United States
                  Environmental Protection
                   Solid Waste and
                   Emergency Response
EPA 520-F-94-007
    Winter 1994
                  Superfund At Work
                  Hazardous Waste Cleanup Efforts Nationwide
       New Brighton
        Site Profile
  Site Description: Army ammuni-
  tions plant + parts of seven sur-
  rounding communities outside
  Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN
  Site Size: 25 square miles
  Primary Contaminants: Volatile
  organic compounds, heavy metals,
  and polychlorinated biphenyls
  Potential Range of Health Risks:
  Increased risk of cancer from
  ingestion of contaminated
  drinking water
  Nearby Population: 100,000
  Ecological Concerns: Rice Creek
  and freshwater marshes and
  Year Listed on NPL: 1983
  EPA Region: 5
  State: Minnesota
  Congressional District: 4
Women were employed in munitions production during World War II as part of
the "Keep 'Em Shooting" campaign.
Success in Brief

U. S. Army Cleans Up

Superfund Site

  Billions of rounds of small-arms ammunition were manufactured at
the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP), supporting the
military in three major wars. During the course of production, solvents
and hazardous chemical wastes migrated into area ground water,
contaminating municipal and private wells. As part of a three-party
agreement, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Minne-
sota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) staff, and the U.S. Army are
working together to clean up TCAAP and 25 square miles of ground
water affecting the adjacent metropolitan area. Highlights of the over-
all effort have included:
  •  removal of nearly 232,000 pounds of solvents from soil using an
     innovative technology, soil vapor extraction;
  •  treatment of more than six billion gallons of ground water from
     TCAAP extraction wells; and
  •  construction of two treatment plants to purify municipal water
     supplies in neighboring cities.
  The TCAAP property includes wetlands and undisturbed natural
                               habitat supporting an extensive
                               variety of wildlife. Related
                               cleanup efforts will protect a
                               sensitive ecosystem currently
                               sustained as a refuge despite
                               increasing urban pressures.
                              The Site Today
                                 Two ground water treatment
                              plants are operating to remove
                              contaminants from the New
                              Brighton and St. Anthony mu-
                              nicipal water supplies, ensuring
                              future resources for both cities.
                              An elaborate system also treats
                              ground water at TCAAP while
                              the Army monitors more than
                              300 area wells. Work to address
                              soil and surface water contami-
                              nation at the site is ongoing.

                     Superfund At Work  •  New Brighton Site, New Brighton, MN  •  Winter 1994
                               A Site  Snapshot
  Located in Ramsey County    ground water, surface water,
approximately two miles north   sediment, and soil on the site and
of Minneapolis/St. Paul, this     in the Prairie Du Chien/Jordan
Superfund site includes parts of  aquifer systems. The most wide-
New Brighton, St. Anthony,
Arden Hills, and several other
communities, and includes 25
square miles of contaminated
ground water. Approximately
100,000 people live in sur-
rounding communities and
several schools are located
within two miles of the site.
  Contamination of
New Brighton's  munici-
pal drinking water was
detected in 1981  by
MPCA staff and the Minne-
sota Department of Health
(MDH). Fifty-four chemicals of
concern were identified in the
       spread contaminants are volatile
       organic compounds (VOCs), most
       notably trichloroethylene (TCE),
       as well as heavy metals and
New Brighton Site
New Brighton, Minnesota
polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs). These chemicals were
byproducts of periodic muni-
tions manufacturing conducted
at TCAAP during 22 of the last
52 years.
  Ecological concerns include
Rice Creek and surrounding
freshwater marshes, prairies,
and woodlands. Nearly 1700
acres of TC AAP property have
been virtually undisturbed,
despite continual metropolitan
growth in all directions around
the plant. MarsdenLake,
covering 560 acres, is one of the
largest undisturbed wetlands in
this part of the state, supporting
such species as trumpeter
swans, bluebirds, wood ducks,
and Blandings turtles.
        New Brighton Site
                                                ' St. Anthony shuts down two wells, obtains water from Rosevie
                                  «Site placed on NPL
                                  • EPA studies ground water
                                  • Army provides bottled water
                                  • St. Anthony detects contamination

                       1 New Brighton shuts down six wells 4
                           • MPCA discovers contamination of drinking water
                           • Superfund enacted

     TCAAP begins manufacture of armaments

                  ^  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                      Region 5, Library flk-12J)

                        Superfund At Work •  New Brighton Site, New Brighton, I
                                                     Winter 1994
  Ammunitions Production Taints Ground Water
 Solvents Used to
 Degrease Metals
   The Twin Cities Army Ammu-
 nitions Plant (TCAAP) has been a
 munitions producer since 1941.
 Beginning with .50 caliber shells
 during World War II, armaments
 and other weapons systems were
 manufactured there, requiring
 extensive use of solvents to
 degrease metals. Until 1967,
 solvent wastes and significant
 amounts of unusable ammunition
 were dumped or burned in 14
 different areas on the plant prop-
 erty, contaminating an estimated
 25 square miles of ground water.

 Superfund Sets the Stage for
Investigation and Cleanup
   In 1980, Congress enacted the
Comprehensive Environmental
                      Response, Compensation, and
                      Liability Act (CERCLA) establish-
                      ing the Superfund program.
                      Designed to address thousands of
                      hazardous waste sites nation-
                      wide, CERCLA included provi-
                      sions for responsible parties to
                      conduct cleanup operations.
                      During the development of
                      legislation, DoD established an
                      installation restoration program
                      to identify, investigate, and
                      control the migration of hazard-
                      ous wastes at military bases
                      across the country.

                      Municipal and Private
                      Wells Tested
                       In 1981, MPCA staff received a
                      copy of a 1978 U.S. Army report
                      detailing the history of waste
                      disposal at TCAAP. MPCA and
                                           MDH sampling found VOCs in
                                           and near TCAAP wells and in
                                           New Brighton's municipal water
                                           supply, including relatively high
                                           levels of TCE.
                                             In 1982, the city of New
                                           Brighton shut down six municipal
                                           wells with the highest levels of
                                           TCE. The city was able to use two
                                           unaffected wells for part of its
                                           water supply, while deepening
                                           two previously contaminated
                                           wells. EPA's Superfund program
                                           also provided funds to treat other
                                           contaminated wells. In addition,
                                           the Army supplied bottled water
                                           to six families living near TCAAP
                                           whose private wells were con-
                                             In 1983, EPA funded an MPCA
                                           investigation of area-wide ground
                                           water contamination. A joint
      • EPA studies alternative supply techniques
               • Army begins soil treatment at TCAAP
                          > Interageney agreement signed by Army, EPA, and State
                          • TCAAP treatment wefis operational
                                 W • Construction of municipal treatment plants begins

                                              1 St. Anthony and New Brighton treatment plants open

                                                     m • Site investigations completed on and off-base
                                                                  Studies continue on TCAAP
1991      1992

                      Superfund At Work  •  New Brighton Site, New Brighton, MN  •   Winter 1994
EPA-MPCA plan to ensure safe
drinking water recommended
that St. Anthony monitor existing
water supplies, establish a water
conservation program, and
construct a temporary connection
to the nearby city of Roseville.

New Brighton Becomes a
Priority Site
  In September 1983, the New
Brighton site was placed on the
National Priorities List (NPL), a
roster of uncontrolled or aban-
doned hazardous waste sites
requiring cleanup under the
Superfund program. In 1984,
when solvent concentrations rose
above safety standards, the
Minnesota Department of Health
advised St. Anthony to shut
down one well.  Later that year,
St. Anthony was connected to
Roseville to increase its water
   In 1985, EPA and MPCA
studied alternatives for providing
safe and permanent water sup-
plies to St. Anthony and New
Brighton. Completed in June
1986, the study recommended
that St. Anthony wells be treated
by a carbon filtration system to
remove contaminants, and that
New Brighton add a new deep
well to the current municipal

TCAAP Cleanup Begins
   Negotiations among officials of
EPA, the Army, and MPCA
began in 1985.  In 1986, the Army
began treating soil at two of the
most heavily contaminated
TCAAP areas.  Using a vapor
extraction system, air was drawn
through contaminated soil to filter
out VOCs. By the end of 1993, the
system had removed nearly
232,000 pounds of solvents and
the Army had incinerated more
than 1,400 cubic yards of soil
contaminated with PCBs.
   In 1987, EPA, MPCA, and the
Army developed a ground water
treatment plan to cleanse and
contain ground water and to
prevent additional contamination
from flowing off site. Termed the
Boundary Ground Water Recov-
ery System (BGRS), 12 wells on
TCAAP property extract the
ground water which is pumped
to a tower where specialized
equipment removes contami-
nants.  Treated water is then
discharged to an on-site basin.
A portion of this water is filtered
and used for drinking water by
TCAAP employees.
   The Army installed five more
 ground water extraction wells
 down-gradient from contami-
 nated areas later in 1987. Com-
bined with the BGRS, the addi-
 tional extraction wells form the
 TCAAP Ground Water Recovery
 System (TGRS). The two systems
have treated over six billion
gallons of ground water and
removed an estimated 103,050
pounds of VOCs. The two sys-
tems will continue to run until
cleanup criteria are met.
  In addition, the Army con-
structed an extensive ground
water monitoring system consist-
ing of more than 300 wells to
delineate and monitor the con-
taminant plumes. DoD submits to
EPA and MPCA an annual moni-
toring report based on data
collected from these wells.

Cooperative Efforts Ensure Safe
Drinking Water
  While the Army was cleaning
up TCAAP's most polluted areas,
EPA focused on treatment of St.
Anthony's municipal water
supply. These efforts involved
construction of a $2.8 million
Granular Activated Carbon
(GAC) treatment plant to remove
contaminants from drinking
water. The St. Anthony treatment
plant began operating in Decem-
ber 1990, treating three million
gallons of water a day.
   The Army also built a $4
million GAC treatment plant to
address contamination in New
Brighton's  water supply and
reimbursed the city for costs
incurred in constructing deeper
wells. The New Brighton plant
began operating in June 1990,
treating four million gallons of
water a day and preventing
the need for drilling another
deep well.
                continued on page 5

                       Superfund At Work •  New Brighton Site, New Brighton, MN  •  Winter 1994

  Ground Water

continued from page 4
  In 1991, MPCA and the Army
completed off-base and on-base
investigations, respectively.  In
 1992 and 1993, EPA, MPCA, and
 the Army agreed on remedies to
 address remaining off-base
 ground water contamination.
 With municipal drinking water
 supplies ensured, efforts are
 currently under way to develop a
 plan to clean up the rest of
 TCAAP, including contamina-
 tion of soil and surface water.
          TCAAP:  Safe Haven and a Code of Honor
    Military training has to be
  conducted away from popu-
  lated areas and requires thou-
  sands of acres of land. Heavy
  vehicles, combat engagement
  exercises, and testing of ad-
  vanced weapon systems have
  major environmental impacts
  on vegetation cover and both
  botanical and wildlife composi-
  tion. Yet the actual disturbed
  areas are in general only a
  relative fraction of the total
  number of acres on most
  military installations, leaving
  islands of wild lands virtually
  undeveloped for years. Mili-
  tary installations are frequently
  the last bastions for native
  prairies, endangered species,
  and critical habitat. Without
  military set-asides, urban
  expansion would have con-
  sumed these huge tracts of land
  years ago.
    TCAAP is one such army
  installation where two-thirds of
  the entire acreage is undisturbed
  woodland, prairie and wetlands.
  Although training exercises were
  never conducted here, ammuni-
 tions and weapons production have
 put these wild areas at risk. The
 Army has put considerable time
 and effort into cleaning up TCAAP
 and providing safe drinking water
 for surrounding communities.
 Cleanup of surface contamination
 will ensure the integrity of the
 ecosystem in Marsden and Sunfish
 Lakes. Cleanup of contaminants in
 the soil will allow for regrowth of
native botanical species support-
ing birds, deer, and raccoons.
  The TCAAP refuge serves as a
unique, valuable, natural re-
source for Minnesotans, but is
endangered by metropolitan
growth. The federal facility
agreement with EPA and MPCA
serves as a deed of trust to
restore this small but diverse
haven for wildlife.
 Tom Barounis, Remedial Project Manager for the New Brighton site, holds a green
 snake, just one of hundreds of plant and animal species thriving at TCAAP.
                     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                     Region 5, Library (PL-12J)
	 B      77 West Jackson Boulevard. 12th Floor
                                                    Chicago, IL  oUbU4-doyu

                       Superfund At Work  •  New Brighton Site, New Brighton, MN  •   Winter 1994
    Cleaning Up

  Federal Facilities

  The U.S. government currently
owns 126 sites on the NFL; this
number may increase to 400 in
the next few years. These sites
are DoD, Department of Energy,
or other federal agency property
and are generally quite large and
extensively contaminated, posing
unique challenges. Once a fed-
eral facility has been added to the
NPL, the DoD/DOE, EPA, and
the state negotiate a Federal
Facility Agreement (FFA) to
guide the Superfund cleanup

First FFA Signed
  EPA, DoD, and MPCA signed
a FFA in July 1987, the first such
agreement under the Superfund
program, requiring the Army to
conduct the New Brighton site
cleanup. The FFA marked the
beginning of greater cooperation
between federal and state agen-
cies in cleaning up federal facility
hazardous waste sites.
        Success at New Brighton
  Cooperation between federal,
state, and local governments has
been important in cleaning up
the New Brighton site. Under
Superfund's first Federal Facili-
ties Agreement, the U.S. Army
acted promptly to provide
drinking water to area residents
and build treatment plants to
decontaminate ground water.
The Army will ultimately fi-
nance $370 million in site
cleanup efforts.
  EPA and MPCA staff worked
closely together to identify
contaminants and recommend
solutions for the site. St. An-
thony and New Brighton have
initiated water conservation
programs and developed plans
to construct long-term water
supplies. The City of Roseville
provided a temporary connec-
tion to help meet water needs
for neighbors in St. Anthony.
   These cooperative efforts
have helped to clean up the
most costly hazardous waste
site in Minnesota and one
of the largest ground water
contamination areas in
the country.
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