EPA SW-887.1
                 WASTE EXCHANGES

              Background Information
  This publication (SW-887.1) was prepared for the
Office of Solid Waste under contract no. 68-01-5797
 and is reproduced as received from the contractor.
       U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                      1980

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U<->  r"-
,O.  i_>
:n Agency
      This  report was prepared by Water Technology Corporation,
      Tonawanda,  New York under contract no.  68-01-5797.   Project
      Officer  in  the Office of Solid Waste was Rolf P.  Hill.

      Publication does not signify that the contents necessarily
      reflect  the views and policies of the U.S.  Environmental
      Protection  Agency,  nor does mention of commercial products
      constitute  endorsement by the U.S. Government.

      An environmental protection publication (SW-887.1)  in the
      solid waste management series.

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                          ABSTRACT


       This study and report provides background information
on waste exchanges.  Its function, in addition to the
information provided, is for use at educational seminars
on the subject.

       The United States Environmental Protection Agency
wishes to conduct educational seminars to stimulate waste
information exchanges as one means of waste reduction.
Studies relating to the reduction of the amount of solid
wastes and un-salvageable waste materials (by recycle,
reuse and salvage) are mandated under provisions of
Section 8001(a) of the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA).

       The report describes all of the known waste exchanges
currently in operation both in and outside the United States.
All of the available information on materials that were
transferred is reviewed and summarized.

       The coding systems used by waste exchanges, and other
aspects of confidentiality are discussed.  Criteria for the
effectiveness of exchanges and the factors affecting their
operations are also evaluated.

       Potential areas of the country thought suitable for
seminars on waste exchanges, as well as a candidate list of
seminar speakers have been provided in this background report,

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                      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       This project was performed under the direction and
guidance of EPA Project Officer, Mr. Rolf Hill.

       The project was carried out by Mr. Edward Isenberg,
President of Water Technology Corporation; assisted by
Dr. J. B. Berkowitz, Messrs. Robert Terry and Andrew
Somogyi of Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Ms. M. B. Maws, Executive Director of Center for Management
Research Inc. also assisted in preparation of the seminar
program.

       Appreciation is also extended to the Directors of the
Waste Exchange Programs and their staffs who have provided
the basic information on the subject.
                           ii

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                                CONTENTS
                                                           Page

     ABSTRACT 	     i
     ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 	     ii

1.0  INTRODUCTION
     1.1 Objective 	   1-1
     1.2 Types of Waste Exchange 	   1-2
     1.3 Types of Waste Materials 	   1-6
     1.4 Factors Affecting the Basic Transfer System....   1-11
2.0  SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
     2.1 Foreign and Domestic History and Experience ...   2-1
     2.2 Confidentiality Requirements 	   2-8
     2.3 Coding Systems 	   2-9
     2.4 Match-Up Information 	   2-16
     2.5 Criteria for Evaluating Waste Exchanges 	   2-24
     2.6 Impact of Governmental Regulations 	   2-26
3.0  FOREIGN WASTE EXCHANGES
     3.1 Canadian Waste Materials Exchange
         Mississauga, Ontario 	   3-1
     3.2 United Kingdom Waste Materials Exchange,
         Stevenage Herts, England 	   3-8
     3.3 National industrial Materials Recovery Assoc.
         NIMRA, London, England 		   3-16
     3.4 Swiss Society of Chemical Industries Waste
         Exchange,  Zurich, Switzerland 	   3-17
     3.5 Austrian Chemical Industry Association Exchange
         Vienna, Austria 	   3-18
                            iii

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                            CONTENTS (Cont.)


     3.6 Austrian Federal Waste Exchange,
         Linz, Austria 	   3-20

     3.7 Nordic Waste Exchange,
         Stockholm, Sweden	   3-20

     3.8 The Turin Waste Materials Exchange,
         Turin, Italy 	   3-23

     3.9 Italian Chemical Industry Association (ANIC)
         Milan, Italy 	   3-23

    3.10 Waste Exchange of Israel,
         Jerusalem, Israel	   3-25

    3.11 Metropolitan Waste Disposal Authority,
         New South Wales, Australia 	   3-27

    3.12 Industrial Waste Exchange Service,
         Victoria, Australia 	   3-28

    3.13 National Agency for the Recovery  and Elimination
         of Waste (ANRED),  Angers, France 	   3-30

    3.14 VCI - Abfallborse
         Frankfurt, West Germany	   3-33

    3.15 DIHT - Waste Exchange
         Bonn, West Germany 	   3-37

    3.16 VNCI Waste Exchange
         The Hague, Netherlands	   3-38

    3.17 Belgian Waste Exchange (FICB)
         Brussels,  Belgium 	   3-39

    3.18 Belgian Waste Exchange (OBEA)
         Brussels, Belgium	   3-40


4.0  UNITED STATES WASTE EXCHANGES

     4.1 Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange
         St. Louis, Missouri	   4-1

     4.2 Iowa Industrial Waste Information Exchange
         Ames, Iowa 	   4-2
                            iv

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                        CONTENTS (Cont.)

                                                       Page
 4.3 American Chemical Exchange,
     Skokie, Illinois 	   4-5

 4.4 EnKarn Research Corporation,
     Albany, New York	   4-7

 4.5 Environmental Clearinghouse Organization (ECHO)
     Hazel Crest, Illinois 	   4-9

 4.6 Georgia Waste Exchange,
     Atlanta, Georgia 	   4-9

 4.7 Information Center for Waste Exchange
     Seattle, Washington 	   4-11

 4.8 Minnesota Association of Commerce and Industry,
     Waste Exchange Service and Technotec of
     Control Data Corporation,
     Saint Paul, Minnesota	   4-11

 4.9 The Exchange
     Boston, Massachusetts 	   4-13

4.10 Oregon Industrial Waste Information Exchange
     Portland, Oregon	   4-13

4.11 Tennessee Waste Swap
     Nashville, Tennessee	   4-19

4.12 World Association for Solid Waste Transfer
     and Exchange (WASTE)
     San Francisco, California	   4-21

4.13 Zero Waste Systems, Inc.
     Oakland, California  	   4-22

4.14 California Waste Exchange
     Berkeley, California  	   4-23

4.15 Waste Materials Clearinghouse
     Environmental Quality Control Inc.
     Indianapolis, Indiana  	   4-26

4.16 Industrial Waste Information Exchange
     Columbus, Ohio  	   4-27

4.17 Industrial Waste Information Exchange
     Newark, New Jersey  	   4-27

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                             CONTENTS (Cont.)

                                                           Page
    4.18 Mecklenburg County Waste Exchange
         Charlotte, North Carolina  	   4-31

    4.19 Union Carbide Corporation
         Investment Recovery Department
         New York, New York  	   4-32

    4.20 Chemical Recycle Information Program
         Houston, Texas	   4-34

    4.21 The American Alliance of Resources Recovery
         Interests Inc. (AARRII)
         Albany, New York  	   4-38

    4.22 ORE Corporation -  The Ohio Resource Exchange
         Cleveland, Ohio  	   4-41


5.0  EXISTING AND POTENTIAL AREAS OF UNITED STATES
     FOR WASTE EXCHANGES AND WASTE EXCHANGE SEMINARS

     5.1 Waste Exchange Programs by Industrial
         Trade Associations  	   5-17

6.0  SEMINAR SPEAKERS                                      6-1

7.0  CONCLUSIONS                                           7-1

8.0  REFERENCES                                            8-1

     APPENDIX I - RESOURCE RECOVERY ACTIVITIES               A-l

     APPENDIX II - DIRECTORY OF CANDIDATE SEMINAR SPEAKERS   A-10
                            vi

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TABLES
Table No
2.1-1
2.1-2
2.4-1

2.4-2

2.4-3

2.5-1

3.1-1

3.1-2

3.2-1

3.8-1

3.10-1
4.10-1

5.0-1

5.0-2

5.0-3
5.0-4

6.0-1
*
Characteristics of American waste Exchanges ...
Characteristics of European waste Exchanges ...
Summary of U.S. Waste Exchange -
Listings & Match-Up Information .  	
Summary of Foreign Waste Exchange -
Listings & Match-Up Information .  	
Categories of Materials Listed & Successfully

Evaluating Criteria for Waste
Exchange Effectiveness . . . . - 	
Analysis of Inquiries & Transfers of Available

Analysis of Inquiries & Transfers of Wanted
Wastes In Bulletins 1-9 by Categories 	
Type & Quantities of Materials Available
and Utilized Via the UKWME 1974-1979 	
Summary Activity of the Turin^ Italy

Match-Ups from the Waste Exchange of Israel ...
Oregon Successful Waste Transfers:

Industrial Categories Used for a Survey of
Areas Suitable for Waste Exchanges & Seminars . .
Summary List of States with Significant

Summary List of Major Industries by State . . . .
Status 5c Requirements of States for


Page
2-2
2-4

2-17

2-18

2-21

2-25

3-6

3-7

3-14

3-24
3-26

4-17

5-2

5-3
5-13

5-16
6-2
vii

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   FIGURES
Figure
1.2-1
1.2-2
1.3-1
1.3-2
1.4-1
1.4-2
2.3-1
2.3-2
3.1-1
3.1-2
3.1-3
3.2-1
3.2-2
3.2-3
3.4-1
3.11-1


3.13-1
3.14-1
3.14-2
4.2-1
4.3-1
4.4-1
4.10-1


Transfer Assisted by Information Clearinghouse . .
Transfer Via Materials Exchange ... 	 ..

Types of Changes in */aste Value .........

Basic Transfer System and its External Influences .
Examples of Typical Code Systems ...... . .

Canadian waste Materials Exchange ... 	
ii n n n
ti n it n
U.K. Waste Materials Exchange ..........
ii u u ii
"  " " Sample Listing ......
Swiss waste Exchange irteste Description ......
Examples of Materials Exchanged by
Metropolitan Waste Disposal Authority,
Mew South tfales, Australia .............
Regional Industrial ^,'aste Exchanges in France  . .
VCI - Abfallborse Listings ............
European Waste Exchange Offerings ......<>..
List #5 Iowa Industrial ^aste Information Exchange.
American Chemical Exchange List of Goods Traded . .
Enkarn Research Listings 	 ........
Oregon Industrial Waste Information

Page
1-3
1-5
1-7
1-10
1-13
1-15
2-11
2-14
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-19


3-29
3-32
3-34
3-35
4-4
4-6
4-8

4-15
vi i i

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                           FIGURES continued


Figure                                                         Page

4.10-2   Oregon Industrial Waste Information
         Exchange Sample Listings  ...  	    4-16

4.10-4   Oregon Industrial Waste Information Exchange -
         Energy Analyses References  	  ...    4-20

4.13-1   Zero Waste Systems Surplus Materials List 	    4-24

4.16-1   Columbus Industrial Association Listing No.  79-1  .    4-28

4.17-1   New Jersey Industrial Waste
         Information Service Listings  ...... 	    4-30

4.20-1   Houston Chamber of Commerce
         Product Information Form  ..  	 .....    4-36

4.20-2   Houston Chamber of Commerce
         Product Information Form
         September, 1979 Inventory List	    4-37

4.21-1   AARRII Waste Description Form    	    4-39

4.21-2   AARRII Sample Listings  . . 	    4-40

5.0-1    Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas ......    5-11
                              1x

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1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  Objective


       Under Che provision of Section 8001(a) of the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (P.L. 94-580). the
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is
mandated to conduct public education programs relating
to the reduction of the amount of solid wastes and unsal-
vageable waste materials by recycle, reuse and salvage.
Waste exchange offers an attractive method of waste reduction.

       Significant quantities of waste materials are not
being recycled, reused or salvaged.  In many instances,
their disposal has been haphazard, and for the most part,
unregulated.  Since all or significant proportions of some
waste materials are toxic and hazardous, the environment is
becoming contaminated by unregulated mishandling and improper
disposal of wastes.

       The exchange and reuse of waste materials, in addition
to protecting the environment, result in important, often
neglected, savings.  These savings are in disposal costs;
saving and conservation of raw materials, along with energy
to process the raw materials; and the reuse of energy-rich
waste materials such as waste oils and wood wastes.

       Nearly a decade of waste exchange experience has
demonstrated its usefulness.  The United Kingdom Waste
Material Exchange, during 5 years of operation, has enabled
the successful continual exchange of about 156,000 tonnes
of waste material per year, plus about 196,000 tonnes of
waste as single transactions.  The number of transactions
totalled nearly 500, with an estimated "as-new" value of
(8,146,000 & U.K.) or over 18 million dollars (U.S.).

       In like manner, after only two years of operation, the
Canadian Waste Materials Exchange was instrumental in the
annual transfer of 80,000 tons of wastes through 141 trans-
actions.  The value of these transferred wastes was
estimated at $3.45 million (Can.).

       A 1976 study by Arthur D. Little indicated that, in
the United States, about 6 million metric tons of industrial
wastes per year have potential value for exchange and reuse.

       As a crude measure of dollar value, the 6 million
metric tons of reusable waste materials is worth approximately
$300 (U.S.) million dollars annually, using similar standards
of value as the United Kingdom and Canadian experience.
                            1-1

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       The purpose of this report: is Che preparation,
for presentation by EPA, of a waste exchange seminar
program.  This report consists of background information
for a seminar program on waste exchanges.


1  2  Types of Waste Exchanges
       Two distinct types of waste exchanges are in operation
in the United States and in foreign countries.  These are
Waste Information and Waste Materials Exchanges.  The major
differences concern, first, what each transfers, and second,
the role each plays in the basic transfer system.  The
European organizations, for the most part, sponsored by
industry associations or governments, transfer only
information.  Properly speaking, these are "waste information
exchanges", or clearinghouses, because they receive and refer
only information about wastes.  By contrast, a few companies
in Europe and the United States actually receive and handle
the scrap waste materials themselves; these organizations
are therefore, "waste materials exchanges".

       Examples of both types of exchanges are presented in
this report, and details about their organization and other
differences are described.  At this point, it is necessary
only to understand the different functions which they perform
in the basic transfer system to facilitate transfers of
scrap wastes.

                  The Information Exchange

       The limited role of the information or clearinghouse
is shown schematically in Figure 1.2-1.  Action is initiated
at timei when a Generator sends to the Clearinghouse its
offer or a waste which it thinks may have scrap value, or
a User sends its request for a needed material.  (Note
that Generator and User are probably turning to an Exchange
only after exhausting other obvious options, both within
their own organizations and among their informal network
of professional contacts.)  At time2, Clearinghouse
publishes Generator's offer and User's request among
others in its regular publication which allows Generator
and User to identify each other's need.  Because listings
are identified only by coded number, interested parties
must ask Clearinghouse to forward request for information.
As Clearinghouse refers Generator and User to each other,
it completes its function and satisfies one of the essential
requirements for a transfer, linking two potential trading  I
partners.
                           1-2

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                                 FIGURE 1.2-1

               TRANSFER ASSISTED BY INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE
Time 2
Generator
Lists
Available
Waste

1
or
*
I Disposal/ Storage

Generator

Considers

Request







Offer ^
S








s Refer
N




WASTE
X
C
H
A
N
G
E


WASTE
X
C
H
A
N
G
E




< Request









Refer v
/




User

Lists

Wanted

Waste



User

Considers

Offer




Time 3
          GENERATOR
                                      Negotiate
                                      USER
Time 4
          GENERATOR
       Waste Transferred
(once,several times,continuously)
                         <
                                      USER
                                    1-3

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       From then on, below the dashed line of Figure 1.2-1,
Clearinghouse plays no further role, thus reducing the
basic transfer system to two actors.  Generator and User
negotiate directly, at time3 to discover whether the
many other requirements for a transfer; for example,
purity requirements, price, transportation costs, and
mutual confidence, are already satisfied or can be
arranged.  If so, at time^, Generator will transfer its
waste to User, again directly rather than via Clearinghouse.
Most foreign and some U.S. clearinghouses try, for their
own information, to learn by follow-up correspondence which
referrals eventually lead to Piecessful transfers; but this
does not affect the results.

       This limited and passive role of a clearinghouse
produces an organization with distinct characteristics.
For example, staffs are small, and costs are low.  Many
details appear in following sections, but the important
characteristics to note at this point are that most foreign
clearinghouses operate with subsidies and generally cannot
pursue waste transfer opportunities actively.  Although they
may advertise their services, their staffs do not go into
the marketplace seeking business, but must wait for generators
to offer and users to request scrap wastes.  With rare
exceptions, the clearinghouses do not actively try to help
satisfy the many other requirements for a transfer, but
only that of linking trading partners.

       Thus, the information clearinghouse plays only a passive
role.  It exists to perform only limited functions; to help
generators advertise the existence of wastes with possible
reuse value, to help users identify such scrap wastes, and
to link the potential trading partners.  All of the many
other requirements for a transfer must be satisfied by
others, sometimes by generators and users themselves, but
sometimes aided by dealers and waste reprocessors.


                   The Materials Exchange

       By contrast, materials exchanges play an active role
in arranging transfers.  Many of the U.S. exchanges described
in this report are profit-seeking firms.  They can survive
economically only by seeking transfer opportunities
vigorously and completing them successfully.

       The active role of the materials exchange is shown
schematically in Figure 1.2-2.  The four basic steps
resemble those of Figure 1.2-1.  But here, Exchange is
interposed between the Generator and User.  As in stock
and commodity exchanges, the two trading partners do riot
                            1-4

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                                 FIGURE 1.2-2
                      TRANSFER VIA MATERIALS EXCHANGE
GENERATOR AND
EXCHANGE
NEGOTIATE FOR
AVAILABLE WASTE
1
or
1
Disposal/Storaqe |
v~ *-*

MATERIALS
X
C
H
A
N
G
E
f >s

USER AND
EXCHANGE
NEGOTIATE FOR
WANTED WASTE

Time 2
         WASTE TRANSFERRED
         FROM
         GENERATOR
MATERIALS
   X
   C
   H
   A
   N
   G
   E
Time 3
                                       MATERIALS
                                          X
                                          C
                                          H
                                          A
                                          N
                                          G
                                          E
                                 Process/Market/etc,
Time 4
                                      MATERIALS
                                         X
                                         C
                                         H
                                         A
                                         N
                                         G
                                         E
                     USER ACCEPTS
                     TRANSFERRED
                     WASTE
                                       1-5

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know or deal with each other directly, but only via the
middleman or broker.  Therefore, the items transferred
(the waste materials) pass physically, economically,
and legally through the hands of the exchange, which
earns its income from commissions charged on completed
transactions.

       It follows from the larger role played by the
materials exchange that its organization and economics
must be more complex than those of the information clearing-
house.  For example, the User must know whether the waste
materials has the chemical and physical properties compatible
with his intended use.  But the Generator often does not
know enough detail about these properties, perhaps because
several wastes from several chemical processes have been
mixed; moreover, sufficient analysis can be done only with
the potential use in mind.  Thus, Exchange's laboratory
must analyze the waste.  In almost all cases, except for
the unusual ideal case when the Generator's waste exactly
fits User's need "as is", the Exchange's plant may process
or treat the material.  Sometimes the User wants assurance
about the scrap waste's characteristics, sometimes from a
legally binding certificate drawn up by Exchange's legal
staff, and always backed by the Exchange's business
reputation.  Because form follows function, the staff and
capital costs of the materials exchange are larger than
those of the information clearinghouse.  The organizational
and economic differences between the two types of transfer
service become apparent in more detail throughout this report.


1-3  Types of Waste Materials
       Since a waste exchange does not operate in a vacuum,
but rather within a complex economic and technical environ-
ment, it is helpful to recognize the structure of the
market for industrial and chemical waste materials.
Figure 1.3-1 shows the total market in its basic form,
as measured by value.  Most valuable, and thus at the top
of the structure, are raw or virgin materials; this category
includes both raw materials from nature, for example, iron
and bauxite, and unused manufactured materials, for example,
plastics, which manufacturers need for their processes and
view as primary materials or inputs.  The solid line
between the top and middle categories indicates that the
distinctions between unused or primary materials and
by-product residues are sharp and clear.

       Processing residues, being generally less pure and
thus less valuable, occupy the middle tier.  Common examples
                            1-6

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                  Figure 1.3-1



          MATERIALS MARKET STRUCTURE
         RAW MATERIALS
         PROCESSING RESIDUES WITH RECOGNIZED VALUE


         (By-products)
w
o
H

          WASTES FOR DISPOSAL
w
                  1-7

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are solvents from pharmaceutical and paint processing, slag
from steel making, and rejected lead plates from lead acid
batteries.  All have recognized value in their chemical
or physical properties as material inputs for some
manufacturers.  But their values are set, of course, by
supplies of and demands for competing raw materials, and
by disposal costs.  When primary materials are plentiful
and cheap, secondary materials may hav^ little or no demand,
and thus, little or no value in commerce.  The boundary
between by-products and wastes appears in Figure 1.3-1 as
a broken line, because fluctuations in raw material prices
can change these residues back and forth between positive
and negative values.

       The bottom layer includes materials viewed as having
no value.  In the eyes of their manufacturers, they are
wastes for disposal.

       This three-tier market structure is, of course, a
simplified and static first representation of relationships
which are in fact both complex and changeable.  Closer
examination is needed, for our purposes, of materials in
the "wastes for disposal" category,

       The term "waste" requires clarification because it has
two related but distinct meanings.  First, it can refer to
damaged, defective, or residual material resulting from an
industrial process; this is the sense in which we use it,
referring primarily to materials other than established
by-products and secondary materials.  Second, in everyday
usage, it can refer to any kind of refuse - material with
no value, to be thrown away.

       Often, what is trash from one viewpoint is clearly
useful from another.  For example, the process of manufacturing
textiles produces irregular trimmings and scraps of materials
which cannot be reprocessed for sale as finished cloth, but
which are extremely useful for rag content papers and wiping
cloths.  Another common example, from the iron and steel
industry, consists of the shavings, scraps of metal, and
off-specification parts left over after processing.  Most
of these unfinished and finished leftovers find their way
to secondary uses - within the same plant, or to other plants
within the same company, or to other companies via the
established scrap metals market.

       Materials often change their position in the market
structure.  Many residues in the chemical industry have
evolved from trash to by-products, as uses for these materials
were identified and gained acceptance.  Some non-indxastrial
examples come from recent environmental history: for decades
                            1-8

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Che paper, bottles, cans, and garbage making up household
and municipal refuse were dumped into landfills.  Now the
growing scarcity of dump sites, new bans against burning,
and new needs for cheap domestic fuel, have increased the
economic attractiveness of recycling and reusing garbage
as fuel.

       Figure 1.3-2 distinguishes four residues of differing
value and suggests how their values can change through time.
Case 1 represents a residue which has recognized value as
soon as it appears, at timei, perhaps because engineers
designed the process so that its residue would be resaleable
as a by-product, and retains a steady value through time-j.

       Case 2, however, is a scrap chemical competing with
other materials, perhaps virgin materials; its value,therefore,
fluctuates around the break-even line as prices of competing
materials rise and fall.  Thus, Case 2, for example paper,
copper, or certain solvents, can sometimes be transferred
at profit, but sometimes only at a loss.

       Case 3 has latent value as a scrap chemical, but
initially, at timei, it is viewed as trash.  At timeo,
when a use is found or when the relevant economics change,
its value increases and remains positive (t 111163).

       Case 4 is a material which can be transferred only at
loss and has no possible reuse.  It remains trash, requiring
disposal.

       Most attractive to the waste exchange, clearly,
is Case 3.  However, the transfer agent will not always
participate in such transformations of materials from
perceived trash into residues with recognized value; in fact,
it may not participate even frequently.  Chemical engineers
designing new industrial processes routinely examine their
residues to seek further uses as by-products.  In recent
years, stricter waste disposal regulations and rising
prices of raw materials have made it more economically
attractive for companies to research further uses for the
valuable components of their waste.  Large companies with
many processes and skilled chemical engineers are likely
to find those recycling opportunities which exist, if
economical and/or if recycling solves disposal problems.

       However, even large national companies cannot solve
all waste problems, and technical discoveries of new ways
to find value in scrap do not occur in all companies at
once.  Also, medium-sized or small companies typically
lack the time and skills to find reuses for their wastes.
                           1-9

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                            FIGURE  1.3-2
                TYPES OF CHANGES  IN WASTE  VALUE
                         RAW  MATERIAL
                 RESIDUE WITK RECOGNIZED VALUE
H
M
S

O'
H

W
E>
,J
SCRAP CHEMICAL COMPETING WI
SCRAP CHEMICAL WITH LATENT VALUE
                       TRASH
            time.
                      time2               time .
                           1-10

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Although engineers in different companies do meet at
professional societies to compare problems and share
solutions, these informal personal networks are, by
nature, limited in scope.

       Therefore, needs still exist which waste exchanges
can satisfy.  The transfer service can seek to identify uses
for wastes previously viewed as trash.  It works the shifting
and changing boundary between trash and by-products.  If
successful, it will gradually identify what can be described
as a "scrap chemicals market", a distinct category of
materials more valuable than trash but less so than established
by-products.  It may also move some scrap wastes up into
the category of by-products.

       To be economically and technically useful, therefore,
a transfer service must recognize the realistic limits of
its business or functions.  On one hand, it learns by exper-
ience that it cannot afford to accept trash wastes.  On the
other, it would serve no unique environmental or public
purpose by trying to deal in regular flows of residues with
recognized value; these are established by-products, and the
organization would not be a "waste exchange", but instead
one of many competing commercial, industrial, or chemical
brokerages.  This suggests that a waste exchange can offer
useful activities in only a narrow sector of the total
materials market - the scrap sector.

       Moreover, its technical and economic base will keep
shifting over time.  Waste exchange organizations (or "clear-
inghouses") frequently receive offers of continuous or
regular waste streams, but once the initial match has been
made between generator and user, the clearinghouse's
usefulness ceases.  Thus, one long-run objective of waste
exchanges is to find uses for episodic or irregular scrap
wastes.  Technically, therefore, the boundaries of a
transfer agent's business are set partly by the time required
for a new use of a scrap waste to become recognized and
partly by the size and sophistication of its customers.
Economically, its boundaries keep shifting as the price
of scrap materials becomes more or less attractive
relative to those of competing raw materials.


1.4  Factors Affecting the Basic Transfer System


       A waste exchange and the basic transfer system does
not operate independently, but is affected by several
factors.
                           1-11

-------
       The various groups and their influences are suggested
schematically by Figure 1.4-1.  The general public belongs
in the outer ring because, although interested in reducing
wastes via transfer for reuse, it exercises its influence
only indirectly, through industry associations and
governments.  Waste reuse can affect the public in several
ways.  It can encourage a shift in employment from virgin
material suppliers to waste processors and transfer agents.
It can extend the lives of disposal sites, and thus delay
the time when more costly options would have to be adopted.
It can delay public emotion involved in starting new disposal
sites.  It can displace risk from that associated with
disposal at one site to that associated with the transport
of the residue to another site for reuse.  And finally, the
long-term risks of disposal are minimized when wastes are
recycled.

       The middle ring contains groups which can influence
the transfer system both indirectly, via government and
industry associations, and directly through economic
competition.  Raw materials dealers transmit market prices
and set the standards of competition among all materials.
Their business may be reduced somewhat by the transfer
agent's activities promoting reuse of waste materials, and
they may lobby for such advantages as preferential freight
rates.  By-product materials dealers can use clearinghouse
listing services to broaden their abilities to monitor,
identify, buy, and sell scrap wastes with recognized value;
the service may help them identify new uses for wastes
hitherto thought to have no value.  Alternatively, these
dealers may view the transfer agent as an unwelcome
competitor.  However, a successful organization might
possibly attract these dealers into offering transfer
services themselves.  Commercial waste treaters and
disposers, which may also act as scrap materials dealers,
can accept those wastes not transferred; they may act as
competitors or as clients of a transfer organization.
Some municipal disposers may do the same.

       Figure 1.4-1 suggests how both industry and govern-
ment belong to all three categories of parties affecting
the transfer system.  In the outside ring, industry's and
the public's health are interdependent; in the middle ring,
trade associations representing those companies not involved
in treating, handling or disposing of various materials;
and in the inner circle, industry, the main generator of
wastes; (some hazardous wastes are also generated by govern-
ment facilities, such as military bases and municipal
hospitals).  Industry can also be a subsidizer, through
its trade associations, of the transfer service.  Similarly,
government in the outside ring represents and is supported
                           1-12

-------
                 FIGURE 1.4-1

            PARTICIPANTS IW  THE
           BASIC TRANSFER SYSTEM
           GENERAL PUBLIC
     (via citizen environmental  groups)
                      RAW MATERIALS
                      SUPPLIERS
                        BY-PRODUCT MATERIALS
                        DEALERS  & BROKERS
   INDUSTRY
(via attitudes', associa-
 ions, subsidies
                                ,
-------
by Che tax-paying public.  In the middle ring, it can
regulate how companies handling various materials behave.
In the inner ring, it can regulate how generators dispose
of their waste, and influence transportation costs via
freight rates.  The government may also become a direct
subsidizer of the transfer organization.  In reality,
any transfer system includes all of these participants
and all of these effects.  It is the sum of these effects
which have a bearing on the basic waste transfer system.

       The parties most directly involved in transferring
wastes are:

        The waste generator - which produces waste material
         as a natural part of its business, and must: find
         some acceptable way of disposing of that waste;

        The waste user - which can utilize the raw or
         processed waste in its business, thereby reducing
         its need for raw materials from other sources; and

        The waste exchange - which links the generator and
         received in some way to facilitate reuse of the
         waste material.

       The possibility of a fourth party is shown in Figure
1.4-2 by an arrow leading from "direct subsidies".  Waste
exchanges may operate on a break-even basis or at a profit,
as a few companies are doing; but it also may be subsidized,
as most foreign exchanges are.  Although not a direct
participant in negotiating waste transfers, the subsidizer
is clearly interested in them and can influence the
economic rules of transfers by its policies and money.

       Generator, User, and Transfer Agent must be considered
as a group, with attention to the effects on each of the
transfer relationship.  Although Figure 1.4-2 shows these
three parties loosely arranged within the basic system,
it does not suggest exactly how they relate to each other,
because relationships can vary with different types of
transfer service and different economic considerations
governing transfers.
                           1-14

-------
                                   FIGURE   1.4-2

                     BASIC TRANSFER SYSTEM AND  ITS EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
                    Availability
                    of  Capital
Direct
Subsidies
  Attitudes
Waste
Quantities
         Disposar    \.
         Costs
                   Treatment
                   Costs
Indirect Subsidies or
costs via'laws- and
regulations
                                                             Liability laws
                          Raw Material Costs
                    Transport Costs
       Reprocessing
       Technology
                                 1-15

-------
2.0  SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

2.1  Foreign & Domestic History and Experience


       Table 2.1-1 summarizes information on U.S. waste
exchanges.  Table 2.1-2 summarizes characteristics of foreign
exchanges.  The most striking characteristic is the wide
diversity in the structures, types of materials, sectors
of the economy served, and sources of financial support.
The foreign exchanges are all information exchanges.
In contrast, the United States exchanges range from strictly
information exchanges (15) through exchanges which function
as brokers (3), to exchanges which actually obtain possession
of materials for possible reprocessing before resale (2).
At least two of the American exchanges provide exchange
services as part of overall waste management consultant
services.

       As far as can be ascertained, only one of the foreign
exchanges is for-profit.  At least seven of the U.S. exchanges
are for-profit.  All of the for-profit exchanges are either
material exchanges, broker-like operations, or ancillary to
waste consulting services.  It is also observed that the
for-profit operations deal principally with surplus inventories,
off-spec produ ,s, and used or obsolete equipment rather
than strictly waste products.  An exception to this trend
is the, Ohio Resource Exchange (ORE) which emphasizes
hazardous wastes.  It is important, however, to note the
increased interest of for-profit exchange companies in
waste materials not previously dealt with.  The technical
knowledge and experience of these firms may offer increased
opportunity for continued and growing success of waste
exchanges.

       Both the United States and foreign exchanges serve
areas ranging from metropolitan to international.  The
opportunity for international cooperation among adjoining
countries is, of course, promoted by the distinct geography
of the Western European continent.  One of the United States
exchanges in close proximity to Canada, Information Center
for Waste Exchange, Seattle, Washington, may begin to
include Western Canada in its service area.

       The majority of United States and foreign waste
exchanges still retain confidentiality, but as discussed
in section 2.2, there is a decreasing emphasis on this.
Two of the U.S. exchanges offer options with or without
confidentiality.  RCRA and similar state laws will further
decrease the emphasiS on confidentiality.
                           2-1

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                    NOTES FOR TABLE 2.1-1


 (1)  Available listings only in state-wanted listings
      from out-of-state.
 (2)  A $250 charge to become member with variable
      commissions upon transfer.
 (3)  Anonymity is kept but not considered important.
 (4)  Ten percent of purchase price charged for match-ups.
 (5)  Originally had government funding.
 (6)  Charged to non-listers.
 (7)  Free to western Environmental Trade Association  of
      Washington members only.
 (8)  Serves State of Washington primarily with some activity
      in Oregon, Idaho and Western Canada.  Plans to link
      with other exchanges.
 (9)  Service included as part of membership in Minnesota
      Association of Commerce and Industry.
(10)  Originally received state funds but now supported
      by Western Environmental Trade Association.
(11)  Exchange is in process of being transferred from
      government to non-government agency.
(12)  Fee is for commercial Associate Members, not for
      government, academic, or trade associations.
(13)  Fees are charged for computer search of various
      wastes files.
(14)  San Francisco-Oakland Bay area.
(15)  Columbus, Ohio area.
(16)  Some listings from New York, Pennsylvania.
(17)  Fourteen counties in North Carolina.
(18)  Internal distribution of lists within Union Carbide Corp,
(19)  Service is for all Union Carbide companies.
(20)  Houston, Texas area.
(21)  AARRI members are not charged for listings but
      membership costs vary from $50 to $2,000/year.
(22)  United States and Canada.
(23)  Fee paid on completed transfers.
                           2-3

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-------
 MATERIAL'S KEY FOR TABLE 2.1-2
 la  -  Organic Chemicals
 Ib  -  Solvents
 2a  -  Oils
 2b  -  Fats
 2c  -  Waxes
 3a  -  Acids
 3b  -  Alkalis
 4   -  Inorganic Chemicals
 5   -  Metals
 6a  -  Metal Containing Sludges
 6b  -  Metal Containing Slags
 7   -  Plastic
 8a  -  Textile
 8b  -  Leather
 8c  -  Rubber
 9   -  Wood & Paper Products
11   -  Catalysts
12   -  Food Processing Wastes
13   -  Minerals
14   -  Waste Oil
15   -  Glass
16   -  Used Containers
17   -  Used Plant & Equipment
             2-5

-------
                   NOTES FOR TABLE 2.1-2
 (1)  UKWME was supported by government and directed
      to achieve 70 percent of costs  from revenue by
      January 1980.  This was not achieved and UKWME
      has been discontinued.
 (2)  Used plant, reprocessed valves,  old stores
      tanks, compressors, small amount of chemicals.
 (3)  Originally received government  funding.
 (4)  Service area includes Denmark,  Norway,
      Finland, Sweden.
 (5)  Received government funding for first 3  years.
 (6)  Chemical products,  process equipment.
 (7)  Included as part  of membership  in National
      Association of Chemical Industries.
 (8)  Services New South  Wales area.
 (9)  Services Victoria region.
(10)  Service area includes Belgium,  Netherlands,
      Norway, Switzerland, Italy.
(11)  Included as part  of membership  fees in
      Chamber of Commerce.
(12)  Cost of listing is  included as  part of Trade
      Association fee for members. Non-members pay
      $25 for listing.
(13)  Government is providing financial support on a
      2-year experimental basis.
                          2-6

-------
       A number of U.S. and foreign waste exchanges which
were originally begun and funded by government agencies
are now operated by private sponsors such as Chambers of
Commerce or Trade Associations.  This trend reflects the
general distrust or possible conflict with  the regulatory
functions of government.  The shift to non-government
sponsorship and/or funding of waste exchanges is expected
to increase their effectiveness and efficiency in the
long run.

       Tables 2.1-1 and 2.1-2 also summarize the major
material listings categories listed on the American and
foreign exchanges, and the principal types of transfers
in so far as information was available.  The types of
materials listed most frequently on the American exchanges
are similar to those listed on the European exchanges and
includes the following categories:

  Organic Chemicals & Solvents         Acids
  Oils, Fats and Waxes                 Alkalis
  Metal containing Sludges & Slags     Inorganic Chemicals
  Textiles, Leather and Rubber         Metals
  Wood and Paper Products              Plastics
  Spent Catalysts

       Materials listed to a lesser but significant extent
include:

  Glass                              Waste Containers
  Food Processing Wastes             Paints
  Minerals                           Salts

       The specialized nature of the listings in some material
and for-profit exchanges has been discussed previously.
These listings are also indicated in Tables 2.1-1 and 2.1-2.

       With the exception of specialized materials, available
information indicates that the most successful transfers
involve organic chemicals and solvents for other than Btu
value.  Transfer of plastic residues appears highly successful
as those of wood and paper products<,  Other successful
transfers involve acids and alkalis, inorganic chemicals,
textiles, leather, rubber and spent catalysts.  Waste oils,
metals, and metal-containing residues (sludge) are also fairly
well moved.  As discussed in another section of this report,
organic residues with high heating value (e.g. waste oils,
paper, wood, food residues) are expected to be in greater
demand in an energy-short and cost inflated future.

       The scope of exchange operations in terms of numbers
of listings and successful waste transfers, are summarized in
a later section of this report in Tables 2.4-1 and 2.4-2.
                            2-7

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2.2  Confidentiality Requirements


       There have been three historical reasons for having
the identity of waste material listers kept confidential
or anonymous.  These were:

       A. Industry's desire for secrecy of trade and
          manufacturing processes.  Competitors could learn
          much of a product or process by examining and
          analyzing its wastes.

       B. Industry's desire to "keep" from regulatory agencies
          knowledge of wastes that are generated and their
          manner of disposal.  This was particularly true
          for hazardous or potentially hazardous waste
          materials.

       C. To shield the lister from unsolicited inquiries;
          the lister takes the initiative to contact the
          inquirers who have expressed an interest in the
          material listed.

In consequence* the early efforts of waste exchanges were
devoted to maintaining the anonymity of listers by coding
the waste materials.  The importance of preserving confiden-
tiality on the origin of waste materials continues to be a
valid reason for current waste exchange operations, but only
for a few selective items.

       As continued experience on waste exchange operations
was gained, it became apparent that confidentiality was not
imperative and could, in fact, slow down and hinder trans-
actions for waste transfer.  Confidentiality is not important
for most of the waste materials seen in waste exchange
bulletins.  These are most categories of items such as oils,
fats and waxes, acids, alkalies, plastics, textiles, leather,
rubber, wood and paper products; solvents, metals and a
high percentage of organic and inorganic chemicals or metal
containing sludges.  These are ordinary "run of the mill"
items that neither hold trade or manufacturing secrets nor
offer potential hazards in their disposal.  Hence, inquirers
that are able to by-pass the exchange and who can approach
the lister directly can save significant time for transactions.

       Furthermore, requirements for utmost secrecy cannot
be preserved by a waste exchange and its coding system.
The geographical area of origin and general description of
the waste may provide those with a knowledge of the industry
or trade with identification of the waste originator.


                          2-8

-------
Also, a determined competitor can find subterfuges and work
through the exchange to learn the identity of and obtain
samples of listed waste materials.

       In view of the weaknesses inherent in the exchanges'
operating procedures for confidentiality, some of the early
waste exchanges such as NIMRA in the United Kingdom and the
Austrian Federal Waste Exchange (FWE) never offered confi-
dentiality as an original feature of their operation.  In
more recent years, we find confidential and non-confidential
listing options as a new feature of the Midwest Industrial
Waste Exchange.  Most of the waste exchanges examined, however,
except as noted, maintain confidentiality by coding each
waste listing.


2.3  Coding Systems


       Coding of waste listings was established to preserve
the anonymity of the listers, and to facilitate data-handling.
A coding system becomes just as important for management of
data, as for confidentiality, for exchanges with large numbers
of listings.  Hence, Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange, for
example, continues to code waste material listings where
confidentiality is not important for the lister.  Reasons for
less emphasis on confidentiality were previously discussed
in Section 2.2 of this report.  Similarly, some of the
European exchanges code waste listings even when the lister's
name, address, and telephone number are included with the
waste description.  Consequently, an ideal coding system
should provide confidentiality when desired and should be
designed to minimize data-handling efforts and problems.
A code should also be simple, with no more than 5 or 6
categories of identification*  A complex, lengthy coding
system would discourage its use and effectiveness.

       The code might classify a waste according to its source,
type of material(s), or potential end uses.  The sources are
manifest and may include, but not be limited to, zip codes,
origin, SIC code, process, and general or specific waste
category.  The code might also classify a waste according
to its actual or potential end use.

       The latter coding by end-use is a more difficult problem
for the "coder", because not all end uses are known and
considerable professional judgment must be used.  Coding by
end use may also limit a material user's imagination.
Changing economic patterns also change end-use of materials.
One must weigh advantages of stimulating thinking about
potential use and disadvantages of providing too much guidance
so that the user is inhibited from identifying new uses.


                            2-9

-------
Some end use categories might be sewage treatment, solvent
recovery, metal value reclamation, acid-alkali neutralization,
land or soil reclamation, oil reclamation and energy content.

       The various coding systems used by operating exchanges
differ in some minor respects and share major similarities.
All of the known codes distinguish among materials that are
available for transfer and materials wanted.

       Some of the codes distinguish or identify the geogra-
phical region of origin.  The reason for this became obvious
very early in the history of waste exchanges and code systems
because of the extremely important role transportation costs
have on waste transactions and transfers.  At the present
time, because of high energy and fuel costs, transportation
looms even more significantly as a factor on the transfer of
wastes.  Nearly all of the exchanges identify in words the
region of origin together with a description of the waste.
Hence, including the region in the code is not as important
for confidentiality as for data handling.  The location of
the material wanted or available is very important, and if
not included in the code should be noted in the listing if
at all possible.

       Nearly all of the exchanges identify a waste material
by a number in the code, which most often represents the
chronological or numerical order in which it was listed.
Some typical codes are diagramed in Figure 2.3-1.

       None of the exchanges include the category or type of
waste classification in their code.  The United Kingdom Waste
Exchange was one of the few that did include the waste
classification, but then only in their internal or computer
code system.

       Similarly, the United Kingdom was the only exchange
that included the Standard Industrial Calssification SIC
number for the waste origin.  But, again, only for the
internal computerized system.

       None of the exchanges attempted to include in their
code systems actual or potential end use, zip codes, or
process producing the waste.  In all probability, the code
would become too complicated and cumbersome if the afore-
mentioned or other aspects were included in the code.

       Two important trends in the development of waste
exchanges have been noted, which will no doubt have an
influence on coding systems.  These are;  1) the amalgamation
and coordination into regional, national and international
waste exchanges; and  2) relaxation of requirements for
confidentiality.


                           2-10

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           Figure 2.3-1

 EXAMPLES OF TYPICAL CODE SYSTEMS
CANADIAN WASTE MATERIALS EXCHANGE:
               A    006   0
               W    177   G
                            Geographical Region

                        v-v7aste numerical code
      Waste available or
      wanted.
BELGIAN WASTE EXCHANGE:


Waste available(
or wanted(2)
1 . 4 . 79 . 135 - H
2 . 6 . 80 . 101 - H
1) 	 |
waste type e.g. paper
& cartons(4); glass &
construction mat 'Is. (6)
1
Year

1 	 Geographical
Location
_ Numerical
Sequence
             2-11

-------
       An example of both trends was noted in the Midwest
Industrial Waste Exchange which is now a co-sponsorship
between the St. Louis and Kansas City metropolitan regions.
Similar efforts are contemplated by the Oregon Industrial
Waste Information Exchange, and West Coast listings from
the Canadian Waste Materials Exchange.  Nationalization of
waste exchanges has already taken place in France and
Germany.  In France, the government has sponsored the
coordination of regional exchanges through ANRD.  In Germany,
the National Chamber of Commerce, DIHT, is performing a
similar function.  A code should, therefore, show the waste
exchange in which the listing originated.

       Confidentiality requirements do not exist in some
exchanges and, in others, it is an option of the listing
company.  Therefore, it becomes important for the code to
distinguish between confidentiality and non-confidentiality.

       Consequently, new or existing exchanges contemplating
the reorganization or modification of their coding system
should allow for these two potentialities in formulating
their code.

       Recognizing the two trends previously noted, and based
on current practices, we have devised and suggest a
"Universal Coding System".  The code is summarized in
Figure 2.3-2, and is based on the following category
classifications:

      A. Materials
           1. Available
           2. Wanted

      B. Waste type or category
           1. Organic Chemicals & Solvents
           2. Oils, Fats and waxes
           3. Acids
           4. Alkalis
           5. Other Inorganic Chemicals
           6. Metals & Metal Containing Sludges
           7. Plastics
           8. Textiles, Leather & Rubber
           9. Wood 6e Paper Products
          10. Miscellaneous

      C. Numerical Sequence
           1. One letter, e.g. A = 1,000;  B = 2,000 series

           2. Three numbers, e.g. 0-999 in any thoxisand series

      D Originating Exchange:
         Foreign;


                            2-12

-------
   CWME  - Canadian Waste Materials Exchange
   UKWME - United Kingdom Waste Materials Exchange
   NIMRA - NIMRA Exchange United Kingdom
   SWE   - Swiss Waste Exchange
   FCIO  - Austria: Chemical Industry Association Exchange
   FWE   - Austria: Federal Waste Exchange
   NWE   - Nordic Waste Exchange
   TWME  - Turin Waste Materials Exchange
   ANIC  - Italian Chemical Industry Association (ANIC)
                Waste Exchange, Milano
   WEI   - Waste Exchange of Israel
   MWDA  - Metropolitan Waste Disposal Authority,
            New South Wales, Australia
   IWES  - Industrial Waste Exchange Service, Environment
            Protection Authority, Victoria,  Australia
   ANRED - France: National Agency for the Recovery
            and Elimination of Waste (A.N.R.E.D.)
   VCI   - Germany: VCI Waste Exchange
   DIHT  - Germany: DIHT Waste Exchange
   VNCI  - Netherlands: VNCI
   FICB  - Belgian Waste Exchange FICB
   OBEA  - Belgian Waste Exchange O.B.E.A.

   United States:

   MIWE  - St. Louis Industrial Waste Exchange
             Now: Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange
   IIWIE - Iowa Industrial Waste Information Exchange
   ACE   - American Chemical Exchange
   ERG   - Enkarn Research Corp.
   ECHO  - ECHO Environmental Clearinghouse Organization
   GWE   - Georgia Waste Exchange
   ICWE  - Information Center for Waste Exchange WETA
   MAGI  - Minnesota Ass'n. of Commerce & Industry
   TE    - The Exchange
   OIWIE - Oregon Industrial Waste Information Exchange
   TWS   - Tennessee Waste Swap
   WASTE - WASTE
   ZWSI  - Zero Waste System Inc.
   CWE   - California Waste Exchange
   WMC   - Industrial Waste Clearinghouse
   IWIE  - Industrial Waste Information Exchange
   IWIE  - Industrial Waste Information Exchange
   MCWE  - Mecklenburg County Waste Exchange
   UCC   - Union Carbide Surplus Products Group
   HCC   - Houston Chamber of Commerce Chemical Recycle
                Information Program
   AARRI - AARRII
   ORE   - ORE Corp.

E. Geographical Region:
     1. Use system of each individual waste exchange.

F. Confidentiality:
     1. Confidential
     2. Non-Confidential
,  Columbus,  Ohio
,  Newark,  N.J.
                       2-13

-------
                      Figure 2.3-2
            Suggested "Universal Waste Code"
Available or Ranted
Waste Type or Category
Numerical Sequence
Originating Exchange
Geographical Region-
Confidentiality
                           0  :    00 :    0000 :    00000 :  0 :   0
                         2-14

-------
       The first digit of the Universal Waste Coding System
indicates whether the waste is available (A) or wanted (W).
The second 2 digit set indicates the general nature of the
listed waste.  Although only 9 categories of wastes have been
identified in this report, there is room for a total of 99
categories, if necessary.

       There is a five digit sequence of letters available for
identification of waste exchanges listed previously.  Unless a.
national or international system were implemented, each
exchange would have a numerical identification sequence for
each specific waste listed.  From analyses of U.S. exchanges,
it is doubtful if more than 1,000 listings would occur in any
one year for a single exchange.  Thus, a combination of the
year listed and a number between 1 and 999 should be sufficient
for encoding.  If listings are to exceed 999, as may be the case
with some European national waste exchanges, another digit must
be added, thereby allowing 10,000 listing identifications per
year for each exchange.

       Coding of geographical regions becomes more problematic
considering the variety of geographical, political and
statistical subdivisions which are possible, especially on an
international basis.  A logical and useful system suggested
for the United States is the combined use of a state and/or
SMSA code.  The first two digits would identify the state and
the last 3 the SMSA.  If an SMSA is irrelevant, then the
last three digits would be O's.  The last one letter code would
identify whether or not the listing is confidential (C) or
not confidential (N).  An example of a fully encoded listing
is given below:
                        09
MIWE :  80125
30125 :   C
Available

Wood & Paper Products

Midwest Industrial
    Waste Exchange 	
Specific Listing Identification
    (1980 Listing) 	
State: Standard Metropolitan
   Statistical Area (SMSA) _
Confidential Listing
                           2-15

-------
2.4  Match-Up Information


       Data on match-ups or successful waste transfers is
an important measure of an exchange's effectiveness.  Data
on match-ups can also be quite misleading.  There is no
doubt that the major purpose of waste information and
material exchanges is to initiate the transfer of waste
materials.  Match-up figures reported as a percentage or
fraction of the number of listings (which is the most
prevalent practice of U.S. and foreign exchanges) do not
reflect such factors as:

     1.  Tonnage or volume of material transferred.

     2.  Value of material.

     3.  Type of material:
              Hazardous or non-hazardous
              Availability and value of Resource replaced
              Disposal costs and practices
              Disposal effects on the environment

     4.  Frequency of transfer; one-shot* continuing or periodic.

     5.  Backlog phenomena:

          (a) Initially, generators list many wastes which
              they have accumulated and have not been able
              to dispose of for years.

          (b) As generators find new and regular users for
              their continuous streams, they no longer need
              the services of the exchange.

       Match-ups initiated by waste exchanges soon become
established avenues of exchange, and these materials are no
longer listed.  After a number of years, an exchange lists
materials with less and less potential for transfer.
Consequently, match-ups as a percent of listings will be
very high in the early years of an exchange, and gradually
become lower as an exchange matures and gets older.  This
trend is evident with many European exchanges and with the
older U.S. exchanges.

       A summary of listings and match-ups of the U.S. Exchanges
are shown in Table 2.4-1 and Foreign Exchanges, in Table 2.4-2.

       Of the 22 U.S. exchanges, only 3 have offered percentage
match-up figures, and these were: 28 percent, 23 percent and
9 percent by actual survey, with one rather high estimate of


                           2-16

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2-18

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50 percent.  Qf all the U.S. exchanges, the Oregon Industrial
Waste Information Exchange was the only one submitting a
list of the materials that were actually transferred.
These are shown in Table 4.10-1.

       Major reasons for sparse match-up information on
U.S. Exchanges are:

     1.  Acquiring match-up data is not one of their operating
         goals.

     2.  Private for-profit exchanges want to keep this
         information confidential, so that competitors should
         not profit from a successful transfer.  Eight of
         the twenty-two U.S. Exchanges (36 percent) are
         private for-profit organizations.

     3.  The U.S. Exchanges each have relatively small numbers
         of listings.  One exchange had less than 200 listings;
         the 10 other exchanges reporting total listings had
         100 or less, with relatively low levels of activity.

     4.  Some exchanges were just getting started and have
         not had an opportunity to record or report match-ups.

       Foreign waste exchanges have offered more complete data
on match-ups.  Eleven out of the eighteen exchanges have
offered match-up data as a percent or fraction of listing.
These ranged from a low of 10 percent to a high of 44 percent.

       The foreign Exchanges offer an excellent example of
how percent match-ups can be misleading.  The Canadian Exchange,
with 1,040 listings, reported 12 percent or 127 match-ups.
The Australian N.S.W. Exchange, with 370 or about 1/3 less
listings than the Canadian, reported 32 percent or nearly
three times higher percent match-ups.  The actual numbers
of Australian N.S.W. match-ups were only 118, and less than
the 127 reported by the Canadian Exchange.  Hence, neither
the number of listings nor the percent or number of match-ups
should be the sole or major criterion of a waste exchange's
effectiveness.

       As pointed out previously, match-up information
developed in this survey indicate very little available
information from U.S. exchanges.  The reasons for this were
also noted previously.  However, data from the Oregon
Industrial Waste Information Exchange, plus data from
several foreign exchanges provided sufficient information
for an analyses of materials that were successfully trans-
ferred and for evidence of potential match-ups.  Comprehensive
information from the Canadian Waste Materials Exchange


                           2-19

-------
provide the best evidence of actual and potential match-ups
for the United States, because of similar industries and
commerce.  Data on successful transfers from the United
Kingdom, Nordic, Turin (Italy), Australia (N.S.W.), and
Belgian (03EA) Exchanges provided additional information
for our analyses.

       Table 2.4-3 summarizes the available information on
categories of materials listed and transferred by these
exchanges.  Organic chemicals and solvents; plastics; metals;
and metal containing sludges, (wood and paper products in
Canada and Oregon only) were the most frequent material
categories transferred.  Fewest transfers occurred in the
waste categories: paints; textile, leather & rubber; minerals;
food processing; acids and alkalis (in Canada & Oregon).

       Information on wastes that are successfully transferred
is often incomplete and inaccurate, for many reasons.  The
most widely cited is the lack of funds and/or staff to engage
in follow up of listings.  Some operators believe that
match-up performance is not even an important measure of
an exchange's effectiveness.  Many exchanges have, however,
made periodic assessments of match-ups as an indication of
effectiveness during their early years of operation.  A few
exchanges continuously monitor match-ups by enclosing postage
paid postcards with mailings, and with request referrals.
Since not all listers respond to the requested match-up
information, percentages of waste transfers that are quoted
are consequently on the low side.

       Match-up information is no doubt useful to encourage
the start-up of new exchanges, or to increase the activity
in existing exchanges.  For example, the identification of
potential match-ups by industry and waste - in terms of
generator and user industries; categories or types of waste
materials; the amounts; frequency of shipment; and locations -
if known to any degree, would serve as desirable examples for
others to follow in their exchange activities.  Match-up
information from U.S. exchanges, however, was so sparse and
limited, that valid projections could not be made.  The
desirability, nevertheless, for good match-up information
still exists, and U.S. exchange operators should make sincere
efforts to accumulate data of this nature.

       Quantitative Valuation of Waste Transfers


       It would be extremely valuable to have data on the value
of transfers for U.S. and European waste exchanges.  In most
instances, valuation is very difficult because of the basic
structures and operating procedures of waste exchanges.
                           2-20

-------
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The confidential nature of most waste exchanges, wherein the
exchange puts potential users in contact with listers? and
then withdraws from negotiations, dictates against the
gathering of monetary valuation of the successful transfers.

       Much information would be required to make any meaningful
valuation of transfers.  Thus, it would be necessary to know
exactly what and how much of each listed waste is expected to
be recovered, and the end uses of the recovered materials.
For example, waste oil may be taken from a lister and either
reprocessed and substituted for virgin oil, or used as fuel.
The "replacement" value would be different in each case.
In a similar manner, spent solvents originating from the
pharmaceutical industry are recovered and reused for processes
requiring less purity, with a commensurate decrease in value.
It appears likely that attempts to gain detailed information
on the uses and value of successfully transferred materials
would discourage entrepreneurs from using exchanges, since
desired confidentiality could be compromised.  In addition,
staffing of waste exchanges with limited budgets would have
to be increased to obtain, file, and analyze these data.

       Some exchanges have attempted to consider factors of
match-ups relating to the value, quantity, type and frequency
of generation by translating numbers of match-ups into a
monetary replacement value or into Btu's of energy.  They
have also been able to glossover decreasing numbers of
match-ups that occur over a number of years by expressing
the monetary replacement value or Btu's of energy as sum
totals per year or as cumulative values in the life of the
exchange.  Hence, if one wishes to grade or compare the
effectiveness of an exchange by match-up information, replace-
ment value offers the most realistic measure for comparison
or assessment.

       The Canadian, United Kingdom, and Oregon Exchanges were
notable for expressing match-ups by replacement value and by
Btu's of energy.

       The Canadian Waste Materials Exchange estimated that
95,000 tons of wastes were transferred annually, with a
replacement value (i.e., the value of virgin material that the
waste has replaced) of 3.7 million dollars (Can.).  This
estimate was as of January 1980, after 23 months of operation.

       A breakdown of values by material categories was not
made available, but information on successful transfers
indicates that organic chemicals and solvents, plastic residues,
and metals and metal-containing sludges account for signi-
ficant percentages of the total replacement value of
transferred materials.
                            2-22

-------
       The United Kingdom Materials Exchange summarized the
replacement values of transferred materials over the period
1974 to 1979 as follows:
         REPLACEMENT VALUE OF TRANSFERRED MATERIALS
                (United Kingdom 1974 to 1979)	
Acids and Alkalis
Organic Chemicals
   and Solvents
Rubber and Plastics
Inorganic Chemicals
Minerals
Catalysts
Oils and Waxes
Miscellaneous
Paper and Board
Food Processing
Textile and Leather
Metals
Continuous
Tonnes/Yr.
 102,350
  10,180
   8,503
  22,400
   2,110
     930
   2,710
   3,400
     960
   1,960
     555
      12
                                       Total
                                     Replacement     c  U.K.
                                     	Value  U.K.  Value/Tonne
3,010,000

1,333,000
1,020,000
  952,000
  500,000*
  481,000
  389,000
  339,000
   36,000
   33,000
   32,000
   21,000
   29

  131
  120
   43
  237
  517
  144
  100
   38
   17
   58
1,750
* One transaction was for 120,000 tonnes
1 Ipnne = 2,205 Ibs.
IcK. U.K. = $2.24 U.S. Dollars (July 1979)
       As would be expected, the replacement values
tonne) assigned to various wastes vary widely from a low of
17 for food wastes to 1,750 for metals.  Spent catalysts
(which often include precious metals), minerals, oils and
waxes, organic chemicals and solvents, and rubber and plastics
were assigned relatively high replacement values.
       The experience of the United Kingdom Materials Exchange
generally parallels the overall ranking of material categories
revealed by the non-quantified data supplied by other exchanges,
                            2-23

-------
The volume for mineral wastes is inordinately high and reflects
a one-time transaction of 120,000 tonnes of a mineral waste.
The rather low value and quantities of metals and paper and
board product transferred by the United Kingdom Materials
is as expected because these materials have established
markets.

       None of the United States Waste Exchanges have provided
summaries on the estimated value of completed transfers.
One, the Oregon Industrial Waste Information Exchange, has
estimated energy savings affected by successful material
transfers.  This information is given in Table 4.10-1.
These estimates represent either the energy required to
produce the recovered products from virgin materials or the
fuel values of the listed materials.

       In the absence of enough information to calculate
meaningful "replacement values", estimation of equivalent
energy values will be useful.  In order to do this, data on
types and quantities of exchanged materials would be sufficient.
The acquisition of often "sensitive" cost and market information
for quantifying exchange success or effectiveness then becomes
less important*


2.5  Criteria for Evaluating Waste Exchanges


       There is a saying,"Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder".
In a similar manner, success of waste exchanges depends on
the expectations of the various groups which they serve.
Thus, the for-profit entrepreneur has a set of "success"
criteria which differ in both substance and degree from trade
association or chamber of commerce criteria.  The non-profit
sector, as represented by government agencies, and Chambers
of Commerce, place markedly different emphasis on what
functions and related achievements comprise a successful
waste exchange.

       Table 2.5-1 lists criteria useful in assessing exchange
operations.  This Table also indicates the relative emphasis
which private enterprise, trade associations, chambers of
commerce, and the public sector or government are believed
to place on these criteria.

       As would be expected, an important criteria of success
for a private entrepreneur is simply profit.  This is, of
course, a legitimate and highly desirable objective which
stimulates much imaginative enterprise and diligent effort
directed at waste recycling and utilization.
                            2-24

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                          TABLE 2.5-1

                    EVALUATING CRITERIA FOR
                  WASTE EXCHANGE EFFECTIVENESS

                                             EXCHANGE
                                            OPERATED BY;

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       Trade Associations and Chambers of Commerce are not
as interested in profit as they are in providing useful
services to the industries they represent and promote.
These organizations, along with individual companies, are
highly interested in finding least-cost solutions to the
residuals disposal problems of industry, and improving the
public image of industry through recycling and diversion of
hazardous wastes from landfills.

       Private enterprise, trade association, and chamber of
commerce-managed waste exchanges are, of course, highly
concerned with the number of listings, and particularly
match-ups.  The public, government sector is more interested
in the types of transfers made.  They would hope to see
listings and match-ups of materials that have been identified
as hazardous under RCRA or state hazardous waste programs.

       The extent to which particular wastes of interest:
appear on "available" lists without successful match-ups is
indicative of the lack of recycling or reclamation opportunities
for these materials.  On the other hand, match-up of materials
of concern will indicate recycling alternatives to question-
able or costly disposal options.

       The current serious concern for hazardous waste disposal
in the environment, energy shortages, and inflation create
a high degree of interest in diversion of hazardous waste
from landfill disposal and accompanying high costs associated
with secured chemical landfills or high temperature incin-
eration.  Hence, all types of waste exchanges consider of
prime importance energy and material conservation (Criterion
8 of Table 2.5-1); diversion of hazardous waste from landfill
disposal (Criterion 9); and avoidance of "pass-on" consumer
cost resulting from transfers (Criterion 10).


2.6  Impact of Governmental Regulations


       Finding evidence of cause-and-effeet linkages between
waste control legislation and activity in waste information
exchanges is difficult.  Many exchanges are non-governmental
organizations, set up and administered by industry associations.
Neither offerers nor requesters of materials need to reveal
their motives for using an exchange, hence, their desire for
anonymity and confidentiality.  Thus, the relationship
between legislation and exchange activity can only be inferred.

       But it is clear that waste pollution control legis-
lation was initiated or strengthened in many industrialized
countries during the 1970s, just as exchanges were being created.


                           2-26

-------
It seems reasonable to suggest that both laws and exchanges
resulted from the same awareness and concern.  For example,
in the United Kingdom, two major legislative acts (the 1972
Deposit of Poisonous Waste Act and the 1974 Control of
Pollution Act) changed the basic methods of waste disposal.
The U.K. Waste Exchange began in October 1974 and had been
vigorously active until recently.  Some West European
countries, for example, the Netherlands and Denmark,
recently strengthened disposal laws, but it is too early to
observe results.  However, the Italian chemical industry
association's exchange which began in 1973 with high activity,
(a typical pattern as users clear their backlog of wastes
and try out the new service), saw a decline in listings,
and then saw activity revive significantly in 1978-79
apparently due both to stricter laws and tighter raw material
supplies.  In France, as in the United Kingdom, government
has directly initiated and supported exchanges, through a new
agency created by a 1975 law which in turn supported formation
of six regional information clearinghouses.  Waste disposal
control laws normally increase the generator's disposal costs,
and thus presumably increase their incentives to seek buyers
for their wastes before paying for hauling and disposal.

       In the United States, where some exchanges were formed
before passage of RCRA or state laws, most exchange personnel
seem unfamiliar with the legislative framework, at least in
its details.  However, many of the exchange managers seem to
feel that listing activities will increase notably after
RCRA regulations are implemented.  They may be proven correct,
if waste generators, seeing the legislative handwriting on
the wall, change their disposal procedures in anticipation
of new regulations.

       Increased interest and use of waste exchanges will
result when rules and regulations mandated by the 1976 RCRA
become enforced.  Section 3001 of RCRA requires identification
and listing of hazardous wastes from almost all sectors of
American industry.  Final rules and regulations under
Section 3001 were published in the May 19, 1980 Federal
Register.

       Under Section 3001, industry is required to identify
process and pollution control residuals which must be
considered hazardous, based on hazard and toxicity criteria
detailed in Section 3001.  A number of wastes have already
been identified and listed by EPA as being hazardous, and
hence subject to all hazardous waste regulations.

       The rules and regulations for generators of hazardous
waste (Section 3002), transport (Section 3003) and treatment
                          2-27

-------
and disposal of hazardous waste (Section 3004) will signi-
ficantly increase the costs of trucking, handling, and
secure disposal of these wastes.  As an example, high
temperature incineration for the destruction of toxic,
carcinogenic or mutagenic organic wastes is likely to be
required as opposed to less costly landfilling.  Secured
(i.e. clay and/or synthetically-lined) chemical landfills
will be able to accept many inorganic and organic wastes,
but these are significantly more expensive than traditional
landfills.  Siting problems for new secure landfills will
keep these in short supply for a number of years.  Liquid
or semi-solid toxic, hazardous, mutagenic or carcinogenic
organic wastes may even be prohibited from secured chemical
landfills.

       The "cradle to grave" liabilities in the RCRA
regulations may prompt hazardous waste generators to avoid
using a waste exchange, since a potential transfer would
loosen its control and would not absolve it from its long-
term liabilities.

       On the other hand, the requirement for a permit on
hazardous wastes, and its satisfactory disposition within
90 days, will encourage listings on an exchange.  Similarly,
the use of exchanges may be enhanced by Section 261.33 of
RCRA which specifies that certain chemical products, as long
as they are in commerce and not going for disposal, are exempt
from manifest requirements.

       The impact of other Sections of the RCRA regulations
on Waste Exchanges will become apparent over a period of time.
The overall effect of RCRA will no doubt enhance and foster
the transfer of hazardous and other waste materials in the
U.S.

       It is expected that recovery and recycle of wastes,
as through waste exchanges, may be more cost effective for
handling toxic wastes than traditional methods now under
severe scrutiny and regulation.
                            2-28

-------
3.0  FOREIGN WASTE EXCHANGES

3.1  Canadian Waste Materials Exchange,
     Mississauga. Ontario


       First efforts towards a Canadian Waste Exchange were
started by Canadian Chemical Processing Magazine in 1973, and
then by the Ontario Ministry of Industry and Tourism in 1975.
These initial efforts have been taken over by Canadian Waste
Materials Exchange.

       The Canadian Waste Materials Exchange (CWME), as it
currently exists, issued its first Bulletin in February  1978.
It is managed and operated by Ontario Research, a private
non-profit organization.  Environment Canada, the Federal
government's environmental agency, fully funded and sponsored
the exchange for a two-year period ending in December  1979.
The exchange is presently working towards self-sufficiency
by charging an annual subscription fee of $20.

       The objectives of the exchange are   (1)  to conserve
raw materials;   (2)  to  conserve energy required to process
raw materials;   (3)  to  promote use of energy-rich waste
materials;  and  (4)  to  protect the environment.

       Wastes are  listed in the Bulletin under  10 categories
as shown at the  bottom  of Figure 3.1-1.  The listings are
coded as wastes available -  AA, or wastes  wanted - AW,
followed by three  digits which identify wastes  sequentially.
A last letter in the code identifies the geographical region
in which waste materials are available or wanted.  See top  of
Figure 3.1-1.  Listers' names are kept confidential.
Listings are free.

       Sample pages  of  wastes wanted and wastes available from
a Bulletin are shown in Figures 3.1-2 and 3.1-3, respectively.
The  Bulletin circulation is 6,000 and  is issued every other
month.

       The exchange  accepts for listing all materials from  all
industries without geographical limitations.  The program is
operated by one  highly  skilled manager and  one  secretary for
about  one-quarter  time  each.  The operating budget  is about
$50,000 per year.


        Vital  statistics, as  of  September   1979, after
 19 months  of  operation are:

       Number of participating companies  .  .  .  5,700
                            3-1

-------
Canadian  waste  materials  exchange
     BULLETIN NO. 12
                                                                     la  bourse  canadienne  des  dechets
                            NOVEMBER
                            NOVEMBRE
1979
                                                                             MONTREAL
                                                                            'CORNWALL f
                                                                            BOBOUS
                                                                          TO
                                                                        MILTON
                                                                                                      IT JOMN-I
                                                                                               STDNf T-CLACC
                                                                                                      AY
     The letters of this map are used to identify the
     geographic region in which waste materials are
     available or wanted. The letter appears as the
     last letter in the waste code number.
     Wastes are listed in  the bulletin under 10 categories:
     1. Organic Chemicals and Solvents
     2. Oils, Fats and Waxes
     3. Acids
     4. Alkalis
     5. Other Inorganic  Chemicals
     6. Metals and Metal Containing Sludges
     7. Plastics
     8. Textiles, Leather and Rubber
     9. Wood and Paper Products
    10. Miscellaneous
    Listings will appear in the language submitted.
 Les lettres inscrites sur cette carte indiquent la region
 geographique dans laquelle des dechets sont disponibles
 ou demandes.  Cette lettre apparait comme dernier
 caractere du code de dechet.
 Les dechets sont inscrits au bulletin sous I'une ou I'autre
 des 10 categories suivantes:
 1.  Produits chimiques organiques et solvants
 2.  Huiles, graisses et cires
 3.  Acides
 4.  Alcalis
 5.  Autres produits chimiques inorganiques
 6.  Metaux et boues contenant des metaux
 7.  Plastiques
 8.  Textiles, cuir et caoutchouc
 9.  Produits du papier et du bois
10.  Divers
Les inscriptions parattront dans la langue de leur soumission.
                                             Figure  3.1-1
                                                   3-2

-------
                                WASTES WANTED  : DECHETS DEMANDES
     Use Form 3 to enquire jhout these wastes
     if you think you can supply them. Return
     Form 3 to the Waste Exchange
                                           Vfuillez utiliser la formula 3 pour dcmander des
                                           renseignements au sujet des dechets que vous
                                           pensez pouvoir fournir.
1.    ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND SOLVENTS

          Region/Region  Quantity/Quantite
                              PRODUITS CHIMIQUES ORGANIQUES ET SOLVANTS
AW 022
AW 064
AW 085
AW 109
AW 114
AW 115
AW 185
AW 190
AW 191
R
G
R
O
0
0
0
O
R
30,000 tonnes
30 gals/month
large quantities
Unlimited
Unlimited
45 gall/week
Recyclage Beton Bitumineux  (Valleyfield)
Rubber cement (naphtha - polymer)
Waste solvents, all kinds
Methyl hydrate (Windsor)
Paints (Windsor)
Thinners (Windsor)
Paint overstock etc.
Waste chlorinated solvents  (Toronto)
Resin wash solvent
2.   OILS, FATS AND WAXES :  HUILES, GRAISSES ET CIRES
AW 065
AW 072
AW 149
AW 150
AW 151
AW 176
AW 180
AW 196
G
S
MM n R
, IM, \j, n
AM
All
Q
G
0
45 gal/week
12,000 gal/sem



illimite
2500 Ib/week
50,000 gal/month
                                 Waste lubricating oil
                                 Huile a moteur
                                 Les huiles us6es  (Ontario & Quebec)
                                 Waste hydraulic oils
                                 Waste cutting oils
                                 Gras animal et huiles vegetates usees
                                 Broken graphite electrodes
                                 Waste oil max. BSW 8%, 100-200 vis. sus., sulphur 0.5 max.
 3.    ACIDS :  ACIDES
 AW 081
 AW 099
 AW 201
 0
 E
 O
 100,000 gal/month
 15,000 gal/month
 ^20 million gal/year
 Pickle liquor
 HCI pickling waste(Pb<2gpl Fe>200 gpl)
 Contaminated sulphuric acid 10-90% H2S04
 4.    ALKALIS :  ALCALIS
 AW 188
 AW 189
 AW 202
 E
 E
 0
 10 tons/week
 10 tons/week
 Unlimited
 Caustic (Vancouver)
 Quicklime (CaO)  (Vancouver)
 Dirty or clean caustic wastes 10-50% caustic
                                      Figure  3.1-2
                                           3-3

-------
                                    WASTES AVAILABLE :  DECHETS DISPONIBLES
           Use Form 3 to enquire about these wastes
           if you think you could use them.
           Veuillez utiliser la formule 3 pour obtenir des
           renseignements sur les dechets que vous pourriez
           utiliser.
     1.   ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND SOLVENTS  : PRODUITSCHIMIQUES ORGANIQUES ET SOLVANTS
AA006
AA029
AA058
AA170
AA201
AA221
AA298
AA375
AA415
AA416
AA520
AA528
AA547
AA565
AA711
AA713
AA736
AA783
AA788
AA792
AA816
AA820
AA837
AA851
AA852
AA856
AA878
AA913
AA918
AA929
AA930
AA931
AA932
AA938
AA939
AA945
AA962
AA966
AA973
0
0
O
0
0
O
R
U
G
N
K
0
O
0
0
O
0
G
0
U
s
N
R
N
N
0
O
0
R
O
0
O
0
N
N
0
0
E
0
                Region/Region   Quantity/Quantite
                               3 ton/week
                               60 gal/month
                               5000 Ibs/week
                               12,000 gal/year
                               2000 gal/week
                               80,000 gal/week
                               3000 Ibs/year

                               12,000 gal/year
                               250 gal/month
                               1000 gals/month
                               100 IDS
                               1200 gals/year
                               4000 Ibs
                               300 Ibs/day

                               2000 gals/month
                               15 x 45 gal/month
                               1100x50 Ib. bags
                               3 x 45 gal
                               700 gal/month

                               100 gal/week
                               4 drums/year
                               6 ton/month
                               1800 gal/year
                               5000 Ibs.

                               5000 gal/month
                               1000 gal/month
                               1000 gal/month
                               1000 gal/month
                               6250 Kg/month
                               17,500 Kg/3 months
                               3000 Ib.
                               2000 Ib
                               9000 gal/day
                               1685 Ibs
Crude Naphthenic Acid Still bottoms (Toronto)
Organic Hatchery waste (Brantford)
Toluol with silicone paint
Slush from solvent processing
90% Toluol; 10%phenolics (Scarborough)
Light solvents, sludge (Toronto)
Molasses Stillage (Montreal)
Activated charcoal and Oils and Phenols
Mixed rubber cure accelerators
Methylene chloride & water & animal fat lubricant
Waste ink & solvents  (Winnipeg)
Spent solvent ketones, alcohols, etc. (Hamilton)
U.C.L-77 silicone (Toronto)
Non phenolic paint stripper (Toronto)
Dow Corning  Antifoam "B" liquid
Latex compound and  water sludge  (Markham)
Used acetone and oil mixture
Fusel Oil (Calgary)
Recovered and fresh solvents (not mixed)
"Polybor"
Varsol avec graisses
Contaminated M.E.K.
Used paint thinners
Glycol & Mineral oil mixture (Trace H2O, dirt)
Thermally degraded polyalkylene oxide H.T. fluid
Wetted paint sludge (alkyd  resin & pigment)  (Windsor)
Insulating varnish
Di-lsooctylphthalate
Obsolete solvent based paints suitable for baking
Resin plant wash solvent
Water - Resin plant solvent  mixture
Resin  and paint plant sludge
Defective resins and paints
Filter press cake containing 50% plasticizers & 50% Carbon and filteraid
Distillation residue, phthalic anhydrides and higher acids
Trichloroacetic acid contaminated with  Fe + H20  (Sarnia)
High heat silicone resin (DC803-50X)
Aqueous organic acids (5%  acetic 1% formic + trace proprionic)
Silicone resin DC 805
-    Indicates the start of new listings in each category
      Indique le debut des nouvelles inscriptions pour
      chaque categorie
                                              Figure 3.1-3

                                                  3-4

-------
       Number of wastes listed	1,040

       Number of those wastes
         generating inquiries   	    863 (83% of
                                                       listings)

       Number of inquiries    	  4,012 (3.9/
                                                       listing)

       Number of wastes transferred	    124 (127. of
                                                       listing)

       Annual tonnage of waste transferred  .  .  66,000 tons

       Approximate value of the
              waste transferred 	  $2.65 million
                                                       (Can.)

       By January  1980, after 23 months, the exchange
reported 95,000 tons as the annual tonnage of waste transferred,
with a replacement value of $3.7 million.  "Replacement value"
is computed by estimating the value of material that the
waste has replaced.  Conservative estimates have been used
throughout.  For example, wood waste has been assumed to
have a value of $18 per ton based on 18xlO& Btu per ton
and $1 per 1x10$ Btu.

       The distribution of listings follow very closely the
general distribution of industrial activity in Canada.  The
distributions of numbers of inquiries and transfers recorded
are skewed in favor of Ontario.  This may be explained by
the fact that the Exchange is located in Ontario, and thus
telephone communication is cheaper and easier, or it may be
that there are more opportunities for transfers to take place
in a province where almost 50% of Canada's industrial
activity is concentrated.

       Wastes are listed under 10 categories.  In Tables 3.1-1
and 3.1-2 waste listings, number of inquiries received, and
transfers recorded are summarized by category for both
available and wanted wastes.  The lowest interest is in
inorganic acids, alkalis and other inorganic chemicals.
Plastics, organic chemicals, and metal sludges have the
highest interest and show the highest proportion of recorded
transfers.

       The distances for transport of transferred wastes were
analyzed.  It was found that most of the wastes, 52%, moved
over a short distance of less than 100 miles.  The fact,
however, that 12.5% of the transferred wastes did travel
over 1,000 miles indicates that distances of transport did
not necessarily inhibit waste transfer.

                           3-5

-------
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                                                         3-6

-------
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-------
Contact:  Dr. Bob Laughlin, Manager
          Canadian Waste Materials Exchange
          Ontario Research Foundation
          Sheridan Park Research Community
          Mississauga, Ontario  L5K 929

Date:     March  1980
3.2  United Kingdom Waste Materials Exchange,
     STevenage Herts. England


       The United Kingdom (UK) Waste Exchange was started in
1974 by the Department of Industry's Warren Spring Laboratory
at Stevenage because of its previous work and experience
on waste recovery.

       The U.K. Waste Exchange was operated and funded by the
Government from its inception in 1974 until November  1979.
The Exchange has been directed to recover 707e of its annual
costs by January  1980 and to achieve total self-funding by
October  1980.  A membership fee of about $45 for 4 Bulletins
annually was assessed for cost recovery.  The 70% self-funding
status was not achieved by January 1  1980 and the Exchange
was discontinued.

       The U.K. Exchange had been managed by Mr. Ray Iron
for about one-third of his time, in addition to a full-time
clerical officer.  The annual operating costs were approximately
$81,000 (36,000).

       The coding system used for each waste material listing
consisted of two letters, then three digits, followed by a
letter, e.g. AC584D.  The first letter A denotes that the
material is available. (Listing of materials wanted was
discontinued after one year of operation.)  The next letter
and three digits are an alphanumeric description of the
waste material.  The last letter from A-G represents the
geographical region of origin.  Hence, AC584D means waste
material C584 from West Midlands and Wales is available
for transfer.  The code system enables confidentiality
for the lister.

       A computer is used for data storage, handling and
printouts for each quarterly bulletin.  Each new listing
is entered into the computer according to its classification
as one of the 12 material categories, e.g.  metals,
inorganic chemicals, oils and waxes, etc.
                            3-8

-------
       The geographical code and waste material  categories
are shown as follows:
GEOGRAPHICAL  REGIONS:




    A  Scotland


    B  Northern Ireland


    C  North of England


    D  West Midlands and Wales


    E  East Midlands and
       East Anglia


    F  Central Southern and
       South East England


    G  West of England
WASTE CATEGORIES:

    1. Acids and Alkalis
    2. Catalysts
    3. Inorganic Chemical
    4. Organic Chemicals
         and solvents
    5. Food Processing
    6. Metals
 7.
 8.
 9.
10.
11.
12.
Minerals
Mis ce1laneous
Oils and Waxes
Paper and  Board
Rubber and Plastics
Textile and Leather
        The U.K.  waste exchange operated  primarily in the
British Isles,  and in a passive information clearinghouse
manner.   It handled waste materials  from manufacturing
processes, but  excluded "domestic waste, scrap metals,
second-hand equipment and related materials for which
adequate commercial markets already  exist."

        Companies submitted to the Exchange  the basic
information of  items available, together with the geographical
                            3-9

-------
location.  The items were classified into the twelve groupings
shown above.  All information available within the system is
coded and stored in a computer data bank.  In addition to
the information printed in the bulletin, the code includes
certain other data, e.g. address of the originating company
and its Standard Industrial Classification order, a more
detailed breakdown of the composition and type of each item
and the number of inquiries for it.  This register, in
addition to forming the basis for producing the bulletin,
can be searched to produce statistical analyses based on
any suitable set of parameters.

       Requests for information from potential users are
forwarded to the originating company so that they may make
their own arrangements; thus, the identity of the waste
producers is never disclosed by the Exchange, and full
commercial confidence is maintained.

       Forms used by listers and inquirers, as well as the
major components of a sample Bulletin are shown in Figures
3.2-1, 3.2-2 and 3.2-3.

       Types and quantities of materials available and
utilized during the five years (1974-1979) of operation are
summarized in Table 3.2-1.  Table 3.2-1 also summarizes the
type and availability of materials carried by the exchange
and those matched-up.  Items not quantified within the Table
are mainly containers, e.g. bottles and caps, sacks,, bags
or boxes.

       In order to obtain some estimate of the monetary value
of the transfers, the final column in Table 3.2-1 shows an
estimate of the "as new" cost of the materials utilized.
These figures indicate only the actual values of transactions.

       A number of companies have reported very significant
savings resulting from successful transactions.

       It is apparent from the Table that the main impact
of the Exchange has been in promoting reuse of chemicals
in one form or another.  Acids and alkalis have been
successfully reused on a large scale, but equally Icirge
amounts of both sulphuric acid and caustic solutions, all
of which contained contaminants, have not been disposed of.

       The catalysts section is small but has enjoycsd reason-
able success.  The indications are that while there is a lot
of interest in nickel compounds, there is virtually none for
zinc or aluminum.  As we might expect with chemicals, there
is no definite pattern of requirements or utilization.  Most
                           3-10

-------
                             UK WASTE MATERIALS EXCHANGE



                                    Contact Request Form
Company Name:
Address:
Tel. No:
Contact:
This Company Information is Confidential and Will Not Be Publicly Disclosed
                 I am interested in obtaining the following items listed in the bulletin:
Ref. No.f
Descriptiont
                        NOTIFICATION OF ITEMS BOUGHT, SOLD OR WITHDRAWN.
         t    qive the reference number and description from the bulletin




                                      3-11
                           Figure 3.2-1

-------
                               UK WASTE MATERIALS EXCHANGE
                                        Notification Form
Company Name:
Address:
Tel. No:
This Company Information
Contact:
is Confidential and Will Not Be Publicly Disclosed
                       I should like the following items* included in the next edition of the bulletin:
Quantity & Timing 1
Description #
                                                             Available
              space in the bulletin may be limited so pleabe enter items in order of priority
              give amount per period eg gals/week. Note that the period should give some indication
              of the regularity of the arising 01 requiiement. For instance a icgulat production of
              1000 litres/month should not be listed ds 12.000 hires/year, but a single annu.ti discharge
              would correctly be given as say 20 tonnes/year. Please use the following abbievictions
              day (D), week (VY), month (M), year (Y!, litres (LT), yals (GL),  kilos (KG), tonnes (TE),
              tons (TN), pounds (LB), hundredweight (CT), Si:u. menus (SM), cubic  metres (CM)
              give a biief informativu description, indicntui'i physic.\il fonn whc-to necessary. 00 NOT
              use more than CO chdi.icti'is in all to neimn surile line bulletin entnes      FLeure  3.2-2

                                       3-12

-------
REF R
QUANTITY
                        SECTION As MATERIALS AVAILABLE
                            ACIDS 8 ALKALIS
AC027F
AC069C
AC094F
AC156D
AC1P.4F
AC266D
AC324F
AC399C
AC406C
AC409C
AC410C
AC411C
AC415C
AC421C
AC505F
AC570C
AC580D
AC584D
AC620A
A C A 2 1 A
AC6323
AC642C
AC-H6C
AC65U
AC772E
AC779D
,*,C78ftP
Ac?eio
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SODIUM SULPHATE ANHYDROUS
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SODIUM SuLPHI'iE
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-------
interest has been shown in solvent mixtures, metal oxides,
or material where there is a significant metal content;
but again, contaminants appear to be the main constraint.
There appears to be little or no interest in complex organic
compounds or items listed under trade names and no demand
for waste sulphate or sulphite solutions.

       All items grouped under food processing attracted many
inquiries.  About 50% of mineral items attracted a lot of
interest, e.g. silica, silicon carbide grits, graphite and
high alumina-content materials.  Items identified only by
trade names have been ignored and little interest shown in
waxes in the oil-and-waxes group.  As with food processing
section, virtually all items in the paper and board, textiles
and leather sections attracted a high interest.

       There was no interest in rubber wastes and very little
in foams, mixed polymers or high molecular weight compounds.

       The Bulletin circulation is in excess of 6,000.  A
total of 2,660 different items have been advertised, with over
24,300 inquiries resulting in 487 known match-ups.  The
estimated savings in landfill capacity are in the order of
500,000 cubic metres.  Estimated saving of oil (5,000 TE) is
approximately 1.25 x 10$ gallons.

       Of the total number of items advertised, approximately
20% have been match-ups.  Other items have been withdrawn
from the Bulletin because the process has been modified so
that the waste is no longer available or because the company
has reclaimed the waste itself for reuse.  The average
size of the Bulletin was reduced to about  600 items by
withdrawing listings over two years old and those resulting
in less than 2 inquiries.

       It was assumed from the outset that a waste exchange
would have a limited useful life in that, once contacts
had been established, a central activity would no longer
be required.  This situation may have been reached when
sufficient support for the exchange did not materialize.
Nevertheless, a vocal minority of firms want the exchange
to continue, if necessary in the private sector.  Apparently,
there is a problem in "transferring the exchange" because
of the confidential nature of the files.  Consequently and
apparently, the matter is not yet closed.

Contact:  Mr. Ray Tron, Exchange Manager
          U.K. Waste Materials Exchange
          P. 0. Box 51
          Stevenage, Herts SGI 2DT
                      Telephone:  Stevenage (0438) 3388

Date:     October  1978


                           3-15

-------
3.3 National Industrial Materials Recovery Association.
    NIMRA. London * England


       NIMRA was established and supported from 1942 to 1956
by the British government.  The service became self-sufficient
after 1956 by Association fees.

       NIMRA is a non-profit organization, run by and for
industry on a voluntary basis.  Originally formed to conserve
materials in time of war, the Association has continued to
help members achieve positive cost savings by providing
services in the fields of research, advice and information
exchange.  The objectives of NIMRA are:

       i)  To stimulate the maximum re-use and economical
           recovery of redundant or waste materials, physical
           plant and by-products.

      ii)  To encourage the search for new uses for wastes
           or residues arising from production processes.

     iii)  Assist members to reduce pollution by practicing
           reclamation and recycling.

      iv)  To maintain an advisory service on recovery
           and reclamation.

       It publishes a bulletin called Industrial Recovery,
which is free to members, with articles and information on
profitable recovery plus free advertising of redundant plant,
machinery, surplus stores, material, by-products, a.nd
recoverable wastes from manufacturing processes.  Membership
fees are ^t 20 ($32) per year.  They have approximately
2,000 members.

       The listings are mainly for used plant, reprocessed
valves, old stores, tanks, compressors, etc., with only a
very small section on chemicals.  There are both Wanted and
Disposal sections.  Confidentiality is not maintained in the
NIMRA exchange.  Listers give an address or telephone number
at which they can be contacted.  NIMRA does not have the
staff to operate the exchange on a confidential basis.
Figure 3.3-1 shows the rules governing listings.

       NIMRA's membership is mixed, encompassing scrap
dealers, reprocessors plus some industrial companies.
Representation from larger industrial concerns is quite
small.

       No statistics on  the numbers of listings were available,
                            3-16

-------
since inquiries are not directed through the exchange.
Likewise, information on inquiries or transactions are
also unavailable.  The August  1976 magazine contained
about 120 listings, which would give yearly figures of
1,200-1,500, which is quite high compared with many of
the European waste exchanges.  The items listed, however,
would have to be described as already having a reasonably
well established "second-hand market".


Contact:  Mr. F.G. Walker, Secretary General
          National Industrial Materials Recovery Assoc.
          York House
          Westminister Bridge Road
          London, S.E. 1 7UT
          England

          Telephone: 01-928-5715

Date:     March  1977


3.4  Swiss Society of Chemical Industries Waste Exchange.
     Zurich, Switzerland


       The exchange was started in February, 1973 by the Swiss
Society of Chemical Industries, the Society of Varnish
Manufacturers, and the Soap and Detergent Society.  The
purpose of the exchange is the protection of the environment,
and the utilization of valuable resources.  The service is
available only to companies that belong to the three
organizations.

       Activity of the exchange is limited, since only 120
offers and 10 requests have been published in a four year
period.  An average of 5-10 offers are made each month
with a much smaller number of requests.  An estimated 0*4
inquiries are received per listing.  Statistics on match-ups
are not kept, since their release is not approved by the
membership.  In a small country like Switzerland, waste
material transactions occur which by-pass the exchange.

       Offers and requests are accepted only from members
of the sister societies.  Offers and requests must be made
in German or French.  Publication is made under the condition
that the exchange is not responsible for impurities in the
wastes.

       Listings are published monthly in the society's journal
and also in the German VCI.  Bulletins have a total circulation
of 600.
                            3-17

-------
       Listings are coded for confidentiality and anonymity
of advertisers.  The mechanics of the exchange are similar
to others.  Listings for the exchange are made on a form
shown in Figure 3.4-1.  Information on this form is coded
and after deleting the lister's name and address, is
published in the waste exchange sections of the respective
society's monthly bulletins.  Inquiries for listed
materials are made to the societies and the inquiry is
then passed on to the listing company.

       The exchange is operated at minimum cost.  About
2-3 hours per week for the Director and for a secretary are
required to maintain the service.

       A draft comprehensive new environmental law is being
considered by the Swiss parliament, and this includes a
section concerning waste disposal.  It is expected that it
will take 2 or 3 years before this is voted on and probably
4 or 5 years to become effective.  It is, therefore, difficult
to judge its impact on the Exchange.

Contact:  Dr. Karl Wegman
          Borse fur weiterverwertbare Chemie-Abfalle
          Swiss Society of Chemical Industries
          Nordstrasse 15
          8035 Zurich
          Switzerland

          Telephone (01) 60-10-30

Date:     December  1979


3.5  Austrian Chemical Industry Association Exchange
     Vienna, Austria


       This exchange is sponsored and operated by the Assoc-
iation of Austrian Chemical Industries.  It was started in
February of 1973 and the exchange service is open only to members,

       Offers and requests are published in their regular
journal.  The number of listings is low, with none listed
some months.  Listings are also published in the German VCI
bulletins.

       This exchange is similar in organization to the German
and Swiss Exchanges.  Listings are coded for confidentiality.
                            3-18

-------
                       Figure 3.4-1
               Formulaire pour I'announce de
        residus chimiques aptes a la reutilisation
       (Application for reuse of chemical residues)
No du chiffre (a ne pas remplir par 1'expediteur):
Nature du residu: 	
Specification:
Concentration:	%
Teneur en eau: (water content).	70
Impuret^s organiques :  (Organic contaminants) 	7
Impuretes inorganiques (dissous et non dissous):	%
       (Inorganic contaminants - dissolved & nondissolved)
Metaux lourds: (Heavy metals )	%
pH:  . v v	v	
Proprietes physiques et etat:
(p.ex. visqueux, pSteux etc.) (Physical properties)	
Quantite par semaine / mois: (Quantity by week/month) kg 100%
Tonnage annuel.... / pendant les semaines du.... au.
Emballage:	
Possibilit/ de transport: .
                              1)
De la gare de / de 1'usine de
                2)
Maison offrante   : 	
                              Timbre et signature
Date	         	
1) 2) Ces renseignements ne figurerontpas dans le bulletin.
      (This data will not be published in the bulletin.)
                          3-19

-------
Contact:  Frau Dipl.-Ing. Haberfelner
          Fachverband der Chemischen Industrie Osterreichs
          A-1011 Vienna, Austria

          Telephone:  (0222) 6357-63

Date:     December  1979
3.6  Austrian Federal Waste Exchange.
     Linz Austria


       This exchange was started in July  1974 specifically
for large volumes of waste with "problematical compositions".

       Confidentiality is not maintained and names of the
listers are published in the Bulletin.  Bulletins are
published monthly and distributed to all members of the
chamber of commerce.  Listings are not published in the
German VCI Bulletins.

       Listers are asked to notify the exchange of match-ups
and a high rate of notifications have been received.  For the
first year of operation, 44% of the listed wastes were
exchanged.

Contact:  Or. Kerschbaummayr
          Bundesabfallborse
          Hessenplatz 3,
          Linz, Austria

          Telephone: (0732) 78-444-295

Date:     December  1979


3.7  Nordic Waste Exchange.
     Stockholm. Sweden


       The Nordic Exchange began in November  1973 as a joint
venture of the Federations of Industry in Denmark, Norway,
Finland and Sweden.

       A Nordic intergovernmental foundation (Nordisk
Industrifond) provided some of the funds for the Waste
Exchange during the first three years with matching funds
from the Federations of Industry.  The Federations of
Industry provided the total budget thereafter, from annual
membership dues.  The exchange service is free to members.
                           3-20

-------
A special charge was considered but was not introduced.
The objectives of the Nordic Waste Exchange are to:

       i)  provide a 'passive* service as intermediary
           between generators of industrial waste residues,
           surplus materials, etc. and potential users of
           such substances as basic raw materials for their
           own processes.  (Available capacity for safe
           conversion or ultimate destruction of hazardous
           wastes in included also), and

      ii)  active follow-up of the results of the inter-
           mediation procedures, to characterize wastes
           and the processes which either generate them
           or utilize them from the standpoint of 'waste
           versus resource*.  This would entail considerable
           technological input, as required.

       Wastes are classified by type and code number.
Each item is classified by:

       i)  offer of or

      ii)  request for specific wastes or residues.

     iii)  offer of surplus chemicals or products, or

      iv)  available spare capacity for treatment (refining
           or destruction) of specific types of (hazardous)
           wastes.

       Companies interested in any item may contact the Waste
Exchange by letter requesting further information.  The
request is forwarded to the listing company, whose anonymity
is protected.  The listing company may, at its own discretion,
contact the interested party/parties.  The Waste Exchange
does not participate in any negotiations or dealings after
the primary contacts are made.

       The waste categories are listed as follows:

       1.  Plastics
       2.  Textile, leather
       3.  Paper-containing materials
       4.  Solvents, waste oil
       5.  Acids, pickling liquors
       6.  Inorganic chemicals
       7.  Organic chemicals
       S.  Slags, Sludges, etc.
       9.  Miscellaneous
                           3-21

-------
Percent of
Total Listed
(%)
23.7
12.6
5.2
6.7
7.4
Inquiries
per
Item
2.5
4.1
2.4
1.2
0.2
Positive
Results
per Item
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
0
       Each request for further information sent to the listing
organization is accompanied by a Waste Exchange form with
questions regarding the outcome of the contact established.
In the period December  1973 to December  1975, a total of
270 items were listed that received 517 inquiries.  Of the
147 contacts completed, 27% yielded positive results
(transactions) while 63% gave negative results.  The
remaining 10% were incomplete (inconclusive).

       The results have been further broken down to 'Positive
Results per Item' as follows:

         Summary of Two Years of Operation 1973-1975
 Waste Category

1. Plastics

2. Textiles

3. Paper

4. Solvents

5. Acids

6. Inorganic
    Chemicals             11.5           1.5          0.5

7. Organic
    Chemicals              7.8           0.7          0.3

8. Slags, sludges          7.0           2.2          0.2

9. Miscellaneous          18.1           1.0          0.1

                         100.0

       Long transportation distances are a particularly serious
problem in Nordic countries for successful transactions.
However, it was found at an early stage that the Waste Exchange
did provide a useful means of identifying the principal waste
problems in each region.

Contact:  Mr. L.G. Lindfors
          I.V.L. Research
          Halsingegatan 43
          S-100-31
          Stockholm, Sweden
                 Telephone: 08-24-96-80

Date:  December  1979

                             3-22

-------
3.8  The Turin Waste Materials Exchange.
     Turin. Italy


       The Exchange was started in late 1977 by the Turin
Chamber of Commerce.  The first Bulletin was published in
May  1978 with the seventh Bulletin published in
January  1980.

       The objectives are to conserve raw materials and to
reduce waste disposal costs.

       All materials, including paper and machinery are
accepted for listing.  The Bulletin has a circulation of
3,000 and is sent at no charge to all the Italian Chambers
of Commerce, their members, and industrial unions.

       Listings are coded for confidentiality as materials
wanted or available in 11 general categories as shown in
Table 3.8-1.  This table also summarizes the activity of
the exchange from 5 Bulletins between March  1978 to
September  1979, or some 19 months.

       Match-up information was not available because
follow-ups to inquiries were not made.

       Recent Bulletins contain articles of interest such as
meeting and conference announcements, European Common
Market legislation on wastes, national and regional legislation
and energy and recycling relationships.

Contact:  Dr. Alumno or
          Mr. Roberto Guazzetti
          Camera di Commercio Industria
             Artigianato e Agricol
          Via S. Francesco da Paola, 24
          10123 Torino, Italy
                    Telephone;  (Oil) 57-161

Date:     March  1980


3.9  Italian Chemical Industry Association (ANIC).
     Milan. Italy


       The Bulletin or "Exchange of Industrial Wastes" was
established in 1973 by the National Association of Chemical
Industries (ANIC).  The service is open to members only on
an official basis.  Unofficially, announcements from
non-members are also accepted.
                           3-23

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-------
       The association's weekly Bulletin includes exchange
listings.  The wastes are not categorized, but are listed
in the order received.  All wastes such as chemical products
are accepted for listing, and in recent years, announcements
for process equipment, such as used heat exchangers and
centrifuges have also been accepted.

       Statistics on successful matches are unavailable
because the exchange does not follow completed transactions.
Since the start of operations, 180 items were listed as
available with 20 items wanted.  As an average, 5 inquiries
are received for each listing, with a range from 1-10.

       The overall trend since the service was started has
been initial peak of listings followed by a slack period
until 1977.  In 1978-79, interest increased because of
tighter environmental protection laws and constraints on
the supply of materials.

       The cost of operating the exchange is included in the
association's budget.  About 2 hours per week each are
required from the Director, a graduate chemist, and one
secretary.

Contact:  Dr. Dario Linares
          Associazone Nazionale dell'industria Chitnica
          Via Fatebenefratelli 10
          20121 Milano
          Italy
                 Telephone: 02-657-28-41

Date:     January  1980


3.10  Waste Exchange of Israel.
      Jerusalem IsraeI


       The waste exchange of Israel (WEI) is sponsored by the
Ministry of Industry, Commerce, and Tourism, which operates
and funds it through the National Physical Laboratory of
Israel.  The object of the waste exchange is to reduce
imports and pollution.  It was started in September of 1976.
The annual operating budget is approximately $20,000, U.S.

       The WEI, in addition to a free twice yearly clearing-
house publication, plays an active role using technical
imagination.  It provides consulting, analytical and
reprocessing information.

       The Bulletin is circulated to all factories and research
establishments in Israel having wastes.  The exchange lists
                            3-25

-------
about 10 new items per month, with a response rate of about
4 inquiries for each listing.  All industries are served
and all wastes with no other avenues for marketing are
accepted.

       The exchange is staffed by 2 full-time and 2 part-time
personnel with extensive skills in chemistry, engineering,
processing and marketing.

       Information on listings is kept in notebooks and is
coded for confidentiality by a 4 digit number.  The Bulletin
classifies materials as available or wanted.  Data on
match-ups is shown in Table 3.10-1.

Contact:  Mr. Ezra Shamash, Manager
          Israel Waste Exchange
          Danziger Building A
          Hebrew University
          Jerusalem, Israel 91999

          Telephone: 02-584480

Date:     January  1980


                        TABLE 3.10-1

         MATCH-UPS FROM THE WASTE EXCHANGE OF ISRAEL
 Match-ups or Transfers   Quantities

Methyl ethyl ketone
Xylene
Toluene
Ethanol
Acetic Acid
Acetone
Sulphuric Acid (clean)
Hydrazine Sulphate
Ferrous Sulphate waste
  (Pickling steel)
Lead Oxide
Rubber powder
  (from recap, tires)       3  '
Polypropylene battery cases 2  '
Cellulose waste             3  '
Nylon fibres                4  '

Used benches (wooden)     2,000
4
3
4
5
10
5
20
3
1
5
tons
tons
"
"

"

n
n
n
                                        Continuous   One Shot

                                         Monthly
                                           ii
                                                     One  shot
                            3-26

-------
3.11  Metropolitan Waste Disposal Authority.
      New South Wales, Australia


       The Metropolitan Waste Disposal Authority is charged
with responsibility for the transport, collection,
reception, treatment, storage and disposal of waste within
the Metropolitan Waste Disposal Region.  The Authority,
besides ensuring that waste disposal occurs in an efficient
and environmentally satisfactory manner, is putting
considerable effort into developing conditions that will
encourage the recycling of waste materials.  Thus, it has
established an Industrial Waste Exchange to put generators
of waste materials in touch with industries which have a
use for them.  The Exchange, by finding users for waste
materials, helps to conserve raw materials and saves
industry disposal costs.  This service was introduced in
March  1977.

       The Exchange is concerned with waste materials originating
from manufacturing processes but excludes wastes from domestic
sources and those scrap metals, second hand equipment and
related materials for which adequate commercial markets
already exist.  Some examples of waste that are readily
exchanged are: waste lubricating oils or solvents for use
as a fuel; relatively clean waste alkali for neutralization
of waste acid; metal rich slags which are worth recovering;
waste phosphoric acid for use in the manufacture of
fertilizers, etc.

       A register is maintained of wastes for disposal and
materials required.  This information is published every four
months as listings of:

       (a)  waste materials offered, and
       (b)  waste materials sought.

       The identity of participating companies is protected
by assigning each item listed with a code number.  Responses
to listings are promptly forwarded to the firm which has
made the listing; the firm chooses the responder with which
to negotiate.  The Exchange does not participate in nego-
tiations.  The firm's only obligation to the Exchange is to
notify the Exchange when a successful negotiation has been
completed.

       There is a fee of $5 per item listed.   The fee is
intended to cover mailing and stationery costs.   Two cards
are prepared for each item listed.   One of these cards is
filed by company name and in alphabetical order and the
other card is filed under either materials for disposal
                           3-27

-------
or materials required and according to waste type.  Typical
categories are as follows:


          Food Processing,  Acids and Alkalis, Inorganic
          Chemicals,  Organic Solvents and Oils,
          Pallets,  Sand,  Ash etc.,  Shavings and Sawdust,
          Timber Offcuts,  Paper and Cardboard;  Textiles
          and Other Offcuts,  Containers (drums, boxes,
          bags, etc.),  Plastic Scrap and Miscellaneous
          Items.
       The number of companies which have registered since
the start of the exchange is 293, and the current 370
listings originate from 58 companies.  There have been
140 successful exchanges, 37 percent, during the period
of operation and it is estimated that a total saving of
over $100,000 (Australian) per year is being achieved by
the companies concerned.


       Examples of materials exchanged in the one year period
from July  1978 to July  1979 are shown in Figure 3.11-1.

Contact:  Mr. R. Conolly, Director
          Metropolitan Waste Disposal Authority
          7 Help Street (P.O. Box 699)
          Chatswood 2067
          N.S.W. Australia
                  Telephone:  412.1388

Date:     October  1979
3.12  Industrial Waste Exchange Service.
      Victoria. Australia
       This is the second Australian Waste Exchange and was
introduced in February 1978 by the Environment Protection
Authority in the State of Victoria.

       Participation in the service is free, the only
obligation being that the Authority is to be advised of the
outcome of negotiations between the waste generator and the
potential customer.  Listings are published at quarterly
intervals, with guaranteed anonymity.

       Items are listed in two consecutive issues only.
A cumulative total of 141 disposal registrations and
                           3-28

-------
                   July. 1978 - November. 1978
 Alll    400 sheets
 A147    3 tonnes
 A152    2,000 linear ft
 A175    2,000 bags/mth
 A193    60 cu m/wk
 B133    400 bags
 B138    610 gals
 B130    2,000 gals/wk
 B151    50/wk
 B177B   Unspecified
         420 kgs
         50 bales
         40 gals
         130 gals
         1% tonnes
         3 tonnes
         80 gals
         8,000 gals
          Masonite sheets with damaged edges
          Calcium carbide in rock form
          2" x 2" western red cedar
          Kraft paper bags
          Hardwood shavings
          Heavy duty plastic bags
          Contaminated 457. HN03 acid
          Used mineral oil
          Cardboard cartons
          Polystyrene offcuts
          Chloroform
          Straw
          Aviation grade methanol
          Concentrated chromic acid
          Sodium peroxide
          Phenol mercury urea fungicide
          Cooking oil
          Lube oil additives
                  November. 1978 - March. 1979
 A175    14,000
 A209    200
 A213    15
 B129    20
 B151    2,000
 B179    10 tonnes
 B180    2,000 litres/mth
         200
         750
 B183    4,000 litres
 B212    750 kg
         5,000/mth
         200 drums
         200 kg
 B229    10,000 kg
          Polyethylene bags
          hasonite sheets
          114 litre open top drums
          Wooden packing cases
          Cardboard cartons
          Polyurethane foam
          Hydraulic oil
          Softwood pallets of various sizes
          5 litre ampar glass wire flagons
          Colored paraffin wax
          Potassium per sulphate
          Polyester discs
          Cylindrical fibre drums
          Calcium chlorite
          Paraffin wax
                    March. 1979 - July. 1979
 A152    900 metres
 A173    5 tonnes/wk
 A228    L2,000 litres
 A231    2,200 litres
 BIOS    20 m3
         20 mj
 B250    20/month
 B192    23 m3/wk
 6208    Several thousand
         Unspecified
 6212    10 kg
 B212    14 kg
         9 kg
 B135    Unspecified
         Unspecified
         5 tonnes
 B286    20 m3 cont. load
 A207    1,000 bags
          .
-------
143 requirement registrations were recorded up to December
31, 1978.  Over 11 months, the total number of successful.
negotiations was 23, i.e. 16%.  Waste materials which have
prompted many of these inquiries include various types
of plastic waste, glass, sawdust, lime and solvents.

       The waste categories are:

                 Acids, Alkalis
                 Inorganic/organic Chemicals
                 Paints, Oils, Solvents
                 Textiles
                 Timber
                 Paper, Plastics
                 Miscellaneous
Contact:  Mr. Dennis Bloor
          Environment Protection Authority
          Land Waste Management Branch
          Victoria, Australia
                    Telephone: 651-4392

Date:     March  1980
3.13  National Agency for the Recovery and Elimination
       of Waste. (ANRED)
      Angers, France
       The first waste exchange in France was operated by a
French magazine "Nuisances et Environment" started in
April 1975.  A second waste exchange was started in June
1975 by the French Chemical Association (I.R.C.H.A.),
which was subsequently united with the "Nuisances et
Environment" effort.

       In July 1975, a law was enacted for waste elimination
and recovery of materials.  One provision of the new law
was establishment of a National Agency for the Recovery
and Elimination of Waste (A.N.R.E.D.) in 1976.  It became
fully operational in 1978.  Since ANRED became operational,
the two waste exchange efforts described above have ceased.

       The 1975 legislation made producers of waste
accountable for its safe disposal and also enabled the
government to take steps to encourage optimal disposal
and recovery, including measures of support to industry.
Perhaps the most important government measure was the
establishment of the National Agency (A.N.R.E.D.).
                            3-30

-------
It is a state body, under the joint tutellage of three
ministries:  Environment,  Industry  and Budget.
Its board consists of representatives of central and local
government and of industry, environmental and consumer
groups.  It has a permanent staff of 15.

       ANRED's terms of reference are broad, requiring it
to find satisfactory solutions to industrial and household
waste problems in order to "keep France clean".  For the
15 months ended December 31, 1978, it had a budget of
FF40 million (nearly US $10 million) to finance direct
and indirect intervention programs.

       In practice ANRED:

      helps to set up waste treatment centers (based on
       incineration and chemical processes) including the
       provision of subsidies and technical support.  These
       include centers for treatment of toxic as well as
       other waste;

    -  encourages the development of new technology;

    -  provides technical assistance to communities and
       companies;

    -  disseminates information to industry and others
       on their legal obligations and on the opportunities
       for assistance available to them;

    -  promotes campaigns of publicity and education
       aimed at the public at large.

       ANRED has supported the establishment of waste
exchanges.  These are operated on the familiar passive model,
i.e. information on material 'available' and 'wanted* is
published in bulletins by regional groupings of chambers
of commerce.  There are six such groupings at present;
these are shown in Figure 3.13-1.

Contact:  Regional Offices shown in Figure 3.13-1
                       or
          Agence Nationale pour la Recuperation et
           L'elimination des Dechets
          2, Square Lafayette
          49000 - Angers
          France
                  Telephone: (41) 88.98.25

Date:   March  1980
                           3-31

-------
                       Figure 3.13-1


       REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL WASTE EXCHANGES IN FRANCE



t.  BASSE NORMANDIE

    (Calvados, Manche et Orne)

    41, boulevard du Marechal Leclerc - 14000  CAEN
    Monsieur HUBERT - Tel.: (31) - 85 4968

2.  CHAMPAGNE-ARDENNES

    (Ardennes, Aube, Marne, HauCe-Marne et Meuse)

    10, rue de Chastillon - B.P. N 1506 - 51002 CHALONS-SUR-MARNE
    Monsieur RUELLE - Tel.: (26) 68.44.11

3.  ILE-DE-FRANCE

    (Seine, Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines, Essonne, HauCs-de-Seine,
     Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne et Val-d'Oise)

    9, rue Salvador Allende - 92000 NANTERRE
    Monsieur DeMIERRY - Tel.: 776.44.90

4.  PROVENCE-ALPES-COTE D'AZUR

    (Alpes, Alpes-Hautes-Provence, Alpes-Maritimes,
     Bouches-du-Rhone, Var et Vaucluse)

    Association "Environnement-Industrie"
    Palais de la Bourse - 13222  MARSEILLE CEDEX
    Monsieur ALLEMAND - Tel.: (91) 91.91.51

5.  AQUITAINE

    AREDRA - Chatnbre Regionale de Commerce et de 1'Industrie
    "Aquitaine"
    9 Place de la Bourse 33075 BORDEAUX Cedex Tel.: 909128

6  PAYS DE LA LOIRE

    A.R.A,P.O. Palais de la Bourse 18 X
    44040 Nantes Cedex
    Tel.: (40) 48.65.83
                         3-32

-------
3.14  VCI - Abfallborse
      Frankfurt. West Germany


       This exchange was established in January 1973 by
Che Association of Chemical Industries (VCI).  It is directed
specifically to the chemical industry with the goal of
environmental protection and reuse of resources.

       Listings are published in a bulletin sent only to VCI
members about 8 times per year and also in the monthly
magazine Chemical Industry, which has a broad circulation.
Consequently, because of broad non-member circulation, the
exchange can be used by anyone.  Both the aforementioned
publications print listings from the other German DIHT
exchange, the Belgian (F.I.C.B.) Netherland, Nordic, Austrian
(Association of Chemical Industries), Swiss and Italian (ANIC)
Exchanges.

       Confidentiality is maintained by coding the waste
materials.  Inquiries are forwarded to the lister who may
negotiate a transaction with the inquirer.  The listings,
since they are few in number, and are listed but once, are
not categorized.  Quantities, analyses, availability, and
area or region of location are described.  A sample list
for October 1979 is shown in Figure 3.14-1.

       A sample of Chemical Industry listings of European
Waste Exchanges for September 1978 are shown in Figure 3.14-2.

       The VCI exchange does not list waste materials with
established markets such as solvents and plastics.  Potential
listers of these materials are sent lists of brokers or
companies who handle that particular material.  It has been
estimated that one-half the wastes submitted to VCI are
published in the bulletin.  The other half are directed to
established markets.

       The effectiveness of the exchange was evaluated in
1974, by a questionnaire sent to 100 listers.  The questionnaire
yielded 85 answers.  Forty-nine percent of the replies resulted
in no transaction.  Some of the reasons for failure were:

       1.  Excessive impurities - 13 replies
       2.  Weak concentration   -  7 replies
       3.  High transport costs -  7 replies

Twenty-four percent of the replies described successful
exchanges.  Negotiations were in progress for the remaining
replies.  The current estimate of match-ups is 20 percent.
                           3-33

-------
                        Verband
                        der Chemischen Industrie e.V.

                        6 Franklurt am Main
                        KarlstraBe 21
                        Postfach 11 9061
                        Telefon(0611)2556-1
                        Fernschrelber 411 372 vcif d
                        Nur (Or den Internen Qebrauch
                        d*r Mltglledaflrmen
 VERBANDS-
 MITTEILUNGEN
 Verband der Chemischen Industrie e.V
 6/79  (Auszug)
 1.Oktober1979
VCI-Abfallborse

Die VCI-Abfallborse nimmt chemiespezifische Angebots- und Nachfrage-
meldungen aus dem Gebiet der BundesrepubliK Deutschiand zur Ver-
offentlichung entgegen Voraussetzung ist, da(3 es sich um Produktions-
ruckstande handelt, die laufend anfallen
Wenn Sie sicti fur die folgenden Angebote Oder Nachfragen interessieren,
wenden Sie sich bitte jnter Angabe der Chiffre - Ihr Schreiben wird durch
uns an die betreffende Firma weitergeleitet - an
VCI-Abfallborse, KarlstraBe 21. 0-6000 Frankfurt 1
A454) Losemittel-Regenerat, vorwiegend aus Aromaten (Xylol) alipha-
     tischen Kohlenwasserstoffen, Glykolather und genngen Mengen
     an Alkoholen, Estern und Ketonen. wasserfrei
     Menge ca 201
     Raum Ruhrgebiet
A455)  Verbrauchte Kuhlsole (Hoesch Pa 9 rot), pH 12
      Menge 6,41 emmaiig, davon
      41 Sole mil 0,2 g/l NH3 und ca  30 mg/l Cu
      2,41 Sole mil 0,01 g/l NH, und ca 20 mg/l Cu
      Raum Baden-Wurttemberg
A456)  Graphitelektroden-Reste aus Diaphragma-Elektrolyse, lemolim-
      pragmert, chlorhaltig
      Menge ca 20t/Monat
      60 bis 65', am Lager
      Raum Nordrhem-Westfalen
A4>7)  Zinkspane, lamettaartig, |edoch kurzer, mit wasserloslicher Emul-
      sion aul naturhcher Fettbasis genngfugig benetzt (Emulsion kann
      vom Anbieter ggfs entfernt we'den)
      Zmkgehall99,95%
      Menge 4 bis 5 t/Monat
      Raum Koln
A458)  Elemenlarschwefel, feuchl (40 bis  60% Feuchtgehalt), 99%ig
      rein in Irockenem Zustand, mil genngen Mengen Kohlenwasser-
      stotfen
      Menge ca 8 t/Jahr kontmuierlich anfallend
      Raum Frankfurt/Main

Nachfragen
N85)  Altschwefelsaure, Saureharz,  Saureteer pumpfahig, mit organi-
      schen Verunreinigungen
      gesuchte Menge jede, regelmaSig
 Belgische Abfallborse

 Firmen, die sich fur die nachstfihenden Angebote und Nachfragen
 interessieren, werden gebeten, sich unter Angabe der Chiffre zu wenden
 an
 Bourse des Dechets ECOCHEM, Square Mane Louise 49, B-1040 Brussel
 A146  Quecksilberhaltige Ruckstande
      Amalgam aus 17 % Hg und 83 % Zn,
      Menge 251
      Amalgam aus 22% Hg und 78% Metall Oder racht bestimmte
      Metalle,
      Menge 20t
      Kleinbaltenen mil 45% Hg,
      Menqo 40!
Niederlandische Abfallborse

Firmen, die stch fur die nachstehend veroffentlichten Angebote (A) Oder
Nachfragen (V) interessieren, werden gebeten, sich unter Angabe der
Chiffre zu wenden an
Afvalbeurs VNCI, Javastraat 2, 'S-Gravenhage
A356 Gemisch aus Essig-, Propion- und Buttersaure
     Heizwert etwa 4800 kcal/kg, verunreiragt mit 10 ppm CWor und
     Manganoxid
     Menge 120001/Jahr
A357 Antimontnacetat, 80 bis 95 %ig mit 5 bis 20 % Toluol
     Menge 2,6t
Schweizerische Abfallborse

Firmen, die sich fur die nachstehenden Angebote Oder Nachfragen in-
teressieren, werden gebeten, sich unter Angabe dor Chiffre zu wenden an
Borse fur weiterverwertbare Chemie-Ruckstande, Schweizerische Ge-
sellschaft fur Chemische Industrie, Postfach, CH-3035 Zurich
AB192Salpetersaure, rauchend, destilliert, 77 bs 80%ig, 2U bis 23%
     Wasser, verunreinigt durch etwa 0,5 % HMO; und Schwertnetalle
     in Spuren
     Menge 150 t/Monat (rund 1 500 t/Jahr)
DIHT-Abfallborse

Bei Interesse an den nachstehend veroffentlichten chemiebezogenen
Angeboten (A) und Nachfragen (N) aus der Bundesliste der von den
Industrie- und Handelskammern (INK) betriebenen Abfallborsen wenden
Sie sich bitte direkt an die genannte INK unter Angabe der vorangestellten
Chiffre
Die Anschnfl der IHK ergibt sich  durch  Hm;:ufugen der  Angaben
"Abfallborse, darunter "Postfach" und den jeweiligen Ort mit Postteitzahl

DIHT-Bundesllste
Abfallborse Nr. 6/79
IHK zu Dortmund
DO-A-154-1  Gebrauchte Salzsaure, Fe-haltig
           Menge 60-80 t/Monat in Teilpartiun zu 201
Niederrhemiscrie IHK zu Dwsburg
DU-A-331 -10 Phosphatgips (Anhydnt)
           Menge |ede
IHK Essen
E-N-008-04  staubformige Zuschlagstoffe, nicht toxisch
           Gesuchte Menge 3-5t
E-N-041-01   Phenolhaltiger Rohstoff, flussig, mit wenig Neutralolop
           weitgehend in walingem Alkali loslich
           Gesuchte Menge 20-100 t/Jahr

OIHT-Bundesliste
Abfallborse Nr. 6/79
IHK Essen
E-A-10/123
IHK zu Koln
K-A-278-1
Kobalt-Molybdan-Katalysatoren
Menge 30t

Beta-Alanm-isobutylester-HC1100 %
gelost in 50%iger Chlorbenzollosung
Menge 9620kg
                                            Figure
                                            3-34

-------
       EUROPEAN WASTE EXCHANGE OFFERINGS AND REQUESTS
                 (does not include the U.K.)
              From Chem. Ind. XXX/September 1978


GERMANY

Angebote - Offers

A 419 Fllterpapierabfalle, impragniert mit ca. 18% nicht
gehartetem Phenolharz
Menge:  ca. 5 t/Monat
Liererform: Pressballen zu 100 - 110 kg.
Raum:  Nordhessen
A 421 Diphenyl-Diphenylenoxid, fest, verunreinigt mit
u.a. 67. Phenol.
Menge:  20 t/Monat
Raum:  Krefeld
A 422  Ameisensa"ure, regeneriert, ca. 807, ig mit ca. 57, Wasser,
127. "Athylformiat und 37, organischen Verunreinigungen
Menge: 30-40 t/Monat
Raum:  Siidwest-Deutschland
A 423 Kaliabfallsalz (187, K) als stichfester Schlamm mit 507.
Wasser, verunreinigt mit 50% POA, 1% organ,S, 0,3% organ,
N, 0,67. Nad (Wiederholung von A 395)
Menge:  200 t/Monat, in 5 t Absetzcontainer
Raum:  Koln
A 424  Spaltofenabbrand (74% Fe203), verunreinigt mit H20,
MgS04, TiOoi S, CaO, A^Oo, SlO? (Wiederholung von A 396)
Menge: 9,000 t/Monat
Raum: Krefeld

Nachfrage - Requests

N 80  Phosphorsaure mit geringen Anteilen Schwefeibzw. Salzsaure,
auch mit geringen Anteilen Metallionen fur regelmassige
Abnahme gesucht.
N 81  Ammoniakwasser als wasserige Losung mit mind. 257e NHo-
Gehalt, ggf. als Entsorgungsprodukt in verunreinigtem Zustand.
Menge: ca. 800 t/Jahr.

BELGIUM

A 132  Alt-Schwefelsaure, ohne organ. Verunreinigungen, mit mind
20% H2S04, mind. 35% Ammoniumbisulfat und 45% Wasser
Menge:  et wa 1 600 t/Monat
A 133  Aufarbeitungsfirma gesucht fiir Filterkuchen mit 20-30%
Benzoesaure in wassriger Losung
A-134  Firma sucht fur eine Dauer von 6-8 Monaten:
1. Natronlauge mit etwa 35 g NaOH/1 und 100 g/1 Natriumaluminat
   Menge: etwa 50 cbra/Woche

                        Figure 3.14-2

                            3-35

-------
BELGIUM  continued

2. Schwefelsaure mit etwa 200 g H2S04/1 und 500 g/1 Aluminiumsulfat
   Menge: etwa 25 cbm/Woche

HOLLAND

A 292  Nickelformiat in Jutesacken.  Menge: 2,000 kg.
A 292  Wolfram-Nickel mit ca. 40% W03 und 20% NiO i. TrS.,  feucht
Menge: ca. 1,000 kg.
A 293  Raney-Nickel, einmal gebraucht und mit organ. Material
verunreinigt, in Fassern unter Wasser.  Menge: ca. 70 kg.
A 297  Altschwefelsaure mit 20% ^04, 357. Ammoniumbisulfat und
45% Wasser Menge: ca. 1,600 t/Monat
A-298  ULtramartnblau    Menge: 1 160 kg.
A 300  Natriumdichlorisocyanurat, Pulver  Menge: 1,000  kg.
A 304  Aceton (90%)/Athanol (10%)- Gemisch  Menge: 17 000 kg.
       Xylol (75%)/Isoamylalkohol (25%)-Gemisch  Menge:  23  000 kg.

NORDIC

R/186-N Rohschwefel, 99,5% rein, gesichtet 16 mesh Norwegen
Menge: 45 kg.
R/187-N Phosphorpentasulfid, dest.  Menge: 30 kg.
R/189-N "Athylcyanacetat, rein. Norwegen, Menge: 400 kg.

AUSTRIA
Angebote
Carboraffin (Entfarbungskohie)  Menge: 3 300 kg, einmalig
Benzoesaure, 80- bis 90%ig  Menge: 120 t/Jahr
Altwachs in Fassern  Menge: 30 t, einmalig

SWITZERLAND
Angebote
AB 145 m/p-Cymol, etwa 95%ig  Menge: ca. 10 t (in 200-1-Drums)
i^^^^^f^f T j	 _*-i__ 	  -_,  C\Qoi  	  w__ _^ .  /. C A. / .1 _  C /\ 1- ^ vn !**,,  . \
A;
AB 146 Hippursaure, ca. 98%ig  Menge: 45  t  (in  50-kg-Fa'ssern)
i^^^^^^ ^f^i j  P**^_	 A	.   _ -^  r\f\oi A _ \ f ^.~- _^^.  .^^   T^ A_  f .1   ^ c / c rt i	\
L-Tyrosin, ca. 99%ig Menge: ca. 12 t (in 25/50 kg)
AB 150 Tetramethylathylammoniumchlorid  55%  ig, mit  44% Wasser
und maz. 0,1% Monochlorbenzol als organ.  Verunreinigung sowie
je maz. 0,1% Brom, Schwefel, Phosphor  in  gebundener  Form als
anorgan. Verunreinigung, flilssig.  Menge:  ca  30 t/Woche t.q.
AB l5l Trimethyrathylammoniumbromid  81%ig (Gehalt  an gebund.
Brom 42%), mit ca. 7% Wasser, ca. 97. Trimethylathylammoniumsulfat
und ca. 3% Natriumsulfat, fest, Schmelzpunkt  ca. 65-70C
Heizwert: ca. 16 000 kJ/kg
Menge: 30-40 t/Woche (eingeschmolzen)
AB 152 ISAF-Russ 97%ig mit unter 1,5%  Wasser, unter  0,5% anorgan.
Verunreinigungen und unter 0,027. Schwermetallen, spez.
Oberflache nach Areameter 114 qm/g,  DBF-Absorption 113  mi/100 g.
Menge: ca. 8 t einmalig, in 25-kg-Papiersacken.


                    Figure 3.14-2 Cont'd.

                           3-36

-------
       Nearly all Che listings originate in Germany, with
some from neighboring countries.  Transportation costs
limit exchanges to a 200 mile radius and to where trans-
shipment from truck to rail is unnecessary.

       The activity of the exchange has declined since the
transactions occur through avenues that the exchange has
established.  It is felt that the exchange has fulfilled
its original function of acting as an information
clearinghouse.  Opportunities for recycling and other
problems related to wastes are becoming a new add-on
function of the exchange service.

Contact:  Mrs. Use Mueller
          VCI Abfallborse
          Karlstrasse 21
          0-6000
          Frankfort, Germany
                   Telephone: (0611) 2556-1

Date:     October 1979
3.15  DIHT - Waste Exchange
      Bonn. West Germany
       This network of Chamber of Commerce-operated exchanges
was established in 1974.  The DIHT is Deutscher Industrie-
und Handelstag, similar to a National Chamber of Commerce,
which serves as the coordinating organization for the
regional or local Chamber of Commerce waste exchanges
(Industrie und Handels Kammern, IHK).  Funds for the
exchanges are supplied from the chamber's operating
budgets which come from membership fees.  All German
registered companies must become members of their local
IHK or chamber of commerce.

       Waste material listings are sent to the local IHK,
which assigns a code number or "chiffre" to the material.
The bulletins which include all the local listings  are
published by the national DIHT on a monthly basis.  There
is no charge for use of the exchange.

       A July 1978 article published in "Chemische Industrie"
by the German Chamber of Commerce (DIHT) states that 13,600
listings have been published since 1974.  Of these, 10,800
were for waste materials available and 2,800 were for
materials wanted.  Inquiries for these listings totalled
22,000, and more than 30 percent of the listings were
successfully matched, as determined by a survey.
                           3-37

-------
Contact:  Frau Dr. F. Haenert
          Deutscher Industrie - und Handelstag
          53 Bonn 1
          Postfach 1446
          Adenauvallee 148
          West Germany
               Telephone: 02221-104

Date:     October  1979
3.16  VNCI Waste Exchange
      The Hague, Netherlands
       The VNCI or "Afvalbeurs" Waste Exchange was started
in April 1972 by the Association of Netherlands Chemical
Industries.  It is a passive exchange which does not
participate in the negotiations for waste material
transactions.

       Listings are published by code every month in the
VNCI chemical trade journal, "Nederlandse Chemisette
Industrie",, with weekly letters sent to interested
companies.  Listings are also published in the German
VCI bulletins.

       The listings are mostly from the Netherlands,
but many inquiries come from German firms in the Ruhr
area or within a 100 to 150 mile radius.

       Match-ups are not followed or recorded, but it
had been estimated that 30 to 35 percent of the listings
were successfully transferred.


Contact:  Mr. Beukers (Mr. Verhoef)
          Afvalbeurs VNCI
          Javastraat 2
           9s Gravenhage (The Hague)
          Netherland

              Telephone: (070)46'94-22


Date:     October  1979
                          3-38

-------
3.17  Belgian Waste Exchange (FICB).
      Brussells. Belgium


       This exchange was established in November 1972
and is operated by the Federation of Belgian Chemical
Industries (Federation des Industries Chimique de Belgique,
FICB).  One function of FICB is industrial environmental
protection, and the waste exchange was initiated to help
this effort.

       Listings of waste materials are published in the
Federation journal, "Chemie Flash", issued three times
per week.  This is a clearinghouse publication emphasizing
instant, next-day notification.  The German magazine
"Chemische Industrie" also publishes the Belgian listings
along with those of other Continental European Exchanges.

       The listings are shown either as materials wanted
or materials available.  The listings are coded to
maintain confidentiality.

       The journal is circulated to about 800 member firms
plus 200 non-members, at no charge.  A $25 listing fee
is made to non-members.  The journal has about 100 listings;
90 available and 10 wanted.  The number of match-ups has
been estimated at 10 percent.

       The exchange is operated by one person less than
half-time.  The exchange is a relatively small part of
the Federation's activities and is not being promoted
actively.  When the new government-supported exchange
was established in the autumn of 1978, FICB considered
stopping its exchange.  However, since they provide
virtually instant publication (three times weekly,
versus every two months) they decided to continue the
exchange program.


Contact:  Mme Cordier (Mile. Stouvenakers)
          Federation des Industries
          Chimique de Belgique
          Bourse des Dechets
          ECOCHEM
          49 Square Marie-Louise
          B 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium
                    Telephone: 02-230-4090

Date:     October  1979
                           3-39

-------
3.18  Belgian Waste Exchange (OBEA)
      Brussels, Belgium


       This is a second, newer than FICB exchange in
Belgium, which was started in the autumn of 19715 by the
Belgian Ministries of Economics and Agriculture (Office
Beige de L1Economic et de L1Agriculture, O.B.E.A.).  The
exchange service is being operated for a two-year
experimental period.

       The exchange service is operated as a clearinghouse
in a passive or administrative manner.  The clearinghouse
publication is issued every two months and is called
"Bulletin d1Information".  It is printed on recycled
paper and the second issue has nearly 60 pages.  The
bulletins and listings are free, with operating expenses
coming from the Scientific Programs budget of the
Ministry of Economic Affairs.  After an initial mailing
to 10,000 firms, the bulletin has about a 1,000
distribution.

       The exchange service is active in Belgium and
Luxembourg with plans to include listings from southern
Netherlands.  All wastes from all industries are accepted.
The bulletin is divided into two sections.  The first is
for materials available or offered (1), and the second for
materials wanted (2).  The waste materials are classified
in 8 categories as follows:

       1.  Agriculture and Food
       2.  Leather, Fur and Textile
       3.  Wood and related
       4.  Paper and Cartons
       5.  Chemical and Plastic Products
       6.  Glass - Construction materials
                 - Earth and Stone
       7.  Metals and Steel
       8.  Rubber and related - miscellaneous

       The first bulletin had 490 listings for materials
available and  70 for materials wanted.  Three hundred
inquiries followed the first bulletin with 60 known
match-ups, or  about 10 percent of the listings; the
second bulletin had 598 materials available and 109
materials wanted.  Thirty-six of the most recent match-ups
were in  the following categories:
                            3-40

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       6  match-ups in Leather, Fur and Textiles
       9  match-ups in Wood and related
      13  match-ups in Paper and Cartons
       5  match-ups in Chemicals and Plastics
       1  match-up  in Metal and Steel
       2  match-ups in Rubber and miscellaneous

       Operation of the exchange is by 3 full-time people with
managerial and clerical skills plus some broad technical
skills.  Data on listings is kept on card files.  Cards
are coded and filed for confidentiality by 5 groupings.
For example, a card with the code:


      1.         4.         79.       135.          H.
      I
 wanted (2)
  I
year
 available (1)
                                    chronological
              category of             order
              waste (1 to 8)                     Provincial
                                                 listing
                                                 location
       Confidentiality is preserved by coding each listing
as in the above, plus accepting only written inquiries.
After a written inquiry is received, the exchange telephones
the lister for its permission to divulge its name to the
inquirer.  The two parties can then contact each other
and arrange a match-up.  The exchange acts as an inter-
mediary and does not handle any waste or intervene in
the transactions.
Contact:  Mr. E. Mouteau
          Conseille Adjoint (Director)
          Belgian Waste Exchange O.B.E.A.
          Rue de Treves 82
          1040 Bruxelles
          Belgium
              Telephone: 02/230.17.40

Date:     October  1979
                           3-41

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4.0  UNITED STATES WASTE EXCHANGES

4.1  Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange
     St. Louis, Missouri


       The Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange was originally
organized in 1975 as the St. Louis Industrial Waste Exchange.
At that time, it was sponsored and funded by the St. Louis
Regional Commerce of Growth Association (RCGA) with the
St. Louis metropolitan region as the prime service area.
In January of 1979, an agreement was reached with the
Chamber of Commerce of Greater Kansas City (CCGKC) for
co-sponsoring the Exchange by both organizations under
a new name,  the Midwest Industrial Exchange, to reflect
its broader base.

       The Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange is being
upgraded and expanded with assistance from the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.E.P.A.) and the
East-West Gateway Coordinating Council.  The U.S.E.P.A.
subsidy will enable inclusion in the catalog of a news
section with information relating to the waste exchange
method of dealing with problem wastes as well as current
environmental news and meetings.  RCGA will continue to
operate the exchange.

       The objective of the exchange is to assist industry
in toxic and hazardous waste management, reduce waste and
reduce pollution of the environment.  It acts as a clearing-
house for waste materials and as a source of information.

       The Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange issues a
"Clearinghouse Catalog and News" quarterly.  The August
1979 issue contained 35 listings:  twenty-seven items
available and 8 items wanted.  All waste materials from
all industries from any geographical area are accepted for
listing.  A fee of $10 is charged for each listing, but
the catalog is circulated at no charge.  The circulation
is 1,600 and will be increased to more than 3,000.

       The exchange service, its promotional and advisory
efforts, is staffed by a full-time director and secretary,
plus assistance from other staff members when necessary.
The Director's skills are extensive with other staff members
having moderate skills

       Data are kept in file folders.

       The Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange, in addition
to being the first of its kind in the United States, is


                           4-1

-------
probably the first Co initiate a non-confidential alternative
method of listing*  Under the confidential method, the
lister submits a "Confidential Listing Form" to the
exchange.  The waste listing is coded to protect the
lister's identity.  If a company is interested in a
particular listing, the exchange forwards the inquiry
to the lister, who then decides if he wishes to proceed.

       Under the non-confidential method, a "Non-Confidential
Listing Form" is used, and the waste is coded for Che catalog,
In addition to sending inquiries to the lister for his
subsequent action, the lister's name is also given directly
to the inquirer by the Exchange.  Either party may then
initiate contact with the other.  This unique approach
stimulates and hastens contact and discussion for waste
transfer.

       Another innovation being considered is a monthly
supplement to the catalog that will contain new listings
so that it may be kept updated and speed up waste transfers.

       The Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange considers
waste match-ups a major criterion of success for a waste
exchange.  From 10 to 15 percent match-ups are considered
good.  Other criteria for success of an exchange are to
identify, isolate and recover resource materials; and to
gain acceptance and use by industry; and to overcome the
normal reluctance of industry to publicize waste materials,
due to a fear of revealing production and trade secrets.

Contact:  Mr. Oscar S. Richards
          Director
          Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange
          10 Broadway
          St. Louis, Missouri 63102
          (314) 231-5555

Date:     March, 1980


4.2  Iowa Industrial Waste Information Exchange
     Ames Iowa
       The Iowa Industrial Waste Information Exchange was
established in 1976 by the Center for Industrial Research
and Service (CIRAS).  CIRAS is an extension service to
Iowa industry conducted by Iowa State University.  Hence,
indirectly, the exchange service is non-profit and funded
by the State.
                            4-2

-------
       CIRAS, in operation since 1964, has handled many
projects relating to possible uses for wastes and has worked
with individual firms to search out economical methods for
their use or disposal.  These projects are handled on a
one-to-one basis, and many satisfactory solutions have
been achieved.  When the number of problems increased, the
Iowa Industrial Waste Information Exchange was established
by CIRAS to provide an orderly approach for handling the
greater variety and volume of requests for advice on waste
management.

       Listings in the available section are accepted only
from Iowa firms.  Listings for materials wanted are accepted
from out-of-state.

       A list of nationwide recyclers, disposal facilities,
and services is also maintained for distribution.

       A conventional coding system is used to preserve
confidentiality*  A sample page from the May-June 1977
Bulletin is shown in Figure 4.2-1.  The bulletin is issued
quarterly, with no charges for listings or the bulletin.

       After one year of operation, about 175 materials have
been listed from 140 companies.  More than 500 inquiries for
these listings were processed, which resulted in about 50
successful match-ups or 28 percent of the total listings.

       The Iowa Industrial Waste Information Exchange, after
initial high volumes of activity, now finds the activity has
slowed down to a point where waste inquiries are handled and
solved for the most part on a one-to-one basis.  The need
for publishing and mailing listings has, therefore,
diminished.  The exchange "appears to have run its course."

       Several factors have been proposed as apparent
contributions to the exchange's "die-out."  One reason is
the relatively small numbers of industries in Iowa.  These
approximate 3,500 or 1.6 percent of the national total.  The
small number of industries, coupled with acceptance of
materials available only from within the state, diminished
the need for an exchange after a period of time.  Supplying
a list of recyclers, disposal facilities and services to
inquirers for self help in waste disposal problems has also
reduced the need of an active waste information exchange.
Successful match-ups of waste materials generated on a
continuing basis also reduces the need for listing on an
exchange.  Examples of this are the early listings of used
pallets, wood wastes and steel drums, which now find ready
disposal through avenues established by the information
exchange.


                           4-3

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     LIST #5 IOWA INDUSTRIAL WASTE INFORMATION EXCHANGE
                      (Sample Listings)


Available Materials

Wood Products:
A-75.0 - Sawdust, chips, waste; hard and soft woods,
         20 truck loads/month, loose, E. Iowa.
A-69.0 - 40 x 48 wood pallets, 30-50/month, C. Iowa.

Paper Products:
A-74.0 - Obsolete multi-wall paper bags - 100 Ib. size,
         one lot 40,000 bundles, S.E. Iowa.
A-73.0 - Heavy cardboard boxes on wood pallets -
         hold 1,000 Ib., 200/month, E.G., Iowa.

Metals:
A-77.0 - Assorted tool steel, rod and tubing, varying
         quantities, N.W. Iowa.
A-70.0 - 55 gal. steel drums, up to 100/month, C. Iowa.

Plastics:
A-78.0 - Expanded polystyrene foam, 1.25-1.75 Ib/cu. ft.
         density, 300 Ib/wk. 15,000 Ib. on hand, loose,
         S.E. Iowa.
A-76.0 - Ground expanded polystyrene, 600-4 cu. ft.
         bags/month, 1500 bags on hand, C. Iowa.

Miscellaneous:
A-71.0 - Aircraft polish, one lot, pint cans, cts. of 24,
         E. Iowa.
A-68.0 - Scrap polyester cloth, 300 Ib/day, loose,
         E.G. Iowa.

Materials Wanted

W-15.0-  All waste wood items, truck. W.C. Iowa.
W-14.0 - Aluminum shavings or chips, 1000 Ib lots, E.G. Iowa,
W-12.0 - Sludges, residues containing metallic ions,
         unlimited, Ohio.
W-10.0 - Food or feed by-product for cattle feeding, truck
         loads, E.G. Iowa.
                        Figure 4.2-1


                             4-4

-------
       Data is kept in file folders with a cross-indexed
card system.  It is staffed by two people, the director
and one secretary, for about one-quarter time each.  In
addition, the exchange uses the services of 6 part-time
field representatives who make about 6,000 to 7,000 calls
per year to encourage CIRAS activity.  Skills are extensive,
All types of wastes are accepted for listing.

Contact:  Mr. Edward 0. Sealine or Mr. Wilson, A. Kluckman
          Industrial Specialist
          Center for Industrial Research & Service
          201 Building E
          Iowa State University
          Ames, Iowa 50011
          (515) 294-3420

Date:     March  1980
4.3  American Chemical Exchange
     Skokie. Illinois


       The American Chemical Exchange (ACE) was established in
January 1976 as an Illinois corporation.  ACE uses a com-
puterized matching service allowing the buying and selling
of surplus inventories of chemicals.  It deals in about 105
chemicals, primarily virgin materials, but also in a few
specific waste materials that satisfy certain evaluations
and specifications.  Waste materials make up from 5 to 8         -
percent of total items traded, and these are increasing at       |
a slow rate each year.  A list of goods traded is shown in
Figure 4.3-1.  These may be hazardous or non-hazardous.

       ACE is a for-profit materials exchange acting as a
broker between buyer and seller.  It charges $250 to become
a member of the exchange, and a commission of 5 percent for
virgin products, with a variable percentage for waste materials.

       When a match between a seller and buyer has been arranged,
ACE handles the transfer of funds through an escrow account and
arranges for the transportation.  The identity of both parties
is kept confidential, although ACE finds that anonymity is not
all that important for its operations.

       ACE handles about 100 deals per year as match-ups, with
a volume of roughly 150 million pounds.

       Computer data are not coded since they are not dissem-
inated.  The service is staffed by 4 people full-time, with
extensive experience in chemistry and business.
                           4-5

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                        CHEMICAL
                   LIST OF GOODS TRADED  (REVISED)
Acetic Acid
Acetone
Adipic Acid
Ammonia,  Anhydrous
Benzene
Benzole Acid
Bisphenol A
Borax, Anhydrous
Calcium Chloride
Caustic Potash
Caustic Soda
Chlorine
Chromic Acid
Citric Acid
Cumene
Diammonium Phosphate
Diethanolamine
Diethylene Glycol
Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether
Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether
Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether
Dipropylene Glycol
Ethylenediamine
Ethylene Dichloride
Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether
Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether
Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether
Ethylene Oxide
Formaldehyde
Formic Acid
Fumaric Acid
Furfural
Furfuryl Alcohol
Glycerine
Hexylene Glycol
Hydrazine
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrofluoric Acid
Hydrogen Peroxide
Isopropyl Alcohol
Maleic Anhydride, and Molten
Methanol
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone
Methyl Methacrylate
Methylene Chloride
Monoethanolamine
Morpholine
Naphthalene,
Normal Butanol
Oxalic Acid
Pentaerythritol
Perchloroethylene
Phenol
Phosphoric Acid
Phthalic Anhydride, and Molten
Potassium Carbonate
Potassium Nitrate
Propylene Glycol
Propylene Oxide
PVC Resin
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium Sulfate
Sodium Tripoly Phosphate
Styrene
Sulfuric Acid
Tetraethylene Glycol
Tetrahydrofuran
Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate
Titanium Dioxide
Toluene
Trichloroethane
Trichloroethylene
Triethanolamine
Triethylene Glycol
Urea
Xylene
Note:   This  list of goods to be traded will be subject  to change  from
       time  to time.  It will be amended according to the desires  of
       the Exchange members.
                             Figure 4.3-1
                           4-6

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Contact:  Mr. Tom Hurvis, Chairman
          American Chemical Exchange
          4849 Golf Road
          Skokie, Illinois
          (312) 677-2800

Date:     March  1980


4.4  EnKarn Research Corporation
     Albany. New York


       EnKarn Research Corporation is a private, for-profit
New York State corporation organized in March 1977.  Its
objectives are to act as ^consultants to those with surplus
inventories and waste materials.EnKarn also assists
manufacturers to recycle by-products, industrial excess,
and waste materials.

       The objectives are accomplished in two ways: through
personal involvement on the sellers' behalf and through a
publication called "Industrial Materials Bulletin."  Listings
in, and circulation of the Bulletin are free.  A commission      /-/
of 10 percent of the purchase price is charged for match-ups
resulting from the listing in the Bulletin or from EnKarn's
active soliciting and marketing efforts.

       The Bulletin listings are kept confidential by a code
number.  The code number contains the letter A or W representing
materials for sale or wanted followed by numbers as listed in
sequence in the Bulletin; these are then followed by a roman
numeral representing the Bulletin issue number.  A sample page
from the January 1980 Bulletin is shown in Figure 4.4-1.

       Categories of Materials for Sale that are followed in
the Bulletin are:  Paper Products;  Films, Foils & Laminates;
Miscellaneous & Equipment.  A new Bulletin section has been
added, devoted to materials available on a continuing basis.

       The Bulletin has a circulation of 1,000.  Listings are
taken without any limitations.  These numbered 50 listings
for sale and 13 materials wanted in the January 1980 Bulletin.
Many responses are received following each Bulletin.
Bulletins are issued monthly, with an average of 80 listings
in each.

       EnKarn is staffed by its two principals on a full-time
basis.  The two principals on the staff have extensive waste
exchange operational experience.
                            4-7

-------
EHKARH
                  P.O.BOX  590    ALBANY. NEW YORK 12201    Phon (516) 43*-
-------
       Listing data is stored on code sheets in preparation
for computerizing the system.

       EnKarn envisions expanded services by establishing
field offices in several geographical locations and by
issuing specialized bulletins to selective manufacturers.
EnKarn also publishes "Railroad" and "Textile" bulletins
which are circulated monthly.

Contact:  Mr. J. T. Engster
          EnKarn Research Corporation
          P.O. Box 590
          Albany, New York 12201
          (518) 436-9684

Date:     March  1980
4.5  Environmental Clearinghouse Organization (ECHO)
     Hazel Crest. Illinois
       The Environmental Clearinghouse Organization, Inc.
(ECHO) is a Commercial Associate member of the World
Association for Solid Waste Transfer and Exchange - WASTE,
and hence, offers the same basic services as described in
Section 4.12.

       ECHO provides its clients with waste surveys and waste
management programs.  It is a privately-operated, for-profit
organization.

Contact:  Mr. William Petrich
          Environmental Clearinghouse Organization Inc.
          3426 Maple Lane
          Hazel Crest, Illinois 60429
          (312)
Date:     March  1980


4.6  Georgia Waste Exchange
     Atlanta, Georgia
       The Georgia Waste Exchange was established and
operated in 1976 by the Environmental Protection Division's
Resource Recovery Unit, in Georgia's Department of Natural
Resources.  In early 1977, the exchange program was taken
over and operated as a service of the Georgia Business and
                            4-9

-------
Industry Association, (GBIA).  The GBIA, a private non-profit
organization, was asked to administer the program because
it was felt that... "the industrial community will participate
more fully....when it is being operated by a private enter-
prise organization rather than a regulatory agency of the
State government."

       "The Exchange collects and publishes information
concerning available and desired waste products of industrial
processes and attempts to link up potential trading partners
for these wastes."  The Exchange encourages productive use
of waste material with a re-use value which may alleviate
certain material shortages, thereby reducing waste manage-
ment and disposal problems and costs.
       The Exchange charges $25 per item listed as either
"wanted" or "available" which includes a quarterly listing
of each entry for a year, plus a subscription to the
publication.  A $25 subscription fee is charged to non-listers,
who are not Association members, for one year's publications
or $10 for each quarter's listing publication.

       "Wastes Available" listings are accepted only from
within Georgia; "Wastes Wanted" listings are accepted from
within and outside the State.  This policy is apparently not
adhered to strictly.

       Confidentiality is maintained by a coding system, which
lists materials available as GIA or wanted as GIW followed
by sequential numbers.

       The publications have a circulation of about 1,,100.
The July 19/9 report contained 32 items listed as available,
with 14 items wanted.  There are no restrictions on waste
materials accepted for listing.  Approximately 3 new listings
are received each month, with about one inquiry for each listing<

       The Exchange is operated by a Director and a secretary
for about one hour per week each.  Data on listings and
inquiries are kept in loose-leaf binders.

Contact:  Mr. Bert Fridlin, Director
          Georgia Waste Exchange
          Georgia Business & Industry Association
          181 Washington St. S.W.
          Atlanta, Georgia 30303
          (404) 659-4444

Date:     March  1980
                            4-10

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4.7  Information Center for Waste Exchange
     Seattle. Washington


       The Information Center for Waste Exchange (ICWE) was
started in early 1977.  It is sponsored by the Western
Environmental Trade Association of Washington, (WETA-
Washington) which is a private non-profit labor/business
association.

       The exchange service is offered free to WETA members,
serves all industries except nuclear, and accepts all
materials.  It serves the State of Washington area primarily
with some activity in Oregon, Idaho and western Canada.  The
exchange plans eventually to link with other exchanges.

       ICWE operates as a passive clearinghouse for the
transfer of information about waste materials.  The program
is administered by one part-time, non-technical person for
about 4 hours per week.

       It has about 100 listings which it circulates to its 90
subscribers.  There are an average of 2 inquiries for each
waste material listed.  Listings are coded and a covenant of
confidentiality is maintained for the listers' anonymity.
The coding system uses the letter S or 0 for seeker or
offerer, followed by three digits which provide a sequential
identification of the waste material.

       Most of the wastes listed may be considered non-hazardous
with a few (about 20 percent) that are potentially hazardous.

       ICWE considers its role as effective and successful
with expansion of its operations being planned.  Approximately
50 percent of its listings are matched-up.

Contact:  Ms. Judy Henry
          Executive Assistant
          Information Center for Waste Exchange
          2112 Third Ave., Suite 303
          Seattle, Washington
          (206) 623-5235

Date:     March 1980


4.8  Minnesota Association of Commerce and Industry,
     flaste Exchange Service and Technotec of
     Control Data Corporation
     Saint Paul. Minnesota
                            4-11

-------
       The Minnesota Association of Commerce and Industry
(MAGI) operates the Waste Exchange Service in cooperation
with Technotec, which is a technology exchange service of
Control Data Corporation.  The exchange service was started
in 1977.  MACI is a State Chamber of Commerce type of
non-profit organization, with about 2,800 members from
commerce and industry.

       The exchange is designed for the reuse of waste
products, to help industry find alternatives to disposal,
thereby reducing wastes for disposal.

       Firms wishing to obtain or dispose reusable wastes
submit a generic listing of the material available or
sought.  A computerized match is made between users and
producers, who are notified of each other's interests.
Actual transfer, sale or purchase of materials is negotiated
between users and producers.

       The exchange is operated as a non-profit service to
MACI members and non-members.  Cost of listing a material
needed or available into the computer data base is $30 for
three months or $60 per year.  After subscribers and users
locate each other, they are free to deal directly for the
exchange of material.  The company does not charge brokerage
fees, royalties or commissions.  MACI pays Control Data
Corporation for actual computer time used to place Information
in the system and to make searches for matches.

       Availability of certain wastes are mentioned period-
ically in a newsletter.  Judging from the inquiries,, this
type of periodic advertising is beneficial for the overall
program.

       The data base currently contains about 45 listings.
All types of hazardous and non-hazardous materials without
geographical limitations are accepted for listing.  Materials
are listed in the computer by generic name.

       The exchange is staffed by one person on a part-time
basis for approximately one day per week.

Contact:  Mr. James T. Shields
          Vice President for
             Energy and Environmental Affairs
          Minnesota Assoc. for Commerce & Industry
          200 Hanover Building
          480 Cedar St.
          St. Paul, Minnesota 55101
          (612) 227-9591

Date:     March  1980


                            4-12

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4.9  The Exchange
     Bos ton  Massachusetts


       The Exchange was started in mid 1975 and is an inde-
pendent, for-profit company.  It acts as a consultant to
manufacturers and others with hazardous and~~non -hazardous
wastes, secondary materials, and surplus inventories.  It
actively brokers materials, for companies who are in the
business of recycling and disposing of by-products and
hazardous materials.

       Regular publications or bulletins are not published,
but special catalogs and brochures are created for clients
that help define the best markets, and the catalogs are
distributed to the appropriate markets.  Direct follow-up
telephone sales contacts are used .to close the most
economically advantageous transactions.

       The Exchange moves such things as excess textile
equipment, excess metal inventories, unused electrical
hardware and electronic components, and hazardous chemicals,
on a worldwide basis.

       The Exchange works on a commission basis and charges
consulting fees to cover expenses for a client project.  Since
it never owns the inventories in question and cannot control
internal shifts of policy by its clients, the Exchange does
not broker/sell totally on a commission basis.

       The Exchange maintains professional contacts throughout
the industry and keeps itself abreast of changing regulatory
patterns.  Client situations are kept entirely confidential
when appropriate.

Contact:  Mr. Howe 11 Hurst, President
          The Exchange
          63 Rutland Street
          Boston, Massachusetts 02118
          (617) 266-8498

Date:     March 1980
4.10  Oregon Industrial Waste Information Exchange
      Portland, Oregon
       The Oregon Industrial Waste Information Exchange
(EXCHANGE) is an information clearinghouse which identifies
and locates industrial waste materials with a reuse value.
                            4-13

-------
The service is for Oregon business and industry, with the
purpose of achieving economic and environmental savings
through the diversion of waste materials from disposal
to secondary use.

       The EXCHANGE was initiated in April 1978 and operated
by Resource Conservation Consultants with a funding grant
($11,600) from the Oregon Department of Energy for one year.
This was followed by 6 months interim funding ($4,500) from
the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ).  In October
1979, the Western Environmental Trade Association (WETA)
assumed responsibility for the funding and operation of the
EXCHANGE.  WETA publishes the bi-monthly bulletin, processes
listing forms, refers requests and publicizes the EXCHANGE
to the media.

       Listing Bulletins are published every other month and
list two types of items: Material Available (A) and Material
Wanted (W).  Each listing is identified by a code number,
and includes a description of the item, its quantity,,
packaging and location.  The March 1980 Bulletin listed 128
waste items: 92 Available and 36 Wanted.

       Waste materials are classified in 12 categories as
shown in Figure 4.10-1.  Sample pages from the March 1980
Bulletin are shown in Figure 4.10-2.

       The Bulletin has a circulation of over 1,100.  The
EXCHANGE services are totally free; all wastes are accepted
for listing from any geographical area.  Approximately
27 percent of the wastes listed may be considered hazardous.

       The EXCHANGE also provides additional waste transfer
service through extended DEQ funding.  This service provides
active assistance for waste transfer and coordination of a
regional exchange network.  Since a WETA association in
Washington also sponsors an exchange program, coordination
of listing, distribution and coding systems is planned.
Publication of listings from the British Columbia area of
the Canadian Waste Materials Exchange is also being seriously
considered.  The role of waste exchanges in hazardous waste
management is also being surveyed.

       The EXCHANGE has put considerable emphasis and, effort
into determining successful waste transfers, or match-ups,
as a means of judging the degree of success and as a measure
for improving a waste transfer program.  After the first
year's operation, some 23 waste materials had been successfully
transferred out of approximately 100 listings.  These are
listed and described in Table  4.10-3 and expressed in terms


                           4-14

-------
                                    LISTING FORM

 OREGON INDUSTRIAL WASTE INFORMATION EXCHANGE
 Western Environmental Trade Association
 Suite 618 -- 333 SW Fifth Ave.
 Portland, OR  97204        (503) 221-0357
 CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION
                       EXCHANGE Use Only

                       CODE//	

                       DATE:
 Company Name:

 Mailing Address:
 Company Contact:	

 Telephone Number:	
 PUBLISHABLE  INFORMATION

 Check one:   This is a listing for
material available.
material wanted.
                  The following item should be listed in the next bulletin of the Oregon
                  Industrial Waste Information Exchange.
CATEGORY*
MATERIAL      (Describe accurately as to specifications, sizes, quality, color, shape
                 and form, keeping in mind what the reader of your listing will want to
                 know.)
QUANTITY      (Indicate amount per period of time,  i.e. gals/wk, Ibs/month, etc. and
                 describe whether the material is offered/requested on a one-time, regular
                 or irregular basis.)
PACKAGING     (Barrels, Loose, Bales, etc.;
LOCATION      (Give general area of state where material is available/wanted.)
                                    (see reverse)
CATEGORIES:
        1.  Acids, Alkalis
        2.  Organic Chemicals & Solvents
        3.  Metals & Metal-containing Sludges
        4.  Minerals (incl. glass, sand)
        5.  OPs & Waxes
        6.  Food
           7. Paper & Wood
           B. Plastics A Rubber
           9. Catalysts
         10. Textiles & I eather
         11. Inoiganic Clmmicals
         12. Other (plc-dse bpecifv)
EXCHANGE USE ONLY:  CUDt://
                                                  DATE:
                                rig.. 4-.
                                  4-15

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of energy savings or estimated Btu savings.  References
used for the energy savings analysis are shown in
Figure 4.10*4.

Contact;  Mr. David Clark
          Western Environmental Trade Association
          Oregon Industrial Waste Information Exchange
          333 SW 5th - Suite 618
          Portland, Oregon 97204
          (502) 221-0357

   Also:  Delyn Kies
          Oregon Industrial Waste Information Exchange
          Resource Conservation Consultants
          1615 NW 23rd - Suite One
          Portland, Oregon 97204
          (503) 227-1319

Date:     March  1980
4.11  Tennessee Waste Swap
      Nashville. Tennessee


       Tennessee Waste Swap (TWS) was originally started
and sponsored by the Division ofSolid Waste Management in
the Tennessee Department of Public Health.  The program,
as originally envisioned, did not materialize.  Staffing
problems and the resistance of industry towards a State
Agency appeared to hinder the success of the program.       _j

       At the time of this writing, plans were being
finalized whereby the waste exchange program would be
taken over, managed and operated by a non-governmental
agency, the Tennessee Manufacturers Association.  The
waste exchange is expected to be in operation by
July 1980.


Contact:  Mr. Ernest C. Blankenship
          Vice-President
          Tennessee Manufacturers Association
          708 Fidelity Federal Building
          Nashville, Tennessee 37219


Date:     March  1980
                            4-19

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           OREGON  INDUSTRIAL  WASTE INFORMATION EXCHANGE


       SUCCESSFUL  WASTE  TRANSFERS: ENERGY  SAVINGS ANALYSIS
 REFERENCE SOURCES
 1. National Association of  Recycling Industries.  Energy
    Conservation  Through Recycling.  1977,  p.  1.


 2. Peter Love. Net  Energy  Savings  From  Solid Wa_s_t_e Management
    Options.  EnvTronmerTECa~nal3a.  '1 y 7 6~.  p~77Tj.                 "


 3. Mike Males. Resource Conservation Through Citizen Involvement
    in Solid Waste Management'.   MetropolitaTi "SeTvTce D~Ts17ri c t."
    1975.  p. ~T2~.


 A. Estimates derived  from conversation  ujrth  Dr.  Charles Rohrmann,
    Battelle? Northuiest  Laboratory.


 5. Third Report  to  Congress.   U.S.  E.P.A.   1976.


 6. C.B. Smith.   Efficient Electricity Use.   Pergamon PTE-SS.
    1976.        ~


 7. "Report Estimates  Energy  Required to  Produce  Essential
    Primary products".   Meuis  Focus,  i/ol.  26,  f,'o.  2.  1976.


 8. Energy Conservation - The  Data  Base.   Energy  Conservation
    and Environment,Office  of  Industrial  Programs.  1975.


 9. personal communication with Robert Jamison.  Weyerhauser, Seattle,


10. "Energy Savings  from the  Recycling of  Selected Waste
    Materials".   Resource Conservation Consultants.  1979.

11. not listed.


                           FIGURE 4.10-4
                              4-20

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4.12  World Association for Solid Waste Transfer
          and Exchange j
      San Francisco. California
WASTE!
       WASTE was started in December 1978 after two years     ji
of planning.  It is a privately-operated, non-profit          j\J
organization that provides a forum for the exchange of
information on waste management situations.  It uses a
computer network system for the search and transfer of
information.

       The organization collects its data and offers varied
services through three major types of memberships and
affiliates.  Affiliated Members (free) are drawn from
municipal recycling centers, government and academic
research centers, public works departments, county waste
management agencies, and non-profit information centers*

       Associate Members (free) consist of Trade Associations,
Chambers of Commerce, Jaycees and other business and
industry groups.

       The third category of membership in WASTE is
Commercial Associates who are charged $150 annually.  This
category is made up of waste haulers, processors, treatment
and testing facilities, consulting engineers and other
organizations offering waste management services.

       In September 1979, WASTE had 11 Affiliate Members;
14 Associate Members; and 400 personal and organization
members.

       The data files are programmed for storage, retrieval,
and dissemination of various types of waste and waste
management data, structured in different files as follows:


     "A" FILE - Descriptions of Available Reusable Materials

     "W" FILE - Descriptions of Wanted Reusable Materials

     "F" FILE - Facilities tor Testing, Processing, Recycling,
                Disposing, etc.

     "E" FILE - Expertise Available in all Areas of Waste
                Management and Environmental Control

     "T" FILE - Technologies Available for Transfer

     "P" FILE - Products Marketed for Handling, Hauling,
                Separating, etc.


                           4-21

-------
     "R" FILE - Promulgates Regulations Prescribing Standards
                for Generators, Transporters, and Processors
                of Waste Materials

     "S" FILE - References to Sources of Information where
                a Waste Manager can Refine/Define Concepts

     "L" FILE - Summaries of Literature Pertaining to Solid
                Waste Management


       Individuals and organizations associated with the
WASTE program may conduct searches of the computerized data
and pay for the costs incurred.  The computerized data system
is called "International Waste Exchange Register".

       WASTE Search Centers are being established worldwide,
and a WATS 800- number will also be provided for those
interested in searching the Register, but do not have
access to computer terminals.  Government agencies, clearing-
houses, and exchanges may elect to conduct searches via their
own computer facilities to insure confidentiality.

       Manufacturer associations, chambers of commerce,
special libraries, and others concerned with providing
members and participants with information services may use
the Register to provide such services on a fee basis.  In
such cases, however, the participating organization will be
responsible for any computer costs incurred in the search
process, i.e. connect time, systems seconds, etc.

       WASTE has invested $50,000 in its operations to date
and has received $20,000 from membership dues, contracts, etc.
Its total annual operating budget is estimated at $140,000.


Contact:  Mr. Frank S. Patrinostra
          WASTE
          152 Utah Ave. "F"
          South San Francisco, California 94080
          (415) 871-1711

Date:     March  1980
4.13  Zero Waste Systems, Inc.
      Oakland California

       Zero Waste Systems, Inc. (ZWS), a private, for-profit
corporation was founded in 1973.  ZWS is devoted to minimizing
the loss of reusable chemical resources as waste to the
                            4-22

-------
environment.  Its approach relies on the application of
innovative chemical expertise and intensive marketing.

       ZWS handles surplus chemicals, collects industrial
processing wastes, sells recycled and surplus materials and
provides consulting aid in waste management and control
problems.  The firm takes possession of materials for
recycle, and prepares them for specific market needs by
processing such as by distillation, recrystallization,
electrowinning, grinding, or simply repackaging.  The
services of contract processors and other consultants
are used as required.

       ZWS does not issue a regular publication with listings
of materials available or wanted, since it does not act
primarily as a waste information clearinghouse; it does,
however, circulate a small list of surplus materials to a
selective mailing list.  A sample of this list is shown
in Figure 4.13-1.

       The firm was founded by Dr. Paul Palmer, a physical
chemist and employs up to 8 people full-time.  Five of these
people are chemists or engineers.  Specific wastes are
handled for processing and sale with the Bay Area, its
prime area of involvement.

Contact:  Dr. Paul Palmer
          Zero Waste Systems, Inc.
          2928 Poplar St.
          Oakland, California 94608
          (415) 893-8257

Date:     October  1978


4.14  California Waste Exchange
      Berkeley, California


       The California Waste Exchange is operated by the            /;?
State of California, through the Hazardous Materials            '  "7
Management Section of the Department of Health Services.
The waste exchange was started in 1976 as a pilot program
in the San Francisco Bay Area, to locate and identify the
waste streams of various companies with potential for
recycle and reuse.  The purpose of the program is to
conserve energy and chemical resources and to reduce the
volume of materials requiring land disposal.

       The program was a one-man effort started by
Mr. Carl G. Schwarzer.  His approach involved technical


                            4-23

-------
                                                          2928 POPLAR STREET
                                                          OAKLAND, CA 94608
                                                           Tel (415) 893-8257
Surplus Materials ListAll materials are ready for immediate delivery.
Material
Adiprene,  call for current stock
Aluminum Hydroxide Gel, technical
Aluminum Oxide, chromatographic
Ammonium Bifluoride, purified
Ammonium Chloride, USP
Ammonium Thiocyanate, practical
Aqua Ammonia, 30$ reagent, 45 Ib carboy Baker
Barium Titanate,
  other Titanates and Stannates available
Caffeine,  practical
Calcium Carbonate, USP
Carbitol Solvent
Chloroacetic Acid, Sodium Salt, practical
Cobalt Chloride
Cobalt Nitrate
Dioctyl Acid Pyrophosphate
Iron(III)  Chloride, Anhydrous
Lithium Carbonate
Lithium Hypochlcrite
Magnesium Zirconate
Manganese dioxide, practical
Pluronic F-68
Potassium Chloride, USP, crystal
Quso G32(Microfine precipitated silica
Rayflo-C
Raney Nickel Alloy 50/50
Sodium Benzoate, USP
Sodium Citrate, Dihydrate, reagent
Sodium meta-Bisulfite,  reagnet
Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol, practical
p-Toluenesulfonyl Chloride
Zinc Chloride,  techmical
Shell Epon C-lll
Terms:  Net Cash 30 Days      FOB Zero
              INDUSTRIAL RECYCLING  CHE*
                                 Figure  4.13-1
Manufacturer
Dupont
Baker
Merk
Baker
Baker
Baker
r Baker
National Lead
,-] Q
J-Lc
Baker
BASF
Union Carbide
:al Baker
Harshaw
Harshaw
Stauffer

Lithium Corp
Lithium Corp
Lithium Corp
Baker
BASF
Baker
PQ Chem
Rayonnier

Baker
Baker
Baker
Baker
Aldrich
Shell
Waste Systems,
1ICALS - WASTES -
Quantity
50 gal
9000 Ib
250 Ib
200 Ib
200 Ib
3,000 Ib
2,250 Ib
700 Ib
100 Ib
200 Ib
8,000 gal
220 Ib
50 Ib
120 Ib
670 Ib
14-3 Ib
326 Ib
232 Ib
326
275 Ib
225 Ib
250 Ib
60 Ib
1250 Ib
unlimited
100 Ib
275 It
800 Ib
600 Ib
100 Ib
200 Ib
55 gal
Inc. Oakland,
SURPLUSES
Price
$1 . 00/lb
200/lb
on request
$1 . 1 5/lb
$1 . 50/lb
500/lb
1 50/lb
500/lb
$1. 00/lb
17(S/lb
350/lb
8 50/lb
on request
on request
on request
3 00/lb
950/lb
500/lb
$2. 00/lb
300/lb
6 50/lb
800/lb
$1 . 1 5/lb
20^/lb
$20. 00/lb
$1.05/lb
$1.10/lb
700/lb
$1.25/lb
$2. 00/lb
13si/lb
800/lb
Ca.

                                    4-24

-------
personal interviews with industries to determine the types
and quantities of waste streams being generated, with the
object of suggesting other industries that might use
these wastes directly or by reprocessing.  Many hours of
technical discussions, technical personnel and innovative
technology were required.  The waste exchange was a
technical hands-on "fee-free brokerage" effort towards
the exchange of specific wastes and was not a clearinghouse
for information on waste materials.

       State regulations concerning recyclable hazardous
wastes became effective on January 1, 1978.  The disposer
of hazardous wastes for which recycling is both economically
and technically feasible may be required, amongst other
provisions, to justify not having recovered or recycled
useful waste products*

       Chapter 6.5, Article 7, 25170 of the California
Health and Safety Code Division 20, calls for the investi-
gation of the market potential, and the feasibility of
using hazardous wastes and the recovery of resources from
hazardous wastes.  The law lists extremely hazardous and
hazardous wastes and materials.  The law also requires the
establishment of a clearinghouse to assist in the recovery
of useful wastes.

       Provisions of the law relating to resource recovery
were implemented by Administrative Code Regulations,
Title 22, Division 4, Article 12.  These became effective
in June 1979.

       Currently, the Department of Health Services is
continuing the program with one man working half-time,
and is planning to increase its staff for expanded efforts.

Contact:  Dr. Paul H. Williams Ph.D.
          Waste Management Specialist III
          Department of Health Services
          Hazardous Materials Management Section
          2151 Berkeley Way
          Berkeley, California 94704
          (415) 540-2043

Date:     March  1980
                            4-25

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4.15  Waste Materials Clearinghouse
      Environmental Quality Control Inc.
      Indianapolis. Indiana


       The Waste Materials Clearinghouse Catalog is published
and distributed by Environmental Quality Control, line. (EQC),
a non-profit corporation.  EQC's objective is the "improve-
ment of the quality of the environment in Indiana with due
consideration for a healthy and expanding economy."

       The clearinghouse was started in 1978 and the first
catalog was published in August 1978.  The clearinghouse is
operated as an information exchange in a passive ma;nner.
Wastes from all industries without any restrictions in
geographical area are accepted.  Only materials for which
channels of disposal do not already exist are accepted
for listing.

       About 50 items are being listed as either wanted or
available, with about 2 to 3 new listings per month.  Each
catalog elicits from 35 to 50 inquiries.

       The items are coded for confidentiality as "A" for
available or "W" for wanted; followed by a sequential number
and then by two digits for the year, e.g. A10-78.

       The clearinghouse is managed by one person for about
one-third time plus 2 hours per week of hired secretarial
assistance.  Data are kept on 3x5 cards and a computerized
mailing system is used.

       The clearinghouse catalog, which has a distribution
of 450, is free.  A listing charge of $25 is made per item
published for two consecutive quarters.

Contact:  Mr. Noble L. Beck
          Clearinghouse Director
          EQC Waste Materials Clearinghouse
          1220 Waterway Boulevard
          Indianapolis, Indiana 46202
          (317) 634-2142

Date:     March  1980
                            4-26

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4.16  Industrial Waste Information Exchange
      Columbus. Ohio


       The Industrial Waste Information Exchange is operated
by the Columbus Industrial Association, a 160 corporate
membership non-profit association.  The information exchange
service was started in the autumn of 1977, with publication
of listings quarterly.

       Operation of the exchange, confidentiality and coding
of listed waste materials, objectives and disclaimers of
responsibility, etc. are similar to the subsequently
described Industrial Waste Information Exchange operated
by the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce in Newark,
New Jersey, in Section 4.17 following.

       The number of listings totaled 9 (January 1979) as
shown in Figure 4.16-1.  This is a relatively small number
of listings due to the small (30 mile) geographical radius
served, the small number of members of Columbus Industrial
Association, little publicity of the service offered, and
the small number of manufacturing industries in and near
Columbus, Ohio.

       A one-time charge of $5 is made for 12 months of
listings.  The exchange is operated by a technically
skilled manager and a secretary, each of whom spend
approximately 5 percent of their time on the waste
exchange.  Data are kept in files.

       The current status of the program is one of
dormancy, since listings and mailings have not been made
for almost one year.

Contact:  Mr. Newton A. Brokaw
          Executive Director                -^/^
          Columbus Industrial Association    ^t;- /<
          1646 West Lane Avenue
          Columbus, Ohio 43221

Date:     March  1980


4.17  Industrial Waste Information Exchange
      Newark, New Jersey
       The Industrial Waste Information Exchange was started
in May 1978 by the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce,
which funds and operates the service.  The objectives of


                           4-27
                                                               1 P
                                                 *

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COLUMBUS   INDUSTRIAL   ASSOCIATION
     1S19 WEST LANE AVENUE  COLUMBUS. OHIO 43291  TELEPHONE 486-6741

                                          January, 1979


                INDUSTRIAL WASTE INFORMATION EXCHANGE

     The Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act makes new and criti-
cal examination of "waste" a potentially valuable activity.   Our
IWIE exists to assist management to realize the fullest value from
"waste resources."
     This industrial waste information exchange was established  by
the Association as a direct service to industry and as an indirect
environmental  and resource service  to the general public.
     It is the purpose of the IWIE  to put waste users in touch with
waste producers toward the goal that waste disposal expense might be
minimized and  value in waste might  be realized to the greatest extent.

                         Listing No. 79-1

                        Material Available

Al - Dilute Sulfuric Acid  (5-8%); approximately 4,000 gallons per day;
     Columbus, Ohio.

A3 - Stainless Steel Scrap, various sizes, gauge material; approxi-
     mately 20,000 pounds per month; loose; Columbus, Ohio.

A4 - Cold roll, scrap offal, size .68 gauge, 3" to 6" wide, 34" long;
     14,000 pieces per month; loose; Columbus, Ohio.

A5 - Wood skids of various sizes; about 60 skids a day; loose;
     Columbus, Ohio.

A6 - Spent Nickel Catalyst containing approximately 10% nickel,  40%
     vegetable oil; Columbus, Ohio.

A7 - Spent Bleaching Clay containing approximately 35% vegetable oil;
     Columbus, Ohio.

                          Material Wanted

Wl - Plastic scrap; PVC or vinyl film or sheeting scrap  (unsupported);
     any quantity in boxes, barrels, or bales; Cleveland, Ohio.

W2 - Polyethylene scrap, any form,  even mixed with paper or other
     materials; 10-15  tons per day; loose or baled; Montreal, Quebec.

                        Figure 4.16-1

                           4-28

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the exchange are to attract new members and to provide a
service to the members.  The exchange was also designed to
promote reuse and recycling of industrial waste materials.

       The exchange emphasizes that..."there is no govern-
mental involvement whatsoever with this State Chamber-
sponsored program.  The activity is entirely a private
operation with no governmental participation."

       The exchange operates in a passive manner, with very
little technical knowledge.  The exchange circulates a
quarterly publication to about 12,500 people and organizations.
The subscription fee is $5 per year, with a $5 charge per
listing per year.

       Wastes are coded as material available (A) or
wanted (W), followed by an exchange code number and then
a classification number in one of 16 categories as follows:

  1. Acids                         9. Non-ferrous metals
  2. Caustics                     10. Ferrous metals
  3. Alkalis (lime, kiln dust)    11. Sulfides
  4. Solvents                     12. Minerals
  5. Oils: (Describe)             13. Plastic scrap
  6. Fuel valve hydrocarbons      14. Salts
  7. Chlorinated hydrocarbons     15. Inert material
  8. Spent Catalysts              16. Others

       The coding system and manner of operation enables
confidentiality*  The exchange does not participate in
negotiations and is not responsible for determination of the
character or content of any item listed, nor the determination
of what may constitute a hazardous substance or create a
hazardous condition.  The Exchange will not make recommend-
ations with respect to any legal requirements, particularly
for the storage, handling, transportation, or disposal of
what may be defined as hazardous substances.

       Information provided on waste products is supplied by
the offerer.  Neither the New Jersey State Chamber of
Commerce, the Industrial Waste Information Exchange, nor
any member thereof makes any warranty, expressed or implied,
as to the accuracy of description, the fitness for a
particular purpose, or the marketability of any item offered
through this program.

       Illustrative listings are shown in Figure 4.17-1.
Current listings total about 25 items wanted and 95 items
available.  About 10 new listings are received each month.

       The Exchange serves New Jersey primarily, with some
listings from New York and Pennsylvania.  It serves all
                           4-29

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                    ILLUSTRATIVE LISTINGS
       NEW JERSEY INDUSTRIAL WASTE INFORMATION  SERVICE
                     MATERIAL AVAILABLE
Code Classif
No. No.
A-l-2
A-l-14
A-l-21
1
2
4
Material
Acid, 15% nitric, 57.
hydro f lour ic, 5%
metallic impurities,
balance water.
Ammonia/water-approx.
127. NH3
Miscellaneous clean
solvents - Toluene,
Quantity
1,000
gals /mo.
3,000
gals/mo.
3
drums /mo .
Location
Northern,
New Jerse
Southern,
New Jerse
New York,
New York
A-l-23
        Xylene,  Benzene mix,
        etc.

        Waste hydraulic oil,
        water contaminated.
                                          drums /mo
                                   Philadelphia
                                   area.
                       MATERIAL WANTED
W-l-5


W-l-8



W-l-9


W-l-15


W-l-17
 5


10



12


14


17
Waste oil; no lacquers    10
or thinners.            drums/mo.

Mixed nonferrous metals,   any
miscellaneous sizes and  amount
forms.
Sulfides, mixed
composition.

Thermoplastic scrap
 waste.

Waste materials;
chemicals, residuals
metals, paper, wood,
etc.

      Figure 4.17-1

          4-30
tons/wk.
tons/mo.
 any
amount
           Northern,
           New Jersey

           Central,
           New Jersey
Southern,
New Jersey

Northern,
New Jersey

N,E.
U,S.

-------
industries and accepts any materials for listing.

       The Exchange is operated part-time by one man and
one secretary.  Records are kept in one 3-ring binder.

Contact:  Mr. Ludlum
          New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce
          5 Commerce St.
          Newark, New Jersey 07102
          (201) 623-7070

Date:     March  1980


4.18  Mecklenburg County Waste Exchange
      Charlotte, North Carolina                                  /i
                                                             /or

       The Mecklenburg County Waste Exchange is sponsored      _^,
and administered by the Mecklenburg County Engineering       '- ^
Department.  It is a county effort for recycle of wastes
versus landfilling.  The program is supported by taxes and
some of the costs are defrayed by income from the sale
of recyclable wastes.

       The Waste Exchange uses a dual approach for its
program.  The first phase for the program is the operation
of High School Campus Recycle Centers.  About seven out of
the eleven high schools in the county participate, and they
handle paper, glass, ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
Hazardous wastes are excluded from all of their programs.
The proceeds from the sale of recycled materials are split;
with 50 percent going to the county and 50 percent to the
participating schools.

       The second phase of the program is a Waste (Information)
Exchange.  This program covers a 100-mile radius and extends
into some 14 counties.  It acts as a clearinghouse for waste
 fenerators and users.  The bulletin with about 50 listings,
 s mailed to about 450 subscribers.  The bulletin is
published on a random basis or about quarterly.  The exchange
accepts all types of wastes from all industries.  It
receives about 10 listings per month.  The service is free
and listers' names are kept confidential.  About 9 percent
of the listings are match-ups.

       Data are kept in separate folders for each county,
and listings are coded with a letter for each county; then
with a number, based on the sequence of submittal.  The
wastes are listed in columns as either available or wanted.
                             4-31

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The exchange is operated by 4 people full-time, ones secretary
one-quarter time plus citizens' committees who help with
the High School Campus Recycle Centers.  The director of
the exchange is a scientist and the others involved have
more limited skills.

       In 1979, the High School Campus Recycle Centers earned
a total of about $25,000 with half going to the schools and
half to the county.  The Information Exchange had an
operating budget of $18,000 for the year.

       The Mecklenburg County Engineering Department is
cooperating with still another recycle effort.  It is
currently accumulating its own waste oils, in drums, in
preparation for an oil re-refinery that is under construction.
The re-refinery is being built and will be operated by the
North Carolina State Prison Enterprises.  The possibility
of incorporating waste oils into the High School Ca.mpus
Recycle Center program is likely, and these collected
waste oils will be re-refined.

Contact:  Mr. Roy Oavis
          Resource Recovery Analyst
          Mecklenburg County Engineering Dept.
          1501, 1-85 North
          Charlotte, North Carolina 28216
          (704) 374-2770                             ^

Date:     March  1980                                ^
                                                 <
4.19  Union Carbide Corporation               rf  \
      Investment Recover
      New York. New York
      Investment Recovery Department          x     \ }>    Q
                                                   V
       In 1964, Union Carbide set up a corporate Investment
Recovery Department to actively market surplus materials and
equipment.  In 1971, the Department was expanded to develop
markets for damaged goods, off -spec or obsolete products,
by-products and residues, spent catalysts, metallic wastes,
slimes, sludges, and flue dusts.  The Surplus Materials
Group and the Surplus Equipment Group are located in South
Charleston, West Virginia.  The Surplus Products Group is
located in New York City.  The objective of the Investment
Recovery Department is to obtain cash through sale of
surplus materials, products (including by-products) and
equipment.

       The Investment Recovery Department serves Union
Carbide (UCC) profit centers by arranging for transfer of
                            4-32

-------
"surplus" within the Carbide organization, or sale outside
of Carbide.  To promote internal transfers, the South
Charleston Group circulates a monthly Surplus Property
Report and a Surplus Materials Report to every UCC location.
These include listings of both  SURPLUS - AVAILABLE and
SURPLUS - WANTED.  In addition, there is a catalog at each
UCC location which is kept up-dated.  The Surplus Products
Group deals almost exclusively in sales outside of the UCC
organization.  The types of materials they handle are for
the most part non-amenable to internal transfer.  Surplus
reports are distributed to all Union Carbide plant managers
plus about 400 secondary materials dealers and corporate
customers.  Reports are distributed, and transactions are
completed on a worldwide basis.

       The Surplus Products Group looks primarily for direct
sales, although with certain materials, e.g. ones containing
platinum, cobalt or silver, they may transfer to a refiner
who recovers the metals and sends them back to UCC in return
for a toll fee.  This practice is, however, relatively rare.

       About 70 percent of the materials handled by Surplus
Products are steady streams; spent catalysts and by-products
of various kinds.  About 30 percent are so-called "wind-falls";
e.g. a bad batch of ethanol was recently produced as a result
of a plant accident.  The Surplus Products people saw a
possible outlet in the new gasahol plants, and eventually
made the sale.

       Surplus by-product streams for which there is not
presently an established secondary market present the greatest
challenge.  Often a new use has to be developed.  The Surplus
Product Group has the engineering, technical, business and
marketing skills to conceive of such uses and convince
customers of their benefits.

       The possibility of recovering a portion of capital
investment - conversion of surplus material assets to cash -
was the original driving force.  With growing environmental
regulations, the possibility of avoiding disposal costs
provided an added incentive.

       In 1973, the Surplus Products Group alone sold over
40 million pounds of materials, recovering almost $1.25 million
in cash income and disposal cost avoidance.  The Surplus
Equipment and Surplus Materials Group generate much higher
income (around $15 million/year).

       For every dollar spent by the Investment Recovery Group,
$20 to $25 is returned to UCC.  The return is calculated as
the sum of "green" dollars - cash revenues; and "brown" dollars
costs avoided for disposal, storage, etc.


                            4-33

-------
       The Surplus Produces Group actively solicits business
from plants.  They travel extensively, and work with both
plant managers and environmental protection officers who
know the details of their waste streams.  The Surplus
Products Group reviews all proposed new process and
environmental protection systems, to determine the
marketability of intermediate streams and to suggest
alternate designs that might lead to more easily
marketable by-products.

       The Investment Recovery Department is staffed with
36 full-time people, with extensive skills in chemistry,
engineering, processing, marketing and law.

       Data on waste materials is maintained in a card-
filing system plus a company-owned computerized matching
and retrieval system.  A coding system is used that
identifies waste or surplus materials by geographical region,
material, available or wanted, and by date.

Contact:  Mr. G. F. Petit
          Surplus Products - Investment Recovery Dept.
          Union Carbide Corporation
          270 Park Ave.
          New York, New York 10017
          (212) 551-3661

Date:     March  1980

                                                     o
4.20  Chemical Recycle Information Program           \\
      Houston, Texas                                  A


       The Chemical Recycle Information Program wast started
in January 1977 and is sponsored by the Houston, Texas
Chamber of Commerce.  The program's objective is "to provide
a confidential means to transfer information on waste (spent)
chemicals to potential users and thereby encourage the
conservation of valuable resources through reuse and to
reduce the air pollution which would arise from processing
raw materials.1'

       Waste chemical generators or their potential, users may
register, in strict confidence, the products being offered
and/or sought with the Chemical Recycle Information Service.
Prospective users identify themselves to offerers or seekers
by requesting additional information in writing.  The program
staff forwards any requests to the offerer or seeker.  It is
the responsibility of the offerer or seeker to contact the
respondents and to negotiate a transfer if he wishes to do so*
                            4-34

-------
The Houston Chamber of Commerce does not participate in
negotiations.

       The inventory of waste chemicals is published each
month.  Information on availability of a currently or
newly listed waste chemical should be transmitted to the
Houston Chamber of Commerce by the 25th of each month.
A $10 per year registration fee is charged for each waste
chemical either offered or sought.  The subscription fee
for the monthly inventory list is $15 per year, plus
6 percent sales tax.  There are approximately 60 subscribers.

       Information provided on waste chemicals are supplied
by the offerer.  Neither the Houston Chamber of Commerce,
the Chemical Recycle Service, nor any member thereof makes
any warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy of
description, the fitness for a particular purpose, or the
marketability of any waste material offered through the
program.

       The waste materials are categorized in 17 classi-
fications as shown on the "Product Information Form" in
Figure 4.20-1.  A sample page from the September 1979
inventory list is shown in Figure 4.20-2.  Information on
match-ups is not actively sought.  The number of items listed
vary from 25 to 30 each month.

       The program was started as a service to Texas Gulf
Coast industry, but is available to anyone from any location.
The service is not a profit-making venture.

       Each listing is identified by a code using either
"S" or "0" for materials sought or offered, followed by
two digits for the order of receipt.  Data is kept in
file folders.

       The program is staffed on a part-time basis by the
Director and one secretary for about one day per month each.
Skills are of managerial nature.

Contact:  Mr. Jack Westney
          Staff Executive
          Houston Chamber of Commerce
          1100 Milam Bldg., 25th Floor
          Houston, Texas 77002
          (713) 651-1313

Date:     March  1980
                           4-35

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                  PRODUCT  INFORMATION  FORM AND SUBSCRIPTION FORM
Organization:
Mailing Address:

Name of Contact:
                                  Zip
                         _Telephone:_
( ) Subscription of Listing  Service
             ($15.00)
          Waste chemical  is  being  (  )  offered
                                  (  )  sought
Waste Chemical  Classification:   Please  select best classification of waste chemical(s)
so that the listings can  be easily  grouped  in the inventory.   Identify each waste
listed below by number adjacent  to  appropriate classification.
Classifications:

1.  Acids
2.  Caustics
3.  Alkalis (lime, kiln dust)
4.  Solvents
5.  Oils:
    5a.  Water soluble
    5b.  Lubricating
    5c.  Heat transfer
6.  Fuel  value hydrocarbons    13.   Minerals
7.  Chlorinated hydrocarbons  14.   Plastic scrap
8.  BS &  W                    15.   Salts
9.  Spent catalysts           16.   Inert  material
    Non-ferrous metals        17.   Others:
    Ferrous metals                 	
    Sulfides                           	
10.
11.
12.
Description of Waste Chemical  Being  Offered  or  Sought:

  [Example:         Class.  	
             Item:  Methanol/Water approximately  20 wt. % methanol, 1!6
                    Organic Impurities,  Balance Water, has sweet pungent odor

             Availability:   20,000 gallons/month  (current, future)
             Location:	]
  Class.
           Class.
 Fees:  Suoscription - $15.00/yr.   Product Registration  - $10.00/yr./product
 Make checks payable to:  Chemical  Recycle Information  Program
                         Houston Chamber  of Commerce
                         1100 Mi lam Building,  25th  Floor
                         Houston,  Texas  77002
 Total Enclosed
 Please use additional  sheets  as  required.

                                  Figure 4.20-1
                     Identification No.
                                       4-36

-------
                               ?5TH FLOOR
                               1100MILAM BUILDING
                               HOUSTON, TEXAS 77002
                               (713)651-1313
                                             ton
                               COMMERCE
                        SEPTEMBER 1979  INVENTORY LIST

                 CHEMICAL RECYCLE INFORMATION PROGRAM

                   A SERVICE TO GULF COAST INDUSTRY
                               ITEMS OFFERED

 IDENT. NO. 0-3      CLASS  I
 ITEM        :        15%  Nitric  Acid, 5% Hydroflouric Acid, 5% Metallic
                    Impurities,  (4.525 Fe. 0.1% Cr., 0.3%  other),
                    Balance Water
 AVAILABILITY:        4,000  gallons/month current, 8,000 gal Ions/month future
 LOCATION    :        Local
 IDENT. NO. 0-4      CLASS  lb
 ITEM        :        BaS04  85%, CaCOs 9%, Mg (OH)? 5%,  and  sand U.  Solids
                    in  slurry with 25% NaCI solution @ 1.25  sp. gr.
AVAILABILITY:        45,000 pounds/month solids.
LOCATION    :        Local
IDENT. NO. 0-5      CLASS 2
ITEM        :        Ammonia/Water - approx. 12% NH3
AVAILABILITY:        6,000 gallons/month (current, future)
LOCATION    :        Local
IDENT. NO. 0-7      CLASS  17
ITEM        :        Spent  clay:  Natural bleaching earth  absorbed with
                    approximately 50% tallow by weight.
AVAILABILITY:        50,000#/month
LOCATION    :        Local
IDENT.  NO.  0-10
ITEM        :
AVAILABILITY:
LOCATION    :
CLASS 6 (Fuel  value  hydrocarbon)
Hydrocarbon solvents (primarily kerosene) Wt.  %       80-90
Aluminum alkyls  and  aluminum alkyl halides, Wt. %      5-20
Metallic aluminum (finely-divided powder),Wt.  %        1-3
Total aluminum,  Wt.  %                                  4-7
Chloride (contained  in aluminum alkyl
  chlorides),  Wt.  %                                  1.5-5.0
Iodide (contained in aluminum alkyl iodides),  Wt.%     0-2.0
Vapor pressure,  mm Hg. @ 70F.                         1-10
Heating value, BTU/lb.                             18000-20000
Thousands of pounds/year                            2000-2200
Local
                              Figure  4.20-2
                               4-37

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4.21  The American Alliance of Resources Recovery
      Interests Inc. (AARRII).A
      Albany. New York                                   V


       The Process Industries Division of AARRII conducts
an Industrial Waste Information Exchange as one aspect of
dealing with Che management of industrial wastes.  The
objective of the Process Industries Division is to initiate
cooperation among companies in the process industries for
new, economically-feasible waste disposal solutions to
save energy, resources and the environment.

       The Industrial Waste Information Exchange Program was
developed with the assistance and facilitative support (no
funding) of the New York State Department of Commerce,
and was initiated in March 1979.

       The exchange is a clearinghouse for information on
industrial waste materials available or wanted for further
use.  Wastes offered and wanted are published periodically
as listings, in a coded form for confidentiality.  Written
inquiries are provided by the Exchange to the listing
person who then initiates further contact.  The anonymity
of the lister and confidentiality of the information are
thus protected and transactions are privately negotiated
between lister and inquirer without further Exchange
involvement.

       Bulletins are mailed free with a charge of $6 to list
each waste material.  Repeat listings are charged $3.
AARRII members are not charged for listings.  Annual dues
for membership in one of AARRII's 15 Divisions vary from
$50 to $2,000.  Membership in the Process Industries
Division is $1,000 annually.

       A listing form and sample listings are shown
following in Figures 4.21-1 and 4.21-2.

Contact:  Mr. John Flandreau
          AARRII
          111 Washington Ave.
          Albany, New York 12210
          (518) 436-1557

Date:     March  1980
                           4-38

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                      PROCESS INDUSTRIES DIVISION

                      THE AMERICAN ALLIANCE OF RESOURCES RECOVERY INTERESTS INC.
                      111 Washington Avenue, Albany, N Y 12210
          Industrial Waste Information Exchange
                                          INDUSTRIAL
                                            WASTE
                                          AVAILABLE

                                          INDUSTRIAL
                                            WASTE
                                           WANTED

                                     CHECK ONE ONLY

                   Please Submit Separate Form for Each Listing  Feel Free to Make Copies!

                    DESCRIPTION OF WASTE MATERIAL  See Over For Sample Listings
Describe the material as you would like It listed, In terms commonly used for such materials, keeping In mind that tha
reader will want to know % solids, % metals, chemical composition, etc.
 Give the following Information If not Included above: (check where appropriate)
 TYPE OF MATERIAL
 FORM OF MATERIAL
 HOW STORED.
 CONDITION.
 QUANTITY/FREQUENCY

 LOCATION
 (as it should be listed)
D acids  D alkalis  D organic chemicals/solvents  D oils/waxes  D catalysts
D metals/metal sludges D minerals  D inorganic chemicals  D plastics/rubber
D paper/products  D textile/leather  D food  a other
O solid  D liquid  D gas
Q bulk  O bag D tank  D drum  D carton
D raw  D processed  D concentrated D diluted	% solids
	D Ibs   D tons  D gal  O cu ft  O Im ft
O per month  O per year
D Western NY  D Central NY   D Eastern N Y
D Southern NY   O Long Island  D Other	
 THE UNDERSIGNED

    D SElinESTSBolTA.N } E MATERlAL AS DESCRIBED ABOVE
    D REQUESTS EXCHANGE LISTING FOR THIS MATERIAL
    D WOULD LIKE TO RECEIVE THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN OF LISTINGS
 COMPANY NAME:
 COMPANY CONTACT

 ADDRESS: 	
                                                       Billing Dili

                                               New Listing @ $6.00 _

                                               Repeat Listing @ $3 00

                                                Total Enclosed ___
 CITY
                                                   ZIP.
 TELEPHONE:

 DATE: 	
                          SIC NO
                                                                     D AARRII Member (No Charge)
                                                                     D Please Bill Me
 I understand that the name/sddrese ol my flrm will be kept In strict confidence snd sny lilting In the Exchange Bulletin will be by
 cod* number, that the Exchange wHI not be Involved In any transaction; and the! the Exchange mskei no warranty about the
 Information or material! llated.

 Signature of Company
 contact or Officer-	                                                  	.
Send to: AARRII WASTE INFORMATION EXCHANGE, 111 Washington Avenue, Albany, N Y  12210

                                       Figure 4.21-L
                                                       (518) 436-1557
                                          4-39

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                                  HOW THE EXCHANGE WORKS


  THE EXCHANGE is a clearing house for timely information on industrial waste materials available or wanted for further use
  Anyone wishing to dispose ot or obtain such waste submits to AARRII a description of the material.
  AARRII publishes quarterly, in coded form, for confidentiality, a listing of wastes offered and wanted.

  On receiving inquiries in writing, THE EXCHANGE provides the name(s) of the mquirer(s) to the listing person who then
   initiates further contact The anonymity of the lister and confidentiality of the information are thus protected and transactions
   are privately negotiated between lister and inquirer without further EXCHANGE involvement
                                        SAMPLE LISTINGS
       MATERIAL AVAILABLE
       Code ID      Material
       AZ-7         Trimmings from decorative
                    polyvinyl-chlonde films
       AX-8         Caustic  15% Solids, Lime sludge
                    from water treatment clanfier  Ca(OH)(2)
                    with small amounts of iron and various
                    other mineral impurities
       AB-1         Ore sludge containing approximately
                    48% Manganese Oxide, 30% Iron Oxide,
                    3% Tungsten Oxide, 2% Aluminum Oxide
                    on dry basis (Moisture about 25%)
 Quantity
 2,000 Ibs per week in
 700 to 1,000 Ib. containers
 100 tons per year
 30,000,000 Ibs stockpiled;
 300,000 Ibs per month
 Location
 Eastern, N.Y.

 Western, N Y
 Central, N.Y.
      MATERIAL WANTED
      WZ-1         Used X-Ray or Photographic
                   Hypo (Fixer) and/or Film
      WZ-2         Waste Solvents  Ketones,
                   Esters, Aromatics, Aliphatics,
                   Chlorinated and Blends
      WB-3         Strong neutralizing acid product
                   Customer needs all specifications
Not specified

15,000 gal per week
Southern, N Y.

Long Island
Approx. 3,000 Ibs. per day    Central N.Y.
                                              NOTICE
AARRII makes no warranty, expressed or Implied, as to the fitness of any listed product for a specific purpose, or to IU
marketability, or composition, or what may constitute hazardous substances or conditions. The EXCHANGE does not
become Involved In negotiations. ALL TRANSACTIONS MUST BE MADE DIRECTLY BETWEEN THE PARTIES
                                             INVOLVED.
        HELP YOURSELF AND HELP YOUR INDUSTRY SOLVE THE WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEM!


                                       Figure 4.21-2
                                           4-40

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4.22  ORE Corporation - "The Ohio Resource Exchange"
      Cleveland, Ohio
       ORE was started in May 1979 by Mr. Richard L.
Immerman, its president.  ORE is a private sector,
for-profit, professional organization serving industry
by marketing their by-product waste materials.  With
emphasis on hazardous wastes, ORE agressively markets
these materials to other potential users.  ORE publishes
a catalog of information about available and desired waste
materials which is circulated to a large number of companies
in many industries.  The lister's identity is kept
confidential by coding the listings.

       Listings are made free; and if a transaction is
completed, a negotiated in-advance fee is paid to ORE.
The catalog subscription is also free to qualified
individuals.

       ORE serves the United States and Canada.  It serves
all industries and lists all materials  Approximately
80 percent of its listings are potentially hazardous wastes.

       ORE emphasizes waste exchange as an ideal method
for resource recovery of energy and raw materials.

Contact:  Mr. Richard L. Immerman
          ORE Corporation
          2415 Woodmere Drive
          Cleveland, Ohio 44106
          (216) 371-4869

Date:     March  1980
                           4-41

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5.0  EXISTING AND POTENTIAL AREAS OF UNITED STATES
     FOR WASTE EXCHANGES AND WASTE EXCHANGE SEMINARS
       An appraisal of available information on industrial
waste generation, both hazardous and non-hazardous, has
been made in order to conduct waste exchange seminars and
institute waste exchange programs in areas of the United
States where they will be of most use and have the highest
chance for success.  The previous section of this report
on match-ups has identified and analyzed those materials
which have made recurring successful waste exchanges.
This section of the report identifies a broader spectrum
of industrial sectors and wastes which may have potential
for exchanges and transfer.  This analyses will indicate
those states, and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(SMSA's) of the country which are believed to have high
potential for the operation of waste exchanges and
accompanying seminars.

       In an earlier EPA-sponsored study on waste exchanges
(Ref. 1), wastes recognized as most likely to have components
of potential value were:

        wastes having high concentrations of
         recoverable metals
        solvents
        alkalis
        concentrated acids
        catalysts
        oils
        combustibles (for fuels)

       The results of surveys conducted during this study
indicate that organic and inorganic chemical residues,
plastic residues and textiles, leather and rubber manu-
facturing residuals should be added to this list.

       States and regions of the country whose candidate
waste exchange materials contained all or some of these
components were then given consideration as potential
areas for waste exchange programs and seminars.

       A series of studies sponsored by the U.S. EPA
(Ref. 2 to 14) identified the solid and hazardous wastes
from 12 major industries.  The industrial categories
included in this survey are listed in Table 5.0-1.  Using
the EPA studies as a data base, a list of states with high
volumes of wastes has been compiled.  These are shown in
Table 5.0-2.  In order for the waste to appear on the state
list, the state must be among the top four to six generators.
                           5-1

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               TABLE 5.0-1

 INDUSTRIAL CATEGORIES USED FOR A SURVEY
OF AREAS SUITABLE FOR WASTE EXCHANGES AND
                SEMINARS
       Storage & Primary Batteries
       Electroplating & Metal Finishing
       Ferrous Smelting and Refining
       Iron & Steel
       Iron & Steel Foundries
       Ferroalloys
       Non-ferrous Smelting & Refining
       Primary Lead
         "     Copper
         "     Aluminum
         "     Antimony
         "     Mercury
         "     Titanium
         "     Tungsten
       Secondary Copper
         11       Lead
         "       Aluminum
       Alkali and Chlorine
       Inorganic Pigments
       Sulfuric Acid
       Aluminum Compounds
       Potassium and Sodium Compounds
       Petroleum Refining
       Pharmaceut icals
       Leather Tanning and Finishing
       Electronic Components
       Textiles
       Special Machinery
                  5-2

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                             TABLE 5.0-2

            Summary List of States with Significant Quantities
                  of Solid and Hazardous Wastes
ALABAMA -
    Primary Aluminum (Potliners,  Skimmings,  Dust)
    Iron and Steel (Slag, Sludge, Dust,  Scale,  Pickle Liquor)

ARIZONA -
    Primary Copper smelting and Refining (Slag, Sludge)

CALIFORNIA -
    Storage Battery (Reject) Scrap Cells,  Sludge)
    Primary Mercury (Calcine Residue)
    Primary Tungsten (Sludge, Digestion  Residue)
    Iron and Steel (Slag, Sludge, Dust,  Scale,  Pickle Liquor)
    Secondary Lead (Slag)
    Secondary Aluminum (Sludge, High Salt  Slag)
    Petroleum Refining (Various Refining Residues  - see note 1)
    Electronic Components (Solvents, Plastics,  sludge, oils,
                            paint waste)
    Special Machinery (Solvents,  oils, acid/alkali, grindings)
    Paint and Allied Products (bolvents, spoiled batches,
                                spills,  sludges)

DELAWARE -
    Sulfuric acid (Sludge)
    Organic Chemicals (various and diverse residues - see  note  2)
FLORIDA -
    Storage Battery (reject) Scrap cells,  sludge)  (Ni-Cd)
    Primary Battery (sludge) mg-carbon
    Aluminum Compounds (sludge)
        Potassium and Sodium Compounds  (spent brine, sludge)

GEORGIA -
    Secondary Copper (slag)
    Titanium Pigments (ore residue, sludge)
    Potassium and Sodium Compounds (spent  brine, sludge)
    Textiles (fiber, vegetable matter,  sludge,  flock, salvage,
               dye and chemical containers,  selvage)

IDAHO -
    Primary Lead Smelting and Refining  (slag, sludge)
    Primary Zinc Smelting and Refining  (slag, sludge)
    Primary Antimony (spent Anolyte)

ILLINOIS -
    Primary Battery (reject/scrap cells) (Mercury)
    Electroplating and Metal Finishing  (metal hydroxide sludges)
    Iron and steel making (slag,  sludge, dust,  scale, pickle liquor)
    Iron and steel foundries (slag, sludge,  dust,  sand)

                              5-3

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                          TABLE 5.0-2  continued-2


ILLINOIS continued -
    Primary Zinc (slag, sludge)
    secondary Copper (slag)
    Potassium and Sodium Compounds (spent brine,  sludge)
    Petroleum Refining (various refining residues - see note 1)
    Pharmaceutical (org sludge, filter and carbon solvents,
                     metal cmpds.  returned goods, mycelium)
    Electronic Components (solvents,  plastic,  sludge,  oils
                            paint  waste)
    Special Machinery (solvents, oils,  acid/alkali, grindings)
    Paints and Allied Products (solvents, spoiled batches, spills
                                   sludges)

INDIANA -
    Storage Battery (reject/scrap  cells, sludge)
    Iron and steel making (slag, sludge, dust,  scale,  pickle liquor)
    Secondary Lead (slag)
    Secondary Aluminum (sludge, high salt slag)
    Pharmaceutical (org. sludge, filter and carbon, solvents,, metal
                     compounds, returned goods, mycelium)

IOWA -
    Primary Battery (reject/scrap  cells)
                    (carbon-zinc)

KENTUCKY -
    Primary Aluminum (potliners, skimmings, dust)
    Sulfuric Acid (sludge)

LOUISIANA -
    Alkali and Chlorine Industry (brine muds,  sludge)
    Sulfuric acid (sludge)
    Aluminum Compounds (ore residue,  sludge)
    Petroleum Refining (various refining residues -see note 1)
    Organic Chemicals (various and diverse residues -  see note  2)

MARYLAND -
    Primary Copper Electrolytic Refining (sludge)
    Chrome colors & other Pigments (sludge)

MASSACHUSETTS -
    Leather Tanning and finishing (leather trim and shavings,  finishing
                        residues,  organic sludge)
    Electronic Components (solvents,  plastic,  sludge,  oils,
                        paint waste)
    Special machinery  (solvents,  oils, acid/alkali, grindings)

MICHIGAN -
    Electroplating and metal finishing (metal  hydroxide sludges)
    Iron and steel making (slag, sludge, dust,  scale,  pickle liquor)
    Iron and steel foundries (slag, sludge, dust, sand)
    Alkali and chlorine industry (brine muds,  sludge)

                              5-4

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                        TABLE 5.0-2 continued-3


MISSISSIPPI -
    Titanium Pigments (ore residue, sludge)

MISSOURI -
    Storage Batteries (reject/scrap cells, sludge)
    Cd-AgO; Zn-AgO
    Primary Lead smelting and refining (slag, sludge)

MONTANA -
    Primary Lead smelting and refining (slag, sludge)
    Primary copper smelting and tefining (slag, sludge)
    Primary Aluminum (potliners, skimmings, dust)
    Primary Antimony (slag)

NEVADA -
    Primary Mercury (calcine residue)
    Primary Titanium (chlorinator and condenser sludge)

NEW JERSEY -
    Primary copper (slag, sludge)
    Secondary Copper (slag, "   )
    Chrome color & other pigments (sludge)
    Petroleum Refining (various refining residues - see note 1)
    Pharmaceuticals (org. sludge, filter & carbon, solvents, metal
                     compounds, returned goods, mycelium)
    Electronic components (solvents, plastics, sludge oils,
                     paint waste)
    Textiles (fiber, veg. matter, sludge, flock, dye & chemical
                     containers, selvage)
    Special Machinery (solvents, oils, acid/alkali, grindings)
    Paints and allied products (qolvents, spoiled batches, spills
                                  sludges)
    Organic Chemicals (various and diverse residues - see note 2)

NEW YORK -
    Primary Battery (Mercury) (scrap cells/furnace residue)
    Electroplating and metal finishing (metal hydroxide sludges)
    Iron and steel making (slag, sludge, dust, scale, pickle liquor)
    Primary Tungsten (sludge, digestion residue)
    Chrome colors & other pigments (sludge)
    Pharmaceuticals (org. sludge, filter^aid, carbon, solvents,
                     metal compounds, returned goods, mycelium,
    Leather tanning and finishing (leather trim and shavings,
                     finishing residues, organic sludge)
    Electronic Components (solvents, plastics, sludge, oils,
                     paint waste)
    Textiles (fiber, vegetable matter, sludge, flock, dye and
                     chemical containers, selvage)
    Special machinery (solvents, oils, acid/alkali, grindings)
                             5-5

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                        TABLE 5.0-2 contiriued-4


NORTH CAROLINA -
    Storage Batteries (reject/scrap cells,  sludge)
                       Cd-AgO; An -AgO
    Primary Batteries (reject/scrap cells)
                       (carbon-zinc)
    (aIki-manganese)    (reject/scrap cells)
    (mercury)           (  "     "     "   )
    (mg/carbon)         (sludge)
    (Zn-AgO)            (reject/scrap cells)
    Textiles (fiber, vegetable matter, sludge,  flock,  dye and
               chemical containers, selvage)
    Organic chemicals  (various and diverse residues - see note 2)

OHIO -
    Storage batteries (reject/scrap cells,  sludge)
    (Ni-Cd)
    Primary Batteries (reject/scrap cells)
    (carbon-zinc)
    Electroplating and metal finishing (metal hydroxide sludges)
    Iron and steel making (slags, sludges,  dusts,  scale,  pickle liquor)
    Iron and steel foundries (slag, sludge, dust,  sand)
    Primary Titanium (chlorinator and condenser sludge)
    Primary Tungsten (sludge, digestion residue)
    Secondary Aluminum (sludge, high salt slag)
    Titanium pigments (ore residue, sludge)
    Other white pigments (sludge)
    Paints and allied products (solvents, spoiled  batches, spills,  sludges)

OKLAHOMA -
    Primary zinc (sludge, retort residue)
    Aluminum compounds (sludge)

PENNSYLVANIA -
    Storage Batteries (reject/scrap cells,  sludge)
    Iron and steelmaking (slags, sludges, dusts, scales,  pickle liquor)
    Iron and steel foundries (slag, sludge, dust sand)
    Primary Zinc smelting and refining (sludge, retort residue)
    Primary Tungsten (sludge, digestion residue)
    Secondary Copper (slag)
    Secondary Lead (slag)
    Secondary Aluminum (sludge, high salt slag)
    Petroleum refining (various refining residues  -see note 1)
    Pharmaceuticals (org. sludge, filter aid, carbon,  solvents, metal
                     compounds, returned goods, mycelium)
    Electronic Components (solvents, plastics,  sludge, oils,
                     paint waste)
    Textiles (fiber, vegetable matter, sludge,  flock,  dye and
                     chemical containers, selvage)


                             5-6

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                        TABLE 5.0-2 continued-5


RHODE ISLAND -              ,               ,  ,  ,
    Storage Batteries (scrap/reject cells,  sludge;
         Cd-AgO; Zn-AgO
    Primary Battery Zn-AgO (reject/scrap cells;

SOUTH CAROLINA -
    Textiles  (fiber, vegetable matter, sludge, flock, dye
              and chemical containers, selvage)

TENNESSEE -
    Primary Battery      (reject/scrap cells)
    (alkaline-manganese)
    Primary Aluminum (potliners, skimmings, dust)
    Titanium  pigments (ore residue, sludge)
    Potassium & sodium compounds (spent brine, sludge)
    Organic chemicals (various and diverse residues - see note 2)

TEXAS -
    Storage Battery (reject/scrap cells, sludge)
    Primary Battery - Mg-carbon (sludge)
    primary Lead (slag, sludge)
    Primary Zinc    "     "   , retort residue)
    Primary Copper Electrolytic refining (sludge)
    Primary Aluminum (potliners, skimmings, dust)
    Primary Antimony (slag)
    Secondary Lead (slag)
    Alkali and chlorine (brine muds, sludge)
    Sulfuric acid (sludge)
    Aluminum Compounds Core residue, sludge)
    Petroleum refining (refining residues -see note 1)
    Paints and allied products (solvents, spoiled batches, spills,
                                  sludges)
    Organic chemicals (various and diverse residues - see note 2)

UTAH -
    Primary copper smelting and refining (slag, sludge)

VERMONT -
    Primary Battery (Zn-AgO) reject/scrap cells

VIRGINIA -
    Organic chemicals (various and diverse wastes - see note 2)

WASHINGTON -
    Primary Aluminum (potliners, skimmings, dust)

WEST VIRGINIA -
    Alkali and chlorine industry (brine muds, sludge)
    Chrome colors & other pigments (sludge)
                             5-7

-------
                     TABLE 5.0-2 continued-6


WISCONSIN -
    Primary battery - reject/scrap cells
    (carbon-zinc)
    (aIk-manganese)     "      "      "/furnace residue
    (mercury)
    (Zn-AgO)            "      "      "
    Leather tanning and finishing (leather trim and shavings,
                    finishing residues, organic sludge)

                    Source:  "Assessment of Industrial Hazardous
                            Waste Practices".  (References 2-14)
TABLE 5.0-2 - Notes

1. Petroleum Refining Residues
      Neutralized HF Alkylation Sludge
      Coke Flues
      Fluidized Catalytic Cracking
      Catalyst Fires
      Lube Processing Filter Clays
      API Oil-Water Separator Sludge
      Non-Leaded Product lank Sludge
      Slop Oil Emulsion Solids
      Cooling Water Sludge
      Biological Sludge
      Lime Treatment Sludge (Boiler Feedwater Treatment)
      Kerosene Filter Clays
      Exchange Bundle Cleaning Sludges
      Dissolved Oil Air Flotation Float
      Crude Storage Tank Sludge
      Cooling Tower Sludge
      Leaded Product Storage Tank sludge

2. Organic Chemical Residues
      Liquid Heavy  Ends
      Liquid Still  Heavy Eh'ds
      Heavy Ends from Solvent Recovery
      Spent Acid and Caustic
      Heavy Ends from Fractionating Towers
      Still Bottoms
      Filter Cake
      Sludges
                             5-8

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1C must be kept in mind that all industries are not included
in this compilation.  The detailed EPA industrial surveys
(Ref. 2 to 14) from which Table 5.0-2 was compiled were
primarily concerned with hazardous wastes.  Thus, many
industries without hazardous wastes, such as food and
kindred products, are not included in the compilation.
Nevertheless, the survey is important in that many of the
wastes listed in Table 5.0-2 are classified as hazardous and
strong candidates for recovery and recycle as opposed to
traditional methods of disposal.  These wastes also contain
components identified previously as likely to have potential
value.

       A relatively few number of states are seen to dominate
with respect to diversity of industry, producing an array of
candidate materials for waste exchanges.  These states are:

         California        Ohio
         Illinois          Pennsylvania
         New Jersey        Texas
         New York

       A set of secondary states not as rich in waste diversity,
but also having large volumes of candidate wastes include
the following:

         Florida           Michigan
         Georgia           Montana
         Idaho             North Carolina
         Indiana           Tennessee
         Louisiana         Wisconsin
         Massachusetts

       It will be noticed that two relatively rural states,
Idaho and Montana, are included in the secondary listing.
The reason is, these states have primary metal smelting and
refining industries.  There is actually very little diversity
in types of wastes from these industries (i.e. slags, sludges).

       In a similar manner, a number of rural states produce
large volumes of waste rock and tailings of highly-questionable,
limited exchange value (Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado).
Mining wastes have not been included in Table 5.0-2 listings
for this reason.  Primary metal smelting and refining
listings have been retained because these operations result
in residues which may have metal concentrations meriting
recovery and/or processing through waste exchanges (i.e.
electrolytic sludges/slimes, metal-enriched pollution
control sludges and dusts).
                           5-9

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       Once the listing of states was completed, SMSA's
within major and secondary states were examined for the
purpose of suggesting candidate areas for operating waste
exchanges and for waste exchange seminars.  Shaded portions
of Figure 5.0-1 shows the SMSA areas which are recommended.

       Proceeding from the west coast, the San Francisco-
Oakland area is a logical choice for a waste exchange
serving the large number of SMSA's in Central California.
The Los Angeles-Long Beach area would serve the industry
associated with the Southern California region.

       The large petrochemical industrial complex of the
Texas Gulf region could be well served by seminars and an
exchange in the Houston-Calveston SMSA.  In a similar
manner, waste seminars and waste exchanges in the New Orleans-
Baton Rouge area would be useful.  This could also serve
the Mobile, Alabama area.

       Seminars and waste exchanges are recommended for the
large industrial complex in the Chicago area.  An exchange
located in Chicago could serve the Milwaukee SMSA as well as
the large number of SMSA's around Chicago.  A waste exchange
and seminar in the Detroit area would serve the automobile
and related industries of Michigan.

       A waste exchange in Cincinnati could reasonably serve
the Dayton, Columbus areas of southern Ohio and perhaps
southern Indiana.

       Pittsburgh could serve the highly iron and steel
oriented region extending from Pittsburgh, northwest to
Cleveland and including Akron, Youngstown and other
industrial SMSA's.

       The iron and steel and chemicals dominated Buffalo-
Niagara Falls SMSA could benefit greatly from a waste exchange
and associated seminars.  An upstate New York exchange and
seminars in the Syracuse-Albany areas appears appropriate.

       One or more waste exchanges are most certainly
appropriate for the huge industrial complex of refineries,
chemical plants and other industries extending from
New York City to Wilmington. Delaware.  Likewise, seminars
and a waste exchange in the vicinity of Bos ton could serve
the industrialized SMSA's of New England.

       A waste exchange serving the chemicals, metals and
electronics industries of Virginia appears appropriate in
the Richmond vicinity.  The predominantly textile and
chemicals oriented industries of central North Carolina


                            5-10

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                                                                         0)
                                                                        -

                                                                        8
                                                                        u
                                                                        r4
                                                                         3
                                                                        c/j

                                                                         CO
                                                                         cfl
                                                                         
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would be served by seminars and an exchange located within
the Burlington SMSA complex.

       The textiles and inorganic chemicals industries of
Georgia could be served by an exchange in Atlanta.  This
exchange may serve the northern Alabama industrial area of
Birmingham-Tuscaloosa although a waste exchange for this
area may also be appropriate.  A waste exchange in the
vicinity of Tampa, Florida may also be considered.

       Although the previous discussions have attempted to
identify major states and areas for waste exchanges, the
possibilities (and realities) for waste exchange in other
states and areas must not be ignored.  Table 5.0-3 lists
major industries of each state thereby providing further
insight into other waste exchange opportunities.

       Energy Recovery - Many of the wastes in present waste
exchange listings and having potential for listing are
entirely or substantially organic.  Examples include pallets,
scrap plastic resins, oils, solvents, carbon filters and
off-specification organic products.  Under the present
conditions of fuel shortages and mounting energy costs
which are not expected to abate, it would seem highly
opportune for waste exchanges to explore the use of exchange
listed products in waste-to-energy facilities.  The
compatibility of these wastes with energy recovery
facilities would, of course, have to be evaluated on an
individual basis.

       Thus, as example, many chlorinated hydrocarbons and
polyvinyl chloride plastics with high calorific value which
yield hydrochloric acid (HC1) fumes, must be scrubbed, when
at significant concentrations,  Many highly toxic compounds
such as PCB's and chlorinated insecticides must be carefully
incinerated at high temperatures and relatively long
residence time.  These compounds would not be accepted in
normal waste-to-energy installations.

       Many food and paper processing, and wood industry wastes
are expected to be prime candidates for waste-to-energy
installations.  The most essential prerequisite is that
the calorific value (i.e. net calorific value) of the dried
material results in significant positive heat value.

       Many municipalities and/or industries throughout the
United States have waste-to-energy installations on line,
in construction or in various stages of planning.  The status
of these projects as of March 1980 was reported by the
National Center for Resource Recovery, Washington, D.C*
and is enclosed as Appendix I.  Although these projects


                            5-12

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                            TABLE 5.0-3

            SUMMARY LIST OF MAJOR INDUSTRIES BY STATE

    STATE                          INDUSTRIES


NORTHEAST
   Maine  	   Paper; leather; food.
   N.He   	   Elec. equip., mach.  exc.  elec.,  paper.
   Vt.    	   Mach. exc. elec., fabricated metal;  paper.
   Mass.  	   Mach. exc. elec., elec.  equip.,  instruments.
   R.I.   	   Misc. mfg., fabricated metal; primary metal.
   Conn.  	   Chemicals; print and publishing; instruments.

MIDDLE ATLANTIC
   N.Y.   	   Print and publish.,  instru'ts; mach. exc.  elec.
   N.J.   	   Chemicals; food; elec. equip., mach. exc.  elec.
   Pa.    	   Primary metal; mach. exc. electrical; food.

EAST NORTH CENTRAL
   Ohio   	   Trans, equip., mach. exc. elec., fab. metal.
   Ind.   	   Elec. equip., primary metal; trans,  equip.
   111.   	   Mach. exc. elec., food;  fabricated metal.
   Mich.  	   Trans, equip., mach. exc. elec., fab. metal.
   Wis.   	   Mach. exc. elec., food;  paper; fab.  metal.

WEST NORTH CENTRAL
   Minn.  	   Mach. exc. elec.; food;  fab. metal;  elec.  equip.
   Iowa	   Maeh. ecx. elec.; food;  chemicals; elec. equip.
   Mo.    	   Trans, equip.; food; chemicals;  mach. exc. elec.
   N.Dak. 	   Mach. exc. elec.; food;  print and publishing.
   S.Dak. 	   Food; mach. exc. electrical; lumber.
   Nebr.  	   Food; mach. exc. elec.;  elec. equip.; chemicals.
   Kans.  	   Food; mach. exc. electrical; chemicals.

SOUTH ATLANTIC
   Del.   	   Food; rubber; primary metal; mach. exec. elec.
   Md.    	   Food; primary metal; electronic  equip.
   D.C.   	   Print and Publishing;  food;  fabricated metal.
   Va.    	   Chemicals; tobacco;  food; electronic equip.
   W.Va.  	   Chem.; prim, metal;  stone, clay, glass prod.
   N.C.   	   Textiles; tobacco; chemicals; mach.  exc. elec.
   S.C.   	   Textiles; chemicals; apparel; mach.  exec.  elec.
   Ga.    	   Textiles; trans, equipment;  food; paper.
   Fla.   	   Food; elec. equip.;  chemicals; trans, equip.

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL
   Ky.    	   Mach. exc. elec.; chemicals; elec. equip.; foods,
   Tenn.  	   Chemicals; food; mach. exc.  elec.; apparel.
   Ala.   	   Primary metals; paper; textiles; chemicals.
   Miss.  	   Trans, equip.; apparel;  chemicals; food.

                                                     continued  -

                            5-13

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                             TABLE 5.0-3 continued
       STATE
INDUSTRIES
WEST SOUTH CENTRAL
   Ark.   	   Food; electronic equip.;  paper;  chemicals.
   La.    	   Chemicals; petroleum;  food;  furniture.
   Okla.  	   Mach. exc. electrical;  food; fabricated metal.
   Tex.   	   Chemicals; petroleum; mach.  exc.  electrical.

MOUNTAIN
   Mont.  	   Lumber; food;  stone,  clay,  glass  products.
   Idaho  	   Food; lumber;  chemicals.
   Wyo.   	   Petroleum; food; stone, clay,  glass.
   Colo.  	   Food; instruments;  fabricated  metal.
   N.Mex. 	   Food; electronic equip.;  stone,  clay,  glass.
   Ariz.  	   Mach. exc. elec.;  elec. equip.;  primary metal.
   Utah   	   Mach. exc. electrical;  food; trans,  equip.
   Nev.   	   Stone, clay,  glass;  food; print  and  publishing.

PACIFIC
   Wash.  	   Trans, equipment;  lumber; food;  furniture.
   Oreg.  	   Lumber; food;  paper;  instruments.
   Calif.	   Trans, equip.; food;  elec.  equip.; mach.  exc.  elec,
   Alaska 	   Food; lumber;  printing  and  publishing.
   Hawaii 	   Food; print and publishing;  stone, clay,  glass.
                                  Source:  Statistical  Abstract
                                  of the United States,  1979
                                  U.S.  Dept.  of Commerce
                                  Bureau of the Census
                             5-14

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have been built Co burn municipal crash for energy, ic is
entirely conceivable Chat large volumes of selected
industrial wastes provided on a regular basis could
become appropriate feedstock.

       It is of interest to note that with the exception of
Texas and Georgia, all of the states previously identified
as having high potential for waste exchanges also have
one or more waste-to-energy installations either in
operation or planned.

       Table 5.0-4 summarizes the status of United States
Waste Information Exchanges by state.  Based on the foregoing
criteria of industries, waste materials and potential for
waste energy recovery, a list of 14 states having a distinct
need for waste exchanges and seminars was compiled.  Six
of these 14 states already have operating waste information
exchanges.  Massachusetts, with a New England exchange
being planned, brings the number to seven out of 14 having
exchanges in varying stages of operation.

       It should be noted that an additional seven states
that already have operating waste exchanges had a lesser
need for establishing a waste information exchange according
to our criteria.

       The seven remaining states shown in the last column
of Table 5.0-4 would be ideal primary candidates for seminars
on, and establishment of, waste information exchanges.
These are:
                 1.  Louisiana
                 2.  Illinois
                 3.  Michigan
                 4.  Pennsy1vania
                 5.  Virginia
                 6.  Alabama
                 7.  Florida
                           5-15

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                      TABLE 5.0-4

         STATUS AND REQUIREMENTS OF STATES FOR
              WASTE INFORMATION EXCHANGES
STATES THAT HAVE
A NEED FOR WASTE
INFORMATION
EXCHANGES	

California
Texas
Louisiana
Illinois
Michigan
Ohio
Pennsylvania
New York
Massachusetts
Virginia
North Carolina
Georgia
Alabama
Florida
STATES THAT
ALREADY HAVE
WASTE INFORMATION
EXCHANGES	

California
Texas
Ohio

New York
Mas sa chus e t1 s*

North Carolina
Georgia
STATES THAT ARE
SUITABLE CANDIDATES
FOR SEMINARS AND
WASTE INFORMATION
EXCHANGES	
Louisiana
Illinois
Michigan

Pennsylvania
Virginia
                    Alabama
                    Florida
                    Washington
                    Oregon
                    Iowa
                    Missouri
                    Minnesota
                    Tennessee
                    New Jersey
  New England Regional Commission is starting up
  a waste information exchange.
                        5-16

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5.1  Waste Exchange Programs by Industrial Trade Associations


       The distinct tendencies of existing waste exchanges to
concentrate in particular types of material categories, and
to depend upon private sponsorship and funding, suggests a
strategy whereby industrial trade associations could
actively promote waste exchanges.  Thus, for example, the
chemicals industry is a major souce of materials for waste
exchanges, and its trade associations could increase the
volume of exchanges significantly.  The following trade
associations, or better yet, a "consortium" of trade
associations is advanced as having high potential for
promoting and implementing materials exchange within the
chemicals industry:

       Chemical Manufacturers Assoc. - Washington, D.C.
       Chemical Specialties Mfrs. Assoc. - Washington, D.C.
       Drug, Chemical and Allied Trade Assoc. - Bayside, N.Y.
       Fire Retardant Chemicals Assoc. - Westport, Conn.
       Pesticide Formulators Assoc., Washington, D.C.
       Pulp Chemical Assoc. - New York, N.Y.
       Synthetic Organic Chemical Mfrs. Assoc. -
                                       Scarsdale, N.Y.
       National Agricultural Chemicals Assoc. - Wash. D.C.
       American Petroleum Institute - Washington, D.C.
       American Petroleum Refiners Assoc. - Washington, D.C.
       American Petroleum Re-Refiners - Washington, D.C.


       Another group of Trade Associations which would appear
to benefit from a consortium to promote waste exchanges are
the primary and secondary metals industry associations:

       American Iron and Steel Institute
       The Aluminum Assoc.
       Lead Institute
       Zinc Institute
       Aluminum Recycling Assoc.
       Ferroalloy Assoc.
       American Foundrymen
       Secondary Lead Smelters Assoc.
       National Assoc. of Recycling Industries
       National Assoc. of Metal Finishers


       Other trade associations or groups of trade associations
in various industry sectors (textiles, wood and pulp, rubber,
plastics) are also candidates for promotion and establishment
of waste exchanges.  These are shown following:


                           5-17

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                     TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
ABRASIVES
       Coated Abrasive Manufacturers Institute
AGRICULTURE
       National Agricultural Chemicals Assoc.
ALUMINUM
       The Aluminum Association
       Aluminum Recycling Assoc,
ASBESTOS
       A/C Pipe Producers Assoc.
       Assoc. of Asbestos-Cement Pipe Producers
ASPHALT
       Asphalt Emulsion Mfrs. Assoc.
       Asphalt Roofing Mfrs. Assoc.
BARRELS
       Associated Cooperage Industries of America Inc.
BATTERIES
       Independent Battery Mfrs. Assoc.


CHEMICALS & CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
       Chlorine Institute, New York, N.Y.
       Manufacturing Chemists Assoc., Washington, D.C.
       Chemical Specialties Mfrs. Assoc. Inc., Wash., D.C.
       Drug, Chemical and Allied Trade Assoc. Inc.,
                                          Bayside, N. Y.
       Fire Retardant Chemicals Assoc., Westport, Conn.
       Pesticide Formulators Assoc., Washington, D.C.
       Pulp Chemical Assoc., New York, N.Y.
       Synthetic Organic Chemical Mfrs. Assoc.,
                                        Scarsdale, N.Y.
       National Agricultural Chemicals Assoc., Wash. D.C.
       National Assoc. of Pharmaceutical Mfrs., New York, N.Y.
       Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Assoc., Washington, D.C.
                           5-18

-------
PETROLEUM
       American Petroleum Institute, Washington,  D.C.
       American Petroleum Refiners Assoc., Wash., D.C.
       Assoc. of Petroleum Re-Refiners, Wash.,  D.C.
METALS, METAL SLUDGES
       National Assoc. of Recycling Industries,
                                     New York, N.  Y.
LEATHER
       Leather Industries of America, New York,  N.Y.
       Tanners Council of America, New York, N.Y.
METALS
       Aluminum Recycling Assoc.
       Electrochemical Society Inc.
       Ferroalloys Assoc. Inc.
       Zinc Institute Inc.
       Lead Institute Inc.
       National Assoc. of Metal Finishers, Chicago, Illinois
PAPER
       American Paper Institute, New York
       Technical Assoc. of the Pulp and Paper Industry,
                                  Atlanta, Georgia
PLASTICS - NARI
RUBBER - NARI
       Rubber Mfrs. Assoc. Inc., Washington, D.  C
TEXTILES
       American Dye Mfrs. Institute
       Felt Mfrs. Council
       Man-made Fiber Products Assoc.
                           5-19

-------
6.0  SEMINAR SPEAKERS
       A list of potential seminar speakers was compiled,
based on their experience and familiarity with waste
exchanges and related subjects.  The speakers were
categorized into six classes of experience with waste
exchanges.  These are:


                1.  Industry
                2.  Exchange Manager
                3.  Consultant
                4.  Broker
                5.  Attorney
                6.  General
The list of speakers is shown tabulated according to
experience and the ten U.S. EPA Regions, in Table 6.0-1.
A directory of names and addresses are shown in Appendix II,

       Some of the candidates, even though listed in
Table 6.0-1 according to their home or office address in
U.S. EPA Regions, should no doubt be called on as seminar
speakers outside their EPA region because of their extra-
ordinary experience or knowledge.
                            6-1

-------
                          TABLE  6.0-L

              LIST OF CANDIDATE  SEMINAR  SPEAKERS
        Candidate Speaker
U.S. EPA Region I

   S. Keyes Walworth
   John A. Cunningham
   John Kehoe
   Robert C. Terry, Jr,
   Joan B. Berkowitz
   Robert G. Taylor

U.S. EPA Region II

   G.F. Petit
   James E. Knap
   Bob Kelly
   John Flandreau
   Robert L. Schulz
   Karjorie L. Hart
   Peter Alevra
   Charles A. Ballard
   Alfonse M. D'Amato
   Ira Freilicher
   Sidney P. Kudd
   Robert M. Schiffer
   JoT. Engster
   Ken Kearney
   Ludlum
   Edward Isenberg
   Richard P. Leonard
   Howard Ness
   William Balgord
   Donald J. Kuhn
                                           Waste  Exchange
                                         Experience Category
M
4J
0)
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
                                            s-l
                                            
-------
TABLE 6.0-1  Continued - 2
                                        Waste Exchange
                                      Experience Category
anager
     Candidate Speaker
4-1
CO

-a
c
a)
00
G
03

O
                                               cO
CO
C
O
O
                                                       0)
                                                       a
cO
M

g

-------
TABLE 6.0-1  Continued - 3
        Candidate Speaker
U.S. SPA Region VII

   Oscar S. Richards
   Edward 0. Sealine
   Wilson A. Kluckman
   David E. Murray
   Dennis Lynch
   M. M. Fine

U.S. EPA Region IX

   Paul H. Williams
   Carl G. Schwarzer
   Leo Brokaw
   Leonard Stefanelli
   Paul Palmer
   Robert Beatty
   Frank S. Patrinostra

U.S. EPA Region X

   Delyn Kies
   Jack Peabody
   Judy Henry
   Jerry Powell
   Dave Clark
   William R. Bree
   Larry Gray

   Michael ZiSit

Foreign

   Robert Laughlin
Waste Exchange
Experience Category




^
^i
CO
3
TJ
G





X


X

X
X
X

J-l
0)
GO
ctf
G
ctf
S


CO ^jj
G 0
O J-l
O OQ

X
X



X
X


X

X




&\

-------
7.0  CONCLUSION


       The exchange and reuse of waste materials, in addition
to protecting the environment, results in disposal cost
savings: conservation of raw materials, along with the
energyHt&T process raw materials; the reuse of energy-rich
waste materials such as waste oils and wood wastes.  Significant
quantities of waste materials are being recycled, reused
and salvaged.

       Nearly a decade of waste exchange experience has shown
its usefulness in reducing the amount of solid wastes and
unsalvageable waste materials.  Public education and seminar
programs should foster the improvement of existing waste
exchanges and encourage the establishment of new waste
material and information exchanges.

       Waste exchanges do not offer the only solution to solid
and hazardous waste disposal problems, but offer one of the
least cost, most environmentally and socially sound approaches
to this complex problem.

       The inherent distrust of government management of waste
exchanges in the United States, along with the apparent
success of privately run exchanges suggests that operations
should be encouraged to remain in the private sector.
However, the public/government interest can be served by
recycling or reclamation of materials that might otherwise
be disposed of in the environment.  In the case of hazardous
wastes, avoidance of land disposal, as effected by waste
transfer and reclamation, serves as a means of protecting
public health and welfare.

       In order to increase the percentage of hazardous wastes
which are successfully transferred, incentives to generators,
users, private waste exchange operators, or others, are
recommended for consideration.  Incentives could take the
form of tax credits on successfully transferred materials
contained in hazardous waste lists issued under RCRA or by
individual states.  Strict rules would be necessary, however,
to ensure that exchanged hazardous materials do not pose a
threat to human health in recycle usage.  In a similar manner,
materials which are used as fuel could be eligible for tax
credits based on their calorific value.

       A direct establishment of waste exchanges by the
Federal and State governments is not recommended.  Information
seminars in various regions of the country are felt to be
important catalysts in explaining the opportunities and
advantages which waste exchanges offer for private enterprise
and affiliated Trade Associations.

                            7-1

-------
       The impetus of present waste disposal rules and
regulations, especially RCRA should provide incentives
for waste generators to seek clearinghouse services for
the exchange of wastes rather than absorb the increased
cost of environmentally acceptable disposal.

       The government can promote the establishment of
waste exchanges through low cost loans, tax credits and
technical assistance.  Regional EPA offices should be
able to advise business interests with specifics regarding
opportunities for establishing waste exchanges, including
the identification of candidate industries and materials.
Regional offices of EPA and the Department of Commerce
through the Small Business Administration could assist
qualified interests in obtaining the necessary funding
and technical know-how for start-up or expansion of
exchanges.
                           7-2

-------
 8.0  REFERENCES


 1)  "Waste Clearinghouses  and Exchanges:  New Ways  for  Identifying
     and Transferring Reusable Industrial  Process Wastes"
     Robert C.  Terry et.al.,  Arthur D.  Little Inc.,  Report  SW-130C
     prepared for U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency,  1976.

 2)  Battelle-Columbus  Laboratories, "Assessment of  Industrial
     Hazardous  Waste Practices; Electroplating and Metal Finishing
     Industries-Job Shops," U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency,
     in preparation, to be  distributed  by  the National  Technical
     Information Service.

 3)  WAPORA, Inc., "Assessment of Industrial Hazardous  Waste
     Practices:  Paint and Allied  Products  Industry  Contract
     Solvent Reclaiming Operations, and Factory Application of
     Coatings,"  Environmental Protection Publication SW-119c,
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, PB-251 669 (1976).

 4)  WAPORA, Inc., "Assessment of Industrial Hazardous  Waste
     Practices-Special  Machines Manufacturing Industries,"
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Publication  SW-141C
     (March, 1977).

 5)  Jacobs Engineering Company,  "Assessment of Industrial  Hazardous
     Waste Practices in the Petroleum Refining Industry," U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, in preparation, to be
     distributed by the National  Technical Information  Service.

 6)  Gruber, G.I., "Assessment of Industrial Hazardous  Waste Practices,
     Organic Chemicals, Pesticides, and Explosives  Industries,"
     Environmental Protection Publication  SW-118c, U.S.  Environ-
     mental Protection  Agency, PB-251 307  (April, 1975).

 7)  Versar, Incorporated,  "Assessment  of  Industrial Hazardous
     Waste Practices, Storage and Primary  Batteries  Industries,"
     Environmental Protection Publication  SW-102c, U.S.  Environ-
     mental Protection  Agency, PB-241 204  (January,  1975).

 8)  Calspan Corporation,  "Assessment of Industrial  Hazardous Waste
     Practices  in the Metal Smelting and Refining Industry," U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Publication SW-145c 4
     (April, 1977).

 9)  Versar, Incorporated,  "Assessment  of  Industrial Hazardous
     Waste Practices, Textiles Industry,"  U.S.  Environmental
     Protection  Agency, Publication SW-125c (June,  1976).

10)  Foster D.  Snell, Inc., "Assessment of Industrial Hazardous
     Waste Practices, Rubber  and  Plastics  Industry," US.
     Environmental Protection Agency, in preparation, to be
     distributed by the National  Technical Information  Service.
                             8-1

-------
 REFERENCES continued


11)  Shaver, R.G.,  et al.,  "Assessment  of  Industrial Hazardous
     Waste Practices; Inorganic  Chemicals  Industry," Environmental
     Protection Publication SW-104c,  U.S.  Environmental Protection
     Agency PB-244832 (March 1975).

12)  SCS Engineers,  Inc.,  "Assessment of Industrial Hazardous
     Waste Practices-Leather Tanning  and Finishing Industry,"
     U.S. Environmental  Protection Publication  SW-131c
     (November, 1976).

13)  Arthur D.  Little,  Inc.,  "Pharmaceutical  Industry: Hazardous
     Waste Generation,  Treatment, and Disposal,"  Environmental
     Protection Publication SW-508, U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, 1976.

14)  WAPORA, Inc.,  "Assessment of Industrial  Hazardous Waste
     Practices  - Electronic Components  Manufacturing Industry"
     U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency  Publication 3W-140c
    (Jan. 1977).
                             8-2

-------
         APPENDIX I






RESOURCE RECOVERY ACTIVITIES
            A-l

-------
                     March 1980

                    Volume 10, Number 1
]NCRR BULLETIN
THE JOURNAL OF RESOURCE RECOVERY
    Notional Center for Resource Recovery, Inc.

-------
                      ACTIVITIES
                   National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc.
                   1211 Connecticut Aw. N. W.. Washington. D.C. 20036
         to hrokea dewa tat* feeur *aat.*at* for ease of review: (1) capttaMateaalve
              ery ffacHMtea that are hvttt. ooerattei, hi shakedowa, wMler cOMtrvcttoa or 1m
 For aeveral year*, NCMJt aa* heea trackiag reaoarc* recovery actlvitie* ia tke U.S. aad pabtt*h-
lag periodic aaatatarie*. Becaa** of the growiag iatereat hi *y*teaw to aioderate *olid waat* dia-
poaal prohteai* white recoveriaa. recyclahle* aad eaeray prodact*pta* a growiag aaaiher of pref-
ect*  lag aadertakeawe kave adapted tke Hctiag to a reaalar featare ia every otker i**ae of tke
MCKfti
 Tke
aad MM*
coatract-aftgatajg *tage*; (1) *auiller. coatroHed-air or aiodalar coatka*tloa project*; (3) aietkaae
recovery froai *aaHary UadflU* project*; aad (4) Jari*dk.tioa* wkere coauaitaieat* kave
ported to aadertake reaoarc* recovery project*, la addrHoa to tk* *y*teai* Itoted kere, a
of ceaiaiaaHi** are *aga*ticaity **paratiag ferroa* aietal* aad coadactiag *oarce **paratka pro-
graai* for oM aewapaper*. etc.
 AHkoagk every effort ka* heea atade to auik* tki* report coaiplete aad ap-to-date, tke dyaaaiic*
of re*oarce recovery are rack tkat tk* ctata* of project* caa  ckaage at aay tiaie. For ctarWcatioa)
or addWoaal iafonaatioa, therefore, we *egge*t tkat yoa write directly to tke coatact* Uated.
 We are gratefal for tke review aad iapat hy tke varioa* project r*pre*eatattve*, a* well a* that
ffroai local, *tat* aad federal official*, partfealarty the U.S. Eaviroaaieatal Protectioa Ageacy aad
the U.S. Departaieat off Eaeray.
LOCATION ET PARTICIPANTS
AIIM.OIM City, Glaus. Pyte
Schomer. Burns I
De Haven: Ruhlm
Const. Co.. Babcock
IWilcoiCo (boiler
supplier), leledyne
NalKnul (oueului)
ARMqi.N.Y. City and 10 nearby
communities, Smith
i Mahoney (deagn-
er/proiect mgr.)


Ants, Itwa Cily. Gibbs, Hill,
Durham & Richard-
son, Inc (designer)



laftMwn, City; EPA
Mi*






PROCESS
Shredding, air classi-
fication, magnetic
separation, burning
RDF in semi-suspen-
sion, stoker -grate
baler

Shredding; magnetic
separation, burning
in semi-suspension,
stoker-grate boiler,
nonferrous recovery
from boiler ash
Baling waste paper,
shredding, magnetic
separation, air classi-
fication, screening,
other mechanical
separation
Formerly Landgard*
process, now
modified signifi-
cantly by Baltimore
City includes shred-
dint pyrolysis, steam
production; water
quenching
REPORTED
OUTPUT CAPACITY
Steam lor urban and 1000 TPD
industrial heating
and cooling, ferrous
metals



ROF, ferrous metals, 750 TPO
steam for urban heat-
ing and cooling,
nonferrous metals


Refuse-derived luel 200 TPD
for use by utility; 50 TPH
baled paper, ferrous
metals, aluminum,
other nonterrous
metals
Steam for use 600 TPD
by city utility






REPORTED
CAPITAL
COSTS
(MILLIONS
Oft) STATUS
51' In shakedown, fully
operational in March 1980





22 Construction completed
in March 1980,
shakedown to begin
in April; steam
generating facility
operational in 1981
6. 19 Operational since
1975




30.1 Plant operating 24
hrs/day, 6 days/week






CONTACT
Dave Chapman
203 Municipal Bldg
166 South H*h St.
Akron, Ohn 44308



Patrick Mahoney
Smith I Mahoney
40 Steuben St
Albany, N.Y. 12207


Arnold Chantland,
Oir.
Dept of Public Works
City Hall
5thandKellugSt.
Ames, Iowa i.0010
Ed May
Baltimore City
PrrorysB Plant
1800 Annapolis Rd.
Baltimore, Md.
21230


March 1910
                                 A-3

-------
LOCHM
Tmin.1..
CM*, Hi





ta.ttJM.gim







WteMrt.
Caw.






Ckfcaia,M.
Hartaiwaal
(CMmeM)


CMca*NL
OraiwertSafpla-
MtaryFMl
PrMtatogFadHy)
Mm** Of*









aafcCMity,
Fla.







OeMtMlch.









(EYPMncifMR
County; Maryland
Environ (ntntil Svv*
ice;TeledyneNa-
tmuKdesajner/
operator)


City (owner/oper-
ator); Camp.
Dresser 1 McKa*,
Inc. (designer)




Conn Resources Re-
covery Authority. Oc-
cidental Petroleum
Corp. and Combus-
tion Equipment
Assoc. (designer/
operator)

City; Metcalf t
Eddy, Inc.
(designer)


City; Ralph M. Par-
sons Company and
Consoei, Townsend
i Assoc. (designers)
City; AWenE. Slihon
Assoc. (designer)








County, Black Claw-
son/Parsons t
Whittemore, Inc
(designer)





City









HNCCSS
Shredding; air classi-
fication; magnetic
separation




Mass burning







Shredding; magnetic
separation; air classi-
fication, froth
flotation




Walerwall
combustion



Shredding; air classi-
fication, magnetic
separation

Shredding; magnetic
separation, burning
of shredded refuse
with supplemental
coal in semi-suspen-
sion, stoker-grate
boiler to produce
steam; generation
of electricity from
steam
Hydrasposal(wet
pulping); magnetic
and other mechan
icl separation





Shredding, aw classi-
fication, magnetic
separation, dedicated
boilers






arm
imnn (wuiofn
ovmrr arum *
RfD; ferrous metals; 600-1500 TPD 8.4
glass tor secondary
products; aluminum




Steam; producing 2SOTPO 2.8
V, million Ibs/day;
selling U of
steam produced to
Art 1 Leather Co.



fen-fuel II" (Pow- 1800 TPD 5.T
dered fuel) lor use in
utility boiler; ferrous
metals; nonferrous
metals; glass



Steam for Brach 1600 TPD 23
Candy Co.; ferrous
metals


RDF lor use by 1000 TPD 19"
utility. Iwrom
metals

Electricity for 2000 TPD 127
City customers








Steam for utility to 300 TPD 1 65
produce electricity,
glass, aluminum;
ferrous metals





Steam and/or elec 3000 TPD 125
tncily for u by
Detroit Edison;
ferrous metals






CTITUS
Operatmial, recover-
ing ferrous nwttfs
and producing sec-
ondary sliredded and
peHetiiMl RDF; glass
and aluminum recov-
ery operational
Operational since
1971






Cnnslrur.lmncMn
plele; startup has
begun; Eca-Fuel II-
m production
and bein|[ test
burned al United
Illuminating Co.

Operational since
1971, stem
delivery eipected
to be on line
in 1980
Temporarily off-stream
to review lupnienci!
lo date and evaluate
future opttations
Equipment being
purchased; site
preparation began
July 1979
piling begun lor
foundations; operational
in late 19ISI



Contracts 'Signed be-
tween County, P*W
and 1 U fiiwn *
Light; polltilion con-
trol bonds sold by
state; conduction
began April 1979;
comptelNNi scherl
uled lor A|ml 1981
NrtoHatinRwrlh
CombunlNin 1 ngi
neering, Inc. /Waste
Resources Corp., prior
to contract signing;
steam to be pur-
chased by Detroit
Edison; Stuteof Michigan
environmental impact
statement being prepared
C8RTICT
Kenneth Cramer
Tetedyne National
117 Church Lane
CockeysvUle. Md.
21030


Edward Cowchene,
Supt
Bmnlree Thermal
Waste Reduction
Center
Ivory Street
Bramtree, Mass.
02184
Fri Krth. Ihr .
Cmpmali!
Communicalnns
Combustion
Equipment Assoc
555 Madison Ave.
New York. NY.
10022
tmrl Nigro
Supervising Engineer
Bureau of Sanitation
Room 704-City Hall
Chicago, in. 60602
(Same as prevmm
Inling)


Henry BeH, Supt
Div. of Electricity
SOW. Gay St.
Columbuv OIH17IS






Dennis Carter
As4 Cminly Manafti
Hmm'JII
Dade County
(jMirlhoiiv
73 W llaghnSI
Miarm.lla 33i:<0


Mchl Itimki-i
Dqil nl 1'iihlM. INriiks
Cilyol Detroit
City County Bldg .
Room 513
Detroit. Mich. 48226




A-4
                                   NCRR Bulletin

-------
LOCATION
Mttt.MiM.






East
Hwfvnttf,
Matt.


CtMCnt,N.Y.





HaatttM.Va.





KanfelMrtPa.






U*m*i*ta*^
iwipSRM,
N.Y.







LakataRirla.








LMtCtmty.
Ore.






Maa%a*.Nis.





KIT PAtTKIPANTJ
Western Lake Supe-
rior Sanitary District
(operator); Consoar,
Townsend I Assoc.
(engineer)


City of Brockton and
nearby towns. Com-
bustion Equipment
Assoc . East Bridge-
water Assoc
City (owner/
operator), William
F Cosulich and
Ernest F W Frank
(fh*M(JIIWS)

Crty; NASA Langtey
Research Center
U.S. Aw Force at
Langtey Field, JM
Kenith Co (designer/
builder)
City, Gannett, Flem-
ing, Corddry and
Carpenter, Inc.
(designer)



Town; Hempstead
Resource Recovery
Corp (Div. of Black
Clawson/ Parsons &
Whittemore, Inc)
(owner/operator)



City (operator and
joint ownei with
Orlando Utility Com-
mission), C.T Mam,
Inc. (power plant
designer); Horner I
Shifrm. Inc (waste
processing plant
designer)
County. Allis-
Chalmers Corp (de-
signer). Western
Waste Corp
(operator)



City and M.L. Smith
Environmental (de-
signer), Madison Gas
& Electric Co (RDF
user)

PtOCESS
Shredding; magnetic
separation; air classi-
fication; secondary
shredding; fluidized
bed incineration of
RDF and sludge

Shredding; air classi-
fication; magnetic
separation, other me-
chanical separation

Mass burning in
stoker-fired furnace
with vacuum filtered
sewage sludge


Mass burning





Waterwall combus-
tion, bulky waste
shredding (steam
driven); magnetic
separation, sewage
sludge burning

Hydrasposal(wet
pulping), magnetic
and mechanical sep-
aration, burning of
RDF product in air-
swept spout spreader
stoker boilers


Shredding; magnetic
separation, burning
RDF with coal






Shredding, air classi-
fication, magnetic
separation





Shredding; magnetic
separation; separation
of combustibles and
non -combustibles.
secondary shredding
an swept
OUTPUT
RDF; ferrous metals;
steam for heating and
cooling of plant and
to run process
equipment


Eco-Fuelll* for in-
dustrial boiler;
ferrous metals


Steam for
electricity for use
at sewage plant



Steam for use by
NASALangley
Research Center



Steam for utility-
owned district heat-
ing system and for
City-owned sludge
drying system,
ferrous metals

Electricity from util-
ity-owned turbine
generators, color-
sorted glass, alumi-
num, ferrous metals




Steam to produce
electricity lor use by
City of Lakeland and
Orlando Utility
Commission; ferrous
metals



RDF, ferrous metals







RDF for use by Madi-
son Gas * Electric
Co ; ferrous metals



REPORTED
CAPACITY
400 TPD of
MSW:340TPD
of 20% solids
sewage sludge



550 TPD being
processed



225 TPD





200 TPO





720 TPD






2000 TPD
(150 TPH)







300 TPD








500 TPD







400 TPD
(max.) (200
TPD being
processed)


REPORTED
CAPITAL
COSTS
(MILLIONS
Of*)
19'






10-12




32
-------
LOCATION
NitoMkM,
MB.









HlMf
CM*. N.T.





NasMIt,
I*M.






NtMrk, NJ.






NwOriMO,
La.





Niagara Fafe,
N.T.




Noriot, Va.
(U.S. Natal StatoM)



Occaasrie, N.T.





OfMftCtMtl.
Fb.(lMt
DiMtiNirM,




HIT PMTKIPANTS
City, (to expand to
surrounding Milwau-
kee County aieas),
AmnicotofT On ol
American Can Co
(ownei/opeialoi),
HcthlH. hie
(dmtnei)



County (ownei). Ray-
theon Seince Co
(designer)




Nashnlle Thermal
Transfer Coip , 1 C
Thomasson & Assoc .
Inc (designer)




City. Combustion
Equipment Assoc

-------
Locum
fhiataiCata*,
fh.







talpMtoC..
Ha.





totaMetMa.
(Me* tart
MpaaiO


PrtMt*,a.
(Stajeteaavafli
TUwraaN EM0
Pmiact)





SatMeia
Ccwti.Caif.*






SavB.Maat.




TacMM,Wts..





MM**
Dal*







in rimirMTs
County; Florida Power
Corp, UOP. Inc.







Waste, Management,
Inc., U S Dept of
Energy, IKODS
Engineering Co
(desn-ner)


U.S. Navy (owner);
Public Works Dept.,
Norfolk Naval
Shipyard

Southeastern Public
Service Authority of
Va.; Henmngson,
Durham t Richardson
(architect/engineer),
Day 1 Zimmerman
(construction
manager); Norfolk
Naval Shipyard
County, Occidental
Petroleum Corp.
(designer/operator)





Thirteen communities
including Saugus and
part of northern
Boston, RESCO
(owner/operator)
City (owner/operator),
Boeing Engineering
(designer)



Delaware Solid Waste
Authority; EPA, Ray-
theon Service Co
(designer)





PHXtSJ
Mass burning








Shreddmg; air classi-
fication; magnetic and
other mechanical
separation; anaerobe
digestion of air classi-
fied light fraction with
sewage sludge
Mass burning in water-
wall furnace



Shredding; air classifi-
cation; ferrous 4 non-
ferrous metals separa-
tion; burning RDF in
semi-suspension, stoker-
grate boiler



Shreddmg; air classi-
fication, magnetic
and other mechan-
ical separation; froth
flotation; pyrotysis



Waterwall combus-
tion; magnetic
separation


Shredding, an classi-
fication; magnetic
separation



Shredding; an classi-
fication; magnetic
and other mechan-
ical separation, troth
notation, aerobic
digestion



OVTFUT
Electricity, ferrous
metals, aluminum
and other nonhtrrous
metals recovered
after burning




Methane gas; carbon
dioxide





Steam (30,000 Ibs/hr)
for use by facilities at
Naval Shipyard


RDF; ferrous metals;
nonferrous metals.
steam t electricity
for Shipyard





Pyrolytic oil, ferrous
and nonferrous
metals, glass





Steam for electrical
generation and
industrial use,
ferrous metals

RDF, ferrous metals





Ferrous metals, non-
ferrous metals; glass;
RDF; humus






KMeTTEl
ttntsn
14,000 tons per
week







50-1 00 TPD






160 TPD (two-
SO TPD boilers;
operated alter-
nately)

2000 TPD








200 TPD







1200 TPD (two
boilers with
600-TPD
capacity each)

500 TPO





1000 TPD
municipal
solid waste
co-processed
with 350 IPO
of 20% solids
digested sew-
age sludge

KPMTa
Of ITU
COSTS
tNUJMS
140








3.65






4.5




144.9








EPA-4.2
County-2
Occidental
Petroleum 8 3




50




25k





713'
7 4 from EPA
OSW,21.3from
F. PA Water Prop., 7 1
(mm Stair malr.hmfi
giants, remainder
from the Authority
through sale of
revenue bonds
mm
Final financial arrange-
ments prior to bond
sale; projected to begin
construction this year;
operational 1983




Demonstration plant;
operational





Operational since
1976



Design 40% complete.
site acquired; Environ-
mental Impact Assess-
ment approved; con-
tract for sale of steam
1 electricity to Ship-
yard undergoing ap-
proval, construction to
begin (nearly 1911
Demonstration plant
operations suspended
alter initial testing.
further possible fund-
ing and modification
being considered


Operational since
1975, expansion
being considered


Operational
since 1979




Groundbreaking Aug 1979,
construction begun,
startup expected in
Nnv IWI





tamer
Don F. Acenbrack,
Dir
Solid Waste
Dept of Public Works
and Utilities
Pinedas County
315 Court SI
Oearwater. Fla
33516
Peter j Ware,
Proi Mgr
Waste Management, Inc
900 Jorie Blvd.
Oak Brook, III 60S21


Pete Cunanan
NAVFACENGCOM
Environmental
Quality Division
Norfolk, Va 23511
Durwood S. Curling
Executive Director
Southeastern Tide-
water Energy
Protect
18 Koger Executive
Center, Suite 127
Norfolk. Va 23502

JohnS Burke.
Dep Dir
Solid Waste
Dept of Sanitation
and Flood Control
5555 Overland Ave
San Diego, Calil
92123
Joseph F erianle
Wheelabratoi Five,
Inc
Liberty lane
Hampton, N H 0384?
Rill Larson
PiO| Mgi
Reluse Utility
740 St Helens Ave
Room 304
Tacoma.Wash 98402
Pasquale S Can/ano
Chief Engineer
Delaware Solid
Waste Authority
PI) Him 'IK 1
Uonei. Del I'j'JOl



A-7

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Tli following localities are either operating or constructing sma// modular combustion units to pro-
due* steam from mass combustion of municipal solid waste:
LOCATION
                MMMCTWKt
                                                              REPOtTED
                                           MPMTUQIMCOT   CAflTAl COSTS
                                           (IfO(               PILLIONS Oft)
                                                                                 STATUS
                                                                                                                CONTACT
a*im. HUM     Consumit
        , Art.     Consumal
       , TIM.     Smokalfol
                Consumit
                Consumit
                                            ISO
                                                               32
                                            ?S                 N/A
                                            to be processed
                                            60
                                            100
                                            100
                                                               111
                                                               2.0
Design contract, funded by DOE,
signed, energy use and operator
contracts signed, construction
began Aug  1979, startup planned
to. No. 1980

Temporarily shut down for installation
of additional units
                                                                                 In shakedown, undergoing
                                                                                 modifications
                                                                                 Under construction,
                                                                                 startup scheduled in early 1980
                                                                                 Began operations in Feb 19SO
Robert Bel;
Public Works
Auburn City Hill
45 Spring St
Auburn. Maine 04210

Tom Little, Mayor
City Hall
Blythewlle, Ark 72315

Nelson C. Walker
Gen  Mgr
Environmental Services Corp
PO  Box 765
Crossville. Tenn 38555

Alderman Bob Kirk
Colonial Rubber
Dyersburg. Tenn. 38024

Hinummthiiyi Marur, P E.
Township Engineer
7244 North
  GeneseeRd.
Genesee, Men. 48437
CmelM, NX Ennionmenlal 24
Control Products
LnmfcMg, IMM. CICO 60
Hulk Little Consumat 100
OK**, Alt. Consumit 50
PittsfnM, Mass. Vicon Recovery Assoc (Enercon 240
designed incinerators)
S**.Va. Consumal 100
SrinaSaratp, Consumit 16
Ant
N/A Operational since 19/5
N/A Under construction, to be in operation
in luly 1980
145 Operational 1976-1979, presently
undergoing modifications City
awarded contract to Consumat
Systems. Inc . (or modifications and
long-term operation, scheduled to
re-open in March 1980
1 . 1 Began operations in Jan . 1 980
6.2m Construction to be completed in
Sept. 1980
19 Operational in 1979
.4 Operational since Sept. 1 975
(Presently being used is incinerator
only)
Kick Coville
Groveton Piper Mill,
Inc
Groveton, N.H 03582
lohn 0 Limbert
City Manager
505 Ellington Pkwy .
Kt 1
Lewisburg, Tenn. 37091
Mike Butner
President
U S. Recycle Corp.
P 0 Box 7561
Little Rock. Ark 72217
R E. Piewitt. Mayor
City Hall
Osceola. Ark. 72370
loseph ). Dornas. Jr
President
Vicon Recovery Assoc
PO Box 100
Butler Center
Butler. N.J. 07405
William Paxton, Ir.
My Mgr.
PO Box 869
Salem, Va. 24 153
Al Yirwig, Dir
Sanitation Dept
410 North Broadway
Siloam Sprints. Ark.
72761
                                                        A-8
                                                                                                                      NCRR Bulletin

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In addition to  the  systems listed above, protects an underway to recover met fcsne-conte/ning gas
mixtures from sanitary landfills which can be purified to p/pel/ne quality:
 IOUTKM
                                             ovrrvr:
                                                lirOfTCO
                                                UNTIL COSTS
                                                (HftllMSOFS)
                                       STITWS
                                                   CONTACT
 tan*. Calif.       Azw Und Reclamation Co.
                (wholly owned subsidiary of the
                Southwestern Portland Cement
                Co)
                             Low BID fas
                                                                 N/A
                                       Began operations in April 1978
                                                   Ralph Rule
                                                   Southwestern Portland
                                                     Cement Co.
                                                   3055WilshireBlvd
                                                   Los Angeles. Calif. 90010
                Sanitary landfill, Inc.; Public
                Service Electric I Gas Co.,
                Hoeganaes Corp
                             Medium BTU gas, 1.0   N/A
                                       Began operation in 1979; raw landfill
                                       gas used in-plant by Hoeganaes Corp
                                                   Ken Matson
                                                   Public Service Electric
                                                      Gas Co. of N)
                                                   80 Park Place
                                                   Newark, N.J. 07101
Calif.
Getty Synthetic Fuels, Inc ;
Operating Industries, Inc.;
Southern California Gas Co
High BTU gas.
40
                                                                N/A
                   Operational August 1979
                                Frederick C. Rice
                                Getty Synthetic fuels, Inc
                                2750 Signal Parkway
                                Signal Hill, Calif. 90806
CaM.
City of Mountain View; EPA.
Pacific Gas t Electric Co,
Dept  of Energy
                                             High BTU gas; 05
                   085
                   Demonstration plant; currently         Mat Blanche)
                   operating and producing 075 MMSCFD   Pacific Gas A Elec Co
                   of treated gas with a HHV of 750 800     745 Market SI
                   BTU/SCF                         San Francisco, Calif 94106
 PatttVw**,      Getty Synthetic Fuels, Inc..
 Calrl.            Los Angeles County Sanitation
                District,  Southern California Gas
                Co
                             High BTU gas; .75
                   N/A
                   Operational since June 1975
                                (same as Monterey Park, Calif.)
 H.Y.(FrtskKifc
 LaMriN)
Brooklyn Union Gas Co., Inc;
New York City Resource Recovery
Task Force, N Y. State Energy
Research and Development
Authority, U.S. Dept. of
Energy; Leonard S Wegman, Inc
                                                                 N/A
                                       Burner test of landfill gas in scaled-
                                       down furnace completed, construction
                                       begun on landfill gas
                                       electricity-generating
                                       facility to be on-line in summer
                                       1980 for a one-year test, supplying 100
                                       KW of electricity lot on-ule use
                                                   Anthony Giuliani
                                                   Brooklyn Union Gas Co . Inc
                                                    195 Montague St.
                                                   Brooklyn, NY. 11201
 SmVatteT.Catif.
 LaMMCm
 tcfwryPrajict)
City of Los Angeles Departments of
Public Works and Water & Power
Low BTU gas; 2.8
25
Operational
Mike Miller
Sanitary Engineer
L A Bureau of Sanitation
Room 1410, City Hall last
Los Angeles, Calif. 90012
The following localities reportedly are in advanced planning stages for resource recovery facilities,
have Issued Requests for Proposals, or are negotiating with bidders/contractors:
Appteton, Wis.
Beverly. Mass.
Calumet City. III.
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Dubuque, Iowa
Gallatin, Tenn
Hartford, Conn, (and surrounding area)
Honolulu, Hawaii
Martinez, Calif.
                             Memphis, Tenn.
                             Menlo Park, Calif.
                             New York, N.Y.
                             North Andover, Mass
                             North Hempstead, N.Y.
                             Oklahoma City, Okl.i
                             Oyster Bay, N.Y.
                             Pea body, Mass
                             Rhode Island (state)
                             St. Paul, Minn
                                             San Diego, Calif.
                                             San Leandro, Calif.
                                             South/Central Conn.
                                             Springfield, Mass, (and surrounding area)
                                             Springfield, Mo
                                             Slnlnn Island, N Y
                                             Toledo, Ohio
                                             Tulsa.Okfa.
                                             Westchester County, N.Y.
 **rch 1990
                                                       A-9

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     APPENDIX  II







DIRECTORY OF CANDIDATE





   SEMINAR SPEAKERS
        A-10

-------
            DIRECTORY  OF CANDIDATE

               SEMINAR SPEAKERS
ALEVRA, Peter
Executive Vice President
Parsons & Whittemore
  Contractors Corporation
P.O. Box 4014
Roosevelt Field Station
Garden City, New York 11530
            (516) 222-1050

ALTER, Dr. Harvey
Director of Research
National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc.
1211 Connecticut Ave.
Washington, D. C.  20011
BALGORD, Dr. William
Environmental & Resource Technology
45 West Pondfield Road, Suite 3D
Bronxville, New York 10708
            (914) 337-6909
BALLARD, Charles A.
Sr. Vice President
Dillon, Read & Co., Inc.
46 William St.
New York, N. Y. 10005
            (212) 285-5687

BEATTY, Robert
Flight Salvage
Berkely, California 94710
            (415) 525-0596

BECK, Noble L.
Environmental Quality Control, Inc.
1220 Waterway Blvd.
Indianapolis, Indiana 46202
            (317) 634-2142

BERKOWITZ, Dr. Joan B.
Arthur D. Little Inc.
Acorn Park
Cambridge, Mass. 02140
            (617) 864-5770
                     A-ll

-------
DIRECTORY cont'd. - 2
BLANKENSHIP, Ernest C.
Vice President:
Tennessee Manufacturers Association
708 Fidelity Federal Building
Nashville, Tennessee 37219

BREE, William R.
Recycling Information Program
Solid Waste Division
Department of Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 1760
Portland, Oregon 97207
            (503) 229-6975
BROKAW, Lee
2080 Hanover
Palo Alto, California 94304
            (415) 326-7240
CLARK, David
Western Environmental Trade Association
333 SW 5th, #618
Portland, Oregon 97204
            (503) 221-0357
CUNNINGHAM, John A.
Vice President
C-E Resource Recovery Systems
Combustion Engineering, Inc.
1000 Prospect Hill Road
7022-5BB
Windsor, Connecticutt 06095
            (203) 688-1911
D'AMATO, Alfonse M.
Presiding supervisor
Town Hall
Hempstead, New York 11550
            (516) 489-5000
DAVIS, Roy
Resource Recovery Analyst
Mecklenburg County Engineering Dept,
1501, 1-85 North
Charlotte, North Carolina 28216
            (704) 374-2770

                      A-12

-------
DIRECTORY cont'd. - 3
DONALDSON, James R.
Senior Consultant
Technology Transfer Services
Control Data Corporation
Box 0
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55440
            (612) 853-3185
ENGSTER, J. T.
Enkarn Research Corporation
P.O. Sox 590
Albany, New York 12201
            (518) 436-9684
FINE, M. M.
Research Director
Department of the Interior
Bureau of Mines
1300 Bishop Avenue
P.O. Box 280
Rolla, Missouri 65401
            (314) 364-3169
FLANDREAU, John
Secretary
AARRII
111 Washington Ave.
Albany, New York 12210
            (518) 436-1557
FREIUCHER, Ira
Vice President, Public Affairs
The Long Island Lighting Co.
250 Old Country Road
Meneola, New York 11501
            (516) 228-2027
FRIDLIN, Bert
Vice President & Director
Georgia Waste Exchange
Georgia Business & Industry Association
181 Washington St., S.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
            (404) 659-4444
                       A-13

-------
DIRECTORY cont'd. - 4
GERSHMAN, Karvey W.
National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc
1211 Connecticut Ave.
Washington, D. C. 20011
GRAY, Larry
Department of Energy
Labor & Industries Building,
Salem, Oregon 97310
HART, Marjorie L.
Sr. Planning Advisor Energy Policy
Exxon Corporation
1251 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10020
            (212) 398-3395
HENRY, Judy
Executive Assistant
Information Center for Waste Exchange
2112 Third Ave., Suite 303
Seattle, Washington 98121
            (206) 623-5235
HURVIS, Tom
Chairman
American Chemical Exchange
4849 Golf Road
Skokie, Illinois 60077
            (312) 677-2800
IMMERMAN, Richard L.
ORE Corporation
2415 Woodmere Drive
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
            (216) 371-4869
ISENBERG, Edward
President
Water Technology Corp.
122 Jeanmoor Road
Tonawanda, New York 14150
            (716) 691-6044
                       A-14

-------
DIRECTORY cont'd - 5
is.EARNEY, Ken
Enkarn Research Corporation
P.O. Box 590
Albany, New York 12201
            (518) 436-9684
KEHOE, John
Vice President & General Manager
Energy Systems Division
wheelabrator-Frye, Inc.
Liberty Lane
rfampton, New Hampshire 03842
            (603) 926-5911
KELLY, Robert
Union Carbide Corporation
Investment Recovery Department
270 Park Avenue
New York, New York 10017
            (212) 551-3661
KIES, Delyn
Exchange Representative
Resource Conservation Consultants
1615 NW 23rd., Suite One
Portland, Oregon 97210
            (503) 227-1319
KIXKOELLER, Ken
Technology Transfer Services
Control Data Corporation
Control Data Technotec
Box 0
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55440
            (612) 830-6478
KLUCKMAN, Wilson A
Iowa Industrial tfaste Information Exchange
c/o CIRAS, 201 Building E
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011
            (515) 294-3420
                     A-15

-------
DIRECTORY cont'd. - 6
KNAP, Dr. James E.
General Manager
Union Carbide Corporation
Investment Recovery Department
270 Park Avenue
New York, New York 10017
            (212) 551-3661

KUHN, Donald J.
President
Secured Landfill Contractors, Inc.
Box 142
N. Tonawanda,  New York 14120
            (716) 695-1491
LAUGHLIN, Dr. Robert
Manager
Canadian Waste Materials Exchange
Ontario Research Foundation
Sheridan Park Research Community
Kississauga, Ontario L5K 929
LEONARD, Richard P.
Environmental Specialist
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Buffalo District
1776 Niagara St.
Buffalo, New York
            (716) 876-5454 - Sxt. 2171
LUDLUM,
New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce
5 Commerce St.
Newark, New Jersey 07102
            (201) 623-7070
LYNCH, Dennis
Supervisor
Mallincrodt, Inc.
P.O. Box 5840
St. Louis, Missouri 63134
            (314) 895-0123
                      A-16

-------
 DIRECTORY cont'd. - 7
MACKAY, JR., Bent ley B.
Executive Director
Governor's Council on Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 44066
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70804
            (504) 389-6981
MILLER, Marshall Lee
Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue
1100 Connecticut Ave. N.W.
Washington, D. C. 20036
            (202) 452-5943

MUDD, Sidney P.
N.Y. Seven-Up Bottling Co., Inc.
Joyce Road
New Rochelle, New York 10802
            (914) 632-7060
MURRAY, P.E., David E.
Vice-President
Reitz & Gems, Inc.
Ill South Meramec St.
St. Louis, Missouri 63105
            (314) 727-0403
MYRICK, Sc.D., H. Nugent
President
The Process Co., Inc.
5814 Schumacher St.
Houston, Texas 77057
            (713) 780-1030
NESS, Howard
National Association of Recycling Industries, Inc.
330 Madison Ave.
New York, New York 10017
OSTROWSKI, Edward
Manager, Quality Control
Mineral Resources Division
National Steel Corporation
2800 Grand Building
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219
            (412) 263-4227
                       A-17

-------
DIRECTORY cont'd.  - 8
 PALMER,  Or.  Paul
 Zero  Waste Systems  Inc.
 2928  Poplar  St.
 Oakland,  California 94608
             (415) 893-8257
 PARKER,  John L.
 Parker and Henss
 39  South LaSalle St.
 Chicago, Illinois 60603
            (312) 263-6560

PATRINOSTRA,  Frank S.
WASTE
152 Utah Ave.  "F"
South San Francisco, California 94080
            (415) 871-1711
PEABODY, Jack
Chetn-Nuclear Systems
P.O. Box 1269
Portland, Oregon 97201
PETIT, G. F.
Union Carbide Corporation
Investment Recovery Department
270 Park Avenue
New York, New York 10017
            (212) 551-3661
PETRICH, William
Environmental Clearinghouse Organization Inc. ECHO
3426 Maple Lane
Hazel Crest, Illinois 60429
            (312) 335-0754
POLICH, James W.
General Motors Corp.
GM Tech. Center
SAS Building
Warren, Michigan 48090
                       A-18

-------
DIRECTORY cont'd. - 9
 POWELL,  Jerry
 Resource Conservation Consultants
 1615 NW  23rd, Suite One
 Portland,  Oregon  97210
             (503)  227-1319
 REESE,  Ted
 President
 Cadence Chemical  Resources Inc.
 P.O.  Box 315
 Michigan City,  Indiana 46360
             (219) 879-5096

RICHARDS, Oscar S.
Director
Midwest Industrial Waste Exchange
Ten Broadway
St. Louis, Missouri 63102
            (314) 231-5555
SHEILDS, James T.
Vice-President for Energy & Environmental Affairs
Minnesota Association for Commerce & Industry
480 Cedar St., 200 Hanover Building
St. Paul, Minnesota 55101
            (612) 227-9591
SCHIFFER, Robert M.
Manager of Community Affairs
Grumman Corporation
1111 Stewart Avenue
Bethpage, New York 11714
            (516) 575-3387
SCHULZ, Robert L.
President
AARRII
lllWashington Ave.
Albany, New York 12210
            (518) 436-1557
SCHWARZER, Carl G.
Aerojet Energy Conversion Co.
P.O. Box 13222
Sacramento, California 95813
            (916) 355-2269
                           A-19

-------
DIRECTORY cont'd. - 10
SEALINE, Edward 0.
Iowa Industrial Waste Information Exchange
c/o CIRAS, 201 Building E
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011
            (515) 294-3420
STARKEY, Jess
American Chemical Exchange
4849 Golf Road
Skokie, Illinois 60077
            (312) 677-2800
STEFANELLI, Leonard
President
Envirocal Sunset Scavengers
Tunnel Avenue & Beatty Road
San Francisco, California 94134
            (415) 467-8411
STILLEY, Anita
Chairwoman
Citizens Committee for Recycling
4218 Chandworth Road
Charlotte, North Carolina 28210
            (704) 552-0462
SULLIVAN, E. R.
American Socity for Testing and Materials
1916 Race St.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103
            (215) 568-4200
SULLIVAN, Thomas F. P.
Government Institutes Inc.
4733 Bethesda Ave.
Bethesda, Maryland 20014
TAYLOR, Robert G.
R. W. Beck and Associates
40 Grove Street
We liesley, Massachusetts 02181
            (617) 237-4870
                        A-20

-------
DIRECTORY conC'd. - 11
TERRY, JR., Robert C.
Arthur D. Little Inc.
Acorn Park
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140
            (617) 864-5770
VICTORY, W. Frank
Division of Solid Waste Management
State of Tennessee
Department of Public Health
Cordell Hull Building
Nashville, Tennessee 37219
            (615) 741-3424
WESTNEY, Jack
Staff Executive
Houston Chamber of Commerce
25th Floor
1100 Milam Bldg.
Houston, Texas 77002
            (713) 651-1313
WILLIAMS, Paul H.
(Waste Management Specialist III)
State of California
Department of Health Services
Hazardous Materials Management Section
2151 Berkely Way
Berkeley, California 94704
            (415) 540-2043
WALWORTH, S. Keyes
Publisher/Editor
Resources recovery/energy review
P.O. Box 1144
Darien, Connecticut 06820
            (203) 655-1471
ZIBIT, Michael
Van Waters & Rogers
3950 NW Yeon
Portland, Oregon 97210
                        -21   * U. 8. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1981 722-689/47*

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