United States
                           Environmental Protection
  Office Of Air Quality
  Planning And Standards
  Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
Volume IV, No. 4
July 1993	
         EPA         THE  CHIEF
                            - THE CLEARINGHOUSE FOR INVENTORIES AND
                           INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE  ON
       The third annual specialty meeting on THE EMISSION
     sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (CARB)
     and the Air & Waste Management Association (AWMA),
     with coordination and support from EPA, will take place
     October 18-20 in Pasadena, CA.  There will be 90 papers
     presented in 15 sessions, and a further 14 papers particular to
     individualized discussions have been chosen for a special
     poster session. Papers are due to the Technical Program
     Committee  by September 17. This meeting follows, in
subject and focus, those held in 1991 and 1992 in Durham,
NC. It is planned to continue these sessions annually, with
a coastal rotation sequence to encourage broad participation.
Attendance at each previous meeting exceeded 300.
  General conference chairs are James D. Boyd of CARB and
James M. Lents of the South Coast AQMD, and William
Rogers Oliver of Radian Corporation heads the Technical
Program Committee.  Persons interested in exhibit booths
should contact A. L. Wilson of IES Associates, Irvine CA,
(714)854-1167. t,
                                 FAX CHIEF Is ON LINE!

       The Emission Inventory Branch's (EIB) newest service to the emission factor and inventory community, Fax CHIEF, is
     ready for business. This new tool, an "integrated facsimile/voice-response system", is a huge-capacity fax machine that can
     take your call, tell you how to key in the part(s) of a document you need, and then quickly fax back to you the requested
     material. At present, Fax CHIEF contains the entire stationary source volume of Compilation Of Air Pollutant Emission
     Factors, AP-42. Other documents, including AP-42 Volume II:
     Mobile Sources and other reports, will be available soon in this
     quick-response medium.   Call (919) 541-5626/0548,  the
     telephone numbers for Fax CHIEF, 24 hours per day, 7 days per
     week. All that's needed to use Fax CHIEF is any fax machine with
     an attached telephone. Dial one of the above numbers and follow
     the instructions you'll hear on keying your specific request. Fax
     CHIEF does the rest, quickly transmitting the material back to
     your facsimile device.  Callers may get up to two items in a single
       Give this new item a try. The only charges for using the service
     are those of your own machine, paper and telephone call. If you
     experience any difficulty trying to use Fax CHIEF, either call EIB's
     hotline, the Info CHIEF, at (919) 541-5285, or fax a note to us at
     (919) 541-0684.  For other information, call Info CHIEF. &
                                                                             Printed with Soy/Canda Ink on paper that
                                                                             contains at least 50% recycled fiber


  David Mobley recently attended the second meeting of the Task Force On Emission Inventories, which is sanctioned under
the United Nation's Economic Commission For Europe. The Task Force met in Delft, The Netherlands on June 7-9 and was
attended by 71 participants from 23 countries, involving numerous international organizations. The current focus of the Task
Force is on producing an Emission Inventory Guidebook to help standardize emission estimation methods across the different
countries. Contents of the Guidebook are being organized around the eight expert panels of the Task Force:
       Strategic Overview                             VOC Sources
         Power Plants/Industry Sources                   NHs Sources
           Mobile Sources                               Heavy Mejtals/Persjstent Organic Compound Sources?
             Marine Sources                               Verification Techniques       -        ''<  ;»
  The Verification Panel, led by David Mobley, has a draft report available for review by interested parties, and a draft (if the
entire Guidebook should be available in several months. The next meeting bf the, Task Force is planned for June 1994 in
Germany. For more information, contact Sherry Russell at the Newsletter, (9i9)54i;6825. A      -.<•   *,   ,  •%i>;v'<

  The European Community is developing an emission inventory with a base year of 1990, which should provide for a useful
comparison with the 1990 data for the United States and Canada.  The inventory effort and its results will be known as the
CORINAIR90 system, and will be part of the air component of CORINE - COoRdination d'INformation Environmentale.
The CORINE program was begun in 1985 by the European Council Of Ministers,  to gather, coordinate and ensure
consistency of information on the environment and the natural resources of Europe.
  The CORINAIR90 system has already obtained a large amount of emission data, which is now available to 30 countries,
including the 12 members of the European Community, the Baltic states, Russia and other European nations.
  CORINAIR90 has produced emission information on more than 260 types of source activity covering eight pollutants:
               Sulfur dioxide (SO2>                                   Carbon monoxide
               Nitrogen oxides (NOX)                                 Methane
               Nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)         Nitrous oxide
               Ammonia                                           Carbon dioxide
  The stated goal of CORINAIR90 is to provide a complete, consistent and transparent air pollutant emission inventory for
Europe for 1990, within a reasonable time scale, to enable  widespread  use of the inventory for policy, research and other
purposes. Data on the 1985 CORINAIR emission inventory were recently released.
  For further information, contact Gordon Mclnnes, EEA-TF, Boulevard de Triomphe 174 (1/10), B1160 Brussels, Belgium
(phone +322 296 8816, fax +322 296 9560); or Remy Bouscaren, CITEPA, Rue Henri Heine 3, 75016 Paris, France (phone
+331 44 30 41 90, fax +331 45 27 31  32). *>

    EIB and the Source Receptor Analysis Branch, in a       It is planned to use these inventories, in conjunction
cooperative effort, have completed development of the 1987-   with state-submitted AIRS data both in developing emission
1991  Interim  Regional Emission  Inventories.   These   trends reports and with the Regional Oxidant Modeling
inventories, which were officially released in early June,   (ROM) being performed to support State Implementation
contain county-level annual emission estimates for every   Plans.  The  current version of the interim inventories,
county in the United States and three provinces of Canada.   Version 1, does not contain any state-specific data. We plan
The data were developed from updated  information where   to update this inventory periodically with state data as those
available, and from the 1985 NAPAP inventory projections   data become available in AIRS. Subsequent versions (2 and
where current data were not available.  The data reside on   beyond) will reflect the incorporation of these data.
EPA's National  Computer Center mainframe and are   Questions  regarding  either  the development  of  these
thoroughly documented  in 1987 - 1991 Interim Regional   inventories or access to them should be  directed to Steve
Emission   Inventories,   Volume  I:  Development   Bromberg, at the Newsletter, (919) 541-1000, or to Chet
Methodologies and Volume II: Emission Summaries (EPA-   Wayland of the Source Receptor Analysis Branch, (919) 541-
454/R-93-021aand021b).                               4603.  *>

                            FROM  THE EFMS  CHIEF'S CORNER
  The Emission Factor & Methodologies Section (EFMS)
has reached several new milestones since the last issue.
  We hosted a 5-hour  satellite training session  to  17
locations on using the various aids in the CHIEF'S "Tool
Box". We also gave a course to 20 "students" from industry,
consulting, and other sectors, in Denver at the  Air And
Waste Management Association meeting.
  The newest item in the Tool Box  is Fax CHIEF, another
medium to give you the best information we can, in a timely
and efficient manner.  Fax CHIEF is a fax machine that you
can telephone, tell what AP-42 parts you want, and have
transmit the requested material quickly back to your own fax.
See the article on Fax CHIEF elsewhere in the Newsletter.
  Though delayed and a bit smaller than planned (51 revised
or new parts), AP-42 Supplement F should be in print before
the next issue of this Newsletter rolls around. We have also
completed some new Locating & Estimating documents, and
several more are in final review.
  The more  we get  done, though,  the more that  seems to
need to be done. Our "customer help" services continue to
expand, but the demand always seems to increase faster. Last
month  alone, our CHIEF Bulletin Board, the Info CHIEF
help line and other individual contacts with our staff totaled
on the order of 2000. Some of these were pc inquiries and
down loads, and  some requested only an information brochure
or the like, but many required significant staff response time.
Our people often get swamped, and frequently, an individual
out of the office for a day has 20-30 calls on her/his voice
mail  upon returning. I hope that you, instead of growing
impatient if there's no response within the hour or the day,
will research your inquiries, be specific when calling, and be
patient while we work around to helping you.  Our staff is
generally very hardworking and sensitive, so if you'd help me
give them a pat on the back now and then to recognize what
they are trying to do to help, I'd appreciate it.  Thanks!
  We do have some new faces here, albeit temporarily. Joe
Pinto, an atmospheric chemist in the Atmospheric Research
And Exposure Assessment Lab (AREAL), is on a rotation
tour with EIB, and Joe is doing quality assurance (QA) and
data analysis on  the emission inventories we've received. He
has worked on  global methane inventories as  well as air
pollution problems in several foreign countries.  Joe likes to
apply his green thumb around the yard and to work in some
sailing.  Bill Benjy, another  hand rotating with us, is a
specialist in climatology and microclimates. He started with
graduate field work in Alaska and served with several federal
agencies before joining EPA. Here, he has coordinated, and
sometimes  compiled,  emission inventories for regional
dispersion models. Recently, Bill has focused on toxic and
pesticide emissions.  He also looks after his "mini-orchard"
and is a basso profundo with a Durham choral society.
  Also, two bright young students have been making their
contributions here this summer.  Kim  Melvin, a recent
graduate  of Florida State in Mechanical Engineering, is
enjoying her stay in North Carolina and does lots of running
and other outdoor  exertions.  She also  makes jewelry
(beading). With EIB,  Kim has shown a strong talent with
sophisticated computer graphics and other accomplishments.
She's now  headed  for her master's.  Ron Mattson, a
Michigan native pursuing a degree in Electrical Engineering
at Michigan State, has  been busy performing quality
assurance on heaps  of emission data for us. Off duty,  he
likes to play tennis, golf, billiards and pinball, and he's
enjoying the night life in some  of Raleigh's clubs.
  We've been pleased  to have  Kim and Ron working with
us, and we wish them much luck in  the future.  A

                        Jim Southerland
         Chief, Emission Factor & Methodologies Section
  The  Emission Inventory  Improvement Program  (EIIP) is a joint effort of the state and  local control  agencies
(STAPPA/ALAPCO) and EPA to improve the process for collecting and reporting emission inventory data. The program
offers an opportunity for all those individuals interested in emissions data to participate in developing and/or improving
existing procedures for collecting these data.
  These subject areas have been identified, and participation is solicited for committee memberships on these topics:
               Point Source Methods                            Biogenic Source Methods
               Area Source Methods                             Data Management
               Mobile Source Methods                          EPA/State/Local Interactions
                                        Quality Assurance
  For EIIP to be successful, it must have input from those with experience in the actual collection of emissions data.
Participants working on the  committees will have the singular opportunity to influence the various procedures related to
emissions data collection that result from this program.
  Anyone interested in becoming an active participant in the Emission Inventory Improvement Program should call Steve
Bromberg at the Newsletter, (919)  541-1000, to receive more information on EIIP and on the Technical Subcommittee
meeting planned for this October or November. A>

                              CHIEF Bulletin Board  Activities:
  Results Of  "Idea Week" — As many of you  know
from the last Newsletter, EIB held "Idea Week" June 7-14,
sort of an open season for suggestions and comments, as a
special opportunity for people in the EPA Regions, state and
local agencies, and the private sector to voice their ideas on
emission inventory issues.  The most responses (48%) came
from state agencies, 24% came  from US EPA, 19% were
from the private sector, 5% were from local agencies, and 2%
of those responding chose to be  anonymous. In summary,
the comments fall into three areas of concern: AP-42 and
Emission  Factors, Inventory Development and Submission,
and Information Systems.  A good number of you responded
to "Idea Week", but we need more input. We like hearing
from you, and to get you  started thinking, the BB now has
an electronic "questionnaire", available in the "General
News" submenu,  under  "News", in  the  "Factor  And
Inventory Info" section.  Download the file, add your ideas
and suggestions, and then E-mail, write or phone them to
Michael Hamlin, CHIEF Bulletin Board Operator, here at the
Newsletter, (919) 541-5232.
  Areas where many commenters felt EIB was doing a
notably good job were with the CHIEF Bulletin Board,
XATEF,  TANKS, and The CHIEF Newsletter.  We are
putting together a detailed discussion of the material we
received and the actions  we plan as a result, and we will
distribute this report when it's done. We have already begun
to respond to some of the "ideas"  given to us.
  Other  Business — Be sure to read the article above on
the new Fax CHIEFl  BB use continues to be brisk, and
more than 1100 registered CHIEF users have logged on over
6000 times since the last Newsletter.  After checking the
current "Alerts", remember to review the old ones to make
sure  you're up to date.  Alerts  stay current for at least a
month before they are moved to the "old" list.
  Emission  Estimation  Software — For states that
must prepare PM-10 inventories, the PM-10 Controlled
Emission  Calculator is  now available in  the Emission
Estimation Software section.  This program will calculate an
overall PM-10 control efficiency for up to two control
devices operating in series on specific processes. It applies
the control efficiency to uncontrolled emissions to estimate
emissions after controls.  Installation instructions  and a
user's manual are available. The Calculator will be available
on CHIEF until the equivalent functionality is incorporated
into the AIRS Facility Subsystem.
  The Area Source Analysis Program (ASAP) is another
new addition to the Emission Estimation Software section.
The program, and its accompanying technical report, present
techniques for  analyzing soil gas  and soil  samples to
estimate air emissions from area sources.
  MOBILES — A new program to assist in  evaluating
MOBILE4.1 and 5a input files  is available in the Emission
Estimation Software section, subsection MOBILES.  The
MOBILE Input Data Analysis System (MIDAS) beta version
evaluates the major parameters in  the MOBILE model and
identifies those variables  that  are inconsistent with EPA
guidance. A user's manual is  available.
  As a way to "formalize" some of the guidance for using
MOBILES, a  series  of  documents called MOBILES
Information Sheets has been  introduced. These info sheets,
sequentially numbered, contain  useful information  and
guidance for MOBILES users.  The first info sheet and the
introductory memo have  been added  to the BB  in the
Emission  Estimation Software  section,  subsection
MOBILES. Additional sheets will be made available as they
are produced.  MOBILES information is available also on the
Mobile Source board of the  Technology Transfer Network
that contains the CHIEF BB.
  Final  Locating  &   Estimating   documents for
styrene and methylene chloride are  on the BB. Use the L&E
submenu from the AP-42/EF Guidance menu to download
these files.  More L&Es are in the works.
  The Document Ordering  Module — Remember to use the
BB module for quick ordering of any of the L&E series on
toxic substances. You may  access this  module from the
FACTOR and INVENTORY  INFO  section  of the Main
menu.  Your  requests  will then go directly to our  library
services staff for distribution to you.  For assistance with
this, or to submit any comments  on the module, call the
Info  CHIEF at the Newsletter, (919) 541-5285.  fc

  Here is a summary of 161 final Ozone and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission inventories that have been received and
reviewed by OAQPS:

  - All Nonattainmcnt Areas have submitted their inventory to EPA for review.
  - All reviews by OAQPS have been returned to the Regional Offices (in either preliminary or final form).
  - Of all those reviewed to date, no inventories have been recommended for approval.

  OAQPS is available to assist the Regions and states with any corrections/revisions needed in their respective Els to meet
the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment requirements. For more information, or for questions about assistance with inventories,
contact Sharon Nizich at the Newsletter, (919) 541-2825. *»


  The Emission Inventory Branch has received additional funding to support the Direct Assistance Program for Emission
Inventory Preparation. This program was a huge success last year, but financial support ended before all states could take
advantage of the service.  States have been informed of the resumption of the assistance program, and it is well under way.
  The assistance now available covers all facets of inventory preparation, from AIRS data upload to area source methodology.
Funds are limited, so they will be directed to serious and ozone nonattainment areas and worse.  For more information, please
contact your Regional Office representative or Sharon Nizich at the Newsletter, (919) 541-2825. &


  The Branch is adding several new reports to its Locating And Estimating series on air toxic pollutants. The purpose of this
report scries is to help in locating potential sources of air toxics and then making preliminary estimates of emissions from
these sources. Compounds and source category-specific reports currently being readied for publication include:
             Methylene Chloride (EPA-454/R-93-006)
             Styrene  (EPA-454/R-93-011)
             Chloroform (update)
             Methyl Chloroform
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Chlorobenzenes (update)
Medical Waste Incineration
  These reports contain available process descriptions, process variations and release points that may exist within these
sources, as well as emission factors and emission data. Discussion of procedures for sampling and analyzing air toxic
emissions from these sources is also provided.  Drafts are on the CHIEF BE.
  For a full list of topics covered in the L&E ... series, you can get the EIB brochure TOOLS: For Estimating Criteria And
Toxic Air Pollutant Emissions. This brochure  also contains information about other air emissions estimation tools available
from EIB. For more information, call the Info CHIEF, (919) 541-5285. A
                                      THE CHIEF  NEWSLETTER  is produced quarterly  by  the Emission
                                  Inventory Branch, Technical Support Division, of EPA's Office Of Air Quality
                                  Planning And Standards. Its purpose is to enhance communication within the
                                  emission factor and  inventory community  by providing  new and useful
                                  information and by allowing for the exchange of information between and among
                                  its readers.  Comments on the Newsletter, and articles for inclusion in it, are
                                  welcome and should be directed to Whitmel M. Joyner, Editor, Emission
                                  Inventory Branch (MD 14), US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC  27711;
                                  commercial phone (919)541-5493.
                                      The contents of THE CHIEF do not necessarily reflect the views and
                                  policies of the Agency, neither does the mention of trade names or commercial
                                  products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. #*

   We're supposed to be big time tree buggers, yet not a peep has arisen about the Arbor Day quiz. Come on, you regulars.
George, what happened? As professionals, surely we can't want the quizzes to get easier. Let's get cracking. Hints:  Use
AP-42, not AFSEF, because of recent changes in the factors.  And where values are equal, give them the same rank (i. e.,
1.2, 1.2, 4.5 should be ranked 1,1,3.

  A utility is considering adding a new unit, planning to choose from among the following fuel/boiler combos:
        1) Bituminous coal - pulverized dry bottom boiler            2) Bituminous coal - pulverized wet bottom boiler
        3) Anthracite coal - stoker fired                             4) Lignite - spreader stoker
        5) Residual oil,  Grade 4                                     6) Natural gas
  The fuels have these characteristics:

                 Bituminous coal
                 Residual oil, Grade 4
                 Natural gas
                                                           Heating value
                                                            13K BTU/lb
                                                            12.3K BTU/lb
                                                            7.2K BTU/lb
                                                            150K BTU/gal
                                                            IK BTU/SCF
7o Ash
Rank the options, uncontrolled, from lowest to highest, by Ib/MM BTU, and tabulate thusly:
             Bituminous coal
             Residual oil, Grade 4
             Natural gas
% Sulfur
                                                      Paniculate   PM-10  SO2     NOX    VOC    CO
                                 UPCOMING  MEETINGS  AND CONFERENCES

— South Atlantic Section Annual Meeting, AWMA, emphasizing toxics management, 23-24 September, Charlotte, NC. Contact Cathy Taylor, (804)

— Emission Inventory Training Sessions, 27-29 September, Various satellite downlink locations. Registration, contact Betty Abramson, Air Pollution
Training Institute, US EPA, MD 17, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; Information: Mary Ann Warner-Selph at the Newsletter, (9
— International Symposium On Optical Sensing For Environmental Monitoring, 11-14 October, Atlanta, GA. Contact Gretchen Watson, AWMA,
2861, Pittsburgh, PA 15230, (412) 232-3444.

— CONEC '93, Conference On Environmental Commerce And Trade Show, 17-20 October, Chattanooga, TN. Contact Charles Waggoner, Box 1146,
Chattanooga, TN 37401; (615) 265-5269

— AWMA Specialty Conference, The Emission Inventory: Perception And Reality", 18-20 October, Pasadena, CA. Contact Patricia Ve! ;sco, CA Air
Resources Board, Box 2815, Sacramento, CA 95812, or Kathy Hsiao, South Coast AQMD, 21865 E Copley, Diamond Bar, CA 9176C

— Regional Photochemical Measurement And Modeling Studies, 7-12 November, San Diego, CA. Contact AWMA, Box 2861, Pittsburgh, PA  15230,

— 1994 EPA/AWMA Title III Workshop Series: MACT Standards,  HON Rule, Toxics Permitting, Residual Risk, Monitoring, Interface with other
Sections of the Act, &c. 13-14 Jan, San Francisco, 24-25 Feb, Baton Rouge; 17-18 Mar, Houston; 7-8 Apr, Charlotte; 28-29 Apr, Newark; 19-20 May,
Chicago.  Contact Court Gould, AWMA, Box 2861, Pittsburgh, PA 15230, (412)232-3444.  &

Special  Report —





  I want to thank the Emission Inventory Branch for the opportunity to include in The CHIEF Newsletter this section on
emission inventory research ongoing in the Emissions and Modeling Branch (EMB).  The purpose of this semiannual feature
is twofold.  One is to provide an overview of the research underway by AEERL to improve or develop new methods,
emission factors, and software that state and local agencies can use to develop air emission inventories, project future
emissions, and track progress in controlling emissions.  The second purpose is to solicit responses from your respective
organizations on research you may be conducting or research you may know of others conducting.  The EMB coordinates its
research or conducts joint research projects with non-EPA organizations, and has a continuing  interest in expanding its
contacts with other researchers and programs. If you know of related research or have ideas for potential collaboration on any
of the research activities described in this newsletter, send me a note. We welcome your questions and comments.

                                         Larry Jones, Branch Chief
                                          (919) 541-7891 (fax)

    JeffChappell               (919)541-3738                 Chris Geron            (919)541-4639
    Bruce Harris                (919)541-7807                 Julian Jones            (919)541-2489
    SueKimbrough            (919)541-2612                 Chuck Mann           (919)541-4593
    Chuck Masser              (919)541-7586                 TedRipberger          (919)541-2924


  The Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) is one of 12 laboratories operating within EPA's Office of
Research and Development (ORD). Since the early 1970s, AEERL has been in the forefront of air pollution control
technology development. In the last 10 years, AEERL has expanded its efforts to include the  fields of stratospheric ozone,
indoor air, radon mitigation, air emission inventory methodologies, and global warming.
  In the 1980s, Congress  created the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP).  Many governmental
organizations participated  including EPA, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA). As part of NAPAP, AEERL led the effort to develop the emission inventory which would be used
to study the effects of acid rain within the continental United States. During the emission inventory development, it became
apparent that the current available data were inadequate and in some cases obsolete. As the NAPAP effort was ending in the
late 1980s, special  quality assurance efforts were invoked  to ensure that the emission estimates of the largest facilities
throughout the country were accurate. This situation was further intensified when it became known that Congress would use
the NAPAP emission  inventory in the preparation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Special support was given
by AEERL to ensure that the 1985 NAPAP nationwide emission inventory was the best ever produced.
  During this intensive air emission inventory effort in 1989, AEERL made resource commitments to support both long and
short term research to improve air emission  inventory methodologies. AEERL formed the EMB and the Joint Emissions
Inventory Oversight Group (JEIOG). The JEIOG consists of people throughout EPA who use emission inventories in their
programs. This includes AEERL, the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR), including the Office of  Air Quality  Planning and
Standards (OAQPS) and the Office of Mobile Sources (QMS), and ORD's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment
Laboratory (AREAL). EMB  is a major  participant in JEIOG and is responsible for implementing its recommendations.
JEIOG's charter includes four major elements:
  - provide a forum to advise on the coordination of AEERL/EMB research plans and the needs of the JEIOG related to the
       development and use of emission inventories
  - discuss needs and recommend priorities for research work related to the methodologies, procedures, and policies for
       preparing emission inventories

  - identify inventory outputs of support by modeling activities and other related needs by other EPA organizations
  - foster cooperation and coordination between organizational units involved in developing and using emission inventories
  When implementing the JEIOG research program, EMB works in cooperation with federal, state, and local air programs,
industry trade associations, and private industry to develop and improve emission inventory methodologies.


  EMB conducts source category evaluations to develop databases for emission methodology development activities. These
source category evaluations may be based on available test information in the literature or on field measurements performed
by EMB on facility emission sources and/or on associated source activity levels when data are not available.  In-house
research is conducted to evaluate the emissions characteristics of sources under alternate modes of use (e.g., motor vehicles).
  EMB is investigating existing inventories of toxic pollutants for selected urban  areas and regions of the United States.
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are assessed to identify the component species and produce toxic  emission
factors. EMB also performs in-house tests of selected materials to identify toxic species in solvent and other evaporative
emissions sources.
  EMB conducts research to evaluate the production of various species of VOC from natural sources. In-house measurements
of collected samples are performed to identify the quantity and species of the natural source emissions.
  EMB also develops emission projection and  economic growth projection models to determine  estimates of future
emissions. EMB prepares  and evaluates emission projections based on current and  potential  increased use of alternate
emission control technologies and growth projections.

  EMB is conducting research in the following major areas:  mobile sources, stationary sources (including utility boilers,
solvents, and petroleum/gas production systems), biogenic sources, air toxics, and projections. Each of these research areas is
discussed separately below.  Additional research projects being performed by EMB are also discussed.


  Motor vehicle emission factors vary as a function of ambient temperature, vehicle age, speed, and acceleration.  To develop
an accurate emissions inventory, data must be obtained on the number of vehicles, their age, their speed, and acceleration for a
given area (e. g., city) at a given time (e. g., 7 to 8 am).  In  1991 and 1992, national experts were convened in workshops to
develop ideas for making quantum leap improvements to emission  inventory methodologies for highway vehicles.  Major
areas of uncertainty in mobile emissions projections were identified. In 1992, on-board equipment was installed on a light
duty vehicle to identify specific  modes of vehicle operation producing elevated emissions. In October 1992, the Georgia
Institute  Of Technology presented several papers  on research they performed for EMB  at the AWMA/EPA Emissions
Inventory Specialty Conference in Durham, NC.

  For FY93, mobile source research is concentrating on identifying enrichment activity factors, developing activity factors for
truck traffic  in urban areas,  identifying and quantifying activity factors associated with super-emitters among fleet vehicles,
and developing a new model to estimate mobile emissions which replaces the  current activity methodologies. (Ted Ripberger)


  Recent EMB research on  stationary sources has focused on utility boilers, solvents, and petroleum/gas production systems.
For utility boilers, EMB has issued a report on nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers to enhance the
data base available for emission factors in EPA's Compilation Of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42. (Julian Jones)
  DOE has also made available to users the 1991 Form EIA-767, Steam Electric Plant Operation And Design Report, which
contains fuel use, boiler, and control equipment operation data. (Chuck Masser)
  In FY 92, EMB identified national and local databases on solvent sales, solvent uses, facility locations, and demographic
information.  EMB research identified 74 solvents, representing about  5  million tons (about one quarter) of national VOC
emissions.  Many of these solvents  have high reactivity  and contribute disproportionately to  the ozone nonattainment
problem. (Jeff Chappcll)
  Also in FY  92, oil/gas well gathering tanks and  gas plant  glycol dehydrators were  identified as major sources of toxic
emissions (greater than 10 tons per year). (Chuck Mann)

  EMB's solvent emission estimation methodology development research  for FY93 is focusing on producing algorithms that
will estimate solvent emissions on a local basis for a selected source category.  This research includes the  investigation of
novel or innovative approaches, including the use of expert systems utilizing inference  methodologies, artificial intelligence
(such as fuzzy logic and neural networks), and economic and  statistical approaches.  A national survey  and four to six  local

intensive surveys will be initiated to provide a defensible reference baseline for an initial source category that will be used to
investigate the feasibility of these new approaches.  The survey will  be used to support the development of the methodology
and to provide independent out-of-sample validation for the developed methodology, as well as to compare the performance of
the existing methodology.  (Jeff Chappell)
  EMB will also conduct research into an improved emission estimation methodology for petroleum and gas production and
distribution systems. This research will also include field testing at petroleum and gas production and distribution systems.


  EMB's recent research in biogenic emissions has focused on two primary areas. In FY 92, EMB initiated a field research
and model evaluation program to improve the understanding of the processes  controlling biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon
(NMHC) emissions, simulate these processes with numerical algorithms, and evaluate the accuracy of estimated emissions.
EMB also initiated a research project on  vegetation canopy and land use characterization. In October 1992, EMB staff
presented a paper describing an alternative method for estimating biogenic VOC emissions in EPA Region 1  for the
AWMA/EPA International Conference on Tropospheric Ozone:  Nonattainment and Design Value Issues.  Conclusions
included a 10 percent drop in overall VOC emissions.  This is a result of a 65 percent drop in isoprene emissions and an
increase of 60 percent of other VOC species.

  EMB's FY93 biogenic research includes: developing  methodologies for estimating emission  fluxes from  forest fires,
prescribed burning, and agricultural burning; using the Geographic Information Systems (CIS) to spatially analyze U. S.
Department Of Agriculture (USDA) statistics on acreage burned for the different burning types; developing a national model at
1 to 4 km spatial resolution, hourly, daily, monthly, and annual temporal resolution, based on updated forest, agriculture, and
satellite data, and incorporating algorithms for light and temperature effects; developing new emission factors for important
crops and grasslands; validating isoprene and nonterpene emission fluxes and developing seasonal profiles; developing the
Atlanta biogenics inventory to support the Southern Oxidant Study; testing the tree canopy  model and scaling assumptions;
investigating the effects of seasonal moisture on biogenic nonmethane organic compounds  (NMOC) fluxes related to
photosynthesis and completing an inventory of major compounds; developing  initial emission factors for NOX from fertilized
agricultural fields; and developing  methodologies to  accurately measure soil  NOX  emissions and aromatic  oxygenated
compounds. (Chris Geron)


  During FY 92, EMB conducted several air toxics emissions research projects, including (1) a review  of hazardous air
pollutant (HAP) emission inventory documents from 16 cities and states, (2)  identification of key HAP sources which need
new or improved emission  factors, and (3) identification  of previously unaccounted sources of HAPs.
  Also during FY 92, the following six cities were  tentatively selected for inventory development and/or evaluation:
Baltimore, Chicago,  Houston, Milwaukee, San  Francisco, and Seattle. Several states  were also tentatively  selected for
inventory development and/or evaluation: California, Louisiana, and the gulf coast of Texas.
  EMB air toxics research  has also included proposal of system design concepts for a toxic emission data handling system and
discussion of these proposals by the JEIOG Air Toxics Subcommittee. The Geocoded Emissions Modeling and Projections
(GEMAP) system developed for the Lake  Michigan Ozone Study and for use by the California Air Resources Board was
reviewed for this application.

  EMB continues to work  with the Great Lakes Commission and the State of Louisiana to enhance GEMAP for  use by states
for toxic emission inventories.  EMB air  toxics research in FY93  also focuses on the following areas:  emission factor
development, including identifying key sources for emission factor development, using state air toxics and other  program test
reports to develop improved emission factors, and emission factor testing  for styrene from fiberglass coating operations;
emission inventory development, including developing and evaluating emission inventories of air toxics for several cities,
states, and sources; and area source methods development.  (Julian Jones)


  EMB projections research has focused on three areas: 3 percent tracking, the Economic Growth Analysis System (EGAS),
and  an industrial sulfur dioxide (SO2) tracking system. In FY 91, EMB completed an  initial  determination of system
requirements for tracking  the 3 percent per year VOC emissions reduction required of ozone nonattainment  areas by the
CAAA.  In FY 92, EMB  instituted initial development  activities,  such as system design  and development of supporting
databases, and completed the "first generation" tracking system.

  FY 91 and FY 92 EGAS research included the determination of system requirements for developing this economic growth
model for extreme,  severe, serious,  and multi-state moderated ozone nonattainment areas required to project emission
inventories for the purposes of photochemical grid modeling.  The "first generation model" of EGAS (i.e., the beta version)
was completed in September 1992.
  Also in FY 92, EMB began development of procedures for tracking industrial 862 emissions  vis-a-vis the  5.6  million
ton  SC>2 emissions cap imposed by Title IV of the CA AA. These procedures will be contained within a personal computer-
based system.

  Projections research for FY93 is continuing in all three areas: the 3 percent tracking system, EGAS, and the industrial SC>2
tracking system.  Research on the 3 percent tracking system may include documentation of possible system enhancements,
revision of the system based on the enhancements documented, completion of the final version of the system, and system
support and maintenance. The final version of the EGAS model will be completed and a final report submitted.
  Research on the industrial SC>2 tracking system will include software development, including the development of a
traditional approach, which may be thought of as using accounting techniques to determine results, and a neural network that
will recognize relationships between  data sets, thus avoiding  the time consuming development of functional relationships,
equations, algorithms, and software code. (Sue Kimbrough)


  In addition to  the major research  areas discussed above, EMB has also performed research on PM-10 issues and an
encyclopedia of emission inventory methods.  In October 1992, EMB completed Phase I of testing of antiskid materials
performed near Duluth, MM.
  In FY93, EMB research on PM-10  emissions will continue with the completion of the Phase II study of the suspension of
antiskid materials after a storm event. This field testing, in  Kansas City, MO, was just completed.  Field testing is also
underway at several locations nationwide to study the variability of silt loading on paved roads. In order for states to develop
PM-10 emission inventories, the seasonal and climatology effects of silt loading must be known. (Chuck Masser)

  During FY 92, EMB initiated Phase I of the Encyclopedia of Methods project to (1) consolidate the CAAA emissions
inventory requirements into Volume I: Statutory Requirements; (2) establish standard procedures for entry of point source
data for specific source categories into the Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) in Volume II: Point Sources; (3)
begin the development of Volume III:  Area Sources; and (4) begin the development of Volume V: QAIQC.
  EMB will continue work on the Encyclopedia of Methods, with work continuing on Phases II through V. Phase II of the
project will include (1) identifying and documenting state/local  area source methodologies that appear to be more accurate than
or superior to existing EPA methodologies and (2) documenting specific quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) emission
inventory  requirements.  Under Phase II, EMB  will document the EPA recommended/required area source methodology,
document the mobile and nonmobile  source emission inventory methodology in Volume IV: Mobile Sources, and complete
Volume VI: Bibliography/Abstracts. Phase IV of the project will be devoted to documenting the EPA recommended/required
projection methodology in Volume VII:  Projections, documenting the recommended/required biogenics  emission inventory
methodology in  Volume VIII:  Biogenics and initiating the development of Volume IX, incorporating any  new JEIOG
emissions inventory methodologies  into the  encyclopedia and incorporating information  related to  air toxics into  the
encyclopedia. (Sue Kimbrough)

  In FY93, EMB will prepare a report containing results of analysis of emission data with recommendations for a new default
methodology for estimating rule effectiveness  for State Implementation Plan (SIP) emission inventory purposes. EMB will
also conduct sensitivity analyses on certain parameters  of the  Urban Airshed Model (UAM) to determine their influence on
ozone predictions. The results of these assessments will be  used to determine the level of accuracy needed  by emission
inventories to adequately satisfy UAM requirements.  EMB will also collect and evaluate data for improving  methods for
temporal allocation of emissions, as required to support photochemical grid and other modeling. (Chuck Mann)
                                           EMB P UBLICATIONS

  A list of current EMB publications is on the CHIEF Bulletin Board and a "hard copy" can be obtained by calling the Info
CHIEF, (919) 541-5285. This list will be published in a future number of The CHIEF Newsletter.

                                                    July 1993
            AP-42 Chapter
1.      External Combustion
2.      Solid Waste Disposal
3.      Internal Combustion
4.      Evaporation Loss Sources
5.      Chemical Process Industry
6.      Food And Agricultural Industry
7.      Metallurgical Industry
8.      Mineral Products Industry
9.      Petroleum Industry
10.     Wood Products Industry
11.     Miscellaneous Sources
12.      Storage Of Organic Liquids
Other   Toxics
        General information, Newsletter,
          Bulletin Board, XATEF, SPECIATE,
          Air CHIEF CD, Publications

1990 Oj/CO SIP Inventory Status
Inventory Guidance
  PM-10, Lead
AIRS/AFS Emissions Data Quarterly Report
AIRS Area And Mobile Subsystem (AMS)
AIRS Facility Subsystem (AFS)
Biogenic Inventories
Emission Statements
Mobile Sources
Modeling-related Inventories
Quality Assurance
Tracking Reasonable Further Progress
SIP Air Management System (SAMS)
Toxics  Inventories
Emission Trends

— PM-10 SIPS —
— 03/COSIPS —
        Office Of Mobile Sources
  Contact                       Telephone   (919) 541-
Joe  McSorley                                     4796
Ron Myers                                       5407
Michael Hamlin                                   5232
Ron Ryan                                        4330

Dennis Beauregard (on rotational assignment)          5512
Ron Myers                                       5407
Dallas Safriet                                     5371
Dennis Shipman                                  5477
Ron Myers                                       5407
Ron Ryan                                        4330
Dallas Safriet                                     5371
Dennis Shipman                                  5477
Anne Pope                                       5373
Anne Pope                                       5373
Dennis Shipman/Ron Myers                        5477/5407
Info CHIEF                                      5285
Sharon Nizich                                    2825

Bill Kuykendal                                   5372
David Misenheimer                                5473
LeeGabele                                       5292
LeeGabele                                       5292
David Misenheimer                                5473
Steve Bromberg                                   1000
Mary Ann Warner-Selph                            1192
Mary Ann Warner-Selph                            1192
Mary Ann Warner-Selph                            1192
Bill Kuykendal                                   5372
Sharon Nizich                                    2825
Mary Ann Warner-Selph                            1192
David Misenheimer                                5473
Anne Pope                                       5373
David Misenheimer                                5473
David Misenheimer                                5473
Larry Wallace                                     0906
Chris Oh                                     (202) 308-8732

Laurel Schultz                                     5511
Vishnu Katari                                 (202) 308-8717
Mark Wolcott                                 (313) 668^219

Laura McKelvey                                   5497

                                                                          £661 Ainf
cnvd saai ONV aovxsod
    aiva Ming
          ooe$ 'asn aivArad
               SSHMSna TvTDLUO

     I UZZ 3N '^«Vd 31ONVIUL H3HV3S3H
                         THE EMISSION INVENTORY  BRANCH

                                      ]. David Mobley, Chief
                                         (919) 541-4676
                                       Sherry Russell, Secy.

              Jim Southerland, Chief
                (919) 541-5522
              Bill Benjy
              Dennis Beauregard (on rotational assignment)
              Michael Hamlin
              Whit Joyner
              Joe McSorley
              Ron Myers
              Anne Pope (7am - 2pm)
              Ron Ryan
              Dallas Safriet
              Dennis Shipman
              Mary Taborn, Secy.

       David Misenheimer, Acting Chief
         (919) 541-0875
       Steve Bromberg
       Bill Kuykendal
       Tom McMullen
       Sharon Nizich
       Joe Pinto
       Mary Ann Warner-Selph
       Susan Curtis, Secy.