&EPA
               United States
               Environmental Protection
               Agency
                  Solid Waste And
                  Emergency Response
                  (OS-240)
National
Priorities
List Sites:
EPA/540/8-91/018
September 1991
PB92-963251
               ALASKA
          r Q
          X*
                1991
                                                    Printed on Recycled Paper

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                                      Publication #9200.5-703A
                                      September 1991
   NATIONAL PRIORITIES LIST SITES:
                    Alaska
                     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                     Region 5, Library (PL-!?J)
                     77 West Jackson Bouiey-va, i"-   ••• i
                     Chicago, IL  60604-3590
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       Office of Emergency & Remedial Response
           Office of Program Management
               Washington, DC 20460

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          If you wish to purchase copies of any additional State volumes contact:
                    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
                    U.S. Department of Commerce
                    5285 Port Royal Road
                    Springfield, VA22161
                    (703) 487-4650
The National Overview volume, Superfund: Focusing on the  Nation at Large (1991),
may be ordered as PB92-963253.
The complete set of the overview documents, plus the 49 state reports may be ordered
as PB92-963253.

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                             TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                        Page
Introduction:
A Brief Overview	1

Superfund:
How Does the Program Work to Clean Up Sites?	5

The Volume:
How to Use the State Book	13

NPL Sites:
In the State of Alaska	17

The NPL Report:
Progress to Date	19

The NPL Fact Sheets:
Summary of Site Activities	21
Appendix A:  Glossary:
Terms Used in the Fact Sheets	35

Appendix B:  Repositories of
Site Information	51

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                                                           INTRODUCTION
WHY THE SUPERFUND
PROGRAM?

        As the 1970s came to a close, a series of
        headline stories gave Americans a
        look at the dangers of dumping indus-
trial and urban wastes on the land. First there
was New York's Love Canal. Hazardous
waste buried there over a 25-year period
contaminated streams and soil, and endangered
the health of nearby residents.  The result:
evacuation of several hundred people. Then
the leaking barrels at the Valley of the Drums
in Kentucky attracted public attention, as did
the dioxin-tainted land and water in Times
Beach, Missouri.

In all these cases, human health and the envi-
ronment were threatened, lives were disrupted,
and property values were reduced. It became
increasingly clear that there were large num-
bers of serious hazardous waste problems that
were falling through the cracks of existing
environmental laws.  The magnitude of these
emerging problems moved Congress to enact
the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act in 1980.
CERCLA — commonly known as Superfund
— was the first Federal law established to deal
with the dangers posed by the Nation's hazard-
ous waste sites.

After Discovery, the Problem
Intensified

Few realized the size of the problem until the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
began the process of site discovery and site
evaluation. Not hundreds, but thousands of
potential hazardous waste sites existed, and
they presented the Nation with some of the
most complex pollution problems it had ever
faced.

Since the Superfund program began, hazard-
                                   A
                           Brief
 ous waste has surfaced as a major environ-
 mental concern in every part of the United
 States. It wasn't just the land that was con-
 taminated by past disposal practices. Chemi-
 cals in the soil were spreading into the ground-
 water (a source of drinking water for many)
 and into streams, lakes, bays, and wetlands.
 Toxic vapors contaminated the air at some
 sites, while improperly disposed or stored
 wastes threatened the health of the surrounding
 community and the environment at others.

 The EPA Identified More than 1,200
 Serious Sites

 The EPA has identified 1,245 hazardous waste
 sites as the most serious in the Nation. These
 sites comprise the National Priorities List; sites
 targeted for cleanup under Super-fund.  But
 site discoveries continue, and the EPA esti-
 mates that, while some will be deleted after
 lengthy cleanups, this list, commonly called
 the NPL, will continue to grow by approxi-
 mately 50 to 100 sites per year, potentially
 reaching 2,100 sites by the year 2000.

 THE  NATIONAL CLEANUP
 EFFORT IS MUCH  MORE THAN
 THE  NPL

From the beginning of the program, Congress
recognized that the Federal government could

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INTRODUCTION
not and should not address all environmental
problems stemming from past disposal prac-
tices. Therefore, the EPA was directed to set
priorities and establish a list of sites to target.
Sites on the NPL (1,245) thus are a relatively
small subset of a larger inventory of potential
hazardous waste sites, but they do comprise
the most complex and compelling cases. The
EPA has logged more than 35,000 sites on its
national inventory of potentially hazardous
waste sites and assesses each site within one
year of being logged.

THE EPA IS  MAKING  PROGRESS
ON SITE CLEANUP

The goal of the Superfund program is to tackle
immediate dangers first and then move through
the progressive steps necessary to eliminate
any long-term risks to public health  and the
environment.

Superfund responds immediately to  sites
posing imminent threats to human health and
the environment at both NPL sites and sites not
on the NPL.  The purpose is to stabilize,
prevent, or temper the effects of a release of
hazardous substances, or the threat of one, into
the environment. These might include tire
fires or transportation accidents involving the
spill of hazardous chemicals. Because they
reduce the threat a site poses to human health
and the environment, immediate cleanup
actions are an integral part of the Superfund
program.

Immediate response to imminent threats is one
of Superfund's most noted achievements.
Where imminent threats to the public or
environment were evident, the EPA  has initi-
ated or completed emergency actions that
attacked the most serious threats of toxic
exposure in more than 2,700 cases.

The ultimate goal for a hazardous waste site on
the NPL is a permanent solution to an environ-
mental problem that presents a serious threat
to the public or the environment.  This often
requires a long-term effort.  The EPA has
aggressively accelerated its efforts to perform
these long-term cleanups of NPL  sites.  More
cleanups were started in 1987, when the
Superfund law was amended, than in any
previous year. By 1991, construction had
started at more than four times as many sites as
in 1986!  Of the sites currently on the NPL,
more than 500 — nearly half— have had
construction cleanup activity. In addition,
more than 400 more sites presently are in the
investigation stage to determine the extent of
site contamination and to identify appropriate
cleanup remedies. Many other sites with
cleanup remedies selected are poised for the
start of cleanup construction activity. In
measuring success by "progress through the
cleanup pipeline," the EPA clearly is gaining
momentum.

THE EPA MAKES SURE
CLEANUP WORKS

The EPA has gained enough experience in
cleanup construction to understand that envi-
ronmental protection does not end when the
remedy is in place. Many complex technolo-
gies — like those designed to clean up ground-
water — must operate for many years in order
to accomplish their objectives.

The EPA's hazardous waste site managers are
committed to proper operation and mainte-
nance of every remedy constructed. No matter
who has been delegated responsibility for
monitoring the cleanup work, the  EPA will
assure that the remedy is carefully followed
and that it continues to do its job.

Likewise, the EPA does not abandon a site
even after the cleanup work is done. Every
five years, the Agency reviews each site where
residues from hazardous waste cleanup still
remain to ensure that public and environmental

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                                                             INTRODUCTION
 health are being safeguarded. The EPA will
 correct any deficiencies discovered and will
 report to the public annually on all five-year
 reviews conducted that year.

 CITIZENS HELP SHAPE
 DECISIONS

 Superfund activities also depend upon local
 citizen participation. The EPA's job is to
 analyze the hazards and to deploy the experts,
 but the Agency needs citizen input as it makes
 choices  for affected communities.

 Because the people in a community where a
 Superfund site is located will be those most
 directly affected by hazardous waste problems
 and cleanup processes, the EPA encourages
 citizens to get involved in cleanup decisions.
 Public involvement and comment does influ-
 ence EPA cleanup plans by providing valuable
 information about site conditions, community
 concerns, and preferences.

 The State and U.S. Territories volumes and the
 companion National overview volume provide
 general Superfund background information
 and descriptions of activities at each NPL site.
 These volumes clearly describe what the
 problems are, what the EPA and others partici-
 pating in site cleanups are doing, and how we,
 as a Nation, can move ahead in solving these
 serious problems.

 USING THE STATE AND
 NATIONAL VOLUMES TOGETHER

To understand the big picture on hazardous
waste cleanup, citizens need to hear about both
environmental progress across the country and
the cleanup accomplishments closer to home.
Citizens also should understand the challenges
involved in hazardous waste cleanup and the
decisions we must make, as a Nation, in
finding the best solutions.
 The National overview, Superfund: Focusing
 on the Nation at Large (1991), contains impor-
 tant information to help you understand the
 magnitude and challenges facing the
 Superfund program, as well as an overview of
 the National cleanup effort. The sections
 describe the nature of the hazardous waste
 problem nationwide, threats and contaminants
 at NPL sites and their potential effects on
 human health and the environment, vital roles
 of the various participants in the cleanup
 process, the Superfund program's successes in
 cleaning up the Nation's serious hazardous
 waste sites, and the current  status of the NPL.
 If you did not receive this overview volume,
 ordering information is provided in the front of
 this book.

 This volume compiles site summary fact sheets
 on each State or Territorial site being cleaned
 up under the Superfund program. These sites
 represent the most serious hazardous waste
 problems in the Nation and require the most
 complicated and costly site  solutions yet
 encountered. Each book gives a "snapshot" of
 the conditions and cleanup progress that has
 been made at each NPL site. Information
 presented for each site is current as of April
 1991. Conditions change as our cleanup
 efforts continue, so these site summaries will
 be updated annually to include information on
 new progress being made.

 To help you understand the cleanup accom-
 plishments made at these sites, this volume
 includes a description of the process for site
 discovery, threat evaluation, and long-term
 cleanup of Superfund sites.  This description,
How Does the Program Work to Clean Up
Sites?, will serve as a reference point from
 which to review the cleanup status at specific
 sites. A glossary defining key terms as they
 apply to hazardous waste management and site
cleanup is  included as Appendix A in the back
of this book.

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                                                            SUPERFUND
      The diverse problems posed by hazard-
      ous waste sites have provided the EPA
      with the challenge to establish a consis-
tent approach for evaluating and cleaning up
the Nation's most serious sites. To do this, the
EPA has had to step beyond its traditional role
as a regulatory agency to develop processes
and guidelines for each step in these techni-
cally complex site cleanups. The EPA has
established procedures to coordinate the
efforts of its Washington, D.C. Headquarters
program offices and its front-line staff in ten
Regional Offices, with the State and local
governments, contractors, and private parties
who are participating in site cleanup. An
important part of the process is that any time
            How Does the
           Program Work
                 to Clean  Up
                              Sites?
                  THREE-STEP SUPERFUND PROCESS
       STEP1

     Discover site and
     determine whether
     an emergency
     exists *
   STEP 2

Evaluate whether a
site is a serious threat
to public health or
environment
  STEPS

Perform long-term
cleanup actions on
the most serious
hazardous waste
sites in the Nation
    * Emergency actions are performed whenever needed in this three-step process.
 during cleanup, work can be led by the EPA
or the State or, under their monitoring, by
private parties who are potentially responsible
for site contamination.

The process for discovery of the site, evalu-
ation of threat, and the long-term cleanup of
Superfund sites is summarized in the follow-
ing pages. The phases of each of these steps
are highlighted within the description. The
       flow diagram above provides a summary of the
       three-step process.

       Although this book provides a current "snap-
       shot" of site progress made only by emergency
       actions and long-term cleanup actions at
       Superfund sites, it is important to understand
       the discovery and evaluation process that leads
       to identifying and cleaning up these most
       serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous

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SUPERFUND
waste sites in the Nation. The discovery and
evaluation process is the starting point for this
summary description of Superfund involve-
ment at hazardous waste sites.
STEP 1:   SITE DISCOVERY AND
             EMERGENCY EVALUATION
      How does the EPA learn about
      potential hazardous waste sites?
Site discovery occurs in a number of ways.
Information comes from concerned citizens.
People may notice an odd taste or foul odor in
their drinking water or see half-buried leaking
barrels; a hunter may come across a field
where waste was dumped illegally.  There may
be an explosion or fire, which alerts the State
or local authorities to a problem. Routine
investigations by State and local governments
and required reporting and inspection of
facilities that generate, treat, store, or dispose
of hazardous waste also help keep the EPA
informed about actual or potential threats of
hazardous substance releases.  All reported
sites or spills are recorded in the Superfund
inventory (CERCLIS) for further investigation
to determine whether they will require cleanup.
     What happens if there is an imminent
     danger?
 As soon as a potential hazardous waste site is
 reported, the EPA determines whether there is
 an emergency requiring an immediate cleanup
 action.  If there is, they act as quickly as
 possible to remove or stabilize the imminent
 threat. These short-term emergency actions
 range from building a fence around the con-
 taminated area to keep people away, or tempo-
 rarily relocating residents until the danger is
 addressed, to providing bottled water to resi-
 dents while their local drinking water supply is
 being cleaned up or physically removing
wastes for safe disposal.

However, emergency actions can happen at
any time an imminent threat or emergency
warrants them. For example, if leaking barrels
are found when cleanup crews start digging in
the ground or if samples of contaminated soils
or air show that there may be a threat of fire or
explosion, an immediate action is taken.
STEP 2:   SITE THREAT EVALUATION

      If there isn't an imminent danger, how
      does the EPA determine what, if any,
      cleanup actions should be taken?
Even after any imminent dangers are taken
care of, in most cases, contamination may
remain at the site.  For example, residents may
have been supplied with bottled water to take
care of their immediate problem of contami-
nated well water, but now it's time to deter-
mine what is contaminating the drinking water
supply and the best way to clean it up.  The
EPA may determine that there is no imminent
danger from a site, so any long-term threats
need to be evaluated.  In either case, a more
comprehensive investigation is needed to
determine if a site  poses a serious, but not
imminent, danger and whether it requires a
long-term cleanup action.

Once a site is discovered and any needed
emergency actions are taken, the EPA or the
State collects all available background  infor-
mation not only from their own files, but also
from local records and U.S. Geological Survey
maps. This information is used to identify the
site and to perform a preliminary assessment of
its potential hazards. This is a quick review of
readily available information to answer the
questions:

   •   Are hazardous substances likely to be
       present?

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                                                                     SUPERFUND
    •   How are they contained?

    •   How might contaminants spread?

    •   How close is the nearest well, home, or
       natural resource area such as a wetland
       or animal sanctuary?

    •   What may be harmed — the land,
       water, air, people, plants, or animals?

Some sites do not require further action be-
cause the preliminary assessment shows that
they do not threaten public health or the envi-
ronment.  But even in these cases, the sites
remain listed in the Superfund inventory for
record-keeping purposes and future reference.
Currently, there are more than 35,000 sites
maintained in this inventory.

      If the preliminary assessment
      shows a serious threat may exist,
      what's the next step?

Inspectors go to the site to collect additional
information to evaluate its hazard potential.
During this site inspection, they look for
evidence of hazardous waste, such as leaking
drums and dead or discolored vegetation.
They may take some samples of soil, well
water, river water, and air.  Inspectors analyze
the ways hazardous materials could be pollut-
ing the environment, such as runoff into
nearby streams. They also check to see if
people (especially children) have access to
the site.
     How does the EPA use the results of
     the site inspection?
Information collected during the site inspection
is used to identify the sites posing the most
serious threats to human health and the envi-
ronment. This way, the EPA can meet the
requirement that Congress gave them to use
Superfund monies only on the worst hazardous
waste sites in the Nation.
 To identify the most serious sites, the EPA
 developed the Hazard Ranking System (HRS).
 The HRS is the scoring system the EPA uses to
 assess the relative threat from a release or a
 potential release of hazardous substances from
 a site to surrounding groundwater, surface
 water, air, and soil. A site score is based on
 the likelihood that a hazardous substance will
 be released from the site, the toxicity and
 amount of hazardous substances at the site, and
 the people and  sensitive environments poten-
 tially affected by contamination at the site.

 Only sites with high enough health and envi-
 ronmental risk  scores are proposed to be added
 to the NPL. That's why 1,245 sites are on the
 NPL, but there  are more than 35,000 sites in
 the Superfund inventory.  Only NPL sites can
 have a long-term cleanup paid for from
 Superfund, the  national hazardous waste trust
 fund. Superfund can, and does, pay for emer-
 gency actions performed at any site, whether
 or not it's on the NPL.
      Why are sites proposed to the NPL?
Sites proposed to the NPL have been evaluated
through the scoring process as the most serious
problems among uncontrolled or abandoned
hazardous waste sites in the U.S. In addition, a
site will be proposed to the NPL if the Agency
for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
issues a health advisory recommending that
people be moved away from the site. The NPL
is updated at least once a year, and it's only
after public comments are considered that
these proposed worst sites officially are added
to the list.

Listing on the NPL does not set the order in
which sites will be cleaned up. The order is
influenced by the relative priority of the site's
health and environmental threats compared to
other sites, and such factors as State priorities,
engineering capabilities, and available tech-

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SUPERFUND
nologies. Many States also have their own list
of sites that require cleanup; these often contain
sites that are not on the NPL and are scheduled
to be cleaned up with State money. And, it
should be noted again that any emergency
action needed at a site can be performed by the
Superfund, whether or not a site is on the NPL.

A detailed description of the current progress in
cleaning up NPL sites is found in the section of
the 1991 National overview volume entitled
Cleanup Successes: Measuring Progress.

     How do people find out whether the
     EPA considers a site a national
     priority for cleanup under the
     Superfund Program?

All NPL sites, where Superfund is responsible
for cleanup, are described in the State and
Territorial volumes. The public also can find
out whether other sites, not on the NPL, are
being addressed by the Superfund program by
calling their Regional EPA office or the Super-
fund Hotline at the numbers listed in this book.
STEP 3:   LONG-TERM CLEANUP
             ACTIONS
      After a site is added to the NPL, what
      are the steps to cleanup?
The ultimate goal for a hazardous waste site on
the NPL is a permanent, long-term cleanup.
Since every site presents a unique set of chal-
lenges, there is no single all-purpose solution.
A five-phase "remedial response" process is
used to develop consistent and workable
solutions to hazardous waste problems across
the Nation:

  1. Remedial Investigation: investigate in
    detail the extent of the site contamination
  2. Feasibility Study: study the range of
    possible cleanup remedies

  3. Record of Decision or ROD: decide
    which remedy to use

  4. Remedial Design: plan the remedy

  5. Remedial Action: carry out the remedy

This remedial response process is a long-term
effort to provide a permanent solution to an
environmental problem that presents a serious
threat to the public or environment.

The first two phases of a long-term cleanup are
a combined remedial investigation and feasibil-
ity study (RI/FS) that determine the nature and
extent of contamination at the site and identify
and evaluate cleanup alternatives. These
studies may be conducted by the EPA or the
State or, under their monitoring, by private
parties.

Like the initial site inspection described earlier,
a remedial investigation involves an examina-
tion of site data in order to better define the
problem. However, the remedial investigation
is much more detailed and comprehensive than
the initial site inspection.

A remedial investigation can best be described
as a carefully designed field study. It includes
extensive sampling and laboratory analyses to
generate more precise data on the types and
quantities of wastes present at the site, the type
of soil and water drainage patterns, and specific
human health and environmental risks.

The result of the remedial investigation is
information that allows the EPA to select the
cleanup strategy that is best suited to a particu-
lar site or to determine that no cleanup is
needed.

Placing a site on the NPL does not necessarily
mean  that cleanup is needed. It is possible for

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                                                                     SUPERFUND
 a site to receive an HRS score high enough to
 be added to the NPL, but not ultimately require
 cleanup actions.  Keep in mind that the purpose
 of the scoring process is to provide a prelimi-
 nary and conservative assessment of potential
 risk. During subsequent site investigations, the
 EPA may find either that there is no real threat
 or that the site does not pose significant human
 health or environmental risks.
      How are cleanup alternatives
      identified and evaluated?
 The EPA or the State or, under their monitor-
 ing, private parties identify and analyze spe-
 cific site cleanup needs based on the extensive
 information collected during the remedial
 investigation. This analysis of cleanup alterna-
 tives is called a. feasibility study.

 Since cleanup actions must be tailored exactly
 to the needs of each individual site, more than
 one possible cleanup alternative is always
 considered. After making sure that all potential
 cleanup remedies fully protect human health
 and the environment and comply with Federal
 and State laws, the advantages and disadvan-
 tages of each cleanup alternative are  compared
 carefully. These comparisons are made to
 determine their effectiveness in the short and
 long term, their use of permanent treatment
 solutions, and their technical feasibility and
 cost.

 To the maximum extent practicable, the rem-
 edy must be a permanent solution and must use
 treatment technologies to destroy principal site
contaminants. Remedies such as containing the
waste on site or removing the source of the
problem (like leaking barrels) often are consid-
ered effective.  Often, special pilot studies are
conducted to determine the effectiveness and
feasibility of using a particular technology to
clean up a site. Therefore, the combined
remedial investigation and feasibility study can
take between 10 and 30 months to complete,
 depending on the size and complexity of the
 problem.
      Does the public have a say in the
      final cleanup decision?
 Yes.  The Superfund law requires that the
 public be given the opportunity to comment on
 the proposed cleanup plan. Their concerns are
 considered carefully before a final decision is
 made.

 The results of the remedial investigation and
 feasibility study, which also point out the
 recommended cleanup choice, are published in
 a report for public review and comment. The
 EPA or the State encourages the public to
 review the information and take an active role
 in the final cleanup decision. Fact sheets and
 announcements in local papers let the commu-
 nity know where they can get copies of the
 study and other reference documents concern-
 ing the site.  Local information repositories,
 such as libraries or other public buildings,  are
 established in cities and towns near each NPL
 site to ensure that the public has an opportunity
 to review all relevant information and the
 proposed cleanup plans.  Locations of informa-
 tion repositories for each NPL site described in
 this volume are given in Appendix B.

 The public has a minimum of 30 days to
 comment on the proposed cleanup plan after it
 is published. These comments can be written
 or given verbally at public meetings that the
 EPA or the State are required to hold. Neither
 the EPA nor the State can select the final
 cleanup remedy without evaluating and provid-
 ing written answers to specific community
 comments and concerns. This "responsiveness
 summary" is part of the EPA's write-up of the
 final remedy decision, called the Record of
Decision, or ROD.

The ROD is a public document that explains
the cleanup remedy chosen and the reason it

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SUPERFUND
was selected.  Since sites frequently are large
and must be cleaned up in stages, a ROD may
be necessary for each contaminated resource or
area of the site. This may be necessary when
contaminants have spread into the soil, water,
and air and affect such sensitive areas as
wetlands, or when the site is large and cleaned
up in stages. This often means that a number
of remedies, using different cleanup technolo-
gies, are needed to clean up a single site.

     If every cleanup action needs to be
     tailored to a site, does the design
     ofthe remedy need to be tailored,
     too?

Yes. Before a specific cleanup action is carried
out, it must be designed in detail to meet
specific site needs.  This stage of the cleanup is
called the remedial design.  The design phase
provides the details  on how the selected rem-
edy will be engineered and constructed.

Projects to clean up a hazardous waste site may
appear to be like any other major construction
project but, in fact, the likely presence of
combinations of dangerous chemicals demands
special construction planning and procedures.
Therefore, the design of the remedy can take
anywhere from six months to two years to
complete.  This blueprint for site cleanup
includes not only the details on every aspect of
the construction work, but a description of the
types of hazardous wastes expected at the site,
special plans for environmental protection,
worker safety, regulatory compliance, and
equipment decontamination.
     Once the design is completed,
     how long does it take to actually
     clean up the site, and how much
     does it cost?
The time and cost for performing the site
cleanup, called the remedial action, are as
varied as the remedies themselves. In a few
cases, the only action needed may be to remove
drums of hazardous waste and to decontami-
nate them, an action that takes limited time and
money.  In most cases, however, a remedial
action may involve different and expensive
cleanup measures that can take a long time.

For example, cleaning polluted groundwater or
dredging contaminated river bottoms can take
several years of complex engineering work
before contamination is reduced to safe levels.
Sometimes the selected cleanup remedy de-
scribed in the ROD may need to be modified
because of new contaminant information
discovered or difficulties that were faced
during the early cleanup activities. Taking into
account these differences, each remedial
cleanup action takes an average of 18 months
to complete and ultimately costs an average of
$26 million to complete all necessary cleanup
actions at a site.

      Once the cleanup action is
      completed, is the site
      automatically "deleted" from the
      NPL?

No. The deletion of a site from the NPL is
anything but automatic. For example, cleanup
of contaminated groundwater may take up to
20 years or longer. Also, in some cases, long-
term monitoring of the remedy is required to
ensure that it is effective.  After construction of
certain remedies, operation and maintenance
(e.g., maintenance of ground cover, groundwa-
ter monitoring, etc.), or continued pumping and
treating of groundwater may be required to
ensure that the remedy continues to prevent
future health hazards or environmental damage
and ultimately meets the cleanup goals speci-
fied in the ROD.  Sites in this final monitoring
or operational stage of the cleanup process are
designated as "construction complete."

It's not until a site cleanup meets all the goals
and monitoring requirements of the selected
                                          10

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                                                                     SUPERFUND
 remedy that the EPA can officially propose the
 site for deletion from the NPL, and it's not
 until public comments are taken into consid-
 eration that a site actually can be deleted from
 the NPL.  All sites deleted from the NPL and
 sites with completed construction are included
 in the progress report found later in this book.
      Can a site be taken off the NPL if
      no cleanup has taken place?
 Yes.  But only if further site investigation
 reveals that there are no threats present at the
 site and that cleanup activities are not neces-
 sary.  In these cases, the EPA will select a "no
 action" remedy and may move to delete the
 site when monitoring confirms that the site
 does not pose a threat to human health or the
 environment.

 In other cases, sites may be "removed" from
 the NPL if new information concerning site
 cleanup or threats show that the site does not
 warrant Superfund activities.

 A site may be removed if a revised HRS
 scoring, based on updated information, results
 in a score below the minimum for NPL sites.
 A site also may be removed from the NPL by
 transferring it to other appropriate Federal
 cleanup authorities, such as RCRA, for further
 cleanup actions.

 Removing sites for technical reasons or trans-
 ferring sites to other cleanup programs pre-
 serves Superfund monies for the Nation's most
 pressing hazardous waste problems where no
 other cleanup authority is applicable.
      Can the EPA make parties
      responsible for the contamination
      pay?
Yes. Based on the belief that "the polluters
should pay," after a site is placed on the NPL,
the EPA makes a thorough effort to identify
and find those responsible for causing con-
tamination problems at a site. Although the
EPA is willing to negotiate with these private
parties and encourages voluntary cleanup, it
has the authority under the Superfund law to
legally force those potentially responsible for
site hazards to take specific cleanup actions.
All work performed by these parties is closely
guided and monitored by the EPA and must
meet the same standards required for actions
financed through the Superfund.

Because these enforcement actions can be
lengthy, the EPA may decide to use Superfund
monies to make sure a site is cleaned up
without unnecessary delay. For example, if a
site presents an imminent threat to public
health and the environment or if conditions at a
site may worsen, it could be necessary to start
the cleanup right away. Those responsible for
causing site contamination are liable under the
law (CERCLA) for repaying the money the
EPA spends in cleaning up the site.

Whenever possible, the EPA and the Depart-
ment of Justice use their legal enforcement
authorities to require responsible parties to pay
for site cleanups, thereby preserving Superfund
resources for emergency actions and for sites
where no responsible parties can be identified.
                                           11

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                                                             THE VOLUME
       The site fact sheets presented in this
       book are comprehensive summaries
       that cover a broad range of information.
       The fact sheets describe hazardous
 waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as
 well as the conditions leading to their listing
 ("Site Description"). The summaries list the
 types of contaminants that have been discov-
 ered and related threats to public and ecologi-
 cal health ("Threats and Contaminants").
 "Cleanup Approach" presents an overview of
 the cleanup activities completed, underway, or
 planned.  The fact sheets conclude with a brief
 synopsis of how much progress has been made
 in protecting public health and the environ-
 ment.  The summaries also pinpoint other
 actions, such as legal efforts to involve pollut-
 ers responsible for site contamination and
 community concerns.

 The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical
 order by site name.  Because site cleanup is a
 dynamic and gradual process, all site informa-
 tion is accurate as of the date shown on the
 bottom of each page. Progress always is being
 made at NPL sites, and the EPA periodically
 will update the site fact sheets to reflect recent
 actions and will publish updated State vol-
 umes.  The following two pages show a ge-
 neric fact sheet and briefly describe the infor-
 mation under each section.
HOW CAN YOU USE THIS STATE
BOOK?

You can use this book to keep informed about
the sites that concern you, particularly ones
close to home. The EPA is committed to
involving the public in the decision making
process associated with hazardous waste
cleanup. The Agency solicits input from area
residents in communities affected by Super-
fund sites. Citizens are likely to be affected
not only by hazardous site conditions, but also
by the remedies that combat them. Site clean-
           How to  Use
                 the  State
                           Book
ups take many forms and can affect communi-
ties in different ways.  Local traffic may be
rerouted, residents may be relocated, tempo-
rary water supplies may be necessary.

Definitive information on a site can help
citizens sift through alternatives and make
decisions. To make good choices, you must
know what the threats are and how the EPA
intends to clean up the site. You must under-
stand the cleanup alternatives being proposed
for site cleanup and how residents may be
affected by each one. You also need to have
some idea of how your community intends to
use the site in the future, and you need to
know what the community can realistically
expect once the cleanup is complete.

The EPA wants to develop cleanup methods
that meet community needs, but the Agency
only can take local concerns into account if it
understands what they are.  Information  must
travel both ways in order for cleanups to  be
effective and satisfactory. Please take this
opportunity to learn more, become involved,
and assure that hazardous waste cleanup at
"your" site considers your community's
concerns.
                                         13

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THE VOLUME
   NPL LISTING HISTORY

 Dates when the site was
 Proposed, made Final, and
 Deleted from the NPL.
   SITE RESPONSIBILITY

 Identifies the Federal, State,
 and/or potentially respon-
 sible parties that are taking
 responsibility for cleanup
 actions at the site.
  SITE NAME
  STATE
  EPA ID* ABCOOOOOOO
^Sttetescriptlon
                           Environmental Progress =^=
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS

 A summary of the actions to reduce the threats to
 nearby residents and the surrounding environment;
 progress towards cleaning up the site and goals of
 the cleanup plan are given here.
   EPA REGION XX

CONGRESSIONAL DIST XX
    COUNTY NAME
     LOCATION

    Other Name*:
 Threats and Contaminants
                            Response Action Status
                                         14

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                                               THE VOLUME
                         SITE DESCRIPTION

This section describes the location and history of the site.  It includes descrip-
tions of the most recent activities and past actions at the site that have con-
tributed to the contamination. Population estimates, land usages, and nearby
resources give readers background on the local setting surrounding the site.
                   THREATS AND CONTAMINANTS

The major chemical categories of site contamination are noted, as well as
which environmental resources are affected. Icons representing each of the
affected resources (may include air, ground water, surface water, soil, and
contamination to environmentally sensitive areas) are included in the margins
of this section. Potential threats to residents and the surrounding environ-
ments arising from the site contamination also are described.
                       CLEANUP APPROACH

This section contains a brief overview of how the site is being cleaned up.
                    RESPONSE ACTION STATUS

Specific actions that have been accomplished or will be undertaken to clean
up the site are described here. Cleanup activities at NPL sites are divided
into separate phases, depending on the complexity and required actions at the
site. Two major types of cleanup activities often are described: initial,
immediate, or emergency actions to quickly remove or reduce imminent
threats to the community and surrounding areas; and long-term remedial
phases directed at final cleanup at the site. Each stage of the cleanup strategy
is presented in this section of the summary. Icons representing the stage of
the cleanup process (initial actions, site investigations, EPA selection of the
cleanup remedy, engineering design phase, cleanup activities underway, and
completed cleanup) are located in the margin next to each activity descrip-
tion.
                            SITE FACTS

Additional information on activities and events at the site are included in this
section. Often details on legal or administrative actions taken by the EPA to
achieve site cleanup or other facts pertaining to community involvement with
the site cleanup process are reported here.

                          15

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THE VOLUME
The "icons," or symbols, accompanying the text allow the reader to see at a glance which envi-
ronmental resources are affected and the status of cleanup activities at the site.
Icons in the Threats and
Contaminants Section
       Contaminated Groundwater resources
       in the Contaminated Groundwater in
       the vicinity or underlying the site.
       (Groundwater is often used as a
       drinking water source.)

       Contaminated Surface Water and
       Sediments on or near the site. (These
       include lakes, ponds, streams, and
       rivers.)

       Contaminated Air in the vicinity of
       the site.  (Air pollution usually is
       periodic and involves contaminated
       dust particles or hazardous gas emis-
       sions.)

       Contaminated Soil and Sludges on or
       near the site. (This contamination
       category may include bulk or other
       surface hazardous wastes found on the
       site.)

       Threatened or contaminated Environ-
       mentally Sensitive Areas in the vicin-
       ity of the site. (Examples include
       wetlands and coastal areas or critical
       habitats.)
Icons in the Response Action
Status Section
        Initial Actions have been taken or are
        underway to eliminate immediate
        threats at the site.

       Site Studies at the site to determine the
       nature and extent of contamination are
       planned or underway.

       Remedy Selected indicates that site
       investigations have been concluded,
       and the EPA has selected a final
       cleanup remedy for the site or part of
       the site.

        Remedy Design means that engineers
        are preparing specifications and
        drawings for the selected cleanup
        technologies.

        Cleanup Ongoing indicates that the
        selected cleanup remedies for the
        contaminated site, or pan of the site,
        currently are underway.

        Cleanup Complete shows that all
        cleanup goals have been achieved for
        the contaminated site or part of the
        site.
                               Environmental Progress summa-
                               rizes the activities taken to date to
                               protect human health and to clean
                               up site contamination.
                                          16

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                 c
                                                          NPL SITES
                                               The State  of
                                                            Alaska
The northernmost State of Alaska is located in EPA Region 10, which includes the northwestern
United States. The State covers 586,412 square miles, consisting mostly of the Pacific and
Arctic Mountain systems with a central plateau and an Arctic Slope region. According to the
1990 Census, Alaska experienced a 37% increase in population betwen 1980 and 1990, and
currently has approximately 550,000 residents, ranking 49th in U.S. populations. Principal state
industries include oil, gas, tourism, and commercial fishing. Alaska-manufactured goods include
fish products, lumber and pulp, and furs.
How Many NPL Sites
Are in the State of Alaska?
        Proposed
        Final
        Deleted
 0
 6
_Q
 6
                    Where Are the NPL Sites Located?
Congressional District 1
6 sites
                      What Type of Sites Are on the NPL
                           in the State of Alaska?
                 # of sites
                     type of sites


                    Federal Facilities
                    Recycler
                                    17
                                                April 1991

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NPL SITES
      How Are Sites Contaminated and What Are the Principal* Chemicals?
         6 -I-
         5 --
         4--
         3-
         2 --
         1 --
              GW    Soil   Sed
            Contamination Area
                                 Groundwater: Heavy metals
                                 (inorganics), volatile organic com-
                                 pounds (VOCs), and polychlorinated
                                 biphenyls (PCBs).

                                 Soil:  Heavy metals (inorganics),
                                 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
                                 creosotes (organics), pesticides, asbes-
                                 tos, and acids.
                                 Sediments:  Polychlorinated biphe-
                                 nyls (PCBs).


                                 *Appear at 20% or more sites
             Where Are the Sites in the Superfund Cleanup Process?*
      2
     Sites
     with   I
    Studies
   Underway
 Sites
 with
Remedy
Selected
 Sites
 with
Remedy
 Design
 Sites
 with
Cleanup
Ongoing
   Sites
   with
Construction
 Complete
Deleted
 Sites
 In addition to the activities described above, initial actions have been taken at 4 sites as interim
 cleanup measures.

 'Cleanup status reflects phases of site activities rather than administrative accomplishments.
 April 1991
                         18

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                                                      THE NPL REPORT
      The following Progress Report lists all
      sites currently on, or deleted from, the
      NPL and briefly summarizes the status
of activities for each site at the time this
report was prepared.  The steps in the Super-
fund cleanup process are arrayed across the
top of the chart, and each site's progress
through these steps is represented by an arrow
(O) indicating the current stage of cleanup.
Large and complex sites often are organized
into several cleanup stages.  For example,
separate cleanup efforts may be required to
address the source of the contamination,
hazardous substances in the groundwater, and
surface water pollution, or to clean up differ-
ent areas of a large site. In such cases, the
chart portrays cleanup progress at the site's
most advanced stage, reflecting the status of
site activities rather than administrative
accomplishments.
•  An arrow in the "Initial Response" cate-
gory indicates that an emergency cleanup or
initial action  has been completed or currently
is underway.  Emergency or initial actions are
taken as an interim measure to provide im-
mediate relief from exposure to hazardous site
conditions or to stabilize a site to prevent
further contamination.
•  A final arrow in the "Site Studies"
category indicates that an investigation to
determine the nature and extent of the
contamination at the site currently is ongoing.
•  A final arrow in the "Remedy Selection"
category means that the EPA has selected the
final cleanup strategy for the site.  At the few
sites where the EPA has determined that
initial response actions have eliminated site
contamination, or that any remaining
contamination will be naturally dispersed
without further cleanup activities, a "No
                  Progress
                    To  Date
Action" remedy is selected. In these cases, the
arrows are discontinued at the "Remedy
Selection" step and resume in the
"Construction Complete" category.
•  A final arrow at the "Remedial Design"
stage indicates that engineers currently are
designing the technical specifications for the
selected cleanup remedies and technologies.
•  A final arrow in the "Cleanup Ongoing"
column means that final cleanup actions have
been started at the site and currently are
underway.
»  A final arrow in the "Construction
Complete" category is used only when all
phases  of the site cleanup plan have been
performed, and the EPA has determined that no
additional construction actions are required at
the site. Some sites in this category currently
may  be undergoing long-term operation and
maintenance or monitoring to ensure that the
cleanup actions continue to protect human
health and the environment.
•  A check in the "Deleted" category indicates
that the site cleanup has met all human health
and environmental goals and that the EPA has
deleted the site from the NPL.
Further information on the activities and
progress at each site is given in the site "Fact
Sheets" published in this volume.
                                         19
                                Aprii1991

-------
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April 1991
20

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                 THE NPL FACT SHEETS
V
                       Summary
                           of Site
                       Activities
           EPA REGION 10
               21
April 1991

-------
                Who Do I Call with Questions?

                The following pages describe each NPL site in Alaska, providing specific
                information on threats and contaminants, cleanup activities, and environmen-
                tal progress. Should you have questions, please call the EPA's Region 10
                Office in Seattle, WA or one of the other offices listed below:

                  EPA Region 10 Superfund Community Relations Office (206) 553-2871
                  EPA Region 10 Superfund Office                     (206) 553-1090
                  EPA Superfund Hotline                              (800) 424-9346
                  EPA Headquarters Public Information Center           (202) 260-2080
                  Alaska Superfund Office                             (907) 465-2671
April! 991                                 22

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ALAS
ENTER
ALASKA
    EPA REGION 10
CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
   Fairbanks North Star County
   1 1/2 miles south of Fairbanks
EPAID#AKD004904215
Site Description
Alaska Battery Enterprises manufactured batteries on a 1-acre site approximately 1 1/2 miles south
of Fairbanks. Used batteries were accepted for recycling, and battery parts and acid were stored in a
fenced, unpaved yard and inside a building on the site. Operations began in 1961, with the filling in
of marshland with battery casings. Wash water, spills, and domestic wastewater generated inside
the building were discharged to an on-site septic tank and drain field. Prior to 1988, used batteries
were broken open on site, the acid was reused, and the lead was shipped out of state.  In 1986, the
Alaska Department of Transportation, whose right-of-way completely surrounds the site, found lead
and acid in soil on and off the site. The City of Fairbanks has a population of approximately
22,600.  There are 12 schools within 3 miles of the site, as well as the Alaskaland Theme Park.
Wetlands covering more than 5 acres are located within 1/2 mile to the northeast of the facility.
Site Responsibility:   The site is being addressed through
                      Federal actions.
      NPL LISTING HISTORY
     Proposed Date: 06/24/88
       Final Date: 03/31/89
Threats and Contaminants
          The groundwater may be contaminated with lead, nitrate, and sulfate. The soil
          contains lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and acid. A potential hazard exists
          if individuals accidentally ingest or come into direct contact with contaminated soil
          and groundwater. The groundwater is shallow and the soil is permeable, conditions
          that facilitate the movement of contaminants into the groundwater. Contamination
          from the site also could adversely affect the freshwater wetland.
Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in two stages: an immediate action and a single long-term remedial
phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
                                       23
                     April 1991

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Response Action Status
          Immediate Action: In 1988, the EPA excavated contaminated soil and stockpiled it in
          a lined trench on site. Test pits were dug to the shallow water table, and water samples
          were collected for analysis.  A total of 39 gondola rail cars were loaded with 2,900 cubic
yards of lead-contaminated soil, which were disposed of in a federally approved facility. Areas of
high lead content were capped with a liner and a foot of topsoil. The EPA removed the remaining
800 cubic yards of soil in 1989.

          Entire Site: In early 1991, the EPA began a detailed investigation to determine the
          nature and the extent of the  contamination. Field work is expected to begin in 1991. The
          results of the study will assist in determining the final cleanup method. The investigation
is scheduled for completion in 1992, with a decision on cleanup approaches to be made by the end of
the year.
Environmental Progress
Excavating contaminated soil and capping parts of the Alaska Battery Enterprises site have
reduced the threat to human health and the environment while the investigation is taking place
and final cleanup actions are being planned.
April 1991
24
ALASKA BATTERY ENTERPRISES

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ARCTIC  S
ALASKA
EPAID#AKD980988158
                                          EPA REGION 10
                                      CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                         Fairbanks North Star County
                                                Fairbanks
                                                                    Other Names:
                                                                   McPeak Salvage

Site Description
The Arctic Surplus site occupies 22 acres in southeast Fairbanks. Salvage operations at the site
were conducted from 1946 to 1989 by a number of parties, including the Department of Defense
(DoD). On site are a variety of buildings, storage trailers, and discarded military equipment.
Approximately 2,000 drums containing unknown quantities of various oils, fuels, and chemicals
are on site. Other wastes include unknown quantities of asbestos, batteries, battery acids that
were drained onto the ground during battery recycling activities, and ash piles from the
incineration of transformer casings. In 1988, the Alaska Department of Environmental
Conservation conducted a site inspection  and detected elevated levels of metals on site.
Groundwater beneath the site is shallow and also contains elevated levels of metals.  An
unnamed alluvial aquifer, which underlies the Tanana-Chena flood plain, is the primary source
of drinking water for the residents in and  around Fort Wainwright, located 1 1/2 miles northwest
of the site. Fort Wainwright operates four groundwater wells, which supply potable water to
approximately 12,000 residents. The 1,000 residents within a 3-mile radius of the site are not
serviced by the Fort Wainwright wells and are dependent on private  domestic wells or bottled
water.
Site Responsibility:
The site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY
Proposed Date: 10/26/89
  Final Date: 08/30/90
Threats and Contaminants
          On-site groundwater contains heavy metals including zinc and lead. On-site soil
          is contaminated with heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic
          aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), asbestos, and pesticides. People ingesting or
          coming into direct contact with contaminated groundwater and soil may suffer
          adverse health effects.  The Tanana and the Chena Rivers flow approximately
          1 mile away from the site and could become polluted by the contaminants.
                                       25
                                                         April 1991

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Cleanup Approach 	

The site is being addressed in two stages:  emergency actions and a long-term remedial phase
focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
Response Action Status
         Emergency Actions: In 1989, EPA emergency staff assessed the site and found
         approximately 1,700 drums containing liquids and sludges, some flammable or
         corrosive. The EPA overpacked leaking drums, stabilized loose asbestos, and erected
a chain-link fence. In 1990, the DoD consolidated all drums and containers of hazardous liquids
and sludges.  Contaminated soils also were excavated. Disposal of the soils is expected to be
completed in mid-1991.  The EPA plans to conduct additional activities in 1991, including a
survey of soil contamination, removal or capping of additional contaminated soils, and removal
and disposal of additional drums that may be buried on the site.

         Entire Site: An investigation to determine the nature and extent of contamination at
         the site is scheduled to begin in late 1991. Based on the results of the investigation, a
         remedy will be selected to cleanup the site.

Site Facts:  Under an EPA Consent Order, the DoD assumed responsibility for emergency
actions.
Environmental Progress
Overpacking leaking drums, stabilizing loose asbestos, and installing a fence have significantly
reduced the threat to human health and the environment posed by the Arctic Surplus site while
the DoD continues emergency cleanup at the site.
April 1991                                    26                              ARCTIC SURPLUS

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EIELSON
FORCE  BA
ALASKA
EPA ID#AK1570028646
Site Description
                                      EPA REGION 10
                                  CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                      Fairbanks North Star County
                                     Fairbanks North Star Borough
The Eielson Air Force Base site covers 19,780 acres in Fairbanks North Star Borough, 24 miles
southeast of Fairbanks. Since its establishment in 1944, its primary mission is providing tactical
support to the Alaskan Air Command.  The site contains closed and active unlined landfills
extending into the groundwater, shallow trenches where weathered tank sludge was buried, a
drum storage area, and other disposal or spill areas.  Sampling has indicated numerous
contaminants in the groundwater and soil. Several monitoring wells have been converted into
static recovery wells to remove floating petroleum products from area groundwater, but only
small quantities have been recovered. Approximately 6,000 people obtain drinking water from
wells within 3 miles of hazardous substances on the  base.  Surface water 3 miles downgradient
of the base is used for fishing. The base is in the flood plain of the Tanana River.
Site Responsibility:
The site is being addressed through a
combination of Federal and State
actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY
Proposed Date: 07/14/89
 Final Date: 11/21/89
Threats and Contaminants
         Groundwater contains lead and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene,
         xylene, and toluene. Soil is contaminated with heavy metals including lead, arsenic,
         chromium, and zinc. Ingesting or coming into direct contact with contaminated
         groundwater or soil may pose a potential health threat. If contaminants leach into the
         nearby Tanana River, wildlife in and around the river may be harmed.
                                      27
                                                       April 1991

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Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in five long-term remedial phases focusing on cleanup of the fuel
contamination, two separate landfills, TCE spills, and the drum burial sites.

Response Action Status	
         Fuel Contamination: In 1991, the Air Force began investigating the nature and extent
         of fuel contamination. Once the studies are completed, measures for final cleanup will be
         recommended.

         Landfills: In 1991, the Air Force began investigating the landfills on the site. The
         investigation is exploring the nature and extent of contamination and will recommend the
         alternative strategies for cleanup.

         TCE Spills:  In 1991, the Air Force is scheduled to investigate the TCE spill areas of the
         base to determine the type and extent of contamination. The investigation will conclude
         with recommendations for cleanup.

         Drum Burial Sites:  In 1991, the Air Force is expected to begin conducting an
         investigation into the nature and extent of contamination at the drum burial sites.  This
         investigation will conclude with recommendations for final site cleanup.

         Landfills: In early 1992, the Ah- Force is expected to begin an investigation into the
         nature and extent of contamination at a separate landfill area of the site.  The completed
         study will identify and recommend final cleanup alternatives for this area.

Site Facts: Eielson Air Force Base is participating in the Installation Restoration Program, a
specially funded program established by the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1978 to identify,
investigate, and control the migration of hazardous contaminants at military and other DoD facilities.
In May 1991, the Air Force and the EPA signed an Interagency Agreement for this site.
 Environmental Progress
 Preliminary investigations have determined that the Eielson Air Force Base site does not pose a
 threat to human health or the environment while investigations leading to the selection of cleanup
 activities continue.
 April 1991                                    28                       EIELSON AIR FORCE BASE

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ELMENDORF
FORCE  BASE
ALASKA
EPA ID# AK8570028649
                                        EPA REGION 10
                                    CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                           Anchorage County
                                      Immediately north of Anchorage
                                            Other Names:
                                         USAF-ElmendorfAFB
Site Description
The Elmendorf Air Force Base site covers approximately 13,100 acres near Anchorage. The air
base is the home of the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing. The site contains closed and active landfills,
drum storage areas, waste disposal areas, and spill areas.  The Air Force has identified 52 areas
of possible site contamination. Initially, the focus was on five areas including landfills D-5 (now
closed) and D-7 (still active), which received a variety of hazardous wastes, including lead acid
batteries and waste solvents.  The landfills, which are not lined or bermed, are in sandy and
heavily graveled soils. Shop wastes, including solvents and paint thinners, were disposed of in
an unlined trench designated as site D-17. Site IS-1 is where fuel in Building 42-400 spilled into
floor drains that feed into gravel-bottom dry wells. The last of the five areas included in the
initial investigation is site SP5, where approximately 60,000 gallons of aviation fuel JP-4 spilled,
of which only 33,000 gallons were recovered. Approximately 121,000 individuals reside within
3 miles of the base. Drinking water for these residents is obtained from surface supplies located
12 to 30 miles north of the base.  Emergency backup water supply wells for Elmendorf are
located within 3 miles of the identified contamination.
Site Responsibility:
The site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY
Proposed Date: 07/14/89
 Final Date: 08/30/90
Threats and Contaminants
         Groundwater contains lead and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as
         trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.  People who come in direct
         contact with or drink contaminated groundwater may be at risk.
                                      29
                                                       April 1991

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Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in five stages: interim actions and four long-term remedial phases
focusing on cleaning up the landfills, shop wastes, the dry wells and floor drain spills, and
multiple fuel spills.
Response Action Status
         Interim Actions:  In 1991, the Air Force is expected to clean up an abandoned
         asphalt drum staging area, remove an 8,000-gallon underground storage tank, remove
         abandoned 28,000-to-50,000-gallon JP-4 tanks, and reslope and cover an old sanitary
landfill. The Air Force also plans to install and operate a groundwater treatment system at the
JP-4 spill site.

         Landfills: In 1991, the Air Force is expected to begin investigating the type and
         extent of contamination at the landfills. Once the investigation is completed, expected
         in 1992, effective measures to clean up the landfills will be recommended.

         Shop Wastes: In 1992, the Air Force is slated to begin an investigation into the
         nature of contamination.  Once the study is completed, scheduled for 1993,
         recommendations for cleanup will be made.

         Dry Wells and Floor Drain Spills: In 1992, the Air Force is scheduled to begin
         investigating the extent of the contamination as a result of the fuel in Building 42-400
         that spilled onto floor drains feeding into gravel-bottom dry wells. The investigation is
scheduled for completion in 1993. At that time, the alternative strategies for cleanup will be
recommended.

         Multiple Fuel Spills: The Air Force is expected to begin an investigation of the
         multiple fuel spills area in early 1992. Once the investigation is completed, scheduled
         for 1993, cleanup recommendations will be made.

Site Facts: Elmendorf Air Force Base is participating in the Installation Restoration Program,
a specially funded program established by the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1978 to identify,
investigate, and control the migration of hazardous contaminants at military and other DoD
facilities.
 Environmental Progress
The actions planned for 1991, including cleaning up the drum staging area, removing tanks, and
resloping and covering an old landfill, will reduce the threats posed to human health and the
environment while investigations continue at the Elmendorf Air Force Base site.
 April 1991                                     30                   ELMENDORF AIR FORCE BASE

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FORT W
ALASKA
EPA ID#AK62100224:
                                          EPA REGION 10
                                      CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                          Fairbanks North Star County
                                         Fairbanks North Star Borough
                                                                    Other Names:
                                                               U.S. Army - Fort Wainwright
Site Description
Fort Wainwright, near Fairbanks, was established in 1947, with the primary mission of training
soldiers and testing equipment in arctic conditions. Industrial operations primarily involved
maintenance of aircraft and vehicles. Fort Wainwright is made up of several areas, including a
4,473-acre cantonment area, which includes a 74-acre sanitary landfill.  The landfill has received
waste oil, waste fuel, spent solvents, perchloroethylene-contaminated dry cleaning filters,
asbestos, paint residues, and fuel tank sludge since the mid-1950s.  The landfill is not lined or
bermed and is built up higher than the surrounding land. A second contaminated area is the 45-
acre North Post Oxbow and Family Housing Area, located 3,500 feet from the landfill. The
Army used this area for storage of petroleum products, solvents, and other chemicals and for the
disposal of power plant ash and slag containing chromium and mercury. About 11,000 people,
including the entire population of Fort Wainwright, obtain drinking water from wells within 3
miles of the site.  The Chena River, which is used for sport fishing, is less than 3 miles
downstream of the site.
Site Responsibility:
The site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
NPL LISTING HISTORY
Proposed Date: 07/14/89
 Final Date: 08/30/90
Threats and Contaminants
          On-site groundwater is contaminated with lead, chromium, and tetrahydrofuran.
          Soil contains chromium. Potential health threats to people include ingestion of or
          direct contact with contaminated groundwater and soil.
Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in a single long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire
site.
                                       31
                                                         April 1991

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Response Action Status
         Entire Site: The U.S. Army is expected to begin a study in 1992 that will determine
         the nature and extent of groundwater and soil contamination at the site. The study will
         define the contaminants of concern and will recommend alternatives for the final
groundwater and soil cleanup. The study is scheduled for completion in 1994.

Site Facts: Fort Wainwright is participating in the Installation Restoration Program, a specially
funded program established by the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1978 to identify,
investigate, and control the migration of hazardous contaminants at military and other DoD
facilities.
Environmental Progress
The Army has performed a preliminary assessment and has determined that the Fort Wainwright
site does not pose an immediate threat to human health or the environment while investigations
leading to final cleanup activities are being planned.
 April 1991
32
                                                                        FORT WAINWRIGHT

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STANDARD
METALS
YARD  (U
ALASKA
EPA ID# AKD980978787
Site Description
    EPA REGION 10
CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
      Anchorage County
         Anchorage
        Other Names:
    US-DOT-Standard Steel
The Standard Steel & Metals Salvage Yard site covers approximately 6 acres in a heavily
industrialized area of Anchorage. The Federal Railroad Administration, part of the U.S. Department
of Transportation (DOT), acquired the land in the 1920s. Since 1972, the land has been leased to
several different recyclers whose activities included reclamation of polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs)-contaminated electrical transformers, salvaging of assorted batteries, and processing of
various types of equipment and drums from nearby military bases. In 1982, the land was leased to
Standard Steel & Metals. The site contains transformers, bulk tanks, an incinerator, a metal crusher,
drums and containers, and other items associated with salvage operations. In 1985, the EPA
detected low levels of PCBs in the sediment of nearby Ship Creek. In 1987, the EPA detected
contaminants in on-site groundwater. Over 121,000 people obtain drinking water from wells within
3 miles of the site. Ship Creek is used for sport fishing and is a salmon migratory stream.
Site Responsibility:  The site is being addressed through
                     Federal actions.
   NPL LISTING HISTORY
   Proposed Date: 07/14/89
    Final Date: 08/30/90
Threats and Contaminants
         Chlorinated dioxin and furan have been detected in the ash near the on-site incinerator.
         Soils contain PCBs, solvents, and lead. On-site groundwater is contaminated with lead,
         PCBs, and tetrachloroethylene. Sediments in Ship Creek are contaminated with PCBs.
         People may be exposed to pollutants through accidental ingestion of or direct contact
         with contaminated groundwater, soil, sediments, or ash. Contaminants that have
         bioaccumulated in fish and other wildlife also may pose a health threat to people.
                                     33
                  April 1991

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Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in two stages:  immediate actions and a single long-term remedial
phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
Response Action Status
         Immediate Actions: In 1986, the EPA removed surface wastes, including an
         estimated 8,500 batteries, 175 transformers, 1,100 drums, 3 bulk storage tanks,
         assorted containers, and metal debris, and transported the materials to federally
regulated disposal facilities. In 1988, the EPA sealed the surface soil in the most highly
contaminated areas, removed the remaining containers of hazardous materials, and strengthened
the security fence.

         Entire Site: In 1992, an investigation into the type and extent of contamination at the
         site is expected to begin. The investigation will result in recommendations for the
         final cleanup of the site.
Environmental Progress
The EPA's immediate actions of removing batteries, transformers, drums, tanks, debris, sealing
highly contaminated surface soil, and strengthening the security fence have significantly reduced
the threat of exposure to contaminants while investigations leading to final site cleanup are being
planned.
April 1991                                    34                     STANDARD STEEL & METALS
                                                                     SALVAGE YARD (USDOT)

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        APPENDIX A
       Glossary:
     Terms Used
          in the
     Fact Sheets
35

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                                                                 GLOSSARY
      This glossary defines terms used
      throughout the NPL Volumes. The
      terms and abbreviations contained in
this glossary apply specifically to work
performed under the Superfund program in
the context of hazardous waste management.
These terms may have other meanings when
used in a different context.
          Terms  Used
              in  the NPL
                           Book
Acids: Substances, characterized by low pH
(less than 7.0), that are used in chemical
manufacturing. Acids in high concentration
can be very corrosive and react with many
inorganic and organic substances. These
reactions possibly may create toxic com-
pounds or release heavy metal contaminants
that remain in the environment long after the
acid is neutralized.

Administrative Order On Consent: A legal
and enforceable agreement between the EPA
and the parties potentially responsible for site
contamination. Under the terms of the Order,
the potentially responsible parties (PRPs)
agree to perform or pay for site studies or
cleanups. It also describes the oversight rules,
responsibilities, and enforcement options that
the government may exercise in the event of
non-compliance by potentially responsible
parties. This Order is signed by PRPs and the
government; it does not require approval by a
judge.

Administrative Order [Unilateral]:  A
legally binding document issued by the EPA,
directing the parties potentially responsible to
perform site cleanups or studies (generally,
the EPA does not issue Unilateral Orders for
site studies).

Aeration: A process that promotes break-
down of contaminants in soil or water by
exposing them to air.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR): The Federal agency
within the U.S. Public Health Service charged
with carrying out the health-related responsi-
bilities of CERCLA.

Air Stripping: A process whereby volatile
organic chemicals (VOCs) are removed from
contaminated material by forcing a stream of
air through it in a pressurized vessel. The
contaminants are evaporated into the air
stream. The air may be further treated before
it is released into the atmosphere.

Ambient Air: Any unconfined pan of the
atmosphere. Refers to the air that may be
inhaled by workers or residents in the vicinity
of contaminated air sources.

Aquifer: An underground layer of rock,
sand, or gravel capable of storing water
within cracks and pore spaces, or between
grains.  When  water contained within an
aquifer is of sufficient quantity and quality, it
can be tapped and used for drinking or other
purposes.  The water contained in the aquifer
is called groundwater.  A sole source aquifer
supplies 50% or more of the drinking water of
an area.

Artesian (Well):  A well made by drilling
into the earth until water is reached, which,
from internal pressure, flows up like a foun-
tain.
                                        37

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GLOSSARY.
Attenuation: The naturally occurring pro-
cess by which a compound is reduced in
concentration over time through adsorption,
degradation, dilution, and/or transformation.

Background Level: The amount of a sub-
stance typically found in the air, water, or soil
from natural, as opposed to human, sources.

Baghouse Dust:  Dust accumulated in remov-
ing particulates from the air by passing it
through cloth bags in an enclosure.

Bases: Substances characterized by high pH
(greater than 7.0), which tend to be corrosive
in chemical reactions.  When bases are mixed
with acids, they neutralize each other, form-
ing salts.

Berm: A ledge, wall, or a mound of earth
used to prevent the migration of contami-
nants.

Bioaccumulate:  The process by which some
contaminants or toxic chemicals gradually
collect and increase in concentration in living
tissue, such as  in plants, fish, or people, as
they breathe contaminated air, drink contami-
nated water, or eat contaminated food.

Biological Treatment: The use of bacteria or
other microbial organisms to break down
toxic organic materials into carbon dioxide
and water.

Bioremediation:  A cleanup process using
naturally occurring or specially cultivated
microorganisms to digest contaminants and
break them down into non-hazardous  compo-
nents.

Bog:  A type of wetland that is covered with
peat moss deposits.  Bogs depend primarily
on moisture from the air for their water
source, are usually acidic, and are rich in plant
residue [see Wetland].
Boom: A floating device used to contain oil
floating on a body of water or to restrict the
potential overflow of waste liquids from
containment structures.

Borehole: A hole that is drilled into the
ground and used to sample soil or ground-
water.

Borrow Pit:  An excavated area where soil,
sand, or gravel has been dug up for use
elsewhere.

Cap: A layer of material, such as clay or a
synthetic material, used to prevent rainwater
from penetrating and spreading contaminated
materials. The surface of the cap generally is
mounded or sloped so water will drain off.

Carbon Adsorption:  A treatment system  in
which contaminants are removed from
groundwater and surface water by forcing
water through tanks containing  activated
carbon, a specially treated material that
attracts and holds or retains contaminants.

Carbon Disulfide:  A  degreasing agent
formerly used extensively for parts washing.
This compound has both inorganic and or-
ganic properties, which increase cleaning
efficiency. However, these properties also
cause chemical reactions that increase the
hazard to human health and the environment.

Carbon Treatment: [see Carbon Adsorp-
tion].

Cell: In solid waste disposal, one of a series
of holes in a landfill where waste is dumped,
compacted, and covered with layers of dirt.

CERCLA:  [see Comprehensive Environ-
mental Response, Compensation, and Liabil-
ity Act].

Characterization:  The sampling, monitor-
ing, and analysis of a site to determine the
                                          38

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                                                                   GLOSSARY
extent and nature of toxic releases. Character-
ization provides the basis for acquiring the
necessary technical information to develop,
screen, analyze, and select appropriate
cleanup techniques.

Chemical Fixation:  The use of chemicals to
bind contaminants, thereby reducing the
potential for leaching or other movement.

Chromated Copper Arsenate: An insecti-
cide/herbicide formed from salts of three toxic
metals: copper, chromium, and arsenic. This
salt is used extensively as a wood preservative
in pressure-treating operations. It is highly
toxic and water-soluble, making it a relatively
mobile contaminant in the environment.

Cleanup:  Actions taken to eliminate a
release or threat of release of a hazardous
substance. The term "cleanup" sometimes is
used interchangeably with the terms remedial
action, removal action, response action, or
corrective action.

Closure: The process by which a landfill
stops accepting wastes and is shut down,
under Federal guidelines that ensure the
protection of the public and the environment.

Comment Period: A specific interval during
which the public can review and comment on
various documents and EPA actions related to
site cleanup. For example, a comment period
is provided when the EPA proposes to add
sites to the NPL. There is minimum 3-week
comment period for community members to
review and comment on the remedy proposed
to clean up a site.

Community Relations: The EPA effort to
establish and maintain two-way communica-
tion with the public.  Goals of community
relations programs include creating an under-
standing of EPA programs and related ac-
tions, assuring public input into decision-
making processes related to affected commu-
nities, and making certain that the Agency is
aware of, and responsive to, public concerns.
Specific community relations activities are
required in relation to Superfund cleanup
actions [see Comment Period].

Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act
(CERCLA): Congress enacted the
CERCLA, known as Superfund, in 1980 to
respond directly to hazardous waste problems
that may pose a threat to the public health and
the environment. The EPA administers the
Superfund program.

Confluence: The place where two bodies of
water, such as streams or rivers, come to-
gether.

Consent Decree: A legal document, ap-
proved and issued by a judge, formalizing an
agreement between the EPA and the parties
potentially responsible for site contamination.
The decree describes cleanup actions that the
potentially responsible parties are required to
perform and/or the costs incurred by the
government that the parties will reimburse, as
well as the roles, responsibilities, and enforce-
ment options that the government may exer-
cise in the event of non-compliance by poten-
tially responsible parties. If a settlement
between the EPA and a potentially respon-
sible party includes cleanup actions, it must
be in the form of a Consent Decree. A Con-
sent Decree is subject to a public comment
period.

Consent Order: [see Administrative Order
on Consent].

Containment:  The process of enclosing or
containing hazardous substances in a struc-
ture, typically in a pond or a lagoon, to pre-
vent the migration of contaminants into the
environment.
                                         39

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GLOSSARY.
Contaminant: Any physical, chemical,
biological, or radiological material or sub-
stance whose quantity, location, or nature
produces undesirable health or environmental
effects.

Contingency Plan:  A document setting out
an organized, planned, and coordinated course
of action to be followed in case of a fire,
explosion, or other accident that releases toxic
chemicals, hazardous wastes, or radioactive
materials into the environment.

Cooperative Agreement: A contract be-
tween the EPA and the States, wherein a State
agrees to manage or monitor certain site
cleanup responsibilities and other activities on
a cost-sharing basis.

Cost Recovery: A legal process by which
potentially responsible parties can be required
to pay back the Superfund program for money
it spends on any cleanup actions [see Poten-
tially Responsible Parties].

Cover:  Vegetation or other material placed
over a landfill or other waste material. It can
be designed to reduce movement of water into
the waste and to prevent erosion that could
cause the movement of contaminants.

Creosotes: Chemicals used in wood preserv-
ing operations and produced by distillation of
tar, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
[see PAHs and PNAs].  Contaminating
sediments, soils, and surface water, creosotes
may cause skin ulcerations and cancer
through prolonged exposure.

Culvert: A pipe used for drainage under a
road, railroad track, path, or through an
embankment.

Decommission:  To revoke a license to
operate and take out of service.
Degradation:  The process by which a
chemical is reduced to a less complex form.

Degrease: To remove grease from wastes,
soils, or chemicals, usually using solvents.

De minimis: This legal phrase pertains to
settlements with parties who contributed
small amounts of hazardous waste to a site.
This process allows the EPA to settle with
small, or de minimis contributors, as a single
group rather than as individuals, saving time,
money, and effort.

Dewater:  To remove water from wastes,
soils, or chemicals.

Dike: A low wall that can act as a barrier to
prevent a spill from spreading.

Disposal:  Final placement or destruction of
toxic, radioactive, or other wastes; surplus or
banned pesticides or other chemicals; polluted
soils; and drums containing hazardous materi-
als. Disposal may be accomplished through
the use of approved secure landfills, surface
impoundments, land farming, deep well
injection, or incineration.

Downgradient: A downward hydrologic
slope that causes groundwater to move toward
lower elevations.  Therefore, wells downgra-
dient of a contaminated groundwater source
are prone to receiving pollutants.

Effluent:  Wastewater, treated or untreated,
that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or
industrial outfall.  Generally refers to wastes
discharged into surface waters.

Emission:  Pollution discharged into the
atmosphere from smokestacks, other vents,
and surface areas  of commercial or industrial
facilities.

Emulsifiers: Substances that help in mixing
materials that do not normally mix; e.g., oil
and water.
                                          40

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                                                                     GLOSSARY
Endangerment Assessment:  A study con-
ducted to determine the risks posed to public
health or the environment by contamination at
NPL sites. The EPA or the State conducts the
study when a legal action is to be taken to
direct the potentially responsible parties to
clean up a site or pay for the cleanup. An
endangerment assessment supplements an
investigation of the site hazards.

Enforcement: EPA, State, or local legal
actions taken against parties to facilitate
settlements; to compel compliance with laws,
rules, regulations, or agreements; and/or to
obtain penalties or criminal sanctions for
violations. Enforcement procedures may
vary, depending on the specific requirements
of different environmental laws and related
regulatory requirements.  Under CERCLA,
for example, the EPA will seek to require
potentially responsible parties to clean up a
Superfund site or pay for the cleanup [see
Cost Recovery].

Erosion: The wearing away of land surface
by wind or water. Erosion occurs naturally
from weather or surface runoff, but can be
intensified by such land-related practices as
farming, residential or  industrial develop-
ment, road building, or timber-cutting. Ero-
sion may spread surface contamination to off-
site locations.

Estuary (estuarine): Areas where fresh
water from rivers and salt water from
nearshore ocean waters are mixed. These
areas may include bays, mouths of rivers, salt
marshes, and lagoons.  These water ecosys-
tems shelter and feed marine life, birds, and
wildlife.

Evaporation Ponds:  Areas where sewage
sludge or other watery  wastes are dumped and
allowed to dry out.
Feasibility Study: The analysis of the
potential cleanup alternatives for a site. The
feasibility study usually starts as soon as the
remedial investigation is underway; together,
they are commonly referred to as the RI/FS
[see Remedial Investigation].

Filtration: A treatment process for removing
solid (particulate) matter from water by
passing the water through sand, activated
carbon, or a man-made filter.  The process is
often used to remove particles that contain
contaminants.

Flood Plain:  An area along a river, formed
from sediment deposited by floods.  Rood
plains periodically are innundated by natural
floods, which can spread contamination.

Flue Gas:  The air that is emitted from a
chimney after combustion in the burner
occurs.  The gas can include nitrogen oxides,
carbon oxides, water vapor, sulfur oxides,
particles, and many chemical pollutants.

Fly Ash: Non-combustible residue that
results from the combustion of flue gases.  It
can include nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides,
water vapor, sulfur oxides, as well as many
other chemical pollutants.

French Drain System: A crushed rock drain
system constructed of perforated pipes, which
is used to drain and disperse wastewater.

Gasification (coal): The conversion of soft
coal into gas for use as a fuel.

Generator: A facility that emits pollutants
into the air or releases hazardous wastes into
water or soil.

Good Faith Offer:  A voluntary offer, gener-
ally in response to a Special Notice letter,
made by a potentially responsible party,
consisting of a written proposal demonstrating
a potentially responsible party's qualifications
                                          41

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GLOSSARY.
and willingness to perform a site study or
cleanup.

Groundwater: Underground water that fills
pores in soils or openings in rocks to the point
of saturation. In aquifers, groundwater occurs
in sufficient quantities for use as drinking and
irrigation water and other purposes.

Groundwater Quality Assessment:  The
process of analyzing the chemical characteris-
tics of groundwater to determine whether any
hazardous materials exist.

Halogens:  Reactive non-metals, such as
chlorine and bromine. Halogens are very
good oxidizing agents and, therefore, have
many industrial uses. They are rarely found
by themselves; however, many chemicals
such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
some volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
and dioxin are reactive because of the pres-
ence of halogens.

Hazard Ranking System (HRS): The
principal screening tool used by the EPA to
evaluate relative risks to  public health and the
environment associated with  abandoned or
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The HRS
calculates a score  based on the potential of
hazardous substances spreading from the site
through the air, surface water, or groundwater
and on other factors such as nearby popula-
tion. The HRS score is the primary factor in
deciding if the site should be on the NPL.

Hazardous Waste:  By-products of society
that can pose a substantial present or potential
hazard to human health and the environment
when improperly managed.  It possesses at
least one of four characteristics (ignitability,
corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity), or appears
on special EPA lists.

Hot Spot:  An area or vicinity of a site con-
taining exceptionally high levels of contami-
nation.
Hydrogeology: The geology of groundwater,
with particular emphasis on the chemistry and
movement of water.

Impoundment: A body of water or sludge
confined by a dam, dike, floodgate, or other
barrier.

Incineration:  A group of treatment technolo-
gies involving destruction of waste by con-
trolled burning at high temperatures, e.g.,
burning sludge to reduce the remaining
residues to a non-burnable ash that can be
disposed of safely on land, in some waters, or
in underground locations.

Infiltration: The  movement of water or other
liquid down through soil from precipitation
(rain or snow) or from application of waste-
water to the land surface.

Influent: Water, wastewater, or other liquid
flowing into a reservoir, basin, or treatment
plant.

Injection Well: A well into which waste
fluids are placed, under pressure, for purposes
of disposal.

Inorganic Chemicals: Chemical substances
of mineral origin,  not of basic carbon struc-
ture.

Installation Restoration Program: The
specially funded program established in 1978
under which the Department of Defense has
been identifying and evaluating its hazardous
waste sites and controlling the migration of
hazardous contaminants from those sites.

Intake: The source from where a water
supply is drawn, such as from a river or water
body.

Interagency Agreement: A written agree-
ment between the EPA and a Federal agency
that has the lead for site cleanup activities,
                                           42

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                                                                     GLOSSARY
setting forth the roles and responsibilities of
the agencies for performing and overseeing
the activities. States often are parties to
interagency agreements.

Interim (Permit) Status: Conditions under
which hazardous waste treatment, storage,
and disposal facilities, that were operating
when regulations under the RCRA became
final in 1980, are temporarily allowed by the
EPA to continue to operate while awaiting
denial or issuance of a permanent permit. The
facility must comply with certain regulations
to maintain interim status.

Lagoon: A shallow pond or liquid waste
containment structure. Lagoons typically are
used for the storage of wastewaters, sludges,
liquid wastes, or spent nuclear fuel.

Landfarm: To apply waste to land and/or
incorporate waste into the surface soil, such
as fertilizer or soil conditioner. This practice
commonly is used for disposal of composted
wastes and sludges.

Landfill: A disposal facility where waste is
placed in or on land.  Sanitary landfills are
disposal sites  for non-hazardous solid wastes.
The waste is spread in layers, compacted to
the smallest practical  volume, and covered
with soil at the end of each operating day.
Secure chemical landfills are disposal sites for
hazardous waste.  They are designed to
minimize the chance of release of hazardous
substances into the environment [see Re-
source Conservation and Recovery Act].

Leachate [n]: The liquid that trickles
through or drains from waste, carrying soluble
components from the  waste. Leach, Leach-
ing [v.t.]: The process by which soluble
chemical components are dissolved and
carried through soil by water or some other
percolating liquid.
Leachate Collection System: A system that
gathers liquid that has leaked into a landfill or
other waste disposal area and pumps it to the
surface for treatment.

Liner: A relatively impermeable barrier
designed to prevent leachate (waste residue)
from leaking from a landfill.  Liner materials
include plastic and dense clay.

Long-term Remedial Phase: Distinct, often
incremental, steps that are taken to solve site
pollution problems. Depending on the com-
plexity, site cleanup activities can be sepa-
rated into several of these phases.

Marsh: A type of wetland that does not
contain peat moss deposits and is dominated
by vegetation.  Marshes may be either fresh or
saltwater and tidal or non-tidal [see Wetland].

Migration:  The movement of oil, gas,
contaminants, water, or other liquids through
porous and permeable soils or rock.

Mill Tailings: [See Mine Tailings].

Mine Tailings: A fine, sandy residue left
from mining operations.  Tailings often
contain high concentrations of lead, uranium,
and arsenic or other heavy metals.

Mitigation: Actions  taken to improve site
conditions by limiting, reducing, or control-
ling toxicity and contamination sources.

Modeling: A technique  using a mathematical
or physical representation of a system  or
theory that tests the effects that changes on
system components have on the overall
performance of the system.

Monitoring Wells: Special wells drilled at
specific locations within, or surrounding, a
hazardous waste site where groundwater can
be sampled at selected depths and studied to
obtain such information as the direction in
                                          43

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GLOSSARY.
which groundwater flows and the types and
amounts of contaminants present.

National Priorities List (NPL): The EPA's
list of the most serious uncontrolled or aban-
doned hazardous waste sites identified for
possible long-term cleanup under Superfund.
The EPA is required to update the NPL at
least once a year.

Neutrals:  Organic compounds that have a
relatively neutral pH, complex structure and,
due to their organic bases, are easily absorbed
into the environment.  Naphthalene, pyrene,
and trichlorobenzene are examples of
neutrals.

Nitroaromatics:  Common components of
explosive materials, which will explode if
activated by very high temperatures or pres-
sures; 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a
nitroaromatic.

Notice Letter: A General Notice Letter
notifies the parties potentially responsible for
site contamination of their possible liability.
A Special Notice Letter begins a 60-day
formal period of negotiation during which the
EPA is not allowed to start work at a site or
initiate enforcement actions against poten-
tially responsible parties, although the EPA
may undertake certain investigatory and
planning activities. The 60-day period may
be extended if the EPA receives a good faith
offer within that period.

On-Scene Coordinator (OSC): The
predesignated EPA, Coast Guard, or Depart-
ment of Defense official who coordinates and
directs Superfund removal actions or Clean
Water Act oil- or hazardous-spill corrective
actions.

Operation and Maintenance: Activities
conducted at a site after a cleanup action is
completed to ensure that the cleanup or
containment system is functioning properly.
Organic Chemicals/Compounds: Chemical
substances containing mainly carbon, hydro-
gen, and oxygen.

Outfall: The place where wastewater is
discharged into receiving waters.

Overpacking:  Process used for isolating
large volumes of waste by jacketing or encap-
sulating waste to prevent further spread or
leakage of contaminating materials. Leaking
drums may be contained within oversized
barrels as an interim measure prior to removal
and final disposal.

Pentachlorophenol (PCP):  A synthetic,
modified petrochemical that is used as a wood
preservative because of its toxicity to termites
and fungi. It is a common component of
creosotes and can cause cancer.

Perched (groundwater): Groundwater
separated from another underlying body of
groundwater by a confining layer, often clay
or rock.

Percolation: The downward flow or filtering
of water or other liquids through subsurface
rock or soil layers, usually continuing down-
ward to groundwater.

Petrochemicals:  Chemical substances
produced from petroleum in refinery opera-
tions and as fuel oil residues. These include
fluoranthene, chrysene, mineral spirits, and
refined oils.  Petrochemicals are the bases
from which volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), plastics, and many pesticides are
made.  These chemical substances often are
toxic to humans and the environment.

Phenols:  Organic compounds that are used
in plastics manufacturing and are by-products
of petroleum refining, tanning, textile, dye,
and resin manufacturing. Phenols are highly
poisonous.
                                         44

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                                                                    GLOSSARY
Physical Chemical Separation: The treat-
ment process of adding a chemical to a sub-
stance to separate the compounds for further
treatment or disposal.

Pilot Testing:  A small-scale test of a pro-
posed treatment system in the field to deter-
mine its ability to clean up specific contami-
nants.

Plugging: The process of stopping the flow
of water, oil, or gas into or out of the ground
through a borehole or well penetrating the
ground.

Plume: A body of contaminated groundwater
flowing from a specific source.  The move-
ment of the groundwater is influenced by such
factors as local groundwater flow patterns, the
character of the aquifer in which groundwater
is contained, and the density of contaminants
[see Migration].

Pollution: Generally, the presence of matter
or energy whose nature, location, or quantity
produces undesired health or environmental
effects.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or
Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs):
PAHs, such as pyrene, are a group of highly
reactive organic compounds  found in motor
oil. They are a common component of creo-
sotes and can cause cancer.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls  (PCBs): A
group of toxic chemicals used for a variety of
purposes including electrical applications,
carbonless copy paper, adhesives, hydraulic
fluids, microscope irrmersion oils, and caulk-
ing compounds. PCBs also  are produced in
certain combustion processes. PCBs are
extremely persistent in the environment
because they are very stable, non-reactive,
and highly heat resistant.  Chronic exposure
to PCBs is believed to cause  liver damage. It
also is known to bioaccumulate in fatty
tissues.  PCB use and sale was banned in
1979 with the passage of the Toxic Sub-
stances Control Act.

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
(PNAs): PNAs, such as naphthalene, and
biphenyls, are a group of highly reactive
organic compounds that are a common com-
ponent of creosotes, which can be carcino-
genic.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): A plastic made
from the gaseous substance vinyl chloride.
PVC is used to make pipes, records, raincoats,
and floor tiles. Health risks from high con-
centrations of vinyl chloride include liver
cancer and lung cancer, as well as cancer of
the lymphatic and nervous systems.

Potable Water:  Water that is safe for drink-
ing and cooking.

Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs):
Parties, including owners, who may have
contributed to the contamination at a Su-
perfund site and may be liable for costs of
response actions. Parties are considered PRPs
until they admit liability or a court makes a
determination of liability. PRPs may sign a
Consent Decree or Administrative Order on
Consent to participate in site cleanup activity
without admitting liability.

Precipitation: The removal of solids from
liquid waste so that the solid and liquid
portions can be disposed of safely; the re-
moval of particles from airborne emissions.
Electrochemical precipitation is the use of an
anode or cathode to remove the hazardous
chemicals. Chemical precipitation involves
the addition of some substance to cause the
solid portion to separate.

Preliminary Assessment:  The process of
collecting and reviewing available informa-
tion about a known or suspected waste site or
release to determine if a threat or potential
threat exists.
                                          45

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GLOSSARY.
Pump and Treat: A groundwater cleanup
technique involving the extracting of contami-
nated groundwater from the subsurface and
the removal of contaminants, using one of
several treatment technologies.

Radionuclides: Elements, including radium
and uranium-235 and -238, which break down
and produce radioactive substances due to
their unstable atomic structure. Some are
man-made, and others are naturally occurring
in the environment. Radon, the gaseous form
of radium, decays to form alpha particle
radiation, which cannot be absorbed through
skin.  However, it can be inhaled, which
allows alpha particles to affect unprotected
tissues directly and thus cause cancer. Radia-
tion also occurs naturally through the break-
down of granite stones.

RCRA:  [See Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act].

Recharge Area: A land area where rainwater
saturates the ground and soaks through the
earth to reach an aquifer.

Record of Decision (ROD):  A public docu-
ment that explains which cleanup
alternative(s) will be used to clean up sites
listed on the NPL. It is based on information
generated during the remedial investigation
and feasibility study and consideration of
public comments and community concerns.

Recovery Wells: Wells used to withdraw
contaminants or contaminated groundwater.

Recycle: The process of minimizing waste
generation by recovering usable products that
might otherwise become waste.

Remedial Action (RA): The actual construc-
tion or implementation phase of a Superfund
site cleanup following the remedial design
[see Cleanup].
Remedial Design: A phase of site cleanup,
where engineers design the technical specifi-
cations for cleanup remedies and technolo-
gies.

Remedial Investigation:  An in-depth study
designed to gather the data necessary to
determine the nature and extent of contami-
nation at a Superfund site, establish the
criteria for cleaning up the site, identify the
preliminary alternatives for cleanup actions,
and support the technical and cost analyses of
the alternatives. The remedial investigation
is usually done with the feasibility study.
Together they are customarily referred to as
the RI/FS [see Feasibility Study].

Remedial Project Manager (RPM): The
EPA or State official responsible for oversee-
ing cleanup actions at a site.

Remedy Selection:  The selection of the
final cleanup strategy for the site. At the few
sites where the EPA has determined that
initial response actions have eliminated site
contamination, or that any remaining con-
tamination will be naturally dispersed with-
out further cleanup activities, a "No Action"
remedy is selected [see Record of Decision].

Removal Action: Short-term immediate
actions taken to address releases of hazardous
substances [see Cleanup].

Residual: The amount of a pollutant remain-
ing in the environment after a natural or
technological process has taken place, e.g.,
the sludge remaining after initial wastewater
treatment, or particulates remaining in air
after the  air passes through a scrubbing,  or
other, process.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA): A Federal law that established a
regulatory system to track hazardous sub-
stances from the time of generation to dis-
posal.  The law requires safe and secure
                                          46

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                                                                     GLOSSARY
procedures to be used in treating, transport-
ing, storing, and disposing of hazardous
substances. RCRA is designed to prevent
new, uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.

Retention Pond:  A small body of liquid
used for disposing of wastes and containing
overflow from production facilities. Some-
times retention ponds are used to expand the
capacity of such structures as lagoons to store
waste.

Riparian Habitat: Areas adjacent to rivers
and streams that have a high density, diver-
sity, and productivity of plant and animal
species relative to nearby uplands.

Runoff:  The discharge of water over land
into surface water.  It can carry pollutants
from the air and land and spread contamina-
tion from its source.

Scrubber: An air pollution device that uses a
spray of water or reactant or a dry process to
trap pollutants in emissions.

Sediment: The layer of soil, sand, and
minerals at the bottom of surface waters, such
as streams, lakes, and rivers, that absorbs
contaminants.

Seeps: Specific points where releases of
liquid (usually leachate) form from waste
disposal areas, particularly along the lower
edges of landfills.

Seepage Pits: A hole, shaft, or cavity in the
ground used for storage of liquids, usually in
the form of leachate, from waste disposal
areas. The liquid gradually leaves the pit by
moving through the surrounding soil.

Septage: Residue remaining in a septic tank
after the treatment process.
Sinkhole: A hollow depression in the land
surface in which drainage collects; associated
with underground caves and passages that
facilitate the movement of liquids.

Site Characterization: The technical pro-
cess used to evaluate the nature and extent of
environmental contamination, which is
necessary for choosing and designing cleanup
measures and monitoring their effectiveness.

Site Inspection: The collection of informa-
tion from a hazardous waste site to determine
the extent and severity of hazards posed by
the site.  It follows, and is more extensive
than, a preliminary assessment.  The purpose
is to gather information necessary to score the
site, using the Hazard Ranking System, and to
determine if the site presents an immediate
threat that requires a prompt removal action.

Slag: The fused refuse or dross  separated
from a metal in the process of smelting.

Sludge:  Semi-solid residues from industrial
or water treatment processes that may be
contaminated with hazardous materials.

Slurry Wall:  Barriers  used to contain the
flow of contaminated groundwater or subsur-
face liquids. Slurry walls are constructed by
digging a trench  around a contaminated area
and filling the trench with an impermeable
material that prevents water from passing
through it.  The groundwater or contaminated
liquids trapped within the area surrounded by
the slurry wall can be extracted and treated.

Smelter:  A facility that melts or fuses ore,
often with an accompanying chemical change,
to separate the metal. Emissions from smelt-
ers are known to cause pollution.

Soil Gas: Gaseous elements and compounds
that occur in the  small spaces between par-
ticles of soil.  Such gases can move through
                                           47

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GLOSSARY.
or leave the soil or rock, depending on
changes in pressure.

Soil Vapor Extraction: A treatment process
that uses vacuum wells to remove hazardous
gases from soil.

Soil Washing: A water-based process for
mechanically scrubbing soils in-place to
remove undesirable materials. There are two
approaches:  dissolving or suspending them in
the wash solution for later treatment by
conventional methods, and concentrating
them into a smaller volume of soil through
simple particle size separation techniques [see
Solvent Extraction].

Stabilization:  The process of changing an
active substance into inert, harmless material,
or physical activities at a site that act to limit
the further spread of contamination without
actual reduction of toxicity.

Solidification/Stabilization: A chemical or
physical reduction of the mobility of hazard-
ous constituents.  Mobility is reduced through
the binding of hazardous constituents into a
solid mass with low permeability and resis-
tance to leaching.

Solvent: A substance capable of dissolving
another substance to form a solution. The
primary uses of industrial  solvents are as
cleaners for degreasing, in paints, and in
Pharmaceuticals. Many solvents are flam-
mable and toxic to varying degrees.

Solvent Extraction:  A means of separating
hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges,
and sediment, thereby reducing the volume of
the hazardous waste that must be treated. It
generally is used as one in a series of unit
operations. An organic chemical is used to
dissolve contaminants as opposed to water-
based compounds, which usually are used in
soil washing.
Sorption: The action of soaking up or at-
tracting substances. It is used in many pollu-
tion control systems.

Stillbottom: Residues left over from the
process of recovering spent solvents.

Stripping:  A process used to remove volatile
contaminants from a substance [see Air
Stripping].

Sumps: A pit or tank that catches liquid
runoff for drainage or disposal.

Superfund: The program operated under the
legislative authority of the CERCLA and
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Act (SARA) to update and improve environ-
mental laws. The program has the authority
to respond directly to releases or threatened
releases of hazardous substances that may
endanger public health, welfare, or the envi-
ronment.  The "Superfund" is a trust fund that
finances cleanup actions at hazardous waste
sites.

Surge Tanks: A holding structure used to
absorb irregularities in flow of liquids, includ-
ing liquid waste materials.

Swamp:  A type of wetland that is dominated
by woody vegetation and does not accumulate
peat moss deposits. Swamps may be fresh or
saltwater and tidal or non-tidal [see Wet-
lands].

Thermal Treatment:  The use of heat to
remove or destroy contaminants from soil.

Treatability Studies:  Testing a treatment
method on contaminated groundwater, soil,
etc., to determine whether and how well the
method will work.

Trichloroethylene (TCE):  A stable, color-
less liquid with a low boiling point.  TCE has
many industrial applications, including use as
                                          48

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                                                                    GLOSSARY
a solvent and as a metal degreasing agent.
TCE may be toxic to people when inhaled,
ingested, or through skin contact and can
damage vital organs, especially the liver [see
Volatile Organic Compounds].

Unilateral [Administrative] Order: [see
Administrative Order].

Upgradient:  An upward hydrologic slope;
demarks areas that are higher than contami-
nated areas and, therefore, are not prone to
contamination by the movement of polluted
groundwater.

Vacuum Extraction: A technology used to
remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
from soils. Vacuum pumps are connected to a
series of wells drilled to just above the water
table. The wells  are sealed tightly at the soil
surface, and the vacuum established in the
soil draws VOC-contaminated air from the
soil pores into the well, as fresh air is drawn
down from the surface of the soil.

Vegetated Soil Cap:  A cap constructed with
graded soils and seed for vegetative growth,
to prevent erosion [see Cap].

Vitrification: The process of electrically
melting wastes and soils or sludges to bind
the waste in a glassy, solid material more
durable than granite or marble and resistant to
leaching.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs):
VOCs are manufactured as secondary petro-
chemicals. They include light alcohols,
acetone, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene,
dichloroethylene, benzene, vinyl chloride,
toluene, and methylene chloride.  These
potentially toxic chemicals are used as sol-
vents, degreasers, paints, thinners, and fuels.
Because of their volatile nature, they readily
evaporate into the air, increasing the potential
exposure to humans. Due to their low water
solubility, environmental persistence, and
widespread industrial use, they are commonly
found in soil and groundwater.

Waste Treatment Plant: A facility that uses
a series of tanks, screens, filters, and other
treatment processes to remove pollutants from
water.

Wastewater: The spent or used water from
individual homes or industries.

Watershed: The land area that drains into a
stream or other water body.

Water Table: The upper surface of the
groundwater.

Weir:  A barrier to divert water or other
liquids.

Wetland: An area that is regularly saturated
by surface or groundwater and, under normal
circumstances, is capable of supporting
vegetation typically adapted for life  in satu-
rated soil conditions.  Wetlands are critical to
sustaining many species of fish and wildlife.
Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes,
and bogs.  Wetlands may be either coastal or
inland. Coastal wetlands have salt or brackish
(a mixture of salt and fresh) water, and most
have tides, while inland wetlands are non-
tidal and freshwater. Coastal wetlands are an
integral component of estuaries.

Wildlife Refuge: An area designated for the
protection of wild animals, within which
hunting and fishing are either prohibited or
strictly controlled.
                                          49

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        APPENDIX B
     Information
    Repositories
             for
       NPL Sites
        in Alaska
51

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IPL Sites in the State of Alaska
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