•*«„
           United States
           Environmental Protection
           Agency
Office of
Water Program Operations,
Washington, DC 20460
EPA/430/9-83-004
June 1983
           Water
v>EPA    Construction Costs for
           Municipal Wastewater
           Treatment Plants:
           1973-1982

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           TECHNICAL REPORT



        CONSTRUCTION COSTS FOR

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS:  1973-1982



               JUNE 1983
             Prepared for

 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Priority and Needs Assessment Branch
    Facility Requirements Division
       Washington, D. C.  20460

  Project Officer:  Dr. Wen H. Huang
        Contract No. 68-01-4798
                 U.S.  E'-^r^nrrt-l Promotion Agency
                 Region V,  Library                  ,
                 230  South Dearborn  Street   ^^
                 Chicago, Illinois  60604.     --iT

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l!;S. Environmental  Protection Agenc^

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                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This report was prepared by Sage Murphy & Associates, Inc., Denver, Colorado
under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Wen  H.  Huang,  Project  Officer,  Facility

Requirements Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Sincere  appreciation   is  extended   to   all   Construction  Grants  Program

personnel  in  each  of the  ten EPA Regional offices  and the offices  of  the

delegated  States.   Without  their  cooperation and  assistance,  this  study

could not have been conducted.


Inquiries concerning this report should be directed to the following:


Dr. Wen H. Huang
Project Officer
Facility Requirements Division
Priority and Needs Assessment Branch
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
401 M Street, S.W.  (WH-595)
Washington, D.C.  20460
202 382-7288

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                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section                                                                Page

1.0   INTRODUCTION 	    1-1

2.0   COST INFORMATION COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 	    2-1

      2.1  DATA COLLECTION 	    2-1

      2.2  PREPROCESSING OF THE DATA 	    2-2

      2.3  DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA BASE 	    2-3

      2.4  DATA ANALYSIS 	    2-6

      2.5  RELIABILITY 	    2-10

3.0   RESULTS OF THE DATA ANALYSIS 	    3-1

      3.1  NONCONSTRUCTION COSTS 	    3-2

           3.1.1  Introduction 	    3-2
           3.1.2  Definitions of Nonconstruction Costs 	    3-2
           3.1.3  Presentation of Nonconstruction Cost Curves 	    3-4

      3.2  FIRST ORDER COSTS 	    3-15

           3.2.1  Introduction 	    3-15
           3.2.2  Definitions of Terms 	    3-15
           3.2.3  Presentation of First Order Cost Curves 	    3-18
                  3.2.3.1  Results - Mechanical Plants by Level  of
                           Treatment 	    3-19
                  3.2.3.2  Results - Mechanical Plants by Level  of
                           Treatment and Main Treatment Process  ....    3-43
                  3.2.3.2  Results - Lagoon Plants 	    3-86

      3.3  SECOND ORDER COSTS 	    3-95

           3.3.1  Introduction 	    3-95
           3.3.2  Definition of Terms 	    3-95
           3.3.3  Presentation of Second Order Cost Curves 	    3-96
                  3.3.3.1  Results - Unit Processes and Unit
                           Operations 	    3-96
                  3.3.3.2  Results - Mechanical Plant Component
                           Costs	    3-137
                  3.3.3.3  Results - Lagoon Plant Component Costs ..    3-153

      3.4  THIRD ORDER COSTS 	    3-158

           3.4.1  Introduction 	    3-158
           3.4.2  Presentation of Third Order Cost Equations 	    3-158

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Concluded)

Section                                                                Page

3.5   EFFICIENCY CURVES 	    3-162

      3.5.1  Introduction 	    3-162
      3.5.2  Presentation of Efficiency Curves 	    3-162

4.0   SIMPLIFIED TREATMENT PLANT COST ESTIMATING 	    4-1

      4.1  COST ESTIMATING TECHNIQUES 	    4-1

      4.2  ADJUSTING AND UPDATING COST ESTIMATES	    4-2

      4.3  COST ESTIMATING EXAMPLES 	    4-4

           4.3.1  Example No. 1 	    4-4
           4.3.2  Example No. 2 	    4-5
           4.3.3  Example No. 3 	    4-7

      4.4  SUMMARY 	    4-8
APPENDIX A - Cost Updating and Normalization Techniques

APPENDIX B - Description of the Data Base

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LIST  OF TABLES
Table
2.1

2.2

3.1


3.2

3.3

3.4


3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9
3.10

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

A.I
A. 2
B.I

Distribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Projects by
Projected Flow and Level of Treatment 	
Distribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Projects by
Treatment Process 	
Nonconstruction Cost as a Proportion of Construction Cost -
Nonconstruction Cost/Construction Cost Averages for EPA
Regions and the Nation 	
Summary for Figures 3.1 through 3.7 - Nonconstruction Cost
Curves 	
Summary for Figures 3.8 through 3.27 - First Order Cost
Curves - Mechanical Plants Classified by Level of Treatment.
Summary for Figures 3.28 through 3.64 - First Order Cost
Curves - Mechanical Plants Classified by Main Treatment
Process 	
Summary for Figures 3.65 through 3.70 - First Order Costs -
Lagoon PI ants 	
Summary for Figures 3.71 through 3.106 - Second Order
Costs - Unit Processes and Unit Operations 	
Summary for Figures 3.107 through 3.120 - Second Order
Costs - Mechanical Plant Component Costs 	
Summary for Figures 3.121 through 3.123 - Second Order
Costs - Lagoon PI ant Component Costs 	
Third Order Cost Equations 	
Summary for Figures 3.124 through 3.130 - Treatment
Efficiency Curves 	
Area Multipliers - Wastewater Treatment Plant Construction..
10 mgd New Secondary Treatment Plant - Boston, Massachusetts
10 mgd New AST Treatment Plant - Dallas, Texas 	
10 mgd Primary to Secondary Treatment Plant Upgrade - Los
Angeles, California 	
EPA Large City Advanced Treatment (LCAT) Indexes 	
EPA Small City Conventional Treatment (SCCT) Indexes 	
Wastewater Treatment Plant Projects in Data Base 	
Page

2-4

2-5


3-5

3-7

3-21


3-46

3-88

3-99

3-138

3-154
3-159

3-165
4-3
4-5
4-6

4-7
A-5
A-6
B-2
       Hi

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
2.1

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

3.12

3.13

3.14

3.15

3.16

3.17

3.18

3.19

3.20

3.21

3.22

3.23

3.24

3.25


Types of Construction Bid Data 	
Nonconstruction Costs:
Nonconstruction Cost - Planning 	
Nonconstruction Cost - Design 	
Nonconstruction Cost - Administrative/Legal 	
Nonconstruction Cost - Architectural/Engineering Basic Fees .
Nonconstruction Cost - Other Architectural/Engineering Fees .
Nonconstruction Cost - Project Inspection 	
Nonconstruction Cost - Contingency 	
First Order Costs - Mechanical Plants by Level of Treatment:
New Mechanical Plant - Secondary Treatment - All Types of
Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - Secondary Treatment - Simple Sludge
Hand! ing 	
New Mechanical Plant - Secondary Treatment - Moderate Sludge
Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - Secondary Treatment - Complex Sludge
Hand! ing 	
New Mechanical Plant - Secondary Treatment with Phosphorus
Removal - All Types of Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - Advanced Secondary Treatment - All
Types of Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - Advanced Secondary Treatment - Simple
Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - Advanced Secondary Treatment -
Moderate Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - AST with Ammonia Removal - All Types
of Sludge Hand! ing 	
New Mechanical Plant - AST with Ammonia Removal - Moderate
Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - AST with Ammonia Removal - Complex
Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - AST with Phosphorus Removal - All
Types of SI udge Handl ing 	
New Mechanical Plant - AST with Ammonia and Phosphorus
Removal - All Types of Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - Advanced Wastewater Treatment - All
Types of Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - Advanced Wastewater Treatment -
Moderate Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - Advanced Wastewater Treatment -
Complex Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - AWT with Ammonia Removal - All Types
of Sludge Handling 	
New Mechanical Plant - AWT with Ammonia Removal - Moderate
Sludge Handling 	
Page
2-7

3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14


3-23

3-24

3-25

3-26

3-27

3-28

3-29

3-30

3-31

3-32

3-33

3-34

3-35

3-36

3-37

3-38

3-39

3-40

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Figure
                         LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)

                                                                       Page
3.26   New Mechanical  Plant - AWT with Phosphorus Removal  - All
       Types of Sludge Handling 	   3-41
3.27   New Mechanical  Plant - AWT with Phosphorus Removal  - Moderate
       Sludge Handling 	   3-42

       First Order Costs - Mechanical Plants by Main Treatment Process:

3.28   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Secondary Treatment
       All Types of Sludge Handling  	   3-49
3.29   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Secondary Treatment
       Moderate Sludge Handling 	   3-50
3.30   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Secondary Treatment
       Complex Sludge Handling 	   3-51
3.31   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Secondary Treatment
       with Phosphorus Removal - All Types of Sludge Handling 	   3-52
3.32   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Advanced Secondary
       Treatment - All Types of Sludge Handling  	   3-53
3.33   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Advanced Secondary
       Treatment - Simple Sludge Handling  	   3-54
3.34   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Advanced Secondary
       Treatment - Moderate SIudge Handling  	   3-55
3.35   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Advanced Wastewater
       Treatment - All Types of Sludge Handling  	   3-56
3.36   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - Advanced Wastewater
       Treatment - Moderate Sludge Handling  	   3-57
3.37   New Activated Sludge Plant (All Types) - AWT with Phosphorus
       Removal - All Types  of  Sludge Handling 	   3-58
3.38   New Conventional Activated Sludge Plant - Secondary Treatment
       Al 1 Types of SI udge  Handl i ng  	   3-59
3.39   New Conventional Activated Sludge Plant - Secondary Treatment
       Moderate SIudge Handli ng  	   3-60
3.40   New Conventional Activated Sludge Plant - Secondary Treatment
       Complex Sludge Handling 	   3-61
3.41   New Conventional Activated Sludge Plant - Advanced  Secondary
       Treatment - All Types of Sludge Handling  	   3-62
3.42   New Conventional Activated Sludge Plant - Advanced  Secondary
       Treatment - Moderate Sludge  Handling  	   3-63
3.43   New Conventional Activated Sludge Plant - Advanced  Wastewater
       Treatment - All Types of Sludge Handling  	   3-64
3.44   New Conventional Activated Sludge Plant - Advanced  Wastewater
       Treatment - Moderate Sludge  Handling  	   3-65
3.45   New  Conventional Activated Sludge Plant - Advanced  Wastewater
       Treatment - Complex  SIudge Handling 	   3-66
3.46   New  Contact Stabilization  Plant  - Advanced  Secondary
       Treatment - All  Types  of  Sludge Handling  	   3-67
3.47   New  Contact Stabilization  Plant  - Advanced  Secondary
       Treatment - Moderate Sludge  Handling  	   3-68
3.48   New  Extended  Aeration Plant  - Secondary Treatment  - All  Types
       of Sludge Handling 	   3-69

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                         LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)

Figure                                                                 Page

3.49   New Extended Aeration Plant - Secondary Treatment - Simple
       Sludge Handling 	    3-70
3.50   New Extended Aeration Plant - Secondary Treatment - Moderate
       Sludge Handling 	    3-71
3.51   New Extended Aeration Plant - Advanced Secondary Treatment -
       All Types of Sludge Handling 	    3-72
3.52   New Extended Aeration Plant - Advanced Secondary Treatment -
       Simple Sludge Handling 	    3-73
3.53   New Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge Plant - Secondary Treatment
       All Types of Sludge Handling 	    3-74
3.54   New Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge Plant - Secondary Treatment
       Complex Sludge Handling 	    3-75
3.55   New Oxidation Ditch Plant - Secondary Treatment - All  Types
       of Sludge Handling 	    3-76
3.56   New Oxidation Ditch Plant - Secondary Treatment - Simple
       Sludge Handling 	    3-77
3.57   New Oxidation Ditch Plant - Secondary Treatment - Moderate
       Sludge Handling 	    3-78
3.58   New Oxidation Ditch Plant - Advanced Secondary Treatment -
       All Types of Sludge Handling 	    3-79
3.59   New Oxidation Ditch Plant - Advanced Secondary Treatment -
       Simple Sludge Handling 	    3-80
3.60   New Oxidation Ditch Plant - Advanced Secondary Treatment -
       Moderate Sludge Handling 	    3-81
3.61   New Oxidation Ditch Plant - Advanced Wastewater Treatment -
       All Types of Sludge Handling 	    3-82
3.62   New Rotating Biological Contactor Plant - Secondary Treatment
       All Types of Sludge Handling 	    3-83
3.63   New Rotating Biological Contactor Plant - Secondary Treatment
       Complex Sludge Handling 	    3-84
3.64   New Rotating Biological Contactor Plant - Advanced Wastewater
       Treatment - All Types of Sludge Handling 	    3-85

       First Order Costs - Lagoon Plants:

3.65   New Stabilization Pond - Secondary  Treatment - Discharge to
       Surface Water 	    3-89
3.66   New Stabilization Pond - No Discharge 	    3-90
3.67   New Stabilization Pond - Discharge  to Land Treatment 	    3-91
3.68   New Aerated Lagoon - Secondary Treatment - Discharge to
       Surface Water 	    3-92
3.69   New Aerated Lagoon - Greater than Secondary Treatment  -
       Discharge to Surface Water 	    3-93
3.70   New Aerated Lagoon - Discharge to Land Treatment 	    3-94

       Second Order Costs - Unit Processes and Unit Operation:

3.71   New Unit Operation - Influent Pumping 	    3-102
3.72   New Unit Operation - Bar Screening  	    3-103
3.73   New Unit Operation - Grit Removal 	    3-104

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                         LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Figure
  74
  75
  76
3.77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  ,85
  ,86
  ,87
  ,88
  ,89
  .90
  .91
  .92
  .93
  .94
  .95
  .96
  .97
  .98
  .99
  .100
  .101
  .102
  .103
  .104
 3.105
 3.106
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Process -
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Unit Operation
    New Construction -
    New Unit Operation
    Water 	
    New Unit Operation
 3.
 3.

 3.
 3.
107
108

109
110
 3.111

 3.112
 3.113
  ,114
  ,115
                  - Comminution  	
                  - Preliminary  Treatment  	
                  - Flow Equalization  	
                  - Primary Sedimentation  	
                  Trickling Filter  	
                  Conventional Activated Sludge  	
                  Contact  Stabilization  	
                  Extended Aeration  	
                  Activated Sludge  (All Types)  	
                  Separate Stage Biological  Nitrification
                  Oxi dati on Di tch 	
                  Rotating Biological  Contactor  	
                  Stabilization  Pond 	
                  Aerated  Lagoon.	
                  - Secondary  Microscreening 	
                  - Sand Filtration 	
                  - Mixed  Media  Filtration 	
                  - Filtration (All  Types) 	
                  Chemical Additions 	
                  Chlorination for Disinfection  	
                  - Land Treatment of Secondary  Effluent .
                  - Post Aeration 	
                  - Effluent  Outfall Pumping 	
                  - Effluent  Outfall Diffuser 	
                  Aerobic  Digestion 	
                  Anaerobic  Digestion 	
                  - Sludge Drying 	
                  - Mechanical Sludge Dewatering 	
                  - Gravity  Thickening 	
                  - Land Application of Liquid Sludge 	
                  Control/Laboratory/Maintenance Bui 1ding
                   -  Effluent Outfall to Nonocean Surface
                   - Effluent Outfall  to Ocean
        Second  Order  Costs  - Mechanical  Plant  Component  Costs:
Mechanical
Mechanical
Excavation
Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical
           Plant Component Cost
           Plant Component Cost
       Mobilization 	
       Sitework Including
 3.116
           Plant Component
           Plant Component
           Plant Component
Foundations, Dewatering ..
Mechanical Plant Component
Mechanical Plant Component
Instrumentation 	
Mechanical Plant Component
Mechanical Plant Component
Mechanical Plant Component
Cost - Sitework Without Excavation
Cost - Excavation 	
Cost - Pilings, Special
                                Cost - Electrical  ..
                                Cost - Controls and
                                Cost - All Piping 	
                                Cost - Yard Piping ...
                                Cost - Process Piping
                                                               3-104
                                                               3-105
                                                               3-106
                                                               3-107
                                                               3-108
                                                               3-109
                                                               3-110
                                                               3-111
                                                               3-112
                                                               3-113
                                                               3-114
                                                               3-115
                                                               3-116
                                                               3-117
                                                               3-118
                                                               3-119
                                                               3-120
                                                               3-121
                                                               3-122
                                                               3-123
                                                               3-124
                                                               3-125
                                                               3-126
                                                               3-127
                                                               3-128
                                                               3-129
                                                               3-130
                                                               3-131
                                                               3-132
                                                               3-133
                                                               3-134

                                                               3-135
                                                               3-136
3-139

3-140
3-141
3-142

3-143
3-144

3-145
3-146
3-147
3-148

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                         LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)

Figure                                                                 Page

3.117  Mechanical Plant Component Cost - Equipment 	   3-149
3.118  Mechanical Plant Component Cost - Concrete 	   3-150
3.119  Mechanical Plant Component Cost - Steel 	   3-151
3.120  Mechanical Plant Component Cost - Heating, Ventilation, and
       Air Conditioning 	   3-152

       Second Order Costs - Lagoon Plant Component Costs:

3.121  Lagoon Component Cost - Mobilization 	   3-155
3.122  Lagoon Component Cost - Sitework Without Excavation 	   3-156
3.123  Lagoon Component Cost - Excavation 	   3-157

       Treatment Efficiency Curves:

3.124  All Mechanical  Plants - All Types of Sludge Handling - By
       Eff 1 uent BOD, 	   3-166
3.125  All ActivateB Sludge Plants - All Types of Sludge Handling -
       By Effluent BOD5 	   3-167
3.126  Conventional Activated Sludge Plants - All Types of Sludge
       Handling - By Effluent BOD5 	   3-168
3.127  Contact Stabilization Plants  - All Types of Sludge Handling -
       By Ef f 1 uent BOD,- 	   3-169
3.128  Extended Aeration Plants - All Types of Sludge Handling - By
       Ef f 1 uent BOD, 	   3-170
3.129  Oxidation Ditch Plants - All  Types of Sludge Handling - By
       Effluent BOD, 	   3-171
3.130  Rotating Biological Contactor Plants - All Types of Sludge
       Handling - By Effluent BOD, 	   3-172
3.131  Mechanical Treatment Plants - All Types of Sludge Handling -
       Effluent BOD, = 30 mg/1 	   3-173
3.132  Mechanical Treatment Plants - All Types of Sludge Handling -
       Effluent BOD, = 15 mg/1 	   3-174
3.133  Mechanical Treatment Plants - All Types of Sludge Handling -
       Effluent BOD5 = 5 mg/1 	   3-175

A.I    EPA Municipal Construction Cost Index Map for Large City
       Advanced Treatment (LCAT) Plant Indexes 	   A-2
A.2    EPA Municipal Construction Cost Index Map for Small City
       Conventional Treatment (SCCT) Plant Indexes 	   A-3
                                      v~m

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                              1.0  INTRODUCTION

This report presents the results of a study of the costs for construction of
municipally owned wastewater  treatment facilities.  The  cost  data utilized
in this  study  were  extracted from winning  bid documents of  projects  built
with funds provided by  the  Construction  Grants Program of the Environmental
Protection Agency  (EPA).    Only  facilities funded  under the  Federal  Water
Pollution  Control  Act  (PL  92-500)  and its amended  versions are  a  part of
this study.   All  data  were  obtained directly from  the  Construction Grants
Program  files  at either EPA Regional  offices  or the offices of States which
have been delegated grant program responsibilities.

The  EPA  has  previously published two  reports  which  were prepared using the
same types and sources of data and  addressed  the  same subject matter.   The
reports  were entitled  "Construction  Costs for Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Plants:   1973-1977," MCD-37 and "Construction Costs  for Municipal Wastewater
Treatment  Plants:    1973-1978,"   FRD-11.    This  report  incorporates  the
majority of  the  information  used   in  preparing  MCD-37  and  FRD-11   plus
information  from an  additional  848  facilities.   It  is believed  that an
increased  accuracy  is  evident  in  this   report  when   compared with  its
predecessors.   Readers  are  encouraged to replace their copies of MCD-37 and
FRD-11 with this report and use it for reference.

The  data base  used  to prepare this  report  contains information from  1,585
individual  treatment  plant  construction  projects.   Included  are  a   wide
variety   of   treatment  schemes  from  simple  lagoon  systems   to  complex
mechanical plants.

Data are  included  on 822  construction  projects  for  new  plants.    Also
represented  are several types of  plant  modification projects including 111
enlargements,  107  upgrades,  460  enlarge  and  upgrades, 73 replacements, and
12  classified  as other modifications.

These  1,585  projects  represent  approximately  $11.3 billion  of  grant  eligible
expenditures  adjusted to  third quarter  1982  dollars.   It is  estimated  this
represents approximately  $8.5 billion of Federal  grant  funds.   The  projects
                                     1-1

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used in  this  study account for  over 30  percent  of the treatment  projects
which have  gone  to the construction stage  (Step  3) since the  inception  of
the Construction Grants Program.

This study, therefore, is certainly  the most  complete  empirical  analysis  of
construction  costs  developed  to  date  for  municipally  owned  wastewater
treatment  plants.    It can  be  used,   applying  engineering  judgment,  for
preliminary estimation of  construction  costs  for individual  unit processes
or  for  complete treatment  facilities.   The  reader is  cautioned,  however,
that this report and the costs shown should not be  used  as  a  substitute for
normal  engineering estimating  procedures.

The results herein represent  national  averages calculated  using  normalized
costs.    Local   conditions  must  be  taken  into  account  because  they  can
drastically affect the costs of construction.

This report discusses the method used to collect  and analyze the data, after
which the results  are  presented.  Descriptions of usage  of  the  cost curves,
along with examples, are part  of the main  body of the report.   Procedures  to
estimate costs for future years  and  to  adjust costs to  various  sections  of
the country are  also  presented.   Included as appendices are  an explanation
of the cost normalization procedures utilized and a  listing of all treatment
plant construction projects contained in the data base.
                                     1-2

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          2.0  COST INFORMATION COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

2.1  DATA COLLECTION

Project cost and design data were collected from Construction Grants Program
files of  active construction projects.   The  files  were reviewed  at  either
EPA Regional offices or State offices which have been delegated Construction
Grants Program  responsibilities.   Information was extracted  from the files
and  recorded  on   specially  designed  forms  using   an  alphanumeric  coding
system.

Design information  including unit process  train  descriptions,  design level
of  treatment,  and  design  flow  was  obtained from  the planning  and  design
files.  All  construction  cost information was  extracted  from bid documents
submitted by the project contractor who was selected by means of competitive
bidding.   All  construction  costs  used in  this study  represent  the  as-bid
costs  for  a  facility, which are  not necessarily  the  same as  the final
as-built costs.  However, the difference  between the as-bid and the as-built
cost of a facility  is  generally  negligible  except for projects which  undergo
a  significant  change  in scope during the  construction phase.  An effort was
made  during  data  collection  to  exclude  projects  which  were  undergoing
significant  design changes  at the time the construction  contract was being
bid  upon.

Only  project costs deemed  eligible  for  funding  by  the Construction Grants
Program  were collected for  this study.   Eligibility was  determined  by EPA
and  State program personnel based on  grant program  policy in effect at the
time   of  the   grant  award.   Consequently,  some  project  costs  which    a
municipality is likely to  incur are  not reflected in the  study results.  An
example  of  a  cost  which is  commonly  excluded  from funding  eligibility is the
cost of  land acquisition for the site  of  a  treatment facility.
                                     2-1

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2.2  PREPROCESSING OF THE DATA

Prior to  actual  analysis,  the data  passed  through  several steps  to  assure
quality  and  consistency.    Three  manipulations  were  performed:   quality
assurance, cost updating and normalization,  and project classification.

Three quality  assurance checks  were performed  on  the  data.   First,  each
completed data collection  form  was  reviewed for completeness  and technical
content.  Then the information from  the  collection  forms  was  keypunched and
entered  into  an  ADP  file.   After  keypunching,  a  computer  edit   check  was
performed which screened each record for  unacceptable  code entries,  such as
an alpha  character in  a  numeric  field.   The computer edit also checked the
correctness of  all  mathematical  calculations  which had  been performed  by
data collectors in the field.  After all  new data passed the  edits, the  file
was merged into the master data  base which was  used  for subsequent analysis.
A final  quality assurance check occurred  as an initial  step  of the analysis
process and is explained below.

After completion  of  the master data  base,  the  next  step was updating  and
normalizing all cost items.  The master  data base contains several types of
cost items  including  planning costs  (Step  1),  design  costs  (Step 2),  and
construction costs (Step 3).  These  cost  items were collected  from projects
located  in  all areas  of the country  from 1973 to  1982.   Before  performing
any analysis, all  cost  items were made comparable  to reflect  a common  time
and place.  All  cost items  in the data base  were  updated from their original
time frame to the  third  quarter  of  1982.  The updating made use  of  the EPA
Large City Advanced Treatment  (LCAT) and Small  City Conventional  Treatment
(SCCT)   wastewater facility  construction  cost  indexes.   Also  during  the
updating  process,  all  costs  were  normalized  (adjusted)   to   a   common
geographical place,  the  Kansas  City/St.  Joseph, Missouri area.   This  area
was chosen because it  forms  the  base for the EPA cost  indexes.   Therefore,
all  dollar  values  reported  in  this study  represent  third  quarter  1982,
Kansas   City/St.  Joseph,  Missouri  dollars.  A  more  detailed description  of
the updating  and  normalizing procedure  is  contained  in Appendix   A of  this
report.
                                    2-2

-------
The  last step  in the  data  preprocessing  was  project classification  and
validation.   All projects in the master data base were classified by type of
treatment scheme, type  of  modification,  design  level of  treatment,  and
design  flow.    This  resulted  in  identification  of  123  separate  classes.
Within each  class, the data were run in a simple regression mode to identify
outliers.  The outliers were then checked for validity of content.   In cases
where quality assurance was lacking because of errors in the data collection
form  completion or the  keypunching  steps, the  data were eliminated.   The
remainder were retained as quality data points.

By  performing  all  three  preprocessing steps,  it  was assured  that  only
consistent,  good quality data were used in  the analysis.

2.3  DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA BASE

The data base contains information obtained from 1,585 individual  wastewater
treatment facility construction  projects  from  the  48 contiguous  States.
These projects  represent  a  variety of treatment schemes, design  flows,  and
types of modifications.   It was  noted in  Section 1.0  that  822  projects
involved  the  construction  of  entirely  new  plants,  111  projects  were
enlargements of existing facilities, 107 projects were  upgrades  of existing
facilities,  460  were  enlargements and  upgrades  of  existing facilities,  73
were  facility  replacement  projects,  and  12  were   classified  as  "other."
Enlargement  is  defined as  increasing  the  design flow  of  a facility  while
retaining the same level of treatment.   Upgrade is defined  as an increase in
the design treatment  efficiency  of a facility while  retaining  the original
flow capacity.

A detailed description of the  data base  contents  is presented  in  Tables  2.1
and 2.2.  In  addition,  Appendix  B of  the  report  lists all   projects  in  the
data base by State, EPA grant number, design flow,  treatment level, and type
of modification.

Table 2.1 presents a  distribution of  the  projects  used  in this  report  by
projected flow  and level of  treatment.   It can be seen from Table  2.1  that
902 of the projects,  or 57 percent of the total,  were for plants with design
                                    2-3

-------
                                         TABLE  2.1

             DISTRIBUTION OF WASTEWATER  TREATMENT PLANT PROJECTS
                    BY  PROJECTED  FLOW  AND  LEVEL  OF  TREATMENT


<
1.00
MOD

Projected
Level of Treatment*

Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
Cal ifornia
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
11 1 inois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
Hew Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
A_
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
6
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
8
6
2
0
0
0
0
4
0
16
0
1
0
0
7
0
0
4
1
1
6
0
1
0
B
11
8
6
37
4
1
0
0
4
9
14
11
17
33
4
16
7
9
3
21
15
12
32
10
23
2
6
0
5
16
7
35
11
22
13
15
2
0
6
5
19
3
13
12
19
6
13
4
C
0
3
6
12
0
0
1
1
2
1
2
2
4
2
2
1
0
4
0
0
2
3
2
0
0
0
2
0
1
4
1
0
4
14
7
13
0
1
0
4
22
0
4
3
2
3
14
0
D
0
0
6
2
1
0
1
1
0
0
18
31
2
0
5
1
0
2
0
1
8
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
0
11
1
0
9
0
7
5
0
0
1
4
6
2
0
2
0
3
4
0
Subtotal
11
11
18
55
5
1
2
2
6
12
34
44
24
41
11
19
7
15
3
24
25
16
36
11
31
8
10
1
6
31
9
39
24
52
27
34
2
1
14
13
47
9
18
18
27
12
32
4
TOTALS
             74  541  149 138
                            902

1
.00-5.00 MOD
Projected
Level of Treatment*
A_
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
B
2
4
3
28
6
2
0
3
4
4
2
4
6
9
5
5
2
2
2
7
4
0
6
5
9
2
4
4
5
10
7
2
5
4
4
15
1
1
4
3
10
2
1
5
15
4
4
1
C
3
1
4
7
1
0
1
1
5
1
9
1
1
2
11
1
0
2
2
1
2
1
3
0
0
0
0
3
2
2
2
1
2
6
2
8
1
0
0
2
10
0
1
3
1
0
3
2
D_
0
0
2
3
3
0
0
2
4
0
14
12
1
0
3
0
1
2
1
2
4
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
2
0
7
1
3
5
0
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
0
1
7
0
Subtotal
5
5
9
41
10
2
1
8
13
5
25
17
8
11
19
e
3
6
5
10
10
1
10
5
9
2
4
7
9
16
11
3
14
11
9
28
2
1
5
5
21
5
2
8
16
5
14
3
                                     7  237  111 90
                                                   445
5.01-10

A
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Q
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Level
B
0
0
0
9
1
2
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
2
1
0
0
2
0
2
0
0
3
2
1
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
2
.00
MGD
Projected
of Treatment*
C
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
3
0
0
0
1
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
0
1
1
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
3
0
1
4
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
Subtotal
0
0
2
16
2
2
0
1
2
2
4
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
3
2
2
0
2
0
3
0
0
5
2
1
2
1
4
2
2
9
0
0
0
2
6
2
0
4
2
1
2
2
                                                            1  46  18 31
                                                                         96


>10.
00 MGtl
Projected
Level of Treatment*
R
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
B_
0
2
1
12
2
0
0
1
0
1
3
0
2
0
1
0
0
1
2
1
2
0
3
1
1
0
2
8
0
3
0
0
3
1
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
3
3
0
6
0
C
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
2
1
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0_
0
0
1
9
0
1
0
4
0
0
8
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
2
0
5
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
6
1
0
4
0
0
1
0
Subtotal
0
2
3
23
2
1
0
7
1
1
12
3
2
0
1
1
0
2
3
3
6
1
3
1
1
1
2
10
0
4
3
0
9
1
4
2
0
1
0
2
6
1
0
7
3
0
7
0
                                                                                 1  70  17  54
                                                                                             142
 TOTAL

  16
  18
  32
  135
  19

   6
   3
  18
  22
  20

  75
  65
  35
  53
  31

  26
  11
  23
  14
  39

  43
  18
  51
  17
  44

  11
  16
  23
  17
  52

  25
  43
  51
  66
  42

  73
   4
   3
  19
  22

  80
  17
  20
  37
  48

  18
  55
   9

1,585
*Levels of Treatment:  A - No Discharge
                 B - Secondary Treatment
                 C - Advanced Secondary Treatment
                 D - Advanced Wastewater Treatment
                                              2-4

-------
                                       TABLE  2.2

             DISTRIBUTION OF  WASTEWATER  TREATMENT  PLANT PROJECTS
                                BY  TREATMENT PROCESS
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado

Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho

Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky

Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan

Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska

Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York

North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon

Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee

Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington

West  Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

TOTALS
Activated
Sludge
6
8
12
39
9
2
3
6
8
6
21
35
6
7
8
8
3
15
10
7
13
2
10
1
11
0
9
9
7
30
8
1
24
20
17
39
4
3
2
4
33
1
5
21
10
5
16
2
Rotating
Biological
Contactor
3
0
1
6
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
3
5
0
3
0
1
2
0
5
2
0
0
1
3
0
0
3
0
6
0
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
2
5
1
6
0
Oxidation
Ditch
0
3
5
8
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
4
0
12
6
7
0
0
0
0
1
0
25
6
5
0
1
0
1
1
2
0
2
5
0
0
0
0
1
5
33
2
1
1
9
7
0
0
Aerated
Lagoon
3
5
5
30
0
0
0
0
2
6
11
4
4
2
3
3
7
1
0
6
2
2
1
5
1
5
5
0
5
4
0
7
1
5
0
3
0
0
2
2
2
2
12
5
7
1
7
3
Stabilization
Pond
3
2
5
10
0
0
0
0
1
4
3
5
10
17
2
5
0
1
0
15
10
10
9
4
10
3
1
0
0
0
2
35
5
28
15
0
0
0
11
0
0
10
0
0
9
1
1
3
4
0
11
10
3
39
14
10
15
9
3
0
4
4
6
15
4
6
0
14
3
0
11
4
11
13
0
17
8
8
31
0
0
2
11
12
2
0
8
8
3
25
1
6
3
18
22
20
75
65
35
53
31
26
11
23
14
39
43
18
51
17
44
11
16
23
17
52
25
43
51
66
42
73
4
3
19
22
80
17
20
37
48
18
55
9
526
69
154
181
                                                  250
                                                 405
1,585
                                             2-5

-------
flows  less  than  1.0  million  gallons  per  day  (mgd).   Additionally,  894
projects, or 56 percent of the  total,  involved secondary  treatment  plants.

Table 2.2 summarizes  the  projects  by  major treatment process  employed.   It
can be seen that  526,  or  33 percent of the projects, utilized  an  activated
sludge process  as the main  treatment  process.  Also, 405  projects,  or  25
percent,   involved  "other" or  undefined  types of  processes.   It  should  be
noted that "other" includes facilities  employing  processes not listed on  the
table, as well as facilities using more than one  of the  listed processes.

The most  detailed information  available for each project  was  collected.   Up
to three  levels  of  detail were available for  some  projects  included in  the
data  base.  The levels are  referred  to as first  order,  second order,  and
third  order  costs.    First  order costs are  the  most  general  and the most
available of  the three types.   They   represent  the lump  sum costs   for  an
entire treatment  facility.   Second  order costs represent  the  lump  sum costs
for  each individual  process,  such as reactor basins  or digesters,  found
within a  plant.   Third order costs represent  the lump sum cost  for  each of
the  various  components which  go  into a  unit process,  such as  concrete,
equipment,  or  excavation.   The  availability  of  each   level  of  detailed
information varied  considerably  by location,  size, and  type of  project.
Figure 2.1 illustrates the relationship between the three levels of detail.

2.4   DATA ANALYSIS

Most  data analysis  for  this  study  took  the familiar  form of  using  one
parameter as  the  sole  predictor  of  a  second parameter.   The  method employed
was  bivariate analysis using  linear   regression  to  calculate an estimating
equation.  Regression  analysis  is  a well  known statistical  tool employed to
compute  and  evaluate an  estimate  of  the  proposed  mathematical relationship
between  or  among variables.   It  entails a  minimization procedure  (method of
least  squares)  for   estimating  parameters.    In  this   analysis,  the
construction  cost and  the design flow  were taken as  the dependent  variable Y
and   the  independent  variable  X,  respectively.   The  Statistical   Analysis
System (SAS), a  statistical package program,  was  utilized to establish the
                                     2-6

-------
                                 TYPES  OF CONSTRUCTION  BID DATA
                                                TOTAL PROJECT COST
       FIRST
       ORDER
       DATA
ro
      SECOND
       ORDER
        DATA
       THIRD
       ORDER
       DATA
                                                 ONTINGENCY
                                     INSPECTION
                                                            CONSTRUCTION
                                        NONCONSTRUCTION ITEMS
 UNIT
PROCESS
 COST
  UNIT
PROCESS
  COST
                                             PLANT
                                            OMPONEN
                                             COST
                                                                         PLANT
                                                                        OMPONEN
                                                                         COST
 PLANT
OMPONEN
 COST
                                       PROCESS
                                       OMPONEN
                                        COST
               PROCESS
               OMPONEN
                COST
PROCESS
OMPONEN
 COST
PROCESS
OMPONEN
 COST
     O
     c
     3)
     m

-------
estimating equation.   The  Tektronix  Graphic  Computing System  was  used  to
plot the resulting regression equations.

The data were analyzed for  all  types of plants,  processes,  and  components  at
all  levels  of  detail  that  were  available.    However,  if  the  estimating
equations did  not  possess  a  certain level  of  statistical  validity, the
resulting curves were not reported herein.

The acceptance or rejection  of the estimating  equations was based  largely  on
the goodness  of fit or strength of the linear  relationship  between variables
and on their significance as indicated by the calculated sample correlation
coefficient  R and  the  F-value.   The formulas  and definitions of  associated
terms to compute the statistics R and F are  presented  below:
                             •V
R _. i    SSFE
       SSFE + RSS
                     F-Value =      ,SSFE/K
                     r Vaiue   RSS/(N  -  K -  1)

Where:       SSFE = Sum of squares due to fitted  equations.
              RSS = Residual sum of squares.
                N = Total  number of points (sample  size).
                K = Degree of freedom  due to  regression.
        N - K - 1 = Degree of freedom  due to  deviations.

The  numerical  value  of  R  varies  from  zero (no  relationship  between  the
variables)  to  ±  1 (completely  linear   relationship).   The square  of  the
                            2
correlation  coefficient,   R ,   which   is  usually  expressed  in   percent
(multiplied  by  100),  may  be  interpreted   as  the   proportion   of  total
variability in the dependent variable  Y  that  is explained  by the independent
                        2
variable X.  Thus,  if R  = ± 0.70 for  a given  relationship, it means  that
the independent variable X explains 70 percent of variation  in the  dependent
variable Y.   The F-value, on  the  other hand, represents the  ratio of  the
explained variance  to  the unexplained variance  adjusted for the degrees  of
freedom lost.  F statistic  tables  describe the coefficients  (F-values)  that
may  be  expected  to occur by chance among samples  of uncorrelated data.   A
                                    2-8

-------
regression equation may be considered significant at a  specified  confidence
level  if  calculated F-values,  adjusted  to degrees  of freedom  lost for  a
given sample size or data points, exceed  the tabulated  F coefficients.

The T-values  are also used  to  measure  the  fit of  the regression  line  by
testing,  in  turn,  the   coefficient  of each  variable  to  see  if,   with
statistical  significance, each can  be  assumed  to  be  nonzero.   If  the
coefficient of a  variable is nonzero, then that particular  variable should
be a contributing part of the equation.  The standard  form of  the T-test is
used and  there  is  significant  evidence  that  the coefficient  is  considered
nonzero if  the absolute  value  of the  T-value obtained  is greater than  some
critical T-value.

Bivariate data analyses were conducted for construction and associated costs
of  wastewater treatment  plants to  provide the  following  levels  of  cost
information:

     1.   Nonconstruction  Costs* -  Total Step  3  nonconstruction  costs,  as
         well as  Step 1 and  Step 2 planning and engineering costs.
     2.   First Order - Total plant construction costs.
     3.   Second  Order -  Unit  process  construction costs  and  total  plant
          construction component costs.
     4.   Third Order - Unit  process component costs.
     *Note:   Nonconstruction costs  were  not included  in  the first, second,
              or  third  order relationships, but were analyzed  separately as
              discussed  in Section  3.1.   These must  be added to the  other
              costs  as a  separate item to arrive at a total project cost.

As  mentioned  earlier,  an estimating equation had to possess a certain level
of  statistical  validity  to  be  included  in the results of  this   study.   For
this  study, an  estimating equation was  considered statistically  valid if it
had an  R2 > 0.50 and an  F-value that  exceeded  the critical  F-value for  the
0.01  level of significance.  For  equations  based  on first order  costs,  the
  o
R  value  in all  cases  exceeded  0.65.
                                     2-9

-------
 After the bivariate analyses were completed, several of the data  items were
 compared using a multivariate analysis.  The multivariate analysis  involved
 three variables compared  in much the  same  manner as  the  bivariate linear
 regression   technique   to   determine   if   a   statistically  significant
 relationship  existed among  the three variables.   The multivariate  analyses
 were  conducted with plant design  flow,  denoted as Q, and projected  effluent
 BOD5, denoted  as E,  as  the independent variables  and,  again, construction
 cost  as  the dependent variable.  This was done for seven classes, and in all
 cases,  it showed that plant design flow was a major contributing  factor in
 the model;  in  all  cases  probability  of  <0.0001 (T-value > absolute value of
 T-value  obtained).

 2.5   RELIABILITY

 A  sensitivity  analysis of  the  parameters  used  in  preparing  these estimating
 equations  for  wastewater  facilities construction  has  not been  attempted
 because  it was outside the scope of this project.   However,  general comments
 on the degree  of reliability are  in  order.   The  reliability or the accuracy
 of  cost  estimates  vary  with the  intended  use.   As  found  in  the  article,
 "Estimating  Accuracy of  Your  Estimated  Costs,"  published  by  Consulting
 Engineer  (Vol. 38, No. 2,  1972), five types of estimates are listed with the
 following probable accuracies:

      1.  Order of magnitude          ± 40%
      2.  Study                       ± 25%
      3.  Preliminary                 ± 12%
      4.  Definitive                  ±  6%
      5.  Detailed                    ±  3%

The degree of accuracy intended in the cost  estimates presented herein  is  of
the study type,  i.e., within a  probable accuracy  of  25  percent.   Estimates
using  cost  curves   certainly  are  far   less  accurate  than  definitive  or
detailed  estimates,  but  do  provide  a  means  for  comparing,  on a  relative
basis, various  alternatives  without  a complete design of each  alternative.
An exponential  function  vjhich  plots  as a  straight  line on  log-log graph
                                   2-10

-------
paper  was  assumed  for all  costs.   This  is  within  the  accuracy for  the
intended  use  of  the  cost  curves.   It  is   agreed  that  this  assumption
introduces errors,  especially at  the  lower and upper  ends of  the  curves.
The errors arise  because  the slope of  the estimating equation, which  is  a
constant, is  calculated to provide the curve of best fit for the majority of
the data.

Two distinct types of  plant  cost  estimating  approaches  are  recognized.   The
first  type may be  termed  the "theoretical"  approach.   It combines  design
quantities and current unit costs, such as  the cost of steel or concrete, to
estimate what  a  plant should  cost  before  construction.   The second,  or
"empirical"  approach,  develops  cost   relationships  based  on  what  similar
plants  have  cost  in   the  past.    This  study  presents  costs  relationships
developed in  an empirical  manner.

The theoretical  approach  has the  potential  of  better  defining a  specific
treatment  facility  since   detailed design   parameters  and  unit prices  are
input.   While  this  explicit, detailed  input  infers   that resultant  cost
estimates are  correspondingly accurate,  it should  be realized  that  several
important variables  are sometimes  not  quantified by theoretical  systems.   As
presented  in  "An  Analysis  of Construction  Cost  Experience For Wastewater
Treatment Plants," (MCD-22) published by EPA,  the  following are among  those
i terns:

     1.  Competition in the contractor and  supplier marketplaces.
     2.  Unpredictable variations  in local  material  and  labor costs.
     3.  Timeliness  of construction.
     4.  Variations  in  conventional  engineering,  design,   and  construction
         practices.
     5.  Design requirements imposed by regulatory  agencies.
     6.  Degree to  which   cost  is  considered  in  design  and   construction
         phases.
     7.  Variations  in  site conditions.
                                    2-11

-------
The effect of such variables on cost can  usually  be  quantified  only  after a
construction contract is  signed.   The  empirical  system, while  not  defining
the effects of these subjective factors individually,  does  testify  to  their
cumulative effect on final  construction  costs.   Obviously, each  project  is
unique  and  the cumulative  effects of the  above  listed  factors vary  from
facility to facility.  Because of this  variation,  cost analysis  must utilize
average conditions for these subjective parameters.

Using  past  construction  cost information  to predict future  costs by  an
empirical approach  hinges  on  the ability  to place  each  sample  treatment
plant  in  a  precise  category of similar plants.   This  classification can  be
by  design flow,  unit processes employed,  level  of  treatment,  location,  or
any  combination  thereof.   There  must  also  be   sufficient  data to define
average cost relationships for particular classifications.

Therefore, when using the estimating equations from  this  report, the reader
must  be mindful  that the equations  represent national  averages calculated
from  information  on  many projects.  There  are several important variables,
such   as  site  acquisition  or  unusual   site  conditions,  which   must  be
considered that can  cause  an individual project's  cost to differ drastically
from  the  average value calculated  using the estimating equation.

In  addition, when using  any of the estimating equations, the sample  size  (N)
used  in calculating  the  equation should be  considered.  An  equation  based on
a   large  sample,  N > 30, is  more  reliable  and  will   provide a better
approximation  of  the costs than an equation based on  a small sample, e.g.,  N
=  3.   This is true  even though both equations  are  statistically valid  and
                    ?                                               2
exhibit the same R  .   The F-test tests  the  reliability even  if  R  is  the
 same  for samples  of  different  sizes.

 In order to obtain  a consistent scale for  all data  sets, the policy was  set
 for this report  that all curves were to  be graphed for a range  from 0.01 to
 10.0  mgd.  Since the actual data  points  for  the  regression curves vary from
 class to class (in  Figure  3.51, the range  is 0.05 to 0.40 mgd), the  reader
 should be  warned  that  interpreting the  curve outside  the range where  the
 data points occurred (denoted on  the graphs as Data  Range)  has  the  potential
                                     2-12

-------
of giving  unreliable  interpretations.   Similarly, for  values  substantially
outside   the   data   range,  considerable   judgment   must   be   used   in
interpretation.   The  reader is, in  all  cases, asked  to  refer to the  data
range.  This is where  the  fit of the  equation has been obtained  and  where
the interpretation is  most  meaningful.   For those graphs where data  points
occurred  beyond  the  10.0  mgd  value,  the   graphs   are   inadequate  for
representing these situations.   However,  there are few data  points involved.

The 0.01  to 10.0  mgd  range was chosen as the standard scale because  it is
the range which contains most of the plant design flow values for  facilities
in the  data base.   Some facilities  are  built with mgd values  incapable of
being far  from  this  range.   Extended aeration  facilities, for  example,  are
not generally built in  situations where  the average daily flow will  exceed
0.50 mgd.
                                                            2
In  general,  large  sample  sizes  and  high  values  of  R   and  F   imply
statistically sound  correlations.   Another  indication  of the  closeness of
fit to the model can be inferred from the scatter in the data points used to
calculate  an  equation.  As the  amount  of  scatter among  the actual  data
points  increases,  the accuracy  of  the  estimating equation decreases.   To
provide an  indication  of  data scatter, each graph includes  a  set of  dashed
lines which have  been referred to  in  this  report as the standard residual
error (SRE).

The  standard  error of the  estimate,  or the  standard  residual   error,  is
defined as:
Where:  RSS = Residual sum of squares.
          N = Total number of points (sample size).

SRE  squared  is  an unbiased  estimate for  0 squared,  the  variance of  the
residual variables.   SRE  has  a major use in  obtaining  confidence  intervals
for  various  parameters  and  variables of the  regression  equation.   Although
                                    2-13

-------
this was  not  done here, it was  desired to give the  reader  a feel for  the
fact that the actual  cost values need not lie on the  actual  regression  line
(it  represents  only  the average costs), but  would  fall  in some  interval
about that line.   The  interval  cost ±  SRE  has,  therefore, been plotted  to
indicate an interval  in  which the costs have  a  likelihood of being  found.
Again, let it be stressed that this  is  not  a confidence  interval, but  serves
only as  reinforcement for  the fact  that the costs are within some  interval
about the line and not necessarily on the line.
                                    2-14

-------
                      3.0  RESULTS OF THE DATA ANALYSIS


The results  of  all  statistically  valid  relationships discernible  from  the

existing data base are presented in this  section.   The results are presented

in the following order:
Section  3.1.3

Section  3.2.3
         3.2.3.1
         3.2.3.2

         3.2.3.3

Section  3.3.3
         3.3.3.1
         3.3.3.2


Section  3.4.2

Section  3.5.2
Presentation of Nonconstruction Cost Curves

Presentation of First Order Cost Curves
Results - Mechanical  Plants by Level of Treatment
Results - Mechanical  Plants by Level of Treatment
  and Main Treatment Process
Results - Lagoon Plants

Presentation of Second Order Cost Curves
Results - Unit Processes and Unit Operations
Results - Mechanical  Plant Component Costs
Results - Lagoon Plant Component Costs

Presentation of Third Order Cost Equations

Presentation of Efficiency Cost Curves
Each section contains an  introduction, definition  of  terms,  and the results

as a series  of  cost curves.  Noted on the  cost curves are  the  equation  of
                                                p
the curve, the sample size,  the  values of  the  R  and  F statistics,  the SRE,

and the data range.


Examples for using these curves are presented in Section 4.0 of this report.
                                     3-1

-------
3.1  NONCONSTRUCTION COSTS

3.1.1  Introduction

Associated with all  construction  projects  are expenditures for  items  other
than  actual  construction  items.   These  other   cost   items   are  termed
nonconstruction costs.   Nonconstruction  costs are  incurred throughout  the
life of  a  construction project,  beginning  with  the initial planning  phase
and continuing until a facility is  in operation.  A construction project is
usually  accomplished  in  three  distinct  phases;  initial  planning,  detailed
design,  and  actual  construction.   In  the  terminology  of  the  Construction
Grants Program, these  three  phases are  referred  to as  Step 1,  Step  2,  and
Step 3,  respectively.  There are  nonconstruction costs associated  with  each
step which  must be  added to  the construction  cost  to  arrive  at a  total
project  cost.   This  section  describes  the  various  nonconstruction  costs
usually  incurred  in the  course of a  project and  provides an  estimate  of
their contribution  to the total  project  cost.

3.1.2  Definitions  of Nonconstruction  Costs

Nonconstruction costs are defined as those monies spent  during  the  course of
a  construction  project   which  are  not paid  directly  to   the   building
contractor but which must be borne by the owner.  They are  considered  to be
part of  the  total  project cost.   The  nonconstruction  costs can be further
broken down into the following  categories:

    •  Planning  Costs  (Step   1).   These   are  costs  incurred  during  the
       preliminary  engineering  analysis phase.  This phase  includes problem
       identification,  alternative  selection,  cost  effective analysis,  and
       preliminary  plant  design.
    •  Design  Costs  (Step  2).    These  are  costs  for   the  preparation  of
       detailed plans and specifications  for the  project.
    t  Administrative/Legal  Costs.  Included are  costs  incurred  by  the  owner
       in the administration of a construction project.   Some examples  are
       attorney  fees   for  preparing  contracts,  costs   for  publishing  bid
       advertisements and legal  notices, and the cost of preparing  requests
       for proposals.
                                    3-2

-------
t  Preliminary  Costs.   This  category includes  costs  incurred  by  the
   owner prior  to  any  financial  award for which he  is  later reimbursed
   by the awarding agency.

•  Right-Of-Way Costs.   This  category  includes  legal  and administrative
   expenses  necessary   for  securing  rights-of-way  and  sites   for  a
   project.

•  A/E  Basic  Fees.  This  category  includes  fees  paid  by the owner to
   architectural/engineering (A/E) firms for consultation and assistance
   during project  construction.   Examples are preparation and review of
   bid  documents  and change orders, construction  management,  and  final
   inspection of all completed construction.

•  Other  A/E  Fees.   These  include  the  costs   for  special  services
   provided  to  the owner  by an  A/E firm during  project construction.
   Included are soil investigations, preparation of additional documents
   such  as  operation  and  maintenance  manuals,   and  facility  startup
   services.

•  Project  Inspection  Costs.   These  costs  are  paid  by the. owner to
   provide  a full  time  resident engineer on  the construction  site to
   inspect all work and to keep a project log.

t  Land  Development Costs.   Included are costs for  preparing a  project
   site  for  a  purpose   other  than  the  construction   of  a  treatment
   facility.   An  example  is the  cost  for  providing  public  recreational
   facilities at the site of a treatment plant.

t  Relocation  Expense  Costs.  The administrative  and  legal  expenses an
   owner  incurs in relocating  individuals  or businesses  affected  by  a
   construction project.

t  Relocation  Payment  Costs.  Payments made to individuals or businesses
   forced  to  relocate  due  to  a construction project.

•  Demolition  and  Removal  Costs.  The  costs for demolishing  and removing
   existing  structures at  a  project  site.

•  Bond Interest Costs.   This  covers  the interest  charges  paid by  the
   owner on  bonds  issued  to  finance  payments during  construction.

•  Contingency  Costs.   This  is  an  amount set  aside at  the start  of  a
   project to  provide  for unexpected expenses during construction.

•  Indirect  Costs.  These are  costs for goods or services  provided by
   one  department of an  owner's organization to another  department.  An
   example is  a  payment  made  to a city  highway  department  by  a  city
   public  works department.

•  Equipment Costs.   These  are  costs  for the  purchase  or leasing of
   equipment or materials necessary for the construction  or maintenance
   of a facility  which   are  obtained separately  from  the  construction
                                 3-3

-------
        phase.  An example  is the advance purchase of process equipment which
        requires  a long  lead time before delivery.
     •   Miscellaneous Costs.  Included are any costs not covered in the other
        nonconstruction  cost categories.  Two examples are special laboratory
        equipment purchases and monitoring wells installed at a project site.
        Land costs, where  land  is an  integral  part of the treatment process,
        are included in  this category.  Other land costs, such as acquisition
        of  a  treatment  plant site,  are ineligible  and  are not  included in
        this or any of the  categories above.
3.1.3   Presentation of  Nonconstruction Cost Curves

Table 3.1 presents the  average ratios of all nonconstruction cost categories
to  construction  costs  for all  projects in  the  data base.   Average  ratios
were  calculated  for  each  EPA  Region,  as  well  as  for  the  entire  nation.
Individual project  ratios were calculated  by dividing  the  nonconstruction
dollar  value  by  the construction dollar  value.   The Regional  and  national
average ratios for each category were calculated  by dividing  the  sum  of all
individual project ratios by the number of projects.

Seventeen nonconstruction  cost  categories  are identified in  Table  3.1.   By
checking the  sample size  for each  category, it can be seen that  only seven
of  these  nonconstruction  cost categories  are common  to  the  majority  of
projects:   planning, design,  administration/legal, A/E basic fees, other A/E
fees, project  inspection,  and  contingencies.  These seven  categories equal
approximately 32 percent  of  the construction  costs as  a  national  average.
The other ten categories are much less frequent in  their  occurrence and are
very project-specific.   It is  suggested that  the reader only  consider  the
seven most common nonconstruction costs when  preparing an  estimate  with  the
information in this report.  The information  on the other  ten categories is
presented  in order to make the  reader aware  that  site-specific  requirements
can greatly affect  the cost of  a project.

Figures 3.1 through 3.7 present the  relationship  between  construction costs
and  each   of  the  seven  most  common  nonconstruction   costs   previously
mentioned.   The independent variable  for each curve  is the  construction  cost
in dollars.   The dependent variable  for each  curve is  the nonconstruction
cost  in dollars.   All  costs  are  in  third  quarter 1982  Kansas  City/St.
Joseph,  Missouri  dollars.
                                    3-4

-------
                        TABLE 3.1

NONCONSTRUCTION COST AS A PROPORTION OF CONSTRUCTION COST

         NONCONSTRUCTION COST/CONSTRUCTION COST
         AVERAGES FOR EPA REGIONS  AND THE NATION
Nonconstruction
Cost Categories
Planning (Step 1)
Design (Step 2)
Administration/Legal
Prel iminary
Right-of-Way
A/E Basic Fees
Other A/E Fees
Project Inspection
Land Development
CO
i Relocation Expenses
en
Relocation Payments
Demolition & Removal
Bond Interest
Contingencies
Indirect Costs
Equipment
Miscellaneous
TOTAL REGIONAL
NCC AVERAGES
Reg. 01
0.030
0.078
0.012
0.036
0.025
0.073
0.028
0.067
0.016
---
0.022
0.062
---
0.014
0.016
0.479
Reg. 02
0.041
0.098
0.018
0.015
0.042
0.059
0.044
0.063
---
---
0.017
0.070
0.010
0.006
0.027
0.510
Reg. 03
0.028
0.057
0.023
0.004
0.018
0.107
0.037
0.046
0.010
0.003
0.085
0.056
0.055
0.003
0.018
0.033
0.583
Reg. 04
0.052
0.058
0.008
0.012
0.020
0.051
0.020
0.031
0.006
0.020
0.014
0.013
0.073
---
0.032
0.018
0.428
Reg. 05
0.035
0.057
0.007
0.006
0.029
0.065
0.038
0.040
0.008
0.003
0.005
---
---
0.034
0.017
0.011
0.010
0.365
Reg. 06
0.034
0.063
0.006
0.003
0.035
0.030
0.015
0.029
0.108
0.011
0.044
0.050
---
0.008
0.033
0.469
Reg. 07
0.042
0.072
0.009
0.006
0.032
0.040
0.018
0.044
0.046
0.048
---
0.056
---
0.030
0.018
0.461
Reg. 08
0.043
0.141
0.010
0.011
0.035
0.057
0.027
0.062
0.042
0.005
---
0.029
0.056
---
0.017
0.021
0.556
Reg. 09
0.043
0.081
0.010
0.011
0.084
0.084
0.042
0.055
0.003
0.008
— -
---
0.069
0.012
0.026
0.011
0.539
Reg. 10
0.056
0.088
0.011
0.024
0.037
0.047
0.025
0.059
0.011
0.046
---
0.038

0.040
0.038
0.520
National
(Sample
0.041
0.076
0.012
0.015
0.032
0.063
0.030
0.046
0.020
0.009
0.027
0.032
0.041
0.054
0.013
0.020
0.023
0.554
Ratios
Size)
( 866)
( 866)
(1,995)
( 145)
( 188)
(2,058)
(1,293)
(1,213)
( 6)
( 17)
( 5)
( 7)
( 36)
(2,283)
( 44)
( 219)
( 439)

-------
Table 3.2  contains a  summary  of  Figures  3.1 through  3.7 with  associated
titles and cost equations.
                                     3-6

-------
                                  TABLE 3.2

                     SUMMARY FOR FIGURES 3.1 THROUGH 3.7
                         NONCONSTRUCTION COST CURVES

Figure
Number   	Title	  	Cost  Equation*

 3.1     Planning                                 NCC  =  (5.77 x  lO'^C0'79

 3.2     Design                                   NCC  =  (3.45 x  lO'^C0'88

 3.3     Administrative/Legal                      NCC  =  (9.62 x  10"2)C°'80

 3.4     Architectural/Engineering Basic Fees     NCC  =  (1.26 x  lO'^C0'93

 3.5     Other Architectural/Engineering Fees     NCC  =  (8.86 x  10"2)C°'89

 3.6     Project Inspection                       NCC  =  (4.13 x  lO'^C0'83

 3.7     Contingency                              NCC  =  (6.56 x  10~2)C°'98
* NCC = Nonconstruction Cost
    C = Construction Cost
                                   3-7

-------
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3.2  FIRST ORDER COSTS

3.2.1  Introduction

First order costs are the sum of monies paid by the owner to contractors and
suppliers  for  all  labor  and materials  necessary to  construct the  entire
planned treatment facility.  As noted in Section 2.0, all construction costs
used to  prepare  this report were  the  as-bid costs which were  usually very
close  to,  but  not  necessarily  exactly the  same as,  the  as-built  costs.
Also, first order  costs only  represent construction  expenditures  and  do not
include any allowance for nonconstruction costs.

All  first  order   cost   curves   presented   in  this  report  are  for  the
construction of  entirely  new treatment  facilities.   Also  contained  in the
data  base  are many  projects involving  other  types  of  plant  modifications
such  as  enlargements,  upgrades,  and  replacements.   Due  to  the  greater
variations  in  technical   considerations  and   costs associated  with  such
projects,  no  cost  curves  could  be  produced at  a  level  of  statistical
confidence great enough for inclusion  as first order curves.

3.2.2  Definitions of Terms

     •  Construction   Cost.    The   sum   of   monies  paid  by  the  owner  to
       contractors  and  suppliers for  all  labor and materials  necessary to
       construct  the planned  facility.  The construction cost, expressed in
       millions   of  dollars,  is  the  dependent   variable   in   all  cost
       relationships presented  in  this  section.
     0  Design  Flow.   The  design flow  is the hydraulic  capacity for which  a
       treatment  plant  is designed.   It is  based on  the total  daily average
       dry  weather   flow rate  expected  from  domestic,  commercial,  and
       industrial  sources.   The  design flow  is  the ideal  flow at  which  a
       facility  will operate.    It  represents  the  norm  and   accounts for
       fluctuations  such  as  peak  and low flows.  The design flow represents
       the  average  daily  flow,  not monthly  or yearly  averages  which will
       vary  due  to wet  weather conditions  or  intermittent  industrial  flows.
       The design  flow, expressed  in mgd, is the  independent variable  in all
       cost  relationships presented  in this  section.
     •  Treatment  Levels.   All  facilities   are classified  in  terms  of the
       treatment  level  they  are designed to achieve.  Three basic treatment
       levels  are  identified;  secondary,  advanced  secondary,  and advanced
       wastewater  treatment.   The treatment levels  are  defined in terms of
                                    3-15

-------
the  five  day  biochemical  oxygen demand  (BOD,,)  of  the plant effluent
on  a monthly  average basis.   No  other  parameters,  such  as effluent
suspended solids, are used in the treatment level classification.

-  Secondary Treatment.  A  plant  is  considered a secondary treatment
   plant  if  it  is  designed to produce  an effluent  with a  BOD.  no
   greater than 30 milligrams per liter  (mg/1).  However, some States
   have a more  stringent  definition  of  secondary  treatment  in which
   the effluent may have a  BOD5 value  as low as 25 mg/1.  Therefore,
   a plant capable of producing an effluent with a  800.  value in the
   range  of  25  to  30 mg/1  (inclusive)  is  placed  in the  secondary
   treatment category.  Many types of unit process  trains are used in
   plants  which  provide   secondary   treatment.    The  most  common
   processes  are variations  of  the  activated sludge   process  and
   variations  of the lagoon process.

-  Advanced Secondary Treatment  (AST).   A  plant   is considered  an
   advanced secondary treatment plant if it is designed to produce an
   effluent with  a BODg  in  the  range  of 24  mg/1   to  11  mg/1.   A
   variety of  unit  process  trains  can  be  used to  achieve  advanced
   secondary treatment.  The most widely used  processes  are extended
   aeration  activated  sludge,   oxidation  ditches,  and   rotating
   biological   contactors   (RBC).    To  attain  very  stringent  BODr
   effluent values,  many facilities will  include chemical addition of
   filtration  processes to their treatment trains.

-  Advanced Wastewater  Treatment   (AWT).   A plant  is considered  an
   advanced wastewater treatment  plant if  it  is designed to  produce
   an effluent  with a BOD,-  less  than or  equal  to  10 mg/1.   Plants
   designed to achieve an  advanced wastewater treatment level  utilize
   complex  unit  process   trains.    Generally  AWT   plants   use   a
   biological  treatment process,  such  as activated  sludge,  followed
   by chemical/physical processes  to  produce a high quality effluent.

Nutrient Removal.   In addition to meeting  BOD5 effluent  values,  some
plants must control  the amount of  nutrients  in their effluent.  This
control   is  achieved  by  the use  of  biological   and chemical  unit
processes.  Nutrient control requirements are usually associated with
plants designed to achieve AST or  AWT  levels  of treatment.   However,
plants  designed to  achieve  secondary  treatment  sometimes  need  to
control  phosphorus, especially  if  they dispose of their  effluent  to
nutrient sensitive water bodies such  as lakes.

-  Ammonia Removal.   A plant designed to produce an effluent with 5.0
   mg/1  or  less of ammonia  nitrogen  is  considered  to  have  ammonia
   removal capabilities.

-  Phosphorus  Removal.  A plant designed to  produce  an effluent  with
   3.0  mg/1  or less  of  total   phosphorus  is  considered  to  have
   phosphorus  removal  capabilities.

Mechanical  System.    A  facility   which  utilizes   energy  intensive
treatment  processes.    Included  are   plants  with   activated  sludge
processes,  rotating  biological contactors,  trickling  filters,  and
                             3-16

-------
   oxidation ditches.   Excluded  are facilities  which utilize a  lagoon
   system, aerated or nonaerated, for their main treatment process.

0  Lagoon System.   A facility which utilizes either a stabilization  pond
   or an aerated lagoon as the primary  treatment process.

t  Sludge Handling.   The  amount  of  sludge  generated and  the  treatment
   methods vary considerably  from  facility  to facility.  The  amount  of
   sludge  produced  depends   on  the  characteristics  of  the  influent
   wastewater  and  the unit  process  train  utilized.    The  treatment
   methods used depend on the characteristics of  the sludge,  the  amount
   of sludge generated, and the  disposal methods  available.   The  sludge
   handling  methods  can  vary from facility  to  facility  even  though
   facilities  may  have   similar  design  flows  and  treatment  levels.
   Expenditures for  sludge  handling are usually a  large  percentage  of
   the  overall  construction  cost for a  facility.    In order  to  account
   for  the   variations  in  sludge   handling  methods  and  the  resultant
   impact on the  construction cost, all  facilities  have  been  classified
   into  three  categories.    The  three  general  categories  of  sludge
   handling  are simple,  moderate,  and  complex.   These  categories  are
   mutually exclusive.  Included in each category  are all  costs  for the
   appropriate sludge handling and sludge treatment equipment.  Disposal
   costs  are not  included  except   for  sludge disposal  equipment  which
   includes  sludge  hauling  vehicles,  sludge  pipelines,  underground
   injection equipment,  pumps and  equipment  for spraying,  and  similar
   i terns.

   -  Simple Sludge Handling.  A facility  is  placed in  this  category if
      the sludge  generated  is treated by air drying and disposed  in a
      landfill.  The cost of the landfill is not included.

   -  Moderate  Sludge  Handling.  A facility is placed  in  this category
      if  the sludge generated is  treated  by digestion,  thickening,  or
      mechanical  dewatering,  as  well  as any  of  the treatments included
      in the "simple" category.

   -  Complex Sludge Handling.   A facility is placed  in this category if
      the  sludge  generated is  treated  by  chemical  stabilization,  heat
      treatment,  or  incineration,  as  well   as  any  of  the  treatments
      included  in the "simple" and  "moderate" categories.

0  Equation  Block.  Located on each graph is a block  containing the cost
   equation  and  the  statistical   test results  for the  relationship
   displayed.

   -  Equation.   This is  the estimating  equation  which  describes  the
      curve.  The "C"  term is the  construction  cost in million dollars
      and the "Q" term is the design flow in mgd.

   -  Sample Size.  This  refers  to the  number of projects from the data
      base used in the calculation  of the equation.
                                3-17

-------
           2
       -  R .   This  is the  square of  the correlation  coefficient of  the
          equation.    The  statistical  significance of  R   is  explained  in
          Section 2.5.

       -  £.   This   is  the  F-value   of   the   equation;   the  statistical
          significance of which  is explained in  Section  2.4.

       -  T_.   This   is  the  T-value   of   the   equation;   the  statistical
          significance of which  is explained in  Section  2.4.

       -  Data Range.   This  is  the  actual  range of  basic  data  used  to
          calculate the equation.


3.2.3  Presentation of First Order Cost Curves


The  results from  the first  order  cost   analyses  are   presented   in  three

sections as follows:
Section 3.2.3.1 - Results - Mechanical Plants by Level of Treatment
                  Figures 3.8 through 3.27

Section 3.2.3.2 - Results - Mechanical Plants by Level of Treatment
                    and Main Treatment Process
                  Figures 3.28 through 3.64

Section 3.2.3.3 - Results - Lagoon Plants
                  Figures 3.65 through 3.70


Each section presents the relationship between the design flow of a facility
and  the  construction cost.  This  relationship  is presented  for facilities
which  have  been  classified by type  of  system,  level of  treatment,  and, in

some cases, degree of sludge handling.


All  cost   relationships  presented   in  the  following  sections  represent

national  averages.   Methods for  adjusting the  national  average cost  to a

specific  area  of the country are outlined  in Section 4.0.   Examples of how

to  use these  cost  curves  to develop  estimates  are also  presented.   All

national  average costs  are  in third quarter 1982  Kansas  City/St.  Joseph,

Missouri  dollars.
                                     3-18

-------
3.2.3.1  Results - Mechanical  Plants by Level  of Treatment

This section contains the results from the analyses of  the  first  order cost
relationships between  the design flow of a  facility  and  its  construction
cost.  Prior to  analysis,  facilities were classified by  level  of treatment
and,  wherever  possible,  by  the  type of  sludge  handling.   Further,  only
completely new mechanical plants with  effluent  disposal  to  nonocean surface
waters were  included.   No  distinction was made with regard  to  the  types of
unit  processes  utilized  in  the liquid line  treatment  train other  than  the
overall train must be representative of a mechanical plant.

Figures 3.8  through  3.27 contain the  results obtained  from these analyses.
The  figures  are  ordered  so that all  results  pertaining  to  a specific level
of treatment are  grouped.  Results  for secondary treatment  plants are shown
on  Figures  3.8   through  3.12.  Results  for  advanced   secondary  treatment
plants  are  shown on  Figures  3.13  through  3.20.   Results  for  advanced
wastewater treatment plants are shown on Figures 3.21 through 3.27.

Each   figure   contains  several  important   items:   title,  x-axis  label
(independent  variable),  y-axis  label  (dependent variable),  cost equation,
equation  statistics,  regression  line  (solid  line),  and  the  SRE  (dashed
lines).  All these items should be taken into account by the reader.

The  regression  line  and the cost equation  derived from  the line represent
the   predicted   construction   cost   for  the  particular  type  of  facility
identified  in the title.  The  cost  derived using the  line or equation is an
estimate for the  construction  of a complete operational wastewater facility.
The  cost  includes all  processes from  the headworks  to  the  effluent outfall
line.  The  only  additional  costs that need  to be considered are the various
nonconstruction  costs.

For   several  types  of  plants,  it  was  possible  to  obtain  results  which
differentiated  plants  by level of treatment, as well as  the type of  sludge
handling employed.   It should  be noted that  the curves obtained for simple,
moderate,  and complex  sludge handling  are all subsets of  the curve developed
for  all  types  of sludge handling.   It  is possible  to  see the effect  sludge
                                     3-19

-------
handling has on construction costs by referring to  the  results  obtained for
secondary  treatment  plants  (Figures 3.8,  3.9,  3.10,   3.11).   Figure  3.8
contains  the  results  obtained  by  including  all   secondary  plants  without
regard to the type of  sludge handling.   Figure  3.9  contains  the results for
plants having simple sludge  handling techniques.   Figure 3.10  contains the
results for plants with  moderate  sludge handling  and Figure 3.11  shows the
results for plants with complex sludge  handling.  The predicted costs  for a
1.0 mgd plant for each  curve are as follows:

                                  Type of                 Cost  for
         Figure               Sludge Handling           1.0 mgd  Plant
          3.8                    All  Types               $2,490,000
          3.9                    Simple                   $1,680,000
          3.10                   Moderate                $2,410,000
          3.11                   Complex                 $3,000,000

By comparing  the  results,  it can  be seen that sludge  handling can  almost
double  the  predicted  construction  cost  ($1,680,000  vs.  $3,000,000)  for
plants with similar levels  of treatment  and design flows.

The results conform  to the general  principle  that more  stringent effluent
requirements,  in  terms of BODr  and nutrient  reduction,  result in  greater
construction costs.  Therefore, AST  plants cost more than secondary plants,
and AWT plants are the  most costly of all.

Table  3.3  contains a  summary  of  Figures  3.8  through  3.27 with associated
titles and cost equations.
                                    3-20

-------
                                  TABLE 3.3

                    SUMMARY FOR FIGURES 3.8 THROUGH 3.27
                           FIRST ORDER COST CURVES
             MECHANICAL PLANTS CLASSIFIED BY LEVEL OF TREATMENT
Figure
Number   _ Title _   _ Cost Equation*

 3.8     Secondary Treatment - All Types of
         Sludge Handling                           C - (2.49 x 10D)Qu'/':

 3.9     Secondary Treatment - Simple Sludge                     fi  n rr
         Handling                                  C = (1.68 x 10D)Qu'o::>

 3.10    Secondary Treatment - Moderate Sludge                   K  n KQ
         Handling                                  C = (2.41 x 10D)Qu'Dy

 3.11    Secondary Treatment - Complex Sludge                    fi  n 7,
         Handling                                  C = (3.00 x 10°)QU'/1

 3.12    Secondary Treatment with Phosphorus                           „
         Removal - All Types of Sludge Handling    C = (3.16 x 10D)QU'^

 3.13    Advanced Secondary Treatment (AST) -
         All Types of Sludge Handling              C = (2.90 x 10°)Qu'/£-

 3.14    AST - Simple Sludge Handling              C = (1.98 x 106)Q°'57

 3.15    AST - Moderate Sludge Handling            C = (2.57 x 106)Q°'74
3.16    AST with Ammonia Removal - All Types
        of Sludge Handling                        C = (3.44 x 10)Q

3.17    AST with Ammonia Removal - Moderate
        Sludge Handling                           C = (3.01 x 10)Q
                                                                    n 7Q
                                                                    u'/y

                                                                    n 7/1
                                                                    U'/H
 3.18    AST with Ammonia Removal - Complex
         Sludge Handling                           C = (4.39 x 10D)QU'/U

 3.19    AST with Phosphorus Removal - All                       e  n 7-3
         Types of Sludge Handling                  C = (3.75 x 10D)QU*/J

 3.20    AST with Ammonia and Phosphorus Removal                 fi  n R?
         All Types of Sludge Handling              C = (4.14 x 10 )Q

 3.21    Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWT) -                   fi  n -,.
         All Types of Sludge Handling              C = (3.38 x 10 )Q'
* C = Construction Cost (million dollars)
  Q = Plant Design Flow (mgd)
                                    3-21

-------
                            TABLE 3.3 (Concluded)
Figure
Number   	Title	   	Cost Equation

 3.22    AWT - Moderate Sludge Handling            C = (3.28 x 106)Q°'74

 3.23    AWT - Complex Sludge Handling             C = (3.74 x 106)Q°'85

 3.24    AWT with Ammonia Removal  - All Types of                 fi  n no
         Sludge Handling                           C = (4.59 x 10D)Qu'bJ

 3.25    AWT with Ammonia Removal  - Moderate                     fi  n R?
         Sludge Handling                           C = (4.74 x 10D)QU'^

 3.26    AWT with Phosphorus Removal - All Types                 fi  n RQ
         of Sludge Handling                        C = (3.77 x 10D)Qu'°y

 3.27    AWT with Phosphorus Removal - Moderate                  fi  n Rfi
         Sludge Handling                           C = (3.53 x 10D)QU'OD
                                     3-22

-------
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-------
3.2.3.2  Results - Mechanical  Plants by Level  of Treatment and Main
         Treatment Process

This section contains the results from  the  analyses  of the first order cost
relationships between  the design flow  of  a  facility  and  its  construction
cost.  Prior to analysis, facilities were classified by  level  of treatment,
main liquid  line  treatment  process,  and,  wherever possible, by  the  type of
sludge  handling.    Further,  only  completely  new  mechanical  plants  with
effluent disposal  to nonocean surface waters were included.

Figures 3.28 through 3.64 contain the  results obtained from these analyses.
The  figures are  ordered  so  that  all  results  pertaining  to  a  specific
treatment process are grouped.  The major groupings are listed below:

              Treatment Process                      Figure Numbers
        All Types of Activated Sludge               3.28 through 3.37
        Conventional Activated Sludge               3.38 through 3.45
        Contact Stabilization                       3.46 through 3.47
        Extended Aeration                           3.48 through 3.52
        Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge                3.53 through 3.54
        Oxidation Ditch Process                     3.55 through 3.61
        Rotating Biological Contactor               3.62 through 3.64

 Within  the major  groupings of treatment  processes,  the figures are ordered
 by  treatment level.

 Each   figure   contains  several   important   items:    title,  x-axis  label
 (independent variable), y-axis  (dependent variable), cost equation, equation
 statistics,  regression line (solid line), and  the  SRE (dashed lines).  All
 these  items should  be  taken into  account  by  the  reader.

 The regression line and the  cost equation  derived  from  the line  represent
 the  predicted construction  cost for   the particular  type  of  facility
 identified in  the  title.   The cost derived using the line or equation is  an
                                     3-43

-------
estimate for the construction of a complete operational  wastewater facility.
The cost includes all  processes  from the headworks to  the  effluent  outfall
line.  The only additional costs  that  need  to  be  considered are the  various
nonconstruction costs.

Facilities were  categorized  prior to  analysis on the  basis of  their  main
biological  liquid  line  treatment process.  One  of  the  treatment  process
categories, All  Types of Activated  Sludge,  is a  summation of most  of  the
variations of  the activated  sludge  process.   Included  in this  category  are
conventional, contact stabilization, and extended  aeration  activated sludge
facilities.  Facilities  utilizing the  oxidation ditch  process  or the  pure
oxygen activated sludge process are not included.

For some  categories  of  facilities,  it was possible  to obtain results  for
differing  levels  of  sludge  handling.   Four  types of  sludge  handling  are
identified:  all, simple,  moderate,  and complex.  The  level, All Types  of
Sludge Handling, is  a summation of the  simple,  moderate, and complex  types.

The reader should note that all facilities represented  in this  section  were
also  included  in the results  shown  in  Section  3.2.3.1.   All  results  in
Section  3.2.3.2  were produced  using  subsets  of  facilities  from the  more
general categories of facilities from Section  3.2.2.1.

The results show  that the  construction costs  for facilities  having  similar
treatment  levels  and design flows  can vary considerably  depending   on  the
main  treatment  process.   A comparison  of  the  costs  for  facilities   with  a
design flow of  1.0  mgd,  secondary treatment level, and all  types of sludge
handling is shown on the following page:
                                    3-44

-------
                                         Cost for
    Main Treatment Process             1.0 mgd Plant          Sample Size
Oxidation Ditch                         $1,660,000                 41
Extended Aeration                       $2,420,000                 35
Conventional Activated Sludge           $2,580,000                 52
Rotating Biological Contactor           $4,500,000                 10
Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge            $5,420,000                  4

Pure oxygen activated sludge facilities are more expensive than conventional
activated  sludge  facilities.   However, the magnitude  of  the difference may
not be  as  great  as the above comparison indicates.  The  reader should take
into  consideration the  relatively  small   sample  available  for  pure oxygen
facilities.  The  small sample  size  might  not  be truly  representative of all
pure oxygen facilities which have been constructed.

Table 3.4  contains a summary  of  Figures  3.28  through  3.64  with associated
titles  and  cost equations.
                                     3-45

-------
                                  TABLE  3.4

                    SUMMARY  FOR FIGURES  3.28 THROUGH 3.64
                           FIRST ORDER COST CURVES
           MECHANICAL PLANTS CLASSIFIED  BY MAIN TREATMENT  PROCESS


Figure
Number   	Title	         Cost  Equation*

 3.28    Activated Sludge (All Types) -
         Secondary Treatment - All Types of
         Sludge Handling                           C -  (2.72 x 106)Q°-72

 3.29    Activated Sludge (All Types) -
         Secondary Treatment - Moderate  Sludge
         Handling                                  C =  (2.57 x 106)Q0'72

 3.30    Activated Sludge (All Types) -
         Secondary Treatment - Complex Sludge
         Handling                                  C =  (3.60 x 10b)Q0<7°

 3.31    Activated Sludge (All Types) -
         Secondary Treatment with Phosphorus
         Removal - All Types of Sludge Handling    C =  (3.13 x 10b)Q0>72

 3.32    Activated Sludge (All Types) - AST -
         All  Types of Sludge Handling              C =  (2.98 x 106)Q°'78

 3.33    Activated Sludge (All Types) - AST -
         AST/Simple Sludge Handling                C =  (2.72 x 106)Q°'75

 3.34    Activated Sludge (All Types) - AST -
         Moderate Sludge Handling                  C =  (2.77 x 10 )Q

 3.35    Activated Sludge (All Types) - AWT -
         All  Types of Sludge Handling              C -  (3.44 x 10b)Q°'77

 3.36    Activated Sludge (All Types) - AWT -
         Moderate Sludge Handling                  C =  (4.29 x 10 )Q

 3.37    Activated Sludge (All Types) - AWT
         with Phosphorus Removal  - All Types of
         Sludge Handling                           C =  (3.93 x 10°)Q°'92

 3.38    Conventional  Activated Sludge -
         Secondary Treatment - All  Types of
         Sludge Handling                           C =  (2.58 x 106)Q°'74
* C = Construction Cost (million dollars)
  Q = Plant Design Flow (mgd)
                                   3-dfi

-------
                   TABLE 3.4  (Continued)
Figure
Number
3.39


3.40


3.41

3.42

3.43

3.44

3.45

3.46

3.47

3.48

3.49

3.50

3.51

3.52

3.53
Title
Conventional Activated Sludge -
Secondary Treatment - Moderate Sludge
Handling
Conventional Activated Sludge -
Secondary Treatment - Complex Sludge
Handling
Conventional Activated Sludge - AST -
All Types of Sludge Handling
Conventional Activated Sludge - AST -
Moderate Sludge Handling
Conventional Activated Sludge - AWT -
All Types of Sludge Handling
Conventional Activated Sludge - AWT -
Moderate Sludge Handling
Conventional Activated Sludge - AWT -
Complex Sludge Handling
Contact Stabilization - AST - All Types
of Sludge Handling
Contact Stabilization - AST - Moderate
Sludge Handling
Extended Aeration - Secondary Treatment
All Types of Sludge Handling
Extended Aeration - Secondary Treatment
Simple Sludge Handling
Extended Aeration - Secondary Treatment
Moderate Sludge Handling
Extended Aeration - AST - All Types of
Sludge Handling
Extended Aeration - AST - Simple Sludge
Handling
Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge -



C =


C =

C =

C =

C =

C =

C =

C =

Q =

C =

C =

C =

C =

C =

Cost Equation

c n c. o
(2.62 x 10D)QU-DO

fi n 71
(3.08 x 10D)0
fi n 78
(2.62 x 10b)QU'/B
fi> 0 75
(2.65 x 10b)QU>/b
fi, n 78
(3.35 x 10b)QU'/b
fi n 78
(3.12 x 10b)QU-/b
6\ 0 94
(2.63 x 10 )Q '
fi n fiR
(2.02 x 10b)QU'bb
fi n fi8
(2.04 x 10b)QU'bb
6> 0 68
(2.42 x 10b)QU'Da
6x 0 65
(2.11 x 10b)QU'bb
fi n fi8
(2.58 x 10b)QU'bb
fi, n 7n
(2.51 x 10b)QU>/U
c r\ £Q
(2.23 x 10b)QU>bB

Secondary Treatment - All  Types of                      fi  n
Sludge Handling                           C = (5.42 x 10D)QU'
                           3-47

-------
                            TABLE 3.4 (Concluded)


Figure
Number   	Title	         Cost Equation

 3.54    Pure Oxygen Activated Sludge -
         Secondary Treatment - Complex Sludge
         Handling                                  C = (4.65 x 106)Q°'71

 3.55    Oxidation Ditch - Secondary Treatment -
         All  Types of Sludge Handling              C = (1.66 x 106)Q°'61

 3.56    Oxidation Ditch - Secondary Treatment -
         Simple Sludge Handling                    C - (1.48 x 106)Q°'57

 3.57    Oxidation Ditch - Secondary Treatment -
         Moderate Sludge Handling                  C = (1.70 x 10 )Q'58

 3.58    Oxidation Ditch - AST -  All  Types  of
         Sludge Handling                           C = (1.99 x 106)Q°'60

 3.59    Oxidation Ditch - AST -  Simple Sludge
         Handling                                  C = (1.83 x 10b)QU'61

 3.60    Oxidation Ditch - AST -  Moderate Sludge
         Handling                                  C - (2.45 x 106)Q°'65

 3.61    Oxidation Ditch - AWT -  All  Types  of
         Sludge Handling                           C = (2.29 x 106)Q°'62

 3.62    Rotating Biological  Contactor -
         Secondary Treatment  - All Types of
         Sludge Handling                           C = (4.50 x 10b)Qu>/1

 3.63    Rotating Biological  Contactor -
         Secondary Treatment  - Complex Sludge
         Handling                                  C = (4.68 x 10b)QU'57

 3.64    Rotating Biological  Contactor - AWT  -
         All  Types of Sludge  Handling               C = (5.37 x 10b)QU'yb
                                   3-48

-------
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3.2.3.2  Results - Lagoon Plants

This section contains the results from the analyses of the  first  order cost
relationships between  the  design flow  of a  facility  and  its  construction
cost.  Facilities were classified by  level  of treatment, type  of treatment
process,  and  method  of  effluent disposal.   Further, only completely  new
lagoon facilities were included.

Figures 3.65 through 3.70 contain the results obtained from these analyses.
The  figures  are divided  into  two  general  categories;  stabilization  ponds
(Figures 3.65, 3.66, 3.67)  and aerated lagoons (Figures 3.68, 3.69, 3.70).

The  cost  derived  using the regression line  or  the equation is an estimate
for  the  construction  of  a  complete  operational  wastewater facility.   The
cost includes all processes from the headworks to the  effluent outfall  line.
In  addition,  the  costs for   land treatment,  such  as  spray  irrigation
equipment and land purchase, are included (see  Figures 3.67 and 3.70).  The
only other costs that  need  to  be  considered  are the various nonconstruction
costs and land costs for the lagoon  sites.

The  method  of  effluent  disposal has been  used  to  categorize  the  lagoon
plants.   Three  methods  of  disposal   have   been   identified;  discharge  to
surface water,  no  discharge,  and discharge to  land treatment.  The methods
of disposal are differentiated  because they  have  the  greatest  impact on the
construction cost of a lagoon facility.

The  type  of sludge handling was not addressed in these analyses because only
lagoon plants without  sludge handling are represented.  Figure 3.69 presents
the  results  for  aerated   lagoons  producing  an  effluent   of  better  than
secondary  quality.   All  the  facilities  represented  in  this  figure employ
some method  of filtration  or  screening to  reliably  produce  the  better
quality effluent.

There  are several  restrictions  which  apply  to lagoon  plants that  the  reader
should  take  into consideration.  The use of  lagoon  facilities  is generally
restricted  to  municipalities  with   small  wastewater  flows and   sufficient
                                    3-86

-------
vacant  land to  allow  for the  relatively  large  site  required.   The  no
discharge option can  only  be  exercised where either the climate  allows for
efficient  evaporation  or   the  geology  allows  for  percolation  into  the
groundwater system.   The land  treatment  option  can only be  exercised  where
sufficient  land  is available and  the  effluent  does  not  contain  any  toxic
constituents.

Table 3.5  contains a  summary of Figures  3.65  through 3.70  with  associated
titles and cost equations.
                                    3-87

-------
                                  TABLE 3.5

                    SUMMARY FOR FIGURES 3.65 THROUGH 3.70
                              FIRST ORDER COSTS
                                LAGOON PLANTS
Figure
Number   	Title	   	Cost Equation*

 3.65    Stabilization Pond -Secondary Treatment                 fi  n fi7
         Discharge to Surface Water                C = (1.33 x 10D)QU'0/

 3.66    Stabilization Pond - No Discharge         C = (1.02 x 106)Q0'64

 3.67    Stabilization Pond - Discharge to Land                  z  n ZA
         Treatment                                 C = (1.53 x 10b)Qu'^

 3.68    Aerated Lagoon - Secondary Treatment -                  f,  n fiQ
         Discharge to Surface Water                C = (2.27 x 100)QU'0*

 3.69    Aerated Lagoon - Greater Than
         Secondary Treatment - Discharge to                      /-  n fi7
         Surface Water                             C = (2.93 x 10b)Qu'D/

 3.70    Aerated Lagoon - Discharge to Land                      *  n KR
         Treatment                                 C -(2.57 x 10b)QU'bb
* C = Construction Cost (million dollars)
  Q = Plant Design Flow (mgd)
                                    3-88

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3.3  SECOND ORDER COSTS

3.3.1  Introduction

Second order costs  are  the  sum of monies  paid  by the owner  to  contractors
and  suppliers  for  all  labor and  materials necessary to  construct  discrete
portions of  the  planned treatment facility.   The sum of all second  order
costs for a project is  equivalent to  the first order cost for the project.

Two  types  of  second  order  costs can  be  identified  for  a project;  unit
process costs  and  plant  component costs.  All unit  process  costs  presented
in this section were derived from data  for newly  constructed unit  processes
even though some of these processes were constructed as a part of a facility
modification rather than the  construction of an  entirely new  plant.   All
plant  component  costs  presented were  derived only  from  projects  involving
the construction of an  entirely new plant.

3.3.2  Definition of Terms

    o  Unit Process Cost.   This  is  the  sum of  the costs for all  labor and
       materials necessary  to  construct  an entire operational unit process.
       In order  to  insure that costs for  identical  types  of unit  processes
       were comparable,  each process cost  had  to include an allowance for
       the following components:
       -  Concrete
       -  Equipment
       -  Process Piping
       -  Steel
       Also, any process which includes clarification as  an integral part of
       its  operation,  e.g., activated  sludge,  would have  the  cost of the
       clarifier included in the unit process cost.
    o  Plant Component  Cost.   This  is the  lump  sum cost for all  labor and
       materials necessary to complete one specialized construction task for
       an  entire facility.   The  following types  of specialized  tasks are
       most commonly identified:
       -  Mobilization
       -  Site Preparation  (sitework)
       -  Excavation
       -  Piling, Special Foundations, and Dewatering
       -  Electrical
                                    3-95

-------
       -  Controls and Instrumentation
       -  Yard Piping
       -  Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning

3.3.3  Presentation of Second Order Cost Curves

The  results from  the second  order  cost  analyses  are  presented  in three
sections as follows:

Section 3.3.3.1 - Results - Unit Processes and Unit Operations
                  Figures 3.71 through 3.106
Section 3.3.3.2 - Results - Mechanical Plant Component Costs
                  Figures 3.107 through 3.120
Section 3.3.3.3 - Results - Lagoon Plant Component Costs
                  Figures 3.121 through 3.123

Each section presents the relationship between the design flow of a facility
and the construction  cost of  its  various  processes and components.  Section
3.3.3.1 presents this cost  relationship for  36  commonly  used unit processes
and unit operations.  These costs are for newly  constructed,  complete unit
processes.   Section  3.3.3.2 presents  this  cost  relationship  for  14 plant
components  which are  for mechanical  plants  only.   Section  3.3.3.3 presents
this  cost   relationship  for three  plant components  which  are  for  lagoon
plants only.

All  cost  relationships   presented  in  the   following  sections  represent
national  averages.   Methods for  adjusting  the national  average cost  to  a
specific area of the  country  are outlined in Section  4.0.   Examples  of how
to  use  these cost  curves  to  develop  estimates  are  also   presented.   All
national  average costs  are in  third quarter  1982 Kansas  City/St.  Joseph,
Missouri  dollars.

3.3.3.1  Results  -  Unit  Processes

This section contains the results from the analyses of the second order cost
relationships   between  the   design  flow   of  a  treatment   plant  and  the
construction cost  for the individual  unit  processes.  Both mechanical  plants
                                    3-96

-------
and lagoon facilities are  represented.   The only restriction placed  on  the
data used  in  these  analyses was that  the  data were for  newly  constructed,
complete unit processes.

The regression  line  and  the cost equation  derived  from  the  line  represent
the predicted construction costs  for the  unit process  or  unit  operation
identified in the title.   The cost derived  using the line or  equation is an
estimate for  the  construction  of a complete operational  process.   The cost
includes all  necessary equipment,  materials,  and labor.   In  addition,  if a
process normally  includes clarification  as  an  integral  part of  the process,
the clarifier cost  is  included.   The only additional costs that need to be
considered are the various nonconstruction costs.

Figure  3.75  contains the  cost  relationship  between  facility design flow and
the  cost  for  preliminary  treatment.    Preliminary  treatment  refers to  a
plant's headworks excluding influent pumping.  Preliminary treatment usually
includes bar  screens, grit removal, and  comminution.

Figure  3.82  illustrates  the  cost relationship  for  all  types  of  activated
sludge  processes.  This  relationship  was  developed  from  the  summation of
conventional, contact  stabilization, and extended  aeration unit processes.
As mentioned  previously,  the cost for  secondary clarification is included in
the unit process  cost.

Figure  3.91  illustrates  the  cost relationship  developed for  all  types of
effluent  filtrations.   Included  are filters  using  sand,  mixed media,  and
other unidentified  filter media.

Figure  3.92 represents all chemical addition  processes used at a  facility,
exclusive  of chlorine  addition.    Included   are  alum,  lime,   and  polymer
additions.

Figure  3.94  represents  the  summation   of all  land  treatment  processes.
 Included  are rapid  infiltration  ponds  and  spray  irrigation networks.
                                     3-97

-------
Figure 3.101  represents the  summation  of all mechanical  sludge dewatering
processes including vacuum filters and filter presses.

Figure 3.103,  Land  Application of  Liquid  Sludge,  includes  the cost  for
storage facilities, as well  as the application vehicle.

Table 3.6 contains  a  summary of Figures 3.71 through 3.106  with associated
titles and cost equations.
                                    3-98

-------
                                  TABLE 3.6
                   SUMMARY FOR FIGURES 3.71 THROUGH 3.106
                             SECOND ORDER COSTS
                     UNIT PROCESSES AND UNIT OPERATIONS
Figure
Number   	Title	   	Cost Equation*
 3.71    Influent Pumping                          C = (1.63 x 105)Q0<59
 3.72    Bar Screening                             C = (3.99 x 104)Q°'59
 3.73    Grit Removal                              C = (4.94 x 104)Q°'34
 3.74    Comminution                               C = (2.46 x 104)Q°'38
 3.75    Preliminary Treatment                     C = (7.84 x 104)Q°'77
 3.76    Flow Equalization                         C = (1.17 x 105)Q°'42
 3.77    Primary Sedimentation                     C = (1.60 x 105)Q°'65
 3.78    Trickling Filter                          C = (5.27 x 105)Q°'44
 3.79    Conventional Activated Sludge             C = (6.54 x 105)Q°*72
 3.80    Contact Stabilization                     C = (5.95 x 105)Q°'66
 3.81    Extended Aeration                         C = (6.12 x 105)Q0>54
 3.82    Activated Sludge (All Types)              C = (6.49 x 105)Q°'68
 3.83    Separate Stage Biological Nitrification   C = (3.56 x 105)Q
 3.84    Oxidation Ditch                           C = (5.96 x 105)Q°'52
 3.85    Rotating Biological Contactor             C = (7.17 x 105)Q°'75
 3.86    Stabilization Pond                        C = (9.12 x 105)Q°'58
 3.87    Aerated Lagoon                            C = (9.31 x 105)Q°'66
 3.88    Secondary Microscreening                  C = (1.55 x 105)Q°'59
 3.89    Sand Filtration                           C = (3.15 x 105)Q0>55
 3.90    Mixed Media Filtration                    C = (2.75 x 105)Q°'63
* C = Process Construction Cost (million dollars)
  Q = Plant Design Flow (mgd)
                                    3-99

-------
                            TABLE 3.6 (Concluded)
Figure
Number   	Title	   	Cost Equation
 3.91    Filtration (All  Types)                    C = (2.97 x 105)Q°'63
 3.92    Chemical  Additions                        C = (5.78 x 104)Q°'93
 3.93    Chlorination for Disinfection             C = (8.30 x 104)Q°'59
 3.94    Land Treatment of Secondary Effluent      C = (5.67 x 105)Q°'73
 3.95    Post Aeration                             C = (4.15 x 104)Q°'91
 3.96    Effluent Outfall Pumping                  C = (8.48 x 104)Q°'55
 3.97    Effluent Outfall Diffuser                 C = (2.75 x 104)Q°'59
 3.98    Aerobic Digestion                         C = (2.46 x 105)Q°'87
 3.99    Anaerobic Digestion                       C = (3.40 x 105)Q°'76
 3.100   Sludge Drying                             C = (9.62 x 104)Q°'69
 3.101   Mechanical Sludge Dewatering              C = (1.75 x 105)Q°'58
 3.102   Gravity Thickening                        C = (9.09 x 104)Q°'66
 3.103   Land Application of Liquid Sludge         C = (5.09 x 104)Q°'48
 3.104   Control/Laboratory/Maintenance Building   C = (2.01 x 105)Q°'54
 3.105   Effluent Outfall to Nonocean Surface                         7
         Water                                     C = (1.00 x 10b)Qu'/b
 3.106   Effluent Outfall to Ocean                 C = (6.43 x 105)Q°'95
                                    3-100

-------
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This section contains the results from the analyses of the second order cost
relationships  between  the  design  flow  of  a  treatment  plant  and  the
construction cost for its general  components.   Data  for  these  analyses were
obtained from newly constructed mechanical plants.

The regression  line  and the cost  equation  derived from the line  represent
the predicted  cost  for  the component  identified in  the  title.  The  cost
derived using the line or equation  is  an  estimate which  contains allowances
for all  labor,  equipment,  and  materials  necessary  to  complete all  tasks
associated  with the  component.    For  example,  Figure  3.110  presents  the
relationship for excavation.  The cost estimated using the curve or equation
will be an estimate for all excavation necessary  at  the  facility site.   The
reader should  remember  to  include  the  additional  costs  to provide  for the
various nonconstruction cost categories.

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titles and cost equations.
                                    3-137

-------
                                  TABLE 3.7

                   SUMMARY FOR FIGURES 3.107 THROUGH 3.120
                             SECOND ORDER COSTS
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Figure
Number   	Title	         Cost Equation*

 3.107   Mobilization                              C = (7.13 x 104)Q°'74

 3.108   Sitework Including Excavation             C = (2.32 x 105)Q°'67

 3.109   Sitework Without Excavation               C = (1.37 x 105)Q°*63

 3.110   Excavation                                C = (1.53 x 105)Q°'69

 3.111   Pilings, Special Foundations,
           Dewatering                              C = (8.56 x 104)Q°'78

 3.112   Electrical                                 C = (2.09 x 105)Q°'77

 3.113   Controls and Instrumentation              C = (1.01 x 105)Q°'86

 3.114   All Piping                                C = (3.12 x 105)Q°'86

 3.115   Yard Piping                               C = (1.58 x 105)Q°'73

 3.116   Process Piping                            C = (1.92 x 105)Q°'76

 3.117   Equipment                                 C = (7.56 x 105)Q°'75

 3.118   Concrete                                  C - (5.86 x 105)Q°'83

 3.119   Steel                                      C = (9.18 x 104)Q°'89

 3.120   Heating, Ventilation,  and Air
         Conditioning                              C = (7.49 x 104)QU'86
* C = Component Construction Cost (million dollars)
  Q = Plant Design Flow (mgd)
                                    3-138

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-------
3.3.3.3  Results - Lagoon Plant Component Costs

This section contains the results from the analysis of the second order cost
relationships  between  the  design  flow  of  a  treatment  plant  and  the
construction cost for its general  components.   Data  for  these analyses were
obtained from newly  constructed  lagoon  facilities.   Both aerated lagoon and
stabilization pond systems are included.

The regression  line  and the  cost  equation  derived from  the  line represent
the predicted  cost  for  the component  identified  in  the title.  The  cost
derived using the line or equation  is  an  estimate  which  contains allowances
for all  labor,  equipment,  and  materials  necessary  to  complete all  tasks
associated with the  component.  The only additional  costs that  need  to  be
considered are the various nonconstruction costs.

Table 3.8 contains a summary  of  Figures  3.121  through 3.123 with associated
titles and cost  equations.
                                    3-153

-------
                                  TABLE 3.8

                   SUMMARY FOR FIGURES 3.121 THROUGH 3.123
                             SECOND ORDER COSTS
                        LAGOON PLANT COMPONENT COSTS
Figure
Number   	Title	   	Cost Equation*

 3.121   Mobilization                              C = (6.17 x 104)Q°'60

 3.122   Sitework Without Excavation               C = (1.51 x 105)Q°'56

 3.123   Excavation                                C = (2.83 x 105)Q°'52
* C = Component Construction Cost (million dollars)
  Q = Plant Design Flow (mgd)
                                    3-154

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-------
3.4  THIRD ORDER COSTS

3.4.1  Introduction

Third order costs are those necessary to construct one specific component of
a total unit process.  The sum of all third order costs for a process equals
the second order cost for a complete unit process.

3.4.2  Presentation of Third Order Cost Equations

All component cost relationships presented in this section were derived from
data for complete new unit  processes.   The  most  commonly  identifiable third
order, or component costs, were as listed below:

    o  Excavation
    o  Concrete
    o  Steel
    o  Electrical
    o  Piping
    o  Equipment

These  component   cost   relationships  were   derived  from   detailed   bid
tabulations  submitted  by  the  building  contractor.   The  component  cost
includes all materials  and  labor necessary to complete the  construction of
each  discrete  component.   The  component  costs  for  unit processes  which
include a reactor basin  followed by a clarifier, such  as  activated  sludge,
include the cost for both structures.

Table 3.9 presents the relationship between the facility design flow and the
component costs for  16 commonly  used  unit processes.   For each process, all
available information on component costs is shown.  Only those relationships
which were considered statistically valid are presented.

All cost  equations  presented  in  this section represent  national  averages.
Methods for  adjusting  the national average  cost  to a specific area  of the
country are  outlined in  Section 4.0.  Examples  of how  to  use these  cost
curves to develop estimates  are  also  presented.   All  national  average costs
are in third quarter 1982 Kansas City/St.  Joseph, Missouri dollars.
                                    3-158

-------
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                   Unit Process
                                                           TABLE 3.9
                                                  THIRD ORDER COST EQUATIONS
  Component
      Equation'1
Raw Wastewater Pumping:

Preliminary Treatment:



Primary Sedimentation:




Conventional Activated Sludge:



Equipment
Process Piping
Concrete
Electrical
Equipment
Steel
Concrete
Equipment
Excavation
Process Piping
Steel
Concrete
Equipment
Process Piping
Steel
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
(5.89 x 104)Q°-53
(3.07 x 104)Q0'79
(2.94 x 104)Q°-70
(8.15 x 103)Q°'67
(4.85 x 104)Q°'62
(4.34 x 103)Q°'78
(7.09 x 104)Q°'65
(5.24 x 104)Q°'64
(6.15 x 103)Q°'85
(1.14 x 104)Q°'68
(1.60 x 104)Q°'36
(1.95 x 105)Q°'79
(2.18 x 105)Q°'56
(4.01 x 104)Q°-79
(7.63 x 104)Q°'52
          Contact Stabilization:
Equipment
C - (3.21 x 105)Q°'53
Sample
Size
73
6
24
6
108
5
22
56
17
8
5
28
56
9
4
R2
0.65
0.92
0.51
0.95
0.65
0.88
0.69
0.75
0.60
0.64
0.87
0.72
0.58
0.77
0.91
0.54
         F-Value

           132
            47

            23
            70
           199
            22

            45
           165
            22
            11
            19

            68
            73
            23
            21
          * C = Component Construction Cost (million dollars)
            Q = Plant Design Flow (mgd)

-------
                                                     TABLE 3.9 (Continued)
CTt
O

Unit Process
Extended Aeration:

All Types of Activated Sludge:



Oxidation Ditch:


Rotating Biological Contactor:
Stabilization Pond:
Aerated Lagoon:

All Types of Filtration:




Component
Concrete
Equipment
Concrete
Equipment
Excavation
Process Piping
Concrete
Equipment
Excavation
Equipment
Excavation
Equipment
Excavation
Concrete
Equipment
Excavation
Process Piping


C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C -
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C -
C =

Equation
(2.38 x 105)Q1>01
(2.29 x 105)Q°'41
(1.92 x 105)Q°'82
(2.29 x 105)Q0>48
(3.43 x 104)Q°-58
(6.17 x 104)Q°'57
(3.39 x 105)Q°'72
(2.00 x 105)Q°'51
(3.11 x 104)Q°'37
(5.05 x 105)Q°-58
(1.78 x 105)Q°-44
(1.09 x 105)Q°'59
(2.47 x 105)Q0'75
(7.55 x 1G4)Q0'62
(1.55 x 105)Q°'56
(2.20 x 104)Q°'62
(4.92 x 104)Q°'55
Sample
Size
5
16
28
77
9
12
14
31
5
18
50
42
9
9
51
7
6
•)
^
0.93
0.79
0.86
0.66
0.74
0.69
0.80
0.55
0.88
0.82
0.50
0.61
0.66
0.88
0.78
0.72
0.71

F-Value
39
56
158
151
20
23
48
36
22
72
48
66
14
50
180
13
10

-------
TABLE 3.9 (Concluded)

Unit Process
Chlorination:





Aerobic Digestion:



Sludge Drying Beds:

Control/Lab/Maintenance Bldg:





Component
Concrete
Electrical
Equipment
Excavation
Process Piping
Steel
Concrete
Equipment
Excavation
Process Piping
Concrete
Excavation
Concrete
Electrical
Equipment
Excavation
Process Piping






Equation
C =
C =
C =
C =
C =
C -
C -
C =
C -
C =
C =
C =
C -
C =
C =
C =
C =
(3
(1
(2
(7
(1
(4
(9
(8
(8
(1
(3
(5
(8
(3
(2
(8
(2
.32
.20
.38
.30
.32
.97
.28
.77
.61
.87
.82
.99
.18
.14
.97
.19
.48
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
104)Q°
104)Q°
104)Q°
103)Q°
104)Q°
103)Q°
104)Q°
ioV
103)Q°
104)Q°
104)Q°
103)Q°
104)Q°
104)Q°
104)Q°
103)Q°
104)Q°
.66
.74
.42
.48
.61
.67
.87
.59
.96
.77
.61
.77
.56
.66
.45
.32
.73
Sample
Size
45
7
199
17
16
8
6
26
5
5
10
8
17
10
107
8
8


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2

.62
.85
.54
.60
.64
.60
.88
.63
.88
.94
.61
.85
.78
.71
.57
.67
.93

F-Value
69
28
235
22
25
9
30
44
22
45
13
35
53
20
142
12
86

-------
3.5  EFFICIENCY CURVES

3.5.1  Introduction

In  addition  to the  standard  bivariate analyses  of construction  costs  and
plant  design   flow   presented  in   Sections   3.1  through   3.4,   several
multivariate analyses of the data were performed.   The multivariate analyses
used three variables  which  were the projected plant  design  flow,  projected
effluent  BOD5, and  construction  cost.   The  purpose  of  the  multivariate
analyses was  to  compare the effect of  the  projected level of  treatment  on
construction costs for  various  types  of treatment  plants.  As  explained  in
Section 2.4, the effect of the effluent BOD5 does  not seem to be significant
overall;  the  design   flow  appears  to  be  the  contributing  variable to  the
model.

3.5.2  Presentation of Efficiency Curves

The results of the multivariate analyses that had  statistically significant
correlations  are  presented in  Figures  3.124  through  3.130.    These  curves
show the relative efficiency, or cost effectiveness,  of each  treatment type
for  producing a  given  level   of  effluent  BODg.   Each figure  gives  the
construction cost versus plant  design flow  for three effluent  BODr  values.
These are an  effluent BOD5  of  30 mg/1,  an effluent BOD5 of  15  mg/1,  and  an
effluent BOD5  of  5  mg/1.   Figures 3.131  through  3.133  illustrate  the same
curves  grouped by each of the  three levels of effluent BODr.

Figure  3.124 shows the construction costs  associated with the three effluent
BODg values for all  mechanical  treatment  plants.    Three types  of  activated
sludge   plants,  oxidation ditch  plants, and  rotating  biological  contactor
plants   together  make up  the  curves  for all  mechanical  plants  in  Figure
3.124.   The data set  includes  any mechanical  plant without regard  to whether
the  plant uses  a simple,  moderate,  or complex  sludge  handling  system.
Figure   3.125  presents   the  same   information for  all  activated  sludge
treatment  plants, which   includes  conventional  activated  sludge  plants,
contact stabilization plants,  and extended aeration plants.   Curves  for each
of   these   three   types  of   activated   sludge  treatment   are   presented
                                    3-162

-------
individually on  Figures  3.126, 3.127,  and 3.128, respectively.   Oxidation
ditch  plants  are  presented  separately  on  Figure  3.129   and   rotating
biological   contactor  plants   are  shown   on  Figure  3.130.   Figure  3.131
illustrates the curves for  all  mechanical  treatment plants together  for  an
effluent BODg  of  30 mg/1.  Similarly,  Figures  3.132 and 3.133  present  all
the curves  for an effluent BODg of 15 mg/1  and 5  mg/1,  respectively.

The efficiency curves are provided as a means  of  comparing the effect on  the
construction costs  of  various types  of  unit  processes  producing  differing
levels of effluent BODr.   The multivariate  analyses were  performed  for seven
classes of data.   In  five of the  seven  classes,  the effluent BOD5  was  not
significant; although it  was significant at the 0.05  level for the  other  two
classes (in  no  case was  it significant at the  0.01  level).   The  two cases
where  effluent  BOD,- was  significant were all  types  of mechanical  plants
combined and oxidation ditch plants.

Figure 3.131 shows  that the most  inexpensive  mechanical  plant for  producing
an  effluent  BODr  of  30  mg/1  is  an  oxidation  ditch plant.   This  is most
likely due  to  the  fact  that  oxidation ditch  plants typically do not have
complex mechanical  components and the  reactor basin  is less expensive  to
construct  compared  with   other   mechanical   treatment   plant  types.    An
oxidation ditch producing an  effluent BOD,- of 30 mg/1  is less expensive  to
construct  than  an extended  aeration  plant   producing   the   same  type   of
effluent, although  extended aeration  is less  expensive than the  other types
of mechanical plants.  This is due to the fact that extended aeration plants
are  usually  prefabricated or  package type treatment  units which,  in most
cases, are less expensive than custom-built plants.

Extended aeration plants  were the least expensive type  of plant producing  an
effluent BOD5  of  15 mg/1 and  5  mg/1 as shown  on Figures  3.132 and 3.133,
respectively.   Rotating  biological contactor  plants were  found  to  be  the
most  expensive  for any  of  the treatment  levels, followed by conventional
activated sludge plants.

The  incremental   cost  of  producing   an  effluent  BODr   of  5  mg/1  over  an
effluent BODr  of  30  mg/1  was found  to be lowest for  rotating  biological
                                    3-163

-------
contactor plants and  highest  for contact stabilization plants,  as  shown on
Figures  3.130  and  3.127,  respectively.   The  high  incremental  cost  of
producing an  effluent BOD5 of  5 mg/1 for  contact stabilization plants is
attributed to the  fact that these  plants  generally produce an effluent BOD,-
                                                                           \J
of 30 mg/1 and require construction of additional  unit  processes to produce
an effluent BOD5 of 5 mg/1.

Table 3.10 contains a summary  of Figures  3.124 through 3.133 with associated
titles and cost  equations.   Statistics  information for the  grouped curves,
Figures 3.131 through 3.133,  are not  shown  since the data  are  identical to
those for the individual  plant curves  on  Figures 3.124 through 3.130.
                                    3-164

-------
                                  TABLE  3.10

                    SUMMARY  FOR  FIGURES  3.124  THROUGH  3.130
                          TREATMENT  EFFICIENCY CURVES
 Figure
 Number   	Title	         Cost  Equation*	

 3.124    All Mechanical Treatment  Plants  - All
         Types of Sludge Handling  -  By                          .   n  _
         Effluent BOD5                            C =  (4.48 x  10b)QU' 'V0'17

 3.125    All Activated Sludge Plants  - All
         Types of Sludge Handling  -  By
         Effluent BOD5                            C =  (3.24 x  iob)Qu-/JE~0'06

 3.126    Conventional Activated Sludge Plants
         All Types of Sludge Handling - By                         n  7Q
         Effluent BOD5                            C =  (4.44 x  io6)Q°-79E-°-15

 3.127    Contact Stabilization Plants - All
         Types of Sludge Handling  -  By
         Effluent BOD5                            C =  (6.48 x  10b)Qudb

 3.128    Extended Aeration Plants  -  All Types                   K   n  ,1
         of Sludge Handling - By Effluent BOD5    C =  (3.26 x  iob)Qu-biE'u-n

 3.129    Oxidation Ditch Plants -  All Types of                  ,   n  .,  _ _.
         Sludge Handling - By Effluent BOD5       C =  (4.16 x  iob)QU-b6E-°'23

 3.130    Rotating Biological Contactor Plants
         All Types of Sludge Handling - By
         Effluent BOD5                            C =  (5.14 x  io6)Q0-66E-°-05

 3.131    Mechanical Treatment Plants - All
         Types of Sludge Handling  -  Effluent
         BOD5 = 30 mg/1

 3.132    Mechanical Treatment Plants - All
         Types of Sludge Handling  - Effluent
         BOD5 = 15 mg/1

 3.133    Mechanical Treatment Plants - All
         Types of Sludge Handling  - Effluent
         BOD5 = 5 mg/1
* C = Construction Cost (million dollars)
  Q = Plant Design Flow (mgd)
  E = Effluent BOD5 (mg/1)
                                    3-165

-------
                                                CONSTRUCTION  COST

                                              (MILLIONS  OF  DOLLARS)
CO
01
   00
   "z

     Tl
     r-
     O
     o
     c
     DO
     m

     CO
     ro

-------
w  :
0 5
O iJ
Z O
O o
>- u-
O O

Is
(/> O
16



15-



14-



13-



12-



11-



10-



 9-



 8-
                ALL ACTIVATED SLUDGE  PLANTS
               ALL TYPES  OF SLUDGE  HANDLING
                       BY EFFLUENT  BODS
                     EQUATION

             C - (3.24 x 106)Q°-73E-0-06

                    STATISTICS

                 Sample Size = 134
             IT = 0.82
F = 297
                Independent Variables:
             Q:  T = 24.37  E:  T = -0.54

                    Data Range:
                  0.04 - 20.00 mgd
                               4    5     6     7     8     9    10
                          PLANT  DESIGN  FLOW
                                 CMGDJ
                                               FIGURE 3.125
                               3-167

-------
w
0
O O
g»
I- Z
05 O
§5
        CONVENTIONAL  ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANTS
              ALL TYPES OF SLUDGE HANDLING
                      BY EFFLUENT  BODS
        20-
19

18

17-

16-

15H

14-

13-

12-

11-

10
                   EQUATION
            C- (4.44 x 106)Q°-79E-°-15
                  STATISTICS
                Sample Size = 22
            R = 0.95
F = 169
              Independent Variables:
            Q:  T = 17.38  E:  T = -1.52
                  Data Range:
                 0.07 - 20.00 mgd
                         PLANT DESIGN FLOW
                                (MGD)
                                             FIGURE 3.126
                              3-168

-------
to
0 5
o j
z o
o Q
H- U.
O O
°i
         16-


         15-


         14-
               CONTACT STABILIZATION PLANTS
              ALL  TYPES OF SLUDGE HANDLING
                       BY EFFLUENT BODS
        EQUATION
C = (6.48 x 106)Q0'71E"°-36

       STATISTICS
    Sample Size = 28
             IT = 0.82
                  F = 58
         12-
         11
         10*
   Independent Variables:
Q:  T = 10.36  E:  T = -1.70
       Data Range:
     0.08 - 5.00 mgd
                                                  8    9    10
                          PLANT  DESIGN FLOW
                                 (MGD)
                               3-169
                                           FIGURE 3.127

-------
z o
o Q
I- u-
o o
CO O
                 EXTENDED AERATION PLANTS
              ALL TYPES  OF  SLUDGE  HANDLING
                      BY EFFLUENT BODS
        10'
         8-
       EQUATION

C = (3.26 x 106)Q0-61E-°-n

      STATISTICS

    Sample Size = 67

R2 * 0.69          F = 71

  Independent Variables:
Q: T - 11.88  E:  T = -0.71
                  Data Range:
                 0.02 - 4.30 mgd
                                  5    6    7    8    9   10
                         PLANT DESIGN FLOW
                                (MGD)
                                         FIGURE 3.128
                              3-170

-------
                                                  CONSTRUCTION  COST

                                                (MILLIONS OF  DOLLARS)
                           ro
OJ

I—»
--J
    c
    X
    m

    00
    ro
    CO

-------
co
0
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(T w
I- Z
co O

§5
o —
         ROTATING  BIOLOGICAL  CONTACTOR  PLANTS
               ALL TYPES OF SLUDGE HANDLING
                       BY EFFLUENT BODS
         20-

         19'

         18-

         17^


         16-

         15-

         14

         13
  •
           EQUATION
    C = (5.14 x  io6)Q°-66E-°-05

          STATISTICS
        Sample  Size = 26
    R2 = 0.87          F = 79
      Independent Variables:
    Q:  T = 12.48  E:  T = -0.38
          Data Range:
        0.04 - 12.00 mgd
12-

11-

10
          0
                         PLANT  DESIGN FLOW
                                (MGD)
                             3-172
                                                     FIGURE 3.130

-------
co c
O <
h- U-
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QC
  CO
CO O
z H
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                MECHANICAL TREATMENT  PLANTS
               ALL TYPES  OF SLUDGE HANDLING
                    EFFLUENT BODS  = 30 mg/l
                ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR
                CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE
                ALL ACTIVATED SLUDGE
                ALL MECHANICAL TREATMENT
                CONTACT STABILIZATION
                EXTENDED AERATION
                OXIDATION DITCH
                          PLANT DESIGN  FLOW
                                 CMGD)
FIGURE  3.131
                               3-173

-------
CO
0
o Q
I- LL
o o


co O
Z li
O _i
o ^
                MECHANICAL  TREATMENT PLANTS
               ALL TYPES OF  SLUDGE HANDLING
                    EFFLUENT BODS = 15 mg/l
             1  ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR
                CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE
             3  ALL MECHANICAL TREATMENT
             4  ALL ACTIVATED SLUDGE
                CONTACT STABILIZATION
                OXIDATION DITCH
                EXTENDED AERATION
                          PLANT DESIGN FLOW

                                 (MGD)
FIGURE  3.132
                               3-I 74

-------
CO DC
O <
I- Li.
O O
cr
  CO
  z
co O
2 3
O _J
O ^
               MECHANICAL  TREATMENT PLANTS
              ALL TYPES OF  SLUDGE HANDLING
                    EFFLUENT BODS =  5 mg/l
             1  ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR
               CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE
               CONTACT STABILIZATION
             4  ALL MECHANICAL TREATMENT
             5  ALL ACTIVATED SLUDGE
             6  OXIDATION DITCH
               EXTENDED AERATION
                          PLANT DESIGN  FLOW
                                 (MOD)
FIGURE  3.133
                               3-175

-------
               4.0  SIMPLIFIED TREATMENT PLANT COST ESTIMATING

The large amount of actual construction cost  data  obtained  for  this  project
represents  a  highly   significant  and  statistically  valid  data  base  of
detailed cost  information.   It is  expected that  these  data may be  used  in
various  ways  by  government  planning  officials,  equipment  manufacturers,
public works  contractors,  engineers,  and others.   One  of the  most  obvious
uses  of  the  data  is  to  estimate costs  of  proposed  wastewater  treatment
plants or treatment plant modifications.  This  section  describes  the use  of
the  curves  presented  in  Section  3.0 to  derive   such  planning level  cost
estimates.  The techniques described  are  intended for  the use  of  State and
municipal  officials,   concerned laymen,  and  others  who  desire  to  know
approximate capital  costs  of wastewater treatment  facilities.

4.1  COST ESTIMATING TECHNIQUES

As  described  in Section  3.0,  there  are  three levels  of cost  information
presented.   First  order  costs  are   for  entirely  new,  complete  treatment
systems.   Second  order   costs  provide  information  on  the  various  unit
processes which comprise  a treatment  plant.   Either of  these two cost levels
may  be  employed  to  obtain  a  planning  level  estimate  of  treatment  plant
construction costs.   Third order costs  are the  unit  process  component costs
such as concrete and mechanical equipment.   These  costs  are  not  as conducive
to  deriving  cost estimates   of complete treatment  plants,  but  may  prove
useful  in  estimating  partial  costs  of  proposed  modifications  to  existing
unit processes.

Each figure  in  Section 3.0  represents the best fit  logarithmic equation  to
the actual data in the general form:

                                   C  = aQb

Where:     C = Construction cost in dollars.
           Q = Design  wastewater flow in mgd.
        a, b = Constants  specific to  each data set.
                                    4-1

-------
An equation in the above form is shown on each figure,  including  the  numeric
values  for  the  constants  a  and  b.   While  the  equation   is  that  of  a
logarithmic curve,  it  appears  on the  plots  as a  straight  line  due to  the
logarithmic scales of both the  horizontal  and vertical  axes.   The exponent b
in the equation is  the  slope of  the line  for each plot.  A value of b  less
than one, which is  the  typical  case,  represents an economy of scale  as  unit
costs, or costs per mgd, decrease with the larger  design flows.

To obtain a cost from any of the  figures,  the  equation  shown  may be  used to
compute  the  construction  cost  for  a  given  design  flow  of  a  proposed
treatment plant or  unit process.  Alternately, the construction  cost can be
read  directly from  the graph  by  locating  the   given  design flow  on  the
horizontal axis.   If the design flow  is  not  known, a  rule-of-thumb  value of
100  gallons  per  capita  per  day  may be  used   in  preparing  preliminary
estimates.

In  using  first order costs,  it  is  merely necessary to  select  the figure
corresponding  to the  type  of treatment plant  for which a cost  estimate is
desired.  The  cost  can  be located  from  the  figure as described  above.   In
using second order costs, it will  be necessary to  know all  unit processes in
the  proposed  treatment plant  process  train to  obtain  a  complete   cost
estimate, together  with the appropriate  second order  plant  component costs.
Costs  for individual unit  processes  and  plant   components  should  then  be
obtained  from each corresponding  figure  and  added together.   Third  order
costs, if  used, should  be  computed from the  appropriate  equation.   Several
examples  are  given  in  this  section which help demonstrate these estimating
techniques.

4.2  ADJUSTING AND UPDATING COST ESTIMATES

When the  complete estimate  has  been obtained, it  will then be necessary to
adjust  for  regional and geographic  differences  in construction  costs.   As
explained in  Appendix A,  all data used for the figures in Section  3.0  were
normalized to  reflect average costs  in  the  Kansas City/St.  Joseph,  Missouri
area.   Costs  may  be  adjusted  to  other geographical  areas  using the  area
multipliers  given   in Table  4.1.   To adjust  costs to  other areas,  first
                                    4-2

-------
                      TABLE 4.1

                  AREA MULTIPLIERS
       WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION
Atlanta                                        0.85
Baltimore                                      0.99
Birmingham                                     0.83
Boston                                         1.14
Charlotte                                      0.71

Chicago                                        1.19
Cincinnati                                     1.04
Cleveland                                      1.10
Dallas                                         0.86
Denver                                         0.93

Detroit                                        1.11
Houston                                        0.95
Kansas City                                    1.00
Los Angeles                                    1.16
Miami                                          0.85

Milwaukee                                      1.03
Minneapolis                                    0.95
New Orleans                                    0.99
New York                                       1.29
Philadelphia                                   1.13

Pittsburgh                                     1.07
St. Louis                                      1.16
San Francisco                                  1.23
Seattle                                        1.16
Trenton                                        1.05
                       4-3

-------
select the city in Table 4.1 which is nearest  the  treatment  plant location,
or where the  area  of influence of the city encompasses  the  treatment  plant
location,  and  multiply  the  cost  estimate  by   the   corresponding   area
multiplier for that city.

The resulting geographically adjusted cost estimate will  be in third quarter
1982 dollars.  To update the cost estimate to  current dollars, the EPA  Large
City  Advanced  Treatment  (LCAT)  Index  or  the  Small   City  Conventional
Treatment (SCCT) Index can be used as discussed in  Appendix A.  Costs may be
updated by the following procedure:
        Total             Latest LCAT or SCCT Index
       graphically  Y  	for Desired Area	
       >ted Project         3rd Quarter 1982 LCAT
        Cost           or SCCT Index for Desired Area
 Geographically  Y  	for Desired Area	     ,, ,  .  ,  r  .
Adjusted Project A       3rd Quarter 1982 LCAT      "  uPaatea  LOSt
The LCAT and SCCT Indexes are now published semi-annually by EPA.   Costs for
plants  at  or above  15  mgd  design  flow  should  be updated  using the  LCAT
Index, while costs for plants below 15  mgd should  be  updated using the SCCT
Index.

Several examples  using  the  cost  curves of Section  3.0 to  obtain  planning
level  cost  estimates  are  presented  below.    For  each  cost  item,  the
appropriate figure to be used from Section 3.0  is provided for reference.

4.3  COST ESTIMATING EXAMPLES

4.3.1  Example No. 1

Assume  it  is desired  to  estimate  the  cost  of  a new  10.0 mgd  secondary
treatment plant  in  the  Boston, Massachusetts  area.   For this  example,  the
total  construction  cost  of the facility  is obtained  from Figure  3.8.   The
appropriate  nonconstruction   costs  from  Table  3.1  are then  added.   For
purposes of these examples, the seven  most common nonconstruction  costs will
be used  (planning,  design, administration/legal, A/E basic  fees,  other A/E
fees,  inspection, and  contingencies)  which together  average 32  percent  of
the  construction  cost   nationally.    The  reader  should  use  appropriate
                                    4-4

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discretion  concerning  other  categories   of  nonconstruction  costs  to  be
included.  Any other  known  costs,  such  as land, would be added to the final
geographically adjusted  and updated  cost estimate.   Although  the national
average  nonconstruction  costs  are  used  in  these examples,  the  individual
nonconstruction cost  item  percentages from Table 3.1 could  be  used  for the
specific EPA Region in which the project  is being built.

The costs for the example given are itemized in Table 4.2.

                                  TABLE 4.2
                    10 MGD NEW SECONDARY TREATMENT PLANT
                            BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS

    Total Construction Cost (Figure 3.8)                     $13,000,000
    Common Nonconstruction Costs (32 percent)                   4,200.000
    TOTAL PROJECT COST                                       $17,200,000
    Area Multiplier for Boston, MA                                x 1.14
    TOTAL GEOGRAPHICALLY ADJUSTED PROJECT COST               $19,600,000
    (3rd Quarter 1982 Dollars)

It  should  be noted that  slight differences in  the  total adjusted  project
cost will be produced if total  construction cost is  geographically adjusted
prior  to  multiplying by  32  percent  to  obtain  the  nonconstruction  costs.
Either technique  is  valid, however,  and  each  produces  a result  within  the
order of accuracy intended for this cost estimating procedure.

4.3.2  Example No. 2

Using similar procedures as  described in  Example  1,  the second  order  cost
curves can be used  to estimate the construction of a new 10.0 mgd advanced
secondary treatment plant near Dallas, Texas.  Assuming  an activated  sludge
treatment plant with  phosphorus removal,  the facility  could have the  unit
processes shown  in Table 4.3.  For each,  the total construction cost  should
be obtained from  the  appropriate  figures  in Section 3.0, together with  the
appropriate  plant component  costs.    Finally,   the  nonconstruction  costs,
                                    4-5

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using  the  factors from  Table 3.1,  should be  added.   The  costs for  this
example are listed in Table 4.3.
                                  TABLE 4.3

                       10 MGD NEW AST TREATMENT PLANT
                                DALLAS, TEXAS
    Comminutors (Figure 3.74)                               $    60,000
    Grit Removal (Figure 3.73)                                  110,000
    Primary Sedimentation (Figure 3.77)                         770,000
    Conventional Activated Sludge (Figure 3.79)               3,400,000
    Chemical Additions (Figure 3.92)                            490,000
    Effluent Chlorination (Figure 3.93)                         320,000
    Gravity Thickening (Figure 3.102)                           420,000
    Anaerobic Digestion (Figure 3.99)                         1,900,000
    Drying Beds (3.100)                                         470,000
    Control/Lab/Maintenance Building (Figure 3.104)             690,000

    TOTAL UNIT PROCESS COSTS                                $ 8,630,000

    Mobilization (Figure 3.107)                             $   390,000
    Sitework (Figure 3.109)                                     580,000
    Excavation (Figure 3.110)                                   750,000
    Electrical (Figure 3.112)                                 1,200,000
    Controls and Instrumentation (Figure 3.113)                 730,000
    Yard Piping (Figure 3.115)                                  850,000
    Heating, Ventilating, & Air Conditioning
       (Figure 3.120)                                            550,000

    TOTAL PLANT COMPONENT COSTS                            - $ 5,050,000

    TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST                                 $13,680,000

    Common  Nonconstruction Costs (32 percent)                 4,400,000
    Land Purchase/Plant Site  (assumed  for example
       purposes)                                                 100.000

    TOTAL PROJECT COST                                      $18,180,000

    Area Multiplier  for Dallas, TX                               x 0.86

    TOTAL GEOGRAPHICALLY ADJUSTED PROJECT COST              $15,600,000
    (3rd Quarter 1982  Dollars)
                                    4-6

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4.3.3  Example No. 3


The  third  order  cost  relationships  may also  prove useful  for some  cost

estimating applications.  Consider  for  example the upgrading of  a  10.0  mgd

primary treatment plant to secondary  near Los  Angeles,  California,  where it

is  desired  to   replace  the  mechanical   equipment   in   existing   primary

clarifiers.   Using   the  third   order  process  cost  equation  for  primary

sedimentation equipment,  the cost  estimate  would  be derived by  solving  the

equation  for  10.0  mgd  to  obtain  the   construction   cost   for   primary

sedimentation equipment.  To this  amount would be  added  the costs  for  the

other unit processes using  the  second order cost curves  in  the  same manner

as described in the previous example.   The  resulting cost estimate  is shown

on Table 4.4.


                                  TABLE  4.4

             10 MGD  PRIMARY  TO  SECONDARY TREATMENT PLANT UPGRADE
                           LOS  ANGELES,  CALIFORNIA


    Primary Sedimentation  Equipment (Table 3.9)             $   240,000

    Conventional  Activated Sludge (Figure 3.79)             $ 3,400,000
    Effluent Chlorination  (Figure 3.93)                          320,000
    Ocean Outfall  (Figure  3.106)                               5,800,000
    Gravity Thickening  (Figure  3.102)                           420,000
    Aerobic Digestion (Figure 3.98)                            1.800.000

    TOTAL UNIT PROCESS  COSTS                                 $11,980,000

    Mobilization  (Figure 3.107)                              $  390,000
    Sitework (Figure 3.109)                                     580,000
    Excavation (Figure  3.110)                                   750,000
    Electrical  (Figure  3.112)                                  1,200,OQO
    Controls and  Instrumentation  (Figure 3.113)                730,000
    Yard Piping (Figure 3.115)                                  850,000
    Heating,  Ventilating,  & Air Conditioning
      (Figure 3.120)                                           550,000

    TOTAL PLANT COMPONENT  COSTS                              $ 5.050.000

    TOTAL CONSTRUCTION  COST                                  $17,030,000
                                   4-7

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    Common Nonconstruction Costs (32 percent)                  5,450,000
    TOTAL PROJECT COST                                      $22,480,000
    Area Multiplier for Los Angeles, CA                     $    x 1.16
    TOTAL GEOGRAPHICALLY ADJUSTED PROJECT COST              $26,100,000
    (3rd Quarter 1982 Dollars)

4.4  SUMMARY

Although the efficiency  curves  presented as the result of  the  multivariate
analyses  in Section  3.5  are   comparable  with  first  order costs,  it  is
recommended for  consistency  that  the first order cost  curves themselves  be
used  for  preliminary  cost  estimating.   The  efficiency  curves  may  prove
useful, however, in making generalized comparisons  between  the  construction
cost of various treatment plant types for a given level  of treatment.

It should be noted that  in addition  to the  precautions  discussed  previously
in using these curves, some  divergence in  costs  between the three levels  of
estimating  will  be  apparent  even  for  identical  applications.    However,
tempered with engineering judgment, the data presented in  this report  should
be useful in planning and comparing various proposed treatment alternatives.
Since  the  resultant  estimates  are  considered  to  be  of  planning   level
accuracy only, it  should  be  recognized that actual  construction  costs  of a
specific  treatment  plant could vary from these  estimates, either plus  or
minus, by a wide margin.
                                   4-8

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                                 APPENDIX A

                 COST UPDATING AND NORMALIZATION TECHNIQUES


The data base used in this  report  includes  costs  from construction projects
within the 48 contiguous  States  of the  U.S.   They  range in time  from  1973
through 1982.  In order to achieve a meaningful analysis of the data, it was
necessary to index all  dollar values to a specific time and location.

To accomplish this,  the  EPA Large City  Advanced Treatment  (LCAT)  Index and
Small  City  Conventional  Treatment  (SCCT)  Index were  used.   These  indexes
have been calculated quarterly by  EPA since third quarter  1973  for  a  total
of 50  U.S.   cities.  The LCAT Index  is based on a  hypothetical  50.0  mgd
advanced wastewater  treatment facility  with  a  base  city  of  Kansas  City,
Missouri.  The  SCCT Index  is based  on a  hypothetical  5.0  mgd  activated
sludge  secondary  treatment  facility with  a  base  city  of  St.  Joseph,
Missouri.  The base value for both indexes  is 100 for third quarter 1973.

AREAS OF INFLUENCE

EPA publishes the  LCAT  and SCCT  Indexes as  indicators of  cost  trends  over
time  and for comparative  purposes by  relating one  city  to  another.   The
areas of cost influence  for each of the 50 indexed  cities  are not defined.
Therefore, prior to using the indexes,  the  area of  influence for each  index
city was assessed  and mapped.  Two sources of  information  were  employed  in
this effort:  Bureau  of Labor Statistics  (BLS) labor rate  history  for 102
U.S.  cities  and  the  Bureau  of Economic Analysis (BEA) map  of  U.S.  economic
areas.

The  BLS  data consists  of  union  labor  rates  for  various  skills,  recorded
quarterly  for 102  U.S.   cities.   In  order to apply  this information,  a
weighted  average  of  four  construction crafts -  carpenter,  electrician,
laborer, and  plumber -  were calculated  for 22  calendar  quarters from  third
quarter  1973  to  third   quarter  1978.   Data  from  each  city  were   then
statistically correlated with the  101  other  BLS cities.   Since the EPA SCCT
and LCAT Index cities were  included in the list of  BLS cities, this  process
defined the area of economic influence for each of the EPA Index cities.

The BEA map of economic areas was  used to define  the boundaries  of economic
influence surrounding the EPA Index cities.   A BEA economic area is composed
of a central  city and the surrounding counties  that are economically  related
to the central city as  determined by BEA.  Each of these areas  includes  both
the place of work and place of residence of  the labor force.   The resulting
maps for the LCAT and  SCCT  Index  city areas of influence  are presented  in
Figures A.I and A.2.

LCAT - SCCT CLASSIFICATION

In order to utilize the above mentioned  maps,  all projects  in  the  data  base
were  classified  as  either LCAT  or  SCCT   Index  related.   The  following
criteria were used for that classification:
                                     A-l

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f*
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no
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3=>
                                           EPA MUNICIPAL CONSTRUCTION COST INDEX MAP

                                    FOR LARGE CITY ADVANCED TREATMENT (LCAT) PLANT  INDEXES

-------
3>
co
                                            EPA MUNICIPAL CONSTRUCTION  COST  INDEX  MAP
                                   FOR SMALL CITY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT  (SCCT)  PLANT INDEXES
    INi

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     1.  A mechanical treatment  plant  project with a projected  design  flow
         less than 15.0  mgd was related to the SCCT Index.

     2.  A treatment plant project with a  projected design  flow  of 15.0 mgd
         or greater was  related to the  LCAT Index.

     3.  A lagoon project was related to the SCCT Index.

COST UPDATING

After a project was  related  to either  the  LCAT  or  SCCT  Index,  Figure  A.I or
A.2 were  utilized  to relate the  project  to a  specific  LCAT or SCCT  Index
city.  Using  the  indexes contained  in Tables A.I and  A.2, the costs  were
then normalized to  third quarter 1982  at  Kansas City/St.  Joseph,  Missouri
according to the following procedure:

                                              Kansas  City/St. Joseph,  MO
Cost of Construction at  (Place  x)(Time  t)    X   3rd Quarter  1982  Index   =
                                               (Place  x,  Time t)  Index

Cost of Construction at  Kansas  City/St. Joseph,  MO  3rd Quarter  1982

Thus, the data base was  normalized to  the  base  cities for the  indexes.   The
effects on the analyses  of a large or  small  quantity  of  data from  different
areas of  the  U.S.,  or from  a  particular  time period, were  thus minimized.
Cost relationships  resulting  from   an  analysis of  the data  are,  indeed,
national  averages in this report.
                                    A-4

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                                  TABLE  A.I

              EPA LARGE  CITY  ADVANCED  TREATMENT  (LCAT)  INDEXES
                               1981
                         1982
                                     1983


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Birmingham, AL
Boston, MA
Charlotte, NC
Chicago, IL
Cincinnati , OH
Cleveland, OH
Dallas, TX
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Kansas City, MO
Los Angeles, CA
Miami , FL
Milwaukee, WI
Minneapolis, MN
New Orleans, LA
New York, NY
Philadelphia, PA
Pittsburgh, PA
St. Louis, MO
San Francisco, CA
Seattle, WA
Trenton, NJ
3rd
Qtr.
162
189
158
214
134
229
199
210
162
177
213
181
190
221
161
198
180
191
245
214
205
222
235
225
201
4th
Qtr.
163
190
158
222
135
230
200
211
163
178
214
183
190
222
162
199
181
192
246
216
206
223
239
225
203
1st
Qtr.
166
192
160
223
138
233
201
214
166
180
216
185
192
227
165
203
185
193
255
221
206
225
242
227
206
2nd
Qtr.
166
193
160
225
138
229
201
214
167
187
215
184
198
228
164
201
185
193
255
224
206
226
242
227
206
3rd
Qtr.
172
198
161
232
138
236
206
221
174
190
218
186
202
236
165
200
190
194
265
231
215
232
243
232
210
4th*
Qtr.
175
201
163
239
138
241
208
224
179
192
219
190
204
239
169
203
196
198
272
233
215
240
248
234
215
1st
Qtr.
178
204
165
247
139
246
209
227
183
193
221
195
204
242
173
207
203
203
279
235
216
248
253
236
221
NATIONAL AVERAGE
197
198
201
201
206
209
213
* 4th Qtr. 1982 indexes were extrapolated because this quarter was never
  published.
                                    A-5

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                                  TABLE A.2

            EPA SMALL CITY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT (SCCT) INDEXES


                               1981                  1982               1983
                            3rd    4th     1st    2nd    3rd    4th*    1st
	City	     Qtr.   Qtr.    Qtr.   Qtr.   Qtr.   Qtr.    Qtr.

101     Bakersfield, CA     213    212     220    226    233    237     241
102     Bismarck, ND        169    171     174    175    177    178     178
103     Burlington, VT      167    169     171    171    172    176     183
104     Casper, WY          172    173     180    183    184    185     187
105     Charleston, SC      128    129     132    132    132    132     133

106     Cumberland, MD      204    208     209    209    210    213     217
107     Duluth, MN          173    174     178    178    184    190     197
108     Eugene, OR          204    206     213    220    222    227     233
109     Gainesville, FL     157    156     160    159    160    162     164
110     Green Bay, WI       191    192     197    193    194    200     205

111     Harrisburg, PA      187    188     190    194    194    198     202
112     Las Vegas, NV       212    213     217    216    220    226     232
113     Mobile, AL          179    179     180    181    187    190     193
114     Muncie, IN          182    183     184    184    184    189     194
115     Pocatello, ID       180    181     181    181    185    187     189

116     Pueblo, CO          164    167     171    175    181    184     187
117     Rapid City, SD      155    155     159    164    162    163     163
118     Roanoke, VA         167    169     171    172    169    173     177
119     Saginaw, MI         185    193     196    194    194    195     197
120     St. Joseph, MO      183    183     185    186    191    196     201

121     Sioux City, IA      181    182     185    185    188    190     193
122     Syracuse, NY        208    210     212    212    217    222     226
123     Tulsa, OK           159    157     161    164    168    170     173
124     Waco, TX            151    151     154    153    154    155     157
125     Wheeling, WV        199    198     199    199    199    205     212

NATIONAL AVERAGE            179    180     183    184    186    189     193
* 4th Qtr. 1982 indexes were extrapolated because this quarter was never
  published.
                                    A-6

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                                 APPENDIX B

                        DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA BASE


Data  included  in  this study  were  collected  from  1,585 Federally  funded
wastewater  treatment  plant  projects  in  all  ten  EPA  Regions.   The  48
contiguous States are represented.

Table  B.I  lists  the  grant  number,  facility  name,  State, projected  design
flow,  projected   treatment   level,  and planned  change  for  each  of  the
facilities included.  The treatment levels are defined as follows:

                     Code                     Level  of Treatment
First Digit            2         Advanced Primary Treatment
                       3         Secondary Treatment
                       4         Advanced Secondary Treatment
                       5         Advanced Wastewater Treatment
Second Digit           0         No Nutrient Removal Processes
                       1         Ammonia Removal
                       2         Total Nitrogen Removal
                       3         Phosphorus Removal
                       4         Both Ammonia Removal and Phosphorus Removal
                       5         Both Total Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal

The  change  code refers to  the type  of  change specified for  the treatment
facility.  The codes are defined as follows:

Code         	Type of Change	

 1           Enlargement of Treatment Capacity
 2           Upgrading Level of Treatment
 3           Enlargement and Upgrade
 4           New Construction
 5           Replacement
 8           Other Modifications
                                     B-l

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060778
060779
G6u 7 bo
L.ATE->VIi.L5: S T °
S F * I \ j L' ft L E rt i-» T F
D ' ^ '• , ,' I ' I "• M MT 3
, , *« •* y V \s '„ _ rt " (
i 0 I S D * i K C STF
PAT: CREEK S T -'
j£~'£\"'KiES Vs .Y T P
C A M C E N S T ?
WEST si:: -,XT--T ^JTK;
C 0 N1 /» ;•* Y S T P
^u^uYCc STP
C A -T^
SUL^-'-JK S^Kl^jS STP
? A K i S STP
ck'YuNT STP
COLL Si'jALS STF
MAGAZINE ST?
rl ^ T F I E '_ j STP
HUNT i:r; TON ST-
CALION STP
TAYLOR S T P
K E 0 STP
PERRY ST?
ULM STP
OA'ZANSLLE STD
STAMPS STF
U 0 N E T 7 E STF

FACILITY N 4 f E
TERMINAL I S L A N 0 STP
CENTRAL CONTSA COSTfi
AVAL ON STP
K E R ,M A !M W w T P
MAIN WwCF
PALM 3 5 S c F T v« ^ P
SCCTTS VALLEY STP
VISALIA wC?
ANGELS CAMP STP
C$A\3E CC. i« X i? P $1
iCLINAS STP
4 . 5 u
1 6 . 0 0
2.20
1.20
0 . 1.0
0.12
3 . •» 9
i 3 . C 0
e.OC
1.00
0 . 0 V
0 . 3 0
ST? 12.00
1 .37
6.50
1 . 6 C
•: . 1 ?
0.72
1.00
0.57
0.14
0. 07
0.11
C . 1 2
0.12
0.05
0.02
0.04
0.52
0. 30
0.11
STATE CALIFORNIA
PROJECTED FLOW
3C.OO
ST? 30.00
1 .00
0.41
C7.00
2.10
0.40
S.30
0.32
46.00
0.07
40
30
30
4C
40
5C
50
4C
40
50
40
50
*Q
30
53
3C
50
40
<+C
4C
5C
30
30
5C
53
30
3C
40
30
5C
40

TREATMENT LEVEL
30
54
30
30
53
30
30
30
3C
30
30
3
1
1
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
<*
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
5
•4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
3
5

CHANGE
3
3
4
3
3
1
1
1
3
1
3
                                                    B-3

-------
                                 TABLE 3.1  (CONTINUED)
                         TREATMENT PLANT PROJECTS  IN  DATA  BASE
                                 STATE  CALIFORNIA
GRANT NO  FACILITY
PROJECTED PLOW   TREATMENT  LEVEL  CHANGE
060737
060790
0 6 u 7 y o
U6G797
060798
0 6 U 8 0 0
060301
06000-
C0031G
Oou313
0 6 C 3 1 6
Ooud 1 8
u 6 LH i 2
0 o u 5 i 3
060534
u 6 j 1 3 5
•J o w i o 7
OoU£40
Ot0349
uo Jc 54
J0036S
Oo05?>
OtObcO
0 o u 3 o 2
C 0 J 5 5 4
060 060
0 o 0 s 9 4
CeuiV?
U 6 0 9 u y
0 6 0 fy 1 1
U 0 u r 1 3
06U91 S
G6G925
Oi>L/ 9 i.9
•JC0932
Oouy j o
•J 6 • j y «t 7
0 o u 9 ^ 0
06J956
0 t> G 9 o H
0 6 u ? 6 o
0 £> 0 9 o 7
0&0974
Ocu97c
0 c 0 y 7 9
0 o 0 9 ij C
GSuy<:4
0 c 0 / i -3
0 o 0 y y 0
LIVERM03P
L A G U \ 4 nkTP
RCSiVILLt w 'A F F
SANTA i A R 'I A K A S T ?
ALTURAS STP
3ASS LAKE STP
CALcXICO STP
CENTRAL CONTRA COSTA STP
PAIRFI?LC-SLI SON W*TF
I N Y C C A W W T F
fJC^THWcST CLfAK LiK^. ScG.
LGMf-OC R-&:C\i*L «(XTr
XT. SHASTA 'rt=CF
SOLVANG ST?
SONOMA STP
TULA. PC TR£ATM:NT DLANT
VALLiJO ST?
SCUTn **'TF
5MKt"S = IcLj STP N C . >'
CALPELLA ^TP
ALVARiC'j STF
F C K T b R A ij G STP
HULLIST^ft S T "
I ,v, o = ? i A L STP
1 0 N = S T 3
JULIAN ST°
LIN'ScY STP
T ~ ~i f I N A L I S L A \ C
LCS dA\3S ST?
••'. C '- * •? L A N 0 S T ?
-1j:£ST3 ST-
NAPA VALLEY STP
°ACI=ICA W^CF
P L A \ A ? A S T J
K c'. C X a Y 'i T r
S A C K A M = N T C K t S I C N •"- L W W T F
SAN JOSl/SAMa C'u3K'i ^PCC
SAN ^ 4 T 'i 0 SUfKZJlCML S T °
3 n A S T a 0 ••> N* A «; £ i S T c
TRAC'T 'rt^T^
T U C L U *, r, r STP
i 0 N u K A STP
rt'wSCO ST-1
^IVjKSiJ= A /( ». T
rCUNTVKLr JOINT iT =
Y 0 C A i ? A STc
i\T * + l zf STP
fc 2 N I C I « STP
ilJi^AkST?
6 . 0 0
15.00
5.75
11 .00
0.50
C.5C
2.20
33.00
10.35
C.85
2.45
5.00
0.70
0.5<*
^.30
4.50
13.00
7.00
21.50
0.22
19. 7C
1 .00
1.7:
0.70
0.45
o . c :
1.32
30.00
2. 3.
1 .00
:
C . 2 0
1.I*>
143
I I K <-,
\ ^ 9 ^ ^
0 . 5 v
5. 5?
O.ZC
P -S T'
- • w 1-1
1 . 2 :j
30.00
3. 55
5.C J
5.0'i
4.00
l.*>*
54
30
40
30
4C
30
30
40
50
3C
3C
40
3C
30
4C
3C
30
30
20
30
30
30
-*0
3C
30
30
20
30
20
3C
20
5C
30
40
30
54
51
50
7C
3C
30
3C
30
53
50
31
30
30
30
3
3
3
3
2
4
1
2
4
4
4
3
4
3
3
1
3
3
2
3
5
2
5
3
5
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
2
3
9
3
2
3
4
2
i
3
3
4
3
4
3
3
4
                                       B-4

-------
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-------
                                 TA5LE  B.1  (CONTINUED)
             WASTbWATfr^  TREATMENT PLANT  PROJECTS IN DATA  BASE


                                 STATE   CALIFORNIA


GRANT NO  -AGILITY  N^£                PROJECTED FLO^  TREATMENT  LEVEL  CHANGE
061^43
U61245
061266
061272
06127*
061275
061324
0 6 1 3 L 6
061333
0 6 1 3 3  J *»
080336
060333
050344
0 o J i » o
j c U 3 <» o
o : 0 3 4 y
0 o 0 3 5 2
C S 0354
j c 3 3 5 6
j J u 3 2 7
GRID LEY ST-
F 0 R T U N A S T 3
LAKE E L S I ,N 3 5 ~ STP
M A R i P C S A STP
T R C N A W W T «=
SETTLE MAN CITY STP
ATAjCAjiRO COUNTY SC ST-1
SANTA V A R I A d T P
FALL KlVci-- "ILLS CC« ST?
AC IN STD
LE.RCC FACILITY wTP
TRAN:*IIILITY STP
1 1 - T 0 N C N t r K S T ?•
a 1 5 r, C P 3 T r
R I ? L = Y L A G 'J C N S
WhJ SPARING PAINS SAU .'.5 1 S T
jfcYbt?VILLE * T P
FAYtGSiVlLL'1 i,Tf
tj R : N T * 0 0 D S T =
iGLTVILLE STP
A R C * T i w T P
"i A j I S 0 Ni STP
= E H R i S V A L L ; Y ; r G I C N . STP
? I N 0 L ' i T P
f J Y : •_ 4 rl J L. C R f i S T °
CENTRAL 1 ^ R I N S- ST°
STiT
FACILITY NJv.
0 P P _• R T 'i 0 '*• -* S 0 N »•» Vi T r
LiTTL?TCN-:-M-LE».oOC rtA'TP
,v . j c F P '. R S 0 ;\ C C '0 '•! T Y s* „' T =>
R t G 1 0 N i L w T /i
FRISCO ST=
jILVf^THCKNr OILL'.'f' ST =
GLEN '.-' 0 0 rj j T :-
LCViLA\C S T -
JSt-c.N STP
G R ^ rrj -, Y STP
7 i T r- S f = •. - T w .-,' T o
5 \ C * '•- A S S S T =
LONG 'Or. T «,xTP
~ * T " "J ^ T P
u - F A Y r T T r '", i r
L Y G ,\ S »J W T ?
0.64
2.42
G.35
0.02
1.40
7.80
0 . 0 7
0.04
0.25
0.15
0 . C *
1 .60
0.07
0.20
1.10
0 . 0 4
C.6 ?
O.S5
3. 27
0.1 /
1.03
2.00
0 . 2 2
1 C . 0 0
•: C G L 0 5 A : C
P^OJfCTBC PLCw
1.50
20.00
1.50
2 . 3 J
C . 5 0
2.00
1.30
7.7?
3.00
0 . i 0
1 3 . o 0
1 . o 0
u . 2 C
0. 5-*
1.50
0 . 2 V
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
60
30
30
20
40
50
30
30
30
20
30
30
31
30
30
33
30
30

TREATMENT LEVEL
33
30
30
41
53
53
3C
40
51
30
•Z Q
51
31
30
31
30
5
1
1
4
3
4
4
1
4
4
1
2
4
2
4
5
A
4
3
1
1
3
4
2
4
4

CHANGE
4
4
3
4
2
3
3
3
3
4
i.
3
3
1
3
5
                                        B-6

-------
                                             T i r L :  '• . 1   < C 3 \ T I N L r 2 >
                                 T - <• - T ," r 'J T  ~ L i \ T   F << Q J ? C T S  IN  C fl T A  -, ^ S E
                                              T ' T •-
                                              '  ^ ' -
G f, A r, T
N 3    -^ClLlTY  N ^ v c
- P 3 J r C T -. :  FLO--,'   TREATMENT  L 5 V c L   C H 0 N G 5
u 5 j 3 y 4
0 3 u 3 y 4
u a 0 4 j 1

GRANT NO
u/01 53
0 v u 1 i 5
C y - 1 i 5
u V 0 1 75
u/G1 94
0 y u i u G
GRANT NO
U,'3t1
1 JUQ73
1uu0c8

G K A N T N 0
110034

GRANT NO
12u2c4
1 d U 3 V i
120399
120424
120426
12042S
120435
1 2 J4^7
V i- I L '* A T c P u S j S 5 >\ I T
AVCr, ST =
31 G - K Y C'-iA * * T c

FACILITY -v- y r
KILLiN.LY v^T =
S T G N I N G T C '-< ^ » C c
D A ^ C A T U C ,< w - C F
NSN LOfr:jN A?CF
3 P A f , F C * j « T P
^ i K I L) -4 N S T ?
FACILITY ,\ A v i
OELArtAkE CITY wwT?
S t A r 0 S L, S T P
5. COASTi^ hioICfi-L S

FACILITY NAV-
LO^TON 5T?

FACILITY N*y£
FURT ^/ALTCM SESCK STP
wINTiR G A P C •: r4 ST?
IRON J « I D G 2 1 0 .1 C 3 T P
D c L A i\ 0 X v4 T F
NEW SMYRNA -ciCH wT?
PEN3ACOUA WT,^
SOUTH CROSS 3AYOU v^T^1
3AYTONA b c a C H w«TP
: : s T 1 . i .:
3 . i •:
1.40
3 T -1 T • C C N j i C T I C U T
° •••• o j :- c T = : c L c w
f* , r' 0
C.6-5
1 .31
10.00
4. 5'T
1 1 , c •:•
PPOJECTEC FLC*
0 . 5 0
0 . '3 2
TP 3. 00
STATE DISTRICT OF C(
PKOJrCTEO F L C W
1 .50
S T a T = FLORIDA
PRCJECT5C CLCW
4.50
2.00
?4.00
4.00
4.00
20.00
P7.00
10.00
3C
31
3C

TREATMENT LEVEL
30
I, C
5C
3C
3C
51
TP?ATM=NT L^VEL
50
40
40
DLUMil A
TPfATMENT LEVEL
54

T3£ATM£NT LEVEL
30
55
55
50
^1
54
30
51
1
s
1

CHAN
^
^
4
3
1
5
CHAN
7
2
4

CHAN
3

CHAN
4
5
4
3
3
3
1
4




Ge






Gi




GE


GE








                                                    B-7

-------
                                TAELE 3.1  (CONTINUED)
             'AAST£V»AT:R TREATMENT PLANT PROJECTS IN DATA  3ASE


                                STATE  FLORIDA


GRANT NC  FACILITY NAW;              PROJECTED  PLOW   TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

GR
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

GR
1
1
1
20450
2Q..57
20459
20473
2047*
204yO
20511
20523
235c5
2 J 5 7 4

ANT NO
3U315
3J341
30357
3 0 3 o 3
3 0 3 ? 3
30393
30397
30399
30403
3 J 4 0 H
3 041 a
3 'J «, 2 5
304*5
3 J 4 3 0
304.i 6
3^479
3 J4 ^Q
3 C- 4't r
3 G 4 •* 6
3J54U
3J57?
3 J3 c5

ANT N C
0 u 1 4 1
4>U1 44
OJ171
SAY CO. STP
WINTER HAVEN STP
HOCKEYS POINT STP
FORT LAUDE-CiLE STP
SOUTHWEST DISTRICT ST^>
OUNNtLLON v»T°
NO 5 T
iirLL
3 f C w

CACI
RICH
ROCK-
A L ^ A
VIDA
GLM
rt'EST
S .L.
dErtV
c*Yi
AD EL
ST AT
WIT!-,
MUC
SCUT
G L = \
PJJMP
FCRT
cLiiT
SHEL
PER?.
3 EUK
CCPN

-AC I
Ht Y-
i-Afcl
PAY.
H
E
,1

L

A
K

I
wE
iK
'J

TY
:•! 0 N J
MA

L
C
s
I
R
RT
T -
A
C C
JAL

E
T

=
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STP
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STaT?
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STK

NORTH: "ST STP
K « w r -
LAS STP
K. S 0 N '.v P C D
UN sr=
ILLi ST?
0
^0 isPC^
0 C H = E f, .s T 3
•<. H 'ft T P
•^ S T ?
c CITY CT-
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L E. Y STP
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ST=>
T Y ST3
S T 4 T : ? K I S C .\ STP
STP
S r 4 T r
\ - "• L e
ST-
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i T ••>
3
3
5
60
22
5
o
16
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60
GEOSGI
o 0 J E C T E
o
1
0
1
5
0
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1
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4
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<-^
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= 5JHTE
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.0
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0.46
0
lL
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0
Q
1C
60
30
55
40
30
40
50
55
40

TREATMENT LEVEL
30
30
30
51
41
40
3C
54
51
:41
40
41
50
44
40
55
30
7; 7
7C
30
30
40

TiJEATMt'NT LEV^L
30
60
30
4
2
4
3
3
4
2
3
3
1

CHANGE
4
3
it
3
3
4
1
4
4
3
3
4
4
3
3
4
3
2
4
1
3
3

CHANGE
3
4
5
                                      B-8

-------



3 K A N T N C
1 3U1 74
1 611 7y
1 o u 1 '; 3
1 feOloi
1601io
1 6 L 1 t r
160195
1 0 0 1 5 *»
1601 H
1 6 u 1 y S
1 60iOU
1 6 U c U 1
1 o J 2 C 4
1 6 02Cs
1 6 j 2 v. ?
1 61)219
16U319

3 R A N T NO
170397
1 7 j 5 C c
1 705*1
17C5y9
1 70643
170560
1 70660
1 70749
1 70766
170oo2
1 70665
17087o
1 7 u 9 2 4
170930
1 70956
170969
170970
170973
1 7U979
170983
17U992
171U01
1 71001
171000
1710U

>i »i 5 T ; n £ T 5 £ 1 (• 5 -i T •'•' " 'i

~«,CILITY \4."::
P „ r i T T L L 4 * £ -'-T3
J c ;-' 0 M : S T f
•'•' L: K 1 3 I A *i i 1 r
S . (• C < <. C C 1 1 «: C ' - L : .N ~
DOC^.T:. LLO 3T =
j A •< F I ~ u j -; .n Y S T °
1As?. ISC^J STP
//£3I ,vl i: iT^
ST. H N T M ^. ,\, y ^ T c
^LOM-lfR STr1
N - v r A S T ?
CALL '« ILL ST?
C U L D f S 4 C 'A '„' T J
G C A c N ^ 1 fc L J w '-V T ?
H A 5 £ R ^ A AJ S T F
C H A L L I i ST?
ST CnARL-S S T ^

FACILITY i\ i M £
ILLICPOL1S LAGCCN
u U S H N I L L S T F
RIQGErtAY
rJUKEAO JUNCTION) L^C-COM
iDDIrVILLf ST?
RICH X C N 2
SPARTA
TAYLO^ViLL; SANITARY 3
M T C A ^ M 6 L wrtT3
LINCOLN STP
^ 0 M t N C c
ALjGNiuzi;
SALEM
OLMSTcC
STOCKTON
LbROY ST?
O'FALLCN ST?
JOWNcRS GROVE SANITARY
LiENA
SR55S5 STP
GRAYVILLc
•j « L V A
G A L V A
3LOOMING7CN-NORWAL ST*
STERLING STP
T A : L c "; . 1 ( C C N T I N U = i
T P L a N T P K 0 J r C T S I hi
ST;T: ICAHG
PROJ:;C''"C3 ""LOW
2.00
1.^7
2.20
S T r' 0.13
7 . 5 0
O.C^
3.01!
r "•» r^
- • J -j
C . 5 0
0.25
15.00
7.50
0.05
0.26
0,08
0.20
0.04
STfiTH ILLINOIS
PROJECTED FLCW
0.20
0.70
Q.U
S C.07
0.03
0.3P
0.65
1ST 1,92
2.00
3.35
1.60
1 .25
1 .00
0.07
0.30
0.66
3.00
' J . 9.&0
0.30
C.o3
0.30
0.41
0.42
15.00
3.60
: )
3 A T 4 ;ASe

r^-;iTM5NT LcVEL
3C
30
41
30
30
50
43
30
3C
3C
31
30
30
3C
30
3C
60

TREATMENT LEVEL
50
50
5C
30
30
33
50
5C
40
4C
40
43
40
30
40
50
30
53
30
50
30
4C
50
51
40



CHANGE
3
H
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4

CHANGE
4
3
3
4
4
3
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
3
1
4
3
3
3
3
4
B-9

-------
                           TABLE  t.1 (CONTINUED)
                  TREATMENT  PLANT PROJECTS IN DATA 3 A S E
                           STATE   ILLINOIS
NO  FACILITY
PROJECTED FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL  CHANGE
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
71023
71059
71uo1
71 092
71105
71107
7111b
71156
711 60
71172
711c2
71202
71215
71218
71226
7127y
71294
71 306
7U13
71.s1 1
71332
71 535
713*1
71 3<+i
71 3 c5
71375
71397
71399
71 4 u 7
71410
7141 2
71413
7U15
714^
71435
71462
715.3
71556
71 5^4
7 1 c 5 »
71 ct 6
71fcv<*
' 1 o V 4
71 o 0 7
7 1 t, H j
7 1 > y 7
7 2 0 7 d
72150
f i.d^7
BELL
SFFI
COwG
._ L i U
5APT
R03i
MOLI
X:NC
C AKi
= LGI
<*LTC
XATC
G k A N
3fcKS
STIL
CcMT
wUOu
A KJ N A
M T V
HCCP
EAST
SYC«
r U L T
cast
M K T r.
H 0 Y L
n Pi S
SALT
AlHC
CISS
CA3P
V-
N
t
K
L
N
N
V
'O
N
N
c
5
c
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HA

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TT
OM

L'r STP NO. 2
M ST=>

TP

^ T 5
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NK. STO
ON
N
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n
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L
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k
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C
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xA;i
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TO
CL
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Lt ST?



CITY STP
LLE
V A L L ; Y STT
A
c to wT P
La iO'V'S
N ST?
N S T3
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S T°
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f.
c
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A C 'J I
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2 ON ::
L 1 .i -.
GRAN
W C 0 L
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c. 'K SAMTA^Y CtST.
T?
H K N S T P
P- S V I L L c .» ^ T 3
TP
S C b T h S T -
w .M S h i '-> : T P
F <;• -1 ; v •: STP
Or b « -^ K I f, 3 T 0 .\ STP
P
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3 PCSK ST?
T ., ,v T P
",T^
A j V u » L : J ':. T 3
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i j S T ?
ST?
., STP
STP
L L S T P
0
2
0
1
1
1
5
0
2
17
10
4
23
4
0
3
4
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30
54
50
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34
64
00
50
50
00
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~> r-
00
00
1 6
iO
eo
10
30
47
S ":
50
0*
00
00
CO
10
CO
40
20
10
25
6 *
10
0*
00
50
30
GO
^ f
33
On
07
07
7 11
jv
5C
51
30
54
50
51
40
50
4C
53
30
5C
30
40
30
50
50
30
53
53
40
50
30
51
5 3
30
51
51
54
50
53
51
41
51
33
54
30
51
5C
53
51
30
54
1
51
31
30
3C
5C
51
2
3
3
4
5
5
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
H
3
3
3
3
3
5
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
4
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
3
7
5

1
3
4
4
3
2
                                B-10

-------
                                    T 4 - L i:  ;, . 1  ( C C N T I N U - 3 )
               v. A S T :'« A T i -  T ? - A T M 5 - 7  => L £ N T  P - 0 J i C T S  IN DATA  3 A 5 E
                                    STlTc   ILLINOIS
       NO  FACILITY
:JECT=0  CLC^J   TREATMENT LEVcL  CHANGE

    72.:0             51              4
175111
                                 Pi:NT
                                    S T A T r   IN C I i ,\ A
GRANT  NC  FACILITY
                                                    FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANG!
1 3U1 16
1S01 3fc
1 5 w 2 C G
1 o Ji 66
1 50295
1 :0329
1 3 0 i 3 5
1 e J53 9
1 'i 0 J 4 2
1 i, 0 3 <+ o
16J347
1 20.50
1 b0354
18037;
1 30396
160400
1 o u 4 C 1
1 00^03
13CU1G
1 2030509
140515
1&U513
180520
1 80523
1 '305 24
LYNN STP
CARtlSLi STF
NORTH fccrSTc--
«CLLOTT STP
LOGANS^C^T
L I M L1 1 "! *"« T P
E L N C * A S T ?
MICHIGANTCWN S T P
MONTlCifLLO STP
2IKCS:Y= STF
SHIPSriEwCNA STP
HA^IT STP
M I L L I A '•' S P 'J =; T STP
ROME CITY LAGOCKb
HUNTING! JN STP
b R C C "- L Y N W U T ?
LYNNVILLf ST?
N C R T M V E K N C K STP
G x = i N S 3 U K G
HAMILTON LA
-------
                                 TABLE  3.1  (CONTINUED)
                        TREfcT^NT  PL a NT  PROJECTS IN DATA 8ASE
                                 STATE   INDIANA
GRANT NO  FACILITY NAM-
PROJECTED FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
1805*6
1 u5o7
1 9 u 5 v 2
19059*
1 9 u 5 ? a
1 9.603
1 90605
19GoJc
1 90615
190e17
1 9061 i
190637
1 y u e * 5
1 90o4t
1 ^0653
19C-662
STAl'NTON STP
MASTlNSVILLc w*iTP
CRAWFORQSVILL5 STP
MUNCIc vvWTP
PRINCETON WXTP
WSSTVILL'r '**TP
PEN.MVILLE ST?
30SWELL
Dc^OTTE
CCNVt?S= WwTo
F R £ M G N T S T ?
GRcENFIcLC 5T?
LEBANON STP
FR4NKFQST ST-
C R 0 w N ? 0 I N T x W T ?
PORTLAND ST?
COLUMdUS
5UMMIT SPPifvGS ST?
G A iv Y STP
M£ N N A R 0 STP
TRAFALGAR STP
wNOcRSCN STC
iRCOK STP
MCMROf CITY STP

FACILITY % A v r
'^£ST Ll3f.^TY STP
•'1ASC.N CITY hwT-?
SICUX CITr rt(gTP
JtFFeRSO;^ ST3
M b S C -t T 1 N b * A T o
K F CX IK w A T P
SAC ST?
^:;ST:R STP
H A 3 i_ :•» iN 'i w T r
; A G L c: G < 0 V f S T o
ALBURN STP
WV.OLSTOCK LAGOCN
Fc,UlLZ STC
S ? i: N C : R A w T '-
SrlELJ]N STh
^CCK RuPICS STC
HCCKH^AC' hTr
i r' 4 C -» T 1 * T -
0.09
2.20
3.40
24.00
2.00
0.75
0.16
0.13
C.40
0.25
0.30
3.20
2.00
4.6-i
3.60
2.35
12.40
C . 1 2
60.00
C . 0 S
C.11
0.0?
C.1C
0.12
STATE I C W M
PROJECTED PLOW
1 .37
6.53
3C.G;
1 .10
13.00
5.00
0.70
"> . o 1
0.7,.
0 . 1 0
0.04
0.04
0.0C
3.73
0.3?
C . 3 '-•
u . v 4
^ t -
. J-+
53
30
50
43
50
50
50
50
50
43
53
53
50
50
53
53
44
53
54
50
50
5C
30
53

TREATMENT LEVEL
30
51
30
30
*0
3C
!1
41
51
31
30
30
?C
51
*1
51
30
30
4
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
4
2
4
4
k
4
2

CHANGE
3
3
3
4
3
2
4
3
4
3
4
4
4
4
3
2
4
4
                                      B-12
                                     i

-------
                         T '•* d
;M\T  NO   FACILITY N.
                                 T - 5 L =  i . 1  ( C C \ T I M U i 3
                                 STATS   I 0 w A
                                       PP3JECTEC  FLCw  TREATMENT  LEVEL  CHANGE
1 9U614
1 9U672
1 y uc 91
1 9 ; 7 C o
1 yQ7G7
1 9 C 7 G 3
1 von 4
19J7> >1 3 04 T i?CC<, STP
W A 3 H T 1 L A i C 0 • J
CASCADE STP
0.3 )
O.C4
0 . 0 ?
0.05
0.45
C.67
1 .1C
0.03
0.05
2.00
0.17
0.02
0.24
1 .24
0.05
0.04
j.25
40
3C
30
3C
^0
30
30
20
3C
30
30
3C
30
3G
40
30
30
4
4
4
5
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
3
3
                                 S T i T £   KANSAS
3KANT NO  FACILITY
                                     PROJiCT^O  CLGW   TREATMENT LEVEL   CHANGE
20u365
200*22
200429
200432
200*54
200451
200454
200455
200467
200476
2'JO*7S
200505
200510
2U0511
200517
200513
200523
200526
<:QQ527
200^30
200534
<:OG536
200537
200548
2-00550
L c A V 1: N W 0 is T H .^ T P
WELLINGTON STP
ATLANTA LA3CONS
OESoTO ^WTF
CLAY CcN'TcR STP
HALSTfcAD STP
SCHGENCricN STP
MUNJGS LAGOON
LAKIN L.AGOCM
OGjiN LAGCGN
JUNCTION CITY W^TP
BALDWIN STP
TOGLEY CRE5K MQS P1 STP
MUNICIPAL WfcTP N0.14
CHANUTE x W T F
CONCORCIA STP
VALLZY CENTER ST»
KA'NSAS CITY STP HQ.2
MINNEAPOLIS LAGOON
WINFIELO STP
RE EC ON I A STP
HESSTON ST°
AKERICUS ST°
LlccRAL W W T F
ONGANOXIE STP
6.23
1 .14
0.21
0.40
O.S1
0.43
0.01
0.03
0.3C
0.40
3.60
0.43
0.50
0.22
2.13
1.20
0.50
0.30
0.21
2.00
0,75
0.50
0.08
5.00
0.40
30
40
3G
30
50
30
60
60
3C
60
3C
30
30
30
30
30
3C
30
60
30
30
30
30
30
30
3
4
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
4
4
3
3
4
4
1
4
4
1
4
3
                                       B-13

-------
                                           (CONTINUED)
                         TREATMENT  PLANT =?OJECTS  IN  DATA  BASE
                                 STATE  KANSAS
GRANT NO  FACILITY  NAMt
PROJECTED FLOW   TREATMENT  LEVEL  CHANGE
200561
200562
20u569
200570
200576
200533
<:005 96
2006GO
200606

-------
T
T e r a T ^! s '
                                         2.1  ( C C N T I N I I j )
                                         T ="CJfCTS  IN DAT!  5 A S i
         S T
                                               U C X Y
GRANT NO   = A C I L IT Y  \A y =
                      EC  FLOW  TREATMENT LEVEL   CHANGE
210351
210353
2 1 C 5 5 4
210357
21 U3c5
2lUi/3
21G374
21 Oj7d
£10^5
^103*1
21040 0
2 1 u 4 u 3
210404
21G<»Gc
21U452
210547
2105*7

3 R A N T NO
2 2u2 c5
220292
c 2 0 2 9 5
^20505
220337
220314
220321
220322
220327
22u344
220347
220347
2^0349
220390
220403
2204I5
22G429
220*30
22C/431
220450
<:2u<*51
220456
220W4
220489
221)544
jc.= F^Ks:"iT"j'
-------
                                 TABLE S.1  (CONTINUED)
                         T*£ATw,rNT PLANT PROJECTS  IN  DATA BASE
                                 STATE  LOUISIANA
GRANT NO  FACILITY  NAME
PROJECTED FLOW   TREATMENT LEVEL  CHANGE
2205fi1

GRANT NO
2 300 9 S
230102
230114
230117
23o1 <:2
230132
230160
2301 7a
230176
23G17c
^30178

GRANT NO
2 4 u 1 5 2
240130
2402*3
240255
24L/294
t4L)2 V5
240311
240315
2 vj 3 i c
c403<»G
2 <*03 53
2 4 0 3 i 0
2403S3
2 4 0 3 i 4
cH03>3
240395
240409
24ut*:2
240*47
240467
240506
2 4 u 1 1 9
MESRYVlLLc STP

FACILITY NAMt
^IGGSr-lcAj 4 w T P
FCRT F AIRFIELD *WTD
OLD ORChARLi 3EACH STP
SOUTH °OKTLAND ST°
PORTLAND WD ^°CC
S A N F 0 c. iJ S .: U * S :: CIST.
iSLctfGnO STP
WILLOW S T R -r fc T ST-
NORT-l MAIN STPSrT ST?
EAST VASSALoORC STP
SCITH MAIN STPEcT ST=

FACILITY N A X ,-
C A L V '£ « T CO S ^ N I T A T Y ?
FNlrNOSVlLLc STP
ACCIDENT TCwN CF
WILLAR2S '* W T -
iALLcNGrR C R : E K W T '/i
SAVAGE STP
FRt£DJM CIST^ICT STP
CLcA"? S P « I N G STT
ST i^IClAELS STP
A c c K. .' c I N STP
NCRTriEaSf PIVEP i W T F
CHESiipE-
C L D T 0 V» !i S T P
TYLcRTC'AN STP
cw^LL -iHCDES °"!I\'T ST
' CCX C^CiK 2T?
Ff--;L' = RICK COUNTY M.-T^
< c N T ' J A R £ C * i STP
CHERxY hlLL
CHUkCH HILL > T ?
•« C R C - S T - V COUNTY S - N
0.25
STATS MAINE
PROJECTED CLCW
0.17
0.33
1 .50
5.50
4.54
vJPC" 4.40
0.01
0.01
C.02
0.02
'"i •• 'i
« . u 2
ST^TE MARYLAND
=ROJ?CTEC 'FLOW
1ST 0.15
0 . 1 0
0.05
0 . 0 3
2.00
5.00
1 . ; C
0.20
0 . :> 1
4.00
2.00
1 . in
0.03
0.40
0 . 0 2
P 0.07
15.00
G ST C.23
C.79
c . •:• i
'"' . C v
11 ST 1^.00
30

TREATMENT LEVEL
30
3C
30
30
30
53
30
30
30
30
30

TREATMENT LEVEL
30
30
30
3C
30
3C
40
5C
40
45
54
40
40
40
30
3G
30
30
30
5C
30
40
4

CHANGE
4
4
3
4
4
3
2
4
4
4
4

CHANGE
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
4
5
4
<*
4
4
4
<*
1
4
4
4
4
3
                                       B-16

-------
              rt A S T '• w A T E K  T < -% '
  Ti»Lr:  -.1  (CONTINUED)
'!I<. < S T °
NO ATTLEE-OhCUGh S T °
UXBRIDGi STH
SOUTH HADLcY W>T?
HULL W w T P
dROCKTON ST.-
HA-
-------
                                 TABLE  3.1  (CONTINUED)
              WASTED/AT;:*  TREATMENT FLAM  PROJECTS IN DATA BASE
                                 STATE   MICHIGAN
GRANT NO  FACILITY  NfiX:
PROJECTED FLOW   TREATMENT LEVEL  CHANGE
262900
2o2922
262946
2o2979
263G01
263002
263015
2
2
63039
63271
HESPERIA WrtTP
SUPERIOR TUP LAGOONS
G ALI'E N W»JTP
TU3COLA COUKTY STP
HERVANSVILLE LAGOON
cLSIc L-iGOON
KINGSLEY * w T P
P £ */ A M C LAGOONS
POTTEP.VILLi STP
INTcRIOR T
JCNESVILLE
2 o 3 2 7 y MAK.*UcTT£

Gk
t.
e.
2
2
2
c.
2
2

ANT NO
7J603
70664
70720
7 u 7 2 5
707*1
70743
7 0 7 H 7
7J743
2 7 0 1 G *+
2
: j S
MCOKEHP1D
r-;PI jaijtT
T
-
T
L



N
3

T
•«
'A


f
L
v<
F
S
^
*~
\.j


ST?

SUPERIOR S £ M
•'«! . w « T F
T
t

TP
CONS
N ST°


G C G N S
P
C
P
A
N
•«
L
T
T
*
p
„
'/«

1 = 
• 7
. 1
n
. <'
. 3
5
1
->,
7
s:
j
4
7;
P
4
0
c
>
i»
1
5
n
;">
3
5
5
5
4
•t
3
3
3
5
5
7
T
3
T
3
(-^
w
C
c
c
c
•z
c
3
G
0
3C
4
4
0
c
30
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
2
3

CHANGE
1
1
3
3
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
2
4
4
3
3
4
3
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
1
1
4
4
^
                                       B-18

-------
              S T
T £ f_ 4 T
- L "i ~ . 1  ( C 0 NT I \ U • J )
FLAM  f - 0 J c C T S IN 0 a T
RANT NO  F £ C i L I T Y N a * E
     CJZCT?: FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
3
23G457
u804ci2
2 oOi ^G
230507
260510
2»j51 5
2SO 5 *: <:
2S0540
£dG539
28ui 78
2SU642
2 6Gc<+7
2d06o<

iRANT NO
2 9 0 4 a 3
2V0524
2V0546
2V056G
^ I L L .'-U « « '.v T F
A L t' c. ft T L :. A w ^ T ?
3UCFALC ST?
MA-^S^iiLL rt A T J
C ^ K A T 0 '« *l T P
ANN Ar, DALE n T -
S I 3 L x K ." S T P-
rC-^'-STC^ STP
1J! ; D I S D N L i i^ E
PIN; SI V '- =? w rt T P
* C C « r 0 ? y w U T P i C D 1 T
£LII>. = i"M L>i30C!,5
£ w, p i K ; A « T P

FACILITY K- A K -.
••1 1 R I !. I 6 '«! S T o
STflRKVILLf STP
5 li M N i ^ «TF
? 
V^I35N LASOCN
SCHLATc? VvTP
P I C K c N S STP
rklASS POINT STP
CROWuES fiASTr wlTSR
CROSBY STP
.MANTACHI-; ST°
M fi •< I : T T A STP
MAYtPSVILLE: LAGCCN
CLEARY ^EIonTS STP
H 0 L C 0 M fa L A G C J N
T T T A i £ N - L A G 0 C N

FACILITY N A y E
ST. JOSEPH '.NWTP
M C N i T T W rt T ?
LICKING W^TF
w£NTZVILL£ STP
4 . 3 U
12,5 '«
0. S?
>.7G
0.3s
n. 2 -
r, ^ 1 i:
"\ ' /
- , J •*
p r, j
•^ • • '
C • 2 2
I C :•<• S 0.36
0.03
6.00
STiT'= MISSISSIPPI
POJ-CTED FLOW
13.0 0
5.00
G.3-J
o . o a
n -; A
J . -1
C.U6
0.15
0.07
0 . 1 6
0.20
T P 0.16
0.0^
0.12
0.05
0.05
0.10
0.06
0.49
STAT: MISSOURI
PROJECTED FLOW
32.35
3.07
0.20
1.10
30
51
4C
50
30
50
4C
3C
50
50
3C
30
51

TSEflTMENT LtVSL
42
40
30
30
40
30
30
30
30
?C
3C
30
42
41
30
51
30
30

TREATMENT LEVEL
3C
30
53
40
S
4
4
3
1
3
4
4
4
2
1
4
4

CHANGE
3
4
4
4
3
4
3
4
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

CHANGE
3
8
4
4
                                      B-19

-------
                                 TABLE 8.1  (CONTINUED)
             WASTiWATER  TREATMENT PLANT PROJECTS  IN  DATA BASE
                                 STATE  MISSOURI
GRANT NO  FACILITY  NAME
PROJSCTCO FLOW   TREATMENT LEVEL  CHANGE
290587
290599
290603
290629
29Uo34
<:9064o
290653
290055
290655
2 v 0 o 5 S
290662
290669
290673
290oc3
2 9 j 6 v 5
290691
290701
2 9 u 7 L 3
t90711
290713
290720
290722
290743
2 i u 7 4 4
290747
2 907 SO
i 90 751
290752
2 9 u 7 o 4
29u772
290777
290779
<: 9 u 7 o 1
29u762
c 9 u 7 e o
290794
29079d
29^339
290543
2 903 4 L
<;yGi74
2 9 'j a 9 1
29u91d
29u9oO
2 9 u 9 o 1
290977
291065
WEST SIDE STP
CARROLLTON' STP
NfcVADA WWTP
KOCK CREEK STP
CHARLESTON ST°
WtATT LAGOONS
RICHLAND WWTF

-------





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-------
                                  TA4L5 3.1  (CONTINUED)
              WASTEWATE.fi TREATMENT PLANT PROJECTS IN DATA  BASE
                                  STATE  NE3RASKA
GRANT NO   FACILITY
PROJECTED  FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL  CHANGE
S
10513
310514
3
7
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
7
V*
1
•i

GR
3
3
3
3
3
T
3
j
7
3
3

JK
i
_,
3
j
10521
1U546
10547
10550
10556
1 j 5 5 8
1 u 5 £ 4
1 0 5 c 7
10574
10573
1G5d2
1 0 3 9 0
1C5V3
10601
1C611
10621
1C631
10656

ANT NO
20076
2 • J 0 7 d
200S5
200 06
2 0 0 a 9
2j091
200*7
2J107
2 u 1 0 c
2 *j 1 1 1
201 tC

ANT N 0
3-J093
3 0 1 0 j W
CAL

ITY
3TO
STE
N w
N - G
N vV
Y S
•4 IT
3N
HLI
-<(.;
LOCK

L
^
N
j.
£

ITY
c.ST
ST:
N S
3 V
TE
S
c.
AM
PC
HT
LAKES wWTF
P
TF

P
ST?
wTF
N'T,17
KWTP


A ij 0 0 N
$TS
R JJ T F
TP

TF
F
F
H 0 U N W w T F

N
N
A3
f* j
if-
•^
T°
T
ST
jn
CO
r
J

\!
.-. ;
W N
TP
;L
STATE
AV£ f
STf
ST?
^:
0 N i 3 V I L L E S T ?
F

ST =
P
T STP
N T s o L PLANT
TP
ST^TE
4 v : £
'* 'I T P
ST -

L '" ~> i STP
0
1
o
1
0
0
5
0
0
2
0
c
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
c\

-------
                T R :
                                    T ,u = I £  *.1  ( C 0 N T I N I' f D )
                               T '•' 5 M  c L J M T  PROJECTS IN  OATH  BAS
                         STAT5
                                            NEW
K A N T
FACILITY r, A ,* E
?''CJCCTEC  PLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
3iU 23
3301 24
j 3 u 1 2 3
330135
330137
33013*
330140
33u1*5
33U1 4S
330137
5 3 u 1 o 1
3 i 0 1 9 1

3 K A N T N G
3fU2 5 1
3 4 U 2 i v
3<»0 333
340333
34u34J
341344
3 4 U 3 5 0
34035 ^
3<+03 56
34035S
340372
340376
34u377
540533
^403b6
54j3s7
340327
340358
340391
3404Gfc
34U527
34G535
3^0550

jRANT NO
G 0 -t r1 - M S T F
P:TTSCI-:LU -*?CF
w/COCSVlLL; FlPr C.ST iT =
C H A * L £ i> T 0 '/, N *' T P
L I S = 0 N L A G 0 G '"••; S
HINS34L= STP
•A I N C H •-. 5 T i P j T ^
N£wfI-LC$ STP
rt'cMRi ST?
HALL ST?:;T ^WTF
J 0 R h A v, STP
5 ^ A N L ~ Y S T ?
STATE
FACILITY NA. vi? P
MOUNT HOLLY SA ST^
LIN^rfx-KOS^LL; ST?
PAR-T-?CY HILLS STP
FARSIsPiMr-T^QY HILL ST?
UNIC-J '* cS5~X JOINT STP
ATLANTIC COUNTY S.A.
LIVINGSTON XTW L,lp3?iDf
LINCOLN PflRK ST?
OCEAN C C , S E 'A . A ,j T i- .
PcMscSTCN M r A
OCcAN COUNTY S.A CcMT^AL
MO^^ISTOWN 3T3
S M U .' J V C U T H S.A.
HAMILTON T 0 w N S r I P
BcRGEN CO Sc^^R AUTHORITY
CAPE MAY CO MUA STP
OCEAN CITY REGIONAL WTP
HANOVcR SEwdR i u T H C S. I T Y
S w I N j LA^REiNiCc WTP
OPPfcP wALLKILL VALLEY ST=
LAMrcPTVILL- STP
REACINGTON-L-I3ANON S4 STP
COHciRLAND CO. SEWERAGE A
STATE
FACILITY NAME P
0.75
0.40
0.2-j
1.12
C.2*
0.2V
0.35
G.12
0.32
1C. 12
2.53
0.1 5
N E * JERSEY
POJECTEO PLO'^
5.00
17.00
16.00
1 6 . C 0
75.00
tC.CO
3.50
7.50
2S.QQ
2.50
24.00
3.45
^.00
16.00
75.00
6. 30
6.30
3.00
24.00
2.50
1 .50
0.80
7.00
NEW MEXICO
ROJECTEO FLOW
30
3C
40
3C
20
30
33
4C
60
33
30
30

TREATMENT LEVEL
41
30
52
30
3Q
30
3C
51
30
33
30
40
30
30
30
40
30
30
50
41
30
51
3C

TREATMENT LEVEL
4
4
4
1

-------
                                 TA8LE  B.1  (CONTINUED)
             WASTEWATER TREATMENT  PLANT PROJECTS IN DATA BASE
                                 STATE   NEW MEXICO
GRANT NO  FACILITY NAME
PROJECTED FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
350171
3501o5
351003
351004
351005
351010
351015
351017
351018
351025
3510^9
351030
351031
351034
351Q35
351062
351063

GRANT NO
360326
3CU376
300364
300339
360433
360436
3ou446
3oO<+c5
300534
3oO 55 1
3oG5 56
_>o0567
.iOGt 21
360627
.} 0 0 0 4 G
36uot1
36G644
3 odd 46
360c50
3oOt52
3ouC S9
3oGe61
36G6&Q
56G691
360711
LAS CRUCES *WTP
CITY OF LCRDSLURG UKT^
DELING LAGOONS
HC3SS STP
SILVtR CITY STP
FARVINGTON STP
RATON WdTP
RUICOSO REGIONAL ST?
TULAROSA STP
6ERNALILLO ST°
CITY OF PORTALES WhTP
CLCVIS STP
LOVIN3TON STP
LAS VEGAS SS
JAL STP
EAGLE: NfST S T =>
LOS LUNAS $T?
STATE
FACILITY ?MAyE P
NUNC A V I L L A G d STP
GAKFIELCJ rtTP
MARION STP
K:NSS£LA£5 COUNTY S . 0 .
SAG H a R - 0 K S '. '« A G E 5 *i S
H A V Ht Q \i r V I L L ± '3 L S T °
CLAYTON STP
ONTARIO TCrtN ScAtRiof SYS
5ACKETS H ^ R 5 0 - STP
OQCK ST5--.ET « T ?
LLCYi ST?
NEW R 0 C -I r L L i: S . C .
jREENPORT
C C K f- U 'A T ?
WALTON ST?
MONT30I*::KY COJNTY SCI STP
W A T r -' F 0 c J ? i /- ? K ^ G r S Y S T -. «
CCoLTrSKlLL A!^
SRC TON wTW
ADAMS STP
S Y R £ C u S z " c T -^ 0
M A S S £ N A S T P
CrtrtUTAu^'jA L A K. I SD ST°
0 R A N o E CO. S . 0 . * 1 S T o
GRAND I 5 L A N C * * T P
6.00
0.30
1 .50
4.00
2.00
7.30
1 .20
2.64
0.50
0.80
1 .14
4.00
1 .53
2.50
0.40
0.06
0.70
NEW YORK
»?JECTE: FLOW
0.29
0.34
0.1.'
24. OD
? . 1 Q
0 . C 3
G. 30
1 .00
O.oO
1 .'56
1 .25
1 3 . 6 0
G . 5 0
0 .1 4
1.17
1 .00
1 . 5 0
0 . 7 5
0.23
0.45
"=0.0 0
2. 30
4.10
2.00
?. 50
30
30
30
40
30
30
30
50
4C
30
30
2C
30
40
30
30
30

TREATMENT LEVEL
50
5C
51
30
30
30
3C
54
30
3C
30
30
3C
53
40
3C
30
50
1C
41
53
30
3C
51
c ~t
1
4
5
4
4
3
4
4
5
3
4
4
2
4
4
3
4

CHANGE
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
H
3
3
2
2
4
4
4
4
5
3
4
3
2
4
4
3
                                        B-24

-------
ft a S T : v.< £ T c^ T P i a T >i ~ N T
   < L E  3.1  (CONTINUED)
  f L -1 \ T  PROJECTS IN  D A T ft 2 A S 5
STATE   New Y 0 R <
u K ANT NO
36u71 9
3 6 u 7 * ?
3ou73 e.
360742
360747
3 o • j 7 5 C
J 0 U 7 6 0
3o0771
^6 j7d3
3 6 u 7 b 6
3 o 0 d C J
jCOou6
30US11
5 6 u 8 1 2
360c1 4
3608*4
3oUC)3 o
3 6 0 c 4 3
3 6 G d 5 4
36Cu3 V
360913
3 o 0 9 1 4
3 00922
360949
36&V73
300961
361000

o R A N T N 0
37U364
37L377
370377
370377
370382
370333
370385
370386
370397
37G4G1
570411
370417
370425
37C433
370435
FACILITY ,NH * '-
PHIL^ONT STP
CAf.AJO-ARId STP
M I N = r T 0 STP
LlShA<,Ii_L CCLOME
N I A G *»•?.! FILLS ;*T
C ^ A y p L A L N P K, s . : .
HuCiCN CITY STP
^ i S T F I ± L u S T ?
OCJAN cEAC.-l iTP
* A T K 1 xi S G L r N STP
ti ft E i .\ ? G K T S T ?
SYLVAN i ^ A C h STP
ALTAf'ONT STO
sccos POINT STP
HANCVc? ST=
A L - 1 0 U A * T
HOLLAND S G •* 3 o T f
S T C N Y POINT S T ?
DcPtSIT S 5 w T ^ A G f. SYST
M A R i. T H 0 N S •: 'ft r- 3 S Y > T r M
NO^TM C-!AUTAuJ»li LAKE
S rl £ P. M A rj STP
SG^^SfT-rA^Er'v STC
CAKVEL ST»
PARISH W P C P
S;N£CA CNTY S3«1 ST^
SKANcATELES ST?

FACILITY N a ,M 5
T A 5 b 0 S 0 w T W
IRWIN CRrtK ST?
MALLARD ST?
MC ALPINE STP
CCNCO^O «TW
FARMVlLLc WTW
EAST BURLINGTON STP
WILSON =AY STP
LOUIS3URG STP
MAGNOLIA STP
PARK TON STP
DUNN STP
CLINTON STP
RED SPRINGS STP
WILLIAMSTOwN WTP
D P ' > i F r T - '"•• £ i *"* u
W'J^J^W ( — '.J I^'JW
C.25
2.35
0,63
- 5.00
^ ? . 0 0
0.1 5
^ . cO
2,60
n L n
u . 5 j
C.70
0.56
1 .72
0.42
0.57
G . 5 0
2.00
C.37
5.03
; M c . 4 o
0.-20
STP 0.50
C.14
C.2S
0.20
C.14
0.71
0.55
STATE NORTH CAROL IN
PROJECTED FLOW
3.00
10.00
3. CO
30.00
2 4 . 0 C
3.50
12.00
4.46
0.80
0.09
0.12
2.28
3.00
1 .5C
1 .06
TREATMENT LEVEL
40
30
30
30
33
40
40
33
32
30
30
33
50
30
30
53
5C
30
3C
30
30
50
30
50
40
50
50
A
TREATMENT LEVEL
30
50
51
51
50
51
40
3C
30
40
30
40
44
32
30
CHANGE
4
3
4
4
5
3
2
4
2
3
3
4
3
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

CHANGE
3
2
4
3
4
4
3
3
1
5
3
4
2
3
3
      B-25

-------
                                 TABLE  B.1  (CONTINUED)
             WASTcWATcR  TREATMENT  PLANT  PROJECTS IN DATA BASE
                                 STATS   NORTH CAROLINA
GRANT NO  FACILITY NAME
                          PROJECTED FLO*  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
37CK36
370437
37U433
370441
370*42
370452
37040 3
37U470
370493
,7G;,d4

GRANT N 0
3 5 U :. 9 4
3 G u i 1 3
3 S u 3 2 1
350324
3 £ o :; 2 5
360325
.5 6 U 3 t y
330332
3 SO j .5 4
3 3 u 3 3 5
3 &G341
3 o 0 3 4 2
3 3 u :> 5 U
330355
3cj,56l
330365
330Js7
3 o 0 .5 o 6

350371
3cuJ75
3 3 0 3 7 o
3 5 j "i 7 7
330.579
3 d 0 .5 3 0
.530.5*7
3 8 J 3 o 9
3 S 0 3 > 0
,5*30394
3 3 0 .5 7 5
3 £ U L 9 ?
CGNOVER CITY STP
MAIDEN TOn'N STP
* C C D L a W N STP
MCCkL COUNTf REG. kTd
TRENTON TOWN S T F
OAK60RO TOwN STP
RUThER^OROTC^ TOWN STP
CHEkRYVILLd CITY STP
tiCONE T 0 * N S T •:>
JcNSoN T G w K S T c
STATE
FACILITY Ni,«: f
S N 0 i 3 L 1 N STP
SHELDON L a G C 0 N i- N C r S
JIS^'ARCi^ HWTP
HATVEY LAGCC'Ji
M A N 0 A N STP
N £ lv T 0 /( N L A G 0 0 .N
DICKINSON L A 3 " C \ 3
CRAP, Y H«Tp
MlNNc»JAU h S l- U R G L A 3 0 0 N
SCRAN TON STP
VERONA L k G C C - J
G ^ A \ V I L L E LAG 0 0 N
.MUNICH LA G 0 C N
SOUR IS L^GOCN
i T A R \ w f A T H E - L a j Q u N
N c •/» £ NJ 3 L J N .: L ," G 0 G \
3 c Y ?. G L L) 3 LAGOON
RUTLAND L « 'j C 0 N
w C 0 C * 0 R T H L a G C C !•-
•3 E R T ^ 0 L .: L A G 3 0 N
C£ KR I UGTO.\ ST 3
0.60
1 .00
C.1S
6.70
0.07
0.50
0.64
2.00
5.20
C.33
NORTH DAKOTA

0.25
0.03
5.04
0 . 
-------
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40
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40
30
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30
60
30
60
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40
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60
30
60
30
3C
30
60
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30
30
30
30
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30
60
30
20
30
30
60
4
4
4
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4
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4
4
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1
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7
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4
4
3
2
3
3
4
4
3
5
2
2
4
4
4
1
1
4
                                               B-29

-------
        TA3L?  d.1  (CONTINUED)
T F •= A T M 6 N T  PLANT  PROJECTS IN DATA  BASE
         STATE   OREGON
GRANT NO  FACILITY  NAMi
              OSQJ£CTEC FLCW   TREATMENT LEVEL   CHANGE
4
4
4
4
<\
4
4
4
4
4
^
4
4
4
4
^
^
H
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4
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4
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4
4
4
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4
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4
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H
4
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4
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3
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£
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1
2
2
3
t
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4
7
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1
5
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6
7
3
4
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1
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               B-30

-------
         S T f * a T . J
                        ,^ L -: c . 1  (CC\TI\OEO)
                         PLANT PROJECTS  IN  DATA
NO
- i. C I L I T
2 R 0 J r C T ? L ' L C
L r V 5 L  C H 4 N G c
420572
4 2 0 5 o 5
<+iOivO
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P C K T A 3 r J j i N, T S f: "J -. '-" - 0 T -i
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T R I - J 0 $ J iv C N . A o T h . STP
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GALHTZIN ST?
OIL CITY G'J\rPAL ALTH.
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S A V I L T C NJ 5 A N T w = i 0 T H
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P 0 1 11 T '" « •< I 0 -\ v> L f-. I C I '" A L .«; U
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F R E L C 3 M T«P. STP.
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CANCNSbURG-rOOSTO'* STP
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GRCVi CiTY STP
MYERSTOWN STP
MT HOLLr SPRINGS STp
PINE GROVE 30POL3H STP
LATROSE STP
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30
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40
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33
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43
30
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33
30
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54
54
54
33
4
-------
                                  TABLE  3.1  (CONTINUED)
              WAST'. WATER TREATMENT PLANT  PROJECTS IN DATA  BASE


                                  STATE   =>ENNSYLVftNlA


GRANT NO   FACILITY NA«E               PP-OJrCTED PLOW  TREATMENT LEVEL   CHANGE
4
4
H
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
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4
4
u
4
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4
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4
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rvi = NT LEVEL
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r^fNT LEVEL
40
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1
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CHANGE
4
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CHANGE
4
4
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                                         B-32

-------
    W A S T ; .< * T :. '
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3 /
-------
                                 TABLE 3.1 (CONTINUED)
                         TREATMENT  PLANT PROJECTS IN DATA  BASE
                                 STATE  TEXAS
GRANT NO  FACILITY
PROJECTED FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL  CHANGE
GR

31121
i 1 1 2 :
;11 24
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30
33
40
30
40
40
30
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54
53
50
40
40
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30
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53
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L CHANGE
3
3
5
4
4
4
4
1
5
1
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4
4
4
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4
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                                       B-34

-------
,RANT  NO   FACILITY  NAME
                                           (CONTINUED)
                                  PLANT  PROJECTS  IN  0 A T a  3 A S E
                                STATE  TEXAS
PROJECTED CLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
431169
4611 7*
<* 31 1 bO
431162
4o11o3
4£113fc
4811V1
<»a1192
4811V7
481 2Uu
431216
451219
481223
<*81225
451231
431 235
481236
4S1244
481253
481 257
4o1262
4«Uo3
481266
431270
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431273
<*31 274
^31275
431273
4$12c4
431285
43UV1
<«81294
431*96
431306
431303
481314
481596
ALVCP-D STP
PROSPER STP
LAKc JACKSON STP
HICC STP
bRAZORlA STP
PECAN C3 t~\ STP
L U f* 'i E K T 0 M M U 0 S T °
5RCVNNFISLO LAGCCNS
NACCGOOCh=S STP a 2 a
MANOR STP
fi«CAD^AY ST?
LIVIN3STON STP
MERCEDES STP
PECOS LAGOONS
MOOLY ST3
MONTGOMERY CY WCID ^1 STP
HARRIS COUNTY STP
SELL CNTY S T »
WEST CEDAR CREEK STP
KINGSLAND Mtu STP
DEVERS STP
LAZY RIVER IMPROVEMENTS
CEDAR SAYCU STP
HALLSVILLE STP
SOMERSET STP
CITY OF 5ULLARC STP
BROAUOUS STP
COLORADO CNTY kCIj «2 STP
DETROIT STP
PFLUGERVILLE STP
LUFKIN STP
ZAPATA CNTY STP
LIBERTY - OANVILLE STP
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TOM d£AN STP
MAGNOLIA STP
OYSTER CREcK STP
CLEAR LAKE CITY WA ST°
0.11
0.15
3.30
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0.75
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1.50
1.25
9.07
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0.45
0.20
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0.68
0.75
0.08
0.13
0.10
0.32
0.18
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0.14
0.10
0.11
0.26
0. 55
0.80
0.03
0.15
0.10
0.18
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6.75
40
40
40
30
40
51
40
30
30
30
40
30
30
30
30
50
50
51
40
53
30
40
40
30
40
40
50
30
30
40
40
40
40
30
30
50
30
54
4
5
3
4
4
3
4
4
1
4
2
5
4
4
5
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
4
4
5
4
4
5
4
4
1
                                STATE  UTAH
iRANT  NO   FACILITY NAME
PROJECTED FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
 490142    CEDAR  CITY wWTP
 490152    HYRUM  CITY STP
 49U170    GRANGER-HUNTER STP
 490171    WELLSVILLE STP
       2.26
       0.33
       7.30
       0.20
50
50
40
60
4
4
2
4
                                       B-35

-------
                                 TABLE 3.1  (CONTINUED)
             WASTE. WATE3  TREATMENT PLANT PROJECTS  IN DATA 8ASE
                                 STATE  UTAH
GRANT NO  FACILITY
PROJECTED FLOW   TREATMENT LEVEL  CHANGE
490174
490175
490179
490180
490131
490165
490139
490194
490197
490207
490232
490244
490264
LONG
TROP
TASI
MYTO
EMER
PRIC
ASHL
VALLEY
1C TOWN
ONA STP
N LAGOO
Y TOWN
E RIVFR
EY VALL
PROVO CITY
SNYD
TIMP
MOUN
CAST
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ANOGOS
T PLEAS
L£ VALL
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REG


N
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W WAN STP

N STP

AGCON
T?
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0
0
0
0
0
1
3
21
2
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0
0
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60
60
60
30
50
50
30
60
50
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4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
                                 STATE   VERMONT
GRANT NO  FACILITY
PROJECTED  FLOW   TREATMENT LEVEL  CHANGE
D00079
500051
3 OG063
50G039
5001C4
500105
500111
500115
500117
500123
5001 £6
5Q0134
500136
50014G
500146
500151
5001 5?
500162
i001 t4
— -~- *• A •—
3 J U 1 0 ^
3RANDON WWTP
HARTFORD WWTP
NORTH SRANCH F.C. STP
. ENOSsORG FALLS
STQWE WWTP
MANCHESTER ST?
HYDt PARK SEPTIC SYS
REAGSSGRQ STP
ROYALTC.M STP
ALBU^G W T F
ORLEANS WPCF
RCCK ISLA.Niu STP
oARTCN STP
MICQLSauRY ST?
VERGEi'JNrS n T -
W A T '- R 3 U ^ Y STP
>!ARSHFI = LC STP
FARFAX STP
1ARCWIC'< WTP
sKiCbEWATcR ST=
0.7U
1 .00
0 . S 2
0.26
0.17
0.60
P i^ *>
L • U J
0.10
0.07
0.13
0.19
0.40
0.12
2.20
C.6G
0.51
C.05
0.08
0.40
C't f*\ >
< . 04
30
30
30
30
43
30
10
30
30
40
43
43
33
40
33
30
30
30
3C
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3-
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
3
5
4
4
4
4
                                 STATE   VIRGINIA
      NC   FACILITY f<
           FLOW   TREATMENT LEVEL   CHANGE
51 jc59
UP PL-
GAL -
X
Sf
•TTri
r ?
1 1 V :
P
* A' T P
4
1
.00
.50
30
30
4
3
                                       B-36

-------
                                •U6L5 J.1 (CONTINUED)
             wAST£wAT£R  TREATMENT PLANT PROJECTS IN DATA 3ASE
                                STATE  VIRGINIA
 A N T  NO   FACILITY  N A M c
PROJECTFC FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
510331
510555
510336
510357
510370
510375
510381
510363
510334
510394
510396
510442
51u460
510465
510471
510*75
510434
510485
510406
510488
510490
510497
5104y3
510500
510502
510509
510515
510517
510518
5105*1
510551
510565
510594
510595
510597
UPPfcK 0 C C C"* U 4 N REGIONAL
CLIFTON FCR3E STC
ALtXANjRIft STP
ARLINGTON COUNTY
ROAKOKc STP
STUART STP
FRONT ROYAL ST»
SOUND HILL
'
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                                 TABLE  8.1  (CONTINUED)
             WAST5W4TER TREATMENT  PLANT  PROJECTS IN DATA BASE
                                 STATE   WASHINGTON
GRANT NO  FACILITY NAME
PROJECTED FLOW  TREATMENT  LEVEL   CHANGE
530530
530549
530553
530556
530557
530560
530568
530572
530578
530579
530580
530532
530534
530533
530596
530599
530603
530601
530604
530609
530612
530613
530d6
530619
530652
530700
530709
530720
530721
530724
53073*
530740
530756
5'308u4
530812
530d
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                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
1. REPORT NO.

  EPA/430/9-83-OG4
                              2.
                                                           3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION NO.
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
  "Construction  Costs for Hastewater Treatment  Plants:
   1973-1982"  Technical Report
                                                           5. REPORT DATE
                                                             June. 1983
6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE

  U.S. EPA/OW/OWPO/FRD/P&NAB
7. AUTHOR(S)
                                                           8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
Mr. Michael  Cullen,  Dr. R. Sage Murphy,  Dr.  Hen H.  Huang
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

  Sage Murphy & Associates,  Inc.
  910 16th  Street,  Suite 420
  Denver,  CO   80202
10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.

  B54B2G
11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
                                                             68-01-4798
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS

   U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
   401 M Street,  S.W.
   Washington,  D.C.   20460
13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
  Final Report
14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
16. ABSTRACT
  This report  presents the results of the  latest and most comprehensive  effort to
  obtain and analyze construction costs  for  wastewater treatment works built with
  construction grant program funds.  It  summarizes data from 1,585  individual
  treatment plant construction projects  including 822 construction  projects  for new
  plants from  the 48 contiguous United States  in all ten EPA regions.  This  report
  contains information on total plant construction, individual unit process
  construction,  and plant and process component  construction.  Further,
  non-construction costs, such as planning and design, related to construction of
  wastewater treatment plants were included.

  The basic information for this report  was  obtained from visits to selected sites,
  and from earlier studies.  The information was assembled into a simple data  base,
  and examined for relationships between construction costs, facility design parameters
  and unit process parameters.  These relationships were developed  for the general
  national level.  Also included are guidelines  for adjusting costs for  smaller
  geographic units.  Where appropriate in  analyzing the data, total construction costs
  were reduced to their major components.
                               KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
                                              b. IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
             c.  COSATI Field/Group
wastewater treatment plants
wastewater unit  processes "
construction costs
construction grants  program
 8. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
  No distribution  restrictions
                                              19. SECURITY CLASS (ThisReportI
                                               UNCLASSIFIED
              21. NO. OF PAGES
                 ',    259
                                              20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage)
                                               UNCLASSIFIED
                                                                         22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (Rev. 4-77)   PREVIOUS EDITION is OBSOLETE

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