AP42315
                                Supplement
       SUPPLEMENT IVO. 15
                 FOR
          COMPILATION
       OF AIR POLLUTANT
       EMISSION FACTORS,
         THIRD EDITION
(INCLUDING SUPPLEMENTS  1-7)
        EnvlotrtAl Pxo&ibtibb Jitney
        Region V, Library
        230 South Bearbowi Str*t
        Chicago, Illinois ipp$0>
         U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
           Office of Air, Noise and Radiation
         Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
         Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711

               January 1984

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Prelection Agency

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                         INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSERTING

                               SUPPLEMENT 15
Add page x.  New Publications In Series
Pages 3.3.4-1 and 3.3.4-2 replace same.  Editorial Changes.
Pages 4.2.2.1-1 through 4.2.2.1-5,
      4.2.2.2-1 through 4.2.2.2-5,
      4.2.2.3-1 through 4.2.2.3-3,
      4.2.2.4-1 through 4.2.2.4-6,
      4.2.2.5-1 through 4.2.2.5-5,
      4.2.2.6-1 through 4.2.2.6-4, and
      4.2.2.7-1 through 4.2.2.7-3 replace pp. 4.2.2-1 through 4.2.2-31.   New Format.
Pages 4.8-3 and 4.8-4 replace same.  Editorial Changes.
Pages 6.6-3 and 6.6-4 replace same.  Editorial Changes.
Pages 6.8-1 through 6.8-8 replace pp. 6.8-1 through 6.8-4.  Major Revision.
Pages 6.14-1 through 6.14-7 replace pp. 6.14-1 and 6.14-2.  Major Revision.
Pages 7.1-1 through 7.1-8 replace pp. 7.1-1 through 7.1-9.  Technical Clarification.
Pages 7.3-1 through 7.3-12 replace pp. 7.3-1 through 7.3-10.  Major Revision.
Pages 8.1-7 and 8.1-8 replace same.  Editorial Changes.
Pages 8.4-1 through 8.4-4 replace pp. 8.4-1 and 8.4-2.  Major Revision.
Pages 11.2.2-1 and 11.2.2-2 replace same.  Editorial Changes.

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                       PUBLICATIONS  IN  SERIES  (CONl'D)
                              Issuance
Supplement No. 13
                                                                       Release  Date

                                                                             8/82
 Section 1.1
 Section 1.3
 Section 1.4
 Section 1.5
 Section 1.6
 Section 1.7
 Section 3.3.4
 Section 4.2.2.8
 Section 4
 Section 4
 Section 4
 Section  5
 Section  5
 Section  7
2.2.9
2.2.10
11
16
20
15
 Section  8.23
Bituminous and Subbituminous Coal  Combustion
Fuel Oil Combustion
Natural Gas Combustion
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Combustion
Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers
Lignite Combustion
Stationary Large Bore Diesel and Dual Fuel Engines
Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating
Pressure Sensitive Tapes and Labels
Metal Coil Surface Coating
Textile Fabric Printing
Sodium Carbonate
Synthetic Rubber
Storage Battery Production
Metallic Minerals Processing
Supplement No. 14
                                                                              5/83
Section 1.2       Anthracite Coal Combustion
Section 1.6       Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers
Section 1.9       Residential Fireplaces
Section 1.10      Wood Stoves
Section 2.4       Open Burning
Section 4.2.2.11  Large Appliance Surface Coating
Section 4.2.2.12  Metal Furniture Surface Coating
Section 5.1       Adipic Acid
Section 5.2       Synthetic Ammonia
Section 5.3       Carbon Black.
Section 5.4       Charcoal
Section 5.6       Explosives
Section 5.10      Paint And Varnish
Section 5.12      Phthallc  Anhydride
Section 5.14      Printing  Ink
Section 5.15      Soap And  Detergents
Section 5.21      Terephthalic Acid
Section 5.24      Maleic Anhydride
Section 7.1       Primary Aluminum Production
Section 7.5       Iron And  Steel  Production
Section 8.14      Gypsum Manufacturing
Section 8.19      Construction Aggregate Processing
Section 8.19.1    Sand And  Gravel Processing
Section 8.22      taconite  Ore Processing
Section 8.24      Western Surface Coal Mining
Section 11.2      Fugitive  Dust Sources
Section 11.2.1    Unpaved Roads
Section 11.2.2    Agricultural Tilling
Section 11.2.3    Aggregate Handling And Storage
Section 11.2.6    Industrial Paved Roads
                                               IX

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                             PUBLICATIONS  IN  SERIES  (CONT'D)
                                            Issuance
Supplement  15
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
                                                                                     Release Date

                                                                                          1/84
3.3.4
4.2.2.1
4.2.2.2
4.2.2.3
4.2.2.4
4.2.2.5
4.2.2.6
4.2.2.7
4.8
6.6
6.8
6.14
7.1
7.3
8.1
8.4
11.2.2
                 Stationary Large  Bore Diesel And Dual Fuel  Engines
                 General Industrial  Surface Coating
                 Can Coating
                 Magnet Wire Coating
                 Other Metal Coating
                 Flat Wood Interior  Panel Coating
                 Paper Coating
                 Fabric Coating
                 Drum Burning
                 Fish Processing
                 Ammonium Nitrate
                 Urea
                 Primary Aluminum  Production
                 Primary Copper Smelting
                . Asphaltic Concrete  Plants
                 Calcium Carbide Manufacturing
                 Agricultural Tilling
                                                 X

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3.3.4  STATIONARY LARGE BORE DIESEL AND DUAL FUEL ENGINES

3.3.4.1  General

     The primary domestic use of large bore diesel engines, i.e., those
greater than 560 cubic inch displacement per cylinder (CID/CYL), is in oil
and gas exploration and production.  These engines, -in groups of three to
five, supply mechanical power to operate drilling (rotary table), mud pump-
ing and hoisting equipment, and may also operate pumps or auxiliary power
generators.  Another frequent application of large bore diesels is elec-
tricity generation for both base and standby service.  Smaller uses include
irrigation, hoisting and nuclear power plant emergency cooling water pump
operation.

     Dual fuel engines were developed to obtain compression ignition
performance and the economy of natural gas, using a minimum of 5 to 6 percent
diesel fuel to ignite the natural gas.  Dual fuel large bore engines (greater
than 560 CID/CYL) have been used almost exclusively for prime electric power
generation.

3.3.4.2  Emissions and Controls

     The primary pollutant of concern from large bore diesel and dual fuel
engines is NOx, which readily forms in the high temperature, pressure and
excess air environment found in these engines.  Lesser amounts of carbon
monoxide and hydrocarbons are also emitted.  Sulfur dioxide emissions will
usually be quite low because of the negligible sulfur content of diesel
fuels and natural gas.

     The major variables affecting NOX emissions from diesel engines are
injection timing, manifold air temperature, engine speed, engine load and
ambient humidity.  In general, NOx emissions decrease with increasing
humidity.

     Because NOx is the primary pollutant from diesel and dual fuel engines,
control measures to date have been directed mainly at limiting NOX emis-
sions.  The most effective NOX control technique for diesel engines is fuel
injection retard, achieving reductions (at eight degrees of retard) of up to
40 percent.  Additional NOx reductions are possible with combined retard and
air/fuel ratio change.  Both retarded fuel injection (8) and air/fuel ratio
change of five percent are also effective in reducing NOx emissions from
dual fuel engines, achieving nominal NOx reductions of about 40 percent and
maximum NOx reductions of up to 70 percent.

     Other NOx control techniques exist but are not considered feasible
because of excessive fuel penalties, capital cost, or maintenance or opera-
tional problems.  These techniques include exhaust gas recirculation (EGR),
combustion chamber modification, water injection and catalytic reduction.
8/82               Internal Combustion Engine Sources            3.3.4-1

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            TABLE 3.3.4-1.   EMISSION FACTORS FOR  STATIONARY LARGE BORE DIESEL
                                      AND DUAL FUEL ENGINES3

                                   EMISSION  FACTOR RATING:   C
Engine type
Diesel
lb/103 hph
g/hph
g/kWh
lb/103 galf
g/le
Dual fuel
lb/103 hph
g/hph
g/kWh
Particulateb

2.4
1.1
1.5
50
6

NA
NA
NA
Nitrogen
oxides0

24
11
15
500
60

18
8
11
Carbon
monoxide

6.4
2.9
3.9
130
16

5.9
2.7
3.6
VOC4
Me thane

0.07
0.03
0.04
1
0.2

4.7
2.1
2.9
Nonme thane

0.63
0.29
0.04
13
1.6

1.5
0.7
0.9
Sulfur
dioxide6

2.8
1.3
1.7
60
7.2

0.70
0.32
0.43
             Representative uncontrolled levels  for each fuel, determined  by weighting data from
              several manufactures.  Weighting based on I of total horsepower sold  by each manu-
              facturer during a five year period.  NA  not available.
             ^Emission Factor Rating:  E.  Approximation based on test of a medium  bore diesel.
              Emissions are minimum expected for  engine operating at 50 - 100Z full rated load.
              At OZ load, emissions would Increase to 230 g/1.
             GMeasured as IK^.  Factors are for engines operated at rated load and  speed.
             dNonmethane VOC is 90Z of total VOC  from diesel engines but only 25Z of total VOC
              emissions from dual fuel engines.  Individual chemical species within the nonmethane
              fraction are not identified.  Molecular weight of nonmethane  gas stream is assumed
              to be that of methane.
             eBased on assumed sulfur content of  0.4Z by weight for diesel  fuel and 0.46 g/sc
              (0.20 gr/scf) for pipeline quality  natural gas.  Dual fuel S02 emissions based on
              52 oil/95Z gas mix.  Emissions should be adjusted for other fuel ratios.
             fThese factors calculated from the above factors assuming a heating value of 40 MJ/1
              (145,000 Btu/gal) for oil, 41 MJ/scm (1100 Btu/scf) for natural gas,  and an average
              fuel consumption of 9.9 MJ/kWh (7000 Btu/hph).
References  for Section 3.3.4

1.    Standards Support and  Environmental  Impact  Statement Volume I -
      Stationary Internal Combustion Engines, EPA-450/2-78-125a, U. S.
      Environmental  Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,  NC, July 1979

2.    Telephone communication between William H.  Lamason, Office of Air
      Quality Planning and  Standards, U.  S. Environmental Protection  Agency,
      Research Triangle Park, NC,  and John H. Wasser,  Office  of Research and
      Development, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
      Park,  NC, July 15, 1983.
3.3.4-2
EMISSION FACTORS
1/84

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4.2.2  INDUSTRIAL SURFACE COATING

4.2.2.1  GENERAL INDUSTRIAL SURFACE COATING1"4

Process Description - Surface coating is the application of decorative or
protective materials in liquid or powder form to substrates.  These coatings
normally include general solvent type paints, varnishes, lacquers and water
thinned paints.  After application of coating by one of a variety of methods
such as brushing, rolling, spraying, dipping and flow coating, the surface is
air and/or heat dried to remove the volatile solvents from the coated surface.
Powder type coatings can be applied to a hot surface or can be melted after
application and caused to flow together.  Other coatings can be polymerized
after application by thermal curing with infrared or electron beam systems.

     Coating Operations - There are both "toll" ("independent") and "captive"
surface coating operations.  Toll operations fill orders to various manufac-
turer specifications, and thus change coating and solvent conditions more
frequently than do captive companies, which fabricate and coat products within
a single facility and which may operate continuously with the same solvents.
Toll and captive operations differ in emission control systems applicable to
coating lines, because not all controls are technically feasible in toll
situations.

     Coating Formulations - Conventional coatings contain at least 30 volume
percent solvents to permit easy handling and application.  They typically con-
tain 70 to 85 percent solvents by volume.  These solvents may be of one com-
ponent or of a mixture of volatile ethers, acetates, aromatics, cellosolves,
aliphatic hydrocarbons and/or water.  Coatings with 30 volume percent of
solvent or less are called low solvent or "high solids" coatings.

     Waterborne coatings, which have recently gained substantial use, are of
several types: water emulsion, water soluble and colloidal dispersion, and
electrocoat.  Common ratios of water to solvent organics in emulsion and dis-
persion coatings are 80/20 and 70/30.

     Two part catalyzed coatings to be dried, powder coatings, hot melts, and
radiation cured (ultraviolet and electron beam) coatings contain essentially
no volatile organic compounds (VOC), although some monomers and other lower
molecular weight organics may volatilize.
                                          *

     Depending on the product requirements and the material being coated, a
surface may have one or more layers of coating applied.  The first coat may be
applied to cover surface imperfections or to assure adhesion of the coating.
The intermediate coats usually provide the required color, texture or print,
and a clear protective topcoat is often added.  General coating types do not
differ from those described, although the intended use and the material to be
coated determine the composition and resins used in the coatings.

     Coating Application Procedures - Conventional spray, which is air atomized
and usually hand operated, is one of the most versatile coating methods.  Colors
can be changed easily, and a variety of sizes and shapes can be painted under
4/81                       Evaporation Loss Sources                   4.2.2.1-1

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many operating conditions.  Conventional, catalyzed or waterborne coatings can
be applied with little modification.  The disadvantages are low efficiency from
overspray and high energy requirements for the air compressor.

     In hot airless spray, the paint is forced through an atomizing nozzle.
Since volumetric flow is less, overspray is reduced.  Less solvent is also
required, thus reducing VOC emissions.  Care must be taken for proper flow of
the coating, to avoid plugging and abrading of the nozzle orifice.  Electro-
static spray is most efficient for low visocity paints.  Charged paint par-
ticles are attracted to an oppositely charged surface.  Spray guns, spinning
discs or bell shaped atomizers can be used to atomize the paint.  Application
efficiencies of 90 to 95 percent are possible, with good "wraparound" and edge
coating.  Interiors and recessed surfaces are difficult to coat, however.

     Roller coating is used to apply coatings and inks to flat surfaces.  If
the cylindrical rollers move in the same direction as the surface to be coated,
the system is called a direct roll coater.  If they rotate in the opposite
direction, the system is a reverse roll coater.  Coatings can be applied to any
flat surface efficiently and uniformly and at high speeds.  Printing and deco-
rative graining are applied with direct rollers.  Reverse rollers are used to
apply fillers to porous or imperfect substrates, including papers and fabrics,
to give a smooth uniform surface.

     Knife coating is relatively inexpensive, but it is not appropriate for
coating unstable materials, such as some knit goods, or when a high degree of
accuracy in the coating thickness is required.

     Rotogravure printing is widely used in coating vinyl imitation leathers
and wallpaper, and in the application of a transparent protective layer over
the printed pattern.  In rotogravure printing, the image area is recessed, or
"intaglio", relative to the copper plated cylinder on which the image is
engraved.  The ink is picked up on the engraved area, and excess ink is scraped
off the nonimage area with a "doctor blade".  The image is transferred directly
to the paper or other substrate, which is web fed, and the product is then
dried.

     Dip coating requires that the surface of the subject be immersed in a bath
of paint.  Dipping is effective for coating irregularly shaped or bulky items
and for priming.  All surfaces are covered, but coating thickness varies, edge
blistering can occur, and a good appearance is not always achieved.

     In flow coating, materials to be coated are conveyed through a flow of
paint.  Paint flow is directed, without atomization, toward the surface through
multiple nozzles, then is caught in a trough and recycled.  For flat surfaces,
close control of film thickness can be maintained by passing the surface
through a constantly flowing curtain of paint at a controlled rate.

     Emissions and Controls - Essentially all of the VOC emitted from the sur-
face coating industry is from the solvents which are used in the paint formu-
lations, used to thin paints at the coating facility or used for cleanup.  All
unrecovered solvent can be considered potential emissions.  Monomers and low
molecular weight organics can be emitted from those coatings that do not include
solvents, but such emissions are essentially negligible.

4.2.2.1-2                          EMISSION FACTORS                           4/81

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     Emissions from surface coating for an uncontrolled facility can be esti-
mated by assuming that all VOC in the coatings is emitted.  Usually, coating
consumption volume will be known, and some information about the types of
coatings and solvents will be available.  The choice of a particular emission
factor will depend on the coating data available.  If no specific information
is given for the coating, it may be estimated from the data in Table 4.2.2.1-2,

    TABLE 4.2.2.1-1.  VOC EMISSION FACTORS FOR UNCONTROLLED SURFACE COATING3

                           EMISSION FACTOR RATING:  B
   Available information on coating
                                                Emissions of VOCb
         kg/liter of coating   Ib/gal of coating
   Conventional or waterborne
     paints

     VOC, wt % (d)
     VOC, vol % (V)
   Waterborne paint

     VOC as weight % of total
      volatiles - including water
      (X); total volatiles as
      weight % of coating (d)

     VOC as volume % of total
      volatiles - including water
      (Y); total volatiles as
      volume % of coating (V)
         d'coating density0
                 100

               V'0.88d
                 100
         d'X'coating density0
d'coating density0
        100

      V-7.36d
        100
d'X'coating density0
                 100
               V-Y-0.88d
                 100
        100
      VY-7.36d
        100
  aMaterial balance, when coatings volume use is known.
  bFor special purposes, factors expressed kg/1 of coating less water may be
   desired.  These may be computed as follows:

     Factor as kg/1 of coating

       = Factor as kg/1 of coating less water i _ volume % water
                                                       100

 If coating density is not known, it can be estimated from the information
  in Table 4.2.2.1-2.
 dThe values 0.88 (kg/1) and 7.36 (Ib/gal) use  the average density of
  solvent in coatings.  Use the densities of the solvents in the coatings
  actually used by the source, if known.
4/81
Evaporation Loss Source
             4.2.2.1-3

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      TABLE 4.2.2.1-2.  TYPICAL DENSITIES AND SOLIDS CONTENTS OF COATINGS
Type of coating
Enamel , air dry
Enamel , baking
Acrylic enamel
Alkyd enamel
Primer surfacer
Primer, epoxy
Varnish, baking
Lacquer, spraying
Vinyl, roller coat
Polyure thane
Stain
Sealer
Magnet wire enamel
Paper coating
Fabric coating
Density
kg/liter
0.91
1.09
1.07
0.96
1.13
1.26
0.79
0.95
0.92
1.10
0.88
0.84
0.94
0.92
0.92
Ib/gal
7.6
9.1
8.9
8.0
9.4
10.5
6.6
7.9
7.7
9.2
7.3
7.0
7.8
7.7
7.7
Solids
(volume %)
39.6
42.8
30.3
47.2
49.0
57.2
35.3
26.1
12.0
31.7
21.6
11.7
25.0
22.0
22.0
      aReference 1.

     All solvents separately purchased as solvent that are used in surface
coating operations and are not recovered subsequently can be considered
potential emissions.  Such VOC emissions at a facility can result from onsite
dilution of coatings with solvent, from "makeup solvents" required in flow
coating and, in some instances, dip coating, and from the solvents used for
cleanup.  Makeup solvents are added to coatings to compensate for standing
losses, concentration or amount, and thus to bring the coating back to working
specifications.  Solvent emissions should be added to VOC emissions from
coatings to get total emissions from a coating facility.

     Typical ranges of control efficiencies are given in Table 4.2.2.1-3.
Emission controls normally fall under one of three categories - modification in
paint formula, process changes, or addon controls.  These are discussed further
in the specific subsections which follow.

                   TABLE 4.2.2.1-3.  CONTROL EFFICIENCIES FOR
                          SURFACE COATING OPERATIONS3
Control option
Substitute waterborne coatings
Substitute low solvent coatings
Substitute powder coatings
Add afterburners/incinerators
Reduction"
60-95
40-80
92-98
95
         References 2-4.
         ^Expressed as % of total uncontrolled emission load.
4.2.2.1-4
EMISSION FACTORS
4/81

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References for Section 4.2.2.1

1.   Controlling Pollution from the Manufacturing and Coating of Metal
     Products;  Metal Coating Air Pollution Control, EPA-625/3-77-009, U. S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, May 1977.

2.   H. R. Powers, "Economic and Energy Savings through Coating  Selection",
     The Sherwin-Williams Company, Chicago, IL, February 8, 1978.

3.   Air Pollution Engineering Manual, Second Edition, AP-40, U. S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 1973.
     Out of Print.

4.   Products Finishing, 41(6A):4-54, March 1977.
4/81                         Evaporation Loss  Sources                  4.2.2.1-5

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4.2.2.2  CAN COATING1"4

Process Description - Cans may be made from a rectangular sheet (body blank)
and two circular ends (three piece cans), or they can be drawn and wall ironed
from a shallow cup to which an end is attached after the can is filled (two
piece cans).  There are major differences in coating practices, depending on
the type of can and the product packaged in it.  Figure 4.2.2.2-1 depicts a
three piece can sheet printing operation.

     There are both "toll" and "captive" can coating operations.  The former
fill orders to customer specifications, and the latter coat the metal for pro-
ducts fabricated within one facility.  Some can coating operations do both
toll and captive work, and some plants fabricate just can ends.

     Three piece can manufacturing involves sheet coating and can fabricating.
Sheet coating includes base coating and printing or lithographing, followed by
curing at temperatures of up to 220C (425F).  When the sheets have been
formed into cylinders, the seam is sprayed, usually with a lacquer, to protect
the exposed metal.  If they are to contain an edible product, the interiors are
spray coated, and the cans baked up to 220C (425F).

     Two piece cans are used largely by beer and other beverage industries.
The exteriors may be reverse roll coated in white and cured at 170 to 200C
(325 to 400F).  Several colors of ink are then transferred (sometimes by
lithographic printing) to the cans as they rotate on a mandrel.  A protective
varnish may be roll coated over the inks.  The coating is then cured in a
single or multipass oven at temperatures of 180 to 200C (350 to 400F).  The
cans are spray coated on the interior and spray and/or roll coated on the
exterior of the bottom end.  A final baking at 110 to 200C (225 to 400F)
completes the process.

Emissions and Controls - Emissions from can coating operations depend on
composition of the coating, coated area, thickness of coat and efficiency of
application.  Post-application chemical changes, and nonsolvent contaminants
like oven fuel combustion products, may also affect the composition of emis-
sions.  All solvent used and not recovered can be considered potential
emissions.

     Sources of can coating VOC emissions include the coating area and the oven
area of the sheet base and lithographic coating lines, the three piece can side
seam and interior spray coating processes, and the two piece can coating and
end sealing compound lines.  Emission rates vary with line speed, can or sheet
size, and coating type.  On sheet coating lines, where the coating is applied
by rollers, most solvent evaporates in the oven.  For other coating processes,
the coating operation itself is the major source.  Emissions can be estimated
from the amount of coating applied by using the factors in Table 4.2.2.1-1 or,
if the number and general nature of the coating lines are known, from Table
4.2.2.2-1.

     Incineration and the use of waterborne and low solvent coatings both
reduce organic vapor emissions.  Other technically feasible control options,
such as electrostatically sprayed powder coatings, are not presently applicable
to the whole industry.  Catalytic and thermal incinerators both can be used,
4/81                     Evaporation Loss Sources                     4.2.2.2-1

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4 2 2.2-2
EMISSION FACTORS
4/81

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                    Evaporation Loss Sources
4.2.2.2-3

-------
          TABLE 4.2.2.2-2.   CONTROL EFFICIENCIES  FOR CAN  COATING LINES3
      Affected  facility15
          Control option
Reduction0
  Two Piece Can Lines

     Exterior  coating
     Interior  spray
       coating
  Three  Piece  Can Lines

     Sheet  coating lines
       Exterior coating
       Interior  spray
         coating
     Can fabricating  lines
       Side  seam spray
         coating
       Interior  spray
         coating
   End  Coating Lines

     Sealing compound

     Sheet coating
Thermal and catalytic incineration
Waterborne and high solids coating
Ultraviolet curing
Thermal and catalytic incineration
Waterborne and high solids coating
Powder coating
Carbon adsorption
Thermal and catalytic incineration
Waterborne and high solids coating
Ultraviolet curing

Thermal and catalytic incineration
Waterborne and high solids coating
Waterborne and high solids coating
Powder (only for uncemented seams)
Thermal and catalytic incineration
Waterborne and high solids coating
Powder (only for uncemented seams)
Carbon adsorption
Waterborne and high solids coating

Carbon adsorption
Thermal and catalytic incineration
Waterborne and high solids coating
  90
  60-90
<100
  90
  60-90
 100
  90
  90
  60-90
a oo

  90
  60-90
  60-90
 100
  90
  60-90
 100
  90
  70-95

  90
  90
  60-90
   aReference 3.
   bCoil coating  lines consist of coaters, ovens and quench areas.  Sheet, can
    and end wire  coating lines consist of coaters and ovens.
   cCompared to conventional solvent base coatings used without any added
4.2.2.2-4
      EMISSION  FACTORS
         4/81

-------
primers, backers (coatings on the reverse or backside of the coil), and some
waterborne low to medium gloss topcoats have been developed that equal the
performance of organic solventborne coatings for aluminum but have not yet been
applied at full line speed in all cases.  Waterborne coatings for other metals
are being developed.

     Available control technology includes the use of addon devices like
incinerators and carbon adsorbers and a conversion to low solvent and ultra-
violet curable coatings.  Thermal and catalytic incinerators both may be used
to control emissions from three piece can sheet base coating lines, sheet
lithographic coating lines, and interior spray coating.  Incineration is appli-
cable to two piece can coating lines.  Carbon adsorption is most acceptable to
low temperature processes which use a limited number of solvents.  Such pro-
cesses include two and three piece can interior spray coating, two piece can
end sealing compound lines, and three piece can side seam spray coating.

     Low solvent coatings are not yet available to replace all the organic
solventborne formulations presently used in the can industry.  Waterborne
basecoats have been successfully applied to two piece cans.  Powder coating
technology is used for side seam coating of noncemented three piece cans.

     Ultraviolet curing technology is available for rapid drying of the first
two colors of ink on three piece can sheet lithographic coating lines.

References for Section 4.2.2.2

1.   T. W. Hughes, et al., Source Assessment:  Prioritization of Air Pollution
     from Industrial Surface Coating Operations, EPA-650/2-75-019a, U. S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, November 1975.

2.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources,
     Volume I;  Control Methods for Surface Coating Operations, EPA-450/2-76-
     028, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC,
     May 1977.

3.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources,
     Volume II;  Surface Coating of Cans, Coils, Paper Fabrics, Automobiles,
     and Light Duty Trucks, EPA-450/2-77-008, U. S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 1977.

4.   Air Pollution Control Technology Applicable to 26 Source of Volatile
     Organic Compounds, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U. S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 27, 1977.
     Unpublished.
                         Evaporation Loss Sources                     4.2.2.2-5

-------
4.2.2.3  MAGNET WIRE COATING1

Process Description - Magnet wire coating is applying a coat of electrically
insulating varnish or enamel to aluminum or copper wire used in electrical
machinery.  The wire is usually coated in large plants that both draw and
insulate it and then sell it to electrical equipment manufacturers.  The wire
coating must meet rigid electrical, thermal and abrasion specifications.

     Figure 4.2.2.3-1 shows a typical wire coating operation.  The wire is
unwound from spools and passed through an annealing furnace.  Annealing softens
the wire and cleans it by burning off oil and dirt.  Usually, the wire then
passes through a bath in the coating applicator and is drawn through an orifice
or coating die to scrape off the excess.  It is then dried and cured in a two
zone oven first at 200, then 430C (400 and 806F).  Wire may pass through the
coating applicator and the oven as many as twelve times to acquire the necessary
thickness of coating.

Emissions and Controls - Emissions from wire coating operations depend on
composition of the coating, thickness of coat and efficiency of application.
Postapplication chemical changes, and nonsolvent contaminants such as oven fuel
combustion products, may also affect the composition of emissions.  All solvent
used and not recovered can be considered potential emissions.

     The exhaust from the oven is the most important source of solvent emissions
in the wire coating plant.  Emissions from the applicator are comparatively low,
because a dip coating technique is used.  See Figure 4.2.2.3-1.

     Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions may be estimated from the factors
in Table 4.2.2.1-1, if the coating usage is known and if the coater has no
controls.  Most wire coaters built since 1960 do have controls, so the infor-
mation in the following paragraph may be applicable.  Table 4.2.2.3-1 gives
estimated emissions for a typical wire coating line.
         TABLE 4.2.2.3-1
ORGANIC SOLVENT EMISSIONS FROM A TYPICAL WIRE
       COATING LINEa
Coating
kg/hr
12
Lineb
Ib/hr
26
Annual
Mg/yr
84
Totalsc
ton/yr
93
           aReference
           ^Organic solvent emissions vary from line to line by size and
            speed of wire, number of wires per oven, and number of passes
            through oven.  A typical line may coat 544 kg (1,200 lb) wire/day.
            A plant may have many lines.
           GBased upon normal operating conditions of 7,000 hr/yr for one line
            without incinerator.
4/81
  Evaporation Loss Sources
4.2.2.3-1

-------
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4.2.2.3-2
EMISSION FACTORS
4/81

-------
     Incineration is the only commonly used technique to control emissions from
wire coating operations.  Since about I960, all major wire coating designers
have incorporated catalytic incinerators info their oven designs, because of
the economic benefits.   The internal catalytic incinerator burns solvent fumes
and circulates heat back into the wire drying zone.  Fuel otherwise needed to
operate the oven is eliminated or greatly reduced, as are costs.  Essentially
all solvent emissions from the oven can be directed to an incinerator with a
combustion efficiency of a least 90 percent.

     Ultraviolet cured  coatings are available for special systems.  Carbon
adsorption is not practical.   Use of low solvent coatings is only a potential
control, because they have not yet been developed with properties that meet
industry's requirements.

References for Section 4.2.2.3

1.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources,
     Volume IV:  Surface Coating for Insulation of Magnet Wire,  EPA-450/2-77-
     033, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC,
     December 1977.

2.   Controlled and Uncontrolled Emission Rates and Applicable Limitations for
     Eighty Processes,  EPA Contract Number 68-02-1382, TRC of New England,
     Wethersfield, CT,  September 1976.
4/81                        Evaporation Loss  Sources                   4.2.2.3-3

-------
4.2.2.4  OTHER METAL COATING1"3

Process Description - Large appliance, metal furniture and miscellaneous metal
part and product coating lines have many common operations, similar emissions
and emission points, and available control technology.  Figure 4.2.2.4-1 shows
a typical metal furniture coating line.

     Large appliances include doors, cases, lids, panels and interior support
parts of washers, dryers, ranges, refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, air
conditioners, and associated products.  Metal furniture includes both outdoor
and indoor pieces manufactured for household, business or institutional use.
"Miscellaneous parts and products" herein denotes large and small farm machin-
ery, small appliances, commercial and industrial machinery, fabricated metal
products and other industries that coat metal under Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) codes 33 through 39.

     Large Appliances - The coatings applied to large appliances are usually
epoxy, epoxy/acrylic or polyester enamels for the primer or single coat, and
acrylic enamels for the topcoat.  Coatings containing alkyd resins are also
used.  Prime and interior single coats are applied at 25 to 36 volume percent
solids.  Topcoats and exterior single coats are applied at 30 to 40 volume
percent.  Lacquers may be used to touch up any scratches that occur during
assembly.  Coatings contain 2 to 15 solvents, typical of which are esters,
ketones, apliphatics, alcohols, aromatics, ethers and terpenes.

     Small parts are generally dip coated, and flow or spray coating is used
for larger parts.  Dip and flow coating are performed in an enclosed room
vented either by a roof fan or by an exhaust system adjoining the drain board
or tunnel.  Down or side draft booths remove overspray and organic vapors from
prime coat spraying.  Spray booths are also equipped with dry filters or a
water wash to trap overspray.

     Parts may be touched up manually with conventional or airless spray equip-
ment.  Then they are sent to a flashoff area (either open or tunneled) for
about 7 minutes and are baked in a multipass oven for about 20 minutes at 180
to 230C (350 to 450F).  At that point, large appliance exterior parts go on
to the topcoat application area, and single coated interior parts are moved to
the assembly area of the plant.

     The topcoat, and sometimes primers, are applied by automated electrostatic
disc, bell or other types of spray equipment.  Topcoats often are more than one
color, changed by automatically flushing out the system with solvent.  Both the
topcoat and touchup spray areas are designed with side or down draft exhaust
control.  The parts go through about a 10 minute flashoff period, followed by
baking in a multipass oven for 20 to 30 minutes at 140 to 180C (270 to 350F).

     Metal Furniture - Most metal furniture coatings are enamels, although some
lacquers are used.  The most common coatings are alkyds, epoxies and acrylics,
which contain the same solvents used in large appliance coatings, applied at
about 25 to 35 percent solids.

     On a typical metal furniture coating line (see Figure 4.2.2.4-1), the
prime coat can be applied with the same methods used for large appliances, but
it may be cured at slightly lower temperatures, 150 to 200C (300 to 400F).

4/81                        Evaporation Loss Sources                  4.2.2.4-1

-------
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                                EMISSION FACTORS
4/81

-------
The topcoat, usually the only coat, is applied with electrostatic spray or with
conventional airless or air spray.  Most spray coating is manual, in contrast
to large appliance operations.  Flow coating or dip coating is done, if the
plant generally uses only one or two colors on a line.

     The coated furniture is usually baked, but in some cases it is air dried.
If it is to be baked, it passes through a flashoff area into a multizone oven
at temperatures ranging from 150 to 230C (300 to 450F).

     Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products - Both enamels (30 to 40 volume
percent solids) and lacquers (10 to 20 volume percent solids) are used to coat
miscellaneous metal parts and products, although enamels are more common.
Coatings often are purchased at higher volume percent solids but are thinned
before application (frequently with aromatic solvent blends).  Alkyds are
popular with industrial and farm machinery manufacturers.  Most of the coatings
contain several (up to 10) different solvents, including ketones, esters,
alcohols, aliphatics, ethers, aromatics and terpenes.

     Single or double coatings are applied in conveyored or batch operations.
Spraying is usually employed for single coats.  Flow and dip coating may be
used when only one or two colors are applied.  For two coat operations, primers
are usually applied by flow or dip coating, and topcoats are almost always
applied by spraying.  Electrostatic spraying is common.  Spray booths and areas
are kept at a slight negative pressure to capture overspray.

     A manual two coat operation may be used for large items like industrial
and farm machinery.  The coatings on large products are often air dried rather
than oven baked, because the machinery, when completely assembled, includes
heat sensitive materials and may be too large to be cured in an oven.  Miscel-
laneous parts and products can be baked in single or multipass ovens at 150 to
230C (300 to 450F).

     Emissions and Controls - Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted
from application and flashoff areas and the ovens of metal coating lines.  See
Figure 4.2.2.4-1.  The composition of emissions varies among coating lines
according to physical construction, coating method and type of coating applied,
but distribution of emissions among individual operations has been assumed to
be fairly constant, regardless of the type of coating line or the specific pro-
duct coated, as Table 4.2.2.4-2 indicates.  All solvent used can be considered
potential emissions.  Emissions can be calculated from the factors in Table
4.2.2.1-1 if coatings use is known, or from the factors in Table 4.2.2.4-2 if
only a general description of the plant is available.  For emissions from the
cleansing and pretreatment area, see Section 4.6, Solvent Degreasing.

     When powder coatings, which contain almost no VOC, are applied to some
metal products as a coating modification, emissions are greatly reduced.
Powder coatings are applied as single coats on some large appliance interior
parts and as topcoat for kitchen ranges.  They are also used on metal bed and
chair frames, shelving and stadium seating, and they have been applied as
single coats on small appliances, small farm machinery, fabricated metal  pro-
duct parts and industrial machinery components.  The usual application methods
are manual or automatic electrostatic spray.
4/81                        Evaporation Loss Sources                  4.2.2.4-3

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     4/81

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4.2.2.4-5

-------
     Improving transfer efficiency is a method of reducing emissions.   One
such technique is the electrostatic application of the coating, and another
is dip coating with waterborne paint.  For example,  many makers of large
appliances are now using electrodeposition to apply  prime coats to exterior
parts and single coats to interiors, because this technique increases  corrosion
protection and resistance to detergents.  Electrodeposition of these waterborne
coatings is also being used at several metal furniture coating plants  and at
some farm, commercial machinery and fabricated metal products facilities.

     Automated electrostatic spraying is most efficient, but manual and
conventional methods can be used, also.  Roll coating is another option on some
miscellaneous parts.  Use of higher solids coatings  is a practiced technique
for reduction of VOC emissions.

     Carbon adsorption is technically feasible for collecting emissions from
prime, top and single coat applications and flashoff areas.  However,  the
entrained sticky paint particles are a filtration problem, and adsorbers are
not commonly used.

     Incineration is used to reduce organic vapor emissions from baking ovens
for large appliances, metal furniture and miscellaneous products, and  it is an
option for control of emissions from application and flashoff areas.

     Table 4.2.2.4-1 gives estimated control efficiencies for large appliance,
metal furniture and miscellaneous metal part and product coating lines, and
Table 4.2.2.4-2 gives their emission factors.

References for Section 4.2.2.4

1.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources,
     Volume III:  Surface Coating of Metal Furniture, EPA-450/2-77-032, U. S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NG, December 1977.

2.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources,
     Volume V;  Surface Coating of Large Appliances, EPA-450/2-77-034, U. S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, December 1977.

3.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources,
     Volume V;  Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products,
     EPA-450/2-78-015, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, NC, June 1978.

4.   G. T. Helms, "Appropriate Transfer Efficiencies for Metal Furniture and
     Large Appliance Coating", Memorandum, Office of Air Quality Planning and
     Standards, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
     NC, November 28, 1980.
4.2.2.4-6                       EMISSION FACTORS                          4/81

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4.2.2.5  FLAT WOOD INTERIOR PANEL COATING

Process Description^- - Finished flat wood construction products are interior
panels made of hardwood plywoods (natural and lauan), particle board, and
hardboard.

     Fewer than 25 percent of the manufacturers of such flat wood products
coat the products in their plants, and in some of the plants that do coat, only
a small percentage of total production is coated.  At present, most coating is
done by toll coaters who receive panels from manufacturers and undercoat or
finish them according to customer specifications and product requirements.

     Some of the layers and coatings that can be factory applied to flat woods
are filler, sealer, groove coat, primer, stain, basecoat, ink, and topcoat.
Solvents used in organic base flat wood coatings are usually component mix-
tures, including methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, xylene,
butyl acetates, propanol, ethanol, butanol, naphtha, methanol, amyl acetate,
mineral spirits, SoCal I and II, glycols, and glycol ethers.  Those most often
used in waterborne coatings are glycol, glycol ethers, propanol and butanol.

     Various forms of roll coating are the preferred techniques for applying
coatings to flat woods.  Coatings used for surface cover can be applied with
a direct roller coater, and reverse roll coaters are generally used to apply
fillers, forcing the filler into panel cracks and voids.  Precision coating
and printing (usually with offset gravure grain printers) are also forms of
roll coating, and several types of curtain coating may be employed, also
(usually for topcoat application).  Various spray techniques and brush coating
may be used, too.

     Printed interior panelings are produced from plywoods with hardwood
surfaces (primarily lauan) and from various wood composition panels, including
hardboard and particle board.  Finishing techniques are used to cover the
original surface and to produce various decorative effects.  Figure 4.2.2.5-1
is a flow diagram showing some, but not all, typical production line variations
for printed interior paneling.

     Groove coatings, applied in different ways and at different points in the
coating procedure, are usually pigmented low resin solids reduced with water
before use, therefore yielding few, if any, emissions.  Fillers, usually applied
by reverse roll coating, may be of various formulations: (1) polyester (which
is ultraviolet cured), (2) water base, (3) lacquer base, (4) polyurethane and
(5) alkyd urea base.  Water base fillers are in common use on printed paneling
lines.

     Sealers may be of water or solvent base, usually applied by airless spray
or direct roll coating, respectively.  Basecoats, which are usually direct roll
coated, generally are of lacquer, synthetic, vinyl, modified alkyd urea,
catalyzed vinyl, or water base.

     Inks are applied by an offset gravure printing operation similar to direct
roll coating.  Most lauan printing inks are pigments dispersed in alkyd resin,
with some nitrocellulose added for better wipe and printability.  Water base
4/81                        Evaporation Loss Sources                  4.2.2.5-1

-------
inks have a good future for clarity, cost and environmental reasons.  After
printing, a board goes through one or two direct or precision roll coaters
for application of the clear protective topcoat.  Some topcoats are synthetic,
prepared from solvent soluble alkyd or polyester resins, urea formaldehyde
cross linkings, resins, and solvents.

     Natural hardwood plywood panels are coated with transparent or clear
finishes to enhance and protect their face ply of hardwood veneer.  Typical
production lines are similar to those for printed interior paneling, except
that a primer sealer is applied to the filled panel, usually by direct roll
coating.  The panel is then embossed and "valley printed" to give a "dis-
tressed" or antique appearance.  No basecoat is required.  A sealer is also
applied after printing but before application of the topcoat, which may be
curtain coated, although direct roll coating remains the usual technique.

Emissions and Controls^-"^ - Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) at
flat wood coating plants occur primarily from reverse roll coating of filler,
direct roll coating of sealer and basecoat, printing of wood grain patterns,
direct roll or curtain coating of topcoat(s), and oven drying after one or
more of those operations (see Figure 4.2.2.5-1).  All solvent used and not
recovered can be considered potential emissions.  Emissions can be calculated
from the factors in Table 4.2.2.1-1, if the coating use is known.  Emissions
for interior printed panels can be estimated from the factors in Table
4.2.2.5-1, if the area of coated panels is known.

     Waterborne coatings are increasingly used to reduce emissions.  They can
be applied to almost all flat wood except redwood and, possibly, cedar.  The
major use of waterborne flat wood coatings is in the filler and basecoat
applied to printed interior paneling.  Limited use has been made of waterborne
materials for inks, groove coats, and topcoats with printed paneling, and for
inks and groove coats with natural hardwood panels.

     Ultraviolet curing systems are applicable to clear or semitransparent
fillers, topcoats on particle board coating lines, and specialty coating oper-
ations.  Polyester, acrylic, urethane and alkyd coatings can be cured by this
method.

     Afterburners can be used to control VOC emissions from baking ovens, and
there would seem to be ample recovered heat to use.  Extremely few flat wood
coating operations have afterburners as addon controls, though, despite the
fact that they are a viable control option for reducing emissions where product
requirements restrict the use of other control techniques.

     Carbon adsorption is technically feasible, especially for specific
applications (e. g., redwood surface treatment), but the use of multicomponent
solvents and different coating formulations in several steps along the coating
line has thus far precluded its use to control flat wood coating emissions and
to reclaim solvents.  The use of low solvent coatings to fill pores and to seal
wood has been demonstrated.
4.2.2.5-2                       EMISSION FACTORS                            4/81

-------
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Evaporation Loss Sources
4.2.2.5-3

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                          EMISSION  FACTORS
4/81

-------
References for Section 4.2.2.5

1.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources,
     Volume VII;  Factory Surface Coating of Flat Wood Interior Paneling, EPA-
     450/2-78-032, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, NC, June 1978.

2.   Air Pollution Control Technology Applicable to 26 Sources of Volatile^
     Organic Compounds, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.  S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 27, 1977.
     Unpublished.

3.   Products Finishing, 41(6A):4-54, March 1977.
4/81                        Evaporation  Loss  Sources                  4.2.2.5-5

-------
4.2.2.6  PAPER COATING

Process Description^"^ _ paper is coated for various decorative and functional
purposes with waterborne, organic solventborne, or solvent free extruded mate-
rials.  Paper coating is not to be confused with printing operations, which
use contrast coatings that must show a difference in brightness from the paper
to be visible.  Coating operations are the application of a uniform layer or
coating across a substrate.  Printing results in an image or design on the
substrate.

     Waterborne coatings improve printability and gloss but cannot compete
with organic solventborne coatings in resistance to weather, scuff and chem-
icals.  Solventborne coatings, as an added advantage, permit a wide range of
surface textures.  Most solventborne coating is done by paper converting com-
panies that buy paper from mills and apply coatings to produce a final product.
Among the many products that are coated with solventborne materials are adhesive
tapes and labels, decorated paper, book covers, zinc oxide coated office copier
paper, carbon paper, typewriter ribbons, and photographic film.

     Organic solvent formulations generally used are made up of film forming
materials, plasticizers, pigments and solvents.  The main classes of film
formers used in paper coating are cellulose derivatives (usually nitrocellu-
lose) and vinyl resins (usually the copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl
acetate).  Three common plasticizers are dioctyl phthalate, tricresyl phos-
phate and castor oil.  The major solvents used are toluene, xylene, methyl
ethyl ketone, isopropyl alcohol, methanol, acetone, and ethanol.  Although a
single solvent is frequently used, a mixture is often necessary to obtain the
optimum drying rate, flexibility, toughness and abrasion resistance.

     A variety of low solvent coatings, with negligible emissions, has been
developed for some uses to form organic resin films equal to those of con-
ventional solventborne coatings.  They can be applied up to 1/8 inch thick
(usually by reverse roller coating) to products like artificial leather goods,
book covers and carbon paper.  Smooth hot melt finishes can be applied over
rough textured paper by heated gravure or roll coaters at temperatures from 65
to 230C (150 to 450F).

     Plastic extrusion coating is a type of hot melt coating in which a molten
thermoplastic sheet (usually low or medium density polyethylene) is extruded
from a slotted die at temperatures of up to 315C (600F).  The substrate and
the molten plastic coat are united by pressure between a rubber roll and a
chill roll which solidifies the plastic.  Many products, such as the polyeth-
ylene coated milk carton, are coated with solvent free extrusion coatings.

     Figure 4.2.2.6-1 shows a typical paper coating line that uses organic
solventborne formulations.  The application device is usually a reverse roller,
a knife or a rotogravure printer.  Knife coaters can apply solutions of much
higher viscosity than roll coaters can, thus emitting less solvent per pound of
solids applied.  The gravure printer can print patterns or can coat a solid
sheet of color on a paper web.
4/81                        Evaporation Loss Sources                  4.2.2.6-1

-------
     Ovens may be divided into from two to five temperature zones.  The first
zone is usally at about 43C (110F), and other zones have progressively higher
temperatures to cure the coating after most solvent has evaporated.  The typi-
cal curing temperature is 120C (250F) , and ovens are generally limited to
200C (400F) to avoid damage to the paper.  Natural gas is the fuel most often
used in direct fired ovens, but fuel oil is sometimes used.  Some of the hea-
vier grades of fuel oil can create problems, because SO and particulate may
contaminate the paper coating.  Distillate fuel oil usually can be used satis-
factorily.  Steam produced from burning solvent retrieved from an adsorber or
vented to an incinerator may also be used to heat curing ovens.
                      tj                                                *
Emissions and Controls  - The main emission points from paper coating lines are
the coating applicator and the oven (see Figure 4.2.2.6-1).  In a typical paper
coating plant, about 70 percent of all solvents used are emitted from the coat-
ing lines, with most coming from the first zone of the oven.  The other 30 per-
cent are emitted from solvent transfer, storage and mixing operations and can
be reduced through good housekeeping practices.  All solvent used and not
recovered or destroyed can be considered potential emissions.

                   TABLE 4.2.2.6-1.  CONTROL EFFICIENCIES FOR
                              PAPER COATING LINES3
Affected facility
Coating line
Control method
Incineration
Carbon adsorption
Low solvent coating
Efficiency (%)
95
90+
80 - 99b
         aReference 2.
         bfiased on comparison with a conventional coating containing 35%
          solids and 65% organic solvent, by volume.

     Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from individual paper coating
plants vary with size and number of coating lines, line construction, coating
formulation, and substrate composition, so each must be evaluated individually.
VOC emissions can be estimated from the factors in Table 4.2.2.1-1, if coating
use is known and sufficient information on coating composition is available.
Since many paper coating formulas are proprietary, it may be necessary to have
information on the total solvent used and to assume that, unless a control
device is used, essentially all solvent is emitted.  Rarely would as much as 5
percent be retained in the product.

     Almost all solvent emissions from the coating lines can be collected and
sent to a control device.  Thermal incinerators have been retrofitted to a large
number of oven exhausts, with primary and even secondary heat recovery systems
heating the ovens.  Carbon adsorption is most easily adaptable to lines which
use single solvent coating.  If solvent mixtures are collected by adsorbers,
they usually must be distilled for reuse.

     Although available for some products, low solvent coatings are not yet
available for all paper coating operations.  The nature of the products, such
4.2.2.6-2
EMISSION FACTORS
4/81

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as some types of photographic film,  may preclude  development  of  a  low solvent
option.  Furthermore, the more complex the  mixture  of  organic solvents in  the
coating, the more difficult and expensive  to reclaim them for reuse  with a
carbon adsorption system.

References for Section 4.2.2.6

1.   T. W. Hughes, et al., Source Assessment;   Prioritization of Air Pollution
     from Industrial Surface Coating Operations,  EPA-650/2-75-019a,  U. S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle  Park, NC,  February 1975.

2.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions  from Existing Stationary  Sources,
     Volume II;  Surface Coating of  Cans,  Coils,  Paper Fabrics,  Automobiles,
     and Light Duty Trucks, EPA-450/2-77-008,  U.  S. Environmental  Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 1977.
 4.2.2.6-4                      EMISSION FACTORS                            4/81

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4.2.2.7  FABRIC COATING1"3

Process Description - Fabric coating imparts to a fabric substrate properties
such as strength, stability, water or acid repellence, or appearance.  Fabric
coating is the uniform application of an elastomeric or thermoplastic polymer
solution, or a vinyl plastisol or organosol, across all of at least one side
of a supporting fabric surface or substrate.  Coatings are applied by blade,
roll coater, reverse roll coater, and in some instances, by rotogravure coater.
Fabric coating should not be confused with vinyl printing and top coating,
which occur almost exclusively on rotogravure equipment.  Textile printing also
should not be considered a fabric coating process.

     Products usually fabric coated are rainwear, tents, tarpaulins, substrates
for industrial and electrical tape, tire cord, seals, and gaskets.  The industry
is mostly small to medium size plants, many of which are toll coaters, rather
than specialists in their own product lines.

     Figure 4-.2.2.7-1 is of a typical fabric coating operation.  If the fabric
is to be coated with rubber, the rubber is milled with pigments, curing agents
and fillers before being dissolved (mixed) in a suitable solvent.  When other
than rubber coatings are used, milling is rarely necessary.

Emissions and Controls1 - The volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions in a
fabric coating plant originate at the mixer, the coating applicator and the
oven (see Figure 4.2.2.7-1).  Emissions from these three areas are from 10 to
25 percent, 20 to 30 percent and 40 to 65 percent, respectively.  Fugitive
losses, amounting to a few percent, escape during solvent transfer, storage
tank breathing, agitation of mixing tanks, waste solvent disposal, various
stages of cleanup, and evaporation from the coated fabric after it leaves the
line.

     The most accurate method of estimating VOC emissions from a fabric coating
plant is to obtain purchase or use records of all solvents in a specified time
period, add to that the amount of solvent contained in purchased coating solu-
tions, and subtract any stockpiled solvent, such as cleanup solvent, that is
recovered and disposed of in a nonpolluting manner.  Emissions from the actual
coating line, without any solvent recovery, can be estimated from the factors
in Section 4.2.2.1, General Industrial Surface Coating, if coating use is known
and sufficient information on coating composition is available.  Because many
fabric coatings are proprietary, it may be necessary for the user to supply
information on the total solvent used and to assume that, unless a control
device is used, all solvent is emitted.  To calculate total plant emissions,
the coatings mixing losses must be accounted.  These losses can be estimated
from the printline losses by using the relative split of plant emissions bet-
ween the mixing area and the printline.  For example,

                Emissions, = Emissions,   /10% loss from mixing  "\
                  mixing       printline  \85% loss from Printline/

     Incineration is probably the best way to control coating application and
curing emissions on coating lines using a variety of coating formulations.
Primary and secondary heat recovery are likely to be used to help reduce the
fuel requirements of the coating process and, therefore, to increase the economy


4/81                        Evaporation Loss Sources                  4.2.2.7-1

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EMISSION FACTORS
4/81

-------
of incineration.  As with other surface coating operations, carbon adsorption
is most easily accomplished by sources using a single solvent that can be
recovered for reuse.  Mixed solvent recovery is, however, in use in other web
coating processes.  Fugitive emissions controls include tight covers for open
tanks, collection hoods for cleanup areas, and closed containers for storage
of solvent wiping cloths.  Where high solids or waterborne coatings have been
developed to replace conventional coatings, their use may preclude the need for
a control device.

References for Section 4.2.2.7

1.   Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources,
     Volume II;  Surface Coating of Cans, Coils, Paper Fabrics, Automobiles,
     and Light Duty Trucks, EPA-450/2-77-008, U. S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 1977.

2.   B. H. Carpenter and G. K. Billiard, Environmental Aspects of Chemical Use
     in Printing Operations, EPA-560/1-75-005, U. S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Washington, DC, January 1976.

3.   J. C. Berry, "Fabric Printing Definition", Memorandum, Office of Air Quality
     Planning and Standards, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, NC, August 25, 1980.
4/81                        Evaporation Loss  Sources                   4.2.2.7-3

-------
  not more than 1000F (480 - 540C) to prevent warping of the drum.
  Emissions are vented to an afterburner or secondary combustion chamber,
  where the gases are raised to at least 1500F (760C) for a minimum of
  0.5 seconds.  The average amount of material removed from each drum is
  4.4 Ib (2 kg).


          Table 4.8-2.  EMISSION FACTORS FOR TANK TRUCK CLEANING3
                         EMISSION FACTOR RATING:  D
Chemical Class
Compound
Acetone
Perchloroethylene
Methyl tnethacrylate
Phenol
Propylene glycol
Vapor
pressure
high
high
medium
low
low
Viscosity
low
low
medium
low
high
Total
emissions
Ib/ truck
0.686
0.474
0.071
0.012
0.002
g/ truck
311
215
32.4
5.5
1.07
  3.
   Reference 1.  One hour test duration.

  4.8.2  Emissions and Controls

  4.8.2.1  Rail Tank Cars and Tank Trucks - Atmospheric emissions from
  tank car and truck cleaning are predominantly volatile organic chemical
  vapors.  To achieve a practical but representative picture of these
  emissions, the organic chemicals hauled by the carriers must be broken
  down into classes of high, medium and low viscosities and high, medium
  and low vapor pressures.  This is because high viscosity materials do
  not drain readily, affecting the quantity of material remaining in the
  tank, and high vapor pressure materials volatilize more readily during
  cleaning and tend to lead to greater emissions.

       Practical and economically feasible controls of atmospheric
  emissions from tank car and truck cleaning do not exist, except for
  containers transporting commodities that produce combustible gases and
  water soluble vapors (such as ammonia and chlorine).  Gases which are
  displaced as tanks are filled are sent to a flare and burned.  Water
  soluble vapors are absorbed in water and sent to the wastewater system.
  Any other emissions are vented to the atmosphere.

       Tables 4.8-1 and 4.8-2 give emission factors for representative
  organic chemicals hauled by tank cars and trucks.

  4.8.2.2  Drums - There is no control for emissions from steaming of
  drums.   Solution or caustic washing yields negligible air emissions,
  because the drum is closed during the wash cycle.  Atmospheric emissions
  from steaming or washing drums are predominantly organic chemical vapors.
2/80                       E\aporation Lof> Source*                       1.8-3

-------
     Air emissions from drum burning furnaces are controlled by proper
operation of the afterburner or secondary combustion chamber, where gases
are raised to at least 1400F (760C) for a minimum of 0.5 seconds.  This
normally ensures complete combustion of organic materials and prevents the
formation, and subsequent release, of large quantities of NOX, CO and
particulates.  In open burning, however, there is no feasible way of con-
trolling the release of incomplete combustion products to the atmosphere.
Conversion of open cleaning operations to closed cycle cleaning and elim-
ination of open air drum burning seem to be the only control alternatives
immediately available.

     Table 4.8-3 gives emission factors for representative criteria
pollutants emitted from drum burning and cleaning.

              TABLE 4.8-3.  EMISSION FACTORS FOR DRUM BURNING3

                         EMISSION FACTOR RATING:  E
       Pollutant
                                            Total Emissions
                                 Controlled
                            Ib/drum	g/drum
                              Uncontrolled
                          Ib/drum	g/drum
     Particulate

     NOX

     voc
0.02646    12b

0.00004     0.018

     negligible
0.035      16

0.002       0.89

    negligible
  aReference 1.  Emission factors are in terms of weight of pollutant
   released per drum burned, except for VOC, which are per drum washed.
  ^Reference 1, Table 17 and Appendix A.

 Reference for Section 4.8

 1.  T. R. Blackwood, et al., Source Assessment:   Rail Tank Car, Tank Truck,
     and Drum Cleaning, State of the Art, EPA-600/2-78-Q04g, U. S.  Environ-
     mental Protection Agency, Research Triangle  Park, NC, April 1978.
 4.8-4
    EMISSION FACTORS
                2/80

-------
           TABLE 6.6-1.  EMISSION FACTORS FOR FISH PROCESSING PLANTS

                           EMISSION FACTOR RATING:  C
Emission source
Cookers , canning
Cookers, fish scrap
Fresh fish
Stale fish
Steam tube dryers
Direct fired dryers
Particulates
kg/Mg
Nega
Nega
Nega
2.5
4d
Ib/ton
Nega
Nega
Nega
5d
8d
Trime thylamine
[(CHOtfl]
kg/Mg
NAb
0.15C
1.75C
NAd
NAd
Ib/ton
NAb
0.3C
3.5C
NAd
NAd
Hydrogen sulfide
[H2S]
kg/Mg
NAb
0.005C
0.10C
NAd
NAd
Ib/ton
NAb
0.01C
0.2C
NAd
NAd
   aReference 1.  Factors are for uncontrolled emissions, before cyclone.
    Neg = negligible.  NA = not available.
   bAlthough it is known that odors are emitted from canning cookers,
    quantitative estimates are not available.
   cReference 2.
   dReference 1.

References for Section 6.6

1.   Air Pollution Engineering Manual, Second  Edition,  AP-40,  U. S.  Environ-
     mental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,  NC,  May 1973.  Out of
     Print.

2.   W. Summer, Methods of Air Deodorization,  New York, Elsevier Publishing
     Company, 1963.
4/77
Food and Agricultural Industry
6.6-3

-------
 6.8  AMMONIUM NITRATE

 6.8.1  General1"2

      Ammonium nitrate (NHi+NOs) is produced by neutralizing  nitric acid with
 ammonia.  The reaction can be carried out at atmospheric  pressure or at
 pressures up to 410 kPa (45 psig) and at temperatures between 405 and 458K
 (270 - 365F).  An 83 weight percent solution of  ammonium nitrate product
 is produced when concentrated nitric acid (56 - 60 weight percent)  is
 combined with gaseous ammonia in a ratio of from  3.55 to  3.71 to 1,  by
 weight.  When solidified, ammonium nitrate is a hygroscopic colorless
 solid.

      Ammonium nitrate is marketed in several forms,  depending upon its use.
 The solution formed from the neutralization of acid  and ammonia may  be sold
 as a fertilizer, generally in combination with urea.  The solution may be
 further concentrated to form a 95 to 99.5 percent ammonium  nitrate melt for
 use in solids formation processes.  Solid ammonium nitrate  may be produced
 by prilling, graining, granulation or crystallization.  In  addition, prills
 can be produced in either high or low density form,  depending on the
 concentration of the melt.  High density prills,  granules and crystals are
 used as fertilizer.  Ammonium nitrate grains are  used solely in explosives.
 Low density prills can be used as either.

      The process for manufacturing ammonium nitrate  can contain up  to seven
 major unit operations.  These operating steps, shown in Figure 6.8-1, are
 solution formation or synthesis, solution concentration,  solids formation,
 solids finishing, solids screening, solids coating,  and bagging and/or bulk
 shipping.  In some cases, solutions may be blended for marketing as  liquid
 fertilizers.
AMMONIA  -
NITRIC ACID 


1
SOLUTION *
FORMATION "]T

ADDITIVE1

SOLUTION '
CONCENTRATION ""

^ SOLIDS
FORMATION ~

SOLIDS
FINISHING ~*
1 OFFSIZE RECYCLE
SOLUTIONS




SOLIDS
SCREENING2
I
 
SOLIDS
COATING



*-
-

! BLENDING ',

BAGGING

BULK
SHIPPING
BULK
SHIPPING
          1 ADDITIVE MAY BE ADDED BEFORE. DURING. OR AFTER CONCENTRATION
          SCREENING MAY BE BEFORE OR AFTER SOLIDS FINISHING

          Figure 6.8-1.  Ammonium nitrate manufacturing  operations.
      The number of operating steps employed is determined by  the  desired
 end product.  For example, plants producing ammonium nitrate  solutions
 alone use only the solution formation, solution blending and  bulk shipping
1/84
Food and Agricultural Industry
6.8-1

-------
 operations.   Plants producing a solid ammonium nitrate product can employ
 all of the operations.

      All ammonium nitrate plants produce an aqueous ammonium nitrate
 solution through the reaction of ammonia and nitric acid in a neutralizer.
 To produce a solid product,  the ammonium nitrate solution is concentrated
 in an evaporator or concentrator heated to drive off water.  A melt is
 produced containing from 95  to 99.8 percent ammonium nitrate at
 approximately 422K (300F).   This melt is then used to make solid ammonium
 nitrate products.

      Of the various processes used to produce solid ammonium nitrate,
 prilling and granulation are the most common.  To produce prills, concen-
 trated melt is sprayed  into  the top of a prill tower.   Ammonium nitrate
 droplets form in the tower and fall countercurrent to a rising air stream
 that cools and solidifies the falling droplets into spherical prills.
 Prill density can be varied  by using different concentrations of ammonium
 nitrate melt.  Low density prills are formed from a 95 to 97.5 percent
 ammonium nitrate melt,  and high density prills are formed from a 99.5  to
 99.8 percent melt.  High density prills are less porous than low density
 prills.

      In the prilling process, an additive may be injected into the melt
 stream.  This additive  serves three purposes, to raise the crystalline
 transition temperature  of the solid final product; to act as a desiccant,
 drawing water into the  final product prills to reduce caking; and to allow
 prilling to be conducted at  a lower temperature by reducing the freezing
 point of molten ammonium nitrate.  Magnesium nitrate or magnesium oxide are
 examples of additives to the melt stream.  Such additives account for 1 to
 2.5 weight percent of the final product.  While these additives are
 effective replacements  for conventional coating materials, their use is not
 widespread in the industry.

      Rotary drum granulators produce granules by spraying a concentrated
 ammonium nitrate melt (99.0  to 99.8 percent) onto small seed particles in a
 long rotating cylindrical drum.  As the seed particles rotate in the drum,
 successive layers of ammonium nitrate are added to the particles, forming
 granules.  Granules are removed from the granulator and screened.  Offsize
 granules are crushed and recycled to the granulator to supply additional
 seed particles or are dissolved and returned to the solution process.   Pan
 granulators operate on the same principle as drum granulators and produce a
 solid product with physical characteristics similar to those of drum
 granules, except the solids are formed in a large, rotating circular pan.

      The temperature of the ammonium nitrate product exiting the solids
 formation process is approximately 339 - 397K (150 - 255F).  Rotary drum
 or fluidized bed cooling prevents deterioration and agglomeration of solids
 before storage and shipping.  Low density prills, which have a high mois-
 ture content because of a lower melt concentration, require drying before
 cooling, usually in rotary drums or fluidized beds.

      Since the solids are produced in a wide variety of sizes, they must be
 screened for consistently sized prills or granules.  Cooled prills are
 screened, and offsize prills are dissolved and recycled to the solution
 concentration process.   Granules are screened before cooling, undersize

6-8-2                         EMISSION FACTORS                           1/84

-------
 particles  are  returned  directly to  the  granulator,  and oversize granules
 may be  either  crushed and  returned  to  the  granulator  or sent  to the
 solution concentration  process.

      Following screening,  products  can  be  coated in a rotary  drum to
 prevent agglomeration during storage and shipment.  The most  common  coating
 materials  are  clays  and diatomaceous earth.   However, the  use of additives
 in the  ammonium nitrate melt before prilling may preclude  the use of
 coatings.

      Solid ammonium  nitrate  is  stored  and  shipped in  either bulk or  bags.
 Approximately  10 percent of  solid ammonium nitrate  produced in the United
 States  is  bagged.

 6.8.2  Emissions and Controls

      Emissions from  ammonium nitrate production plants are particulate
 matter  (ammonium nitrate and coating materials), ammonia and  nitric  acid.
 Ammonia and nitric acid are  emitted primarily from  solution formation and
 concentration  processes, with ammonia also being emitted from prill  towers
 and granulators. Particulate matter  (largely as ammonium  nitrate) is
 emitted from most of the process operations  and is  the primary emission
 addressed  here.

      The emission sources  in solution  formation and concentration processes
 are neutralizers and evaporators, primarily  emitting  nitric acid and
 ammonia.  Specific plant operating  characteristics, however,  make these
 emissions  vary depending upon use of excess  ammonia or acid in the
 neutralizer.  Since  the neutralization  operation can  dictate  the quantity
 of these emissions,  a range  of  emission factors is  presented  in
 Table 6.8-1.  Particulate  emissions from these operations  tend to be
 smaller in size  than those from solids  production and handling processes
 and generally  are recycled back to  the  process.

      Emissions from  solids formation processes are  ammonium nitrate
 particulate matter and  ammonia.  The sources of primary importance are
 prill towers (for high  density  and  low  density prills)  and granulators
 (rotary drum and pan).   Emissions from  prill towers result from carryover
 of fine particles and fume by the prill cooling air flowing through  the
 tower.   These  fine particles are from microprill formation, attrition of
 prills  colliding with the  tower  or  one  another,  and from rapid transition
 of the  ammonium  nitrate between  crystal states.   The  uncontrolled parti-
 culate  emissions from prill  towers, therefore,  are  affected by tower
 airflow, spray melt  temperature, condition and type of  melt spray device,
 air temperature, and crystal state  changes of the solid prills.   The amount
 of microprill  mass that can  be  entrained in  the prill tower exhaust  is
 determined by  the tower air  velocity.   Increasing spray melt  temperature
 causes  an  increase in the  amount of gas phase ammonium nitrate generated.
 Thus, gaseous  emissions from high density  prilling  are  greater than  from
 low density towers.  Microprill  formation  resulting from partially plugged
 orifices of melt spray  devices  can  increase  fine dust loading and
 emissions.   Certain  designs  (spinning buckets)  and  practices  (vibration of
 spray plates)  help reduce  microprill formation.   High ambient air
 temperatures can cause  increased emissions because  of entrainment as a


1/84                  Food and Agricultural  Industry                    6.8-3

-------









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6.8-4
EMISSION FACTORS
                                                                         1/84

-------
 result of the higher air flow required to cool prills and because of
 increased fume formation at the higher temperatures.

      The granulation process in general provides a larger degree of control
 in product formation than does prilling.  Granulation produces a solid
 ammonium nitrate product that, relative to prills, is larger and has
 greater abrasion resistance and crushing strength.  The air flow in
 granulation processes is lower than that in prilling operations.  Granu-
 lators, however, cannot produce low density ammonium nitrate economically
 with current technology.  The design and operating parameters of granula-
 tors may affect emission rates.  For example, the recycle rate of seed
 ammonium nitrate particles affects the bed temperature in the granulator.
 An increase in bed temperature resulting from decreased recycle of seed
 particles may cause an increase in dust emissions from granule
 disintegration.

      Cooling and drying are usually conducted in rotary drums.  As with
 granulators, the design and operating parameters of the rotary drums may
 affect the quantity of emissions.  In addition to design parameters, prill
 and granule temperature control is necessary to control emissions from
 disintegration of solids caused by changes in crystal state.

      Emissions from screening operations are generated by the attrition of
 the ammonium nitrate solids against the screens and against one another.
 Almost all screening operations used in the ammonium nitrate manufacturing
 industry are enclosed or have a cover over the uppermost screen.  Screening
 equipment is located inside a building, and emissions are ducted from the
 process for recovery or reuse.

      Prills and granules are typically coated in a rotary drum.  The
 rotating action produces a uniformly coated product.   The mixing action
 also causes some of the coating material to be suspended, creating particu-
 late emissions.  Rotary drums used to coat solid product are typically kept
 at a slight negative pressure, and emissions are vented to a particulate
 control device.  Any dust captured is usually recycled to the coating
 storage bins.

      Bagging and bulk loading operations are a source of particulate
 emissions.  Dust is emitted from each type of bagging process during final
 filling when dust laden air is displaced from the bag by the ammonium
 nitrate.  The potential for emissions during bagging is greater for coated
 than for uncoated material.  It is expected that emissions from bagging
 operations are primarily the kaolin, talc or diatomaceous earth coating
 matter.  About 90 percent of solid ammonium nitrate produced domestically
 is bulk loaded.  While particulate emissions from bulk loading are not
 generally controlled, visible emissions are within typical state regulatory
 requirements (below 20 percent opacity).

      Table 6.8-1 summarizes emission factors for various processes involved
 in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate.  Uncontrolled emissions of particu-
 late matter, ammonia and nitric acid are given in the Table.  Emissions of
 ammonia and nitric acid depend upon specific operating practices, so ranges
 of factors are given for some emission sources.
1/84                   Food and Agricultural Industry                   6.8-5

-------
      Emission factors for controlled  particulate emissions are also in
 Table 6.8-1, reflecting wet scrubbing particulate control techniques.  The
 particle size distribution data presented in Table 6.8-2 indicate the
 applicability of wet scrubbing to  control ammonium nitrate particulate
 emissions.  In addition, wet scrubbing is used as a control technique
 because the solution containing the recovered ammonium nitrate can be sent
 to the solution concentration process for reuse in production of ammonium
 nitrate, rather than to waste disposal facilities.               ^
   TABLE 6.8-2.
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION DATA FOR UNCONTROLLED EMISSIONS
FROM AMMONIUM NITRATE MANUFACTURING FACILITIES3
                                                CUMULATIVE WEIGHT %
                                           < 2.5  um    < 5 um     < 10 um
Solids Formation Operations
Low density prill tower
Rotary drum granulator
Coolers and Dryers
Low density prill cooler
Low density prill predryer
Low density prill dryer
Rotary drum granulator cooler
Pan granuiator precooler

56
0.07

0.03
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.3

73
0.3

0.09
0.06
0.04
0.5
0.3

83
2

0.4
0.2
0.15
3
1.5
       inferences 4, 11-12,  22-23.  Particle size determinations were not done in
       strict accordance with EPA Method 5.  A modification was used to handle the
       high concentrations of soluble nitrogenous compounds (See Reference 1).
       Particle size distributioas  were not determined for controlled particulate
       emissions.

 References for Section  6.8

 1.   Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing  Industry - Technical Document,
      EPA-450/3-81-002,  U. S.  Environmental  Protection Agency, Research
      Triangle Park, NC, January  1981.

 2.   W. J. Search and R. B. Reznik,  Source  Assessment:  Ammonium Nitrate
      Production, EPA-600/2-77-107i,  U.  S. Environmental Protection  Agency,
      Research Triangle  Park,  NC,  September  1977.

 3.   Memo from C. D. Anderson, Radian Corporation, Durham, NC, to Ammonium
      Nitrate file, July 2,  1980.

 4.   D. P. Becvar, et al.,  Ammonium Nitrate Emission Test Report:   Union
      Oil Company of California,  EMB-78-NHF-7, U. S. Environmental
      Protection  Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, October  1979.

 5.   K. P. Brockman, Emission Tests for Particulates, Cominco American,
      Beatrice, NE, 1974.

 6.   Written communication  from  S.  V.  Capone, GCA Corporation, Chapel Hill,
      NC, to E. A. Noble, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
      Triangle Park, NC, September 6, 1979.
6.8-6
             EMISSION FACTORS
                                                                          1/84

-------
 7.   Written  communication  from D. E. Cayard, Monsanto Agricultural
     Products Company,  St.  Louis, MO, to E. A. Noble, U. S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, December 4,  1978.

 8.   Written  communication  from D. E. Cayard, Monsanto Agricultural
     Products Company,  St.  Louis, MO, to E. A. Noble, U. S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, December 27, 1978.

 9.   Written  communication  from T. H. Davenport, Hercules Incorporated,
     Donora,  PA,  to D.  R. Goodwin, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     Research Triangle  Park, NC, November 16, 1978.

 10.  R. N. Doster and D. J. Grove, Source Sampling Report;  Atlas Powder
     Company, Entropy Environmentalists, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC,
     August  1976.

 11.  M. D. Hansen, et al.,  Ammonium Nitrate Emission Test Report;  Swift
     Chemical Company,  EMB-79-NHF-11, U, S. Environmental Protection
     Agency,  Research Triangle Park, NC, July 1980.

 12.  R. A. Kniskern, et al.,  Ammonium Nitrate Emission Test Report;
     Cominco  American,  Inc.,  Beatrice, Nebraska, EMB-79-NHF-9,
     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC,
     April 1979.

 13.  Written  communication  from J. A. Lawrence, C. F. Industries, Long
     Grove,  IL, to D. R. Goodwin, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     Research Triangle  Park, NC, December 15, 1978.

 14.  Written  communication  from F. D. McCauley, Hercules Incorporated,
     Louisiana, MO, to  D. R. Goodwin, U. S. Environmental Protection
     Agency,  Research Triangle Park, October 31, 1978.

 15.  W. E. Misa,  Report of  Source Test;  Collier Carbon and Chemical
     Corporation  (Union Oil),  Test No. 5Z-78-3, Anaheim, CA,
     January  12,  1978.

 16.  Written  communication  from L. Musgrove, Georgia Department of Natural
     Resources, Atlanta, GA, to R. Rader, Radian Corporation, Durham, NC,
     May  21,  1980.

 17.  Written  communication  from D. J. Patterson, N-ReN Corporation,
     Cincinnati,  OH, to E.  A. Noble, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     Research Triangle  Park, NC, March 26, 1979.

 18.  Written  communication  from H. Schuyten, Chevron Chemical Company, San
     Francisco, CA, to D. R. Goodwin, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     March 2,  1979.

 19.  Emission Test Report;  Phillips Chemical Company, Texas Air Control
     Board, Austin, TX, 1975.

 20.  Surveillance Report;   Hawkeye Chemical Company, U. S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, December 29, 1976.


1/84                  Food and Agricultural Industry                    6.8-7

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21.  W. A. Wade and R. W. Cass, Ammonium Nitrate Emission Test Report:
     C. F. Industries. EMB-79-NHF-10, U. S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, November 1979.

22.  W. A. Wade, et al. , Ammonium Nitrate Emission Test Report;  Columbia
     Nitrogen Corporation, EMB-80-NHF-16, U. S- Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, January 1981.

23.  York Research Corporation, Ammonium Nitrate Emission Test Report:
     N-ReN Corporation, EMB-78-NHF-5, U. S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, May 1979.
6.8-8                         EMISSION FACTORS                           !/84

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6.14  UREA

6.14.1  General1

     Urea  (CO[NH2l2) also known  as  carbamide  or carbonyl diamide, is
produced by reacting ammonia  and  carbon dioxide  at 448 - 473K (347 - 392F)
and 13.7 - 23.2 MPa  (2,0002 - 3,400  psi)  to  form ammonium carbamate
(NH2C02NHi+).  Pressure may be as  high as  41.0  MPa (6,000 psi).    Urea is
formed by a dehydration  decomposition of  ammonium carbamate.

     Urea is marketed as a solution  or in a  variety of solid forms.  Most
urea solution produced is used in fertilizer mixtures, with a small amount
going to animal feed supplements.  Most solids are produced as prills or
granules,  for use  as fertilizer or protein supplement in animal feeds, and
use in plastics manufacturing. Five U. S. plants produce solid urea in
crystalline form.

     The process for manufacturing urea involves a combination of up to
seven major unit operations.   These  operations,  illustrated by the flow
diagram in Figure  6.14-1, are solution synthesis, solution concentration,
solids formation,  solids cooling,  solids screening, solids coating, and
bagging and/or bulk  shipping.
                      ADDITIVE
   OPTIONAL WITH INDIVIDUAL MANUFACTURING PRACTICES
            Figure 6.14-1.   Major urea manufacturing operations.
      The combination of processing steps is determined by the desired end
 products.   For example, plants producing urea solution use only the solution
 formulation and bulk shipping operations.  Facilities producing solid urea
 employ these two operations and various combinations of the remaining five
 operations, depending upon the specific end product being produced.

      In the solution synthesis operation, ammonia and C02 are reacted to
 form ammonium carbamate.  The carbamate is then dehydrated to yield 70 to
 77 percent aqueous urea solution.  This solution can be used as an
1/84
Food and Agricultural Industry
6.14-1

-------
 ingredient  of  nitrogen  solution  fertilizers,  or  it  can  be  concentrated
 further  to  produce  solid  urea.

      The concentration  process furnishes  urea melt  for  solids  formation.
 The  three methods of  concentrating  the  urea  solution  are vacuum concentra-
 tion,  crystallization and atmospheric evaporation.  The method chosen
 depends  upon the  level  of biuret (NH2CONHCONH2)  impurity allowable  in the
 end  product.   The most  common method of solution concentration is
 evaporation.

      Urea solids  are  produced from  the  urea  melt by two basic  methods,
 .prilling and granulation.  Prilling is  a  process by which  solid particles
 are  produced from molten  urea.   Molten  urea  is sprayed  from the top of  a
 prill tower,  and  as the droplets fall through a  countercurrent air  flow,
 they cool and  solidify  into nearly  spherical particles.  There are  two  types
 of prill towers,  fluidized bed and  nonfluidized  bed.  The  major difference
 between  these  towers  is that a separate solids cooling  operation may be
 required to produce agricultural grade  prills in a  nonfluidized bed prill
 tower.^

      Granulation  is more  popular than prilling in producing solid urea  for
 fertilizer.  There  are  two granulation  methods,  drum  granulation and pan
 granulation.   In  drum granulation,  solids are built up  in  layers on seed
 granules in a  rotating  drum granulator/cooler approximately 14 feet in
 diameter.  Pan granulators also  form the  product in a layering process, but
 different equipment is  used, and pan granulators are  not common in  this
 country.

      The solids cooling operation generally  is accomplished during  solids
 formation,  but for  pan  granulation  processes and for  some  agricultural  grade
 prills,  some supplementary cooling  is provided by auxiliary rotary  drums.

      The solids screening operation removes  offsize product from solid  urea.
 The  offsize material may  be returned to the  process in  the solid phase  or  be
 redissolved in water and  returned to the  solution concentration process.

      Clay coatings  are  used in  the  urea industry to reduce product  caking
 and  urea dust formation,  even though they also reduce the  nitrogen  content
 of  the product, and the coating  operation creates clay  dust emissions.  The
 popularity  of  clay  coating has  diminished considerably  because of  the
 practice of injecting formaldehyde  additives into the liquid or molten  urea
 before solids formation.5"6  Additives  reduce solids  caking during  storage
 and  urea dust formation during  transport  and handling.

      The majority of solid urea  product is bulk  shipped in trucks,  enclosed
 railroad cars, or barges, but approximately  10 percent  is  bagged.

 6.14.2  Emissions and Controls

      Emissions from urea  manufacture include ammonia  and particulate matter.
 Ammonia is  emitted during the solution  synthesis and  solids production
 processes.   Particulate matter  is the primary emission  being addressed  here.
 There have  been no reliable measurements  of  free gaseous  formaldehyde
 emissions.   The chromotropic acid procedure  that has  been  used to  measure


6.14-2                        EMISSION FACTORS                          1/84

-------
 formaldehyde  is not  capable  of  distinguishing between  gaseous  formaldehyde
 and  methylenediurea,  the  principle  compound  formed when  the  formaldehyde
 additive  reacts with  hot  urea.7"8

      In the synthesis process,  some emission control is  inherent  in  the
 recycle process where carbamate gases  and/or liquids are recovered and
 recycled.  Typical emission  sources from  the solution  synthesis process are
 noncondensable vent  streams  from ammonium carbamate decomposers and
 separators.   Emissions  from  synthesis  processes  are generally  combined with
 emissions from the solution  concentration process and  are vented  through  a
 common  stack.  Combined particulate emissions from urea  synthesis and
 concentration are much  less  than particulate emissions from  a  typical solids
 producing urea plant.   The synthesis and  concentration operations are
 usually uncontrolled  except  for recycle provisions to  recover  ammonia.  For
 these reasons, no factor  for controlled emissions from synthesis  and
 concentration processes is given in this  section.

      Uncontrolled emission rates from  prill  towers may be affected by the
 following factors:

        -   product grade being produced
        -   air flow rate through the tower
        -   type of tower bed
        -   ambient temperature and humidity

 The  total of  mass emissions  per unit is usually  lower  for feed grade prill
 production than for  agricultural grade prills, due to  lower  airflows.
 Uncontrolled  particulate  emission rates for  fluidized  bed prill towers are
 higher  than those for nonfluidized  bed prill towers making agricultural
 grade prills  and are  approximately  equal  to  those for  nonfluidized bed feed
 grade prills.^  Ambient air  conditions can affect prill  tower  emissions.
 Available data indicate that colder temperatures promote the formation of
 smaller particles in  the  prill  tower exhaust.9   Since  smaller  particles are
 more difficult to remove, the efficiency  of  prill tower  control devices
 tends to  decrease with  ambient  temperatures.  This can lead  to higher
 emission  levels for prill towers operated during cold  weather.  Ambient
 humidity  can  also affect  prill  tower emissions.  Air flow rates must be
 increased with high humidity, and higher  air flow rates  usually cause higher
 emissions.

      The  design parameters of drum  granulators and rotary drum coolers may
 affect  emissions.10"11

      Drum granulators have an advantage over prill towers in that they are
 capable of producing  very large particles without difficulty.  Granulators
 also require  less air for operation than  do  prill towers.  A disadvantage of
 granulators is their  inability  to produce the smaller  feed grade  granules
 economically.  To produce smaller granules,  the  drum must be operated at  a
 higher  seed particle  recycle  rate.   It has been  reported that, although the
 increase  in seed material results in a lower bed temperature,  the
 corresponding increase  in fines in  the granulator causes a higher emission
 rate.1"  Cooling air  passing  through the  drum granulator entrains
 approximately 10 to 20  percent  of the  product.   This  air stream  is
1/84                  Food and Agricultural Industry                   6.14-3

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 controlled with a wet scrubber which  is  standard process equipment on drum
 granulators.

      In the solids screening process,  dust  is generated by abrasion of urea
 particles and the vibration of the  screening mechanisms.  Therefore, almost
 all screening operations used in the  urea manufacturing industry are
 enclosed or are covered over the uppermost  screen.   This operation is a
 small emission source, and particulate emissions from solids screening are
 not treated here.12"13

      Emissions attributable to coating include entrained clay dust from
 loading, inplant transfer, and leaks  from the seals of the coater.  No
 emissions data are available to quantify this fugitive dust source.

      Bagging operations are a source  of  particulate emissions.  Dust is
 emitted from each bagging method during  the final stages of filling, when
 dustladen air is displaced from the bag  by  urea.  Bagging operations are
 conducted inside warehouses and are usually vented to keep dust out of the
 workroom area, according to OSHA regulations.  Most vents are controlled
 with baghouses.  Nationwide, approximately  90 percent of urea produced is
 bulk loaded.  Few plants control their bulk loading operations.  Generation
 of visible fugitive particles is slight.

      Table 6.14-1 summarizes the uncontrolled and controlled emission
 factors, by processes, for urea manufacture.  Table 6.14-2 summarizes
 particle sizes for these emissions.


    TABLE 6.14-2.  UNCONTROLLED PARTICLE  SIZE DATA FOR UREA PRODUCTION3
         OPERATION
                     PARTICLE SIZE
                  (Cummulative Weight %)
             <  10 um    < 5 um     < 2.5 un
Solution Formation and Concentration
Solids Formation
Nonfluidized bed prilling
agricultural grade
feed grade
Fluidized bed prilling
agricultural grade
feed grade
Drum granulation
Rotary Drum Cooler
Bagging
Bulk Loading
NA


90
85

60
24
b
0.70
NA
NA
NA


84
74

52
18
b
0.15
NA
NA
NA


79
50

43
14
b
0.04
NA
NA
          not available.  No data were available on particle sizes of  controlled
      emissions.  Particle size information was  collected uncontrolled  in the
      ducts and may not reflect particle size in the ambient air.

      All particulate matter ^ 5.7 um was collected in the cyclone precollector
      sampling equipment.
6.14-4
EMISSION FACTORS
                                                                           1/84

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                    TABLE  6.14-1.   EMISSION  FACTORS  FOR UREA PRODUCTION'

                                               EMISSION  FACTOR  RATING:   Ab
Particulatesc
Operation

Solution formation
and concentration
Solids formation
Nonfluidized
bed prilling
agricultural grade8
feed grade^
Fluidized bed prilling
agricultural grade^
feed grade-1
k
Drum granulation
Rotary drum cooler
Bagging
Uncontrolled
kg/Mg

0.0105e



1.9h
1.8

3.1
1.8
120
3.72
0.095n
Ib/ton

0.021a



3.8h
3.6

6.2
3.6
241
7.45
0.19
Controlled
kg/Mg

-



0.032
NA

0.39
0.24
0.115
0.10m
NA
Ib/ton

-



0.064
NA

0.78
0.48
0.234
0.20m
NA
Ammonia
Uncontrolled
kg/Mg

9.12f



0.43
NA

1.46
2.07
1.071
0.0256
NA
Ib/ton

18.24f



0.87
NA

2.91
4.14
2.151
0.051
NA
Exiting Control Device
kg/Mg

-



i
NA

i
1.04
h
NA
NA
Ib/ton

-



i
NA

i
2.08
h
NA
NA
       aBased on emissions per unit of production output.  Dash - not applicable.   NA   not  available.
        Emission Factor Rating is C for controlled paniculate emissions from rotary drum coolers
        and uncontrolled particulate emissions from bagging.

       c?articulate test data were collected using a modification of EPA Reference Method 5.  Reference 1,
        Appendix 3 explains  these modifications.
        References 14-16,  19.  Emissions from the synthesis process are generally combined with emissions
        from the solution concentration process and vented through a common stack.  In Che synthesis
        process, some  emission control is inherent in the recycle process where carbamate gases and/or
        liquids are recovered and recycled.
       eEPA test data  indicated a range of 0.0052 - 0.0150 kg/Mg (0.0104 - 0.0317  Ib/ton).

       fEPA test data  indicated a range of 3.79 - 14.44 kg/Mg (7.58 - 28.89 Ib/ton).
       ^Reference 20.  These factors were determined at an ambient temperature of  288K - 294K
        (57F - 69F).  The  controlled emission factors are based on ducting exhaust  through a downcomer
        and then a wetted fiber filter scrubber achieving a 98.3 percent efficiency.   This represents a
        higher degree  of control than is typical in this industry.
       figures are based on EPA test data.   Industry test data ranged from 0.39 - 1.79  kg/Mg
        (0.78 - 3.58 Ib/ton).
        MO ammonia control demonstrated by scrubbers installed for particulate control.   Some increase in
        ammonia emissions exiting the control device was noted.

       'Reference 19.  Feed grade factors were determined at an ambient temperature of 302K  (85F) and
        agricultural grade factors at an ambient  temperature of 299K (80"F).  For  fluidized bed prilling,
        controlled emission factors are based on  use of an entrainment scrubber.
       References 14  - 16.  Controlled emission  factors are based on use of a wet entrainment scrubber.
        Wet scrubbers  are standard process equipment on drum granulators.  Uncontrolled  emissions were
        measured at the scrubber inlet.
            test  data indicated a range of 0.955  -  1.20 kg/Mg (1.91 - 2.40 Ib/ton).

       "EMISSION  FACTOR RATING:  C; Reference 1.

                 FACTOR RATING:  C; Reference 1.
1/84
Food  and Agricultural Industry
6.14-5

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      Urea manufacturers presently control particulate matter emissions from
 prill towers, coolers, granulators and bagging operations.   With the
 exception of bagging operations, urea emission sources usually are
 controlled with wet scrubbers.  The preference of scrubber  systems over dry
 collection systems is primarily for the easy recycling of dissolved urea
 collected in the device.  Scrubber liquors are recycled to  the solution
 concentration process to eliminate waste disposal problems  and to recover
 the urea collected.1

      Fabric filters (baghouses) are used to control fugitive dust from
 bagging operations, where humidities are low and blinding of the bags is not
 a problem.  However, many bagging operations are uncontrolled.1

 References for Section 6.14

 1.   Urea Manufacturing Industry - Technical Document, EPA-450/3-81-001,
      U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC,
      January 1981.

 2.   D. F. Bress, M. W. Packbier,  "The Startup of Two Major Urea Plants,"
      Chemical Engineering Progress,  May 1977,  p. 80.

 3.   A. V. Slack, "Urea,"  Fertilizer Development Trends.  Noyes Development
      Corporation,  Park Ridge, NJ,  1968,  p. 121.

 4.   Written communication from J. M. Killen, Vistron Corporation, Lima, OH,
      to D. R. Goodwin, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
      Triangle Park, NC, December 21, 1978.

 5.   Written communication from J. P. Swanburg, Union Oil of California,
      Brea, CA, to D. R. Goodwin, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
      Research Triangle Park, NC, December 20, 1978.

 6.   Written communication from M. I. Bernstein and S. V. Capone, GCA
      Corporation, Bedford, MA, to E. A. Noble, U. S. Environmental
      Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, June 22, 1978.

 7.   Written communication from Gary McAlister, U. S. Environmental
      Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, to Eric Noble, U. S.
      Environmental Protection Agency, Industrial Studies Branch, Research
      Triangle Park, NC, July 28, 1983.

 8.   Formaldehyde Use in Urea-Based Fertilizers,  Report of the Fertilizer
      Institute's Formaldehyde Task Group, The Fertilizer Institute,
      Washington, D. C., February 4, 1983.

 9.   J. H. Cramer, "Urea Prill Tower Control Meeting 20% Opacity,"
      Presented at the Fertilizer Institute Environmental Symposium,
      New Orleans, LA, April 1980.

 10.  Written communication from M. I. Bornstein, GCA Corporation, Bedford,
      MA, to E. A. Noble, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
      Triangle Park, NC, August 2, 1978.
6.14-6                        EMISSION FACTORS
                                                                         1/84

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 11.   Written communication from M.  I.  Bernstein and S.  V.  Capone,  GCA
      Corporation,  Bedford, MA,  to E. A.  Noble,  U,  S.  Environmental
      Protection Agency,  Research Triangle Park, NC, June  23,  1978.

 12.   Written communication from J.  P.  Alexander, Agrico Chemical Company,
      Donaldsonville,  LA, to D.  R. Goodwin,  U.  S. Environmental Protection
      Agency, NC, December 21,  1978.

 13.   Written communication from N.  E.  Picquet,  W.  R.  Grace and Company,
      Memphis, TN,  to  D.  R. Goodwin,  U.  S. Environmental Protection Agency,
      Research Triangle Park, NC, December 14,  1978.

 14.   Urea Manufacture;  Agrico  Chemical Company Emission  Test Report,  EMB
      Report 79-NHF-13a,  U. S. Environmental Protection  Agency, Research
      Triangle Park, NC,  September 1980.

 15.   Urea Manufacture;  Agrico  Chemical Company Emission  Test Report,  EMB
      Report 78-NHF-4, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Research
      Triangle Park, NC,  April  1979.

 16.   Urea Manufacture;  CF Industries  Emission Test Report,  EMB Report
      78-NHF-8, U.  S.  Environmental Protection  Agency, Research Triangle
      Park, NC, May 1979.

 17.   Urea Manufacture;  Union Oil of California Emission  Test Report,  EMB
      Report 78-NHF-7, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Research
      Triangle Park, NC,  October 1979.

 18.   Urea Manufacture;  Union Oil of California Emission  Test Report,  EMB
      Report 80-NHF-15, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
      Triangle Park, NC,  September 1980.

 19.   Urea Manufacture:  W. R. Grace  and Company Emission  Test Report,  EMB
      Report 78-NHF-3, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Research
      Triangle Park, NC,  December 1979.

 20.   Urea Manufacture:  Reichhold Chemicals Emission Test  Report,  EMB Report
      80-NHF-14, U. S. Environmental  Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
      Park, NC, August 1980.
1/84                  Food and Agricultural Industry                   6.14-7

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7.1  PRIMARY ALUMINUM PRODUCTION

7.1.1  Process Description^"^

     The base ore for primary aluminum production is bauxite, a hydrated
oxide of aluminum consisting of 30 to 70 percent alumina (A1203) and lesser
amounts of iron, silicon and titanium.  The bauxite ore is first purified  to
alumina by the Bayer process, and this is then reduced to elemental aluminum.
The production of alumina and the reduction of alumina to aluminum are seldom
accomplished at the same facility.  A schematic diagram of the primary
production of aluminum is shown at Figure 7.1-1.

     In the Bayer process, the ore is dried, ground in ball mills and mixed
with a leaching solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature and
pressure, producing a sodium aluminate solution which is separated from the
bauxite impurities and cooled.  As the solution cools, the hydrated aluminum
oxide (A1203 . 3H20) precipitates.  Following separation and washing to
remove iron oxide, silica and other impurities, the hydrated aluminum oxide
is dried and calcined to produce a crystalline form of alumina (A1203),
advantageous for electrolysis.

     Aluminum metal is manufactured by the Hall-Heroult process, which
involves the electrolytic reduction of alumina dissolved in a molten salt
bath of cryolite (Na3AlFg) and various salt additives:

           2A1203       Electrolysis        4A1    +    302             (!)
           Alumina     	*    Aluminum      Oxygen
                        (reduction)

The electrolytic reduction occurs in shallow rectangular cells, or "pots",
which are steel shells lined with carbon.  Carbon electrodes extend into the
pot and serve as the anodes, and the carbon lining the steel shell is the  cathode.
Molten cryolite functions as both the electrolyte and the solvent for the
alumina.  Electrical resistance to the current passing between the electrodes
generates heat that maintains cell operating temperatures between 950 and
1000C (1730 and 1830F).  Aluminum is deposited at the cathode, where it
remains as molten metal below the surface of the cryolite bath.  The carbon
anodes are continuously depleted by the reaction of oxygen (formed during  the
reaction) and anode carbon, to produce carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Carbon consumption and other raw material and energy requirements for aluminum
production are summarized in Table 7.1-1.  The aluminum product is period-
ically tapped beneath the cryolite cover and is fluxed to remove trace
impurities.

     Aluminum reduction cells are distinguished by the anode type and
configuration used in the pots.  Three types of pots are currently used,
prebaked (PB), horizontal stud Soderberg (HSS), and vertical stud Soderberg
(VSS).  Most of the aluminum produced in the U. S. is processed in PB cells.

     Anodes are produced  as an ancillary operation at the reduction plant.
In the paste preparation plant, petroleum coke is mixed with a pitch binder


4/81                        Metallurgical Industry                      7.1-1

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                                             SODIUM
                                           HYDROXIDE
 BAUXITE
TO CONTROL DEVICE
         I
                                                        SETTLING
                                                        CHAMBER
DILUTION
 WATER
       RED MUD
      (IMPURITIES)
                                               DILUTE
                                               SODIUM
                                              HYDROXIDE
TO CONTROL
  DEVICE
                                                     CRYSTALLIZER
                                                                      AQUEOUS SODIUM
                                                                        ALUM1NATE
                                TO CONTROL DEVICE

                               	I
                                                      BAKING
                                                     FURNACE
                                                   BAKED
                                                  ANODES
                                                          TO CONTROL DEVICE
                                                             1
                                                   PREBAKE
                                                  REDUCTION
                                                    CELL
                                 ANODE PASTE
                                                  TO CONTROL DEVICE

                                                  HORIZONTAL
                                                 OR VERTICAL
                                                  SODERBERG
                                                REDUCTION CELL
                                                                         MOLTEN
                                               ALUMINUM
         Figure 7.1-1.  Schematic diagram of primary aluminum production process.
7.1-2
                                    EMISSION FACTORS
                                                        4/81

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to form a paste which is used for Soderberg cell anodes, and for green anodes
for prebake cells.  Paste preparation includes crushing, grinding and screen-
ing of coke and cleaned spent anodes (butts), and blending with a pitch binder
in a steam jacketed mixer.  For Soderberg anodes, the thick paste mixture is
transferred directly to the potroom for addition to the anode casings.  In
prebake anode preparation, the paste mixture is molded to form self supporting
green anode blocks.  The blocks are baked in a direct fired ring furnace or an
indirect fired tunnel kiln.  Baked anodes are then transferred to the rodding
room, where the electrodes are attached.  Volatile organic vapors from the pitch
paste are emitted during anode baking, and most are destroyed in the baking
furnace.  The baked anodes, typically 14 to 24 per cell, are attached to metal
rods and serve as replaceable anodes.


  TABLE 7.1-1.  RAW MATERIAL AND ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALUMINUM PRODUCTION


  	Parameter	Typical value	

  Cell operating temperature                    ~ 950C (~ 1740F)
  Current through pot line                   60,000 - 125,000 amperes
  Voltage drop per cell                               4.3 - 5.2
  Current efficiency                                   85 - 90%
  Energy required                            13.2 - 18.7 kwh/kg aluminum
                                             (6.0 - 8.5 kwh/lb aluminum)
  Weight alumina consumed            1.89 - 1.92 kg(lb) Al203/kg(lb) aluminum
  Weight electrolyte
    fluoride consumed             0.03 - 0.10 kg(lb) fluoride/kg(lb) aluminum
  Weight carbon electrode
    consumed                     0.45 - 0.55 kg(lb) electrode/kg(lb) aluminum
     In the electrolytic reduction of alumina, the carbon anodes are lowered
into the cell and consumed at a rate of about 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) per day.
Prebaked cells are preferred over Soderberg cells for their lower power require-
ments, reduced generation of volatile pitch vapors from the carbon anodes,
and provision for better cell hooding to capture emissions.

     The second most commonly used reduction cell is the horizontal stud
Soderberg (HSS).  This type of cell uses a "continuous" carbon anode.  Green
anode paste is periodically added at the top of the anode casing of the pot
and is baked by the heat of the cell to a solid carbon mass as the material
moves down the casing.  The cell casing consists of aluminum sheeting and
perforated steel channels, through which electrode connections (studs) are
inserted horizontally into the anode paste.  During reduction, as the baking
anode is lowered, the lower row of studs and the bottom channel are removed,
and the flexible electrical connectors are moved to a higher row of studs.
High molecular weight organics from the anode paste are released, along with
other cell emissions.  The heavy tars can cause plugging of exhaust ducts,
fans and emission control equipment.

     The vertical stud Soderberg (VSS) cell is similar to the HSS cell, except
that the studs are mounted vertically in the anode paste.  Gases from the VSS

4/81                        Metallurgical Industry                      7.1-3

-------
cells can be ducted to gas burners, and the tar and oils combusted.  The con-
struction of the HSS cell prevents the installation of an integral gas collection
device, and hooding is restricted to a canopy or skirt at the base of the cell,
where the hot anode enters the cell bath.

     Casting involves pouring molten aluminum into molds and cooling it with
water.  At some plants, before casting, the molten aluminum may be batch treated
in furnaces to remove oxide, gaseous impurities and active metals such as
sodium and magnesium.  One process consists of adding a flux of chloride and
fluoride salts and then bubbling chlorine gas, usually mixed with an inert
gas, through the molten mixture.  Chlorine reacts with the impurities to form
HC1, A1203 and metal chloride emissions.  A dross forms and floats on the
molten aluminum and is removed before casting.^

7.1.2  Emissions and Controls1"^10

     Controlled and uncontrolled emission factors for total particulate
matter, fluoride and sulfur oxides are presented in Table 7.1-2.  Fugitive
particulate and fluoride emission factors for reduction cells are also pre-
sented in this Table.

     In the preparation of refined alumina from bauxite, large amounts of
particulates are generated during the calcining of hydrated aluminum oxide,
but the economic value of this dust is such that extensive controls are
employed to reduce emissions to relatively small quantities.  Small amounts
of particulates are emitted from the bauxite grinding and materials handling
processes.

     Emissions from aluminum reduction processes consist primarily of gaseous
hydrogen fluoride and particulate fluorides, alumina, carbon monoxide, vola-
tile organics, and sulfur dioxide from the reduction cells, and fluorides,
vaporized organics and sulfur dioxide from the anode baking furnaces.

     The source of fluoride emissions from reduction cells is the fluoride
electrolyte, which contains cryolite, aluminum fluoride (A1F3), and fluorspar
(CaF2).  For normal operation, the weight, or "bath", ratio of sodium fluo-
ride (NaF) to A1F3 is maintained between 1.36 and 1.43 by the addition of A1F3.
This increases the cell current efficiency and lowers the bath melting point,
permitting lower operating temperature in the cell.  Cell fluoride emissions
are decreased by lowering the operating temperature.  The ratio of gaseous
(mainly hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrafluoride) to particulate fluorides
varies from 1.2 to 1.7 with PB and HSS cells, but attains a value of approx-
imately 3.0 with VSS cells.

     Particulate emissions from reduction cells consist of alumina and carbon
from anode dusting, cryolite, aluminum fluoride, calcium fluoride, chiolite
(Na5Al3Fi4) and ferric oxide.  Representative size distributions for partic-
ulate emissions from PB cells and HSS cells are presented in Table 7.1-3.
Particulates less than 1 micron in diameter represent the largest fraction
(35 - 44 percent) for uncontrolled emissions.  In one HSS cell, uncontrolled
particulate emissions from one HSS cell had a mass mean particle diameter of 5.5
microns.  Thirty percent by mass of the particles were submicron, and 16 percent
were less than 0.2 microns in diameter.


7.1-4                            EMISSION FACTORS                        4/81

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7.1-6
                                                 EMISSION  FACTORS
                                                                                                                           4/81

-------
   TABLE 7.1-3.  REPRESENTATIVE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF UNCONTROLLED
         EMISSIONS FROM PREBAKED AND HORIZONTAL STUD SODERBERG CELLS3
Size range ryv

1
5
10
20

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to
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to
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5
10
20
44

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PB
35
25
8
5
5

HSS
44
26
8
6
4

              aReference
     Emissions from reduction cells also include hydrocarbons or organics,
carbon monoxide and sulfur oxides.  Small amounts of hydrocarbons are
released by PB pots, and larger amounts are emitted from HSS and VSS pots.
In vertical cells, these organics are incinerated in integral gas burners.
Sulfur oxides originate from sulfur in the anode coke and pitch.  The con-
centrations of sulfur oxides in VSS cell emissions range from 200 to 300  parts
per million.  Emissions from PB plants usually have S02 concentrations ranging
from 20 to 30 parts per million.

     Emissions from anode bake ovens include the products of fuel combustion;
high boiling organics from the cracking, distillation and oxidation of paste
binder pitch; sulfur dioxide from the sulfur in carbon paste, primarily from
the petroleum coke, fluorides from recycled anode butts; and other partic-
ulate matter.  The concentrations of uncontrolled S02 emissions from anode
baking furnaces range from 5 to 47 parts per million (based on 3 percent  sulfur
in coke.)^

     A variety of control devices has been used to abate emissions from
reduction cells and anode baking furnaces.  To control gaseous and partic-
ulate fluorides and particulate emissions, one or more types of wet scrub-
bers (spray tower and chambers, quench towers, floating beds, packed beds,
Venturis, and self induced sprays have been applied to all three types of
reduction cells and to anode baking furnaces.  Also, particulate control
methods such as electrostatic precipitators (wet and dry), multiple cyclones
and dry alumina scrubbers (fluid bed, injected, and coated filter types) are
employed with baking furnaces and on all three cell types.  Also, the alumina
adsorption systems are being used on all three cell types to control both
gaseous and particulate fluorides by passing the pot offgases through the
entering alumina feed, which adsorbs the fluorides.  This technique has an
overall control efficiency of 98 to 99 percent.  Baghouses are then used  to
collect residual fluorides entrained in the alumina and to recycle them to
the reduction cells.  Wet electrostatic precipitators approach adsorption in
particulate removal efficiency but must be coupled to a wet scrubber or
coated baghouse to catch hydrogen fluoride.

     Scrubber systems also remove a portion of the S02 emissions.  These
emissions could be reduced by wet scrubbing or by reducing the quantity of
sulfur in the anode coke and pitch, i. e., calcining the coke.
4/81
Metallurgical Industry
7.1-7

-------
     In the hydrated aluminum oxide  calcining,  bauxite  grinding and materials
handling operations, various dry dust  collection devices  (centrifugal  collec-
tors, multiple cyclones,  or electrostatic  precipitators and/or wet  scrubbers)
have been used.

     Potential sources of fugitive  particulate  emissions  in the primary
aluminum industry are bauxite grinding,  materials handling, anode baking  and
three types of reduction  cells (see  Table  7.1-2).  These  fugitives  probably
have particle size distributions similar to  those presented in Table 7.1-3.

References for Section 7.1

1   Engineering and Cost Effectiveness  Study of Fluoride Emissions Control,
     Volume I, APTD-0945, U. S. Environmental Protection  Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, NC, January 1972.

2.   Air Pollution Control in the Primary  Aluminum Industry, Volume I,
     EPA-450/3-73-004a, U. S. Environmental  Protection  Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, NC, July 1973.

3.   Particulate Pollutant System Study, Volume I, APTD-0743, U. S. Environ-
     mental Protection Agency, Research  Triangle Park,  NC, May 1971.

4.   Emissions from Wet Scrubbing System,  Report Number Y-7730-E, York
     Research Corp., Stamford, CT, May 1972.

5.   Emissions from Primary Aluminum Smelting Plant,  Report Number  Y-7730-B,
     York Research Corp., Stamford,  CT,  June 1972.

6.   Emissions from the Wet Scrubber System, Report Number Y-7730-F, York
     Research Corp., Stamford, CT, June  1972.

7.   T. R. Hanna and M. J. Pilat, "Size  Distribution  of Particulates Emitted
     from a Horizontal Spike Soderberg Aluminum Reduction Cell", Journal  of
     the Air Pollution Control Association,  22_:533-536, July 1972.

8.   Background Information for Standards  of Performance:  Primary  Aluminum
     Industry, Volume 1;   Proposed  Standards, EPA-450/2-74-020a, U. S.
     Environmental Protection Agency,  Research  Triangle Park, NC, October
     1974.

9.   Primary Aluminum;  Guidelines  for Control  of Fluoride Emissions from
     Existing Primary Aluminum Plants, EPA-450/2-78-049b, U. S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Research Triangle  Park, NC, December 1979.

10.  Written communication from T.  F.  Albee, Reynolds Aluminum, Richmond, VA,
     to A. A. MacQueen, U. S. Environmental  Protection Agency, Research
     Triangle Park, NC, October 20,  1982.

11.  Environmental Assessment;  Primary  Aluminum, Interim report, U.  S.
     Environmental Protection Agency,  Cincinnati, OH, October 1979.
7.1-8                            EMISSION FACTORS                        4/81

-------
7.3  PRIMARY COPPER SMELTING

7.3.1  Process Description^"^

    In the United States, copper is produced from sulfide ore concentrates
principally by pyrometallurgical smelting methods.  Because the copper ores
usually contain less than 1 percent copper,  they must be concentrated before
transport to a smelter.  Concentrations of 15 to 35 percent copper are
accomplished at the mine site by crushing, grinding and flotation.   Sulfur
content of the concentrate ranges from 25 to 35 percent, and most of the
remainder is iron (25 percent) and water (10 percent).  Some concentrates also
contain significant quantities of arsenic, cadmium, lead, antimony and other
heavy metals.

    The conventional pyrometallurgical copper smelting process is illustrated
in Figure 7.3-1.  The process includes roasting of ore concentrates to produce
calcine, smelting of roasted (calcine feed)  or unroasted (green feed) ore
concentrates to produce matte, and converting of the matte to yield blister
copper product (about 99 percent pure).  Typically, the blister copper is fire
refined in an anode furnace, cast into "anodes" and sent to an electrolytic
refinery for further impurity elimination.

    In roasting, charge material of copper concentrate mixed with a siliceous
flux (often a low grade ore) is heated in air to about 650C (1,200F),
eliminating 20 to 50 percent of the sulfur as sulfur dioxide (SC^).  Portions
of such impurities as antimony, arsenic and  lead are driven off, and some of
the iron is converted to oxide.  The roasted product, called calcine, serves
as a dried and heated charge for the smelting furnace.  Either multiple
hearth or fluidized bed roasters are used for roasting copper concentrate.
The fluid bed roaster is similar in appearance to a multihearth roaster but has
fewer intricate internal mechanical systems.  Multihearth roasters accept
moist concentrate, whereas fluid bed roasters are fed finely ground material
(60 percent minus 200 mesh).  With both of these types, the roasting is
autogenous.  Because there is less air dilution, higher SC>2 concentrations
are present in fluidized bed roaster gases than in multiple hearth roaster
gases.

     In the smelting process, either hot calcines from the roaster or raw
unroasted concentrate are melted with siliceous flux in a smelting furnace to
produce copper matte, a molten mixture of cuprous sulfide (Cu2S) and ferrous
sulfide (FeS) and some heavy metals.  The required heat comes from partial
oxidation of the sulfide charge and from burning external fuel.  Most of the
iron and some of the impurities in the charge oxidize and combine with the
fluxes to form a slag on top of the molten bath, which is periodically removed
and discarded.  Copper matte remains in the furnace until tapped.  Mattes
produced by the domestic industry range from 35 to 65 percent copper, with
about 45 percent the most common.  This copper content percentage is referred
to as the matte grade.  Currently, four smelting furnace technologies are
used in the U.S., reverberatory, electric, Noranda and Outokumpu (flash).
1/84                        Metallurgical Industry                      7.3-1

-------
                             ORE CONCENTRATES WITH SILICA FLUXES
                    FUEL.

                      AIR-
                            ROASTING
                  CONVERTER SLAG (2% Cu)
                    FUEL-

                      AIR-
                                            CALCINE
                            SMELTING
                            SLAG TO DUMP
                              (0.5% Cu)
                      AIR-
                                 MATTE (~40% Cu)
                           CONVERTING
               GREEN POLES OR GAS
                                ~1
                     FUEL-

                      AIR-
                                            BLISTER COPPER
                                              (98.5+% Cu)
                           FIRE REFINING
               SLAG TO CONVERTER
                                  ANODE COPPER (99.5% Cu)
                                TO ELECTROLYTIC REFINERY
-*-OFFGAS
    OFFGAS
-^-OFFGAS
 -^.OFFGAS
7.3-2
Figure  7.3-1.  A  conventional copper  smelting process.

                      EMISSION FACTORS
                                                                                   1/84

-------
     Reverberatory furnace operation is a continuous process, with frequent
charging of input materials and periodic tapping of matte and skimming of
slag.  Reverberatory furnaces typically process from 800 to 1,200 Mg (900 to
1,300 tons) of charge per day.  Heat is supplied by combustion of oil, gas or
pulverized coal.  Furnace temperatures may exceed 1,500C (2,730F).

    For smelting in electric arc furnaces, heat is generated by the flow of
an electric current in submerged carbon electrodes lowered through
the furnace roof into the slag layer of the molten bath.  The feed generally
consists of dried concentrates or calcines, and charging wet concentrates is
avoided.  The chemical and physical changes occurring in the molten bath
are similar to those occurring in the molten bath of a reverberatory furnace.
Also, the matte and slag tapping practices are similar at both furnaces.
Electric furnaces do not produce fuel combustion gases, so flow rates are
lower and S02 concentrations higher in effluent gas than in that of reverber-
atory furnaces.

     Flash furnace smelting combines the operations of roasting and smelting
to produce a high grade copper matte from concentrates and flux.  In flash
smelting, dried ore concentrates and finely ground fluxes are injected together
with oxygen, preheated air, or a mixture of both into a furnace of special
design, where temperature is maintained at approximately 1,000C (1,830F).
Flash furnaces, in contrast to reverberatory and electric furnaces, use the
heat generated from partial oxidation of their sulfide sulfur charge to
provide much or all of the energy (heat) required for smelting.  They also
produce offgas streams containing high concentrations of S02-

    Slag produced by flash furnace operations contains significantly higher
amounts of copper than does that from reverberatory or electric furnace
operations.  As a result, the flash furnace and converter slags produced at
flash smelters are treated in a slag cleaning furnace to recover the copper.
Slag cleaning furnaces usually are small electric arc furnaces.  The flash
furnace and converter slags are charged to a slag cleaning furnace and are
allowed to settle under reducing conditions with the addition of coke or iron
sulfide.  The copper, which is in oxide form in the slag, is converted to
copper sulfide, subsequently removed from the furnace and charged to a
converter with the regular matte.

    The Noranda process, as originally designed, allowed the continuous
production of blister copper in a single vessel, by effectively combining
roasting, smelting and converting into one operation.  Metallurgical problems,
however, led to the operation of these reactors for the production of copper
matte.  As in flash smelting, the Noranda process takes advantage of the heat
energy available from the copper ore.  The remaining thermal energy required
is supplied by oil burners or by coal mixed with the ore concentrates.

    The final step in the production of blister copper is converting.  The
purpose of converting is to eliminate the remaining iron and sulfur present
in the matte, leaving molten "blister" copper.  All but one U. S. smelter use
Fierce-Smith converters, which are refractory lined cylindrical steel shells
mounted on trunnions at either end and rotated about the major axis for
charging and pouring.  An opening in the center of the converter functions as
1/84                        Metallurgical Industry                      7.3-3

-------
a mouth, through which molten matte, siliceous flux and scrap copper are
charged and gaseous products are vented.  Air or oxygen rich air is blown
through the molten matte.  Iron sulfide (FeS) is oxidized to iron oxide (FeO)
and S02, and the FeO combines with the flux to form a slag on the surface.
At the end of this segment of the converter operation, termed the slag blow,
the slag is skimmed and generally recycled back to the smelting furnace.  The
process of charging, blowing and slag skimming is repeated until an adequate
amount of relatively pure Cu2S, called "white metal", accumulates in the
bottom of the converter.  A renewed air blast oxidizes the remaining copper
sulfide sulfur to SC^, leaving blister copper in the converter.  The blister
copper is subsequently removed and transferred to refining facilities.  This
segment of converter operation is termed the finish blow.  The SC>2 produced
throughout the operation is vented to pollution control devices.

    One smelter uses Hoboken converters, the primary advantage of which lies
in emission control.  The Hoboken converter is essentially like a conventional
Fierce-Smith converter, except that this vessel is fitted with a side flue at
one end shaped as an inverted U.  This flue arrangement permits siphoning of
gases from the interior of the converter directly to offgas collection,
leaving the converter mouth under a slight vacuum.

    Blister copper usually contains from 98.5 to 99.5 percent pure copper.
Impurities may include gold, silver, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, iron, lead,
nickel, selenium, sulfur, tellurium and zinc.  To purify blister copper further,
fire refining and electrolytic refining are used.  In fire refining, blister
copper is placed in a fire refining furnace, a flux is usually added, and
air is blown through the molten mixture to oxidize remaining impurities,
which are removed as a slag.  The remaining metal bath is subjected to a
reducing atmosphere to reconvert cuprous oxide to copper.  Temperature in the
furnace is around 1,100C (2,010F).  The fire refined copper is cast into
anodes and further refined electrolytically.  Electrolytic refining separates
copper from impurities by electrolysis in a solution containing copper sulfate
and sulfuric acid.  Metallic impurities precipitate from the solution and
form a sludge that is removed and treated to recover precious metals.  Copper
is dissolved from the anode and deposited at the cathode.  Cathode copper is
remelted and made into bars, ingots or slabs for marketing purpose.  The
copper produced is 99.95 to 99.97 percent pure.

7.3.2  Emissions and Controls

    Particulate matter and sulfur dioxide are the principal air contaminants
emitted by primary copper smelters.  These emissions are generated directly
from the processes involved, as in the liberation of S02 from copper concen-
trate during roasting or in the volatilization of trace elements as oxide fumes.
Fugitive emissions are generated by leaks from major equipment during material
handling operations.

    Roasters, smelting furnaces and converters are sources of both particulate
matter and sulfur oxides.  Copper and iron oxides are the primary constituents
of the particulate matter, but other oxides such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium,
lead, mercury and zinc may also be present, with metallic sulfates and sulfuric
 7.3-4                          EMISSION FACTORS                             1/84

-------
acid mist.  Fuel combustion products also contribute to particulate emissions
from multihearth roasters and reverberatory furnaces.

    Single stage electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are widely used in the primary
copper industry for the control of particulate emissions from roasters,  smelting
furnaces and converters.  Many of the existing ESPs are operated at elevated
temperatures, usually at 200 to 340C (400 to 650F) and are termed "hot
ESPs".  If properly designed and operated, these ESPs remove 99 percent  or
more of the condensed particulate matter present in gaseous effluents.  However,
at these elevated temperatures, a significant amount of volatile emissions
such as arsenic trioxide (As203) and sulfuric acid mist is present as vapor in
the gaseous effluent and thus can not be collected by the particulate control
device at elevated temperatures.  At these temperatures, the arsenic trioxide
in the vapor state will pass through an ESP.  Therefore, the gas stream  to be
treated must be cooled sufficiently to ensure that most of the arsenic present
is condensed before entering the control device for collection.  At some
smelters, the gas effluents are cooled to about 120C (250F) temperature
before entering a particulate control system, usually an ESP (termed "cold
ESP").  Spray chambers or air infiltration are used for gas cooling.  Fabric
filters can also be used for particulate matter collection.

    Gas effluents from roasters are usually sent to an ESP or spray chamber/ESP
system or are combined with smelter furnace gas effluents before particulate
collection.  Overall, the hot ESPs remove only 20 to 80 percent of the total
particulate (condensed and vapor) present in the gas.  The cold ESPs may
remove more than 95 percent of the total particulate present in the gas.
Particulate collection systems for smelting furnaces are similar to those for
roasters.  Reverberatory furnace off gases are usually routed through waste
heat boilers and low velocity balloon flues to recover large particles and
heat, then are routed through an ESP or spray chamber/ESP system.

    In the standard Fierce-Smith converter, flue gases are captured during
the blowing phase by the primary hood over the converter mouth.  To prevent
the hood's binding to the converter with splashing molten metal, there is a
gap between the hood and the vessel.  During charging and pouring operations,
significant fugitives may be emitted when the hood is removed to allow
crane access.  Converter offgases are treated in ESPs to remove particulate
matter and in sulfuric acid plants to remove
    Remaining smelter processes handle material that contains very little
sulfur, hence SC>2 emissions from these processes are insignificant.
Particulate emissions from fire refining operations, however, may be of  concern
Electrolytic refining does not produce emissions unless the associated sulfuric
acid tanks are open to the atmosphere.  Crushing and grinding systems used in
ore, flux and slag processing also contribute to fugitive dust problems.

    Control of S02 emissions from smelter sources is most commonly performed
in a single or double contact sulfuric acid plant.  Use of a sulfuric acid
plant to treat copper smelter effluent gas streams requires that  gas be  free
from particulate matter and that a certain minimum inlet S02 concentration be
maintained.  Practical limitations have usually restricted sulfuric acid  plant
application to gas streams that contain at least 3.0 percent S02  Table  7.3-1
shows typical average S02 concentrations for the various smelter  unit offgases.


1/84                        Metallurgical Industry                      7.3-5

-------
         TABLE 7.3-1.  TYPICAL SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN
              OFFGASES FROM PRIMARY COPPER SMELTING SOURCES
                                           SC>2 concentration
                      Unit                      Volume %
Multiple hearth roaster
Fluidized bed roaster
Reverberatory furnace
Electric arc furnace
Flash smelting furnace
Continuous smelting furnace
Fierce-Smith converter
Hoboken converter
Single contact H2S04 plant
Double contact ^804 plant
1
10
0
4
10
5
4

0

.5

.5





.2

_
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
0
3
12
1
8
20
15
7

0
.05


.5





.26

    Currently, converter gas effluents at most of the smelters are treated
for S02 control in sulfuric acid plants.  Gas effluents from some multihearth
roaster operations and all fluid bed roaster operations are also treated in
sulfuric acid plants.  The weak S02 content gas effluents from the reverberatory
furnace operations are usually released to the atmosphere with no .reduction of
S02  The gas effluents from the other types of smelter furnaces, due to their
higher contents of S02, are treated in sulfuric acid plants before being
vented.  Typically, single contact acid plants achieve 92.5 to 98 percent
conversion of S02 to acid, with approximately 2000 ppm S02 remaining in the
acid plant effluent gas.  Double contact acid plants collect from 98 to more
than 99 percent of the S02 and emit about 500 ppm S02  Absorption of the S02
in dimethylaniline (DMA) solution has also been used in U. S. smelters to
produce liquid
    Emissions from hydrometallurgical smelting plants generally are small in
quantity and are easily controlled.  In the Arbiter process, ammonia gas
escapes from the leach reactors, mixer/settlers, thickeners and tanks.  For
control, all of these units are covered and vented to a packed tower scrubber
to recover and recycle the ammonia.

    Actual emissions from a particular smelter unit depend upon the configuration
of equipment in that smelting plant and its operating parameters.  Table 7.3-2
gives emission factors for the major units for various smelter configurations.

7.3.3  Fugitive Emissions

    The process sources of particulate matter and S02 emissions are also the
potential fugitive sources of these emissions, roasting, smelting, converting,
fire refining and slag cleaning.  Table 7.3-3 presents the potential fugitive
emission factors for these sources.  The actual quantities of emissions
from these sources depend on the type and condition of the equipment and on
the smelter operating techniques.  Although emissions from many of these
sources are released inside a building, ultimately they are discharged to the
atmosphere.

    Fugitive emissions are generated during the discharge and transfer of hot
calcine from multihearth roasters, and negligible amounts of fugitive emissions

7.3-6                          EMISSION FACTORS                              1/84

-------
            TABLE  7.3-2.   EMISSION  FACTORS  FOR PRIMARY COPPER  SMELTERSa>b

                                     EMISSION FACTOR  RATING:   B
                                                    Particulate matter
                                                                         SO,
             Configuration0
                                           Unit
                                                                                        References
                                                    Kg/Mg    Ib/ton   Kg/Mg    Ib/ton
Reverberatory furnace (RF)
followed by converters (C)
Multihearth roaster (MHR)
followed by reverberatory
furnace (RF) and converters (C)
Fluid bed roaster (FBR) followed
by reverberatory furnace (RF)
and converters (C)
Concentrate dryer (CD) followed
by electric furnace (EF) and
converters (C)
Fluid bed roaster (FBR) followed
by electric furnace (EF) and
converters (C)
Concentrate dryer (CD) followed
by flash furnace (FF) ,
cleaning furnace (SS) and
converters (C)
Concentrate dryer (CD) followed
by Noranda reactors (NR) and
converters (C)
RF
C
MHR
RF
C
FBR
RF
C
CD
EF
C
FBR
EF
C
CD
FF
ssf
C
CD
NR
C
25
18
22
25
18
NA
25
18
5
50
18
NA
50
18
5
70
5
NAS
5
NA
NA
50
36
45
50
36
NA
50
36
10
100
36
NA
100
36
10
140
10
NA
10
NA
NA
160
370
140
90
300
180
90
270
0.5
120
410
180
45
300
0.5
410
0.5
120
0.5
NA
NA
320
740
280
ISO
600
360
160
540
1
240
820
360
90
600
1
820
1
240
1
NA
NA
4-10,
9, 11-15
4-5, 16-17
4-9, 18-19
8, 11-13
20
e
e
21-22
15
3, 11-13, 15
20
15, 23
e
21-22
24
22
22
21-22


         aExpressed as units per unit weight of concentrated ore processed by the smelter. Approximately
          4 unit weights of concentrate are required to produce 1 unit weight of blister copper.  NA -
          not available.
         ''For particulate matter removal, gaseous effluents from roasters, smelting furnaces  and converters
          are usually treated in hot ESPs at 200 - 340C (400 - 650F) or in cold ESPs with  gases cooled to
          about 120C (250F) before ESP.  Particulate emissions from copper smelters contain volatile metallic
          oxides which remain in vapor form at higher temperatures and which condense to solid particulate at
          lower temperatures (120C or 250F).  Therefore, overall particulate removal in hot ESPs may range
          from 20 - 80%, and overall particulate removal in cold ESPs may be 99%. Converter  gas effluents
          and, at some smelters, roaster gas effluents are treated in single contact acid plants (SCAP) or
          double contact acid plants (DCAP) for S02 removal.  Typical SCAPs are about 96* efficient,  and DCAPs
          are up to 99.8 7. efficient in S02 removal.  They also remove over 99Z of particulate matter.
         cln addition to sources indicated, each smelter configuration contains fire refining anode furnaces
          after the converters.  Anode furnaces emit negligible 302*  No particulate emission data are available
          for anode furnaces.
         ^Factors for all configurations except reverberatory furnace followed by converters  were developed by
          normalizing test data for several smelters to represent 30% sulfur content in concentrated  ore.
         eBased on the test data for the configuration multihearth roaster followed by reverberatory  furnace
          and converters.
         'Used to recover copper from furnace slag and converter slag.
         SSince the converters at flash furnace and Noranda furnace smelters treat high copper content matte,
          converter particulate emissions from flash furnace smelters are expected to be lower than corresponding
          emissions from conventional smelters consisting of multihearth roasters, reverberatory furnace, and converters.
 may  also come  from  the charging  of  these  roasters.    Fluid  bed  roasting,  a
 closed  loop operation,  has  negligible  fugitive  emissions.

      Matte  tapping and  slag  skimming  operations  are sources  of  fugitive  emissions
 from smelting  furnaces.   Fugitive emissions  can also result  from  charging  of  a
1/84
Metallurgical Industry
7.3-7

-------
 TABLE 7.3-3.   FUGITIVE EMISSION FACTORS FOR PRIMARY COPPER SMELTERS3

                             EMISSION FACTOR  RATING:  B
               Source
                                     Particulata matter
                                      Kg/Mg   Ib/toa
                          So2
                     Kg/Mg
Ib/toa
Roaster calcine discharge
Smelting furnaceb
Converters
Converter slag return
Anode furnace
Slag cleaning urnacec
1.3
0.2
2.2
NA
0.25
4
2.6
0.4
4.4
HA
0.5
3
0.5
2
65
0.05
0.05
3
1
4
130
0.1
0.1
6
          References 16, 22, 25-31.  Expressed as mass units per unit weight
           of concentrated ore processed by the smelter.  Approximately 4 unit
           weights of concentrate are required to produce 1 unit weight of copper
           metal.  Factors for flash furnace smelters and No rand a furnace smelters
           may be slightly lower than reported values.  NA - not available.
          ''Includes fugitive emissions from matte tapping and slag skimming
           operations.  About 50Z of fugitive particulate matter emissions and
           about 90% of total SC>2 emissions are from matte tapping operations.
           The remainder is from slag skimming.
          cUsed to treat slags from smelting furnaces and converters at the flash
           furnace smelter.
smelting  furnace or from  leaks, depending  upon the furnace type and  condition.
A typical single matte  tapping operation  lasts from 5  to  10 minutes,  and a
single  slag skimming operation lasts from  10 to 20 minutes.  Tapping  frequencies
vary with furnace capacity and type.   In an 8 hour shift,  matte is tapped 5 to
20 times, and slag is skimmed 10 to 25 times.

    Each  of the various stages of converter operation,  the charging,  blowing,
slag skimming, blister  pouring, and holding, is a potential source of  fugitive
emissions.  During blowing, the converter  mouth is in  stack (i. e.,  a close
fitting primary hood is over the mouth to  capture offgases).  Fugitive emissions
escape  from the hoods.  During charging,  skimming and  pouring operations, the
converter mouth is out  of stack (i. e.,  the converter  mouth is rolled out of
its vertical position,  and the primary hood is isolated).   Fugitive  emissions
are discharged during the rollout.

     At times during normal smelting operations, slag  or  blister  copper can
not be  transferred immediately from or to  the converters.   This condition, the
holding stage, may occur  for several reasons, including insufficient  matte in
the smelting furnace, the unavailability of a crane, and  others.  Under these
conditions, the converter is rolled out of vertical position and  remains in a
holding position, and fugitive emissions may result.

    Fugitive emissions  from primary copper smelters are captured  by  applying
either  local or general ventilation techniques.  Once  captured, emissions may
7.3-8
EMISSION  FACTORS
                    1/84

-------
 be vented directly to a  collection device  or be combined with process offgases
 before  collection.  Close fitting  exhaust  hood capture systems are  used for
 multihearth roasters, and hood ventilation systems  for smelter matte tapping
 and slag skimming operations.  For converters, secondary hood systems or building
 evacuation systems are used.

 7.3.4   Lead Emission Factors

     Both the process and the fugitive particulate matter emissions  from
 various equipment at primary copper smelters contain oxides  of many inorganic
 elements, including lead.  The lead content of particulate matter emissions
 depends upon both the lead content of concentrate feed into  the smelter and
 the process offgas temperature.  Lead emissions are effectively removed in
 particulate control systems operating at low temperatures  of about  120C (250F).

     Table 7.3-4  presents lead emission factors for  various operations of
 primary copper smelters.  These  emission factors  represent totals of both
 process and fugitive emissions.

       TABLE 7.3-4.  LEAD EMISSION  FACTORS  FOR PRIMARY COPPER SMELTERS3

                                   EMISSION FACTOR RATING:  C
                                                   Lead emissions'3
                    Operation
                                                kg/Mg
                              IV ton
               Roasting0
               Smelting*1
               Converting6
               Refining
                0.075
                0.036
                0.13
                HA
0.15
0.072
0.27
NA
               Reference 32.  Expressed as units per unit weight of concentrated ore
                processed by the smelter. Approximately 4 unit weights of concentrate
                are required to produce 1 unit weight of copper metal.  Based on test
                data for several smelters containing from 0.1 to 0.4Z lead in feed
                throughput.  NA  not available.
               "For process and fugitive emissions totals.
               cBased on test data on multihearth roasters. Includes the total of
                process emissions and calcine transfer fugitive emissions.  Calcine
                transfer fugitive emissions constitute about 10 percent of the total of
                process and fugitive emissions.
               dBaaed on test data on reverberatory furnaces.  Includes total process
                emissions and fugitive emissions from matte tapping and slag skimming
                operations.  Fugitive emissions from matte tapping and slag skimming
                operations amount to about 352 and 2%,  respectively.
               Includes the total of process and fugitive emissions.  Fugitive emissions
                constitute about 50 percent of the total.
1/84
Metallurgical  Industry
                   7.3-9

-------
References for Section 7.3

1.   Background Information for New Source Performance Standards;  Primary
     Copper, Zinc, and Lead Smelters, Volume I, Proposed Standards,
     EPA-450/2-74-002a, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, NC, October 1974.

2.   Arsenic Emissions from Primary Copper Smelters - Background Information
     for Proposed Standards, Preliminary Draft,  EPA Contract No. 68-02-3060,
     Pacific Environmental Services, Durham, NG, February 1981.

3.   Background Information Document for Revision of New Source Performance
     Standards for Primary Copper Smelters, Draft Chapters 3 through 6, EPA
     Contract Number 68-02-3056, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle
     Park, NC, March 31, 1982.

ll"   Air Pollution Emission Test;  ASARCO Copper Smelter, El Paso, Texas,
     EMB-77-CUS-6, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, NC, June 1977.

5.   Written communication from W. F. Cummins, ASARCO, Inc., El Paso, TX, to
     A. E. Vervaert, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, NC, August 31, 1977.

6.   AP-42 Background Files, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

7.   Source Emissions Survey of Kennecott Copper Corporation,  Copper Smelter
     Converter Stack Inlet and Outlet and Reverberatory Electrostatic
     Precipitator Inlet and Outlet, Hurley, New Mexico, File Number EA-735-09,
     Ecology Audits, Inc., Dallas, TX, April 1973.

8.   Trace Element Study at a Primary Copper Smelter, EPA-600/2-78-065a
     and -065b, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
     NC, March 1978.

9.   Systems Study for Control of Emissions, Primary Nonferrous Smelting
     Industry, Volume II:  Appendices A and B, PB-184885, National Technical
     Information Service, Springfield, VA, June 1969.

10.  Design and Operating Parameters For Emission Control Studies:  White
     Pine Copper Smelter, EPA-600/2-76-036a, U. S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Washington, DC, February 1976.

11.  R. M. Statnick, Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide, Particulate and Trace
     Elements in Copper Smelter Converter and Roaster/Reverberatory Gas Streams,
     PB-238095, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA,
     October  1974.

12.  AP-42 Background Files, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.
 7.3-10                         EMISSION FACTORS                              1/84

-------
 13.   Design  and  Operating  Parameters  For  Emission  Control  Studies,  Kennecott -
      McGill  Copper  Smelter,  EPA-600/2-76-036c,  U.  S.  Environmental  Protection
      Agency, Washington, DC,  February 1976.

 14.   Emission  Test  Report  (Acid  Plant)  of Phelps Dodge Copper Smelter,  Ajo,
      Arizona,  EMB-78-CUS-11,  U.  S.  Environmental Protection Agency,  Research
      Triangle  Park,  NC, March 1979.

 15.   S.  Dayton,  "Inspiration's Design for Clean Air",  Engineering and Mining
      Journal,  175:6,  June  1974.

 16.   Emission  Testing of ASARCO  Copper  Smelter, Tacoma,  Washington,  EMB 78-CUS-
      12,  U.  S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC,
      April  1979.

 17.   Written communication from  A.  L. Labbe,  ASARCO Inc.,  Tacoma, WA, to S.  T.
      Cuffe,  U. S. Environmental  Protection Agency,  Research Triangle Park,  NC,
      November  20,  1978.

 18.   Design  and  Operating  Parameters  for  Emission  Control  Studies:   ASARCO  -
      Hayden  Copper  Smelter,  EPA-600/2-76-036J,  U.  S.  Environmental  Protection
      Agency, Washington, DC,  February 1976.

 19.   Pacific Environmental Services,  Incorporated,  Design  and Operating
      Parameters  for  Emission Control  Studies:   Kennecott,  Hayden Copper
      Smelter,  EPA-600/2-76-036b,  U. S.  Environmental  Protection Agency,
      Washington, DC,  February 1976.

 20.   R.  Larkin,  Arsenic Emissions at  Kennecott  Copper  Corporation,  Hayden,  AZ,
      EPA-76-NFS-1,  U. S. Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Research  Triangle
      Park, NC, May  1977.

 21.   Emission  Compliance Status,  Inspiration  Consolidated  Copper Company,
      Inspiration, AZ, U. S.  Environmental Protection  Agency,  San Francisco,
      CA,  1980.

 22.   Written communication from  M.  P. Scanlon,  Phelps  Dodge Corporation, to
      D.  R. Goodwin,  U. S.  Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
      Park, NC, October 18, 1978.

 23.   Written communication from  G.  M. McArthur, The Anaconda Company, to
      D.  R. Goodwin,  U. S.  Environmental Protection Agency,  Research Triangle
      Park, NC, June 2, 1977.

 24.   Telephone communication from V.  Katari,  Pacific  Environmental  Services,
      Inc., Durham,  NC, to  R.  Winslow, Hidalgo Smelter,  Phelps Dodge
      Corporation, Hidalgo, AZ, April  1, 1982.

 25.   Emission  Test  Report, Phelps Dodge Copper  Smelter,  Douglas, Arizona,
      EMB-78-CUS-8,  U. S. Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Research  Triangle
      Park, NC, February 1979.
1/84                        Metallurgical  Industry                      7.3-11

-------
26.  Emission Testing of Kennecott Copper Smelter, Magna, Utah, EMB-78-CUS-13,
     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC,
     April 1979.

27.  Emission Test Report,  Phelps Dodge Copper Smelter,  Ajo, Arizona,
     EMB-78-CUS-9, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, NC, February 1979.

28.  Written communication from R. D. Putnam, ASARCO, Inc., to M. 0. Varner,
     ASARCO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, May 12, 1980.
                                                                  
29.  Emission Test Report,  Phelps Dodge Copper Smelter,  PIayas, New Mexico,
     EMB-78-CUS-10, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
     Park, NC, March 1979.

30.  ASARCO Copper Smelter, El Paso, Texas, EMB-78-CUS-7, U. S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, April 25, 1978.

31.  A. D. Church, et al.,  "Measurement of Fugitive Particulate and Sulfur
     Dioxide Emissions at Inco's Copper Cliff Smelter",  Paper A-79-51, The
     Metallurgical Society of American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical,
     and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), New York, NY.

32.  Copper Smelters, Emission Test Report - Lead Emissions, EMB-79-CUS-14,
     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC,
     September 1979.
 7.3-12                         EMISSION FACTORS                              1/84

-------
     Thus, fugitive particulate emissions from hot mix asphalt plants are
mostly dust from aggregate storage, handling and transfer.  Stone dust may
range from 0.1 to more than 300 micrometers in diameter.  On the average, 5
percent of cold aggregate feed is  less than 74 micrometers (minus 200 mesh).
Dust that may escape before reaching primary dust collection generally is 50
to 70 percent less than 74 micrometers.  Materials emitted are given in
Tables 8.1-1 and 8.1-4.

     Emission factors for various materials emitted from the stack are given
in Table 8.1-1.  With the exception of aldehydes, the materials listed in this
Table are also emitted from the mixer, but mixer concentrations are 5 to 100
fold smaller than stack concentrations, lasting only during the discharge of
the mixer.
        TABLE 8.1-1.
EMISSION FACTORS FOR SELECTED MATERIALS FROM AN
 ASPHALTIC CONCRETE PLANT STACK3
Material emittedb
Particulated
Sulfur oxides (as S02) *
Nitrogen oxides (as N02)
Volatile organic compounds^
Carbon monoxide^
Polycyclic organic matter^
Aldehydes^
Formaldehyde
2-Methylpropanal
(isobutyraldehyde)
1-Butanal
(n-butyraldehyde )
3-Methylbutanal
(isovaleraldehyde)
Emission factor0
g/Mg
137
146S
18
14
19
0.013
10
0.077

0.63

1.2

8.3
Ib/ton
.274
.2925
.036
.028
.038
.000026
.020
.00015

.0013

.0024

.016
Emission
Factor
Rating
B
C
D
D
D
D
D
D

D

D

D
 aReference 16.
 bparticulates, carbon monoxide, polycyclics, trace metals and hydrogen
  sulfide were observed in the mixer emissions at concentrations that were
  small relative to stack concentrations.
 Expressed as g/Mg and Ib/ton of asphaltic concrete produced.
 ^Mean of 400 plant survey source test results.
 Reference 21.  S  % sulfur in fuel.  S02 may be attenuated >50% by
  adsorption on alkaline aggregate.
 *Based on limited test data from the single asphaltic concrete plant
  described in Table 8.1-2.
4/81
   Mineral Products Industry
8.1-7

-------
Reference 16 reports mixer concentrations of SOX, NOX, VOC  and
ozone as less than certain values, so they may not be present at
all, while particulates, carbon monoxide, polycyclics, trace metals
and hydrogen sulfide were observed at concentrations that were  small
relative to stack amounts.  Emissions from the mixer are thus best
treated as fugitive.

     The materials listed in Table 8.1-1 are discussed below.
Factor ratings are listed for each material in the table.   All  emis-
sion factors are for controlled operation, based either on  average
industry practice shown by survey or on actual results of testing
in a selected typical plant.  The characteristics of this represen-
tative plant are given in Table 8.1-2.

           TABLE 8.1-2.  CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ASPHALTIC
               CONCRETE PLANT SELECTED FOR SAMPLING3


               Parameter                Plant Sampled

          Plant type                Conventional permanent
                                      batch plant

          Production rate,          160.3  16%
            Mg/hr (ton/hr)          (177  16%)

          Mixer capacity,
            Kg (tons)               3.6 (4.0)

          Primary collector         Cyclone

          Secondary collector       Wet scrubber (venturi)

          Fuel                      Oil

          Release agent             Fuel oil

          Stack height, m (ft)      15.85 (52)

          Reference 16, Table 16.

     The industrial survey showed that over 66 percent of operating
hot mix asphalt plants use fuel oil for combustion.  Possible sulfur
oxide emissions from the stack were calculated assuming that all
sulfur in the fuel oil is oxidized to SOX.  The amount of sulfur
oxides actually released through the stack may be attenuated by
water scrubbers or even by the aggregate itself, if limestone is
being dried.  No. 2 fuel oil has an average sulfur content  of
0.22 percent.

     Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, nonmethane volatile
organics, carbon monoxide, polycyclic organic material and  aldehydes

8.1-8                    EMISSION FACTORS                       4/31

-------
8.4  CALCIUM CARBIDE MANUFACTURING

8.4.1  General

     Calcium carbide  (CaC2)  is manufactured by heating a lime and carbon
mixture to 2,000  to 2,100C  (3,632  to 3,812F) in an electric arc furnace.
At those temperatures,  the lime  is  reduced  by carbon to calcium carbide and
carbon monoxide,  according to the following reaction:
                           CaO  +  3C
              CaC2 + CO
Lime for the reaction  is usually made  by  reducing limestone in a kiln at the
plant site.  The  sources of  carbon  for the  reaction are petroleum coke,
metallurgical coke or  anthracite coal.  Because impurities in the furnace
charge remain in  the calcium carbide product,  the lime should contain no more
than 0.5 percent  each  of magnesium  oxide, aluminum oxide and iron oxide, and
0.004 percent phosphorous.   Also, the  coke  charge should be low in ash and
sulfur.  Analyses indicate that 0.2 to 1.0  percent ash and 5 to 6 percent
sulfur are typical in  petroleum coke.   About  991 kilograms (2,185 Ib) of
lime, 683 kilograms  (1,506 Ib) of coke, and 17 to 20 kilograms (37 to 44 Ib)
of electrode paste are required to  produce  one megagram (2,205 Ib) of calcium
carbide.

     The process  for manufacturing  calcium  carbide is illustrated in
Figure 8.4-1.  Moisture is removed  from coke  in a coke dryer, while lime-
stone is converted to  lime in a lime kiln.  Fines from coke drying and lime
operations are removed and may be recycled.  The two charge materials are
then conveyed to  an electric arc furnace, the  primary piece of equipment used
to produce calcium carbide.   There  are two  basic types of electric arc
furnaces, the open furnace,  in which the  carbon monoxide burns to carbon
dioxide when it contacts the air above the  charge, and the closed furnace, in
which the gas is  collected from the furnace and either used as fuel for other
processes or flared.   Electrode paste  composed of coal tar pitch binder and
TO FLAR
MARY
EL


(FUEL


*
1

PARTIOJLATE
CONTROL
DEVICE
                                        FURNACE
                                         ROOM
                                         VENTS



COKE
DR"iER

r
LIME
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ELECTRIC
FURNACE

	 i

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"ENTS
PRIMARY
CRUSHING

                                                        SECONDARY
                                                        CRUSHING
                                                               ALETILES'E GENERATION
          Figure 8.4-1.   Calcium carbide manufacturing  process.
1/84
Mineral Products Industry
i.4-1

-------
 anthracite coal is continuously fed into a steel casing where it is baked by
 heat from the electric arc furnace before introduction into the furnace.  The
 baked electrode exits the steel casing just inside the furnace cover and is
 consumed in the calcium carbide production process.  Molten calcium carbide
 is tapped continuously from the furnace into chill cars and is allowed to
 cool and solidify.  Then, primary crushing of the solidified calcium carbide
 by jaw crushers is followed by secondary crushing and screening for size.  To
 prevent explosion hazards from acetylene generated by reaction of calcium
 carbide with ambient moisture, crushing and screening operations may be
 performed in an air swept environment before the calcium carbide has
 completely cooled or may be carried out in an inert atmosphere.  The calcium
 carbide product is used primarily in acetylene generation and also as a
 desulfurizer of iron.

 8.4.2  Emissions and Controls

      Emissions from calcium carbide manufacturing include particulate matter,
 sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons.  Particulate matter is
 emitted from a variety of equipment and operations in the production of
 calcium carbide, including the coke dryer, lime kiln, electric furnace, tap
 fume vents, furnace room vents, primary and secondary crushers, and conveying
 equipment.  (Lime kiln emission factors are presented in Section 8.15.)
 Particulate matter emitted from process sources such as the electric furnace
 are ducted to a particulate control device, usually fabric filters and wet
 scrubbers.  Fugitive particulate matter from sources such as tapping opera-
 tions, furnace room and conveyors is captured and sent to a particulate
 control device.  The composition of the particulate matter emissions varies
 according to the specific equipment or operation, but the primary components
 are magnesium, calcium and carbon compounds.  Sulfur oxides are emitted by
 the electric furnace from volatilization and oxidation of sulfur in the coke
 feed and by the coke dryer and lime kiln from fuel combustion.  These process
 sources are not controlled specifically for sulfur oxide emissions.  Carbon
 monoxide is a byproduct of calcium carbide formation in the electric furnace.
 Carbon monoxide emissions to the atmosphere are usually negligible.  In open
 furnaces, carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide, thus eliminating
 carbon monoxide emissions.  In closed furnaces, a portion of the generated
 carbon monoxide is burned in the flames surrounding the furnace charge holes,
 and the remaining carbon monoxide is used as fuel for other processes or is
 flared.  The only potential source of hydrocarbon emissions from the manu-
 facture of calcium carbide is the coal tar pitch binder in the furnace
 electrode paste.  Since the maximum volatiles content in the electrode paste
 is about 18 percent, the electrode paste represents only a small potential
 source of hydrocarbon emissions.  In closed furnaces, actual hydrocarbon
 emissions from consumption of electrode paste typically are negligible due to
 high furnace operating temperature and flames surrounding the furnace charge
 holes.  Hydrocarbon emissions from open furnaces are also expected to be
 negligible because of high furnace operating temperature and the presence of
 excess oxygen above the furnace.

      Table 8.4-1 gives controlled and uncontrolled emission factors for
 various processes in the manufacture of calcium carbide.  Controlled factors
 are based on test data and permitted emissions for operations with the fabric
 filters and wet scrubbers that are typically used to control particulate
 emissions in calcium carbide manufacturing.
8.4-2                         EMISSION FACTORS                            1/84

-------
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Mineral Products  Industry
                                                                                    8.4-3

-------
 References for Section 8.4

 1.    "Permits to Operate:   Airco  Carbide,  Louisville, Kentucky",  Jefferson
      County Air Pollution Control District,  Louisville, KY, December  16,
      1980.

 2.    "Manufacturing or Processing Operations:  Airco Carbide, Louisville,
      Kentucky", Jefferson County  Air  Pollution Control District,  Louisville,
      KY,  September 1975.

 3.    Written communication  from A.  J.  Miles, Radian Corp., Durham, NC,  to
      Douglas Cook, U.  S. Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GA,
      August 20, 1981.

 4.    "Furnace Offgas Emissions  Survey:  Airco Carbide, Louisville, Kentucky",
      Environmental Consultants, Inc.,  Clarksville, IN, March  17,  1975.

 5.    J.  W. Frye, "Calcium Carbide Furnace  Operation", Electric Furnace
      Conference Proceedings,  American Institute  of Mechanical Engineers, New
      York, December 9-11, 1970.

 6.    The Louisville Air Pollution Study, U.  S. Department of Health and Human
      Services, Robert A. Taft Center,  Cincinnati, OH, 1961.

 7.    R.  N. Shreve and J. A. Brink,  Jr., Chemical Process Industries, Fourth
      Edition, McGraw Hill Company,  New York, 1977.

 8.    J.  H. Stuever, "Particulate  Emissions - Electric Carbide Furnace Test
      Report:  Midwest Carbide,  Pryor,  Oklahoma", Stuever and Associates,
      Oklahoma City, OK, April 1978.

 9.    L.  Thomsen, "Particulate Emissions Test Report:  Midwest Carbide,
      Keokuk, Iowa", Beling  Consultants, Inc., Moline, IL, July 1,  1980.

 10.  D.  M. Kirkpatrick, "Acetylene from Calcium  Carbide Is an Alternate
      Feedstock Route", Oil  and  Gas Journal,  June 7, 1976.

 11.  L.  Clarke and R.  L. Davidson,  Manual  for Process Engineering
      Calculations, Second Edition,  McGraw-Hill Company, New York,  1962.
8.4-4                         EMISSION FACTORS                             1/84

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11.2.2  AGRICULTURAL" TILLING

11.2.2.1  General

     The two universal objectives of agricultural tilling are  the creation of
the desired soil structure to be used as the crop seedbed and  the eradication
of weeds.  Plowing, the most common method of tillage, consists of some form
of cutting loose, granulating and inverting the soil, and turning under the
organic litter.  Implements which loosen the soil and cut off  the weeds but
which leave the surface trash in place have recently become more popular for
tilling in dryland farming areas.

     During a tilling operation, dust particles from the loosening and pul-
verizing of the soil are injected into the atmosphere as the soil is dropped
to the surface.  Dust emissions are greatest during periods of dry soil and
during final seedbed preparation.

11.2.2.2  Emissions and Correction Parameters

     The quantity of dust from agricultural tilling is proportional to the
area of land tilled, and to the surface soil texture and moisture content of
the particular field being tilled-

     Dust emissions from agricultural tilling have been found  to vary
directly with the silt content (defined as particles <75 micrometers in
diameter) of the surface soil depth (0 to 10 centimeters [0 to 4 inches]).
The soil silt content is determined by measuring the proportion of dry soil
that passes a 200 mesh screen, using ASTM-C-136 method.  Note  that this
definition of silt differs from that customarily used by soil  scientists,
for whom silt is particles from 2 to 50 micrometers in diameter.

     Field measurements2 indicate that dust emissions from agricultural
tilling are not significantly related to surface soil moisture, although
limited earlier data had suggested such a dependence.1  This is now
believed to reflect the fact that most tilling is performed under dry soil
conditions, as were the majority of the field tests.1"2

     Available test data indicate no substantial dependence of emissions on
the type of tillage implement, if operating at a typical speed (8 to
10 kilometers per hour [5 to 6 miles per hour]).1"2

11.2.2.3  Predictive Emission Factor Equation

     The quantity of dust emissions from agricultural tilling, per acre of
land tilled, may be estimated with a rating of A or B (see below) using the
following empirical expression2:

                      E = k(5.38)(s)-6    (kg/hectare)               (1)

                      E = k(4.80)(s)'6    (Ib/acre)
5/83                        Miscellaneous Sources                    11.2.2-1

-------
     where:   E = emission factor
             k = particle size multipler (dimensionless)
             s = silt content of surface soil (%)

The particle  size  multiplier (k)  in the equation varies with aerodynamic
particle size range as follows:

             Aerodynamic Particle Size Multiplier  for Equation 1
Total
particulate
1.0
< 30 |jm
0.33
< 15 |Jm
0.25
< 10 pm
0.21
< 5 (Jm
0.15
< 2.5 [Jm
0.10
     Equation 1 is rated A if used to estimate total particulate emissions,
and B if used for a specific particle size range.  The equation retains its
assigned quality  rating  if applied within the range of surface soil silt
content  (1.7 to  88  percent)  that was tested  in  developing  the equation.
Also, to retain the quality  rating of Equation 1 applied to a  specific ag-
ricultural field, it  is  necessary to obtain  a reliable silt value(s) for
that field.  The  sampling  and analysis procedures for determining agricul-
tural silt content are given in Reference 2.   In the event that a site spe-
cific value  for silt  content cannot be obtained, the mean value of  18 per-
cent may be  used, but the  quality rating  of the  equation is reduced by one
level.

11.2.2.4  Control Methods3

     In  general,  control methods are not applied to reduce emissions from
agricultural tilling.  Irrigation of  fields  before plowing will reduce
emissions, but  in many cases, this practice would make the  soil unworkable
and  would  adversely  affect  the plowed soil's characteristics.  Control
methods  for  agricultural activities are  aimed primarily  at reduction of
emissions  from  wind erosion  through  such  practices  as continuous cropping,
stubble  mulching,  strip cropping, applying limited irrigation to   fallow
fields,  building  windbreaks, and using chemical stabilizers.   No data are
available  to indicate the effects of  these or other control  methods on
agricultural tilling, but as a practical matter, it  may  be assumed that
emission reductions are  not  significant.

References for Section 11.2.2

1.   C.  Cowherd, Jr.,  et al., Development of Emission Factors  for Fugitive
     Dust  Sources. EPA-450/3-74-037, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     Research Triangle Park, NC,  June 1974.

2.   T.  A. Cuscino,  Jr.,  et al. , The Role of Agricultural Practices in
     Fugitive Dust Emissions, California  Air  Resources  Board, Sacramento,
     CA, June 1981.

3.   G.  A  Jutze,  et al., Investigation of Fugitive  Dust - Sources Emissions
     And Control, EPA-450/3-74-036a, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     Research Triangle Park, NC,  June 1974.

11.2.2-2                      EMISSION FACTORS                          5/83

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                                    TECHNICAL he. ,
                             /Please read Instructions on the reverse before complsnni,,
  REPORT NO.
   AP-42, Supplement  15
                               2.
                                                             3. RSCIPIEN  3 ACCESSION MO.
  TITLE ANOSU3TITLS
   Supplement 15 to  Compilation of Air  Pollutant
   Emission Factors,  AP-42
              5 REPORT DATE
                January  1984
                                                             6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
 7 AUTHOR(S)
                                                             8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
   U.  S. Environmental Protection Agency
   Office Of Air And  Radiation
   Office Of Air Quality Planning And Standards
   Research Triangle,  NC  27711
                                                             10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
              11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
 12 SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
                                                             13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
                                                             14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
I
 15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
   EPA Editor:  Whitmel M. Joyner
 16 ABSTRACT
        In this  Supplement for AP-42,  new,  revised or  reformatted emissions  data are
   presented  for  Stationary Large Bore And  Dual Fuel Engines;  General  Industrial
   Surface Coating;  Can Coating; Magnet Wire Coating;  Other Metal Coating;  Flat Wood
   Interior Panel Coating; Fabric Coating;  Tank And Drum Cleaning; Fish  Processing;
   Ammonium Nitrate;  Urea; Primary Aluminum Production;  Primary Copper Smelting;
   Asphaltic  Concrete Plants; Calcium  Carbide Manufacturing; and Agricultural Tilling.
17
                                 KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
!a.
                   DESCRIPTORS
jb 'OENT|F!ERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS  c.  COSATI i leid/Group
'   Fuel Combustion
   Emissions
   Emission Factors
   Stationary Sources
                                               '9 ScC'_ - IT'' CLASi ~ :'.s .\-.oc,r!\     21 'JO OFPAGS6
                                                                               92
                            J3 ;i TI3N  5 CBSCLZ'E

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