cleanup process.
  Because this site was abandoned and no viable parties could be
located to conduct the cleanup, EPA's Superfund program was used to
address the huge volume of wastes. This site serves as an example of
how EPA, state agencies, and local residents can work together to
restore the environment polluted by hazardous waste.
                               The Site Today
                                 The majority of the contami-
                               nated soil and lagoon sludges has
                               been incinerated, and operations
                               should be completed in April
                               1993. In addition, the contami-
                               nated surface water and lagoon-
                               liquids are currently being
                               treated.          '          ,
                                 Treatment of the contaminated
                               ground water should be com-
                               pleted by mid-1998, after which
                               the site will be re-evaluated to
                               determine whether it is safe for
                               unrestricted use.
liquids removed
from treatment
            Activated carbon in tank attracts and retains
            contaminants from circulated liquid
            	IIS  Environmental Protection Agency
                   Region 5, Library (PL-12J)
                   77 West Jackson Boulevard, 12th Flop/
                   Chicago, IL  60604-359P

              Superfund At Work
                        Old Midland Products, Yell County, Arkansas
                     Spring 1993
   The Old Midland Products
site is a 38-acre, former wood
preserving plant in Yell
County, Arkansas that oper-
ated from 1969 to 1979. The
Old Midland Products Com-
pany abandoned the site after
declaring bankruptcy in 1979.
   The site is located in a flat,
rural area about one-half mile
east of the town of Ola and
70 miles northwest of the
City of Little Rock Approxi-
mately 190 people live in the
immediate area.
   Local residents depend on
private wells which appar-
ently are not contaminated.
   Most of the hazardous
waste at the site is confined to
a three-acre area that contains
                      A Site Snapshot

                     the wood preserving plant and
                     seven lagoons used for waste
                        The Petit Jean Wildlif e Man-
                     agement Area, located upriver
                     about one mile north of the site, is
                         Private drinking water
                           wells near the site
                            have not shown
                      any signs of contamination

                     not endangered. However, sur-
                     face drainage from the lagoons
                     could have entered nearby
                     Keeland Creek, a tributary of the
                     Petit Jean River.
                        In addition, there is a chicken
                     farm and other nearby commer-
                     cial establishments that could
                have been affected if the con-
                tamination had migrated off
                the site.
                  Pentachlorophenol (PCP)
                and polynuclear aromatic
                hydrocarbons (PNAs), chemi-
                cals used in the wood preserv-
                ing process, are the primary
                pollutants. Low levels of less
                toxic types of dioxins and
                furans have also been detected
                on the site.
                  Direct exposure to these
                chemicals has been found to
                cause cancer or liver and kidney
                damage, as well as disorders of
                the central nervous system.
                  Studies have shown that
                area residents have not been
                directly exposed to any of these
Old Midland
Products Timeline
                                                         • Public comments on remedy selection

                                    • ADPCE and EPA begin remedial investigations

                                             • Site listed on NPL

                              ADPCE discovers contamination  \
                         Superfund legislation enacted
               Wood preserving chemicals
             improperly handled and stored
                                                   1980    1981    1984   1985
                                         Page 2

                     Superfund At Work
                                Old Midland Products, Yell County, Arkansas
          Spring 1993
      EPA and ADPCE Address Contamination
      At Old Midland Products  Site
    Lagoons Most Contaminated
      The Arkansas Department of
    Pollution Control and Ecology
    (ADPCE) first discovered con-
    tamination at the site in 1981.
    ADPCE asked EPA to determine
    whether the site posed immediate
    threats to the surrounding com-
      A preliminary assessment
    identified the need for a compre-
    hensive cleanup. In July 1984, the
    Old Midland Products site was
    placed on the National Priorities
    List (NPL), EPA's roster of uncon-
    trolled or abandoned hazardous
    waste sites eligible for cleanup
    under Superfund.
      Between 1985 and 1987, EPA
    and ADPCE conducted a reme-
    dial investigation at the site to
                             determine the extent of the
                             contamination. While most of the
                             hazardous waste was confined to
                             three acres, the lagoons contained

                                  Lagoons contained
                               620,000 gallons of wastes
                               contaminated with wood
                                 processing chemicals

                             an estimated 2,770 cubic yards of
                             contaminated sludges and
                             620,000 gallons of liquid wastes.
                               In addition, 23,000 cubic yards
                             of soil around and under the
                             lagoons were found to be con-
                             taminated down to a depth of 14
                             feet. Almost half a million gallons
                             of ground water also were pol-
                             luted in the upper aquifer.
                                                                              /Old Midland Product!
                                                                               Yell County, Arkansas
       As part of
     the study,
     EPA and
     conducted an
     assessment of the health effects
     associated with PCP, PNAs, and
     dioxins and furans. Soil and water
     sampling confirmed that these
     chemicals were only found within
     the site boundaries. A fence was
     erected to prevent any public
     access to the site.

     Cleanup Alternatives Examined
       Following the field investiga-
     tions, cleanup alternatives were
     evaluated to determine the best
     method to remediate the site's
     hazardous waste.
Cleanup remedy selected
               Remedy design completed
                      Remedial action contract awarded
                      Wastewater treatment plant installed and water treatment begins
                              Incineration of contaminated materials begins
                                     Contaminated waste incineration completed (planned)
                                     Accelerated treatment of contaminated ground water
                                     begins (planned)
                                                  Five year review begins
                                                                • Ground water
                                                                 complete (planned)
                                                                • Site safe for future
                                                                 development (planned)
          1990    1991     1992    1993    1996
                                                Page 3

                 Superfund At Work
   Old Midland Products, Yell County, Arkansas
    Spring 1993
  In November 1987, EPA re-
quested comments from the
ADPCE and the public on the
cleanup alternatives under con-

     Cleanup for the site
  addressed  lagoon liquids,
     ground wata*, soil,
   sediments, and sludges

sideration. The final cleanup plan
for the Old Midland Products site
addressed lagoon liquids, ground
water, soil, sediments, and sludges.
  A major component of the plan
involves treating lagoon liquids
using carbon adsorption. This
technique flushes contaminated
water through tanks filled with
activated carbon that attracts and
retains contaminants.
  Eight recovery wells will be
installed to collect ground water
prior to treatment with carbon
adsorption. In addition, soil,
sediments and sludges from the
lagoons and drainage areas are to
be excavated and the contami-
nants destroyed in an on-site,
transportable incinerator.
  EPA initially estimated the
total cleanup of the site at $13.8
million with a completion date of
1996. Because the site was aban-
doned, EPA financed 90 percent
and the State of Arkansas funded
10 percent of the cleanup. This is a
state-led project being adminis-
tered by ADPCE.
Clean vapors and steam are released from an exhaust stack at the Old Midland
Products site. Following combustion, air pollution control devices remove acid gases
and particulates.
Cleanup Methods Offer
Permanent Solution
  A remedial action contract was
awarded in March 1991 and site
work started in May. The water
treatment facility was completed
in December 1991. Liquids from the
waste lagoons and contaminated
storm water runoff are being
collected and treated on site using
the carbon adsorption system.
  Eight ground water recovery
wells will be installed at depths of
35 feet and the liquids pumped
and treated using activated
carbon which retains the contami-
nants. The treated water will be
discharged into a site drainage
ditch. The oil and other contami-
nants removed from the water
will be taken to a licensed com-
mercial facility for disposal.
Ground water recovery should
start by mid-1993, and should be
completed by mid-1998.
  A transportable incinerator is
currently employed to destroy
contaminants in the soil and
lagoon sludges at the Old Mid-
land Products site. Hazardous
wastes are burned at extremely
high temperatures to destroy the
organic compounds.
  Air pollution control devices
remove acid gases and particu-
lates, so only clean vapors and
steam are released from the
exhaust stacks.  The resulting
ash is nonhazardous and placed
in excavated areas on site,
then covered with topsoil and
  The incineration is expected to
be completed in April 1993.
After all contaminants in the soil
and lagoon sludges have been
destroyed, the incinerator will
be dismantled.
                                            Page 4

                 Superfund At Work
 Old Midland Products, Yell County, Arkansas
                                 Spring 1993
Transportable Technology
The incinerator used at the Old Midland
Products site was brought in for cleanup
activities. When remediation is complete it
will be disassembled.

Work With


  As with any Superfund site,
EPA stresses the importance of
community involvement
throughout the various stages of
  EPA and ADPCE worked
closely with local residents to
address their concerns about the
Old Midland Products site.
  One resident who lives near
the site was concerned about the
quality of her drinking water. She
informed ADPCE and EPA, and
was connected to the local city
water system at a minimal cost.
          continued on next page
                                      Transportable Incinerator.
                                           Model of Efficiency
                                  The incinerator used at die
                                Old Midland Products ate was
                                required to meet strict stan-
                                dards for efficiency due to the
                                presence of low levels of dioxins.
                                  To meet     _—
                                these stan-
                                dards, trial
                                burn tests were
                                conducted to
                                determine the
                                destruction and
                            results in June 1992.
                               The average continuous
                            operation time for incinerators
                            is seven to ten days. However,
                            the Old Midland Products
                            ************  incinerator has
                    The incinerator       °Pffl?tod  ,
                                          for as long as 63
                    has destroyed
                 more than 85,000 tons  ^M g ^ ^^
               of contaminated material klnger'than
               •"""•"•"""•"••••"•"•""•ll'™11 historically has
removal efficiency (DRE) for     been achieved by other compa-
selected principal organic
hazardous constituents (POCs)
  The incinerator at the Old
Midland Products site was
able to demonstrate the
99.9999% DRE requirement
for pentachlorophenol,
dioxins and furans using
1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the
trial burn.
  In addition, the incinerator
achieved other performance
specifications that included
demonstrating a 99.99% DRE
                            rable facilities.
                              As a result the incinerator
                            has been able to destroy more
                            than 85,000 tons of ccaitaminated
                            material in a 10-month period.
                              Originally, the cleanup plan
                            estimated that six tons of con-
                            taminated material could be
                            destroyed per hour, but the
                            incinerator has averaged almost
                            17 tons.
                              This rate of efficiency proved
                            critical to the site cleanup
                            because EPA later discovered
                            more contaminated soil and
                            lagoon sludges. Despite the
for other POCs, for control of
hydrogen chloride emissions,
and for control of particulate    higher volume of waste, the
emissions. Full-time operations  cleanup should still be corn-
began soon after final ADPCE   pleted on schedule.
and EPA approval of the test
 In an average hour of operation,
 the incinerator destroys nearly
 17 tons of contaminated material
                                          Page 5

                 Superfund At Work
  Old Midland Products, Yell County, Arkansas
  Spring 1993
Federal and State Agencies
Work Closely With Community
continued from page 5
Although no signs of contamina-
tion were present in tests of her
well, the potential existed for
ground water contamination.
  Unlike other environmental
statutes, Superfund is unique in
that public participation is relied
upon for the selection of the
cleanup remedy.
  At the Old Midland Products
site, ADPCE and EPA held public
meetings and wrote several fact
sheets to educate local residents
about incinerator technology.
  By demonstrating the safety of
incineration, the community has
learned that this was the most
effective remedy for the huge
volumes of waste at the site.
  In just a few years, the Old
Midland Products site can be
converted to more productive
uses, having greater benefits for
the residents.
 When incineration is complete at the Old Midland Products site,
 the transportable incinerator will be disassembled
   If you wish to be added to our mailing list or to comment on this bulletin's content, length
  or format, please call (703) 603-8984 or send a letter to Superfund At Work (5502G), 401 M
                   Street SW, Washington, DC 20460.
    Success at

 Old Midland


  EPA and the Arkansas
Department of Pollution
Control and Ecology
(ADPCE) are proceeding
with the cleanup of the Old
Midland Products site.
  The transportable incin-
erator selected to treat haz-
ardous waste serves as a
model of efficiency and
safety. EPA and ADPCE
worked closely with local
residents to address their
concerns about the risks
posed by pollution at the site.
  The cleanup is proceeding
on schedule and should
allow the site to be safe for
future development by 1998,
after completing the treat-
ment of the contaminated
ground water.
          For additional copies of this or other Superfund At Work updates, contact the National Technical Information Service,
             U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161, telephone (703) 487-4650.
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, D.C. 20460

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