Revision 1
                                                    9223.0-1A
CHEMICAL EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PROGRAM

           INTERIM GUIDANCE
                    by

     U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency
     U.P

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       UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                      WASHINGTON, D.C.  20460
                                             THE ADMINISTRATOR
     In June of this year/ EPA announced a comprehensive
strategy to deal with the problem of air toxics in the
environment.  One section of this strategy was designed to
address accidental releases of acutely toxic chemicals.
This voluntary program has two goals: to increase community
awareness of chemical hazards and to develop State and local
emergency response plans for dealing with chemical accidents.
Attached is EPA's guidance to achieve those goals, the criteria
used to identify chemicals of concern, and a list of chemicals
that meet those criteria.

     This is an interim document.  Some portions of this
guidance have received extensive review by parties outside of
EPA including some States; for other portions, such as the
criteria and list of chemicals, there has been less opportunity
for comment.  In order to assure that all elements of the
program are available to all interested parties for review
and comment, we are issuing it as interim guidance.  We are
publishing a Federal Register notice reguesting comment on
the program.

     This guidance has been developed with the cooperation of
many Federal agencies, including the Federal Emergency Management
Agency and the Department of Transportation.  In addition, we
have worked with other groups, including the American Red Cross,
the National Emergency Management Association, and the Chemical
Manufacturers Association.

     Even though this program is interim, EPA stands ready to
provide technical assistance and training in program implementation.
FEMA will provide training and assistance in the development of
all hazards capabilities that include Chemical Emergency
Preparedness Program needs.

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                                      ii


                                  PREFACE
    This guidance is intended to help local communities become aware of any
acutely toxic chemicals in their area and prepare to respond to any accidental
release of such chemicals into the air.   Some communities already have
response contingency plans; these plans  may need to be modified for the case
of acutely toxic chemical releases.  Other communities may discover that they
need to develop a new response contingency plan.  This guidance, used in
conjunction with FEMA's Planning Guide and Checklist for Hazardous Materials
Contingency Plans, will assist communities to adapt existing plans as well as
develop a new plan.

    The Environmental Protection Agency is publishing here the criteria for
identifying acutely toxic chemicals.  There is also a list of chemicals which
meet EPA's criteria.  These are not the only chemicals that could be dangerous
to a community, but local communities should give priority to acutely toxic
chemicals as they prepare to respond to possible accidental releases.

    The goal of the Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program is to assure that
communities are prepared to deal effectively with possible accidental releases
of acutely toxic chemicals.  Developing community awareness and contingency
planning are essential parts of the process of becoming prepared.

    There are three stages in developing community awareness and
preparedness.  The first stage involves identifying a leader and naming a work
group that is representative of various segments of the community.  This work
group will be responsible for learning what acutely toxic chemicals are
present in the community and how well prepared the community already is for
responding to a possible accident.  Gathering and analyzing this site-specific
information is the second stage in developing community preparedness and
response capability.  The third stage is preparing or adapting a response
contingency plan.  This guidance suggests the various elements which should be
part of such a contingency plan.

    This guidance does not provide a simple recipe that local communities can
use to write a contingency plan quickly and for all time.  Rather, communities
that use this guidance should be able to develop the ability continually to be
aware of any acutely toxic chemicals in their midst and to be prepared to
respond to accidental releases of those chemicals.

    Portions of this guidance document have received extensive review by
parties outside EPA.  In order to assure that all portions of the document are
available to all interested parties for review and comment, EPA is publishing
this as interim guidance.   There may be  some States and communities who
wish to make immediate use of this interim guidance to begin the process of
preparedness and contingency planning for the accidental release of these
chemicals into the air.  Technical assistance and training in contingency
planning and use of the criteria and list will also be available to the states
from Federal agencies.

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                                     iii
    Comments on the contents of the Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program
Interim Guidance will be accepted through March 17,  1986.   Comments must be
written and should reference docket control number OPTS-00066.   An original
and two copies should be sent to:

                TSCA Public Information Office (TS-793)
                Office of Toxic Substances
                Environmental Protection Agency
                Room E-108
                401 M Street, S.W.
                Washington, B.C.  20460

    There is a postcard on the back cover of the guidance document which you
may submit to receive a copy of the profiles discussed in the guidance.

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                                      iv
                         TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                         Page

PREFACE 	   ii

CHAPTER 1:   INTRODUCTION 	   1-1

      1.1   Background 	   1-1
      1.2   Purposes of this Guidance 	   1-1
      1.3   Related Programs and Materials 	   1-2
      1.4   Cooperation in Planning 	   1-3
      1.5   Structure of this Guidance 	   1-4

CHAPTER 2:   ORGANIZING THE COMMUNITY 	   2-1

      2.1   General Considerations 	   2-1

            2.1.1  Including Interested Parties 	   2-1
            2.1.2  Special Role of Local Government 	   2-2
            2.1.3  Relationship with State and Regional Planning
                       Efforts 	   2-2
            2.1.4  General Recommendations 	   2-3

      2.2   Organizing the Community -- The Specific Steps 	   2-3

            2.2.1  Taking Stock of Related Preparedness Efforts
                       and Organizations 	   2-4
            2.2.2  Selecting a Leader 	   2-5
            2.2.3  Forming a Work Group 	   2-6
            2.2.4  Assigning Responsibility for Specific Preparedness
                       Planning Tasks 	   2-8
            2.2.5  Establishing Procedures for Monitoring and
                       Approving the Planning Tasks 	   2-10
            2.2.6  Establishing Procedures and Assigning Responsi-
                       bility for Validating and Implementing the
                       Approved Contingency Plans 	   2-11

CHAPTER 3:   GATHERING AND ANALYZING SITE-SPECIFIC INFORMATION 	   3-1

      3.1   Purpose 	   3-1
      3.2   Organization and Use of the Guidance 	   3-2
      3.3   Guidance 	   3-5
      3.4   Summary and Next Steps 	   3-14

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                  TABLE OF  CONTENTS (continued)

CHAPTER 4:
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

CHAPTER 5:
5.1
5.2
CHAPTER 6:
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

APPENDIX A:
APPENDIX B:
APPENDIX C:
APPENDIX D:
D.I
D.2
D.3
D.4
APPENDIX E:
APPENDIX F:

CONTINGENCY PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND CONTENT 	
Introduction 	
Sample Outline of a Contingency Plan 	
General Observations About the Sample Outline 	
Hints for Writing a Plan 	
Extended Comments on the Sample Outline of a
Contingency Plan 	
CONTINGENCY PLAN APPRAISAL AND CONTINUING PLANNING 	
Plan Appraisal 	
Keeping the Plan Up-to-Date 	
THE CRITERIA 	
Introduction 	
Approach to Identifying Acutely Toxic Chemicals 	
Criteria 	
Application of Criteria to Identify and List Acutely
Toxic Chemicals 	
ACUTELY TOXIC CHEMICALS (Sample Profile and List) 	
GLOSSARY 	
ACRONYMS 	
QUANTITY DETERMINATION METHOD 	
Background 	
Methodology 	
Using the Graph 	
Next Steps 	
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 	
SUMMARY OF U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Page
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-3
4-4

4-4
5-1
5-1
5-1
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2

6-4
A-l
B-l
C-l
D-l
D-l
D-2
D-4
D-5
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             CONTINGENCY PLANNING DEMONSTRATIONS
APPENDIX G:
REGIONAL CONTACTS FOR THE CHEMICAL EMERGENCY
PREPAREDNESS PROGRAM 	
                                                             F-l
                                                                          G-l

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                          1.  INTRODUCTION
1.1  BACKGROUND

    The tragedy in Bhopal, India, has made people in the United States aware
of the possibility of serious chemical accidents and the need for local
communities to have in place an effective program to deal with chemicals that
can cause death or serious injury if an accidental release occurs.   On June 4,
1985, the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
announced a two-part National Strategy for Toxic Air Pollutants, one part of
which was to provide the public and State and local officials with information
to assist them in planning to respond to accidental releases of acutely toxic
chemicals.  EPA has already established the second, and larger, part of this
strategy under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act, designed to deal with routine
releases of hazardous air pollutants.

    EPA has developed criteria to identify acutely toxic chemicals, and a list
of such chemicals.  These acutely toxic chemicals can cause death or injury in
the event of an accidental release into the air.  The extent of harm will
depend on the chemical involved, its physical state, how it is handled at the
site,1 the amount released, the prevailing weather conditions at the time of
the release, the population potentially affected, the emergency preparedness
measures in place in the community, and the actual response actions taken.

    Major accidents involving releases of acutely toxic chemicals are
infrequent; those that cause fatalities and serious injury to the general
public are very infrequent.  A community should not be unduly alarmed if it
finds, within its boundaries, chemicals which meet the criteria.  Rather, a
community should view this information as a way to identify and rank potential
risks and to review, improve, and build upon existing contingency plans to
address the potential risks in a way that is realistic and meaningful for the
community.

    The focus of the selection criteria, the accompanying list of acutely
toxic chemicals, and this guidance is on helping communities prepare to
respond to serious chemical accidents, not on all chemically related dangers.
Nevertheless, EPA urges local communities to develop overall contingency plans
for response to any emergency.  If a community discovers that it has a
relatively low potential for a catastrophic accident, that community should
still address the possibility of less severe accidents.

1.2  PURPOSES OF THIS  GUIDANCE

    EPA is publishing this guidance to accompany its criteria and list.  The
purposes of this set of materials are to:
    1For purposes of this guidance, "site" or "facility" means any location
where acutely toxic chemicals are manufactured, processed, stored, handled,
used, or disposed; in short, any place where these chemicals may be found.
Communities should be aware that chemicals are frequently found at places
other than industrial sites.

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                                   1-2
        •   Serve as a catalyst for bringing people in a community
            together to focus on emergency response and preparedness;

        •   Provide communities with information useful to them in
            getting organized to carry out the task;

        •   Provide the methods for gathering data as a tool for
            analyzing the extent of the problem in the local area;

        •   Encourage facilities to make public certain
            information about hazardous substances they manufacture,
            process, store, handle, use, or transport; and

        •   Provide information on the development of contingency
            plans for communities without such a plan and serve as a
            method of reviewing existing plans in other communities.

    This guidance is meant to enhance community preparedness and response
capability.  The development of community awareness and a contingency  plan are
only means to achieving these ends.  Communities should recognize that
developing community awareness and a contingency plan are part of the  process
of becoming better prepared to respond to an incident.

    This guidance is only for that part of EPA's National Strategy for Toxic
Air Pollutants that addresses the accidental release of acutely toxic
chemicals.  The design and intended use of this material distinguish  it from
EPA's regulatory activities for toxic air pollutants under Section 112 of the
Clean Air Act.  In particular, the substances on the acutely toxic chemicals
list meet specific toxicity criteria only, while regulatory decisions  under
Section 112 consider both toxicity and exposure criteria.  Further, actions
taken under Section 112 consider a broader range of toxicity criteria;
specifically, long-term health effects such as cancer.  These differences in
design and intent between the list presented here and the list of chemicals
regulated under Section 112 mean that substances appearing on one list will
not necessarily appear on the other list, although some overlap between the
two lists is to be expected.

1.3  RELATED PROGRAMS AND MATERIALS

    For many years, a number of Federal agencies have engaged in activities
intended to reduce the risks associated with hazardous materials.  These
activities include, among others, major programs conducted by the Department
of Transportation (DOT), the United States Coast Guard, the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA), and the Nuclear Regularly Commission.  Many related
responsibilities are borne by EPA, through its mandates under the
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
(CERCLA or "Superfund"), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),
the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Clean Air Act, and the Clean
Water Act, which are concerned with hazardous substances, hazardous wastes,
toxic substances, air pollution, and water pollution, respectively.
Additionally, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP)
provides organizational guidance for Federal responses to hazardous material
releases  (see 40 CFR Part 300), designating Federal On-Scene Coordinators

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                                   1-3
(OSCs) from EPA, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the Department of Defense,
depending on the location of the incident.  Thus, the National Strategy for
Toxic Air Pollutants represents only one part of a long and comprehensive
effort by EPA and other Federal agencies to improve the environmental safety
of the nation.

    Many communities already have contingency plans.   Existing plans can be
amended to include the particular case of acutely toxic chemicals.  This
guidance can help a community identify what must be added to its comprehensive
contingency plan to make it more complete.  Communities that have several
facilities may discover that separate contingency plans already exist at each
site.  In such cases, planners should work to integrate these individual plans
so that any necessary response will be coordinated and orderly.

    The language and format of Chapters 4 and 5 of this guidance have been
deliberately chosen to correspond with the language and format of Planning
Guide and Checklist for Hazardous Materials Contingency Plans (Washington,
D.C.:  Federal Emergency Management Agency and U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, 1981).  Popularly known as FEMA-10, this guide is now under joint
revision by FEMA and EPA.  The revised document will include materials
contained here and will ultimately replace Chapters 4 and 5 of this guidance,
which are being issued on an interim basis.  Planners using this guidance
should also consult FEMA-10 for additional assistance in contingency planning.

    EPA is developing training programs to complement this Chemical Emergency
Preparedness Program Guidance.  Communities seeking help in developing
preparedness and response programs should consult appropriate State agencies.
States may consult with EPA Regional offices for additional EPA training and
assistance (see Appendix G).

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has addressed contingency
planning for transportation accidents.  Appendix E includes a brief
description of DOT's Community Teamwork:  Working Together to Promote
Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety.  Communities which face severe
budget constraints will benefit from the many cost-saving suggestions found in
DOT's Community Teamwork volume.

    DOT has also sponsored a number of demonstration projects for hazardous
materials transportation contingency planning.  A summary of the experiences
and lessons learned from these demonstration projects can be found in
Appendix F.

1.4  COOPERATION  IN  PLANNING

    This guidance emphasizes that planning is a community project.  Successful
planning will require the cooperation of all interested parties.  In some
cases, the planning process will cross jurisdictional lines into other cities
and counties.  Everyone involved must cooperate in order to facilitate the
planning process and to ensure effective response at the time of an
emergency.  Cooperation is a key factor in the process of improving a
community's preparedness and response capabilities.

    Special attention should be given to cooperation with the chemical
industry and other handlers of acutely toxic chemicals.  Whenever "community"

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                                   1-4
is referred to in this document, it is presumed that local facilities are an
integral part of that community.  Site representatives should be part of the
planning process.  In fact, much of the needed information for planning, as
well as resources for emergency response, will be found in local facilities,

1.5  STRUCTURE OF THIS GUIDANCE

    Chapter 2 provides recommendations on how communities can organize to
develop community awareness and contingency planning programs to address the
risks associated with acutely toxic chemicals.  Chapter 3 provides general
guidelines on gathering information from local facilities and government to
determine whether there are acutely toxic chemicals in the community, whether
they pose potentially significant risks to public health and safety, what
measures facilities have taken to control releases, and the emergency response
resources and capabilities available both at facilities and in the community.
Chapter 4 provides guidance on ways to use the information gathered to
develop community contingency  plans which  specifically  address  releases
into the air of acutely toxic chemicals.  Chapter 5 is a brief description of
methods for evaluating and  regularly updating  a  contingency plan.   Chapter
6 describes the criteria used for determining what substances are
classified as acutely toxic chemicals.

    There are seven appendices to this guidance.   Appendix A is the list of
acutely toxic chemicals.  Appendix B contains definitions of technical terms
relating to acutely toxic chemicals.  Appendix C explains the acronyms that
appear in the text.  Appendix D describes the "Quantity Determination Method"
that will help a community assess the potential hazard posed by acutely toxic
chemicals within its boundaries.  A selected bibliography is provided in
Appendix E.  Appendix F contains a summary of the lessons learned from DOT's
demonstration projects for transportation safety contingency planning.
Finally, Appendix G lists EPA's regional offices and preparedness contacts for
the Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program.

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                   2.  ORGANIZING  THE COMMUNITY
2.1  GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    In organizing a community to develop an awareness and preparedness
program, it is useful to discuss some general considerations concerning the
various parties in the community directly concerned with the hazards posed by
acutely toxic chemicals, the role of local government in addressing such
hazards, and the relationship with preparedness planning at the regional and
State levels.  This discussion leads to several general conclusions and
recommendations concerning the basics of organizing.

    2.1.1  Including Interested Parties

    When acutely toxic chemicals are present in an area, there are many
individuals with the common goal of assuring that adequate resources and plans
are in place to respond to accidental releases.  These individuals include,
among others:

        •   People living or working near facilities and
            transportation routes with acutely toxic chemicals who
            could be endangered in case of an incident;

        •   The owners, managers, workers, and labor organizations
            of the facilities and transportation systems;

        •   Officials of the legislative and executive branches of
            government who are responsible for establishing,
            financing, and implementing accident prevention,
            response, and environmental programs;

        •   Local citizens with environmental and public health
            concerns; and

        •   Employees and officials of the organizations that
            perform the actual response work associated with acutely
            toxic chemicals, such as firefighters, police, and
            health personnel.

    While all the individuals noted above have a common interest in reducing
the risks posed by acutely toxic chemicals, their differing economic,
political, and social perspectives may cause them to favor different means for
promoting safety.  For example, people who live near a facility with such
chemicals are likely to be greatly concerned about avoiding any threat to
their lives, and are likely to care less about the costs of developing
accident prevention and response measures than some of the other groups
involved.  Others in the community are likely to be more sensitive to the
costs involved, and may be anxious to avoid expenditures for unnecessarily
elaborate prevention and response measures.

    There may also be differing views among the agencies and organizations
with emergency response functions about the roles they should play in case of
an incident.  The local fire department, police department, civil defense

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                                   2-2
agency, environmental protection agency, and public health agency are all
likely to have some responsibilities in responding to an incident.   However,
each of these organizations might envision a very different set of
responsibilities for their respective agencies for planning or for management
on scene.

    In organizing the community to address the problems associated with
acutely toxic chemicals, it is important to bear in mind that all affected
parties have a legitimate interest  in the choices among alternative means.
Therefore, strong efforts should be made to assure that all groups with an
interest in the planning process are included.

    Some interest groups in the community have well-defined political
identities and representation, but others may not.  Government agencies,
private industry, and trade unions at the facilities are all likely to have
ready institutional access to a contingency planning process.  Nearby
residents, however, may lack an effective vehicle for institutional
representation.  Organizations that may be available to represent the
residents' interests include neighborhood associations, church organizations,
environmental groups, or ad hoc organizations formed especially to deal with
the threats posed by the presence of acutely toxic chemicals in a neighborhood.

    2.1.2  Special  Role of  Local Government

    For several reasons, local governments have a special role to play in the
development of community awareness and emergency preparedness programs.
First, local governments bear major responsibilities for protecting public
health and safety by preventing and responding to accidents; local fire
departments, for example, generally have the lead responsibility for
responding to incidents involving acutely toxic chemicals.  Second, one of the
principal functions of local government is to mediate and resolve the
sometimes competing ideas of different interest groups.  Finally, local
governments generally have the fiscal and legislative authority to raise funds
for equipment and personnel required for emergency response.

    2.1.3  Relationship with  State and Regional Planning Efforts

    Local contingency plans must give consideration to coordination with other
jurisdictions with whom it would be necessary to cooperate in responding to a
multi-jurisdictional incident.  Because incidents stemming from the release of
acutely toxic chemicals are not constrained by jurisdictional borders,
multi-jurisdictional contingency planning at the State or regional level is a
useful complement to local planning efforts.  In some cases, international
planning may be needed.  Even if several groups have prepared good contingency
response plans, there could be confusion during an emergency if the various
plans are not carefully coordinated.  And even if an incident is unlikely to
cross political boundaries, regional planning can provide several benefits.
By planning together, local jurisdictions may avoid the unnecessary purchase
of duplicative equipment and, by purchasing equipment or by training personnel
jointly, communities may be able to save money.  Regional contingency planning
efforts can also provide a useful  forum for local jurisdictions to discuss
common problems in a neutral political arena, for example, under the auspices
of a regional council of governments.  The charter of such a regional council
could  indicate how disputes are to be resolved.

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                                   2-3
    Because regional organizations  generally lack  fiscal  and  administrative
authority for implementing emergency response plans,  regional  contingency
planning efforts often cannot serve adequately as  substitutes  for  local
planning.  Thus, in deciding to participate  in planning at  the regional  level,
communities should recognize that complementary local planning efforts will
often still be required.

    Communities should work with their State governments  before beginning and
throughout the development of a preparedness program.

    2.1.4  General Recommendations

    Here are some conclusions and recommendations  that will help the planning
effort:

        •   All local political jurisdictions with emergency
            response authority should take steps to conduct a
            community awareness and preparedness program  and provide
            for its leadership if the chemicals are found within its
            boundaries.   It  is recommended that such steps be
            initiated by the jurisdiction's chief executive
            official  (e.g., mayor, city manager, county
            executive).   If a chief executive does not assume  this
            responsibility,  other interested parties  should initiate
            action.  They should recognize,  however,  that successful
            implementation of preparedness plans requires the
            cooperation and approval of local government.   If  more
            than one political jurisdiction  has emergency response
            authority for a single  area,  it  is essential  that  their
            chief executives should coordinate the planning process.

        •   Particular efforts must be taken to achieve
            understanding and cooperation among parties involved,
            because of the differing perspectives  of  groups within
            the community strongly  concerned about the potential
            hazards of acutely toxic chemicals. It is recommended
            that overall responsibility for developing a community
            awareness and preparedness  program for acutely  toxic
            chemicals be assigned to a "work  group" comprised of
            representatives  from each element of the  community with
            a substantial interest.   If a  community chooses  not to
            assign the responsibility to  such a work group, it
            should recognize that the ultimate public acceptance of
            the program will require some appropriate consensus-
            building process involving broad-based participation
            throughout the process  by concerned interest  groups.

2.2  ORGANIZING  THE COMMUNITY  -- THE  SPECIFIC STEPS

    It is recommended that the following  specific  steps be  taken in organizing
a community to develop an awareness and preparedness  program  for acutely toxic
chemicals, with the first three items accomplished in whatever order is  best
suited for local circumstances:

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                                   2-4
        •   Take stock of related preparedness efforts and
            organizations (including advisory councils);

        •   Select a leader;

        •   Form a work group;

        •   Assign responsibility for specific preparedness
            planning tasks,  including specific completion dates;

        •   Establish procedures for monitoring and approving
            results of planning assignments;  and

        •   Establish procedures for validation and implementation
            of approved plans.

    2.2.1  Taking Stock of  Related  Preparedness Efforts
           and Organizations

    Before undertaking any other work, steps  should be taken to search out all
existing contingency plans.   To the extent possible, currently used plans
should be amended to account for the special  problems posed by acutely toxic
chemicals, thereby avoiding redundant contingency plans.   Even plans that are
no longer used may provide a useful starting  point.  More general plans can
also be a source of useful information and ideas.  In seeking to identify
existing plans, it will be helpful to consult organizations such as:

        •   State and local emergency management offices;

        •   State and local air pollution and environmental
            agencies;

        •   State and local transportation agencies;

        •   State and local public health agencies;

        •   Fire departments;

        •   State and local public service agencies, such as the
            Red Cross;

        •   Local industry and industrial associations; and

        •   Regional offices of Federal agencies such as  EPA and
            FEMA.

    In addition to the above organizations, communities should coordinate
their activities with those of the Federal agencies as outlined in the
National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).  The
NCP establishes an organizational structure for Federal responses to hazardous
materials releases that include the National  Response Team (NRT), 12 Regional
Response Teams (RRTs), and predesignated Federal On-Scene Coordinators
(OSCs).  The NRT, composed of 12 Federal agencies with major environmental and
public health responsibilities, carries out national planning and coordination

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                                   2-5
for responding to oil and hazardous substance emergencies.  The regional
counterparts to the NRT are the 12 RRTs.  There is an RRT, made up of regional
representatives of the NRT agencies as well as representatives of each State,
for each Federal region and for Alaska and the Caribbean Islands.  These RRTs
serve as planning and preparedness bodies before a response, and can provide
advice and assistance during a response.  Each RRT maintains a Federal
Regional Contingency Plan designed to provide for coordination of a timely,
effective response by Federal agencies and other organizations to an oil
discharge or hazardous substance release.

    Communities can contact or obtain information on the OSC and RRT covering
their area through the EPA Regional Preparedness Contact; see Appendix G for a
list of these contacts.

    2.2.2  Selecting  a  Leader

    The person initiating the contingency planning process may elect to
appoint a leader for the effort, or he may appoint a work group and have the
group decide who will lead the effort.  Either approach can be used, and the
chief executive (or whoever initiates the process) should determine which
course is best suited to local circumstances.  Regardless of how the leader is
selected, it is his or her role to oversee the work group's efforts through
the entire planning process.

    Four factors are of major importance in selecting a leader:

        •   The person's existing responsibilities related to
            emergency planning, prevention, and response;

        •   The degree of respect held for the person by groups
            with an interest in acutely toxic chemicals;

        •   The person's history of working relationships with
            concerned community agencies and organizations; and

        •   The person's ability to get the job done.

    Logical sources for a leader include:

        •   The Chief  Executive or other elected official.
            Leadership by a mayor, city or county council member, or
            other senior official is likely to contribute
            substantially to public confidence, encourage commitment
            of time and resources by other key parties, and expedite
            the implementation of program initiatives.

        •   A  public safety department.   In most  communities,
            the fire department or police department bears principal
            responsibility for responding to incidents involving
            chemical releases and, typically, for inspecting
            facilities as well.

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                                   2-6
        •   The emergency management or civil defense  agency.
            In many communities,  officials of such an agency will  be
            knowledgeable and experienced in planning for  major
            disasters from a  variety of  causes.

        •   The local environmental agency  (particularly any  air
            pollution control  agency) or public health agency.
            Persons with expertise in these  areas  will have special
            knowledge about the risks posed  by acutely toxic
            chemicals.

        •   A planning  agency.  Officials in a planning agency
            will  be familiar  with the general planning process  and
            with  the activities and resources of the community.

        •   Others.  Communities should be creative and
            consider other possible sources  for a  leader,  such  as
            civic groups, volunteer organizations, and agencies not
            mentioned above.

    Personal considerations as well as institutional ones  should be weighed  in
selecting a leader.  For example, a particular community's fire chief may
appear to have all the right  resources for addressing the  hazards  of acutely
toxic chemicals.   But if that individual  does not  get along with,  say,  police
or other local officials, it  would be best to look for a different leader.

    2.2.3  Forming a Work Group

    In selecting  the members  of a work group that  will bear overall
responsibility for developing a community awareness and  preparedness program
for acutely toxic chemicals,  four considerations are most  important:

        •   The group must possess, or have  ready  access to,  a
            wide  range of expertise relating to the community,  the
            design and operation of chemical facilities  and
            transportation systems, and the  mechanics of emergency
            response and response planning;

        •   The members of the group must agree on their purpose
            and be able to work cooperatively with one another;

        •   The members of the group must have the authority  and
            resources to get  the job done;  and

        •   The group must be representative of all elements  of
            the community with a substantial interest in reducing
            the risks posed by acutely toxic chemicals.

    A comprehensive  list of parties who should be  considered  for participation
in the work group  (adapted from FEMA-10)  is  presented in Exhibit 2-1.   Because
of the particular nature of the hazards of acutely toxic chemicals,  the
members selected primarily for technical expertise should include  chemists,
chemical engineers,  industrial hygienists, and systems safety engineers.

-------
                                   2-7
                              EXHIBIT 2-1

                  SUGGESTIONS FOR THE WORKING GROUP


Mayor or Representative

City Manager

County Executive or Representative

Chair (or representative),  Board of Supervisors

Fire Department

Police Department

Emergency Management or Civil Defense Agency

Environmental Agency (e.g., Air Pollution Control  Agency)

Health Department,  Hospitals, and Medical Community

Major Industry Representatives

Labor Union Representatives (e.g., chemical and  transportation)

Representatives from Volunteer Organizations (e.g., Red Cross)

Public Interest and Citizens Groups and representatives of affected
neighborhoods

Public Works (e.g., Waste Disposal, Water, Sanitation,  and Roads)

Schools

Key Representatives from Bordering Cities and Counties

State Representatives

Planning Department

News Media Representative (local newspaper, radio,  television)

Other Agencies (e.g., Welfare, Parks, and Utilities)

Other Technical Experts (e.g., Chemists and Chemical  Engineers)
Note:   Adapted from Planning Guide and Checklist for Hazardous  Materials
        Contingency Plans.   Washington, D.C.:   Federal Emergency Management
        Agency and U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency,  1981.

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                                   2-8
    For the work group to function effectively in an oversight capacity, its
size should be limited to no more than about 10 to 15 members.  In communities
with many interested parties, it will be necessary to select from among them
carefully so as to assure fair and comprehensive representation.   Some
individuals may feel left out of the planning process.  This can be offset by
providing these individuals access to the planning process through the various
approaches noted in the following sections, such as membership on a task force
or advisory council.

    2.2.4  Assigning  Responsibility for  Specific Preparedness Planning Tasks

    The major tasks involved in preparedness planning for acutely hazardous
chemicals are:

        •   Hazard identification and analysis, which consists
            of identifying facilities and transportation routes with
            acutely toxic chemicals and determining the associated
            hazards posed to the community;

        •   Capability assessment, the evaluation  of  existing
            prevention and response capabilities,  which includes
            an inventory of existing prevention measures, response
            capabilities and plans, and an assessment of their
            adequacy; and

        •   Preparation of a contingency plan that describes
            the personnel, equipment, and procedures to be used in
            case of accidental release of an acutely toxic chemical.

These tasks are not simple and are discussed in detail in Chapters 3 and 4.
Exhibit 2-2 outlines the essential components of the tasks, the expertise
needed, and some possible sources of this expertise within the community.

    There are three basic staffing approaches that may be employed to
accomplish the tasks involved in preparedness planning:

        •   Assign staff.  Previous experience in related
            planning efforts demonstrates the usefulness of
            assigning one or more dedicated staff members to
            coordinate the planning process and perform specific
            planning tasks.  The staff may be assigned within a
            "lead  agency" having related responsibilities and/or
            expertise, or may be created separately  through outside
            hiring and/or staff loans from government  agencies or
            industry.

        •   Assign task forces or committees.   Planning  tasks
            can be performed by task forces or  committees composed
            entirely or  in part of members of the work group.
            Adding knowledgeable representatives of  government
            agencies,  industry, environmental,  labor,  and other
            community organizations to  the individual  task  forces or
            committees not only supplements the work group's
            expertise  and resources, but also provides an

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                                   2-10
            opportunity for additional interested parties to
            participate directly in the process.

        •   Hire contractors or consultants.   If  the personnel
            resources available for the formation of a dedicated
            staff and task forces or committees are limited, and
            funds can be provided, the work group may elect to hire
            contractors or consultants.  Work assigned to a
            contractor can range from a specialized job,  such as
            designing a survey, to performing an entire planning
            task (e.g., hazard identification and analysis).

    The three approaches presented above are not mutually exclusive.   A
community may adopt any combination of the approaches that best matches local
circumstances and resources.

    2.2.5  Establishing Procedures for Monitoring and Approving
           the Planning Tasks

    The monitoring and approval of planning assignments are the central
responsibilities of the work group.  In discharging these responsibilities,
it  is recommended that the work group operate on  a consensus basis.
Achieving consensus takes more time than majority voting, but it is the best
way to assure that all represented parties have an opportunity to express
their views and that the decisions made balance competing interests.   If it  is
determined that a consensus method is inappropriate or impossible (e.g.,
because of the multi-jurisdictional nature of a group), the work group should
formally decide how issues will be resolved.

    On critical decisions, it may be desirable to extend the scope of
participation beyond the membership of the work group.  Approaches that can  be
used to encourage community consensus building through broadened participation
in the process include:

        •   Community workshops with short presentations by
            work group members followed by a question-and-answer
            period;

        •   Publication of notice "for comment" in  local
            newspapers, that offers interested individuals and
            groups an opportunity to express their views in writing;

        •   Public meetings where citizens can submit oral and
            written comments;

        •   Invited reviews by key interest groups, that can
            provide an opportunity for direct participation if all
            such groups cannot be represented on the work group; and

        •   Advisory councils,  composed of  a  relatively  large
            number of interested parties, that can independently
            review and comment on the work group's  efforts.

The procedures to be used for monitoring and approving the planning

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                                   2-11
assignments should be carefully thought out at the beginning of the program;
planning efforts work best when people understand the ground rules and know
when and how they will be able to participate.  Of course,  the monitoring and
approval process can be adjusted at any time to accommodate variations in
citizen interest.

    2.2.6  Establishing  Procedures and Assigning Responsibility for
           Validating and Implementing the Approved Contingency Plans

    After the planning process has been completed, plans must be validated and
implemented.  The personnel and equipment required must be  available,  and
procedures that were agreed upon must be tested and implemented.   To test the
adequacy of the plans, first tabletop and then field simulation exercises
should be conducted; it is far better to detect a flaw in a plan in a
simulation than during the response to an actual incident.   In addition,  it
will be necessary to update the hazard and capabilities assessments
periodically to assure that the plans are kept current.  "Contingency Plan
Appraisal and Continuing Planning" is discussed in Chapter  5.

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       3.  GATHERING AND ANALYZING  SITE-SPECIFIC INFORMATION
3.1  PURPOSE

    This chapter provides examples of questions intended to assist community
work groups in gathering information to use in developing a contingency plan
for the accidental release of acutely toxic chemicals.   The community work
group will need to gather information about ongoing measures facilities have
taken to control potential releases, the available response resources and
capabilities, and existing contingency plans.   The request for information
should be an opening for continuing dialog within the community.   The
information should be sought in such a way that facilities are encouraged to
cooperate and participate actively in the planning process along  with local
government and other community groups.  Once the dialog is established, the
community can learn what the facility is doing and what measures  have been put
in place to reduce risks, and also identify what additional resources such as
personnel, training, and equipment might be needed in the community.

    Some of the needed information may already be assembled as a  result of
previous government efforts or cooperative programs such as the Chemical
Manufacturers Association (CMA) Community Awareness and Emergency Response
(CAER) program.  For example, some State and local governments have adopted
community right-to-know legislation.  These community right-to-know provisions
vary, but they generally require industry and other handlers of hazardous
materials to provide information to State or local authorities and/or the
public about hazardous materials in the community.  CMA's CAER program is
totally voluntary and is in the preliminary stages of implementation.  The
CAER program urges chemical plant managers to develop a community outreach
program and to provide the public with information on chemicals manufactured
or used within the plant.  The major objective of the CAER program is to
improve local emergency response planning by combining chemical plant
emergency plans with other local planning to achieve an integrated community
emergency response plan.  The work group should ask the local sites if they
are participating in the CAER program; this may stimulate non-CMA members to
use the CAER approach.  If a facility is participating in the CAER program,
the emergency response plans developed by the facility will serve as  a good
starting point in information gathering and contingency planning.

    The questions presented in this chapter are examples of the types of
information-gathering questions a community may want to use in developing a
contingency plan.  These questions should generate a logical flow of
additional questions.  For example, one question asks whether any acutely
toxic chemicals are handled or stored near other chemicals that are flammable,
explosive, or reactive.  If the answer is yes, subsequent questions could be
designed to:  (1) identify these chemicals, and (2) determine how the facility
protects the chemical of concern (e.g., the chemical of concern is stored in
fire-proof containers, or the adjacent flammable, explosive, or reactive
chemical is stored under conditions to prevent leakage or explosion).  A
community work group may use some, all, or none of the questions  in this
document.  Depending on the community's initial perception of potential risks,
the questions can be tailored by the work group to meet specific  local needs.

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                                   3-2
    Work group members should always be aware that:

        •   The information-gathering effort should not be
            adversarial but rather a real attempt to cooperate in
            solving a potential problem facing the entire community;

        •   Facilities may be sensitive concerning what they
            consider proprietary business information;  and

        •   Asking a particular question does not imply that there
            is a problem but rather it shows a desire to identify
            and address potential problems.

3.2  ORGANIZATION AND  USE OF THE GUIDANCE

    The guidance for gathering and analyzing site-specific information is
presented in four sections, relating, in turn, to a community's need  to
identify:

        •   Which sites in the community are preliminary
            candidates to be evaluated for contingency planning
            (Section A);

        •   What is being done with acutely toxic chemicals at a
            site and whether it presents a potential problem
            (Section B);

        •   What measures and controls a site has in place to
            control accidental releases of acutely toxic chemicals
            to the air (Section C); and

        •   What response resources and capabilities exist both at
            the site and in the community (Section D).

Figure 3-1 shows the general steps a work group can follow in using
site-specific information to guide and support its contingency planning
efforts.

    Section A, Preliminary Site Identification, discusses the development  of
a preliminary list of candidate sites in the community to be further  evaluated
for contingency planning.

    Section B, Analysis of Site Specific Activities Involving Acutely Toxic
Chemicals, discusses the method of conducting an analysis to assess the
potential hazard to the community posed by local activities involving acutely
toxic chemicals.  Section B poses example questions that the community work
group can ask sites identified in Section A to develop an information base for
the necessary assessment.

    As the community work group builds this information base, it may identify
a need to establish priorities among multiple sites and/or chemicals  so that
the task of assessing the risk from individual sites and the need for an
emergency response plan can proceed in a manageable fashion.  The tool,
developed by EPA, to prioritize sites is based upon an estimation of the

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                                                            Figure 3-1
                                     SITE SPECIFIC INFORMATION GATHERING
                                               AND  ANALYSIS PROCESS
       Identify the Preliminary  List
              of Sites  for
               Evaluation
         (Guidance, Section A)
                                                                           NO
          Does the
        Site Have  Any
       Chemicals,  By-
    products, Decomposition
     Products, Combustion
       Products, that
          Meet the
          Criteria?
   Are  Any  Other
Hazardous Chemicals
  Handled on the
       Site?
                                                                                   Evaluate the
                                                                                    Next Site
       Determine:
        1) Quantities on Site; and
        2) Sensitive Populations
                 Nearby
          (Guidance, Section B)
                                Refer to FEMA-10
                              Contingency Planning
                                    Guidance
         Considering
       Physical  State,
    Handling Conditions and
Methods,  And Reactivity; Can an
   Acutely Toxic  Chemical be
     Released to the Air?
         (Guidance,
         .Section B)
                     YES
                Use Graph:
              Is the Quantity
        Contained or Generated
        Site Sufficient to Get Off
            Site in Concentra
              tions at a Level
               of Concern?
                     YES
                                        NO
                                    Place Site At Lower
                                    Planning Priority for
                                      Future  Planning
                                                                Rank  Site for Contingency
                                                                  Planning and Gather
                                                                      Information
                                                                        Determine Efforts By
                                                                     Industry to Control Releases
                                                                       (Guidance, Section C)
                                                                      Determine the ER Resources
                                                                        and Capabilities at Site
                                                                        (Guidance, Section D1)
                                                               Determine the ER  Resources
                                                                 and Capabilities of the
                                                               Community for Problems at
                                                               Site*(Guidance,  Section D2)
*This Community-Wide  Information Will Be Applicable To Ail  Sites
  Within the Community's Boundaries.

  ER = Emergency Response
                                                                    TO CONTINGENCY
                                                                   VPLAN DEVELOPMENT,

-------
                                   3-4
"quantity of concern" for each chemical.   (See Appendix D for a full
discussion of the method and how to us* it.)  The quantity of concern is
derived from an exposure level which is based on the Immediately Dangerous to
Life and Health level (IDLH).  In addition to specific activities associated
with a chemical, sites handling quantities in excess of the quantity of
concern should be considered high priority.   Those sites with quantities less
than the quantity of concern should not be eliminated from the planning
process, but rather should be assigned a lower priority depending on the
activities on a site.  For further help in conducting a hazard analysis,
consult FEMA-10.

    Some sites may have already conducted a hazard analysis to determine the
potential of an accidental release of an acutely toxic chemical in the
community.  If this is the case, the work group should review the methodology,
results, and conclusions of the hazard analysis.  The work group can then use
the Section B questions in discussions with site representatives to assure
that relevant factors were considered.  If the group determines that the
relevant factors were considered, it may proceed directly to the next steps in
the planning process.

    In addition to assessing the risks associated with facilities that handle
acutely toxic chemicals, the work group should consider the risks associated
with the possibility of a transportation accident.  Identifying acutely toxic
chemicals that only pass through a community will be extremely difficult.  The
work group may obtain assistance in collecting useful information from
representatives of trucking, rail, and barge industries in the community.
Guidance for evaluating the hazards associated with transportation may be
found in FEMA-10 and DOT's Community Teamwork document (see Appendix E).

    Section C, Site Control Measures, provides example questions that the
community work group can ask at sites which handle acutely toxic chemicals to
determine the measures employed to control accidental releases.  This
information will increase community awareness of what the site is doing to
lessen the risks of handling acutely toxic chemicals within the community.
This area is very sensitive and, if not properly addressed, can create a
destructive adversarial relationship between sites and other elements of the
community.  All parties involved must be sensitive to issues of concern such
as:

        •   The disclosure of proprietary business information;

        •   Security concerns; and

        •   The community's need to know what the site is doing
            that could affect the health and safety of community
            members.

    The appropriate questions to ask at each site will depend upon whether the
site is processing, storing, using and/or transporting acutely toxic
chemicals.  Different facilities will vary widely in process conditions and
configuration,  layout, and control measures used.  To ask the right questions
and make good use of the answers, trained technical persons should be included
on the work group (see Exhibit 2-1).

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                                   3-5
    Section D, Response Capabilities, provides example questions relating to
the response capabilities and resources of both the sites and the overall
community, as well as other resources which may be available within a fixed
timeframe.  The first part of Section D suggests questions that the work group
can ask at each site where contingency planning is determined to be a
priority.  The second part of Section D addresses questions relating to the
resources of the community overall; such questions need only be answered once
to satisfy the needs of the entire community contingency planning effort.

3.3  GUIDANCE

    A.  Preliminary Site Identification

    The most important and accurate information source on the location of
facilities that produce, use, store, or transport acutely toxic chemicals will
be records of the local fire department and other local agencies concerned
with building codes, and worker and public safety.  This information can be
interpreted and readily augmented by working group members with knowledge of
local activities.  Local officials who know and understand the community are a
valuable resource.  The local fire chief or head of the public health and
safety department will probably be able to generate a preliminary list of
sites to evaluate from his or her everyday knowledge of community industrial
operations.

    A main data source for information on the major manufacturers of these
chemicals is the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) 1985 Directory of Chemical
Producers.  This directory, which is updated annually, includes cross-
referenced information on the name, location, and products of more than 1,500
companies and 10,000 chemical products.  The major limitation of the directory
is that it only includes information for those chemicals that are produced in
commercial quantities of more than 5,000 pounds total U.S. annual production.
Many of the chemicals that meet EPA's criteria are not included in the
directory because they have limited, specialized uses and are produced in
small quantities.  Nonetheless, this source, along with information published
in other chemical industry directories (e.g., Chemcyclopedia, American
Chemical Society, Washington, DC; Chemical Week Buyers Guide, Chemical Week,
Inc., New York, NY; OPD Chemical Buyers Guide, Schnell Publishing Co., Inc.,
New York, NY) does provide a useful check on local records and knowledge.

    Information on the primary uses of many of the chemicals that meet the
acutely toxic chemical criteria is contained in chemical profiles which may be
obtained from EPA (see Appendix A for a sample profile and the attached return
postcard for ordering a set).  This information may be useful in identifying
community facilities where acutely toxic chemicals may be present.
Unfortunately, information on uses of chemicals is not publicly available for
all acutely toxic chemicals.

    One approach for utilizing the use information in the Profiles is to
convert an identified use into an activity associated with a specific product
or industry.  The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) manual published by
the Department of Commerce is a very useful tool for this purpose.  The
classification scheme includes an increasingly specific breakdown of major
industry groups and products by code numbers.  There are 20 major industry
groups with two-digit SIC codes, which are broken down into 143 industry

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                                   3-6
groups with three-digit SIC codes and about 450 industries at the four-digit
SIC code level.  There are also 1,500 classes of products with five-digit SIC
codes and over 11,000 products with seven-digit SIC codes.  Once a use for an
acutely toxic chemical is identified by SIC code number at the four-digit
level, it is possible to get information on the number of facilities in that
group at the county or State level from various U.S. Census Bureau
publications (e.g., 1982 Census of Manufacturers and County Business Patterns)
and State manufacturing directories available for all 50 states from
Manufacturers' News, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Information on storage and transportation of chemicals that meet the
acutely toxic chemical criteria is very difficult to obtain.  Community work
groups will need to rely heavily on the assistance of the transportation
industry to acquire useful information.  (The guidance in FEMA-10 and DQT's
Community Teamwork will be helpful for this purpose.)

    B.  Analysis of Site Specific Activities Involving Acutely Toxic
        Chemicals

    This section provides example questions to help the community determine:
(1) whether a site handles acutely toxic chemicals that meet the criteria; (2)
whether chemicals are handled that have by-products, decomposition products,
or combustion products that meet the criteria; (3) how much of these chemicals
are on the site; (4) how these chemicals are handled on the site; (5) how near
they are to the site fence line; and (6) what is the nature of the area around
the site.

    The work group will use the information it gathers from the site in this
step to make judgments about the situation on the site and the degree of
potential risk it poses to the community.  The work group needs to look
carefully at on-site conditions that could indicate potential problems.  The
physical state of the chemical (e.g., gas, liquified gas, liquid, powder,
dust, solid) and the conditions under which it is handled on the site (e.g.,
under pressure, under high or low temperature, under inert atmosphere) are key
indicators of the potential for problems on site.  For example, a substance
that is a gas under pressure and low temperature is apt to pose more problems
upon accidental release than a powder at ambient conditions  (i.e., room
temperature and pressure).  If a substance cannot become  airborne because of
its physical state and handling conditions on the site, the work group may
wish to defer further efforts related to the substance.   For example,
non-powdered solids or viscous liquids with very low vapor pressures  (i.e.,
less than 0.001 mmHg) handled at less than ambient temperatures are not  likely
to become airborne.  The work group needs to think about  the information  it
has gathered, look at the chemicals and how they are handled at the site,
examine the potential for the chemical to be released and get off the site,
and determine the sensitivity of populations that could be potentially exposed
in the event of an accidental release.  The tool, developed by EPA, to
prioritize sites based upon an estimation of the "quantity of concern" for
each chemical is provided in Appendix D.  Consult FEMA-10 for additional  help
in conducting a hazard analysis.

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                                   3-7
Example Questions:

Do you have any chemicals on site that are on the list or meet the criteria?

        •   Which ones?

        •   How much is on the site?  What is the range of
            inventory (average, maximum, minimum)?

Do you have any chemicals on site that could generate by-products,
decomposition products, or combustion products that meet the criteria?

        •   Which ones?

        •   How much is on the site?  What is the range of
            inventory (average, maximum, minimum)?

How are the acutely toxic chemicals handled or stored on site?

        •   Are special conditions like high or low pressure,
            heating, or cooling required for handling or storage?

        •   In what physical state(s) is the chemical found on
            site (e.g., gas, liquified gas, liquid, solid, dust,
            powder)?

        •   Are these chemicals handled or stored near other
            chemicals that are flammable, explosive, or reactive?

        •   Are any special precautions taken to protect the
            acutely toxic chemical?

        •   Where are these chemicals handled or stored on the
            site in relation to the site fence line?

        •   How much (maximum, minimum, average) is handled or
            stored in any location at any one time?

Are any of the acutely toxic chemicals transported to or from your plant?

        •   How large are the shipments (in tons, gallons, or
            pounds)?

        •   Is the substance shipped by rail, truck, barge, or
            other mode and in what kind of container (drums, bags,
            tank wagons, etc.)?  Specify.

        •   How frequent are the shipments and at what time of day?

        •   What are the transport routes through the community to
            and from the site?

Have there been any past incidents involving hazardous materials at the site?
What response efforts were taken?  What were the results?

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                                   3-8
Is the area around the site best described as:

        •   Residential?
        •   Commercial?
        •   Industrial?
        •   Mixed?
        •   Agricultural?
        •   Special use/institutional?
        •   Open space?

To evaluate the potential risk, and hence the degree of need for contingency
planning, it is important to determine who might be exposed in the event of a
release of acutely toxic chemicals to the air.   Certain segments of the
population such as the elderly, children, and people with various health
problems will be at greater risk in the event of a release.  The demographic
information needed for this purpose will probably not be in the possession of
site personnel and will have to be obtained from a local government agency or
community service group.

    The work group should now determine if the chemical can become airborne,
and if so, is there enough of the substance on the site that, if it were all
accidentally released, it would result in reaching a level of concern at the
site fence line (see Appendix D for guidance).

    C.  Site Control Measures

    This section contains example questions to help the community identify the
control measures a site has put in place to control releases from the various
activities on the site which involve acutely toxic chemicals, or by-products,
decomposition products, or combustion products that meet the criteria.  The
activities of interest include processing, storage, and transfer at the site.

Example Questions:

If you handle (manufacture or use) any chemicals that meet the criteria on
site:

        •   If you have a leak, what do you do?

If you store any chemicals meeting the criteria on site:

        •   Do you have containment capacity available should you
            have a leak?

        •   If you have a leak from your storage area, what do you
            do?

Do you have any special on-site transfer procedures between the transport
vehicle and on-site storage equipment for chemicals that meet the criteria?

Do you have any special on-site transfer procedures between storage and
process equipment?

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                                   3-9
Do you have any safety control devices in place on transfer, processing, and
storage equipment on site (e.g., system interlock, pressure relief valve,
pressure/temperature control monitor, emergency cooling system, cut-off valve,
vent, flare)?

Do you have alarms, warning signals, and monitors to indicate when a release
occurs?

What is your plan and schedule to inspect and test the various chemical
handling equipment, safety control devices, and warning devices?

If you have a failure of any transfer, processing, or storage equipment, what
do you do?

    D.  Response Capabilities

    This section contains example questions to help the community evaluate its
emergency response resources and capabilities.  The section is divided into
two parts, one covering questions that the work group can ask a technical
representative from a particular site about that site, and the second which is
designed to help identify all resources within the community and requires
information from a variety of local response and government agencies.  The
first part can be asked at each site being considered for contingency
planning.  The second part need only be addressed once for the entire
community.  This information will provide direct input into the development of
the community contingency plan and will assist the work group in evaluating
what additional emergency response resources may be needed in the community.

Example Questions:

    1.  Site

Do you have a safety plan (also referred to as an emergency or contingency
plan) for your site?  Is your site plan coordinated with the local community
contingency plan?

        •   Do you have available on-site emergency response
            equipment (e.g., firefighting equipment, personal
            protective equipment, communications equipment) and
            trained personnel to provide on site initial response
            efforts?

        •   What equipment is available?  (e.g., positive pressure
            respirators, chemical suits, unmanned fire monitors,
            foam deployment systems, radios, beepers, etc.)

        •   Do you have medical support both on site and at local
            hospitals for emergency exposures?

        •   Who is the emergency contact for the site (person's
            name, position, and 24-hour telephone number) and what
            is the chain of command during an emergency?

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                                   3-10
        •   Do you have employee evacuation plans  in effect  and
            are the employees  trained to use them  in the event of an
            emergency?

        •   What kind of line  notification systems do you have
            between the site and the local community emergency
            services (e.g.,  direct alarm,  direct telephone hook-up,
            computer hook-up)  to address emergencies on-site?

        •   Does the site have a mechanism to alert employees  and
            the surrounding community in the event of a release?

        •   How does the site  educate the community about the
            meaning of  various alarms or warning systems?

        •   How does the site  coordinate with the  community
            government  and local emergency and medical services
            during emergencies?

        •   Does the site have any mutual aid agreements for
            obtaining emergency response assistance from other
            industry members?   If so, what are they and with whom?

        •   Does the site have any contracts or other
            pre-arrangements in place with cleanup specialists for
            cleanup and removal of releases, or is this handled
            in-house?  What is the response time?

        •   How does the site  determine concentrations of released
            chemicals existing at the site?  (Are  there toxic  gas
            detectors,  explosimeters, or other detection devices
            positioned around  the site?  Where are they located?)

        •   Does the site have wind direction indicators
            positioned within  the site perimeter to determine  in
            what direction a released chemical will travel?  Where
            are they located?

        •   Do you have the capability for modelling vapor cloud
            dispersion?

        •   Does the site have available auxiliary power systems
            to perform emergency system functions  in case of power
            outages?

        •   How often is your safety plan tested and updated?

Do you have a safety training plan for your employees?

        •   Are your employees trained in the use of emergency
            response equipment, personal protective equipment, and
            emergency procedures detailed in the plant safety plan?
            How often is training updated?

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                                   3-11
        •   Does the site hold simulated emergencies for training
            purposes?  How often?  How are these simulations
            evaluated and by whom?  Are the local community
            emergency response and medical service organizations
            invited to participate?

        •   Are employees given training in methods for
            coordinating with local community emergency response and
            medical services during emergencies?  How often?

Does the site have an emergency response equipment and systems inspection plan?

        •   Does the site have a method for identifying emergency
            response equipment problems?  Describe it.

        •   Is there testing of on-site alarms, warning signals,
            and emergency response equipment?  How often is this
            equipment tested and replaced?

    2.   Community

What local agencies make up your community's existing response preparedness
network?  Some examples include:

        •   Fire Department

        •   Police/Sheriff/Highway Patrol

        •   Emergency Medical/Paramedic Services associated with
            local hospitals or fire or police departments

        •   Emergency Management Agency/Civil Defense

        •   Public Health Agency

        •   Environmental Agency

        •   Red Cross

        •   Other local community resources such as transportation
            department, public housing, communications, etc.

What is the capacity and level of expertise of the community's emergency
medical facilities, equipment, and personnel?

Does the community have arrangements or mutual aid agreements for assistance
with other jurisdictions or organizations (e.g., other communities, counties,
or the states; industry; military installations; Federal facilities; response
organizations; etc.)?

Does the community have an existing hazardous chemical contingency plan?  Has
the community performed contingency planning for emergencies involving
releases of acutely toxic chemicals or other hazardous chemicals as part of a
general plan used for all emergencies?

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                                   3-12
        •   What is the current status of community contingency
            plan/planning for acutely toxic chemicals or other
            hazardous chemical emergenpies?

        •   Does your community maintain an up-to-date technical
            reference library of response procedures for chemicals?

        •   Is there some community planning and coordination body
            (e.g., task force, advisory board, interagency
            committee)?  If so, what is the defined structure and
            authority of the body?

        •   Has the community undertaken any surveys or
            assessments of potential risks to the community from
            facility or transportation accidents involving hazardous
            chemicals?

        •   Has the community performed any assessments of
            existing prevention and response capabilities within its
            own local emergency response network?
                               4
        •   Have there been any training seminars, simulations, or
            mock accidents performed by the community in conjunction
            with local industry or other organizations?  If so, how
            frequently are they conducted?

        •   If a hazardous chemical plan exists, is it integrated
            into any existing community contingency plans for other
            emergencies?

Who are the specific community points of contact and what are their
responsibilities in an emergency?

        •   List the agencies involved, the area of responsibility
            (e.g., emergency response, evacuation, emergency
            shelter, medical/health care, food distribution, control
            access to accident site, public/media liaison, liaison
            with Federal and State responders, locating and manning
            the command center.), the name of the contact, position,
            24-hour telephone number, and the chain of command.

        •   Is there any specific chemical or toxicological
            expertise available in the community, either in
            industry, colleges and universities, or on a consultant
            basis?

        •   What kinds of equipment and materials are available on
            the local level to respond to emergencies?  How can you
            get the equipment, materials, and manpower to the scene
            of an accident?

Does the community have specialized emergency response teams to respond to
acutely toxic chemical or other hazardous chemical emergencies?

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                                   3-13
        •   Have the local emergency services (fire, police,
            medical) had any hazardous chemical training, and if so,
            do they have and use any specialized equipment?

        •   Are there specialized industry response teams (e.g.,
            CHLOREP, AAR/BOE), State/Federal response teams, or
            contractor response teams available within or close to
            the community?  What is the average time for them to
            arrive on the scene?

        •   Has the community sought any resources from sites to
            help respond to emergencies?

Is the community emergency transportation network defined?

        •   Does the community have specific evacuation routes
            designated?  What are these evacuation routes?  Is the
            general public aware of these routes?

        •   Are there specific access routes designated for
            emergency response and services personnel to reach
            facilities or accident sites?

Does the community have other procedures for protecting citizens during
emergencies (e.g., remain indoors, wear gas masks)?

Is there a designated emergency communications network in the community to
alert the public, update the public, and provide communications between the
command center, the accident site, and off-scene support?

        •   What does the communications network involve (e.g.,
            special radio frequency, network channel, siren,
            dedicated phone lines, computer hook-up)?

Is there an up-to-date source list with a contact, position, and phone number
for technical information assistance?  This can be Federal (e.g., NRC, USCG
CHRIS/HAGS, CDC, HMTC, OHMTADS), State, industry associations (e.g., CHEMTREC,
CHLOREP, AAR/BOE, PSTN), and local industry groups (e.g., local AIChE, ASME,
ASSE chapters).

Is there a source list with a contact, position, and phone number for
community resources available?

        •   Does the list of resources include:  wreck clearing,
            transfer, transport, cleanup, disposal, analytical
            sampling laboratories, and detoxifying agents?

Have there been any past facility and transportation incidents involving
hazardous materials in the community?  What response efforts were taken?  What
were the results?

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                                   3-14
3.4  SUMMARY AND NEXT STEPS

    Once a community work group has:

        A.  Identified a preliminary list of sites to evaluate for
            further contingency planning (Section A),

        B.  Identified sites where acutely toxic chemicals or
            chemicals that have by-products, decomposition products,
            or combustion products that meet the criteria are
            located and performed an analysis of the potential
            hazards (Appendix D) to the community public health and
            safety in the event of a release to the air (Section B),

        C.  Identified the safety control measures in place on the
            activities at the sites to control releases of acutely
            toxic chemicals (Section C),  and

        D.  Identified the emergency response capabilities and
            resources both at each site of concern and within and
            around the entire community for responding to potential
            emergencies (Section D),

it can then identify where the community needs to augment current response
preparedness capabilities and planning to address acutely toxic chemicals.
The work group should then proceed with efforts to develop a contingency plan
to address these needs.  The following chapter provides specific guidance to
assist the group towards those ends.

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            4.  CONTINGENCY  PLAN  DEVELOPMENT AND CONTENT
4.1  INTRODUCTION

    This chapter presents and discusses a comprehensive list  of  the  elements
of a contingency plan for responding to acutely toxic chemical accidents.
Communities that are adapting an existing plan or incorporating  this within a
more general contingency plan, can use the list in Section 4.2 to  evaluate the
present plan and identify what elements need to be added,  deleted, or  amended
in order to deal with the special problems associated with the accidental
release into air of acutely toxic chemicals.  It will quickly be evident that
some elements in the list are simple and easy to accomplish,  while other
elements will require a significant amount of work.

    The plan elements will be presented in the form of a sample  outline,
delineating the items that should be included in a comprehensive plan  and how
these items might best be arranged.  The  sample outline is  not a model.  It
is not  meant to constrain  any community.   Indeed, each community should  seek
to develop a plan that is  best suited to its own circumstances, taking
advantage of the sample outline as is  appropriate.

    The type of plan envisioned in the sample outline presented  below  is a
comprehensive plan that would affect all governmental and private
organizations involved in emergency response operations in a  particular
community.  Its basic purpose would be to provide the necessary  data and
documentation to anticipate and coordinate the many persons and  organizations
that would be involved in emergency response actions.  As such,  this sample
plan outline is not intended to be a "hip-pocket" emergency response manual,
although sections of the plan could, with some revisions,  be  used  for  such a
purpose.  Nor is the plan envisioned in the sample outline intended  to serve
as a detailed "Standard Operating Procedures" manual for each of the many
agencies and organizations involved in emergency response actions, although it
could certainly be used as a starting point for such a manual.

    As stated in Chapter 1, this guidance is meant to enhance community
preparedness and response capability.   The development of community  awareness
and a contingency plan are only means to achieving these ends.   Communities
should recognize that developing community awareness and a contingency plan
are part of the process of becoming better prepared to respond to  an incident.

    The sample outline is presented in Section 4.2.   The sections  following
will discuss the content of specific plan elements and present suggestions on
how to go about developing a plan.

4.2  SAMPLE OUTLINE OF A CONTINGENCY PLAN

    The following outline is adapted from the general outline presented in
Section 4 of FEMA-10 to deal with the special case of responding to  acutely
toxic chemicals:

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                           4-2
  i.   Emergency Response Notification Summary
 ii.   Record of Amendments
iii.   Letter of Promulgation
 iv.   Acknowledgment
  v.   Table of Contents

I.     Introduction

      A.   Abbreviations and Definitions
      B.   Purpose
      C.   Relationship to Other Plans
      D.   Assumptions/Planning Factors
      E.   Concept of Operations
          1.  Governing Principles
          2.  Organizational Roles

II.    Emergency Response Operations

      A.   Notification of Release
      B.   Initiation of Action
      C.   Coordination of Decision-Making
      D.   Public Information/Community Relations
      E.   Personal Protection/Evacuation
      F.   Resource Management
      G.   Personnel Safety
      H.   Acutely Toxic Chemicals
      I.   Countermeasures
      J.   Response Action Checklist
      K.   Attachments
          1.  Emergency Assistance Telephone Roster
          2.  Siren Coverage
          3.  Emergency Broadcasting System Messages
          4.  Evacuation Routes
          5.  Traffic Control Points
          6.  Access Control Points
          7.  Evacuation Routes for Special Populations

III.   Appendices

      A.   Basic Support Documents
          1.  Legal Authority and Responsibility for
                Responding
          2.  Acutely Toxic Chemicals Information
          3.  Hazards Identification and Analysis
          4.  Response Organization Structure/Coordination
          5.  Laboratory, Consultant, and Other Technical
                Support Resources
          6.  Computer Utilization
      B.   Post-Emergency Operations
          1.  Documentation of Accidental Releases
          2.  Investigative Follow-Up

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                                   4-3
              C.   Administrative and Other Support  Documentation
                  1.   Plan Distribution
                  2.   Procedures for Changing or Updating  Plan
                  3.   Exercises
                  4.   Training Requirements
                  5.   Technical Library

(As noted in Chapter  1,  FEMA-10 is now under  joint  revision  by  FEMA  and EPA.
The revised document  will include materials contained  here and  will  ultimately
replace both this chapter and Chapter 5.   Planners  should  consult  FEMA-10  for
additional assistance in contingency planning.)

4.3  GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE  SAMPLE OUTLINE

    A contingency plan  should help a community respond quickly and
efficiently to an  accident.  The section of the plan entitled "Emergency
Response Operations"  details  what must be done in an emergency.  This  section
is the core of the plan and it should be  readily accessible.  The
"introduction" describes the  scope and background assumptions of the plan.
Gathered into the appendices  is a variety of  materials including
post-emergency operations, methods for maintaining  an  up-to-date operational
plan, and sets of information accumulated during the planning process.  A
brief preliminary section at  the front includes  preface materials  not  central
to the plan itself.

    The sample outline is large and complex.   Anyone developing a  contingency
plan for the first time could be overwhelmed  by  the prospect of having to
produce such a comprehensive  plan.  The following observations  might be
helpful to community  planners.

    Some sections of  the plan are far more important than  other sections at
the time of a real emergency.  In fact, if a  really good plan is developed,
probably only Section II ('Emergency Response Operations") will be needed  at
the time of an accidental release.

    Some sections of  the plan can be written  towards the end of the  planning
process and will serve merely to make the plan better  organized and  more
useful.  As an example,  the preliminary five  sections  could  all be prepared
quite quickly when the finishing touches  are  being  put on  the plan.

    Some sections of  the plan are collections of information.   Such
information might have taken  a great deal of  time to gather  and organize,  but
it is not part of response operations. These sections will  have been  used
when you put together Section II.  Examples of such sections are Appendices
A.I, A.3, A.5, and C.5.

    Some sections describe activities to  be performed  after  an  accident, but
not precisely at the  time of  the accidental release.   Because they are
relatively less urgent,  these activities  are  not included  in Section II.
Examples of this can  be found in Appendices B.I  and B.2.

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                                   4-4
4.4  HINTS FOR WRITING  A PLAN

    Everyone will go about  planning in a different way.   Nevertheless,  it  is
possible to suggest a few steps that will facilitate the planning process.
Let us presume that a community has a planning leader and work group.

    Begin by deciding whether a plan is actually needed  and what  its  scope
should be.  For help in this step,  see Chapter 3.   The hazards identification
and analysis generated through this process will ultimately be included as
Appendix A.3 of the contingency plan.  Information concerning available
resources will be gathered  in Section II.F, "Resource Management."

    Throughout the planning process much information will be gathered.   From
the beginning sort out ana  categorize this information.   For example, maintain
a list of laboratory and consultant resources for Appendix A.5.   Organize
information about Federal and State disaster response assistance  for  Appendix
A.4.  Maintain a file on any legal  requirements for Appendix A.I  in the final
plan.  Similarly, write down all educational opportunities for Appendix C.4.

    Assign someone to begin an up-to-date telephone roster.   Planners should
periodically collate helpful phone  numbers.  This roster will be  an integral
part of the plan as an attachment to Section II.

    As soon as the hazards  identification and analysis reveals the need for a
plan, have someone begin gathering  detailed information  about acutely toxic
chemical substances.  He/she can use EPA's profiles, local chemical plants,
and other hazardous materials lists.  This will become Appendix A.2 and will
also influence the content  of Section II.H.

    Also, when the need for a plan  is evident, have a group begin on  Section
II.  This will require much work, meetings with potential response personnel,
research for information, and in some cases, preliminary simulation
exercises.  When this section is finished, the plan is nearly completed.
Section II should be tested by means of simulation exercises.  (Plan  appraisal
techniques are discussed at the beginning of Chapter 5.)  If such testing
reveals flaws in Section II, the planners must be prepared to make revisions.
When Section II is finally judged workable, the various  plan sections should
be collated, preface materials should be composed, and the plan can be  adopted
under appropriate community procedures and then published.

    The final plan should be kept in a loose-leaf binder so that  additions and
corrections can easily be made.  Planners seeking detailed assistance in the
actual development of a contingency plan should contact  State or  Federal
Regional staff (see Appendix G).

4.5  EXTENDED  COMMENTS  ON THE SAMPLE OUTLINE  OF A
     CONTINGENCY PLAN

    We shall now describe in some detail what sorts of information could be
included in each element of the contingency plan.

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                                   4-5
Plan Section  i:  Emergency Response Notification Summary

    •   24-Hour emergency response hotline  telephone  numbers

        --  Local  number to notify area public  officials  and  response  personnel

        --  National  Response  Center (800-424-8802)

    •   Essential  emergency reporting information including:

            Name and  telephone number of caller

        --  Location,  source,  and nature (e.g.,  leak,  explosion,  derailment)
            of accidental release

            Number of dead or  injured

            Name of acutely toxic chemical  released

            Time of release

            Type of release  (e.g., instantaneous,  continuous,  intermittent)

            Amount of chemical released so  far/duration of  release

            Total  amount of chemical that may be released

        --  Present status of  the chemical  (gas, liquid,  etc.)

        --  Whether significant amounts of  the  chemical appear  to be entering
            the atmosphere

            Direction of vapor clouds or plumes

        --  Weather conditions

            Local  terrain conditions

            Possible  health effects/medical emergency information

    •   Other agencies (with telephone numbers) to notify immediately  (e.g.
        hospitals, Red Cross,  CHEMTREC, etc.)

    Comment:     The local 24-hour emergency response  hotline  should be called
                first.  Provision should be made for  notifying  nearby
                municipalities and counties that could be affected  by  a vapor
                cloud.

                Answers to some of these questions may be unknown by the
                caller, but it is important to  gather as  much information as
                possible very  quickly in order  to facilitate  decisions on
                public notification and evacuation.   Normally,  the
                organization that operates  the  emergency  response hotline is
                responsible for informing others (e.g., hospitals,  Red Cross,

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                                   4-6
                etc.)  once the initial  notification is  made.   To  ensure  that
                the appropriate Federal On-Scene  Coordinator  (OSC)  is  notified
                of a release,  the National  Response Center  operated by the
                U.S.  Coast Guard,  should be included in the notification
                listing.   It should be  noted that the Comprehensive
                Environmental  Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
                (CERCLA)  requires that  the  National Response  Center be
                notified  of releases of many toxic chemicals  under  the
                so-called Reportable Quantity (RQ) provisions.  We  are
                suggesting here,  however, that  the National Response Center be
                notified  anytime a release  occurs.  The National  Response
                Center telephone number is  800-424-8802 (202-426-2675  in the
                Washington, B.C.,  area).

                This emergency response notification section  should be:

                       BRIEF -- never more  than one page in length.

                       EASILY ACCESSIBLE -- located on  the  cover  or first
                       page of the plan.  It should also be repeated at  least
                       once inside the  plan, in case the cover is torn off.

                       SIMPLE -- reporting  information  and  emergency telephone
                       numbers should be kept to  a minimum.

Plan Section  ii:   Record  of Amendments

    •   Change record sheet

            Date of change
            Recording signature
            Page numbers  of changes made

    Comment:     Maintaining an up-to-date version of a  plan is of prime
                importance.  When corrections,  additions,  or  changes are made,
                they should be recorded in  a simple bookkeeping style  so that
                all plan users will be  aware that they  are  using a  current
                plan.

                All that is necessary for this page is  a set  of columns
                indicating date of change,  the identification number for each
                change made, and the signature of ttie person making the
                change.  It is also a good idea to include a notice of where
                to report changes on this sqyne sheet.

Plan Section  iii:   Letter  of Promulgation

    •   Statement of plan authority

    Comment:     This letter, signed by the community's  chief executive,  is  a
                statement of legal authority and  responsibility for putting
                the plan into action.  To the extent that the execution of
                this plan involves various private-  and public-sector

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                                   4-7
                organizations,  it may be appropriate to include here letters
                of agreement signed by officials of these organizations.

Plan Section  iv:   Acknowledgement

    •   Identification of plan  contributors

Plan Section  v:   Table of Contents

    •   List  of topical sections, figures and tables

    Comment:     Response to releases of acutely toxic chemicals must be
                speedy.  Page references in  the table of contents  should  be
                clear.  It is recommended that key sections  be tabbed so  that
                they can quickly be found in an emergency.   Critical maps,
                charts, and figures should also be clearly listed  by page
                numbers and tabbed.

Plan Section  I:   Introduction

Plan Section  I.A:  Abbreviations and  Definitions

    Comment:     Frequently-used abbreviations and acronyms,  as well  as the
                definitions of  technical terms, should be gathered here for
                easy reference.

Plan Section  I.B:  Purpose

    Comment:     This should be  a clear and succinct statement of when and how
                the plan is meant to be used.  It is appropriate to  list  those
                facilities and  transportation routes explicitly considered  in
                the plan.

Plan Section  I.C:  Relationship  to Other Plans

    Comment:     A major task of the planning group is to integrate planning
                for acutely toxic chemical accidents into already  existing
                plans.  Where there is more  than one facility in a community,
                it is probable  that several  contingency plans have been
                prepared.  It is essential to coordinate these plans.   When
                more than one plan is put into action simultaneously, there is
                a real potential for confusion among response personnel unless
                the plans are carefully coordinated.  All contingency plans
                which might be  employed in the event of an accidental release
                of an acutely toxic chemical should be listed in this
                section.  The National Contingency Plan, the Federal Regional
                Contingency Plan, and any State plan should  be referenced.   Of
                special importance are all local contingency plans.

Plan Section  I.D:  Assumptions/Planning Factors

    •   Geography

    •   Climate

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                                   4-8
    •   Particular characteristics of each facility and the transportation
        routes for which the plan is intended

            On-site details
        --  Neighboring population
            Surrounding terrain

    •   Assumptions

    Comment:     Information for this section will be gathered from the
                hazards identification and analysis done by planners.   This is
                not the entire hazards identification and analysis (see
                Appendix A.3).  Rather, this section is a summary overview of
                precisely what local conditions make a contingency plan
                necessary.  Assumptions are the advance judgments concerning
                what would happen in the case of an accidental release.  For
                example, planners might assume that a certain percentage of
                local residents will spontaneously evacuate the area along
                routes other than specified evacuation routes.

Plan Section  I.E:   Concept of Operations

Plan Section  I.E.I:   Governing  Principles

    Comment:     The plan should include brief statements of precisely what is
                expected to be accomplished if an accident should occur.  For
                example, if a community has limits on its evacuation
                capabilities, one governing principle would be that emergency
                response actions will address these constraints.

Plan Section  I.E.2:   Organizational  Roles

    •   Municipal government

            Chief elected official
            Emergency management director
            Communications personnel
            Fire service
            Law enforcement
        --  Department of Public Health
        --  Department of .Public Works
        --  Environmental Agency

    •   County government

    •   Facility/Transportation officials

    •   Nearby municipal and county governments

    •   State government

            Environmental protection organization
            Emergency management organization

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                                   4-9
    •   Federal government

        --  EPA
        --  FEMA
        --  DOT
        --  U.S. Coast Guard
        --  OSHA

    Comment;     This section lists all those organizations and officials who
                are responsible for planning and/or executing the response to
                an accident involving acutely toxic chemicals.  The role of
                each organization/official should be clearly described.
                (N.B.  The above list is not meant to be complete.  Each
                community will need to identify all the organizations/
                officials who are involved in the local planning and response
                process.)

Plan Section  II:  Emergency  Response Operations

    Comment:     This section  constitutes the most  important operational
                section of the plan.   It serves as the basis for initiating
                and  coordinating all of the various actions that must take
                place at  the  time of an actual release.   This  section
                includes  clear and specific instructions  for action and
                coordination.

Plan Section  11. A:   Notification  of  Release

    Comment:     This section is exactly the same as Plan Section i, Emergency
                Response Notification Summary, that appears on the first page
                of the plan.   Because speed of response is essential in an
                acutely toxic chemical release, this initial data gathering
                cannot be prolonged.   Nevertheless, an accurate record of
                crucial data is essential.

                The local 24-hour emergency response hotline should be called
                first.   Provision should be made to notify nearby
                municipalities and counties that could be affected by a vapor
                cloud.

                The National Response Center is to be notified by calling
                800-424-8802.  In the Washington, D.C., area call 202-426-2675,

Plan Section  II.B:   Initiation of Action

    •   Name of on-scene authority

    •   Method for establishing command post and communications network for
        response team(s)

    •   Method for activating emergency response teams

    •   List of priorities for response actions (see Plan Section II.J)

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                                   4-10
    •   Method for alerting the public

        --  Title and telephone number of person responsible for alerting the
            public as soon as word of the accident is  received

            List of essential data to be passed on (e.g.,  health hazards,
            precautions for personal protection,  evacuation routes  and
            shelters, hospitals to be used)

    Comment:     This section is of urgent significance.   Since this plan is
                concerned with life-threatening chemicals,  speed of
                response is crucial.  It is  not enough to have planned for
                alerting the community;  one  organization must be assigned the
                responsibility of alerting the public  as soon as word of the
                accidental release is received.  Delay in alerting  the public
                can lead to the loss of human lives.

                Section II.K of the plan will include  much of the specific
                information needed to initiate the response.  In addition to
                sirens and the Emergency Broadcast System, it may be necessary
                to use mobile public address systems  and/or house-by-house
                contacts.  In this case, adequate protection must be provided
                for persons entering the area to provide such help.

Plan Section  II.C:   Coordination of Decision-Making

    •   Lead organization

    •   Chain of command (illustrated in a block diagram)

    Comment:     Response to an acutely toxic chemical  release will  involve
                many participants:  police,  firefighters, facility  personnel,
                health personnel, and others.  It is  also possible  to have
                more than one organization to perform the same service; for
                example, local police, the county sheriff and deputies, as
                well as the highway patrol may respond to perform police
                functions.  Because speed of response is so important,
                coordination is needed among the various agencies providing
                the same service.  It will prove helpful to identify (by
                title) the one individual responsible for each participating
                organization, and the one individual  responsible for each
                major function and service.   Of course, the plan should
                clearly identify the lead agency for  responding to  acute
                hazards incidents.

                Work out,  in advance, the following:

                (1)  Who will be in charge  (lead organization)
                (2)  What will be the chain of command
                (3)  Who will maintain the command post and keep it secure
                (4)  Who will have advisory roles  (and what their precise
                     roles are)
                (5)  Who will make the technical recommendations on
                     response actions to the  lead  agency

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                                   4-11
                (6)  How do the participants keep each other informed
                (7)  Who (if anyone)  will have veto power

                This chain of command should be clearly illustrated in a block
                diagram.

                Special consideration must be given to the on-going
                communications listed as #6 above.   Different response
                organizations typically use different radio frequencies.
                Therefore, specific provision must be made for accurate and
                efficient communication among all the various organizations
                during the response itself.

Plan Section  II.D:   Public  Information/Community  Relations

    •   Method for keeping the public informed

            provision for one person to serve as liaison to the public
            list of radio and T.V.  contacts

            It is important to provide accurate information to the public in
            order to prevent panic.  Some citizens simply want to know what is
            happening.  Other citizens may need to be prepared for possible
            evacuation or they may need to know what they can immediately do
            to protect themselves.   Because information will be needed
            quickly, radio and television are much more important than
            newspapers in acutely toxic chemical releases.   One  person
            should be  identified to serve as spokesman.  The chain of
            command should include this spokesman.   Other members of the
            response team should be trained to defer all communications and
            public relations issues to this one person.

Plan Section  II.E:   Personal  Protection/Evacuation

    •   Chemical-specific personal protection plan

    •   Name of person who can order an evacuation

    •   Risk zones where evacuation could be necessary and a method for
        notifying these places

    •   Methods for controlling traffic flow

    •   Shelter locations and other provisions for evacuations (special
        assistance for hospitals,  etc.)

    Comment:     Evacuation is the most sweeping response to an accidental
                release.  The plan should clearly identify under what
                circumstances evacuation would be appropriate and necessary.
                Plans also need to be made for communicating specific personal
                protection information to the community.  For example, for
                some chemicals it is safer to keep citizens inside with doors
                and windows closed rather than to evacuate.  It is also
                important to distinguish between general evacuation of the

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                                   4-12
                entire area and selective evacuation of a part of the risk
                zone.   Provision must be made for quickly moving traffic out
                of the risk zone and also for preventing outside traffic from
                entering the risk zone.   If schools are located in the risk
                zone,  the plan must identify the location to which students
                will be moved in an evacuation.   All of this information
                should be listed in the  Attachments in Section U.K.

Plan Section  II.F:   Resource Management

    •   List of personnel needed for emergency response

    •   List of vehicles needed for emergency response

    •   List of equipment needed for emergency response

    Comment:     This section must list the resources that will be needed, and
                where the equipment and  vehicles are located or can be
                obtained.  A major task  in the planning process is to identify
                what resources are already available and what must still be
                provided.  This section  should also address funding questions.

Plan Section  II.G:   Personnel Safety

    •   Standard order of procedure for  entering and leaving sites

    •   Accountability for personnel entering and leaving the hazardous site

    •   Recommended safety equipment

    •   Personal safety precautions

    Comment:     Section II.F will list safety equipment that is necessary to
                carry out response actions.  This section should note any
                personal safety precautions and special equipment that are
                appropriate for each acutely toxic chemical to be found in the
                community.  Consult local chemical industries and/or EPA's
                training course, or other Federal or State safety or response
                courses, for helpful information.

Plan Section II.H:   Acutely Toxic Chemicals

    •   CHEMTREC Phone Number:  800-424-9300 (District of Columbia:
        202-483-7616) -- The Chemical Transportation Emergency Center
        (CHEMTREC), a 24-hour-a-day telephone service operated by the Chemical
        Manufacturers Association, can provide information useful to on-scene
        responders to any chemical emergency.

    •   List of appropriate data for acutely toxic chemicals in your
        community  (for use on-scene)

    Comment:    Each community will prepare this section differently.  A
                formal hazards identification and analysis will identify each
                acutely toxic chemical that is to be found  in the community.

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                                   4-13
                Communities that have a large number of these substances in
                their midst will probably simply list those chemicals  here and
                refer to the appropriate sections of Appendix A.2.   If only a
                few chemicals are found in a community, then this section of
                the plan should list the properties  of each chemical,  with
                special consideration to their toxicity,  reactivity,  toxic
                effects, and steps to counteract their hazardous  action in the
                human body.  This information should be presented in  brief,
                clear box diagrams so that response  teams can act quickly to
                save human lives.  This information  is published  as Chemical
                Profiles with EPA's list of acutely  toxic chemicals.   Planners
                can also consult CHEMTREC, DOT's 1984 Emergency Response
                Guidebook, USCG CHRIS Manual,  and other hazardous materials
                listings.

Plan Section  11.1:  Countermeasures

    •   Exposure assessment

    •   Containment and mitigation actions

    •   Cleanup methods

    •   Restoration of the surrounding environment

    Comment:     After the  official notification that a release has occurred,
                it is still crucial to monitor the release and assess  its
                impact.  Usually the facility at which the release has
                occurred will have the best equipment for this purpose.   If
                the Federal OSC arrives quickly at the scene, his/her
                resources can be employed.

                A clear and succinct list of appropriate containment
                countermeasures should be prepared for each acutely toxic
                chemical in the community.  This section should be coordinated
                with section II.G on "Personnel Safety" so that response teams
                are not subjected to undue danger.   Much of this  information
                will be found in the chemical profiles (see Appendix A for a
                sample profile); other hazardous material publications should
                be consulted also.

                It is important to determine whether a fire should be
                extinguished or allowed to burn itself out.  Water used in
                firefighting could become contaminated and need to be
                contained.  In addition, some materials may be water-reactive
                and pose a greater hazard in contact with water.   Some vapors
                may condense into pools of liquid which must be contained and
                removed.  Accumulated pools may be recovered with appropriate
                pumps, hoses, and storage containers.  Various foams  may be
                used to reduce vapor generation rates.  Water spray or fog may
                be applied at downwind points away from "cold" pools  to absorb
                vapors and/or accelerate their dispersal in the atmosphere.
                Volatile liquids might be diluted or neutralized.

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                                   4-14
                If the vapor comes to the ground on crops,  on playgrounds,  in
                drinking water, or other places where humans are likely to  be
                affected by it, the area should be tested for contamination.
                Of course,  appropriate steps must be taken if animals are in
                contact with the chemical.   It is important to identify in
                advance what instruments and methods can be used to detect  the
                chemicals in question.

                Restoration of the area is  a long-range project, but general
                restoration steps should appear in the plan.

Plan Section II.J:  Response Action Checklist

    Comment:    Response action checklists  are a way of condensing much
                useful information.  They are helpful for a quick assessment
                of the response operation.   If checklists are used, they
                should be prepared in sufficient detail to ensure that all
                crucial activities are included.  For help in preparing a
                checklist consult FEMA-10.

Plan Section II.K:  Attachments

    Comment:    Gathered here are various clear and precise guides for action
                during the emergency.  Some communities might choose to print
                these attachments separately and distribute them to the
                personnel most likely to need them during an emergency.  Never
                presume that any responder  has memorized every aspect of
                his/her role.  Exact printed directions should be readily
                available for immediate use in an emergency.  The following
                suggested list of attachments is not meant to be exhaustive;
                some communities might choose to include other items as
                additional attachments.

Plan Section 11. K.I:   Emergency Assistance Telephone Roster

    •   List of telephone numbers for:

            Participating agencies
            Technical and response personnel
            Public and private support groups
        --  CHEMTREC

    Comment:    An accurate and up-to-date 24-hour a day emergency telephone
                roster is an essential item.  Briefly indicate the types of
                expertise, services, or equipment that each agency or group
                can provide.  All phone numbers and names of personnel should
                be verified at least annually.  Whenever alternate numbers are
                available, these should be listed.  This section of the plan
                should be able to stand alone so that copies can be carried by
                public safety people and others.  Examples of names for
                possible inclusion in a telephone roster, similar to those
                found in FEMA-10, are as follows:

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                                   4-15
                        Police
                        Fire
                        Civil Defense
                        Public  Works
                        Rescue  Squad
                        Hospitals
                        Utilities
                        Community  Officials
                        Bordering  Political  Regions
                        Industries
                        Volunteer  Groups
                        Media
Plan Section  U.K.2:   Siren Coverage

    Comment:     This  section  should contain  precise  information on how sirens
                or  other signals  will  be  used  to  notify  the public in case of
                an  emergency.   This should include information on what the
                different signals mean, how  to coordinate  the use of sirens at
                different facilities,  how to activate the  sirens, and the
                geographic area covered by each siren.

Plan Section  U.K.3:   Emergency  Broadcast System Messages

    Comment:     Sample EBS messages should be  prepared with blanks that  can
                be  filled in  with precise information about the accident.  One
                sample message should  be  for an evacuation.  One sample
                message should describe any  necessary school evacuations so
                that  parents  will know where their children are.  One sample
                message should be prepared to  tell citizens to take shelter
                and other precautions  to  protect  themselves.

Plan Section  U.K.4:   Evacuation  Routes

    Comment:     Maps  with evacuation routes  and alternates clearly identified
                should be prepared for each  risk  zone in the area.  Such maps
                should take account of prevailing wind patterns.

Plan Section  U.K.5:   Traffic Control Points

    Comment:     In  order to expedite an evacuation,  maps should indicate
                control points where police  officers should be stationed.

Plan Section  U.K.6:   Access  Control Points

    Comment:     In  order to restrict traffic from entering a risk zone,  maps
                should indicate all access control points.

Plan Section  U.K.7:   Evacuation  Routes for  Special  Populations

    Comment:     In  an evacuation  schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and  homes
                for the physically and mentally disabled will require special
                attention. Maps  should  indicate  precise routes to another
                location where special populations can be  taken during an

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                                   4-16
                emergency evacuation,  and the  methods  of  transportation during
                the evacuation.

Appendix A:  Basic Support Documents

Appendix A.1:  Legal Authority and Responsibility for Responding

    •   Authorizing legislation (if any)

        --  Federal (e.g., Clean Water Act,  CERCLA,  National  Contingency Plan,
            and the Disaster Relief Act)
        --  State
        --  Regional
            Local

    •   Mandated agency responsibilities

    Comment:     If there are laws  regarding  contingency planning  for  response
                to acutely toxic chemical releases,  list  them here.   The
                community may choose to enact  legislation in  support  of its
                plan.   Be sure to  identify any agencies (e.g.,  FEMA)  that  must
                respond to particular emergencies.


Appendix A.2:  Acutely Toxic Chemicals  Information

    •   Technical information

            Chemical and physical  properties
        --  Toxicity
            Measurement techniques
        --  Recommended fire-fighting techniques
            Response personnel safety data
            General public safety  data
            First aid procedures

    Comment:     This section should provide  technical  support information  on
                acutely toxic chemicals.   Some planners could simply  include
                here various hazardous materials publications, including EPA's
                chemical profiles  (see Appendix A for  a sample profile).   Plan
                Section II.H will  refer users  to this  appendix in order to
                find specific information about the chemical  involved in the
                accidental release.

                An alternative is  to include data only for those  chemicals to
                be found  locally.   If the second option is chosen, plan
                revisers must be careful to  update this section if and when
                any new acutely toxic chemicals begin  to be used, produced,
                stored, or transported in the community.

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                                   4-17
Appendix A.3:  Hazards Identification  and Analysis

    •   Probable hazards

    •   Vulnerable locations

    Comment:     This analysis is a crucial aspect of the planning process.
                It consists of determining where hazards are likely to exist,
                what places would most likely be adversely affected,  and what
                acutely toxic chemical substances could be involved.   To
                prepare a hazards analysis, consult Chapter 3 of this
                guidance, FEMA-10, and DOT's Community Teamwork and
                demonstration projects.

                Individual data sheets and maps for each facility and
                transportation route of interest could be included in this
                section.  Similar data could be included for recurrent
                shipments of chemicals through the area.  In communities with
                many facilities the hazards analysis could be too massive to
                include in the contingency plan.  In that case, all
                significant details should be summarized here.   This  appendix
                should never become as brief as the summary found toward the
                beginning of the plan in Section I.D, Assumptions/Planning
                Factors.

Appendix A.4:  Response Organization Structure/Coordination

    •   Specialized response organization

            Chain of command/lead agency
            Assigned duties

    •   How to use outside resources

            Response capabilities
            Procedure for using outside resources

    •   Predetermined arrangements

    Comment:     This appendix contains detailed descriptions and information
                on the Federal Regional Response Teams and the predesignated
                Federal OSC (see Chapter 2 of this guidance).   Because of
                their distant location it is often difficult for such
                organizations to reach a scene quickly; planners should
                determine in advance approximately how much time would elapse
                before the Federal OSC could arrive at the scene.

                This appendix should also indicate where other disaster
                assistance can be obtained from Federal, State, or regional
                sources.  Pre-arrangements can be made with higher-level
                government agencies, bordering political regions, and chemical
                plants; provisions should be made for coordinating with other
                contingency plans and the local civil defense disaster plan.

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                                   4-18
Appendix A.5:
Any coordination with outside agencies  should  be  formalized
through mutual aid agreements or memoranda  of  understanding
specifying delegations of authority,  responsibility,  and
duties.  These formal agreements can  be included  in  the plan
if desired.

Laboratory,  Consultant,  and Other Technical  Support
Resources
    •   Telephone directory of technical  support  services

        --  Laboratories (environmental and  public health)
            Private consultants
            Colleges or universities  (chemistry departments and special
            courses)
            Local chemical plants

    Comment:     This section should identify the  various groups capable of
                providing technical support  and the  specific person to be
                contacted.  These  technical  experts  can provide advice during
                a disaster and also be of great service during the development
                of this plan.   For this reason, one  of the first planning
                steps should be the gathering of  information for this section.

Appendix A.6:  Computer Utilization

    •   Available software for the planning  process  and response capability

    Comment:     Computers can be very valuable for storing and retrieving
                large volumes of data, accessing  data bases, estimating
                evacuation or hazard zones,  keeping  track of the overall
                planning process,  and on-scene capabilities to predict wind
                dispersion of a chemical. Word processing capabilities can
                facilitate plan preparation, updates, and distribution.

Appendix B:   Post-Emergency Operations

Appendix B.I:  Documentation of  Accidental  Releases

    •   List of required reports
    •   Reasons for requiring the  reports
    •   Format for reports

    Comment:     This appendix indicates what information  should be gathered
                about the release  and the response operation.  Key response
                personnel could be instructed to  maintain an accurate  log  of
                their activities.

Appendix B.2:   Investigative Follow-Up

    •   Methods for determining whether  the  response mechanism worked
        properly

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                                   4-19
    Comment:     Identify in this section who is responsible for the
                post-accident investigation to discover quickly the exact
                circumstances and cause of the accidental release.   The
                documentation described in Appendix B.I should help this
                investigation determine if response operations were effective,
                whether the contingency plan should be amended,  and what
                follow-up responder and public training programs are needed.

Appendix C:  Administrative and Other Support Documentation

Appendix C.I:  Plan Distribution

    •   List of organizations/persons receiving plan

    Comment:     The entire plan should be available to the public;  it can be
                stored at a library, the local emergency response office, or
                some other public place.  Individual sections  of the plan
                should be distributed to all persons responsible for response
                operations.  The plan distribution list should account for  all
                organizations receiving such copies of the plan.  This
                information is essential when determining who  should be sent
                revisions and updates to the plan.

Appendix C.2:  Procedures for Changing or Updating Plan

    •   Title and organization of responsible person(s)
    •   Change notification procedures
    •   Change frequency

    Comment:     Responsibility should be delegated to someone  to make sure
                that the plan is updated frequently and that all plan holders
                are informed of the changes.  Notification of  changes should
                be by written memorandum or letter; the changes  should be
                recorded in the RECORD OF AMENDMENTS page at the front of the
                completed plan.  Changes should be consecutively numbered for
                ease of tracking and accounting.

                Following are examples of information that must  regularly be
                checked for accuracy:

               (1)  Identity and phone numbers of  response personnel

               (2)  Name, quantity, properties, and location  of acutely toxic
                    chemicals in the community.  (If a new acutely  toxic
                    chemical begins to be made, used, stored,  or transported
                    in the community, revise the plan as needed.)

               (3)  Facility maps

               (4)  Transportation routes

               (5)  Emergency services available

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                                   4-20
                This topic is considered in greater detail  in Chapter 5  of
                this guidance.

Appendix C.3:  Exercises

    •   Provision for regular tabletop and field simulation exercises

    Comment:     Exercises or drills  are an important tool  in keeping a plan
                functionally up-to-date.   These are simulated accidental
                releases where emergency response personnel act  out  their
                duties.   The exercises can be tabletop,  and/or they  can  be
                realistic enough so  that equipment is deployed,  communication
                gear is  tested, and  "victims" are sent to  hospitals  with
                simulated toxic exposures.  Planners should work with local
                facilities when conducting simulation exercises.   In addition,
                the public should be involved or at least  informed of these
                exercises.  EPA is also providing guidance  on simulation
                exercises through its forthcoming training  program
                complementing this guidance.

                This section should  specify:

                (1)  The organization in charge of the exercise;

                (2)  The frequency of exercises; and

                (3)  A procedure for evaluating performance and  making changes
                     to contingency  plans as necessary (see Appendix C.2 of
                     this sample outline and Chapter 5 of  this guidance).

Appendix C.4:  Training Requirements

    •   Required training for response personnel

    •   Courses, seminars, workshops that are required or  recommended;
        include only those available to local response personnel

    Comment:     Care should be taken to provide essential  information and
                training for response personnel.  Training is available  from
                State agencies and the Federal government  (e.g., EPA, FEMA,
                and the U.S. Coast Guard).

                Communities seeking  help in developing preparedness  and
                response programs should consult appropriate State agencies.
                States may consult with Federal Regional offices for
                additional training  and assistance (see Appendix G).  EPA is
                developing new training programs to complement this  Chemical
                Emergency Preparedness Program Guidance.

                In addition to government agencies, consult universities or
                community colleges (especially any fire science  curriculum
                courses), industry associations, the National Fire Protection
                Association, and private firms  (facilities, common carriers).
                Many training  films  and slide presentations can be borrowed or

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                                   4-21
                rented at little cost.  Many chemical companies and carriers
                provide some level of training for free.

                In addition to classroom training, response personnel will
                need hands-on experience with equipment to be used during an
                emergency.

Appendix C.5:  Technical Library

    •   List of references and their availability

            General planning references
            Specific references for acutely toxic chemicals
            Technical references and methods for using national data bases
            Maps

    Comment:    The appendix to this guidance document lists some planning
                resources and how to acquire them.  Facilities can provide
                specific publications dealing with acutely toxic chemicals.
                This section of the plan will list those published resources
                that are actually available in your community.  You will also
                list any maps (e.g., of facilities, transportation routes,
                etc.) that will aid in the response to an accidental release.

                It is important for planners to acquire and understand
                available hazardous materials data bases.  Response guides
                such as FEMA-10 should also be available locally.

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       5.  CONTINGENCY  PLAN  APPRAISAL AND CONTINUING PLANNING
    Any contingency plan must be evaluated  and kept up-to-date through
simulation exercises as well  as by the regular collection  of  new data.
Effective emergency preparedness  requires periodic review and evaluation, and
the necessary effort must be sustained at the community  level without  case-by-
case Federal approval.   Plans should reflect  any recent  changes  in:  the
economy, available technology,  toxic chemicals present,  Federal  and  State
laws, road configurations, population size,  emergency telephone  numbers, and
facility location.  This chapter  describes key aspects of appraisal  and
provides specific guidance for maintaining an updated contingency plan.
Planners may want to consult Chapter 5 of FEMA-10 for complementary  material.

5.1   PLAN  APPRAISAL

    It is not sufficient merely  to read over  the plan in search  of omissions
and/or errors.  The draft plan should  also be evaluated through simulation
exercises to see  if its required activities are actually  possible in reality
and  if the  evaluation would  reveal  more efficient ways of responding to  a
real  emergency.   Experience  gained from  real  emergencies should be used to
update the plan.   Simulations can be full-scale field exercises  or tabletop
exercises.

    A field simulation exercise  is a mock emergency in which the response
organizations that would be involved in an actual emergency perform  the
actions they would take in the emergency.  These simulations may focus on
limited objectives (e.g., testing the evacuation capability of local
hospitals).  The responsible environmental,  public safety,  and health  agencies
simulate, as realistically as possible, the notification, hazard
identification and analysis,  command structure,  command  post staging,
communications, health care,  containment, evacuation of  affected areas,
cleanup, and documentation.   Responders use the protective  gear, radios, and
response equipment and act as they would in a real incident.

    A low-cost, yet still valuable, version of a simulation exercise is the
staging of an indoor role-play,  also called a tabletop exercise.  In this
exercise, each agency representative describes and acts  out what he  or she
would do at each step of the response under the circumstances given.
Simulation exercises are most beneficial when followed by a meeting  of all
participants to critique the performance of those involved  and the strengths
and weaknesses of the plan's operation.  The  contingency plan should be
amended according to the lessons  learned.

    The details of how to conduct a plan appraisal should be included  in
Appendix C.3 of the completed plan.

5.2  KEEPING THE  PLAN UP-TO-DATE

    All contingency plans become  outdated because of social, economic, and
environmental changes.   Keeping  the plan up-to-date is a difficult task, but
can be controlled by scheduling  reviews regularly.  Outdated information
should be replaced,  and the results of appraisal exercises  should be

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                                   5-2
incorporated into the plan.   The following techniques will aid in keeping
abreast of the changes:

        •   Establish a regular review period,  preferably every
            six months,  but  at least annually.

        •   Make one organization responsible for coordination of
            the review and overall stewardship  of the plan.   Choose
            with reliability in mind.

        •   Be prepared to reactivate the work  group which
            developed the original plan.

        •   Include a "Record of Amendments and Changes" sheet in
            the front section of the plan.

        •   Include a "Where to Report Changes" notice in the plan
            and a request for holders of the plan to report any
            changes or suggested revisions to the responsible
            organization.

        •   Make any sections of the plan that  are subject to
            frequent changes either easily replaceable (e.g.,
            looseleaf, separate appendix), or provide blank space
            (double- or triple-spaced typing) so that old things can
            be crossed out and new data easily written in.  This
            applies particularly to telephone rosters and resource
            and equipment listings.

    The organization responsible for review should do the following:

        •   Maintain a list of plan holders, based on the original
            distribution list, plus any new copies made or
            distributed.  It is advisable to send out a periodic
            request to departments/branches showing who is on the
            list and asking for any additions or corrections.

        •   Check all telephone numbers, persons named with
            particular responsibilities, equipment locations and
            availability.  In addition, ask departments and agencies
            to review sections of the plan defining their
            responsibilities and actions.

        •   Distribute changes.  Changes should be consecutively
            numbered for ease of tracking.  Be specific ("Replace
            page 	 with the attached new page 	," or  "cross
            out 	 on page 	 and write in the following
            (new phone number, name, location,  etc.).  Any key
            changes  (i.e., emergency phone number change, equipment
            availability, etc.) should be distributed as  soon as it
            occurs.  Do not wait for the regular review period to
            notify plan holders.

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                                   5-3
        •   If practical, request an acknowledgement of changes
            from whomever you send them to.  The best way to do this
            is to include a self-addressed send-back sheet ("I have
            received and entered changes dated 	.
            Signed 	").

        •   Attend any plan critique meetings and issue changes as
            may be required.

    These periodic updates  are  the  primary factor  in continuing planning.
Additional steps in continuing plan improvements are:

        •   Incident reviews and critiques.  They are usually held
            after an accidental release to determine the plan's
            effectiveness.  (Because acutely toxic chemical releases
            are very rare but extremely dangerous,  the following two
            actions are more important than this one.)

        •   Exercises/tests.  They put the plan into action by
            simulating incidents.  From these tests the adequacy of
            the plan and personnel training and understanding of the
            plan can be evaluated.

        •   Training courses.   They can better prepare
            organizations to perform their function when a release
            occurs.

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                 6.   CRITERIA  FOR  IDENTIFICATION OF
                       ACUTELY TOXIC  CHEMICALS
6.1  INTRODUCTION

    This section is intended to assist communities in identifying those
chemicals that could cause serious human health effects  from short-term
exposures such as accidental air releases.   Such identification will  be useful
information for focusing initial efforts in the development of State  and local
contingency plans.

    EPA has specified toxicity criteria that can be used to identify  chemicals
that would be of special concern if the public were exposed to such chemicals
via accidental releases to the air.  The identification  of a chemical that
meets the criteria does not in itself indicate the potential for serious human
health effects in any release -- accidental or routine.   Rather, such
identification indicates a need for the community to undertake a program to
investigate and evaluate the potential for  accidental exposures associated
with the production, storage or handling of the chemical at a particular
site.  Distinctions between this program and EPA's program for regulating
routine releases of air toxics are stated in Chapter 1 of this guidance.

    The assessment of potential risk following accidental release is  based  on
an analysis of the chemical's toxicity coupled with an evaluation of  possible
exposure.  Acutely toxic chemicals are identified by applying the criteria;
the exposure assessment requires site-specific analysis  of factors such as:

        •   Quantities of the chemicals produced, stored, or
            handled;

        •   The physical state of the chemical in storage or in
            the manufacturing process;

        •   The potential for interaction with other chemicals;

        •   The distance from potentially exposed populations; and

        •   The specific safety precautions currently employed.

    In the following sections of this chapter the Agency's approach to
identifying acutely toxic chemicals is described, numerical criteria  are
presented, and a method of applying the criteria to identify acutely  toxic
chemicals is described.  Appendix A to this guidance presents a list  of
chemicals derived by applying the stated criteria to the Registry of  Toxic
Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) data base.  Chemical profiles  are
included under separate cover.  These profiles provide information on the
listed chemicals that will be of use in developing contingency plans.  Note
that the list of identified chemicals is not inclusive;  additional work will
be needed by communities to identify chemicals in their  environments  that meet
the criteria.  The list is intended to be a starting point for further
investigation.  The end of this chapter directs communities to other  hazardous
chemicals that exist beyond the chemicals identified under these criteria.

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                                   6-2
6.2  APPROACH  TO  IDENTIFYING  ACUTELY TOXIC CHEMICALS

    EPA is concerned with identifying chemicals capable of producing serious
health effects that are manifested either immediately  or shortly after an
acute exposure such as an accidental air release.

    Unfortunately there is little information on the hazards to humans from
chemical exposures.  Therefore, the Agency has chosen  to use data from animal
species to infer effects in humans.  The Agency assumes that humans and
animals, on the average, are similar in intrinsic susceptibility.  Since human
populations are heterogeneous and individuals are expected to vary
considerably in their sensitivity to chemical substances, the Agency has
assumed that humans may be as sensitive as the most sensitive mammalian
species tested.

    Because complete toxicological profiles that present all potential
concerns about the consequences of acute exposure are  not uniformly available
on chemicals, the Agency focused on the most commonly  reported information
from animal toxicity testing.  Most frequently, data from acute toxicity
testing have been expressed as the median lethal dose  (LDrn) when the

substance is taken by mouth or exposed to the skin, or median lethal
concentration (LC,..)  when the substance is inhaled. These data represent

dose levels or concentrations of a chemical that will  result in the death of
50 percent of the exposed test animals.  In some cases, however, the acute
toxicity test did not estimate an LD,-n or LC-n; the only measure of

lethality reported is the lowest dose or concentration at which some animals
died (LDTn or LC  ) .   EPA has used the LDTri or LCT_ data values if
        ijU      IjU                       J_iU      LiU
median values were not available for a chemical.  The  Agency chose to use
LC   or LDTn values in such circumstances in order to  avoid incorrectly
  J-tU      IjU
omitting highly toxic chemicals from consideration.

    Another inconsistency among reported acute toxicity data involves the
exposure duration for LC.  or LC   data from inhalation toxicity tests.
In some cases exposure times have not been reported; where exposure times have
been reported, they may vary from minutes to many hours.  In using inhalation
toxicity data, the Agency considered reported LC   (or where necessary

LCTn) values for inhalation studies of up to 8 hours in duration as well as

values for which times were not reported.  The Agency  chose to consider this
range of studies in order to make the best use of available acute toxicity
data.

6.3  CRITERIA

    EPA has adopted the following criteria to identify acutely toxic chemicals
based on data from mammalian testing:

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                                   6-3
  Route
                Acute Toxicity Measure
                                                          Value a/
Dermal
Oral
              Median Lethal Dose
                                             Less than or equal to 50 mg/kg


                                             Less than or equal to 25 mg/kg


Inhalation    Median Lethal Concentration    Less than or equal to 0.5 mg/1 b/
                (LD50>
              Median Lethal Dose
                (LD50>
a/  Criteria are to be matched against all mammalian test species evaluated
    for all chemicals.

b/  Where time of exposure is any time up to 8 hours.
NOTE:
        Where values for LD n or LC,-n data are lacking, but values for
        LDTn or LCT
          J_iU      J
                     are available for a particular chemical, the Agency
        recommends further investigation of the potential of that chemical (at
        a particular site) to pose a potential hazard when the LDTn or

        LCTn values fall within the selection criteria.
          LU


    A chemical is identified as acutely toxic according to these criteria if
mammalian acute toxicity data for any one of the three routes of
administration fall below the value specified for that route.

    These criteria are consistent with those used by the European Economic
Community (EEC) and the World Bank (WB).  EPA's criteria therefore recognize
the precedent set by these two organizations, the similarity in policy goals,
and the previous scientific opinions which established these criteria.  EPA
has modified the EEC/WB criteria in three ways:  lethality data from the most
sensitive mammalian species are included and not just those from rats;
inhalation exposure time up to 8 hours is adopted instead of using only a
                        or LD,_. data are used when LD
                             LU
                                                        or LC... are
                                                             3U
4-hour period; and LC
unavailable.  The reasons for the modifications have been discussed in Section
6.2.

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                                   6-4
6.4  APPLICATION OF CRITERIA TO  IDENTIFY AND LIST ACUTELY TOXIC
     CHEMICALS

    The selection criteria can be applied to any data on chemical substances.
The Agency applied the criteria to a specific toxicity data repository  in
order to develop an exemplary list of acutely toxic chemicals that may  be of
use to State or local groups.  The National Institute of Occupational Health
and Safety's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS),  was
selected because it is the largest computerized set of acute toxicity data
available.  EPA recognizes the limitations of using RTECS.   The data in this
system, in general, are of variable quality, have not been subjected to
scientific scrutiny for adequacy, and have not been systematically screened
for errors upon entry.  Therefore, it is often difficult to know the degree of
confidence that should be placed on the values listed.   Nevertheless, due to
the impracticability of attempting to access and review copies of all acute
toxicity literature relevant to this project, the EPA is relying on the values
in RTECS while keeping in mind their limitations.  It is expected that  more
appropriate information on the toxicity of a chemical may be available  from
the manufacturer.

    EPA selected only those chemicals in current production by referring to
the 1977 TSCA inventory and the current EPA list of active pesticide
ingredients.  Chemicals placed on the TSCA inventory since 1977 (i.e.,
premanufacturing notice chemicals) also have been reviewed and included on the
list if they meet the criteria.

    EPA made additional efforts to check that chemicals included on its
initial list are in production.  If EPA staff had no direct knowledge that a
chemical was in production, they checked recent literature and published
reports.  Where literature and published reports were lacking or out-of-date,
EPA confirmed production through contacts with manufacturers, suppliers, or
users.  If production was not confirmed, the chemical is so noted on the list.

    The criteria values selected are for "very toxic" chemicals.  Chemicals
with acute lethality values above the criteria values are not necessarily
safe.  In fact, many are still toxic and may be threats to the community in an
accident situation.  EPA has listed some of these chemicals based on large
production and acute lethality values as explained on the list of these "Other
Acutely Toxic Chemicals" in Appendix A.

    Chemicals only used as food, drugs, or cosmetics and radioactive chemicals
not listed on the TSCA inventory were not screened for acute toxicity.   These
chemicals are regulated by other agencies.  Also, chemicals in a research and
development stage not listed on the TSCA inventory were not screened for acute
toxicity.  If these research chemicals go into production, EPA will identify
and list such chemicals through its premanufacture review notice program.

    Hazards from chemicals are not limited to chemicals identified under this
criteria.  There are many explosive, flammable, reactive, and corrosive
chemicals that may warrant consideration in emergency preparedness and
response planning.  Communities should consult the criteria and list of
chemicals in Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations found in 49 CFR
172.101 for explosive, flammable, reactive, and corrosive chemicals.

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                                   6-5
Following is a list of criteria for explosive, flammable, reactive, and
corrosive chemicals (all section citations are to 49 CFR Part 173).
Class A Explosive


Class B Explosive




Class C Explosive




Blasting Agent
Gases
(basic definition)
Flammable Gas
Nonflammable Gas
Combustible Liquid
Flammable Liquid
Detonating or otherwise of maximum hazard.  The nine
types of Class A explosives are defined in Sec. 173.53.

Flammable hazard - In general, functions by rapid
burning rather than detonation.  Includes some
explosive devices such as special fireworks, flash
powders, etc. (Sec. 173.88)

Minimum hazard - Certain types of fireworks and
certain types of manufactured articles containing
restricted quantities of Class A and/or Class B
explosives as components.  (Sec. 173.100)

A material designed for blasting which has been tested
in accordance with Sec. 173.114a(b).  It must be so
insensitive that there is very little probability of:
(1) accidental explosion or (2) going from burning to
detonation.  (Sec. 173.114a(b))

Compressed Gas - Any material or mixture having
in-the-container a pressure EXCEEDING 40 psia at 70°F,
OR a pressure exceeding 104 psia at 130°F; or any
liquid flammable material having a vapor pressure
exceeding 40 psia at 100°F.  (Sec. 173.300(a))

Non-liquefied compressed gas is a gas (other than gas
in solution) which, under the charged pressure, is
entirely gaseous at a temperature of 70°F.

Liquefied compressed gas is a gas which, under the
charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature
of 70°F.

Any compressed gas meeting criteria as specified in
Sec. 173.300(b).  This includes:  lower flammability
limit, flammability limit range, flame projection, or
flame propagation.

Any compressed gas other than a flammable compressed
gas.

Any liquid having a flash point at or above 100°F and
below 200°F.  Authorized flash point methods are
listed in Sec. 173.115(d).  Exceptions are found in
Sec. 173.115(b).

Any liquid having a flash point below 100°F.
Authorized flash point methods are listed in Sec.
173.115(d).  For exceptions, see Sec. 173.115(a).

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                                   6-6
Flammable Solid
Organic Peroxide
Oxidizer
Poison A
Poison B
Corrosive Material
Pyroforic Liquid - Any liquid that ignites
spontaneously in dry or moist air at or below 130°F.
(Sec. 173.115(c))

Any solid material (other than an explosive) which is
liable to cause fires through friction or retained
heat from manufacturing or processing.  It can be
ignited readily and burns so vigorously and
persistently, as to create a serious transportation
hazard.  Included in this class are spontaneously
combustible and water-reactive materials.  (Sec.
173.150))

Spontaneously Combustible Material (Solid) - A solid
substance (including sludges and pastes) which may
undergo spontaneous heating or self-burning under
normal transportation conditions.  These materials may
increase in temperature and ignite when exposed to
air.  (Sec.  171.8)

Water Reactive Material (Solid) - Any solid substance
(including sludges and pastes) which react with water
by igniting or giving off dangerous quantities of
flammable or toxic gases.  (Sec. 171.8)

An organic compound containing the bivalent -0-0
structure.  It may be considered a derivative of
hydrogen peroxide where one or more of the hydrogen
atoms have been replaced by organic radicals.  It must
be classed as an organic peroxide unless it meets
certain criteria listed in Sec. 173.151(a).

A substance such as chlorate, permanganate, inorganic
peroxide, or a nitrate, that yields oxygen readily.
It accelerates the combustion of organic matter.   (See
Sec. 173.151)

Extremely Dangerous Poisons - Poisonous gases or
liquids -- a very small amount of the gas, or vapor
of the liquid, mixed with air is dangerous to life.
(Sec. 173.326)

Less Dangerous Poisons - Substances,  liquids or
solids (including pastes and semi-solids), other than
Class A or Irritating materials -- so toxic (or
presumed to be toxic) to man that they are a hazard to
health during transportation.   (Sec.  173.381)

Any  liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or
irreversible damage to human skin tissue.  Also, it
may be a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on
steel.  (See Sec. 173.240(a) and (b)  for details)

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                                   6-7
    There are also a number of substances identified in the DOT regulations as
"Forbidden" (49 CFR 172.101).  While these materials may not be offered for
transportation, they may be present in facilities as components of
manufacturing, storage, or handling.  These materials should be considered in
assessing the risks associated with the operation of the facility.  In
addition, DOT specifies useful criteria for assessing unstable materials in 49
CFR 173.21 and 173.51.

    The chemicals described above may create problems when stored or used near
other chemicals which could be affected or even released in the event of an
explosion, fire, reaction, or rupture due to corrosion.  Communities are
advised to consider all chemicals that meet the DOT criteria as opposed to
relying on the DOT list exclusively.  The DOT list typically only includes
chemicals that may be transported and as such may not include intermediates or
other chemicals that are explosive, flammable, reactive, or corrosive that may
never be transported off a site.

    Note also that DOT has criteria and a list of chemicals identified as
poisons A and B.  Chemicals in these categories are subject to DOT regulations
for transportation.  All DOT poisons A and B may not be identified under EPA's
criteria for acutely toxic chemicals because EPA's criteria are for "very"
toxic chemicals and as such do not identify every toxic chemical that may need
to be regulated in transportation or any other activity.  EPA has identified
"very" toxic chemicals to provide a focus for initial efforts in community
emergency preparedness and response planning.  Therefore, criteria are not
provided that would identify every chemical that may be acutely toxic to human
beings.

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                     ERRATA
    Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program:  Interim  Guidance


 Corrections to the List of Acutely Toxic Chemicals  (Appendix  A)
1.   Based on information analyzed during  the  development  of
    the profiles, the chemical listed as  Phenarsazine  oxide,
    CAS number 58-36-6 should be listed as Phenoxarsine,  10,
    lO'-oxidi, CAS number 58-36-6 (no change).

2.   Based on additional analyses of  the toxicity  information
    used to identify "Other Chemicals," the following  changes  are
    made .

    a.  Ammonia, propylene oxide, sulphur dioxide,  and vinyl
        acetate monomer do not have  acute toxicity  measures  that
        strictly meet the criteria for listing  as  "Other  Chemicals.
        However, based on production capacity,  toxicity,  and
        known danger, these chemicals remain  listed as "Other
        Chemicals."  Only the reason for  listing  is changed.

    b.  Cumene, isopropanol, and methanol are removed  from the
        list based on the relatively lesser toxicity  of  these
        chemicals compared to all of the  acutely  toxic chemicals
        listed.

3.   The CAS number for Nickel is incorrectly  stated on the list
    of acutely toxic chemicals.  The CAS  number 7440-02-2 should
    be stated as 7440-02-0.

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                               APPENDIX A

                        ACUTELY TOXIC CHEMICALS
A.I  ACUTELY IDXIC CHEMICALS
     This appendix contains the list of chemicals identified by EPA
for which an acute toxicity measure has a value meeting the criteria stated
in Chapter 6.  These very toxic chemicals are listed alphabetically by
cornnan chemical name.  The corresponding Chemical Abstract Service
(CAS) number is provided for each name.  There are 379 chemicals on the
list.

     Following the CAS Number list are two indices of the multiple names
used for each acutely toxic chemical.  The first index lists the common
chemical name, the CAS name if different from the common name, and some
synonyms for each chemical.  All names on the first index are in
alphabetical order.  The CAS number is listed for each name on this index.
Synonyms were selected by EPA on the basis of common use.  The second
index lists in CAS number order all names on the indices.

     Long naines for chemicals on all lists are truncated.  Where the
complete name is truncated, three dots follow the last character of
the name.

     Some of the acutely toxic chemicals have been identified through
EPA's Premanufacture Notice (PMN) program for new chemicals.  Information
on some of these PMN chemicals cannot be published because of requirements
for EPA to maintain confidential business information (CBI) restrictions.
Such PMN chemicals are listed by their PMN number.  The index contains
the PMN number and a non-CBI generic name for one such chemical.

     One hundred forty-one chemicals names are preceded by an asterisk.
The asterisk identifies chemicals that EPA could not verify as being
manufactured or imported for commercial purposes as defined in the
Toxic Substances Control Act or as being manufactured as a pesticide
within the three years prior to October 1, 1985.  Verification of
conmercialization was performed by an EPA expert panel.  Production was
verified if the panel:

1.  Recalled published information that the candidate is in commercial
    production; or

2.  Recalled recent advertisements or promotional materials which
    substantiate commercial production; or

3.  Recalled name(s) of one or more manufacturers, importers, processors,
    or users; or

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                                   A-2
4.  Identified listings in Chemical Marketing Reporter, Chemical &
    Engineering News, Chemical Week, SRI International's Chemical Economics
    Handbook, or other publications or data bases: or
5.  Contacted manufacturers, importers, suppliers, processors, or users
    who confirmed manufacture or importation since October 1, 1982; or

6.  Confirmed Notice of Commencement of manufacture was received by EPA
    on or since October 1, 1982.
A.2  OTHER CHEMICALS
     In addition to the identification of the acutely toxic chemicals meeting
the criteria stated in Chapter 6, EPA has identified some other chemicals
which, because of their high production capacity combined with their
acute toxicity, should be considered as chemicals of concern to emergency
preparedness and response planning.  A list of these chemicals entitled,
"Other Chemicals" follows the index.
     These other chemicals were selected by the following process.

     1.  Identify other chemical candidates from the high production capacity
         chemicals listed in the SRI International publication, 1985 Directory
         of Chemical Producers, United States of America, pp. 388-389 or from
         the World Bank list Group B:  Other Toxic Substances.

     2.  From the candidates identified in 1 above, select for listing
         chemicals whose acute toxicity measures have values egual to the
         World Bank and European Community criteria for other toxic substances.
         These criteria are:

  Dermal       Median Lethal Dose (LDso)   less than or egual to 400 mg/kg
                                     or
  Oral         Median Lethal Dose (LDso)   Less than or egual to 200 mg/kg
                                     or
  Inhalation   Median Lethal Concentration   Less than or egual to 2 mg/L
                                  (LC50)

The data selection rules described in Chapter 6 were used.

-------
                                    A-3
     Phosgene, bromine, and carbon disulfide do not have acute toxicity
measures that strictly meet the criteria stated in 2 above.  However, based
on production capacity, known danger, and identification of the chemicals
as other toxic substances by the World Bank and European Community these
chemicals are placed on the list of "Other Chemicals."

     It should be emphasized that a number of chemicals on the list of Other
Chemicals are widely used in commerce with little danger of serious accidents
resulting in acute toxic effects.  For example, solutions of hydrogen peroxide
are commonly found in peoples' medicine cabinets and when used properly present
little potential for toxic effects.  However, where large volumes of concentrated
substance are handled, accidental release would be of concern.  This emphasizes
the need to apply the site specific guidance in determining whether the material
is of concern for emergency preparedness planning.


A. 3  CHEMICAL PROFILES

     For each acutely toxic chemical and each other chemical listed an EPA
Chemical Profile was prepared and is available from EPA.  An EPA Chemical
Profile is a collection of information on the chemical identity, hazardous
identity, physical/chemical characteristics, fire and explosion hazard,
reactivity, health hazard, use, and precautions for handling and use of the
chemical.  The information is presented in the format that conforms as
closely as possible to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) recommended format for a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).  An EPA
Chemical Profile follows.

-------
                                  A-4
                                           CAS Registry Number:  108-23-6

                                           Page  1 of 3
                       EPA CHEMICAL  PROFILE
                                                   Date: October 9,  1985

                                                   Revision:
CHEMICAL IDENTITY -- ISOPROPYL CHLOROFORMATE



CAS Registry Number:   108-23-6



Synonyms:  Carbonochloride Acid, 1-Methylethyl Ester; Carbonochloridic

Acid,  1-Methylethyl Ester; Chloroformic  Acid  Isopropyl Ester; Formic Acid,

Chloro-,  Isopropyl Ester; Isopropyl  Chlorocarbonate; Isopropyl Chloromethanoate



Chemical Formula:  C.H.CIO.
                    47   2


Molecular  Weight:  122.55





SECTION  I -- HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS/IDENTITY INFORMATION



    OSHA PEL:   Not Found



    ACGIH TLV:   Not Found



    IDLH:  Not Found



    Other Limits  Recommended:   Toxicity  information:   LCn    inhalation
                                                        low

    (rat)  1 mg/liter/5 hours (*NIOSH/RTECS 1985)





SECTION  II -- PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS



    Boiling Point:  220°F,  104.6°C at 761 mmHg (*Weast  1979)



    Specific Gravity (H  0=1):   1.08  (-Patty 1963)



    Vapor Pressure  (mmHg):  Not Found



    Melting Point:  Not  Found



    Vapor Density (AIR=1):  4.2 (''-Patty 1963)



    Evaporation Rate (Butyl  acetate=l):  Not Found



    Solubility in  Water:  Insoluble in water (*Weast  1979)



    Appearance and Odor:  Colorless liquid (*Hawley  1977^

-------
                                  A-5
                                            CAS Registry Number:   108-23-6
                                            Page 2  of 3
                      ISOPROPYL  CHLOROFORMATE
SECTION  III -- FIRE AND  EXPLOSION  HAZARD  DATA

    Flash  Point (Method Used):  60.1°F, 15.6°C (-Clayton and Clayton
    1981-1982)
    Flammable Limits:  Flammable; may be ignited by heat, sparks or flame
    (DOT 1984,  Guide  29)
        LEL:  Not Found
        DEL:   Not Found

    Extinguishing Methods:  Keep unnecessary people away and isolate hazard
    area.   Stay upwind and  keep out of  low areas.  Wear self-contained
    (positive pressure if available) breathing apparatus and full protective
    clothing.   For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray
    or foam. For large fires, use water spray, fog or foam.  Do not get water
    inside container.  Cool containers  exposed to flame with water until well
    after  fire  is out.  Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from
    venting safety device or any discoloration of tank due to fire (DOT 1984,
    Guide  29).

    Special  Fire Fighting  Procedures:   Isolate for 1/2 mile in all
    directions  if tank car  or truck is  involved in fire (DOT 1984, Guide 29).

    Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:   Extremely dangerous;  this  chemical
    has exploded while stored in refrigerator ("Sax 1979).  Vapor explosion
    hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers.  Runoff to sewer may create fire or
    explosion hazard  (DOT 1984, Guide 29).


SECTION  IV -- REACTIVITY DATA

    Stability:   Unstable:  Yes (*Patty  1963)
                 Stable:

        Conditions to Avoid: Avoid phosgene  (-Sax 1979)

    Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid):  Reacts violently with phosgene
    (*Sax  1979).

    Hazardous  Decomposition or Byproducts:  It is corrosive and hydrolyzes
    in the presence of water or moist air  ("Patty 1963).

    Hazardous  Polymerization:  May Occur:  Not  Found
                               May Not Occur:  Not  Found

        Conditions to Avoid: Not Found

-------
                                  A-6
                                            CAS Registry Number:  108-23-6
                                            Page 3  of 3
                      ISOPROPYL  CHLOROFORMATE
SECTION  V -- HEALTH  HAZARD DATA

    Routes of Entry:  Inhalation:  Yes  (Sax 1984, p. 1657)
                      Skin:   Yes  (Sax  1984, p.  1657)
                      Ingestion:  Yes  (Sax 1979, p. 1657)

    Health Hazards  (Acute, Delayed,  and Chronic):   Acute:   highly toxic by
    inhalation,  ingestion  and  skin absorption (Sax  1984, p. 1657).  Delayed:
    can produce  delayed  pulmonary edema  (2-24 hours after exposure) similar to
    that produced by phosgene  (-Patty 1963; *Rumack 1975 to Present).
    Inhalation of material may cause death or permanent injury ("'Sax 1979).

    Signs and Symptoms of Exposure:   Eye  irritation,  irritation of upper
    respiratory  tract and  surface burns  have been observed.  Eye  irritation
    may persist  after exposure ceases,  and skin  sensitization may occur
    (*Patty 1963).   Inhalation exposures at elevated concentrations cause
    death by immediate lung damage, lower concentrations cause difficult
    breathing, collapse, and convulsions (Clayton and Clayton 1981-1982, p.
    2390).

    Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by  Exposure:  Not Found

    Emergency and  First Aid Procedures:  Move  victim to fresh air.  Obtain
    emergency medical care immediately.  Remove  and isolate contaminated
    clothing and shoes at  the  site.  In  case of  contact with material,
    immediately  flush skin or  eyes with running  water for at least 15 minutes
    (DOT 1984, Guide 29).


SECTION  VI --  USE INFORMATION

    Used as a chemical intermediate for free-radical polymerization initiators
    and in organic synthesis  (*Hawley 1977).


SECTION  VII  --  PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFE HANDLING AND USE
(Steps to be Taken in Case Material is  Released  or  Spilled)

    In case of spills or leaks, shut off ignition sources and keep away
    flares, smoking or flames.  Do not  touch spilled material.  Use water to
    reduce vapors but do not get water  inside containers.  Take up small
    spills with  sand or  other  noncombustible absorbent material and place in
    containers for later disposal.  For large spills, dike far ahead of spill
    for later disposal (DOT 1984,  Guide 29).

-------
Page No.
11/01/85
                     Acutely Toxic Chemicals
         Alphabetic List of Common Names and CAS Numbers
  Common Name
CAS Number
  Acetone cyanohydrin                                00075-86-5
* Acetone thiosemicarbazide                          01752-30-3
  Acrolein                                           00107-02-8
  Acrylyl chloride                                   00814-68-6
  Aldicarb                                           00116-06-3
  Aldrin                                             00309-00-2
  Allyl alcohol                                      00107-18-6
  Allylamine                                         00107-11-9
  Aluminum phosphide                                 20859-73-8
* Aminopterin                                        00054-62-6
* Amiton                                             00078-53-5
* Amiton oxalate                                     03734-97-2
  Ammonium chloroplatinate                           16919-58-7
* Amphetamine                                        00300-62-9
* Aniline, 2,4,6-trimethyl-                          00088-05-1
  Antimony pentafluoride                             07783-70-2
* Antimycin A                                        01397-94-0
  Antu                                               00086-88-4
* Arsenic pentoxide                                  01303-28-2
  Arsenous oxide                                     01327-53-3
  Arsenous trichloride                               07784-34-1
  Arsine                                             07784-42-1
* Azinphos-ethyl                                     02642-71-9
  Azinphos-methyl                                    00086-50-0
* Bacitracin                                         01405-87-4
  Benzal chloride                                    00098-87-3
  Benzenamine, 3-(trifluoromethyl)-                  00098-16-8
  Benzene, l-(chloromethyl)-4-nitro-                 00100-14-1
* Benzenearsonic acid                                00098-05-5
  Benzenesulfonyl chloride                           00098-09-9
  Benzotrichloride                                   00098-07-7
  Benzyl chloride                                    00100-44-7
  Benzyl cyanide                                     00140-29-4
* Bicyclo[2.2.l]heptane-2-carbonitrile, 5-chloro...  15271-41-7
* Bis(chloromethyl) ketone                           00534-07-6
* Bitoscanate                                        04044-65-9
  Boron trichloride                                  10294-34-5
  Boron trifluoride                                  07637-07-2
  Boron trifluoride compound with methyl ether  (1:1) 00353-42-4
  Bromadiolone                                       28772-56-7
  Butadiene                                          00106-99-0
  Butyl isovalerate                                  00109-19-3
  Butyl vinyl ether                                  00111-34-2
  C.I. basic green 1                                 00633-03-4
  Cadmium oxide                                      01306-19-0
  Cadmium stearate                                   02223-93-0
  Calcium arsenate                                   07778-44-1
  Camphechlor                                        08001-35-2
* Cantharidin                                        00056-25-7
* Carbachol chloride                                 00051-83-2

-------
Page No.
11/01/85
                     Acutely Toxic Chemicals
         Alphabetic List of Common Names and CAS Numbers
  Common Name
CAS Number
* Carbamic acid, methyl-, 0-[[(2,4-dimethyl...       26419-73-8
  Carbofuran                                         01563-66-2
  Carbophenothion                                    00786-19-6
  Carvone                                            02244-16-8
* Chlordane                                          00057-74-9
  Chlorfenvinfos                                     00470-90-6
  Chlorine                                           07782-50-5
* Chlormephos                                        24934-91-6
  Chlormequat chloride                               00999-81-5
  Chloroacetaldehyde                                 00107-20-0
  Chloroacetic acid                                  00079-11-8
  Chloroethanol                                      00107-07-3
* Chloroethyl chloroformate                          00627-11-2
  Chloromethyl ether                                 00542-88-1
* Chloromethyl methyl ether                          00107-30-2
  Chlorophacinone                                    03691-35-8
* Chloroxuron                                        01982-47-4
* Chlorthiophos                                      21923-23-9
  Chromic chloride                                   10025-73-7
  Cobalt                                             07440-48-4
  Cobalt carbonyl                                    10210-68-1
* Cobalt, [[2,2'-[l,2-ethanediylbis(nitrilomethy...  62207-76-5
* Colchicine                                         00064-86-8
  Coumafuryl                                         00117-52-2
  Coumaphos                                          00056-72-4
* Coumatetralyl                                      05836-29-3
  Cresylic acid                                      00095-48-7
* Crimidine                                          00535-89-7
  Crotonaldehyde                                     00123-73-9
  Crotonaldehyde                                     04170-30-3
  Cyanogen bromide                                   00506-68-3
  Cyanogen iodide                                    00506-78-5
* cyanophos                                          02636-26-2
  Cyanuric fluoride                                  00675-14-9
  Cycloheximide                                      00066-81-9
  Cyclopentane                                       00287-92-3
  Decaborane(14)                                     17702-41-9
  Demeton                                            08065-48-3
* Demeton-S-methyl                                   00919-86-8
* Dialifos                                           10311-84-9
  Diborane                                           19287-45-7
  Dibutyl phthalate                                  00084-74-2
  Dichlorobenzalkonium  chloride                      08023-53-8
  Dichloroethyl ether                                00111-44-4
  Dichloromethylphenylsilane                        00149-74-6
  Dichlorvos                                         00062-73-7
  Dicrotophos                                        00141-66-2
  Diepoxybutane                                      01464-53-5
  Diethyl chlorophosphate                            00814-49-3
  Diethyl-p-phenylenediamine                        00093-05-0

-------
Page No.
11/01/85
                     Acutely  Toxic  Chemicals
         Alphabetic List of Common  Names and CAS Numbers
  Common Name
CAS Number
* Diethylcarbamazine citrate
* Digitoxin
  Diglycidyl ether
* Digoxin
* Dimefox
  Dimethoate
  Dimethyl phosphorochloridothioate
  Dimethyl phthalate
  Dimethyl sulfate
  Dimethyl sulfide
  Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine
  Dimethyldichlorosilane
  Dimethylhydrazine
* Dimetilan
  Dinitrocresol
  Dinoseb
* Dinoterb
  Dioctyl phthalate
  Dioxathion
  Dioxolane
  Diphacinone
  Diphosphoramide, octamethyl-
  Disulfoton
  Dithiazanine iodide
* Dithiobiuret
  EPN
* Emetine, dihydrochloride
  Endosulfan
* Endothion
  Endrin
* Ergocalciferol
* Ergotamine tartrate
* Ethanesulfonyl  chloride,  2-chloro-
* Ethanol, 1,2-dichloro-, acetate
  Ethion
  Ethoprophos
* Ethyl thiocyanate
* Ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine
* Ethylene fluorohydrin
  Ethylenediamine
  Ethyleneimine
* Ethylmercuric phosphate
  Fenamiphos
  Fenitrothion
  Fensulfothion
* Fluenetil
  Fluorine
  Fluoroacetamide
* Fluoroacetic acid
  Fluoroacetyl chloride
01642-
00071-
02238-
20830-
00115-
00060-
02524-
00131-
00077-
00075-
00099-
00075-
00057-
00644-
00534-
00088-
01420-
00117-
00078-
00646-
00082-
00152-
00298-
00514-
00541-
02104-
00316-
00115-
02778-
00072-
00050-
00379-
01622-
10140-
00563-
13194-
00542-
00538-
00371-
00107-
00151-
02235-
22224-
00122-
00115-
04301-
07782-
00640-
00144-
00359-
54-2
63-6
07-5
75-5
26-4
51-5
03-0
•11-3
•78-1
•18-3
•98-9
•78-5
•14-7
•64-4
•52-1
•85-7
•07-1
•84-0
•34-2
•06-0
•66-6
•16-9
•04-4
•73-8
•53-7
•64-5
•42-7
•29-7
•04-3
•20-8
•14-6
•79-3
•32-8
•87-1
•12-2
•48-4
•90-5
•07-8
•62-0
•15-3
•56-4
•25-8
•92-6
•14-5
•90-2
•50-2
•41-4
•19-7
•49-0
•06-8

-------
Page No.
11/01/85
                     Acutely Toxic Chemicals
         Alphabetic List of Common Names and CAS Numbers
  Common Name
CAS Number
* Fluorouracil                                       00051-21-8
  Fonofos                                            00944-22-9
  Formaldehyde cyanohydrin                           00107-16-4
* Formetanate                                        23422-53-9
* Formothion                                         02540-82-1
* Formparanate                                       17702-57-7
* Fosthietan                                         21548-32-3
* Fuberidazole                                       03878-19-1
  Furan                                              00110-00-9
  Gallium trichloride                                13450-90-3
  Hexachlorocyclopentadiene                          00077-47-4
* Hexachloronaphthalene                              01335-87-1
  Hexamethylenediamine, N,N'-dibutyl-                04835-11-4
  Hydrazine                                          00302-01-2
  Hydrocyanic acid                                   00074-90-8
  Hydrogen fluoride                                  07664-39-3
  Hydrogen selenide                                  07783-07-5
* Indomethacin                                       00053-86-1
  Iridium tetrachloride                              10025-97-5
  Iron, pentacarbonyl-                               13463-40-6
* Isobenzan                                          00297-78-9
  Isobutyronitrile                                   00078-82-0
  Isocyanic acid, 3,4-dichlorophenyl ester           00102-36-3
* Isodrin                                            00465-73-6
* Isofluorphate                                      00055-91-4
  Isophorone diisocyanate                            04098-71-9
  Isopropyl chloroformate                            00108-23-6
* Isopropyl formate                                  00625-55-8
* Isopropylmethylpyrazolyl dimethylcarbamate         00119-38-0
  Lactonitrile                                       00078-97-7
* Leptophos                                          21609-90-5
* Lewisite                                           00541-25-3
* Lindane                                            00058-89-9
  Lithium hydride                                    07580-67-8
  Malononitrile                                      00109-77-3
  Manganese, tricarbonyl methylcyclopentadienyl      12108-13-3
* Mechlorethamine                                    00051-75-2
* Mephosfolan                                        00950-10-7
  Mercuric acetate                                   01600-27-7
  Mercuric chloride                                  07487-94-7
  Mercuric oxide                                     21908-53-2
  Mesitylene                                         00108-67-8
* Methacrolein diacetate                             10476-95-6
* Methacrylic anhydride                              00760-93-0
  Methacrylonitrile                                  00126-98-7
  Methacryloyl chloride                              00920-46-7
  Methacryloyloxyethyl isocyanate                    30674-80-7
  Methamidophos                                      10265-92-6
* Methanesulfonyl fluoride                           00558-25-8
* Methidathion                                       00950-37-8

-------
Page No.
11/01/85
                     Acutely Toxic Chemicals
         Alphabetic List of Common Names and CAS Numbers
  Common Name
CAS Number
  Methiocarb
  Methomyl
* Methoxyethylmercuric acetate
  Methyl 2-chloroacrylate
  Methyl chloroformate
  Methyl disulfide
  Methyl isocyanate
* Methyl isothiocyanate
  Methyl mercaptan
* Methyl phenkapton
  Methyl phosphonic dichloride
* Methyl thiocyanate
  Methyl vinyl ketone
  Methylhydraz ine
* Methylmercuric dicyanamide
  Methyltrichlorosilane
* Metolcarb
* Mevinphos
* Mexacarbate
* Mitomycin C
  Monocrotophos
* Muscimol
* Mustard gas
  Nickel
  Nickel carbonyl
  Nicotine
* Nicotine sulfate
  Nitric acid
  Nitric oxide
* Nitrocyclohexane
  Nitrogen dioxide
  Nitrosodimethylamine
* Norbormide
* Organorhodium complex
* Orotic acid
  Osmium tetroxide
* Ouabain
  Oxamyl
  Oxetane, 3,3-b i s(chloromethy1)
* Oxydisulfoton
  Ozone
  Paraquat
* Paraquat methosulfate
  Parathion
  Parathion-methyl
  Paris green
* Pentaborane
  Pentachloroethane
  Pentachlorophenol
* Pentadecylamine
02032-65-7
16752-77-5
00151-38-2
00080-63-7
00079-22-1
00624-92-0
00624-83-9
00556-61-6
00074-93-1
03735-23-7
00676-97-1
00556-64-9
00078-94-4
00060-34-4
00502-39-6
00075-79-6
01129-41-5
07786-34-7
00315-18-4
00050-07-7
06923-22-4
02763-96-4
00505-60-2
07440-02-2
13463-39-3
00054-11-5
00065-30-5
07697-37-2
10102-43-9
01122-60-7
10102-44-0
00062-75-9
00991-42-4
PMN-82-147
00065-86-1
20816-12-0
00630-60-4
23135-22-0
00078-71-7
02497-07-6
10028-15-6
01910-42-5
02074-50-2
00056-38-2
00298-00-0
12002-03-8
19624-22-7
00076-01-7
00087-86-5
02570-26-5

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Page No.
11/01/85
                     Acutely Toxic Chemicals
         Alphabetic List of Common Names  and  CAS  Numbers
  Common Name
                                                      CAS Number
                                  0-(4-nitrophenyl.
  Peracetic acid
  Perchloror.'.ethylmercaptan             '
* Phenarsaz.uiie oxide
  Phenol
* Phenol, 2,2l-thiobis(4-chloro-6-methyl-
  Phenol, 2,2'-thiobis[4,6-dichloro-
* Phenol, 3-(l-methylethyl)-, methylcarbamate
* Phenyl dichloroarsine
  Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride
  Phenylmercury acetate
  Phenylsilatrane
* Phenylthiourea
  Phorate
* Phosacetim
* Phosfolan
  Phosmet
  Phosphamidon
  Phosphine
* Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-,
* Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, 0-ethyl O-[4-...
* Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, S-[2-[bis...
* Phosphoric acid, dimethyl 4-(methylthio)phenyl..
  Phosphorous trichloride
  Phosphorus
  Phosphorus oxychloride
  Phosphorus pentachloride
  Phosphorus pentoxide
* Phylloquinone
* Physostigmine
* Physostigmine, salicylate  (1:1)
* Picrotoxin
  Piperidine
* Piprotal
* Pirimifos-ethyl
  Platinous chloride
  Platinum tetrachloride
* Potassium arsenite
  Potassium cyanide
  Potassium silver cyanide
* Promecarb
  Propargyl bromide
  Propiolactone,  .beta.-
  Propionitrile
* Propionitrile,  3-chloro-
  Propyl  chloroformate
  Propylene glycol, allyl ether
  Propyleneimine
* Prothoate
  Pseudocumene
  Pyrene
00079-
00594-
00058-
00108-
04418-
00097-
00064-
00696-
00059-
00062-
02097-
00103-
00298-
04104-
00947-
00732-
13171-
07803-
02665-
02703-
50782-
03254-
07719-
07723-
10025-
10026-
01314-
00084-
00057-
00057-
00124-
00110-
05281
23505
10025
13454
10124
00151
00506
02631
00106
00057
00107
00542
00109
01331
00075
02275
00095
00129
 21-0
 42-3
 36-6
 95-2
-66-0
-18-7
-00-6
-28-6
-88-1
-38-4
-19-0
-85-5
-02-2
-14-7
-02-4
-11-6
-21-6
-51-2
-30-7
-13-1
-69-9
-63-5
-12-2
-14-0
-87-3
-13-8
-56-3
-80-0
-47-6
-64-7
-87-8
-89-4
-13-0
-41-1
-65-7
-96-1
-50-2
-50-8
-61-6
-37-0
-96-7
-57-8
-12-0
-76-7
-61-5
-17-5
-55-8
-18-5
-63-6
-00-0

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Page No.
11/01/85
                     Acutely Toxic Chemicals
         Alphabetic List of Common Names and CAS Numbers
  Common Name
CAS Number
  Pyridine, 2-methyl-5-vinyl-                        00140-76-1
  Pyridine, 4-amino-                                 00504-24-5
* Pyridine, 4-nitro-, 1-oxide                        01124-33-0
* Pyriminil                                          53558-25-1
  Rhodium trichloride                                10049-07-7
* Salcomine                                          14167-18-1
* Sarin                                              00107-44-8
* Selenium oxychloride                               07791-23-3
  Selenous acid                                      07783-00-8
  Semicarbazide hydrochloride                        00563-41-7
  Silane,  (4-aminobutyl)diethoxymethyl-              03037-72-7
* Sodium anthraquinone-1-sulfonate                   00128-56-3
  Sodium arsenate                                    07631-89-2
  Sodium arsenite                                    07784-46-5
  Sodium azide  (Na(N3))                              26628-22-8
  Sodium cacodylate                                  00124-65-2
  Sodium cyanide  (Na(CN))                            00143-33-9
  Sodium fluoroacetate                               00062-74-8
  Sodium pentachlorophenate                          00131-52-2
* Sodium selenate                                    13410-01-0
  Sodium selenite                                    10102-18-8
* Sodium tellurite                                   10102-20-2
  Strychnine                                         00057-24-9
  Strychnine, sulfate                                00060-41-3
  Sulfotep                                           03689-24-5
* Sulfoxide, 3-chloropropyl octyl                    03569-57-1
  Sulfur tetrafluoride                               07783-60-0
  Sulfur trioxide                                    07446-11-9
  Sulfuric acid                                      07664-93-9
* TEPP                                               00107-49-3
* Tabun                                              00077-81-6
  Tellurium                                          13494-80-9
  Tellurium hexafluoride                             07783-80-4
  Terbufos                                           13071-79-9
  Tetraethyllead                                     00078-00-2
* Tetraethyltin                                      00597-64-8
  Tetranitromethane                                  00509-14-8
  Thallic oxide                                      01314-32-5
* Thallous carbonate                                 06533-73-9
  Thallous chloride                                  07791-12-0
* Thallous malonate                                  02757-18-8
* Thallous sulfate                                   07446-18-6
* Thallous sulfate                                   10031-59-1
* Thiocarbazide                                      02231-57-4
  Thiocyanic acid,  (2-benzothiazolylthio)methyl...   21564-17-0
* Thiofanox                                          39196-18-4
* Thiometon                                          00640-15-3
* Thionazin                                          00297-97-2
  Thiophenol                                         00108-98-5
  Thiosemicarbazide                                  00079-19-6

-------
Page No.
11/01/85
                     Acutely Toxic Chemicals
         Alphabetic List of Common Names and CAS Numbers
  Common Name
CAS Number
* Thiourea, (2-chlorophenyl)-                        05344-82-1
* Thiourea, (2-methylphenyl)-                        00614-78-8
  Titanium tetrachloride                             07550-45-0
  Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate                           00584-84-9
  Toluene 2,6-diisocyanate                           00091-08-7
* Triamiphos                                         01031-47-6
* Triazofos                                          24017-47-8
  Trichloro(chloromethyl)silane                      01558-25-4
  Trichloro(dichlorophenyl)silane                    27137-85-5
  Trichloroacetyl chloride                           00076-02-8
  Trichloroethylsilane                               00115-21-9
* Trichloronate                                      00327-98-0
  Trichlorophenylsilane                              00098-13-5
  Trichlorphon                                       00052-68-6
  Triethoxysilane                                    00998-30-1
  Trimethylchlorosilane                              00075-77-4
* Trimethylolpropane phosphite                       00824-11-3
  Trimethyltin chloride                              01066-45-1
  Triphenyltin chloride                              00639-58-7
* Tris(2-chloroethyl)amine                           00555-77-1
  Valinomycin                                        02001-95-8
  Vanadium pentoxide                                 01314-62-1
  Vinylnorbornene                                    03048-64-4
  Warfarin                                           00081-81-2
  Warfarin sodium                                    00129-06-6
  Xylylene dichloride                                28347-13-9
  Zinc phosphide                                     01314-84-7
* Zinc, dichloro[4,4-dimethyl-5-[[[(methylamino)...  58270-08-9
  trans-l,4-Dichlorobutene                           00110-57-6

-------
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CD
73
•H
1 N
o rt
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] - , dihydrogen
O rH
i >i
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1 4J
n i-P O O
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CD 73
CD 73
73 -H O
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N (0 C
rt rl O

^_| Jx, ^_|
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0

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co m
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thylethenyl)-, (S)-
CD
g

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S-[2-[ (l-methylethyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl] . . .

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ester, S-ester with N-isopropyl-2-mercapt..
S-[2-(ethylsulfinyl)ethyl] ester

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methyl ester
methylamino)-2-oxoethyl] O,0-dimethyl ester
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1
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yl ester, S-ester with N-formyl-2-mercapto-
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ester, 0-ester with p-hydroxybenzonitrile
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Ct
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S <*> S
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x
o
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ester, S-ester with 2-(mercaptomethyl)-5-.
yl)-
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X! -X!
U H 0<
diethylamino) ethyl] O,O-diethyl ester, oxalate (1
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^ — • i — i
i ' — '
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1
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M -H 1 0)
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3 0) 1 Q)
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ene ester
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C 1
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O-H fi
in xi o
0 4-J rH
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5 , 5-trimethyl-3 , 1-cyclohexylene) ester
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n *-^
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c -d
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fO >i (0
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O-H M
rl C O
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H H CL|
etimidoyl-, 0,O-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ester
o
(0

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O
10

o
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Xi
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(DOC
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d, 2-fluoroethyl ester
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o
10
1
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1
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oroethyl ester
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m(l+) salt
hyl l-methyl-3-(methylamino) -3-oxo-l-propenyl ester
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id T!
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hyl ester, ester with 3-hydroxy-N-methylcrotonamide
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-------
                      OTHER CHEMICALS
NAME                                           CAS NUMBER
Acrylamide                                       79-06-1
Acrylonitrile                                    107-13-1
Adiponitrile                                     111-69-3
Anmonia                                        7664-41-7
Aniline                                          62-53-3
Bromine                                        7726-95-6
Carbon disulfide                                 75-15-0
Chloroform                                       67-66-3
Cumene                                           98-82-8
Cyclohexylamine                                  108-91-8
Epichlorohydrin                                  106-89-8
Ethylene oxide                                   75-21-8
Formaldehyde                                     50-00-0
Hydrochloric acid                              7647-01-0
Hydrogen peroxide                              7722-84-1
Hydrogen sulfide                               7783-06-4
Hydroquinone                                     123-31-9
Isopropanol                                      67-63-0
Methanol                                         67-56-1
Methyl bromide                                   74-83-9
Nitrobenzene                                     98-95-3
Phosgene                                         75-44-5
Propylene oxide                                  75-56-9
Sulfur dioxide                                 7446-09-5
Tetramethyl lead                                 75-74-1
Vinyl acetate monomer                            108-05-4

-------
                              APPENDIX B

                               GLOSSARY
Accident Site
Acutely Toxic
Chemicals
By-Product
Chemical Process
Combustion Product
Command Post
Contingency Plan
Decompos it ion
Product

Disposal
Emergency
Evacuation
Hazard
The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure, or
loss, either at a plant or along a transport route,
resulting in a release of hazardous materials.

Chemicals which can cause both severe short- and
long-term health effects after a single,  brief
exposure (short duration).   These chemicals can cause
damage to living tissue, impairment of the central
nervous system, severe illness or in extreme cases,
death when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the
skin.

Material produced or generated in an industrial process
in addition to the principal product.

A particular method of manufacturing or making a
chemical, usually involving a number of steps or
operations.

Material produced or generated during the burning or
oxidation of a material.

Facility at a safe distance upwind from an accident
site, where the on-scene coordinator, responders and
technical representatives can make response decisions,
deploy manpower and equipment, maintain liaison with
media, and handle communications.

A document developed to identify and catalog all the
elements required to respond to an emergency, to define
responsibilities and specific tasks, and to serve as a
response guide.

Material produced or generated by the physical or
chemical degradation of a parent material.

The removal of waste material to a site or facility
specifically designed and permitted to receive such
wastes.

A situation created by an accidental release or spill
of hazardous chemicals which poses a threat to the
safety of workers, residents, the environment, or
property.

Removal of residents from an area of danger.

Any situation that has the potential  for doing
damage to life, property, and/or the environment.

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                                   B-2
                         GLOSSARY  (continued)
Hazardous Chemical
Off-Scene Support
On-Scene Coordinator
Plume
Response
Risk
Simulation
Site/Facility
Special Populations
Storage
Transfer
Transport
A chemical which is explosive, flammable, poisonous,
corrosive, reactive, or radioactive and requires
special care in handling because of the hazards it
poses to public health and the environment.

Assistance (via telephone, radio, or computer) from
technical persons, agencies, shippers,  responders,
etc. not at the accident site.

The official in charge of a Federally financed
response action.

A vapor cloud formation which has shape and buoyancy.

The efforts to minimize the risks created in an
emergency by protecting the people, the environment,
and property and returning the scene to normal
pre-emergency conditions.

The probability that damage to life, property,
and/or the environment will occur if a hazard
manifests itself.

A mock accident or release set up to test emergency
response methods or for use as a training tool.

Any location where acutely toxic chemicals are
manufactured, processed, stored, handled, used, or
disposed; in short, any place where these chemicals
may be found.  Communities should be aware that
chemicals are frequently found at places other than
industrial sites.

Concentrations of people in one area or building for
a special purpose or in certain circumstances  (e.g.,
schools, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages,
shopping centers).

Methods of keeping raw materials, finished goods, or
products while awaiting use, shipment, or consumption.

Loading and unloading of chemicals between transport
vehicles and storage vessels, and sending chemicals
via pipes between storage vessels and process  reactors,

To carry or convey goods from one place to another
using ships, trucks, trains, pipelines, or airplanes.

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                                   B-3
                         GLOSSARY (continued)


Transport Mode          Method of  transportation:  highway (trucks); rail
                        (trains);  water  (ships/barges); pipelines; air
                        (planes).

Vapor Dispersion        The movement of  vapor clouds in air due to wind,
                        gravity spreading, and mixing.

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                              APPENDIX C

                               ACRONYMS


AAR/BOE        Association of American Railroads/Bureau of Explosives

AIChE          American Institute of Chemical Engineers

ASME           American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASSE           American Society of Safety Engineers

CDC            Centers for Disease Control

CHEMTREC       Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (800/424-9300,
               District of Columbia:  202-483-7616)

CHLOREP        Chlorine Emergency Plan

CHRIS/HAGS     Chemical Hazards Response Information System/Hazard Assessment
               Computer System

EPA            Environmental Protection Agency

ER             Emergency Response

FEMA           Federal Emergency Management Agency

HMTC           Hazardous Materials Technical Center

IDLH           Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health

IEMS           Integrated Emergency Management System

NIOSH          National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NRC            National Response Center (800-424-8802, District of Columbia:
               202-426-2675)

OHMTADS        Oil and Hazardous Materials Technical Assistance Data System

OSC            On-Scene Coordinator

OSHA           Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PSTN           Pesticide Safety Team Network

USCG           United States Coast Guard

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                             APPENDIX D

                    QUANTITY DETERMINATION METHOD
    This appendix describes a method that can be used to assign priorities  for
assessing the potential risk from a variety of separate, local activities
involving acutely toxic chemicals (see Section 3.3B).   This method is  not
designed to provide an upper exposure limit for the release of a certain
amount of an acutely toxic chemical, nor is it designed to be used to
establish a "maximum allowable" release amount for setting limits for  storage
or release under an ordinance or regulation.   The intended use of this
methodology is as a screening tool to help the work group determine which
sites in their community pose the greatest potential for causing death and
irreversible injury should an accidental release of an acutely toxic chemical
occur.  Communities are invited to contact their Regional Office of EPA for
more detailed assistance on airborne contaminant modelling for purposes of
developing specific levels, target populations, or evacuation areas as part of
contingency planning.   More sophisticated models that account for the  specific
area meteorology, topography, and specific physical/chemical properties of  the
acutely toxic chemical may be available for these purposes.

D.I   BACKGROUND

    EPA believes that communities may need assistance in determining whether
enough of an acutely toxic chemical is present on a site to cause death or
irreversible injuries in the community, if an accidental release occurred.
Many mathematical models (which require computer capabilities to run)
available for determining the downwind concentration of a release into the  air
could be used for this determination.  However, these models are very  complex,
not easily used, and not all are appropriate for accidental releases into
air.  In addition, each site is unique in topography,  weather conditions, and
distance to the community, and each chemical has its own unique
characteristics and behavior.

    Since it is not reasonable to expect each community to have the expertise
to develop a model simulation for every situation that might occur, EPA
developed this method for use as a screening tool.  Using an EPA model known
as INPUFF (which simulates dispersion of a puff of vapor from an instantaneous
source), EPA performed an analysis based on reasonable worst case conditions
(like low wind speeds, ground level release,  limited mixing, and ambient
temperature conditions) for an accidental release occurring at any site.
(INPUFF is part of EPA's airborne contaminant modelling system.)  Model
conditions were set to simulate a rupture or large spill from which a  large
cloud of material would be quickly generated.  The highest 30 minute average
concentration at downwind distances ranging from 100 feet to 10 miles  was
calculated using the model for airborne releases associated with various
quantities of chemicals over varying meteorological conditions.  Other
assumptions in the model include a release point 3 feet above the ground at
ambient temperature (higher temperatures cause the vapor cloud to rise and
result in lower concentrations in the air), and a release time of 1 minute
duration.  The one minute release was selected because it generated the
highest concentration in air per quantity of chemical released.  The results
of these model simulations were arranged in the form of a graph that can be

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                                   D-2
easily used.  The method for using the graph is described below in Section
D.3.  Note, however, that the method has significant limitations and remember
that the quantity determination should be made in light of the kind of
activities at each particular site associated with acutely toxic chemicals.
The graph is useful for determining the quantity needed to reach a level of
concern as the result of a catastrophic release of a gas, volatile liquid, or
chemicals under high temperature or pressure that can become quickly airborne
under accident conditions.  This method tends to overestimate the
concentration (i.e., less quantity needed to reach IDLH) for those situations
where the chemical has low volatility (high boiling point) or is stored under
ambient conditions.  The method may underestimate the concentration (i.e.,
more quantity needed to reach IDLH) for very dense vapors like chlorine or
ammonia that may behave differently upon accidental release.  The graph is
designed to be as conservative as possible to allow the work group to focus  on
the situations most likely to cause death or irreversible health effects.

D.2  METHODOLOGY

    To use the graph to determine whether there is enough acutely toxic
chemical on a site to generate airborne concentrations that could reach a
level of concern beyond the site fence line, three pieces of information are
needed:  (1) the distance from the point where the acutely toxic chemical
could be released on site to the nearest site fence line or the nearest
population; (2) the molecular weight of the acutely toxic chemical; and (3)
the level of concern for the chemical.  The distance can be determined from
maps or from discussions with a technical contact at the site.  The molecular
weight of the chemical may be found on the chemical profile sheet or, if the
chemical is not on the EPA list, from the site technical contact.

    Several health effects levels are generally available for use as the level
of concern.  To identify only those sites where accidental releases of acutely
toxic chemicals have the potential to result in death or irreversible injury,
the level of concern should be taken as the IDLH level (Immediately Dangerous
to Life and Health).  This level (established by the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health) represents the maximum level to which a
healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering
irreversible health effects or escape impairing symptoms.  The chemical
profiles will include IDLH values, when available.

    There are problems inherent in using the IDLH as a measure of the level  of
concern:

        •   The IDLH is based upon the response of the healthy,
            male worker population and does not take into account
            exposure of more sensitive individuals such as the
            elderly, children, or people with various health
            problems;

        •   The IDLH is based upon a 30 minute exposure time frame
            which may not be realistic for accidental airborne
            releases;

        •   IDLH values do not exist for all acutely toxic
            chemicals; and

-------
                                   D-3
        •   By using the IDLH as the level of concern, this
            methodology may not identify all quantities of concern
            that could result in serious but reversible injury.

Thus, IDLH values used in this way do not necessarily indicate "safe levels,"
and a working group using them for screening purposes may wish to make
appropriate allowances, e.g., for sensitive populations (such as the elderly)
that may live close to the site boundary.

    If the acutely toxic chemical you are evaluating does not have an IDLH in
the Profile or there is no profile available on the substance, use the lowest
LC   value which may be obtained from the site technical contact or from

published toxicology sources.  The LCT_ is the lowest lethal concentration
                                     liU
observed in tests on laboratory animals.  If an LCTn is not available, use

the lowest LC,.- value divided by 10 for the chemical.  The LCL0 is the

level for which 50 percent of the test animals died when exposed for a
specified time period.  This value may also be obtained from the Profiles, the
site contact, or toxicological literature.  The LC_0 value should be reduced

by a factor of 10 to better approximate the level for an IDLH.

    If no LCT_ or LC,.-. data are available, use the lowest LDT_ oral and

then the lowest LD_n oral values reduced by a factor of 10.  The LD values

represent the lethal dose via the oral route and will need to be converted to
inhalation doses as described below.

    Once the level of concern (IDLH, LCTn, or LC,..) is known, it can be

used on the graph to determine quantity as long as it is converted or in the
form of g/m3.  Inhalation toxicity levels may be given in units of parts per
million (ppm), milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), milligrams per liter
(mg/1), or grams per liter (g/1).  The graph in Figure D-l uses the units of
g/m3, so any other units, such as ppm, must be converted to g/m3 before
using the graph.  Levels given in parts per million can be converted to grams
per cubic meter (g/m3) as follows:

        Level of Concern (in g/m3) = Toxicity Level (in ppm) x  MW
                                              1000             24.5

where MW is the substance molecular weight.  For example, chlorine has a level
of concern (IDLH) of 25 ppm and a molecular weight of about 71.  Thus the
level of concern in grains per cubic meter is:

        Level of Concern (in g/m3) =  25  x  71  =0.07 g/m3
                                     1000   24.5

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                                   D-4
An inhalation toxicity level of concern given in milligrams per cubic meter
(mg/m3) can be converted to g/m3 as follows:

        Level of Concern (in g/m3) = Toxicity Level (in mg/m3)
                                             1000

An inhalation toxicity level of concern given in grams per liter (g/1) can be
converted to g/m3 as follows:

        Level of Concern (in g/m3) = Toxicity Level (in g/1) x 1000

An inhalation toxicity level of concern given in milligrams per liter (mg/1)
can be converted to g/m3 as follows:

        Level of Concern (in g/m3) = Toxicity Level (in mg/1)

D.3   USING  THE GRAPH

    Once the level of concern in grams per cubic meter and the distance in
feet are known, use the graph to determine the quantity.  Using the left-hand
scale on the graph, mark the proper value for the level of concern for the
chemical you are considering.  For example, chlorine should have a mark at
0.07.  Next, move to the center scale and mark the distance from the source of
release to the site fence line or to a particular target of concern such as a
hospital or nursing home.  Using a ruler or other straight-edge, draw a
straight line from the mark on the left scale through the mark on the center
scale to the scale on the right.  Where the line hits the scale on the right
is the quantity of chemical that would result in the concentration on the left
scale at the distance on the center scale if it were all released.  For
example, using chlorine, if a distance of 200 feet were used, the quantity
given on the right scale would be about 2.5 pounds.  In other words, if 2.5
pounds of chlorine were released under poor meteorological and wind
conditions, potentially lethal levels of chlorine could be found at a distance
up to 200 feet away.

    The procedures and example given above are appropriate for vapors released
from gases or volatile liquids.  If the acutely toxic chemical substance being
evaluated is a dust or powder, the same graph procedure can be used assuming
that fine dusts or powders behave like vapors in air.  The level of concern
may need adjustment, however.  Solids are often tested for lethality on
laboratory animals by administering the substance orally.  The results are
given as the lethal dose for 50 percent of the test animals or LD,-n in units

of milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of body weight.  If the test results
already give an IDLH or include an LC value, use the procedures above.  If
only an ID value is given for an oral test, then it must be converted to an
inhalation value for use on the quantity determination graph.  The National
Research Council has developed a simple method for determining the inhalation
level associated with an LD oral dose.1  Convert the LD oral dose in
    National Research Council, Criteria and Methods for Preparing
Emergency Exposure Guidance Level (EEGL) Documents. May 1985.

-------
                                   D-5
milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) to inhalation in grams per cubic meter
(g/ro3) as follows:

        LD oral (in mg/kg) x 0.1 = Inhalation IDLH (in g/m3)

    It must be emphasized that this conversion from oral to inhalation is
provided for assessment purposes only when inhalation toxicity values are
unavailable.  It is not based on a validated technical procedure or any
Federal regulation in effect or contemplated and should not be used for any
other purpose.

D.4   NEXT STEPS

    Once the quantity of concern has been determined from the graph, compare
it to the quantity stored in any one container or the quantity that could
possibly be released from a process on the site.  If the quantity on the site
is much higher than the quantity determined from the graph, the work group
should continue gathering information for contingency planning for this
chemical and site.  If the quantity on site is less than the quantity
determined from the graph, the work group may want to defer the chemical and
the site from the initial contingency planning effort.  Depending on the kinds
of operations involving acutely toxic chemicals, the structure of the
surrounding population, terrain, and meteorology, as well as other factors,
the work group may choose to proceed with planning efforts for situations
which have not been prioritized by this methodology.  The criteria  for
selecting sites for contingency planning should  not be based on this
methodology alone, but should include  considerations of all the above
factors.

-------
   Level of
   Concern
   (g/ m^)
  100
    50
    20
  10
   5,0-
   2.0'
  1.0
   0.5
   0.2- '
  0.1
  0.05'
  0.02-
 0.01
 0.005-
 0.002'
0.001
             Figure  D-l
           GRAPH  FOR
QUANTITY DETERMINATION
                                 Distance
                                 (km) (ft)
                                 .03
                                   1.i330
                                  .2 • '660
         0 5

         0.7

         1.0
                                 5.0
                                 10.0
                                      100
1600

2300

3300
             16.400
             32.800
                                20.0 *• 65.600
                                                         Quantity
                                                           (Ibs)
                                                         i.o
                                  2.0 . >
                                                          5.0 •
                                                          10
                                                          20 • •
                                                          50
                                                         100
                                                          200 «
                                                          500
                   1000
                                 2000 ' >
                                                         5000 • >
                                                       10.000
                                                        20.000 < •
                                                        50.000 < i
                                                      100.000

-------
   Level of
   Concern
   (g/m3)
  100
    20
  10
   5.0-
   2.0
  1.0
   0.5'
   0.2'
  0.1
  0.05
  0.02
 0.01
  0.005'
 0.002'
0.001
             Figure  D-2
           GRAPH  FOR
QUANTITY DETERMINATION
                                 Quantity
                                   (Ibs)
                                 i o
                                                          2.0 . .
                                 Distance
                                 (km) (ft)
                                 .03

         »   (Chlorine example in    i.o +3300
            Section D.3)
         5.0
        10.0
                                  .1 • . 330
                                  2 • .660
                                 0.5 • .1600

                                 0.7 , .2300
                                                          10
                                                          20 ' •
                                                          50 < .
                                     16.400
                                     32.800
                                20.0 • 65.600
                                                         100
                                  200
                                                          500 ^
1000
                                                         2000 < •
                                                         5000 • .
                                                       10.000
                                                       20.000
                                                       50.000 • >
                                                      100.000

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                              APPENDIX E

                        SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Chapter 1 referred to other documents that may prove helpful to anyone
undertaking to organize a community awareness and preparedness program
relating to acutely toxic chemical substances.  Several pertinent documents
are listed here.

    1.  Planning Guide and Checklist for Hazardous Materials Contingency
Plans.  Washington, D.C.:  Federal Emergency Management Agency and U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency; Prepared by Rockwell International,  1981.
(This document is popularly referred to as FEMA-10.)
                                                             •
    FEMA-10 is addressed to civic officials and is written in an informal
style.  The emphasis is on the planning process, rather than on technical
details.  There are four major sections:  (a) awareness (which helps  one
decide whether a plan is needed); (b) the planning process itself (which helps
identify who the planners should be and how the process should work); (c) plan
development and content (which identifies the types of plans as well  as  what
they may contain); and (d) plan appraisal and continued planning (which  helps
evaluate a plan).

    We encourage anyone using this guidance to consult FEMA-10 frequently.
Helpful references can be found interspersed throughout the text of FEMA-10.
Copies of FEMA-10 may be obtained by writing to:

                      Federal Emergency Management Agency
                      P.O. Box 8181
                      Washington, D.C.  20024

Note:  FEMA-10 has been widely distributed; approximately 55,000 copies  have
been provided to Federal, State, local and private hazardous materials
planners.  Only limited copies of FEMA-10 remain available and re-printing is
not currently contemplated since the revised version is scheduled to be
available early in 1986.  Due to the widespread distribution and the limited
copies remaining, please check local availability before requesting a copy.
If supplies are exhausted, your request will be added to the waiting list for
the revised guidance, which you will receive as soon as it is available.

    2.  Community Teamwork:  Working Together to Promote Hazardous Materials
Transportation Safety.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Department of Transportation,
Research and Special Programs Administration; Prepared by Cambridge
Systematics, Inc. 1983.

    This publication provides State and local (i.e., fire, police, emergency
service/civil defense, transportation, public safety, and environmental
protection) officials with guidance on the most efficient use of their
resources to develop effective hazardous materials programs.  The bulk of the
guide describes how one can, with a limited budget: (1) perform a risk
analysis; (2) obtain and mobilize emergency response services; (3) perform
hazardous materials inspections; and (4) obtain hazardous materials training.

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                                   E-2
    This guidance document will augment DOT's Community Teamwork by giving
major attention to fixed facilities that might be the source of acutely
hazardous chemical releases.  However, this document does not develop
transportation issues in detail; communities can consult Community Teamwork
for such considerations.

    It is worthy of note that deliberate and detailed attention to minimizing
costs is a consistent aspect of DOT's Community Teamwork.  Because most
communities must plan against the background of strict budget limitations,
Community Teamwork should be of interest for this reason alone.  Community
Teamwork will also prove helpful to those planning to provide personnel
safety equipment and clothing.  Copies of Community Teamwork can be obtained
by calling (202) 426-2301 or writing to:

                       Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation,
                         Attn.:  DHM-50
                       Research and Special Programs Administration
                       Department of Transportation
                       400 7th Street, S.W.
                       Washington, D.C.  20590

    3.  Hazardous Materials Management System;  A Guide for Local Emergency
Managers.  Portland:  Multnomah County Office of Emergency Management, 1983.

    This handbook is a detailed guidance document prepared at the local level
and published by the Multnomah County Office of Emergency Management in
Portland, Oregon.  This handbook guides the local emergency manager in the
development and implementation of a comprehensive system approach for dealing
with hazardous materials incidents within a specific geographic area.  It is
written from the perspective that such a system is muIti-disciplinary and
requires a team effort under the leadership of a local "emergency manager."

    Information on availability of the Multnomah County guide can be obtained
by calling (503) 255-3600 or writing to:

                     Multnomah County Emergency Management
                     12240 N.E. Glizan
                     Portland, Oregon  97230

    4.  Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program Handbook.
Washington, D.C.:  Chemical Manufacturers Association, 1985.

    This recent private sector planning document is similar to those prepared
by government agencies.  However, the CMA document addresses chemical plant
managers in two areas:

        •   Community awareness:  developing a community outreach
            program and providing the public with information on
            chemicals manufactured or used at local chemical plants;
            and

        •   Emergency response planning:  combining chemical
            plant emergency plans with other local planning.

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                                   E-3
    Like FEMA-10, this CMA document presumes that the key organizing person
might have no experience in contingency planning; hence, there is a quantity
of elementary detail to help such an organizer.  Pages 16-40 will prove
helpful to any community preparing to develop a contingency plan to respond to
acutely toxic chemical incidents.  Appendix 1 lists typical components of a
chemical plant emergency response plan; Appendix 2 provides highlights of
interrelated plant, community, and State plans.

    Copies of the CMA guide are available for a charge of $10.00 and can be
obtained by calling (202) 887-1100 or writing to:

                       Chemical Manufacturers Association
                       2501 M Street, N.W.
                       Washington, B.C.  20037

    5.  An Unconstrained Overview of the Critical Elements in a Model State
System for Emergency Responses to Radiological Transportation Incidents.
Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency; Prepared by Rockwell International, 1981.

    6.  Atmospheric Emergencies:  Existing Capabilities and Future Needs.
Washington, D.C.:  Transportation Research Board, 1983.

    7.  Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS), Manual II:
Hazardous Chemical Data.  Washington, D.C.:   United States Coast Guard,
Department of Transportation, 1984.

    8.  Criteria and Methods for Preparing Emergency Exposure Guidance Level
(EEGL) Documents.  Washington, D.C.:  National Research Council, May 1985.

    9.  Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency
Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants.
Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Federal Emergency
Management Agency, 1980.

    10.  Emergency Planning, Student Manual.  Washington, D.C.; Federal
Emergency Management Agency, August 1983.

    11.  Disaster Operations:  A Handbook for Local Governments, Washington,
D.C.:  Federal Emergency Management Agency,  1981.

    12.  1984 Emergency Response Guidebook.   Washington, D.C.:  U.S.
Department of Transportation, 1984.  This is available at:

                       Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation,
                         Attn.:  DHM-50
                       Research and Special Programs Administration
                       Department of Transportation
                       400 7th Street, S.W.
                       Washington, D.C.  20590

    13.  Guidance for Developing State and Local Radiological Emergency
Response Plans and Preparedness for Transportation Accidents.  Washington,
D.C.:  Federal Emergency Management Agency,  1983.

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                                   E-4
    14.  Guide and Checklist for the Development and Evaluation of State and
Local Government Radiological Emergency Response Plans in Support of Fixed
Nuclear Facilities.  Washington, B.C.:   U.S.  Nuclear Regulatory Commission,
Office of International and State Programs,  1974.

    15.  Local Government Emergency Planning, CPG 1-8.  Washington,  B.C.;
Federal Emergency Management Agency, April 1982.

    16.  Multi-Media Compliance Inspection:   Union Carbide Corporation,
Institute, WV.  Philadelphia:  Environmental  Protection Agency, Region III,
1985.

    17.  The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency
Plan. Washington, B.C.:  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency,  40 CFR Part
300.   (Usually referred to as the National Contingency Plan.)

    18.  Objectives for Local Emergency Management.   Washington, B.C.:
Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1984.

    19.  Risk Assessment/Vulnerability Users  Manual for Small Communities and
Rural Areas.   Washington, B.C.:  U.S. Bepartment of Transportation,  Research
and Special Programs Administration; Prepared by Bepartment of Civil
Engine«ring,  Kansas State University, 1981.

    20.  Student, Patrick J. (ed).   Emergency Handling of Hazardous  Materials
in Surface Transportation.  Washington, B.C.:  Association of American
Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1981.

    21.  Vincent, James R.  Overview of Environmental Pollution in the
Kanawha Valley.  Benver:  EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance
Monitoring, 1984.

    22.  Zajic, J.E., and Himmelman, N.A.   Highly Hazardous Materials Spills
and Emergency Planning.  New York:   Marcel Bekker, Inc., 1978.

    23.  Hazardous Materials Transportation:   A Synthesis of Lessons Learned
from the BOT Bemonstration Projects, Washington, B.C.:  ICF Incorporated.
This forthcoming report summarizes seven BOT sponsored demonstration projects
on prevention and preparedness planning.  The synthesis contains a discussion
of the lesions learned so that other communities can benefit from the
experience (see Appendix F).

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                              APPENDIX F

           SUMMARY OF U.S.  DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
                CONTINGENCY PLANNING  DEMONSTRATIONS
    This appendix summarizes the experiences  and lessons  learned  by  local,
regional, and State governments that participated in  hazardous  materials
transportation safety contingency planning demonstration  projects sponsored by
the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).   Detailed  information on  these
projects can be found in the reports prepared by the  projects  for DOT, which
are noted in this guide's bibliography,  and the forthcoming  summary  prepared
for DOT, "Accident Prevention and Response Planning for Hazardous Materials
Transportation:  Lessons Learned from State and Local Experiences" (working
title).

    The DOT demonstration projects are oriented toward  slightly different
safety issues than this volume, but communities developing contingency plans
for responding to incidents involving the release of  acutely toxic chemicals
can benefit from the experiences of these related projects.  Differences in
emphasis between the DOT projects and this volume include the  following:

        •   The DOT projects were primarily concerned with
            accidents involving transportation rather than sites  or
            facilities;

        •   The DOT projects gave more emphasis to prevention
            activities than the current  volume; and

        •   The DOT projects addressed all hazardous  materials
            rather than focusing on acutely toxic chemicals.

    Communities engaged in contingency planning for acutely  toxic chemicals
incidents can benefit in two ways by learning about the experiences  of the DOT
projects:  many of the same activities must be undertaken for  both types of
contingency planning, and communities may wish to integrate  their planning for
responding to acutely toxic chemicals incidents with  a  broader  planning effort
covering prevention, transportation, and other hazardous  materials.  After
providing some background information on the  projects,  this  appendix briefly
summarizes the experiences and lessons of the DOT projects in  performing the
tasks of contingency planning:

        •   Getting started;

        •   Surveying hazardous materials transportation  and
            conducting risk analysis;

        •   Assessing incident prevention and response
            capabilities;

        •   Developing hazardous materials contingency  plans;  and

        •   Implementing and updating hazardous materials
            contingency plans.

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                                   F-2
Background of the Projects

    In 1980, DOT supported a pilot project in the Puget Sound region in the
State of Washington to assist the region in developing a contingency plan for
improving hazardous materials transportation safety.   Following the success of
the pilot project, six demonstration projects were supported between 1981 and
1983.  The six demonstration projects were in Memphis, Tennessee; New Orleans,
Louisiana; Indianapolis, Indiana; Niagara County, New York; Massachusetts; and
ABAG (the Association of Bay Area Governments in the San Francisco Bay area of
California).  Demonstration projects were selected by DOT to represent a
variety of geographical settings, transportation hazards, and size and type of
area covered by the study.  While all the projects addressed the same broad
class of hazardous materials transportation problems and carried out the same
broad categories of activities, differences in local circumstances led to
significant variations in how the planning was undertaken.

Getting Started

    To get started in hazardous materials safety planning, it was necessary
for each of the demonstration projects to determine the area covered by the
planning effort, who should be involved in the effort and in what capacity,
how the effort would be organized, and the level and sources of funding.  The
DOT projects included city, county, regional, and State level efforts.  While
all levels of projects were able to improve awareness and stimulate safety
efforts, the regional and State projects could not implement specific accident
prevention and response plans because primary responsibility for these
activities is vested in local and county government.  Regional and State
projects did prove valuable in improving awareness of the hazardous materials
problems, fostering enhanced communications and cooperation among local and
county governments, and helping local and county governments understand the
resources and hazards of their neighbors.

    Leadership was vested in a number of different agencies in the projects.
For example, the New Orleans project was led by the Environmental Affairs Unit
of the Office of Analysis and Planning in the Mayor's office, and othes
projects were led by the local fire department or emergency management agency;
the two regional projects were led by councils of governments.  Strong
political support proved helpful in some projects, but a change in
administration caused delays in implementing plans in one project.

    All the projects formed advisory bodies with representatives from affected
constituencies:  city, county, State, and Federal agencies; city and State
legislatures; private industry; and citizens' groups.  Regular meetings of the
advisory bodies were held, and these meetings were judged by participants to
be extremely helpful in improving cooperation and communications among
agencies and organizations with sometimes competing interests and views.  The
advisory bodies operated on a consensus basis and, although the process of
achieving consensus required a great deal of time, all projects found the
process to be a valuable part of the planning effort.  Most of the advisory
bodies established committees to deal with specific tasks, and the committees
sometimes included additional members with knowledge  and  interest on the
committee's subject area.

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                                   F-3
    The demonstration projects used three approaches for obtaining staff to
perform the work:

        •   Using local agency staff;

        •   Using local agency staff to manage the project, but
            relying on contractors or consultants to perform
            specific portions of the work; and

        •   Having contractors or consultants perform most of the
            work.

The staff of the projects that performed most of the work in-house felt their
organizations gained institutional knowledge that helped them continue their
involvement after the end of the projects; the staff of projects using
contractors noted that they lacked in-house expertise in some areas and that
it was impractical to hire new staff to perform these duties.  Because
planning for incidents involving acutely toxic chemicals may require more
technical expertise than general hazardous materials contingency planning,
there may be more need to obtain outside assistance in developing a
specialized contingency plan for such substances.

    Costs were kept down in the demonstration projects in a variety of ways,
for instance, by utilizing:

        •   Voluntary assistance;

        •   Existing surveys and analyses;

        •   Student interns;

        •   Industry response resources; and

        •   Coordinated purchases with nearby communities.

Surveying Hazardous  Materials Transportation and  Performing
Hazards  Analysis

    The first substantive step in improving hazardous materials safety
management for each of the demonstration projects was to get some feel for the
hazardous materials problem in the area.  The DOT projects found that
excellent data were available for all modes of transport (rail, air, water,
and pipeline) except for highways.  Because most of the projects found that
highways pose the greatest hazardous materials transportation risks, some
original research on highway hazards was conducted.  Methods used ranged from
simple counts of placarded trucks to comprehensive surveys of drivers and
trucking company officials.  Simple counts cannot be used to identify carriers
of acutely toxic chemicals, however, because the placarding system does not
easily distinguish such chemicals from other hazardous materials.  All of the
projects found that petrochemicals represent the most common class of
hazardous material transported.

    After surveying the hazardous materials transportation in their area, the
demonstration projects performed a hazards analysis to determine the threats

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                                   F-4
to life, property, and the environment likely to result from the presence of
hazardous materials in the area.   The risk analyses performed by the DOT
projects varied significantly in their sophistication,  ranging from
qualitative studies that identified the areas most vulnerable to serious
incidents to complex computer models that assigned numerical risk ratings to
every area in the jurisdiction.   Some of the jurisdictions using complex
models found them to be costly and difficult to perform.   Projects using
simpler models were generally satisfied that their simple, less expensive
techniques enabled them to identify their most vulnerable areas and improve
their response capabilities.

    It is important to note that some of the simpler forms of hazards analysis
may lead to overlooking the threats posed by acutely toxic chemicals if they
concentrate on the most prevalent hazardous materials.   The risk posed by an
acutely toxic chemicals is caused less by the frequency of incidents than by
the potentially large loss of life that can result from a single catastrophic
incident.

Assessing  Prevention  and Response Capabilities

    The next step in the planning process performed by the DOT projects was to
determine what prevention and response capabilities were available.  Each
project performed research on laws pertaining to hazardous materials safety at
the Federal, State, and local levels.  In the transportation area, States paid
special attention to the presence or need for a law similar to the
Federal-level 49 CFR, which sets requirements, such as placarding requirements
and shipping container specifications, for hazardous materials shippers and
carriers.

    In the area of response capabilities, several of the demonstration
projects had findings that could help guide other projects:

        •   Formal written mutual aid agreements can be useful,
            but they often lacked detail;

        •   Communications links generally needed to be improved;

        •   First responders frequently lacked the specialized
            training needed for hazardous materials incidents;

        •   The fire department virtually always had the  lead role
            in response;

        •   Private industry can play a major  role in responding
            to incidents; and

        •   Simulations can be useful in identifying weaknesses in
            response capabilities.

Some of these findings are likely to be highly relevant for developing
response plans for incidents involving acutely toxic chemicals.   For  example,
because these chemicals are not as common as other hazardous materials,
facilities with such chemicals on-site are  likely to have  the best  equipment
and information needed for response.  In addition, because major  releases of

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                                   F-5
such chemicals occur rarely, simulations may provide the best opportunities
for checking response plan adequacy.

Developing Hazardous Materials  Contingency Plans

    The next step in the planning process for the DOT projects was the
development of a contingency plan.  As noted above, the plan was adopted on a
consensus basis by the advisory body after lengthy discussion by all affected
parties.

    Although there are many other elements that a plan can contain, the
operational contingency plans developed by the DOT projects included:

        •   A response checklist and communications roster;

        •   Designation of agency roles and responsibilities; and

        •   Emergency operating procedures.

In addition to formal approval by the advisory board, many of the projects
sought adoption by the jurisdiction's law-making body to give it official
status.  Additional legislative action was sometimes necessary, for example,
where the plan called for specific new laws, such as a "Good Samaritan" law,
or where expenditures for training or equipment are required.

Implementing and Updating  Hazardous Materials  Safety  Programs

    The DOT projects all recognized that developing a contingency plan is not
the end of the process.  Several of the jurisdictions have updated their plans
as a result of tabletop or field simulations or after incidents indicated
shortcomings in the plans.  Several of the projects continued their advisory
bodies after the formal demonstration projects ended; these jurisdictions
noted that even the best of plans can become obsolete over time as hazards
change and equipment becomes obsolete.  Continued momentum for improving
contingency plans occurred most often in projects where the advisory body
continued to meet regularly.

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                             APPENDIX G

               EPA REGIONAL CONTACTS FOR THE CHEMICAL
                   EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS  PROGRAM
EPA Regional  Contacts:

   1.    John  F.  Kennedy Federal Building
        Room  2203
        Boston,  MA  02203
        (Maine,  Vermont, New Hampshire,
        Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
        Connecticut)

   2.    26 Federal  Plaza
        Room  900
        New York, NY  10278
        (New  York,  New Jersey, Puerto Rico,
        Virgin Islands)

   3.    841 Chestnut  Street
        Philadelphia, PA  19107
        (Pennsylvania, Maryland, D.C.,
        Delaware, Virginia, West Virginia)

   4.    345 Court land Street, N.E.
        Atlanta, GA  30365
        (North Carolina, South Carolina,
        Georgia, Florida, Mississippi,
        Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky)

   5.    230 South Dearborn Street
        Chicago,  IL  60604
        (Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana,
        Michigan, Ohio, Minnesota)

   6.    1201  Elm Street
        Dallas,  TX  75270
        (New  Mexico,  Texas, Oklahoma,
        Louisiana,  Arkansas)

   7.    726 Minnesota Avenue
        Kansas City,  KS  66101
        (Nebraska,  Kansas, Iowa, Missouri) ,

   8.    One Denver  Place
        999 18th Street
        Suite 1300
        Denver,  CO  80202
        (Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado,
        North Dakota, South Dakota)
Environmental Services  Division
(617) 861-6700,  ext.  221
Superfund Technical Information
    Services
New Jersey:   1-800-346-5009
New York  :   1-800-732-1223
Office of Public Affairs
1-800-438-2474
Emergency Response and Control
    Section
(404) 881-3931
Jack Barnette
Emergency Response Section
(312) 886-1964
Regional Information Center
(214) 767-7341
Emergency Planning and Response
    Branch
(913) 236-3888

Dewitt Baulch
Air Toxic Division,  Air Programs
    Branch
(303) 298-1761

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                                    G-2
   9.   215 Fremont Street                      Chemical Emergency Preparedness
        San Francisco, CA   94105                    Program
        (California, Nevada,  Arizona,          1-800-231-3075
        Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam)

   10.  1200 Sixth Avenue                       Hazardous Waste  Division
        Seattle, WA  98101                      Emergency Response Team
        (Washington, Oregon,  Idaho,             (206) 442-1263
        Alaska)

Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program HOTLINE NUMBER

        1-800-535-0202  (in  Washington,  D.C.:  (202) 479-2449)

        (Available for one  year,  Monday-Friday, 8:30 a.m.-4:30  p.m.)
                              U.S. Environmental Protection A
                              Region 5, Library (5PL-16)
                              230 S. D~u oo  - St. set. Room
                                                »U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1986-619-19^:^0439

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