RETRIEVAL  S¥STEM

           For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.00
Volume  2,  Number  11/12
November/December,  1971

Agricultural wastes (includes crop residues and animal manures)                                          257
Analysis of solid waste                                                                                 260
Automobile (abandoned autos, processing, separating, salvaging, reduction, collection of autos. Recycling
    of automobile parts will be found under Automobile, not under Recycling)                               262
Bulky wastes (includes building-demolition and highway-construction debris)                               263
Collection (includes transfer stations). See also Transport                                                  263
Compost/Composting (includes equipment, processes, and marketing)                                     266
Disposal (multisystems only). See a/so Specific methods                                                   268
Economics (includes costs, fees, taxes, and financing)                                                    270
Hazardous wastes (includes pesticides)                                                                  272
Health/Safety                                                                                         273
Incineration (includes all burning processes and pyrolysis)                                                275
Industrial wastes (excludes sewage sludge and slurry)                                                    278
Institutional wastes (includes hospitals, schools, universities, research facilities)                            280
Law/Regulations (includes ordinances and bills)                                                          283
Litter                                                                                                 284
Management (includes the facility as well as overall concept of the system)                                 285
Ocean disposal (includes all waterways)                                                                  287
Packaging wastes (includes plastic,  glass, and metals)                                                    288
Processing/Reduction (excludes composting and incineration)                                             289
Recycling (includes reclamation, utilization, salvage, recovery and reuse). See a/so Automobile                292
Research                                                                                             296
Sanitary landfill (includes all land disposal)                                                              297
Separation                                                                                            300
Sludge (includes sewage sludge and slurry)                                                              301
Storage (includes receptacles, containers, and sacks)                                                     304
Street cleaning (includes snow removal and sweeping equipment)                                         305
Training, Education, and Public Relations                                                                306
Transport (includes pipelines, pneumatic systems, rail, truck or barge haul). See a/so Collection               307
The purpose of this bulletin is to keep readers abreast of the solid waste management information being published currently.
The bulletin reports only a portion of the mass of literature rapidly being generated All-inclusive solid waste management
bibliographies (Public Health Service Publication No. 91  and Supplements A through F) covering the years from 1941 through
1963 are available throughout the Nation in the Public  Health Service depository libraries Publication of the series is being
continued by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency. It is planned that in 1972 the series will become current.

The Solid Waste Information Retrieval System holdings cover the period from 1964. it includes both periodical and non-
periodical literature of the world. The brief description given of each accession is not a full abstract, but indicates the contents
of the document being added to SWIRS and gives a complete bibliographic citation  In the case of foreign-language articles,
the original language is indicated.

      An  environmental  protection publication  (SW-41 9c)
            in the  solid waste management  series
This publication, prepared
under contract to the Federal solid waste management program,
is reproduced as received from the contractor.
Any questions regarding errors or inconsistencies
should be referred directly to the contractor.


Adriano, D. C., P. F. Pratt3 S. E. Bishop, W. Brook, J. Oliver, and
          W. Fairbank.  Nitrogen load of soil in ground water from
          dairy manure.  California Agriculture, 25(12):12-14,
          Dec. 1971.  The nitrate and nitrate-nitrogen levels of
          drainage waters beneath manure disposal lands can be kept
          within safe limits if an average population of only three
          to four cows per disposal acre is maintained.
Bell, R. C., and J. Pos.  Design and operation of a pilot plant for
          composting poultry manure.  Transactions of the American
          Society of Agricultural Engineers. 14(6):1,020-1,023,
          Nov.-Dec. 1971.  It was found that the pollution potential
          of poultry manure can be reduced via engineered composting
          in a unit consisting of a closed cylinder mounted on a
          steel frame and fitted with an internal electrically driven
Davidson, J. A., and C. J. Maokson.  Poultry manure handling by
          indoor septia tanks (so-oalled 'indoor lagoons').  In Poultry
          pollution:  problems and solutions.  Research Report 117.
          Farm science.  East Lansing, Agriculture Experiment Station,
          Michigan State University, July 1970.  Fly and odor problems
          were reduced with a system in which poultry manure dropped
          through slatted floors in the cages to indoor lagoons filled
          with 18 in. of water; fan ventilation was used and the
          manure sludge was agitated with compressed air for 6 hr per
Drexel team attaoks pollution problems.  Delaware Valley Industry,
          44(11):19, Dec. 1971.  The Drexel approach consists of drying
          animal wastes in closed cycle with superheated steam to
          produce a stable material with a low level of bacterial
          activity; the utilization of this material as an animal feed
          or as a supplementary fuel for the drying operation is being
Jones, D. D., D. L. Day, and U. S. Garrigus.  Oxidation ditch in a
          confinement beef building.  Transactions of the American
          Society of Agricultural Engineers, 14(5):825-827, Sept.-Oct.
          1971.  It was found that the manure from beef cattle fed on
          any type of ration can be successfully treated in an indoor
          oxidation ditch supplied liberally with dissolved oxygen.

Launder, J. M.  (Horizons Unlimited Problems Solved by Ideas Corporation),
          Animal house air-conditioning and manure disposal system.
          U.S. Patent 3,552,358; filed Sept. 29, 1967; issued Jan. 5,
          1971.  Animal manure is dropped through a slatted floor into
          a trough of chilled liquid which stabilizes the manure, conveys
          it to the disposal point, and cools and dehumidifies the air
          in the animal house.
Ludlington, D. C., A. T. Babel, and A. G. Hashimoto.  Odors and gases
          liberated from diluted and undiluted chicken manure.
          Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
          14(5):855-859, Sept.-Oct. 1971.  Diluted or liquid chicken
          manure releases more hydrogen sulfide than undiluted manure,
          while the undiluted manure releases more carbon dioxide and
          ammonia; although the odors produced by both are of comparable
          strength, the odor of the diluted manure is more offensive.
Miller, B. F.  Biological conversion of animal wastes to nutrients.
          Fort Collins, Department of Avian Science, Colorado State
          University, May 4, 1971.  69 p.  Fly pupae and catabolized
          poultry manure residue were evaluated as protein sources for
          growing chickens and were found to produce a metabolizable
          energy of 2,528 Cal per kg and 580 Cal per kg respectively.
Nelson, J. M.3 and E. G. Ruppel.  The effect of manure on sprangling of
          sugarbeet roots.  Journal of the American Society of Sugar
          Beet Technologists. 16(3);191-196, Oct. 1970.  Application of
          sterilized or nonsterilized manure at rates of 40 tons or more
          per acre are associated with a high incidence of sprangling
          in sugarbeets; sprangling is less severe when leached manure
          is used in manure-soil mixtures or when the seedlings are
          irrigated with manure leachate.
O'Callaghan, J. E., K. A. Pollock, and V. A. Dodd.  Land spreading of
          manure from animal production units.  Journal of Agricultural
          Engineering Research, 16(3);280-300, Sept. 1971.  The following
          variables must be determined in planning a land disposal system:
          the levels of manure production; the chemical composition of
          the manure; and the hydraulic and chemical loading maximums for
          each field and each crop.

Robertson, L. S.3 and J. Wolford.  The effect of application rate of
          chicken manure on yield of com.   J-n Poultry pollution:
          problems and solutions.  Research Report 117.  Farm science.
          East Lansing, Agricultural Experiment Station, Michigan State
          University, July 1970.  p.10-15.   When applied at a rate of
          46.4 tons per acre, poultry manure significantly reduced the
          soil pH, significantly increased the percent of carbon and
          the levels of available phosphorus, potassium, magnesium,
          and nitrates, tended to increase the levels of calcium, zinc,
          and copper, and had no effect on the manganese levels.
Sobel, A. T.   Moisture removal.  In_ Agricultural wastes:  principles
          and guidelines for practical solutions; Cornell University
          Conference on Agricultural Waste Management, Syracuse,
          Feb. 10-12, 1971.  p.107-114.  When the moisture content of
          animal manures is reduced to 10 to 15 percent, there is a
          resultant reduction in offensive odors, volume, and weight,
          and a favorable change in handling characteristics.
Surbrook, T.  G., J. S. Boyd3 and H.  G. Zindel.  Drying animal waste.
          In Poultry pollution:  problems and solutions.  Research
          Report 117.  Farm science.  East Lansing, Agricultural
          Experiment Station, Michigan State University, July 1970.
          p.16-20.  A device consisting of five internal inclined
          surfaces and a hammermill successfully treats dairy beef,
          swine, and poultry manures at temperatures of 200 to 1,110 F.
Thygeson, J.  R. , E.  D.  Grossman, and J.  MacArthur.   trough-circulation
          drying of manure in superheated steam.   [Philadelphia],  Drexel
          University, [1971],  [20 p.].   Using superheated steam as a
          drying agent, animal manures can be economically treated to
          produce a dry, odorless solid and a clear liquid condensate;
          the process kills all pathogens and does  not contribute  to air

Zindel, H. C.   Recycling poultry nutrients.  Animal Nutrition and Health,
          26(9) '.6-7, Sept. 1971.  Dehydrated raw poultry manure has been
          found to be acceptable as a poultry feed  and as a fertilizer
          for lawns, athletic fields, golf courses, greenhouses, and
          potted house plants.


Coleman, W.  E.   Vacuum-acid hydrolysis  of fungal protein  and of other
          protein sources;   a Division  of Research and Development
          open-file report  (RS-0 3-6 8-17).   Cincinnati,  Environmental
          Protection Agency, 1971.   10  p.   (Restricted distribution.)
          The quality of protein produced by fungal fermentation can
          be determined from the amino  acid profile, which is obtained
          via acid hydrolysis under vacuum filtration.

Ferretti, A.^ and V. P.  Flanagan.  Nonenzymatic browning in edible
          spray-dried whey.   Identification of some volatile components.
          Journal of Dairy  Science, 54(12) :1,769-1,771, Dec. 1971.
          A steam volatile  oil from commercial edible spray-dried whey
          was found to comprise seven alkylpyrazines, three furans,
          two pyrroles, alpha-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone, isobutyramide,
          N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, benzaldehyde,
          phenol, benzyl alcohol, maltol, dimethylsulfone, and propionic,
          butyric, and benzoic acids.

Franklin, W. E.,and A.  Darnay.   The outlook for nonpackaging paper,
          1966 to 1976, and the impact of nonpackaging paper on solid
          waste (1).  In The role of nonpackaging paper in solid waste
          management, 1966  to 1976.  Washington, U.S. Environmental
          Protection Agency, 1971.   p.10-54.  The following grades  of
          nonpackaging paper and paperboard are described in terms  of
          quality, durability, uses, current rate of consumption, and
          predicted rate of consumption for 1976:  newsprint, printing
          paper, fine paper, special industrial paper, sanitary tissue,
          special paperboard, wet machine board, construction paper,
          and construction  board.

Gardner, D. L.,and I. C. McNeill.  The thermal degradation of
          polychoroprene -  I.  European Polymer Journal,  7(6):569-591,
          June 1971.  The dehydrochlorination, carbonization, and kinetics of
          degradation of polychoroprene were studied under programmed
          heating conditions in the absence of air and in pure nitrogen;
          the results were compared with  those from analyses of polyvinyl
          chloride degradation.
Gardner, D. L.,andl. C. McNeill.  The thermal degradation of
          polychoroprene - II.  European Polymer Journal, 7(6):593-602,
          June 1971.  The gaseous, liquid, and involatile residual
          products resulting from the thermal degradation of polychorprene
          include:  hydrogen chloride, chloroprene, methane, hydrogen,
          ethylene, propylene, and chloroprene dimers.


Gardner3 D. L. 3 and I. C. McNeill.  The thermal degradation of
          polychloroprene - III,  European Polymer Journal, 7(6):
          603-612, June  1971.  An examination of  the degradation of
          polychloroprene (PC) and poly(methyl methacrylate) blends
          indicated that the dehydrochlorination  of PC occurs  via a
          unimolecular mechanism rather than by a radical  chain
Getting the measure of industrial waste.   Public Cleansing, 61(10):502-
          504, Oct. 1971.  Of the 750,000 tons of industrial wastes
          generated in the Manchester, England, area, 630,000 tons are
          noncoiabustible, 190,000 tons are dangerous or intractable,
          710,000 tons are dumped, and 15,000 tons are burned.

Gross, J, A.3 and  W. E.  Franklin,  Overview of solid Waste management.
          In Market opportunities for shredders in solid waste management;
          final report.  Kansas City, Mo., Midwest Research Institute,
          June 7,  1971.  p.1-9.  The following topics are discussed:
          changes  in the composition of urban  refuse, processing  techniques
          for dealing with reusable wastes, and the increase  in urban
          solid waste generation rates.
Iglar, A. F,3 and R. G. Bond.  Analysis of data; quantities of solid
          waste per admission.  In Hospital solid waste disposal in
          community facilities; final report.  Minneapolis, Minn.
          School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, May 1971.
          p.208-240.  The amounts, types, and sources of hospital solid
          wastes are discussed along with the methods used for disposing
          of these wastes.
Kitaoka3 Y,3 and K. Murata.  Experiments on the thermal degradation of
          ethylene low polymer.  Nenryo Kyokai-shi, 50(534):791-799,
          1971.  The degradation rate for the low polymer was found to
          be 7.0 g per cu cm per hr at 440 C, and its energy of
          activation was 48.6 kcal per molecule; the degradation products
          consisted of a volatile gas mixture and nonvolatile oily
          mixture.  (Text in Japanese)
Ramadan, F. M. 3 and A. S. Nawar.  Parameters of fish toxioity tests in
          trade waste characterization.  Water and Waste Water Research,
          4Cl):19-23, Jan. 1971.  An investigation is reported in
          which bioassay tests on fish were used to determine the
          preneutralization and postneutralization toxicity levels of
          arc-welding wastes and waste materials from a TV cathode tube

Stephenson, M. E.3 B.  E.  Cabrera, and F.  M.  D 'Itri.   Wet combustion
          procedure for determination of carbon content in municipal
          refuse.   Environmental Science and Technology, 5(9)1799-802,
          Sept. 1971.   Using a modified wet combustion procedure with
          a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and phosphoric acids
          serving as the reagent and modified chromic acid and combustion
          fluid serving as the oxidizing medium, one can determine the
          carbon content in municipal refuse samples containing up to
          1.0 g of oxidizable carbon.
Wilson, D. L.  Laboratory procedure for the gravimetric determination
          of carbonate carbon in solid wastes; a Division of Research
          and Development open-file report (RS-OZ-68-17).  Cincinnati,
          Environmental Protection Agency, 1971.  23 p.  (Restricted
          distribution.)  The carbonate carbon content is gravimetrically
          evaluated after 1 to 5 g of weighed, dry, uniform sample has
          been reacted with hydrochloric acid in a closed system and
          the evolved gases have been fixed in an absorption train.
Wilson, D. L.  Method for macrodetermination of carbon and hydrogen in
          solid Wastes.  Environmental Science and Technology^ 5(7):
          609-614, July 1971.  This method, which employs a dry
          combustion-purification-gravimetric approach, can be used to
          accurately analyze materials whose carbon contents range
          from 0.46 to 83.31 percent and whose hydrogen contents are
          between 0.01 and 7.80 percent.
Farmer, R. N.  People and auto debris:  potential solutions.  Traffic
          Quarterly, 25(2):255-266, Apr. 1971.  A project is proposed
          under which teams of 10 to 15 young people under skilled
          managers would obtain and recondition old cars, effect any
          necessary repairs, resell the usable cars, and scrap unusable
          vehicles for parts salvage or delivery to wrecking yards.
Firrihaber, R. B.  Cold shock for car scrap.  Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
          Nachrichten, 25(7),Feb. 1971.  A new method  for shredding
          car scrap involves compressing the cars into bales, immersing
          them in liquid nitrogen for 1 hr, shredding  them, and separating
          the ferrous from the nonferrous components.  (Text in German)

Small, W. E.  The perfect pollution machine.  Ln Third pollution; the
          national problem of solid waste disposal.  New York, Praeger
          Publishers, 1970.  p.78-88.  Although the electric steel
          furnace is helping to create a demand for automobile scrap,
          and new car crushers, shearing devices, and shredders are
          making automobile processing and disposal easier, the move
          toward plastics in the automobile industry may result in a
          new solid waste disposal problem.
Tezuka, K.  (Nobutoshi Tezuka).  Scrap metal compression device.
          Japanese Patent 49-19,088; filed July 1, 1968; issued May 28,
          1971.  This device compresses scrap from old cars and cuts
          it into small pieces of high density which are suitable as a
          raw material for electric furnaces, open hearth furnaces, and
          converters.  (Text in Japanese)

Demolition of large storage tanks.  Materials Reclamation Weekly, 118
          (5):18-19, Jan. 30, 1971.  The methods which are recommended
          for reducing the danger of explosion during the demolition
          of large storage tanks include cutting or washing the volatile
          tars and residues from the banks, or filling the tanks with
          inert gases, water, or expansion foam.

Altman, S. M. 3 E. J. Beltranri, S. S. Rappaport, and G. K. Schoepfle.
          Nonlinear programming model for crew assignments for household
          refuse collection.  IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and
          Cybernetics, SMC-1(3):289-291, July 1971.  New York City's
          EPA has developed a nonlinear programming model which will
          aid in the optimal allocation of manpower for refuse collection
          and thereby minimize the incidence of missed weekly
Beaumont^ P.  Garohey in the Barbican.  Surveyor, 127(4,107);38-40,
          Feb. 26, 1971.  In designing the Barbican, a planned residential
          neighborhood outside of London, it was decided to use the
          Garchey disposal system, a method of completely enclosed,
          waterborne collection and disposal, to handle the community's
          solid wastes.

Blomberg, G. E.  E.  Apparatus with flexible screen for collecting
          impurities floating in the water.  Swiss Patent 503,163;
          filed Feb. 15, 1971; issued Mar. 31, 1971.  This device,
          which consists of a horizontal screen with a traction
          cable extending from one end to the other, is inexpensive
          to manufacture and will operate efficiently under all
          seasonal conditions and in all types of water currents.
          (Text in Italian)
Farharn, W. F.f and H. M. Frisby.  City of Inglewood - one-man operated
          collection.  Waste Age, 2(5):22, 35-37, Sept.-Oct. 1971.
          Accident rates, apathy, and poor work habits have been
          reduced in Inglewood, California, with a one-man refuse
          collection program under which healthy young men are recruited,
          thoroughly trained, and kept motivated by high salaries.
Huppert, M.  Rainspout attachment for collecting refuse from roof
          gutters.  Swiss Patent 498,995; filed Jan. 16, 1970; issued
          Nov. 15, 1970.  This device comprises a cylindrical sleeve
          which fits over the rainspout close to the gutter and a
          transverse tilted screen which is located within the sleeve
          and catches the refuse as it passes through the rainspout.
          (Text in German)
Lawson3 M. 3 and J. Seibold.  Changeover to curbside plastic bag system
          speeds up collections.  Solid Wastes Management/Refuse Removal
          Journal, 14(7):20, 52, 54, July 1971.  In Arlington and
          Grand Prairie, Texas, the sanitation labor force, fleet
          size, and accident rate have been reduced and the number of
          dwellings served per day has been increased following the
          adoption of a new curbside plastic bag collection system.
Mini-transfer station concept fills small urban needs.   Solid Wastes
          Management/Refuse Removal Journal, 14(7):18-19,  70, July 1971.
          In San Bruno, California, refuse is taken to a 40-mile-distant
          sanitary landfill via a transfer station system  consisting
          of two stationary compactors and two transfer  trailers.

Narumi, T.  (Marushima Suimon Seisdkusho K.K.).   Sea-scavenging boat.
          Japanese Patent 46-12,508; filed Dec.  13, 1966; issued May
          1, 1971.  A forwardly-inclined scooper/conveyor mechanism is
          placed in the U-shaped bow of the boat, with two endless
          chains, upon which are mounted several cross bars, being
          located along both sides of the bow; a forwardly-inclined
          screen is mounted below the scooper/conveyor device.  (Text
          in Japanese)
Shupe, D, S.3 and E.  L. Shell.   Balancing waste collection routes.
          Journal of Environmental Systems, 1(4):367-373, Dec. 1971.
          Although it cannot be used as a predictive tool for long-range
          planning, linear regression analysis can be used to determine
          how well balanced collection routes are in terms of collection
          crews and time requirements.
Smithy H. E.  (Thad J. Earl).  Refuse vehicle with compacting and
          unloading means.  U.S. Patent 3,584,755; filed Sept. 2, 1969;
          issued June 15, 1971.  Both compaction and unloading are
          effected by a plunger which has a relatively small compacting
          face and a hinged metal plate which pushes the refuse from
          the vehicle during unloading.
Solid waste disposal for- rural communities.  Eureka, Calif., Department
          of Public Works, County of Humboldt, Oct. 1969.  p.A(l-9),
          B(l-34).  The following are discussed:  front- and rear-loading
          compactor trucks, refuse containers, rodent and fire
          control of container sites, cost estimates for landfill and
          container systems, and the selection of the most appropriate
          loading equipment for various needs.
Stefanelli3 L.  Computer collection of load weight data at solid waste
          transfer station.   Professional Engineer, 41(10):21-23,
          Oct. 1971.  To facilitate billing by net load weight, the
          San Francisco transfer station employs an automated data
          collection system which efficiently measures and records the
          refuse weights for each collection truck entering the station
          and each transfer trailer arriving at the sanitary landfill.

U-N-I-T-Y spells efficiency in Minneapolis.   Solid Wastes Management/
          Refuse Removal Journal, 14(8):48,  50, 52, Aug. 1971.  Large
          and small sanitation contractors in Minneapolis have formed
          a voluntary, nonprofit corporation which is responsible for
          collecting all residential refuse in the city; the city has
          agreed to pay member haulers $2.55 per pickup per month and
          has assumed all disposal costs.


Vienna is sti.11 the cleanest of cities.   Solid Wastes Management /Refuse
          Removal Journal, 14(3);20-22,  48, 50, 52, Mar. 1971.
          Despite the fact that its landfill is not sanitary and its
          composting plant has been a financial disaster, Vienna has
          remained clean due to its efficient collection system and the
          civic pride which motivates its citizens to use the refuse
          receptacles located throughout the city.

Beattie, J. E.  The preparation of potting soi13 compost, and artificial
          manure.   Beltsville, Md., U.S. Department of Agriculture,
          Oct. 1946.  4 p.  The preparation of seedbed soil from clay
          loam and dried or decayed manure, the thermal and chemical
          sterilization of seedbed soil, the production of compost from
          plant remains, and the preparation of synthetic manure from
          dry vegetable material and a chemical mixture are described.
Breideribachy A. W.  Economic consideration.  In Composting of municipal
          solid wastes in the United States.  Washington, U.S. Government
          Printing Office, 1971.  p.57-77.  Although in terms of net
          costs, composting cannot compete economically with sanitary
          landfilling, the larger-sized plants would cost about the
          same as incinerators equipped with appropriate air pollution
          abatement devices, and composting offers many nonquantifiable
          advantages over other means of refuse disposal.
Camden, J. B.3 E. D. Grossman, and J. R. Thygeson.  Computer simulation
          of a through-circulation dryer.  Philadelphia, Department of
          Chemical Engineering, Drexel University.  [35 p.]  [1970]
          A mathematical model describing the temperature and moisture
          content distributions in both the gas and solid phases was
          fairly successful in projecting experimental drying times,
          and temperature and moisture content profiles.
Composting  (II-B).  Jin Solid waste disposal in Greater Canton, Ohio.
          Water and Sanitation Committee of Greater Canton Chamber of
          Commerce, Mar. 10, 1969.  p.11-17.  The following types of
          composting equipment are described in terms of cost, potential
          contribution to air and/or water pollution, and site locational
          requirements:  the stationary grinder and conveyor machine,
          the mobile grinding and windrowing machine, and the Kuka Shark
          collection truck.

Composting raises another head.  Solid Wastes Management/Refuse Removal
          Journal, 14(5):16, 108, 148, May 1971.  Although Coral Gables,
          Florida, is planning to install a municipal refuse composting
          plant, previous experience with large-scale refuse composting
          has shown that the compost is difficult to sell and that
          the plants are both expensive to operate and sources of
          environmental pollution.
Engeler^  P,  Turner for compost or dung.   German Patent 1,782,606;
          filed Sept. 24, 1968; issued Aug. 26, 1971.  This turner
          consists of a dovetail conveyor and a passage channel, the
          former having mounted upon it a ventilated shredding roll with
          a hollow perforated jacket.  (Text in German)
Gujer, H.  Method and means for continuously drying wet organic waste
          matter, particularly fresh sludge, through aerobic
          precompositing.   U.S. Patent 3,553,844; filed Dec. 3, 1968;
          issued Jan. 12,  1971.  Organic waste matter with a particularly
          high water content is continuously added to a bed of decaying
          matter which is, in turn, constantly agitated to allow the
          circulation of air throughout.
Kirk, W. W.  (Lawden Manufacturing Company Limited).  Improvements
          relating to the processing of refuse material.  British Patent
          1,229,204; filed June 1, 1967; issued Apr. 21, 1971.  A
          description is presented of a composting plant consisting of:
          a feed device, which conducts the refuse to a high-capacity
          shredder; a digestor, which controls the rate of decomposition
          of the refuse as well as the amount of air and water supplied
          to it; a conveyor, which takes to digested material to a
          magnetic separator and grinder; and a screen, which removes
          all material which has not been pulverized to the desired
Nordgards S.  Apparatus for composting waste.   U.S. Patent 3,565,255;
          filed Apr. 7, 1969; Feb. 23, 1971.  This device, which is
          especially useful for composting kitchen wastes, consists of
          a storage container with a vibrating mechanism and several
          conduits, each of which can selectively permit the introduction
          of either air or water.

Small, W. E.  Leaf composting cuts costs in Washington area.  Compost
          Science, 12(6):32, Nov.-Dec. 1971.  The National Capital
          Parks compost their leaves and wood wastes, using the leaf
          compost as a soil conditioner and topsoil, and using the
          chipped branches, stumps, and limbs for paths, mulching, and
          as a ground for animal pens.
Spohn, E. (Portland-Zementwerke Neidelberg A.G,).   Mixing process for
          composting and disinfecting wet refuse.   French Patent 2,038,199;
          filed Mar. 16, 1970; patent pending.  A compost material
          containing no less than 10 percent oxygen results from a
          process in which wet refuse is granularized in commercial
          mixers and disinfected via injection into the air.  (Text in
Sui-chij M.  Taiwan Sugar Corporation expands its swine program.
          Taiwan Sugar, 17(5):13-18, Sept.-Oct. 1970.  The Taiwan Sugar
          Corporation, which is composting manure from its swine-breeding
          operation, has found that the compost is of great value as a
          soil conditioner and that the manure from seven animals is
          sufficient to fertilize 1 ha of cane.


Lawrence R. J.  The rubbish 'explosion. '  Die Siviele Ingenieur in
          Suid-Afrika, 13(6); 21, 223, June 1971.  Although pulverization,
          composting, and incineration are used as a means of handling
          domestic refuse, controlled dumping remains the simplest and
          cheapest method of refuse disposal.

Ministry of Health and Welfare.  How healthy living environments are
          being created:  waste material control policy.  In White paper on
          health and welfare:  children and society.  Tokyo, Ministry
          of Health and Welfare, 1971.  p.275-286.  Trends in the
          treatment of sewage, urban garbage, plastic waste, and waste
          from construction operations and industry are reviewed.
           (Text in Japanese)

Miyanohara, T.  Problems on disposal of urban wastes.  Yosui to  Haisui,
          13(2):146-154, Feb.  1971.  Disposal problems caused by the
          increasing volumes and heterogeneity of domestic refuse may be
          partially solved via:  the updating of disposal equipment,
          nightly refuse collection, the mechanization and standardization
          of  collection equipment,  and the planned distribution  of
          disposal plants in suitable  locations.  (Text in Japanese)

Raschj R.  Refuse disposal.  Aufbereitungs-Technik, (1):42-44, Jan. 1971.
          Among the topics discussed at meetings of the Association
          of City Cleansing and Refuse Disposal Departments and the
          International Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Association
          were incinerator waste heat utilization, the pre-incineration
          shredding of refuse, and the percentages of plastics in
          solid waste.  (Text in German)
Schroering, J. B.  (Industrial Services of America, Inc.).  Solid
          waste disposal plant.  U.S. Patent 3,557,685; filed Dec. 26,
          1968; issued Jan. 26, 1971.  In this plant, reclaimable
          materials are salvaged, after which the remaining wastes
          are prepared for sanitary landfilling via shredding and
          compaction or baling.
Sherrill, C. A.  (Sanoo Corporation).  Method of handling refuse.
          U.S. Patent 3,583,164; filed May 15, 1969; issued June 8,
          1971.  With this method, a mobile baling press is used to
          collect, compress, bale, and store refuse and then transport it
          to and stack it in a sanitary landfill for disposal.
Shin, K. G.  A short report on the 20th Technical Conference on Refuse
          at the University of Stuttgart.  Muell und Abfall, 3(4):109-
          111, Apr. 1971.  Topics discussed at the Conference include:
          the treatment of industrial and domestic refuse, the
          influence of the number of employees in an industry on the
          quantity of refuse which it generates, the probable increase
          in refuse quantities within the next 10 years, and refuse
          removal systems.  (Text in German)
Small, W. E.  Disposal Technology:  dump, burn, bury?  T_n Third
          pollution; the national problem of solid waste disposal.
          New York, Praeger Publishers, 1970.  p.116-127.  Although
          sanitary landfilling represents a loss of natural resources,
          it is the most economical method of refuse disposal;
          incineration, pyrolysis, ocean disposal, deep-well disposal,
          salt-dome disposal, and cave disposal are discussed as
          alternate means of refuse handling.
Williams, C. A.  Handling and disposal of toilet wastes.  U.S. Patent
          3,564,618; filed Nov. 4, 1968; issued Feb. 23, 1971.  This
          method, which eliminates the need for septic tanks, involves
          solidifying the waste via freezing, storing the waste in
          the  frozen state, and then transporting it to a disposal site.


An about-turn for waste paper.  Materials Reclamation Weekly, 118
          (2):21, Jan. 9, 1971.  Although German wastepaper exports
          for the first 9 months of 1970 were up 59.8 percent from
          the previous year,  the market fell drastically between July
          and December as a result of an increase in the importation
          of secondary fiber  into Germany and an overabundance of
          secondary fiber on  the foreign market.
Asano3 T.  Present state and future of environmental pollution prevention
          industry.  No. S - problems of the industry.  Yosui to Haisui,
          13(2):139-145, Feb. 1971.  A recent survey has indicated that
          the installation of pollution prevention equipment is asso-
          ciated with a decrease in profits and an increase in total
          turnover; the reflection of these extra costs in sales prices
          is discussed.  (Text in Japanese)
Ashcroft, J.  What are overhead expenses?  Materials Reclamation Weekly,
          118(17):16-17, Apr. 24, 1971.  Examples of overhead costs
          are factory rent, costs of maintaining help in buying and
          selling, mechanical handling and depreciation, loan interest,
          debts, and directors' salaries.
Clark, R. M.  A joint optimization model for operating and capital
          allocations.   [Cincinnati], U.S. Department of Health,
          Education, and Welfare.  22 p.   [1969].  The model which is
          presented can be used in selecting the most efficient type of
          treatment facility, as well as in minimizing the total  cost
          of operation for that facility.
Clark, R. M.  An economic analysis of solid waste investment decisions.
           [Cincinnati], U.S. Department of Health, Education,  and Welfare,
           [1967],   17  p.  Linear programming  and dynamic programming
           can be used  in choosing the best possible  facilities  for  a
           solid waste  management system at the  lowest  feasible  price.

Cross, J. A., and W. E. Franklin.  Funding.  In Market opportunities for
          shredders in solid waste management; final report.  Kansas
          City, Mo., Midwest Research Institute, June 7, 1971.  p.19-22.
          Recent activities of the Federal government will have a
          favorable impact on markets in areas related to solid waste
          management, and they might result in favorable tax treatment
          toward investments that encourage environmental cleanup.
         W. L.  Let the pricing system provide the incentive.  Industrial
          Water Engineering, 8(4):8-10, Apr. 1971.  It is suggested
          that actions such as setting prices on the pollution of the
          environment or taxing items that might cause pollution would
          do much to stimulate environmental improvement.
Josephson, H. R.  Recycling of waste paper in relation to forest resources.
          Tappi, 54(6):896-899, June 1971.  Although, by intensifying
          forest management, the United States could provide sufficient
          timber to meet much of the anticipated pulpwood demand, the
          eventual supply situation favors the increased recycling of
Phillips3 R. A.  Run machines on a profit-or-loss basis.  American City,
          86(11):84, 127, Nov. 1971.  The city of Denver purchases,
          maintains, and rents maintenance equipment to various city
          and county departments through a cost control system in which
          hourly rentals are based on operating and maintenance expenses,
          plus a replacement factor.

Rushton, J.  D.  Capital spending.  Chemical Engineering Deakbook Issue,
          78(14):161-163, June 21, 1971.  Although the necessary reduc-
          tions in industrial emissions to the atmosphere and aquatic
          environments must be implemented by industry itself, the
          capital and operating expenditures which are required to meet
          new pollution abatement regulations usually give a much lower
          rate of return on investment than is normally required to
          justify capital spending.
Ruskin, A. M.  Financing environmental improvements*  American City,
          84(11):70-72, Nov. 1971.  To equalize the burden of pollution
          control and to ensure a return on this type of investment,
          transfer payments and tax incentives should be extended and
          reoriented toward environmental improvement.

US holds key to tin market.   Materials Reclamation Weekly,  118(2):49-50,
          Jan. 9, 1971.  Tin prices have been and are likely to remain
          depressed until the U.S.  House of Representatives' Armed Services
          Stockpile Subcommittee decides how to handle the  sale of the
          nation's stockpiled tin.

Bennett, F. W.  A regional approach to environmental management of the
          San Juan Eiver Basin.   M.S. Thesis, West Virginia University,
          Morgantown, 1970.  p.24-33.  If the radioactivity which is
          damaging environmental and public health in the San Juan Valley
          is to be controlled, the uranium waste piles in the area should
          be covered with earth until a better solution is found.
Burns., E. H.  Solidification of low- and intermediate-level wastes.
          Atomic Energy Review, 9(3):547-599, 1971.  The incorporation
          into cement or bitumen of wastes containing long-lived radioactive
          wastes is discussed as a means of stabilizing them so that they
          will be prevented from entering into the environment.
Detilleux, E., W. G. Hild, G. Lazaretto, E. M. Menchero-Lopez, and
          E. Eometsch.  Process for solidifying radioactive wastes by the
          addition of lime to precipitate fluoride.  U.S. Patent 3,557,013;
          filed Nov. 18, 1966; issued Jan. 19, 1971.  Liquid radioactive
          wastes containing at least one water-soluble fluoride and/or
          water-soluble sulfate are mixed and agitated with lime, after
          which the water is evaporated and the resultant paste is hardened
          and enclosed in a watertight covering.
Orison, C.  1!he creation of a Community system of radioactive waste dumps.
          Euro-Spectra, 10(3):91-94, Sept. 1971.  The need in Europe for
          an international system in which centralized 'graveyards' would
          be used for the disposal of all radioactive wastes generated by
          member nations is discussed.
Meyer, W.  An argument for a recoverable high-level waste container.
          Nuclear News, 14(4):38-40, Apr. 1971.  It is suggested that the
          pollution potential of radioactive wastes would be greatly reduced
          if these wastes were placed in long-lived canisters made of a
          material such as titanium and kept within special, reinforced
          concrete or ceramic drums in salt bed  storage holes.

Pearce, K. W.  The treatment and disposal of radioactive and objectionable
          solid wastes.  Chemistry and Industry, (24):590-592, May 29, 1971.
          The incineration, pulverization, baling, ocean disposal, and
          trench disposal of radioactive, glass, and plastic wastes are
Ware., G. G.  Method of treating waste material.  U.S. Patent 3,593,393;
          filed Jan. 15, 1969;"issued July 20, 1971.  During the embalming
          process, bodily fluids are withdrawn from a human cadaver with
          a trocar, after which they are mixed with bactericides, diluted
          with large quantities of water, and flushed down an ordinary

Bosley, P.  Livestock feedlots are pollution source.   Medical Bulletin of
          the University of Minnesota, p.3-6, Mar.-Apr. 1971.  If
          Minnesota is to curb the severe public health hazard presented
          by the discharge of animal and human wastes into its waterways,
          existing regulations must be strictly enforced, farmers must
          improve the management of their feedlot wastes, and more sewage
          treatment facilities must be built.
Emergency health service; definition of program content for bureau of
          health operations.  Health Mobilization Series.  Public Health
          Service Publication No. 1071 A-6.   [Washington], U.S. Department
          of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1967.  228 p.  If nuclear or
          biological warfare were to be used against the United States,
          a health program would be implemented in which organic wastes
          would be buried, burned, or injected with poisons to reduce the
          health hazards which they would present; the collection of
          inorganic wastes would be assigned a relatively low priority.
Gibbs, H. M.  Sanitary disposal of dead birds.   Poultry Guide, 8(6):21-22,
          June 1971.  In the interests of public health, dead birds should
          be collected regularly, stored in airtight containers prior to
          disposal, and disposed of by incineration, disposal in pits,
          or deep burial.
Kampelmacher,  E.  H.3  and L.  M.  van Noorle Jansen.   Reduction of Salmonella
          in compost in a hog-fattening farm oxidation vat.   Journal of the
          Water Pollution Control Federation, 43(7):1,541-1,545, July 1971.
          Since it was found that the number of Salmonella in the oxidation
          vat effluent was entirely dependent upon the severity of the
          infections in the hogs, chlorination of the effluent was recom-
          mended to reduce health hazards.

Public health.  In An industrial solid waste management program for
          Kentucky; review draft.  [Frankfort], Kentucky State Department
          of Health, Feb. 1971.  p.51-72.  A number of industrial wastes
          are listed, along with their sources and identified public health
          significances; among those mentioned are various textile mill
          wastes, which are potential carcinogenic agents and producers
          of air and water pollution.
Public health hazards of incinerator residues.   In An industrial solid
          waste management program for Kentucky; review draft.  [Frankfort],
          Kentucky State Department of Health,  Feb. 1971.  p.A(l-33).
          The unsatisfactory handling of incineration residues can create
          health hazards via the provision of breeding grounds for vectors
          or pathogens, and via the leaching of the residue by water, which
          leads to the contamination of ground  water and surface water
Star, S.  Safety standards for solid waste management.  Public Works,  102
          (4):97-98, Apr. 1971.  A manual prepared by the Safety Standards
          Committee of the Governmental Refuse Collection and Disposal
          Association provides a specific foundation for safety and effi-
          ciency in solid waste management.
Systems Research Division of Meyers Electro/Cooling Products, Inc.  Urban
          rat control programs.  [Hartford], Connecticut Research Commission,
          Nov. 1969.  [159 p.].  Rat control programs should involve:
          intensive cleanup campaigns to eliminate long-standing accumula-
          tions of refuse; the provision of large refuse storage containers;
          and the provision of adequate lighting in refuse storage areas
          so that people will take the time to place their refuse in the
          containers instead of throwing it on the ground.
Zindel, H. C.  Bacteriological problems.  In Poultry pollution:  problems
          and solutions.  Research Report 117.  Farm science.  East Lansing,
          Agricultural Experiment Station, Michigan State University,
          July 1970.  p.45-46.  Although numerous types of bacteria are
          in dehydrated poultry waste,  the fact that none are
          present in large numbers indicates that their presence may be
          due to recontamination following the drying process; precautions
          against recontamination should therefore be taken.


Appelhans, H.} and W.  Schumann.   (Polyma MasahinebaUj  Dp.  Appelhans G.m.b.H.)
          Incineration system for burnable liquids or sludges.   U.S. Patent
          3,559,595; filed Nov.  25, 1968; issued Feb.  2,  1971.   This
          system has an incineration muffle for burnable  liquids or sludges
          which may contain nonburnable substances and which have different
          heating values, different ignition temperatures, and/or different
Can plastics be incinerated safely?  Environmental Science and Technology,
          5(8):667-669, Aug. 1971.  Most of the problems associated with
          the incineration of plastics can be avoided with proper incinera-
          tion and the use of wet scrubbers;  in addition, new plastics
          which will not cause harmful emissions are being developed.
Cardinal, P. J.3  Jr.   Advances in multi-hearth incineration.   Process
          Biochemistry, 6(1):27-31, Jan.  1971.  Multiple-hearth incinera-
          tors, which are often preferred for the incineration of waste
          sludges, have no burning grates and offer economical, efficient,
          and odor-free operation.
(Cities Service Tankers Corporation).   Process for burning oily residues
          in tankers.  British Patent 1,235,833;  filed Feb. 28, 1969;
          issued June 16, 1971.  This process involves mixing the residual
          oil with a hydrocarbon fuel oil to produce a blended fuel which
          has a flash point of at least 120 F and which can be burned  on
          board the ship.

Fluidized bed pyrolysis.   jn Solid waste; a new natural resource.  Morgantown,
          Department of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University,
          May 1971.  p.2-5.  Pyrolysis in a fluidized bed gasifier involves
          introducing cellulosic wastes into a hot, anaerobic bed of
          high-silica sand, whereupon the wastes  explode to form methane,
          carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, water, and a carbon char.

(Fonderie E Officine Di Saronno S.p.A.).   Mechanical grate for an installa-
          tion for incineration of solid wastes.   British Patent 1,223,668;
          filed Oct. 3, 1969;  issued Mar. 3, 1971.  The described grate
          has a steplike configuration, with movable portions in each  step
          setting off a reciprocal motion which advances the wastes  along
          the grate.

Gouinlockj  E.  V.3  J.  F.  Porter^  and R.  R.  Hindersinn.   The mechanism of
          the fire-retardance of dripping thermoplastic compositions.
          Journal of Fire and Flammability,  2:206-218,  July 1971.   An
          examination of three self-extinuishing thermoplastic  compositions
          which emit flaming drip during incineration  indicated that the
          drip itself is a significant  contributor to  the self-extinguishing
          mechanism,  possibly through the removal of heat from the burning
Heat recovery; special studies for incinerator No.  53  government of the
          District of Columbia,  Department of Sanitary Engineering.
          Philadelphia, Day and Zimmermann Associates, Feb.  1967.   32 p.
          The technical, operational, and financial aspects  of waste heat
          recovery from refuse incineration are discussed, and an evalua-
          tion is made of the application of heat recovery techniques at
          the District of Columbia's No. 5 incinerator.
Hermes, P.  Conclusion from the operating experiences of a refuse slag
          sintering plant.   Mitteilungen der Vereinigung der
          Grosskesselbesitzer, 51(1):33-37, Feb.  1971.  At 33 percent of
          the cost of refuse incineration, nonmetallic refuse slag can be
          sintered to effect a 96 percent reduction in refuse volume and
          produce either an inert landfill material or an aggregate which
          can be used in concrete construction.  (Text in German)
Incineration (II-C).   In Solid waste disposal in Greater Canton, Ohio.
          Water and Sanitation Committee of Greater Canton Chamber of
          Commerce, Mar. 10, 1969.  p.17-27.  The costs, capabilities,
          limitations, effects on air and water pollution, and operational
          requirements of household, commercial, industrial, municipal,
          fluidized bed, mobile, and Lantz incinerators are discussed.
Incineration of waste liquids.  In Disposal of industrial wastes by
          combustion.  ASME industry survey; present state of the art.
          New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Jan. 1971.
          (13 p.)   A burner which has a refractory hearth and wall cooling,
          is capable of taking solids of at least a 1/2-in. diameter, and
          requires relatively small amounts of compressed air for atomiza-
          tion is described.
Kanury, A. M.  Burning of wood - a pure transient model.  Journal of Fire
          and Flammability, 2:191-205, July 1971.  Based on calculations
          of mass-loss, the burning behavior of well-ventilated wood cribs
          was shown to be similar to that of isolated fuel elements.

Kautz3 K., and H. Kirsch.   New results of corrosion studies in the field of
          refuse combustion.   Mitteilungen der Vereinigung der Grosskessel-
          besitzer, 51(3):223-228,  June 1971.  Corrosion occurs under both
          continuous reducing conditions and sudden changes in oxidizing
          atmospheres, with slag, ash, dust, and flue gases all contributing
          to it in varying degrees.  (Text in German)
Nouak3 F.  Tests on the admissible grate charge of refuse incineration
          boilers.  Mitteilungen der Vereinigung der Grosskesselbesitzer,
          51(2):130-135, Apr. 1971.  It was found that roller, Martin,
          migration, and van Roll grates can, without harm, accept
          considerably increased quantities of refuse with high calorific
          values as long as the wastes with high heating values are homoge-
          neously mixed with domestic refuse of a lower heating value.
          (Text in German)
Sharpe, P. S.  (Brule C.E. and E.3 Inc.).  Modular incinerator construction.
          Canadian Patent 869,286; filed Sept. 18, 1968; issued Apr. 27,
          1971.  This multisectional incinerator consists of a burner
          chamber, an ash pit, an upper combustion chamber, and a lower
          combustion chamber, all of which are separate, independent
          modules which can be assembled in co-acting relationship to form
          an integral unit.
Steriburg, R. L.  Double flues.  In Status of the flue-fed incinerator as
          a source of air pollution.  Presented at American Industrial
          Hygiene Association Meeting, Washington, May 17, 1962.  p.17-21.
          Properly designed and constructed double-flue apartment incinera-
          tors reduce the problems of incineration gases passing back
          into the halls of the building, and certain designs of this type
          also effect proper air pollution control.

Tichatschke3 J.  Studies of the emissions from refuse incinerators,
          Mitteilungen der Vereinigung der Grosskesselbesitzer, 51(3):
          219-223, June 1971.  Although no hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, or
          phosgene were detected, hydrogen chloride, methyl formate, and
          formaldehyde were found in maximum concentrations of 18, 120,
          and 200 mg per cu m, respectively, and the concentrations of
          sulfur dioxide and ammonia were found to vary between 0.8 and
          1.0 g per cu m and 0.5 to 4.5 mg per cu m respectively;  the most
          common concentration of sulfur trioxide was measured at 0.03 g
          per cu m.  (Text in German)

Uehlinger3  K.   (Von Roll A.G.).   Procedure and installation for the
          prevention of fused deposits on the fire walls of incinerators
          equipped with grates.   Swiss Patent 498,338;  filed Feb. 12, 1970;
          issued Oct. 31, 1970.   This invention consists of a second wall
          located inside the incinerator side walls, with an oscillating
          nozzle being used to spray water between the  two walls and
          thereby prevent the formation of lumps of slag.  (Text in German)
Warren,  P.  C.   How plastics bum.   Society of Plastics Engineers Journal,
          27(2):17-22, Feb. 1971.   A brief review of the literature on
          polymer combustion and its inhibition includes a discussion of
          flames, flammability measurements, and general types of inhibit-
          ors, with special emphasis on their chemistry.
Yamoshij K.  (Dainishi Seisdkusho K.K.).   Incinerator.   Japanese Patent
          46-19,155; filed May 11, 1968;  issued May 28, 1971.  This
          incinerator, which can burn a large amount of refuse in a
          relatively small amount of space, is equipped with a device
          which forces air through the fire grids, thereby scattering
          the waste and providing sufficient air and space for efficient
          combustion.  (Text in Japanese)

Channabasappa, K. C.  Use of reverse osmosis for valuable by-products
          recovery.  Chemical Engineering Progress, Symposium Series,
          67(107):250-259, 1971.  Reverse osmosis, which can be applied
          to cheesemaking wastes, pulp and paper industry wastes, organic
          chemical wastes, nuclear wastes, steel pickling liquors, and
          spent plating industry solutions, concentrates the solids in
          waste water to render solid wastes and fresh, nonpolluting
A closed-loop approach to industrial plastics wastes.  Modern Plastics,
          48(7):44-45, July 1971.  The Spaulding Fiber Company's industrial
          laminates plant in Tonawanda, New York, is installing a
          closed-loop incineration plant which will burn all solid and
          liquid wastes, use gaseous wastes as combustion air, and use the
          heat of incineration to generate steam for power production in
          the plant.
Dean, K. C.3 R. Havens* and E. C. Valdez.  USBM finds many routes to
          stabilizing' mineral wastes.  Mining Engineering, 23(12):61-63,
          Dec. 1971.  Various methods of chemical, physical, and vegetative
          stabilization are discussed in terms of their application to
          mine tailing wastes.


Fluid bed incineration solves Amooo's refinery waste problems.  Petro/Chem
          Engineer, 43(3):27-30, Mar. 1971.  The American Oil Company's
          Mandau, North Dakota, refinery has installed a smokeless fluid
          bed incinerator in which oily sludges and emulsions, which are
          generally able to support combustion without the use of supple-
          mentary fuel, are burned along with caustic chemical wastes.
Kanyuk, A, I.3 V. S. Lobanov3 Yu. G. Olesov3 and V.  S. Ustinov.  Comparative
          efficiency of various methods of processing substandard titanium
          wastes.  Soviet Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals , 10(9):76-77,
          Sept. 1969.  Although slag smelting and chlorination currently
          offer the most economical and efficient means for processing
          substandard titanium wastes, electrolytic refining and fire
          refining are more efficient methods which are being scaled up
          from laboratory processes for future industrial use.
Lawson, J. R.  Bridging the gap; management of industrial solid waste in
          municipal operations.  Waste Age, 2(2):4, 5, 16-20, Mar.-Apr.
          1971.  It is suggested that the best municipal arrangement for
          handling industrial waste consists of a large, centralized,
          incinerator-based operation in which efficient collection,
          separation, and reclamation are practiced.

Membrane processing upgrades food wastes.  Environmental Science and
          Technology, 5(5):396-397, May 1971.  The Crowly Milk Co. has
          found that membrane filtration can be successfully used with
          cheese whey to remove its protein content, concentrate its lactose
          content, and reduce its BOD from 35,000 to 1,000 mg per liter.
Miller, W. B. Y.  (Colvilles Limited).  Improvements in or relating to the
          disposal of molten slag.  Australian Patent 409,006; filed
          June 8, 1966; issued Feb. 22, 1971.  With this process, molten
          slag from the Linnz and Donnewitz steel manufacturing process is
          mixed with slag gravel in a sunken mixing area on the steelworks
          floor; the slag is thereby cooled, fragmented, and rendered
          acceptable for dumping.
National Industrial Pollution Control Council.  Paper; Sub-council report.
          Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, Mar. 1971.  58 p.
          Although the paper industry is achieving substantial progress
          in pollution control via the increased utilization of all parts
          of the tree, a close, cooperative government-industry relationship
          is recommended to solve the remaining pollution problems.

National Industrial Pollution Control Council.   The chemical industry  and
          pollution control;  Sub-oouncil report.   Washington, U.S.  Government
          Printing Office, June 1971.  25 p.   Among the nonpolluting forms
          of waste disposal which are coming  into use in the chemical
          industry are:   deep well disposal,  ocean disposal, rotary kiln
          incineration,  recycling, and pyrolysis.

Small} W. E.  Mineral resources and energy wastes.  In Third pollution;  the
          national problem of solid waste disposal.  New York, Praeger
          Publishers, 1970.  p.58-75.  A discussion is presented concerning
          the environmental effects of:  strip mining wastes; tailings;
          sand, gravel,  stone, clay, and gold dredging wastes; slag and
          smelter wastes; radioactive wastes; and metallurgical and
          chemical processing wastes.

Soderquist3  M. R.  Renovating spent cherry brine.  Agricultural Engineering,
          52(1):30-31, Jan. 1971.  Two methods have been devised to treat
          spent cherry brine:  the first involves using lime to reduce the
          sulfur levels  in the brine; with the second, activated carbon  is
          used to decolor the brine and render it reusable.

Wright, C. L.  Treatment of bagasse.  British Patent 1,242,257; filed
          Oct. 16, 1968; issued Aug. 11, 1971.  With this process,  a
          fungicidal acid such as monocarboxylic acid is used to stabilize
          bagasse against mycelial deterioration.


Burchinal3 J. C.3 and L. P. Wallace.  A study of institutional solid
          wastes; final report.  Morgantown,  Department of Civil Engineering,
          West Virginia University, 1971.  234 p.  A report on the  wastes
          generated by the West Virginia University Medical Center  includes
          sections on their physical and chemical compositions, their
          pathogen contents,  the safety precautions which must be adopted
          when handling them, and the costs of the systems recommended for
          their management.
Burchinal3 J. C.3 and L. P. Wallace.  Solid waste generation by medical
          center and individual units; conclusions and recommendations.
          In A study of institutional solid wastes; final report.  Morgantown,
          Department of Civil Engineering, West Virginia University, 1971.
          p.45-49.  Methods recommended for the safe handling and disposal
          of hospital wastes, of which 25 to 30 percent are potentially
          dangerous and should be segregated, are discussed.


Burchinal3 J. C.s and L. P. Wallace.  Physical composition of medical
          center1 solid wastes.  In A study of institutional solid wastes;
          final report.  Morgantown, Department of Civil Engineering,
          West Virginia University, 1971.  p.50-68.  A study of the refuse
          from the West Virginia University Medical Center showed that, not
          including food and pathological wastes, the most common wastes
          in terms of weight were found to be paper, glass, and cloth-
          gauze-cotton items; if a hospital were to use only disposable
          sheets or food service items, the use of some form of volume
          reduction equipment would be essential.
Burchinal3 J. C.s and L. P. Wallace.  Chemical analysis of medical center
          solid wastes.  In A study of institutional solid wastes; final
          report.  Morgantown, Department of Civil Engineering, West
          Virginia University, 1971.  p.69-77.  Chemical analyses were
          performed on the refuse from the West Virginia University Medical
          Center to determine:  moisture content (5 percent), volatile
          solids content (95 percent), ash residue (24 percent by weight),
          Btu values (8,000 per Ib), sulfur content (0.2 percent), phos-
          phorus content (0.03 percent), nitrogen content (0.33 percent),
          carbon content (44 percent), and hydrogen content (7 percent).
Burchinalj J. C.3 and L. P. Wallace.  Bacteriological studies.  Phase I;
          Phase II.   JEn_ A study of institutional solid wastes; final
          report.  Morgantown, Department of Civil Engineering, West
          Virginia University, 1971.  p.78-117.  Although the concentra-
          tions and distributions of the various types of bacteria varied
          according to the area from which the refuse was taken, most of
          the microbes found in the refuse from the West Virginia University
          Medical Center were bacillus organisms, with staphylococcus and
          streptococcus organisms each accounting for 5 to 10 percent of
          the total population,

Burchinal, J. C.3 and L. P. Wallace.  Bacteriological studies.  Phase III.
          In A study of institutional solid wastes; final report.
          Morgantown, Department of Civil Engineering, West Virginia
          University, 1971.  p.117-132.  It was found that there are
          significantly fewer bacteria released when refuse is bagged
          prior to being dropped down a refuse chute; however, the air flow,
          moisture,  heat, and loosely fitting doors of many refuse chutes
          contribute to the breeding and diffusion of bacteria in the refuse
          dropped into them.

Burchinalj  J.  C.,  an.d L.  P.  Wallace.   Virological studies.   In A study of
          institutional solid wastes;  final report.   Morgantown, Department
          of Civil Engineering, West  Virginia University,  1971.  p.133-159.
          Since viruses were found to be persistent  and viable on nearly
          all the  materials  which are discarded by a hospital, it was
          suggested that these materials be carefully sealed in paper  or
          plastic sacks to prevent the spreading of  the viruses.
District of Columbia.   Hospital solid waste management.   In District of
          Columbia solid waste management plan; status report 1970.
          Washington,  U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.  p.11-15.
          Although on-site incineration and plastic refuse container liners
          are widely used in the hospitals surveyed, training and effective
          regulations  are needed, existing incinerators should be replaced
          or modified, and compactors, heavy-duty plastic bags, and  food
          waste grinders should be more widely used.
Handorf, E. C.  Report on hospital-institutions solid waste disposal^
          Memphis and Shelby County.   Memo SS4.  Memphis, Bureau of
          Sanitary Engineering, Memphis and Shelby County Health Department,
          July 21, 1965.  10 p.  Hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, sani-
          tariums, and related institutions were studied in terms of the
          types of wastes generated,  the presence of radioactive matter in
          the wastes, the collection and/or incineration practices employed,
          and defects in the disposal systems.
James M. Montgomery_, Consulting Engineers^ Ino.  Solid waste systems (3).
          In Report on water, wastewater and solid wastes for Disney World,
          Florida.  Glendale, Calif., WED Enterprises, Inc., Oct. 1968.
          p.146-155.  The recommended waste management system for Disney
          World calls for the use of:  an incinerator, a sanitary landfill,
          compactors, a vacuum truck collection system, adequate collection
          equipment, well-enforced control ordinances, garbage comminution,
          and wet grinding of selected items.

Sehatzle, K. C.  Trends in solid waste handling in medical care facilities.
          Ann Arbor, National Sanitation Foundation.  [1970].  6 p.
          Medical care facilities have shown an increasing trend toward the
          replacement of reusable items by disposables, which has resulted
          in an increase in the amount of waste generated per patient per
          day from 3 to 4 Ib in 1955 to 15 to 20 Ib in 1970.


Distinct of Columbia.  Proposed health regulations:  title 8S chapter 3,
          part 6:  solid waste regulations.  In District of Columbia solid
          waste management plan:  status report 1970.  Washington, U.S.
          Government Printing Office, 1971.  p.83-93.  The proposed regu-
          lations cover refuse storage, collection, and disposal, dead
          animals, leaves, and open burning.
Jauck, E.j and W. Mensing.  Concerning the need for a federal sanitation
          law.  Muell und Abfall, 3(4):89-91, Apr. 1971.  Presently, a
          West German law is being prepared which will regulate the
          collection, processing, and storage of all refuse which affects
          the public; the law also imposes limitations on refuse importa-
          tion and the utilization of disposable containers.  (Text in
Loading and unloading provisions of automotive liability policies.
          Solid Wastes Management/Refuse Removal Journal, 14(5):120A,
          120D, May 1971.  Two doctrines have been established in deciding
          lawsuits involving claims arising from the loading and unloading
          of refuse:  one holds that a hauler is responsible only during
          the action and time period of.the actual moving of merchandise
          from one point to another; the other holds that liability extends
          to all situations in which a causal relationship with loading,
          unloading, and transporting materials can be established.
McLean} M.  The practical uses of zoning.  T_n_ Proceedings; National Conference
          on Solid Waste Disposal Sites, 1971.  Chicago, American Public
          Works Association, July 1971.  p.25-31.  To facilitate zoning
          for disposal sites, it is recommended that the type of disposal
          be defined, the operating characteristics be identified, and access
          and equipment be determined.

Eodgers, P.   Solid waste management:  a new dimension for the public utility
          concept.  Waste Age, 2(3):32, 34, 59, May-June 1971.  Based on
          the notion of a 'public utility,' New Jersey's Solid Waste Utility
          Control Act of 1970 has authorized the New Jersey Board of Public
          Utility Commissioners to regulate the collection and disposal of
          solid waste.


Sakakij  K.  Lou concerning wastes disposal and cleaning and its  application.
          Toshi to Haikibutsu,  1(1):46-50, May 1971.   In July 1970,  the
          Japanese government passed a new law (Law 137)  which,  by setting
          up standards for refuse storage, transportation,  and disposal,
          is intended to improve the refuse disposal  systems,  not control
          them.  (Text in Japanese)


Litter survey report for the State of Florida.   Tallahassee, Department  of
          Air and Water Pollution Control, State of Florida, 1971.   89 p.
          Litter and related problems in the State of Florida are discussed
          and a number of possible approaches for their resolution  are
          delineated; a program is formulated from a consideration  of these

Discussion; law enforcement.  In Litter survey report for the State  of
          Florida.  Tallahassee, Department of Air and Water Pollution
          Control, State of Florida, 1971.  p.36-43.   Although there are
          presently at least five State laws pertaining to litter prevention
          in Florida, they do not cover all possible litter violations  and,
          because there is little incentive to do so, they are often not

Education.  In Litter survey report for the State of Florida.  Tallahassee,
          Department of Air and Water Pollution Control, State of Florida,
          1971.  p.43-47.  In addition to the national educational  programs
          regarding litter prevention, Florida has become involved  in State
          anti-litter programs, campaigns, and surveys, all of which are
          aimed at stimulating public responsibility and pride in  attractive

Industry.  In Litter survey report for the State of Florida.  Tallahassee,
          Department of Air and Water Pollution Control, State of Florida,
          1971.  p.47-50.  Industries in Florida, particularly the  beer,
          soft drink, and container manufacturers, have devoted considerable
          time and over $40 million to the promotion of anti-litter concepts,
          programs, and research.
Government.  In Litter survey report for the State of Florida.  Tallahassee,
          Department of Air and Water Pollution Control, State of Florida,
          1971.  p.50-51.  In 1970, 24 litter-prevention bills were proposed
          in the U.S. Congress, with similar bills being proposed in 25
          States and several cities and counties; most of these bills were
          aimed at controlling beverage container litter.

Parks and people can keep America beautiful.   [Washington], U.S. Department
          of the Interior.  [1964]. 7 p.  The National Park Service is
          using personal contacts, exhibits,  and audio-visual programs in
          its recently expanded campaign against litter; it is believed
          that these efforts have resulted in a reduction in the per capita
          generation of litter.
White,  R. F.  Litter bag.   U.S. Patent 3,589,595;  filed Apr.  3, 1969;
          issued June 29,  1971.  Pressure-sensitive adhesive  tape,  which
          is affixed across the rear wall of this  paper bag,  is covered
          with a peelable nonsticky tape which, when stripped off,  permits
          the mouth of the bag to be suspended in  an open position.

Collins, J. F.  Session summary:  developing citizen cooperation.   In
          Proceedings; National Conference on Solid Waste Disposal Sites,
          1971.  Chicago, American Public Works Association, July 1971.
          p.44.  The most effective public relations program for solid
          waste is a long-term educational program which imparts via a
          presentation of the facts, an understanding of the scope of the
          problem and the benefits to be gained from solving it.
Dominick,  D.  D.   Environmental programs of the future.   Journal of Soil
          and Water Conservation, 26(5):180-182,  Sept.-Oct. 1971.   A
          discussion is presented concerning the  following areas in which
          EPA is active:  pesticides,  land utilization,  the selection of
          power plant sites, sediment  control, water pollution from feedlot
          runoff, resource recovery, and air pollution.
Gilbertson,  W.  E.   Session summary:   technical elements of site location.
          In Proceedings; National Conference on Solid Waste Disposal
          Sites, 1971.  Chicago, American Public Works Association,  July
          1971.  p.43-44.  It is concluded that, despite recycling and
          reuse, increasing amounts  of land and larger and more diverse
          facilities will be needed for solid waste disposal; improved
          management will also be needed to encourage public acceptance of
          nearby disposal operations, and Federal programs must become
          involved in making public lands available as waste disposal sites.

Hart, S. A.  Solid wastes management in Germany; report of the U.S.  Solid
          Wastes Study Team visit June 25 - July 83  1967.   Public Health
          Service Publication No. 1812.  Washington, U.S.  Government Printing
          Office, 1968.  18 p.  Refuse quantities, compositions, storage,
          collection, composting, and incineration in Germany are reviewed,
          along with German air pollution standards  and waste heat recovery
Helms, B. P., and R. M. Clark.   Selecting solid waste disposal facilities.
          Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal
          of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 97(SA4):443-451, Aug. 1971.
          A mathematical model based on the fixed-charge approach is presented
          as a means of selecting between alternatives for solid waste dis-
          posal; the approach is illustrated using an example problem based
          on Buffalo's two existing landfills and two existing incinerators.
Jablin, E.  Environmental control at Alan Wood:  technical problems,
          regulations and new processes.  Iron and Steel Engineer, 48
          (7):58-65, July 1971.  Among the procedures which have been
          introduced to handle solid wastes at the Alan Wood Steel Company
          are:  a slag pelletizer, which reduces hydrogen sulfide emissions;
          a waste water treatment plant with an accompanying sludge lagoon;
          a waste liquor distillation facility; and an incinerator equipped
          with a scrubber.

Klee3 A, J.  Systems analysis and solid wastes, a critical overview.
          [Cincinnati], U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
          17 p.  This paper attempts to define systems analysis, to compare
          it to operations research, and to define the areas of decision-
          making in which each can be helpful.

Rich, G. F.  Cleansing problems associated with holiday resorts.  Public
          Cleansing, 61(6):260-268, June 1971.  The paper sack is the ideal
          solution to the problem of efficient collection for summer resorts,
          and incineration is the best means of disposal for those towns
          where dumping is often impossible for lack of space.
Tyne, E. V.  The case for a solid waste disposal utility.  Power^ 115(5) :95,
          May 1971.  The advantages of operating a solid waste disposal
          facility as a utility include:  the facilitation of personnel
          recruitment; the economization of plant construction and operation;
          the possibility of regionalizing solid waste management and thereby
          rendering it more efficient; and the possibility of operating
          the facility at a profit via the sale of by-products.


Vaughanj R. D.  Land disposal for solid wastes:  the present state and
          concepts for the future.  In Proceedings; National Conference
          on Solid Waste Disposal Sites, 1971.  Chicago, American Public
          Works Association, July 1971.  p.7-8.  Although sanitary landfill
          stands as the best solution for the disposal of nonreclaimable
          solid wastes 3 there are major obstacles to its more widespread
          use in the form of insufficient local funds and social and polit-
          ical opposition to the establishment of new sites.

Xanten, W. A.  Session summary:  planning^ zoning3 and legal aspects.  In_
          Proceedings; National Conference on Solid Waste Disposal Sites,
          1971.  Chicago, American Public Works Association, July 1971.  p.45.
          With regard to solid waste disposal land-use planning, State
          governments must provide more active leadership, zoning laws must
          be revamped, counties must be encouraged to manage and operate
          disposal sites, and cooperative efforts among agencies at various
          governmental levels should be stimulated.

Kinney,  E. T.3 and A. Constant.  Control of shipboard wastes.   Naval
          Engineers^ Journal, 83(3) : 118-129 , June 1971.  Existing procedures
          for controlling the pollutan-ts generated by naval ships and
          advanced concepts for more complete control are discussed.
Mounting restrictions on land could lead to ocean dumping,  jolid Wastes
          Management/Refuse Removal Journal, 14(6):44, 90, 92, Sept. 1971.
          Some of the steps which have been taken or recommended to prevent
          the widespread pollution of U.S. coastal waters through the
          uncontrolled ocean dumping of solid wastes are reviewed.

Webb, A. W.   (Webbco Research and Development).  Method and apparatus for
          refuse disposal.   U.S. Patent 3,595,161; filed Oct. 23, 1969;
          issued July 27, 1971.  Both refuse and wood wastes can be trans-
          ported out to sea and disposed of by this apparatus, which consists
          of a barge equipped with a large-diameter telescoping pipe that
          extends 50 ft above and 300 ft below the surface of the water;
          a smaller diameter pipe is utilized in disposing of the wood wastes,


Aluminum packaging and the solid waste disposal problem.   New York,  The
          Aluminum Association, Oct. 8, 1968.  2 p.  Although not bio-
          degradable, aluminum wastes are easily disposed of via sanitary
          landfill or incineration, and because of its scrap value,  aluminum
          presents less of a litter problem than some other materials.

Cans.  Modern Packaging, 44(4):24-26, 30, Apr. 1971.  Some of the advances
          in steel- and aluminum-can technology are presented and discussed
          in terms of their relationship to the one-way beverage packaging

The case of the disappearing piokle jar..  The Trumpeter,  51(5) :3-6,  Oct.
          1970.  A new container made of water-soluble sodium silicate
          material coated with a thin, nondissolving plastic can be dissolved
          under the kitchen faucet, leaving only the easily disposed of
          plastic coating.

Connolly, H. C.  Plastic wastes in the coming decade.  Public Cleansing,
          61(12):618-626, Dec. 1971.  In order to avoid restrictions on the
          use of plastics, both industry and government must work to develop
          new incineration and recycling technologies to handle the increasing
          volumes of these materials.

Coquelin, R.   (Ethylene Plastique).  Rapidly degradable plastic packaging
          material.  French Patent 2,038,807; filed Mar.  28, 1969; issued
          Dec. 28, 1970.  The packaging material is made of ethylene and
          carbon monoxide copolymers, both of which can be completely destroyed
          via several months of exposure to the atmosphere and natural sun-
          light.  (Text in French)

Hayata, S.  Breaking down of plastic waste under exposure to the sun and
          use of crushed plastics for soil improvement.  Kagaku Keizai, 8
          (3):30-34, Mar. 1971.  The decomposition of polypropylene and
          styrene resins following exposure to the sun's rays is described,
          as is the use of styrofoam chips as a soil conditioner.  (Text
          in Japanese)
Lincoln, C. W.  The solid waste disposal problem.   Australian Packaging, 19
           (5):69-71, May 1971.  To help alleviate the problems of solid
          waste disposal, the volumes of packaging materials must be reduced
          either by the efforts of the packaging industry or by government

M and T Chemicals sets ecology 'can-paign '.   Secondary Raw Materials, 9
          (12):102, Dec. 1971.  Employees of M and T Chemicals, Inc., are
          urged to bring empty cans to collection points on the company
          grounds, after which the cans are shipped to the company's
          recycling plant, shredded, chemically separated, and recycled.

Packaging waste disposal.  Material Handling Engineering, Special Issue,
          42-47, 1971.  The Ford Motor Company and the Union Camp Corpora-
          tion are operating a joint program under which Ford will segregate
          the corrugated in which automotive parts are packed for shipment
          to Ford plants and sell it to Union Camp in an average quantity
          of 50,000 to 100,000 tons per year; Union Camp will then convert
          the corrugated waste into useful products.

Plastic containers get new lease on life.  Plastics ForId, 29(9):60-61,
          Sept. 1971.  Kleen Tech, Inc. of Newark, New Jersey, has developed
          a process which sanitizes and strips labels, printing, and
          decorations from polyethylene, polypropylene, and PVC containers,
          returning them to the customer ready to be reused.
Staudinger, J. J. P.  Disposal of plastics waste and litter.  Collection.
          Sanitary landfill.  Pre-treatment.  In Disposal of plastics waste
          and litter.  S.C.I. Monograph No. 35.  London, Society of Chemical
          Industry, 1970.  p.39-52.  Plastic wastes are most efficiently
          collected in plastic or paper refuse sacks, with sanitary landfill
          being the best and most popular means for disposing of them;
          compaction and/or comminution of the wastes is often desirable
          if not necessarily easily accomplished, and, although plastics
          cannot be composted, their presence in compost will not harm vege-


Briquetting with a difference.  Materials Reclamation Weekly, 118(17):
          20-21, Apr. 14, 1971.  A description is given of a new briquetting
          machine which is made by Hutt G.m.b.H. of West Germany and which
          can handle swarf and all metals in powder or particle form
Charles 3 E. E.  He fuse compaction handling equipment utilizing fluids under
          low pressure.  U.S. Patent 3,575,103; filed Aug. 19, 1968; issued
          Apr. 13, 1971.  An immovable structure is adapted to be held in a
          substantially fixed position while a movable, self-supporting,
          fluid-tight structure is variably positioned and expanded to and
          from the immovable structure, thereby moving.


Cross,  J. A., and W.  E.  Franklin.   Pole of shredding in solid waste
          management.   In Market opportunities for shredders in solid waste
          management;  final report.  Kansas City, Mo.,  Midwest Research
          Institute,  June 7, 1971.  p.27-30.  Refuse must be shredded before
          it is composted, pyrolyzed, mechanically separated, or incinerated
          in fluid beds, and compaction is more efficient if the refuse is
          shredded; in addition, shredding is desirable prior to sanitary
          landfilling and may become necessary prior to incineration in
          suspension-firing systems.

Cross,  J. A., and W.  E.  Franklin.   Shredding equipment.  In Market oppor-
          tunities for shredders in solid waste management; final report.
          Kansas City, Mo., Midwest Research Institute, June 7, 1971.
          p.31-39.  There are three basic types of machines for shredding
          refuse and scrap:  the hammennill; the Tollemache shredder, which
          is similar to the hammermill but mounted on a vertical axis; and
          the Eidal shredder, which has a vertical axis and a series of
          grinders operating in a horizontal plane to shred the material
          as it passes through the unit.

Di Stefano, A.  Combination garbage grinder and pump.  U.S. Patent 3,591,095;
          filed Nov. 25, 1968; issued July 6, 1971.  This unit, which can
          be used to grind bones and other similar bulky wastes, is equipped
          with one element which acts as both a shredding plate and a pumping

Duszynski, E. J.  A case for milling refuse.  Pollution Engineering, 3(3):
          29-31, May-June 1971.  Milling refuse reduces or eliminates prob-
          lems with rats, flies, and fires, reduces the amount of space
          required for refuse disposal, and eliminates the need for cover

High density solid waste baler unveiled.  Waste Age, 2(6):28-29, Nov.-Dec.
          1971.  American Solid Waste Systems' new baling station is
          equipped with an hydraulic press which compacts 1,000 tons of
          waste per day with a force of 5 million Ib, producing a bacteria-free,
          uniform desk-size bales with a consistent density of 60 Ib per cu ft.
New system for reclaiming copper from insulated wire.  Secondary Raw
          Materials, 9(1):56, 58, Jan. 1971.  The Noll Reclaiming System
          automatically shears insulated wire into lengths, macerates it,
          separates the insulation, pelletizes the copper, and purifies it.

      A.  (Firma Adolf Eies).  Terminal rubbish-compressor for attachment
          to rubbish chutes in buildings.  Swiss Patent 503,577;  filed Dec.
          5, 1969; issued Apr. 15, 1971.  Rubbish from buildings  is conducted
          via a common duct into an airtight receptor within which a vacuum
          is maintained; from there it is introduced into an attached cham-
          ber and compressor for disposal by an hydraulic piston  assembly.
          (Text in German)

Seminar on scrap handling.  Materials Reclamation Weekly, 119(17):17-19 , 37,
          Oct. 23, 1971.  Several experts on scrap handling reported that
          fragmentizers and shredders would, in their opinions, replace
          balers in the next few years as the main devices for processing
          the lighter grades of scrap metal.
Staudinger3 J. J. P.  Disposal of plastics Waste and litter.   On site
          disposal.  Compaction and baling.  In Disposal of plastics waste
          and litter.  S.C.I. Monograph No. 35.  London, Society of Chemical
          Industry, 1970.  p.69-74.  Shredding and compaction can be used in
          the household to reduce refuse volumes and thereby reduce waste
          collection and transport costs; in addition, the compaction of
          refuse, especially plastics, can be used to lengthen the lives of
          landfills and to facilitate the reclamation of land and the long-
          distance hauling of wastes.
Streamlined scrap handling.  Iron and Steel, 44(5):344, Oct. 1971.  The
          British Steel Company's Shotton Works has installed a completely
          automatic, computerized scrap baler which compresses 4,000 tons
          of metal each week into uniform bales measuring 2 ft by 3 ft.
System 2—compressed bales an flat cars.  In The Western Pacific Railroad
          plan for disposal of San Francisco's solid waste.  Oakland,
          Kaiser Engineers, Apr. 1968.  p.V(l-5).  As an alternative to
          its containerized long-distance hauling system, San Francisco
          investigated a new system under which refuse would be compressed
          and baled prior to being hauled and landfilled; costs, hazards,
          and nuisances would all be reduced with such a system.
Tezuka, K.  Trash blocks used for landfill.   Japanese Patent 46-30,664;
          filed Dec. 26, 1967; issued Sept.  6, 1971.  The 60-by-70-by-60-cm
          trash blocks are composed of compressed urban wastes coated with
          a tar-base coating, a pitch-base coating, or an asphalt-base
          coating.  (Text in Japanese)


Cahn,  D.  S.   Agglomeration of steel plant furnace  dust with cement  binders.
          Transactions of the Society of Mining Engineers,  AIMS,  250(3):
          173-177, Sept.  1971.  Pilot plant and laboratory  tests  were made
          on blends of steel plant flue dust and portland cement  to deter-
          mine whether the flue dust could be pelletized for use  as a source
          of iron in dry process cement manufacture;  strength and setting
          time results showed that an acceptable agglomerate can  be made
          with a Type II portland cement binder.
Clark, T. D.   Economic barriers to recycling and suggestions for Federal
          action.  In Economic realities of reclaiming natural resources
          in solid waste.  Cincinnati, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
          1971.  p.8-12.  The economic barriers to recycling include the
          costliness of separating the reclaimable materials from the non-
          reclaimable refuse, and the lack of markets for recycled materials;
          corrective Federal actions which might be applied to these problems
          are presented.
Converse, A. 0., H. E. Grethlein, S.  Karankikar, and S.  Kuhrtz.   A laboratory
          study and economic analysis for the acid hydrolysis of cellulose
          in refuse to sugar and its fermentation to alcohol.  Hanover, N.H.,
          Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, July 1971.  68 p.
          Economic analysis of the acid hydrolysis process shows that sugar
          can be produced at a price comparable to the existing market price
          for sugar from molasses ($0.02 to $0.03 per Ib); ethanol can be
          produced at a price lower than $0.52 per gal.

Felton, A. J.  Handling the problem papers - wet strength, asphalt, poly-
          coated, eto.  Paper Trade Journal, 155(37);70-72, Sept. 13, 1971.
          Methods which can be applied to the recovery of high-brightness
          polymer, wax-coated, asphalt-contaminated, and mixed paper are
          presented, along with systems for recovering wood fiber from
Flegal, C. J., and H. C. Zindel.  The result of feeding dried poultry waste
          to  laying hens on egg production and feed conversion.  In Poultry
          pollution:  problems and solutions.  Research Report 117.  Farm
          science.  East Lansing, Agricultural Experiment Station, Michigan
          State University, July 1970.  p.29-30.  Compared to the control
          group of hens, which produced one dozen eggs for each 2.11 kg of
          feed, control groups fed their normal rations plus 10 percent dried
          poultry waste (DPW) and control groups fed their normal rations
          plus calcium, phosphorus, and 10 percent DPW yielded one dozen
          eggs per 1.91 kg of feed and 1.95 kg of feed, respectively.


(Glanzstoff A.G. ) .   Binding scrap filaments of polyester and poly amide
          resins to make insulating mats or panels.  Dutch Patent 7,008,204;
          filed June 5, 1970; issued Feb. 2, 1971.  The mats are made by
          aerodynamically layering and heating recovered scrap fibers or
          by netting the scrap fibers with a compatible binder having a
          lower melting point.  (Text in Dutch)
Hall, G. S.  Utilisation of wood waste.  Chemistry and Industry, (28):781-784,
          July 10, 1971.  Wood wastes can be used:  in the production of
          building blocks; as litter and bedding for animals; as compost
          material; as cattle feed; in charcoal production; and in chemical
          processing to obtain various organic and inorganic products.

Kato, K. 3 T. Kii, M. Kawamure, and J. Morimoto.  Investigation on slags as
          blasting material (I).  Bulletin of the Government Industrial
          Research Institute, 22(3):214-223, Sept. 1971.  It was found that
          the effectiveness of the oxide slags as blasting materials was
          dependent upon the toughness of the individual grains; in addition,
          the slags with noncrystalline structures proved to be better blast-
          ing materials than did those slags with crystalline structures.
          (Text in Japanese)

Kuzin, I. A.3 and L. A. Koemets.  Preparation of a phosphate cation exchanger
          from wood waste.  Journal of Applied Chemistry of the USSR, 4
          (4):772-775, Apr. 1971.  A feasible method is presented for the
          phosphorylation of sawdust to produce a phosphorus-containing
          resin which is suitable as an industrial adsorbent.

Lopuja3 V.3 and C. Triana.  Study of the prehydrolysis-sulphate process to
          obtain dissolving pulp from sugar cane bagasse.   Cuba Azucar,
          111:58-64, Jan.-Mar. 1970.  Decreases in the pentosan content,
          viscosity, degree of polymerization, and yield of the pulp were
          observed when the temperature and retention time of the depithed
          bagasse cook were increased.

Mix of pulp and paper pollutants and clay may lead to new building materials.
          Science Dimension, 101(3):24-25, Apr. 1971.  By whipping common
          clay with spent sulphite liquor, a remarkably stable foam can be
          made; this foam can then be air dried and fired to produce a
          permanent low-density ceramic foam block.

Navy may sink your Waste cost.  Modern Manufacturing, (4):75, Apr. 1971.
          The U.S. Navy is attempting to standardize and lower the costs
          of a wet-air-oxidation process which can convert all organic
          wastes into drinkable water, carbon dioxide, and usable steam.

Nishikawa3 S.  (Kurita Engineering Co.3 Ltd.)..  Method for separating
          polysaccharides from activated sludge.   Japanese Patent 46-10,017;
          filed Aug. 2, 1967; issued Mar. 13, 1971.  The activated sludge is
          screened, centrifuged, stirred, treated with an organic solvent,
          and neutralized to separate out the polysaccharides produced by
          microorganisms during the waste water clarification process.  (Text
          in Japanese)

Ono, T.   (T. lamoto).  Method of manufacturing activated adsorbant by
          treating excrements.  Japanese Patent 46-21,361; filed Dec. 21,
          1968; issued June 17, 1971.  The sludge is treated with a carbide
          residue, dried, distilled, and treated with bleaching powder,
          silicate soda, and lime; then the carbon is activated, the carbon
          and lime are caked, and the cake is crushed to produce the adsorb-
          ant.  (Text in Japanese)

Pennachetti, J. T.  (Enercon International Limited).  Fly ash recovery and
          use.  German Patent 1,812,714; filed Dec. 4, 1968; issued Aug.
          5, 1971.  Fly ash obtained during the combustion of coal products
          is subjected to dry magnetic separation, with the nonmagnetic
          fraction being used as an additive for building materials and the
          magnetic fraction being utilized as an iron concentrate.  (Text
          in German)

Petrdlik3 M.3 V. Rubesh, I. D. Radomyselsky3 A. F. Zhornyak, and
          I. S. Nikishov.  Development of the iron powder production technique
          by reduction from iron oxides obtained by processing iron sulphates
          of etching solutions.  Poroshkoyaya Metallurgiya, 7(103p):6-ll,
          1971.  The utilization of the etching solutions formed as metal-
          lurgical and chemical wastes is discussed, with particular emphasis
          being given to the utilization of iron sulfate as a new raw material
          source for iron powder production.   (Text in Russian)

Plant recovers kerosene from plastic waste.  Chemical Economy and Engineering
          Review, 3(12) :48, Dec. 1971.  Mitsui Petrochemical Industries of
          Japan has opened a new plant which produces a nonsulfured kerosene-
          like oil from polyethylene and polyester scrap.


Porter, M. C.3 P. Schratter, and P. N.  Rigopulos.   Byproduct recovery by
          ultrafiltration.   Industrial Water Engineering, 8(6):18-24,
          June-July 1971.  Ultrafiltration can be used to:  treat polymer
          latex wastes and nuclear power plant and pulp and papermill
          effluents; remove starch from starch industry waste liquors;
          recover size from textile mill effluents; and selectively remove
          proteins, salts,  and lactose from cheese whey, slaughterhouse
          blood, and inedible animal tissues.

Pryor, M. J.} and S. F. Eager.  (Olin Corporation).  Method for reclaiming
          copper scrap containing titanium and/or iron.  U.S. Patent 3,556,962;
          filed Jan. 24, 1968; issued Jan. 19, 1971.  The scrap is immersed
          in a sulfuric acid electrolyte through which an electric current
          is passed between a metallic cathode and the scrap, which serves
          as the anode; the copper is deposited on the cathode.

(Rheinische Kalksteinwerke  G.m.b.H.).  Purification of phosphorous production
          slags.  French Patent 2,025,921; filed Aug. 14, 1969; patent pending.
          The slags are cooled rapidly in water, granulated, and screened to
          produce a material which can be used as an additive in the fabrica-
          tion of construction materials or as a raw material in the production
          of portland cement clinkers.   (Text in French)

Santt, R.  Valorisation of waste mining products by vitrification.  Annales
          des Mines, (3):43-56, Mar. 1971.  The glass obtained by this process
          sticks strongly to metal and cement, and finds application in the
          glass industries, where it is used, in novel and original ways, in
          building, public works, and industry.  (Text in French)

Tyrrell^ M. E.3 and I.  L. Feld.  Fabrication and cost evaluation of experi-
          mental building brick from Waste glass; U.S. Bureau of Mines Report
          of Investigations 7605.   Pittsburgh, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1971.
          17 p.  Face brick of good color and high quality can be produced
          utilizing the metal-free glass fractions of municipal incinerator
          residue as the principal component.

Tyrrell3 M. E.3 and I.  L. Feld.  Economics of producing brick from waste
          glass.  In Fabrication and cost evaluation of experimental building
          brick from waste glass; U.S.  Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations
          7605.  Pittsburgh, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1971.  p.18-33.  The fixed
          capital cost for converting the colored glass output from a single
          250-ton-per-day incinerator residue plant to building brick would
          be $762,260;  the cost for converting the outputs from three residue
          plants to brick would be $1,642,870.


Venkatakrishnan3  N.3  S.  R.  Lal3  and P.  B.  Mathur.   (Council of Scientific
          and Industrial Research).   Eecovering tin from sheet metal waste.
          German Patent 1,583,870; filed Aug.  22,  1967;  issued May 27,  1971.
          The sheet metal waste (tin-plated iron)  is treated with 5N saturated
          hydrochloric acid in the presence of formaldehyde, after which the
          precipitate tin is washed and dried in the usual way and is melted
          in the presence of 40 to 90 percent  pure ammonium chloride and 40
          to 10 percent pure calcium chloride.  (Text in German)

Wilson, A. W.  Bagasse pulping in remote Argentina.  Pulp and Paper
          International, 13(2):50-52, Feb. 1971.  With the use of a Ritter
          bagasse bulk storage system and a black  liquor recovery system,
          Ledesma, Argentina's bagasse mill is able to produce a high-quality
          paper which can be used for printing, offset,  and writing.

Winkler, J.   Method of conversion of oil-spills into improved^ rubberised
          carbon-black and fiber-fortified asphaltic materials.   U.S. Patent
          3,567,660;  filed Feb. 2, 1970; issued Mar. 2,  1971.  Waste oil
          and oil spills are converted into improved rubberized fiber-fortified
          asphaltic material via coagulation with  previously ground, spent
          automotive rubber tires premixed with powdered polystyrene or


DiPietro3  J.3 and H.  Stepniezka.  Flame retarded systems.   A study of ABS3
          polystyrene^ and polyester.  Plastic in  Australia, 22(5);7-9.
          11-13, May 1971.  The correlation of several critical parameters,
          such as gas flow rate, temperature,  and  specimen geometry, which
          affect the Limiting Oxygen Index was investigated for ABS, poly-
          styrene, and polyesters.

Gutfreund, K.  Conclusion.   J[n Feasibility study of the disposal of poly-
          ethylene plastic waste.  Washington, U.S. Government Printing
          Office, 1971.  p.41-42.  The approach most favored for the ultimate
          disposal of polyethylene involves the oxidative degradation and
          concomitant nitration of polyethylene by exposure to RFNA, or
          binary systems including ammonia.

Markland,  J.3 and J.  Vallance.  Investigation of the uptake of lead by
          vegetables from composts containing lead.  Journal of the
          Association of Public Analysts, 9(4):119-121,  Dec. 1971.  The
          results of this investigation show that  soil contamination has a
          great effect on growth and conclusions cannot be drawn from this
          type of experiment until the soil contamination effect is eliminated.

         R. J,  Modifications of Solvay Process solid waste disposal.
          M.S. Thesis, Syracuse University, June 1971.  56 p.  The treatment
          of Solvay Process wastes by sand underdrainage rather than lagooning
          results in a greater reduction in alkalinity, volume, suspended
          solids, and toxicity; the possibility of a greater reduction in
          total solids using sand underdrainage was also demonstrated.

Renovated wastewater for industry?  American City, 86(6):118, 120, June 1971.
          A description is given of the technical and operational aspects of
          a pilot program testing the feasibility of treating sludge to
          produce water for industrial use.

Research on dried poultry Waste in progress.   In Poultry pollution—problems and
          solutions.  Research Report 117.   Farm science.   East Lansing,
          Agricultural Experiment Station, Michigan State University,  July
          1970.  p.47-48.  Research currently in progress at the Agricultural
          Experiment Station of Michigan State University includes:  a study
          to determine whether drugs such as Aureomycin, WF 180, Amphrol,
          or one of the arsenicals will carry through from the poultry feed
          into the waste product; and an investigation into the effect of
          the drying temperature and the length of storage time on the protein
          content of dried poultry waste.

Smith, E. E.3 and J. D. Jenkins.  Salts concentrations in a recycling aerobic
          waste disposal system.  Transactions of the American Society of
          Agricultural Engineers, 16(4):1,076-1,079, Nov.-Dec. 1971.  It was
          found that there is little danger of the salt concentration having
          adverse effects on microbial action in a recycling aerobic poultry-
          waste digester because sludge removal will keep the concentration
          at an acceptable level.


Alexander, R. M.3 Jr.3 and J. V. Walters.  A solid-waste partnership with
          4 towns keeps all of Chilton County clean and green.  APWA Reporter,
          38(8):30-32, Aug. 1971.  A project of solid waste disposal involving
          a partnership between Chilton County, Alabama, and its four munici-
          palities has been instituted; the system involves municipal door-
          to-door collection, collection by the county from about 60 containers
          in rural sites, and disposition of all solids wastes in a central
          sanitary landfill.



      W.  Planning of small- and medium-sized landfills.   Muell und Abfall,
          3(1):1-7, Jan. 1971.  The calculation of the size of a landfill
          site should be based on a refuse quantity of about 1.5 cu m per
          resident per year, with an annual increase of about 5 percent and
          a refuse weight of about 250 kg per resident per year, with an
          annual increase of 3 percent.   (Text in German)

Griffiths #• E.  An ecological design for waste disposal.  In Proceedings;
          National Conference on Solid Waste Disposal Sites, 1971.   Chicago,
          American Public Works Association, July 1971.  p.21-24.  Unless
          thoroughly sealed, marshes and bogs are poor selections as sanitary
          landfill sites due to the danger of water pollution which they
          pose; the best disposal sites are uncommitted open lands, manmade
          caverns, quarries, and worked-out mines.

Earn, R. K.  The cost of large elevation landfilling.  Public Works, 102(5):
          77-80, May 1971.  A cost analysis for the construction of a large
          elevation landfill in Madison, Wisconsin, includes: $1,500,000 for
          site preparation; annual capital costs of $77,020, assuming a life
          of 27 years; annual operating costs of $178,715; hill finishing
          costs of $310,000; and a cost per ton of $2.73.

Hart3 S. A.   Landfilling.  In Solid wastes management in Germany; report of
          the U.S. Solid Wastes Study Team visit June 25 - July  8,  1967.
          Public Health Service Publication No. 1812.  Washington,  U.S.
          Government Printing Office, 1968.  p.5-8.  A study of sanitary
          landfilling practices in Germany revealed that:  land is  expensive
          and hard to obtain, especially in Berlin; land reclamation is
          practical; although not technically sanitary, the German landfills
          are well run; and regional planning is being attempted in several

Hughes, G. M., R. A. London, and R. N. Farvolden.  Selection of sites,
          design, and operation of sanitary landfills.  J-n_ Hydrogeology of
          solid waste disposal sites in northeastern Illinois.  Washington,
          U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.  p.53-68.  The  critical
          factors in site selection are the cost of refuse transport, site
          acquisition, site modification, and operation balanced against the
          value of the reclaimed land; the design objectives all involve
          leachate control.

Hughes, G. M., R.  A.  London, and R.  N.  Farvolden.   Fluorometric procedure
          for detecting leadhate in glacial materials:   hydrographs.   In
          Hydrogeology of solid waste disposal sites in northeastern Illinois,
          Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,  1971.  p.136-143.
          The fluorometric method for the detection of  leachate proceeds
          as follows:  a sample of 25 g of fresh material is suspended in
          water and centrifuged, and the supernatant is examined for fluo-
          rescence; a second reading is taken after hydrochloric acid has
          been added to make a 5 percent solution of the sample.
Porkhurst, J. D.   Techno-economics of londfilling.   In Proceedings; National
          Conference on Solid Waste Disposal Sites, 1971.  Chicago, American
          Public Works Association, July 1971.  p.9-20.  Engineering and
          planning studies in Los Angeles County have shown that sanitary
          land disposal is the most economical means of waste disposal for
          the area, especially if hauling distances are not greater than 20
          miles,  land reclamation is practiced, and nearby sand and gravel
          pits can be adapted as landfill sites.
Pierau, E.  Test on the dumping behavior of shredded domestic refuse.
          Kommunalwirtschaft, (1):23-29, Jan. 1971.  Investigations into
          the advantages of shredding domestic refuse prior to dumping
          have shown that transportation is facilitated and that, because
          of the increased surface area of the individual refuse particles,
          the process of controlled composting is much more effective.
          (Text in German)

Sanitary landfill (II-A).  In Solid waste disposal in Greater Canton,  Ohio.
          Water and Sanitation Committee of Greater Canton Chamber of
          Commerce, Mar. 10, 1969.  p.7-11.  Municipal sanitary land disposal
          is discussed in terms of site locational, equipment, personnel,
          and operational requirements.

Schoeriberger, R. J., and A.  A.  Fungaroli.  Incinerator-residue-fill site
          investigation.  Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations
          Division, 97(SM10):1,431-1,443, Oct. 1971.  An abandoned reservoir
          which is being used as a landfill site for Philadelphia's municipal
          incinerator residue was studied to determine the long term changes
          in the residue and its leachate and to assess the suitability of
          such a site for subsequent site development.

Tyminskii, V. C.3 and A. J.  Spiridonov.   Select-ion of zones suitable for
          burial of industrial waste.   Soviet Atomic Energy, 29(5):1,137-1,139,
          Nov. 1970.  Uranium migration coefficients and U234/U238 ratios were
          used to determine the complex hydrodynamic conditions of the subsur-
          face waters of East Germany's Tashkent artesian basin so that
          geologically favorable regions for dumping industrial effluents
          could be selected.


Cross., J. A.s and W. E.  Franklin.   Technology - trends and new developments.
          In Market opportunities for shredders in solid waste management;
          final report.   Kansas City,  Mo., Midwest Research Institute, June
          7, 1971.  p.16-18.  Because salvaging and recycling are now the
          national policy, most of the newly proposed solid waste management
          systems include two functions:  the reduction of the mixed refuse
          to particles of small, relatively uniform size; and the separation
          of material into various classes.

EvanSj M.  Selective melting of mixed metallic scrap.  Secondary Raw Materials,
          9(12):72, 76,  78, 80, Dec. 1971.  College Research Company has
          patented a metal separator which comprises a furnace in the form
          of a rotary kiln; a total metallic selective melting recovery
          system would include three CORECO furnaces in tandem, with one
          reclaiming lead, the second reclaiming zinc, and the third reclaiming

Hezel3 W. J.  (Waste Reclamation Corporation).  Trash segregation apparatus.
          U.S. Patent 3,572,503; filed Nov. 4, 1968; issued Mar. 30, 1971.
          This apparatus, which comprises a vibratory conveyor, a closed
          circuit conduit with a venturi, and a blower, segregates refuse
          according to its specific gravity.

Rohrer, E.   Comparative tests on the Durafiner in a waste paper stock
          preparation system.  Paper Technology, 11(6) :431, 432, 498, 1970.
          The Durafiner uses a hammermill with a vertical shaft and  fixed
          hammers to sort usable paper  from the impurities during wastepaper
          stock preparation; results of  tests on the effectiveness of de-
          fibration using the Durafiner  are reported.

(Rose, Downs and Thompson Limited).   Method of and device for continuous
          separation of oil from oil containing materials.  Dutch Patent
          6,812,830; filed Sept. 9,  1968; issued Mar. 11, 1970.  With this
          method a reusable vaporous substance such as hexane, benzene, or
          isopropanol is mixed with the oil-containing materials in such a
          way that it condenses on the inside and outside surfaces of the
          materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the separation
          process.  (Text in Dutch)

Ward,  A.  S.3 and I. Smith.  Cake filtration - the adhesion of the oake to
          filtercloth.   Filtration and Separation^ 8(5):525-528, Sept.-Oct.
          1971.  In the separation of a cake from its filter cloth the only
          important factor is the limiting stress in a plane parallel to
          the face of the cloth, and evidence indicates that the
          cloth-to-particle bond is  stronger than the bonds existing
          across the separation plane.


Abson, J. W.3 and E. I. Clark.  Trends in sewage treatment.  Process
          Biochemistry, 6(1):15-18,  35, Jan. 1971.  Sewage sludge treatment
          today relies heavily on the activated sludge process, mechanical
          sludge dewatering, and incineration; the production of potable
          water may be among the objectives of sludge treatment in the future.

Cherry, A. L.} and R.  C. Schuessler,  Private company improves municipal
          waste facility.  Water and Wastes Engineering,  8(3):32-35, Mar. 1971.
          The operation of the municipal sewage treatment plant in Cleveland,
          Ohio, is discussed, as is the role of the Dow Chemical Company in
          controlling and adjusting the treatment process.

Goldberg3 A. S.  A procedure for treatment and disposal of wastewater sludge.
          Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 43(9):1,912-1,920,
          Sept. 1971.  It has been found that the chlorination of sewage
          sludge reduces the odor, improves the filtration properties, and
          renders a product which might be utilized either in the paper-making
          process or as a soil conditioner.

Hinesly3  T.  D,3 0. C.  Braids3 and J. E. Molina.  Properties of liquid digested
          sludge with respect to land disposal.  In Agricultural benefits
          and environmental changes resulting from the use of digested sewage
          sludge on field crops.  Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
          1971.  p.3-12.  Microbial fermentation does not appear to cause
          seed germination inhibition following liquid digested sludge applica-
          tion, although sludge toxicity toward seed germination was confirmed;
          this toxicity was eliminated when the sludge was boiled for several


Hinesly, T. D.3 0. C. Braids, and J.  E.  Molina.   Greenhouse studies.   In
          Agricultural benefits and environmental changes resulting from
          the use of digested sewage sludge on field crops.  Washington,
          U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.  p. 13-14.  It was found
          that the application of sludge to soils in which corn is grown
          results in:  increased copper and zinc concentrations in the corn;
          an increase in the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity
          of sandy soils; no change in the soil pH; and the provision of
          adequate amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

Hineslys T. D.s 0. C. Braids, and J.  E.  Molina.   Supplemental field
          experiments.  In Agricultural benefits and environmental changes
          resulting  from the use of digested sewage sludge on field crops.
          Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.  p. 43-46.  The
          results of these experiments show that, in the absence of nitrogen
          and phosphorus fertilizer applications, a large increase in the
          yield of corn and kenaf is realized even for minimal sludge appli-

Einesly, T. D., 0. C. Braids, and J.  E.  Molina.   Hygienic aspects of liquid
          digested sludge disposal on cropped land.  In Agricultural benefits
          and environmental changes resulting from the use of digested sewage
          sludge on  field crops.  Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
          1971.  p. 47-56.  Digested sludge contains a fecal coliform popula-
          tion of about 100,000 cells per ml and there is an overall develop-
          ment of E. coli in autoclaved digested sludge; bacterial action
          can, however, be reversed by adding 5 g per liter of bacto-tryptone
          to the digested sludge.
       C. E.3 C. R. Miller3 and L. E. Vosburg.  Design and operating
          experiences using turbine dispersion for aerobic sludge digestion.
          Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 43(3) :417-421,
          Mar. 1971.  The operation of the plant has been relatively trouble
          free, and the sludge produced is suitable for either direct hauling
          to farms or dewatering on sludge-drying beds; the dewatered sludge
          is inoffensive in both appearance and odor.
Lindstedtf K. D. 3 E. R. Bennetty and J. Puntenney.  Aerobic digestion for
          waste activated sludge solids reduction.  Water and Sewage Works,
          118(6):166-168, June 1971.  It was found that 26.5 percent of
          the total waste solids in activated sludge could be destroyed by
          aerobic digestion prior to concentration, vacuum filtration,
          and incineration.

Lopker, E. B.  (Pullman Incorporated).  Procedure and apparatus for filtering
          sludges.   French Patent 2,037,886; filed Mar. 10, 1970; issued
          Dec. 21,  1970.  Calcium sulfate and phosphoric acid sludges are
          deposited on a rotating filter medium which is partially immersed
          in a tank containing the sludge; the sludge eventually forms a cake
          on the outside of the filter and is removed by a mechanical scraper.
          (Text in French)

(Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nuernberg A.G.).  Screw conveyor for liquids or
          sludges.   French Patent 2,040,959; filed Nov. 7, 1969; issued
          Jan. 11,  1971.  This unit is designed primarily for sewage treatment
          plants where it functions as a lightweight and portable sludge
          conveyor which can be placed near the edge of a tank or container.
          (Text in French)
Pashkov, V. #.., E. I. Sirota, and V. P. Iskra.  (Ukrainian Metallurgical
          Plant, Zhdanov Branch, 'Ukrgripromez. '  Desludger/descaler for
          horizontal settling tanks.  Russian Patent 257,358; filed June
          24, 1967; issued Apr. 7, 1970.  This device, which can be used to
          clean the most inaccessible areas of the tank and can be moved
          from one section to the other, comprises a movable carriage with a
          tiltable boom, a scraper, and a bucket.  (Text in Russian)

Peter, G. , and K.  Wuhrmann.  Contribution to the problem of bioflocculation
          in the activated sludge process.  In Proceedings; 5th International
          Water Pollution Research Conference, San Francisco, 1970.  Pergamon
          Press Ltd., 1971.  tLondon], 9 p.   (Reprint.)  Sixteen bacterial
          strains were isolated from activated sludge and used as pure cul-
          tures to determine their contribution to the flocculation process.
Sludge and slurry dewatering by centrifugation.  Water and Waste
          13(3): 83-84, Sept. -Oct. 1970.  Two of the most important types of
          centrifuges used for dewatering sludge and slurry are the solid
          bowl conveyor type, and the disc centrifuge with nozzle discharge,
          both of which are described along with their applications.
Sludge handling:  the hardest phase of waste treatment.  Environmental
          Science and Technology, 5(8)1670-671, Aug. 1971.  Sludge handling
          falls into three categories:  conditioning, which is generally
          chemical; dewatering, which is achieved by vacuum filtration,
          centrifugation, or lagooning; and final disposal, which is usually
          accomplished via landfilling, incineration, or ocean disposal.

Yasudcij A.3 and C.  Kobase.   (Takuma Kikan Seizo K.K.).   Dehydrating and
          crushing device for sludge.   Japanese Patent 46-19,384; filed
          Jan. 9, 1967; issued May 31, 1971.  Sludge from the settlement
          tank of a sewage treatment plant is condensed, dewatered by
          centrifugation, squeezed, and crushed to form an end-product which
          can be incinerated or used as a fertilizer.  (Text in Japanese)
Yerkes, W. D.  Secondary sludge as a soil amendment aids crops production.
          Paper Trade Journal, 155(16):43-44, Apr. 19, 1971.  Corn plots
          spread with 20 tons per acre of centrifuged sludge gave higher
          yields than plots with no sludge, 40 tons of sludge per acre,
          or 10 tons of manure per acre.

Boughtan, T. T.  (T. T. Boughton & Sons Limited).   Improvements in or
          relating to apparatus for unloading garbage from a container.
          British Patent 1,249,818; filed June 13, 1969; issued Oct. 13, 1971.
          This arrangement, which consists of four ropes attached to a wire
          mesh screen, is intended to provide an efficient and economical
          way to remove garbage and can be adapted to containers of different

Brockmuller, F. F.  (Messrs. Windmoller and Holscher).   Process and apparatus
          for manufacturing bags comprising a liner bag which protrudes from
          the opening.  U.S. Patent 3,576,154; filed Jan. 13, 1969; issued
          Apr. 27, 1971.  This apparatus for manufacturing bags with a single
          or multi-ply wrapper comprises a device for feeding a wrapper web
          for the wrapper bags, a device for feeding and cross-cutting a liner
          bag web, and an apparatus for overlapping the pieces which have been
          cut from the liner bag web.

Friesen3 G.  A.  (Gordon A.  Friesen International Inc.).  Sanitary disposable
          receiver for liquid and solid wastes.   U.S. Patent 3,591,870;
          filed Nov.  14, 1968; issued July 13, 1971.  The sanitary receiver
          is composed of a nonporous, highly hydrated paper, preferably
          unbleached kraft paper, 0.0003 to 0.0006 in. thick, which is coated
          with one of several surfactants and backed with a layer of tissue

 (J. Ochsner and Cie A.G.).  Improvements in and relating to stationary feed
          apparatus for refuse containers.  British Patent 1,226,908; filed
          July 17, 1969; issued Mar. 31, 1971.  This apparatus comprises a
          pivotable device which is coupled to, and serves to support, a
          pivotable compacting wall on a refuse container; the device imparts
          to the wall a reciprocating or oscillating movement as refuse is
          being fed into the container.
Langley, W. B.  Refuse bag holder.  U.S. Patent 3,563,505; filed Oct. 13,
          1969; issued Feb. 16, 1971.  This extremely lightweight bag holder
          is equipped with a bag  storage device for storing a roll of refuse
          bags and a cover which  receives and clamps a bag located on one
          end of the bag roll.

Berg, H. vom.  (Hako-Werke Hans Koch and Sohn).   Automatic street cleaning
          machine.  German Patent 1,658,384; filed Feb. 8, 1967; issued
          Apr. 8, 1971.  This street sweeper is based on an overhead-throwing
          principle, uses a revolving brush, and is equipped with an hydrau-
          lic and electrical control system which gives the driver control
          over the position of the front edge of the elastic strip on the
          revolving component.  (Text in German)

The Lacre Story.   Public Cleansing, 61(12):599-600, Dec. 1971.  A booklet
          entitled The Lacre Story recounts the history of Lacre, Ltd. of
          England, a manufacturer of street sweepers, and includes a number
          of illustrations of public cleansing vehicles.

Larsen, G. J.3 and R. L. Woodworth.  (Wayne Manufacturing Company).  Road
          sweeper broom chamber control.  U.S. Patent 3,584,325; filed
          Nov. 13, 1969; issued June 15, 1971.  In this device, the rubber
          seal which is normally used to maintain an airtight sweeping
          chamber has been modified to form two pieces which maintain a more
          intact air seal.

More exhibits at the conference.   Public Cleansing, 61(6):247-249, June 1971.
          A description is given of the following exhibits at the Conference
          Vehicle and Appliance Exhibition:  a tipping version of the salvage
          trailer; a propathene broom; a small, relatively inexpensive
          vacuum-operated gully vehicle; a range of sack holders; three
          Tri-Pack packers; and a comprehensive selection of street litter

Scruggs, D. E., and C.  E.  Holmes.   (Industrial Brush Company).   Street
          sweeping broom construction with inclined bristles.   U.S.  Patent
          3,588,937; filed Dec. 5, 1968;  issued June 29,  1971.   The  brush
          of this broom is in the form of a continuous helical coil  and is
          intended for street and industrial use.

(Wayne Manufacturing Company).   Street cleaning vehicle.   British Patent
          1,224,068; filed Dec. 12, 1968; issued Mar. 3,  1971.   This street
          cleaning vehicle uses a vacuum and is equipped with a specially
          designed dirt-receiving chamber from which dirt accumulations can
          be automatically shaken without removing the chamber from the


Clark, S.  An ecological preventive maintenance program.   Canadian Plastics,
          28(12):20, 28, Dec. 1971.  To battle adverse publicity concerning
          the relationship between plastics and pollution, industry  must
          begin its own information campaign as well as solicit the  help
          of the media.

Doan3 H. D.  An industrialist looks at pollution.  Chemistry, 44(4):13-15,
          Apr. 1971.  The major difficulties encountered in improving the
          environment are convincing the average man to pay the bill, and
          reworking the interwoven governmental units so that the prices
          are kept at a reasonable level.

The Environmental Fair; supplement.  Resource Planning Institute, Burlington,
          Mass., Jan. 15, 1971.  16 p.   (Unpublished manuscript.)  A
          nonexhortive program, The Environmental Fair, will involve the
          development, construction, testing, and implementation of a
          participative series of environmental educational experience for
          children in kindergarten through the sixth grade; it consists of
          a classroom phase, which utilizes classroom kits, and a travelling
          fair, which reinforces the classroom experience.

Graber, R. C.3 F. K. Erickson, and W. B.  Parsons.  Manpower for environmental
          protection.  Environmental Science and Technology, 5(4);314-319,
          Apr. 1971.  The need for qualified engineers, sanitarians, program
          specialists, technicians, and  aides in the field of environmental
          protection is discussed, and a list of universities offering programs
          in the environmental sciences  is provided.

Hafner3 E. M., J. M. Fotiler, and C. A. Williams.  Environmental Education
          1970.  New York, Scientists' Institute for Public Information,
          1970.  28 p.  Traditional undergraduate courses in biology,
          botany, and soil physiology, for example, do not provide an ade-
          quate basis for investigating the problems posed by air, water,
          and solid waste pollution; neither do these disciplines offer
          any suggestion as to how they might be used to solve the dilemma
          of our growing productivity and our deteriorating quality of
Hickman, H. L.  Fhe engineer in solid waste management.  Professional
          Engineer, p.16-17, Oct. 1971.  It is the responsibility of the
          engineering profession to develop standards of qualification for
          solid waste management engineers, to establish courses and
          seminars for transmitting available knowledge in this field, and
          to encourage the development of a higher level of solid waste
          management technology.

Lindsay, J. V.  'Recycling Day' in New York City.  Secondary Raw Materials,
          9(3):59-60, Mar. 1971.  New York City has done the following to
          encourage recycling:  created incentives to recycle gas station
          oil; signed a contract with private industry which was to conduct
          an experiment to convert ordinary garbage into fertilizer; issued
          detailed proposals for the recycling of packaging materials; col-
          lected 73,000 abandoned cars for reprocessing in 1970; and specified
          the percentage of recycled paper to be used in municipal office

Vaughn, R. D.   Solid waste management - everybody's problem.   Environmental
          jacience and Technology, 5(4):293, Apr.  1971.  The roles of scientists,
          economists, law enforcement personnel,  municipal officials, indus-
          trialists, educators, and citizens in solving the solid waste problem
          are delineated.


(Aktiebolaget Svenska Flatfabriken).   Means for the pneumatic transport of
          refuse and garbage.   British Patent 1,223,279; filed Nov.  29, 1968;
          issued Feb. 24, 1971.  This means for the pneumatic transport of
          refuse and garbage from a number of refuse chutes to a common
          collection place comprises a transport  pipe extending to the col-
          lection point,  a fan unit  for maintaining a vacuum in the  transport
          pipe, a coarse separator,  and a fine separator.

Collins,  C.  Sophisticated systems for handling solid waste.  Waste Age,
          2(3):26-27, 30, 57, May-June 1971.  With the Automated Vacuum
          Collection (AVAC) system, which is a waste collection system
          designed for high-rise apartments, hospitals, and other installa-
          tions that produce a large volume of refuse, refuse is dropped
          into gravity chutes, stored temporarily at the bottom, and then
          dropped into lateral vacuum pipes which carry it to a storage

Culp, D.   Pressure discharge waste disposal apparatus.  U.S. Patent 3,566,415;
          filed Aug. 20, 1969; issued Mar. 2, 1971.  This device, which
          comprises a waste conduit and refuse receptacle with a waste-receiving
          chamber beneath it, is designed primarily for situations in which
          wastes must be discharged upwardly against a head of pressure.

Dowdican, F. W.  Waste lift system.  U.S. Patent 3,552,408; filed Feb. 1,
          1968; issued Jan. 5, 1971.  This system distributes waste material
          which has been deposited in a central container to a number of
          different pump units, each of which can discharge the waste to a
          disposal area outside of the container.

Johansson, B. B.  Whisking the garbage.  Saturday Review, 54(27):40-43,
          July 3, 1971.  In Sundbyberg, Sweden, the problems and expenses
          associated with manual refuse collection are eliminated by an
          apartment house refuse system in which bagged trash is dropped
          into chutes and carried through vacuum pipes to a central incinera-

Medhammar, K.  I. M.   (A.B. Centralsug).  Method and means for suction of
          vacuum transport of refuse and the like.  U.S. Patent 3,583,770;
          filed Feb. 4, 1969; issued June 8, 1971.  A method for the pipeline
          transport of refuse from a refuse chute to a collection container
          or silo involves the use of suction air of subatmospheric or vacuum
          pressure within the pipe.

The  Western Pacific Railroad plan for disposal of San Francisco's solid waste.
          Oakland, Kaiser Engineers, Apr. 1968.   [30 p.]  According to the
          proposed plan, San Francisco's refuse would be compacted, container-
           ized, sealed or  covered with plastic sheeting, and rail hauled to a
           remote desert landfill site; an extrusion press method might be
           incorporated into the treatment phase of the process.
 •to U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE - 1972—514-150/106

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region 5, Library (PL-12J)
77 West Jackson Boulevard, 12th Ftoor
Chicago. II  60604-3590
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