United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5305)
EPA530-S-94-039
September 1994
xvEPA      Executive Summary

     /    The Biennial RCRA
             Hazardous Waste Report
             (Based on  1991  Data)
             i> XI          it-. 1* 4         *. w XI
                              Recycled/Recyclable

                              contains at least 50% post-consumer recyded fiber

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                                                                  Executive Summary
                             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

       The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the
States,1 biennially collects information regarding the generation, management, and final
disposition of hazardous wastes regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended. The purpose of this report is to  communicate the
findings of EPA's 1991 Biennial Reporting System (BRS) data collection efforts to the
public, government agencies, and the regulated community.2  The report consists of six
documents:

       o     Executive Summary-an overview of national hazardous waste generation
             and management practices;
       o     National Analysis-a detailed look at waste handling practices in the EPA
             regions, the states and at the largest facilities in the nation, including
             quantities of generation, management, shipments and receipts, and
             interstate imports and exports, as well as counts of generators and
             managers;
       o     State Summary Analysis--two-page  overviews of the  generation and
             management practices of  individual  states;
       o     State Detail Analysis--a detailed look at each state's waste handling
             practices, including  overall totals  for generation, management, and
             shipments and receipts, as well as totals for the largest fifty facilities;
       o     List of Large Quantity Generators-identifies every hazardous waste
             generator in the United States that reported itself to be a large quantity
             generator in 1991; and
       o     List of Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities-identifies every hazardous
             waste manager in the United States that reported itself to  be a treatment,
             storage or disposal facility in 1991.
   'The term "state" includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Trust Territories, and the Virgin Islands, in
addition to the 50 United States.

   *BRS respondents have submitted Confidential Business Information (CBI) pursuant to 40 CFR 260.2(b). While not
included in any public BRS database, CBI has been incorporated into this report wherever possible. Where CBI has been
omitted to preserve confidentiality, a footnote has been provided.

                                         ES-1

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National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report: Based on 1991 Data	
             RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION

      In 1991, 23,426 large quantity generators produced 306 million tons of hazardous
wastes regulated by RCRA.3 This is an increase of  3,000 generators and 108 million
tons of waste compared to 1989.  As identified in Exhibit 1, the largest hazardous waste
generating states were Texas (104  million tons), Michigan (32 million tons), Louisiana (31
million tons), and New Jersey (29 million tons).  Together, these states accounted for
64% of the national total.

      In comparing 1991  and  1989 data, it is important to note that many new wastes
were captured by RCRA in 1990 with the promulgation of the Toxicity Characteristic (TO
Rule.  The TC Rule added 25 new hazardous waste codes (D018-D043) and required more
stringent analytical tests for the presence of toxic constituents in waste. These codes
captured, at a minimum, 137 million tons of previously unregulated wastes. An additional
25 million tons were described by D018-D043 mixed with other waste codes. This
suggests that the new toxicity  characteristic waste listings captured between 137 and
162 million tons of previously non-regulated wastes. Excluding  these newly regulated
wastes, the  amount of hazardous waste  generated in 1991 was  between 29 and 54
million tons less than the 198 million tons reported in 1989.

      Hazardous waste generators are included in the "National Biennial RCRA Hazardous
Waste Report" if they identified themselves as large quantity generators.  The following
are the federal criteria for being a large quantity generator:

      o     The generator generated in any single month 1,000 kg (2,200 Ibs. or 1.1
             tons) or more of  RCRA hazardous waste; or

      o     The generator generated in any single month, or accumulated at any time,  1
             kg (2.2 Ibs) of RCRA  acute hazardous waste; or

      o     The generator generated or accumulated at any time more than  100 kg (220
  'This quantity only includes waste managed in treatment units subject to RCRA permitting standards or transportation
regulations. Hazardous waste managed in units exempt from RCRA permitting standards, such as treatment systems
permitted by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), was not included in this report.

                                        ES-2

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                                                               Executive Summary
             Ibs) of spill cleanup material contaminated with RCRA acute hazardous
             waste.

      According to these criteria, a generator that reports more than 13.2 tons (12
months x 1.1 tons) of annual hazardous waste generation must be a large quantity
generator, because the generator must have generated at least  1.1 tons in at least one
month. A generator that reports less than 13.2 tons in a year may not be a large quantity
generator, because they may have generated less than 1.1 tons in every month.  Of the
23,426 generators that identified themselves as large quantity generators, there are
14,190 generators that generated more than 13.2 tons in 1991, 8,086 that generated
between  1.1 and 13.2 tons, and 1,150 that generated less than 1.1 tons.

      It is important to note that the  large quantity generators identified in this report
have been included on the basis of the best available and most  current information
provided electronically to the EPA by the States.  Both the EPA and the States have made
significant efforts to ensure the accuracy of these data.  However, the large quantity
generator counts may include some generators that met lower, state-defined thresholds for
large quantity generators. The EPA and the States endeavor to control for variation in
state programs, but it is not always possible to distinguish generators that the federal
threshold determines to be large quantity generators from generators that a state threshold
determines to be large quantity generators. The EPA and the States also endeavor to
ensure that only federally regulated wastes are counted in the determination of federal
large quantity generators, but the large quantity generator counts may include generators
that, when determining whether they were large quantity generators,  counted wastes
regulated only by their states or wastes that are exempt from federal regulation.

             RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

      In 1991, 3,862 treatment, storage, or disposal facilities (TSDs) subject to RCRA
permitting standards managed  294 million tons of hazardous waste.  This represents an
800 facility increase in the number of TSDs and a 98 million ton increase in the amount of
waste managed as compared to 1989. As identified in Exhibit 2, the states managing the
largest quantities of hazardous wastes were Texas (104 million tons), Michigan (32 million
tons), Louisiana (32 million tons), and  New Jersey (30 million tons).  Together, these
                                       ES-3

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National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report: Based on 1991 Data	
states accounted for 67% of the national management total.

      The majority (76%) of the national total was managed in aqueous treatment units.
One hundred and thirty-two  (132) million tons were managed in aqueous organic treatment
units, 19 million tons in aqueous inorganic treatment units, and 74 million tons in both
inorganic and organic aqueous treatment units.

      Land disposal accounts for 9.0%  of the management total.  Nationwide, 23 million
tons  of hazardous wastes were disposed in underground injection wells, 1.7 million tons
were disposed in landfills, 240 thousand tons were managed in surface impoundments,
and 52 thousand tons were  managed by land application (land farming).

      Recovery operations account for 2.2% of the national management total. Facilities
reported that 3.6 million tons were managed  in solvent recovery units, 1.4 million tons
were managed in fuel blending units, 1.0 million  tons were managed in metals recovery
units, and 480 thousand tons were recovered by other methods such as acid regeneration,
waste oil recovery, and non-solvent organic recovery.

      Thermal treatment accounts for 1.1% of the national management total. A total of
1.9 million tons were incinerated, while facilities reused 1.5 million tons as fuel in boilers
or industrial furnaces.

             RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE SHIPMENTS AND RECEIPTS

      In 1991, 24,000 facilities reported shipping a total of 13 million tons of waste, of
which five million tons were shipped interstate.  The states that shipped (in or out of state)
the largest quantities of wastes were Texas,  Connecticut and Michigan. The states that
received the largest quantities of waste (from in  or out of state) were California, Ohio and
Michigan. The largest net importers (imports minus exports) were Ohio  (150 thousand
tons), South Carolina (127 thousand tons), and Kansas (110 thousand tons). The largest
net exporters (exports minus imports) were Massachusetts (197 thousand tons), California
(136 thousand tons), and Texas (131 thousand tons).
                                       ES-4

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                                                                              Executive Summary
Exhibit 1
Quantity of RCRA Hazardous Waste Generated, and Number of Hazardous Waste Generators, by State, 1991

STATE

ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
GUAM
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
PUERTO RICO
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
TRUST TERRITORIES
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGIN ISLANDS
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING
HA

RANK
27
42
34
23
8
30
15
43
53
28
22
55
51
12
7
19
37
13
29
3
46
39
32
2
11
9
24
47
40
48
44
4
35
5
31
25
16
20
36
18
14
45
26
52
17
1
49
21
41
54
38
6
10
33
5O
TOTAL
ZARDOUS WASTE
TONS
GENERATED
559,823
24,141
158,279
748,018
12,925,393
478,343
2,062,163
20,531
975
508,839
757,885
346
2,032
4,350,064
13,086,020
1,633,861
126,218
3,215,044
487,622
31,486,169
11,657
75,911
274,985
31,862,518
5,662,647
8,050,831
686,651
11,177
35,705
9,951
17,309
29,490,704
155,943
18,036,041
281,849
685,256
1 ,809.547
933,230
132,297
1,692,608
3,120,686
14,653
604,456
979
1,697,402
104,079,270
2,835
900,643
35,565
811
96,169
14,726,588
7,619,802
258,308
2.157
305.708.881
QUANTITY

PERCENTAGE
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.2
4.2
0.2
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
1.4
4.3
0.5
0.0
1.1
0.2
10.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
10.4
1.9
2.6
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.6
0.1
5.9
0.1
0.2
0.6
0.3
0.0
0.6
1.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.6
34.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.8
2.5
0.1
O O
100.0
HAZ4

RANK
23
45
26
34
2
35
15
43
52
18
18
53
48
47
7
11
32
29
16
22
32
17
14
9
24
28
20
46
40
41
30
3
42
1
13
51
4
31
27
6
39
37
21
50
10
5
54
38
43
55
25
8
36
12
49

RDOU8 WASTE
NUMBER OF
GENERATORS
277
58
249
149
2,116
146
483
63
11
399
399
8
35
40
1,229
671
155
177
465
309
155
430
552
755
276
178
389
54
86
71
166
1,661
68
2,627
582
16
1,542
161
191
1,264
97
107
337
21
683
1,394
3
99
63
1
264
939
120
607
28
23.426
GENERATORS

PERCENTAGE
1.2
0.2
1.1
0.6
9.0
0.6
2.1
0.3
0.0
1.7
1.7
0.0
0.1
0.2
5.2
2.9
0.7
0.8
2.0
1.3
0.7
1.8
2.4
3.2
1.2
0.8
1.7
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.7
7.1
0.3
11.2
2.5
0.1
6.6
0.7
0.8
5.4
0.4
0.5
1.4
0.1
2.9
6.0
0.0
0.4
0.3
0.0
1.1
4.0
0.5
2.6
O.I
1OO.O
Note: Columns may not sum due to rounding.
                                                   ES-5

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National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report:  Based on 1991 Data
Exhibit 2   Quantity of RCRA Hazardous Waste Managed and Number of TSDs, by State, 1991


STATE

ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
GUAM
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS
INDIANA
IOWA
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA
MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
MONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK
NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
OREGON
PENNSYLVANIA
PUERTO RICO
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
TRUST TERRITORIES
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGIN ISLANDS
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING
RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE QUANTITY1


RANK
23
4O
36
21
6
26
27
45
51
32
18
51
46
13
7
16
37
12
28
3
47
41
42
2
11
9
24
44
39
38
51
4
33
5
30
22
15
19
34
17
14
43
25
51
20
1
48
29
51
49
35
8
10
31
50
TOTAL
TONS

MANAGED
675,999
21,178
122,891
757,956
12,130,053
468,167
371,208
2,273
0
195,490
1,103,055
0
1,428
3,178,455
12,083,019
1,405,359
83,336
3,310,784
300,060
31,589,603
1,054
19,084
9,433
31,922,898
5,565,626
8,013,068
589,673
3,270
26,065
52,784
0
29,662,220
148,932
18,320,124
252,993
683,825
1,870,654
980,618
133,021
1,405,2,04
3,051,006
8,642
528,458
0
778,652
103,946,014
887
284,846
0
219
126,998
10,477,204
7,552,337
221,065
119
294.437.307


PERCENTAGE
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.3
4.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
1.1
4.1
0.5
0.0
1.1
0.1
10.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
10.8
1.9
2.7
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
10.1
0.1
6.2
0.1
0.2
0.6
0.3
0.0
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.3
35.3
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.6
2.6
0.1
0.0
100.0
TSD FACILITIES


RANK
23
27
31
37
2
29
13
42
51
15
21
51
44
42
3
8
34
27
32
19
24
12
26
6
20
22
10
44
39
41
51
1
38
7
14
47
5
30
44
11
32
40
18
50
9
4
51
36
48
51
16
16
35
25
49



NUMBER
54
41
33
24
409
40
77
11
2
72
59
2
9
11
217
102
30
41
32
63
52
79
43
152
60
56
87
9
16
12
2
781
20
109
74
6
185
39
9
80
32
15
64
3
100
206
2
26
5
2
66
66
27
44
4
3.862


PERCENTAGE
1.4
1.1
0.9
0.6
10.6
1.0
2.0
0.3
0.1
1.9
1.5
0.1
0.2
0.3
5.6
2.6
0.8
1.1
0.8
1.6
1.3
2.0
1.1
3.9
1.6
1.5
2.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.1
20.2
0.5
2.8
1.9
0.2
4.8
1.0
0.2
2.1
0.8
0.4
1.7
0.1
2.6
5.3
0.1
0.7
0.1
0.1
1.7
1.7
0.7
1.1
0.1
100.0
 'Quantity managed only by storage is excluded.
 Note:   Columns may not sum due to rounding.
                                           ES-6

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