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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region 5/Great Lakes Region





                                    EPA was born 30 years ago at a time when
                                    rivers caught fire and cities were hidden
                                    under dense clouds of smoke. We've made
                                    remarkable progress since then. But we
                                    can't rest on our success.

                                    Our mission to protect the environment,
                                    and to protect public health, is a mission
                                    without end. New challenges loom over the
                                    horizon as surely as  the new day.

                                    We must continue our work to ensure
                                    that with each new dawn,  the sun shines
                                    through clear skies and upon clean
                                    waters  - and all our families enjoy the
                                    blessings of good health.
                                    Carol M. Browner, EPA Administrator



                                                                                 \\ i \ \i  i L

   Map on cover, inside and back covers, page 1, and page 29: Mr. Bellin Ingenieur du Roy Et de la Marine,
    "Partie Occidentiale de la Novelle France ou du Canada," 1755. Courtesy Chicago Historical Society.


We are pleased to present the following report on 30
years of environmental progress to the communities,
industries, environmental groups, partner agencies, and
tribal governments that we work with on a daily basis.

This report highlights the issues in which Region 5, the
Great Lakes Region, has an active role. Over the past
three decades, the role of the States and Tribes has grown
and evolved. EPA still maintains the primary
responsibility for enforcing the laws and ensuring that the
six-State area meets designated health standards.

Today, EPA Region 5's priorities reflect some familiar
and some emerging issues:

• Reducing toxic chemicals, especially mercury and PCB 's

• Promoting sustainable urban environments and
ensuring that future development proceeds in an
environmentally sound manner

• Protecting people at risk, especially children, and
taking steps to ensure that no community bears more
than its fair share of the pollution burden

• Continuing cleanup of contaminated sediments, which
lie at the bottom of hundreds of rivers, streams, and lakes

• Protecting and restoring critical ecosystems, especially
within the Region 's remaining undeveloped areas

With a strong  enforcement foundation in the new
millennium, the Great Lakes Region will continue to work
in partnership with our stakeholders to seek sensible
solutions to environmental challenges,  both old and new.
Francis X. Lyons, Administrator, EPA Region 5
Regional Administrators
     Francis X. Lyons
  David A. Ullrich (Acting)
     Valdas V. Adamkus
     John C. McGuire
  George R. Alexander, Jr.
      Francis T. Mayo

                                 EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
1970 First Earth Day ... National Environmental Policy Act requires environmental impact statements for

  L ir quality problems and the industrial
Midwest have always been closely linked. Before
1970, steel mills, auto plants, and other large
facilities faced few controls when it came to the
smoke that poured from their stacks or the
chemicals released from their processes. The
1970 Clean Air Act, amended in 1977 and
1990, introduced tougher standards.

Today, air quality is much improved in most
Region 5 communities and the tools are in place
to lower emissions even further. At the same
time, industry and growth have charged ahead.
Nationally, between 1970 and 1997, the U.S.
population grew by 31 percent, the Gross
Domestic Product rose by  114 percent, and
the total vehicle miles traveled jumped by
127 percent.

Principal Pollutants
Air pollution contributes to heart and lung
disease, and increases cancer risks. It also
reduces visibility and damages soil, lakes,
streams, and the food web that sustains all life.
EPA's efforts to reduce emissions begin with
six major pollutants: ozone, nitrogen dioxide,
particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon
monoxide, and lead. For each, EPA sets health
standards that local areas must take steps to
reach. Both nationally and within the Great
Lakes Region, emissions for all but nitrogen
dioxide dropped between 1970 and 1997.
Nitrogen dioxide
Though emissions increased by 1 1 percent
nationally between 1970 and 1997, today all of
Region 5 meets the air quality standard for the
lung irritant NC^. Nitric oxide and NC>2 together
are known as NOX, which is a major contributor
to ozone. NOX is also a factor in acid rain.
                                       Also known as smog, ozone is a lung irritant
                                       formed by the blending of volatile organic
                                       compounds (VOC's) and NOX on hot, sunny
                                       days. Emissions of VOC's - which come from
                                       factories, consumer products, and motor vehicles
                                       - dropped by 38 percent nationally between
                                       1970 and 1997. Although VOC's have dropped
                                       significantly and many areas now meet the Og
                                       standard, ground-level ozone continues to be a
                                       problem in a few cities, including Chicago, East
                                       St. Louis, and Milwaukee.

                                       Particulate matter (PM)
                                       PM is the dirt, smoke, and soot in air, most of
                                       which comes from diesel engines and industrial
                                       sources. PM emissions dropped by 75 percent
                                       nationally between 1970 and 1997. Fine
                                       particulates, which impair visibility and cause
                                       health problems when inhaled deeply, are an
                                       emerging area of concern.
all significant Federal projects ... Clean Air Act ... U.S. EPA established ... 1971 Lead-Based Paint

                                    EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
              Air Emission Trends for Region 5 1985-1997
     £ 110%
      g 100%
                                                      CLEAN AIR

      & 70
      i 60
      S  40
      1  30
      |  20
      z  o
  Unhealthy Air Days
 in Six Region 5 Cities

          15  14
6 I I -1  3  I    I 6  5
       Total days that air quality was rated
       unhealthy or worse in Chicago,
       Cincinnati, Detroit, Gary, Milwaukee,
       and Minneapolis.
       AQI: Measuring
       Unhealthy Air Days
       Since 1988, EPA has published
       a daily index that grades air
       quality in urban areas. Each
       day, the Air Quality Index
       (AQI) measures the levels of
       five key pollutants - carbon
       monoxide, nitrogen  dioxide,
       particulate matter, sulfur
       dioxide, and ozone - rating the
       air quality on that day on a
       scale from good to hazardous.

       By this yardstick,  air quality
       in most Region 5 cities has
       improved significantly over the
       past decade. However, the AQI
       provides just a snapshot. The
       index is based only on air
       conditions for a 2 4-hour period
       that can produce acute effects,
       such as shortness of breath, or
       trigger chronic conditions, such
       as an asthma  attack. Seasonal
       conditions can also affect the
       AQI. For example, carbon
       monoxide emissions are usually
       worse during the winter, with
       ozone more severe in the summer.
wreaking a host of health and
food-web problems.

With Environment Canada,
EPA maintains a network of
19 shore-based monitoring
stations that measure concen-
trations of toxic pollutants in
the air. Using these concen-
trations,  annual average
pollutant loadings into the
Great Lakes are calculated.
Data collected since 1990
indicate that levels of PCB's
and the pesticide DDT -
banned in 1972, but still
present in the environment -
are decreasing.

With Region 5's large
industrial base, EPA and its
partners actively enforce the
clean air regulations. In  1998,
settlements led to nearly
16,000 fewer  tons of
pollutants emitted and $ 11
million in penalties.  Between
1988 and 1998, an  average
of 91  companies per year
were charged  with clean air
violations. Because some
industries generate more air
pollution than others, Region
5 strategically targets its
enforcement efforts  at key
industrial sectors and
geographic areas.

On the Horizon
*  New outreach and
regulatory efforts targeting
smaller sources, such as dry
cleaners, machine shops, and
hospitals, which cumulatively
are major contributors to
urban air pollution
                                                               June 1999. Region 5 Administrator
                                                               Francis X. Lyons (left) tours Andersen
                                                               Corporation's Bayport, MN, window
                                                               manufacturing facility with regulatory
                                                               compliance engineer Dale Olson. EPA,
                                                               Minnesota Pollution Control Agency,
                                                               Washington County, and Andersen
                                                               have entered into a unique air
                                                               emissions agreement that allows the
                                                               company to expand its environmen-
                                                               tally sensitive production processes,
                                                               while discouraging traditional high-
                                                               emissions solvent-based processes.

                                                               '  More protective tailpipe
                                                               emissions standards  for all
                                                               passenger vehicles, including
                                                               sport utility vehicles,
                                                               minivans, and pickup trucks

                                                               •  Expansion of EPAs Sunwise
                                                               program, which raises
                                                               children's awareness of
                                                               stratospheric ozone depletion,
                                                               the dangers of ultraviolet
                                                               radiation, and simple sun
                                                               safety procedures
Endangered Species Act ... Leaded gas phase-out begins ... Energy crisis turns attention to solar power

                                EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
First global environmental conference, in Stockholm, Sweden ... 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act ... 1976

   1 lean water is essential for a healthy
environment. When EPA was formed in 1970,
the organizational backbone came from the old
Federal Water Pollution Control Agency. And
once EPA was up and running, many of the
early headlines came from enforcement of the
1972 Clean Water Act.

The Great Lakes comprise the largest system of
fresh surface water on the planet and provide
over 10,000 miles of shoreline. Along with the
great rivers - from the Ohio to the Upper
Mississippi - they distinguish the Region's
geography. We depend on them for drinking
water, agriculture, recreation, and commerce. In
Region 5, EPAs protection of clean water takes
many forms and involves many partners,
including Environment Canada, our counterpart
agency across  the border.

Surface Water
The Clean Water Act, last amended in 1987,
has two fundamental goals: eliminate pollutant
discharges into the Nation's lakes, rivers,  and
streams and make those waters safe for fishing
and recreation.

Efforts to reach those goals began with
financial support to build or improve municipal
sewage treatment plants. Since 1972, EPA has
awarded more than $11.5 billion to Region 5
communities, giving local officials the tools to
safely manage their wastewater. The result: In
1976, 2,065 communities in the Great Lakes
Region did not provide required secondary
treatment; today, that number is down to 3.
Together with the States, EPA enforces permit
requirements on these facilities to ensure that
both municipal and industrial wastewater
plants work effectively.

Under the Clean Water Act, States monitor
the quality and safety of their lakes and rivers
for designated uses, such as drinking water,
recreation, or supporting aquatic life. Each State
develops its own water standards and monitoring
program, and reports its findings to EPA every
2 years. These reports have shown major
improvements over the years. However, about
2,700 of Region 5's waterbodies remain
impaired, largely as a result of urban and
agricultural runoff.

EPA and the States coordinate their water
quality programs within geographic
watersheds, using total maximum daily
loadings (TMDL's) as a tool to address
impaired waterbodies. TMDL's are calculations
that establish the maximum amount of a
pollutant that a waterbody can receive and
still meet water quality standards. TMDL
calculations are then used to allocate clean-up
responsibilities among the various pollution
sources within the  watershed.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Toxic Substances Control Act... PCB phase-out begins ... 1978

                                   EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
       Agricultural Runoff
       Chemical runoff from our
       farmlands has far-reaching
       impacts. Excessive pesticide
       use can contaminate drinking
       water supplies. And
       cumulative runoff of nutrients
       can lead to harmful
       overenrichment.  EPA's
       nonpoint source grant
       program promotes best
       management practices that
       reduce nutrient-contaminated
       runoff. Addressing pollution
       from large-scale livestock
       operations is also a concern.
       To address these facilities,
       known as confined animal
       feeding operations, Region 5 is
       working closely with the
       States and the U.S.
       Department of Agriculture to
       apply a mix of new voluntary
       and regulatory controls.

       Beach Closings
       Since 1980, EPA has tracked
       beach closings for U.S. shores
       of the Great Lakes. Despite
       some dramatic cleanups,
       closings still occur too often.
       The past few years have seen
       well-publicized incidents in
       Chicago, Northwest Indiana,
       and Lake St. Clair, MI. In
       1996, the most recent
       comprehensive reporting year,
       of the 555 Great Lakes
       beaches, 69 were closed or
       restricted at least once for
       environmental problems.  Of
       these, 11 were restricted for
       more than 2 weeks.

       Most closings are due to
       contamination from untreated
       or partially treated sewage.
       This often happens during
       heavy rains, when combined
    Polluted Water
Hammond, IN, 1971. Beach closings
are less common today, occurring most
often after heavy storms.

storm and sanitary sewers
overload and discharge into
lakeshore areas. Swimming in
these contaminated waters can
lead to illness or infection. In
1997, EPA launched a new
beaches-focused program to
strengthen water quality
standards, improve access to
beach information, and
develop better prediction tools
for contamination.

Dealing with polluted
sediments in lake beds and
river bottoms continues to be
a Region 5 priority. While the
volume of chemicals  from
runoff or discharges into lakes,
streams, and tributaries has
been reduced since the 1970's,
persistent concentrations of
toxic chemicals still pose risks
to people, aquatic systems,
and wildlife.

Contaminated sediments can
also clog shipping routes and
threaten commercial  fishing.
Since the early 1980's,
Region 5 has developed
partnerships and enforcement
strategies to achieve
cleanups at dozens of
rivers and harbors. Some
notable projects:

• At the Outboard Marine
Superfund site, Waukegan,
IL, the removal of over
300,000 Ib of PCB's from
Waukegan Harbor was
completed in 1993.

• In  Northwest Indiana, as a
result of a 1998 Federal
consent agreement, USX will
dredge 700,000 cubic yards of
contaminated sediments from
the East Branch of the Grand
Calumet River, near its Gary
Steel Works. Work is set to
begin in 2002.

Fish Contamination
Fish that live in waters with
polluted sediments also risk
contamination. For this
reason, since the mid-1970's,
States have issued fish
consumption advisories for the
Great Lakes, their tributaries,
and many other lakes and
rivers in Region 5. Virtually
all of the fish data collected
have shown improvement,
although a few problems
remain. PCB levels in lake
trout, for example, are
down nearly 90 percent, with
continuing advisories due to
tightened criteria. Mercury
residue levels in fish also
remain high in hundreds of
inland lakes.  EPA is studying
the link between atmospheric
deposition and water pollution
in a pilot project at Devil's
Great Lakes National Program Office established ... 1979 Nuclear (power  accident at Three Mile Island

                                                   CLEAN WATER
              PCB's and DDT in Lake Michigan Lake Trout
        Following bans on DDT (1972) and PCB's (1976), long-term monitoring data for
        lake trout in Lake Michigan show dramatic decreases for both contaminants.
        Despite this trend, fish consumption is still restricted in all five Great Lakes.
        Lake, WI, with an eye toward
        new strategies to control
        mercury emissions.

        Drinking Water
        Ninety-five percent of the
        people in the Great Lakes
        Region who get their drinking
        water from community water
        systems have water that meets
        all of EPA's health-based
        standards. To maintain
        quality, each year the States
        require 7,800 local water
        supplies to test for more than
        80 pollutants on a regular
        basis. EPA and the States also
        actively support the Wellhead
        Protection Program. Since
        1991, 778 community water
        systems have taken new steps
        and implemented manage-
        ment activities to safeguard
        the areas surrounding local
        ground-water wells.

        Indian Country
        Among the 35 Indian Tribes in
        Region 5, water quality has
        come a long way. In 1972,
        just six Tribes had offices
                      dedicated to their drinking
                      water systems. Today, 29 have
                      a formal utility or environ-
                      mental department. Since
                      1990, 24 new or expanded
                      sewage treatment facilities
                      have been built to serve tribal
                      communities. Many of these
                      replaced failing septic systems
                      that threatened public health
                      and safe drinking water. More
                      recently, in  1997 and 1998,
                      Region 5 worked with the
                      Tribes and the Indian Health
                      Service to close 19  waste
                      injection wells and 40 aban-
                      doned drinking water wells
                      that posed a threat to drinking
                      water supplies.

                      On the Horizon
                      • Greater attention to
                      monitoring  and assessing
                      water quality trends in
                      lakes and rivers

                      • Expansion of EPA's
                      stormwater runoff permit
                      program to most urbanized
                      areas and construction sites of
                      1 to 5 acres
                                              Cuyahoga River:
                                              Back and Better
                                              In Region 5, the clean water
                                              story flows directly to the
                                              Cuyahoga River's Cleveland
                                              shoreline. On June 22, 1969,
                                              the oil and garbage-infested
                                              river caught fire, galvanizing
                                              the American environmental
                                              movement. A generation
                                              later, fish populations have
                                              recovered and exceedances
                                              of ammonia, heavy metals,
                                              and fecal coliform bacteria
                                              standards have dropped
power plant, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania ... 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensal

                                 EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS

and Liability Act (Superfund)  ... 1984 Union  Carbide methyl isocyanate release in Bhopal, India,  kills

  Lmerica's status as a world leader owes much
to its productive land and vast natural resources.
But the land has not always been treated well.
As cities grew and industry expanded, poorly
managed waste - some of it hazardous - had
unpleasant side effects.

In many parts  of the United States, we are only
now becoming better caretakers. Since the late
1980s, for example, the Nation's overall
recycling rate has jumped from 11 percent to 27
percent, with a goal of 35 percent by 2005.
That's big progress, but there's room to do even
better. As for managing the more hazardous
materials, the 1976 Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA) and the 1980 Superfund
statute have led the way. Both were later amen-
ded, RCRA in  1984, and Superfund in 1986.

RCRA authorizes EPA and its State partners to
control hazardous waste from "cradle to grave."
That is, from production to final safe disposal.
RCRA defines hazardous waste, sets standards,
and regulates how to manage and transport it.
RCRA also outlines permit requirements for
waste treatment, storage, and disposal.

Permitted facilities
In 1980, about 1,700 Great Lakes Region
facilities notified EPA that they dealt with
hazardous waste and were subject to the permit
standards. Over the years, many of them have
closed or stopped handling hazardous waste. By
June 1999, just 679 RCRA-permitted facilities
were in operation. In 1984, a corrective action
process was added, which requires companies to
clean up the areas they used for hazardous waste
storage or disposal before 1980.

Underground storage tanks
Most petroleum-contaminated ground-water
cases point to an underground storage tank
(UST) problem. In 1988, EPA established a
1998 deadline for facilities, such as gas stations,
to upgrade, replace, or remove their tanks.
During that decade, 264,496 UST's in Region 5
were closed, 88,612 leaking tanks were
discovered, and 50,778 sites were cleaned up.
Work is under way at nearly all of the others. To
keep costs down and new technologies evolving,
EPA encourages UST owners to use emerging
clean-up approaches, such as enhanced soil-
vapor extraction and a range of ground-water
treatment technologies.

Where RCRA governs operating facilities,
Superfund cleans up abandoned hazardous
waste sites. Sites that require long-term, often
expensive cleanups are known as remedial sites.
These include the almost 1,300 sites currently
on the National Priorities List (NPL), 270 of
which are in Region 5. Of these, 13 are
Federal facilities, typically former military
installations or nuclear research labs.
2,000 people ... 1985 British scientists report hole in ozone layer over Antarctica ... First segment of

                                   EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
          Active Underground
              Storage Tanks
        Region 5 - October 1999
            Out of  I 80% in Compliance  \ • , ' 1
          Compliance I    (193 333)
       Between 1988 and 1998, 264,496
       leaking or substandard UST's were
       permanently closed.

       Removal sites are usually
       smaller than NPL cleanups,
       requiring anywhere from a
       few months to a few years
       to complete.

       Remedial sites
       When Congress told EPA to
       create the NPL in the wake
       of the 1978 evacuation of the
       Niagara Falls,  NY,  Love Canal
       neighborhood, it anticipated
           NPL Completions
      Region 5 - December 1999
        IL    IN    MI  MN   OH   WI

       | Construction Completed

         Clean-up Work or Investigation Under Way
the whole Superfund program
would encompass a few
hundred sites at the most. It
also assumed the parties
that contributed to the
contamination, would, in
turn, pay their share of the
clean-up costs.

Reality was more complicated.
Most NPL sites required ex-
tensive engineering and scien-
tific studies before cleanup
could begin. And many of the
clean-up technologies that are
standard today were
developed as Superfund
gained experience. Also, not
all the parties  EPA and the
States identified as responsible
were willing, or able, to
assume the costs.

In response, Superfund has
been fine-tuned many times.
In 1986, Congress expanded
EPAs enforcement and clean-
up authority. In 1989, the
pace of many cleanups was
accelerated,  and in the 1990's,
three rounds of administrative
reforms led to a faster, fairer,
and more efficient program.
By December 1999, 169 of
270 sites in the Great Lakes
Region had reached
construction completion
status, meaning only long-
term operations, such as
ground-water pumping or
monitoring remained. Region
5 expects to have completed
250 sites by late 2003.

Removal sites
The Superfund removal
program has enjoyed strong
support over the years. Where
the remedial program usually
Gary Lagoons. Since the
1950's, illegal dumpers had
used this Northwest Indiana
site near the Gary Airport to
unload construction debris,
garbage, and waste oil. A
1996-97 $4.1 million
Superfund removal disposed
of 9,000 gallons of PCB-waste
oil, 10,250 tons of
contaminated soil,  and 340
tons of scrap. With help from
the Indiana Department of
Natural Resources, the
Indiana Department of
Environmental Management,
and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, natural dune and
swale and native vegetation
were restored.
Chicago-area  Deep Tunnel  completed  to  help  reduce flooding  ...  1986  Emergency  Planning  and

                                                    CLEAN LAND
        addresses abandoned landfills
        and major contamination sites,
        removals are typically shorter-
        term and smaller-scale.
        Common removal sites: aban-
        doned plating shops, cleanups
        after floods and chemical fires,
        and containment of emergency
        chemical releases.

        Region 5 initiates about 50
        removals annually. Often, EPA
        will manage a situation until
        the worst hazards are under
        control, then turn it over to a
        State or local agency for the
        final steps. When possible,
        we try to return these sites to
        municipalities or local
        businesses that can redevelop
        them. Since 1991, Region 5
        has approved more than 20 of
        these prospective purchaser
        agreements, which give the
        buyer certain protections from
        liability for known or potential
        past contamination.

        On the Horizon
        *  Under the Base Realignment
        and Closure Act, Region 5 is
        assisting with the cleanup and
        redevelopment of 14 former
        military bases.

        •  A new Superfund
        Redevelopment Initiative was
        announced in July 1999. The
        program awards $100,000
        grants to help communities
        determine future uses of
        former Superfund sites. Tar
        Lake, Mancelona, MI, was
        one of the first 10 sites
        selected nationally. Four
        additional sites are expected
        to be added in 2000.
Region 5: Looking Back
"In 1973, when I joined
EPA, the Region 5 office
was small, with maybe 300
people. But there was real
intensity and a sense of
purpose in the air.

"An early priority was issuing
permits under the Clean
Water Act. On some of the
permits, there were public
hearings which drew a lot of
attention. Establishing EPAs
credibility in the eyes of the
public, industry, and the State
agencies was a challenge. EPA
was the new kid on the block
and still sorting out the
Federal role.
"In 1978, the Great Lakes
National Program Office was
created to monitor and work
with our partners, particularly
Environment Canada, on
protecting the Lakes. The
office is unique - though
based in Region 5, it is an
independent, national
program. Valdas Adamkus
was instrumental in making
the Lakes a priority in all we
do. Val, as he is known, was
our first  Deputy Regional
Administrator and was the
Regional Administrator  from
1981 to  1997. After retiring,
he was elected President of his
native Lithuania.

"In the early 1980s, EPA lost
momentum  when enforcement
was de-emphasized. It was  a
period of great  discourage-
ment. By the late 1980s,
Superfund and RCRA were in

full swing, and work at many
of the worst sites was well
under way. About this time,
the Region also began to move
more toward a partnership
approach to solving
environmental problems.

"The 1990's brought many
new ideas as part of re-
inventing government, and a
broader approach to
environmental protection.
Rather than the narrow  focus
on smokestacks and discharge
pipes, today EPA looks closely
at issues such as Brownfields,
children's health, and
environmental justice. EPA
recognizes much better how
these are all related to the
quality of people's lives.
People not only in the Great
Lakes area, but across the
country and the world, want
clean air and water, and a safe
place to be with their friends
and families."

David Ullrich joined Region 5 in
1973, and has served as Deputy
Regional Administrator since 1992.
1988. Staff meeting to discuss clean-up
agreement for Waukegan Harbor (IL)
Superfund site. Right: Valdas Adamkus.
Second from left: David  Ullrich.
Community Right-to-Know Act... Region 5 establishes Indian environmental liaisons to work directly with

                                 EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
tribal governments ... Nuclear plant accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine ...  1987 Montreal Protocol to phase

            environmental progress is best
     measured at the community level. EPA's
     regulations and technical criteria help solve the
     problems, but at their core, most environmental
     issues are about quality of life.

     From the beginning, the Great Lakes Region has
     devoted tremendous resources to communities
     with key environmental issues. EPA has
     consistently asked for public input on difficult
     decisions, helped local officials as they grappled
     with issues such as illegal dumping and removal
     of lead paint, and asked stakeholders to tell us
     how to do our jobs better.

     Clean Air at Home
     In the early 1970s, confronting air pollution
     meant going after belching smokestacks. Today,
     preserving public health also encompasses less
     obvious threats.

     Indoor air quality
     In the Great Lakes Region, where the winters
     can be long and cold, people spend much of the
     time indoors. Unfortunately, recent studies
     indicate some indoor pollutants pose health risks
     that rival the outdoor ones. Some of these
     hazards are well known, like secondhand
     tobacco smoke, radon gas, asbestos-containing
     building materials, and lead-based paint. Some
are less obvious, like formaldehyde-treated
drapes and poor ventilation around space
heaters or cleaning supplies. Over the past
decade, EPA has worked to reduce indoor air
hazards in homes, schools, and commercial
buildings with a series of outreach campaigns to
raise awareness of these issues.

Anyone who is, or lives with, an asthmatic
knows how scary it is to literally have your
breath taken away. Nationally, the asthma rate
among children ages 5 to 14 rose 74 percent
between 1980 and 1994. In 1998, more than 2.9
million people in the Great Lakes Region were
reported to suffer from asthma, with especially
high rates among low-income and minority
children. In fact, between 1990 and 1995,
Illinois had the highest mortality rate in the
United States for asthma among African-
Americans. In 1998, EPA and the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services
developed a joint strategy to gather new data
and develop new tools to reduce exposures to air
pollutants that exacerbate asthma and other
respiratory illnesses.

Environmental Justice
Environmental justice (EJ) means no community
should bear an unfair share of pollution or
out CFC's signed by 24 nations ... 1988 Non-native zebra mussels found in Lake St. Clair, Michigan

                                   EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
       hazardous waste due to a lack
       of political or economic power.
       An Executive Order signed by
       President Clinton in 1994
       requires Federal agencies to
       take environmental fairness
       into consideration in any

       EJ played a significant role
       in a 1997 settlement with
       Sherwin-Williams on
       Chicago's southeast side.
       Under the settlement,  the
       paint  company is spending
       $950,000 to help the City of
       Chicago clean up contami-
       nated sites in the Victory
       Gardens neighborhood. An
       additional $150,000 will go to
       the nonprofit Open Lands
       Project, to develop wetlands
       and restore habitat.

       Lead in  Children
       Before 1978,  lead-based paint
       was commonly used in homes
       and apartment buildings.
       Although cases of childhood
       lead poisoning are on the
       decline nationally, tens of
       thousands of children in
       Region 5 under age six have
       elevated levels of blood-lead,
       placing them at risk for a
       range of health problems,
       including impaired mental
       and physical development.
       EPA and the States are wor-
       king to address this through a
       series of new  outreach efforts
       to homeowners, landlords, and
       remodelers; through training   ;
       and certification of people
       working in the lead-abatement
       field;  and with targeted
       enforcement in areas known to '
       have children with high levels
       of blood-lead.
Brownfields are abandoned or
underused properties where
real or perceived environ-
mental contamination has
slowed redevelopment. Across
the Region, there are thou-
sands of these sites, from
Butters/Petting site, Milwaukee.
Once an abandoned tannery
site,  a Superfund removal,
followed by a 1996-98
public/private Brownfield
redevelopment effort among
EPA, Wisconsin Department of
Natural Resources, and local
officials helped convert the
1.3-acre property to a new
home for a growing mechanical
contracting business.
abandoned factories to
shuttered gas stations to aging
railyards. Since 1995, Region
5 has provided up to
$200,000 in seed funding to
more than 60 States, cities,
towns, counties, Tribes, and
development groups to
expedite cleanup or assess-
ment of local sites. Typically,
EPA's funds are used as a
lever to get a site over the
initial hurdles that block
redevelopment, such as paying
for a consultant to get a true
measure of the contamination.

Urban Sprawl
Managing urban sprawl is a
challenge for every metro-
politan area in the Region,
from Cincinnati to
Minneapolis to Detroit
to Indianapolis. Smaller
cities, too, are beginning to
suffer the trauma and
planning challenges of
endless traffic congestion,
declining open space, and
overtaxed infrastructure.

While EPA does not regulate
land use, the Agency is
uniquely positioned to
advance the analysis of the
many environmental issues
associated with sprawl. Since
1998, Region 5 has co-
sponsored a series of meetings
for government agencies and
local organizations to share
tools and promote smart
growth. The Region also
created and widely
distributed Environmental
Quality and Community
Growth, a guidance document
for local officials and
interested citizens.
U.S. Surgeon General urges  homeiwners to  test for  radon gas  ... Region  5 files  first administrative

                                                 HEALTHY COMMUNITIES
        Urban Growth, Chicago-Milwaukee.
        Since 1955, the Chicago and
        Milwaukee areas have grown closer
        together, accelerating the loss of
        farmland and areas that once
        absorbed stormwater. The story is the
        same elsewhere: In Northeast Ohio,
        the metro population fell 11 percent
        between 1970 and 1990, while
        urbanization increased by 33 percent.

        Illegal Dumping
        Illegal dumping has long been
        a problem in the Region's
        urban centers. Often, sites
        aren't hazardous enough to
        warrant Superfund involve-
        ment, but they still reinforce
        depressed conditions and scare
        away redevelopment. Since
        1995, Region 5 has provided
        support to more than 20
        locally managed projects -
        from community-sponsored
        cleanups to establishing site
        watchdog groups to training
        local police on how to catch
        and prosecute dumpers.

        In Detroit, since 1997, these
        efforts have led to 254
        citations,  170 arrests, and 89
        impounded vehicles. In East
 St. Louis, community groups
 have demolished 30
 abandoned properties
 previously used as dump sites.
 And working with the Bureau
 of Indian Affairs,  EPA helped
 a group of seven Michigan,
 Minnesota,  and Wisconsin
 Tribes with clean-up plans for
 their illegal dump sites.

 On the Horizon
 *  Now in development
 through Purdue University,
 free Internet-based software
 that lets users analyze the
 impacts of different
 development scenarios on
 local water quality

 •  Through the RCRA
 Corrective Action  program, an
 aggressive new initiative that
 will address human health,
 ground-water, and ecological
 concerns at about 1,900 sites
 in the Great Lakes Region
Detroit's Del Ray neighborhood, 1995.
EPA teamed up with community
groups to create a Midnight Dumping
Task Force.
                                                                             Chicago, 1997. An EPA emergency
                                                                             response team cleans up illegal
                                                                             pesticide contamination.
Pesticide misuse forces
Over the past few years, the
misuse of the outdoor
pesticide methyl parathion by
unlicensed applicators has led
to temporary relocations of
hundreds of families in the
Great Lakes  Region. In Lorain
County, OH,  (1994-95), and
in Chicago (1997-98), EPA, in
partnership with  numerous
State and local agencies, spent
more than $30 million to
clean up homes and small
businesses contaminated by
the chemical. Methyl
parathion was intended for
use in cotton fields.
Unfortunately, local
exterminators, who acquired
the chemical illegally, used it
to kill household  pests.
The poison did the job and
much more, requiring
extensive cleanups in many
households to make them safe.
A smaller-scale methyl
parathion cleanup occurred
in Detroit (1997). Region 5
emergency response teams
have also assisted with EPA
cleanups in Louisiana,
Mississippi, and Tennessee.
complaints for destroying wetlands ... 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill at Prince William Sound, Alaska ... 1990

                                EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
Pollution Prevention Act encourages public-private partnerships ...  1991 Great Lakes National Program

        l—i cosystems are the plant and animal
        communities living together in a given area. In
        the Great Lakes Region, major ecosystem types
        include forests, savannas, prairies, wetlands,
        dunes, and open water. Each supports an
        intricate mix of plants, animals, and micro-
        organisms.  Since pre-settlement times (c. 1830-
        1850), major portions of each of these regional
        ecosystem types have been lost to industrial and
        population  growth, agricultural uses, and
        introduction of non-native species.

        Region 5 works to preserve ecological diversity
        on many fronts, typically in close coordination
        with the States and other Federal agencies, such
        as the Fish  and Wildlife Service and the Army
        Corps of Engineers.

        Unique Resources
        In Region 5, two ecosystem types are showcases
        for uniquely Midwestern conditions. The sand
        dunes that  dot Great Lakes shorelines comprise
        one of the largest freshwater dune systems in the
        world. Unique species include the dune thistle,
        Houghton's goldenrod, the Lake Huron locust,
        and the piping plover.

        Rare freshwater coastal wetlands also play a vital
        role. They protect near-shore ecosystems from
erosion by storing flood waters and settling
waves. They also improve water clarity through
sediment control and enhance water quality
through a mix of natural processes. In addition
to providing nesting and spawning grounds for
birds, small animals, and aquatic life, coastal
wetlands sustain about 90 percent of the 200
fish species in the Great Lakes.

Measuring ecosystem health is not an easy task.
When an ecosystem is in good shape, it doesn't
announce itself. Flood waters are absorbed, the
consequences of droughts are reduced, and
vegetation quietly purifies air and water. Both of
these unique regional ecosystem types show signs
of decline. Because sand is inexpensive and can
be used for manufacturing processes and
construction materials, the dunes have been
mined continually since the early 1900's. The
coastal wetlands are disappearing, too, with tens
of thousands of acres drained, filled, and
dredged with each succeeding decade.

Species Watch
In the Great Lakes Region,  two groups of
biologically significant species - the endangered
and the non-native - are closely monitored as
gauges of ecosystem health.
Office launches Research Vessel Lake Guardian ... Environmental Justice Summit of grassroots groups held


Endangered species
As the health of ecosystems
declines, entire populations of
plants and animals die out.
When flora and fauna become
nearly extinct throughout their
natural ranges, government
agencies classify them as

In Region 5, 31 species are
currently on the Fish and
Wildlife Service's Endangered
Species List. On the bright
side, since the late 1970's, a
few prominent species have
shown signs of improvement.
The bald eagle, for example,
has been moved to the status
of "threatened." And the
peregrine falcon has been
de-listed completely.

Another endangered species,
the eastern prairie fringed
orchid also recently bounced
back from the brink of
extinction. Before 1997, about
100 remained, primarily in
Minnesota and Wisconsin.

Following a coordinated effort
among government, nonprofit,
and volunteer organizations to
protect its natural habitat, the
flower has reappeared in a
number of locations. In 1999,
nearly 1,000 were observed
in Wisconsin alone.

Elsewhere, along the Upper
Mississippi River, some other
important species are not
faring as well. According to a
U.S. Geological Survey report,
great blue heron and great
egret populations have slipped
since the late 1970's. The
report suggests that possible
causes include "poor water
quality, loss of nesting trees
and foraging areas, and
toxic contaminants."

Non-native species
Non-native, or exotic, species
continue to pose serious
threats to ecosystems. Among
aquatic exotics, most of these
species find their way here in
the ballast water of
international freighters.
^ Because they arrive without
| natural predators, exotics can
bJ spread quickly, taking habitat
1 1 and food from native species.
I q Since the late 1 9th century,
1 £ over 1 40 new species have
1|,| established themselves in the
1 s> Great Lakes Basin. The sea
1 % lamprey nearly wiped out lake
U | trout, whitefish, and chub
1 ^ populations in the 1950's.
1 § Another, zebra mussels,
1 1 discovered in the Great Lakes
in 1 988 and now showing up

in '

The eastern prairie fringed orchid
has made a comeback in the past
Washington, D.C. ... 1993 Crypto:
in the Mississippi River and

poridium parasite in Milwaukee
inland lakes, are known
for clogging water supply
intakes and disrupting
aquatic food webs.

Communicating the problems
posed by exotic species to the
public is another challenge.
For example, purple
loosestrife, now found in
wetlands, has an attractive
flower. Unfortunately, it also
chokes out native species, thus
reducing biological diversity.
Non-native buckthorn and
garlic mustard create similar
problems. Through
partnerships like Chicago
Wilderness and EcoCity
Cleveland, EPA works to raise
awareness of these non-native
species problems with local
officials, school groups, and
volunteer organizations.

Great Lakes Gains
The Great Lakes define the
Region in every way
imaginable. Protecting and
sustaining our unique fresh
water resources and their
shorelines have been priorities
from the beginning.

In 1972, for the first time, the
Clean Water Act and the Great
Lakes Water Quality Agree-
ment between the United
States and Canada imposed
limits on the amounts of
pollutants that could be
discharged into the Lakes.
More recently, in 1995, EPA
published the Great Lakes
Water Quality Guidance,
which tightened water quality
standards and will further
reduce pollutant discharges
into the Lakes.
drinking water results in 100 d<



Since the early 1970's, there
have been tremendous gains,

• Lake Erie once again boasts
fine walleye fishing, in part
because phosphorus loadings,
from sources such as munici-
pal wastewater treatment
plants and agricultural runoff,
have dropped from about
28,000 tons per year in 1969
to about 1 1,000 tons today.

• Thanks to restoration efforts
by Federal, State, and tribal
agencies, and the Great Lakes
Fishery Commission, lake
trout in offshore areas of Lake
Superior are self-sustaining for
the first time since the 1950s.

To maintain this momentum,
the Great Lakes National
Program Office, based in the

Region 5 office, was
established in 1 978 to work 1 tp
solely on Great Lakes 1 1
protection issues, usually in I |
conjunction with Environment 1 j?
Canada and the States.
Current priorities: A lj 1 ^
Binational Toxics Strategy to
virtually eliminate persistent
toxic substances such as
PCB's, dioxins, and mercury
in the Lakes; and development
of measures for biological
diversity, exotic species, and
chemical loadings - which will
be used to report on the health
of Great Lakes ecosystems.

On the Horizon
* Further research on new
non -native species, such as
the fishhook water flea, a
zooplankton species that
threatens to disrupt the food
chain of the Great Lakes
fishery, discovered in 1998 in
Lake Ontario.
• Continued monitoring of the
deformed frog phenomenon,
first seen in Minnesota in
BL j 1
1 Hi

1995, and since observed
across the United States.
Scientists have not conclu-
sively determined whether
these abnormalities are
specific to frogs and amphi-
bians or are bellwethers of
serious ecosystem damage.

... 1

^H ~~
Regional Administrator Francis X.
Lyons gets an update on biological
research projects from Lake Guardian
Captain Dave Moser. EPA's Great
Lakes National Program Office
maintains two research vessels. The
Lake Guardian conducts research
from spring to fall. The smaller
Mudpuppy is used primarily for
contaminated sediment sampling.
)94 Brownfields program launcl

• EPA Region 5 and
Environment Canada will
jointly publish lakewide
management plans for
Lakes Erie, Michigan, and
Superior. The plans provide
blueprints for ongoing
restoration and protection.

ed ... Bald eagle upgraded from

Migrating cedar waxwings are
frequently spotted at the Fernald, OH,
Superfund site.

SEP's: Providing
Environmental Benefits
When settling enforcement
cases, EPA may encourage
the settling parties to give
something back to the
community where the
violation occurred. Often,
these Supplemental
Environmental Projects
(SEP's) focus on efforts to
revitalize local ecosystems.
Two examples of SEP's:
• Under a 1999 agreement for
violations at three facilities,
Ashland Oil deeded 274 acres
of threatened Minnesota sand
prairie, valued at $631,000, to
the State for use as a scientific
and natural area, including
habitat for rare freshwater
mussels. Today, it's known as
the Grey Cloud Dune Prairie.

• At the U.S. Department
of Energy's Fernald, OH,
Superfund site, a $1.3 million
intergovernmental settlement
included creation of an on-site
wild bird sanctuary and a
plan to re-establish native
landscaping, once the cleanup
is complete in 2008.

endangered to threatened specie

IS ...

                                 EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
1995 Air quality standards attained by 67 percent of U.S. metropolitan areas ... Burrowing mayflies return

        vJ ince EPA's early days, environmentally
        minded people have urged their neigh-
        bors to "Think Globally, Act Locally." The
        concept makes perfect sense: Local decisions
        and issues really do affect global
        environmental conditions.

        In the decades since, the world beyond the Great
        Lakes has indeed moved closer to us. Today, in
        this multi-tasking information age, the Region 5
        agenda has become increasingly global in its
        outlook and perspective. And sustainability -
        of communities, of ecosystems, and of local
        and regional economic bases - has become a
        watchword for virtually all our activities.

        Climate Change
        Ten of the warmest years on record have
        occurred  since 1980. If the trend accelerates,
        global warming could lead to rising oceans,
        violent storms, increased air pollution, and
        unprecedented human migration.

        Because household energy use contributes
        about 20 percent of carbon dioxide (a major
        greenhouse gas) emissions, a mix of voluntary
        restraint and technological innovation -
        including new developments in renewable and
        clean energy - will be an important step in the
        right direction.
Energy Star
Introduced in  1991, EPA's Energy Star, a
program co-sponsored by EPA and the U.S.
Department of Energy, encourages consumers,
building owners, and manufacturers to
voluntarily make energy-efficient choices.
Products and properties that bear the Energy
Star label stand out from their competition,
because they reduce energy costs and protect
the environment.

Today, Region 5  has about 720 partners in
the Energy Star Buildings and Green Lights
programs. These partners have pledged to
upgrade their facilities with efficient lighting,
heating, cooling, and ventilation systems.
Current Energy Star Buildings partners include:
Chicago Public Schools, City of Detroit, Kmart,
the Green Bay Packers, and the State of Ohio.

Another category, Energy Star Homes, has
about 280 partners in the Great Lakes Region
committed to building homes that are  at least
30 percent more efficient than the Model
Energy Code.

To date, Region 5 partners have prevented the
release of nearly 1  billion Ib of carbon dioxide
(equal to 290,000  cars removed from the road),
to Lake Erie, signaling healthier ecosystem ... 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments ... Sellers and

                                    EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
       100 million Ib of nitrogen
       oxides, and 36 million Ib of
       sulfur dioxide.

       Toxics Release Inventory
       After a 1984 chemical release
       killed 2,000 people in Bhopal,
       India, EPA took steps to hold
       facilities more accountable for
       the hazardous materials they
       store or manage. Under the
       Toxics Release Inventory
       (TRI), certain industrial
       facilities must report annually
       to EPA and the States the
       amount of chemicals they
       release into the environment.
       The reports are then made
              TRI Reductions
       80  in Region 5  1988-1997


    •B  so
    £ 40

    I 3°
    ^ 20


               IN   MI  MN  OH   WI
       Reported releases of 268 core chemi-
       cals tracked since 1988 have dropped
       at least 42 percent in every State.
available to the public. About
30 percent of facilities
nationally required to track
TRI data are in the Great
Lakes Region.

Since the late 1980's, many
companies have reduced their
releases and found creative
ways to manufacture goods
with less hazardous materials.
Between 1988 and 1997,
Region 5 TRI releases dropped
from about 700 million Ib to
about 400 million Ib. Releases
of 268 core chemicals tracked
by TRI are down by  47
percent since 1988.

The TRI concept is gaining
momentum overseas, too.
Australia,  Canada, Japan,
the Netherlands, Norway,
and the United Kingdom have
established their own pollutant
release reporting systems.
About 10  other nations
are developing programs of
their own.

Long-Range Transport of
Toxic Substances
Increasing evidence suggests
that persistent organic
pollutants  (POP's), a group of
toxic chemicals, most of which
appear on the TRI list, are
hitching aboard air currents to
points far and wide.  They may
even be bioaccumulating in
the Arctic and Antarctic. The
result: harmful effects on
wildlife and the food web,
potentially causing genetic and
reproductive problems, and
higher cancer rates.
In a matter of days, air pollution from
the Great Lakes airshed can reach
areas as far away as the Arctic Circle.

In 1995, the first international
conference to discuss this issue
was held in Washington, D.C.
There, more than 100 nations
agreed to develop a legally
binding instrument to address
certain POP's. Since then,
steps have been taken toward
creating an initial list of 12,
including chlordane, dieldrin,
dioxin, heptachlor, and PCB's.
Closer to home, in Region 5,
an effort to reduce persistent
toxics in the Great Lakes
from sources overseas is
proceeding under the U.S.-
Canada Binational Toxics

Drawing upon its Great Lakes
experience, Region 5 also
contributes to EPA's global
efforts to identify and manage
persistent bioaccumulative
toxics - primarily metals, such
as mercury. A growing number
of nations are beginning to
address the movement of
pollutants across borders.  As
in North America, there is
landlords  must disclose lead-based paint to  buyers or  renters  ...  1997  Office of  Children's  Health



growing recognition overseas
that managing these toxics
requires a comprehensive
international approach.
Since the early 1970's, more
than 80 pesticides have been
banned or suspended because
they bioaccumulate in the
food web. Some of these
chemicals have been linked
to birth defects, sterility,
and cancer, and helped
push plants and animals
toward extinction. Many have
been banned or severely
restricted overseas.

Though most uses of these
pesticides are now prohibited,
vast stocks are still stored in
farm sheds and warehouses.
Each year, Region 5 States
J &
sponsor collection drives to
root them out for proper
\r \r
disposal. Since 1989, the State
programs have collected more
\r &
than 4.5 million Ib of these
unused pesticides - about 35
percent of the national total.

Overseas, the challenge is
different: In Central and
Eastern Europe, for example,
authorities generally know
where the pesticides are
stored, but often the buildings
have fallen into disrepair,
increasing the potential for
hazardous releases.

On the Horizon
• Continued technical
assistance on environmental
management challenges for
Ukraine and the Baltic States
of Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania. Since 1993, Region
Sustainable Forest sunlight to grow back, such
Management as red pine and aspen, may
The Menominee Indian Tribe be clear-cut in a limited area.
of Wisconsin, northwest of
Green Bay, has been Finished products, milled on
recognized by the United the reservation, include door
Nations, the Forest and window parts, wood
Stewardship Council, and siding, and paneling.
the Rainforest Alliance for Meanwhile, as the Tribe runs
managing its forest resources a profitable business, its
with an eye on long-term management practices enable
sustainability. wildlife, including bears,
bobcats, and eagles, to thrive
The Menominee 's trained in their natural state.
foresters evaluate trees and
species individually, with r~ ~~^E~SB^^^^^HB^^"

annual allowable cuts
I • 3
forecast in 15-year cycles. 1 1
For shade species, such as 1 ^
sugar maple and beech, trees
unlikely to survive until the
next harvest are removed.

For building-materials i
timber, stands are harvested
over time, with many trees I ™L&_.
left as shelter and seed w
*.- *« 1 MM
sources tor the next genera-
tion. Trees that need full

5 has been EPA's lead office,
in cooperation with the U.S.
Agency for International
Development, for these former
Eastern Bloc countries.

• Expansion of the Great
Printers Project to Canada.
Established in 1994, this
Federal, State, and
stakeholder partnership
project aims to make pollution
prevention, through planning
and production processes, a
standard operating procedure
for lithographic printing firms
in the Great Lakes Region.

•V&., ^^HB3 BII^I
•^t ^1
	 Kb ^

• Additional visits from
international researchers and
policymakers. Since the
1970's, Region 5 has hosted
scores of visitors from
Australia, China, India, the
Netherlands, and many other
nations. Top priorities for
many recent guests:
international consistency in
environmental data reporting
and new strategies for
managing contaminants at
their sources.

ection established ... United States and Canada sign Binational Toxics Strategy ... 1998 Non-ns


                                 EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
fishhook water flea found in Lake Ontario ... 14 American Heritage Rivers named ... Clean Water Action

   L ore than a full generation has passed since
EPA was created. There has been tremendous
progress in baseline environmental protection.
Nearly all of the worst smokestacks and
wastewater dischargers are now under control.
The most threatening sites have been cleaned up,
or will be in the near future. And where once
there was dangerous indifference, a variety of
laws now keeps pesticides, toxics, and other
hazardous materials in check.

Since 1970, there has also been increasing
recognition that environmental issues can be
incredibly complex, that serious health hazards
can come in microscopic doses, and that, when it
comes to decision-making, everyone deserves a
seat at the table. Looking ahead to the next
decade and beyond, EPA and its Federal, State,
and local partners face a range of challenges and
emerging priorities that go well beyond the core
environmental statutes.

As metropolitan areas expand, open space and
farmland disappear. Commuting time grows, as
well. Smaller towns suffer, too, as young people
move away and smaller tax bases make it harder
to manage environmental problems and
challenge local polluters.

The next decade will bring much-needed
attention to urban sprawl and other livability
issues. Finding creative, affordable ways to
revitalize Brownfields will play a critical role.

Rethinking transportation and dependence on
the automobile will also be a common theme
as the Nation takes additional steps to prevent
or reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas
emissions. More people will be working from
home or relying on new modes of transportation
for some trips. Imagine hopping a light-rail
system from a home  in Rockford to a job in
Racine. Or stepping out of an Indianapolis
townhouse and onto  a battery-powered
people-mover to get to the grocery  store. In
the decades to come, these scenarios could
become real possibilities.

The term "edge city" will become more
common, as well. Within Region  5, a number of
metropolitan areas are rapidly growing closer
together. Among them: Chicago-Gary-
Milwaukee, Detroit-Toledo-Flint, and Cleveland-
Akron. As the established cities sprawl into one
another, key towns that lie between them will
continue to evolve  into hubs of commerce and
employment. Inevitably, the rise of these edge
cities  will be accompanied by important
environmental decisions.

Energy Use
Throughout EPAs  history, respected
environmental thinkers have predicted that fossil
fuel supplies would soon run out. That hasn't
Plan emphasizes watershed management ... 1999 Superfund  NPL  cleanup completions reach 675

                                    EPA REGION 5 • 30 YEARS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS
       En vironmen tal
       While the Region 5 staff have
       always been available to visit
       classrooms and advise
       educators, EPA's formal
       environmental education
       program began with the 1990
       National Environmental
       Education Act.

       Today, the mission of our
       environmental education office
       is to advance and support
       State, national, and inter-
       national education efforts, to
       develop an environmentally
       conscious public, to identify
       gaps in environmental
       education resources, and to
       provide environmental
       education training.

       In practice, this means the
       Region 5 focus is on helping
       partner organizations, such as
       school districts, museums,
       nonprofit organizations,
       libraries, and other
       government agencies,
       maximize what they're doing
       happened yet. In fact, new
       technologies have helped
       uncover new oil fields. But
       many policymakers strongly
       believe that industrialized
       societies need to ease their
       reliance on this traditional
       energy source.

       New technologies will bring
       exciting new  possibilities. The
       1990's saw an expansion in
       energy-efficient technologies
already, and directing them to
resources they may not have
known about. As professional
educators, our environmental
education staff also assists our
partners with curriculum
integrity, keeping the focus on
learning rather than advocacy.
In 1999, Region 5 awarded grants to
19 organizations in support of
environmental education projects.
Projects supported include teacher
training programs, community-based
educational initiatives, and children's
health protection activities.
and a rebirth of the clean
energy movement. Ideas for
products now on the drawing
board, such as fuel-cell
powered automobiles and
photovoltaic roofing shingles,
may become commonplace
in the new decade. Also
encouraging: Utility
companies are exploring
renewable energy technologies,
such as wind power and
landfill gas-to-energy systems.
However, new technologies
may also bring new environ-
mental concerns. EPA will
continue to work with its
partners to meet these
challenges as they arise.

In the new century,
environmental problems will
continue to cross borders.
Water pollution, air pollution,
and depletion of the strato-
spheric ozone layer are
problems that don't respect
national borders. Neither does
the buildup of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere that
contribute to global warming.
Nor do the birds, fish, and
zooplankton that may be
contaminated in one country,
but become part of the food
web in another.  Facing down
these challenges will require
cooperative regional, conti-
nental, and global solutions.

Surging industry and
technology provide new hope
for the developing world. At
the same time, Americans are
acutely aware that increased
affluence can also bring
increased pollution, new
health hazards,  depletion of
resources, and threats to
critical ecosystems.

EPA hopes other nations can
learn from some of our
mistakes, as well as our
successes. In the years ahead,
one of EPA's critical missions
will be to share  and help other
nations  build upon our
experiences, to provide a
sustainable environment for
generations to follow.
First Consumer Confidence Reports issued by local drinking water utilities ... 2000


                       A sun
                    Region 5  Vision:
               itainable environment
                water,  and land resow
are restored and protected to
U.S. EPA Region 5

Main Office
77 West Jackson Blvd.
Chicago, IL 60604
312-353-2000 or 800-621-8431
www. epa .gov/region5

Cleveland Office
25089 Center Ridge Rd.
Westlake, OH44145

Southeast Michigan/
Northwest Ohio
Emergency Response Office
9311 GrohRd.
Room 216
Grosselle, MI48138
                 State Agencies

                 Illinois Environmental
                 Protection Agency
                 1021 North Grand Ave., East
                 P.O. Box 19276
                 Springfield, IL 62794

                 Indiana Department of
                 Environmental Management
                 Indiana Government Center North
                 100 North Senate Ave.
                 P.O. Box 6015
                 Indianapolis, IN 46206
                 317-232-8603 or 800-451-6027

                 Michigan Department of
                 Environmental Quality
                 P.O. Box 30473
                 Lansing, MI 48909
                 517-373-7917 or 800-662-9278

Minnesota Pollution Control
520 Lafayette Rd.
St. Paul, MN 55155
612-296-6300 or 800-657-3864

Ohio Environmental
Protection Agency
Lazarus Government Center
122 South Front St.
P.O. Box 1049
Columbus, OH 43216

Wisconsin Department of
Natural Resources
P.O. Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707

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