United States
              Environmental Protection
Solid Waste And
Emergency Response
September 1991
&EPA     National
               List Sites:
                                                    Printed on Recycled Paper

                                     Publication #9200.5-720A
                                     September 1991
U.S. Environmental Portion Agency
n_,,;^r-i K I ihrarv (P1   ,/
                   Region 5, Library (
                   77 West Jackson \i
                   Chicago, IL  6060-
       Office of Emergency & Remedial Response
           Office of Program Management
               Washington, DC 20460

          If you wish to purchase copies of any additional State volumes contact:
                    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
                    U.S. Department of Commerce
                    5285 Port Royal Road
                    Springfield, VA 22161
                    (703) 487-4650
The National Overview volume, Superfund: Focusing on  the Nation  at Large (1991),
may be ordered as PB92-963253.
The complete set of the overview documents, plus the 49 state reports may be ordered
as PB92-963253.

                             TABLE OF CONTENTS
A Brief Overview	1

How Does the Program Work to Clean Up Sites?	5

The Volume:
How to Use the State Book	13

NPL Sites:
In the State of Maine	17

The NPL Report:
Progress to Date	19

The NPL Fact Sheets:
Summary of Site Activities	21
Appendix A:  Glossary:
Terms Used in the Fact Sheets	41

Appendix B:  Repositories of
Site Information	57


        As the 1970s came to a close, a series of
        headline stories gave Americans a
        look at the dangers of dumping indus-
 trial and urban wastes on the land. First there
 was New York's Love Canal. Hazardous
 waste buried there over a 25-year period
 contaminated streams and soil, and endangered
 the health of nearby residents. The result:
 evacuation of several hundred people. Then
 the leaking barrels at the Valley of the Drums
 in Kentucky attracted public attention, as did
 the dioxin-tainted land and water in Times
 Beach, Missouri.

 In all these cases, human health and the envi-
 ronment were threatened, lives were disrupted,
 and property values were reduced. It became
 increasingly clear that there were large num-
 bers of serious hazardous waste problems that
 were falling through the cracks of existing
 environmental laws. The magnitude of these
 emerging problems moved Congress to enact
 the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
 Compensation, and Liability Act in 1980.
 CERCLA — commonly known as Superfund
— was the first Federal law established to deal
with the dangers posed by the Nation's hazard-
ous waste sites.

After Discovery, the Problem

Few realized the size of the problem until the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
began the process of site discovery and site
evaluation. Not hundreds, but thousands of
potential hazardous waste sites existed, and
they presented the Nation with some of the
most complex pollution problems it had ever

Since the Superfund program began, hazard-
ous waste has surfaced as a major environ-
mental concern in every part of the United
States. It wasn't just the land that was con-
taminated by past disposal practices.  Chemi-
cals in the soil were spreading into the ground-
water (a source of drinking water for many)
and into streams, lakes, bays, and wetlands.
Toxic vapors contaminated the air at some
sites, while improperly disposed or stored
wastes threatened the health of the surrounding
community and the environment at others.

The EPA Identified More than 1,200
Serious Sites

The EPA has identified 1,245 hazardous waste
sites as the most serious in the Nation. These
sites comprise the National Priorities List; sites
targeted for cleanup under Super-fund. But
site discoveries continue, and the EPA esti-
mates that, while some will be deleted after
lengthy cleanups, this list, commonly called
the NPL, will continue to grow by approxi-
mately 50 to 100 sites per year, potentially
reaching 2,100 sites by the year 2000.


From the beginning of the program, Congress
recognized that the Federal government could

not and should not address all environmental
problems stemming from past disposal prac-
tices.  Therefore, the EPA was directed to set
priorities and establish a list of sites to target.
Sites on the NPL (1,245) thus are a relatively
small  subset of a larger inventory of potential
hazardous waste sites, but they do comprise
the most complex and compelling cases. The
EPA has logged more than 35,000 sites on its
national inventory of potentially hazardous
waste sites and assesses each site within one
year of being logged.


The goal of the Superfund program is to tackle
immediate dangers first and then move through
the progressive steps necessary to eliminate
any long-term risks to public health and the

Superfund responds immediately to sites
posing imminent threats to human health and
the environment at both NPL sites and sites not
on the NPL. The purpose is to stabilize,
prevent, or temper the effects of a release of
hazardous substances, or the threat of one, into
the environment. These might include tire
fires or transportation accidents involving the
spill of hazardous chemicals. Because they
reduce the threat a site poses to human health
and the environment, immediate cleanup
actions are an integral part of the Superfund

Immediate response to imminent threats is one
of Superfund's most noted achievements.
Where imminent threats to the public or
environment were evident, the EPA  has initi-
ated or completed emergency actions that
attacked the most serious threats of toxic
exposure in more than 2,700 cases.

The ultimate goal for a hazardous waste site on
the NPL is a permanent solution to an environ-
mental problem that presents a serious  threat
to the public or the environment.  This often
requires a long-term effort.  The EPA has
aggressively accelerated its efforts to perform
these long-term cleanups of NPL  sites.  More
cleanups were started in 1987, when the
Superfund law was amended, than in any
previous year. By 1991, construction had
started at more than four times as many sites as
in 1986!  Of the sites currently on the NPL,
more than 500 — nearly half — have had
construction cleanup activity. In addition,
more than 400 more sites presently are in the
investigation stage to determine the extent of
site contamination and to identify appropriate
cleanup remedies. Many other sites with
cleanup remedies selected are poised for the
start of cleanup construction activity. In
measuring success by "progress through the
cleanup pipeline," the EPA clearly is gaining


The EPA has gained enough experience in
cleanup construction to understand that envi-
ronmental protection does not end when the
remedy is in place. Many complex technolo-
gies — like those designed to clean up ground-
water — must operate for many years in order
to accomplish their objectives.

The EPA's hazardous waste site managers are
committed to proper operation and mainte-
nance of every remedy constructed. No matter
who has been delegated responsibility for
monitoring the cleanup work, the EPA will
assure that the remedy is carefully followed
and that  it continues to do its job.

Likewise, the EPA does not abandon a site
even after the cleanup work is done.  Every
five years, the Agency reviews each site where
residues from hazardous waste cleanup still
remain to ensure that public and environmental

health are being safeguarded.  The EPA will
correct any deficiencies discovered and will
report to the public annually on all five-year
reviews conducted that year.


Superfund activities also depend upon local
citizen participation. The EPA's job is to
analyze the hazards and to deploy the experts,
but the Agency needs citizen input as it makes
choices for affected communities.

Because the people in a community  where a
Superfund site is located will be those most
directly affected by hazardous waste problems
and cleanup processes, the EPA encourages
citizens to get involved in cleanup decisions.
Public involvement and comment does influ-
ence EPA cleanup plans by providing valuable
information about site conditions, community
concerns, and preferences.

The State and U.S. Territories volumes and the
companion National overview volume provide
general Superfund background information
and descriptions of activities at each NPL site.
These volumes clearly describe what the
problems are, what the EPA and others partici-
pating in site cleanups are doing, and how we,
as a Nation, can move ahead in solving these
serious problems.


To understand the big picture on hazardous
waste cleanup, citizens need to hear about both
environmental progress across the country and
the cleanup accomplishments closer to home.
Citizens also should understand the challenges
involved in hazardous waste cleanup and the
decisions we must make, as a Nation, in
finding the best solutions.
The National overview, Superfund: Focusing
on the Nation at Large (1991), contains impor-
tant information to help you understand the
magnitude and challenges facing the
Superfund program, as well as an overview of
the National cleanup effort. The sections
describe the nature of the hazardous waste
problem nationwide, threats and contaminants
at NPL sites and their potential effects on
human health and the environment, vital roles
of the various participants in the cleanup
process, the Superfund program's successes in
cleaning up the Nation's serious hazardous
waste sites, and the current status of the NPL.
If you did not receive this overview volume,
ordering information is provided in the front of
this book.

This volume compiles site summary fact sheets
on each State or Territorial site being cleaned
up under the Superfund program. These sites
represent the most serious hazardous waste
problems in the Nation and require the most
complicated and costly site solutions yet
encountered. Each book gives a "snapshot" of
the conditions and cleanup progress that has
been made at each NPL site. Information
presented for each site is current as of April
1991.  Conditions change as our cleanup
efforts continue, so these site summaries will
be updated annually to include information on
new progress being made.

To help you understand the cleanup accom-
plishments made at these sites, this volume
includes a description of the process for site
discovery, threat evaluation, and long-term
cleanup of Superfund sites. This description,
How Does the Program Work  to Clean Up
Sites?, will serve as a reference point from
which to review the cleanup status at specific
sites.  A glossary defining key terms as they
apply to hazardous waste management and site
cleanup is included as Appendix A in the back
of this book.

      The diverse problems posed by hazard-
      ous waste sites have provided the EPA
      with the challenge to establish a consis-
tent approach for evaluating and cleaning up
the Nation's most serious sites. To do this, the
EPA has had to step beyond its traditional role
as a regulatory agency to develop processes
and guidelines for each step in these techni-
cally complex site cleanups. The EPA has
established procedures to coordinate the
efforts of its Washington, D.C. Headquarters
program offices and its front-line staff in ten
Regional Offices, with the State and local
governments, contractors, and private parties
who are participating in site cleanup. An
important part of the process is that any time
            How  Does the
           Program Work
                 to Clean  Up

     Discover site and
     determine whether
     an emergency
     exists *
   STEP 2

Evaluate whether a
site is a serious threat
to public health or
  STEP 3

Perform long-term
cleanup actions on
the most serious
hazardous waste
sites in the Nation
    * Emergency actions are performed whenever needed in this three-step process.
 during cleanup, work can be led by the EPA
or the State or, under their monitoring, by
private parties who are potentially responsible
for site contamination.

The process for discovery of the site, evalu-
ation of threat, and the long-term cleanup of
Superfund sites is summarized in the follow-
ing pages. The phases of each of these steps
are highlighted within the description. The
       flow diagram above provides a summary of the
       three-step process.

       Although this book provides a current "snap-
       shot" of site progress made only by emergency
       actions and long-term cleanup actions at
       Superfund sites, it is important to understand
       the discovery and evaluation process that leads
       to identifying and cleaning up these most
       serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous

waste sites in the Nation. The discovery and
evaluation process is the starting point for this
summary description of Superfund involve-
ment at hazardous waste sites.
      How does the EPA learn about
      potential hazardous waste sites?
Site discovery occurs in a number of ways.
Information comes from concerned citizens.
People may notice an odd taste or foul odor in
their drinking water or see half-buried leaking
barrels; a hunter may come across a field
where waste was dumped illegally.  There may
be an explosion or fire, which alerts the State
or local authorities to a problem.  Routine
investigations by State and local governments
and required reporting and inspection  of
facilities that generate, treat, store, or dispose
of hazardous waste also help keep the EPA
informed about actual or potential threats of
hazardous substance releases. All reported
sites or spills are recorded in the Superfund
inventory (CERCLIS) for further investigation
to determine whether they will require cleanup.
      What happens if there is an imminent
 As soon as a potential hazardous waste site is
 reported, the EPA determines whether there is
 an emergency requiring an immediate cleanup
 action.  If there is, they act as quickly as
 possible to remove or stabilize the imminent
 threat. These short-term emergency actions
 range from building a fence around the con-
 taminated area to keep people away, or tempo-
 rarily relocating residents until the danger is
 addressed, to providing bottled water to resi-
 dents while their local drinking water supply is
 being cleaned up or physically removing
wastes for safe disposal.

However, emergency actions can happen at
any time an imminent threat or emergency
warrants them. For example, if leaking barrels
are found when cleanup crews start digging in
the ground or if samples of contaminated soils
or air show that there may be a threat of fire or
explosion, an immediate action is taken.

     If there isn't an imminent danger, how
     does the EPA determine what, if any,
     cleanup actions should be taken?
Even after any imminent dangers are taken
care of, in most cases, contamination may
remain at the site.  For example, residents may
have been supplied with bottled water to take
care of their immediate problem of contami-
nated well water, but now it's time to deter-
mine what is contaminating the drinking water
supply and the best way to clean it up.  The
EPA may determine that there is no imminent
danger from a site, so any long-term threats
need to be evaluated.  In either case, a more
comprehensive investigation is needed to
determine if a site poses a serious, but not
imminent, danger and whether it requires a
long-term cleanup action.

Once a site is discovered and any needed
emergency actions are taken, the EPA or the
State collects all available background infor-
mation not only from their own files, but also
from local records and U.S. Geological Survey
maps.  This information is used to identify the
site and to perform a preliminary assessment of
its potential hazards.  This is a quick review of
readily available information to answer the

    •   Are hazardous substances likely to be

    •   How are they contained?

    •   How might contaminants spread?

    •   How close is the nearest well, home, or
       natural resource area such as a wetland
       or animal sanctuary?

    •   What may be harmed — the land,
       water, air, people, plants, or animals?

Some sites do not require further action be-
cause the preliminary assessment shows that
they do not threaten public health or the envi-
ronment. But even in these cases, the sites
remain listed in the Superfund inventory for
record-keeping purposes and future reference.
Currently, there are more than 35,000 sites
maintained in this inventory.

      If the preliminary assessment
      shows a serious threat may exist,
      what's the next step?

Inspectors go to the site to collect additional
information to evaluate its hazard potential.
During this site inspection, they look for
evidence of hazardous waste, such as leaking
drums and dead or discolored vegetation.
They may take some samples of soil, well
water, river water, and air.  Inspectors analyze
the ways hazardous materials could be pollut-
ing the environment, such as runoff into
nearby streams. They also check to see if
people (especially children) have access to
the site.
     How does the EPA use the results of
     the site inspection?
Information collected during the site inspection
is used to identify the sites posing the most
serious threats to human health and the envi-
ronment. This way, the EPA can meet the
requirement that Congress gave them to use
Superfund monies only on the worst hazardous
waste sites in the Nation.
 To identify the most serious sites, the EPA
 developed the Hazard Ranking System (HRS).
 The HRS is the scoring system the EPA uses to
 assess the relative threat from a release or a
 potential release of hazardous substances from
 a site to surrounding groundwater, surface
 water, air, and soil. A site score is based on
 the likelihood that a hazardous substance will
 be released from the site, the toxicity and
 amount of hazardous substances at the site, and
 the people and sensitive environments poten-
 tially affected by contamination at the site.

 Only sites with high  enough health and envi-
 ronmental risk scores are proposed to be added
 to the NPL. That's why 1,245 sites are on the
 NPL, but there are more than 35,000 sites in
 the Superfund inventory.  Only NPL sites can
 have a long-term cleanup paid for from
 Superfund, the national hazardous waste trust
 fund. Superfund can, and does, pay for emer-
 gency actions performed at any site, whether
 or not it's on the NPL.
      Why are sites proposed to the NPL?
Sites proposed to the NPL have been evaluated
through the scoring process as the most serious
problems among uncontrolled or abandoned
hazardous waste sites in the U.S. In addition, a
site will be proposed to the NPL if the Agency
for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
issues a health advisory recommending that
people be moved away from the site. The NPL
is updated at least once a year, and it's only
after public comments are considered that
these proposed worst sites officially are added
to the list.

Listing on the NPL does not set the order in
which sites will be cleaned up. The order is
influenced by the relative priority of the site's
health and environmental threats compared to
other sites, and such factors as State priorities,
engineering capabilities, and available tech-

nologies. Many States also have their own list
of sites that require cleanup; these often contain
sites that are not on the NPL and are scheduled
to be cleaned up with State money. And, it
should be noted again that any emergency
action needed at a site can be performed by the
Superfund, whether or not a site is on the NPL.

A detailed description of the current progress in
cleaning up NPL sites is found in the section of
the 1991 National overview volume entitled
Cleanup Successes: Measuring Progress.

     How do people find out whether the
     EPA considers a site a national
     priority for cleanup under the
     Superfund Program?

All NPL sites, where Superfund is responsible
for cleanup, are described in the State and
Territorial volumes. The public also can find
out whether other sites, not on the NPL, are
being addressed by the Superfund program by
calling their Regional EPA office or the Super-
fund Hotline at the numbers listed in this book.
      After a site is added to the NPL, what
      are the steps to cleanup?
The ultimate goal for a hazardous waste site on
the NPL is a permanent, long-term cleanup.
Since every site presents a unique set of chal-
lenges, there is no single all-purpose solution.
A five-phase "remedial response" process is
used to develop consistent and workable
solutions to hazardous waste problems across
the Nation:

  1. Remedial Investigation: investigate in
    detail the extent of the site contamination
  2. Feasibility Study: study the range of
    possible cleanup remedies

  3. Record of 'Decision or ROD:  decide
    which remedy to use

  4. Remedial Design: plan the remedy

  5. Remedial Action: carry out the remedy

This remedial response process is a long-term
effort to provide a permanent solution to an
environmental problem that presents a serious
threat to the public or environment.

The first two phases of a long-term cleanup are
a combined remedial investigation and feasibil-
ity study (RI/FS) that determine the nature and
extent of contamination at the site and identify
and evaluate cleanup alternatives.  These
studies may be conducted by the EPA or the
State or, under their monitoring, by private

Like the initial site inspection described earlier,
a remedial investigation involves an examina-
tion of site data in order to better define the
problem. However, the remedial investigation
is much more detailed and comprehensive than
the initial site inspection.

A remedial investigation can best  be described
as a carefully designed field study. It includes
extensive sampling and laboratory analyses to
generate more precise data on the  types and
quantities of wastes present at the site, the type
of soil and water drainage patterns, and specific
human health  and environmental risks.

The result of the remedial investigation is
information that allows the EPA to select the
cleanup strategy that is best suited to a particu-
lar site or to determine that no cleanup is

Placing a site on the NPL does not necessarily
mean  that cleanup is needed. It is possible for

 a site to receive an HRS score high enough to
 be added to the NPL, but not ultimately require
 cleanup actions.  Keep in mind that the purpose
 of the scoring process is to provide a prelimi-
 nary and conservative assessment of potential
 risk. During subsequent site investigations, the
 EPA may find either that there is no real threat
 or that the site does not pose significant human
 health or environmental risks.
      How are cleanup alternatives
      identified and evaluated?
 The EPA or the State or, under their monitor-
 ing, private parties identify and analyze spe-
 cific site cleanup needs based on the extensive
 information collected during the remedial
 investigation. This analysis of cleanup alterna-
 tives is called a feasibility study.

 Since cleanup actions must be tailored exactly
 to the needs of each individual site, more than
 one possible cleanup alternative is always
 considered. After making sure that all potential
 cleanup remedies fully protect human health
 and the environment and comply with Federal
 and State laws, the advantages and disadvan-
 tages of each cleanup alternative are compared
 carefully. These comparisons are made to
 determine their effectiveness in the short and
 long term, their use of permanent treatment
 solutions, and their technical feasibility and

 To the maximum extent practicable, the rem-
 edy must be a permanent solution and must use
 treatment technologies to destroy principal site
 contaminants. Remedies such as containing the
 waste on site or removing the source of the
 problem (like leaking barrels) often are consid-
 ered effective.  Often, special pilot studies are
 conducted to determine the effectiveness and
 feasibility of using a particular technology to
 clean up a site. Therefore, the combined
remedial investigation and feasibility study can
 take between 10 and 30 months to complete,
 depending on the size and complexity of the
      Does the public have a say in the
      final cleanup decision?
 Yes.  The Superfund law requires that the
 public be given the opportunity to comment on
 the proposed cleanup plan. Their concerns are
 considered carefully before a final decision is

 The results of the remedial investigation and
 feasibility study, which also point out the
 recommended cleanup choice, are published in
 a report for public review and comment. The
 EPA or the State encourages the public to
 review the information and take an active role
 in the final cleanup decision. Fact sheets and
 announcements in local papers let the commu-
 nity know where they can get copies of the
 study and other reference documents concern-
 ing the site.  Local information repositories,
 such as libraries or other public buildings, are
 established in cities and towns near each NPL
 site to ensure that the public has an opportunity
 to review all relevant information and the
 proposed cleanup plans.  Locations of informa-
 tion repositories for each NPL site described in
 this volume are given in Appendix B.

 The public has a minimum of 30 days to
 comment on the proposed cleanup plan after it
 is published. These comments can be written
 or given verbally at public meetings that the
 EPA or the State are required to hold. Neither
 the EPA nor the State can select the final
 cleanup remedy without evaluating and provid-
 ing written answers to specific community
 comments and concerns. This "responsiveness
 summary" is part of the EPA's write-up of the
 final remedy decision, called the Record of
Decision, or ROD.

The ROD is a public document that explains
the cleanup remedy chosen and the reason it

was selected.  Since sites frequently are large
and must be cleaned up in stages, a ROD may
be necessary for each contaminated resource or
area of the site. This may be necessary when
contaminants have spread into the soil, water,
and air and affect such sensitive areas as
wetlands, or when the site is large and cleaned
up in stages. This often means that a number
of remedies, using different cleanup technolo-
gies, are needed to clean up a single site.

     If every cleanup action needs to be
     tailored to a site, does the design
     ofthe remedy need to be tailored,

Yes. Before a specific cleanup action is carried
out, it must be designed in detail to meet
specific site needs. This stage of the cleanup is
called the remedial design.  The design phase
provides the details on how the selected rem-
edy will be engineered and constructed.

Projects to clean up a hazardous waste site may
appear to be like any other major construction
project but, in fact, the likely presence of
combinations of dangerous chemicals demands
special construction planning and procedures.
Therefore, the design of the remedy can take
anywhere from six months to two years to
complete.  This blueprint for site cleanup
includes not only the details on every  aspect of
the construction work,  but a description of the
types of hazardous wastes expected at the site,
special plans for environmental protection,
worker safety, regulatory compliance, and
equipment decontamination.
      Once the design is completed,
      how long does it take to actually
      clean up the site, and how much
      does it cost?
The time and cost for performing the site
cleanup, called the remedial action, are as
varied as the remedies themselves. In a few
cases, the only action needed may be to remove
drums of hazardous waste and to decontami-
nate them, an action that takes limited time and
money.  In most cases, however, a remedial
action may involve different and expensive
cleanup  measures that can take a long time.

For example, cleaning polluted groundwater or
dredging contaminated river bottoms can take
several years of complex engineering work
before contamination is reduced to safe levels.
Sometimes the selected cleanup remedy de-
scribed in the ROD may need to be modified
because  of new contaminant information
discovered or difficulties that were faced
during the early cleanup activities. Taking into
account  these differences, each remedial
cleanup  action takes an average of 18 months
to complete and ultimately costs an average of
$26 million to complete all necessary cleanup
actions at a site .

     Once the cleanup action is
     completed, is the site
     automatically "deleted" from the

No. The deletion of a site from the NPL is
anything but automatic. For example, cleanup
of contaminated groundwater may take up to
20 years or longer.  Also, in some cases, long-
term monitoring of the remedy is required to
ensure that it is effective. After construction of
certain remedies, operation and maintenance
(e.g., maintenance of ground cover, groundwa-
ter monitoring, etc.), or continued pumping and
treating  of groundwater may be required to
ensure that the remedy continues to prevent
future health hazards or environmental damage
and ultimately meets the cleanup goals speci-
fied in the ROD.  Sites in this final monitoring
or operational stage of the cleanup process are
designated as "construction complete."

It's not until a site cleanup meets all the goals
and monitoring requirements of the selected

 remedy that the EPA can officially propose the
 site for deletion from the NPL, and it's not
 until public comments are taken into consid-
 eration that a site actually can be deleted from
 the NPL.  All sites deleted from the NPL and
 sites with completed construction are included
 in the progress report found later in this book.
      Can a site be taken off the NPL if
      no cleanup has taken place?
 Yes.  But only if further site investigation
 reveals that there are no threats present at the
 site and that cleanup activities are not neces-
 sary.  In these cases, the EPA will select a "no
 action" remedy and may move to delete the
 site when monitoring confirms that the site
 does not pose a threat to human health or the

 In other cases, sites may be "removed" from
 the NPL if new information concerning site
 cleanup or threats show that the site does not
 warrant Superfund activities.

 A site may be removed if a revised HRS
 scoring, based on updated information, results
 in a score below the minimum for NPL sites.
 A site also may be removed from the NPL by
 transferring it to other appropriate Federal
 cleanup authorities, such as RCRA, for further
 cleanup actions.

 Removing sites for technical reasons or trans-
 ferring sites to other cleanup programs pre-
 serves Superfund monies for the Nation's most
 pressing hazardous waste problems where no
 other cleanup authority is applicable.
      Can the EPA make parties
      responsible for the contamination
Yes. Based on the belief that "the polluters
should pay," after a site is placed on the NPL,
the EPA makes a thorough effort to identify
and find those responsible for causing con-
tamination problems at a site. Although the
EPA is willing to negotiate with these private
parties and encourages voluntary cleanup, it
has the authority under the Superfund law to
legally force those potentially responsible for
site hazards to take specific cleanup actions.
All work performed by these parties is closely
guided and monitored by the EPA and must
meet the same standards required for actions
financed through the Superfund.

Because these enforcement actions can be
lengthy, the EPA may decide to use Superfund
monies to make sure a site is cleaned up
without  unnecessary delay. For example, if a
site presents an imminent threat to public
health and the environment or if conditions at a
site may worsen, it could be necessary to start
the cleanup right away. Those responsible for
causing  site contamination are liable under the
law (CERCLA) for repaying the money the
EPA spends in cleaning up the site.

Whenever possible, the EPA and the Depart-
ment of  Justice use their legal enforcement
authorities to require responsible parties to pay
for site cleanups, thereby preserving Superfund
resources for emergency actions and for sites
where no responsible parties can be identified.

                                                             THE VOLUME
       The site fact sheets presented in this
       book are comprehensive summaries
       that cover a broad range of information.
       The fact sheets describe hazardous
 waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as
 well as the conditions leading to their listing
 ("Site Description"). The summaries list the
 types of contaminants that have been discov-
 ered and related threats to public and ecologi-
 cal health ("Threats and Contaminants").
 "Cleanup Approach" presents an overview of
 the cleanup activities completed, underway, or
 planned. The fact sheets conclude with a brief
 synopsis of how much progress has been made
 in protecting public health and the environ-
 ment.  The summaries also pinpoint other
 actions, such as legal efforts to involve pollut-
 ers responsible for site contamination and
 community concerns.

 The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical
 order by site name.  Because site cleanup is a
 dynamic and gradual process, all site informa-
 tion is accurate as of the date shown on the
 bottom of each page. Progress always is being
 made at NPL sites, and the EPA periodically
 will update the site fact sheets to reflect recent
 actions and will publish updated State vol-
 umes. The following two pages show a ge-
 neric fact sheet and briefly describe the infor-
 mation under each section.

You can use this book to keep informed about
the sites that concern you, particularly ones
close to home. The EPA is committed to
involving the public in the decision making
process associated with hazardous waste
cleanup. The Agency solicits input from area
residents in communities affected by Super-
fund sites. Citizens are likely to be affected
not only by hazardous site conditions, but also
by the remedies that combat them. Site clean-
           How  to  Use
                 the  State
ups take many forms and can affect communi-
ties in different ways.  Local traffic may be
rerouted, residents may be relocated, tempo-
rary water supplies may be necessary.

Definitive information on a site can help
citizens sift through alternatives and make
decisions. To make good choices, you must
know what the threats are and how the EPA
intends to clean up the site. You must under-
stand the cleanup alternatives being proposed
for site cleanup and how residents may be
affected by each one. You also need to have
some idea of how your community intends to
use the site in the future, and you need to
know what the community can realistically
expect once the cleanup is complete.

The EPA wants to develop cleanup methods
that meet community needs, but the Agency
only can take local concerns into account if it
understands what they are.  Information must
travel both ways in order for cleanups to be
effective and satisfactory. Please take this
opportunity to learn more, become involved,
and assure that hazardous waste cleanup at
"your" site considers your community's


 Dates when the site was
 Proposed, made Final, and
 Deleted from the NPL.

 Identifies the Federal, State,
 and/or potentially respon-
 sible parties that are taking
 responsibility for cleanup
 actions at the site.

                                   NPL Listing History

                                     Proposed: xxaofx*

Threats and Contaminants
                            Response Action Status
                            Environmental Progress  ir^r

 A summary of the actions to reduce the threats to
 nearby residents and the surrounding environment;
 progress towards cleaning up the site and goals of
 the cleanup plan are given here.

                                               THE VOLUME
                         SITE DESCRIPTION

This section describes the location and history of the site. It includes descrip-
tions of the most recent activities and past actions at the site that have con-
tributed to the contamination. Population estimates, land usages, and nearby
resources give readers background on the local setting surrounding the site.

The major chemical categories of site contamination are noted, as well as
which environmental resources are affected. Icons representing each of the
affected resources (may include air, groundwater, surface water, soil, and
contamination to environmentally sensitive areas) are included in the margins
of this section. Potential threats to residents and the surrounding environ-
ments arising from the site contamination also are described.
                        CLEANUP APPROACH

This section contains a brief overview of how the site is being cleaned up.
                    RESPONSE ACTION STATUS

Specific actions that have been accomplished or will be undertaken to clean
up the site are described here. Cleanup activities at NPL sites are divided
into separate phases, depending on the complexity and required actions at the
site. Two major types of cleanup activities often are described: initial,
immediate, or emergency actions to quickly remove or reduce imminent
threats to the community and surrounding areas; and long-term remedial
phases directed at final cleanup at the site. Each stage of the cleanup strategy
is presented in this section of the summary. Icons representing the stage of
the cleanup process (initial actions, site investigations, EPA selection of the
cleanup remedy, engineering design phase, cleanup activities underway, and
completed cleanup) are located in  the margin next to each activity descrip-
                            SITE FACTS

Additional information on activities and events at the site are included in this
section. Often details on legal or administrative actions taken by the EPA to
achieve site cleanup or other facts pertaining to community involvement with
the site cleanup process are reported  here.

The "icons," or symbols, accompanying the text allow the reader to see at a glance which envi-
ronmental resources are affected and the status of cleanup activities at the site.
Icons in the Threats and
Contaminants Section
       Contaminated Groundwater resources
       in the Contaminated Groundwater in
       the vicinity or underlying the site.
       (Groundwater is often used as a
       drinking water source.)

       Contaminated Surface Water and
       Sediments on or near the site.  (These
       include lakes, ponds, streams, and

        Contaminated Air in the vicinity of
        the site.  (Air pollution usually is
        periodic and involves contaminated
        dust particles or hazardous gas emis-

       Contaminated Soil and Sludges on or
       near the site. (This contamination
       category may include bulk or other
       surface hazardous wastes found on the

       Threatened or contaminated Environ-
       mentally Sensitive Areas in the vicin-
       ity of the site. (Examples include
       wetlands and coastal areas or critical
Icons in the Response Action
Status Section
        Initial Actions have been taken or are
        underway to eliminate immediate
        threats at the site.

       Site Studies at the site to determine the
       nature and extent of contamination are
       planned or  underway.

       Remedy Selected indicates that site  ,
       investigations have been concluded,
       and the EPA has selected a final
       cleanup remedy for the site or part of
       the site.

        Remedy Design means that engineers
        are preparing specifications and
        drawings  for the selected cleanup

        Cleanup Ongoing indicates that the
        selected cleanup remedies for the
        contaminated site, or part of the site,
        currently are underway.

        Cleanup Complete shows that all
        cleanup goals have  been achieved for
        the contaminated site or part of the
                               Environmental Progress summa-
                               rizes the activities taken to date to
                               protect human health and to clean
                               up site contamination.

                                                       	NPL SITES

                                                        The  State
                                                           of  Maine
Located in EPA Region 1, Maine is in the northeastern corner of the United States. The state
covers 33,215 square miles consisting of the Appalachian Mountains extending through the state;
rugged terrain along the western borders; long sand beaches on the southern coast; and rocky
promontories, peninsulas, and fjords on the northern coast. Maine experienced a 9% increase in
population between 1980 and 1990, according to the 1990 Census, and currently  has
approximately 1,228,000 residents, ranking 38th in U.S. populations.  Principal state industries
include the manufacture of paper, wood and leather products, services, trade, finance, insurance,
real estate, and construction.  Maine natural resources also support industries in fishing, tourism,
lumber, and non-fuel mineral production.
How Many NPL Sites
Are in the State of Maine?

                Where Are the NPL Sites Located?
Congressional District 1      7 sites
Congressional District 6      2 sites
                       What Type of Sites Are on the NPL
                             in the State of Maine?
                     # of sites

                  type of sites

                Municipal & Industrial Landfills
                Federal Facilities
                Chemical & Allied Products
                Salvage Yard
                Quarry/Disposal Facility
                                             April 1991

      How Are Sites Contaminated and What Are the Principal* Chemicals?
  8 -•
  2 --
       GW     Soil     SW     Sad

            Contamination Area
  Groundwater: Volatile organic
  compounds (VOCs),  heavy metals
  (inorganics), and polychlorinated
  biphenyls (PCBs).
  Soil:  Volatile organic compounds
  (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls
  (PCBs), and heavy metals (inorganics).
  Surface Water and Sediments:
  Volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
  heavy metals (inorganics), and
  polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
                               * Appear at 20% or more sites
             Where Are the Sites in the Superfund Cleanup Process?1
     with   I
In addition to the activities described above, initial actions have been taken at 7 sites as interim
cleanup measures.

"Cleanup status reflects phases of site activities rather than administrative accomplishments.
  March 1991

                                                      THE NPL REPORT
      The following Progress Report lists all
      sites currently on, or deleted from, the
      NPL and briefly summarizes the status
of activities for each site at the time this
report was prepared. The steps in the Super-
fund cleanup process are arrayed across the
top of the chart, and each site's progress
through these steps is represented by an arrow
     indicating the current stage of cleanup.
                    To  Date
Large and complex sites often are organized
into several cleanup stages.  For example,
separate cleanup efforts may be required to
address the source of the contamination,
hazardous substances in the groundwater, and
surface water pollution, or to clean up differ-
ent areas of a large site.  In such cases, the
chart portrays cleanup progress at the site's
most advanced stage, reflecting the status of
site activities rather than administrative
•  An arrow in the "Initial Response" cate-
gory indicates that an emergency cleanup or
initial action has been completed or currently
is underway. Emergency or initial actions are
taken as an interim measure to provide im-
mediate relief from exposure to hazardous site
conditions or to stabilize a site to prevent
further contamination.
•  A final arrow in the "Site Studies"
category indicates  that an investigation to
determine the nature and extent of the
contamination at the site currently is ongoing.
•  A final arrow in the "Remedy Selection"
category means that the EPA has selected the
final cleanup strategy for the site. At the few
sites where the EPA has determined that
initial response actions have eliminated site
contamination, or that any remaining
contamination will be naturally dispersed
without further cleanup activities, a "No
Action" remedy is selected. In these cases, the
arrows are discontinued at the "Remedy
Selection" step and resume in the
"Construction Complete" category.
•  A final arrow at the "Remedial Design"
stage indicates that engineers currently are
designing the technical specifications for the
selected cleanup remedies and technologies.
ซ  A final arrow in the "Cleanup Ongoing"
column means that final cleanup actions have
been started at the site and currently are
•  A final arrow in the "Construction
Complete" category is used only when all
phases of the site cleanup plan have been
performed, and the EPA has determined that no
additional construction actions are required at
the site. Some sites in this category currently
may  be undergoing long-term operation and
maintenance or monitoring to ensure that the
cleanup actions continue to protect human
health and the environment.
•  A check in the "Deleted" category indicates
that the site cleanup has met all human health
and environmental goals and that the EPA has
deleted the site from the NPL.
Further information on the activities and
progress at each site is given in the site "Fact
Sheets" published in this volume.
                                April 1991















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               of Site
April 1991

                Who Do I Call with Questions?

                The following pages describe each NPL site in Maine, providing specific
                information on threats and contaminants, cleanup activities, and environmen-
                tal progress. Should you have questions, please call the EPA's Region 1
                Office in Boston, Massachusetts or one of the other offices listed below:

                  EPA Region 1 Superfund Community Relations Office  (617) 565-3425
                  EPA Region 1 Superfund Office                      (617) 573-9645
                  EPA Superfund Hotline                             (800) 424-9346
                  EPA Headquarters Public Information Center           (202) 260-2080
                  Maine Superfund Office                            (207) 289-2651
April 1991                                 22

Site Description
      Cumberland County
 At Routes 24 & 123 in Brunswick

        Othar Name*:
       U.S. Navy NAS
The Brunswick Naval Air Station is located in the town of Brunswick. Of the 3,092-acre Naval
Air Station, 12 areas totalling at least 15 acres have been identified as having been used in the
past for disposal of hazardous wastes. Among the identified site areas, three were used primarily
for the landfilling of the station's household, office, and other wastes. Other areas include three
used for the disposal of various acids, caustics, solvents, and building materials, including
asbestos.  Three additional areas, including a fire training area, an ammunition dump, and the
Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) facility have been added to the
investigation. The various landfills at the site were used from 1945 to 1979. Pesticides,
solvents, and waste oils present on the sites could threaten a nearby public well field, private
wells, surface water, and nearby wetlands.  Approximately 3,000 people live on the base within
1/2 mile of the contaminated areas of the site, and nearly 18,000 people served by the
groundwater are potentially threatened. The nearest residence is within 1,000 feet of the sites.
Area surface water is used for recreation, irrigation, and commercial fishing.
Site Responsibility:   The site is being addressed through
                      Federal actions.
   Proposed Date: 10/01/84
    Final Date: 07/02/87
Threats and Contaminants
         The groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and
         heavy metals. Soils are contaminated with VOCs, semi-volatile organics, and
         heavy metals. The on-site surface water is polluted with metals. The off-site
         surface water tests positive for low levels of cadmium and mercury. Accidental
         ingestion of or direct contact with groundwater, surface water, or soil could pose
         health hazards to people. The area is restricted to the general public, but base
         personnel may come in contact with contamination.  Harpswell Cove, a wetland
         adjacent to the site, also is subject to potential contamination.
                  April 1991

Cleanup Approach
This site is being addressed in four long-term remedial phases corresponding to discrete areas of
contamination. The Orion Street Landfills North and South and the Hazardous Waste Burial
Area; the Eastern Plume; Sites 2,4, 5, 6,7, 9, 11, and 13; and the Perimeter Road Landfill are
the four units.
Response Action Status
         Orion Street Landfills North and South and Hazardous Waste Burial Area:
         With assistance from the EPA, these areas currently are undergoing the investigative
         process to evaluate the extent and nature of contamination. These studies will be used to
help recommend cleanup technologies. The Navy will take the lead on cleanup. Engineering design
and cleanup activities for all areas are scheduled to begin in 1992.

         Eastern Plume: A study of the Eastern Plume area currently is underway to recommend
         cleanup technologies. Interim actions are expected to be designated in 1992.

         Sites 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9,11, and 13: Investigations are underway to determine the extent
         of contamination and to pinpoint cleanup approaches for these areas. The studies are
         expected to be completed in 1992.

         Perimeter Road Landfill: A study for this site currently is underway to formulate
         recommended cleanup technologies. The study is expected to be completed in 1992.

Site Facts:  The Navy and the EPA have agreed on their responsibilities under an Interagency
Agreement (IAG). The IAG later was amended to include the State of Maine as a party. Brunswick
Naval Air Station is participating in the Installation Restoration Program, a specially funded
program established by the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1978 to identify, investigate and
control the migration of hazardous contaminants at military and other DoD facilities.
Environmental Progress
After adding this site to the NPL, the EPA assessed conditions at Brunswick Naval Air Station and
determined that no immediate actions are necessary to protect the public health or the environment.
The site is safe while waiting for cleanup actions to begin.
April 1991                                    24                 BRUNSWICK NAVAL AIR STATION

EPA ID# ME9570024522
Site Description
                                        EPA REGION 1
                                    CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 02
                                          Aroostook County
                                          Northeastern Maine

                                           Othซr Names:
                                          Fir* Training Area
                                        US Air Fore* Loring AFB
                                           Flightlin* Ar*a
The 9,000-acre Loring Air Force Base has operated as an active military installation since 1952.
Hazardous wastes generated on the base include waste oils, fuels cleaned from aircraft and
vehicles, spent solvents (many of them chlorinated organic chemicals), polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides. Historically, wastes have been burned or buried in landfills.
There are on-site landfills, some of which are old gravel pits. Landfills #2 and #3 were used for
disposal of hazardous wastes from 1956 to the early 1980s.  In the Fire Department Training
Area, large quantities of hazardous materials were landfilled until 1968 and burned until 1974.
The 600-acre Flightline and Nose Dock Areas, with their industrial shops and maintenance
hangars, were primary generators of hazardous waste on the base; most wastes were disposed of
off site, although some probably were disposed of on the ground, on concrete, or in the storm and
sewer drains.  The site is located in a rural area.  The population on the Air Force base within 1
mile of the site is 8,500. A 3,500-foot channelized portion of a tributary to the east Branch of
Greenlaw Brook receives storm water runoff from the Flightline  Area and the Nose Dock Area,
where fuels were handled. An estimated 1,200 people obtain drinking water from wells within 3
miles of hazardous substances on the base; the nearest well is less than 500 feet from where
transformers were buried. However, sampling of residential wells has shown no site-related
contamination. Surface water within 3 miles downstream of the  site is used for recreational
Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal actions.
Proposed Date: 07/14/89
 Final Date: 02/21/90
Threats and Contaminants
          Tests of monitoring wells indicated that the groundwater on the base is
          contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as methylene
          chloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), and carbon tetrachloride and heavy metals
          including barium. Soils in the Flightline and Nose Dock Areas contain significant
          amounts of fuel, oil, and various VOCs. Surface water and sediment in the
          Flightline Drainage Ditch are contaminated with VOCs and heavy metals such as
          iron.  People on the base are potentially threatened by direct contact with
          hazardous substances at the landfills and burn pit because the pit is inadequately
          fenced. Other potential threats to the public include accidental ingestion of and
          direct contact with contaminated soils and water. A freshwater wetland is
          threatened by contamination.

Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in five long-term remedial phases focusing on cleanup of the Nose
Dock Area, fire training area, landfills, flightline drainage ditch, and the remainder of the site.
Response Action Status
         Nose Dock Area: The Air Force is investigating the nature and extent of
         contamination in the Nose Dock Area.  A decision on cleanup activities is expected in

         Fire Training Area: An additional investigation into the contamination of the fire
         training area began in 1990. The investigation will define the contaminants and will
         recommend alternatives for the final cleanup of the area.

         Landfills: The Air Force began conducting an investigation of the contamination
         associated with Landfills 1, 2, and 3 in  1990. The investigation will define the
         contaminants and will recommend alternatives for the final cleanup.

         Flightline Drainage Ditch: An investigation into the contamination in the flightline
         drainage ditch area began in 1990. The investigation will determine the various
         contaminants and will recommend alternatives for cleaning up this area.

         Remainder of the Site: An investigation into the contamination at 15 additional
         areas within the site began in 1991. At the conclusion of these  studies, the EPA will
         recommend the best remedies for the final cleanup of the sites.  These areas will be
broken into separate cleanup phases as the site studies proceed.

Site Facts: An Interagency agreement was signed in 1991 between the EPA, the Air Force, and
the State of Maine.  Loring Air Force Base is participating in the Installation Restoration
Program, a specially funded program established  by the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1978
to identify, investigate, and control the migration  of hazardous contaminants at military and other
DoD facilities.
Environmental Progress
Following listing of this site on the NPL, the EPA completed a site assessment and determined
that it presently poses no immediate threat to public health or the environment. Loring Air Force
Base is safe while it awaits results of the investigations and final cleanup actions.
April 1991                                     26                        LORING AIR FORCE BASE

EPA ID# MED980524078
                                        EPA REGION 1
                                   CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                          Cumberland County
                                 Mayall Road, 1 mile east of the Town of Gray
Site Description
The McKin Company operated a waste collection, transfer, and disposal facility on a portion of
this 7-acre site between 1965 and 1978. The facility is located in a rural residential area about 1
mile east of the center of Gray. The site formerly was operated as a sand and gravel pit that had
been excavated to depths of 6 to 20 feet below the land surface. The operation was constructed
for waste generated when a Norwegian tanker ran aground on a ledge in Hussey Sound, spilling
100,000 gallons of industrial fuel. In addition, the plant handled and disposed of a mixture of
solvents, oils, and other chemicals. Approximately 100,000 to 200,000 gallons of waste are
thought to have been processed annually.  Operating facilities included an incinerator, a concrete
block building, an asphalt-lined lagoon, and storage and fuel tanks.  Wastes also may have been
disposed by spreading them over the ground surface. As early as 1973, residents of East Gray
reported odors in well water and discoloration of laundry.  In 1977, the EPA confirmed that
contaminated groundwater had reached many of the local private wells. These water supplies
were capped, and the Farmers Home Administration trucked in water supplies. The public water
system was extended to the affected area in 1978, and all residents were connected to it.
Approximately 300 people live within a 1/2-mile radius of the site. The nearest residence is 300
feet northeast of the property.
Site Responsibility:
The site is being addressed through a
combination of Federal, State, and
potentially responsible parties' actions.
Proposed Date: 12/01/82
 Final Date: 09/01/83
Threats and Contaminants
          The groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
          including trichloroethane and trichloroethylene (TCE). The soil was contaminated
          with VOCs, petrochemicals, and heavy metals including arsenic, lead, and mercury.
          Off-site surface water and groundwater also are contaminated with VOCs. There is
          no known current exposure of residents to the groundwater, since all residents are
          connected to the public water supply. Potential threats exist from contaminated
          groundwater discharges to the surface springs (Boiling Springs) located nearby.
                                                         April 1991

Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in three stages:  initial actions and two long-term remedial phases
focusing on soil cleanup and groundwater treatment.

Response Action Status	.
         Initial Actions: In 1979, the State removed 33,500 gallons of wastes and 165 drums of
         oils and chemicals. From 1985 to 1987, the parties potentially responsible for the site
         contamination removed 55-gallon drums from the site. A fence surrounding the process
area facilities was repaired, and a similar fence was installed across the front of the facility to
prevent unauthorized access.  Monitoring wells also were installed. Other actions included cleaning
of the tanks, transportation of the empty tanks off site for salvage, and transportation of liquids and
sludges off site for disposal. The State cleaned and removed all of the remaining aboveground tanks
in 1985.

         Soil:  The remedies selected by the EPA for soil contamination included aeration of the
         soil and disposal off site of 16 drums. All of the selected cleanup remedies were
         performed by the potentially responsible parties and were completed in 1987. Thermal
soil aeration reduced contaminant levels in  12,000 cubic yards of soils to safe levels.

         Groundwater: The remedies selected by the EPA, and to be performed by the
         potentially responsible parties, for the cleanup of the groundwater include:  (1) installing a
         groundwater extraction, treatment, and discharge system; (2) groundwater and surface
water monitoring to evaluate the effectiveness of the contamination source control and off-site
groundwater programs; and (3) closing down the site by demolishing buildings, clearing debris,
draining and filling in the lagoon, removing drums and other contaminated materials, fencing the
site, and covering the site with soil and vegetation. The parties potentially responsible for the site
contamination completed the technical specifications and designs for the selected groundwater
cleanup activities. The cleanup began in 1990 and construction of the treatment system is
completed. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will continue for 10 years. The responsible
parties are conducting additional  studies of an area east of the lagoon, where groundwater
contamination was discovered, to determine whether the groundwater extraction system needs to be
expanded. The studies include geophysical surveys and monitoring well installation. These
activities currently are  underway.

Site Facts: In 1988, the EPA and the State finalized an agreement with over 320 potentially
responsible parties to carry out a cleanup plan.
Environmental Progress
Many cleanup actions have been completed and others are underway at the McKin Company site.
The health risks and environmental threats posed by these hazardous materials are being eliminated
as the work progresses. Soil contamination levels have been reduced to established standards. Upon
final completion, the groundwater contamination level will be reduced to meet established health and
ecological standards for the site.

April1991                                     28                             MCKIN COMPANY

                                        EPA REGION 1
                                    CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                           Kennebec County
                                      Along U.S. Route 17 in Augusta
Site Description
The O'Connor Company site occupies approximately 9 acres within a 65-acre area.  The site
includes a large barn that formerly housed scrap operations, an upland marsh, two lagoons, three
former transformer work areas, and a former scrap area where the company stored and discarded
rubbish. The site is bordered by private properties and residences, woodlands, a small poultry
farm, the west branch of Riggs Brook, and its associated wetlands. In the 1950s, the company
began operating a salvage and electrical transformer recycling business at the site. Operations
included stripping and recycling transformers containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-
laden oil. In 1972, an oil spill at the site was found to have migrated towards Riggs  Brook.
Later that year, at the request of the State, the company began containing all transformer fluids
found on the site in an aboveground storage tank to prevent future spills. When high levels of
PCBs were found in the soils during sampling by the State in 1976, the company was instructed
to construct two lagoons to control further migration of oils from the site. The upper lagoon,
constructed with a concrete retaining wall and a discharge system, and a lower lagoon,
constructed with a horizontal pipe discharge system and an earthen berm, were installed. To
reclaim the lagoon areas, the company pumped water from the lagoons into several on-site
storage tanks and excavated the lagoon sediments.  These sediments were deposited  into a low
area and were covered by approximately 1 foot of clay soil. This created a barrier for natural
surface water drainage from the site to Riggs Brook and resulted in the formation of a marsh
behind the on-site barn.  Approximately 50 people live within a 1/4-mile radius of the  site. The
distance from the site to the nearest residence is less than 500 feet.
Site Responsibility:
This site is being addressed through
Federal and potentially responsible
parties' actions.
Proposed Date: 12/30/82
 Final Date: 09/08/83
Threats and Contaminants
          The groundwater on site is contaminated with PCBs and dichlorobenzene. The soil
          on site is contaminated with PCBs, lead, and various carcinogenic polycyclic
          aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Standing surface water on the site has been shown to
          be contaminated with PCBs, aluminum, and lead. People who trespass on the site
          would be threatened by coming in direct contact with or accidentally ingesting
          contaminants in soils, sediments, groundwater, or surface water.  In addition, eating
          fish, waterfowl, livestock, or plants that may have become contaminated would pose
          a threat to people. The site currently is surrounded by a chain-link fence and is
          posted with appropriate warning signs.

Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial phase
focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
Response Action Status
         Immediate Actions: The O'Connor Company constructed a fence around the
         property and posted warning signs along approximately 5 acres of the site in 1984.
         The owner also sampled and analyzed the contents of all drums and storage tanks on
the site and removed them. In 1987, Central Maine Power extended the fence to areas where
additional contamination was found and removed additional contaminated material from the site.

         Entire Site:  The remedies selected by the EPA to be performed by the parties
         potentially responsible for the site contamination include pumping 150,000 to 195,000
         gallons of surface water from the upper and lower lagoons and marsh and removing it
to an EPA-approved off-site treatment facility, and treating 23,500 cubic yards of contaminated
soils and sediments using solvents to extract contaminants.  The contaminated liquid from this
process will be incinerated off site.  The residues that contain high levels of lead will be treated
by solidifying the material and removing it. The site will be restored by backfilling, and the
potentially responsible parties will establish wetlands to replace those lost. Groundwater will be
collected, filtered, and treated to contain or remove the contaminants. The potentially
responsible parties are conducting the design activities, which involve treatability studies and
aquifer testing. The actual cleanup is expected to begin when the design activities are
completed,  expected in 1993.

Site Facts: In 1984, the EPA issued an Administrative Order to the O'Connor Company,
requiring construction of a fence, posting of warning signs, and analysis of the contents of all
drums and storage tanks found on the site.  In 1986, the EPA issued an Administrative Order to
the company and Central Maine Power to conduct an investigation into the type and extent of
contamination at the site and to identify alternatives for site cleanup. In 1986, the State also
issued Orders to the potentially responsible parties, requiring the  removal of the hazardous
substances present in tanks and containers at the site.  In 1987, the EPA and the State issued a
joint Administrative Order to O'Connor and Central Maine Power to investigate the nature and
extent of contamination and to identify alternatives for cleanup, also to extend the existing 5-acre
fence to cover an additional 4 acres. In 1990, the EPA and Central Main Paver signed a Consent
Decree for the design of the cleanup and the cleanup itself.
Environmental Progress

The construction of a fence that limits access to the contaminated areas of the site and the
removal of drums and storage tanks have reduced the exposure potential at the O'Connor
Company site. The implementation of the cleanup remedies selected by the EPA will further
reduce site contamination, making the site safer as cleanup actions progress.
April 1991                                    30                          O'CONNOR COMPANY

Site Description
       Aroostook County
  1 mile southwest of Washburn
Pinette's Salvage Yard covers 12 acres and consists of a vehicle repair and salvage yard.  In
1979, three electrical transformers were removed from Loring Air Force Base by a private
electrical contractor and brought to the site, where they ruptured while being moved from the
delivery vehicle. Approximately 900 to 1,000 gallons of dielectrical fluids containing
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spilled directly onto the ground. The oil migrated through the
soil and may have contaminated groundwater and surface water. Land surrounding the yard is
used for residential, general industrial, and agricultural purposes. The nearest population center
is located approximately 1 mile northeast of the site. There are approximately 15 people living
within a 1/2-mile radius of the site. The distance to the nearest residence is about 250 feet from
the spill area. An undeveloped forest and wetlands area also is adjacent to the site. The
Aroostook River, a major waterway in Northern Maine, is located approximately 1,500 feet from
the site. The water supply for the eight to ten residences located within a 1/2-mile radius is
obtained from private wells located in the deep bedrock aquifer below the site. Municipal wells,
used to supply the drinking water to local residents, are located a mile from the site.
Site Responsibility:   This site is being addressed through
                      Federal actions.
Threats and Contaminants
     Proposed Date:  12/01/82
      Final Date: 09/01/83
         The on-site groundwater and soil are contaminated with PCBs and volatile
         organic compounds (VOCs) including benzene and chloromethane. People who
         accidentally ingest or come in direct contact with the soil may be exposed to
         contaminants. Inhalation of contaminated dusts released from the site also is a
         threat.  Current use of groundwater does not pose a threat because the wells are
         located upgradient of the site.
Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in three stages: emergency actions and two long-term remedial
phases focusing on the source control and groundwater cleanup.
                     April! 991

Response Action Status
         Emergency Actions: In 1983, the EPA excavated 800 cubic yards of PCB-
         contaminated soil and transported it to an approved disposal facility.

         Source Control: The remedy selected by the EPA to control the source of
         contamination at the site includes off-site incineration of 300 cubic yards of PCB-
         contaminated soil and on-site solvent extraction of an additional 1,700 to 1,900 cubic
yards of contaminated soil.  The cleanup is underway and is expected to be completed in 1992.

         Groundwater: The remedy selected by the EPA to clean up groundwater includes
         installation of a groundwater collection system, and treatment of the groundwater by
         first pumping it through a granular filter to remove the contaminants, followed by
carbon adsorption to remove the organic contaminants. The EPA is preparing the technical
specifications and design for the cleanup.  Preparations included residential well sampling, which
was conducted in 1990.  Cleanup activities are expected to begin once the design activities are
completed in 1992.
Environmental Progress
Removal of PCB-contaminated soil has reduced the potential of exposure to hazardous
substances at the site, making the Pinette's Salvage Yard area safer while it awaits further
cleanup activities.
April 1991

EPA ID# MED980504393
Site Description
         York County
The Saco Municipal Landfill covers approximately 90 acres and has been owned and operated by the
City of Saco since 1960. The site consists of four distinct disposal areas. Area 1 is a closed and
capped municipal dump that was used for open burning of household and industrial waste; Area 2 is
an inactive industrial dump that accepted bulk and demolition debris; Area 3 is a relatively small
area of about 1 acre in which wastes such as tires and leather and rubber scraps from local industries
were dumped. This uncovered area is located on the outside of the service road that circles Area 4.
Area 4 is a recently closed landfill that accepted household waste and tannery sludge containing
chromium and other heavy metals, as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs).  The sludge was
placed in unlined trenches, often directly in contact with groundwater. Area 2 has a leachate
collection system, but there is no evidence of liners or leachate systems in other disposal areas. The
population within a 3-mile radius is 32,000. Approximately 130 people live within a mile of the site.
Water and sediment in Sandy Brook, which flows through the site, and groundwater beneath the site
have been shown to contain elevated levels of various metals and organics. Approximately 700
people obtain drinking water from wells within 3 miles of the landfill. In 1975, the Biddeford and
Saco Water Company extended water lines along Jenkins Road and Route 112.
Site Responsibility:   The site is being addressed through
                      Federal, State, and municipal actions.
   Proposed Date: 02/15/88
    Final Date: 02/21/90
Threats and Contaminants
         Wastes produced by local industries may be the source of contaminants in the
         groundwater, surface water, and sediments in the Saco Landfill site.  Industries in the
         area produce leather goods, plastics, vinyl stripping, machine parts, textiles, foam
         products, and finishes. Typical wastes from these industries include  heavy metals,
         chromium, solvents, dyes, polymers, and phthalates. The groundwater contains elevated
         levels of heavy metals including iron, manganese, and toluene. Sandy Brook has been
         shown to be contaminated with elevated levels of heavy metals and VOCs. The site is
         only partially fenced, making it possible for people and animals to come into direct
         contact with hazardous substances. People who come in direct contact with or
         accidentally ingest contaminated groundwater, surface water, or sediments may be at risk.
         Surface waters in Sandy Brook also can transport contamination off site.
                  April 1991

Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial phase focusing on
cleanup of the entire site.
Response Action Status
         Initial Actions: The City of Saco, in conjunction with the Maine Department of
         Environmental Protection (MEDEP) and the EPA, has begun procedures to remove and
         dispose of the wastes from Area 3. These wastes are not hazardous and include leather
and rubber scraps from local industry.  MEDEP is overseeing removal to ensure that no hazardous
substances are discovered or disposed of.

        Entire Site: The parties potentially responsible for contamination at the site will conduct
        an investigation into the nature and extent of the contamination. The investigation will
        also recommend alternatives for the final cleanup. The investigation is planned to start in
Environmental Progress
The EPA assessed conditions at the Saco Municipal Landfill and determined that the actions
currently being taken are sufficient to ensure that immediate threats to human health and the
environment are not a concern.  Some intermediate actions may be deemed necessary while awaiting
the results of the investigation for the final cleanup alternatives.
Aprj|! 991                                    34                     SACO MUNICIPAL LANDFILL

EPA ID# MED980520241
                                         EPA REGION 1
                                     CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                             York County
Site Description
The Saco Tannery Waste Pits site covers 233 acres and was operated from 1959 until 1981, when the
Saco Tannery Corporation filed for bankruptcy and stopped site operations.  The site was used as a
disposal area for process wastes such as chromium sludges, acid wastes, methylene chloride, and
caustic substances. More than 23 million gallons of wastes were deposited in two lagoons and 53
disposal pits. Several types of wastes were deposited in Chromium Lagoon  1 until 1968. Waste
streams were separated, and Chromium Lagoon 2 was constructed in 1969 only for chromium and
solid wastes. Smaller pits were constructed for acid wastes from the grease-rendering fleshing
process and for caustic wastes from the patent leather process. The site is bordered by the Maine
Turnpike, Flag Pond Road, residential property on Hearn Road, and the Scarborough town line.
Access to the site is controlled by a fence along the Maine Turnpike and Flag Pond Road, with a
locking gate at the entrance on Flag Pond Road. Groundwater is the source of drinking water for
residents located south and west of the site. Approximately 20 residences are located within 1,000
feet of the site and 2,600 people live within a 3-mile radius of the site. Because the area is heavily
wooded and is inhabited by a variety of wildlife, it is frequently used by hunters. The site is also
used by snowmobilers in the winter.
Site Responsibility.
This site is being addressed through
Federal and State actions.
Proposed Date:  12/01/82
 Final Date: 09/01/83
Threats and Contaminants
         Groundwater is contaminated with heavy metals including, chromium, arsenic and lead.
         Sediments are contaminated with antimony and heavy metals.  The soil is contaminated
         with antimony, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals. Trespassers who
         come in direct contact with or accidentally ingest contaminated groundwater, soil, or
         sediment may be at risk.  The surrounding fauna may be at risk from the contamination,
         as well as the wetlands, which cover a large portion of the site.
                                                       April 1991

Cleanup Approach
This site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial phase
focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
Response Action Status
         Immediate Actions:  In 1983, the EPA removed corrosive liquid from three acid pits
         and disposed of it at an approved facility. The EPA also neutralized the remaining sludge
         in the three pits with lime, covered them with caps, and erected a fence across the access
road to the property.

         Entire Site:  The EPA and the State of Maine conducted studies into the contamination at
         the site. The preferred remedy for site cleanup includes: (1) covering waste in disposal
         pits and lagoons with geotextile fabrics and 4 to 6 feet of soil; (2) monitoring the
groundwater to detect any continued contamination; and (3) designating the area as a permanent
conservation zone to be protected  by the State of Maine. Treatment alternatives for the waste
materials will be used should contamination continue to affect groundwater. If adequate institutional
controls for the selected remedy described above are not in effect by late 1991,  an alternate remedy,
which includes the construction of a federally approved landfill on site, will be implemented.
Environmental Progress

The removal of liquid wastes, the neutralization of sludges, and the capping of three pits have greatly
reduced the potential of exposure to hazardous substances surrounding the acid pit areas, and
protected the public health and the environment. The Saco Tannery site does not pose an immediate
threat while further cleanup activities are planned.
                                             36                     SACO TANNERY WASTE PITS

         Knox County
     Along the south side of
  Route 17, west of South Hope
Site Description
The Union Chemical Company, Inc. site is located on approximately 12 acres and began operations
in 1967 as a formulator of paint and coating strippers. In 1969, the company expanded its operations
and began handling and recovering petrochemical-based solvents. In 1979, as part of the recovery
process, the company added a fluidized bed incinerator to burn contaminated sludges, still bottoms,
and other undetermined hazardous wastes. Some of these types of waste were burned in an on-site
boiler that provided heat and operating power to the facility. Between 1979 and 1984, the plant was
cited by the State for deficiencies or violations of several operating licenses. The State closed the
waste treatment operations in 1984, at which time approximately 2,000 drums and 30 liquid storage
tanks containing hazardous waste were stored on the site. The on-site soil and groundwater
contamination resulted from improper handling and operating practices such as leaking stored
drums, spills, use of a septic tank and a leachfield for disposal of process wastewater, and could also
be attributed to past disposal methods. There are approximately 200 people living within a 1/2-mile
radius of the site. These residents depend on groundwater for domestic use. The site is bounded by
Quiggle Brook and is partially in the 100-year flood plain. Grassy Pond is less than a mile
upgradient of the site and is an alternate drinking water source serving approximately 22,800 people
in the towns of Camden, Rockport, Rockland, and Thomaston.
Site Responsibility:   The site is being addressed through
                      Federal, State, and potentially
                      responsible parties' actions.
  Proposed Date: 04/01/85
    Final Date:  10/04/89
Threats and Contaminants
         Buildings and other plant facilities contain heavy metals, dioxins, and asbestos.
         Approximately 2 1/2 acres of the site are fenced and contain the former processing
         buildings, two aboveground storage tanks, a former drum storage area, and incinerator
         facilities. The on-site groundwater and soils are contaminated with volatile organic
         compounds (VOCs) including toluene, xylenes and others.  Off-site surface water
         contamination has occurred through discharges of contaminated process wastewater into
         the adjacent Quiggle Brook and possibly through natural discharge of contaminated
         groundwater into the brook. People who come into direct contact with or accidentally
         ingest contaminated groundwater or soil could be at risk.

Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial phase
focusing on cleanup of the entire site.

Response Action Status	
         Immediate Actions: In 1984, the State and the EPA collectively removed all surface
         drums, over 100,000 gallons of liquid wastes and sludges from aboveground storage tanks,
         and some contaminated soil from the site.

         Entire Site: Based on an investigation of the site in 1990, the EPA selected the following
         remedies: soil excavation and on-site low-temperature soil aeration treatment; vacuum-
         enhanced groundwater extraction, on-site groundwater treatment, and on-site discharge of
treated groundwater into Quiggle Brook; facilities decontamination and demolition, and off-site
disposal of debris; and further monitoring and analysis of off-site soils to determine whether
contamination is present as a result of past Union Chemical Company, Inc. operations. Throughout
all phases of the data collection and analysis effort, the EPA will determine if additional remedial
actions are required.  The design for these remedies is scheduled to begin in  1992.

Site Facts: In 1987 and 1988,  the EPA, the State, and 288 parties potentially responsible for
contamination at the site entered into two Administrative Orders. In these Orders, the parties agreed
to conduct an investigation to examine the possible cleanup alternatives and have reimbursed the
EPA and the State for approximately 80% of past cleanup costs. In 1989, the EPA entered into a
Consent Decree with nine additional potentially responsible parties where the parties agreed to
reimburse the EPA for additional incurred past costs and certain litigation costs. In 1991, the EPA
entered into a Consent Decree with the past owner/operator for reimbursement of additional EPA
past costs and for a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Administrative Order
violation from  1987.  Also in 1991, the EPA filed three separate Consent Decrees with three
potentially responsible parties for violations.
 Environmental Progress
 The removal of contaminated drums, tanks, and soil has reduced the potential for exposure to
 contamination at the Union Chemical Company, Inc. site while it awaits implementation of the
 cleanup remedies selected by the EPA.
 April 1991                                    38                UNION CHEMICAL COMPANY, INC.

EPA ID# MED98050U35
Site Description
                                                      EPA REGION 1
                                                 CONGRESSIONAL DIST. 01
                                                        Kennebec County
The Winthrop Landfill is a 13-acre site located along the western shore of Lake Annabessacook and
consists of two adjacent properties, the Winthrop Town Landfill and the privately owned Savage
Landfill. The site initially was used in the 1920s as a sand and gravel pit. In the 1930s, parts of the
site received municipal, commercial, and industrial wastes. The site accepted hazardous substances
between the early 1950s and mid-1970s.  It is estimated that over 3 million gallons of chemical
wastes, mostly complex organic compounds including resins, plasticizers, solvents, and other
process chemicals, were disposed of at the site. Late in 1979, the town attempted to expand the
landfill, but this revealed numerous rusting and leaking barrels. The town decided to close the
landfill and construct a transfer station on the site. The Savage Landfill contracted to accept
municipal solid waste and debris from two small neighboring towns and also accepted wastes from
Winthrop to extend the life of the town landfill. Wastes were openly burned until 1972, and
landfilling occurred from 1972 until 1982. There are 63 residences within 1/2 mile of the site.
Wetlands are located near the site, and Lake Annabessacook is used for recreational purposes.
Site Responsibility:   The site is being addressed through
                      Federal, municipal, and potentially
                      responsible parties' actions.
                                                    NPL USTING HISTORY
                                                   Proposed Date: 10/01/81
                                                     Final Date: 09/01/83
Threats and Contaminants
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the landfill were found to be migrating off site
in the groundwater. The soil has been contaminated from drums containing inorganic
and organic chemicals and municipal wastes. Potential risks exist if contaminated soil or
groundwater is accidentally ingested. The area is fenced to protect against direct contact
with contamination.
                                                                   April! 991

Cleanup Approach
The site is being addressed in three stages: immediate actions and two long-term remedial phases
focusing on cleanup of the entire site and groundwater treatment.

Response Action Status	
         Immediate Actions: The potentially responsible parties and the Town of Winthrop
         have extended the town water supply to residents previously on well water drawn from a
         contaminated aquifer below the landfill.

         Entire Site: An impermeable clay cover has been constructed over the landfill to contain
         the landfilled wastes, thereby reducing the quantity of contaminated leachate entering the
         groundwater. A fence has been placed around the landfill to protect against direct contact
with the site, and deed restrictions have been imposed prohibiting use of the landfill for activities
other than the remedial action and prohibiting excavation in the area of the landfill. Long-term
quarterly monitoring of groundwater, surface water, and sediments is ongoing.

         Groundwater Treatment:  Engineering design work consisting of geologic,
         hydrogeologic, and treatment alternatives studies is being conducted by the potentially
         responsible parties.  The studies will provide data for the design of a suitable treatment
system. The studies are scheduled to be completed in 1991.  The parties potentially responsible for
the contamination will install an extraction system to treat and eliminate groundwater contamination,
should it be necessary.

Site Facts: A Consent Decree ordering the above actions was signed by the EPA and the
potentially responsible parties and filed with the U.S. District Court in 1986.
Environmental Progress

The provision of an alternative water supply to affected residences in the area of the Winthrop
Landfill and the installation of a fence to restrict site access have eliminated the threat of direct
contact with contaminants at the site while it awaits further cleanup activities.
April 1991                                     40                          WINTHROP LANDFILL

        APPENDIX A
     Terms Used
          in the
     Fact Sheets

      This glossary defines terms used
      throughout the NPL Volumes. The
      terms and abbreviations contained in
this glossary apply specifically to work
performed under the Superfund program in
the context of hazardous waste management.
These terms may have other meanings when
used in a different context.
          Terms  Used
              in  the NPL
Acids: Substances, characterized by low pH
(less than 7.0), that are used in chemical
manufacturing. Acids in high concentration
can be very corrosive and react with many
inorganic and organic substances. These
reactions possibly may create toxic com-
pounds or release heavy metal contaminants
that remain in the environment long after the
acid is neutralized.

Administrative Order On Consent: A legal
and enforceable agreement between the EPA
and the parties potentially responsible for site
contamination.  Under the terms of the Order,
the potentially responsible parties (PRPs)
agree to perform or pay for site studies or
cleanups. It also describes the oversight rules,
responsibilities, and enforcement options that
the government may exercise in the event of
non-compliance by potentially responsible
parties. This Order is signed by PRPs and the
government; it does not require approval by a

Administrative Order [Unilateral]:  A
legally binding document issued by the EPA,
directing the parties potentially responsible to
perform site cleanups or studies (generally,
the EPA does not issue Unilateral Orders for
site studies).

Aeration: A process that promotes break-
down of contaminants in soil or water by
exposing them to air.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry (ATSDR): The Federal agency
within the U.S. Public Health Service charged
with carrying out the health-related responsi-
bilities of CERCLA.

Air Stripping: A process whereby volatile
organic chemicals (VOCs) are removed from
contaminated material by forcing a stream of
air through it in a pressurized vessel.  The
contaminants are evaporated into the air
stream. The air may be further treated before
it is released into the atmosphere.

Ambient Air: Any unconfined part of the
atmosphere. Refers to the air that may be
inhaled by workers or residents in the vicinity
of contaminated air sources.

Aquifer: An underground layer of rock,
sand, or gravel capable of storing water
within cracks and pore spaces, or between
grains.  When water contained within an
aquifer is of sufficient quantity and quality, it
can be tapped and used for drinking or other
purposes.  The water contained in the aquifer
is called groundwater.  A sole source aquifer
supplies 50% or more of the drinking water of
an area.

Artesian (Well):  A well made by drilling
into the earth until water is reached, which,
from internal pressure, flows up like a foun-

Attenuation: The naturally occurring pro-
cess by which a compound is reduced in
concentration over time through adsorption,
degradation, dilution, and/or transformation.

Background Level: The amount of a sub-
stance typically found in the air, water, or soil
from natural, as opposed to human, sources.

Baghouse Dust:  Dust accumulated in remov-
ing particulates from the air by passing it
through cloth bags in an enclosure.

Bases: Substances characterized by high pH
(greater than 7.0), which tend to be corrosive
in chemical reactions.  When bases are mixed
with acids, they neutralize each other, form-
ing salts.

Berm: A ledge, wall, or a mound of earth
used to prevent the  migration of contami-

Bioaccumulate:  The process by which some
contaminants or toxic chemicals gradually
collect and increase in concentration in living
tissue, such as in plants, fish, or people, as
they breathe contaminated air, drink contami-
nated water, or eat contaminated food.

Biological Treatment: The use of bacteria or
other microbial organisms to break down
toxic organic materials into carbon dioxide
and water.

Bioremediation: A cleanup process using
naturally occurring or specially cultivated
microorganisms to digest contaminants and
break them down into non-hazardous compo-

Bog:  A type of wetland that is covered with
peat moss deposits. Bogs depend primarily
on moisture from the air for their water
source, are usually  acidic, and are rich in plant
residue [see Wetland].
Boom: A floating device used to contain oil
floating on a body of water or to restrict the
potential overflow of waste liquids from
containment structures.

Borehole: A hole that is drilled into the
ground and used to sample soil or ground-

Borrow Pit: An excavated area where soil,
sand, or gravel has been dug up for use

Cap: A layer of material, such as clay or a
synthetic material, used to prevent rainwater
from penetrating and spreading contaminated
materials.  The surface of the cap generally is
mounded or sloped so water will drain off.

Carbon Adsorption: A treatment system  in
which contaminants  are removed from
groundwater and surface water by forcing
water through tanks containing activated
carbon, a specially treated material that
attracts and holds or retains contaminants.

Carbon Disulflde: A degreasing agent
formerly used extensively for parts washing.
This compound has both inorganic and or-
ganic properties, which  increase cleaning
efficiency. However, these properties also
cause chemical reactions that increase the
hazard to human health  and the environment.

Carbon Treatment: [see Carbon Adsorp-

Cell: In solid waste disposal, one of a series
of holes in a landfill where waste is dumped,
compacted, and covered with layers of dirt.

CERCLA:  [see Comprehensive Environ-
mental Response, Compensation, and Liabil-
ity Act].

Characterization: The sampling, monitor-
ing, and analysis of a site to determine the

extent and nature of toxic releases. Character-
ization provides the basis for acquiring the
necessary technical information to develop,
screen, analyze, and select appropriate
cleanup techniques.

Chemical Fixation: The use of chemicals to
bind contaminants, thereby reducing the
potential for leaching or other movement.

Chromated Copper Arsenate: An insecti-
cide/herbicide formed from salts of three toxic
metals: copper, chromium, and arsenic.  This
salt is used extensively as a wood preservative
in pressure-treating operations. It is highly
toxic and water-soluble, making it a relatively
mobile contaminant in the environment.

Cleanup: Actions taken to eliminate a
release or threat of release of a hazardous
substance. The term "cleanup" sometimes is
used interchangeably with the terms remedial
action, removal action, response action, or
corrective action.

Closure: The process by which a landfill
stops accepting wastes and is shut down,
under Federal guidelines that ensure the
protection of the public and the environment.

Comment Period: A specific interval during
which the public can review and comment on
various documents and EPA actions related to
site cleanup. For example, a comment period
is provided when the EPA proposes to add
sites to the NPL.  There is minimum 3-week
comment period for community members to
review and comment on the remedy proposed
to clean up a site.

Community Relations: The EPA effort to
establish and maintain two-way communica-
tion with the public.  Goals of community
relations programs include creating an under-
standing of EPA programs and related ac-
tions, assuring public input into decision-
making processes related to affected commu-
nities, and making certain that the Agency is
aware of, and responsive to, public concerns.
Specific community relations activities are
required in relation to Superfund cleanup
actions [see Comment Period].

Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act
(CERCLA): Congress enacted the
CERCLA, known as Superfund, in 1980 to
respond directly to hazardous waste problems
that may pose a threat to the public health and
the environment. The EPA administers the
Superfund program.

Confluence: The place where two bodies of
water, such as streams or rivers, come to-

Consent Decree: A legal document, ap-
proved and issued by a judge, formalizing an
agreement between the EPA and the parties
potentially responsible for site contamination.
The decree describes cleanup actions that the
potentially responsible parties are required to
perform and/or the costs incurred by the
government that the parties will reimburse, as
well as the roles, responsibilities, and enforce-
ment options that the government may exer-
cise in the event of non-compliance by poten-
tially responsible parties. If a settlement
between the EPA and a potentially respon-
sible party includes cleanup actions, it must
be in the form of a Consent Decree. A Con-
sent Decree is subject to a public comment

Consent Order: [see Administrative Order
on Consent].

Containment: The process of enclosing or
containing hazardous substances in a struc-
ture, typically in a pond or a lagoon, to pre-
vent the migration of contaminants into the

Contaminant: Any physical, chemical,
biological, or radiological material or sub-
stance whose quantity, location, or nature
produces undesirable health or environmental

Contingency Plan:  A document setting out
an organized, planned, and coordinated course
of action to be followed in case of a fire,
explosion, or other accident that releases toxic
chemicals, hazardous wastes, or radioactive
materials into the environment

Cooperative Agreement:  A contract be-
tween the EPA and the States, wherein a State
agrees to manage or monitor certain site
cleanup responsibilities and other activities on
a cost-sharing basis.

Cost Recovery:  A legal process by which
potentially responsible parties can be required
to pay back the Superfund program for money
it spends on any cleanup actions [see Poten-
tially Responsible Parties].

Cover:  Vegetation or other material placed
over a landfill or other waste material. It can
be designed to reduce movement of water into
the waste and to prevent erosion that  could
cause the movement of contaminants.

Creosotes:  Chemicals used in wood preserv-
ing operations and produced by distillation of
tar, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
[see PAHs and PNAs]. Contaminating
sediments, soils, and surface water, creosotes
may cause skin ulcerations and cancer
through prolonged exposure.

Culvert: A pipe used for drainage under a
road, railroad track, path, or through  an

Decommission:  To revoke a license to
operate and take out of service.
Degradation: The process by which a
chemical is reduced to a less complex form.

Degrease: To remove grease from wastes,
soils, or chemicals, usually using solvents.

De minimis: This legal phrase pertains to
settlements with parties who contributed
small amounts of hazardous waste to a site.
This process allows the EPA to settle with
small, or de minimis contributors, as a single
group rather than as individuals, saving time,
money, and effort.

Dewater:  To remove water from wastes,
soils, or chemicals.

Dike:  A low wall that can act as a barrier to
prevent a spill from spreading.

Disposal:  Final placement or destruction of
toxic, radioactive, or other wastes; surplus or
banned pesticides or other chemicals; polluted
soils; and drums containing hazardous materi-
als.  Disposal may be accomplished through
the use of approved secure landfills, surface
impoundments, land farming, deep well
injection, or incineration.

Downgradient:  A downward hydrologic
slope that causes groundwater to move toward
lower elevations.  Therefore, wells downgra-
dient of a contaminated groundwater source
are prone to receiving pollutants.

Effluent:  Wastewater, treated or untreated,
that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or
industrial outfall. Generally refers to wastes
discharged into surface waters.

Emission: Pollution discharged into the
atmosphere from smokestacks, other vents,
and surface areas of commercial or industrial

Emulsifiers: Substances that help in mixing
materials that do not normally mix; e.g., oil
and water.

Endangerment Assessment:  A study con-
ducted to determine the risks posed to public
health or the environment by contamination at
NPL sites. The EPA or the State conducts the
study when a legal action is to be taken to
direct the potentially responsible parties to
clean up a site or pay for the cleanup. An
endangerment assessment supplements  an
investigation of the site hazards.

Enforcement: EPA, State, or local legal
actions taken against parties to facilitate
settlements; to compel compliance with laws,
rules, regulations, or agreements; and/or to
obtain penalties or criminal sanctions for
violations. Enforcement procedures may
vary, depending on the specific requirements
of different environmental laws and related
regulatory requirements. Under CERCLA,
for example, the EPA will seek to require
potentially responsible parties to clean up a
Superfund site or pay for the cleanup [see
Cost Recovery].

Erosion: The wearing away of land surface
by wind or water. Erosion occurs naturally
from weather or surface runoff, but can be
intensified by such land-related practices as
farming, residential or industrial develop-
ment, road building, or timber-cutting.  Ero-
sion may spread surface contamination  to off-
site locations.

Estuary (estuarine): Areas where fresh
water from rivers and salt water from
nearshore ocean waters are mixed. These
areas may include bays, mouths of rivers, salt
marshes, and lagoons.  These water ecosys-
tems shelter and feed marine life, birds, and

Evaporation Ponds:  Areas where sewage
sludge or other watery wastes are dumped and
allowed to dry out.
Feasibility Study: The analysis of the
potential cleanup alternatives for a site. The
feasibility study usually starts as soon as the
remedial investigation is underway; together,
they are commonly referred to as the RI/FS
[see Remedial Investigation].

Filtration: A treatment process for removing
solid (paniculate) matter from water by
passing the water through sand, activated
carbon, or a man-made filter. The process is
often used to remove particles that contain

Flood Plain:  An area along a river, formed
from sediment deposited by floods. Flood
plains periodically are innundated by natural
floods, which can spread contamination.

Flue Gas:  The air that is emitted from a
chimney after combustion in the burner
occurs.  The gas can include nitrogen oxides,
carbon oxides, water vapor, sulfur oxides,
particles, and many chemical pollutants.

Fly Ash: Non-combustible residue that
results from the combustion of flue gases. It
can include nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides,
water vapor, sulfur oxides, as well as many
other chemical pollutants.

French Drain System:  A crushed rock drain
system constructed of perforated pipes, which
is used to drain and disperse wastewater.

Gasification (coal): The conversion of soft
coal into gas for use as a fuel.

Generator: A facility that emits pollutants
into the air or releases hazardous wastes into
water or soil.

Good Faith Offer:  A voluntary offer, gener-
ally in response to a Special Notice letter,
made by a potentially responsible party,
consisting of a written proposal demonstrating
a potentially responsible party's qualifications

and willingness to perform a site study or

Groundwater: Underground water that fills
pores in soils or openings in rocks to the point
of saturation.  In aquifers, groundwater occurs
in sufficient quantities for use as drinking and
irrigation water and other purposes.

Groundwater Quality Assessment: The
process of analyzing the chemical characteris-
tics of groundwater to determine whether any
hazardous materials exist.

Halogens: Reactive non-metals, such as
chlorine and bromine. Halogens are very
good oxidizing agents and, therefore, have
many industrial uses. They are rarely found
by themselves; however, many chemicals
such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
some volatile  organic compounds (VOCs),
and dioxin are reactive because of the pres-
ence of halogens.

Hazard Ranking System (HRS): The
principal  screening tool used by the EPA to
evaluate relative risks to public health and the
environment associated with abandoned or
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The HRS
calculates a score based on the potential of
hazardous substances spreading from the site
through the air, surface water, or groundwater
and on other factors such as nearby popula-
tion. The HRS score is the primary factor in
deciding  if the site should be on the NPL.

Hazardous Waste:  By-products of society
that can pose  a substantial present or potential
hazard to human health and the environment
when improperly managed. It possesses at
least one of four characteristics (ignitability,
corrosivity, reactivity, or toxiciry), or appears
on special EPA lists.

Hot Spot: An area or vicinity of a site con-
taining exceptionally high levels of contami-
Hydrogeology: The geology of groundwater,
with particular emphasis on the chemistry and
movement of water.

Impoundment: A body of water or sludge
confined by a dam, dike, floodgate, or other

Incineration: A group of treatment technolo-
gies involving destruction of waste by con-
trolled burning at high temperatures, e.g.,
burning sludge to reduce the remaining
residues to a non-burnable ash that can be
disposed of safely on land, in some waters, or
in underground locations.

Infiltration: The movement of water or other
liquid down through soil from precipitation
(rain or snow) or from application of waste-
water to the land surface.

Influent: Water, wastewater, or other liquid
flowing into a reservoir, basin, or treatment

Injection Well: A well into which waste
fluids arc placed, under pressure, for purposes
of disposal.

Inorganic Chemicals: Chemical substances
of mineral origin,  not of basic carbon struc-

Installation Restoration Program:  The
specially funded program established in 1978
under which the Department of Defense has
been identifying and evaluating its hazardous
waste sites and controlling the migration of
hazardous contaminants from those sites.

Intake: The source from where a water
supply is drawn, such as from a river or water

Interagency Agreement: A written agree-
ment between the EPA and a Federal agency
that has the lead for site cleanup activities,

setting forth the roles and responsibilities of
the agencies for performing and overseeing
the activities. States often are parties to
interagency agreements.

Interim (Permit) Status: Conditions under
which hazardous waste treatment, storage,
and disposal facilities, that were operating
when regulations under the RCRA became
final in 1980, are temporarily allowed by the
EPA to continue to operate while awaiting
denial or issuance of a permanent permit. The
facility must comply with certain regulations
to maintain interim status.

Lagoon: A shallow pond or liquid waste
containment structure. Lagoons typically are
used for the storage of wastewaters, sludges,
liquid wastes, or spent nuclear fuel.

Landfarm:  To apply waste to land and/or
incorporate waste into the surface soil, such
as fertilizer or soil conditioner.  This practice
commonly is used for disposal of composted
wastes and sludges.

Landfill:  A disposal facility where  waste is
placed in or on land.  Sanitary landfills are
disposal sites for non-hazardous solid wastes.
The waste is spread in layers, compacted to
the smallest practical  volume, and covered
with soil at the end of each operating day.
Secure chemical landfills are disposal sites for
hazardous waste. They are designed to
minimize the chance of release of hazardous
substances into the environment [see Re-
source Conservation and Recovery Act].

Leachate [n]: The liquid that trickles
through or drains from waste, carrying soluble
components from the waste. Leach, Leach-
ing [v.t.]: The process by which soluble
chemical components are dissolved and
carried through soil by water or some other
percolating liquid.
Leachate Collection System: A system that
gathers liquid that has leaked into a landfill or
other waste disposal area and pumps it to the
surface for treatment.

Liner: A relatively impermeable barrier
designed to prevent leachate (waste residue)
from leaking from a landfill.  Liner materials
include plastic and dense clay.

Long-term Remedial Phase: Distinct, often
incremental, steps that are taken to solve site
pollution problems. Depending on the com-
plexity, site cleanup activities can be sepa-
rated into several of these phases.

Marsh:  A type of wetland that does not
contain peat moss deposits and is dominated
by vegetation.  Marshes may be either fresh or
saltwater and tidal or non-tidal [see Wetland].

Migration: The movement of oil,  gas,
contaminants, water, or other liquids through
porous and permeable soils or rock.

Mill Tailings: [See Mine Tailings].

Mine Tailings: A fine, sandy residue left
from mining operations.  Tailings often
contain high concentrations of lead, uranium,
and arsenic or other heavy metals.

Mitigation: Actions taken to improve site
conditions by limiting, reducing, or control-
ling toxicity and contamination sources.

Modeling: A technique using a mathematical
or physical representation of a system or
theory that tests the effects that changes on
system components have on the overall
performance of the system.

Monitoring Wells: Special wells drilled at
specific locations within, or surrounding, a
hazardous waste site where groundwater can
be sampled at selected depths and studied to
obtain such information as the direction in

which groundwater flows and the types and
amounts of contaminants present.

National Priorities List (NPL):  The EPA's
list of the most serious uncontrolled or aban-
doned hazardous waste sites identified for
possible long-term cleanup under Superfund.
The EPA is required to update the NPL at
least once a year.

Neutrals: Organic compounds that have a
relatively neutral pH, complex structure and,
due to their organic bases, are easily absorbed
into the environment.  Naphthalene, pyrene,
and trichlorobenzene are examples of

Nitroaromatics:  Common components of
explosive materials, which will explode if
activated by very high temperatures or pres-
sures; 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a

Notice Letter: A General Notice Letter
notifies the parties potentially responsible for
site contamination of their possible liability.
A Special Notice Letter begins a 60-day
formal period of negotiation during which the
EPA is not allowed to start work at a site or
initiate enforcement actions against poten-
tially responsible parties, although the EPA
may undertake certain investigatory and
planning activities. The 60-day period may
be extended if the EPA receives a good faith
offer within that period.

On-Scene Coordinator (OSC):  The
predesignated EPA, Coast Guard, or Depart-
ment of Defense official who coordinates and
directs Superfund removal actions or Clean
Water Act oil-  or hazardous-spill corrective

Operation and Maintenance: Activities
conducted at a site after a cleanup action is
completed to ensure that the cleanup or
containment system is functioning properly.
Organic Chemicals/Compounds:  Chemical
substances containing mainly carbon, hydro-
gen, and oxygen.

Outfall: The place where wastewater is
discharged into receiving waters.

Overpacking:  Process used for isolating
large volumes of waste by jacketing or encap-
sulating waste to prevent further spread or
leakage of contaminating materials. Leaking
drums may be contained within oversized
barrels as an interim measure prior to removal
and final disposal.

Pentachlorophenol (PCP):  A synthetic,
modified petrochemical that is used as a wood
preservative because of its toxicity to termites
and fungi. It is a common component of
creosotes and can cause cancer.

Perched (groundwater): Groundwater
separated from another underlying body of
groundwater by a confining layer, often clay
or rock.

Percolation: The downward flow or filtering
of water or other liquids through subsurface
rock or soil layers, usually continuing down-
ward to groundwater.

Petrochemicals: Chemical substances
produced from petroleum in refinery opera-
tions and as fuel oil residues.  These include
fluoranthene, chrysene, mineral spirits, and
refined oils.  Petrochemicals are the bases
from which volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), plastics, and many pesticides are
made.  These chemical substances often are
toxic to humans and the environment.

Phenols:  Organic compounds that are used
in plastics manufacturing and are by-products
of petroleum refining, tanning, textile, dye,
and resin manufacturing. Phenols are highly

Physical Chemical Separation: The treat-
ment process of adding a chemical to a sub-
stance to separate the compounds for further
treatment or disposal.

Pilot Testing:  A small-scale test of a pro-
posed treatment system in the field to deter-
mine its ability to clean up specific contami-

Plugging: The process of stopping the flow
of water, oil, or gas into or out of the ground
through a borehole or well penetrating the

Plume: A body of contaminated groundwater
flowing from a specific source.  The move-
ment of the groundwater is influenced by such
factors as local groundwater flow patterns, the
character of the aquifer in which groundwater
is contained, and the density of contaminants
[see Migration].

Pollution:  Generally, the presence of matter
or energy whose nature, location, or quantity
produces undesired health or environmental

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or
Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs):
PAHs, such as pyrene, are a group of highly
reactive organic compounds found in motor
oil. They are a common component of creo-
sotes and can cause cancer.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): A
group of toxic chemicals used for a variety of
purposes including electrical applications,
carbonless copy paper, adhesives, hydraulic
fluids, microscope immersion oils, and caulk-
ing compounds. PCBs also are produced in
certain combustion processes. PCBs are
extremely persistent in the environment
because they are very stable, non-reactive,
and highly heat resistant Chronic exposure
to PCBs is believed to cause liver damage. It
also is known to bioaccumulate in fatty
tissues. PCB use and sale was banned in
1979 with the passage of the Toxic Sub-
stances Control ACL

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
(PNAs):  PNAs, such as naphthalene, and
biphenyls, are a group of highly reactive
organic compounds that are a common com-
ponent of creosotes, which can be carcino-

Poly vinyl Chloride (PVC): A plastic made
from the gaseous substance vinyl chloride.
PVC is used to make pipes, records, raincoats,
and floor tiles.  Health risks from high con-
centrations of vinyl chloride include liver
cancer and lung cancer, as well as cancer of
the lymphatic and nervous systems.

Potable Water:  Water that is safe for drink-
ing and cooking.

Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs):
Parties, including owners, who may have
contributed to the contamination at a Su-
perfund site and may be liable for costs of
response actions. Parties are considered PRPs
until they admit liability or a court makes a
determination of liability. PRPs may sign a
Consent Decree or Administrative Order on
Consent to participate in site cleanup activity
without admitting liability.

Precipitation:  The removal of solids from
liquid waste so that the solid and liquid
portions can be disposed of safely; the re-
moval of particles from airborne emissions.
Electrochemical precipitation is  the use of an
anode or cathode to remove the hazardous
chemicals.  Chemical precipitation involves
the addition of some substance to cause the
solid portion to separate.

Preliminary Assessment: The process of
collecting and reviewing available informa-
tion about a known or suspected waste site or
release to determine if a threat or potential
threat exists.

Pump and Treat: A groundwater cleanup
technique involving the extracting of contami-
nated groundwater from the subsurface and
the removal of contaminants, using one of
several treatment technologies.

Radionuclides: Elements, including radium
and uranium-235 and -238, which break down
and produce radioactive substances due to
their unstable atomic structure. Some are
man-made, and others are naturally occurring
in the environment. Radon, the gaseous form
of radium, decays to form alpha particle
radiation, which cannot be absorbed  through
skin.  However, it can be inhaled, which
allows alpha particles to affect unprotected
tissues directly and thus cause cancer. Radia-
tion also occurs naturally through the break-
down of granite stones.

RCRA: [See Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act].

Recharge Area: A land area where rainwater
saturates the ground and soaks through the
earth to reach an aquifer.

Record of Decision (ROD): A public docu-
ment that explains which cleanup
alternative(s) will be used to clean up sites
listed on the NPL. It is based on  information
generated during the remedial investigation
and feasibility study and consideration of
public comments and community concerns.

Recovery Wells: Wells used to withdraw
contaminants or contaminated groundwater.

Recycle: The process of minimizing waste
generation by recovering usable products that
might otherwise become waste.

Remedial Action (RA): The actual construc-
tion or implementation phase of a Superfund
site cleanup following the remedial design
[see Cleanup].
Remedial Design:  A phase of site cleanup,
where engineers design the technical specifi-
cations for cleanup remedies and technolo-

Remedial Investigation:  An in-depth study
designed to gather the data necessary to
determine the nature and extent of contami-
nation at a Superfund site, establish the
criteria for cleaning up the site, identify the
preliminary alternatives for cleanup actions,
and support the technical and cost analyses of
the alternatives. The remedial investigation
is usually done with the feasibility study.
Together they are customarily referred to as
the RI/FS [see Feasibility Study].

Remedial Project Manager (RPM):  The
EPA or State official responsible for oversee-
ing cleanup actions at a site.

Remedy Selection:  The selection of the
final cleanup strategy for the site. At the few
sites where the EPA has determined that
initial response actions have eliminated site
contamination, or that any remaining con-
tamination will be naturally dispersed with-
out further cleanup activities, a "No Action"
remedy is selected [see Record of Decision].

Removal Action: Short-term immediate
actions taken to address releases of hazardous
substances [see Cleanup].

Residual: The amount of a pollutant remain-
ing in the environment after a natural or
technological process has taken place,  e.g.,
the sludge remaining after initial wastewater
treatment, or particulates remaining in air
after the air passes through a scrubbing, or
other, process.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA): A Federal law that established a
regulatory system to track hazardous sub-
stances from the time of generation to  dis-
posal.  The law requires safe and secure

procedures to be used in treating, transport-
ing, storing, and disposing of hazardous
substances.  RCRA is designed to prevent
new, uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.

Retention Pond:  A small body of liquid
used for disposing of wastes and containing
overflow from production facilities. Some-
times retention ponds are used to expand the
capacity of such structures as lagoons to store

Riparian Habitat: Areas adjacent to rivers
and streams that have a high density, diver-
sity, and productivity of plant and animal
species relative to nearby uplands.

Runoff:  The discharge of water over land
into surface water.  It can carry pollutants
from the air and land and spread contamina-
tion from its source.

Scrubber: An air pollution device that uses a
spray of water or reactant or a dry process to
trap pollutants in emissions.

Sediment: The layer of soil, sand, and
minerals at the bottom of surface waters, such
as streams, lakes, and rivers, that absorbs

Seeps: Specific points where releases of
liquid (usually leachate) form from waste
disposal areas, particularly along the lower
edges of landfills.

Seepage Pits:  A hole, shaft, or cavity in the
ground used for storage of liquids, usually in
the form of leachate, from waste disposal
areas.  The liquid gradually leaves the pit by
moving through the surrounding soil.

Septage: Residue remaining in a septic tank
after the treatment process.
Sinkhole: A hollow depression in the land
surface in which drainage collects; associated
with underground caves and passages that
facilitate the movement of liquids.

Site Characterization: The technical pro-
cess used to evaluate the nature and extent of
environmental contamination, which is
necessary for choosing and designing cleanup
measures and monitoring their effectiveness.

Site Inspection: The collection of informa-
tion from a hazardous waste site to determine
the extent and  severity of hazards posed by
the site. It follows, and is more extensive
than, a preliminary assessment. The purpose
is to gather information necessary to score the
site, using the Hazard Ranking System, and to
determine if the site presents an immediate
threat that requires a prompt removal action.

Slag: The fused refuse or dross separated
from a metal in the process of smelting.

Sludge:  Semi-solid residues from industrial
or water treatment processes that may be
contaminated with hazardous materials.

Slurry Wall:  Barriers used to contain the
flow of contaminated groundwater or subsur-
face liquids. Slurry walls are constructed by
digging a trench around a contaminated area
and filling the  trench with an impermeable
material that prevents water from passing
through it. The groundwater or contaminated
liquids trapped within the area surrounded by
the slurry wall can be extracted and treated.

Smelter: A facility that melts or fuses ore,
often with an accompanying chemical change,
to separate the metal. Emissions from smelt-
ers are known  to cause pollution.

Soil Gas: Gaseous elements and compounds
that occur in the small spaces between par-
ticles of soil. Such gases can move through

or leave the soil or rock, depending on
changes in pressure.

Soil Vapor Extraction: A treatment process
that uses vacuum wells to remove hazardous
gases from soil.

Soil Washing: A water-based process for
mechanically scrubbing soils in-place to
remove undesirable materials. There are two
approaches:  dissolving or suspending them in
the wash solution for later treatment by
conventional methods, and concentrating
them into a smaller volume of soil through
simple particle size separation techniques [see
Solvent Extraction].

Stabilization:  The process of changing an
active substance into inert, harmless material,
or physical activities at a site that act to limit
the further spread of contamination without
actual reduction of toxicity.

Solidification/Stabilization:  A chemical or
physical reduction of the mobility of hazard-
ous constituents.  Mobility is reduced through
the binding of hazardous constituents into a
solid mass with low permeability and resis-
tance to leaching.

Solvent: A substance capable of dissolving
another substance to form a solution. The
primary uses of industrial  solvents are as
cleaners for degreasing, in paints, and in
Pharmaceuticals. Many solvents are flam-
mable and toxic to varying degrees.

Solvent Extraction:  A means of separating
hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges,
and sediment, thereby reducing the volume of
the hazardous waste that must be treated. It
generally is used as one in a series of unit
operations.  Ah organic chemical is used to
dissolve contaminants as opposed to water-
based compounds, which usually are used in
soil washing.
Sorption: The action of soaking up or at-
tracting substances. It is used in many pollu-
tion control systems.

Stillbottom: Residues left over from the
process of recovering spent solvents.

Stripping: A process used to remove volatile
contaminants from a substance [see Air

Sumps: A pit or tank that catches liquid
runoff for drainage or disposal.

Superfund: The program operated under the
legislative authority of the CERCLA and
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Act (SARA) to update and improve environ-
mental laws. The program has the authority
to respond directly to releases or threatened
releases of hazardous substances that  may
endanger public health, welfare, or the envi-
ronment.  The "Superfund" is a trust fund that
finances cleanup actions at hazardous waste

Surge Tanks: A holding structure used to
absorb irregularities in flow of liquids, includ-
ing liquid waste materials.

Swamp:   A type of wetland that is dominated
by woody vegetation and does not accumulate
peat moss deposits. Swamps may be  fresh or
saltwater and tidal or non-tidal [see Wet-

Thermal Treatment: The use of heat to
remove or destroy contaminants from soil.

Treatability Studies: Testing a treatment
method on contaminated groundwater, soil,
etc., to determine whether and how well the
method will work.

Trichloroethylene (TCE):  A stable, color-
less liquid with a low boiling point. TCE has
many industrial applications, including use as

a solvent and as a metal degreasing agent.
TCE may be toxic to people when inhaled,
ingested, or through skin contact and can
damage vital organs, especially the liver [see
Volatile Organic Compounds].

Unilateral [Administrative] Order:  [see
Administrative Order].

Upgradient: An upward hydrologic slope;
demarks areas that are higher than contami-
nated areas and, therefore, are not prone to
contamination by the movement of polluted

Vacuum Extraction: A technology used to
remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
from soils. Vacuum pumps are connected to a
series of wells drilled to just above the water
table. The wells are sealed tightly at the soil
surface, and the vacuum established in the
soil draws VOC-contaminated air from the
soil pores into the well, as fresh air is drawn
down from the surface of the soil.

Vegetated Soil Cap: A cap constructed with
graded soils and seed for vegetative growth,
to prevent erosion [see Cap].

Vitrification:  The process of electrically
melting wastes and soils or sludges to bind
the waste in a glassy, solid material more
durable than granite or marble and resistant to

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs):
VOCs are manufactured as secondary petro-
chemicals.  They include light alcohols,
acetone, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene,
dichloroethylene, benzene, vinyl chloride,
toluene, and methylene chloride. These
potentially toxic chemicals are used as sol-
vents, degreasers, paints, thinners, and fuels.
Because of their volatile nature, they readily
evaporate into the air, increasing the potential
exposure to humans. Due to their low water
solubility, environmental persistence, and
widespread industrial use, they are commonly
found in soil and groundwater.

Waste Treatment Plant: A facility that uses
a series of tanks, screens, filters, and other
treatment processes to remove pollutants from

Wastewater: The spent or used water from
individual homes or industries.

Watershed: The land area that drains into a
stream or other water body.

Water Table:  The upper surface of the

Weir:  A barrier to divert water or other

Wetland: An area that is regularly saturated
by surface or groundwater and, under normal
circumstances, is capable of supporting
vegetation typically adapted for life in satu-
rated soil conditions.  Wetlands are critical to
sustaining many species of fish and wildlife.
Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes,
and bogs.  Wetlands may be either coastal or
inland. Coastal wetlands have salt or brackish
(a mixture of salt and fresh) water, and most
have tides, while inland wetlands are non-
tidal and freshwater. Coastal wetlands are an
integral component of estuaries.

Wildlife Refuge: An area designated for the
protection of wild animals, within which
hunting and fishing are either prohibited or
strictly controlled.

        APPENDIX B
      NPL Sites
        in Maine

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*U.S. G.P.O.:1992-311-893:60633