2    Olympus
Environmentally, the Games
had their moments.
    States Curtail
    Recycling Budgets
Many expect the market to
sustain programs.
    Technology Update
Dry cleaning for semiconduc-
tors, plastic grown in plants,
trees used to filter wastewater,
and other news.
P2 on the Road
More cabs use natural gas.
EPA recognizes innovative
P~",ent publications, videos,
  i more.
                         United States
                         Environmental Protection
                                                   Office of Pollution
                                                   Prevention and Toxics
                                                   Washington, DC 20460
                October - November 1996

                     EPA 742-N-96-006
                         STATES, COMMUNITIES WIN  GRANTS
                        EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention
                        and Toxics, in conjunction with the
                        10 EPA Regional Offices, awarded a
                    total of $6.8 million in pollution prevention
                    grants in September: $4.9 million to support
                    state and tribal programs under the
                    Pollution Prevention Incentives for States
                    (PPIS) grant program  and $1.9 million to
                    non-profit organizations and tribes to use
                    pollution prevention to address environ-
                    mental justice concerns under the Envi-
                    ronmental Justice through Pollution
                    Prevention (EJP2) grant program.
                      In another grant area, in October, EPA
                    Administrator Carol M. Browner  an-   ,
                    nounced an expansion of the Brownfields
                    Economic Redevelopment Initiative by
                    adding 16 new pilot projects totalling
$2.06 million to help clean up and
redevelop abandoned, contaminated
urban properties. Brownfields projects
yield economic benefits and ultimately
can prevenE'ifollution by encouraging
development on existing sites, rather
than in undeveloped areas.
  Sixty-five state and tribal organiza-
tions received PPIS grants to support
programs addressing the reduction or
elimination of pollution across all media:
air, land and water.' This represented the
eighth round of PPIS awards. Since 1989,
over"$40 million has been awarded. Grant
recipients are required to match the
federal funds by at least,50 percent.
  Eleven organizations were funded
                        To give the public a more complete
                        picture of industrial environmental
                        performance and toxic chemicals in
                    communities, EPA issued an Advance
                    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in October
                    requesting comments on expanding the
                    Community Right-to-Know Program to
                    include chemical use reporting.
                      The ANPR describes new types of
                    information on the amounts of toxic
                    chemicals that enter and leave local
                    industrial facilities and the amounts that
                    are transformed into products and waste.
                    Improved measurement of source reduc-
                    tion and tracking toxics in products are
                    two of the pollution prevention issues
                    addressed by the ANPR.
                      "The expansion we are considering
would give the public the right to know not
just which chemicals come out of local
industrial' facilities, but which chemicals
go into their neighborhoods and how they
are used," EPA Administrator Carol M.
Browner said. "Putting information about
local pollution into the hands of the public
is the single most effective, common-sense
tool available for protecting public health
and environment."
   Expanding the Community Right-to-
Know Program has been a priority of the
Clinton Administration since 1993. In that
year, federal facilities were ordered to
report toxic emissions for the first time. In
1994, the Administration nearly doubled
the list of chemicals that industry is
                        Continued on page 11

2 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                      October-November 1996
                            THE OLYMPICS: NOT A
                            PERFECT 10, BUT NOT BAD
                            The Atlantic Committee for the Olympic
                            Games set ambitious goals for waste
                            reduction and recycling as well as use of
                            electric and alternative fuel vehicles
                            (Pollution Prevention News, June/July
                            1996). The final tally is now in, and while it
                            was not a perfect 10, there were victories.
                               The Committee set a target of recycling
                            and composting 85 percent of generated
                            waste, with only 15 percent going to
                            landfills. Overall, 50 percent of waste
                            ended up being diverted to landfills—still
                            a record low for Olympic Games—mainly
                            because a composting facility was unable
                            to begin operations until six days into the
                            Games. "When all cylinders were working,
                            we achieved an 82 percent recycling and
                            MSW (mixed solid waste) composting
                            rate," according to Dave Perry, former
                            Project Manager for the ACOG and Chief
                            Operating Officer of Waste Diversions Inc.
                               Although as many as 9,000 tons of
                            waste were anticipated, the amount
                            generated was only 6,000, much of which
                            went into 26,000 recycling bins throughout
                            Olympic venues.
                               Overall, the Games turned out to be a
                            major headache for motorists and city
                            traffic officials, but a bright spot for
                            natural gas and electric vehicles. More
                            than 500 natural gas vehicles—including
                            more than 230 natural gas transit buses,
                            12 school buses loaned by the California
                            Energy Commission and 250 light-duty
                            vehicles such as pickup trucks and
                            minivans—provided a breath of fresh air
                            to athletes and visitors during the Games.
                            Participants in the men's and women's
                            marathons did not breathe fumes from
                            gasoline-powered media trucks and
                            medical vans during the races because
                            those vehicles were fueled with natural
                            gas for the first time in Olympic history.
                            The large NGV fleet was supported by the
                            American Gas Association, an official
                            Olympic sponsor.
                               Up to 65 electric trams operated every
                            day, each carrying up to 36 passengers, as
                            did 15 electric buses, contributed by the
cities of Chattanooga and Santa Barbara
as well as Georgia Power, and 300 electric
golf carts.
  "For those who believe electric vehicles
cannot stand up to today's demands, they
need only see that for 33 days almost 1.4
million passengers utilized electric vehicles
to commute around the Olympic Village,"
said John Powell, Executive Director of the
Electric Transit Vehicle Institute.

EPA is soliciting public comment on the
Agency's Facility Identification Initiative,
which has the goal of streamlining the
collection of identifying information from
facilities subject to federal environmental
reporting requirements and providing the
public with easier access to the data.
  A notice appears in 61 Federal Register
52587.  For more  information call Diane
Sheridan at 202-260-3435, or e-mail

Reflecting a market-based approach to
Clean Air Act implementation, EPA in
October rewarded five electric utilities for
early reductions in SO2 emissions. As a
reward for undertaking energy efficiency
and renewable energy measures, EPA
provided these utilities 5,687 acid rain
bonus allowances. The awarded utih'tjgfcsLjs
Pacific Gas & Electric and San Diego Gas
& Electric in California; Sierra Pacifi* .
Power in Nevada; ESI Energy in Florida:* '-
and Wisconsin Public Power—are note,* $s, ^
required to limit the amount of SO2 f •' **'*•
emitted to one ton per allowance until the*
year 2000. These utilities can sell the
bonus allowances or retain them for future
development. EPA allocates a limited^ ••   -"'
number of allowances to ensure tha^s... *.
emissions will be cut in half by the year
2010, to less than 9 million tons annu^jly.
  For more information, contact Melanie,,
Dean at 202-233-9189, or the Acid ftaia  , -
Hotline at 202-233-9620.

3 Pollution Prevention News
                                             October-November 1996
      l ost state governments will spend
        no more on recycling in the com-
        ing fiscal year (1996-97) than
they spent last year, and some states
will spend less, according to the annual
recycling survey of Waste Age's Recycling
Times (June 25).
  Officials in many states are hoping that
market forces will take up the slack,
eventually making continued state support
unnecessary. An example is Michigan,
where the recycling budget is expected to
drop from $14 million in FY 1995-96 to
$400,000 in the current fiscal year, and
then to zero.
  "The intent was always that eventually
the programs would need to be self-
sufficient-the state wasn't going to
subsidize them forever," Seth Phillips at
Michigan's Department of Environmental
Quality told Recycling Times.

Of the 42 states and the District of Colum-
bia that released budget projections for the
coming year,
^ 10 expected to see recycling budgets
  decrease from the last fiscal year,
^ 26 expected budgets to stay the same,
^ 7 expected budget increases.

State budgets for recycling in 1995-96
ranged broadly, from zero in Idaho and
Utah to $47.5 million in Wisconsin.
Between these extremes were 14 states
with recycling budgets under $1 million,
21 states with budgets of $1-$10 million,
and five states with  budgets of over $10
  In states where budgets declined in
1996-97, some officials said they expected
the recycling program to break even or
turn a profit by selling the materials it
collects. They may be right. According to
the journal Environmental Manager
(March 1996), the supply of recyclable
materials has increased and the overall
market for recyclable materials enlarged
by the growth of public recycling programs
around the country. Future trends
are likely to make
recycling more attrac-
tive than ever for
business, the journal
reported. A major
budget item in
several states was-
and continues to be-
market development,
which appeared to be a
factor in a program's profit-
ability, according to an analysis
of survey results in Waste Age magazine
(August 1996). In most states, however,
the other success factors were not clear.
Some municipalities earned profits from
the sale of materials, but not always the
same materials.

The survey also found that half the states
remain committed to recycling goals that
exceed the current U.S. average of just
under 24 percent.  Twenty-five states and
the District of Columbia have goals of 40-
50 percent or higher, which most hope to
reach by the year 2000. However, all of
these goals are voluntary, and most states
and municipalities do not face penalties
for failing to achieve them.
  While states continue to face formidable
challenges on the supply side, they are
model consumers of recycled products.
  Recycling Times found that more than
90 percent of the states surveyed had a
buy-recycled program in place, the
majority as a result of legislative action.
Recycled-content office paper was the
most popular item required for purchase,
followed by other recycled-content paper
products, including tissues, towels,
and folders.
  Other popular items: retread tires, re-
refined motor oil, toner cartridges, and
highway cones with recycled-content

4 Pollution Prevention News
                                                            October-November 1996
  A contributing factor in the states' buy-recycled records was a two-year
  campaign just completed by state Public Interest Research Groups
  (PIRGs) to encourage states and communities to adopt buy-recycled
  initiatives that mirror the federal Executive Order on Recycled Paper
  Procurement (Pollution Prevention News, July/August 1996). State
  PIRGs worked on buy-recycled activities in 12 states.
    Many activities involved technical assistance to municipal purchas-
  ing officials. Often, PIRG staff found that they needed to educate
  officials about improvements in the price and quality of recycled paper
  currently on the market. PIRGs also attempted  to persuade states to
  enforce or implement procurement programs already on the books.
    For more information on the PIRGs' campaign-related publications,
  which are available for a nominal fee, contact MASSPIRG at 617-292-4800.
                             plastic, recycled-content packaging
                             material, plastic trash bags, recycled
                             asphalt, and highway reflector beads made
                             from recycled glass.
                                Most state programs allowed for a price
                             preference of at least 5 percent for re-
                             cycled-content products. States spent
                             widely varying amounts on recycled-
                             content products in 1995, ranging from
                             $18 million in North Carolina to $1.5
                             million in Maine.

                             EPA  FORMULA LEVELS
                             THE  PLAYING FIELD
                                  I ow much are states currently
                                    recycling? According to the June 25
                                    issue of Recycling Times, the rates
                             range from under 3 percent (Alaska) to 56
                             percent (New Jersey). Nevertheless, there
                             are many disparities among the states'
                             reporting systems. Materials counted in
                             calculating recycling rates are not the same
                             in all states, making comparisons difficult.
                                To encourage greater uniformity, EPA
                             recently announced a voluntary methodol-
                             ogy which states can use to calculate their
                             recycling rates. In a year-long study with
                             representatives of state and municipal
                             governments and recycling advocates, EPA
                             devised a formula based on the following
                                          10 categories of materials: food scraps,
                                          glass, lead-acid batteries, metals, paper,
                                          plastics, tires, wood, yard waste, and
                                          textiles. The formula compares the total
                                          amount of recycled materials in these
                                          categories with total waste generated in
                                          the state each year. Excluded are activities
                                          such as combustion for energy recovery,
                                          backyard composting, pre-consumer
                                          recycling, reuse, source reduction, land
                                          application of sludge  materials, and
                                          recycling of non-municipal solid waste
                                            A standard method of calculating
                                          recycling rates will benefit market devel-
                                          opment in states with active recycling
                                          programs because it can level the playing
                                          field among states eager to attract manu-
                                          facturers of recycled-content products.
Continued from page 1
through the EJP2 grant program, one
from each of EPA's 10 regions and one
national award. FY 96 was the second year
of this program, which aims to empower
communities to find pollution prevention
solutions to local environmental injustices.
The 11 organizations were selected from
more than 230 applications received.
  Each of the Brownfields pilot projects
will receive a grant of $90,000 to $200,000
over two years to help clean up, rede-
velop, and return to productive commu-
nity use lightly polluted, abandoned
commercial properties currently lying
idle. Since the Administration's initiative
was announced in 1993, 76 pilot projects
have been funded.
  For more information and a list of the
grantees, contact, the RCRA/Superfund
Hotline at 1-800-424-9346 or 703-412-9810
(Brownfields), Lena Ferris at 202-260-
2237 (PPIS), or Chen Wen at 202-260-4109

5 Pollution Prevention News
                                                October-November 1996
    States are contributing to the rapidly
     advancing technology of recycling in
     transportation infrastructure. As in
all pioneering efforts, they have achieved
triumphs but experienced setbacks as well.
  Waste and by-product materials are
being used successfully in many diverse
applications. For example, according to
federal estimates, 100 million tons of
reclaimed asphalt pavement are produced
annually, of which 80 million tons are
recycled to highway applications.
  Newer experiments with  recyclables are
producing mixed results. A number of
states have used recycled tire chips as
road fill material, and while the over-
whelming majority have succeeded, two
such roadbeds mysteriously formed hot
spots which resulted in underground fires
this year in Washington state. In both
instances, the fill material ignited in the
absence of oxygen and after heavy rain or
flooding, and in one case the decomposing
chips released oil which sent state officials
scrambling to avert contamination of
nearby water bodies.
  Although the reasons are still unknown,
several hypotheses have been advanced,
including a microbially mediated action
similar to that which occasionally causes
combustion in damp hay stored in barns.
The Scrap Tire Management Council of
the Rubber Manufacturers Association is
exploring the various hypotheses with the
intention of developing engineering
criteria for determining where and how to
apply rubber chips.
  The bigger picture in transportation is
far more positive, as illustrated in the
May/June 1996 issue of TR News, in which
the Transportation Research Board, a unit
of the National Research Council, high-
lighted states' accomplishments, including
the following:
  California. The California Department
of Transportation (Caltrans) has made
strides in reconstructing metal-beam
guardrails and other hardware removed
during highway widening and similar
projects, to get more wear out of the
hardware's remaining 10-50 years of
useful life. Caltrans attempts to recon-
struct hardware within the same project,
but also stockpiles items for future use.
  Florida. Rapid population growth has
accelerated the need to rehabilitate and
replace existing roads, as well as build
new ones, and has also generated
vast amounts of waste. In 1988
the Florida legislature passed a
bill requiring the Department of
Transportation to research and
implement ways to use materials
that would have been wasted
otherwise in construction and
maintenance. One result was a
groundbreaking study of the
possible reuse of plastic for fence
and guardrail posts. The state
now plans to install plastic posts
and expects them to be more cost-
effective over their lifetime than treated
wood posts.
  New York. Recycled portland cement
concrete has become the standard for
material used as subbase for state high-
ways in the New York metropolitan area.
All  of the portland cement concrete
removed during highway rehabilitation
projects in the area is used as feedstock.
According to almost all criteria, the
recycled material outperforms naturally
occurring granular material.
  North Carolina. The North Carolina
Department of Transportation provides
monetary rewards to contractors who
incorporate waste materials in projects.
The first such project, completed in 1994,
tested a wide range of products and ideas,
including chipped tires for embankment
fill materials, ground tires for hot-mix
asphalt, and whole truck tires to construct
a retaining wall. Debris from the project
construction site was used for erosion
control, and leaf mold was applied as plant
mulch. Recycled plastic  fence posts were
integrated into control-of-access fencing,
and recycled plastic posts served as
roadway delineators.
  For the TR News May/June issue, call
202-334-3214, or fax 202-334-2519.

6 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                   October-November 1996
A sampling of diverse
innovations that hold
promise for advancing
pollution prevention.
In response to increased public concern
over health and environmental effects,
some paint and adhesive manufacturers
have begun to introduce new, potentially
safer products.
  INFORM, a nonprofit environmental
research organization, recently conducted a
detailed study of seven companies that
introduced products redesigned in innova-
tive ways. The innovations fell into the
following categories: reduced toxic chemical
content; reduced releases of environmen-
tally damaging material; easier reuse and
recycling; decreased energy consumption;
less use of non-renewable resources; and
minimal space or treatment requirements
for safe disposal.
  Examples of such innovations include:
^ Organic chemical replacements for
  heavy-metal compounds used to inhibit
  corrosion of steel and aluminum and
  prevent growth of slime and barnacles
  on boats and piers;
^- Low-solvent water-based paints with
  low volatile organic compound (VOC)
  content that can replace solvent-based
  paints in applications demanding high
  gloss and durability;
^ Latex architectural paints that have no
  measurable VOC content;
^ Paint colorants with no VOCs and no
  ethylene glycol (which is both toxic and
  a VOC);
^ Polyurethane paint that allows repaint-
  ing of bridges and other steel structures
  without the need for hazardous abra-
  sive blasting operations to remove toxic
  lead-based paint;
^ Hot-melt adhesives that disperse in
  water for easier recycling;
^ Water-based adhesives for foam, such
  as that used in furniture, that eliminate
  the use of VOCs and the ozone-deplet-
  ing chemical trichloroethane.

In addition to the seven companies se-
lected for case studies, the full report
describes 18 paint and 10 adhesives
innovations by two dozen other firms. To
order Stirring Up Innovation: Environ-
mental Improvements in Paints and
Adhesives ($15), call 212-361-2400.

EPA is funding a demonstration project to
test a dry cleaning system for semicon-
ductor wafers. The new method of clean-
ing surfaces, called the Radiance Process,
uses high energy radiation to lift contami-
nants from the surface of wafers, then
sweeps them away with flowing gas. It
replaces wet processes that use chemical
solvents and result in the emission of
hazardous wastes.
   The demonstration project is part of the
Environmental Technology Initiative
(ETI), an interagency effort led by EPA
that was begun by the Clinton Administra-
tion in 1993 to advance the development
and use of innovative environmental
technologies. ETI currently supports more
than 250 partnerships and projects
throughout the U.S.
   The wafer cleaning project is being
managed by the Defense Department's
Microelectronics Research Laboratory and
EPA's National Risk Management Re-
search Laboratory. The demonstration
system is being built by Nemine
MicroTechnologies under license from
Radiance Services Co. of Bethesda, MD.
Once constructed, it will be compared to
the standard wet cleaning process in terms
of effectiveness, cost, and pollution preven-
tion potential.
   For more information, call the ETI
Infoline: 202-260-2686.

EPA seeks out partnerships with private
industry in order to make information on
pollution prevention techniques more
widely available, reduce the need for new
regulations, and save money for the
Agency and industry.
   An example was the recent collabora-
tion between the Office of Pollution

7 Pollution Prevention News
                                               October-November 1996
Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) and
Eastman Kodak Company. In fiscal 1995,
OPPT and Kodak worked on a pilot project
to evaluate how Kodak might apply
OPPT's computer modeling and other
analytical methods to assess the potential
risks of chemicals and to look for pollution
prevention opportunities.
  Kodak concluded that EPA's analytical
methods were helpful in anticipating
waste disposal problems and focusing
resources on more environmentally benign
chemicals. According to Kodak, "...these
methods, if applied early enough in a
chemical or product development cycle,
can have an immediate and positive
impact on programs to reduce the  poten-
tial hazards from commercial manufactur-
ing operations."
  OPPT is currently developing technical
assistance guides for applying EPA
approaches. Potential users of these
guides include states, chemical companies,
and industry associations, among  others.
  For more information, contact Bill
Waugh at 202-260-3442 or Don Rodier at

An experimental  treatment system using
trees is reducing  harmful nutrient runoff
from municipal, agricultural, and  indus-
trial wastewater  while making the trees
grow faster.
  Dr. Douglas Frederick, professor of
forestry at North Carolina State Univer-
sity, has sprayed  chlorinated wastewater
on fields of hardwood  and pine trees at five
sites in eastern North Carolina. He found
that 60 to 90 percent of the nitrogen and
phosphorus in the wastewater is typically
removed in the process. Some of the
nutrients are taken up and stored in the
trees; other nutrients  are used or tied up
by microorganisms in the top 10 inches of
soil  near the trees' roots.
  "It's a win-win situation," Frederick
says. "Fewer nutrients end up as contami-
nants in ground water and surface waters,
and because the wastewater acts as a
fertilizer, the sprayed trees grow much
faster than they would normally, allowing
the cities or industries (on whose land the
trees grow) to harvest them for wood
products much
   Economic analysis
shows that tree
plantations treat
wastewater for about
60 cents per 1,000
gallons, approxi-
mately one-half to
one-third the cost of
traditional secondary
treatment methods.
Initial costs for
irrigation equipment,
tree seedlings, and
site preparation are
offset by low long-
term labor and maintenance costs.
   Dr. Frederick can be reached at 919-

Researchers  in industry and academia are
looking at ways of using biotechnology to
produce biodegradable polymers (biopoly-
mers) in plants. The goal is to modify
plants genetically so that instead of
producing edible oils, they will produce
polymers, which are now made from
petroleum stocks. Custom-designed plants
have the potential to reduce reliance on
nonrenewable sources of petrochemicals.
   For example, a recent acquisition at
Monsanto Company was Biopol, a busi-
ness based in the U.K. which develops
and manufactures biopolymers for use in
consumer products and packaging. Biopol
is a polyhydroxyalkanoic acid or PHA
polymer produced through the fermenta-
tion of microorganisms. Monsanto plans
to continue manufacturing PHA using the
existing process while researching the
potential to produce the biopolymer in
plants, for example, in a soybean or
canola crop.
                          Continued on page 8
Dr. Douglas Frederick examines trees
sprayed with wastewater.

8 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                          October-November 1996
Electron micrograph shows plastic
(PHB) particles in a plant.
   Current and potential uses of PHAs
include food packaging; disposable plates,
cups, trays and cutlery; grocery sacks and
         garbage bags; bottles and
         containers used for food, cosmet-
         ics and personal care products;
         and fibers.
           At the Carnegie Institution of
         Washington in Stanford, CA,
         Chris Somerville and colleagues
         have already demonstrated that
         a plant can be genetically
         engineered to produce granules
         of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a
         polyester used for biodegradable
plastic containers which is usually ob-
tained from a bacterium. This was done by
taking genes used by the bacterium to
make PHB and putting them into a test
plant. Over the past few years, the trans-
planted genetic constructs have produced
enough PHB to attract interest from major
commercial developers of bioengineered
agricultural products, such as Monsanto.
   For more information, contact Stacey P.
Soble, 314-694-5274, at Monsanto, or Chris
Somerville at 415-325-1521, ext. 203.

A group of companies, government agen-
cies, and nonprofits in Sweden has docu-
mented the cost savings from applying
waste reduction strategies in the design of
industrial processes.
   Six small and medium-sized companies
in Landskrona, an industrial city in
southern Sweden, opened their doors to
the Foundation of TEM (Technology
Environment Management), which
compared the pollution prevention benefits
of process redesign, and the associated
costs, with the benefits and costs of using
traditional environmental protection
   Pollution Prevention-a Profitable
Investment documented results such as
the following:
^ A manufacturer of lighting fittings and
fixtures had decided to comply with require-
ments for reducing trichloroethylene
emissions by using traditional recovery
technology. In the course of the project,
management concluded that petroleum-
based drawing oils could be replaced as a
product component and vegetable drawing
oils substituted, eliminating the need for
trichloroethylene degreasing. The alkalic
degreasing process which was adopted is no
more costly than the process it replaced.
^ At the same company, a solvent-based
painting production line was replaced for
most applications with an electrostatic
powder painting line. Besides eliminating
the discharge of solvents and improving
the working environment, the powder
painting process was found to incur less
than half the operating costs associated
with solvent-based painting.
^ An electroplating company used a
finishing pre-treatment process which
gave rise to large amounts of waste. The
company decided to adopt a new biological
alkalic degreasing technology developed by
a Swedish company. While an investment
in new equipment was necessary, the cost
was offset by a grant from the Swedish
Environmental Protection Agency and the
annual operating costs were estimated to
be approximately $80,000 less than with
end-of-pipe technology.
^ A flexographic printing company that
used large amounts of volatile organic
solvents converted to a water-based
printing process in which the ink con-
tained 2-3% organic solvents, compared
with 70% for traditional printing ink. The
conversion required a major investment in
new printing technology, but in the
process, the company expanded production
capacity, improved the quality of the work
environment by reducing workers' expo-
sure to solvents, and gained the ability to
market itself as a printer of environmen-
tally friendly packaging.
  Pollution Prevention-a Profitable
Investment is available from the Founda-
tion of TEM, along with an English
language video. Write TEM, Asumsgatan
38, S-275 37 SJOBO, Sweden. Tel: 46 416
273 00. Fax: 46 416 273 12.

9 Pollution Prevention News
                                             October-November 1996
    The first annual EPA Transportation
    Partners Way to Go! Awards were
    presented in September to eight
organizations that voluntarily created
environmentally friendly transportation
programs. Through the awards, EPA
supports local innovators and successful
programs that show commitment to
environmental improvement without
additional regulations or mandates.
  Way to Go! Award winners, in widely
varying ways, have contributed to reduced
greenhouse emissions and improved
quality of life in their communities
through reduced traffic and air pollution.
  Three awards were given for mass
transit projects that are cost-effective and
energy efficient, prevent pollution, and
give large numbers of people access to
downtown shops and businesses:
  Making the Land Use, Transporta-
tion, Air Quality Connection
(LUTRAQ) plan, created by 1000 Friends
of Oregon, which demonstrated that the
combined efforts of citizens can stop the
trend of building highways to accommo-
date increasing traffic. In 1990, 1000
Friends launched an opposition to a
proposed bypass around southwest
Portland which would cut through acres of
productive farmland. In 1995, the Oregon
Department of Transportation abandoned
plans for the bypass and replaced them
with light rail transit, high frequency bus
service, and more attractive walking and
biking facilities.
  HOP Shuttle, a clean-burning propane
bus service designed for Boulder, CO,
through the combined effort of 40 commu-
nity members who saw the need for a low-
cost and frequently running transporta-
tion system as an alternative to driving
and parking downtown.  HOP buses run
every 10 minutes and cost 25 cents (15 for
seniors), carry 1.1 million riders a year,
and are wheelchair accessible.
  The Chattanooga Electric Bus
Program of the Chattanooga Area
Regional Transit Authority, which has
revitalized the downtown area and re-
versed the city's history of environmental
neglect, decreasing the need for parking
lots and freeing up land for redevelop-
ment. One million riders each year use
electric bus service, which has substan-
tially reduced Chattanooga's traffic
congestion and air pollution.
  Three awards recognized organiza-
tions for offering incentives to pick
transportation options that are
environmentally sound:
  Transportation Demand
Management Program at
Cornell University, where increased
traffic congestion and demands for
2,500 more parking spaces led to a
program that reduced the number
of vehicles brought to campus
daily by 26 percent. The program
rewards car pooling, subsidizes
public transportation fares, increases
parking fees, and provides campus vehicles
for use by staff in emergencies.
  On the Move, a program of the
Hewlett-Packard Company which provides
a variety of transportation services and
sets policies which allow employees to
work at home or work the same number of
hours in fewer days. On the Move has
been successful in developing commuting
alternatives for 15,000 Hewlett-Packard
employees in 10 cities. Incentives include
preferential parking for car poolers,
showers and lockers for those who bike or
walk to work, free passes and subsidized
fares for public transit. Also available: a
free ride home in case of an emergency.
Additionally, the company provides
shuttles, and a range of on-sight food,
banking, postal, and exercise facilities,
eliminating the need for employees to
drive in order to run errands.
  Advantage Rideshare and Option
Rideshare programs created in Southern
California by the Riverside County
Transportation Commission and the San
Bernardino Associated Governments as
incentives to use transportation alterna-
tives instead of driving to work alone.
These programs, in partnership with local
                        Continued on page 10

10 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                           October-November 1996
Founded in 1992, Washington, D.C.-
based Clean Air Cab, Inc., k the
Country's first natural gas powered
11  Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                        October-November 1996
  The Annual Report of the Office of
  Pollution Prevention and Toxics:
  FY95 was issued by EPA in October.
  OPPT's first annual report, which
  addresses accomplishments in Fiscal
  Year 95, describes initiatives to ad-
  vance pollution prevention; reduce the
  risk from chemicals by promoting safer
  chemicals, processes, and technologies;
  and promote public understanding of
  the environment. The report is acces-
  sible on the Internet at http://www.epa.
  gov/opptintr/ar95. For hard copy, call
  the TSCA Hotline at 202-554-1404,
  Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m.
  to 5:00 p.m. ET. Requests for docu-
  ments can be faxed 24 hours a day to

  Proceedings from the 1996 ACEEE
  Summer Study on Energy Efficiency
  in Buildings, a collection of 247 peer-
  reviewed papers, are available in 10
  volumes from the American Council for
  an Energy-Efficient Economy. The full
  set, plus index, is available for $180 in
  soft cover. A CD-ROM version, which
  also contains 1994 proceedings, is
  available for $135. Also available from
  ACEEE is Energy Efficiency and the
  Pulp and Paper Mill Industry ($24).
  Tel: 510-549-9914. Fax: 510-549-9984.

  "Planning Successful Risk
  Communication," produced by the
  Center for Environmental Communica-
  tion at Rutgers, consists of a video,
  facilitator guide, participant guide, and
  other materials to help local, state, and
  federal agencies train staff. The pack-
  age, which also includes hands-on
  exercises with  actual cases, is based on
  the Center's publication "Communicat-
  ing with the Public: Ten Questions
  Environmental Managers Should Ask,"
  which was named by the Society for
  Risk Analysis on a short list of "Must
  Read" risk communication publica-
  tions. Funding was provided by EPA.
  Cost is $100. Tel: 908-932-8795.
  Fax: 908-932-7815. E-mail: CEC@

  Know Your Environment series of
  the Academy of Natural Sciences in
  Philadelphia is now available by e-mail
  and through the World Wide Web. For
  past and present Know Your Environ-
  ment articles, information on publica-
  tions sponsored by the Environmental
  Associates of the Academy, and links
  to a wide range of environmental
  resources on the Internet, go to http:// To order
  articles via e-mail, contact Lewis@say.

  Watershed '96: Moving Ahead To-
  gether, published by the Water Environ-
  ment Federation (WEF), contains 440
  papers from the conference co-sponsored
  by WEF and 14 federal agencies in June.
  Cost is $95 for WEF members and $150
  for non-members, plus postage and
  handling. To order, use reference number
  CP3602PL and call 1-800-666-0206; fax
  1-703-684-2492; or e-mail
Continued from page 1
required to report. Earlier this year, EPA
proposed to expand the number of facilities
that must report by nearly one-third,
including seven industries not previously
subject to reporting requirements.
  Copies of the Advance Notice of Pro-
posed Rulemaking (61 Federal Register
51322) and other information on chemical
use reporting can be obtained from EPA's
Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Hotline at 1-800-535-0202,
or at
Written  comments on the ANPR are  due
to EPA (docket #400106) on or before
December 30, 1996. The EPA technical
contact on this issue is Matt Gillen, who
can be contacted at 202-260-1801 or
Editorial Staff.
Ruth Heikkinen, Editor
Suzanne Harris
Gilah Langner
Brian Blackstone
Free Hand Press, Layout

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12 Pollution Prevention News
                                            October-November 1996
DATE         EVENT                         SITE

Dec. 8-10     "What is the Future of Utility       Arlington, VA
Dec. 11-13     10th Annual Solid Waste           Austin, TX
             Management Conference
             "Options for Texas"

                  Water Environment
                  Muncipal Solid Waste
                  Management & Resource
                  Recovery Advisory Council
                  and others

                           Tel. 1-800-666-0206
                           or 1-703-684-2452,
                 , or
                           http ://w w w. wef. or g

                           Tel.  512-239-6650
Jan. 28-30,    Hazardous Materials and Waste     Portland, OR
1997         Management Conf. and Exhibition

March 12-15,  "Building Energy 1997"            Cromwell, CT
1997         Conference and Trade Show
April 2-4,     National Pollution Prevention
1997         Roundtable Spring Conference

April 7-9,     Total Life Cycle
1997         Conference & Exposition
May 4-6,      Workshop: "Pollution Prevention:
1997         Tools to Make It Really Happen"
Denver, CO
                  American Defense
                  Preparedness Association

                  Northeast Sustainable
                  Energy Association
National Pollution
Prevention Roundtable
Auburn Hills, MI    Society of Automotive
                  Engineers International
East Rutherford, NJ American Institute of
                  Chemical Engineers and
                  Center for Waste Reduction
Tel: 703-522-1820
Fax: 703-522-1885

Tel: 413-774-6051,
Fax: 413-774-6053,, or
http ://solstice.crest.

Tel. 202-466-7272,
Fax: 202-466-7964

Tel: 412-772-7131
Fax: 412-776-0002
E-mail: meetings®

Dr. Joseph J. Cramer
Tel: 212-705-7950
Fax: 212-752-3297
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