United States
                 Environmental Protection
                              Solid Waste and
                              Emergency Response
      Fall 1992
Superfund At Work
Hazardous Waste Cleanup Efforts Nationwide
       Site Profile
Site Description:
Hazardous waste dump in rural
Hillsborough Township, New Jersey
Site Size: 1 acre
Primary Contaminants:
Volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), pesticides, and
polychlorinated biphenyts (PCBs)
Potential Range of Health Risks
Without EPA Cleanup:
Skin irritation; increased risk of
Nearby Population:
1,200 within one mile
Ecological Concerns:
Rarttan River
Year Listed on NPL: 1982
Year Deleted from NPL: 1989
EPA Region: II
State: New Jersey
Congressional District: 12
         Five Years of Uncontrolled Dumping
  The Krysowaty Farm site had hazardous material strewn over a one-acre
  area of a ravine. Tires, demolition debris, and many corroded drums of
  paint, pesticides and dye wastes were illegally dumped.
            Success In Brief

            Krysowaty Farm.. .Cleaned Up

              The one-acre dump at Krysowaty Farm was small in size compared
            to some other Superfund sites. But five years of dumping proved to be
            a challenge when designing an appropriate cleanup. Nevertheless, the
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quickly and efficiently
            alleviated immediate and potential dangers to the community of
            Hillsborough, New Jersey. In less than five months, Superfund staff:
               Worked closely with community members and Hillsborough
                Township officials to ensure an effective solution;
               Funded a permanent alternate water supply for residents
                threatened by contaminated well water; and
               Completed a permanent cleanup of hazardous wastes at the site.
            Krysowaty Farm is a good example of how an active community,
            coupled with EPA responsiveness and expertise, can eliminate the
            dangers posed by the unauthorized dumping of hazardous substances.

            The Site Today
              Krysowaty Farm was once considered one of the worst uncon-
            trolled hazardous waste sites in the United States. It was deleted from
                                          the National Priorities List (NPL)
                                          in 1989, after all known contami-
                                          nants were removed. The cleanup
                                          effort meets established safety
                                          standards and no further actions
                                          are required at the site. A local
                                          health official said, "(I) couldn't
                                          be more pleased" with the
                                          "state-of-the-art" cleanup of
                                          Krysowaty Farm.
                                            Superfund financed and con-
                                          ducted the site cleanup because
                                          the owner of the Krysowaty
                                          property was deceased, and the
                                          identity of other contributing
                                                           parties was unknown.
                  Region 5, Library (PL-12J)
                  77 West Jackson Boulevard, 12th Floor
                  Chicago, IL  60604-3590

                   Superfund At Work
      Krysowaty Farm, Hillsborough, NJ
Fall 1992
              A Site Snapshot
  Krysowaty Farm was a one-
acre hazardous waste dump in
Hillsborough Township, N.J.
Five hundred drums of paint,
dye wastes,
and pesticides          :;;
were               r, .^..^ ,
dumped,           f   ^ _t
crushed, and           "   s'
buried in a            v"' '">s>7
ravine on the       L'''!-  s
42-acre prop-
erty, contami-  *v> ^ *x '
nating 13,700 cubic yards
of soil.
  The pulverized drums
released volatile organic
compounds (VOCs), and
polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) which contaminated
the ground water, soil, and
  In addition to drums,
other wastes disposed on
this property included demoli-
tion debris, tires,  automobiles,
bulk wastes, solvents, and
waste sludge.
  The site gained recognition
because of its negative impact
              on nearby
              drinking wells
              and the threat
              of migrating
              from the site
              to the south
              branch of the
              Raritan River.
Potential health effects from
direct contact with these pollut-
ants and/or consumption of
contaminated ground water
range from skin irritation to an
increased risk of cancer.
  Krysowaty Farm is located
in a rural area with approxi-
mately 1,200 people living
within a one-mile radius; the
closest inhabitants reside 900
feet from the farm.
                                 Hazardous Wast
  EPA Responds to Dangers of
  Contaminated Ground Water
    Between 1965 and 1970, a on<
  acre portion of Krysowaty Farn
  was used as an unauthorized
  dump site for hazardous materi
  Starting in 1977, medical com-
  plaints were registered with the
  Hillsborough Township Health
  Department. It was not until 19
  that the New Jersey Departmen
  Environmental Protection (NJD
  became aware of the site and
  conducted an investigation whi
  revealed VOCs in the ground
  water. Superfund was enacted
  1980, and, in 1982, the site was
  proposed for listing on the NPL
  EPA also investigated local claii
  of skin rashes and miscarriages
  allegedly due to ground water
  contamination; however, no sci
    Krysowaty Farm
                Hazardous wastes
                improperly dumped
                               Hillsborough Township provides bottled water <
                               Site included on National Priorities List
                                                     Superfund legislation enacted
                  New Jersey Department
                  of Environmental Protection
                  investigates site
   1979     1980
                                         Page 2

                            Superfund At Work     Krysowaty Farm, Hillsborough, NJ     Fall 1992
Dumped In Kiysowaty Farm Ravine
   tine data was found to substantiate
   these claims. Hillsborough Town-
   ship provided bottled water to
   affected residents in 1982 as a
   temporary measure
   while EPA and
   NJDEP conducted
   joint site investiga-
   tions to verify
          Krysowaty Farm
       Hillsborough Township, NJ
   whether the site should be
   on the final NPL. The
   findings of the site
   investigation led to
   Krysowaty Farm being
   included on the final NPL in
   December 1982.
     In addition to the cleanup of
   the contaminated soil, a permanent
   alternate water supply system
   servicing 29 homes was installed in
   1985, further reducing the threat to
   the community.
            Hillsborough Township's
              financial burden was eased
                 when the Elizabefhtown
                  Water Company con-
                  tributed part of the
                 funds needed for the
                 alternate water supply.
                             Krysowaty Contami-
                             nants Removed, Site
                             Developing a cleanup
                          plan for Krysowaty Farm
                          proved to be a problematic
                        undertaking, as many of the
                      corroded drums needed to be
                     contained before removing them
                     from the site.
                       An accidental release of the con-
                     taminated materials from the
                     drums could have caused further
                     endangerment to the environment.
                                   Consequently, EPA spent almost
                                   one year examining alternatives
                                   for the site before finalizing the
                                   cleanup plan in July 1985.
                                      EPA undertook a variety of
                                   measures to ensure the safety of
                                   nearby residents. In August 1985
                                   cleanup teams began preparing
                                   the area and the surrounding
                                   community for permanent
                                   cleanup activity. EPA fenced the
                                   area surrounding the site to
                                   protect trespassers from coming
                                   into contact with the contamina-
                                   tion while cleanup was ongoing.
                                      EPA then chose the least-
                                   traveled roads for the bucks
                                   to use when transporting the
                                   hazardous substances.  Maps
                                   of these routes were distributed
                                   to the community in advance,
                                   informing them of the exact
Site investigation completed
Public meetings held
                      j>  Cleanup design completed; work begins
                      ^   Permanent alternate water supply installed
                                  Cleanup activities successfully completed
                                  All drums and visibly contaminated soil removed
                                  Area covered with fresh soil, reseeded
                                           Site deleted from
                                           National Priorities List
                                              Site monitored to ensure safety
                                                  Page 3

                             Superfund At Work
                 Krysowaty Farm, Hillsborough, NJ
           Fall 1992
times the shipments of con-
taminated material would
take place.  EPA teams then
removed and transported
13,700 cubic yards of contami-
nated soil and wastes to an
approved hazardous waste
disposal facility. The excavated
area was filled with dean soil
and seeded for grass.
  By January 1986, fences were
removed to signify the successful
completion of site cleanup efforts.
EPA conducted air monitoring
tests throughout the cleanup to
ensure the safety of the commu-
nity. In 1989, Krysowaty Farm
was deleted from the NPL.
NJDEP continues to ensure the
effectiveness of cleanup activities
by monitoring the ground water
semi-annually through 1992.

   One Scoop At ATlme As heavy construction equipment removes contaminated
   soil at the Krysowaty Farm site, progress is made one scoop at a time. EPA
   cleanup teams removed and transported 13,700 cubic yards of contaminated soil
   and wastes from the site, placing them in an approved hazaretous waste facility.
   The excavated area was led with clean soil, then reseeded for grass.
     To Protect
 Is Complete
  The Superfund program not
only contributes to the successful
cleanup of existing hazardous
waste sites, but ensures that mea-
sures are taken to prevent future
endangerment to the environment.
  To that end, EPA obtained a deed
restriction for Krysowaty Farm
prohibiting the installation of drink-
ing wells and future development
of the portion of the property where
the cleanup occurred.
  Although this site is considered
clean, these precautionary measures
were taken to ensure the future
protection of the residents from any
previously undetectable or residual
                                                  Page 4

                     Superfund At Work
Krysowaty Farm, Hillsborough, NJ
Fall 1992
A Perspective of Scale  Members of an EPA cleanup team, clothed in
protective gear, survey progress during the cleanup activities. The Krysowaty
Farm ravine was filled with 500 drums of hazardous waste, many of which
ruptured and leaked contamination into the surrounding area. Other debris and
rubble are visible in the photo's foreground.
                        Community and

                        State Contribute

                        to Cleanup

                        at Krysowaty

                        Farm Site

                          An essential component of a
                        successful Superfund program is
                        community participation in EPA
                        site activities. The dangers of
                        Krysowaty Farm were brought to
                        EPA's attention through the
                        persistent efforts of Hillsborough
                        Township residents. Public
                        meetings held throughout the
                        process provided the community
                        with a mechanism for expressing
                        their concerns regarding the

Excavating the Contamination  EPA teams removed and transported 13,700
cubic yards of contaminated soil and wastes from the Krysowaty Farm site. The
excavated area was then filled with new soil and reseeded.
                        cleanup. The Township and EPA
                        designed plans and undertook
                        cleanup activities based on input
                        from the citizens of Hillsborough.
                        The Township was also respon-
                        sive in acknowledging the
                        problem's severity, lowering
                        property taxes for 68 homes near
                        the hazardous waste dump.
                          EPA's Superfund program
                        financed the site cleanup because
                        the original landowner of the
                        Krysowaty property was
                        deceased, and other potential
                                   continued on back page
                                           Page 5

                      Superfund At Work
Krysowaty Farm, Hillsborough, NJ
Fall 1992
Community and State

Contribute to Cleanup

continued from page 5

contributing polluters could not be found. A leader
for the Coalition for Clean Water underscored the
benefit of positive, coordinated efforts like those at
Krysowaty Farm: "I believe you can change any-
thing if you work at it," she said.
  Residents, township officials, and EPA certainly
did work at it, and their efforts yielded impressive
results: The threat of contamination has  been abated and
the Krysowaty Farm property has been largely restored.
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                       Success at

                 Krysowaty Farm

              The cleanup of Krysowaty Farm dearly
           demonstrates Superfund's commitment to
           cleanup the nation's most dangerous hazard-
           ous waste sites. Superfund provided Hills-
           horough residents with the financing and
           expertise needed to alleviate the threat to
           their community.
              The fear of contamination of well water
           has subsided and neighboring properties
           have returned to full market value. With
           the dangers and repercussions of site con-
           tamination eliminated, residents can share
           in the comments of a local real estate agent
           who said, "The fear of this property is
           completely gone."
          For additional copies of this or other Superfund At Work updates, contact the National Technical Information Service,
             U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161, telephone (703) 487-4650.
 United States Environmental Protection Agency
 Washington, D.C. 20460

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