ENVIRONMENTAL
     PROTECTION
          AGENCY
 JUSTIFICATION OF APPROPRIATION ESTIMATES FOR
 COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS, FISCAL YEAR 1979

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                      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                           1979 Budget Estimates

                             Table of Contents

                                                                    Page

Summary Tables	         1

Air	      A- 1
  Abatement and Control	   '   A- 8
    Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards..      A-12
    Mobile Source Standards and Guidelines	      A-19
    State Program Resource Assistance	      A-23
    Air Quality Strategies Implementation	      A-28
    Mobile Source Certification and Testing	      A-3/
    Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment	      A-42
  Enforcement	      A-47
    Stationary Source Enforcement		      A-49
    Mobile Source Enforcement	      A-54
  Researcn and Development	      A-58
    Health and Ecological Effects	      A'59
    Industrial Processes	•	      A-72
    Moni tori no and Techni cal  Support	      A"75

Water Quality	     WQ- 1
  Abatement and Control	     WO-10
    Water Quality Planning and Standards	     WQ-12
    Effluent Standards and Guidelines	     wQ-2a
    Grants Assi stance Programs	     WQ-28
    Water Quality Strategies Implementation	     WQ-33
    Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis	     WQ-40
    Municipal Source Control	     WQ-44
  Enforcement.	     WQ-55
    Water Quality Enforcement	     WQ-55
  Research and Development	     WQ-63
    Health and Ecological Effects	     WQ-64
    Industrial Processes	     WQ-75
    Public Sector Activities	     WQ-83
    Monitoring and Technical  Support	     WQ-90
  Construct!on Grants	     VQ-96

Drinking Water	     Dw- 1
  Abatement and Control	     Dw" 6
    Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines	     Dw" 8
    State Program Resource Assistance	     DW-12
    Strategy Implementation	     DW-15
  Enforcement.			     W-19
    Drinking Water Enforcement....		     DW-19
  Research and Development.	     DW-21
    Public Sector Activities	^	     &W-21

Solid Waste.	     SW- 1
  Abatement and Control		     sw' 6
    Waste Management Practicies, Procedures, Guidelines,
      and Regulations.	     sw- 8
    Financial Assistance	     SW-13
    Waste Management Strategies Implementation	     SW-15
    Resource Conservation	     SW-19
  Research and Development	     SW-22
    Public Sector Activities		     SU-22
  Enforcement	     SW-27
    Solid Waste Enforcement	'	     SW-27

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Pesticides	    P-l
  Abatement and Control	    P-9
    Registration and Tolerances	   P-l2
    Hazard Evaluation	   P-18
    Federal and State Program Support	   P-24
  Enforcement	   P-28
    Pesticides Enforcement	   P-28
  Research and Development	   P-31
    Health and Ecological Effects	   P-32
    Industrial Processes	   P-40

Radiation	   R-1
  Abatement and Control	   R-5
    Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines	   R-7
    Environmental Impact Assessment	   R-ll
  Research and Development	   R-15
    Health and Ecological Effects	    R-15

Noise	    N-l
  Abatement and Control	,	    N-6
    Environmental Noise Strategies and Standards	    N-8
    Program Implementation	   N-13
  Enforcement	   N-l 8
    Noise Enforcment	   N-l8

Interdisciplinary	    1-1
  Abatement and Control	    1-5
    Preparation of Environmental Impact Statements	    1-5
  Research and Development	   1-11
    Health and Ecological Effects	   1-12
    Industrial Processes	   1-16
    Public Sector Activities	   1-17
    Monitoring and Technical Support	   1-19
    Anticipatory Research	   1-29

Toxic Substances	   TS-1
  Abatement and Control	   TS 5
    Toxic Substances Strategies-	   TS-5
  Enforcement	   TS-9
    Toxic Substances Enforcement	   TS-9
  Research and Development	   TS-11
    Health and Ecological Effects	   TS-12
    Industrial Processes	   TS-21
    Monitoring and Technical Support	   TS-23

Energy	     £-1
  Research and Development	     E-5
    Extraction and Processing Technology	     E-8
    Conservation, Utilization, and Technology Assessment	    £-13
    Health and Ecological Effects	    E-22
    Technical Support	    E-35

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                                                                     Page

Program Management and Support	     P^S-  1
  Abatement and Control	     PMS"  *
    Program Management	....	     PMS~  5
    Program Support	     PMS"  6
  Enforcement	     PMS~  7
    Program Management	     PMS*  8
    Program Support	     PMS*  9
  Research and Development	     PMS-10
    Program Management	     PMS-11
    Program Support	     PMS-12

Agency and Regional Management	     AR!';*  ^
  Agency Management and Support	     AR!/I"  *
    Agency Management	     ARM~  5
    Agency Support	     ARM-ID
  Regional Management and Support	     ARM-13
    Regional Management	     ARM-u
    Regional Support	     ARM-16

Buildings and Facilities	      Bf:-  1

Sci entifi c Acti vi ti es Overseas	     SAO"  ^

Special Analyses
  tab Ve~of" "Contents	      SA~  1

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                             ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                     Budget Summary
     The Environmental Protection Agency's 1979 budoet proposal for its operating programs
totals SI,127,600,000, an increase of 5123,997,000.  The 1978 base includes $154,800,000
in oending and proposed supplemental requests for ooerating programs; thus the net change
from that appropriated last year for 1978 is $278,797,000." A request of 54,500,000,000 is
included in the budget for grants for waste water treatment plant construction, the same
as oroposed for 1978.

     The 1979 EPA budget emphasizes three basic thrusts: regulating public health hazards
effectively, ensuring effective enforcement of the laws, and helping State and local
governments assume as much environmental responsibility as possible.

     Much of the environmental legislation that Congress has recently enacted has served
to broaden EPA's mission.  The Agency is now a preventive public health as well as an
environmental agency.  The 1979 budget reflects this broader mission.

     Funds reguested for the toxic substances programs to implement the Toxic Substances
Control Act will nearly double, from S28.8 million to S56.7 million.  Funds reauested for
the pesticides program will be increased by $13.7 million (29 percent).  Hunds included
in the budget reguest to implement the Safe Drinking Water Act will rise by $14.5 million
(26 percent).  Funds requested for the solid waste program, principally to control hazardous
waste pollution, will increase by $17.1 million (43 percent).  Finally, funds requested for
health effects research and development increase from $38.1 million to $51.6 million, a
35 percent rise (including increases contained in 1978 supplemental requests).

     The increased emphasis being given to enforcement is reflected by a 25 percent increase
in funds requested for enforcement, from $76 million in 1978 to $94.9 million in 1979.
This increase is, in part, a direct response to new mandates from the Congress, particularly
in the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  It also reflects a general
commitment to strengthen enforcement. Inadequate enforcement is unfair to those who do
comply.  It threatens public health.  Weakness in one  area threatens the Agency's credibility
in others.

     Support for State and local programs will be increased significantly in 1979.
Funds requested for air State and local control agency programs will increase by $9 million
(in addition to an $8 million increase included in a proposed supplemental).  An $8.9
million increase is reflected in the request for State drinking water program assistance.
Funds requested for State solid waste programs will nearly double in 1979—from $14,3 to
to $26.2 million.   While no increase is included in the budget for water quality State control
agency assistance, the recently enacted provisions of  the Clean Water Act, which allow
States to transfer up to 2 percent of their waste water treatment plant construction grants
allotment to management of this and other water Quality programs, will provide relief in this
area.   The budget also includes a $69 million 1978 supplemental  request and a S50 million
1979 request for Section 208 water quality planning grants.

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     The Agency's budget proposals are categorized under seven appropriation accounts
as follows:

          -  Abatement and Control
          -  Enforcement
          -  Research and Development
          -  Agency and Regional Management
          -  Buildings and Facilities
          -  Scientific Activities Overseas
          -  Construction Grants

A summary of each appropriation and major changes follow:

                                      Abatement and Control
     These programs provide for development and implementation of environmental
standards and guidelines, monitoring and surveillance of pollution, pollution
control planning, financial and technical assistance to State and local
pollution control agencies, assistance to other Federal agencies to
minimize the adverse impact of their activities on the environment, and
training of personnel engaged in pollution control activities.  The net
increase requested is S93.7 million, for a total of $618 million.  Programs
within the Abatement and Control appropriation include:

Air:

     Funds requested for air abatement and control programs total $130.1
million, an increase of $26.1 million.  A significant amount of the increase
is to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  Included
is an increase of $11.4 million for the development of New Source Performance
Standards.  The Clean Air Act Amendments require the development of New
Source Performance Standards for all major stationary sources ~ about
100 source categories — by 1982.  An additional $6.1 million is included in
the budget for mobile source standards and guidelines to meet requirements
of the Amendments, such as developing heavy duty truck emission reduction
regulations.  State and local control agency support will be increased by
S9 million, in addition to a 1978 supplemental request increase of $8 million.
The 1979 grant funds will also be available to initiate the development of
vehicle inspection and maintenance programs.  Also included are increases of
SI.5 million for State Implementation Plan revisions and $1.4 million for
ambient air quality monitoring.  Decreases proposed are as follows:  $1.8
million for training; $.2 million for environmental impact statement reviews;
S.9 million for mobile source certification and testing; and $.4 million
for data analysis and assessment.

Water Quality.

     The request for water quality abatement and control programs totals $229.5 million, an
increase of $1.4 million.  The major increase is S24.4 million to reimburse the Corps of
Engineers for providing an estimated 600 workyears for supervision and management in' the
construction phase of waste treatment facilities.  This assistance will allow EPA to
allocate personnel presently involved in construction supervision to the study and design
phases of the construction process where the potential is greatest for improving the
cost effectiveness and minimizing the environmental impact of waste water treatment plants.
The budget also includes an increase of $12.5 million for the Clean Lakes program,
$3.5 million to improve EPA's capability to respond to hazardous spills, an increase
of $1.8 million for monitoring and analysis, and an increase of $1.2 million for
manpower planning and training.  Decreases to the water quality abatement and control
program include:  $19 million in areawide waste treatment management planning grants
(Section 208), $4.1 million in the Great Lakes program, $2.5 million in the Chesapeake
Bay program, $14. 5 million in the effluent standards guidelines program (resulting
from a $16 million 1978 supplemental request to develop toxic effluent guidelines
that will not be required in 1979), $1.5 million for academic traini-ng, and
$.4 million in other areas.

II

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Drinking Water:

     For this program, the abatement and control budget proposes $54 minion,  an increase
of $13.7 million.  It provides an additional $7.5 million for State grants to  support
programs for assuming and maintaining primary responsibility for public water  systems
and ground water protection programs, an increase of $4.1 million to support EPA
implementation of the public water systems and ground water protection programs  in those
States which have not assumed primary responsibility, an additional $7 million to develop
new and revised contaminant standards with primary emhasis on organic contaminants, and  an
increase of 32 million for special projects.  A decrease of $.6 million  for  academic
training is proposed.

Solid Haste:

     The request of $44.9 million for solid waste abatement and control reflects a net
increase of $13.7 million.  The major portion of this increase is an additional  $11.9 million
for State grants for the development of hazardous waste programs and comprehensive solid
waste plans.  An additional  $4.8 million will  support implementation of the  Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act, including conducting hazardous waste oermitting in States that
do not assume the hazardous waste permit program, and managing technical assistance oanel
efforts.  A decrease amounting to S3 million is proposed, resulting principally  from
completion of the bulk of contract work necessary for regulation and guidelines  development.

Pesticides :

     The request of $36.4 million for oesticides abatement and control programs  includes an
increase of $11.6 million.  An increase of $10.4 million will permit EPA to initiate the
development of 1,400 generic chemical standards, and standards for the different formulations
of these chemicals that are necessary to reregister 40,000 pesticides products and review
4,000 pesticide residue tolerances—over a period of 10 years.  The rebuttable presumction
against registration program will also be supported with this increase.  An additonal
$2 million will provide increased support for the epidemiologic studies program  which
directly supports the ^registration program.  Decreases are proposed amounting  to
$.7million in residue profiles, accident investigations, and market sample analysis.

Toxic Substances:

     A substantial increase of $18.7 million is included in the $41.6 million  proposed
for the 1979 toxic substances abatement and control program.  Of this increase,  $15.1 million
will provide for further implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act.  Emphasis will
be placed on expanded development of testing regulations, hazard assessments,  information
management, industry assistance, premanufacturing review, and data Duality assurance.
An additional $3.6 million will support the develooment of chemical control  regulations  and
related economic analyses.

Radiation:

     A total of $10.4 million is requested for this program.  The increase of  $5.5 million  is
primarily to determine the appropriate regulatory method for controlling airborne radioactive
pollutants as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.
                                                                                          II!

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Other Changes:

     These result in a net increase of S3 million.   An increase of $5.5 million is
proposed for program management and support to administer new and expanded
programs and fund additional costs for space, communications, automatic data
processing, etc.  Decreases proposed total $2.5 million for the preparation
of environmental impact statements activity and the development of regulations
for the noise program.

                                           Enforcement

     Enforcement program responsibilities are in the areas of air, water quality,
drinking water, solid waste, pesticides, toxic substances, and noise.  The program
is conducted in cooperation with, and in support of, State and community
enforcement programs.  Increases total $18.9 million, for a total of $94.9 million
for 1979, and include the following:

Air:

     An increase of $10.6 million is proposed which will  be primarily directed
toward insuring compliance by the remaining major source  violators, utilizing
new enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  It also
provides for expanded tampering prohibitions on emission  controls and
strengthened warranties.  The total request is $29.9 million.

Water Quality:

     An increase of $2.1 million, for a total of $24.3 million,'will support added
emphasis in enforcing the provisions of the permit program and other water
quality enforcement activities.

Pesticides:

     An increase of $2.2 million, for a total of $12.4 million, will provide
for the development of procedures and policies, as well as expanding Federal
and State cooperative enforcement agreements and provde for additional
grant assistance to States.

Toxic Substances:

     An increase of $2.4 million, to a total of S4.6 million, will support
inspections and legal actions related to imminent hazards and testing,
prananufacturing, and control regulations.

Other Changes:

     Other increases amounting to $1.6 million will permit additional
enforcement activity in the drinking water program and expanded program
management to administer new and augmented programs.
  IV

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                                    Research and Development

     Research and development programs produce the scientific information and technical
tools on which to base national policy and effective control strategies in the regulation,
prevention and abatement of environmental pollution.  In the energy related area,  these
programs provide for development of a scientific basis to insure (1) protection of public
health, (2) environmental protection necessary to facilitate the use of domestic energy
supolies, (3) implementation of energy systems initiatives without delays caused by
inadequate and insufficient environmental impact data, and  (4) the concurrent develooment
of appropriate control technologies and emerging energy systems to minimize control
costs and environmental impact.  Overall, research and development will increase from
S321.2 million to $324.1 million.  The emphasis will shift to health effects research and
anticipatory research, involving the exploration of long term information needs.  Activities
included within the research and development appropriation are:

Air:

     The total of S52.7 million includes an increase of $10.3 million which is primarily
for health and ecological effects and monitoring and technical support activities.  It will
permit acceleration of studies of criteria pollutants and princioal sulfate compounds;
development of new measurement methodologies for mobile source pollutants; expansion of  the
freeway site monitoring program; performance of animal studies on the effects of catalyst
and diesel exhaust; and determination of the acute effects of criteria pollutants on
individual crop and tree species, as well as the effect of airborne trace elements and heavy
metals on specific plant and soil processes.  It will also provide for improvements in the
air quality monitoring network, deployment of a new sulfate/fine particulate monitoring
network, and expansion transport and fate work on the chemistry of sulfates, including smog
chamber studies.

Solid Haste:

     An increase of $3.3 million, to a total funding level of $10.9 million, is primarily
to expand research on the development of comprehensive information and methodology for
improved site selection, design, operation, maintenance, and closure of solid and/or
hazardous waste disposal sites. It will provide for evaluating and, where necessary,
developing techniques and equipment for economical and safe processing, treatment and disposal
of hazardous materials.  It will also support an evaluation of recovery techniques.
                    *
Interdisciplinary:

     The request total $34.8 million.  The increase of $11.4 million will provide expanded
quality assurance work, including development of  standardization methods, validation of
monitoring systems, provision of air monitoring laboratory  inspections, audits for quality
control, and development of acceptance criteria for water supply laboratory certification.
It will permit exploration of long term information needs, such as improved tools for
evaluating the relationship between cancer incidence and exposure to ambient environmental
pollution; the dynamics of river basin ecosystems; the effects of acid rain on water quality
soil fertility and ecological systems.  It will supnort development of better exposure
assessment methods and models, supporting data on transport and transformation of pollutants,
and will maintain the current level of effort on health assessment documents, National
Center for Toxicological Research work, and Cancer Assessment Group analyses.  The estimate also
provides for a decrease in evaluating alternative incentive systems for accomplishing
environmental quality assessments.

Toxic Substances:

     The increase is $6.9 million, for a total of $10.5 million.  The increase will accelerate
work on the development of biochemical  markers as screenina protocols for potential chronic
effects, and rapid techniques and protocols for monitoring and evaluating biological effects of
toxicants.  It will increase efforts to develop prototype models for use in predicting human
and ecological exposure pathways to toxic substances; develop sampling, identification and
quantification methods for toxic substances in air, water, and soil environments and orovide
technical assistance to the Office of Toxic Substances (OTS) and other program offices throuah
aerial photographic coverage and interpretation, screening of ambient air for organic emissions
                                                                                            V

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at OTS-designated areas, and ambient monitoring to support regulatory activities.


Energy:

     The $114.8 million proposed represents a net decrease of $15.8 million for
energy research purposes.  Decreases totalling $34.7 million are directed at
the efforts provided in the 1978 supplemental, which are nonrecurring, for
evaluating coal cleaning processes and flue gas desulfurization and nitrogen oxide
and fine particulate control.  Another $3 million decrease defers the
preparation of a fluidized bed combustion standard practice manual describing
best control options, limits the coverage of oil shale technologies, and reduces
technical support activities.  The 1979 program also provides for the Department of
Energy (DOE) to undertake $14 million in control technology research heretofore
conducted by EPA.

     Increases include $17.3 million for new initiatives such as the development
of cost effective regenerable processes to minimize sludge disposal problems;
evaluation of wastes as fuel options; and development of control technology to
modify the combustion process.  There is also an increase of $14 million of
health effects research previously conducted by DOE and $4.6 million for new
initiatives such as investigations of emission levels and health impacts of
organic and fine particulates from conventional control technology and
development of air and water quality baseline data for specific geographic
areas expected to undergo rapid energy resource development.

Water Quality:

   The proposal is a net decrease of $10.6 million for a total of $48.4 million.
A total reduction of $13.9 million is primarily directed at the Chesapeake Bay
and Great Lakes programs, a special land treatment.system for a waste water project,
and a reduction in irrigated crop production work." Offsetting this reduction is an
increase of $3.3 million to expand health effects work on populations exposed to
aerosols, pathogens, and trace metals from spray irrigation sites; evaluate health
effects of exposure to metals and parasites in waste water; and assess health
risk from land application of sludge including the determination of transport
and persistence of organic contaminants.

Other Changes:

    Other decreases totalling $2.6 million are primarily in program management and support.

                                  Agency and Regional Management

     This appropriation provides for agencywide program direction and management
carried on at EPA headquarters and in the regional offices; it also covers its
prorata share of a variety of common service or support function  costs which serve
agencywide needs.  An increase of $5.9 million, for a total of $78.2 million, is
requested for these purposes.  Personnel increases are provided to cover needed  support
services for the expanded programs within the Agency.  These increases will
permit additional staff for legal services required under the Clean Air Act
Amendments, Toxic Substances Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act,
and pesticides reregistrati on.  New management initiatives, such as zero-base-budgeting  (ZBB)
and regulatory reform, are also provided for in the increase, as well as funds
to cover agencywide program expansion and cost increase in ongoing support activities
such as space, utilities, and communications.
  VI

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                                    Buildings and Facilities

     These activities provide for the design and construction of new EPA facilities,
as well as necessary repairs and improvements to Federal installations which are
occupied by EPA.  A budget of $2.6 million, representing a total increase over 1978,
will allow for repairs and improvements to cover modifications at various EPA
laboratories to correct health and safety deficiencies and will allow for
construction of a small research facility building at Gulf Breeze, Florida, which
will replace an existing structure that is unsafe for high hazard research operations.

                                 Scientific Activities Overseas

     This Special Foreign Currency Program supports cooperative research and
demonstration programs in other countries, using excess currencies available.
The 1978 level of $4 million will be maintained in 1979.

                                       Construction Grants

     Grants are made to local public agencies for construction of municipal
waste water treatment facilities to assist States and localities in attaining and
maintaining water quality standards.  The 1979 budget request includes
$4.5 billion for this purpose, which is the same as proposed for 1978.

                                       Manpower Resources

     The budget proposes 10,840 positions, which is a net increase of
624 positions over that available for 1978.  The increase are primarily to meet
new and expanded responsibilities mandated by Congress.  The distribution of the net
increase by media is as follows:

          Ai r	      +143
          Water Quality	       -56
          Drinking Water	      +168
          Solid Waste	       +65
          Pesti ci des	        +7
          Radiation	        +3
          Noi se	        -7
          Interdisciplinary	       +12
          Toxi c Substances	      +259
          Energy	        +2
          Management and Support	       +82
          Reimbursements	       -54

                                    Total	      +624

     In addition to the foregoing, the Agency is also allowed to increase its temporary
end-of-year employment by 348, for a total of 1,363.
                                                                                          VII

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                        Summary of Budget Authority, Contract Authority,
                        Obligations, Outlays and End-of-Year Employment
                                        By Appropriation
                                     (dollars in thousands)
                                          Actual
                                           1977
 Budget
Estimate
  1978
Abatement and Control
  Budget authority	     $386,501       $431,453
  Obligations	      382,792        435,573
  Outlays	      435,884        481,400
  End-of-year employment	        4,360          4,697

Enforcement
  Budget authority	       57,244         70,837
  Obligations	       56,115         70,837
  Outlays	       53,527         72,500
  End-of-year employment	        1,636          1,680

Research and Development
  Budget authority	      260,566        263,047
  Obligations	      287,505        262,247
  Outlays	      259,065        267,500
  End-of-year employment	        1,785          1,800

Agency and Regional  Management
  Budget authority	       72,294         72,846
  Obligations	       71,377         72,846
  Outlays	       72,675         75,700
  End-of-year empl oyment	        1,879          1,857

Buildings and Facilities
  Budget authority	        2,100          1,142
  Obligations	        1,966          1,142
  Outlays	        1,539          2,500

Construction Grants
  Budget authority	"....    1,980,000      ,
    Contract authority	
  Obligations	    1,161,732        240,000
    Contract authority	    6,339,414   '   1,000,000
  Outlays	      820,587        340,000
    Contract authority	    2,708,990      4,530,000

Scientific Activities Overseas
  Budget authority	        5,000          5,000
  Obligations	        4,826          5,000
  Outlays	        4,950          4,500

Operations. Research and Facilities
  Obligations	        2,548          2,077
  Outlays	        7,919          8,000
  End-of-year employment	            9

Revolving Fund
 "Obligations.	          445            500
  Outlays	         -139

Trust Funds
  Budget authority	           40
  Obligations	           47             53
  Outlays	           36          •   28
 Current
Estimate
  1978 a/
               $524,246
                578,626
                473,000
                  4,721
                 75,932
                 75,989
                 73,000
                  1,719
                321,192
                331,460
                292,900
                  1,794
                 78,233
                 78,233
                 75,000
                  1,868
                  3,331
                  2,000
              4,500,000

              3,566,477
                433,523
                495,000
              3,640,000
                  4,000
                  5,036
                  3,000
                  6,982
                  9,000
                    500
                     45
                     37
Estimate
  1979
               $617,969
                618,595
                522,000
                  5,070
                 94,855
                 94,855
                 92,000
                  1,993
                324,128
                325.128
                308,500
                  1,784
                 84,085
                 84,085
                 82,000
                  1,933
                  2,563
                  2,563
                  2,000
              4,500,000

              5,000,000

              1,020,000
              3,640,000
                  4,000
                  4,000
                  5,000
                  8,000
                    500
                     21
                     30

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                                                         Budget         Current
                                           Actual        Estimate       Estimate       Estimate
                                            1977          1978           1978 j/        1979

  Reimbursements
    Obligations	       7,809           6;800          9,824          6,960
    End-of-year employment	         110             116            114             60

  Consolidated Working Fund
    Obligations	          56
    Outlays	          90             ...            145

  Total. Environmental Protection Agency
    Budget authority	   2,763,745         844,325      5,503,603 2/   5,627,600
      Contract authority	
    Obligations	   1,977,218       1,097,075      4,656,503      6,136,707
      Contract authority	   6,339,414       1,000,000        433,523
    Outlays	   1,656,133       1,252,128      1,423,082      2,039,530
      Contract authority	   2,708,990       4,530,000      3,640,000      3,640,000
    End-of-year employment	       9,779          10,-lSO         10,216         10,840


  End-of-year employment = permanent positions.

a/NOTE:  See Table on Page        for pending and proposed supplementals, 5154.8 million,
  included in this summary.

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                    Summary of Pending and Proposed Supplemental Included in
                             Budget Authority, Obligations,  Outlays
                                        By Appropriation
                                     (dollars in thousands)
                                                  Current
                                                  Estimate            Estimate
                                                    1978                1979

Abatement and Control
  Budget authority	     $100,100
  Obligations	      100,100
  Outlays	       19,100             S51,000

Enforcement
  Budget authority	        2,500
  Obligations	        2,500
  Outlays	        2,500

Research and Development
  Budget authority	       49,000
  Obligations	       49,000
  Outlays	       13,300              22,500

Agency and Regional  Management
  Budget authority	        3,200
  Obligations	        3,200
  Outlays..	        3,200

Construction Grants
  Budget authority....	    4,500,000
  Obligations	    2,820,000           1,500,000
  Outlays	        5,000             310,000

Total, Environmental Protection Agency
  Budget authority	    4,654,800
  Obligations	    2,974,800           1,500,000
  Outlays	       43,100             383,500

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                       Summary of Budget Authority,  Contract  Authority,
                      Obligationss  Outlays  and End-of-Year  Employment
                                         By Media
                                  (dollars  in thousands)
Air
  Budget authority	
  Obligations		
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment.

Hate" Quality
  Budget authority	
  Obligations	
  Outlays	•	
  End-Of-year employment.

Drinking Water
  Budget authority	
  Obiigations	
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment.

Solid Wastes
  Budget authority	
  Obiigations	
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment.

Pesticides
  Budget authority	
  Obiigations	
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment.

Radiation
  Budget authority	
  Obligations	
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment.

Noise
  Budget authority	
  Obiigations	
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment.

Interdisciplinary
  Budget authority	
  Obligations	
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment.
                                         Actual
                                          1977
$150,207
 165,644
 180,085
   1.675
 222,608
 209,939
 270,533
   3,265
  44,923
  43,249
  29,180
     297
  15,702
  18,688
  19,955
     192
  40,523
  40,631
  43,592
     950
   5,844
   6,159
   5,861
     210
  10,639
  12,902
   7,904
     101
  37,650
  35,784
  21,605
     376
                Budget
               Estimate
                 1978
$154,257
 154,032
 171,583
   1,829
 218,319
 219,442
 307,484
   3,209
  53,636
  54,460
  34,991
     327
  37,367
  36,986
  23,158
     230
  45,986
  46,004
  45,471
     998
   5,645
   5,619
   5,930
     214
  10,882
  10,826
  10,467
     101
  40,051
  39,697
  30,180
     344
                Current
               Estimate
                 19783/
$165,579
 175,000
 187,460
   1,811
 309,258
 353,657
 288,070
   3,166
  55,624
  58,663
  37,950
     380
  39.825
  39,353
  27,040
     230
  46.993
  51,906
  49,790
   1,006
   5,694
   6,138
   5,900
     214
  11,068
  11,315
   7,890
     102
 38,259
 39,543
 26,690
    380
               Estimate
                 1979
$212,644
 215,076
 199,020
   1,954
 302.099
 302,258
 334,740
   3,110
 .70,125
  67,435
  40,900
     548
  56,901
  56,625
  29,580
     295
  60,717
  60,593
  53,080
   1,013
  11,338
  11,294
   5,900
     217
  10,642
  10,668
   7,880
      95
  47.425
  47,259
  27,080
     392

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•
Toxic Substances
Budget authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
End-of-year employment 	
Energy
Budget authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
End-of-year employment 	
Management and Support
Budget authority 	
Obi igations 	 	
Outlays 	
End-of-year employment ... .
Facilities
Budget authority 	
Obligations 	
Outlays 	
Construction Grants
Budaet authority 	
Contract authority 	
Obi igations 	
Contract authority 	
Outlays 	
Contract authority 	 	 	 	
Scientific Activities Overseas
Budget authori ty 	
Obi igations 	 	
Out! ays 	
Revolving Fund
Obi igations 	
Out! ays 	
Trust Funds
Budget authority 	
Obi i gati ons 	
Out! ays 	
Reimbursements
Obi igations 	
End-of-year employment.- 	
Consolidated Working Fund
Obligations.. 	 	
Outl ays 	 	
Total, Environmental Protection
Budget authority 	 	 	
Contract authority 	
Obi igations 	
Contract authority 	
Outlays 	
Contract authority 	
End-of-year employment 	
i'NOTE: See Table on Page for
Actual
1977

	 8,305
	 8,700
8,889
112
	 94,960
	 112,966
	 95,180
	 166

	 145,244
	 145,462
	 145,653
.. . 2,325
	 2,100
.. . 2,179
	 2,172

	 1,980,000

	 1,161,732
	 6,339,414
	 820,587
	 2,708,990
	 5,000
	 4,826
	 4,950
	 445
	 -139
	 40
	 47
	 36
	 7,809
	 no
	 56
	 90
Agency
	 2,763,745

	 1 977 218
	 6 '39,414
1 656 133
.... 2 708 990
.... 9,779
pending and proposed
Budget
Estimate
1978

28,005
27,128
21 ,437
314
96,427
101,062
101 ,000
123

147,608
148,158
152,759
2,345
1,142
1 ,308
3,140



240,000
1 ,000,000
340,000
4,530,000
5,000
5,000
4,500
500


53
28
• 6,800
116



844,325

1 ,097,075
1 ,000,000
1 ,252,128
4,530,000
10, '150
supplemental s,
Current
Estimate
1978i/

28,839
28,595
16,700
314
1 30 ,588
130,817
126,000
144

167,876
171,649
148,690
2,355

7,985
2,720

4,500,000

4,000,000
433,523
495,000
.3,640,000
4,000
5,036
3,000
500


45
37
9,824
114



5,503,603^

4,656,503
433,523
1 ^23,082
3,640,000
10,216
$154. 8 million,
Estimate
1979

56,732
57,439
27,200
573
114.765
116,388
125,500
146

177,649
177,628
160,980
2,437
2,563
2,563
2,640

4,500,000

5,000,000

1,020,000
3,640,000
4,000
4,000
5,000
500


21
30
6,960
60



5,627,600

6,136,707

2 039,530
3 640,000
10,840
included

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                  Summary of Pending and Proposed Supplemental Included in
                             Budget Authority, Obligations,  Outlays
                                            6y Media
                                     (dollars in thousands)
                                                  Current
                                                  Estimate            Estimate
                                                   1978                1979

Air
  Budget authori ty	           $9,400
  Obligations	            9,400
  Outlays	            3,900              $5,500

Water Quality
  Budget authority	           94,500
  Obligations	           94,500
  Outlays	           13,000              51,500

Energy
  Budget authority	           34,700
  Obligations	           34,700
  Outlays	            5,000              16,500

Management and Support
  Budget authori ty	           16,200
  Obligations	           16,200
  Outlays	           16,200              .  ...

Construction Grants
  Budget authority.	        4,500,000
  Obligations	        2,820,000           1,500,000
  Outlays	            5,000             310,000

Total, Environmental  Protection Agency
  Budget authority	        4,654,800
  Obligations	        2,974,800           1,500,000
  Outlays	           43,100             383,500

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                                 Summary of Increase or Decrease
                           Budget Authority and End-of-Year Employment
                                      (dollars in thousands)

                                                  Current
                                                 Estimate          Estimate          Increase +
                                                   1978              1979            Decrease -

Abatement and Control
  Budget authority	   $524,246          $617,969          +$93,723
  End-of-year employment	      4,721             5,070              +349

Enforcement
  Budget authority	     75,932            94,855           +18,923
  End-of-year employment	      1,719             1,993              +274

Research and Development
  Budget authority	    321,192           324,128            +2,936
  End-of-year employment	      1,794             1,784               -10

Agency and Regional  Management
  Budget authority	     78,233            84,085            +5,852
  End-of-year employment	      1,868             1,933               +65

Buildings and Facilities
  Budget authority	         ...             2,563            +2,563

Scientific Activities Overseas
  Budget authority	      4,000             4,000

Reimbursements
  End-of-year employment	         114                60               -54

Subtotal
  Budget authority	  1,003,603         1,127,600          +123,997
  End-of-year employment	     10,216            10,840              +624

Construction Grants
  Budget authority.	  4,500,000         4,500,000

Total, Environmental  Protection Agency
  Budget authority	".....	  5,503,603         5,627,600          +123,997^'
  End-of-year employment	     -10;216            10,840              +624
End-of-year employment = permanent positions.

I/  If the proposed and pending supplementals ($154.8 million) are excluded
    from the 1978 current estimate, the net change becomes +$278,797.

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                          Liquidation  of Contract Authority
                              (in thousands of dollars)


                                         1977            1978             1979

Construction Grants	    $3,800,000      $5,000,000       $1,400,000

Abatement and Control
  (Areawide Waste Treatment
    Management Grants)	        49,182	...	...
        Total	     3,849,182       5,000,000        1,400,000

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                                               AIR
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions.

Enforcement:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions.
Research and Development:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
Total, Air Program:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions..
  Outlays	
  Authorization Levels.
                                  Actual
                                   1977
$98,718
    822
 15,398
    438
 51,528
    415
165,644
  1,675
180,085
 15,000
             Budget
            Estimate
              1978
 $94,585
     852
  19,477
     512
  40,195
     465
154,257
  1,829
166,300
 15,000
              Current
             Estimate     Estimate
               1976         1979
             (dollars in thousands)
$103,957
     879
  19,244
     516
  42,378
     416
 165,579
   1,811
 187,460
 602,600
$130,092
     881
  29,855
     660
  52,697
     413
 212,644
   1,954
 199,020
 286,500
                          Increase +
                          Decrease -
                        1979 vs.  1978
+$26,135
      +2
 +10,611
    +144
 +10,319
      -3
 +47,065
    +143
 +11,560
ay Includes proposed supplemental of $8 million for State and local air pollution control
   agency grants  (Abatement and Control), and $1.4 million to study the environmental effects
   of graphite and related fibers used as new structural material (Research and Development).

b/ The net increase reflects the inclusion of proposed supplemental in the 1978 current
~"  estimate; excluding these supplementals, the net change would be +$56,465,200.

£/ Includes 21 positions added to Abatement and Control for air quality strategies implementation.

d/ The net increase reflects the inclusion of 21 additional positions in the 1978 current
   estimate for air quality strategies implementation; without this addition, the net change
   would be +164.

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Clean Air Act authorizes a national program of air pollution research, regulation,
and enforcement activities.  Under the Act, primary responsibility for the prevention
and control of air pollution at its source rests with State and local governments, with
a strong mandate that the Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA) take action where States
do not fulfill their responsibilities.  EPA's role is to conduct research and development
programs, ensure that adequate standards and regulations are established to meet environ-
mental goals set by the Act, support State and local control activities, and ensure that
the standards and regulations are effectively enforced.

     These environmental goals are generally those prescribed by National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS) which set forth the allowable concentration in air of pollutants which
affect human health and public welfare.  The health and other effects of pollutants are
delineated in criteria documents which are the basis for the standards.  National Ambient
Air Quality Standards have been set for total suspended participates, sulfur dioxide,
nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants, and hydrocarbons, and are in
process for lead.  Two types of standards are set:  primary standards to protect human
health and secondary standards to protect the public welfare (prevention of damage to
property, animals, vegetation, crops, visibility, etc.).  Controlling emissions to meet
these standards is handled througn two major types of activities:  (1) State Implementa-
tion Plans (SIPs) which control pollution within each State primarily by prescribing
specific emission limitations or control actions for types of polluters, and (2) national
emission limits prescribed for new motor vehicles and selected new stationary sources.

                                                                                       A-l

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     In addition, nationally applicable emission levels are prescribed for other pollutants
deemed especially hazardous and apply to both new and existing pollutant sources.  Emissions
of asbestos, beryllium, mercury, and vinyl chloride are currently being controlled as
hazardous air pollutants.  Benzene has been listed as hazardous and emissions control
regulations are under development.

     The air program strategy has been directed primarily at the attainment of the primary
NAAQS.   Although the combined Federal-State-local effort at controlling air pollution has
achieved a notable degree of success in reducing air pollutant emission levels and in
improving ambient air quality across the Nation, it is clear that the standards have not been
attained in many areas of the Nation.

     Although there are many areas with ambient air quality levels exceeding standards,
significant progress has been made in reducing pollutant levels and in attaining standards
for the pollutants predominantly associated with stationary sources.  The concentration
of particulates in the ambient air has decreased annually at an average rate of five
percent.  A review of the most recent sulfur dioxide ambient data shows that concentrations
in urban areas have decreased an average of 30 percent since 1970.  Fewer than 10 percent
of all  urban monitors are exceeding the sulfur dioxide standards.

     Progress has also been documented for automotive related pollutants.  Although carbon
monoxide historical data are limited, available data in several States and major cities
suggest a continuation in the general improvement noted in EPA trend reports.  The average
number of occasions in which 8-hour concentrations exceed the carbon monoxide standard has
declined, typically by 50 percent, in many of the urban areas of the States for which data
are available.  Historical data on oxidants ~ which are produced by the photochemical
transformation in the atmosphere of organic substances, such as hydrocarbons, emitted from
both stationary and mobile sources -- exist for only a few urban areas.  Los Angeles and
San Francisco have shown notable improvements; the number of hours in excess of the oxidant
standard has been reduced by as much-as 50 percent since 1970 at many monitoring stations in
these metropolitan areas.  Nitrogen oxides emissions have increased nationally about 10
percent since 1970.  Because of recent changes in measurement methodology for monitoring
nitrogen dioxide, few areas have sufficient historical data to access trends.  However,
valid data indicate that only a few areas of the country have ambient nitrogen dioxide
concentrations in excess of the national standard.

     The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, approved on August 7, 1977, set forth a comprehen-
sive program for achieving the standards in areas where the standards have not been attained.
In general, the standards are to be attained by 1982.  For areas not attaining the standards
for photochemical oxidants and carbon monoxide and having difficult control problems, the
standards will have to be attained by 1987.  In keeping with the mandates of the Act, the
program emphasis for FY 1979 will continue to be on the attainment and maintenance of the
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).  Because the implementation of control
actions is basically the responsibility of the State and local governments, it will be
required that they take on increased responsibilities for air pollution control if the
standards are to be attained, particularly in the case of motor vehicle related pollutants.
The State control plans incorporate controls for motor vehicle related pollutants since
reductions achieved as a result of the Federal motor vehicle control program are not
sufficient to attain the standards for such pollutants in many areas.  In order to attain
the standards, efforts are to concentrate on the revision of State Implementation Plans
(SIPs) and their implementation.

     The Act sets forth stringent criteria that have to be met by the revised SIPs if
they are to be approved by EPA.  The Act also establishes sanctions in the case that SIPs
are not developed and implemented as required.  Under the terms of the Act, construction
or modification of major stationary sources would be prohibited after July 1, 1979, if
the SIP for a nonattainment area is not revised appropriately.
  A-2

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     A major Federal role in meeting ambient air quality standards is expected to continue.
Failures by the States in some cases to develop the requisite regulatory framework for air
pollution control will continue to necessitate Federal action to fill the gaps in otherwise
adequate State control programs.  Likewise, the extension of air pollution control to a
large number of sources not presently covered, or covered inadequately, will intensify the
need for enforcement action.  EPA will supplement State/local resources to facilitate
State assumption of enforcement responsibilities but, as necessary, it will continue to
undertake Federal enforcement action under State Implementation Plan regulations.

     The nature and magnitude of the problems associated with attainment and maintenance of
the NAAQS varies with the specific pollutant involved.  Federal programs will be aimed at the
formulation of methodologies for developing control strategies and the development of control
systems as well as to the support of State and local programs.

     Maintenance of the standards in the long tern; will be facilitated by Federal programs
that lead to the minimization of emissions from new sources -- new motor vehicle emission
standards and standards of performance for new stationary sources — and the assurance of
continued low emissions performance for these sources during their useful lives.  Program
emphasis is on the control of new sources of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons and on
programs designed to assure compliance of production and in-use vehicles with applicable
emission standards.  In addition, an expanded program for the control of emissions of
synthetic organic chemical substances will result in the prevention of future problems
associated with these substances as well as in the reduction of photochemical oxidants.
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 emphasize the need for these controls.  The Amendments
mandate a schedule for setting new source performance standards for all new major stationary
sources by 1982.  The Amendments also mandate the setting of emission standards for all
mobile sources that have a significant air pollution impact.

     Development of the basic understanding of pollutant formation, transportation, and
ultimate fate requisite for the development of control recommendations for dealing with
newly identified environmental problems will be continued.  Among these fall the effects
that sulfates and nitrates may have on human health and welfare, including long term impacts
on terrestrial ecology.  The definition of the impact on human health of many substances
emitted to the atmosphere in small amounts, such as many trace metals, also requires
attention.  Emerging health problems may be averted if control programs are initiated in
time.

     Improving understanding of health and ecological effects and the transport and
transformation of air pollutants is the responsibility of the research program.  As a
better scientific data base on the air pollutants now regulated becomes available, the
research program is shifting emphasis to the identification of other airborne substances
which may require regulation in the future.

     Areas receiving increased attention in FY 1979 include sulfates, carcinogens,
and potentially toxic airborne substances.  The 1977 Amendments direct EPA to study the
problems associated with sulfates, nitrates, cadmium, arsenic, and polycyclic organic
matter.

     Research will also continue in FY 1979 to provide a better data base for implementation
of the NAAQS, such as the scheduled revision of the Criteria Documents, and for assessment
of other potential problems, such as nitrates and trace metals.  Research efforts will
emphasize the development of an understanding of the formation of photochemical oxidants
and nitrates, instrumentation development, and identification and quantification of
pollutant emissions from various sources.

     The purpose of the stationary source enforcement program is to assist and encourage
State and local enforcement efforts and to supplement those efforts where necessary.  In
FY 1979, the stationary source enforcement program will concentrate on obtaining compliance
by sources violating existing regulations, enforcement of New Source Performance Standards
(NSPS) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), enforcement
of prevention of significant deterioration regulations, overview of and aid to States in
conducting new source review programs (including offsets), delegation of NSPS and NESHAP
                                                                                            A-3

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enforcement authority to States, coordination of environmental goals with measures taken to
decrease dependence on scarce fuels under the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act
of 1974, and implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of August 7, 1977.  Emphasis will
be placed on establishing delayed compliance orders for appropriate Class A sources, initiation
of court actions for injunctive relief and penalities from those Class A sources for which a
delayed compliance order is not appropriate, and implementation of the provisions establishing
mandatory noncompliance penalties for noncomplying Class A sources.
     The mobile source enforcement program is directed primarily toward achieving compliance
with motor vehicles and fuel emission standards.  Emphasis will continue to be placed on
programs aimed at reducing the failure of vehicles to meet emission standards.  The FY 1979
proaram provides for an expanded Selective Enforcement Auditing and recall program, regionali-
zation of the antitampering program, expansion of the warranties program, and establishment
of the aftermarket parts certification program.

     In summary, the EPA program is aimed at supporting States and localities in their
air pollution control efforts, at providing an adequate level of Federal activity in those
areas for which the Federal Government has the primary responsibility — the setting of
emissions standards for new sources — or where Federal activity would result in a high
environmental payoff — enforcement actions against major air pollution sources in cases
where States do not have the resources to take action —  and at the development of air
pollution control related knowledge and techniques supportive of the national air
pollution control effort -- control technology for nitrogen oxides, health effects of air
pollutants.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES                         (in thousands of dollars)

     1978 Air Program...-.	                   $165,579

       Abatement and Control	                    +26,135

         The net increase in the abatement and
         control program includes a reduction
         in mobile source certification and testing,
         -$912,200; offset by program increases for
         air quality and stationary source planning
         and standards, +$11-,439,600, for promulga-
         tion of NSPS for all  major source categories;
         for mobile source standards and guidelines,
         +$6,107,000, for heavy duty engine emissions
         work; for State program resource assistance,
         +$7,212,900, for increased grant support to
         States; air quality strategies implementation,
         +$1,310,800, related to the SIP revision
         process; and trends monitoring and progress
         assessment, +$977,300, for ambient air quality
         monitoring work.                              «

       Enforcement	                    +10,611

         The increases include stationary source enforce-
         ment, +$9,202,200, for noncompliance penalty
         assessments and mandatory civil actions resulting
         from the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977; and mobile
         enforcement, +$1,409,000, for the anti-
         tampering, warranty, Selective Enforcement
         Auditing programs, and other mobile enforcement
         efforts.
    A-4

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       Research and Development	                  +10,319

         The increase.in research and development includes
         health effects, +$503,500; ecological effects,
         +$764,000 for a shift from in-house to an extramural
         program; monitoring and technical support, +$7,083,600,
         for improved monitoring; +$797,500 for transport and
         fate work; and +$1,170,000 for stratospheric modi-
         fication activities.                                          	
       1979 Air Program	                  212,644

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATE

     1.  Summary of Budget Request

              An appropriation of $212,644,000 is requested for 1979.  This request, by
appropriation account, is as follows:

              Abatement and Control	   $130,091,900
              Enforcement	     29,855,100
              Research and Development	     52,697,000

     This represents an increase of $47,065,200 over the 1978 level.  Included in the increase
is $11,439,600 for promulgation of New Source Performance Standards for all major source
categories, $6,107,000 for heavy duty engine emissions work, $7,212,900 for increased grant
support to States, $1,310,800 for State Implementation Plans  revisions; $977,300 for ambient
air quality monitoring work; $9,202,200 for noncompliance penalty assessments and litigation
resulting from the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977; $1,409,000 for the antitampering,
warranty, Selective Enforcement Auditing programs; and a net increase of $10,318,600 in the
research and development program for health and ecological effects and monitoring and
technical support.

     2.  Changes from Original 1-978 Budget Estimate

              Changes from the budget are as follows:

                                                             (in thousands of dollars)

              Original 1978 estimate	                   $154,257
                                                            t

              Congressional increases/decreases:
                Health and ecological effects	                     +4,000
                Academic training	                     +1,360
                Certification and review	                       -500
                Authorized positions	                       +315
              Proposed suppl oriental	                     +9,400
              Regional reprogramnings	                       +735
              Headquarters and field offices
                reprogramnings	                       -456
              Office of Research and Development
                reprogrammlng	                     -3.532

              Current 1978 estimate	                    165,579

     Congressional add-ons to the budget request resulted in a $4 million increase in the
air program as part of a total $6 million increase for health and ecological effects.  The
total  Agency add-on of $3 million for academic training resulted in an increase of
$1,360,000 to the air program.  The Congress decreased the budget request by $500,000 from
automobile certification and testing.  An increase of $315,000 was provided for authorized
positions.
                                                                                           A-5

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     The current estimate also includes proposed supplemental for air control agency
grants, $fl million, and for a research study on effects of graphite and related fibers,
$1.4 million.

     Regional reprogrammings to support increased personnel and hearings costs resulted
in a net increase of $734,500; headquarters, Durham, and Ann Arbor reprogrammings resulted
in a net decrease of $455,800.

     The Office of Research and Development reprogramming of funds results from several
actions — the transfer to reflect anticipatory research in a separate media (-$1,953,000);
the transfer to the agencywide support activities to provide for increased building and
office services costs (-$1,634,600); and a slight net increase (+$56,000) due to miscellaneous
transfers due to personnel increases and reassignments.
ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
                                                                            Estimate
                                                                              1979
     Prior year obligations	

          Effect of congressional changes..-.

          Effect of proposed supplementals..

          Increase to control agency grants.
 Current
Estimate
  1978
(in thousands of dollars")

$165,644        $175,000

  +5,000

  +9,400
          Miscellaneous increases and decreases,
            as listed above	
          Program increases.
          Change in amount of carryover
            funds available	
          Change in rate of obligation.
          Total estimated obligations	
            (From new obligation authority).
            (From prior year funds)	
  -2,700

  +5,400


 -13,834

  +6,090

 175,000
(158,990)
 (16,010)
 +42,507


  -2,431
 215,076
(201,497)
 (13,579)
EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
     The congressional changes discussed in the previous paragraph are expected to result
in an increase of $5 million to obligations.  The proposed supplementals are expected to
increase obligations by 39.4 million.

     The reprogrammings made by the ORD, regions, and headquarters are expected to reduce
obligations in 1978 by $2.7 million.

     The increase in budget authority over the 1977 level is expected to result in an
increase of $5.4 million to 1978 obligations; the program increases requested in 1979
are expected to increase obligations by $42.5 million.

     The amount of carryover funds to be obligated in 1978 is $16,010,000, a decrease of
$13,834,000 from the 1977 level; in 1979, it is estimated that $13,579,000 of carryover
funds will be obligated, a decrease of $2,431,000 from the 1978 level.

     A change in the rate of obligations is expected to create an increase in 1978 of
approximately $6,090,000.  Some of the delays experienced in previous years on extramural
fund obligations are expected to no longer occur in the current fiscal year.
  ft-6

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                                              AIR
                                                 Budget    Current               Increase +
                                      Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                       1977      1978       1978       1979     1979 vs. 1978
PROGRAM LEVELS
Number of pollutants covered
by hazardous pollutants
standards 	
Number of engine families
certified for conformity
with emission standards 	
Number of source categories
covered by NSPS 	
Number of emission tests
carried out for motor
vehicle certification
purposes 	 	 	
Number of -fuel economy tests
carried out 	
Identified Class A source in
U.S 	
Assembly line testing test
orders 	
Certification and production
inspection/compliance 	
Combined fuels/ vapor recovery
i nspecti ons 	
Recall investigations 	
Number of ESECA Determinations
by EPA 	
Non compliance penalties
assessed 	
Number of civil/criminal
actions filed by EPA 	


4


589

25



1,999

1,200

23,033

32

73

25,900
20

20

...

22


4


479

33



3,067

175

26,000

23

80

9,000
25

' 81

432

190


5


537

31



1,970

1,160

25,000

40

70

16,000
25

199

132

109


5


558

44



1,700

1,160

27 ,000

55

25

15,000
28

400

729

317


. . ,


+21

+13

•

-270

. . .

+2,000

+15

-45

-1,000
+3

+208

+597

+208
          NSPS:  New Source Performance Standards.

          ESECA:  Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974.
                                                                                        A-7

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3
CD
0)

a

o
o

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                                               AIR

                                      Abatement and Control
Appropriation
Air Quality and Stationary
Source Planning and
Standards 	
Mobile Source Standards
and Guidelines 	
State Programs Resource
Assistance 	
Air Quality Strategies
Implementation 	
Mobile Source Certification
and Testing 	
Trends Monitoring and
Prooress Assessment 	
Total 	
Permanent Positions
Air Quality and Stationary
Source Planning and
Standards 	
Mobile Source Standards
and Gui del i nes 	
State Programs Resource
Assistance 	
Air Quality Strategies
Implementation 	
Mobile Source Certification
and Testing 	
Trends Monitoring and
Progress Assessment 	
Total 	
Actual
1977
211,906
7,528
58,411
6,009
8,286
6,578
98,718
197
62
15
243
165
140
822
Budget
Estimate
1978
Current Increase +
Estimate Estimate Decrease -
1978 1979 1979 vs. 1978
(dollars in thousands)
$11,130 $11,145 $22,585
4,520 4,520 10,627
59,526 68,848 76,061
4,905 5,410 6,720
7,952 7,452 6,540
6,552 6,582 7,559
94,585
199
54
15
251
181
152
852
a/
103,957
202
54
n
278
181
153
879 ~
130,092
211
56
6
287
170
151
881
+$11,440
+6,107
+7,213
+1,310
-912
+977
b/
+26,135
+9
+2
-5
+9
-11
-2
d/
+2 ~
Page
A-12
A-19
A-23
A-28
A-37
A-42
a/  Includes proposed supplemental of $8 million for State and local air pollution
    control agency grants (State programs resource assistance).

b/  The net increase reflects the inclusion of the proposed supplemental in the
    1978 current estimate; excluding this supplemental, the net change would be
    +$34,135,400.

£/  Includes 21 positions added for air quality strategies implementation.

d_/  The net increase reflects the inclusion of 21 additional positions in the 1978
    current estimate; without this addition, the net change would be +23.
                                                                                            A-8

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     The Abatement and Control appropriation encompasses air program activities
related to the development of control strategies and control programs, and the
implementation of such programs.  These activities are aimed at providing
technical and policy guidance, encouraging State and local actions, and providing
direct Federal action when States fail to fulfill their responsibilities as
required by the Clean Air Act.  The Act envisions the development and implementation
of controls as a State responsibility with assistance provided by EPA.  The
activities under the three appropriations complement each other.  Knowledge gained
as a result of activity funded by research and development is translated into
practical control programs by abatement and control  activities; if required, these
programs are ultimately enforced by EPA.

     The abatement and control activities are significantly impacted by the Clean
Air Act Amendments of 1977 since a large number of actions mandated by the Act are
covered by this appropriation.  The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 represent a
continuation of the basic strategy contained in the 1970 law for the control of
air pollution.  Protection of public health is to be assured through the attainment
and maintenance of ambient air quality standards by specified deadlines.  The
Amendments specify, in great detail, the procedural  steps that are to be followed
by the States and EPA in implementing the provisions of the legislation.  The
Amendments remove discretionary authority from EPA and the States in many important
areas of air pollution control, and increase the extent to which citizens and
Governors of States can petition EPA for action.  The net result is an extensive
number of new mandatory actions.  The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 address the
issues of nonattainment of standards and the lack of appropriate State and local
action under the 1970 Amendments to the law.  The 1977 Amendments extend the dates
for attainment of ambient air quality standards through 1982, and for certain
pollutants, through 1987.  Significant new authorities are provided to assure that
the revised attainment dates are met:  delayed compliance penalties are reouired
to be set for noncomplying sources; revised State Implementation Plans  (SIPs) for
photochemical oxidants and carbon monoxide (involving control of emissions related
to transportation sources) are to be developed by organizations of local elected
officials; severe sanctions can be applied if SIPs are not developed properly—
the Amendments specify in great detail the criteria that SIPs must meet—or if
they are not implemented.  The most significant such sanction is the prohibition
of growth of stationary sources after July 1, 1979,  if certain conditions related
to SIPs are not met.

     In addition to the provisions related to the SIP process and attainment of
ambient air quality standards, the Amendments establish an extensive statutory
basis for prevention of significant deterioration and established a national goal
for visibility protection; these provisions also require EPA stuaies and regulatory
action.
     A-9

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     The Amendments also require that studies potentially leading to the setting
of ambient air quality standards be carried out, that a national primary ambient
air quality standard for nitrogen dioxide short-term exposures be promulqated--
unless found not to be necessary--, that New Source Performance Standards be set
on a specified schedule, that certain emission standards be set for motor
vehicles and engines, and that other studies, ranging from the National Commission
on Air Quality to a study on odors, be performed.  Furthermore, the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards are to be reviewed every 5 years, and procedures
for assuring utilization of local sources of coal and assessing the economic
impacts of regulatory actions are established.

     Abatement and control activities in the air program are aimed at supporting
the overall air program objectives of attaining and maintainina the primary
National Ambient Air Quality Standards.  The highest priority objective for States
and EPA will be the development and approval of revisions to the State Implementation
Plans for areas not attaining the ambient air quality standards, as required by
the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  Support of State and local programs in
order- to achieve this objective is of the highest priority under abatement and
control.  The implementation of complementary Federal controls—Federal action
where States fail to act—New Source Performance Standards, and motor vehicle
emission controls, is also of high priority.  The revision of State Implementation
Plans which are inadequate for attaining and maintaining the standards requires
a high level of activity at the State and Federal levels.  This is especially so
for the plans for the control of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and photo-
chemical oxidants.  The plans for the control of sulfur dioxide are generally
adequate; however, some plans may require revision as a result of increased use
of higher sulfur content fuels.  In addition, States and EPA will have to develop
State Implementation Plans for the control of lead.  At the same time that this
revision process is underway—an ambient air quality standard for lead will be
promulgated during 1978.

     The attainment and maintenance of standards requires long-range planning.
The impact of air pollution control requirements on society, economic activity,
and energy supplies will be minimized and air pollution control goals will be
adequately considered along with other social goals only if improved planning
processes are implemented.  Lower emphasis must be placed on obtaining solutions
for other important environmental problems, such as the control of pollutants
with localized effects and the control of pollutants with no direct human health impact.

     The abatement and control activities are categorized under the following
subactivities:

     Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards.  This subactivity
is related to (1) the development of nationwide control strategies for both
regulated and unregulated pollutants, the reassessment and modification of these
strategies, and the translation of decisions on appropriate control requirements
into regulatory actions, and (2) the development of emissions standards for
stationary sources of air pollution, and the requisite supportive analyses and
technology assessments.  Control strategies developed under this subactivity are
translated into guidance for State action—State Implementation Plans—or
directly into Federal control requirements—New Source Performance Standards or
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.  Extensive activities
are also carried out to provide the engineering and other technical support
requisite for the development of regulations promulgated by EPA when States do not act.
                                                                                           A-10

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     Mobile Source Standards and Guidelines.  This subactivity involves the setting
of emissions standards for mobile sources including the associated technical analyses
and technology assessments, and the development of mobile source related technical
procedures and guidelines applicable to the control of emissions from new and in-use
vehicles.  Under this subactivity, findings made in relation to the need for control
of mobile source emissions under the research and development activities or under the
air quality and stationary source planning and standards subactivity are translated
into practical control programs applicable to appropriate classes of motor vehicles
or to appropriate stages of motor vehicle's life, from design to the end of their
useful lives.

     State Programs Resource Assistance.   This subactivity involves the provision of
resources to support State and local governments activities in implementing air
pollution control programs, including vehicle inspection and maintenance.  The primary
responsibility for controlling air pollution rests on the States and localities.
Supplemental resources are required if these governments are to effectively implement
air pollution control programs, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for direct
Federal intervention.  Resource supplementation complements the purpose of the
activities carried out under the other subactivities of the Abatement and Control
appropriation.

     Air Quality Strategies Implementation.  This subactivity is related to the
implementation of regulatory requirements for which the Federal Government has
primary responsibility,  such as (1) the consultation with, and overview of, air
pollution control activities carried out by Federal facilities, (2) the review of
environmental  impact statements prepared by other Federal agencies for air pollution
impact, and (3) the implementation of air quality standards and control strategies
in specific areas of the Nation.  These activities result in the implementation of
the general control strategies, developed under the standards subactivities, at
specific areas of the Nation, —States and localities—through State and local
control programs.  Examples of these activities are the development of State
Implementation Plans (SIPs ) and EPA promulgation of regulations, all technical
aspects of the development of the control strategies incorporated into the SIP,
and the management of the procedural requirements, such as public hearings on plans.

     Mobile Source Certification and Testing.  This subactivity includes the
testing of prototype motor vehicles and engines and determining whether or not
they conform with motor vehicle emissions standards developed under the mobile
source standards and guidelines subactivity.  This subactivity also includes
laboratory and other associated support activities (including data analysis)
involved in technology assessment, emissions characterization, test procedures
development, and test procedure refinement for mobile sources associated with
the mobile source standards and guidelines subactivity.

     Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment.  This subactivity includes the
determination of ambient air quality and emission levels, determining their
relationships, and assessing progress made towards the attainment of environmental
goals.  These data and assessments are used for reassessing, changing, or
developing control strategies, and for judging the progress made in achieving
legislative or regulatory program goals.

     The determination of emission levels is an activity fundamental to the
administration of programs at the State,  local, and Federal levels for developing
regulations for the State Implementation Plans, reviewing new sources, and making
determinations as to the siting of new sources.
      A-n

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                                               AIR
                                      Abatement and Control

                    Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards
Appropriation
Emission Standards
  and Technology
  Assessment	
Energy and Pollutant
  Strategies Development....
State Program Guidelines
  and Regulations Develop-
  ment	,
                                  Actual
                                   1977
$6,144

 2,373


 3,389
             Budget
            Estimate
              1978
             Current
            Estimate
              1978
                                                      "(dollars in thousand!]"
            Estimate
              1979
$5,817

 2,138


 3,175
$5,817

 2,138


 3.190
$17,272

  2,138


  3,175
           Increase +
           Decrease -
         1979 vs.  1978
+$11,455
     -15
       Total	

Permanent Positions
Emission Standards
  and Technology
  Assessment	
Energy and Pollutant
  Strategies Development	
State Programs Guidelines
  and Regulations Develop-
  ment	
11,906




    99

    31


    67
11,130




   101

    32


    66
11,145




   101

    32


    69
 22,585




    111

     32


     68
 +11,440
     +10
      -1
       Total,
   197
   199
   202
    211
      +9-
Budget Request
     The resources requested for this budget subactivity are $22,584,600 and 211 positions.  This
reflects an increase of $11,439,600 and nine positions over the FY 1978 level for the develop-
ment of emission standards for new stationary sources as mandated £y the Clean Air Act Amend-
ments of 1977.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the setting of emission standards for stationary sources and
all industry studies, cost studies, and other analyses which support the standard setting
function.  Also included is the setting of ambient air quality standards, the development
and reassessment of nationwide control strategies needed to meet these standards, studies
oriented toward the balancing of energy and environmental goals, the assessment of potential
pollutants, the development of pollutant control strategies, analytical tools and guidelines,
and the translation of all such control strategies into regulatory actions.

     Emissions Standards and Technology Assessments -- National emission standards for
stationary sources are set under Sections 111 and 112 of the Clean Air Act.  Section 111
mandates the Environmental Protection Agency to establish standards of performance for
new stationary sources; Section 112 mandates national emission standards for hazardous air
pollutants.

     New source performance standards (HSPS) are set to reflect the performance of the best
systems of emission reduction, considering cost, for specific processes or facilities in a
source category.  The analysis leading to and supporting the NSPS consider technical feasibil-
ity, cost, and economic, energy, and environmental impacts.  The importance of NSPS has been
emphasized by the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Air Act.  These amendments require EPA to set
NSPS for all major stationary sources by 1982.  It is expected that approximately 100 source
categories will have to be covered by NSPS.   The NSPS are also tied to the implementation of
                                                                                         A-12

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control strategies for nonattainment air quality control regions and for the prevention of
significant deterioration, according to the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments.  The NSPS setting
process results in providing useful data to State agencies in defining best available control
technology, lowest achievable emission rates, and reasonably available control technology.
In addition, the new source performance standards provide a legally binding upper limit to
the deterioration of ambient air quality.

     The setting of national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) has
emerged as a priority program in EPA to protect public health from carcinogens and mutagens.
Asbestos, beryllium, mercury, vinyl chloride, and benzene have been listed as hazardous air
pollutants.  NESHAP have been established for significant emitters of these pollutants, except
for benzene.  The program to establish NESHAP for benzene is currently underway.  Documentation
leading to the setting of a NESHAP is extensive, covering all significant sources and all
emission points within a source.  The asbestos regulations, for example, continue to be amended
as new source categories are identified; the regulations to control benzene will cover a
multitude of source categories, ranging from individual gasoline filling stations to organic
chemical manufacturing processes.

     Energy and Pollutant Strategies Development — The Clean Air Act now requires that studies
be made of the air pollution effects of the pollutants arsenic, cadmium, and polycyclic organic
matter (POM), and that EPA decide upon a control approach — setting NAAQS, listing as hazardous
air pollutants, or setting new source performance standards (NSPS) — by August 1978.  In
addition, the Act requires a determination to be made in relation to short term exposures to
nitrogen dioxide by early 1978 — most likely leading to the setting of a National Ambient Air
Quality Standards (NAAQS) — and that all criteria and NAAQS already issued be reviewed by the
end of 1980.  Work on these activities is being carried out.

     Control strategies for noncriteria pollutants are also required by the Clean Air Act.  The
assessment of the need for controlling a specific substance is carried out.  The regulatory
pathway for controlling these pollutants may be any of a series of authorities provided by
the Clean Air Act — Section 111 (NSPS) or Section 112, National Emissions Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).  To control a pollutant via Section 112, the Administrator
must make a determination that the pollutant "may cause or contribute to, an increase in
mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness."  Thus
far, NESHAP have been anplied to control mercury, asbestos, and beryllium from specific sources.
During 1976, vinyl chloride was added to the list of hazardous pollutants controlled under
Section 112.  Section 111 allows the Agency to promulgate standards for control of noncriteria
pollutants from not only new sources, but from existing sources as well.  Sulfuric acid mist,
fluorides, and total reduced sulfur compounds are noncriteria pollutants regulated by NSPS.
State plans to control existing sources were initiated.  The health effects and environmental
damage of approximately 700 high volume industrial organic substances, presumed to be prevalent
in the environment, are being reviewed.  The need for action, if any, will be determined and
the regulatory pathway for pollutants of concern will be recommended at the conclusion of each
assessment.

     EPA participation in energy development and supply related programs require access to
timely and accessible data on fuel use and air quality.  EPA has developed and utilizes an
energy/environment data system.

     State Programs Guidelines and Regulations Development — National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS) have been set for six pollutants.Although most readily available control
methods have been employed nationally, many regions have not attained standards.  The Clean
Air Act Amendments of 1977 address the problems of nonattainment of the standards, providing
for extended time frames for attainment.  These extended time frames are coupled with stringent
requirements that must be met by the State Implementation Plans and sources of air pollution
in areas exceeding the standards.  This situation also requires a reassessment of control
strategies, the development and application of methodologies and criteria for control strategy
development for large geographic areas and for specific areas, and the implementation of these
controls.
    A-13

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     In addition, air pollution problems related to atmospheric transformations — nitrogen
dioxide and nitrates formed from nitrogen oxide emissions, photochemical oxidants from hydro-
carbons and nitrogen oxides, and sulfates from sulfur dioxide -- affect large scale geographic
areas, multistate areas, far exceeding the size of Air Quality Control Regions (AQCRs).  New
approaches to air pollution control for areas of this magnitude are required.  In other cases,
sulfur dioxide or carbon monoxide-related air quality problems, refinements and improvements
in well understood techniques may be in order for optimal effectiveness of control requirements.

     The Clean Air Act requirement for the revision of the State Implementation Plans and the
expected additional plan revisions for the maintenance of the standards require that new
control strategies be adopted by the States and localities.  The identification of these con-
trol strategies and the development of the control plans require the development and dissemina-
tion of policy, procedures, and guidelines which can be utilized by States in implementing plan
revision and development actions.  For example, EPA prepares guidelines for control of non-
criteria pollutants emitted from sources covered by New Source Performance Standards for which
regulations exist under Section lll(d) of the Clean Air Act.  Other examples include special
studies to identify and eliminate technical barriers to the achievement of the standards —
fugitive emissions/urban particulate background.  In addition, analytical tools will be
prepared for State and local agencies to aid in control strategy reassessment and development;
EPA activities supportive of States in these tasks are described under the air quality strategies
implementation subactivity.

EMISSION STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately $3.7 million in contract support.  These funds were
used for engineering studies and other analyses needed to support new source performance
standards (NSPS), National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants  (NESHAP), and
revisions to State implementation plans.  This included detailed studies of the synthetic
organic chemical manufacturing industry and studies of industrial surface coating evaporation
losses, as. well as emission measurements, cost analyses, environmental, and energy impact
assessment, and engineering studies of other specific industrial processes.  Programs are also
intended to delineate emission factors and control technology for fugitive emissions.

     During 1977, NSPS were proposed for grain terminals, sulfur recovery plants in petroleum
refineries, lime plants, lignite fired steam generators, and sewage sludge incinerators.
Emission guidelines to implement Section lll(d), State emission standards for existing sources,
were promulgated for five source categories in the phosphate fertilizer industry and for sulfuric
acid plants.  NESHAP for vinyl chloride were promulgated in 1977.  A proposal to amend the vinyl
chloride regulations was published for comment in response to a petition from the Environmental
Defense Fund.  A proposal to amend the asbestos NESHAP was also published for comment in response
to a finding that decorative sprays used in public buildings often contained asbestos which
endangered public health.  Benzene was listed as a hazardous air pollutant.

     A major effort to revise the NSPS for electric utility power plants was initiated in 1977.
This work started in response to a petition from the Sierra Club and is now mandated by the 1977
Clean Air Act Amendments.  To accomplish the necessary work, a cooperative program with EPA's
researcn and development program was implemented.

     In addition, work on the following standards and related areas was completed:  NSPS
regulations on opacity from basic oxygen furnaces and fluid catalytic cracking units were
revised; regulations for gasoline vapor control under State implementation plans were proposed;
a general guidance document on the development of State plans under Section lll(d) was issued;
and control  technology guidelines defining reasonably available control technology were issued
for eight source categories.
                                                                                      A-H

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 1978 Program

      The development of emission standards and technology assessment has been allocated
 $5,817,000 and 101  positions.   These resources include approximately $3.3 million in contract
 funds.   These resources are to be used to continue the work related to setting standards for
 the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry and the studies required for setting
 other New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), National  Emissions Standards for Hazardous
 Air Pollutants (NESHAP), and issuance of reasonably available control technology guidelines
 for review of State Implementation Plans (SIPs).

      NSPS will be proposed for petroleum storage tanks,  steam electric power plants, glass
 manufacturing, nonmetallic mineral processing, selected  sources in refineries, and bulk
 terminals.  Final NSPS regulations will  be issued for sewage sludge incinerators, kraft pulp
 mills,  lignite fired steam generators, sulfur recovery plants in petroleum refineries, grain
 elevators, lime plants, stationary gas turbines,  and steam electric power plants.

      In response to the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, a guidance document concerning the lowest
 achievable emission rate will  be issued.  A list of source categories to be regulated by NSPS
 will also be developed and published in the Federal Register.  Guidelines defining reasonably
 available control technology will be issued for 20 source categories in 1978.  Also, studies to
'determine if existing NSPS need to be revised will be initiated for 10 source categories.  Any
 necessary revisions will be implemented in 1979.

      During 1978, the asbestos NESHAP will be revised to control the use of asbestos containing
 decorative sprays.   The vinyl  chloride amendment will be finalized.  Regulations to control
 benzene emissions from bulk terminals and selected refinery sources will be published for
 comment.  It is also anticipated that regulations to control hazardous emissions from coke ovens
 will be proposed for comment.   Engineering guidelines to implement Section lll(d) will be final-
 ized for sulfuric acid plants and proposed for kraft pulp mills.

 1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

      There are no changes from the budget estimate.

 1979 Plan

      The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes  $17,271,600 and 111 positions,
 including approximately S14 million in contract funds.  This represents an increase of $11,454,600
 and 10 positions which will provide for a contract program for setting emission standards for all
 significant stationary source categories, either identified by EPA or by petition from the public,
 by the 1982 deadline established by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  This effort will
 encompass approximately 70 to 80 source categories.  During 1979, EPA will locate well controlled
 facilities and initiate the collection of emission data  and control technology information.  This
 will be followed by the development of regulations in 1980, 1981, and 1982.

      During 1979, New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) will be published for comment for a
 variety of sources of volatile organic materials, with emphasis on surface coating operations.
 Studies on these surface coating sources.were initiated in 1976 and 1977.  Candidates include
 auto and light truck surface coatinq; paper, fabric, can, coil, flatwood products; and metal
 furniture industrial surface coating.  NSPS for the nonmetallic minerals industry, selected
 refinery sources, bulk terminals, gasoline and crude oil storage, and glass manufacturing will
 be promulgated.  Section lll(d) guidelines for kraft pulp mills will be finalized.

      Benzene National Emission  Standard  for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) proposed in
 FY 1978 will be finalized in 1979; regulations to control additional sources of benzene will be
 proposed for comment.  The program on coke oven emissions will be continued, with the promulgation
 of regulations proposed in 1978 and the proposal of additional regulations for public comment.

      During 1979, it is planned to issue regulations to control arsenic emissions from non-
 ferrous smelters.  These regulations will be issued in two phases; the first phase will relate
 to process emissions, the second to fugitive emissions.   Regulations on fugitive emissions
 will not be finalized until 1980.

      As a result of studies on synthetic organic chemical manufacturing, started in 1976, NSPS
 regulations will be issued for comment on selected sources in 1979.  Initial regulations
 will be concerned with process emissions, followed by storage, handling, and transfer
 operations and then fugitive emissions.
  A-15

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ENERGY AND POLLUTANT STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

1977 Accomplishment

     1977 resources included approximately $1.4 million for contract support for pollutant
screening and control strategy evaluations, and economic analyses of control strategies and
control plans.

     Preliminary work on the examination of 600 to 700 compounds in the synthetic organic
chemicals manufacturing industries was continued.  This study, begun in 1976, will take about
three years and will involve 200 to 300 compounds.  A review of the health and environmental
damages of 70 high volume industrial organic substances was completed.  As a result, a closer
examination of five compounds is being made to assess their potential as community air
pollution problems.

     The Energy Data System developed as a tool for assessing air quality and energy impacts
of environmental legislation was completed.  The system will store nationwide summaries
of air quality data relating to fuel consumption and atmospheric emissions from power plants
and large industrial fuel burners.

1978 Program

     The work on energy and pollutant strategies has been allocated $2,138,000 and 32 positions.
These resources include an estimated SI.2 million in contract funds for pollutant and control
strategy evaluations, energy related analyses, and economic assessments related to control
strategy assessments.  The program for a preliminary screening of some 700 organic cnemicals as
potential air contaminants will be continued.  Those chemicals determined to be of special
concern will be further assessed to establish the need for regulatory action.

     A National Amoient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead is to be promulgated.  Determina-
tions as to the need for control of arsenic, POK, and cadmium will be made, and the neeo for
a NAAQS for short term exposures of nitrogen dioxide will be assessed, and a standard set if
warranted by the health effects data, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

     A review of the NAAQS for photochemical oxidants will be completed, and recommendations for
revising the standard made if warranted.  A review of the current NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide
and carbon monoxide will be initiated.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There are no changes from the budget estimate.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes $2,138,000 and 32 positions, represent-
ing no changes in resources in this program element from the 1978 level.  Contract funds in
FY 1979 approximate $12 million.  A major focus during FY 1979 will be the assessment of the
need to revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide,
sulphur dioxide and total suspended particulates.  Related issues will be addressed in the
review of these pollutants, such as the possible establishment of a sulfate standard, and the
need for a respirable particulate air quality standard.  A second major emphasis will be to
continue to work in the area of toxic air pollutants.  This work will concentrate on individual
pollutant assessments of pollutants of concern identified in the review process performed in
previous years.  Risk assessments will be prepared for each pollutant following_completion
of studies on health effects and studies showing which segment of the population is exposed
to the pollutant.

     In the energy area, studies, policy recommendations, and programmatic actions pertinent
to the relationship between fossil-fuel combustion and air quality requirements will be carried
out.  The major focus will be on the trend toward increased coal use and decreased oil and
gas use.  Specific program areas to be addressed are the State Implementation Plans (SIP)
studies required by Section 124 of the Clean Air Act (related to the adequacy of the SIP in case
of shortages in oil or natural gas), the protection of visibility required by Section 169(a) of
the Clean Air Act, current and future  New Source Performance Standards (HSPS) for fuel burning
stationary sources, and an Agency strategy for controlling .sulphur oxide emissions.


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STATE PROGRAMS GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS DEVELOPMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately $1.6 million of contract support for studies on
issues and problems related to the air pollution control program and for the development of
guidance materials.

     Guidance on the revision of State Implementation Plans was provided through the issuance
of control strategy manuals for photochemical oxidants and total suspended particulates; a
policy paper on fugitive dust control was issued; the interpretative ruling on review of new
sources in nonattainment areas ("emissions offset") was issued; analyses on the geographic
applicability on controls for organic chemicals (for photochemical oxidants control; were
completed; and the annual report to Congress on progress in the prevention'and control of
air pollution was prepared.

1978 Program

     The development of State programs guidelines, and regulations has been allocated $3,190,000
and 69 positions.  These resources include an estimated $1.5 million in contract funds for the
development of guidance on complex aspects of air pollution control.  Work will concentrate
on guidance for implementation of the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.
The Amendments have far reaching implications for the State Implementation Plans (SIPs), requiring
the revision of the SIPs for all areas not attaining standards.  The Amendments specify that the
SIPs must be adequate in the following areas:  Legal authority, control strategy for the specific
pollutant, compliance schedules, prevention of air pollution emergency episodes, air quality
surveillance, review of new sources and modifications, source surveillance, resources, inter-
governmental cooperation,  rules, and regulations.  In addition, the SIPs must provide for: review
of new sources in nonattainment areas, accounting for stack heights, assess adequacy of plan in
relation to long term fuel supplies, prevention of significant deterioration of air quality,
permits for new sources, indirect source review, delegation of authority to local governments,
interstate pollution abatement; consultation with governmental entities at the local Federal
level, planning procedures to allow local governments more authority in developing and implement-
ing plans, noncpmpliance penalties, fees collection for the issuance and administration of
permits, composition of State air pollution boards to avoid conflicts of interest, provisions
prohibiting loss of pay of employees at facilities that use supplemental control systems, public
notification of dangers of air pollution, protection of visibility in certain areas, emergency
episode reporting, energy or economic emergency authority and measures to prevent economic dis-
ruption or unemployment.  Policies must be developed and guidance must be provided by EPA on
all these aspects of the SIPs.

     Additional guidance must also be developed as required by the Act.  Guidelines on the basic
program elements for the planning process required by the Act for the revision of the SIPs for
oxidants and carbon monoxide will be published.  Documents providing information on methods or
strategies that will contribute to the reduction of mobile source related pollutants will be
published as required by the Clean Air Act.  Information will be provided on programs for motor
vehicle emission inspection and maintenance, control of vapor emissions from fuel transfer and
storage operations and operations using solvents, improved public transit, exclusive bus and
carpool lanes and areawide carpooling, long range transit improvements involving new transpor-
tation policies and transportation facilities or major changes in existing facilities, the
conversion of fleet vehicles to cleaner engines or fuels, or to otherwise control fleet vehicle
operations, and other programs as required by the Act.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $15,000 from the budget estimate is due to an adjustment of direct program
support costs for the Durham facility to the program elements supported.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes $3,175,000 and 68 positions.  This
represents a decrease of $15,000 and one position from the FY 1978 level due to a realloca-
tion to the setting of New Source Performance Standards and an expected reduction in work
associated with policy and guidance development under the Clean Air Act Amendments.  Contract
funds are approximately $1.4 million.

  A-17

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     Projects will be aimed at identifying barriers to the achievement of the ambient air
quality standards and the studies and analyses for removing these barriers and improving the
technical basis for the air quality management approach to air pollution.  Such projects will
include major studies to better characterize the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC)
and to quantify the relationship of VOC emissions to oxidant levels.  In addition, studies will be
undertaken to obtain better information on total suspended particulates fugitive emission --
particle sizing, chemical composition, and control.  Other regulation and guideline development
work will concentrate on oxidant controls and new source review programs.
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                                               AIR

                                      Abatement and Control

                             Mobile Source Standards and Guidelines


                                         Budget        Current                      Increase +
                              Actual    Estimate       Estimate      Estimate       Decrease -
                               1977       1978         _J9_78__      ._J.9_7?__      1979 .vs. 1978


Appropriation

Mobile Source Standards
  and Guidelines	  $7.528      54,520	S4,520	310,627      +56,107

     Total	   7,528       4,520          4,520        10,627       +6,107

Permanent Positions

Mobile Source Standards
  and Guidelines	      62	54	54	56	+2

     Total	      62          54             54            56           +2

Budget Request

     The resources requested for this budget subactivity are $10,627,000 and 56 positions.
This is an increase of $6,107,000 and 2 positions over the FY 1978 level for implementing
the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the development of emission standards for mobile
sources of air pollution ~ passenger motor vehicles, heavy duty and light duty
trucks, motorcycles, and aircraft -- and associated technical activities, such as
technology assessments and emissions characterization.  The control of all significant
classes of motor vehicles is necessary if the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
for carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide are to be attained
and maintained in many areas of the Nation.  The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977
have set forth such an extensive control program for mobile sources.

     The development of standards for mobile sources involves a characterization and
analysis process.  First, air pollutant emissions from representative individual
vehicles are determined.  Follow-up work involves the characterization of the use of
these vehicles and the characterization of emissions on the basis of vehicle samples
representative of actual in-use vehicle populations.  At this stage, the development
of appropriate emissions sampling and testing procedures may have to be carried out.
After the initiation of a regulatory action, further definition of issues raised
during the regulatory process may be required.  After a regulatory action has been
implemented, the reassessment of control requirements or procedures may be indicated;
such reassessments may involve a process similar to that for new regulatory actions.
An essential part of the reassessment process is the continuous assessment of new
or improved technologies for potential changes in the nature and magnitude of air
pollutant emissions and other related factors such as fuel economy.
   A-19

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     The various categories of mobile sources are at different stages of this generalized
process for development of emission controls.  Initial control actions for light duty
motor vehicles, automobiles, were taken in the past, with future actions related to this
class of motor vehicles revolving around the statutory standards set by the Congress
(under amendments to the Clean Air Act) and the associated administrative actions,
such as the extension of the time by wnich the-Standards are to be applied or the
assessment of the energy impacts of the standards.  These activities for this class
of vehicles will require future technology assessments.  The assessment of
emissions of currently unregulated pollutants from automobiles may also be required
due to changes in the technology used by manufacturers to meet emission standards which
may result in emissions of toxic substances — hydrogen cyanide emissions from a
specific type of catalyst.  The results of the assessments may indicate the need for
changes in the standards or additional regulatory action for preventing the emissions
of substances that may turn out to present a health risk.

     Tne controls for other motor vehicles are at the initial stages of implementation
or are just reaching the levels of stringency comparable to the controls required of
automobiles.  As the emission standards are imposed on additional classes of motor
vehicles and as the stringency of these standards increases, it is likely that the
reassessments of the emissions standards as well as the control technology used by
the manufacturers, in terms of its energy as well as nonregulated pollutant impacts
will be required in a fashion similar to the process experienced with automobiles.
Therefore, it is expected that work of increasing complexity, involving additional
classes of motor vehicles, will have to be carried out for the foreseeable future.

     The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 specifically require:

          -  The measurement of evaporative emissions from the vehicle as a whole,
             to be applicable to vehicles and engines beginning with the 1979 model
             year; the test procedures are to be promulgated no later than May 1978.
             The Act also requires investigation of the feasibility and desirability
             of requiring vehicles to employ on-board control of hydrocarbon
             emission resulting from vehicle fueling, and to promulgate
             regulations if it is determined that such a program is more desirable
             than a program employing vapor recovery systems at service stations.
             If EPA promulgates regulations limiting vehicle refueling emissions,
             it must then promulgate motor vehicle fill pipe design standards.

          -  Regulations requiring a 90 percent reduction in hydrocarbon and
             carbon monoxide emissions for 1983 model year heavy duty vehicles
             (including light duty trucks) and requiring a 75 percent
             reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions for 1985 model year heavy duty
             vehicles are required by December 1979.  The baseline from which the
             90 and 75 percent reductions are to be calculated is the emissions
             of 1969 model year heavy duty gasoline vehicles.  Penalty payment
             regulations for nonconfonning heavy duty vehicles are to be
             promulgated no later than August 1978.

          -  Particulate emissions standards for classes or categories of vehicles
             are required beginning with the 1981 model year.  Pollutant specific
             studies on heavy duty and other categories of mobile sources are
             required by January 1, 1979, and at 3-year intervals thereafter.  A
             study and report to Congress on particle emissions rates, size, and
             composition as well  as potential health and welfare effects for all
             categories of mobile sources is required by August 7, 1979.

          -  All  vehicles are required to meet the Section 202 emission standards
             regardless of the altitude at which they are sold beginning with the
             1984 model year.
                                                                                       A-20

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          -  An annual report to Congress on fuel consumption associated with emission
             standard compliance of vehicles of the immediately preceding model year
             is required.  A study of air pollution emissions from railroads to
             determine the air quality effect of those emissions, the feasibility of
             controlling those emissions, and the status and effect of State and local
             railroad emission control regulations is required.

          -  The Administrator is to enter into appropriate arrangements with the
             National Academy of Sciences to conduct continuing comprehensive studies
             and investigation of the technological feasibility of meeting emission
             standards.

     The 1978 and 1979 programs are aimed at carrying out these mandates of the Act.

MOBILE SOURCE STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately $5.6 million for contract work on the
effects of ambient conditions on motor vehicle emissions levels; development of
emissions standards for heavy duty vehicles; assessment of the impact on emissions of
a variety of control technologies; and determination of operational characteristics
of vehicles that lead to the formation of carbon monoxide "hot spots".

     The 1977 activities concentrated on the development and refinement of emissions
standards for other than light duty motor vehicles and the assessment of the impacts
on light duty vehicles of the emissions standards already set; the assessment of the
feasibility and energy impacts of the various proposals for emissions standards being
considered by the Congress as amendments to the Clean Air Act; and the development
of the regulations for implementation of ttie fuel economy testing and labeling
responsibilities imposed on EPA by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). In
addition, the following projects were completed:  testing certification cars for
hydrogen cyanide emissions; reports on effects of the fuel additive, MMT, on
catalyst systems; promulgation of interim heavy duty engine emission standards;
proposal of testing protocols for retrofit devices; proposal and promulgation of
fuel economy labeling and compliance regulations; promulgation of motorcycle
emission standards; and proposal of short test procedures for implementing the
performance warranty provisions of Section 207(b) of the Clean Air Act.

1973 Program

     The FY 1978 resource level for this program element is $4,520,000 and 54 positions.
These resources will be directed at the setting of emissions standards as required
by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  These resources include approximately
S3.1 million in contracts related to technology assessment, emissions
characterization, and emissions standards and associated procedures development.
Work will concentrate on assessing manufacturer efforts toward meeting statutory
standards and to initiate studies leading to standard setting for heavy duty
engines and light duty trucks, the setting of particulates emissions standards,
and evaluation of the impact of electronic control systems on beating the Federal
test procedure.  Funds will be used to determine the baseline emissions from
1969 heavy duty engines, in order to set the percentage emission reductions
required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  Attention is also being placed
on the impact that evolving technologies have on the emission of uncontrolled
substances and the fuel economy of motor vehicles.  Work will continue on
characterization of emissions from diesel engines, and unregulated emission from
catalysts, other than sulfuric acid and sulfates.  The special effects of ambient
temperatures on emissions will be assessed since evidence available to date
indicates that normal variations in temperature result in large changes in motor
vehicle emissions, a factor that is not accounted for by the current test procedure.
  A-21

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     In addition, the following projects are scheduled for 1978:  Report on unregulated
emissions from diesel vehicles; report on emissions from malfunctioning oxidation
catalyst equipped vehicles; report on MMT effects; promulgation of engine parameter
adjustment regulations; promulgation of retrofit device testing protocol; proposal and
promulgation of turbine aircraft gaseous emission regulations; proposal and promulgation
of fuel economy labeling and compliance regulations; promulgation of Section 207(b)
test procedure; promulgation of nitrogen oxide research goal regulations; report on
techniques for sulfuric acid control; and completion of the railway emission study.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There are no changes from the budget estimate.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes $10,627,000 and 56 positions.
This represents an increase of $6,107,000 and two positions.  This increase will result
in an increased effort in emission characterization and regulations development as
required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  Contract funds in FY 1979
approximate $8.5 million for technology assessments, characterization of unregulated
pollutants, development of emission control regulations, and support of State and
local in-use vehicle control programs.

     Characterization of unregulated pollutants for current and, more importantly,
future control technologies must be implemented if EPA is to be aware of the types
and quantities of pollutants which can be expected to result from the introduction of
new technologies.  In the vehicle emissions control area, a report on gaseous and
particulate emissions from light duty diesel fuels, as well as recommendations for
their control, will be prepared.

     Regulations will be proposed for more stringent emission controls for light duty
and heavy duty trucks.
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                                               AIR

                                      Abatement and Control

                               State Programs Resource Assistance
                              Actual
                               1977
Appropriation
Control Agency Resource
  Supplementation	 355,936
Training	   2,475
       Budget
      Estimate
        1973
         Current
         Estimate
           1978
                                                 (dollars in thousandsT
        Estimate
          1979
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1979 vs. 1978
355,936
2,475
58,411
$58,000
1,526
59,526
$66,000
2,848
68,848-/
$75,000
1,061
76,061
H-S9.000
-1,787
+7,213^
Permanent Positions
Control Agency Resource
  Supplementation	
Training	
15
15
n
     -5
          Total.
15
15
11
     -5
  a/ Includes proposed supplemental of $8 million for control agency resource supplementation.

  b_/ The net increase reflects the inclusion of the proposed supplemental in the 1978
     current estimate; excluding this supplemental the net change would be +$15,212,900.

Budget Request

     The resources requested for this budget subactivity are $76,061,000 and six positions.
This reflects an increase of $9,000,000 over the FY 1978 level  for control agency
resource supplementation to be used to provide increased financial and contractual support for
State and local agency programs including support for the initiation of motor vehicle
emissions inspection and maintenance programs.  In addition, a decrease of $1,787,100
and five positions from the FY 1978 level for training is due to a reallocation of
positions to State Implementation Plan revision work and a discontinuation of
academic training activities.

Program Description

     This activity includes the resources and assistance provided to support State
and local governments' activities in implementing air pollution control programs.
Support is provided as grants to control agencies, for encouraging the
implementation of motor vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance program, grants
to organizations of local elected officials with air quality or transportation
planning responsibilities, grants for demonstrating improvements in agency
operations, services of contractors,assignment of personnel to State agencies, and
training provided to personnel of State and local agencies.
 A-23

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     The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 place increased burdens on control
agencies.  A major task for control agencies in FY 1978 will be the development
of revised State Implementation Plans  (SIPs) in those Air Quality Control Regions (AQCRs)
and interstate portions where the ambient air quality standards are not attained.
This will result in a major workload and will involve the agencies in special studies
for specific pollutants, analysis of air quality data, increased emphasis on emission
data, development of emission limitations, other regulation development, and
increased source inspection frequency.  States are required to adopt all revisions
of emission limits involving reasonably available control technology by January 1, 1979.
Other measures -- control of transportation sources — must be adopted between
July 1979 and July  1982,in. keeping  with  the  schedule  submitted with  the
January 1, 1979, revisions.  In addition, the State and local agencies will have to
place added emphasis on new source  review programs if the standards are to be attained
and maintained in the future.  The  Act specifies stringent criteria that must be met
by SIPs revisions if they are to be  approved by EPA.  In case that  a  SIP revision is
not approved by EPA, or EPA does not promulgate a substitute revision where a State
does net prepare an adequate SIP, the Act provides that specified sanctions be applied,
including a prohibition on the construction or modification of major stationary
sources.  Additional discussion of  the Act's requirements is provided under the air
quality strategies implementation subactivity.

     The Amendments increase the State/local control agency workloads related to the
enforcement of SIPs.  New provisions such as noncompliance penalties and delayed
compliance-orders require additional State/local activity.

     Grants to State and local control agencies having  a major role in carrying out
SIPs have constituted the major form of EPA assistance.  These funds support the
full range of activities required of a control agency including ambient air quality
monitoring, control 'plan development including control regulations - source
surveillance, enforcement actions against violators, and technical and administrative
support functions.  Grants assistance is supplemented by the provision of services
of contractors for specific tasks identified by the States, localities or EPA as
required for carrying out or revising the State Implementation Plan.  Examples of
this type of support are emission inventory development, dispersion modeling,
source inspections, air quality monitoring, and control strategy development.  This
type of supoort will be continued in FY 1979.  In addition in 1979, funds and other
types of assistance will be made available to foster the implementation of
motor vehicle inspection and maintenance programs wherever such programs are required
by the SIP.

     Resource assistance is further supplemented by the provision of training in
specialized areas of air pollution  control.  Since July 1, 1976, the EPA Air
Pollution Training Institute at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina,
has been operated by a  contractor.  The  contractor  is developing
new courses, revising and updating  instructional manuals and materials and
conducting all laboratory courses at Research Triangle Park as well as supplying
manuals and instructional materials for university field centers.  A small
EPA staff monitors the contract, maintains liaison with regional  offices and
State and local agencies, assesses  changing training requirements, and ensures that
those requirements are fulfilled.  The EPA staff also works with regional
university centers to develop State and local selfsufficiency in training by
offering field courses closer to the agencies.  Eventually as many as six to
eight centers may be used.
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CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION

1977 Accpmplishments

     In 1977, funds included approximately $2.3 million in contractor assistance
in the areas of control strategy reassessment and revision; emission inventory
improvement; air quality and source monitoring; and improvements in control agency
technical procedures.  The balance of funds, $53.6 million, was utilized to provide
grant support to State and local agencies for air pollution control programs.  Grants
were awarded to 53 State air pollution control agencies and to 155 local agencies
for the support of the full range of activities for which these agencies are
responsible.  State and local governments contributed $102.8 million of their own
funds.  A program to develop revised  State Implementation Plans (SIPs) and further
enforcement in nonattainment areas was started.  These areas will all require further
study and a case-by-case determination of the approximate mix of future control
actions -- SIFsrevisions and/or further compliance work.  Ongoing compliance and
enforcement work by State and local agencies has led to progress in reducing emissions
as described elsewhere.

1978 Program

     Control agency resource supplementation has been allocated $66,000,000.  These
funds include  between $6-8    million for contractor assistance in the areas of
control strategy reassessment and revision and other technical air pollution
control work.  The remaining $60-58 million are allocated for grant support of State
and local air pollution control programs.  States will have to (in addition to
carrying out monitoring and enforcement programs) develop State Implementation
Plans (SIPs) revisions; continue priority work on programs associated with reviews
of new and/or modified sources, new source performance standards, national emissions
standards for hazardous air pollution sources; and proceed with compliance work in
the nonattainment Air Quality Control Regions (AQCRs).

     State and local control efforts to date have been concentrated on obtaining
compliance with particulate and sulphur dioxide regulations at an estimated
22,600 Class A sources across the country.  As of mid-1977, excellent results
have been achieved—94 percent of Class A sources were complying with final
emission limitations or were meeting increments in compliance schedules; one
percent of the sources were of unknown compliance status.  The five percent of
Class A sources still in violation are for the most part powerful and recalcitrant
industries that will continue to require extensive resources to collect evidence,
negotiate agreements and/or mount effective court actions if they are to be brought
into compliance.  Since compliance by these large volume polluters is known to be
a major factor in both attaining and maintaining the primary National Ambient
Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), State and localities will have to continue to
concentrate on Class A violators.  In addition, the control agencies will have
to place more emphasis on compliance by Class B sources, particularly those in
nonattainment areas.  It is estimated that about 130,000 Class B sources exist
in nonattainment areas.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $8,000,000 over the budget estimate for this program element
is due to a proposed supplemental appropriation for support of State and
local agencies in the development of revised State Implementation Plans.
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1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes $75,000,000.  This
represents an increase of $9,000,000, which will provide for increased State
and local agency activities in the development of revised State
Implementation Plans  (SIPs), enforcement of these plans, air
quality monitoring, and implementation of motor vehicle emissions inspection
and maintenance programs.  A total of approximately $5 million is planned in
1979 for contractor assistance to State and local agencies to continue control
strategy reassessment and revision, and other technical air pollution control work.

     The control agencies will be faced with problems of developing increasingly
complex plans constrained by energy tradeoffs, extensive social and economic
impacts, long range transport of air pollutants, and other similarly complex issues.
This will also involve the development control strategies for nontraditional sources,
such as industrial fugitive emissions and reentrainment of dust in urban environments.

     The requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 that the State/local
agencies have to address are listed in the discussion under the Air Quality Strategies
Implementation subactivity.  The compliance and enforcement priorities of the control
agencies will continue to include compliance by the problem Class A sources and by
Class B sources.  A new factor will be added in FY 1979 as the agencies begin to
seek compliance with emission limitations developed as part of the SIP revision
process, and to implement noncompliance penalty provisions of the Clean Air Act.

     During 1979, funds will be made available to appropriate State and local
agencies for encouraging the implementation of motor vehicle emissions inspection and
maintenance programs.

TRAINING

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, resources included $1.1 million for grants and $800,000 for contracts.
Grant monies supported universities and associated traineeships based on a forgivaole
loan concept; for fellowships for State and local air pollution control agency
employees and a few other; for support of an intensive environmental management
institute; for motor vehicle mechanic teacher training; and for a limited
internship program for prospective control agency employees.  Contract funds were
used to conduct short term technical training courses and workshops on
emerging topics and to develop and revise course materials through services of an
on-site contractor and seven university based area training centers.  Eighty-six
short term technical training courses were conducted on 23 different subjects for
1963 trainees (a total of 7,784 trainee-days) at Research Triangle Park and at
locations across the Nation.  Two new courses were developed and major revisions
were made to two courses.  Selfinstructional courses were provided on three
subjects for 102 trainees.  Seven workshops were held for 439 trainees for 948
trainee-days.  Ninety-three fellowships for part-time study (31 full-time equivalents)
and 33 fellowships for part-time study (31 full-time equivalents) and 35 for full-time
stuoy were awarded to employees of 23 State and 25 local air pollution agencies and
others.  Fifty-two forgivable loan traineeships were provided at 13 grantee
universities.  Sixty people completed the intensive environmental management
institute and 25 interns were given job experience and/or educational opportunities.
Sixty-three instructors of auto mechanics were trained in emission control workshops;
these key instructors taught an estimated 700 additional teachers in this field,
resulting in improved instruction on maintenance of emission control systems
for thousands of students.  Seven packets of mechanic training materials were
prepared and made widely available for use in teaching about emission control
systems.
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1978 Program

     The training program has been allocated 52,848,100 and 11 positions.  These
funds include approximately S2 million in grants and contracts to continue the
program of support and direct training, as in FY 1977.  Production of video tape
cassettes on topics of emerging interest to augment past activities on workshops
on such topics will be initiated.  Seventy-nine short term technical training
courses will be conducted on 29 different subjects for about 1,800 trainees
(a total of about 7,200 trainee-days).  Five new courses will be developed and
major revisions will be made to four courses.  Selfinstructional courses on-
four subjects will be provided to about 200 trainees.  Twelve workshops will be
conducted for about 260 trainees (about 780 trainee-days) and about 3,600
additional trainees will be instructed through use of video tape cassettes
managed by regional offices.  About 115 fellowships will be awarded (60 full-time
equivalents).  Forty-seven forgivable loan type traineeships will be made available
in connection with grants to about 12 universities.  Sixty people will be given
intensive training in environmental management and 25 internships will be made
available.  One new package of training materials will be developed for use in
teaching mechanics and vehicle emission inspectors about emission control systems
and existing materials will be updated.  Assistance will be provided on vehicle
emission control and inspection training.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of 31,322,100 over the budget estimate results from several actions.
The Congress orovided a total Agency increase of S3 million for academic training,
of which Si,360,000 was allocated to the air program.  In addition, the regional
offices reprogrammed $37,900 to other air activities related to State Implementation
Plans.

1979 Plan
     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes $1,061,000 and six
positions, representing a reduction of $1,787,100 and five positions in this
program element from the 1978 level.  The reductions are due to an elimination
of academic training and a shift in emphasis to State Implementation Plans  (SIPs)
revision activities-required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  Contract
funds are $600,000.  Planned training activities are:  conduct 75 short term technical
courses on 19 subjects; provide 600 trainees with selfinstructional courses on five
subjects; prepare two new classroom courses and make minor revisions to four
courses; provide training materials and technical assistance to other entities for
support of their training activities; and provide logistic support for conduct
of 12 workshops.
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                                            AIR

                                   Abatement and Control

                           Air Quality Strategies Implementation
Appropriation
Air Quality Management
   Implementation	
Federal Activities/EIS
   Review	
     Total,
                                   Actual
                                    1979
6,009
          Budget
         Estimate
           1978
4,905
            Current
           Estimate
             1978
          Estimate
            1979
            Increase +
            Decrease -
          1979 vs.  1978
                                                         (dollars in thousands)
$5,277
732
54,164
741
54,665
745
56,180
540
+ 51,515
-205
5,410
6,720
+1,310
Permanent Positions
Air Quality Management
  Implementation	
Federal Activities/EIS
  Review	
     Total.
210
33
217
34
245
33
263
2f
•me
-9
  2*3
  251
  278^
  287
          ay Includes 21 positions added to air quality management implementation.

          bj The net increase reflects the inclusion of 21 additional positions
             in the 1978 current estimate; without this addition, the net change
             would be +30.


Budget Request

     The resources requested for this budget subactivity are 56,720,300 and 287 positions.
This reflects a reduction of 5205,300 and nine positions from the FY 1978 level for
Federal activities and EIS reviews at EPA h^adouarters, with the resources shifted to
regions for State Implementation Plans (SIPs) related work.  In addition, an increase of
51,516,100 and 18 positions over the FY 1978 level for air quality management implementa-
tion will provide for increased EPA participation in all aspects of the SIP revision
process required by the Clean Air Act.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the development of air pollution control  strateaies for
areas of  the country where States do not fulfill their responsibilities; the incorporation
of these control strategies into appropriate regulatory actions; the interaction with
State and local Governments in implementing air pollution control programs; evaluation of
State and local control  agencies and consultation with State and local  control  agencies on
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 specific air pollution control  problems;  and management of State and  local  support resources
 and their allocation.   It also  involves  EPA responsibilities  in  monitoring  Federal  facilities
 air pollution control  activities,  in providing  advice  to other Federal  agencies  in their air
 pollution control  activities, and  reviewing the environmental impact  statements  (EIS's)  pre-
 pared by other Federal  agencies insofar  as  air  pollution impacts are  concerned.

 Air Quality Management Implementation

      High levels  of activity are foreseen in the area  of development,  review,  approval,  and
 promulgation of State  Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions.  The  Clean  Air Act  Amendments of
 1977 have intensified  this process  by specifying stringent criteria for performance and  by
 redefining the number  of areas  requiring  revisions  to  the SIP.   Many  of these  plans have
 proven to be inadequate for the attainment  and  maintenance of the National  Ambient Air
 Quality Standards  (NAAQS)  thus  requiring  redevelopment and additional  implementation.

      During FY 1976, all-SIPs were  evaluated relative  to their ability to attain and maintain
 the NAAQS.  As a  result of these evaluations, plan  revisions were requested in 45 States.
 In addition, it is estimated that  SIPs for  lead will have to be  developed for  several areas.

      Implementation plans  requirina emission limitations representative of reasonably avail-
 able control technology, as needed, must  be developed  by January 1, 1979.   The plans are to
 lead to the attainment of  the NAAQS by the  end  of calendar year  1982.   For  areas not attaining
 the standards for  oxidants and  carbon monoxide  and  which cannot  attain the  standards by  1982,
 extensions in attainment dates  are  available until  the end of calendar year 1987.   For these
 areas, an additional SIP revision  is to  be  submitted by July 1,  1932.   These revisions are to be
 developed jointly  by organizations  of local  elected officials and the  States.

      The Amendments address the relationship between all  the activities that affect air
 quality in an area, such as transportation  sources, and the provision  of means of transpor-
 tation that reduce the need for, the use  of, or the reliance on, pollution  intensive means
 of transportation;  and require  specificity  in the SIPs as to the emissions  reductions to be
 achieved, on a firm schedule, to achieve  the NAAQS.  The Act requires  that  an  effective
 planning process  be established between  all  the agencies that impact  on air quality for  an
 area; this planning process must lead to  the development of an enforceable  regulatory
 program, which is  an integral part  of the SIP,  that results in emission reductions  consis-
 tent with attainment of the standards.

      The stringent requirements of  the revised  Act  include the following provisions:

      -  If a SIP  is not approved or promulgated by  EPA by July 1, 1979, no  major stationary
         source may be  constructed or modified after that date.   In addition, certain forms
         of Federal  support (such as hignway construction funds)  are to be discontinued.

      -  To be approved,  a  State Implementation  Plan must:

         — provide for the implementation of all  reasonably available  control  measures as
         expeditiously  as practicable;

         — require, in the interim, reasonable  further progress  through reasonably avail-
         able control technology;

         — include a comprehensive, accurate, current  inventory-of actual emissions from
         all sources, which inventory is  revised and resubmitted  as frequently  as may be
         necessary;

         -- expressly identify and quantify  the  emissions which will be allowed to result
         from the  construction and  operation of  major stationary  sources;

         -- require permits for  the  construction and operation of new  or modified major
         stationary sources;
A-29

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        — contain emission limitations, schedules of compliance and such other measures
        as may be necessary;

        -- evidence public, local government, and State legislative involvement and consul-
        tation and include an  identification and analysis of the air quality, health,
        welfare, economic, energy, and social effects of the plan provisions; and

        -- include written evidence that the State, the general purpose local government or
        governments, or a regional agency designated by general purpose local governments
        for such purpose, have adopted by statute, a regulation, ordinance, or other legally
        enforceable document,  the necessary requirements and schedules and timetables for
        compliance, and are committed to implement and enforce the appropriate elements of
        tne plan.

     For areas obtaining extensions to 1987 for attainment, the State Implementation Plan
also must:

     -  Establish a program which requires, prior to issuance of any permit for construction
         or modification of & major emitting facility, an analysis of alternative sites,
        sizes, production processes, and environmental control techniques for each proposed
        source which demonstrates that benefits of the proposed source significantly out-
        weigh the environmental and social costs imposed as a result of its location, con-
        struction, or modification.

     -  Establish a specific schedule for implementation of a vehicle emission control in-
        spection and maintenance program.

     -  Identify other measures necessary to provide for attainment of the applicable
        national ambient air quality standard not later than December 31, 1987.

     All of these provisions of the Act are enforceable, through the courts, by-citizens.

     Very complex control strategies will have to be developed and implemented for the
control of particulates and those pollutants that are produced in atmospheric reactions,
such as photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide.  These pollutants are characterized
by-originating from many sources spread over wide geographic areas and by the transport,
over large distances, of the air pollutant precursors—hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.
In order to progress toward attainment of the suspended particulate standards, control
plans may have to be developed and implemented that control fugitive emissions from various
processes and control fugitive dust generated by man's activities, such as unpaved roads
and construction.  In order to progress toward the attainment of the oxidant standards,
control plans will be developed and implemented that require stationary source hydrocarbon
controls for most major urban areas.

     Additional transportation control measures will also be required.  The particulate,
hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide controls to be implemented will require greater emphasis
on public participation in their development.  General public support will be required to
make the control programs effective.  The Act's amendments recognize these issues and
provide for the participation of local elected officials in the development of control
measures through an extended planning process, which is expected to result in approvable
plans.
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       Increased  State and  EPA  activity will  be  required  to  implement  the  provisions  of  the
  Act.   The increased technical  complexity of the  problems to  be addressed and  the  stringent
  requirements  of the Act place increased burdens  on  the  State, local, and EPA  personnel
  responsible for developing, reviewing, and  approving State  Implementation  Plans (SIPs).   If
  EPA must  promulgate some  SIPs or  portions thereof~a likely  eventuality—additioral work-
  loads  will have to be  carried by  EPA personnel since in these cases  it will become  EPA's
  responsibility  to meet the stringent requirements of the Act, as outlined  above.  EPA  also
  must  have an  active program of participation in  the local planning processes  to assure that
  air quality considerations are taken into account in a meaningful way and  that the  plans  so
  developed are integrated  into the SIP as enforceable measures"in a timeframe  consistent with
  the requirements of the Act.   These activities are  expected  to extend through fiscal years
  1978  and  1979,  with the development of additional control measures extending  through 1982.
  Similar activities will have  to be carried  out to develop SIPs for lead and for a short term
  standard  for  nitrogen  dioxide.

       Prior to the time of revision of the SIPs,  and concurrent with  the revision  process, a
  particularly  critical  program is  that of reviewing  new sources of pollution to assure  that  •
  they  will  not cause air quality to deteriorate in areas already attaining  the National
  Ambient Air Quality Standards  (N.AAQS) or that-they  will not  delay attainment, or  aggravate
  current problems, in areas that have not yet attained the MAAQS.  This will,  in all cases,
  necessitate the use of best available emission control technology and, in  some situations, re-
  quire  selective sources siting and emission  trade-offs.  The analyses related to  sources
  impact on  air quality  will have to be made  using standardized dispersion modeling techniques,
  as required by  the Act.   Such  sophisticated  siting  and review analysis of  new sources  will
  also  require  increased EPA and State activity.   The Amendments emphasize the  need for  this
  work.

  Federal Activity/EIS Review

       Also  included are EPA activities related  to the process of assuring Federal  Agency compliance
  with  pollution  control requirements and the  review  of environmental  impact statements  (EIS's).
  All Federal agencies are, under Executive Order  11752, to ensure that their facilities com-
  ply with  Federal, State,  interstate, and local substantive standards and limitations for  the
  prevention and  control of environmental pollution.  EPA activities in relation to other
  Federal agencies include  providing technical advice and assistance in air  pollution control,
  monitoring their programs for  achieving air  quality standards, and reviewing  compliance
  strategies.   Activities also  include the review, for air quality impact, of EIS's prepared
  by the other  Federal agencies  pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act.  Eouivalent
  reviews are carried out pursuant to Section  309 of  the Clean Air Act.


  AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

  1977 Accomplishments

       1977  resources included  no contract funds.  Work concentrated on the  process of revising
  State  Implementation Plans (SIPs) subsequent to the calls for SIP revision issued in July
  1976.  In  addition to  the SIP  revision process work and the work associated with State/local
  agencies—negotiating  grant awards, processing minor SIP changes—EPA regional offices in-
  formed State  and- local personnel of issues associated with the prospective amendments  to the
  Clean Air Act,  solicited  their positions on  issues, contributed to the development of  agency
A-31

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policies, and, upon approve! of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 on August 7, 1977,
initiated the SIP revision process required by the new legislation.  In particular, the regional
offices worked with the State and local officials to lay the basis for new SIPs regulatory
efforts, including field studies to characterize problems in nonattainment areas and a
review of ambient and emission data.  A significant effort was devoted to implementing new
source reviews and carrying out the emissions offset policy.

     At the end of 1977, 30 States had accepted delegation of responsibilities for enforce-
ment of New Source Performance"Standards, 25 States had been delegated responsibility for
enforcing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, and seven States had
responsibility for carrying out reviews of new sources under prevention of significant
deterioration provisions of the SIPs.

1978 Program

     The implementation of air quality management strategies has been allocated 54,664,100
and 245 positions.  These resources include no contract funds.  Work during FY 1978 will
concentrate on the development of State Implementation Plans (SIP)  revisions for the areas
so requiring; the assessment of the plans for other areas where the attainment of the
standards is in doubt or the adequacy of the SIP is questionable; and the continued work
related to the delegation of responsibilities to States and new source reviews where this
responsibility resides with EPA.

     Tne classification of areas—Air Quality Control Regions or portions thereof-- of the
country as to their attainment status or their status for implementing prevention of signi-
ficant deterioration requirements, is to be completed.  For areas not attaining standards,
SIPs have to be revised by States and submitted to EPA by January 1, 1979.  The SIPs revi-
sions will require complex analyses and technical judgements to be made by the State, local,
and EPA personnel, the coordination of many sources of expertise, meetings with the ecfected
industries to determine the extent of the control capabilities and impacts, both economic
and technical, of the contemplated control requirements, and public hearings on the proposed
revisions to the SIPs.  In addition, implementation actions and defense of EPA's require-
ments will have to continue for those controls that require implementation.

     Development of SIPs for lead will have to be initiated in several States during FY 1978
pursuant to the promulgation of a National Ambient Air Duality Standard (NAAQS).

     The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 made certain immediate changes to the Environmental
Protection Agency's regulations concerning the prevention of significant deterioration of
air quality.  EPA is currently implementing these provisions.  In addition to mandating
certain immediately effective changes to EPA's prevention of significant deterioration (PSD)
regulation, the new Act, in Sections 160-169, contains comprehensive new PSD requirements.
These new requirements are to be incorporated by States into their implementation plans.
Such revisions are due nine months after EPA issues regulations providing the States with
guidance on submitting approvable plan provisions.  EPA intends to issue the guidance regu-
lations in final  form no later than March 1, 1978.  Thus, State Implementation plans revi-
sions fully conforming to the PSD requirements of the Act will be due no later than
December 1, 1978.   EPA will work with States to revise the SIPs in a fashion consistent with
the mandates of the Act.  The workloads associated with these SIP revisions are expected to
be substantial given the requirements of the Act, such as monitoring to determine impacts of
sources after they are operational, best available control technology determination, and
determination of the levels of significant air quality impact.
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     In addition to the core SIP revision tasks associated with nonattainment and prevention
of significant deterioration of air quality, EPA regional  office personnel will have to
perform the following additional activities (related to SIPs) to implement the Clean Air
Act Amendments:

     -  Review State submissions that identify major sources that may cause interstate air
        pollution, and make appropriate findings as to interstate effects if requested by
        States.

     -  Assure the timely determination of agencies that will develop SIP revisions for
        carbon monoxide and oxidants.

     -  Review State submissions of provisions for permit fees.

     -  Supply information on SIP documents for the annual compilation and publication of
        SIPs.

     -  Supply information for identification of areas where visibility is an important
        value of the area.

     -  Review of SIP provisions on composition of State pollution control boards.

     -  Implement provisions for assuring consistency in administering the Act's provisions.

     -  Review alternate transportation control measures for States that eliminate intracity
        bridge tolls.

     -  Review State submissions for extent to which compliance with SIP depends on petro-
        leum, gas, or coal not locally available, and call for SIP revisions if needed to
        ensure long term compliance with the Act.

     Work related to the evaluation of control agencies will continue; commitments from
States to the performance of air pollution control tasks will be obtained.  Delegations of
the enforcement of the New Source Performance Standards and the National Emissions Standards
for Hazardous Air Pollutants will continue.  Regional offices are expected to develop
regulations on regional consistency, required fay Section 301 of the Act.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $500,200 over the budget estimate for this program element is due to
reprogrammings of resources in the regional offices in order to provide for greater EPA
participation in the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision process required by the
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan includes $6,180,200 and 263 positions for the implepentation of air
quality management strategies.  This represents an increase of SI,516,100 and 18 positions
which will provide for implementation of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision
process.  The resources include no funds for contracts.  It is expected that the work
during FY 1979 will represent (1) a continuation of the development and adoption, by States,
of the air pollution control plans required to be submitted by January 1979; (2) the review
and approval or disapproval of the revisions by EPA: (3) promulgation of substitute regu-
lations by EPA; and (4) continued development of SIP revisions for oxidants and carbon
monoxide.
 A-33

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     States and EPA will have to determine which areas will require a control strategy for
lead and will have to develop SIPs for areas requiring controls.  EPA will have to review,
and approve/disapprove State plans for lead by August 1979 and, if disapproved, EPA will
have to promulgate substitute plans or portions thereof by October 1979.  During 1979, it
is also expected that States will have to develop SIP revisions for several areas to meet
a short term nitrogen dioxide standard, which is to be promulgated during 1978.

     For photochemical oxidants and carbon monoxide, the SIPs are subject to two submission
dates, as provided for in the Act.  Plans are due to EPA by January 1, 1979, and have to
be approved or promulgated by July 1, 1979.  EPA may have to promulgate regulations in many
States, such as for selected stationary sources of organic substances.  The second submission
date is mid-1982, when additional SIP revisions for oxidants and carbon monoxide will be
due for areas that cannot attain standards by 1982.  During 1979 control measures to be
adopted by 1982 will be in development.  Approximately 170 Metropolitan Planning Oraanizations,
or equivalent, will be involved in the planning process leading to adoption of these SIP
revisions.

     During 1979, the EPA regional offices will have to carry out the following additional
functions:

     -  Review and approve/disapprove plan provisions for prevention of significant deteriora-
        tion.

     -  Review and approve/disapprove plan provisions that require fees to be charged for
        permits for new sources.

     -  Review and approve/disapprove plan provisions that forbid loss of pay to employees
        because of the use of a supplemental control strategy by selected sources.

     -  Review plan provisions on the notification of the public of dangers of air pollution.

     -  Review and approve/disapprove plan provisions for protecting visibility in selected
        Class I areas.

     -  Review and approve/disapprove plan provisions to prevent significant deterioration
        for pollutants other than total suspended particulates .(TSP) and sulphur dioxide--
        hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, lead, and nitrogen oxides.

     In addition, the following general functions have to be performed:

     -  Review and approve/disapprove revisions to classification of areas to the attainment
        status.

     -  Review and approve/disapprove requests to redesignate Air Quality Control Regions
        (AQCRs).

     -  Review and approve/disapprove petitions for suspension of plans under energy or
        economic emergencies.

     -  Review and approve/disapprove application for delegation of-authority to local
        governmental units.

     -  Determinations of approval of requests for temporary suspension of retrofit, gas
        rationing, and parking control measures.
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        -  Determinations regarding measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment.

        -  Determinations concerning petitions for interstate pollution abatement.

        -  Determinations on emission offset waivers.

        -  Compilation of information on emergency episodes for annual  report to Congress.

        -  Preparation of docket for SIP promulgations.

        All  of these actions will  have to be accompanied by complex analyses of control  capa-
   bilities, and the reasonableness of the application of specific control  requirements  under
   the unique circumstances applicable to various sources and localities.

        In addition, the activities related to the evaluation of State and  local programs will
   continue; commitments from States to the performance of air pollution control tasks will be
   obtained.  Delegations of the enforcement of the New Source Performance  Standards and the
   National  Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants will  also be continued.


   FEDERAL.ACTIVITIES/EIS REVIEW

   1977 Accomplishments

        In Federal  facilities compliance, primary emphasis was placed on effecting  consent
   declarations for those sources  known to be in violation of State Implementation  Plan  (SIP)
   requirements.  In addition,  the level of onsite inspection effort was increased  to ensure
   adherence to consent declarations by Federal facilities in violation of  SIP standards, and
   to determine the compliance  status of nonregistered sources.

        Approximately 2200 draft and final environmental impact statements  (EIS's), as well
   as 100 proposed  Federal agency  regulations and other proposed Federal actions, were re-
   viewed for air quality impact.   Emphasis was placed on predraft EIS liaison with other
   Federal agencies and on the  timely completion of reviews and issuance of comments on
   draft EIS's.  The Agency continued to achieve a high level of satisfactory modifications
   to those proposed Federal actions which had been rated as environmentally unsatisfactory
   or for which EPA had reservations concerning the potential environmental impact  at the
   draft EIS stage.  Proposals  for transporting, storing, and refining Alaskan oil  and for
   construction of  deep water ports required unusually detailed EIS review.

   1978 Program

        Federal activities and  environmental imoact statement  (EIS) review is allocated
   S745.400 and 33  positions in the FY 1978 plan.

        In Federal  facilities compliance, primary emphasis will  be on ensuring adherence to
   consent declarations and delayed compliance orders  by noncomplying facilities.  Increased
   efforts will be  directed toward improving the effectiveness and timeliness of air new
   source reviews and coordination with the EIS review process.

        No significant change in the level of EIS review activity from the  previous year is
   anticipated.  The major emphasis will be on increased EPA assistance to  other Federal
   agencies to integrate more effectively environmental planning with basic programmatic
   decision making  processes on major energy, transportation, and other development projects
   that might otherwise cause severe air pollution or'other environmental  harm.  Revised EIS
   review guidelines on highway projects will be issued.
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1978 Explanation of Changes Froni Budget Estimate

     The slight increase of $4,300 over the budget estimate results from a regional office
reprogramming within the air media to support increased personnel costs.

1979 Plan
     The budget request for Federal activities and environmental impact statement(EIS)
review is 5540,100 and 24 positions, a decrease of 5205,300 and nine positions.

     In Federal facilities compliance, primary emphasis will continue to be on negotiating
delayed compliance orders with noncomplying Federal facilities and ensuring adherence to
the July 1979 statutory deadline.  The increased State role under the Clean Air Act Amend-
ments of 1977 will necessitate substantial EPA interaction with the States.  Also, emphasis
will be focused on helping Federal agencies budget for pollution abatement projects.  No
significant change in the regional EIS review activity from the current year is anticipated.
However, the budget reduction for FY 1979 will result in a substantial reduction of head-
quarters input on air quality impact reviews.  The major regional emphasis will be on
predraft impact statement liaison and prefinal impact statement consultation.  Revised
EIS review guidelines on nuclear power plants, airports, impoundments, and channelizations
will be issued.
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                                              AIR

                                       Abatement and Control

                             Mobile Source Certification and Testing
Appropriation
Certification Review	
Laboratory and Data Analysis
  Support	
Actual
1977
Budget Current Increase +
Estimate Estimate Estimate Decrease -
1978 1978 1979 1979 vs. 1978
(dollars in thousands)
$3,096
5,190
52,657 $2,657 $1,385
5,295 4,795 4,655
-$772
-140
        Total.
8,286
7,952
7,452
6,540
-912
Permanent Positions
Certification Review	
Laboratory and Data Analysis
  Support	
58
107
72
109
72
109
64
106
-8
-3
        Total,
  165
  181
  181
                                                                        170
              -11
Budget Request.
     The resources requested for this budget subactivity are $6,540,000 and 170 positions.
This reflects a decrease of $772,200 and eight positions from the FY 1978 level for
certification review and a decrease of $140,000 and 3 positions for laboratory and data
analysis support.  The decreases are due to a shift in emphasis from compliance
activities to the implementation of the requirements of the Clean Air Act Admendments
of 1977.

Program Description

     Two distinct areas of activity are covered by this subactivity: (1) activities related
to the engineering review of the data used to certify motor vehicles for comoliance with
emission standards and associated technical support, and (2) the operation of the Ann Arbor
motor vehicles emissions testing laboratory, including data processing and data analysis
support, for both certification of motor vehicles and engines and the development of
standards and guidelines

     The certification process involves the submission to EPA of applications for
certifications; the development of emissions performance information by manufacturers and  EPA  on
the basis of prototype vehicle testing; and the review of these data by EPA for the
purpose of determining compliance with standards and approval/disapproval of certificates
of conformity.  These activities also are carried out to provide information on fuel
economy of vehicles for purposes of determining compliance with fuel economy standards
and providing information to the public.  Fuel economy compliance determinations are
made by the Secretary of Transportation using data supplied by EPA, as required by the
Energy Policy and Conservation Act.  Fuel economy information activities are carries! out
'jointly with the Department of Energy.
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     Manufacturers apply for  certification by submitting a Part I application of
 certification  to  EPA which  describes  the vehicles and engines the manufacturer
 plans to offer for sale.  EPA  reviews the manufacturer's'application and determines
 what actions the  manufacturer  is to take to demonstrate compliance with emission
 standards.  EPA reviews the application for acceptability of proposed procedures for
 mileage accumulation and emission testing, and the proposed maintenance procedures
 for the vehicles  and engines.

     EPA selects  durability vehicles  and engines  — tested to determine emission
 control system durability to 50,000 miles for purposes of deriving deterioration
 factors — and emission data vehicles and engines — tested to determine typical engine
 class emission -- based on  information supplied in the application for certification.
 After EPA selection of vehicles, the  manufacturers proceed to accumulate mileage on,
 and to test, the  prototype  vehicles.

     During the testing of  vehicles,  EPA personnel carry out surveillance of manufacturers'
 testing.  During  site visits to manufacturers' facilities, EPA personnel also inspect the
 procedures and controls used  by the manufacturers in their own test facilities to insure
 that these facilities and certification procedures comply with Federal requirements and
 that data submitted to EPA are obtained using valid procedures.  At various points in the
 mileage accumulation process,  EPA chooses prototypes for testing in its own laboratories
 to provide a check on manufacturer testing.

     After completion of the testing  program, including confirmatory testing at the EPA
 laboratory, manufacturers submit a Part II application, which summarizes the certification
 test results.  Review of this  application involves the final review of test data, the
 review of manfacturers1 engineers reports, the calculation of the deterioration factors
 to ensure that emission levels do not exceed the applicable standard at 50,000 miles,
 and the final  decision to certify an  engine family.  Certification review also involves
 the review of  manufacturers' maintenance instructions to the ultimate purchaser, and
 manufacturers'services and  technical bulletins.

     After the issuance of the certificate of conformity, manufacturers are allowed to submit
 requests for "running changes" to their certified products to reflect technological
 changes and changes in product line.  Review of "running changes" may involve, at EPA's
 discretion, additional testing at the manufacturer's facility or the EPA facility.
 Since running  changes are approved after the certificate of conformity has been issued
 and vehicles may  be in production, their impact on changing emissions is monitored closelv
 by EPA.

     It should be noted that motor vehicles manufacturers' full line of vehicles and
 engines undergoes the certification process each fiscal year.  In general, each fiscal
 year covers the preproduction  certification of each model year, e.g., FY 1978 covers the
 certification  of  1979 model year, with production changes, i.e., "running changes", processed
 in the following year, i.e., FY 1979.   Additional activity is required by the constant
 reevualation of   certification procedures.   The automotive industry is characterized by
 frequent engineering changes resulting from technological changes or the constraints
 imposed by the marketplace.  All changes in vehicle and engine configurations which
may effect emissions are reviewed and analyzed by EPA.  Manufacturers, in order to evaluate
the impact on emissions of proposed changes they wish to make, request interpretation from
 EPA of the Federal regulations, advisory circulars used to document EPA approved procedures
 and policy that do not require regulatory action, and general policy.   These activities
 are expected to increase in the future because of the increasing stringency of the standards.

     The changing nature of the emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, coupled with
 industry's certain attempts to meet the standards with a changing technology aimed at
 lowering costs and improving fuel  economy necessitates the continuation of the designed
verification function  (based on actual emission testing)  represented by the certification
program.   The workloads are summarized in Tables 1 to 4.
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                                            Table 1

                             Summary of Certification Tests Carried
                              Out at EPA by Model Years and Fiscal
                             Years -- Light-Duty Vehicles and Trucks
Model Year

   1976
   1977
   1978
   1979
   1980
Total Number of
 Emission Tests

     1242
     2192
     1954
     2023
                                                      Tests by Fiscal Year
FY 1977

      1
    517
   1481
FY 1978
    473
   1497
FY 1979
                                526
                               1174
                           Total.
                             1999
                 1970
                 1700
                                            Table 2

                   Summary of Number of Engine Families Applying for Certification
                               and Number of Certificates of Conformity
                                        (in parthentheses) Issued
Light-duty vehicles.
Heavy-duty engines..
•Light-duty trucks...
Motorcycles	
                          FY 1977
                          272(230)
                          116
                           68(45)
                           86(86)
              FY 1978
              256(230)
              116
               79(55)
               86(86)
              FY 1979
              271(230)
              122
               79(55)
               86(86)
                                            Table 3

                                   Summary of Running Changes
 Light-duty  vehicles and trucks.
 Heavy-duty  engines	
 Motorcycles	
                          FY 1977

                             1500
                              185
                                0
              FY 1978

                 1500
                  185
                   32
              FY 1979

                 1500
                  185
                   48
                                            Table 4

                                 Summary of  Fuel  Economy Tests
                                                      Tests by Fiscal Year
 Highway  fuel  economy  tests carried out
   on  vehicles also  tested  for
   compliance  with emissions  standards	
 City  and highway fuel  economy  tests
   carried out for fuel  economy
   compliance  and information purposes
   only	
                                                  FY  1977
                             1200
                              154
                                        FY1978       FY 1979
                 1160
                  585
                 1160
                  575
    A-39

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 CERTIFICATION REVIEW

 1977 Accomplishments

      1977 resources  included approximately SI.7 million  for contracts  related  to  an
 assessment of the certification procedures  and engineering supoort to certification,
 as well  as for carrying out emissions testing.   The motor vehicle certification
 accomplishments and  associated testing workloads were summarized  in  the  preceding
 tables.   Significant impacts on the certification  and testing activities
 resulted from  the Energy  Policy and  Conservation Act  (EPCA).
 EPCA has two separate impacts on  EPA's mobile source certification testing  program:
 testing  for labeling and testing  for calculation of manufacturer  annual  average fuel
 economy.   The testing impact is the conduct of a highway test  on  all  emission  data
 vehicles, a highway  test on all running change vehicles  tested before  the mileage
 guide data cutoff date of September 15, and a city  and highway test  on additional
 vehicles needed to plug data loopholes in  the mileage guide.

      Regulations for fuel  economy  calcuations and test procedures for  1978  and later
 model years were promulgated.  A  thorough  assessment of  certification  procedures
 was initiated and 15 advisory circulars were issued.

 1978 Program

      The FY 1978 level  of resources is $2,657,200 and 72 positions.   These  resources
 include  3600,000 in  contract funds.   The projected  testing and certification workloads
 were summarized in the preceding  tables.   The impact of  the Energy Policy and
 Conservation Act on  the certification and  testing program has  increased  due to the need
 to conduct a city and highway test on all  vehicles  required to be tested in order to
 determine the fuel economy impact  of running changes.  This information  is  needed to
 calculate compliance of 1978 model  year vehicles with the applicable fuel economy standards.
 In addition, fuel economy labeling information will be generated  for trucks up to 8500
 pounds.

 1978 Explanation of  Changes from  Budget Estimate

      There is no change from the  budget estimate.

 1979 Plan

      The FY 1979 plan for this progam element includes SI ,885,000 and  64 positions.
 This level  of resources includes  a decrease of $772,200  and eight positions, which is
 related to a  deemphasis  of  activities  related  to  certification.
 The  projected  certification  workloads are summarized in the preceding  tables.

 LABORATORY AND  DATA ANALYSIS SUPPORT

 1977  Accompl i shments

      1.977 resources  included approximately  $300,000 for  contract  support in the areas of
 emission testing  and data analysis.  The workloads  incurred  in the testing  and data
 analysis program carried out to support certification  activities  are summarized in the
 preceding tables.  In addition, the following  projects were completed  in support  of
 standard setting, procedures development, and  emissions  characterization work  generally
 described under the mobile  source  standards  and guidelines  subactivity:  testing  to
 support laboratory correlation activities; testing to  support the  development of alternate
 road  load horsepower settings  during certification; completed  data support  for the
 development  of sampling plan for assessing  the effects of the fuel additive  MMT on
emissions; completed laboratory work, including testing, and data  analysis support for
the development of a  heavy duty transient driving cycle,  to be made part of revised
                                                                                      A-40

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emission standards for heavy duty engines/vehicles; completed checkout of equipment
and test procedures for interim heavy duty engine emission standards; and completed
construction of a test cell where ambient conditions -- temperature, humidity— can
be varied and the impact of such changes on emissions can be determined.

1978 Program

     The FY 1978 level of resources is 54,795,000 and 109 positions.  These resources
include SI.3 million in contract funds for support of emission testing and data
processing activities.

     The projected emission testing workloads associated with emission certification
and fuel economy compliance are summarized in the preceding tables.   In addition, the
following projects are  planned to support work in the areas of standard  setting,
procedures development, and emissions characterization generally described under the
mobile source standards and guidelines subactivity:  Track testing of cars to determine
effects of dynamometer power absorption characteristics effects on fuel economy; testing
aimed at determining  the effects of tire and dynamometer roll effects on emissions and
fuel economy measurements; data analysis support for reports  on changes  in sulfate
emissions with vehicle age; testing to develop a procedure for measuring  particulate
emissions; assessment of the applicability of the Sealed Housing for Evaporative
Determination (SHED) procedure, used for cars in the determination of evaporative
hydrocarbon emissions from heavy duty engines/vehicles, complete installation and
checkout of a transient dynamometer for use in measur-ing emissions from heavy duty
engines; and provide data analysis support for the assessment of technology for meeting
light duty vehicle emission standards.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of 3500,000 from the budget estimate results from a congressional
reduction to the budget request for automobile certification and testing.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes 34,655,000 and 106
positions.  This represents a decrease of 3140,000 and three positions due-to a
deemphasis of certification and reduction in confirmatory testing to 75 percent vehicles.

     The projected emission testing workloads are summarized in the preceding tables.
Support to standard setting activities, described under the mobile source standards and
guidelines subactivity, will be continued.
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                                                AIR

                                       Abatement and Control

                             Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment
 Appropriation
 Ambient Air Quality
   Monitoring	
 Mobile Sources
   Monitoring	
 Air Quality and
   Emissions Data Analysis
   and Progress Assessments.
                                   Actual
                                    1977
SI,422

 1,340


 3.816
             Budget
            Estimate
              1978
51,426

 1,449


 3.677
            Current
           Estimate
             1978
           Estimate
             1979
                                                            (dollars in thousands)
$1,379

 1,449


 3,754
S2.845

 1,484


 3.230
           Increase +
           Decrease -
         1979 vs.  1978
+S1,466

    +35


   -524
        Total.
 Permanent Positions
 Ambient Air Quality
   Monitoring	
 Mobile Sources
   Monitoring	
 Air Quality and
   Emissions Data Analysis
   and Progress Assessments.
 6,578
    49
    91
 6,552
    51
    93
 6,582
    49
    96
 7,559
    58
    85
   +977
     +9
    -n
        Total.
   140
   152
   153
   151
     -2
 Budget Request
      The resources requested for this budget subactivity are $7,559,000 and 151  positions.
 This reflects an increase of $1,466,200 over the FY 1978 level for ambient air quality
•monitoring which will  provide for improvements in monitoring in keeping with the recommendations
 of EPA's air monitoring strategy.  In addition, an increase of $35,000 in mobile sources
 monitoring will provide for increased analysis of data on emissions from in-use vehicles.
 A decrease of $523,900 and 11 positions in air quality and emissions data analysis
 and progress assessments reflects a shift in emphasis to State Implementation Plans (SIPs)
 revisions work and increased monitoring activities.

 Program Description

      This subactivity  covers the work related to determining ambient air quality levels and
 air pollution source emission levels, determining and analyzing their relationships, and
 assessing the progress made toward the attainment of environmental goals.

      Ambient Air Quality Monitoring ~ Activity in this program includes EPA's ambient air
 monitoring operations  carried out by regional offices, the requisite associated laboratory
 support, and special field monitoring studies.  Most ambient air quality and source monitor-
 ing is carried out by  State and local agencies who provide these data to EPA.  The regional
 offices oversee State  monitoring efforts, develop and carry out quality control  programs
 to assure the quality  and consistency of State data, and process and evaluate data submitted
 to EPA by the States.   Determination of attainment or nonattainment of ambient air quality
 standards are made on  the basis of these data.  It is expected that monitoring activities
 and data analyses will increase due to the need for continuously reassessing the State
 Implementation Plans (SIPs) in nonattainment areas as to their adequacy for attaining  standards,
 and the need to develop revised control plans.  In addition to SIPs -- criteria  pollutants  and
 related monitoring —  a limited program to acquire available State data on currently unregulated
 pollutants is also being carried out.  These data aid in understanding relationships between
 sources and receptors  of currently unregulated pollutants, and are used for making long and
 short terrr trends analyses supportive of decisions on the need for control.
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     This program element also includes efforts directed at improving State and local
monitoring programs.  Continuing efforts include the technical guidelines on monitoring
developed by EPA headquarters for the use of regional offices and State and local  agencies,
such as guidance on the siting of ambient -air quality monitors and on the appropriate size
for monitoring networks.  Adherence to these criteria should promote uniformity of siting
and ensure that the several objectives of the State and local networks are met.

     Mobi 1 e Sources Mom'toring — Also included are activities aimed at determining mobile
sources' emissions performance.  These data are used to assess the effectiveness of control
programs, to assess the need for additional or new controls, and to develop the basis for
regulatory actions.  In this program, vehicles in consumer use are tested in the condition
in which they are received, without any consideration as to state of maintenance,  in order
to determine their emissions.  The data are used to determine the average emissions, that are
to be expected from average in-use vehicle populations.  Samples tested are generally defined
by model year and are representative of diverse geographic areas.  The data so obtained are
used to calculate emission reductions to be required by control strategies developed for
attainment and maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).  The model
year and type of vehicles to be tested each year varies.  In general, a sample of about 180
vehicles, selected to be representative of the in-use vehicle population mix, are tested
in each of six or seven locations in the country.

     Air Quality and Emissions Data Analysis and Progress Assessments — Also included are
the preparation of the annual and special reports on air quality and emission trends, special
analyses on the status of attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS),
development and dissemination of new or improved techniques for data analysis; collection
and analysis of emission data, and development and publication of emission factors.  Diffusion
models are validated, refined and applied to predict air quality levels around point sources
and in urbanized, multisource areas.  Technical guidance and direct assistance in the applica-
tion of diffusion models is provided by headquarters to the regional offices and State and
local control agencies.  Also included are the development, updating, and maintenance of
systems for storage and retrieval of air quality and emissions data gathered by monitoring
activities.  The data systems are composed mainly of an inventory of point sources and their
emissions, and a storage field for ambient air quality data.  To assist the States in efficient
and timely submission of data to EPA, continuing support is provided to the 30 State and local
agencies using the Comprehensive Data Handling System.

AMBIEHT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately $100,000 in contracts.  State and local monitoring
activities were evaluated; field visits were carried out to determine the degree to which
monitoring operations met EPA's criteria and are generating valid data; and State and local
agency data on aranient air quality were processed.  At the end of the year, 2,300 monitoring
stations were reporting data for sulfur dioxide; 3,800 for total suspended particulates; 400
for carbon monoxide; 350 for photochemical oxidants; and 1,350 for nitrogen dioxide.

1978 Program

     The development of ambient air quality data and field monitoring operations is allocated
51,378,800 and 49 positions.  Essentially no contract funds are included in this allocation.
Technical guidance and direction are to be provided to State and local agencies to ensure that
State and local monitoring sites are operating properly and generating valid data.  Data
generated by States and localities will be edited and verified.  Activities will concentrate
on implementing EPA's air monitoring strategy.

1978 Explanation of Changes  from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $47,500 from the budget estimate is due to a regional reprogramming related
to the  implementation of the State  Implementation Plan revision related requirements of the
Clean Air Act.
   A-43

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1979 Plan

     The development of ambient air quality data and field monitoring operations is allocated
32,845,000 and 58 positions.  This represents an increase of SI,466,200 and nine positions
which will provide for improvements in quality assurance, monitoring practices, monitoring
coverage, and data availability in keeping with the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amend-
ments of 1977, in keeping with expected increases in State/local  monitoring activities resulting
from increased grants support, and in keeping with the recommendations of the air monitoring
strategy.  Approximately SI million in contract funds are part of the resources for this
program element; contract funds will be used to supplement EPA activities aimed at improving
monitoring practices and coverage.

     During 1979, technical guidance and direction are to be provided to State and local
agencies' field monitoring and laboratory operations to ensure that State and local monitoring
networks generate valid air quality data; EPA's air monitoring strategy will continue to be
implemented; and the implementation of regulations issued to implement Section 319 of the Clean
Air Act, relating to a national monitoring system, will be initiated.

MOBILE SOURCE MONITORING

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately Sl.l million in contracts for testing in-use
vehicle populations in order to determine their actual emission levels.  The FY 1975 emission
test program, covering 1970 through 1976 model year vehicles, was completed; results will be
used to update emission factors used to calculate motor vehicle emissions.  In addition, an
emission test program covering 2,200, 1967 through 1976 model year, vehicles was initiated.

1978 Program

     The monitoring of emissions from motor vehicles has been allocated SI,449,000 and eight
positions.  These resources include approximately Sl.l million in contracts for testing in-use
vehicle populations in order to determine their actual emission levels.  Updated emission factors
for 1970 through 1977 model year light duty vehicles will be made available.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.

1979 Plan

     The monitoring of emissions from motor vehicles that are in actual use will be allocated
51,484,000 and eight positions in FY 1979.  This represents an increase of $35,000 which will
provide for additional analyses of emissions from in-use vehicles.  The 1979 resources include
approximately Sl.l million in contracts for the testing of in-use vehicle populations in order
to determine their actual emission levels.  Additional data on emissions for heavy duty and
light duty trucks will also be available.  An updated report will also be issued on the emissions
from 1978 model year light duty vehicles.

AIR QUALITY AND EMISSIONS DATA ANALYSIS AND PROGRESS ASSESSMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately $1.6 million in contract support for studies to
validate and refine diffusion models and other simulation techniques used in assessing
source-receptor relationships; assessments of national and regional air pollution control
strategies for air quality standard attainment and maintenance; development of revised criteria
and guidelines for the siting of air quality monitors; development of methods for determining
and displaying populations exposed to air quality levels above the National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS); development of analytical techniques used in preparing EPA's annual
National Air Quality and Emission Trends Report and other special reports; and the provision
of installation, training and troubleshooting services to State and local ur,ers of the Com-
prehensive Data Handling System.
                                                                                  A-44

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     The National Air Quality and Emission Trends Report, 1975 was completed and published.
Analyses were performed on the status of attainment of the standards.  Reports of in-depth
studies of 14 metropolitan areas not meeting the standards for total suspended particulates,
and other studies concerned with resuspended particulates, were released early FY 1977.
Preliminary efforts were maae in developing systems for analyzing and quantifying the change
in exposure that selected populations have experienced over time.  These analyses show clearly
that, although certain localities are still exposed to ambient levels above the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the vast majority of people living in the large metropolitan
areas are exposed to far less pollution than they were in 1970.  In addition, a study of
oxidant levels in rural areas indicated that hydrocarbons and other precursors transported
from population centers contribute to the formation of elevated oxidant levels observed in
areas well away from the population centers.  Work was carried out to encourage the adoption
of a standardized air quality index.  This index provides a mechanism for relating daily air
quality values to standard descriptions of air quality that can be easily understood by the
public.

     Analyses of emission data from a number of source categories led to the issuance of
Supplement No. 7 to publication AP-42, the compilation used for estimating current and
projected air pollutant emissions as part of air pollution control strategies development.
New or revised emission factors were presented for feed and grain processes, anthracite com-
bustion facilities, leaf burning, evaporative losses from petroleum storage, sulfite pulp
mills, dry cleaning, and seven other source categories.

1978 Program

     The assessment of environmental trends and progress of control programs has been allocated
$3,753,900 and 96 positions.  This level of resources includes approximately 51.4 million in
contracts for identification and documentation of air quality monitoring sites to be used for
long term national trends, an element of the air monitoring strategy; development and issuance
of guidelines setting forth techniques and priorities for monitoring; development of additional
analytical techniques for use in preparation of EPA's annual Trends Report and special reports;
evaluation of selected State ambient monitoring networks, primarily in nonattainment areas,
to determine network adequacy and conformity with published siting guidance, validation and
refinement of recently developed diffusion models and other simulation techniques; and
assessments of national and regional air pollution control strategies for air quality standard
attainment and maintenance.

     The National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1976 will be published.  During FY
1978, EPA will continue to encourage State and local agencies and regional councils to use the
standardized air quality index developed in R 1976.  To implement Section 319 of the Act,
regulations will be promulgated in 1978 that will require the index to be used in State
monitoring programs.  A Federal-State program for collection and analyses of ambient data for
nonregulated pollutants will be continued.  Nationally, much of these data are collected by
State and local agencies, but at this time these data are not available for national assess-
ments of the need for control or for determining trends for these pollutants.  Related to these
types of assessments, the development of a rapid capability for obtaining air quality information
for special studies is planned.  During the year, the need for assessing the impacts of unregula-
ted substances — past examples are lead, sulfates, vinyl chloride hexachlorobenzene — can be
expected to arise.  Computer software providing expanded retrieval and analysis capabilities
will be developed and distributed to all State and local users of the Comprehensive Data
Handling System  (CDHS).  Guidelines for the siting of ambient air quality monitors will be
proposed.

     In addition, the following specific projects are scheduled for 1978:  An air quality
modeling conference, required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, will be conducted; a
power plant modeling system will be developed and made available to support energy related
analyses; analytical techniques for estimating particulate concentrations caused by fugitive
emissions will be improved; modeling guidelines related to regulations on prevention of
significant deterioration will be issued; a technical support document addressing meteorological
aspects of good engineering practice as it applies to stack heights will be issued; standards
of performance and uniform validation procedures for air Quality models will be proposed;
advanced computerized techniques for grapnical analysis and display of county/State/national
air quality will be developed; analytical techniques for estimating the extent of visibility
impairment caused by identifiable sources of air pollution will be developed; analytical tech-
niques —  a climatological line source model — for estimating concentrations of lead from
mobile sources will be developed to support development of State Implementation Plans  (SIPs)

A-45

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for lead; guidance on development of quality control checks for screening air quality data,
on developing ambient concentration isopleths, and on the use of meteorological data in air
quality trend analyses will be issued; a report on ambient air quality trends for selected
noncriteria pollutants will be published; air quality isopleths and population exposure
assessments will be prepared for eight cities; revisions to 40 CFR Section  51.7, reporting
of data to EPA, and Section 51.17, air quality surveillance regulations, will be promulgated;
and guidance documents on ambient monitoring needed to support revisions to 40 CFR 51.17,
will be issued.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $77,400 over the budget estimate is due to a regional reprogramming in order
to provide greater emphasis to the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments' requirements
related to identification of nonattainment areas.

1579 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for tnib program element includes $3,230,000 and 85 positions.  This
represents a decrease of S523.900 and 11 positions resulting from a shift in emphasis to
State Implementation Plan  (SIP) revision work and improvements in monitoring.  The level
of resources induces approximately SI million in contracts for continued development and
issuance of new or revised guidelines setting forth techniques and priorities for monitoring;
evaluation of selected State ambient monitoring networks to determine network adequacy and
conformity with the monitor siting regulatory guidelines; development of emission factors for
additional categories of natural emissions, particularly for hydrocarbons and other oxidant
precursors; validation and refinement of diffusion models and other simulation techniques;
and assessments of national and regional air pollution control strategies for air quality
standard attainment and maintenance.

     Activities of the same nature as those described for FY 1977 and FY 1978 will be carried
out.  During FY 1979; the EPA regional offices will have to assess the adequacy of SIP
revisions for attaining and maintaining the ambient air quality standards for the pollutants
that require complex control strategies, such as photochemical oxidants and particulates.
The National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1977 will be published.  Guidelines
for the siting of ambient air quality monitors will be promulgated.  It is expected that the
revisions of State Implementation Plans will  require a high level of effort in the areas of
diffusion modeling and other control strategy development related work.
                                                                                      A-46

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                                                AIR

                                           Enforcement
Appropri ati on
Stationary Source
  Enforcement	
Mobile Source
  Enforcement	
     Total.
Permanent Positions
Stationary Source
  Enforcement	
Mobile Source
  Enforcement	
                                       Budget
                             Actual   Estimate
                              1977      1978
$11,689    515,150

  3,709      4,327

 15,398     19,477
     Total.
    340

     98

    438
391

121

512
                     Current               Increase +
                     Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                       1978       1979    1979 vs..1978
                     (dollars in thousandsT
$15,161

  4.083

 19,244



    393

    123

    516
                  $24,363    +$9,202

                    5,492     +1,409

                   29,855    +10,611
502

158

660
+109

 +35

+144
                       A-49

                       A-54
     The air enforcement program is directed toward achieving compliance with the
standards and regulations established for stationary and mobile sources of air
pollution under the provisions of the Clean Air Act.  The stationary source
enforcement program is undertaken to bolster and stimulate State enforcement of
State Implementation Plans (SIPs).   New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).   The mobile
source enforcement program is primarily e Federal effort directed toward achieving
compliance with fuel and motor vehicle emission standards and regulations.

     The Clean Air Act places the primary responsibility for development and
enforcement of regulations limiting emission of air pollutants upon the States.
EPA's primary objective regarding the stationary source enforcement program is
to assist and to stimulate State enforcement programs.  Activities under SIPs
thus far have focused on enforcing applicable emission limitations for existing
Class A sources of air pollution and on identifying the problems causing source
identification, compliance status determinations, developing enforceable compliance
schedules for sources not in final  compliance, and assuring compliance with final
emission limitations or increments of progress contained in compliance schedules.
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     In 1979, increased resources will be directed toward compliance by the
remaining Class A (major) source violators of SIPs especially in those areas
not attaining primary ambient air quality standards.  Recent amendments to the
Clean Air Act, which make the commencement of civil actions mandatory for
noncomplying major sources and establish administratively imposed noncompliance
penalties for such sources, will have a substantial impact on the program in
FY 1979.  SIPsrevisions for the large areas of nonattainment must be submitted
by January 1, 1979.   After they are received, EPA must review and approve or
disapprove the revisions, and promulgate necessary supplemental regulations
prior to the end of FY 1979.   Enforcement resources will contribute to this
effort.  Resources will continue to be devoted to insuring compliance by sources
issued Department of Energy prohibition orders.  Both the New Source Performance
Standards (NSPS) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant
Standards (NESHAP)   programs are expected to cover additional categories resulting
in increased enforcement burdens.

     The mobile source enforcement program is directed primarily toward achieving
compliance with motor vehicle emission standards and fuels regulations.  In FY 1979,
efforts in the program will continue to be focused on programs aimed at reducing the
failure of vehicles to meet emission standards.  High priority will be placed on
expanding the Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) program, developing an assembly
line test program for heavy duty engines, establishing a regional antitampering
program, expanding the warranties program, establishing an after-market part
certification program, and developing maintenance instruction regulations.
    A-48

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                                               AIR

                                           Enforcement

                                  Stationary Source Enforcement


                                       Budget    Current               Increase +
                             Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                              1977      1978       1978       1979    1979 vs.  1978
                                               (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation
Stationary Source
  Enforcement	     $11,689     315,150    515,161    324,363     +39,202

Permanent Positions
Stationary Source
  Enforcement	         340         391        393        502        +109


Budget Request

     An appropriation of 324,362,800 and 502 positions is requested for FY 1979.  This represents
an increase of 39,202,200 and 109 positions over FY 1978.  The additional resources
will be used to implement the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, primarily those
provisions relating to mandatory civil actions against major source violators and
those establishing administratively imposed noncompliance penalties.

Program Description

     The stationary source air enforcement program is designed to utilize effectively
the enforcement authorities provided by the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977,  to
ensure nationwide compliance with State Implementation Plans (SIPs), New Source
Performance Standards (NSPS), and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants (NESHAP).  EPA's stationary source enforcement program consists of
ensuring compliance by all Class A sources, working with State and local agencies
to deal with Class B sources, contributing to the resolution of attainment problems,
implementing Clean Air Act provisions relating to sources issued prohibition orders
by the Department of Energy under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, and
enforcing SIPs, NSPS, and NESHAP requirements to support and stimulate State efforts.

     The basic enforcement approach in dealing with Class A violators has been
altered by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.   EPA and States may no longer
rely primarily on the administrative order process for establishing compliance
schedules for Class A violators, but must proceed to establish these schedules
through judicial action.  EPA's new authority to seek civil penalties will be used in civil
actions to create a positive incentive for compliance. Finally, EPA or a delegated
State is required under Section 120 to give notice of noncompliance to all Class A
sources which are not in compliance by July 1, 1979, or 30 days after discovery of the
violation, whichever is later, and to establish a penalty for continued noncompliance.
                                                                                     A-49

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     The responsibility for State developed, EPA approved emission limitations
enforcement is shared by EPA and the States.  The Clean Air Act, as amended in
1977, states that the primary responsibility for achieving clean air lies with
State and local governments, but requires EPA action to supplement and reinforce
State actions.

     In accordance with the intent of the Act, the EPA air enforcement program
is designed to ensure that all sources achieve compliance with applicable
standards.  EPA bolsters State air enforcement efforts by supporting State
control agencies through control agency grants, by providing specialized skill
and expertise and special contractual assistance, and by taking the primary
enforcement role with respect to selected sources when the States cannot or
will not enforce.

     EPA has primary responsibilities for the enforcement of the Federal emission
standards it promulgates.  However, both Section 111, New Source Performance
Standards (NSPS), and Section 112, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants (NESHAP)  provide for State enforcement of all or any portion of these
standards.  In accordance with the intent of the Act, EPA continues to place a
high priority on delegating enforcement authority for NSPS and NESHAP to the States.
After delegation, EPA actively monitors the enforcement of these standards to
assure national consistency as intended by these provisions.

1977 Accomplishments

     Major program accomplishments for FY 1977 were:

     -  The Class A source inventory increased from 22,140 to 23,033 sources.

     -  94 percent of the Class A sources were in compliance with emission
        standards or compliance schedules; of the 94 percent, 88 percent were in
        compliance with final emission limitations and 6 percent were in
        compliance with schedules.

     -  Completed 7,163 field investigations throughout the year.

     -  Reduced percentage of Class A sources of unknown status by more
        than half (407 to 174).

     -  Maintained 95 percent compliance level for sources of hazardous
        pollutants.

     -  Implemented new source review offset policy.

     Contract expenditures for FY 1977 totaled $1,718,000, including approximately
S975.000 for attainment of primary standards; 5475,000 for maintenance of primary
standards; and 3268,000 for New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National
Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) enforcement.
      A-50

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1978 Program

     Major program accomplishments during FY 1978 will be to:

     -  Improve State Implementation Plans (SIP) compliance by Class A sources
        with total suspended particulates and sulphur dioxide regulations
        to 97 percent.

     -  Uork with States for development of regulations for Class A
        hydrocarbon sources in nonattainment areas for oxidants.

     -  Conduct audits to assure adequacy of State enforcement programs
        for new source review programs, including review of State permits
        issued.

     -  Evaluate and recommend improvements in State field surveillance
        and compliance monitoring programs.

     -  Initiate implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of
        August 7, 1977.

     The planned FY 1978 resource level for this activity is 515,160,600 and 393
positions.  Planned contract expenditures are £5,513,000, including SI,650,000 for
enforcement case support; 52,332,000 for compliance monitoring and field surveillance;
5350,000 for regional data system support; 5881,400 for regional industrial studies
support; and 5300,000 to support development of national compliance profiles and
enforcement strategies.   During FY 1978, the 393 positions will be distributed
approximately as follows:  10 percent for SIP revisions and nonattainment strategies,
60 percent for Class A enforcement, 5 percent for enforcement against Class B sources
impacting on nonattainment, 16 percent for the new source program, 5 percent for
energy related authorities, and 4 percent for the National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program and other noncriteria pollutant programs.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of 510,600 over the budget estimate results from a reprogramming
from headquarters mobile source enforcement to the regional offices to support
increased hearings costs.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 budget for this activity is $24,362,800 and 502 positions, an increase
of 109 positions and 59,702,200 over FY 1978 levels.  The increase will provide resources
to carry out the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  The distribution
of the total resources requested for FY 1979 will be approximately 63 percent devoted
to various aspects of Class A compliance, including the impostion of noncompliance
penalties under Section 120, 16 percent to new source programs, 9 percent to National
Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and other noncriteria
pollutant programs, 8 percent to nonattainment strategies and State Implementation
Plans (SIPs) revisions,  and 4 percent to energy related programs.
                                                                                    A-51

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     The most immediate and compelling enforcement problem to be addressed by EPA
in FY 1979 is the achievement of compliance by the remaining Class A source violators
of SIPs, especially in those areas not attaining the primary ambient air quality
standards.  These Class A sources which remain in violation are for the most part
powerful, recalcitrant industries with a disproportionately large impact on
nonattainment of ambient standards and will require extensive enforcement resources
to collect evidence, negotiate settlements and/or mount effective court actions if
they are to be brought into compliance.

     As a result of the changes to the basic enforcement approach for dealing with
Class A violators, mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, there will be
a substantial increase in the number of civil/criminal actions required against
Class A violators and the issuance of noncompliance penalties (NCR's) to virtually
all Class A violators.  The projected number of EPA civil/criminal actions that will
be required in FY 1977 is 317, more than 14 times the number of civil/criminal
actions filed in FY 1977.   While mandated court actions increase the resource demands
on EPA, since litigation is more resource intensive than administrative enforcement,
the resulting benefit from expeditious compliance and air quality improvement
justifies the resources it demands.

     The issuance of NCP's is also resource intensive.  NCP's must be developed for
all Class A sources (except certain smelters under Section 119 orders) not meeting
SIPs requirements or not meeting interim control requirements.  In addition, NCP's
must be issued to those sources violating New Source Performance Standards (MSPS)
or NESHAP requirements.  EPA will have an estimated 729 NCP's to issue in FY 1979;
consequently, much of the increased resources for FY 1979 will be devoted to the
implementation of this powerful new tool for obtaining expeditious compliance.

     The concept of preventing regression from achieved levels of compliance
applies to all stationary source enforcement programs.  Failure to support an
effective program by ensuring the continued compliance of sources with either
emission limitations or compliance schedule increments would, to a substantial
extent, negate the efforts expended to bring sources into compliance.  The budget
request reflects a continuing commitment to a strong field surveillance program
with a substantially increased use of contractors and a concomitant reduction in
Federal personnel for this element of the program.  It should also be noted that
EPA intends to expand substantially its program for continuous monitoring in the
future, which should ultimately lead to more effective compliance monitoring with
less resources devoted to that effort.

     SIPs revisions must be submitted for the large areas of nonattainment, especially
for hydrocarbon and particulates, by January 1, 1979.  These SIP revisions will
require extensive input from enforcement personnel to ensure that ongoing enforcement
activities are not disrupted or delayed by pending revisions, that any new provisions
are achievable and enforceable, and that strategies are properly balanced to provide
for industrial and economic growth.

     An area  of increasing focus is the relationship and balance between environmental
and energy concerns.  The balance reflected in earlier congressional actions to address
this issue, such as the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, as
amended, and the Energy Policy and Coordination Act of 1975, was maintained in the
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, thus continuing to give absolute primacy to insuring
compliafice with those air pollution requirements necessary to attain health protective
   A-52

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standards.  During FY 1979, EPA enforcement will have to renegotiate compliance
methods and schedules for sources which have to convert to coal as a result of
a Department of Energy prohibition order to ensure that upon conversion these
sources still meet environmental standards.  Close attention must be given to
this program to ensure attainment of ambient standards for sulfur oxides in
areas which are presently meeting these standards  but have major sources
converting to coal.

     Considerable attention will be devoted to new source programs which will
deal with the regulation of new sources to permit new construction or expansion
of industrial sources in a manner consistent with attainment and maintenance of
air quality standards and prevention of significant deterioration of current
air quality in clean areas.

     Consistent with the intent of Congress expressed in the recent Act amendments,
EPA will be expanding the scope of coverage of the offset policy.  The number of
sources covered will increase by an estimated five-fold, which should significantly
improve the effectiveness of the offset policy in ensuring that growth is
consistent with environmental concerns.  Necessary resources must be dedicated to
this program to ensure national consistency in its application.

     Similar concerns exist with respect to the prevention of significant
deterioration (PSD) of air quality in areas that are presently in attainment.  EPA
will be expanding the number of sources subject to the PSD regulations .as directed
by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 and will provide an opportunity for a
public hearing on those permits it issues.  Much effort will be devoted to working
with States to develop acceptable PSD regulations so that they can assume primary
responsibility for the program, with EPA limiting its role to one of assistance
to the State and local permitting authorities and to monitoring State efforts, as
appropriate, to assure adequate State new source review (NSR) permits.

     Another element of the overall program for dealing with new sources remains
the establishment and enforcement of NSPS.  Twenty-five categories of sources
were regulated under NSPS at the end of FY 1977, an estimated six additional
categories of sources will be added in FY 1978 and 13 in FY 1979.  This will
result in a substantial increase in the number of regulated sources.

     In line with EPA's increasing attention to toxic substances, increased
emphasis is being placed upon pollutants subject to regulation under Section 112.
EPA, in FY 1979 and FY 1980, plans to implement new NESHAP programs, thus increased
enforcement efforts will be required.

     Contract funds requested for FY 1979, totaling nearly $11,813,000, include
$5,111,600 for enforcement case development, $4,932,000 for compliance
monitoring and field surveillance, $1,084,000 for regional industrial technical
and economic studies, $625,000 for national profiles and enforcement strategy
studies, and $497,000 for data support.
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                                               AIR

                                           Enforcement

                                    Mobile Source Enforcement


                                       Budget    Current               Increase +
                             Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                              1977      1978       1978       1979    1979 vs. 1978
                                               (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation
Mobile Source
  Enforcement	      33,709     $4,327     $4,083     $5,492      +$1,409

Permanent Positions
Mobile Source
  Enforcement	          98        121        123        158          +35


Budget Request

     The FY 1979 mobile source enforcement budget request provides for an increase of
35 positions and $1,409,000.  Sixteen positions will be utilized to establish a
regional antitampering program providing a minimal response capability of one person
per region for general enforcement and pilot tests in two regions.  Ten positions
will be utilized for an expanded Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) program.  Four
of these 10 will be utilized for assembly line testing required by the recent Clean
Air Act Amendments.  Also in response to the Amendments, three positions will be
utilized for the vehicle warranty program, two positions for an after-market parts
certification program, and two for developing regulations governing maintenance
instructions issued by vehicle manufacturers.  Two positions will be used to
administer emission waivers established by the Amendments.

Program Description

     The mobile source enforcement program is directed primarily toward achieving
compliance with motor vehicle emission standards and fuels regulations.

     The major objectives of the program are (1) to assure that new vehicles meet
standards; (2) assure that vehicles meet standards in-use; (3) assure that emission
control systems are not removed or rendered inoperative; (4) assure compliance with
vehicle miles traveled measures; (5) assure control of hydrocarbon emissions during
gasoline transfer operations; (6) assure that fuels and fuel additives are properly
controlled; and (7) administer emission waivers.
     A-54

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1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977, the mobile source enforcement program continued to carry out
its responsibilities under Title I and Title II of the Clean Air Act by emphasizing
programs aimed at reducing the failure of vehicles to meet emission standards.
In FY 1977, the mobile source enforcement program initiated a Selective Enforcement
Auditing  (SEA) program for light duty vehicles by issuing 32 test orders to manufacturers
to test vehicles on the assembly line.  The recall program was emphasized.  Classes
of vehicles suspected of exceeding applicable emission standards were tested.  Twenty
recall investigations were initiated, resulting in six recalls involving 5.8 million
cars and one adjudicatory hearing.  Audits of 16 ongoing recalls were conducted.
Enforcement test capability was developed through the completion of METFac (Mobile
Enforcement Test Facility) and an effort to establish a permanent station for METFac
at Sandusky, Ohio, was initiated.  Compliance with certification requirements was
assured by conducting 73 inspections and 11 investigations.  Emphasis was placed on
inspecting production vehicles to assure that certified designs were being produced.
Regulations dealing with the Section 207(b) warranty provisions of the Clean Air Act
were proposed.  Inspection/maintenance programs were supported through regional
assistance and legal action.   Stage I vapor recovery inspections were integrated
into the ongoing fuels inspection activity and a total of 25,900 combined inspections
were conducted.  Lead phasedown requirements were monitored through review and
evaluation of industry submittals and an estimated 40 imports  investigations were
conducted in order to assure that noncomplying vehicles were not imported.  Sixty-
eight tampering investigations were conducted resulting in 34 prosecutions.

     Approximately 5950,000 in contract funds were obligated in FY 1977 in support
of recall emission testing, METFac and its permanent station, statistical program
support, antitampering publicity, survey, and vehicle testing; assistance to States
and regions for implementation of inspection/maintenance programs; assistance to
States for unleaded gasoline sampling, vapor recovery, and imports publicity.

1978 Program

     In FY 1978, efforts in the program will be focused on reducing the failure of
vehicles to meet emission standards.  The program will continue to emphasize the
Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) assembly line testing program and recall with
increased testing and investigative activity as a result of expanded surveillance
activity.

     The major activities will be to issue 40 SEA test orders; conduct 70 inspections
and five investigations of auto manufacturers'  certification and production
activities; conduct 25 recall investigations; expand recall auditing, defect
reporting and public reporting follow-up; conduct recall testing through contractor,
home base, and METFac testing; conduct 100 tampering investigations; review
enforceability of Air Quality Management Plan and Transportation Control Plans;
enforce unleaded gas and Stage I vapor recovery regulations—regulating the enissions
from the filling of gasoline storage tanks, enforce lead phasedown and Stage II vapor
recovery requirements--regulating  the emissions from the filling of automobile gas
tanks;  and conduct 40 imports  investigations.
                                                                                      A-55

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     For FY 1978, approximately SI,250,000 in contract funds will be used in support
of recall emission testing, METFac and its permanent station, statistical program
support, antitampering publicity, survey, and vehicle testing; for assistance to
States and regions for implementation of inspection/maintenance programs; and for
assistance to States for unleaded gasoline sampling, vapor recovery and imports
publicity.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $243,700 from the budget estimate results from a transfer of
$10,600 to stationary source enforcement and a reprogramming of $233,100 to water
quality enforcement activities.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 mobile source enforcement request is 158 positions and $5,492,300.
Approximately $2,027,000 of contracts funds will be utilized in support of recall,
field testing, antitampering, warranties, inspection/maintenance, vapor recovery,
fuels, and imports activities.  In FY 1979, the mobile source enforcement program
will continue to place primary emphasis on the implementation of programs aimed at
reducing the failure of vehicles to meet emission standards.

     In FY 1979, the Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) program will pursue its
current activities on an expanded scale with the.addition of 10 positions.  Four
of the 10 will be assigned during FY 1979 to the assembly line testing program
for heavy duty engines mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments.  The SEA program
insures that new vehicles on the production line are in compliance with emission
standards before being introduced into commerce.

     The recall program will also be increased by three positions to assure
compliance of in-use vehicles with emission standards.  Expanded SEA activity,
recall enforcement testing, and increased public contact due to federally
enforceable warranty provisions will serve to identify a greater number of
vehicle classes suspected of exceeding exhaust emission standards in-use.

     The warranty program will be increased by three positions in recognition of
increased responsibilities under the new provisions of the Act which make the
warranties federally enforceable.  Two positions are provided for implementation
of regulations governing the new vehicle maintenance instructions provided by
manufacturers.  Inasmuch as proper vehicle maintenance is a major isssue in
warranty claims, these regulations are needed to complement the warranty
activities.  Two positions are provided for the aftermarket parts certification
program required by the Amendments.  The program will provide for certification
of emission related replacement parts to enable vehicle owners to establish
that they have used replacement parts which may degrade the performance of the
emission control system.

     The antitampering program will receive 16 new positions, allowing a minimal
response capability of one person per regional office and the establishment of
pilot tests in two regions of a program designed to detect violations through a
full response capability and accompanying publicity.
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     In FY 1979, activities of the regional fuels program win include conducting 15,000
combined unleaded and vapor recovery inspections at service stations and fleet dispensing
facilities and reviewing Stage II vapor recovery compliance reports.  Because of the
success of this program in minimizing the contamination rate of unleaded gasoline and
because of recent data which indicate that substantial fuel switching—the use of leaded
gasoline in vehicles designed for unleaded—may be occurring, the emphasis of the fuels
program will be shifted from assuring the quality of unleaded gasoline to reducing the
improper use of leaded gasoline.  Headquarters activities in FY 1979 will consist of
monitoring inspections and enforcement activities of the regional unleaded fuels and
Stage I vapor recovery program, monitoring compliance of Stage II vapor recovery
compliance reports and enforcement actions by regions, developing enforcement guidance
for the regional unleaded Stage I and Stage II vapor recovery programs, and monitoring
lead usage reports and the status of refiner efforts to achieve compliance with the lead
phasedown program.

     In FY 1979, efforts will also be continued to support existing inspection/maintenance
programs.  Inspection/maintenance programs not only serve to improve emissions from
noncomplying vehicles in use, but data from existing inspection and maintenance programs
will be used by recall and SEA programs to identify classes of vehicles exceeding standards
and by the antitampering program to identify vehicles that have been subjected to tampering.

     Two positions will be used to administer the emission waiver provisions of the
Amendments.

     During FY 1979, the major activities for the mobile source enforcement program
will be to:

     -  Issue 55 SEA test orders.

     -  Conduct 25 inspections and three investigations of auto manufacturers'
        certification and production activities.

     -  Implement warranty regulations.

     -  Develop maintenance instruction regulations.

     -  Implement after-market parts certification program.

     -  Conduct 28 recall investigations.

     -  Expand recall auditing, defect reporting and public reporting, and follow-up.

     -  Conduct 60 warranty enforcement actions.

     -  Conduct recall enforcement testing program through contractor, home base,
        and METFac testing.

     -  Regionalize antitampering program.

     -  Enforce unleaded gas and Stage I vapor recovery requirements through
        15,000 combined fuels inspection tests.

     -  Administer emission waivers.
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                                               AIR

                                     Research and Development
                               Actual
                                1977

Appropriation
Health and Ecological Effects $35,213
Industrial Processes	
Monitoring and Technical
  Support	   9,729

     Total	  51,528

Permanent Positions
Health and Ecological Effects
Industrial Processes	
Monitoring and Technical
  Support	
 Budget     Current               Increase +
Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
  1978       1978       1979     1979 vs.  1978
          (do I lars in thousands)
;35,213
6,586
9,729
51,528
527,028
5,000
8,167
40,195
$28,179
5,000
9,199
42,378^
$31,414
5,000
16,283
52,697
+$3,235
+7,084
+10,319^
                                                 A-59
                                                 A-72

                                                 A-75
     Total.
282
24
109
415
290
38
137
465
275
27
114
416
274
21
118
413
-1
-6
+4
-3
a/ Includes proposed supplemental of SI.4 million in monitoring and technical support
to study the environmental effects of graphite and related fibers used as new structural
material.

jb/ The net increase reflects the inclusion of the proposed supplemental in the 1978
current estimate; excluding this supplemental, the net change would be +$11,718,600.
     The air research and development program is designed to furnish EPA with the
knowledge to establish prudent environmental controls based upon known or potentially
adverse health and ecological effects; to define, develop, and demonstrate systems for
controlling stationary sources; and to evaluate strategies for minimizing the emission
of pollutants.

     To achieve these ends, the program is structured to quantify the effects of air
pollutants on man, animals, plants, and the general environment; develop predictive
models for pollutant emission, transport, transformation, and removal, and verify these
models by actual measurements; develop and standardize techniques for the monitoring of
pollutants; and develop new and improved technology for preventing and controlling air
pollution and demonstrate the cost effectiveness of such technologies.
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                                                AIR

                                     Research  and  Development

                                   Health  and  Ecological  Effects
                               Actual
                                1977
 Appropriation
 Health Effects	   $20,861
 Ecological  Effects	
 Transport and Fate of
   Pollutants	
 Stratospheric
   Modification	
           Budget
          Estimate
            1978
             Current
             Estimate
               1978
            Estimate
              1979
             Increase +
             Decrease -
            1979 vs. 1978
                                                       (dollars In thousands)
$20,861
1,847
10,281
2,224.
$16,052
1,084
9,892

$15,995
1,884
10,300

$16,499
2,648
11,097
1,170
+$504
+764
+797
+ 1,170
          Total.
.Permanent Positions
 Health Effects	
 Ecological  Effects	
 Transport and Fate of
   Pollutants	
 Stratospheric
   Modification	
35,213
   215
    25
27,028
   217
    34

    39
28,179
   205
    32

    38
31,414
   225
     5

    44
+3,235
   +20
   -27

    +6
          Total.

 Budget Request
   282
   290
   275
   274
    -1
      The 1979 budget request for health  and  ecological  effects  research  is  $31,414,000
 and 274 positions.   This  represents  a  total  increase  of $3,235,000 and a net decrease
 of one position from the  1978 level.   Within the  total, there  is  an increase of
 $503,500 and 20 positions  for the health effects  portion of  the program. These
 resources will  be devoted  in large part  to meeting  requirements of the Clean Air Act
 Amendments of 1977.   There is an increase of 5764,000 and a  decrease of  27  positions
 for the ecology program,  reflecting  a  shift  from  intramural  to  extramural research.

      In the air transport  and fate area, an  additional  $797,500 and six  positions are
 requested for 1979.   This  program will be expanded  to address  requirements  of the
 recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977,  as well as  problems associated
 with photochemical  oxidants and fine particulates such as sulfates, nitrates, and
 organics.

      To fulfill other provisions of the  Clean Air Act Amendments  of 1977,
 $1,170,000 is requested for research on  stratospheric modification.  The
 emphasis in this work is  on predicting the biological and ecological effects
 of depletion of the ozone  layer.
     A-59

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Program Description

     Research on air health and ecological effects provides the fundamental
scientific basis upon which to establish and continually evaluate both primary
and secondary ambient air quality standards.  The program incorporates a number of
subject areas, addressing health effects, ecological processes and effects, transport
and fate, and an integrated series of studies on the effects of stratospheric
modification.

     The health effects research program uses lexicological investigations,
controlled human exposure studies, and epidemiological studies of targeted
populations to address public health questions.  The program is presented from the
standpoint of criteria, noncriteria, transportation^related and nonpesticide
inorganic and organic pollutants,  the investigations focus on those air pollutants
where there is evidence that they may or do adversely effect the public health.  The
program aims at developing scientific data on the effects of short term exposures
to nitrogen dioxide; better defining the health effects data base for oxidants;
reviewing emerging data to determine the adequacy of existing pollutant standards;
compiling a data base to evaluate and assess exposure effect relationships of sulfates,
nitrates, and otner particulates; assessing exposure effect relationships of chronic,
low level exposure to trace metals and other nonpesticide substances which reach man
in air; and collecting and analyzing information on the effects of automotive
related pollutant emissions on public health.  In addition, an effort to discern the
contribution of environmental pollutants to the incidence of cancer in the general
population is continuing.

     The ecological effects research program focuses upon the effects of air pollutants
on the structure and functions of ecosystems, especially on economically significant
components such as forests and crops.  Laboratory and field studies and mathematical
and theoretical simulations support the establishment and scheduled revaluation of
air pollutant criteria documents, as well as provide makers with guidelines to
assess the environmental impact of municipal, industrial, and agricultural emission
sources and energy resource development.

     In conjunction with the health ant! ecological effects research, studies
on air transport and fate are conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively
determine the sources and sinks, kinetics of formation and removal, and chemical/physical
interactions of airborne gaseous and particulate matter.  This area of research
includes:  (1) determination of atmospheric chemical and physica-1 processes for
describing the formation and removal'of gaseous and particulate air pollutants; and
(2) the development, evaluation, and validation of air quality simulation models
for predicting and describing air quality impacts anticipated from various control
abatement strategies.

     The focus of the stratospheric modification program is on determining those
biological and environmental effects which are related to depleting the atmospheric
ozone layer.  The studies include those on human health effects, those on aquatic
and terrestrial organisms and communities, and climatologic effects.  Projects to
develop and refine methods of measuring and experimentally  producing ultraviolet
radiation are also part of this program.  In this latter work, the techniques are
sought so that potential effects of increased ultraviolet radiation can be better
quantified than is possible at present.
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HEALTH EFFECTS

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, $10,408,100 was spent on contracts, $2,279,223 on grants, and
$358,600 on interagency agreements.  Major accomplishments were as follows.

     It was observed that exposure to 1,200 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3,
0.6  parts per million (ppm)) of ozone for 1 hour results in significant impairment
of lung function in humans.  Impairment is greater after 2 hours of exposure and
a  suppression of white blood cell function persisted in the study volunteers for
as long as 8 weeks.  These findings are relevant to evaluations of the scientific
basis for the National Primary Ambient Air Quality Standard and Episode Criteria
for oxidants.

     It was found in mice that repeated, short exposures to ozone at urban
environmental levels (196 ug/m3  or O.lppm) extended the effectiveness of the drug
sodium pentabarbital — an anesthetic drug.  Ozone is thought to have an effect on
the specific enzyme system which metabolizes or detoxifies pentabarbital.  Thus,
the levels of pentabarbital remain at higher levels for longer periods of time.

     Baseline studies were completed in a new facility performing clinical studies
on human volunteers.  The facility, one of the most sophisticated of its kind
in the world, is fully flexible, permitting investigations using a variety of gaseous
and particulate air pollutants.  The sophisticated data obtained facilitates
detecting low level responses in humans caused by pollutant exposures.

     A series of animal studies on short term nitrogen dioxide exposures have
been in progress which systematically investigated the effects of varying levels and
durations of exposures, simulating fluctuations occurring under ambient environmental
conditions.  It was demonstrated experimentally that mechanisms and degrees of
toxicity are more dependent on the concentration of nitrogen dioxide than on the
length ana specific pattern of exposure.

     To simulate natural  exposure conditions more accurately, the effects of
pollutant concentrations were also examined in animal model systems.  It was
found that combinations of ozone (98 ug/m3, O.OSppm) and nitrogen dioxide
(2820  ug/m3, I.Sppm), as compared .to exposure to either pollutant singly,
significantly increase susceptibility to infectious respiratory disease.

     An epidemiological study was initiated in the Los Angeles Air Basin to
examine the short term effects of nitrogen oxides and photochemical oxidants.
The end point being observed is Acute Respiratory Disease  (ARD).

     Preliminary findings have been obtained for human exposures to sulfuric
acid.  Short term exposures to 100 ug/m3 of sulfuric acid aerosol did not produce
changes in cardiopulmonary function in healthy adults.

     New pollutant exposure systems have been developed which will permit
toxicological investigations of complex pollutant mixtures simulating smog.
It will be possible to vary exposure conditions in such a way as to identify the
components of smog mixtures potentially responsible for the observed .health effects.
Future animal studies conducted with this exposure system will be designed in an
attempt to correlate the results with those obtained in epidemiological research.

     A series of studies involving exposures of experimental animals to diluted
automobile exhaust for periods of up to 3 months indicated that the platinum/
palladium catalytic converter reduced the adverse biological effects of exhaust
emissions as compared to emissions not passed through such converters.
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     Short exposures to manganous/manganic oxide  (the automobile exhaust
products of the fuel additive MMT) at concentrations of 1000 ug/m^ increased
susceptibility to infectious respiratory disease  in mice.  When manganous/manganic
oxide was combined with sulfuric acid, these effects were observed at a lower
concentration of the manganese  compound.

     A protocol for health effects testing of fuel and fuel additives was
drafted which, if accepted, will serve as a guideline for EPA regulations on such
testing.

     Experiments were initiated in which animals were exposed to dilute exhaust
emissions from a diesel  engine prior to assay of several physiological systems.
The results of the first set of experiments should be available in April 1978.

     A study was initiated to improve characterization of the exposure of
population groups to air pollutants.  The work is designed to improve exposure/dose
estimates so that the effects observed in epidemiological studies can be more
closely related to pollutant exposure.

     A completed epidemiological investigation showed that traffic density was
significantly related to air lead concentrations, but that there was no
significant correlation between the air borne lead concentrations and blood
lead levels of people living near the roadway.

     An international epidemiological study of tissue burdens of metals was
completed in cooperation with investigators from Japan and Sweden.  One finding
showed that human tissues from  the U.S. had less  cadmium than tissues from the
Japanese and more cadmium than  tissues from Sweden.

     Epidemiological methodologies suitable for use in detecting the health
effects of air pollution episodes were developed.  These techniaues will
expand and improve the quantity and quality of acute health effects data that
can be obtained when the health program investigates the public health
consequences associated with episodes.

1978 Program

    "The 1978 resources for health effects research is $15,995,500 and 205 positions.
Approximately 56,604,400 will be spent on contracts, $2,361,000 on grants, and
$889,000 on interagency agreements.

Criteria Pollutants

     The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 necessitate a ^significant reprogramming of
resources within the air health program.  These resources will be used to collect and
analyze more data on the criteria pollutants.  Work is being completed on collecting
and analyzing field and laboratory data on the health effects of short term exposure
to nitrogen oxides.  These data will be availableas part of the input for the
required Ambient Air Quality Criteria Document for short term nitrogen oxides
exposures.  Clinical data obtained and analyzed on ozone are being evaluated in
light of the oxidant emergency episode levels.  The ongoing field studies on
oxidants should be nearing completion, and the resulting data will be evaluated
in conjunction with the clinical data.  The effects of nitrogen dioxide on various
physiological systems of human  volunteers will be investigated.  Animal toxicological
investigations will use exposures simulating naturally occurring profiles of
nitrogen dioxide in order to address major questions related to a short term Ambient
Air Quality Standard of nitrogen dioxide.  Additional studies  will focus on the
interaction of ozone with other pollutants and the development of improved and more
sensitive test systems.  Criteria Documents for lead, oxidants, and snort term
nitrogen dioxide will be published.  A regular 5-year cycle for revising all
Ambient Air Quality Criteria Documents will be initiated as required by the
Clean Air Act Amendments.   Health effects information will be obtained as its relates
to air quality in the Gulf Coast region.
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Nonci-iteria Pollutants

     Research on the noncriteria pollutants will emphasize defining the health
effects of respirable suspended particulates alone, and in combination with
other pollutants.  Nitrates and sulfates will be investigated.  Several projects
undertaken in this portion of the program are related to the Clean Air Act
Amendments, including the preparation of a report on chemical contaminants found in
human tissue.  Sulfate research will include both clinical and toxicologic studies
and will focus on respirable particle sizes and concentrations in the range of
50-200 ug/m3 for short term exposure periods.  The physiological effects resulting
from exposure to pollutant mixtures which simulate smog will be evaluated in
animals.  In vitro models with the potential of rapidly screening numerous
pollutants for their health effects will be.validated in vivo.  In vivo
techniques will be evaluated for use as rapid screening systems to identify
biologically active pollutants.  If successful, these in vivo systems will be
important additions to the in vitro techniques for rapid screening of chemicals.

Transportation Related Pollutants

     A major goal is to begin defining the health effects associated with diesel
particulates.  Initial investigations will include in vitro screening to identify
possible mutagens.  These studies will then be extended to include confirmatory
in vitro tests and validated to allow comparison of•the mutagenic and carcinogenic
potential of diesel vs. gasoline — catalyst and noncatalyst ~ powered vehicles.
For those particles appearing to be mutagenic or carcinogenic, work will be
conducted to determine what specific chemical components of the diesel particulates
are responsible for these effects.  This work is structured so that the results
of the in vitro screening can be used to guide the use and development of methods
to characterize chemically-specific components of diesel particulate.

     In another investigation, animals will be exposed to actual diluted diesel
engine exhaust prior to examination for effects on various biological endpoints.
This will include preliminary in vivo carcinogenesis testing.  Since ongoing
characterization of vehicular emissions is likely to identify new chemicals
with toxicological potential, a rapid response health effects testing program
will be initiated so that potential problems can be evaluated at an earlier
stage.  Animal studies will  also include assays of the effects of ultrafine
sulfuric acid mist.

Nonpesticide Inorganics and Organics

     Efforts in this area emphasize collecting health effects data on such
metals as cadmium and arsenic.  Studies are in progress, for example, on
characterizing human body burdens of persons living in the vicinity of
smelters.  This information will be available to the EPA program offices in
their control of smelter emissions, and for use for conducting epidemiological
studies of populations living near smelters.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $56,500 from the budget estimate results from several actions.
The appropriation was increased by 52,800,000 to expand work on sulfates,
transportation-related pollutants, and for research on the public health effects
resulting from air pollution in the Gulf Coast region; this increase was part
of a $6 million add-on by the Congress for health and ecological effects.
In addition, Congress added on $225,000 for authorized positions.  A
transfer of $1,128,500 was made to the agencywide support account to provide
for increased building and office services costs.  A transfer of $1,953,000
was made to anticipatory research within the interdisciplinary media,
reflecting the transfer of the carcinogens program to that account.
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1979 Plan

     In 1979, 516,499,000 and 225 positions are requested for healtn effects
research.  This is an increase of 5503,500 and 20 positions.  The positions will
be used primarily to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.
In addition, funds to meet the Clean Air Act requirements will be obtained bv
reducing other aspects of the ongoing research program.  Approximately 56,904,400
will be "spent on contracts,  $2,565,000 on grants,  and 5889,000 on interagency
agreements.

Criteria Pollutants
     Because of the new Clean Air Act Amendments, more emphasis will be placed
on refining the criteria pollutant health effects data base than initially
planned.  This increased effort is a result of the need to revise the air
quality criteria periodically.  The whole area of additive and synergistic
effects resulting from simultaneous exposure to multiple criteria pollutants
will be expanded.  This will include expanded animal toxicological and
controlled human exposure and where appropriate, targeted epidemiological
research.  The data base on the health effects resulting from acute exposure
to high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide is particularly limited.  Expanded
controlled human exposure studies will be conducted on nitrogen dioxides.
A portion of the 20 positions will be assigned to complement the existing
efforts in these areas.  The remainder of the base program resources in
criteria pollutants will be used to (a) continue refining the photochemical
oxidant health effects data base focusing particularly on the effects of
nonozone oxidants and (b) evaluate the influence of other factors -- the
presence of additional pollutants, prior health impairments, environmental
stresses such as temperature, humidity, etc. — on the health effects of
selected criteria pollutants.

Noncriteria Pollutants

     The new Clean Air Act Amendments have put considerable emphasis on the
health effects of fine particulate, polycyclic organic matter, and sulfates.
A substantial portion of the 20 positions will be used to expand the existing
health effects research program in these areas.  Reports on these pollutants
sunmarizing  the public health effects of these pollutants will be prepared
by the health people in 1979 and 1980.  These reports will be used to
structure the Agency's regulatory policy on these pollutants.  Clinical
studies on human volunteers suffering from asthma, chronic bronchitis, and
heart disease will be exposed to sulfates.  Epidemiologic investigations
will be initiated on principal sulfate components in the atmosphere.  Animal
studies will focus on dose/response relationships of various sulfate pollutants
to identify the comparative toxicity as well as the subtle effects of these
compounds.

Transportation Related Pollutants

     Several of the new positions will be. used to perform a few pilot
epidemiological studies of populations living near roadways with substantial
diesel vehicle populations.  The health effects database on exhaust products
from diesel powered vehicles will be expanded.  The data obtained will be used
by the regulatory program for certifying new model year diesel light duty
vehicles.  Methodology and instrumentation for measuring selected new pollutants
from catalyst controlled, light duty vehicles will be developed.  Depending
on the existing health effects data base and the potential risk to the public,
some preliminary health effects studies may be conducted on certain of these
new pollutants.  A limited amount of monitoring at a freeway site will be
suoported to determine the air pollution resulting from roadway emissions.
Reports on health effects from mobile source emissions will also be prepared, as
required by the Clean Air Act Amendments.
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Nonpesticide Inorganics and Organlcs

     The new Clean Air Act Amendments mention that the health effects of arsenic
and cadmium must be reviewed and, if warranted, regulatory action taken to
protect the public health.  Using in vivo and in vitro testing systems, more
data will be obtained on the health effects of these trace metals.  These
testing systems will provide data on acute and chronic exposure to these metals.
Other trace metals such as manganese, lead, mercury, and zinc will be studied
both in the laboratory and in epidemiological studies around smelters.  In
addition, a report will be prepared which presents what is known about sources
of chemical contaminants in human tissues.

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

1977 Accomplishments

     The 1977 resources for ecological effects research were $1,847,000 and 34
positions.  Of the total, $340,000 was spent for contracts, $265,000 for grants,
and $60,000 for interagency agreements.  Major accomplishments were as follows.

     Using naturally varying sulfur dioxide (SO?) exposures, significant
losses in yield, or death of onion and radish plants were measured at ambient
concentrations from 0.08 to 0.15 ppm SOg.

     Chronic, low level exposure of alfalfa to ambient concentrations of sulfur
dioxide showed a threshold for significant effects on growth and symbiotic
nitrogen fixation to be 0.02 ppm; at 0.06 ppm they were reduced 50 percent and
40 percent, respectively.

     Preliminary results from acid rain studies, at acidities typical of acid
rain measured in the U.S., show significant adverse effects on soil
litter decomposition, nutrient cycling and plant growth of tulip poplars,
radishes, and snap beans.

     A report was prepared on methods to assess the economic impact of crop
losses caused by air pollution and a  case study on  a similar topic was  initiated
in Southern California.

1978 Program

     Resources for ecological effects research in 1978 are $1,884,000 and 32
positions.  Approximately $50,000 will be spent for contracts, $520,000 for
grants, and $50,000 for interagency agreements.

     Criteria pollutants will receive major attention through field, greenhouse,
and laboratory studies on the effects of sulfur dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen
dioxide on economically important crop and tree species.  Long term
photochemical oxidsnt effects studies on forest ecosystems will emphasize
major ecosystem component interactions and responses at the San Bernadino
forest study site.  Studies on the effects of acid rain will be continued.
In addition, the program includes a limited effort to relate  pollutant effects
to economic impacts.
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 1978  Explanation  of  Changes  from Budget  Estimate

      The  increase of 3800,000  over the budget  estimate  will  be  used  essentially
 for acid  rain  research  and to  maintain a long  term  study  on  the effects  of
 photochemical  oxidants  in the  San Bernadino  National  Forest;  this  increase was
 provided  by  the Congress as  part of the  total  Agency  increase of 56  million for
 health  and ecological effects.

 1979  Plan

      In 1979,  $2,648,000 and five positions  are requested for ecological  effects
 research, a  decrease of 27 positions and an  increase  of $764,000.  The increase
 •in funds  will  be  used to maintain the current  level of  effort by covering the
 increased costs associated with  converting this program from an in-house effort
 to an extramural  program.  Funds in the  amount of $150,000 will  be allocated for
 salaries, benefits,  and travel for the remaining  five staff  positions necessary
 to support the extramural program.

      Emphasis  will be given  to evaluating the  adequacy  of ambient  air quality
 standards and  providing the  ecological basis for  refining existing air
 standards and  criteria.  Applicable methodologies to  measure air pollutant
 stress on  significant ecosystems  components will be  refined.   The study of
 photochemical  oxidant effects  on a mixed conifer  forest ecosystem  in
 Southern  California's San Bernadino National Forest will  continue.   The  effects
 of atmospheric trace elements/heavy metals on  plants  and  vital  soil  processes
 will  be determined.   The socioeconomic impacts of air pollutant effects  on
 agricultural/silviculture crops  will  be  delineated.   Studies  of chronic
 long  term mixed pollutant impacts on terrestrial  ecosystems  will be
 initiated -- emphasis will be  on ozone and sulfur dioxide.   The acid rain
 program will be transferred  to the interdisciplinary/anticipatory  research
 activity.

 TRANSPORT AND  FATE

 1977  Accomplishments

      In FY 1977 resources included $3,440,000  in  contracts,  $2,451,600.
 in grants, and $2,335,800 in interagency agreements.

      The  oxidation of sulfur dioxide to  sulfates  was  studied in smog chambers  in
 order to  simulate  real  atmospheric conditions.  Preliminary  findings of  these
 smog  chamber studies indicate that the control of sulfur  dioxide emissions will
 be more effective  than  the control  of oxidant  precursors  ~  hydrocarbons and
 nitrogen  oxides — in controlling  ambient sulfate levels.

      An air quality  simulation model  (AQSM)  using a finite difference technique
 has been  developed to assess and predict the ambient  roadway  pollutant
 concentrations resulting from motor vehicle emissions.  It is anticipated
 that  this AQSM will  provide estimates of roadway  exposure resulting  from
motor vehicle  emissions that are more reliable than the current models based
 on Gaussian distribution of  plumes  from  line sources.
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      A  study  was  conducted  to  assess  the  trends  in  visibility  impairment  associated
with  various  atmospheric  pollutants.   For selected areas  of  the U.S.,  it was
determined  that visibility  reductions  were  associated with  periods  of increased
ambient sulfate burdens.

      Results  from field studies  have  provided  useful information  on the
transport and transformation processes of sulfates  in power plant plumes.
It  has  been observed  that the  conversion  of sulfur  dioxide  to  sulfate aerosols
in  power plant plumes is  slow  in the  early  part  of  the plume,  but as  the  ambient
air mixes with the  plume, the  rate of conversion  increases.  Thus,  tall stacks
reduce  ground level concentrations of  sulfur dioxide (SO?)  but allow  high
levels  of sulfate aerosol formation by maintaining  long  atmospheric residence
times for the SOj-to-sulfate conversions.

      A  method, referred to  as  the isopleth  method,  has been developed for
predicting  photochemical  oxidant concentrations  associated  with given
hydrocarbon and nitrogen  dioxide levels.  This isopleth  method, which was
generated by  a photochemical modeling  program  and evaluated against smog  chamber
data, has been recommended 'as  a  possible  candidate  method for  developing and
evaluating  oxidant  abatement strategies in  State  Implementation Plans (SIPs).

      Analysis  of  atmospheric halocarbon data has  suggested  that the average
concentrations of troposheric  hydroxyl  (OH)  radicals, thought  to  be the principal
substances  for halocarbon destruction,  are  approximately five  times lower than
currently estimated.   Lower OH radical  concentrations will  give longer tropospheric
lifetimes of  halocarbons  and consequently will influence the amounts  reaching the
stratosphere  and  affecting  the ozone  layer.  These  results  on  OH  concentrations are
preliminary in nature, and will  require additional research  to  substantiate them.

1978  Program

      The 1978  resources level  for air  transport and fate research was  $10,299,500
and 38  positions.   These resources include  approximately 33,812,000 in contracts,
$1,650,000  in  grants,  and $2,600,000 in interagency agreements.  The  1978 program
reflects the  increased emphasis  on the  following high priority  subject areas.

      Atmospheric  Sulfates:  Uncertainty continues to exist  concerning  the
composition,  distribution, and probable sources of  atmospheric  sulfate associated
with  human  activity.   The program on atmospheric modeling and  the chemistry and
physics of  atmospheric sulfates  is designed to eliminate these  uncertainties,
particularly with respect to the role  of photochemistry in  the  formation of
sulfates; the  relative contribution of tall vs. short stack sulfur  dioxide sources
to  ambient  sulfate  levels; and the visibility reduction associated  with anthropogenic
sources of  atmospheric sulfates.  The  Sulfur Transport and Transformation in the
Environment (STATE) program will be initiated in FY 1978 with  the first
field experiment  scheduled to begin in  late summer of 1978.

     Halocarbons: Investigations are being made of the impact of manmade and
naturally occurring halocarbons on stratospheric ozone.   The halocarbon
research will  focus on troposphericsources, dispersion,  and reactions and
stratospheric  sinks.  The role of atmospheric levels of OH radical  in moderating
tropospheric  lifetimes of halocarbons will be further investigated.

     Air Quality  Simulation Models (AQSM):  With the aerometric data  base on
pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters  collected during the
operation of the  Regional  Air Pollution Study in St. Louis, a variety of AQSM
will be evaluated.  These photochemical AQSM will be used to help predict urban
oxidant and sulfate pollution levels under various SOj and photochemical  precursor
emission control   strategies.

      Photochemical  Qxidant-;:  Emphasis will be placed on determining  the sources,
distribution,  and atmospheric chemistry of photochemical  oxidants.  Special
studies will be conducted to determine  the role of natural vs. manmade sources;

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the  impact of  long  range transport and the interrelationships of nitrogen oxide, hydrocarbons
and  oxidants;  and specific hydrocarbon reactivities associated with precursors of oxidants.

     Visibility  Impairment:  The role of atmospheric participate matter, especially
fine particles to visibility reductions will be assessed.  This will include
assessment of  the relative contributions of manmade vs. natural sources to
widespread visibility reductions.

     Urban Field Studies:  A field measurement program on photochemical 1y
generated air  pollution such as fine particulate aerosols and oxidants will
be initiated in the Houston area.  This orogratn is funded with the additional
monies provided by the FY 1978 appropriation.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The 5407,500 increase over the budget estimate results from an increase
of 5400,000 to provide an intensive field measurement program on the characterization
of the secondary aerosol formation processes in the Houston atmosphere; this
increase was added on by the Congress as part of the S6 million increase for
health and ecological effects.  The Congress also provided an increase
of £52,500 for authorized positions.  Offsetting these increases is a decrease
of 545,000 reprogrammed to the program management and support activity to
provide funds  needed to cover the increased support costs associated with
this activity.

1979 Plan

     The 1979  resources level for air transport and fate will be 311,097,000
and  44 positions.  The resources include approximately $4,062,000 in contracts,
$2,000,000 in  grants, and $2,600,000 in interagency agreements.

     The 1979  program is essentially a continuation of the 1978 plan and will
continue to support research on determining the transport, transformation, and
removal processes of regulated and important nonregulated pollutants with
major emphasis on pollutants such as oxidants, sulfates, halocarbons, selected
organics, and  nitrates.

     In 1979, the Sulfur Transport and Transformation, in the Environment (STATE)
program will be in its second year of funding and will constitute the major
field measurement program on the long range atmospheric transport and transformation
of sulfates and nitrates.  The STATE program is designed to acquire the data
base necessary for the development of control strategies for the reduction of
sulfur and nitrogen transformation products in the atmosphere.  To obtain such
information will require aerometric and meteorological measurements on an
areawide scale of 100-1000 kilometers (km) combined with vertical characterization,
within the troposphere, to describe and predict pollutant concentrations at
ground level.  The field experiments will be conducted during the winter
periods — including conditions of snow cover and steady precipitation —
and the summer periods -- including conditions of stagnation and shower
precepitation.  In addition to field studies of sulfates, smog chamber
simulation studies will be conducted to elucidate the mechanisms of
sulfate formations.

     In 1979, the research on air quality simulation model development will be
focused on the larger scale, 1000-2000 km, and smaller scale, highway models.
The  larger scale models are needed to evaluate adequately the long range
transport and fate formation for pollutants such as sulfates and oxidants.
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     The work on halocarbons/stratospheric ozone depletion will continue to
focus on determining the atmospheric lifetimes and degradation products of
currently used halocarbons.  Laboratory studies will be conducted on halocarbons
that are expected to have increased usage.  In addition, research will be conducted
to determine more accurately the concentration of tropospheric OH radicals,
which is needed to understand better the chemistry of halocarbons in the
troposphere.

     The research on photochemical oxidants will address major uncertainties
associated with the long range transport of ozone hydrocarbons and oxides
of nitrogen.  Research will attempt to determine natural contributions to
ozone and the role of hydrocarbon reactivity in producing ozone.  The work on
nitrogen oxides will focus on their role in the formation of photochemical
oxidants and the relationship of nitrogen oxide emissions to ambient nitrogen
dioxide.  This latter information will be important in assessing the
adequacy of control measures related to the pending short term National Ambient
Air Quality Standard for nitrogen dioxide.

     Also, in 1979 there will be an effort to develop empirical and mathematical
models to assess visibility impairment associated with fine particulates.  This
work will attempt to quantify the relative contributions of the major
sources  (manmade vs. natural) to visibility reductions in various regions of
the U.S.

     In addition to the research activities mentioned above, there will be a
Dumber of special reporting requirements mandated by the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1977.  Transport and fate data will contribute to the  preparations
of these reports, including revisions of criteria documents and to determinations
of visibility impairment associated with prevention of significant deterioration.

STRATOSPHERIC MODIFICATION

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, $244,765 was spent for contracts, $324,917  for grants, and $1,523,756
for interagency agreements.  Major accomplishments are summarized below.

     Epidemiologies! surveys of skin cancer in populations residing at various
latitudes in the continental U.S. were initiated.  Early data suggested that mortality
from skin cancer, primarily from malignant melanoma, has been increasing markedly
among young and middle-aged adults since World War II.  This may be due to
changes in life style (more time spent outdoors) and/or to the migration of more
people into the warmer areas of the country.

     Relative measurements of the amount of solar ultraviolet radiation, with
wavelengths between 290 and 320 nanometers (UV-B), falling on selected test sites
were made.

     A variety of plant species .were exposed to solar radiation, plus varying
levels of additional UV-B artifically supplied, or to fluorescent light sources
plus UV-B radiation.  All species showed sensitivity to UV-B at various dose
levels.  Some species tested were stunted, others had their leaves bleached or
discolored and in others, photosynthesis was shown to be depressed.  Studies
of aquatic communities indicated that some organisms were more sensitive than
others to exposure to UV-B.  Thus, shifts in community structure, especially
among the primary producers — photosynthesizing organisms — would be expected
to occur after prolonged exposure.  Considering that possibly up to 75
percent of the world's primary biomass production and oxygen evolution occurs
in the seas, by way of planktonic algae, any severe UV-B induced damage to
the organisms could result in serious ecological imbalances.
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     A medium  resolution spectroradiometer was developed which can be used in the
field to determine the response to UV-E radiation by biological systems, including
humans.  Another spectroradiometer was developed to measure levels of UV-B
penetrating see water.

     A multidisciplinary workshop involving all principal investigators of extramural
projects and a wide  range of Federal and private personnel provided an
opportunity for an overview of accomplishments, identification of critical needs,
and consolidation of state-of-the-art  knowledge in particular fields.  Even
more importantly, it served as a catalyst to identify relationships and to
crystalize recognition of the need for integrated assessment as basis for
regulatory decisions.

1978 Program

     New FY 1978 resources were not allocated to the program.  The following discussion
pertains to results  forthcoming from work actually funded in 1977.  It may be noted
that the program was formulated by an Interagency Task Group led by EPA and including
representatives of the Department of Agriculture, the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, the National Cancer Institute, and the National
Bureau of Standards.  In 1977, EPA reprogrammed $4 million of research and development funds to
support a short term limited program, designed to include only research which haa a
high probability of  producing meaningful results in time to be useful for
regulatory decisions regarding nonessential uses of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)
scheduled for  1978.

     This short term program is directed toward those scientific issues for which
the uncertainty of knowledge could be significantly reduced within 12 to 18 months
of research.  Those  issues and the emerging 1978 results to address them include:
the range of effects of increased ultraviolet radiation upon plants and other compounds
of significant agricultural systems, improved quantification of the relationship
between ultraviolet  radiation and the incidence of human skin cancer — both melanoma
and nonmelanoma; the occurrence and potential significance of deleterious effects
from increased ultraviolet radiation on key components of natural, terrestrial,
and aquatic ecosystems; the adaptation and standardization of instruments and
methods for measuring and experimentally producing ultraviolet radiation so
that measurements and experimental data obtained in the past, present, and future
can be assessed for  validity and compared with other data; and reassessment of the
most recent data on  climatic effects of stratospheric ozone reduction on biological
systems.  In addition, a framework for integrated assessment of the social and
economic effects of stratospheric ozone depletion has been developed, and will be
applied to estimate optimal regulation of both nonessential and essential CFC
emissions.

1979 Plan

     In 1979, funds of $1,170,000 are requested for research on stratospheric
modification.   Aproximately $170,000 will be spent on contracts, $300,000 on
grants, and $400,000 on interagency agreements.

     The central focus of the program will be on carrying out the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1977 as well as continuing to support EPA regulation of CFC
under the Toxic Substances Control Act.  Biological and ecological research will
attempt to determine the effects of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation on
biological  organisms and activities including food crops, plants, animals,
aquatic organisms, and microorganisms.  The effects of solar UV-B on incidence of
skin cancer will include studies of initiation of skin cancer; malignant
melanoma/UV-B relationships, melanoma formation factors; nonmelanoma skin cancer
incidence and the possible predisposition of skin cancer to other tumors.  Climatic
research will  aim toward assessing regional climatic changes which may occur from
ozone depletion.  Instrumentation to produce, measure, and monitor UV-B radiation will
be developed.   Solar UV-B radiation will  be monitored at various locations on
the earth's surface.
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     Integrated analyses will be conducted to provide continuing evaluations of
the benefits, costs, and uncertainties of controlling ozone depletion.
Estimates of the agricultural impacts of climatic changes, social, and economic
measures of morbidity and mortality, and other analyses will be undertaken.
Control technology studies will identify recovery/recycle methods for substances
affecting the ozone layer; evaluate technology for preventing escape of such
substances; and evaluate alternative methods of control.
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                                               AIR

                                    Research and Development

                                      Industrial Processes

                                            Budget     Current               Increase +
                                  Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                   1977      1978       1978       1979_    1979 vs. 1978
                                                     (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation
Mineral, Processing, and
  Manufacturing Industries	    $6,586     $5,000 .    $5,000     $5,000

Permanent' Positions
Mineral, Processing, and
  Manufacturing Industries	        24         38         27         21         -6


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $5,000,000 and 21 positions is requested for FY 1979.  This
represents a decrease of six positions.  A portion of this program's resources will
be used to support implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

Program Description

     The industrial processes program primarily represents an extramural effort that
is responsive to legislative mandates of the Clean Air Act.  The overall objective
is to develop and demonstrate pollution control technologies capable of reducing or
eliminating potentially hazardous and toxic pollutant emissions from industrial point
sources.  Outputs provide technical and cost data bases which support regulatory standards
development and provide industry with environmental control options.  Emissions under
study include those from the following industries:  chemical processing, agrichemicals
(fertilizers and pesticides), textiles, pulp paper, food and miscellaneous products,
metal fabrication and finishing, metal and mineral production, petroleum refining, and
storage segments; as well as those resulting from hazardous materials incidents.

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, obligations included $4,697,000 for contract support, $124,000 for
interagency agreements, and $534,000 for grants.  During 1977, the air industrial
processes program:

        Initiated assessment of several major sources of toxic and hazardous emissions
        in the petrochemical, organic, inorganic, agrichemical, and metallurgical
        industries.  This included field sampling as one source of data to quantify controlled and
        uncontrolled emissions.

     -  Initiated preliminary engineering designs for demonstration of flue gas
        desulfurization for nonferrous smelters  and the dry quenching of steel
        plant coke.

     -  Optimized baghouse operating performance to minimize asbestos emissions
        from all  asbestos manufacturing operations.

     -  Developed coke oven door seal  technology to control carcinogenic hydrocarbons.
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     -  Initiated evaluation of process changes/modified control technologies for
        volatile metals such as arsenic—from copper smelters.

     -  Initiated development of high performance, low volatile solvents for coating
        applications in the metal finishing industry.

        Initiated a development program for solvent dyeing of fabrics to control
        hydrocarbon emissions from the textile industry.

1978 Program

     The 1978 resource level for this activity is $5,000,000.  These resources include
approximately $3,200,000 in contract support and $450,000 in grants.

     In 1978, the program continues to focus on assessing the nature and quantity of
toxic and other hazardous pollutants emitted from industrial sources.  This information,
together with data on the ability to control these pollutants, will provide the basis for
future regulatory actions.   In addition, several development and demonstration projects
on criteria pollutants control will continue as will  efforts to transfer demonstrated
foreign technology for particulate control  in corresponding local industrial sources.

     Major initiatives of the 1978 program include:

     -  Continuation of assessments of control technologies for high priority sources.

     -  Demonstrations of flue gas desulfurization in the nonferrous industry.

     -  Demonstration of the use of low volatility solvent coatings for can and
        appliance coatings.

     -  Technology development and pilot demonstration for dry cleaning establishments,
        tank truck/rail car cleaning, and solvent reclaiming operations.

     -  Demonstration of reduction of total sulfur emissions through lime mud oxidation
        and in-plant control in the pulp and paper industry.

     -  Development and verification of emission prediction model for chemical processing
        industry.

     -  Development of control program for the toxic chemicals phthalic anhydride and
        vinyl chloride.

     -  Initiation of feasibility study for advanced collection devices for asbestos
        emissions from manufacturing operations.

     -  Initiation of sampling and analysis of specific organic emissions from metal
        finishing operations.

1979 Plan

     The requested level  for this activity is 35,000,000.  These activities include
approximately 33,400,000 in contract support and 3520,000 in grants.  The primary objectives
to be accomplished will be:   (1) to define  and provide solutions to a few critical emission
sources known to have detrimental effects on human health and the environment, such as those
encountered in pesticide manufacturing, and from nonferrous smelting; (2) to accelerate
acceptance and implementation of technological advances by absorbing the risk of demonstrating
fugitive emissions control  in steel and glass manufacturing; and (3) maintain a current
awareness of international  technological developments—processing and control—across
19 major industrial sectors.  More specifically:

     -  Assess and monitor four pesticide (atrazine,  trifluralin, arachlor, carbaryl),
        four petrochemical  (benzene, methyl ethylketone, methylisobutylketone, ethylene
        oxide), and four organic chemical (vinylidene chloride, styrene, nitrobenzene,
        halomethanes) manufacturing operations.

     -  Demonstrate lime/limestone scrubbing for smelting of sulfur bearing nonferrous
        ores.
 A-73

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-  Characterize volatile emissions (As, Pb, Cd) and their control  from copper,
   lead, and zinc smelters.

-  Demonstrate technology control of fugitive emissions—iron and  steel.

-  Demonstrate one coating process alternative to reduce organic discharges from
   automobile operations.

-  Complete source assessment work on toxic air emissions—textile—and implement
   bench scale activity for hydrocarbon removal.

-  Demonstrate technology for control of hazardous particulates from glass  industry
   furnaces.

-  Continue characterization of petroleum refinery emissions.

-  Develop an approach for evaluating the cost and capabilities of alternatives
   for controlling hydrocarbon emissions from solvent use, cleaning operations,
   and other related uses.
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                                               AIR

                                    Research and Development

                                Monitoring and Technical  Support
Appropriation
Characterization and
  Measurement Methods
  Development	
Measurement, Techniques
  and Equipment Standard-
  ization	
Technical Support	
                                  Actual
                                   1977
$5,416
             Budget
            Estimate
              1978
35,737
             Current
            Estimate
              1978
                                                          (dollars in thousands)
                       Increase +
            Estimate   Decrease -
              1979    1979 vs. 1978
$7,101
             $7,186
  +S85
1,616
2,697
299
2,131
287
1,811
5,880
3,217
+5,593
+1,406
       Total.
Permanent Positions
Characterization and
  Measurement Methods
  Development	
Measurement, Techniques
  and Equipment Standard-
  ization	
Technical Support	
 9,729
    53
     4
    52
 8,167
    56
     4
    77
9,199
    58
     4
    52
              16,283
                 62
                 24
                 32
+7,084
    +4
   +20
   -20
       Total,
   109
   137
   114
                118
    +4
a_/ Includes proposed supplemental of $1.4 million in characterization and measurement methods
   development to study the environmental effects of graphite and related fibers used as new
   structural material.

b/ The net increase reflects the inclusion of the proposed supplemental in the 1978 current
   estimate; excluding this supplemental, the net change would be +$8,483,600.

Budget Request

     In 1979, resources of $16,283,000 and 118 positions are requested, an increase of
$7,083,600 and four positions.  The increase will be applied to basic monitoring research;
the deployment of a dichotomous sampler monitoring network to define the total suspended
particulates, sulfates, and fine particulates problem and provide valid data for develop-
ment of control strategies; to establish improved monitoring networks; and to reimburse
the National Bureau of Standards for the development of a standard reference material for
asbestos in ambient air.  The increase also provides for an accelerated research
program to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, and the
measurement techniques requirements associated with photochemically generated species
such as oxidants, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulates — condensed hydrocarbons,
sulfate, and nitrates.
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 Program Description

     The  program  in monitoring  and  technical  support consists of three major areas:   (1)
 characterization  and measurement methods development for measuring pollutants from
 sources and  in ambient air;  (2) measurement techniques and equipment standardization
 for  operational monitoring functions;  and  (3)  technical support to program and regional
 offices.   Each of these  areas  is discussed separately below.

     The  output of the characterization and measurement methods development program is
 new  and/or improved methodology and instrumentation technology which will be utilized
 in stationary source, mobile source, and ambient air quality research, and which will
 provide the  basis for required  reference and  monitoring methods.

     A major program activity  is the development of sampling and analysis techniques
 for  identification and measurement  of  pollutants from stationary sources.  Work in
 this area  focuses on the development of sampling procedures and associated instrument
 requirements for  impending new  source  performance  standards and improvement of techniques
 associated with existing new source performance standards — the development of improved
 sampling  procedures for  continuous  in-stack monitoring of particulate matter.  Additional
 work is carried out on the identification of  stationary source pollutants and in the
 support of stationary source compliance activities.

     Another major program activity is the development of sampling and analysis techniques
 for  identification and measurement  of  pollutants from mobile sources.  Integral to this
 development  work  are characterization  studies  which describe gaseous and particulate  emissions
 from advanced power systems for light  duty vehicles.  Characterization studies are also carried
 out  to determine  the composition of aircraft  particulate emissions and the effects of emission
 control systems on the quality, size distribution, and composition of those particulate emissions.

     Sampling and analysis techniques  for the  identification, characterization, and
 measurement  of pollutants in ambient air is the third activity.  New and improved analytic
 techniques for the criteria and noncriteria pollutants in ambient air are developed.  This
 area of research  also includes  studies on the  characterization of urban and rural atmospheres
 for  a variety of  important gaseous  and particulate pollutants including:  ammonia, sulfates,
 formaldehyde, polynuclear aromatics, nitrates, and organic acids.

     The  air measurement techniques and equipment  standardization program involves the
 demonstration,- test, and evaluation of prototype and existing measurement systems for measuring
 specific  pollutants in ambient  air  and emissions from stationary .sources.  The program is
 directed  toward assuring the availability of methods for the measurement of all regulated air
 pollutants at or  below the concentration levels of interest.

     The  technical support program  makes the  specialized knowledge obtained from the  research
 programs  available to other Agency  programs and regional offices in response to their specific
 requests  for support.  Part of  the  technical  support program is planned on a level of effort
 basis with resources set aside  to allow for quick  response to unforeseeable but urgent requests
Sor  services.  The technical support program  also plans and provides routine support  in those
 areas where  it would be difficult for  regional or program personnel to respond because of high
 costs", "need  for specialized personnel  expertise, or other reasons.

 CHARACTERIZATION  AND MEASUREMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT

 1977 Accomplishments

     The  1977 resources included approximately $2,716,200 in contracts, $702,900 in grants,
 and  $118,100 in interagency agreements.

     A low cost instrument to measure sulfur dioxide emissions continuously has been  developed
 and  evaluated in  the laboratory.  This instrument can be used to detect alarm level sulfur
 dioxide emissions.
                                                                                       A-76

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     Several field studies characterizing oil and coal fired power plant plume emissions
have been conducted.  One of the major findings was the observation that primary sulfate
emission levels from oil fired power plants reach values as high as 11-13 percent of the
total sulfur oxides emitted.  These sulfate values tend to be higher than those values
obtained from currently used emission factors.

     .A manual has been prepared for a measurement of asbestos fibers in environmental
samples.  This manual describes in detail the sampling workup procedures for the analysis.

     A method has been developed for fractionating organic particulate emissions from
diesel exhaust.  This has enabled work on the mutagenic potential of the diesel organic
fractions to be undertaken in conjunction with the health effects research laboratory.
The results of the study will provide information useful in developing improved fractiona-
tion methods for diesel emissions.

     Field studies on sulfate measurement methodology have indicated that water soluble
sulfate values obtained from several wet chemical techniques are in good agreement from
those obtained from dichotomous collection followed by x-ray fluorescence analysis.

1978 Program

     The 1978 resource level for characterization and measurement methods development is
$7,101,000 and 58 positions.  Those resources include approximately 32,506,000 in con-
tracts, $600,000 in grants, and $200,000 in interagency agreements.  Of the total
resources for this program, SI,400,000 will be devoted to carbon fibers research.

     The 1978 characterization and measurement methods development program will continue
development and assessment of air pollutant measurement methodologies. ' These measurement
and sampling techniques are developed to support the broader program to characterize
pollutants in ambient air and emissions from stationary and mobile sources.

     Work on instruments and methods for characterizing the species of sulfate in the
ambient air will be emphasized.  Characterization of urban/rural atmospheres will
necessitate increased activity in multipollutant techniques development and consideration
of highly sensitive equipment with remote detecting capability.

     The stationary source activity focuses on the Agency research need associated with the
increasing New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) activities, specifically nitrogen oxide hydrocarbons,
toxic pollutants, and fine particulates.

     Characterization studies of the exhaust from light duty vehicles will focus on
the identification and measurement of nonregulated pollutants in emissions from
advanced engines and control system during malfunctions of either the engine, the
control system, or both.  Current research indicates that the greatest variety and
abundance of potentially harmful pollutants appear to occur durinq these phases of
operation.  In addition to light duty vehicles, characterization studies will be
conducted on heavy duty vehicle emissions.  In addition to the research activities
mentioned above, special reports required by the Clean Air Act Amendments will be
provided, including a report to Congress on sulfur bearing emissions from motor vehicles.

     A proposed supplemental request of $1,400,000 for research on carbon fibers is
reflected in the 1978 current estimate.  During the past decade, new high strength,
high rigidity lightweight composite materials comprised of carbon fiber embedded in
epoxy resin binders have been developed.  These materials opened up the broad spectrum
of new uses in our economy.

     The fibers may be released into the atmosphere during manufacture of the fibers
themselves, manufacture of products containing the fiber, and during incineration or
other disposal of materials incorporating the fibers.  The generally short length
and low density of the fibers permit any small movement of air to cause free fibers
to become airborne and to be transported over relatively long distances by normal
atmospheric action.  Because of their high conductivity, carbon/graphite fibers which
settle on or across electrical contacts or circuits can damage equipment or cause it
to malfunction.  The carbon/graphite fibers have created some isolated industrial
problems, primary  in shorting electrical equipment.
   A-77

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     The Office of Science and Technology Policy  is coordinating  a Federal effort to
assess potential problems that might result from  widespread production and use of these
composite materials.  EPA has been assigned the responsibility for three major objectives
of the overall study:  provide a means of collection and measuring samples of these fibers
in stack emissions and ambient air; provide the means to measure and predict the transport
and fate of these materials  in water; and determine how these materials might be reasonably
disposed of in the environment, including the possibility of incineration.

     In order to implement these objectives, a program will be initiated in FY 1978 to carry
out the following activities:

     -  Collect and Measure  Methods and  Instrumentation - Existing sampling methods,
        instruments, and measurement techniques will be examined to identify candidates
        for possible use in  measuring fibers in the air and water media.  Candidate
        methods will then be tested and  evaluated under rigorous controlled procedures.
        Where necessary, modifications will be attempted in order to improve the
        measurement performance.

     -  Incineration and Disposal Studies - Conduct bench and pilot studies on
        candidate incineration and disposal methods.

     -  Transport and Fate of Fibers - Carry out  laboratory and modelling analyses
        to observe and predict behavior  of fibers in air and aqueous environments.

     The objectives of this  activity cannot be achieved solely on the basis of the FY 1978
program; the effort is planned as a minimal 2-3 year program and the 1978 supplemental funding
is also proposed to support  the program  in 1979.

1978 Explanation of Changes  from Budget'Estimate

     The $1,364,000 increase over the budget estimate results from the reprogramming of
351,000 to the air characterization and measurement methods development activity to provide for
increased  costs associated with this activity; from a congressional increase for authorized positions;
and from the  proposed supplemental  of $1,400,000  for carbon fibers research.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 resource level for characterization and measurement methods development is
$7,186,000 and 62 positions.  These resources include approximately $3,106,000 in contracts,
$840,000 in grants, and $1,200,000 in interagency agreements, including $500,000 transferred'
to the National Bureau of Standards to carry out  measurement methods development research in
support of monitoring.

     The program in characterization and measurement methods development will continue to
carry out research related to stationary source performance standards, ambient air quality,
and mobile source emissions.

     In support of the ambient air quality program, the research will focus on methods
for characterizing and measuring sulfates, including specific molecular species such as
sulfuric acid, gaseous, and  particulate nitrates  and organics.

     In the stationary source area, large sources of sulfate emissions will be studied
for their contribution of primary sulfates to the ambient sulfate burden.  In addition,
work in this area will address the measurement needs associated with an accelerated New
Source Performance Standard  (NSPS) schedule as described in the Clean Air Act Amendments
of 1977.   In addition, characterization studies in power plants and other high sources
of sulfur emissions will  be  conducted to assess their relative contributions of primary
sulfate emissions to the ambient sulfate burden.
                                                                                       A-78

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     The mobile sources research program will focus on characterization of heavy duty
vehicle emissions of nonregulated pollutants.  Also, emissions from aavanced control systems -
dual and 3-way catalysts — will be quantified.

     The research on carbon fibers program, initiated in FY 1978, will continue as described
under the 1978 levels.

     For 1979 and beyond, special reporting requirements are congressionally mandated by the
recently passed Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  These include reports on participate
emission from heavy duty vehicles, a report on the health and welfare effects associated with
a 0.4 nitrogen oxide standard, a low nitrogen oxide research vehicle testing program, and an
accelerated program of in-stack measurement methods development to match an accelerated
timetable for establishment of NSPS.

MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT STANDARDIZATION

1977 Accomplishments

     The 1977 resource level included $100,000 for contracts awarded by the measurement
techniques and equipment standardization program and $1,351,000 for the air characterization
research activities prior to its transfer to new program area during FY 1977.

     The program outputs for 1977 included:

     -  Registration of 2,311 fuel additives, 517 brands of motor vehicle
        gasoline, and 269 brands of motor vehicle diesel fuel.

     -  Quarterly and annual fuel manufacturer usage reports.

     -  Performance specifications of measurement equipment for emissions of
        carbon monoxide and water vapor from coal fired power plants.

     -  A continuous particulate-mass, in-stack monitor.

     -  Performance specifications for total reduced sulfur monitors.

1978 Program

     Resources requested for measurement techniques and equipment standardization in 1978
include $287,500 and four positions to be'utilized in-house.  Specific outputs for the
1978 program will include fuel and fuel additive registration and the accompanying usage
reports, and a feasibility study on an experimentation retrieval system for fuel and fuel
additive registration data.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     A net decrease of $11,500 resulted from a reprogramming of $34,000 to support the
northeast oxidant transport study and a congressional add-on of $22,500 to support authorized
positions.

1979 Plan

     Resources for the 1979 measurement techniques and equipment standardization program will
be $5,880,000 and 24 positions.  Of this amount, approximately $3,700,000 will be allocated
for contracts, $600,000 for grants, and $500,000 in interagency agreements.  The greatest
portion of the latter will be used in agreements with the National Bureau of Standards.
  A-79

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     Major activities associated with this program include:

     -  Deployment of a dichotomous sampler fine participate (suspended participate/
        sulfate/respirable particulate) monitoring network to measure those parameters
        associated with health effects (chemical species, size distribution), ecologi-
        cal effects (acid rain), regulatory functions (fugitive dust), visibility
        (significant deterioration in pristine areas), and effects of energy production
        (mining and power plants).  Data collected will  be used to provide a valid
        data base for development of control strategies for fine particulates.

     -  Development of a rigorous quality assurance program to insure proper deployment
        and operation of the dichotomous sampler network, including provisions for
        independent flow measurements for internal flow check and external audit for
        the sampler's performance.  This program also includes the issuance of calibra-
        tion standards for x-ray fluorescence.

     -  Improvement of the quality and reliability of data from existing air monitoring
        networks and systems by correctina deficiencies — differences in network
        design and monitoring station sitings — through the emphasis of improved methodology
        to determine achievement of standards and compliance with regulations already
        promulgated or under consideration.

     -  Creation of design principles for a nationwide air quality monitoring network,
        including the evaluation of existing stations — local, State and Federal ~ for
        suitability for inclusion in the network and bringing them into conformance
        with the quality assurance criteria for sampling and analysis of ambient air
        quality.

     -  Development of quality assurance guidelines and the provision of quality
        assurance services in support of the nationwide air quality monitoring
        network.  This requires the development of support materials and computer
        software for reporting and analyzing air quality on a daily basis using
        the pollutant standards index, and the development of statistical procedures
        using meteorological data and time series methods to forecast the index and
        report values on a daily basis.

     -  Development of a standard reference material for fiber count, weight, and
        size measurement of asbestos in ambient air, and the development of standard
        test methods for determining asbestos particle size collection characteristics
        of ambient aerosol samplers.

     -  Registration of fuel and fuel additives to assess health effects and effects
        on emission control devices.

TECHNICAL SUPPORT

1977 Accomplishments

     The 1977 resources include approximately $253,000 in contracts and $27,000 in
interagency agreements.  The 1977 program for air technical support accomplished the
fol1owi ng:

     -  Completion of a sampling and measurement study to determine the impact of
        aircraft operations on air quality, vegetation, and soil at the Atlanta,
        Georgia, municipal airport.

     -  Continuation of an oxidant study in the Tampa/St. Petersburg area in which
        data are being collected to validate an urban source grid model.  This model
        will be used in developing State Implementation Plans.

     -  Continuation of participation in the World Meteorological Organization/World
        Health Organization data bank and environmental  chemistry activities.

     -  Guidance and assistance to Agency program offices and regions in the design,
        implementation, and operation of field and laboratory systems to collect
        and/or measure valid environmental  samples; and evaluation of instruments
                                                                                    A-80

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        and methods, assessment and analysis of the data,  and issuance of reports.   In
        these efforts, emphasis is given to pollutants of  proven or potential  adverse
        effects to human health and welfare, including polycyclic organic trace chemicals.
        Specific projects were:

     -  Collecting of background ozone and meteorological  data from six national
        forests to determine ozone transport in nonurban locations.

     -  20 site nitrogen dioxide studies to determine if nitrogen dioxide standards
        were being exceeded.

     -  Analysis of national air sampling network samples  for metals, nonmetals,
        and organics.

     -  Assistance in the development of air quality standards for lead.

     -  Provision of high purity glass fiber filters to all  State and local  agencies
        and EPA regional offices  monitoring stations for  particulates.  This  insures
        use of a standard filter throughout the United States to improve the validity
        and trend comparability of air pollution data.

     -  Initiation of a plume characterization study, using  instrumented aircraft
        and ground based monitors, which is designed to provide data for State  sulfur
        dioxide regulations.

     -  Follow-up on the New York urban plume oxidant, sulfur, and aerosol  transport
        study by initiation of a study to characterize and define the transport of
        the plume under varying meteorological conditions.

     -  Completion of the studies of discharges from a major smelter to assist the
        regions in determining the extent of mixing and fumigation.  This study
        included jse of both airborne monitoring equipment and helicopter transport
        of portable monitoring units to inaccessible locations.

     -  Initiation of a study of sulfur dioxide discharges in Hawaii to assist the
        region in developing regulations.

1978 Program

     The 1978 resources for air technical support are SI,810,900 and 52 positions.   The 1978
program for air technical support includes:

     -  Completion of the Hawaii sulfur dioxide study.

     -  Continuation of an oxidant  study in the Tampa/St. Petersburg area in  which
        data are being collected to validate an urban source grid model.  This model
        will  be used in developing State Implementation Plans.

     -  Continuation of participation in the World Meteorological Organization/
        World Health Organization data bank and environmental chemistry activities.

     -  Continuation of the standard filter program with attendant analytical  support
        to supply approximately 300,000 standardized filters to States, other  organ-
        izations, and EPA sampling stations.

     -  Initiation of an oxidant transport study in the northeast.

     -  Initiation of a study of the impact of agricultural  practices on air quality
        in the northwest.

     -  Continuation of assistance to regions and program offices in the design,
        implementation, and operation of field and laboratory systems to collect
        valid samples, evaluate equipment, and to analyze  the data collected.
        Specific projects include the continuation of the  analysis of national
        air sampling network samples for metals, nonmetals  and orga'nics and benzene
        sampling network samples for metals, nonmetals and organics and benzene  sampling and analysis.
    A-81

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $320,100 from the budget estimate was the result of a transfer of
$506,100 to provide for increased agencywide support costs, 5134,000 for a congressional add-on
to support authorized positions,  and  S52,000 reprogranmed to cover increased lab overhead  costs.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 resources requested for technical support are $3,217,000 and 32 positions.
It is expected that $2,000,000 will be used for contracts.  Technical support is a level
of effort program responding to the real time needs of the regions and program offices
and specific projects may vary if the real time needs vary.  However, past experience
indicates that the following types of projects will be accomplished:

     -  Assistance to regions and program offices in determining the extent of
        problems caused by newly recognized pollutants, in adjusting models for
        specific locations, on developing regulations and/or determining
        compliance in unusual circumstances, and in consulting on analytical
        difficulties.

     -  Completion of the Tampa/St. Petersburg urban model verification study.

     -  Monitoring, and data interpretation, in support of regional and program
        office programs, of benzene and other vaporized organics.

     -  Study of acid deposition (acid rain project) in support of the Agency
        program.

     -  Continuation of the world Meteorological Organization/World Health
        Organization international activity.

     -  Continuation of the standard filter program and its associated
        analytical requirements.

     -  Assistance to a region and/or program" office in at least one oxidant
        transport study, and/or a study of the impact of a unique regional
        problem such as grass burning in the Willamette Valley.
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                                          WATER QUALITY
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                  Actual
                                   1977
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	   $143,639
  Permanent Positions	      1,879
Enforcement:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions.
Research and Development:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
Total, Water Quality Program:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
  Outlays	
  Authorization Levels	
 21,229.
    858
 45,071
    528
209,939
  3,265
270,533
 43,407
             Budget
            Estimate
              1978
            $151,907
               1,927
 21,398
    756
 45,014
    526
218,319
  3,209
305,270
 39,017
             Current
            Estimate
              1978'
            Estimate
              1979
                                                          (dollars in thousands)
            $228,088
               1,904
 22,213
    758
 58,957
    504
309,258
  3,166
288,070
622,391
            $229,458
               1,811
 24,286
    806
 48,355
    493
302,099
  3,110
334,740
617,164
            Increase +
            Decrease -
          1979 vs.  1978
             +$1,370
                 -93
 +2,073
    +48
-10,602
    -11
 -7,159
    -56
+46,670
a/ Includes pending supplementals of $69 million for areawide waste treatment management (Section
   208) and $16 million for effluent standards and guidelines (Abatement and Control).  Also
   included isa pending supplemental of $9.5 million for the Lubbock, Texas, land treatment waste
   water system (Research and Development).

b/ The net decrease reflects the inclusion of pending supplementals in the 1978 current estimate;
   excluding these supplementals, the net change would be -+$87,341,100.

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and 1977 represent the most
comprehensive legislation ever enacted to clean up the Nation's waters.  The Act expanded the
Federal role in water pollution control, dramatically increased the funding for construction
of publicly owned waste treatment works, elevated water quality management planning to a new
level of significance, and opened new avenues for public participation.  It also created a
regulatory mechanism featuring uniform technology based effluent standards, together with a
national permit system for all point source dischargers as the means of enforcement.  Since
the 1977 Amendments were approved late in the budget process, these resource estimates do not
reflect requirements for new or added activities resulting from ttie recent changes in the law.

     The objectives of the Act are to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological
integrity of the Nation's water."  The Act provides for achieving these objectives in distinct
phases.  The FY 1973 to FY 1977 period is generally referred to as Phase I, and FY 1978 to FY
1983 as Phase II.  During Phase I, the Act required industry to install best practicable control
technology currently available (BPT) and publicly owned waste water treatment works to achieve
secondary treatment by July 1, 1977.  Phase I emphasized the development of effluent limitations
guidelines for industrial dischargers, secondary treatment limitations for publicly owned
waste treatment works, issuance of permits, and the award of construction grants.

     Phase II requirements are intended to be achieved by July 1, 1983.  Industries that dis-
charge directly to waterways are to install best available technology economically achievable
(BAT) which will result in reasonable further progress toward the national goal of eliminating
the discharge of all pollutants.  Those industries discharging indirectly, into publicly owned
treatment works (POTW's), must meet Federal pretreatroent requirements designed to prevent inter-
ference with treatment processes, including sludge disposal, and the pass-through of untreated
toxic wastes into the environment.  Publicly owned treatment works are to achieve best practicable
waste treatment technology, including reclaiming and recycling water and confined disposal of
pollutants.  Further, during Phase II, POTW's will be charged with implementing local pre-
treatment programs to control the discharge of industrial wastes to their systems and enforce
the Federal pretreatment standards.  During this phase, increased attention will be given to
control of nonpoint sources and the more difficult point sources of pollution.
                                                                                            WQ-1

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     In compliance with court ordered deadlines, continuing activities are required to complete
effluent limitations standards for industrial categories which have been published as interim
final.  In addition, considerable effort will be required to defend and support industrial
standards as they come under judicial review and to redevelop those standards that are remanded
by the courts.  Technical support also must be given to application of the standards in the
writing and enforcement of permits.  As the Agency has become involved in these follow-up and
support activities for those standards promulgated early in the Phase I period, it has become
evident that such activities will require almost as much effort as for the initial development
of those standards.

     The second phase of the industrial point source control program is now under way.  This
second phase will focus on the control of toxic pollutants.  The 1976 Settlement Agreement
between EPA and the Natural Resources Defense Council et al requires the promulgation of
revised best available technology economically achievable (BAT) guidelines, new source
performance, and pretreatment standards for 21 industries and 65 classes of toxic materials.
The Settlement  Agreement forced the Agency to promulgate final toxic effluent standards
under Section 307(a) of the Act and pretreatment standards which previously had been proposed.
The list of pollutants identified in the Settlement  Agreement will shortly be designated as
toxic materials under Section 307(a), as required by the Clean Water Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-217).
Currently, they are formally designated for study and investigation by the Agency for appropriate
control under the BAT and pretreatment authorities of the Act.  These are the priority pollu-
tants for which technology based pretreatment standards and BAT effluent limitations must be
developed for the 21 industrial categories identified in the Settlement  Agreement.  Depending
on the severity of the problem and the availability of the resources, other industries may
also be regulated for toxic pollutants in addition to the 21.  While national pretreatment
standards will focus on the 65 priority pollutants,- other pollutants incompatible with publicly
owned treatment works may be regulated where deemed necessary.  Provision will be made in pre-
treatment standards for local modification to compensate for documented pollutant removal
accomplished by the publicly owned treatment works (POTW'S),if a local pretreatment program is
developed and sludge requirements are met under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
and the Clean Water Act.

     The court deadlines for this effort are scheduled in such a fashion that final regulations
will be promulgated for all 21 industries beginning in March and continuing through the end of
December 1979.  The compliance deadlines for these limitations is July 1, 1984.  Revision of
guidelines and standards for the remaining "secondary" industries to include toxics will
proceed in subsequent years.  By the end of FY 1978, the Agency will have completed technical
studies to repropose revised best available technology economically achievable (BAT)., new
source performance, and pretreatment standards for five of the 21 industries.  This effort
requires the development of specific analytical methods and protocols for each of these five
industrial subcategories.  Determining the absence or presence of priority pollutants and
further analysis of specific plant samples requires the Agency to conduct an in-depth and
rigorous sampling, analytical, and verification program.  Furthermore, general studies must
be continued to determine environmental distributions of these pollutants and to define their
relative environmental significance, especially in terms of human exposure/risk.  Identifying
and measuring these priority pollutants and performing a broad technology assessment of the
production process changes for pollutant sources will ensure that the best regulatory approach
will be developed from among the viable alternatives.  In addition, thorough economic impact
analyses on affected industries will be done to ensure that the regulations are economically
achievable and are both fair and equitable.

     The inclusion of health and environmental effects considerations into the standard setting
process substantially increases the complexity of carrying out the Phase II standard setting
requirement of the Act.  Concomitant with the requirement to develop best available technology
economically achievable (BAT) standards for industry to control toxic pollutants is the
requirement under the Settlement Agreement to develop and promulgate water quality criteria
for a list of 65 priority pollutants and groups of pollutants.  The technical data currently
being collected and analyzed in order to regulate priority pollutants will also be used to
update water quality standards and to impose water quality based regulations under Sections
301, 302, and 303 of the Act.  The effort to control toxics in water will include consideration
of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act,.and the Toxic
Substances Control Act, and the effect BAT regulations will have on programs started under
those laws.
 WQ-2

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     Implementation of the toxics strategy envisioned in the National Resources Defense Council
Settlement  Agreement requires the collection of  large amounts of data on priority pollutants.
These data are needed to document the performance of plants using candidate best available
technologies economically achievable (BAT); measure geographic distributions and
human exposure/risk; identify and correct pretreatment problems; and identify areas where
controls more stringent than BAT are required.

     Municipal point source control is effectuated through the municipal waste water treatment
construction grant program, initially funded at $18 billion by the Clean Water Act Amendments
of 1972 (P.L. 92-500) to achieve secondary treatment by the end of FY 1977.  This program has
a key role in enabling publicly owned treatment works to apply best practicable waste treatment
technology by July 1, 1983.  Another key role to  be played by the municipal construction program
is that of funding the development of local pretreatment programs which are required by the
Amendments of 1977.  Such programs will be developed as a part of all new construction grants
awarded by the Agency.

     Only one-third of all municipalities were able to meet the July 1, 1977, deadline for
secondary treatment of effluent.  However, approximately 11,000 currently active projects in
conjunction with anticipated new awards during FY 1978 and FY 1979 represent potential con-
struction completions which will enable localities to comply with municipal requirements of
the Act.

     The FY 1979 budget request contains S4.5 billion for waste water treatment plant con-
struction grants and outlines a 10-year  $4.5 billion per year program strategy starting in
FY 1978.

     The proposed long term strategy for controlling discharges from publicly owned treatment
works is as follows:

     -  The first priority in providing Federal assistance should be on construction
        of those treatment facilities needed to comply with the enforceable-goals
        of the Act.

     -  The application of best practical waste treatment technology should conform
        to Section 201 and encourage alternatives to conventional treatment tech-
        nologies which might constitute more environmentally compatible solutions to
        waste control and result in the conservation and reuse of water, waterborne
        nutrients, and other valuable elements.

     -  Improvements to environmental reviews, and management ot construction
        grant projects should continue in an effort to ensure environmentally
        sound and efficient facility construction and operation.

     -  Application of pretreatment requirements  to industrial discharges should
        be rigorously pursued to assure removal of harmful contaminants from the
        municipal waste stream and minimize the degree to which these contaminants
        render the residuals from the municipal waste treatment process dangerous
        or unsuitable for land treatment and land spreading or other forms of sludge
        disposal.

     -  Swift enforcement should be taken for those communities demonstrating
        recalcitrance or negligence in bringing their discharges under control,
        or failing to operate their treatment facilities to achieve optimal
        control.  The strategy focuses on fiscal and technical program integrity.
        Emphasis will be on project site reviews, closer review of completed
        facility plans, and increased numbers of inspections and audits.
        Commitment to environmental objectives and fiscal and technical integrity
        will  ensure that future program efforts result in substantial progress
        toward the 1983 goals.

     The water quality management program under Section 208 of the Clean Water Act Amendments
of 1972 (P.L. 92-500) seeks to establish effective environmental decision making at the State
and local  government levels.   Nationally based programs for pollution control which establish
uniform thresholds of abatement are best supplemented on a localized basis.  Since abatement
alternatives  may produce significant consequences, there is a necessity that local citizen



                                                                                            WQ-3

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 expectations  and opinions be a major element  in any abatement decisions.  The most effective
 political  level to  respond to this source of opinion and for solving  these pollution  programs
 is  local and  State  government.

     The water quality management process, under  Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution
 Control Act,  is viewed as the framework by which  all basic water quality decisions  and
 determinations will be made.  It will be increasingly relied upon  to  resolve difficult
 municipal  facilities planning problems and for developing pretreatment programs.  At  the
 same time,  it is  the best way of assuring that an effective balance is struck  between costly
 structural  solutions to  water quality problems and nonstructural approaches, such as  through
 the regulatory process.  State and local agencies will  be supported and encouraged  to assume
 full responsibility for  developing implementation plans to control storm water and  nonpoint
 source discharges.  Section 208 planning is  the principal mechanism for solving de  minimus
 source and  nonpoint source pollution problems.  With increasing levels of control being
 applied to  the abatement of industrial and municipal point sources, the relative contribution
 of  nonpoint sources to total pollution loads becomes more and more significant.  As this
 occurs, increasing  attention will be focused toward the control of nonpoint sources.  Non-
 point sources include agriculture, silviculture,  construction activities, mining, and runoff
 from urban  areas.

     Implementation of water quality management programs, including issuance of permits and
 construction  grants, and developing programs for  pretreatment and  nonpoint source controls
 will rely  heavily on strong State ambient type monitoring programs.   In past years, improve-
 ments in regional quality assurance programs have been  emphasized  and basic regulations for
 State monitoring  programs have been published.  In FY 1979 and 1980,  the major emphasis will
 be  to redirect State monitoring programs to  make  better use of monitoring resources.  This
 will be accomplished through a concerted effort to implement the Basic Water Monitoring Program
 developed  by  EPA's  Standing Work Group on Water Monitoring in 1976.   Implementation will  stress
 greater use of intensive surveys, establishment of a national network of about 1,000  fixed
 stations,  improved  quality assurance procedures,  and more emphasis on data analysis and data
 handling.   Greater  monitoring of toxic substances and an initial biological monitoring program
 are also emphasized.  To ensure improved quality  of data, State laboratories and quality
 assurance  procedures will be evaluated by EPA personnel on a continuing basis.

     Under Section  106 grants, State water pollution control agencies will continue to be
 supported  in  implementing and enforcing both point and  nonpoint source controls, including
 pretreatment  requirements.  The 1977 Amendments to the  Federal Water  Pollution Control Act also
 provide for use of  a percentage of municipal facilities construction  grants in support of
 priority water quality programs:  first and  foremost, management of municipal  facilities
 construction  with residual funds supporting  administration of the  National Pollutant  Discharge
 Elimination System  (NPOES), Section 208 water'quality management,  pretreatment, and the State
 dredge and fill programs of Section 404.

     In FY  1979,  the water enforcement program will be  focusing most  of its attention on
 compliance  by industrial and municipal facilities with  the July 1, 1977,
 limitations of the  Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  Compliance
 inspections will  continue  in order to confirm  industrial facilities   attainment
 of  best practicable control technology  currently  available  (BPT) and
 to  assure  municipal facilities' compliance with secondary treatment.  Increased emphasis  is
 expected on litigation against municipal facilities.

     An enforcement monitoring program for toxic  materials will be developed which  will require
 more technical expertise than the current program.  This focus on  toxics is in support of the
 Settlement Agreement with the National Resources Defense Council  et  al covering the  regulation
 of  65 identified  toxic pollutants.  Another  goal  is to  promote and encourage strong State
 National Pollutant  Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance and enforcement  programs
 through supportive  overview and technical assistance where necessary. As States assume program
 responsibilities, compliance with the national goals of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
 as  amended, must  be assured.
WQ-4

-------
     A program for automating the review of Discharge Monitoring Reports should be implemented
in FY 1979, thus increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of violation detection and providing
summary information for enforcement decisions.  Non-National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) enforcement will continue to focus on oil and hazardous substances spills and
spill prevention enforcement as well as on the enforcement of the Ocean Dumping Act.

     The primary goal of permitting activities is to reduce discharges from the most significant
sources of pollution and thereby achieve the greatest measure of environmental protection
possible within available resources.  The FY 1979 program will concentrate on applying best
available control technology economically achievable (BAT) and best practicable control technology
currently available  (BPT) to major dischorqers witn expiring permits and on
ensuring that these permits are finally effective and enforceable.  Since four times as many
major permits are expiring in FY 1979 as compared to FY 1978, a significant portion of permit
program resources will be devoted" to this reissuance activity; to resolving adjudicatory
hearings on permit terms, conditions and effluent limitations; and to resolving economic
and technical variance requests.  Additional resources will be applied to the goal of promoting
a nationally uniform permitting and enforcement program.  Regional offices will review National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) State programs to ensure that State issued
permits comply with national water enforcement policies and procedures.

     The role of research and development in EPA's water quality program is to provide the
scientific information needed to support abatement and control and enforcement activities.
To accomplish this, a multifaceted research program has been established, including health
effects, industrial pollution, and public sector waste water management."

     Health effects research is designed to determine the health implications of existing
technologies for treatment and disposal of waste water and sludge, to identify any health
risks associated with innovative technologies and to provide data on the effects of toxic
substances on human health to be used in the development of water quality criteria for
marine, fresh water and shellfish growing areas.  The ecological effects research program
is designed to   (1) determine the toxic effects of specific pollutants on individual organisms
and key processes in order to provide an early warning of possible chronic effects; (2) determine
the effect of pollutant stress on ecosystem dynamics; (3) determine the movement, transformation,
degradation, accumulation, and fate of water pollutants; and (4) establish environmental require-
ments and limits for fresh water, estuarine, and marine organisms.

     The industrial research program includes emphasis on point and nonpoint pollution sources
resulting from industrial, agricultural, and forestry sources.  This effort focuses on  (1)
technologies capable of reducing potentially hazardous and toxic pollutant effluents from
industrial point sources; (2) technology for the prevention of industrial discharges and control
of accidential spills of hazardous materials; and (3) assessment, development, and demonstration
of total management systems and pollution control predictive methodologies to control water,
land, and air pollution associated with the production and harvesting of food, fiber, and their
related residual wastes. •

     The public sector waste water management research program focuses on prevention, control,
treatment, and management of water pollution resulting from public and community nonindustrial
activities.  The program addresses sludge processing and disposal; improving efficiency and
reliability of existing treatment plants; and individual home and rural treatment systems.
The management of wet weather flows and performance and operational feasibility of soil
treatment systems for municipal waste waters are also studied.

     The monitoring and technical support program under research and development provides
candidate analytical reference methods, sampling procedures and instrumental monitoring systems
for monitoring ground and surface waters, sludges, soil and effluents from municipal, industrial
and nonpoint sources in  support of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
and other water monitoring programs.  It also delivers technical support by which the results
of research and development programs and the expertise of researchers are made available for
agencywide use in response to both continuing and emerging requests.
                                                                                          WQ-5

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SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES

                                                            (in thousands of dollars)

1978 Water Quality Program	               $309,258

     Abatement and Control	                 +1,370
       The net increase results from municipal waste
       treatment facility construction (+$25,599,600);
       clean lakes program (+$12,509,800); spill pre-
       vention and responses (+$3,461,900); monitoring
       and data support (+$1,517,000); and other minor
       program increases of $111,000.  Decreases partially
       offsetting these increases are for areawide waste
       treatment management grants (-$19,000,000); effluent
       standards and guidelines (-$14,471,100);
       Great Lakes program (-$4,067,500); Chesapeake Bay
       program (-$2,500,000); training grants, (-$1,480,000);
       State programs regulations and guidelines (-$158,600);
       and other minor decreases of ($151,900).

     Enforcement	                 +2,073
       Included in this increase is $1,401,200 for
       increased compliance monitoring and enforcement
       activities including supplementing litigation
       efforts and $671,900 for continuation of high
       priority permit issuance activities.

     Research and Development	                -10,602
       The net decrease of $10,602,000 provides for an
       increase in health effects research to expand work
       on waste water reuse and conduct health risk assess-
       ments of waste water and sludge treatment and disposal
       techniques (+$3,270,000); a reduction in research on
       Chesapeake Bay (-$2,900,000), a reduction in ecological
       effects research (-$98,200); a decrease in the Great
       Lakes program due to a nonrecurring congressional add-
       on in FY 1978 (-$1,600,000); an increase in the trans-
       port and fate program to expand water quality pre-
       dictive models to include the highest priority classes
       of toxic pollutants (+$247,500); a decrease in the
       industrial process/renewable resources program
       (-$1,014,000); a decrease in waste water management
       due to a nonrecurring 1978 congressional add-on for
       the Lubbock, Texas, land treatment system for waste
       water (-$9,500,000); an increase in monitoring and
       technical support for characterization and measure-
       ment methods development as well as for the measurement
       technique and equipment standardization program (+$897,000);
       and miscellaneous program changes (+$95,500).                  	
 1979  Water Quality  Program	                302,099

 SUMMARY  OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

      1.   Summary of Budget Request

               An appropriation of $302,099,200  is requested for  1979.  This request,  by  appro-
 priation, is  as follows:

                    Abatement and Control	    $229,457,900   .
                    Enforcement	       24,286,300
                    Research  and Development	       48,355,000
 WQ-6

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ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                            Current
                                                           Estimate       Estimate
                                                             1978           1979
                                                           (in thousands  of dollars)

     Prior year obligations	          $209,939       $353,657

       Change in amount of carryover
         funds available	           +18,927        -44,399
       Effect of pending supplemental	           +94,500
       Congressional increases	            +5,000
       Reprogrammings	              +800
       Change in rate of obligation	           +24,491
       Program decreases	          ____i^i.         -7,000

            Total estimated obligations	           353,657        302,258
              (From new obligation authority)	          (307,967)       (300,967)
              (From prior year funds)	           (45,690)         (1,291)

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

     In 1978, obligations from carryover funds are estimated to be $45,690,000, an  increase  of
$18,927,000 over the 1977 level; in 1979, obligations from carryover  funds are expected  to be
$1,291,000, a decrease of $44,399,000 from the 1978 level.

     The pending supplemental described in the previous section is estimated to  increase 1978
obligations by $94,500,000.  The congressional increases to the 1978  budget request are  expected
to increase 1978 obligations by $5 million.

     The net change of the reprogrammings of the Office of Research and Development,  headquarters,
and regional offices, is expected to increase obligations by $800,000.

     A change in the rate of obligation is expected in 1978, which would  create an  increase
of approximately $24,491,000 over the 1977 level of obligations.

     The net decrease in budget authority in 1979 is expected to result in a decrease of
$7 million from the 1978 level of obligations.
                                                                                         WQ-7

-------
             This represents a net decrease of $7,158,900 from the FY 1978 water quality
program.  The net change comes about primarily from reductions in the areawide waste treatment
management grants; effluent standards and guidelines; Chesapeake Bay program; academic training;
Great Lakes program; and the land treatment system for waste water.

             Increases to the water quality program are in. the areas of health effects research;
spill prevention and response to provide contract support to implement the hazardous substances
spill response program; municipal source control activities primarily to provide for an inter-
agency agreement with the Corps of Engineers to perform management activities in the Step 3
award process; Clean Lakes program to meet additional demands for project grants; for monitoring
and data support to perform pollutant exposure and risk studies for 65 toxic chemicals; and
for compliance monitoring and enforcement activities.

     2.  Changes from Original 1978 Budget Estimate

         Changes from the original budget estimate are as follows:

                                                                     (in thousands of dollars)

         Original 1978 estimate	               $218,319
         Congressional increases/decreases	                 -4,455
         Pending supplemental^	                +94,500
         Regional reprogramnings	                    -47
         Office of Research and Development reprogrammings	                   +678
         Headquarters reprogrammings	                   +263
         Current 1978 estimate	                309,258

         Congressional changes to the budget request included an increase to the Great Lakes
program, $5 million; an increase to the Clean Lakes program, $2.3 million; an increase for
cold climate research, $500,000; an increase for health and ecological effects, $1.2 million
(from a total $6 million add-on for the Agency); an increase1 of $1,030,000 for academic
training (from a total $3 million add-on for the Agency);'and an increase for authorized
positions, $515,000.  The Congress also eliminated the loan guarantee program request of
$10 million and adjusted the request for areawide waste treatment management grants by
-$5,000,000.

         The major change to the original 1978 estimate is the inclusion of pending supplementals.
Included are requests for effluent standards and guidelines ($16 million); areawide waste treat-
ment management grants ($69 million); and for a land treatment system for waste water at
Lubbock, Texas ($9.5 million).

         Regional office reprogrammings netted to a  decrease of $47,300 to other media to
support increased personnel costs.

         The Office of Research and Development has reprogratnmed a net change of $678,200
from other media to reflect a redefining of industrial processes and anticipatory research.

         The Office of Water and Hazardous Materials and the Office of Enforcement reprogrammed
funds primarily for contracts and resulted in a net increase to the water quality media of
$263,200.
  WQ-8

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                                          WATER QUALITY
                              Actual
                               1977
 Budget
Estimate
  1978
PROGRAM LEVELS
Clean Lakes Projects Awards..     29          48
Ocean Dumping Permits	     40          60
Construction Grants Awards...  4,326       5,850
   Step I Awards	 (1,361)     (2,000)
   Step II Awards	 (1,390)     (2,300)
   Step III Awards	 (1,575)     (1,550)
Active Construction Grants
  Projects	 11,198      10,900
State Program Approvals
• (National Pollutant Dis-
  charge Elimination System).     29          45
Adjudicatory Hearings
  Settled (Major Sources)	    407         575
Permits Issued by EPA:
  Municipal --
     Major	  1,239         688
     Minor	  5,308
  Nonmunicipal —
     Major	    150         688
     Minor	  3,617        ....
New Source Permits  Issued by
  EPA	     20
Enforcement Actions (Admin-
  istrative Orders, Notices
  of Violation, and Referrals
  to U.S.  Attorneys)	  1,184
Compliance Inspections	  2,747
Current
Estimate
  1978
                     30
                     40
                  5,600
                 (2,000)
                 (2,300)
                 (1,300)

                 12,000*

                     30

                    477
                     68


                    172

                    500


                  1,935
                  2,880
Estimate
  1979
                    50
                    35
                 6,400
                (2,100)
                (2,300)
                (2,000)

                12,600*

                    33

                   342'
                   360


                   572

                   500


                 1,650
                 2,595
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1979 vs.  1978
               +20
                -5
              +800
             (+100)

             (+700)

              +600

                +3

              -135
              +292
              +400
              -285
              -285
     *  The latest information available as reflected herein shows  increases  over
        the amounts originally reported in the 1979 budget appendix,  which  were
        active projects of 10,670 and 11,295 for fiscal  years 1978  and  1979
        respectively.
                                                                                            WQ-9

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o
o

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Appropriation
Water Quali ty Planning
  and Standards	
Effluent Standards and
  Guidelines	
Grants Assistance Programs.
Water Quality Strategies
  Implementation	
Water Quality Monitoring
  and Analysis	
Municipal Source Control..,
Loan Guarantee Program	
       Total.
Permanent Positions
Water Quality Planning
  and Standards	
Effluent Standards and
  Guidelines	
Grants Assistance Programs...
Water Quality Strategies
  Implementation	
Water Quality Monitoring
  and Analysis	
Municipal Source Control.....
       Total.
                                           WATER QUALITY

                                       Abatement and Control
                                             Budget
                                  Actual    Estimate
                                   1977       1978
                               18,075
                               54,235

                                7,164

                                7,029
                               25,855
                                  421

                                   86


                                  212

                                  190
                                  970

                                1,879
                                                     Current                Increase +
                                                    Estimate    Estimate    Decrease -
                                                      1978        1979    1979 vs.  1978   Page
                                                    (dollars in thousands)
                              $31,281    $19,893     $24,859     $30,642
            19,400
            57,850

             7,201

             5,225
            32,338
            10,000
143,639    151,907
 35,788      21,317
122,880     102,400

  7,709      11,130

  5,067       6,584
 31,785      57,385
                                                     228,088 £   229,458
               392

                79


               228

               201
              ,027

             1,927
  386

   92


  235

  189
 .002

1,904
  325

  105


  233

  157
  991

1,811
                      +$5,783

                      -14,471
                      -20,480

                       +3,421

                       +1,517
                      +25,600
                         +1,370 SJ



                            -61

                            +13


                             -2

                            -32
                            -11

                            -93
£/
                       WQ-12

                       WQ-24
                       WQ-28

                       WQ-33

                       WQ-40
                       WQ-44
Includes pending supplementals of $69 million for Section 208 areawide waste treatment
management (grants assistance programs) to provide adequate funding to the States for
water, quality management planning; and $16 million for effluent standards and guidelines
in order to meet the minimum requirements set forth in the recent consent decree.

The net increase reflects the inclusion of the $85 million for pending supplementals in
the 1978 current estimate; excluding these supplementals, the net change would be +$86,370,200.
     The objective of the water quality abatement and control program is primarily to assist
State and local agencies in controlling water pollution by providing management, technical,
and resource assistance and by disseminating guidelines and standards.  These guidelines
set methods, procedures, and levels of control for sources of pollution.  Water quality
criteria and standards are applied to the receiving waters and are subsequently reflected in  '
the level of control placed on the source.  Management assistance is provided in the pre-
construction and construction of waste water treatment facilities and their operation.
One-half of the water program manpower is used to manage and monitor this multibillion dollar
program.  Additional management assistance is provided in developing State and areawide Section
208 water quality management planning agencies, improving municipal waste control management,
and in monitoring and reporting on ambient water quality and changes in quality.

     Because a primary responsibility for the control of pollution lies with the States, most of
EPA's abatement and control efforts are oriented toward support of State and local efforts.
States are responsible for detailed planning, monitoring, and enforcement efforts, as well as for
establishing the priorities for commitment of Federal funds to construct sewage treatment plants.
Local governments are responsible for detailed planning, for operation and maintenance of sewage
treatment plants, and for participating financially in the construction of treatment plants.

     EPA monitoring and analysis activities are coordinated with State and other Federal efforts
and include ambient water quality monitoring, data collection, and dissemination of water quality
data.  Current programs include the establishment of basic National water monitoring programs and
the analysis of monitoring data to assist in development and implementation of standards and
                                                                                             WQ-10

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                                          WATER QUALITY

                                      Abatement and Control

                              Water Quality Planning and Standards
                                         Budget
                              Actual    Estimate
                               1977       1978
                         Current
                         Estimate
                           1978
                           Estimate
                             1979
                                                     (dollars in thousands)
                            Increase +
                            Decrease -
                          1979 vs.  1978
Appropriation

Water Resources Council	
State Programs Regulations
  and Guidelines	
Great Lakes Program	
Clean Lakes Program	
Chesapeake Bay Program	
   $97
13,645
5,191
11,791
557
$13,267
4,100
26
2,500
$12,359
7,533
2,467
2,500
$12,200
3,465
14,977

-$159
-4,068
+12,510
-2,500
     Total	

Permanent  Positions

Water Resources Council....
State Programs Regulations
  and GUI deli nes...........
Great Lakes  Program	
Clean Lakes  Program	
Chesapeake Bay Program	
31,281
19,893
24,859
30,642
     Total.
   421
   392
   386
   325
Budget Request
+5,783
380
31
1
7
352
27
1
10
336
33
5
10
301
7
15

-35
-26
•HO
-10
   -61
     An appropriation of $30,642,200 is requested for FY 1979, which represents an
increase of $5,783,700 and a decrease of 61 positions from FY 1978.  This includes
an increase of $12,509,800 and 10 positions to meet additional demands for Clean
Lakes project grants, and a reduction of $4,067,500 and 26 positions in the
Great Lakes program, principally through reduction of surveillance activities and
elimination of new demonstration projects.  An additional reduction of $2,500,000
results from the termination of the Chesapeake Bay program as a separate
activity.   Also, reduction of $158,600 and 35 positions is made in State programs
regulations and guidelines.

Program Description

     The water quality planning and standards subactivity includes five program
elements.  The State programs regulations and guidelines element covers a broad
range of activities including providing technical guidance, assistance, and
information to States, other Federal agencies, and local agencies to assist with
the development of water pollution control programs.  These activities include
assisting States and State designated areawide agencies in the preparation and
implementation of their water quality management programs for the prevention and
elimination of water pollution from both point and nonpoint sources; providing
guidance on the setting of standards, disseminating technical information
concerning scientific and engineering advances; and providing technical consultation.

     The second program element covered by this subactivity is the Great Lakes
program which includes both funding for the Great Lakes initiative program as
well  as demonstration grants authorized  by Section 108(a) of the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act, as amended.  The Great Lakes initiative program was
established in FY 1973 to provide the principal source of funding for United States
activities in direct support of the Canadian-United States Agreement and includes
                                                                                         WQ-12

-------
the Upper Lakes Study, the Pollution from Land Use Study, Great Lakes water quality
surveillance, International Joint Commission support activities, special studies of
water quality problem areas, and demonstration grants authorized  by Section 108(a)
of the Act.

     The third program element covered by this subactivity is the Clean Lakes program.
Under this program, the Agency provides financial assistance to the States to carry
out methods and procedures to restore the quality of publicly owned fresh water lakes.
The Congress has appropriated $34 million for fiscal years 1975-1977 to cover the
requirements under Section 314.  The Agency has received 111 applications for lake
restoration.

     The fourth program element covered by this subactivity is support provided
the Water Resources Council.  This program has three principal activities:
participation in Water Resources Council meetings as a member agency;
participation in a national assessment by furnishing data on water supplies and
water quality, along with appropriate analysis of the total assessment data
and findings; and participation in comprehensive water and related land resource
planning studies and in the activities of River Basin Commissions.

     The fifth program element covered by this subactivity is the Chesapeake Bay
program which has been responsible for developing a management system to maintain-
and improve the overall water quality of the Chesapeake Bay and to supplement
information requirements of national water quality programs.  This is being
accomplished through an inventory of point sources, review and revision of
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits, and increased
priority for construction grants to municipalities.  In addition, existing and-
potential water quality problems are being investigated for possible regulatory"
action.  The program emphasizes coordination of existing programs of Federal,
State, and local planning and regulatory agencies and represents a significant
attempt by a Federal program to understand a large ecosystem as an entity,
incorporating many interdependent components.

WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL
1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977, the Ohio Main Stem and Yellowstone Pacific Northwest Studies were
completed.  Five comprehensive water resources studies were initiated « Allegheny,
Delaware, Lake Champlain, Southcentral Alaska, and Upper Mississippi.  A
national assessment study was also completed.  The following Level B studies
"are being initiated:  Upper Missouri, Snohomish, Cumberland, Yadkin Peedee,
New England Hydropower, and Great Lakes Environment.

1978 Program

     Continuing Agency staff support will be provided through cooperation and
participation in river basin commissions.  Due to the establishment of a
centralized budget in the Water Resources Council, funds for participation
in river basin studies will no longer be provided by EPA but by the Water
Resources Council.
  WQ-13

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.

1979 Plan

     Continuing Agency staff support will be provided through cooperation and
participation in river basin commissions.

STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS AND GUIDELINES

1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977, program emphasis was placed on the continuation of Section 208 planning
by State and local governments.  This included the control of nonpoint source pollution.
The States have begun to develop strategies which include nonpoint source abatement in
accordance with regulations and guidance issued by EPA.  Section 208 is being used
by the Agency regularly to address those water quality problems not readily soluble
by other sections of the Act, in addition to coordinating planning and implementation
relative to construction grants and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES) permits issuance.

     In FY 1977, $1 million   was committed to fostering involvement by public and
local government officials in Section 208 programs.   An additional $600,000 was
committed for water quality management support contracts and $400,000 for development
of nonpoint source best management practices and for technology transfer.  Approximately
$300,000 was committed for conducting biological studies on the fate and effect
of Kepone, screening of toxicity tests, and estuarine and wetland studies.  In
FY 1977, the program:

          -  Provided project management and assistance for 176 areawide planning
             agencies and  49 statewide planning agencies, the recipients in
             FY 1974-1977  of approximately $230 million in Section 208 grant awards
             for initial planning.

          -  Reviewed 40 areawide draft plans; most initial plans are scheduled
             for completion in FY 1978-1979 because all but 11 agencies were funded
             in FY 1975-1976.

          -  Witnessed the adoption of regulatory programs in 11 statewide and
             areawide planning  areas, and the designation of management agencies
             in 30 areas to implement planned water pollution control programs
             or activities; these regulatory programs and management agencies
             were separately approved early outputs of plans which are not yet
             complete and  approved as a whole.

          -  Provided grants management for 56 State and 6 interstate water
             pollution control  agency Section 106 grants totaling $52.4 million.

          -  Issued water  quality management guidance on abatement and control
             of eight nonpoint source problems:  urban runoff, agriculture,
             silviculture, construction, hydrological modifications, mining,
             residual waste, and ground water.
                                                                                           WQ-14

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          -  Issued policy guidance on use of Section 208 grant funds.

          -  Provided contract funding and other assistance to all  regions
             to assure implementation of policy guidance, particularly  regarding
             public participation,  improvement of State continuing  planning
             processes,  Section 208 work plans, and initial  plans.

          -  Assisted other Federal agencies  to assure implementation of
             interagency agreements on abatement and control  of water pollution.

          -  Secured an  interagency agreement with the Department of Agriculture
             to develop  a model implementation program for agricultural nonpoint
             source control.

          -  Continued funding support of public interest groups at the national
             level  to provide education for strengthening public involvement in
             the Section 208 program.

          -  Initiated the development of data on 41 additional toxic pollutants
             for future  preparation of water  quality criteria.

          -  Continued the formulation of water quality criteria on the 65,toxic
             pollutants  required by the Settlement Agreement with  the National
             Resources-Defense Council.

          -  Published the final edition of the water quality criteria
             document pursuant to Section 304.

          -  Assisted the States in developing water quality standards  to ensure
             the reflection of the  ambient water quality criteria.

          -  Published the Integrity of Water report.

          -  Initiated a feasibility study to mitigate and remove Kepone in
             the James River, Virginia.

          -  Completed the study on the feasibility of removing in-place toxic
             pollutants  from Baltimore Harbor, Maryland.

          -  Developed final  hazardous substances regulations for promulgation
             under Section 311 in FY 1978.

          -  'Promulgated, under Section 318,  the regulation for issuing permits
             to discharge to acquaculture projects in navigable waters.

          -  Acted on four petitions from States requesting that the discharge of
             sewage from vessels be prohibited in specific waters;  decisions were
             published in the Federal Register.

1978 Program

     The current 1978 allocation for this effort is $12,358,600 and 336 positions.
The development of policies and guidance to ensure State emphasis on and commitment
to national priorities will continue.  In FY 1978, an extensive program of assistance
and guidance will be provided to areawide water quality management  agencies to assure
timely submission of approvable plans, development of implementable early outputs,
and concentration on highest priority problems.  Grants management  will be continued for
development, review, and follow-up analysis of $69 million of supplemental
funding in Section 208 grants and $52.4 million to State water pollution control agencies.
 WQ-15

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Section 208 grant projects will be closely monitored throughout the year.  Public
participation groups will continue to receive funding support to encourage and
broaden public involvement in national and local water quality management.  Additional
toxic pollutants are being studied for development of water quality criteria data
on environmental fate and effects, and some will be published.

     In FY 1978, $1 million is committed to fostering involvement by public and
local government officials in Section 208 programs.  An additional $400,000 in
contracts is committed for Section 208 case studies, planning review assistance,
pretreatment guidance and water conservation and $4 million is committed for
development of nonpoint source best management practices and for technology
transfer.  Approximately $300,000 will be committed to toxic substances health
effects studies and to producing  summaries of water quality standards.  In
FY 1978, the program will:

          -  Work with nearly 150 areawide agencies to assure that State
             certified, approvable, initial Section 208 plans are submitted
             on time, and that all EPA reviews are conducted within 120 days of
             receipt, as required by regulations.

          -  Work with those statewide and areawide agencies which are allowed
             time extensions by the 1977 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution
             Control Act to assure that they are proceeding on schedule with their
             initial planning projects during the fiscal year.

          -  Encourage and assist development of implementable early outputs from
             Section 208 planning.

          -  Make grant awards and develop 6-year strategies for continuation of
             Section 208 planning by State and selected areawide agencies that
             address highest priority problems, with emphasis on problem areas
             given national priority by the Agency, such as complex facilities
             planning, pretreatment, and nonpoint sources.

          -  Approve designation of management agencies and monitor the start-up
             of these agencies and/or the final enactment of any implementation
             authorities that have not been established during planning.

          -  Work with the Department of Agriculture to develop the agriculture
             cost sharing program authorized for funding in FY 1979 by the 1S77
             Amendments and assure that the model implementation program for
             agricultural nonpoint source control is effectively carried out.

          -  Provide grants management for 57 State a'nd six interstate water
             pollution control agency grants, totaling $52.4 million.  An
             additional "State" is now included — the Northern Marianas, now
             separated from the Pacific Trust Territories.

          -  Issue guidance on use of a percentage of construction grant funds by
             water pollution control agencies as a supplement to Section 208 funding,
             and on coordinated use of those funds for municipal facilities program
             management and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
             in conjunction with Section 106 funding.
                                                                                           WQ-16

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        -  Issue revised water quality management program regulations to implement
           the FY 1977 amendments and to simplify existing regulations, and
           publish supplementary guidance as necessary.

        -  Develop and implement a public participation  strategy and provide
           approximately $1  million in financial  support to national and locally
           based public interest groups, emphasizing statewide public involvement
           and involvement of implementing groups such as treatment plant operators
           and farm operators.

        -  Carry out evaluations of Section 208 effectiveness in dealing with
           selected water pollution problem categories,  designated management agency
           effectiveness, Federal agency responsiveness  to approved Section 208
           plan decisions affecting their operations, and other matters.

        -  Work to implement the simplification,  consolidation, and elimination
           of planning requirements identified in  a recent zero base review of
           planning programs.

        -  Develop regulations on State program requirements for State assumption
           of the Section 404 permit program.

        -  Continue to develop toxicity data on additional pollutants for
           formulating the basis for water quality criteria and prepare water
           quality criteria for 41 toxic pollutants.

        -  Publish water quality criteria on 65 toxic pollutants mandated by the
           National Resources Defense Council Settlement Agreement.

        -  Establish a national policy for implementation of Paragraph 12 of the
           Settlement Agreement, under which more stringent effluent limitations
           beyond best available technology economically achievable may be
           established.

        -  Evaluate the regulatory effects of water quality standards.

        -  Complete the first phase of the Kepone feasibility study of the
           James River, Virginia.

        -  Implement the aquaculture permit program.

        -  Promulgate hazardous substances regulations.

        -  Continue to take action on State petitions requesting prohibition
           of discharges from vessels.

        -  Under the Small Business Administration program, certify approximately
           100 loans to small business for water pollution facilities and initiate
           a pollution control revenue bond program with Small Business Administration
           guarantees.
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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $908,600 from the budget estimate results from a reprogramnring
mainly due to a transfer of function from this program element to another element
within the water quality media.  A transfer of $141,600 was made to the Clean
Lakes programs to reflect the adjustment of personnel and resources previously
charged under this element; a transfer of $287,000 was made to the dredge and fill
regulations elements also to reflect the adjustment of personnel and resources
previously charged under the State program regulations and guidelines element.
In addition to these transfers, the headquarters offices also reprogrammed, within
the water quality media, $276,500 to effluent standards and guidelines to support
increased personnel costs.  The regional offices reprogrammed, within the water
quality media, 561,900 to Federal activities/EIS reviews, and $94,300 to water
quality enforcement to support increased personnel costs.  The regional offices
further transferred $47,300 to other media to support other activities.

1979 Plan

     In 1979, $12,200,000 and 301 positions are requested for this activity, which
is a decrease of $158,600 and 35 positions.  In FY 1979, program guidance and
assistance will continue to assist the development of approvable water quality
management plans and designations.  The final remaining areawide and statewide
agencies will submit initial plans funded in FY 1976.  Approved initial plans
will be monitored to assure implementation.  Grant awards for continuation of
planning will be carried out based on national program priorities and to cover
problem areas not addressed in initial planning.  Grants management will
continue for development, review, and follow-up analysis of annual plans for use
of $50 million in Section 208 and $52.4 million of Section 106 funds.  Public
participation groups will continue to receive funding support to encourage and
maintain public involvement in the decision making process of local water quality
management agencies.  Additional water quality criteria will be revised and
published for toxic pollutants and the hazardous substances list will be expanded.

     In FY 1979, $1 million will be spent on encouraging participation in the
Section 208 planning management process by the public and local government
officials.  An additional $500,000 will be committed for Section 208 case
studies, planning review assistance, and water quality management assistance.
The nonpoint source program will use about $400,000 for guidance on best
management practices.  Approximately $300,000 will be committed to developing
water quality criteria on toxic substances.  In FY 1979, the program will:

          -  Work with more than 76 statewide and areawide Section 208 agencies to
             assure receipt of approvable initial plans not due by the end of
             F* 1978.

          -  Complete reviews and approval actions for all initial plans within
             120 days of receipt, giving special attention to Federal agency
             and intermedia aspects of the plans.

          -  Work with initial grantees to assure removal of conditions on
             initial plans.

          -  Review and approve management agency designations resulting from
             approved initial plans and parts of plans and monitor implementation
             of initial plans.
                                                                                          WQ-18

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          Work with States  and  appropriate areawide  agencies  to  award  grants  and
          develop  plans covering  problem categories  in the following priority order:
          complex  Section 201/208 projects;  nonpoint sources;  pretreatment  and
          urban  storm  runoff; and State/local high oriority :omplex ooint source
          problems.

          Award  57 State and six  interstate  Section  106 program  grants  totaling
          $52.4  million, and monitor program progress and outputs.

          Issue  guidance on the use of  a percentage  of construction grants  funds
          by  the States in  municipal facilities management, National Pollutant
          Discharge Elimination System, and  Section  208 planning.

          Provide  approximately $1 million to sustain public  participation
          strategies that will  involve  national and  locally based public  interest
          groups,  emphasizing statewide public involvement and involvement  of
          implementing groups.  Assure  that  water quality management public
          involvement  requirements are met at all levels of government  during
          planning.

          Carry  out evaluations of Section 208 plan  implementation, the effectiveness
          of  related interagency  agreements, and other matters.

          Work with State and local governments to ensure implementation  of new
          regulations, guidelines, and  policy relating to Presidentially  directed
          consolidation of  planning requirements.

          Work with States  to develop programs for State assumption of the  Section 404
          permit program.

          Perform  in-depth  studies on the human health and environmental  effects
          relationship on additional toxic pollutants.

          Publish  water quality criteria on  41 toxic pollutants.

          Formulate new and revised water quality criteria.

          Prepare  guidance  for  the third revision of State water quality
          standards.

          Complete the Kepone feasibility study and  monitor the  implementation
          of  the mitigation effort.

          Set priorities  for critical waterways, in-place toxic  pollutants
          removal  study funding.

          Develop  revised selection criteria and add new substances to the
          list of  hazardous substances  for regulation under Section 311.
WQ-19

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          -  Study financial alternatives for small businessmen relative to
             water pollution control and enlarge the economic early warning system.

          -  Assemble, edit, and publish the annual report to Congress required by
             Section 516(a).

          -  Perform economic analyses of nonpoint source and water quality
             management issues  (e.g. phosphate bans) and develop economic
             analysis guidelines for best management practices (BMP) selection.

          -  Review and assess  the accuracy of the methodology used to determine
             the economic impact of water pollution control regulations.

GREAT LAKES PROGRAM

1977 Accomplishments

     EPA supported activity of  the Pollution from Land Use Activities Reference
Group (PLUARG) of the International Joint Commission (IJC).  A public information
program was initiated to obtain input from public and other agencies.

     Because of the size and uniqueness of the Great Lakes, EPA continued to supplement
its normal monitoring program and those of the Great Lakes States, and cooperated
with Canada through the IJC in  tne cyclical joint Great Lakes Surveillance Plan.
Intensive monitoring of Lake Michigan was completed.  Data correlation and analysis
were begun.  Planning was done  for the first year of a 2-year Lake Erie monitoring
effort along with a special winter survey.  A surplus vessel for limnological work
was procured.

     The special demonstration  grants program authorized by Section 108(a) continued
with completion of. two grants,  award of two additional grants, and publication of
four project reports.  A nonpoint source pollution control seminar was presented and
the proceedings published.  Grants awarded.under Section_108(a) totaled  Si.6 million.

     Continuing staff support was provided to the IJC/Water-Quality Board, including
special studies, and for direct activities of the U.S. Government under the Great
Lakes Water Quality Agreement,  particularly those in connection with the Agreement-
specified Fifth Year Review.

1978 Program

     The 1978 allocation for the abatement and control effort is $7,532,500, including
$3.4 million added by the Congress for Section 108 programs and for increased
surveillance, and 33 positions.

     In FY 1978, the Pollution  from Land Use Activities Reference Group (PLUARG)
will prepare its final report.  Inputs from the public information program
will be incorporated; effort will be applied to evaluate and integrate data;
synthesis of data to basinwide evaluations will be a key effort; grants,
contracts and interagency agreements will total approximately $350,000.

     Having completed Lake Michigan surveillance, EPA will do comprehensive quality
control  and "benchmark" work as part of the final report.  EPA will use the
vessels "Simons" and "Crockett" to initiate the Lake Erie intensive monitoring
program as identified in the International Joint Commission (IJC) Surveillance Plan.
Special  attention will be given to toxic substances.  Contract and other costs will
be $3.1  million.
                                                                                          WQ-20

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     Work on four Section 108(a) demonstration grants projects will be continued.
Add-on funding will permit development and initiation of four additional projects to
study problems in storm and combined sewer management.  Total grant funding will be
$2.4 million.

     Continuing staff support will be provided for the IJC/Water Quality Board, with
emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of U.S. remedial programs and on the
continued implementation of special studies to elicit early compliance by problem
categories of dischargers.  Continuing staff support will be provided for activities
of the U.S. Government as the Fifth Year Review of the Water Quality Agreement proceeds.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $3,432,500 over the budget estimate results from a congressional
increase to the Great Lakes program of $3.4 million; an increase from the Congress
of $50,000 for authorized positions; and a net regional reprogramming of $17,500 to
water quality Federal activities/EIS reviews.

1979 Plan

     In FY 1979, $3,465,000 and seven positions are requested for abatement and control
activities, a reduction of. $4,067,500 and 26 positions.  At this level, a substantially
limited surveillance program will be conducted and the program will be reoriented to
review and assist the effectiveness of regional programs on the Great Lakes.

     Section 108(a) demonstration projects already in place will continue, but no
additional Section 108(a) demonstration grants will be awarded.

     The management, direction and coordination of the Great Lakes program wil] be
limited to general assistance and consultation with Canadian, Federal, State, and
local authorities and to supporting the U.S. Chairman of the International Joint
Commission (IOC) Water Quality Board.

     Response to individual Great Lakes pollution issues such as the impact of
proposed gas drilling in Lake Erie, PCB contamination in Waukegan Harbor, and the
effect of large power plants on the Great Lakes will be furnished in large part
through the redirection of other Agency programs.
CLEAN LAKES PROGRAM

1977 Accomplishments

          -  Twenty-nine new Clean Lakes grants proposals were funded for a total
             of $11.7 million.

          -  Two postrestoration projects were initiated to evaluate the lakes
             water quality improvement.

          -  Twenty-one lake restoration grant proposals were rejected.

1978 Plan

     In FY 1978, $2.3 million is available for grants.  EPA will continue to
review and fund new lake restoration projects and additional phases of awarded
projects and will continue to evaluate postrestoration projects.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $2,441,600 over the budget estimate results from the congressional
add-on of $2,300,000 and the transfer of $141,600 from State programs, regulations
and guidelines to reflect the reassignment of function previously reflected under that
program element.

WQ-21

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1979 Plan

     In FY 1979, the increase of 10 positions and $12,509,800 will allow the program
to expand and meet the additional demands for funds and projects requested by the
States.  EPA will:

          -  Publish a report under Section 304(i) on Lake Restoration procedures.

          -  Fund new lake restoration projects and additional phases of previously
             awarded grant projects.

          -  Initiate additional postrestoration project evaluations.

          -  Promulgate regulations for granting under Section 314.

CHESAPEAKE BAY PROGRAM

1977 Accomplishments

     During FY 1977, several studies of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem were completed.
These include analysis of fish tissue for Kepone, Mirex, Atrazine, Linuron and
Alachlor; PCB concentrations in  striped bass and eggs; impacts of diffuse sources
pollutants; a workshop on estuarine physical transport processes; and a review of research
and responsibilities within the Bay basin.  Approximately $450,000 of contracts
and grants were awarded during FY 1977.  This included research studies into the
role of herbicides in the die-off of rooted aquatic plants, and the acquisition of
Chesapeake Bay base-line data to assist in the conduct of trend analysis and the
identification of additional research needs.  Funds also supported a bi-state
conference and a Kepone seminar.

     Approximately^ $250,000 was awarded in the form of a training grant to conduct a
public participation program on a baywide basis.  This represents a major attempt to
elicit citizen input .in the development, conduct, and implementation of the program.

1978 Program

     The FY 1978 program includes development and implementation of studies in the
areas of toxics, eutrophication, and submerged aquatic vegetation relative to the
Chesapeake Bay and transferable to other estuaries.  These investigations are intended
to delineate and quantify the intensity and severity of these problems and, as
appropriate, study the source(s), fate, and ecological effects'of each priority
problem area.  It is the intent that these investigations identify control options
capable of achieving effective baywide management.  Such options may include source
controls, best management practices, structural controls, and conservation practices.
Additionally, management studies will be conducted to determine what units of
government have management responsibility for the environmental quality of the
Chesapeake Bay and how such can best be structured to improve communication and
coordination.  The continuation of the extensive public participation program will
ensure a high level of citizen input throughout the conduct of all phases and
activities of the program.
                                                                                         WQ-22

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate
     There is no change from the budget estimate.
1979 Plan
     The priority ranking of FY 1979 EPA programs resulted in the termination of the
Chesapeake Bay program as a separate activity in 1979. The 1977 and 1978 funds will be
available to continue activities through FY 1979.
  WQ-23

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                                          WATER  QUALITY

                                      Abatement  and  Control

                                Effluent  Standards and Guidelines


                                              Budget      Current                Increase +
                                     Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                      1977      1978       1978        1979      1979 vs. 1978
                                                          (dollars  in  thousands")
 Appropriation                                                      ,                      , ,
 Effluent  Standards  and Guidelines   $18,075    $19,400     $35,788i' $21,317     -$14,471 £'

 Permanent Positions
 Effluent  Standards  and Guidelines        86          79         92         105          +13

 Budget  Request

     An appropriation of  $21,316,700 and 105  positions  is requested for  FY 1979.  This is a
 decrease  of  $14,471,100 and  an  increase  of  13 positions  over the FY 1978 level  of $35,787,800
 and 92  positions.   The FY 1979  decrease  is  due  primarily to the inclusion in the 1978 current
 estimate  of  a pending $16 million  supplemental  request.   The position increase  will be used
 to help meet the  best available technology promulgation schedule  for toxic effluents, as
 required  under  the  Settlement Agreement  between EPA and  several environmental  groups.

 Program Description

     The  Federal  Water  Pollution  Control Act Amendments of 1972 mandated the  Environmental
 Protection Agency to develop uniform,  national  effluent  limitation"; and  standards for 43
 major industrial  categories  covering waste  waters  discharged  into  the navigable waters  of
 the United States.  Section  301  of the Act  requires the  achievement by-July 1,  1977, of
 effluent  limitations, which  require the  application of  best practicable  control technology
 currently available (BPT), and  the achievement  by July  1, 1983, of effluent limitations,
 which require the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).
 Section 306  of  the  Act requires the establishment of new source standards and  Sections  307(b)
 and (c) require pretreatment standards for  industry.

     The  first  major effort  of  developing and promulgating effluent limitations, standards
 and guidelines  for  the 43 major industrial  categories has been completed, with  the exception
 of finalizing best  practicable  control technology currently available (BPT) regulations for
 a few remaining industrial subcategories.   Future activity will be devoted primarily to
 determining  and specifying the  best practicable technology which will  serve as  a follow-on
 and a basis  for the establishment  of the 1983 best  available technology  (BAT)  regulations.
 Activities are  continuing in the adjudicatory process for a small  number of those standards
 that were promulgated.

     In 1976, a Settlement Agreement was reached between EPA, the  Natural Resources Defense
 Council,  the Environmental Defense Fund, and  Citizens for a Better Environment.  These
 environmental groups charged that  EPA had failed to establish toxic effluent standards as
 required  under  Section 307 of the  Federal Water Pollution Control  Act, as amended.  The
 Settlement Agreement requires the  Agency to develop or revise 1983 BAT effluent limitations
 for 21  major industrial categories,  and  to  establish new source performance standards and
 pretreatment regulations  for industrial  discharges  into  publicly owned treatment works for
 65 pollutants or  families of pollutants.  In  FY 1978 and 1979, EPA will  analyze in detail the
 technological,  economic,  health, and general  environmental factors involved in  the development
 of specific  regulations,  including revision of  existing  BAT limitations  and guidelines.  As
 stipulated in the Settlement Agreement,  the regulations  must be issued between  March 31, 1979,
 and December 31,  1979.
a/ Includes pending supplemental of $16 million in order to meet the minimum requirements set
   forth in the recent consent decree.

b/ The decrease reflects the inclusion of the pending supplemental in the 1978 current estimate;
   excluding this supplemental, the net change would be +$1,528,900.


                                                                                         WQ-24

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     Meeting the Agency's obligation in this area will require in-depth and rigorous sampling,
analytical and verification programs to determine the absence or presence of priority pollutants,
and further analyses of specific plant samples to determine how much of these specific compounds
are being discharged in the Nation's waters.  Identifying and measuring these priority pollutants
and performing a broad technology assessment of the production process changes for pollutant
sources will insure that the best regulatory approach will be developed from among the viable
alternatives.  In addition, thorough economic impact analyses on affected industries for each
of the viable alternatives will be done to insure that the regulations are economically
achievable and are both fair and equitable.

1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977, $15,300,000 was obligated for contract work in support of the toxic strategy,
including technical studies, economic impact analyses, and statistical support; determination of
health effects; and analyses of environmental distribution and overall exposure/risk.  An
additional $900,000 was obligated on contract work to respond to litigations and to collect
additional data to strengthen and repromulgate regulations that were remanded as a result of
lawsuits.

     During FY 1977 the program:

     - Commenced studies to collect and analyze technical data necessary to revise the
       best available technology economically achievable (BAT), and new source performance
       and pretreatment standards for industries required by the Settlement Agreement.

     - Published interim final pretreatment standards for existing sources for six of
       the eight industries required by the Settlement Agreement:  timber, nonferrous,
       petroleum, steam electric power generating, electroplating, and inorganic chemicals.

     - Published final pretreatment standards for existing sources for two of the eight
       industries identified in the Settlement Agreement:  leather tanning and finishing
       and textile mills.

     - Published interim/final effluent limitations and standards for three industries:
       pesticides, Pharmaceuticals, and the on-shore segment of oil and gas.

     - Published proposed and final regulations for existing and new sources for industrial
       segments of:  paperboard, coal mining, mineral mining, and rendering.

     - Developed analytical protocols for analysis for 129 priority pollutants.

     - Provided technical assistance to the regions and States on the applicability
       of the guidelines and standards to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
       System (NPDES) permit program.

     - Initiated economic impact analyses in support of the toxics strategy regarding
       best available technology and new source and pretreatment standards for 21
       industries.

     - Initiated  minimal environmental studies to determine geographic distributions
       and exposure/risk of selected priority pollutants.

1978 Program

     In FY 1978, $35,787,800 and 92 positions have been allocated for this activity.  This
includes $30,300,000 for contractual work in support of the toxic strategy, including $25
million for technical studies, $4 million for economic impact analyses and statistical support,
$900,000 for determination of health effects, and $300,000 for analyses of environmental
distribution and overall exposure/risk.  An additional $2,700,000 will be obligated for
contractual work to respond to litigations, to collect and analyze additional technical data,
to prepare court records and briefs, and to  assist in republishing portions  of the  regulations
which are remanded as a result of lawsuits.  The principal planned accomplishments of the
program are to:
 WQ-25

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     - Complete work on and propose revised best available technology economically
       achievable (BAT), new source and pretreatment standards for five of the 21
       industries in the Settlement Agreement, with promulgation scheduled for FY 1979.

     - Continue technical studies on the remaining 16 industries in the Court Settlement
       with proposal and promulgation scheduled in FY 1979 and FY 1980.

     - Continue environmental studies of geographic distribution and exposure/risk of
       selected priority pollutants.

     - Develop technical information necessary to respond to the court remands and lawsuits
       filed on the previously promulgated regulations.

     - Initiate technical studies and provide economic and statistical support on the
       remaining industries in the Court Settlement.

     - Provide technical and economic support required to develop and implement effluent
       guidelines in support of the Section 301 (c) variance requests.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $16,387,800 over the budget estimate results primarily from the inclusion
of $16 million in the current estimate for the pending supplemental for this activity.   In
addition, $387,800 has been reprogrammed by the headquarters office to reflect a transfer of
resources and function from water quality State programs, regulations, and guidelines and
from ambient water quality monitoring.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 request for this activity totals $21,316,700 and 105 positions.  This  includes
$14.2 million contractual support for the toxic strategy, including $9.1  million for technical
studies to revise best available technology economically achievable (BAT), pretreatment and new
source standards for 21 industries indentified in the Settlement Agreement, $4 million  for
economic impact analyses and statistical support, $800,000 for determination of health  effects,
and $300,000 for analyses of environmental distribution and overall exposure/risk.  An
additional $4 million is planned for contractual support to review petitioners' calculations,
reports, and derivations and to study reuse, recycle, and elimination of pollutant discharges
to implement the overall toxic strategy program.

    In FY 1979 the program plans to:

    - Complete technical and economic studies and repropose revised BAT,  new source and
      pretreatment standards for the last 16 of the 21 industries in the  Settlement
      Agreement.

    - Repromulgate revised BAT,new source and pretreatment standards for  the first 16 of
      the 21 industries in the Settlement Agreement.

    - Develop technical and economic information required to respond to litigations filed
      on previously promulgated regulations.

    - Publish best practicable technology regulations for industrial subcategories not
      previously covered.

    - Issue guidance development documents for use by the National Pollutant Discharge
      Elimination System (NPDES) permitting authorities for five industries:  feedlots,
      fish hatcheries,  food and beverage, glass manfacturimj, and transportation.

    - Provide technical and economic support required to develop and implement effluent
      guidelines  in support of Section 301(c) economic variance requests.
                                                                                        WQ-26

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  -  Initiate technical  studies  to  begin the  review and  revision of  BAT,  new  source
     performance  and  pretreatment standards for  priority pollutants  for 22  secondary
     industries.

  -  Study  reuse,  recycle and  zero  discharge  of  pollutants  for the first  three  of  the
     21  industrial  discharges.

  -  Continue minimal environmental  studies of geographic distribution and  exposure/
     risk of selected priority pollutants.
WQ-27

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                                          WATER QUALITY

                                      Abatement and Control

                                   Grants Assistance Programs
 Appropriation
 Control  Agency Resource
   Supplementation	
 Areawide Waste Treatment
   Management Resources
.   (Section 208)	
 Training Grants	
                              Actual
                               1977
$50,546
      Total	

 Permanent Positions.
 54,235
 Budget    Current
Estimate   Estimate
  1978       1978
                                               Increase +
                                  Estimate     Decrease -
                                    1979    1979 vs.  1978
                                                 (dollars in thousands)
 $52,400    552,400
$52,400
709
2,980
5,000
450
69,000
1,480
50,000
-$19,000
-1,480
  57,850    122.880-7   102,400
              -20,480
 Budget Request

      An appropriation of $102,400,000 is requested for FY 1979.   This represents a
 decrease of $20,480,000 from the FY 1978 level  and reflects a decrease of funding
 for Section 208 water quality planning agencies and a 1978 congressional  add-on for
 academic training which will not be required in 1979.

 Program Description

      The water quality grants assistance programs include three grant assistance
 activities: control agency resource supplementation grants, Section 208 planning
 grants, and training grants.

      The water control agency resource'supplementation program provides Federal support
 to State and interstate water pollution control agencies.  In virtually every program
 activity - permitting, monitoring, planning, enforcement, and municipal facilities
 management - EPA and the States perform functions which must be coordinated if they are
 to be effective.  EPA reviews and revises the strategy for coordination of effort between
 EPA and the States as well as the sequencing of this effort from year to year.  These
 broad guidelines are translated into operational program terms in the annual  program plan
 prepared by each State and approved by the EPA regional office.   Upon approval of the
 program, EPA funds each State agency to enable it to conduct its program activity.
 The EPA regions also monitor State performance to ensure that the outputs specified
 in the programs are accomplished.
 &/  Includes pending supplemental of $69 million for areawide waste treatment management
     to provide adequate funding to the States for water quality management planning.

 Ja/  The decrease reflects the inclusion of the pending supplemental in the 1978 current
     estimate; excluding this supplemental, the net change would be +$48,520,000.
                                                                                           WQ-28

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      In FY 1975, the last year for which figures are available, the role of the
States is clearly shown as State manyears of effort totaled approximately 5,500,
compared to EPA regional manyears of about 2,200.  Thus, the States are providing
about 70 percent of the manpower resources in the water program.

     The Act provides for the establishment of water quality management and
planning agencies under Section 208.  Through Section 208, State and areawide
planning agencies are provided a unique opportunity to plan and manage a
comprehensive program based on integrated planning and control over such activities
as municipal and industrial waste water, storm and combined sewer runoff, nonpoint
source pollutants, and land use as it relates to water quality.  From a pollution
control standpoint. Section 208 provides the unique opportunity to examine all
sources of pollution in an area and develop the most beneficial cost effective
trade-offs between sources to reach the desired ambient water quality level.

     A management system will be developed to carry out the objectives and
requirements of the plans.  This comprehensive management system is expected to
be the cornerstone of efforts for attaining the 1983 goals of the Act, as it
incorporates all the principal functions of water pollution control planning,
construction, and regulation.

     With initial planning, supported by FY 1974-77 grants, concluding in FY 1978
and early FY 1979, additional planning needs will be funded starting in FY 1978.
National priority'problems, including municipal facilities planning in critical
urban areas, pretreatment needs, and major nonpoint sources of pollution, will be
given highest priority for funding, and the role of the States in coordinating
all Section 208 planning will be emphasized.

     Academic training grants are awarded to institutions of higher education to
meet a variety of professional manpower needs.  Efforts in this area are divided
into four primary categories:  the professional training grant program, the graduate
fellowship program, professional training curriculum activities, and undergraduate
training grants.

CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION

1977 Accomplishments

     -  Support of priority program areas including permits, municipal
        facilities management, compliance monitoring, and enforcement.

     -  State issuance and reissuance of permits.

     -  Increase in capacity of State compliance monitoring to strengthen
        the enforcement of more than 8,200 issued permits.

     -  Increase in capacity of State agencies to manage the construction
        of municipal facilities and expedite the award of S7.5 billion of
        construction grants.
WQ-29

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1978 Program

     In 1978, S52.4 million is allocated for this effort.  Compliance monitoring
and enforcement will receive increased emphasis while permitting activities will
decline.  Additional State personnel must be provided to properly manage the
multibillion dollar construction grants program.  The Agency is depending on
increasing waste water treatment plant construction grant program delegations to
the States and the States must be encouraged to respond by shifting and adding
personnel to carry out priority activities.  No increase in funding over FY 1977
has been budgeted because planning costs of the States will be funded entirely
under Section 208,  allowing continued use of Section 106 funds previously
required for planning to be allocated to other activities.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.

1979 Plan

     A total of $52.4 million is requested for control agency grants.  In FY 1979,
additional program emphasis will be placed on compliance monitoring and permit
reissuance and the reorientation of management agencies to implement Section 208
planning outputs.  Managing programs controlling nonpoint sources will be a high
priority.  In the past, EPA and the States have concentrated virtually all of
their resources on abating point sources of pollution.  Programs will now be
reoriented to place greater emphasis on nonpoint sources.  With Section 208 grants,
the State and areawide planning agenc.ies are developing nonpoint source control
strategies.  These strategies will begin to be implemented in FY 1978 based on
best management practices.  A growing number of nonpoint source regulatory programs
are to be implemented by the States as Section 208 planning is completed.  All
costs of increasing State roles in municipal facilities program, management in
FY 1979 will be covered by construction grants funds.  Costs of some specifically
delegated State National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs
may also be covered by those funds.  In addition, new State responsibilities in
the Section 404 program under the 1977 Amendments may be funded with these
resources.  This will allow the increased costs of other programs to be covered by
the $52.4 million under Section 106, which is not increased from FY 1978.

AREAUIDE WASTE TREATMENT MANAGEMENT (Section 208)

1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977, the statewide agency portions of the Section 208 water quality
management planning program became fully operational as envisioned under then
existing law and regulations.  This involved not only State coordination and
assistance for the 176 areawide agencies funded by June 1976, but also planning
for nondesignated areas.  This brought 225 Section 208 plans under development
throughout the Nation.
                                                                                          WQ-30

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     Approximately  40  complete  draft  plans were  under  review  by  the  States  and  EPA
at  the end  of  FY  1977.   In  11 planning areas,  regulatory  programs  developed in
planning  had been adopted and in  30 planning areas, management agencies  to  carry
out portions of plan implementation had  been named.   Initial  Section 208 plan
approvals are  scheduled  for early FY  1978 and  close management of  the initial
Section 208 grants  will  continue  throughout FY 1978.

1978 Program

     In FY  1978, major funding  will be made available for Section 208 water  quality
management  planning.   A  $69 million FY 1978 supplemental  appropriation is pending
before Congress.  A part of these funds  will be  used  to  provide  States with
adequate  resources  to  complete  initial plans and to assume  a  more  central role
in  coordination and consideration of  water quality management planning.   In
addition, these funds  will  be used by successful  areawide agencies on the
development of needed  planning  for the control of high national  priority and high
State/local priority pollution  problems  which were not included  under initial
grants.   These strategies will  be worked out between  EPA, the States, and local
governments beginning  in FY 1978, and will include long-term  funding priorities
and consolidation of EPA planning requirements,  including Sections 201,  208, and
106 of the  Federal  Water Pollution Control Act,  as amended.   Major emphasis
•will be on  funding  of  planning  for nonpoint sources control,  complex municipal
facilities, and pretreatment planning projects.

1978 Explanation of Changes from  Budget  Estimate

     The  increase of $64 million  over the budget estimate results  from the
congressional  adjustment of the original $5 million requested—$2.3  million was
moved to  solid waste State  program resource assistance and  $2.7  million  was
reduced from the  request.   Offsetting this change is  the  inclusion of the $69
million pending supplemental in the current 1978 estimate for this activity.

1979 Plan
      In  FY  1979,  $50  million will  be made  available  for  continuation  of
 Section  208 planning  by  the States and  selected  areawide agencies.
 Major planning emphasis  will  continue  to be on  nonpoint  sources,  complex
 municipal  facilities, and pretreatment.  Consolidation of planning  requirements
 of Sections 201,  208, and 106  will be  emphasized in  all  States.
 TRAINING  GRANTS

 1977 Accomplishments

      The  professional  training  grant  program  provided  $369,900  for  training
 graduate  level students  in  water  related  engineering and  environmental  sciences.
 In  FY 1977,  96 graduate  trainees  were supported  at  30  institutions.   The State
 agency fellowship  program provided  $210,000 for  58  State  employees  from 53
 State and territorial  water pollution control  agencies.   They were  selected
 to  spend  1 year  in a water  related  graduate or undergraduate program.    Upon
 completion of this training,  the  employees returned to their respective agencies.
 WQ-31

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Professional training activities for FY 1977 included continuation of curriculum
development.  The Bachelor of Engineering Technology program is being developed
at Clemson University, the University of Maryland, and Pennsylvania State
University.  In addition, demonstration grants were developed for professional
training in the Section 208 program and in certification of senior operators in
local water pollution control facilities.  Undergraduate training grants were
provided for 10 institutions in water related engineering and environmental
disciplines to support approximately 100 students.

1978 Program

     In FY 1978, 31,480,000 is being provided to support:  (1) grants to post-
secondary educational institutions; (2) direct financial assistance for water
pollution State agency fellowships; (3) graduate training; (4) operator training
curriculum development. These professional and subprofessional training grant
programs will  support curriculum development, operations and maintenance training,
technical assistance, and demonstration project activities.  Continuation of the
national environmental workforce study is also provided as a part of this activity.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of 51,030,000 over the budget estimate reflects the water
quality portion of the congressional add-on of $3 million for academic training.

1979 Plan

     There will be no program in FY 1979.
                                                                                           WQ-32

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                                          WATER QUALITY

                                      Abatement and Control

                             Water Quality Strategies Implementation
                                   Actual
                                    1977
         Budget
        Estimate
          1978
        Current
        Estimate
          1978
        Estimate
          1979
         Increase +
         Decrease -
        1979 vs. 1978
                                                      (dollars in thousands)"
Appropriation
Spill Prevention and Response..
Ocean Disposal Permits	
Federal Activities/EIS Reviews.
Dredge and Fill Regulations	
$3,851
1,235
1,638
440
$3,701
1,400
1,500
600
$3,740
1,323
1,652
994
$7,202
1,371
1,500
1,057
+$3,462
+48
-152
+63
     Total.
7,164
7,201
7,709
11,130
+3,421
Permanent Positions
Spill Prevention and Response..
Ocean Disposal Permits	
Federal Activities/EIS Reviews.
Dredge and Fill Regulations	
102
20
71
19
no
24
75
19
no
21
77
27
m
23
75
24
+1
+2
-2
-3
     Total.
  212'
  228
  235
   233
    -2
Budget Request
     The FY 1979 appropriation request is $11,130,000 and 233 positions.  This is an
increase of $3,421,000 and a decrease of two positions.  The increase will be used to
implement the hazardous substances spill program.

Program Description

     The water quality strategies implementation subactivity covers the program areas
of spill prevention and response, ocean disposal permits, Federal activities and EIS
reviews, and dredge and fill regulations.

     The primary objective of EPA's spill prevention and response program is to
protect water quality through the prevention of spills and minimizing the impact of
spills on the environment.  Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
as amended, specifies a three-fold approach to the control of spills which consists
of response, prevention, and enforcement.  Essential to the implementation of
Section 311 is the promulgation of key regulations (including the designation of
hazardous materials), development of the National Contingency Plan, establishment of
spill response programs, and development of an aggressive spill prevention program.
The spill response program is shared with the U.S. Coast Guard and jurisdictional
lines between the agencies for response actions are drawn geographically between
inland and coastal,including the Great Lakes, waters.  It is EPA's position, supported
by Section 311, that the discharger should take actions to remove the spill material;
however, if the violator fails to do so, clean-up actions will be undertaken by EPA
 WQ-33

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and the discharger charged for the cost of removal.  To provide efficient and
coordinated response actions, national and regional contingency plans are required
which delineate procedures, techniques (chemical uses), and responsibilities of
the various Federal, State, and local authorities.

     The ocean disposal permit program is authorized by the Marine Protection,
Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972.  Under Title I of this Act, the Administrator
of EPA is authorized to regulate the disposition of all materials except dredged
material which is regulated by the Corps of Engineers.  It further prohibits the
transportation for the purpose of dumping as well as the dumping in ocean water of
chemical, biological, and radiological warfare agents and high-level radioactive
materials.  Under this authority, a permit program for ocean disposal of wastes
was implemented in 1973, and has been operational since then.

     The Federal activities and environmental impact statement (EIS) review
activity includes the evaluation of projects and programs of other Federal agencies
in light of the requirements and goals of the National Environmental Policy Act
(NEPA) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, (FWPCA).  EPA's
Federal facilities water compliance assurance activities include (1) review and
issuance of water discharge permits for existing and new facilities and review of
new source applications; (2) review of Federal agencies' proposed budgets for water
pollution abatement projects; (3) issuance of water compliance planning, operating, and
reporting guidelines to other Federal agencies; and (4) conducting onsite inspections
to assure continuing compliance of and providing technical assistance to Federal
facilities.

     The EIS review activity consists of reviews, consultations, and special
technical studies on the potential water quality impact of proposed major Federal
actions.  EPA has a unique responsibility to review and comment on such proposed
actions.  Any proposed actions found by EPA to be environmentally unsatisfactory
must be referred to the Council on Environmental Quality.  EPA's water quality
review activity focuses on those kinds of Federal programs and projects which have
the greatest potential water quality impact:  nuclear energy development and the
nuclear fuel cycle; energy conversion and conservation; energy transportation;
mineral extraction; water resources development; and community development
projects.  In addition to reviewing EIS's on major Federal actions, EPA also
reviews proposed Federal regulations.  Regulations and technical specifications
for governing mining and offshore oil and gas development require especially
detailed environmental impact review.

     The purpose of the dredged and fill material program is to protect the
Nation's wetlands and navigable waters from the discharge of dredged or fill
material that will result in significant environmental impact.  The EPA is
responsible for the promulgation of guidelines in conjunction with and for use
by the Corps of Engineers and States with delegated Section 404 permit programs,
in specifying disposal sites for the discharge of dredged or fill material, and
for the technical review of applications for disposal permits received by the Corps.
A significant action in developing final site selection guidelines is the
preparation of a procedures and testing manual for the environmental acceptability
of dredged or fill material disposal in water.
                                                                                            WQ-34

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SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE

1977 Accomplishments

     Contract funding of $350,000 was used to support the regions with
multidisciplinary technical field support, principally for emergency spill operations.
An additional 3190,000 was utilized to categorize designated hazardous substances
for development of prevention regulations.

     The spill prevention and response program responded to 1,240 oil spills;
performed 800 oil spill prevention inspections; conducted a regulations workshop
at the 1977 National Hazardous Substances Spills Conference; worked with the
Canadian Government on spill prevention related annexes of the Great Lakes Water
Quality Agreement; sponsored two field response training sessions of 1 week
duration; provided mechanisms for environmental assessments and aerial photo mapping
of significant spills; implemented an emergency environmental response unit and
prepared guidelines for its use; and prepared necessary technical documents to
support hazardous substances position papers for presentation at the Marine
Environment Protection Committee of the Integovernmental Maritime Consultative
Organization.

1978 Program

     The spill prevention and response program resource levels are $3,740,100
and 110 positions for FY 1978.  Contract funding of approximately $350,000 will
be used for technical field support for emergency spills.  An additional $450,000
is to be used to fund contractual functions pertaining to the implementation of
the hazardous materials program, to expand the management information system,
continue oil prevention aerial photo mapping, continue to provide field support
for emergency environmental response unit, and continue the oil prevention
program.

     Final  hazardous substances rules for designation, removability, harmful
quantities, and rates of penalty will be promulgated.  These rules list 271
pollutants designated as hazardous or toxic.  The program also
plans to develop the technical approach for the hazardous substances spill prevention
regulation; prepare necessary technical documents to support U.S. position papers
for the Marine Environment Protection Committee of the Intergovernmental Maritime
Consultative Organization; complete the technical approach for the development
of the removal and mitigating action hazardous substances regulations; implement
the oil removal  regulation; promulgate  regulations for nonharmful quantities of
oil for vessels; complete the rationale and development documents for other source
categories of nonharmful quantities of oil; provide special equipment and technical
assistance to regions for hazardous substances spill removal operations; revise
the National Contingency Plan; conduct a multiregional program review meeting; and
provide technical expertise to headquarters and regional enforcement personnel and
the Coast Guard.  The program will also conduct two field response training
sessions of 2-weeks duration.
  WQ-35

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 1978  Explanation of Changes from  Budget  Estimate

      The net  increase of $38,700  from  the  budget estimate results from  regional
 office  reprogrammings from the ocean disposal permits program  in order  to  support
 increased personnel costs.

 1979  Plan

      The spill prevention and response program resource  levels will  be  $7,202,000
 and 111 positions in FY 1979.  This represents an  increase of  $3,461,900 and one
 position.

      The additional resources will be  utilized to  implement the hazardous
 substances spill prevention and response program.   The  initiation of this new
 program will  more than double the number of spill  responses to 3,000 for oil and
 hazardous substances   and the number  of spill prevention inspections to 2,000  for oil
 and hazardous substances-  The budget  increase will be used to fund
 private contractors to provide engineering consultative  services and experts in
 toxicity to draft the engineering approach for the hazardous substances regulation
 development and to defend the regulation in litigations; supplement  the regional
 emergency spill response capability to hazardous substances spills;  provide field
 inspectors to conduct compliance monitoring inspections  for the hazardous  substances
 spill prevention program; provide contractor monitoring  services to  the regional
 on-scene  coordinator during major hazardous substances  spills, including
 documentation of contractor performance, expenditures of Federal Revolving Funds,
 and report writing; and expand the aerial  photo mapping  and photo interpretation capability to
 minimize field inspection time and on-scene  operations.  The one  position will be allocated  to
 headquarters  for coordinating technical and field  investigation assistance on major hazardous
 substances spills and monitoring the $3.5 million  in contracts.

 OCEAN DISPOSAL PERMITS

 1977  Accomplishments

      Forty permits were issued under the permit program; revisions to the  regulations
 and criteria were promulgated; and specialized air and water monitoring was conducted
 of the ocean  incineration of wastes in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Pacific Ocean
 off Johnston  Island.  The program began  a  3-year contractual effort  to  prepare  environmental
 impact statements for all ocean dump sites with $700,000 to conduct  surveys of two
 ocean dump sites.  A demonstration project for the Biota! Ocean Monitor System, an
 onsite bioassay mesh cage containing living marine organisms, was completed using
 $97,000 in contract funds.  Violations of the Marine Protection, Research, and
 Sanctuaries Act of 1972 were reported with civil enforcement actions taken and fines
 levied.  The program participated in the annual consultative meeting for implementing
 recommendation's of the London Dumping Convention.  An-annual report was also  prepared as  required  by
 statute and sent to the Congress and the Intergovernmental Maritime  Consultative
 Organization, the Secretariat  for the London Dumping Convention.

 1978 Program

     The ocean disposal  permit program resources are $1,322,700 and  21 positions for
 1978.   Approximately 40 permits will be issued under the permit program.  The program
will also begin collecting data on ocean dump sites for  EIS preparation, conducting
 baseline surveys for site designation on approximately three dump sites and complete
environmental impact statements on two ocean dump sites  through $700,000 in contracts.
The Biota!  Ocean Monitor System will be evaluated for monitoring at  dump sites with a
 $100,000 contract.   Demonstration monitoring programs will be conducted at the
                                                                                          WQ-36

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Philadelphia and New York sludge dump sites.  The program will participate in an
annual London Dumping Convention policy consultation meeting and one intersessional
technical meeting to discuss incineration at sea, procedures for settlement of
disputes, and identification of other technical issues raised by the Convention
provisions.  Civil enforcement actions will continue to be taken when violations
occur and an annual report will be prepared.  EPA will also conduct reviews to
determine compliance by the Corps of Engineers with EPA criteria for dredged
spoil disposal in the ocean.

     In addition to the above, program guidance to the regions will be continued,
bioassay operating manuals revised, and adjudicatory and public hearings will be
held.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $77,300 from the budget estimate results from regional
reprogrammings within the water quality media transferring $38,700 to spill
prevention and response and $9,200 to Federal activities/EIS reviews.  In addition,
$29,400 was transferred by headquarters to other media in order to support increased
personnel costs.

1979 Plan

     The ocean disposal permit program will be funded at $1,371,000 and 23 positions,
an increase of $48,300 and two positions from the 1978 level.  Baseline surveys will
be continued on the three sites initiated in FY 1978.  These surveys will be funded
with $600,000 and will be conducted by contract.  Environmental impact and site
designation activities will carry over into FY 1979 and future years.  Dredged
material site investigations will commence.  Of the 141 interim approved sites which
must-be surveyed and designated, 127 are for disposal of dredged material, which
comprises more than 90 percent of all material ocean dumped.  One technical
intersessional meeting and the annual Consultative Policy Meeting for the London
Dumping Convention are planned.  The Biota! Ocean Monitor System evaluated in 1978
will be refined and operational field testing and evaluation continued.  In addition,
program guidance to the regions will be continued, operating manuals prepared, and
adjudicatory hearings and public hearings will be held.

FEDERAL ACTIVITIES/EIS REVIEWS

1977 Accomplishments

     In Federal facilities compliance, 120 minor National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permits were issued, increasing the end-of-the-year
total of minor permits issued to 1,998.  This is in addition to the 224 major
NPDES permits issued.  All of the 2,222 permits had to be monitored on a continuing
basis; 476 permits required onsite inspections to insure compliance with NPDES
permit provisions.

     A total of 1,213 draft and 1,050 final environmental impact statements (EIS's)
as well as 130 proposed Federal agency regulations and other proposed Federal
actions were reviewed for water quality impact.
 WQ-37

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     No significant change in the overall level of EIS review activity from the
previous year was experienced.   In addition to the continued goal of timely and
high quality reviews, EPA's participation in the pre-EIS review and post-EIS
liaison processes was emphasized in FY 1977 as an effective method of influencing
Federal agencies' decision processes.  Efforts in these areas were focused on
energy development activities; pipelines, nuclear development, and coal development
on Federal lands; Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas leasing; major water resources
projects such as the Cross Florida Barge Canal, the lower Mississippi River and
tributaries projects and the Garrison Diversion Project; and major community
development projects.

1978 Program

     Total resources allocated to this program are SI,651,900 and 77 positions.
In Federal facilities  compliance, emphasis will be on new source review and on
review of facilities  selfmonitoring reports to ensure adherence to permit
requirements.   In addition, effort will continue to be focused on early
identification  of needed pollution abatement projects to ensure their inclusion
in Federal agencies' budget proposals.

     EPA anticipates no change in the number of EIS's that will be submitted to
EPA for review.  EPA will continue to produce comments on the documents submitted
and on proposed Federal regulations.  Pre-EIS liaison will be emphasized where a
series of projects will have significant cumulative effects on a large area.  For
example, navigation projects on  the Upper Mississippi River constitute a wide
ranging program which, without proper environmental planning, would have major
adverse effects on the environment.  Pre-EIS liaison will also be critical for
projects involving river basins  shared with Mexico and Canada.  Emphasis will
be placed on preventing and mitigating water quality degradation from energy
development, water resources development, and urban development.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $151,900 over the budget estimate is the result of regional
reprogrammings within the water  quality media to support increased operating costs
from ocean disposal permits ($9,200); from State programs regulations and guidelines
($61,900); from the Great Lakes  program ($17,500); and from municipal waste
treatment facility construction  ($63,300).

1979 Plan

     Total resources requested for this program element are $1,500,000 and 75 positions,
a decrease of $151,900 and two positions.  In Federal facilities  compliance,-continued
effort will be placed on bringing enforcement actions against major violators.  EPA
anticipates no change in the number of EIS's that will be submitted for review.  EPA
will  continue to produce comments on documents submitted and on proposed Federal
regulations.  Predraft EIS liaison and prefinal EIS consultation will increase
identifying Federal facilities violating discharge permit conditions.  An increase
of referrals from the regions to the Office of Federal Activities is anticipated.
Emphasis will continue to be placed on preventing and mitigating water and air
quality degradation from energy development, water resource development, and urban
development.
                                                                                           WQ-38

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DREDGE AND FILL REGULATIONS

1977 Accomplishments

     EPA participated with the Corps of  Engineers  in finalizing the dredge and fill
regulations.  Final regulations were promulgated by the Corps  in  July  1977.   EPA
conducted a review and evaluation of the Corps' general permit program and
provided an assessment of the findings to the Corps.  Regional personnel
implemented the Section 404 permit program.  Also  under this budget activity,
EPA personnel participated in dredge and fill research activities to define  the
boundaries of wetlands through development of vegetation species  tests.

1978 Program

     The dredge and fill regulations program resource levels are  $994,300 and
27 positions for FY 1978.  EPA will continue to review Section 404 permits
with regional personnel and expand this  review to  include Phase III of the
program.  Phase III will extend the requirements for a permit  beyond
traditionally navigable waters and their major tributaries to  the remaining
water of the United States.  In conjunction with the Corps, personnel  o^ the
Office of Research and Development of EPA, will participate in planning and
initiating new research which will benefit the dredge and fill program.  EPA
will continue to assess various test procedures beina considered  for future  inclusion  in
revisions of a test manual designed to provide procedures to identify the quality
of dredged or fill material proposed for discharge.  The emphasis this fiscal
year will be to draft final Section 404 guidelines for dredged or fill  disposal
site selection and to evaluate the effectiveness of Phase III.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $394,300 over the budget  estimate results from regional
reprogramnrings within the water quality media from municipal waste treatment
facility construction, required to expand the regional permit  review activity to
all waters of the United States (5107,300); and a  transfer of  personnel and
function previously reflected under State programs, regulations,  and guidelines
($287,000).

1979 Plan
     The dredge and fill regulation program resource levels will  be  $1,057,000
and 24 positions in FY 1979.  This represents an increase of $62,700 and a decrease
of three positions.  Approximately $150,000 is  planned  for contracting  to develop
test procedures for identifying acceptable dredged material discharges.

     EPA will publish, in the Federal Register, the final Section 404 guidelines
and provide assistance for  their implementation.  The program will continue  to
expand the review of Section 404 permit proposals to all waters of the  United
States and assist the Corps of Engineers in developing  environmentally  sound
permits which incorporate the final EPA guidelines.  EPA currently plans, through
coordination with the Corps, to implement the Section 404(c) regulatory provisions
which provide guidance for  veto of disposal sites based upon the  environmental  need.
WQ-39

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                                           WATER QUALITY

                                       Abatement and Control

                               Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis


                                       Budget    Current               Increase +
                             Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                              1977      1978       1978       1979    1979 vs. 1978
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation
Water Quality Monitoring
  and Analysis	    $7,029     $5,225     $5,067     $6,584     +$1,517

Permanent Posi ti ons
Water Quality Monitoring
  and Analysis	       190        201        189        157         -32

Budget Request

     An appropriation of $6,584,000 and 157 positions is requested for FY 1979.  This
represents an increase of $1,517,000 and a decrease of 32 positions.  This change
reflects a reduction of in-house monitoring efforts and an increase in reliance on
contracts and interagency agreements to perform the routine aspects of pollutant studies
of effluent levels, ambient quality, and exposure and risk for 65 toxic chemicals.

Program Description

     This program includes (1) the direction of EPA and State monitoring programs;
(2)management of EPA and other Federal water monitoring stations and surveys including
survey design, field sampling, data collection, laboratory analysis, and quality
control operations; (3) exposure/risk studies for 65 toxic pollutant categories;
(4) studies of particular industrial categories to assist in development of effluent
guidelines; (5) data interpretation, analysis, reporting, and evaluation; (6) water
quality and effluent quality status measurement, reporting, and analysis; and
(7) maintenance, operation, and improvement of a national water quality data system
(STORET).  This program also provides environmental analyses for the development of
water programs and regulations, including water quality standards, toxic pollutant
standards, and effluent guidelines.

     The Federa-1 Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, requires the Environmental
Protection Agency, in partnership with the States and other Federal agencies, to
establish a system to monitor the quality of navigable and ground waters of the
United States.  In FY 1974, EPA established the National Water Quality Surveillance
System, a set of paired monitoring stations upstream and downstream from municipal,
rural, and industrial areas.   Data from these and other State and Federal sampling
operations are used to give insights into the overall quality of the Nation's waters
and trends related to municipal, industrial, and nonpoint sources.
                                                                                          WQ-40

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     The Act requires that States receiving grants under Section 106 for water
pollution programs operate appropriate water monitoring programs.  In FY 1976,
EPA issued grant regulations requiring each State, in conjunction with EPA, to
establish and update a systematic monitoring strategy and to provide resulting
data to EPA in a format compatible with EPA's data systems.  In 1977 EPA, in
cooperation with several States, developed a basic water monitoring program to
help guide and direct State efforts.  During the implementation phase, this
program will guide State monitoring programs in conventional, as well as toxics
and biological  monitoring.  One major emphasis is to make better, more efficient
use of Federal/State monitoring funds.

     The major monitoring initiative in FY 1978 and FY 1979 is chemical and
biological monitoring to assess the existence, concentrations, distributions,
and exposure/risk of toxic pollutants.  Based on data findings, recommendations
will be made concerning the most appropriate control strategies for each pollutant
and family of pollutants.  Data examined during these studies will include
information gathered by States and other.Federal agencies as well as by EPA.

     EPA also operates the STORET system, an information system to store and
retrieve water quality data, as a service to State and Federal agencies.  This
activity insures common availability of data among its users, helps prevent
duplication of monitoring effort, and makes data available to EPA at a fraction
of the original acquisition cost.

1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1-977, emphasis in monitoring was broadened to include specific toxic
monitoring activities.  Included in overall expenditures were $200,000 in
computer systems' related contracts; $800,000 for an interagency agreement with
the U.S. Geological Survey for EPA's National Water Quality Surveillance System;
and 5200,000 for an interagency agreement with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
for toxics analyses of fish tissue.  Principal accomplishments include:

     -  Implementation of general environmental studies of toxic pollutants.

     -  Implementation of a toxics monitoring program through in-house studies,
        an interagency agreement with the Fish and Wildlife Service for fish
        tissue analysis, and field monitoring by EPA and the States.

     -  Publication and adoption of the basic water monitoring program which
        sets out monitoring priorities for use by States.

     -  Evaluation of quality assurance procedures in over 60 State monitoring
        laboratories.

     -  Submission to Congress of the State water quality inventory reports
        with a national overview by EPA.

     -  Analysis, documentation, and publication of water pollution clean-up
        successes in eight additional areas.

     -  Installation of adequate fiscal and management controls on the STORET system.

     -  Continuation of an agreement with U.S. Geological Survey wherein it
        would continue providing water sampling and laboratory analysis
        support  for the National Water Quality Surveillance System.
   WQ-41

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1978 Program

     In FY 1978, $5,067,000 and 189 positions are allocated to water quality
monitoring and analysis.

     Programs being emphasized are nationwide implementation of the basic
water monitoring program by States and increased collection and analysis
of toxic pollutant data and information.  Projected accomplishments include:

     -  Completion of the second year of the 3-year implementation phase
        of the basic water monitoring program for State collection of
        ambient, effluent, toxics, and biological data.

     -  Continued evaluation of quality assurance procedures in selected
        State water laboratories.

     -  Assessment of environmental exposure/risk for selected toxic
        pollutants for the purpose of providing environmental information
        for revised best available technology regulations, pretreatment and
        new source performance standards, water quality standards, and
        Section 307(a) toxics standards.

     -  Submission to Congress of the state water quality inventory reports
        with a national overview by EPA.

     -  Analysis, documentation, and publication of water pollution clean-up
        successes in additional geographic areas.

     -  Addition to STORET of complete user documentation and more
        sophisticated analysis programs for management support.

     -  Continuation of an interagency agreement with the U.S. Geological
        Survey for collection and analysis of water samples for the National
        Water Quality Surveillance System.

     -  Continuation of an interagency agreement with the Fish and Wildlife
        Service for-analysis «5f fish tissue for presence of toxic substances.

     -  Analysis and reporting on data gathered by the National Water
        Quality Surveillance System.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $158,100 from the budget estimate results from a regional
reprogramming to the water quality enforcement activity ($27,400), headquarters
reprogramming to effluent standards and guidelines ($111,300), and  a transfer to
other media ($19,400), all to support increased personnel costs.
                                                                                          WQ-42

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1979 Plan

     In FY 1979, $6,584,000 and 157 positions are requested, an increase of SI ,517,000
and a decrease of 32 positions.  This reflects an increased reliance on contracts and
interagency agreements to perform routine aspects of the toxics and other water
monitoring efforts.  Approximately $2,300,000 will be utilized for contracts and
interagency agreements to perform monitoring.


     Major accomplishments planned for FY 1979 include determination of
geographic distributions, mass balances, and exposure/risk analyses for
selected toxic substances, and completion of a biological monitoring/data automation
pilot project.  The planned outputs are:

     -  Assessment of environmental exposure/risk for additional selected
        toxic pollutants for the purpose of providing environmental
        information for revised best available technology regulations,
        pretreatment and new source performance standards, water quality
        standards, and Section 307(a) toxics standards.

     -  State operation of the Basic Water Monitoring Program to include
        toxics monitoring and biological monitoring.

     -  Submission to Congress of the State water quality inventory
        reports with a national overview by EPA.

     -  Analysis and reporting of data gathered through the National
        Water Quality Surveillance System.

     -  Continuation and improvement of STORET support to management.

     -  Provision of technical evaluation and recommendations for control
        of toxics within the framework of overall water quality management
        planning.

     -  Evaluation of quality assurance procedures in selected State
        laboratories.

     -  Completion of a biological sampling/data automation pilot project
        to evaluate various biological monitoring methods and techniques
        for biological data interpretation.
  WQ-43

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                                           WATER QUALITY

                                       Abatement and Control

                                     Municipal Source Control
                                  Actual
                                   1977
Appropriation

Municipal Waste Treatment
  Facility Construction	  $21,115
Waste Treatment Operation
  and Maintenance	    1,802
Manpower Planning and
  Training	    2,938

       Total	•	   25,855

Permanent Positions
         Budget
        Estimate
          1978
           Current
          Estimate
            1978
          Estimate
            1979
                                                           (dollars in thousands)
        Increase +
        Decrease -
      1979_ vs.  1978
                                               +324,370
                                                ..+1.230
Municipal Waste Treatment
  Facility Construction...
Waste Treatment Operation
  and Maintenance	
Manpower Planning and
  Training	
       Total.
862

 59

 49

970
  913

   63

	51.

1,027
  890

   62

   50

1,002
904

 62

 25

991
                                                +25,600
+14
-25
-11
Budget Request
     The FY 1979 request is for $57,385,000 and 991 positions.  Administration of the municipal
source control subactivity in FY 1979 is expected to require an additional $25,599,600 above
the currently estimated FY 1978 level.  This increase is mainly due to an interagency agree-
ment with the Corps of Engineers to perform management activities in the Step 3 award process
of the construction grants program, and an increase in contract support to provide training
for municipal waste water treatment plant operators.

Program Description

     The municipal source control subactivity is composed of two program areas.  The first,
the municipal waste water treatment facility construction program, derives its legislative
authority from Title II of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (FWPCA).
The second, the municipal operations and manpower planning and training program, derives its
principal authority from Title I, Sections 104 and 109 through 112, and portions of Title II
and Title IV of the FWPCA.  The funding provided under this subactivity covers only the
direct costs of operating both programs.  Omitted are those operating costs related to
construction grants environmental impact statements, which are provided separately, and the
municipal construction grant funds, which are included in a separate appropriation account,
Construction Grants.

     The municipal source control activity is undertaken primarily in the EPA regional offices,
where all the grant activity and associated administration of the grants program and post-
construction activities take place.  The direct training and operational technology activities
of the municipal operations and training programs are located at the National Training and
Operational Technology Center in Cincinnati.   The remainder of the subactivity - program
policy, administrative and management oversight, needs estimates - resides in headquarters,
primarily in the Municipal Construction Division and the Municipal Operations and Training
Division of the Office of Water Program Operations.
                                                                                         WQ-44

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      The first program area ~ the administration of the grants program for construction of
 municipal waste water treatment facilities-- will involve 904 direct personnel in FY 1979,
 of which 833 are in the regional offices and 71 are in headquarters, and substantial contract
 and interagency assistance.  The principal goal underlying the grants program is to eliminate
 the municipal discharge of untreated or inadequately treated pollutants and thereby help
 restore  or maintain the quality of the Nation's waters and protect the health and well-being
 of the people.-  The major operational objectives guiding EPA's program administration are to
 achieve the most cost-effective, environmentally sound, and timely abatement of municipal
 waste water pollution through proper planning, design, and construction of treatment works;
 to protect the fiscal and technical integrity of the program through sound management and
 close project oversight; and to encourage maximum State participation in program administration
 through both technical assistance to improve State program management and delegation of Federal
 activities.  Areas of increased attention in FY 1979 will include improved environmental
 reviews, more face-to-face contact with grantees, an improved public participation program,
 encouragement of alternatives to conventional treatment  (including land treatment), closer
 oversight and review of cost-effectiveness methodology, better State project planning, and
 other activitias prompted by new environmental initiatives and recent legislative amendments.
 EPA will direct its construction grants funds to those municipal projects required to comply
 witn the enforceable environmental goals of the Act.

      To achieve these objectives, EPA has substantially increased its total management effort
 in the construction grants area through an interagency agreement with the Corps of Engineers.
 The agreement will become effective in mid-FY  1978 and  is expected to provide 600 additional
 workyears during FY 1979 fo>" those tasks related to Step 3 (construction) oversight.

      The second area — the municipal operations and manpower planning and training program —
 involves 87 positions.  The principal objectives for this area include:

           Development and maintenance of State and local municipal operations programs—This
• involves continuous assessment of public waste water treatment plant operational efficiencies
 through a vigorous plant operation and maintenance inspection program.  Inspection results
 are reported annually to Congres in accordance with Section 210 of the Act.  The program
 supports State, local, and private sector efforts to improve plant operations and maintenance
 through the development of guidance materials and manuals; identification of planning, design,
 research, and training needs; conduct of technical assistance demonstration programs; and public
 awareness activities.

           Development of trained water pollution control personnel to implement programs
 authorized by the Clean water Act of 1977—These include (a) training and
 certification of municipal waste water treatment facility operators and related personnel to
 improve treatment plant efficiency in existing plants and assure efficient and reliable
 operation of new federally funded plants; (b) development of manpower planning capabilities
 in EPA regions and State agencies to systematically assess the needs for professional and
 subprofessional waste pollution control manpower; and (c) training of EPA, State, and private
 sector agency personnel in the technology of abatement and control of water pollution through
 short term training courses, packaged training courses, development of audiovisual training
 aids, and delivery of training resources for the purpose of developing effective State
 and local water pollution control training programs.


 MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY CONSTRUCTION

 1977 Accomplishments

      Of the $21,115,000 obligated for program operations in FY 1977, approximately $2,329,000
 was for contracts and interagency agreements.  The interagency agreements were principally
 with the Corps of Engineers and General Services Administration to perform interim construction
 inspections.

      In the 5 years since passage of the 1972 Amendments, EPA has awarded grants totalling
 $18.1 billion for new construction and $2.3 billion in Section 206(a) reimbursements.  These
 investments are beginning to make their mark.  More than 4,300 municipal plants are in com-
 pliance with the secondary treatment requirements (one-third of the total) and dramatic water
 quality improvements have been noted in a number of major cities across the country.
   WQ-45

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      In FY  1977, the grant program obligated more funds, made more new awards, and paid out more
for work performed than  in any other year since the program began.  The $7.5 billion obligated
for both construction grants and Section 206(a) reimbursement grants was 74 percent larger than
the previous annual high  ($4.3 billion  in FY 1976) and more than 25 percent of all the funds
awarded since  1956.  The Agency processed 4,391 new awards to municipalities in FY 1977, up
10 percent  from the previous year's total of 3,977.  The number of on-going projects for all
steps on September 30, 1977, totalled 11,198, with total grant awards of more than $20 billion.
Payments totalling $3.5  billion were processed for work completed during FY 1977.  Construction
was completed  on 797 projects during the year and 4,326 projects were either under construction
or awaiting construction  initiation.  The following table summarizes the grant program workload
during FY 1977:
                                                 	FY 1977	
          Item
Awards Processed:
  Step 1 Awards	
  Step 2 Awards	
  Step 3 Awards	
  Grant Increases/Decreases.

Active Projects:
  Step 1	
  Step 2	
  Step 3	
  Section 8  (PL 84-660)	
Number
 1,361
 1,390
 1,575
 4,888
 1,944
 3,475
   891
Total Obligations.
Total Outlays	
   Amount
(^million)
      $95
      254
    5,487
      823
      451
      499
   15,815
    3,713

    7,501
    3,530
     The sharply accelerated grant rate in FY 1977 redirected much of the program's limited
resources toward the grant processing functions and away from many aspects of effective
program management.  Many activities designed to enhance the fiscal and technical integrity
of the program were deferred or minimized in favor of grant award processing.  Despite this,
EPA was able to accomplish a number of significant tasks during FY 1977 that worked to improve
both current and future program operations.

     A number of major policy actions were taken during FY 1977 regarding reuse and reclamation
of waste water and sludge.  Areas addressed included land treatment as a preferred technology
alternative; definitive guidance on municipal sludge management to promote beneficial use and
resource recovery; and encouragement of water conservation in planning of municipal projects.
Through FY 1977, at least 350 grant projects were committed to using land application of waste
water.

     Several administrative actions relating to improved management effectiveness were also
taken during FY 1977.  A mandatory value engineering program during the design phase was
instituted for large projects, leading to an estimated savings of approximately $74 million in
potential construction costs (25 projects); an amendment to the secondary treatment regulations
was promulgated allowing the use of waste water treatment ponds to meet secondary requirements,
a move especially beneficial to small communiities; more comprehensive guidance was issued
regarding eligibility and priority of collection systems, allowing more precise and clear cut
determinations during facility planning; and improved policies and procedures were issued for
efficient and effective priority list management.  These administrative actions worked to
narrow the construction grants focus to the priority areas best suited to meeting the enforceable
requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.

     The emphasis on delegation of construction grants tasks to State agencies remained a high
Agency priority throughout the year.  Approximately 35-40 States are currently certified to
review plans and specifications, process change orders, and review operation and maintenance
manuals.   FY 1977 was the first year of full delegation to California and performance there
was excellent.  Two other States — Maryland and Michigan -- developed fee plans similar to
California to pay for State operations under delegation, and progress in negotiating delegation
agreements has been satisfactory.  Many other States and regions initiated preliminary delegation
planning, pending enactment of the new legislation  to allow a portion of each State's allot-
ment to be used for State program operations.
                                                                                          WQ-46

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     A revised and expanded management information system was implemented in all EPA regions
and California - under delegation - to facilitate improved milestone tracking of projects, to
expand multiyear project management, to provide timely and accurate management access to informa-
tion, and to improve many areas of program management.  Information for all  levels of management
was better coordinated, more timely, and more complete as a result of this new system.

       Third, fourth,and fifth roundsof reimbursements to projects eligible under Section 206(a)
were initiated during FY 1977, based on new appropriations that raised the total for this program
to $2.4 billion.  Sufficient funds are now available to increase reimbursement of all currently
eligible projects to 100 percent of the total reimbursable limit under Section 206(a).  About
S482 million was obligated during the year, resulting in total  obligations of $2.25 billion
since FY 1974.

     The 1976 Needs Survey was published, with results which sharply lowered the total estimate
of need from the prior survey.  Total municipal needs are now at $150 billion for all municipal
treatment and sewer facilities.  This downward estimate resulted principally from a more detailed
computation of separate storm sewer needs, which was reestimated at $54.1 billion as opposed to
the 1974 State estimate of $329 billion.  The 1976 Survey was more accurate, more efficient,
and more complete than any prior survey.

     A major study on construction grants manpower resources was undertaken to determine the
level of resources required to effectively manage the program.   Solutions had to be found that
provided sufficient resources (1) to manage the growing number of active projects, (2) to
protect the fiscal and technical integrity of the program, and (3) to maximize use of available
Federal manpower and expertise.  Alternatives investigated included outside contracting, agree-
ments with other Federal agencies, accelerated delegation to the States, and temporary
reprogramming of staff.  This .study pointed to the interagency agreement with the Corps of
Engineers.

1978 Program

     The $26,234,200 budget for FY 1978 will support 890 positions, $2,800,000 for contracts
and grants, and $4,700,000 for interagency agreements.  The resource problems that have hindered
effective program management are expected to be somewhat alleviated through a new interagency
agreement with the Corps of Engineers to provide assistance in Step 3 management and oversight.
The negotiations leading to the agreement were concluded on January 20, 1978, and limited
Corps involvement will begin shortly on a pilot basis.  The major beneficial impact
of the Corps involvement will not be felt until FY 1979 and later.  Sufficient Corps resources
to generate 600 workyears are expected to be fully trained and in place by the end of FY 1978.

     The level of new construction grants activity is estimated to drop sharply from the peak
of FY 1977, largely because of the delay in receiving supplemental  funding for^FY 1978
and the very high rate of obligation during the last quarter of FY 1977.  The EPA staff effort,
diverted to handle the extraordinary project workload in FY 1977, is expected to concentrate
on improved front end and postaward management, implementation of the new legislation, and
improved program planning and execution, as well as processing new awards once funds become
available.  The new effort by the Corps - in conjunction with a more reasonable obligation
level - will provide improved management capability and more comprehensive EPA review and
oversight.

     The grant program activity for FY 1978 assumes enactment of a supplemental appropriation
of $4.5 billion in early calendar year 1978.  Under this assumption, approximately 5,600 new
awards are expected to be made  (totalling $3.9 billion) for the planning, design, and construc-
tion of treatment facilities.   In addition, the remaining $116 million appropriated for Section
206(a) reimbursable projects will be obligated.  Based on the most recent information available,
an estimated 12,000 projects will be in various stages' of preconstruction or construction
activity by year end.  This represents an increase of 1,330 over the estimates in the 1979
budget appendix.  The following table summarizes the program planned for FY 1978:
  WQ-47

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                                                        1978 Estimate
           Item                                   Number             Amount
                                                                 ($ million)

Step 1 Awards	      2,000               $200
Step 2 Awards	      2,300                800
Step 3 Awards....	      1,300              2,900
Active Projects	     12,000*            23,000
Step 3 Completions	      1,040

Obligations  (all  programs)		        ...              4,000
Total Outlays	        ...              4,135

     The major workload intensive efforts in FY 1978, other than grants management, are two-fold:
(a) the implementation of  the  new Clean water Act (P.L. 95-217) amending the Federal Water
Pollution  Contol  Act, and  (b)  the phasing of the new Corps of Engineers comrntments into Step 3
management and oversight.  The first -- the implementation of the new midcourse correction
legislative  provisions —  requires major new regulatory and policy development, particularly in
areas that significantly impact grants management.  All new implementing, regulations are to be
in final form by  October 1, 1978.  The second — the Corps of Engineers Interagency Agreement
phase-in —  will  require negotiation of detailed subagreements between each EPA regional office
and the related Corps Division Office, development  of prototype activities in selected regions,
training of  Corps personnel, and full implementation across all regions by year end.  The total
Corps commitment  is expected to be in place no later than October 1, 1978.

     Development  and issuance  of new regulations and policy guidance will be required to
implement  the new legislation.  Major municipal areas requiring new regulations include (a)
changes in  works eligibilities  and their impact on facilities planning; (b) changes in secondary
treatment  requirements for ocean outfalls;  (c) restructuring of priority list planning require-
ments to accommodate set-asides for pipe projects,  small conmunities, and innovative technology;
(d) user charge changes; (e) State management assistance procedures; and (f) improvements in
cost-effectiveness guidelines.  Immediate regulations are required in several cases — to allot
the new funding and implement  other sections effective upon enactment.  Policy guidance is
planned for  facility planning  components — cost allocation for multiple purpose projects,
land acquisition eligibility,  public participation, National Environmental Policy Act guidance --,
pretreatment of industrial wastes, sludge management and land treatment, energy usage, water
conservation, etc.

     A special manpower intensive effort will' be required to effectively implement the new
State management  assistance legislation, which allows States to use up to 2 percent of their
allotment  for State operations under delegation.  The workload involved for both the EPA
regions and  States is extensive:  development of delegation agreements that would protect
project integrity, negotiation of separate functional agreements, development of manpower
strategies,  and overall management of the delegation.  Only one State — California — has
effectively  implemented delegation and that required more than 3 years to become fully
operational.

     Continued efforts to  improve management, protect project integrity, and provide technical
assistance will remain a high  priority in FY 1978.  Some of the major activities will include
issuance of an environmental procedures manual, development of a sludge management bulletin,
better and more frequent preapplication conferences, implementation of "streamlining"
recommendations to simplify and expedite grant processing, closer project oversight through
interim review of project performance, and more frequent construction inspections.  Much of
the effort in this area is dependent on how fast the Corps interagency agreement becomes fully
operational.

* The latest information available, as reflected herein, shows an increase in active projects
over the number shown in the budget appendix, which was 10,670.
                                                                                           WQ-48

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     The 1978 Needs Survey, required under Section 516(b) and 205(a) of the FWPCA, will be
undertaken during FY 1978, with submission to Congress scheduled for February 1979.  The
survey will, for the first time, be a complete census of all municipal  needs.  It is expected
to become the foundation for an emerging long term planning and management system that links
together the needs assessment with the National  Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
permits, municipal discharge listings, construction grants priority planning, Section 208
areawide planning, and treatment plant operations.  A systems study is being undertaken in
FY 1978 to determine how to best provide this linkage.  New policy guidance and regulations
will  be developed to formalize the Needs Survey and project priority linkage and to provide
procedures to monitor State performance against total needs.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $493,700 from the budget estimate results from regional reprogrammings
within the the water quality media to support increased personnel costs in Federal activities/
EIS reviews ($03,300), dredge and fill regulations ($107,300), waste treatment operations and
maintenance ($17,800), and water quality enforcement activities  ($305,300).

1979 Plan
     The FY 1979 program includes $50,604,000 and 904 positions, an increase of $24,369,800
and 14 positions over the expected FY 1978 level.  The 14 position increase will cover an
anticipated minor internal reprogramming of effort.  Approximately $24 million of this budget
will be used to implement the interagency agreement with the Corps of Engineers to manage the
construction phase, Step 3, of the grants program.  The additional funds are necessary to
upgrade the ability of EPA to effectively execute the legislative mandate and protect the fiscal
and technical integrity of the program.  The cost of the Corps interagency agreement includes
the salaries and related costs for 600 workyears, including travel and relocation where necessary.
The agreement will include two major mission type efforts:  on-site presence during construction
for the larger projects, and Step 3 management and oversight from construction grant application
through construction completion for all projects.  As part of this effort, the Corps will review
the plans and specifications for constructability (after EPA/State review of the sanitary
engineering aspects) to ensure that what has been designed meets all engineering requirements
necessary for construction contract bidding.  The Corps agreement will allow EPA  to reorient a
portion of its current staff away from Step 3 activities toward more intensive review, oversight,
and assistance at the front end of the process ~ preapplication, facility planning, and design --
and lead to the planning and design of more fiscally and environmentally sound projects.  This
increase in effort should facilitate improved project fiscal and technical integrity and
improve overall program management and control.
     FY 1979 will be the first full  year of the new legislation, with most provisions supported by
final  regulations and new policy guidance.   Approximately 6,400 new awards are expected to be made,
totaling 55 billion, based on the most recent information available 12,600 projects will be in
preconstructipn or construction stages by year end (represents an'increase of 1,305 over the 1979
budget appendix), and payments will  be made totaling approximately $4.7 billion.  This activity
level  is planned in conjunction with the request for additional  construction grants appropriation
of $4.5 billton in FY 1978 and $4.5 billton in FY 1979.

     The following table compares the planned FY 1979 program with the FY 1977 and FY 1978
activities:
                                            FY 1977          FY 1978           FY 1979
               Item                          Actual          Planned          Requested

Total obligations	       $7,501 M         $4,000 M           $5,000 M

New Step 1 Awards	        1,361            2,000              2,100
New Step 2 Awards	        1,390            2,300              2,300
New Step 3 Awards	        1,575            1,300              2,000
Construction Completions	          797            1,040              2,000
Active  Projects  (All Steps)	        11,198           12,000*             12,600*

Total Outlays	       $3,530 M         $4,135 M           $4,660 M

*  The  latest information available as reflected herein shows increases over the numbers
reflected in the budget appendix which were active projects of 10,670 and 11,295 for
fiscal  years 1978 and 1979, respectively.


WQ-49

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     The increased manpower resource effort in FY 1979 will allow EPA to pursue a number of
major initiatives to protect project integrity and improve environmental management that were
deferred or minimized in prior years because of resource constraints.  Many of these — such as
interim review of facility plans and plans and specifications, increased face-to-face contacts
with grantees, increased construction inspections, closer review of change orders, more
preapplication conferences, etc. — are possible only because of the new Corps effort and
resulting EPA program shifts.  The major program thrusts that have emerged from recent EPA
and State initiatives, GAO audits of EPA performance, and the new amendments to the FWPCA are
as follows:

     -  Encouragement of alternatives to conventional treatment technologies which
        might constitute more environmentally compatible solutions to waste control
        and result in the conservation and reuse of water, waterborne nutrients, and
        other valuable elements.

     -  Initiation of activities to maximize the program delegation under the new
        legislation, including predelegatton planning, negotiation with individual
        States, and implementation of new agreements.

     -  Improved citizen participation procedures throughout the grants process —
        including preapplication — in conjunction with each State agency.

     -  A detailed, sensitive environmental review for every project to ensure environ-
        mentally sound and efficient facility construction and operation.

     -  Management of a 5-year project plan for all the States to ensure efficient
        program administration and a smooth continuation of the program, including
        full fund use for all the States.

     -  Close project oversight and grants management throughout the grants process
        to ensure that projects proceed according to schedule, that problems are
        resolved expeditiously, and that all regulations and policy are followed.

     -  New headquarters related efforts to ensure that all requirements are followed
        on selected projects.  These will include:  (a) construction operations review
        inspections of the grantee and construction site, at a rate of 20 per year;
        (b) quality review of facility plans on a sample basis' to isolate planning
        problem areas; (c) increased interim financial audits; (d) large project
        management and oversight to ensure expeditious completion of planning and
        construction milestones; and (e) close monitoring and oversight of regional
        and State performance against plans.

     -  A series of major construction grants related studies, mandated under the
        recently enacted Clean Water Act Amendments, to clarify specific policy
        issues.  EPA is required to prepare the studies, submit reports to Congress
        of the findings, and publish new guidelines where existing policy is affected.
        The major studies include:  (a) an assessment of industrial cost recovery
        requirements in the grant program; (b) status of available technology
        alternatives to correct combined sewer overflow; (c) use of effluent and
        sludge for agricultural purposes; (d) development and operation of a public
        information and education program on recycling and reuse of waste water and
        water conservation; and (e) an assessment of current and proposed water
        and waste water planning coordination in the construction grants program.
        Several other smaller studies must also be performed.

The growing experience in construction grants administration since FY  1973, coupled with
an increased resource base and the new Clean Water Act Amendments, is expected to lead to
significantly improved project planning and management at all levels in FY 1979.  The resource
commitment outlined above will provide for sufficient management oversight within the grants
program to ensure that the 10-year construction grants strategy meets its objectives, and
that the clean water goal is met in the shortest possible time.
                                                                                        WQ-50

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WASTE TREATMENT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

1977 Accomplishments

     During FY 1977, the waste treatment operation and maintenance (O&M) program:

     -  Identified and documented public owned treatment works (POTW) performance
        problems and probable causes by means of a national inspection program
        and provided an annual O&M survey report to Congress.

     -  Encouraged, assisted, and/or trained States and private parties to provide
        on-site O&M assistance and training to localities to enable them to achieve
        design efficiencies and comply with regulatory requirements.

     -  Developed and disseminated technical  literature and manuals describing how
        to achieve efficient and dependable operation and maintenance of POTWs.

     -  Developed and supported implementation of program guidance to assure proper
        attention to O&M in the construction grant process, especially with regard
        to start-up and plans of operation.

     -  Conducted seminars to orient and train consultants and regional/State/local
        personnel in the principles of sound operation and maintenance as related
        both to the design and ongoing operation of POTWs.

     -'  Initiated guidance to assure that State and local Section 208 planning
        agencies adequately provide for resolution of municipal compliance/O&M
        problems in their water quality management plans.

     -  Integrated municipal operation and maintenance inspection and assistance
        efforts with municipal compliance-water-program goals and activities.

     -  Developed materials and cosponsored State and regional meetings of elected
        and appointed officials to increase public/local decisionmaker knowledge
        and concern about O&M problems and their resolution.

1978 Program

     The waste treatment operation and maintenance program resources for FY 1978 are 62 positions
and $1,768,400.  Surveys have shown no substantial improvement in the performance efficiency of
the Nation's waste water treatment facilities over the last several years.  During FY 1978, the
operations and maintenance program will concentrate on mobilizing a coordinated, broad based
approach to improved performance.  This approach will require that several programs devote
special efforts to the problems of municipalities.  Avenues to be developed include reassess-
ment of inspection program priorities and methods, development of communications and joint
actions with enforcement, exploration of remedies through grant procedures (including
retrieval of grant funds), increased use of the existing O&M requirement in permits, and closer
planning ties with training and research.  The O&M program plans also include establishing
improved means for integrating O&M provisions into Section 106 grant procedures and activities
that will ensure attention to waste water treatment facilities in Section 208 planning.

     In 1978, the operations and maintenance (O&M) program will:

     -  Conduct studies of O&M processes.

     -  Develop new program guidance for inspection, technical assistance, and
        O&M/enforcement cooperation and coordinate this guidance with regional
        offices to ensure its inclusion in the State programs.

     -  participate in the conduct of an audit study on the O&M aspects of State
        grant programs.
   WQ-51

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     -  Revise O&M inspection process and data collection forms for better identification
        of problem  causes and to ensure more positive followup.

     -  Selectively identify problem areas on geographic and functional bases and use
        selected problems to develop priority plans and effective solution options —
        referral to enforcement, referral to State agencies, establishment of training
        programs, etc.

     -  Provide technical assistance through on-site demonstrations where such activities can
        can be used to train trainers or State and private sector personnel.

     -  Prepare special legislatively mandated reports to Congress and to selected
        other groups on plant efficiency, associated problems, and their causes.

     -  Develop regional access to the files on public owned treat-
        ment works operational data for analysis, evaluation, and decision making as
        a means of resolving O&M related problems.

     -  Prepare printed materials on O&M issues of national concern and distribute
        materials to gain public support for improving plant performance and
        rellability.

     -  Continue technical studies and documentation to improve the availability of
        urgently needed reference materials on treatment plant operational technology
        for use by operators, consultants, and regulatory personnel.

     -  Provide guidance to State and local officials on treatment plant budget,
        staffing, and related needs for improving compliance with FWPCA requirements
        and objectives.

     -  Support the development of effective State and local operator training and
        certification programs.

     -  Continue regional/State municipal facility inspection activities to support
        planning, construction, operations, and National Pollutant Discharge
        Elimination System objectives through improved data flow on treatment plant
        operations and problems.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     An increase of $17,800 over the budget estimate results from a regional reprogramming from
municipal waste treatment facility construction to provide for increased personnel costs.

1979 Plan

     In 1979,the budget request of 62 positions and $1,768,400 will be used to sustain optimum
performance from waste water treatment plants by continuing the effort to integrate operations
and maintenance (O&M) provisions into other EPA water quality programs that were initiated in
FY 1978.  The program will:

     -  Implement revisions to the O&M inspection program and data support system
        to provide quicker, sharper definition of O&M problems and data more
        immediately useful to compliance, construction grants, training, and research
        programs.

     -  Mobilize public and private sector associations to stimulate their membership
        at regional and local levels to move aggressively against identified O&M
        problems.

     -  Utilize improved O&M data system to tighten construction grant requirements
        regarding planning, design, and start-up of new federally-funded waste water
        treatment plants.

     -  Develop and distribute public owned treatment works operating manuals to topics
        identified as recurrent and unaddressed O&M problems.



                                                                                           WQ-52

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MANPOWER PLANNING AND TRAINING

1977 Accompli shments

     The manpower-and training program supported the development of training and certification
capabilities at the State and local levels.  Programs included  (1) financial support of
operator certification examination criteria development through the Association of Boards of
Certification (ABC), an Association of State Boards of Certification for waste water treatment
plant operators; (2) financial support for development of waste water treatment plant operator
training curriculunrto parallel  the ABC operator classification levels I-IV, entry level to
supervisory level operators; (3) financial support to the National Operator Training Coordinating
Committee, consisting of national associations ~ American Water Works Association, Water Pollu-
tion Control Federation, and the ABC, to foster coordination of training activities among States;
and (4) grant support to State operator training programs.

     Direct training programs also supported development of State training capabilities through
(1) development and demonstration of course packages, (2) providing trained instructors, (3)
providing short courses in specialized technology for EPA and State personnel, and (4) the
development of an instructional resources center to provide a focal point for collecting,
evaluating, and disseminating training resource information.

     Development of manpower planning capabilities at the State level was supported through
a pilot workforce assessment of the construction grants program in Texas.

1978 Program

     The manpower and training program resources for 1978 are 50 positions and $3,782,800,
including $2,100,000 in grant funds.  Training activities will continue toward encouragement
and support for the development of water pollution control manpower planning and training
capabilities at the State and local level.  Increased emphasis will be placed on delivery
of available municipal treatment plant operator training courses and materials through the
Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), Department of Labor (DDL), and other
sources.  Manpower planning and training activities in FY 1978 will include:

     -  Development of training programs, curricula, and courses to support
        construction grants and municipal operations programs objectives.

     -  Support to the National Operator Training Coordinating Committee and
        State Operator Training Coordination Committees in the implementation
        of the Association of Boards of Certification "Brown Boflk" which provides
        a comprehensive plan for development and coordination of operator training
        at the State and local level.

     -  Support, through State agency grants and interagency agreements with the
        Vocational Education Department of the Office of Education (HEW), to
        provide operator training assistance to State and local agencies.

     -  Support to the Association of Boards of Certification for the continuing
        development of an operator certification examination system.

     -  Support to State and local agencies for the continuing development of
        manpower planning capabilities primarily in the construction grants
        and municipal operations programs.

     -  Development, demonstration, and distribution of course packages and
        materials in support of State and local training programs.

     -  Continued development of the Instructional Resource Center in Cincinnati,
        Ohio.

     -  Continued academic training support for development of professional staff
        at State and local agencies.

     -  "Seed funds" to implement model minority hiring programs.

     -  Assessment of EPA and State water pollution control program staffing and
        training needs for municipal operations and construction grants programs.

  WQ-53

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197e Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     A net decrease of $76,200 from the budget estimate resulted from regional reprogrammings to
the water quality enforcement activities for increased personnel costs.

1979 Plan

     The manpower planning and training program resources will be 25 positions and $5,012,600.
This is a decrease of 25 positions and an increase of $1,229,800.  The following activities
will be accomplished in FY 1979:

     -  Provide support to the Association of Boards of Certification to develop
        certification examination criteria and to the National Operator Training
        Coordinating Committee.

     -  Compile EPA, State, and local — public owned treatment works (POTW) — water pollu-
        tion control program staffing and training needs for all FWPCA programs, nationally.

     -  Develop national training program strategies, curricula, and delivery systems to
        meet identified EPA, State, local, and private sector training needs.

     -  Implement direct training program support, nationally, through technical and
        financial assistance to States on delivery of training courses;  expansion of
        available materials in the Instructional Resource Center; onsite training
        assistance and specialized course development and demonstration.

     -  Evaluate water pollution control staffing and training efforts,  nationally.

     -  Initiate and administer a $2.5 million contractual effort to provide on a
        region-by-region basis:  (a) State and local -- POTW — staffing and training
        needs and resource assessments; (b) assistance in developing State and local
        staffing and training plans; (c) assistance in delivery of training courses
        to EPA, State, local, and private sector personnel; and (d) evaluation of
        State, local, and private sector staffing and training efforts.
                                                                                         WQ-54

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m
a

o"

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                                          WATER QUALITY

                                           Enforcement
                              Actual
                               1977
        Budget
       Estimate
         1978
          Current
          Estimate
            1978
         Estimate
           1979
                                                  (dollars in thousands)
          Increase +
          Decrease -
         1979 vs. 1978
Appropriation
Permits Issuance	  $6,677
Water Quality Enforcement...  14,552

        Total	  21,229
permanent Positions
Permits Issuance	
Water Quality Enforcement...
$6,677
14,552
57,081
14,317
$7,033
15,180
$7,705
16,581
+$672
+ 1,401
         21,398
            22,213
           24,286
          +2,073
268
590
210
546
181
577
314
492
+133
-85
        Total,
858
756
758
806
+48
Budget Request
     An appropriation of $24,286,300 and 806 positions is requested for this
subactivity for FY 1979.  This represents an increase of $2,073,100 and 48 positions
over FY 1978.

     The FY 1979 estimate includes a reprogramnring of 69 positions from the water
quality enforcement program element to the permit issuance program element for
adjudicatory hearing support.  This reprogramming does not represent a change in
activities performed by the 69 positions, but merely a reelassification of
activities between program elements.  The increase of 48 positions and $2,073,100
is requested to continue to implement high priority permit and water enforcement
activities.

Program Description

     The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program
is part of the comprehensive effort initiated by the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, as amended (FWPCA), to reduce or eliminate point source pollution
from industrial, municipal, commerical, and agricultural discharges.  The Act
prohibits discharge of pollutants to all waters of the United States unless a
permit is issued by EPA or an EPA approved State program.  The permit is the
focal point of a tight regulatory system with precise and detailed abatement
requirements, streamlined enforcement procedures, and heavy penalties for permit
violation.

     The permit is the mechanism for imposing on point source dischargers the
uniform national effluent limitations and national performance standards for
new source facilities which EPA is required to promulgate.  These standards,
set by the abatement and control function, establish the maximum amounts of
various pollutants which can be legally discharged by a facility.  If, at a
given facility, the established national effluent limits will not reduce
enough pollutants to meet the ambient water quality standards set by the
State or EPA, the permit will impose more strict effluent limitations as
necessary to meet the water quality standards.  These more stringent effluent
limits are set by the permit program in coordination with pollution load
allocation activities covered under the abatement and control function.
                                                                                           WQ-55

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Permits are issued on condition that their pollutant reductions be accomplished
according to given time shedules.

     The permit program also devotes a great amount of effort to considering
requests for variances from effluent limitations.  The FWPCA provides for several
kinds of variances:  a Section 301(c) variance to relax best available technology
standards for economic reasons; a fundamentally different factor variance to amend
effluent limitations based on fundamentally different technology; and a variance which
governs thermal discharges and cooling water intake structures.  In addition, the program
assists in the review of Section 208 areawide plans and is responsible for preparing
permit conditions which comply-with requirements of the Section 208 plan.  The
program also assists in the review of proposed dredge and fill permits under
Section 404 of the Act.

     Another important function of the program is the provision of technical
expertise in support of adjudicatory hearings held on the terms, conditions, and
effluent limitations of permits and on variance determinations.

     A primary goal of the water enforcement program is to encourage States to assume
responsibility for the NPDES program.  At present, 30 States have assumed the NPDES
authority.  The permit program devotes a considerable amount of resources to over-
viewing these State NPDES programs to ensure that these State issued permits conform
with national permit program policies and procedures.

     The water quality enforcement program emphasizes compliance monitoring and
enforcement of NPDES waste water discharge permits.  Other activities include the
enforcement actions necessary to achieve compliance with regulations on oil discharges,
ocean dumping and other related requirements of the FWPCA, the Rivers and
Harbors  Act (Refuse Act), the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act,
and the Toxic Substances Control Act.  Most water quality enforcement activities
are conducted cooperatively with the States; maximum State assumption of these
activities is a primary goal.

     EPA's NPDES compliance monitoring program includes compliance review and
compliance inspections and actions initiated in instances of noncompliance.
Compliance review is the review of all status and self-monitoring reports submitted
by permittees to EPA and to NPDES States.  These reports provide information
on planning, construction, operation, and effluent characteristics of treatment
facilities.  Compliance inspection refers to all field related activities conducted
to determine the status of compliance with permit requirements, including compliance
evaluations (nonsampling) inspections and sampling inspections.

     The FWPCA provides for various enforcement mechanisms to assure compliance with
the requirements of the NPDES program.  Primarily, these are the issuance of
Section 309(a)(l) Notices of Violations to dischargers with NPDES permits
issued by approved States; issuance of 309(a)(3) Administrative Orders to dischargers
with EPA issued permits and to dischargers with State issued permits who fail to
comply with Notices of Violation; and referrals to U.S. Attorneys for civil or
criminal relief to remedy violations of NPDES permits and Administrative Orders.
The law provides for $10,000 civil penalties and $25,000 criminal fines per day
of violation.

     The non-NPDES enforcement program is responsible for providing legal support to
achieve compliance with Section 311, oil spill prevention and enforcement, of the
FWPCA, the Refuse Act, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, and
the Toxic Substances Control Act.
 WQ-56

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PERMIT ISSUANCE

7977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977, permit program activities focused on the issuance and ""eissuance of
finally effective National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System {NPDES) permits to
major and minor facilities.  At the end of FY 1977, approximately 70,000 permit
applications had been received and 50,000 oermits had been issued.  The
unissued permits are almost entirely minors.  In FY 1977 alone,
10,300 permits were issued, 3,800 to industrial dischargers and 6,500 to municipal
sources.

     FY 1977 was an important transition year for the permit issuance program.
The issuance of first round permits of best practical  technology level control
had passed its peak and the second round permitting effort of best available
technology level control, which is to take place primarily during FY 1979 through
FY 1980, was beginning.  During FY 1977, significant resources were spent on
reviewing the NPDES program to benefit from past experience as well as to reflect
on new and anticipated second round permitting considerations.

     Policy guidance aimed at clarifying current procedures and providing a
smooth transition into the requirements of second round permitting emerged during
FY 1977.  Thirty separate policy memoranda were developed addressing issues
such as variance procedures, implementation of ocean discharge criteria
and toxic standards, permits in wetlands areas, the possible use of NPDES permits
to promote better sludge management, the modification of effluent limitations
during the term of NPDES permits, and coordination with NPDES States.

     A significant portion of the program effort in FY 1977 focused on developing
procedures for the second round of permitting — best available technology level
control.  Second round permitting is complicated by the requirements of a consent
decree entered into by EPA and several environmental groups, primarily the
Natural Resource Defense Council, in June 1976, to resolve litigation against the
Agency regarding its control of toxic pollutants under the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act (FWPCA).  This decree requires that EPA regulate up to 65 classes
of priority pollutants for 21 industrial categories in addition to the conventional
pollutants normally regulated through best available technology controls.  The
decree requires that permits in these 21 industrial categories be changed to
reflect these special best available technology guidelines when they are promulgated.

     The enforcement compliance schedule letter me.chanism, an exercise of the
Agency's prosecutor!al discretion, was developed to ensure that those facilities
which had conscientiously tried to meet the July 1, 1977 requirement, would achieve
compliance as expeditiously as possible.  In FY 1977, there were over 1,000
municipal and 50 industrial enforcement compliance schedule letters issued in
conjunction with NPDES permits.  In the closing months of FY 1977, an additional
1,400 municipal and 140 industrial enforcement compliance schedule letters were being
developed.

     Program efforts in FY 1977 were also devoted to considering requests for
"fundamentally different factors" variances.  Through this variance mechanism, an
industrial discharger, if it can show that it is fundamentally different for technical
reasons from other dischargers within an effluent guideline category, is allowed to
depart from the effluent limitations applied to that category.  If the dischargers
can show that they are fundamentally different, they are issued a permit that
specifies effluent limitations suited to the facility's situation.

     In FY 1977, the program staff continued to provide technical support to
adjudicatory hearings on variance determinations and on terms, conditions, and
effluent limitations of permits.  This support included scientific and engineering
expertise and basic and statistical data on permit status and conditions of  permits.
                                                                                           WO-57

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     Approximately $330,000 was obligated in 1977 for contract support of permit
issuance activities.  Of this amount, approximately $120,000 was used for adjudicatory
hearing support, $90,000 for ADP support, and the balance was used for equipment
purchases and activities relating to the issuance of permits.

1978 Program

     The permit issuance program places first priority on the reissuance of all
major permits due to expire in FY 1978 so that all major dischargers will be under
abatement schedules.  No major permit should be allowed to lapse and all work on
majors should be completed before work is commenced on either initial - first round -
minor permits or expiring minor permits.

     There will be several new requirements affecting permit issuance during FY 1978.
These include the 1983 best available technology economically achievable (BAT)
requirements, Section 208 areawide planning requirements, toxic pollutant standards
developed under Section 307(a), and case-by-case development of toxics controls, in
advance of guideline promulgation where there is substantial risk of endangerment to
public health.

     BAT toxic guidelines in the 21 industries identified by the Natural Resources
Defense Council Consent Decree will not be available in FY 1978.  This will complicate
the issuance of second round permits to the affected industries-.  EPA policy, developed
to deal with the absence of these guidelines in FY 1978, provides that sources in
these 21 industrial categories will be reissued best practical technology level permits,
and the'BAT guidelines will be incorporated in the permits when they are promulgated.

     Many permit conditions based on these new requirements may be challenged by
permittees in adjudicatory hearings.  Permits issued-in FY 1978 requiring BAT
limitations will be subject to Section 301 (c) variance requests to consider whether
BAT standards may be relaxed for economic reasons.  Resolution of these requests is,
therefore, a high priority for FY 1978.  The program will also continue to address
increasing numbers of requests for "fundamentally different factors" variances.

     In,addition, a significant number of sources are expected to request
Section 316(a) and (b) thermal and cooling water intake structure determinations.  As
FY 1979 resources may not be sufficient to address Section 316(a) and (b) determinations,
it is important that they be given a high priority in FY 1978.

     The FY 1978 permit program will continue its effort to provide timely guidance
to the regions to enable them to proceed with program activities in FY 1978, i.e.,
issuance/reissuance of permits to include BAT requirements, consideration of
variance requests to relax BAT standards for economic reasons, and the coordination
of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits with Section 208
plans.  In addition, headquarters will support the regions through the issuance of
policy and technical guidance on the application of BAT limitations for conventional
pollutants in the absence of guidelines.

     In FY 1978, there will be an increased emphasis on EPA's role as overseer of
approved NPOES State programs.  As the permit process becomes increasingly complex
with the introduction of BAT controls and new variance procedures, careful review
of State issued permits becomes more important for assuring national uniformity
in permits.  EPA review of State programs will be performed to assure the issuance
of effective and enforceable permits, the uniform application of policy, and to
determine where technical and/or policy support is needed.
  WQ-58

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     The permit program will continue to strive for the goal of maximizing State
participation in the NPDES program by working with States to help them assume the
NPDES program.  Assistance will be given to States in developing the legislation,
regulations, memoranda of understanding, and other program elements which are
requisite to assuming NPDES authority.  Approximately four States are expected to
assume NPDES authority in FY 1978.

     In 1978, approximately $581,000 is allocated for contracts, including $390,000
for Section 301(c) economic studies and adjudicatory hearing support for development
of the national permits information system.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $48,200 from the budget estimate results from a regional
reprogramming of $262,000 from permit issuance to water quality enforcement
activities to support increased costs and a headquarters reprogramming of $213,800
from water quality enforcement activities into permit issuance to provide for contract
support, such as expert testimony  for adjudicatory hearings which had previously been
funded under water quality enforcement.

1979 Plan

     FY 1979 resources include 314 positions and $7,704,600, an increase of 133
positions and $671,900.  The 133 position increase includes a reprogramming of
69 positions from the water quality enforcement program element for adjudicatory
hearing support.  This reprogramming does not represent a change in function
but merely a reelassification of program element.  An increase of 29 positions
represents a shift between FY 1978 and FY 1979 in positions from water quality enforcement
to provide resources for the permit issuance workload in FY 1979.  The additional
increase of 35 positions will be used to continue to implement high priority
permit program activities.

     The primary goal of FY 1979 permitting activities is to reduce discharges from
the most significant sources of pollution and thereby achieve the greatest measure of
environmental protection possible within resource limitations.  Therefore, the FY 1979
program will concentrate on applying best available technology economically achievable'(BAT)
and best practicable control technology currently available (BPT) level controls to
major discharges with expiring permits and ensuring that these permits are finally effective
and enforceable.  Since four times as many major permits will expire in FY 1979 as will
expire in FY 1978, a significant portion of the permit program resources will be
devoted to reissuance activities and to clearing away stumbling blocks to finally
effective permits; that is, resolving adjudicatory hearings on permit terms, conditions
and effluent limitations, and resolving economic and technical variance requests.
The program will not address minor permit activities or assist in Section 404 permit review.

     Permitting activities in FY 1979 will concentrate on applying BAT level controls
to those industries not included in the Natural Resource Defense Council (NRDC) Consent
Decree — secondary industries.  BAT guidelines for some of these secondary industries
are already available.  Where they do not exist, BAT controls will be developed on a
case-by-case basis.   Since 1t is anticipated that BAT guidelines for industries
covered by the NRDC Consent Decree — primary industries — will not begin to be
promulgated until the last half of FY 1979, those industries -will not receive
BAT level  permits until FY 1980.  Those primary industry sources with permits expiring
before the promulgation of guidelines will be reissued BPT-level permits which will be
changed to reflect the BAT controls upon promulgation of the BAT guidelines.
                                                                                           WQ-59

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     High priority will be placed on resolving Section 301(c) economic variance requests in
FY 1979.  It is anticipated that all such requests will be addressed.  It is
anticipated that a number of fundamentally different factor technical variance requests for
exemption from BAT guidelines will be received and will be considered to the extent
that time and resources permit.  Also, the program will address only the portion of
hearings carried over from previous fiscal years that time and resources permit.
Variances and determinations based on Section 316(a) and (b), thermal and cooling
water intake structures, will not be made.

     Additional resources in FY 1979 will be applied to the important goal of
promoting a nationally uniform permitting and enforcement program.  The program will
continue its regulation and policy development program to clarify the permit
program direction and to assure national consistency with legislated goals.  Also,
regional offices will be responsible for an increased overview of National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPOES) State programs to ensure that State issued
permits comply with national water enforcement policies and procedures.  This overview
includes reviewing major permits issued by States.

     In a related effort, the permit program will continue to encourage State
assumption of the NPDES program by assisting States in developing the program
structure and legal mechanisms which are requisite to program assumption.  As of
the end of December 1977, 30  States had received program approvals.

     The FY 1979 program plan also allows for the issuance of major new source permits
and the review of BAT/toxic guidelines to determine their acceptability to the permit
program.  Additional resources will be devoted to assisting in the review of Section
208 areawide plans and to preparing permit conditions which conform with these plans.

     In 19?9, approximately $846,000 of the request will be allocated for contracts,
including support for adjudicatory hearings, variance determinations, and ADP.

WATER QUALITY ENFORCEMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     All major discharger selfmonitoring reports, facility compliance schedules,
and discharge monitoring reports were reviewed for compliance.  EPA conducted 1,899
compliance evaluation inspections and 1,115 sampling inspections in FY 1977.  These
inspections were conducted to verify permittee selfmonitaring information, review
violations identified in permittee selfmonitoring reports, and to identify and
categorize permit violations not indicated in the reports.

     Identification of violations wasfollowedby letters, telephone calls,
conferences, Notices of Violations, Administrative Orders, and referrals to the
Department of Justice, as appropriate. In FY 1977, the regions issued 992 Administrative
Orders  and 291 Notices of Violations to the States, and referred 121 cases to
U.S. Attorneys.
  WQ-60

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     The resolution of adjudicatory hearings was also a high priority in FY 1977.
A total of 1,160 cases were settled by the end of FY 1977; 407 majors and 753 minors.
A backlog of 319 major and 608 minor requests remains.  The Agency continues working
to resolve these as quickly as possible.

     Oil spill prevention requirements were also monitored and enforced.  The regions
referred 1,122 oil spill civil cases to the Coast Guard, 10 spill criminal cases —
failure to notify immediately of a spill ~ to  the U.S. Attorney, and conducted
1,076 proceedings for violations of spill prevention counter measure and control
plans.

     In 1977, approximately $581,000 was allocated for contract support of water
enforcement activities, including about 5321,000 for case support and technical
and adjudicatory hearing support, and about $260,000 for ADP and information
needs requirements.

1978 Program

     The primary emphasis for FY 1978 is enforcement against industrial permittees
who failed to complete facilities and attain final effluent limitations by
July 1, 1977, and against publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) with permit
schedule violations.  Enforcement actions will also be taken against major
permittees who have completed facilities, but fail to achieve f.inal permit
effluent limitations.  Compliance evaluation and compliance sampling inspections.
will be used to verify the noncompliance status and to develop the  basis for follow-up
enforcement actions.

     The second major goal in FY 1978 is to resolve pending major adjudicatory hearing
requests in those regions where-a backlog of requests remains a problem.  As of the
beginning of FY 1978, 927 pending requests remain which require resolution.

     A base level of non-National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
enforcement activities will also be maintained, primarily enforcement of oil spill
and spill prevention requirements of Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, as amended (FWPCA), and of the Ocean Dumping Act.

     Except for environmental emergencies, there will be no compliance monitoring
and enforcement of minor permittees, pretreatment enforcement. Section 404 enforcement,
enforcement of agriculture, silviculture and storm sewer permits, and enforcement of
hazardous materials spills.

     In 1978, approximately $800,000 is allocated for contract support of water
enforcement activities.  Of this amount, $540,000 will be used for technical and
legal case support, $110,000 will be used for permit compliance system operation and
maintenance, and $150,000 will be used to provide support of headquarters work such
as producing regulations, evaluating ongoing programs, or conducting feasibility studies.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $863,400 over the budget estimate reflects a reprogramming of funds from
other enforcement activities ($689,200) and a reprogramming from abatement and control water
quality activities ($174,200) to support both increased personnel and hearings costs and for
development of a compliance analysis system.

1979 Plan

     FY 1979 resource levels for the water quality enforcement program will be $16,581,700
and 492 positions.  This is an increase of $1,401,200 and a decrease of 85 positions
from FY 1978.  'The decrease of 85 positions is a result of a reprogramming of 69 positions
from water quality enforcement to permit issuance for adjudicatory hearing support a
reprogramming  of 30 positions to permit issuance to provide resources for the permit
issuance workload in FY 1979, and an actual increase of 14 positions to supplement
current resources for compliance monitoring and enforcement activities.
                                                                                        WQ-61

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     The major goal in FY 1979 is to resolve any pending cases against major
permittees who have failed to complete and put in operation required treatment
facilities by July 1, 1977.  The second major goal is to assure that major industrial
and municipal  facilities are maintaining compliance with the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, as amended (FWPCA)  statutory requirements through effective compliance
tracking programs and follow-up enforcement.

     The third major activity in FY 1979 will be to develop and implement a toxics
sampling program.  A small number of inspections using bioassays for screening of
toxic materials will be conducted.  The information obtained from these inspections
will serve as the basis for a more extensive effort in FY 1980.

     Overview and assistance of State enforcement programs remains an important
priority in FY 1979.  Improvements will be made in the audit program through which
the regions maintain close communications with the States and assure that the
States are developing strong enforcement programs in compliance with nationally
established standards.  Working agreements with those States which have not received
program approval will also be developed in order to promote State cooperation and
participation in tbe enforcement program.

     A program automating the review of discharge monitoring reports should be
implemented in FY 1979, thus increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of violation
detection and providing summary information for enforcement decisions.

     Non-National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System enforcement will continue,
primarily of the oil spill requirements of Section 311 of the FWPCA and the Ocean
Dumping Act, and where applicable to water discharges of the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act and the Toxics Substances Control Act.

     Except for environmental emergencies, there will be no compliance monitoring
and enforcement of minor permittees, pretreatment enforcement, Section 404 enforcement,
enforcement of agriculture, silviculture and storm sewer permits, and enforcement
of hazardous materials spills.

     In 1979, approximately $3,820,000 is planned for water quality enforcement
contract support.  Of this amount, $3,000,000 will be used to supplement litigation
and case development efforts; $138,000 will be used to provide support of
headquarters work in providing regulations, evaluating ongoing programs, and simplifying
or automating current operating procedures; 5110,000 will be used for permit compliance
system operation and maintenance; $570,000 will be used to support the following
enforcement tasks:  source/ambient monitoring and analytical support, technical
enforcement case support, and process evaluation and assistance.
 WQ-62

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o
•D

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                                         WATER QUALITY

                                   Research and Development
Appropriation
Health and Ecological Effects...
Industrial Processes	
Public Sector Activities	
Monitoring and Technical Support
                                   Actual
                                    1977
$20,250
  8,919
 10,784
  5,118
            Budget
          Estimate
            1978
$22,327
  7,400
 10,800
  4,487
           Current
          Estimate
            1978
          Estimate
            1979
                  Increase +
                  Decrease -
                 1979 vs. 1978
                                                       (dollars in thousands)"
                         Page
$21
 11
,964
,889
 20,462
  4,642
$21,001
 10,875
 10,940
  5,539
  -963
-1,014
-9,522
  +897
WQ-64
WQ-75
WQ-83
WQ-90
          Total		......   45,071     45,014     58,957i/   48,355    -10,602^/
Permanent Positions
Health and Ecological Effects...
Industrial Processes	
Public Sector Activities	....
Monitoring and Technical Support
          Total.
    297
     37
    105
     89

    528
    276
     33
    108
    109

    526
    234
     70
    114
     86

    504
           228
            62
           114
            89

           493
                -6
               -11
a/ Includes $9,500,000 pending supplemental for demonstrating the application of waste
   water to land at Lubbock, Texas, included under public sector activities.

b/ The net decrease reflects the inclusion of pending supplemental in the 1978 current
   estimate; excluding this supplemental, the net change would be -$1,102,200.
     The role of research and development in EPA's water quality program is to provide
the scientific information needed to support its standard setting and enforcement
activities.  To do this, a multifaceted research program has been established.  The goals
of this program include the development of efficient and cost effective waste water
treatment technology for both municipalities and industries; the determination of the
health implications of existing technology for treatment and disposal of waste water
•and sludge; the determination of useful'and defensible monitoring methods; definition
of criteria for water use in various aquatic environments; the establishment strategies
for control of pollution from spills of hazardous materials; and the prevention or
control of pollution from agricultural and forestry sources.  An overall goal is to
provide the scientific basis for economical and socially viable environmental management.
                                                                                        WQ-63

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                                           WATER QUALITY

                                     Research and Development

                                   Health and Ecological Effects

                                               Budget        Current                    Increase +
                                  Actual      Estimate      Estimate     Estimate       Decrease -
                                   1977         1978          1978         1979       1979 vs. 1978
                                                     Tdoliars in thousands!

Appropriation
Health Effects	        $2,317        $3,800        $3,875       $7,145        +$3,270
Ecological Processes
  and Effects	        12,149        10,687        10,557       10,459            -98
Great Lakes	         2,007         2,150         3,582        2,100         -1,482
Transport & Fate of
  Pollutants	         3,777         2,800         1,050        1,297           +247
Chesapeake Bay	           ...	2,900	2,900	._._.	-2,900

       Tptal	        20,250        22,327        21,964       21,001           -963

Permanent Positions
Health Effects	         16            23            21           26             +5
Ecological Processes
  and Effects	           242           221           197       •   186            -11
Great Lakes	             8             8             9            9
Transport & Fate of
  Pollutants	            31            24             7            7
Chesapeake Bay	        __ij_:	—	i^	        '	^.i.

       Total	           297           276           234          228  -           -6

Budget Request

     An appropriation of $21,001,000 and 228 positions is requested for FY 1979.  The request
provides for an increase of $3,270,000 in health effects to expand research on waste water
reuse and for health risk assessments of waste water and sludge treatment and disposal
techniques.  The ecological effects program will be decreased by 11 positions in cold climate
research, but a concomitant increase of $705,000 is requested so that this part of the program
can be carried out on an extramural  basis; due to the fact that FY 1978 congressional increases
for the ecological processes and effects program will not require full funding in FY 1979, there
is a net decrease of $98,200 in this program.  The Great Lakes program is decreased due to the
nonrecurring requirement of the full 1978 congressional add-on.  The $315,000 increase in the
transport and fate program will be used to expand water quality predictive models to include
the highest priority classes of toxic pollutants involved in the Natural  Resources Defense
Council Consent Decree of 1976.  These models will predict the water quality impacts of
effluent guidelines relative to these pollutants and translate water quality standards for
these pollutants into minimum control requirements.  The Chesapeake Bay program requests no
funds for FY 1979, a reduction of $2,900,000

Program Description

     The health and ecological effects program includes four specific areas of research:

     -  Determination of the health implications of waste water and sludge
        treatment and disposal practices; development of health criteria for
        recreational and shellfish waters; and the development of rapid screening
        tests for characterizing toxic pollutants.

     -  Examination of the effects of specific pollutants and pollutant combina-
        tions on key organisms and on critical ecosystem parameters and processes.

     -  Development of methodologies for assessing transport and fate of pollutants
        in fresh surface waters.
 WQ-64

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      -  Characterization of Great Lakes pollution problems including determination of
         processes affecting the degree of pollution and development of predictive
         models that describe lake ecosystem response as a function of pollution source
         control.

      The water quality health effects program is designed to support the Agency's efforts
 in municipal  waste water and sludge control by determining the health implications of
 existing technology for treatment and disposal of waste water and sludge as well  as foreseeing
 any health risks  that might be associated with innovative technology.  The research focuses  on
 determining health effects associated with land application of waste water and sludge.  Current
 practice results  in about 60 percent of municipal sludges being placed on or in the land.  The
 Federal  Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92-500) and Agency policy require that land application
 of waste water be considered as a viable alternative to municipal waste water treatment plants.
 This emphasis on  the use of land places a responsibility on EPA to ensure absolutely that  the
 methods  used  do not result in creation of health hazards.  Specific areas of health effects
 research include  studies of the survival and movement of virus at several land application
 sites; the accumulation of toxic metals in foods grown on lands receiving waste water or sludge;
 the risk to public health association with aerosols from spray irrigation systems; and the
 fate and efforts  of persistent organics in waste water and sludge.  Other areas of study include
 health effects associated with aerosols from secondary treatment facilities and from sludge
 conversion and disposal alternatives such as incineration and composting.

      The water quality health effects program also supports the mandated goal of the Federal
 Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (FWPCA), that "wherever attainable, an interim goal
 of water quality  which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and
 wildlife and  provides for recreation in and on the water be achieved by July 1983."  Health
 related  criteria  are being developed for marine and fresh recreational waters as well  as
 shellfish growing waters.  The prime concern in recreational and shellfish growing waters  is
 the presence  of pathogens in these waters and their impact on human health.

      In  support of the Toxic Substances Control Act and effluent guideline  development under
 the FWPCA, methods and approaches will be developed to characterize classes of waterborne
 hazardous substances.  Rapid screening tests will be developed for determining pollutant effects
 and these tests will be applied to a selected number of complex effluents.

      The water quality ecological effects program is designed to determine the fate and effects
 of pollutants in  fresh water and marine ecosystems.  This research aids the Agency in the
 development of water quality criteria and in developing effective pollution control programs.
.The research  provides a sound scientific basis for setting effective, legally defensible
 standards and assists in determining effective  treatment and control strategies.  The ecological
 effects  research  program includes research in the following areas:

   .  -  Determination of the effects of specific pollutants or pollutant combinations
         on representative or key sensitive organisms in aquatic ecosystems and on
         critical  ecosystem parameters and processes.

      -  Investigation of the physical, chemical, and biological transformation
         products  of pollutants in ecosystems.

      -  Development of mathematic ecosystem simulations and laboratory models
         to aid in the prediction of pollutant stress effects on aquatic biota
         and ecosystems.

      -  Development of methods to measure the relative "health" of aquatic
         ecosystems.

    .  -  Examination of the transport and effects of pollutants in marine
         environments.

      The objectives of the Great Lakes research program are to characterize pollution problems
 of the Great  Lakes; determine the dynamic processes affecting pollution of large lakes; and
 develop  predictive methods for describing the fate and effects of pollutants in the Great  Lakes.
                                                                                          WQ-65

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     The water quality transport and fate program is designed to provide information on, and
methodologies for, assessing the movement, transformation, persistence, and ultimate location
of pollutants in fresh surface water.  This program includes information on the interactions
among various pollutants and natural constituents of water and soil.  Such a technical base is
essential for gaining an understanding of the water quality impacts that would result from given
rates of release of various chemicals to the environment.  With this type of information available,
decisions can be made on the levels of control of specific chemicals required to achieve water
quality goals and the most cost effective way to achieve these goals.

     The water quality transport and fate program covers two areas:  the development of protocols,
including mathematical models, for predicting point and nonpoint source pollution contributions
and their impacts on fresh surface waters; and the development of procedures for systematically
evaluating the effectiveness of alternative point and nonpoint source management strategies,
with considerations of water quality, energy, and socioeconomic impacts.  These protocols and
procedures are used by Federal, State, and local planning agencies.

     The results of this research are used to:  assess the adequacy of best available control
technology and/or best management practices for meeting water quality goals at specific
locations; translate ambient water quality goals into current and future control requirements —
effluent limitations; identify the most cost effective combination of point and nonpoint
source controls for achieving water quality goals at specific locations; and develop water
quality management plans — as required under Sections 201, 208, and 303 of the FWPCA ~ for
achieving and maintaining desired levels of water quality in the most cost effective manner.

     The Chesapeake Bay research program is designed to satisfy two mutually supportive major
objectives.  First, the research will address those particular problems that are the concern
of the Chesapeake Bay management program in Region III.  Secondly, the research program will
emphasize the study of those aspects of the problems which are common to other estuarine
areas in the United States.  In this way, the benefits of the research will be of value to
both the Chesapeake Bay program and to water quality management programs in other parts of
the country.

     The research will focus upon three problems that are of serious concern in all estuarine
waters in the United States and, in particular, in the Bay.  These problems are:  the
potentially adverse long term effects of nutrient loadings to the Bay; the water quality and
ecological effects of physical alterations that have been ocurring in the Bay; and the extent
to which the Bay is serving as a sink for toxic substances and the effects of these substances
on the Bay.  A description of this effort is located in the water quality planning and
standards, abatement and and control section.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1977 Accomplishments

     During FY 1977, extramural funds provided for grants, $1,400,000; contracts, $219,000;
and interagency agreements, $49,000.  Specific accomplishments included the following:

     -  An epidemiologic study of aerosols from an activated sludge waste water
        treatment plant was conducted, and no significant adverse health effects
        were observed.

     -  In support of epidetniological studies, identification and enumeration
        techniques were published for important microorganisms present in polluted
        marine, estuarine, and fresh recreational waters.

     -  The resistance of pathogenic Naegleria to some common physical and chemical
        agents  was determined. Pathogenic Naegleria is the causative agent of
        amoebic meningoencephalitis, an almost always fatal disease contracted through
        fresh water swimming.
   WQ-66

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1978 Program

     The resources for health effects research in FY 1978 are $3,875,000 and 21 positions.
Of this amount $2,556,000 will be expended for grants and $424,000 for contracts.  Highlights
of the FY 1978 research program include:

     -  Study of the survival, movement and potential infectivity of pathogens —
        viruses, bacteria, and parasites — in soil systems and food crops
        receiving waste water or sludge.

     -  Study of the bioavailablity of cadmium and lead contained in food grown
        on soil receiving waste water or sludge.

     -  Transmission through the food chain and biological activity of persistent
        organics found in waste water and sludge.

     -  Monitoring and epidemiological study of the health implications of aerosols
        from secondary treatment plants and spray application of waste water and
        sludge.

     -  Completion of epidemiological/microbiological studies at temperate and
        subtropical marine beaches and development of interim health effects
        criteria for marine recreational waters.

     -  Epidemiological/microbiological studies at temperate and subtropical
        fresh water beaches.

     -  Development of microbiological techniques for assaying shellfish and
        shellfish growing waters.  Design and pretesting of epidemiological
        study to determine relationship between consumption of "approved"
        shellfish and incidence of diseases.

     -  Development and validation of bioassay methods to be used for rapid
        screening of hazardous industrial complex effluents.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $75,000 over the budget estimate results from a congressional add-on
for authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     The resources for health effects research in FY 1979 are'$7,145,000 and 26 positions.
Of this amount, $5,432,700 will be expended for grants and $1,213,000 for contracts.

     The $3,270,000 increase in resources over the current level will be used to expand the
program dealing with the confirmation of the health effects of waste water and sludge treat- .
merit and disposal with combined emphasis on land application systems.  In addition, the program
on health effects of the potable reuse of waste water currently being funded under the Safe
Drinking Water Act, will be expanded and will include the health effects of industrial reuse
of waste waters.

     Work will be concluded on epidemiological studies of populations exposed to aerosols from
activated sludge treatment plants.  Investigations will continue to determine the degree of
survival and movement of human enteric viruses from waste water applied to agricultural land.
In addition, aerosols produced by spray irrigation will continue to be monitored for pathogens,
and epidemiological studies will be conducted on nearby populations to ascertain possible cause
and effect relationships between pathogens in waste water aerosols and diseases.  Studies will
be initiated on transmission through the food chain of persistent organics found to be prevalent
in waste water and of potential health significance.  The aerosols from spray irrigation sites
and waste water treatment plants will be studied to see if any carcinogens are present.
Prospective epidemiological studies will be conducted in high exposure areas to discern if
there are health risks from living close to waste water spray irrigation sites.
                                                                                            WQ-67

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     In the area of sludge treatment and disposal, emphasis will continue on studies of the
translocation of toxic metals and pathogens from sludge onto man via the food chain.  Other
studies will be initiated to examine the uptake of toxic organic chemicals contained in
municipal sludge, in plants grown on sludge amended soils, and to assess the potential damage
to animals consuming these plants.  Epidemiological studies will be conducted at sites
utilizing municipal sludge to determine if there are any clinical or subclinical effects on
sludge handlers and nearby residents.  Finally, studies will be conducted to evaluate new
sludge treatment and disposal techniques such as incineration and composting for release of
toxic and microbiological contaminants to the surrounding area and to determine the health
effects of such contaminants on nearby residents.

     In the area of health effects of waste water reuse, investigations will continue to
determine the nature and toxicity of organic compounds present in highly treated waste waters.
The program will be expanded to include:  epidemiological and toxicological studies to evaluate
the health effects associated with the reuse of waste water for recharging ground water aquifers;
detection and evaluation of the health effects of viruses present in waste waters being
renovated for reuse; determination of the health implications involved in the recycling and
reuse of waste waters for industrial purposes; and health implications of waste water reuse
for aquaculture.

     Characterization and testing of waterborne hazardous substances will continue.  Test
protocols developed in FY 1978 will be refined in order to increase their sensitivity and
specificity and procedures developed will be applied to 10 typical industrial effluents.
Criteria for marine and fresh recreational waters will continue to be developed through the
conduct of prospective epidemiological/microbiological studies at temperate and subtropical
beaches.

     Microbiological techniques will be developed for assaying shellfish and shellfish
growing waters and epidemiological studies will be conducted to determine the relationship
of diseases, if any, and consumption of shellfish harvested from approved areas.

ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES'AND EFFECTS

1977 Ac comp1i s hments

     During FY 1977, extramural funds included grants, S3,952,400; contracts, $792,300; and
interagency agreements, $320,000.  Major accomplishments included the following:

     -  A final report was prepared on the relationships of stream nutrient levels
        to land use.  National trends and regional differences were evaluated.  This
        information will be useful to the Section 208 planning agencies in identifying
        problem areas.

     -  The use of urea to fertilize forests that had adequate buffer strips was
        found to have insignificant effects on nutrient loadings in small stream
        ecosystems.  Strict observance of the buffer zones during forest fertili-
        zation will prevent stream pollution from this practice.

     -  A 2-year study was completed with ziroconium tetrachloride as a phosphorus
        inactivation agent.  The compound was found to significantly reduce
        eu'irophication in a pond.

     -  Field and laboratory evaluation of effects was completed for heavy metals
        and nutrients introduced into a northwestern marine bay in dredge spoil
        material.  Short term variations as well as those persisting for several
        months were observed in concentrations of such substances as ammonia,
        manganese,-sulfide, and suspended solids.  The data will be used in con-
        junction with a report on the marine phytoplankton response to dredge
        spoils.  These results will be valuable  in assessing the impact on the
        water column of dredge material disposal.  The more persistent effects
        related to  the sediments and  additional  studies on this aspect are  .
        under way.
   WQ-68

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     -  Based on past results, an experimental design was developed to allow
        evaluation of demonstration projects for lake restoration.  In addition,
        a conceptual Lake Evaluation Index was developed, which combined
        limnological variables in a manner to allow comparison of different lakes
        and different restoration techniques.

     -  Acute toxicity threshholds for cadmium, copper, and zinc were determined
        in a species of salmon and trout.

     -  A 3-year field study was completed which measured the ability of laboratory
        bioassays to predict certain effects in a natural stream.  Findings showed that
        the predictions could be used with confidence.

1978 Program

     The resources for ecological effects research in FY 1978 are $10,557,200 and 197 positions.
Of this amount, $919,000 will be expended for grants; $105,000 for contracts; and $70,000 for
interagency agreements.  Highlights of the 1978 program are as follows:

     -  In the area of industrial waste discharges, emphasis is being placed
        on the development of methods for screening and testing complex effluents.
        This particular work offers alternative research approaches, where applicable,
        to the more costly and time consuming, pollutant-by-pollutant approach.

     -  In the area of petroleum and petroleum products, studies are being designed
        to examine the lethal and sublethal effects of a variety of oils on aquatic
        organisms representing various trophic levels.  The studies include those
        on degradation of the oils, their ability to induce cancerlike growths in
        marine organisms, the organisms' uptake and localization of the oils, and
        the effects on intertidal communities.

     The ecology program addresses the problem of eutrophication caused by nutrient enrichment.
This problem is described in terms of.deterioration of water quality, changes in the composition
of fish species and populations, and a general degradation that limits the water body's utility
for water supply, recreation, commercial fishing, and aesthetic appreciation.  Studies are
being designed to learn how lakes respond to nutrient loading and how restorative measures
may be of benefit. •

     The cold climate portion of the ecological effects research program examines the extent
and nature of the impact caused by the development of natural resources, such as oil and
natural gas, on cold climate aquatic ecosystems.  These studies will include the effects of
(1) turbidity/sedimentation in Alaska wetland vegetation productivity; (2) the toxic impact
of crude oil leachates and emulsion on aquatic flora and fauna; (3) untreated seafood.processing
wastes on estuarine environments; (4) the microbial pollution on water quality, with emphasis
on survival at low temperatures; and (5) characterization and control assessment of pollutants
in cold climate areas.

     Another portion of the ecological  effects program is devoted to discovering the maximum
concentration of specific pollutants which aquatic ecosystems can accommodate without adverse
effects.  This research is in direct response to Section 304 of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act(FWPCA), as amended, which requires the publication and updating of water quality
criteria to reflect the latest scientific knowledge.  Based on the criteria, water quality
standards are set by the States and EPA.  The program also contains studies to determine
water quality criteria for environmental parameters that are affected by pollution — dissolved
oxygen, temperature, and dissolved gases.

     The ecological effects nonpoint source (NPS) research program is directed toward .evaluating
the effects of typical NPS pollutants on aquatic ecosystems and, in a broader sense, to
evaluate the influence of various watershed activities on these ecosystems.  Pollutants of
special concern include sediments, suspended solids, dissolved solids and nutrients.
Diversity and functional group measures will be used to evaluate system response.  Complimentary
research will entail assessment of effects of the stochastic nature of NPS pollutant inputs.
Ecological  system benefits from selected NPS pollutant controls will be investigated and will
be an integral  input to the NPS model implementation program.
                                                                                          WQ-69

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     Research on the ecological effects of land application of waste water and sludge will
be initiated.  The research conducted under this program will be directed toward the
ecological impacts of this land application on plant and animal communities.  Emphasis will
be given to species diversity, population dynamics, and bioaccumulation.  This work will be
coordinated with the interlaboratory committee on municipal waste water and sludge research.
Another new research area will involve a feasibility study for an ecological study of a river
basin drainage ecosystem.  A conference will be held to discuss study needs and to develop
recommendations for drainage basin ecosystems deserving long term study.

     The ecological significance of ocean disposal is being investigated for ocean outfalls,
ocean dumping, and dredge material disposal.  Emphasis is being given to continued refine-
ment of bioassay procedures — for use in the ocean dumping permit program, studies on the
effects associated with dredged material disposal, an examination of the effects of waste
water from various treatment levels to determine if secondary treatment should be required
for marine outfalls, and a study of ecosystem recovery rate once the pollutant stress ~
municipal waste — has been removed. The dredge material research is coordinated through
the EPA/Corps of Engineers Technical Committee on Criteria for Dredged and Fill Material.

     To address the kinds of areas mentioned above, important tasks undertaken in the
ecology program pertain to developing, modifying, and refining procedures, techniques, and
tests such as those used for bioassays.  Field and laboratory experiments will complement
one another.  For example, validation of laboratory results may often be obtained from
studies conducted in the field.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The $2,269,800 decrease from the budget estimate results from several actions.  The
Congress added $1,200,000, as part of a total $6 million add-on for health and ecological
effects, for increased emphasis on land application of waste water and sludge, ocean disposal,
total river ecosystem studies, nonpoint source research and oil spills.  The Congress also
added $500,000 for cold climate research and $157,500 for authorized positions. A reprogramming of
$75,300 was made to the waste water management programto support increase payroll costs and $1,217,000
was reprogrammed.to the agencywide support account to support increased building and office
services costs.  A reduction of $1,937,000 reflects the transfer of the Great Lakes research
program to a separate program element within this subactivity.  Finally, a reduction of
$898,000 reflects the transfer of anticipatory research activities to a new program activity
within the interdisciplinary media.

1979 Plan

     Resources for the 1979 ecological effects program are $10,459,000 and 186 positions,
including approximately $1,200,000 for grants and $100,000 for contracts.

     Projects on ecosystem dynamics include studies of benthic communities, predatory prey
relationships, and pollutant related shifts in the relative composition of species which
form communities in aquatic ecosystems.  Development of new and refinement of existing
microcosms, will be continued.

     Research on industrial wastes will develop methodologies for assessing the ecological
impact of such wastes.  This portion of the program will continue to develop bioassay
techniques for integrating the exposure of aquatic organisms to pollutant concentrations
in complex wastes which vary with time.  The program will be designed to seek improved
experimental means of discerning the effects of complex waste mixtures as well.

     The cold climate research program will be increased in FY 1979; .however, EPA staff
will be reduced, and the EPA in-house activities at Artie Environmental Research Laboratory
will be terminated.  These changes will result in a shift to an extramural research program.
However, the emphasis of the program will be similar to that occurring in FY 1978.

     In the area of petroleum and petroleum products,research will continue on those projects
being conducted to develop scientific criteria for accetable levels of petroleum in marine/
estuarine water, sediment, and biota.  Emphasis will be given to examining sublethal responses
and biological uptake from chronic and massive oil pollution on a variety of life stages of
a broad sprectrum of marine organisms.  In addition, analytical techniques will continue to
be developed or modified to meet the needs of this research program.  The nature and rate of
recovery from oil pollution will also be investigated.


WQ- 70

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     Research on nutrient enrichment will be maintained at approximately the 1978 level.  This
portion of the program will include evaluations of lake restoration measures, not only to
document the benefits -of such measures, but to verify predictions of the effects of reduced
nutrient loading.

     The research program to determine the ecological impacts of the land application of waste
water and sludge will continue to investigate the effects on plant and animal communities with
emphasis on species diversity, population dynamics, and bioaccumulation.  This research will
continue to be coordinated with other waste water and sludge research through the inter!aboratory
committee on municipal waste water and sludge research.

     The portion of the program on water quality criteria will include assessments of the
ecological effects of disinfection on aquatic systems.  This work will examine the formation
of byproducts and evaluate alternatives to chlorination.  Other aspects of this program will
include refining and applying bioassay tests in selected species exposed to various con-
centrations of individual pollutants.

     The emphasis in ocean disposal research will be shifted away from ocean dumping and
toward ocean outfalls and dredged material.

     Revised bioassay procedures will be published on degradation and recovery of dredge
spoil areas, with recommendations for assessment methods.  Research on ocean outfalls will
include determinations of the chemical and physical behavior of pollutants in outfalls as
well as associated perturbations in marine ecosystems.  In addition, effects of primary,
conventional secondary, and marine secondary effluents on marine life in a selected ecosystem
will be investigated.

     The nonpoint source (NPS) research program on ecological effects will continue much along
the same lines as that research in FY 1978.  Emphasis will be on evaluating the effects of
typical NPS pollutants on aquatic ecosystems.  Ecological system benefits from selected NPS
pollutant control practices will continue to be investigated and the NPS program will be
expanded to examine rural NPS problems on a national basis.

GREAT LAKES
1977 Accomplishments

     During FY 1977, extramural expenditures included $1,319,000 fpr grants and $180,000
for interagency agreements.  During FY 1977, these funds were expended under the ecological
processes and effects program area.  Major accomplishments included:

     -  A model was developed which could predict eutrophic conditions, relative
        to anoxic conditions,  in Lake Erie.  This project was cosponsored by the
        Office of Research and Development, Region V, and the U.S. Corps of Engineers.
        Results indicated that Lake Erie anoxic conditions were not improving, as had
        been predicted from other experimental data, but were responding to changes in
        climatic conditions.

     -  Collection of loading data for Lake Huron was completed.  These data are .'
        part of the upper lakes reference studies and will be used in the development
        of a predictive model for Lake Huron.

1978 Program

     The resources for Great Lakes research in FY 1978 are $3,582,000 and nine positions.  Of
this amount, $2,667,000 will be expended for grants, $15,000 for contracts, and $120,000 for
interagency agreements.

     Among the specific Great Lakes pollution problems recently being addressed are eutrophica-
tion — or nutrient enrichment -- and its effects; problems associated with power production,
such as entrainment of planktonic organisms and larva  fish iti once-through cooling systems;
pollutant sources, fate, and effects; and dredge material disposal problems.

     Emphasis is being given to the development and verification of management oriented
predictive models which describe lake ecosystem responses as a function of the degree of
pollution.  These predictive models, firmly supported by a long term data base, provide an
excellent method for management and provision of a long term strategy for abatement action.
                                                                                        WQ-71

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     Another area of major emphasis is the determination of the sources, fate, and effects
of hazardous substances.  Efforts include studies on dispersion and fate of these materials
in the Great Lakes, analysis of nutrient and toxic chemical fluxes in sediments and their
rates of accumulation, preliminary hazardous materials mass-balance  studies, fish con-
tamination studies, and studies of atmospheric inputs of pollutants to the Great Lakes.

     Present eutrophication studies include:  an assessment of the magnitude and scope of the
Cladophora (filamentous alga) problem, results from these studies, inclusion of results from
nutrient studies into a eutrophication model to help understand nutrient inputs and phytoplankton
growth, a survey of nutrients and hazardous substances in Saginaw Bay, studies of nutrient/
plankton relationships.

     This research program is designed, in part, to fulfill EPA responsibilities under the
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1972 between the United States and Canada.  Representa-
tion  on the International Joint Commission assures that the research program continues to
respond to Great Lakes' environmental research needs.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $3,582,000 is a result of a transfer of $1,937,000 from water quality
ecological processes in order to identify this program separately, and congressional add-ons
of $1.6 million for the Great Lakes program and $45,000 for authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     Resources for the FY 1979 Great Lakes research program are $2,100,000 and nine positions.
Approximately $1,300,000 of the total will be expended for grants and $200,000 for interagency
agreements.-

     Plans for*1979 include continued research emphasis on eutrophication and hazardous
materials problems.  Research will also continue on the "lakes in series" model which
will make it possible to assess the effect of one lake upon those lakes "downstream"
from it, and to provide an appropriate rationale for decision making relative to waste
load reductions.

TRANSPORT AND FATE OF POLLUTANTS

1977 Accomplishments

     During FY 1977, extramural budget expenditures were divided as follows:  grants,
$1,380,000; contracts, $399,200; and interagency agreements, $249,000.  Major accomplishments
in this area included the following:

     -  Completed a user's manual on the application of a simplified river
        basin scale and analysis procedure utilizing manual calculation
        techniques, for use by Section 208 State planners in estimating
        current and future water quality problems resulting from point and
        nonpoint sources of pollution.

     -  Presented workshops', attended by planning and pollution control
        personnel, on techniques for estimating the magnitude of nonpoint
        source pollutant loads in streams.

     -  Completed scientific papers describing results of research on
        characterization of the rates and extent of microbial degradation
        processes in the transformation of trace organic chemicals.

     -  Developed techniques to predict rates of direct photochemical trans-
        formation of aquatic pollutants by the action of sunlight.

     -  Completed development of quantitative data on the rates and extent
        of degradation of two forms of PCBs and 3,3-dichlorobenzidine.
  WQ-72

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1978 Program

     The 1978 resource level in the water quality transport and fate program area is $1,049,500
and seven positions.  These resources include approximately $282,000 in contracts and $360,000
in grants.  The research in the water quality transport and fate area is directed at:

     -  Assessment of the nature and magnitude of national problems associated
        with point and nonpoint sources of sediments and nutrients in inland
        surface waters.

     -  Development of a computerized version of the basin scale analysis
        procedure for conducting gross assessments of current and future point
        and nonpoint source induced water quality problems over relatively large
        areas ~ greater than 200 square miles.

     -  Continuation of the development of the Section 208 areawide set of predictive
        models.  This is designed to be most useful in assessing current, future
        point, and .nonpoint pollution contributions and resultant water quality
        problems in areas of 20 to 200 square miles.

     -  Continuation of the development of the hydrologic unit set of predictive
        models, the most sophisticated of the three model sets.  This development
        is designed to be most useful in assessing nonpoint source — in combination
        with point source — induced water quality problems and expected improvements
        from alternative nonpoint source control measures.  This will help in evalu-
        ating problem areas up to 20 square miles in size.

     -  Continuation of the development of a methodology for distinguishing between
        "natural" background levels of selected contaminants in fresh surface waters,
        and levels resulting from human activity in the watershed.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The $1,750,500 reduction from the budget estimate result from a reprogramming of $783,000
to the ground water research program under the water supply research activity; a transfer of
$1,328,000 to the new anticipatory research activity under the interdisciplinary
media; an increase of $293,000 to the water quality transport and fate of pollutants activity
to support programmatic support personnel; and a congressional add-on of $67,500 for
authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan calls for a resource level of $1,297,000 and seven positions.  Approxi-
mately $405,000 of the total will be expended for grants; $350,000 for contracts; and $87,000
for interagency agreements.

     Research in the transport and fate program will be directed at completion of the first
generation of the three sets of water quality predictive models.  Their expansion, relative
to toxic pollutants covered by the Natural Resources Defense Council Consent Decree and
effluent guidelines, will also be nearing completion.  These expanded models will be required
in order to determine the adequacy of applications for the best available treatment and control
technologies in achieving water quality goals along specific stream reaches — to identify
which surface water reaches are water quality limited with regard to specific toxic chemicals.

CHESAPEAKE BAY

1977 Program

     The program activities in FY 1977 were conducted under the Chesapeake Bay abatement
and control program.

1978 Program

     In FY 1978, the program resources are $2,900,000 under the Research and Development
appropriation to support work in the Agency's Chesapeake Bay study program for which
Region III is the designated manager.  A description of this effort is located in the water
quality planning and standards, abatement and control section.

                                                                                         WQ-73

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate
     There is no change from the budget estimate.
1979 Plan
     No funds are requested; the program will continue efforts funded in FY 1978.  See
discussion under the water quality planning and standards, abatement and control section.
  WQ-74

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                                          WATER QUALITY

                                    Research and Development

                                       Industrial Processes
          Budget
Actual   Estimate
 1977      1978
                                                   Current
                                                   Estimate
                                                     1978
                            Estimate
                              1979
                             Increase +
                             Decrease -
                            1979 vs.  1978
                                                  (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
Mineral, Processing, and
  Manufacturing Industries.
Renewabl e Resources ........
$8,919
*
$7,400
*
$7,452
4,437
$7,400
3,475
-$52
-962
     Total ............ . ......  $8,919
Permanent Positions
Mineral, Processing, and
  Manufacturing Industries.
Renewable Resources	
        7,400
       11,889
                                  10,875
       -1,014
37
*
33
*
33
37
33
29
'-8
     Total.
37
33
                          70
62
-8
       *Prior to the development of the FY 1978 current estimate resources for the
        renewable resources program were' shown under the interdisciplinary media.
        Because of its programmatic nature, the program, including its description
        and resource levels, has since been moved to the water quality media.

Budget Request

     An appropriation of $10,875,000 and 62 positions is requested for FY 1979.  This
consists of a decrease of $1,014,000 and eight positions from the FY 1978 resource level.

Program Description

     The industrial research program deals with point and nonpoint sources of pollution
resulting from the industrial, agricultural, and forestry sectors'of the economy.  This
program develops and demonstrates new or improved cost effective technology.

     The mineral, processing, and manufacturing industries portion of the research
program concentrates on point sources of water pollution, resulting from the industrial
sector of the economy in those mining, manufacturing, service, and trade industries
which must meet best available technology (BAT) standards of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act (FWPCA).  This program is the realization of the national policy established
in the 1972 Amendments, which states that a major research and demonstration effort be
initiated to develop the technology necessary to help eliminate the discharge of
pollutants into the Nation's waters.

     This program also develops new or improved technology having industry wide
application, short term achievability, and long term viability, principally through
cost sharing extramural grants.  Research results provide a significant data base for
the establishment of economically and technically feasible effluent guidelines and
treatment parameters for industrial liquid waste discharge permits.  As a result of
the Natural Resources Defense Council Consent Decree in June 1976, program emphasis
has been shifted toward the development of the data required to regulate the discharge
of hazardous pollutants.  The new program direction focuses on developing complete
waste stream assessments, including chemical and bioassay data, and the applicability
of treatment alternatives to a broad range of pollutant-materials in" industrial
waste effluents.  In addition, this program addresses technology for prevention and
control of accidental spills of hazardous materials in support of Section 311 of the
FWPCA.  The program includes the development and demonstration of techniques to
prevent, contain, or clean up spills of hazardous materials.
                                                                                        WQ-75

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      .  The renewable resources research program conducts research related to the control
   of environmental pollution associated with agricultural  and forestry activities, in-
   cluding crop production on both irrigated and nonirrigated lands, forest management
   practices, and animal  production.  This research program is integrated with those of
   the Departments of Agriculture and Interior, and State universities and land grant
   colleges.  The program encompasses (1) the evaluation and development of total manage-
   ment systems, including best management practices (BMPs) and pollution control predictive
   methodologies, to control water, land, and air pollution from the production and
   harvesting of food and fiber, and from their related residual  wastes; and (2) the
   assessment of probable trends in the production of renewable resources and their
   resulting environmental and socioeconomic Impacts.

        The renewable resource research also supports development of guidelines for
   identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of agricultural  and forestry non-
   point sources of pollution, along with the necessary processes, procedures, and
   methods to control pollution from these sources, as required in Section 304(e) of
   the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, P.L.  92-500.  Also
   important is the requirement in Section 208 to support assessment and management of
   pollutants emanating from nonpoint sources, as required of State and local agencies
   in the execution of their areawide waste management responsibilities.  As a result
   of mounting pressure for increased production of renewable resources, efforts must
   be initiated to better understand the potential environmental  impacts of alternative
   approaches to increased production in order to maintain desirable levels of environ-
   mental quality.

        In order to develop a basis for selecting and justifying local management techniques
   for controlling nonpoint source pollutants related to agricultural and forestry production,
   it will be necessary to (1) develop methodologies to estimate or determine background
   levels of pollution in agricultural and forestry production regions; (2) provide tools for
   the planner/decision makers to determine the probable environmental consequences of the
   major agricultural and forestry pollutants including appropriate predictive methods;
   (3) provide tools to evaluate both the pollution and cost effectiveness of individual
   and combined management systems; (4) develop cost effective methods—BMPs—that minimize
   agricultural and forestry pollution by evaluating and demonstrating different systems at
   different locations; and (5) develop, evaluate, and demonstrate implementation strategies,
   including socioeconomic and institutional aspects for candidate BMPs.

   MINERALS. PROCESSING AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

   1977 Accomplishments

        The FY 1977 resource level for this program element included $3,651,500 for
   contracts, $2,932,000 for cost sharing research and demonstration grants, and
   $110,000 for interagency agreements.

        In FY 1977, the minerals, processinq and manufacturing industries program
   accomplished the following:

        -  Initiated assessment of major industrial source of toxic and
           hazardous effluents.

        -  Initiated assessment of the applicability of currently avail-
           able control technology to remove hazardous and toxic pollutants.

        -  Demonstrated technology for treatment of ammonia plant condensates.

        -  Developed a computerized system for handling source assessment data.

        -  Performed bioassay tests on effluents from textile plants and pulp
           and paper mills.

        -  Demonstrated systems for the containment of spills in watercourses,
           including a mobile system for diverting small streams and a full-depth
           barrier to isolate a spill in a larger water body.
WQ-76

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     -  Determined the capability of municipal waste treatment systems to
        remove heavy metals in industrial wastes.

1978 Program

     In 1978, $7,452,500 and 33 positions have been allocated to this subactivity,
of which approximately $3,514,000 will be expended on contracts, $2,060,000 for
grants, and $210,000 for interagency agreements.

     The FY 1978 program focuses on the problem of hazardous discharges.  As source
assessments are completed, the available control technologies together with their
economic implications are identified.  This information will serve as a basis for
updating effluent guidelines and for regulating the use and disposal of hazardous
chemicals.

     Completed source assessments establish detailed chemical characterizations of
industrial waste streams.  These assessments relate effluent composition to produc-
tion variables including alternative processes, types of raw materials, operating
conditions, and waste treatment alternatives.  Completed assessments provide com-
prehensive information not only on the chemical and bioassay characteristics of
waste streams, but also on the costs of alternatives for reducing adverse environ-
mental impacts.

     The hazardous incident program is continuing efforts to control and minimize
hazardous material spills and damages.

     Major outputs to be achieved in the hazardous incident program in FY 1978
include:

     -  Complete assessment of major industrial sources of toxic and hazardous
        effluents; for example, pesticide manufacturing, nonferrous manu-
        facturing, and electroplating industries.

     -  Complete assessment of the applicability of currently available
        control technology to remove hazardous pollutants.

     -  Demonstration of field detection and identification kits for
        spilled hazardous materials.

     -  Initiate development of treatment and control of nitrogenous and
        chlorinated organic effluents.

     -  Quantify types, sources, and potency of toxic compounds and
        hazardous materials occurring in pulp, paper, and wood products
        discharge.

     -  Determine degree of susceptibility of organics to municipal waste
        treatment systems.

     -  Determination of the effectiveness of activated carbon adsorption
        for the removal of toxics from organic chemical processing waste
        waters.
                       •
1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $52,500 over the budget estimate reflects a congressional add-on
for authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     The requested FY 1979 resource level for the hazardous incident program is
$7,400,000 and 33 positions.   These resources include approximately $2,400,000 for
contract support and $3,300,000 for grants.   Industry is expected to contribute to
these projects.
                                                                                      WQ-77

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      In FY 1979, activities will  be focused on the research, development, and demon-
 stration of control  and treatment technologies.   These technologies are aimed at
 reducing hazardous and toxic pollutant effluents from industry point sources to
 acceptable levels.  Previously completed source assessments will serve as a basis for
 determining areas of investigation.  Output will be used to validate and support tech-
 nically feasible effluent guidelines.   Emphasis  will  be placed on the development of
 closed cycle technology employing the principles of water reuse and byproduct recovery.

      As in previous  years, the hazardous incident program will continue its efforts to
 develop technologies for controlling and minimizing hazardous material spills and damages.

      Major research  results to be achieved in FY 1979- include:

      -  Demonstration of technology for the abatement of hazardous and toxic
         effluents from the organic nitrogen chemical  industry.

      -  Demonstration of ultraviolet ozonation for high priority organic
         chemical waste streams.

      -  Demonstration of control  of toxic discharges  from tailings ponds,
         hot and cold forming, and rolling steel  mills.

      -  Demonstration of the control of discharges of toxic, chlorinated
         hydrocarbons.

      -  Demonstration of technology for the removal of emulsified oily
         wastes from the metal finishing and fabrication industry.

      -  Evaluation of options for tracing the plumes  of spilled hazardous
         materials in water and computerizing spill response data.

      -  Determination of alternative means for removing hazardous materials
         from large rivers.

      -  Continue assessment of newly emerging technologies in controlling
         discharge of toxic pollutants.

 RENEWABLE RESOURCES

 1977 Accomplishments

      The 1977 resources for the renewable resources program were allocated among four
 subprograms:  (1) nonirrigated crop production,  (2) irrigated crop production,
 (3) animal production and (4) forest management.  Resources included $298,700 for con-
 tracts, $2,616,100 for grants, and $402,500 for interagency agreements.  Accomplishments
 for FY 1977 included the following:

      Nonirrigated Crop Production

      -  Completion of Volumes I and II of the report, "Control of Water Pollution
         from Cropland," through an interagency agreement with USDA.  The reports
         are being used by the agricultural community in the development of water
         pollution management guidelines.

      -  Initiation of assessment of cost effectiveness and economic analysis of
         soil and water conservation practices to prevent or control environmental
         pollution from crop production.

      -  Completion of a study to evaluate the movement of pesticides and sediment
         in storm runoff in the Great Lakes Basin.  The data will provide informa-
         tion for validation of the Agricultural  Runoff Management Model (ARM-2).
WQ-78

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     Irrigated Crop Production

     -  Presentation of a National Conference on Irrigation Return Flow
        Quality Management.  The conference proceedings contain the current
        state of knowledge on the cost and effectiveness of technologies for
        alleviating water quality problems from irrigated agriculture; methods
        for improved irrigation water application and management; irrigation
        return flow models; and implementation and socioeconomic aspects of
        alternative water management strategies.

     -  Development of guidelines for control of nitrates entering water
        resources from agricultural areas by modifying fertilization practices.

     -  Evaluation of several systems and methods for application of water,
        assessment of criteria for applying irrigation water, examination of
        methods for fertilizer application, and evaluation of sources for plant
        nutrients.

     -  Publication of literature abstracts relating to quality of irrigation
        return flows.

     -  Development and verification of a mathematical model capable of pre-
        dicting the salinity contribution from new irrigation projects.  The
        model would also predict the change in  return flow salinity that would
        result from operational changes in existing projects.

     Animal Production

     -  Completion of studies demonstrating aeration systems for poultry wastes
        and evaluating parameters such as climate, application rate, timing,
        and soil management in relation to cropland application of dairy manure.
        Also evaluating generation of waste in swine production facilities and
        the subsequent pretreatment options in lagoons, ponds, and ditches, and
        ultimate application on farmland.

     -  Publication of reports evaluating:  (1) the effect of management practices
        on feedlot runoff potential, (2) the feasibility of anaerobically digesting
        manure, (3) the injection of dairy manure below the land surface, (4) the
        operation of runoff control facilities for small beff cattle feedlots, and
        (5) the effects of recycling manure into the feed ration.

     Forest Management

     -  Completion of a report, resulting from an interagency agreement with the
        U.S. Forest Service, which defines and assesses the relationship between
        forestry management activities and nonpoint source plllution; the effec-
        tiveness of demonstrated control technology to reduce pollution from
        forestry activities; the planning effective forestry source controls; and
        an evaluation of the water quality data base available for model develop-
        ment and testing.  The same interagency agreement produced an analysis of
        research and development needs for nonpoint source water pollution control
        on forests and range!ands.  This document will be used by EPA, the Forest
        Service, and the universities to plan research programs.

1978 Program

     Resources devoted to the water quality renewable resources program in FY 1978 are
planned to be $4,436,500 and 37 positions.  Research will continue in the same four
areas as outlined above.   Resources include funds for contracts, $180,000; grants,
$2,483,000; and interagency agreements, $352,000.  Program activities include the
followino:
                                                                                     WQ-79

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       Nonirrigated Crop Production

       -  Conclusion of the developmental phase of assessment prediction methods
          and models for nonirrigated crop production.

       -  Refinement and further validation of the Agricultural Runoff Model and
          the Nonpoint Source Model through field evaluation programs.

       -  Completion of user's manuals and verification of the plant nutrient
          submodels of the Agricultural Runoff Management Model for the Piedmont
          and Great Lakes Regions.

       -  Completion of development of a model to predict nutrient and pesticide
          discharges from artificially drained agricultural lands.

       -  Continuation of studies to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetation
          buffer strips for controlling runoff of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus
          under a variety of topographic and climatic conditions.

       -  Initiation of a study to investigate the feasibility of using remote
          sensing techniques to predict and evaluate trends in croo production
          and potential adverse environmental impacts.

       -  Evaluation of the environmental and economic impacts of placing soil
          banks, marginal lands, and submarginal lands into row crop production.

       -  Completion of an economic evaluation of alternative implementation
          strategies for control of agricultural nonpoint sources of sediment
          and nutrients in the Corn Belt.

       Irrigated Crop Production

       -  Completion of total salinity control projects in the Upper Colorado River
          Basin and the Upper Rio Grande Basin, including evaluation of the various
          demonstrations of salinity control measures, evaluation of the socioeconomic
          and institutional constraints to irrigation water management reform and
          salinity control, and development of a multilevel optimization model for
          cost effective salinity control which integrates desalinization.

       -  Completion of a state-of-the-art report on present water law interpretations
          and their effects as constraints to more effective water use and management.
          Included in this are recommendations for changes needed to encourage more
          effective management of irrigation water resources,

       -  Completion of an evaluation on economic constraints to the implementation
          of salinity control best management practices (BMPs), and an assessment of
          the technology available for managing nitrogen fertilizers in irrigated
          agriculture.

       Animal Production

       -  Completion of an interim manual, through an interagency agreement with the
          U.S. Department of Agriculture, presenting methodology for water quality
          managers to evaluate the runoff potential from practices for land applica-
          tion of animal wastes.

       -  Completion of a manual on the cost effectiveness of animal waste application
          methods and runoff control measures for use by planner/decision makers in
          the determination of best management practices.

       -  Publication of manuals giving design factors for storage and retention
          facilities for animal waste runoff, and considerations for land application
          of the material based on capacities, soil, moisture, and precipitation cycles.
WQ-80

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     -  Completion of a manual on waste management systems for unconfined
        animal production operations not covered by the Agency's permit
        program.

     -  Completion of a study on the effectiveness of and engineering de-
        signs for runoff plots utilizing grass filters for animal waste.

     Forest Management

     -  Development of user manuals, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest
        Service, on cost effective strategies for sediment control for
        forestry activities by region and a methodology for economic
        evaluation and selection of alternate control practices |BMPs) for
        forestry nonpoint sources.

     -  Continuation of the studies to evaluate the effectiveness of vegeta-
        tion buffer strips.  This will incorporate evaluations for environ-
        mental conditions found in timber producing regions.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The $4,435,500 increase is a result of the $4,450,000 transfer from the inter-
disciplinary media to reflect a programmatic identification of the resources.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 program for this subactivity is planned at $3,475,000 and 29 positions,
a decrease of $961,000 and eight positions from the 1978 resource level.  Research will
continue to assess the agricultural and forestry nonpoint source problem and to evaluate
best management practices for alleviating environmental problems from these sources.
Resources include funds for contracts, $100,000; grants, $2,000,000; and interagency
agreements, $800,000.

     Nonfrrigated Crop Production

     Major emphasis will be on the monitoring and assessment of field evaluation
sites in an effort to examine alternate best management practices and to refine and
further validate assessment prediction methodology.  Field demonstration sites
developed by EPA, USDA, and others will be utilized for these evaluations.  Verifi-
cation will be completed for plant nutrient and pesticide phases of the Agricultural
Runoff Management Model (ARM) for the Coastal Plain region.  A methodology will be
completed and a user manual prepared on the integration, into ARM. of the contribu-
tion and impacts of runoff of animal waste on water quality In agricultural watersheds.
Also, to be completed is the development of the Watershed Erosion and Sediment
Transport Model (WEST), which will be used to assess and predict sediment erosion and
transport in channels and stream beds, and interface land runoff models to water
quality models.  A project will be concluded on methodology to analyze and minimize
the impact of mega-farms as nonpoint sources of nutrients, pesticides, and sediments
on water quality.

     Irrigated Crop Production

     Major emphasis will be directed to a field evaluation program assessing improved
water application techniques and the refining of measurement methodology to reduce
return flow pollutants.  A study will be initiated to analyze the legal and insti-
tutional constraints which must be resolved to implement technically feasible controls,
including recommendations for economic incentives and analysis of secondary economic
effects.  A project will be conducted to develop total management system manuals for
control of salinity, sediments, nutrients, and biocides in irrigation return flows.
Work will continue on the evaluation of on-farm management improvements to reduce
sediment and nutrients in irrigation return flows in the Pacific Northwest, and on
improved water application uniformity techniques and measurement methodology to
reduce return flows.  Work will also continue on submodels for refining the model to
predict mineral quality of return flow water from irrigated crop production, developed
through an interagency agreement with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.


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       Animal  Production

       A  project will  be  completed on the development and demonstration  of  criteria
  for manure storage,  considering nuturient conservation, and  utlimate land applica-
  tion for dairy operations  in the northeast.  Work will conclude  on management  systems'
  for waste from unconfined  (range and pasture) animal production  operations  not covered
  by permit in the south  central and western regions.  This work will be continued for
  the eastern  region.  Work  will begin on a final manual on cost effectiveness of animal
  waste land application  methods and runoff control measures.

       Forest  Management

       With very limited  resources, the major  thrust will be to.work with the U.S.
  Forest  Service and appropriate universities  to encourage them to undertake research
  on methods to reduce or control pollution from forestry activities.  New  research  by
  EPA will be  limited  to  evaluation of best management practices developed  by others.
  A generalized forestry  planning model will be completed for  evaluating the environ-
  mental  and economic  impacts of forest management alternatives.   Incorporated in the
  model will be the hydrologic responses and sediment and nutrient loads to the  streams.
  Submodels will cover forest management activities such as tree growth  and harvesting
  methods, road construction, and water yield  goals.
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                                          WATER QUALITY

                                    Research and Development

                                    Public Sector Activities


                                         Budget        Current                      Increase +
                              Actual    Estimate       Estimate      Estimate       Decrease -
                               1977       1978           1976          1979        1979 vs.  1978
                                                 (dollars in thousands"}


Appropriation                                                  . /                         b,
Waste Water Management	 $10,784     $10,800        $20,462-      $10,940      -$9,522-

Permanent Positions
Waste Water Management	     105         108            114           114

   a/ Includes pending supplemental of $9.5 million for demonstrating the application of
      waste water to land at Lubbock, Texas.

   b/ The decrease reflects the inclusion of the pending supplemental in the 1978 current
      estimate; excluding this supplemtnal, the net change would be  -$22,500.

Budget Request

     An appropriation of $10,940,000 and 114 positions is requested for FY 1979.
The net decrease of $9,522,500 is primarily a result of the nonrecurring FY 1978 pending
supplemental.

Program Description

     This program develops cost effective technology in support of the Agency
strategy for achieving the water quality goals of the Clean Water Act
Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500).  It directly supports the research needs
of construction grants, Section 208 areawide planning, toxic pollutants control,
permits and enforcements, and nonpoint source.programs.  These needs generally
require that the Office of Research and Development develop new technologies
to meet effluent requirements, generate a data base to support Agency
regulations, or develop guidelines and/or policy.  The current research program
is developing solutions to the following'major problem areas:

          -  Sludge processing and disposal.

          -  Improving efficiency and reliability of existing publicly owned
             treatment works (POTWs).

          -  Lack of new technology alternatives for higher water quality
             requirements.

          -  High cost of waste water treatment, especially to small communities.

          -  Disposition of toxic compounds and heavy metals.

          -  Reduction of pollution from urban runoff and combined sewers.

          -  Improved design criteria for land treatment systems.

          -  Water conservation and reuse.
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     The objective of this portion of the total research and development (R&D) program is
the mitigation of these problems within the constraints of resources, time, and technology
capabilities.  The majority of the resources will be directed to municipal
sludge management, treatment process development, toxics control, and urban
pollution control.

     The sludge management program activities focus on developing the solutions
to a myriad of problems:  Technological, ecological, health effects, monitoring
and analysis, and socioeconomic.  The program is geared to provide a broad
technological base for sludge utilization/disposal so as to protect the public
health and the environment.  This can be accomplished through an improved understanding
of the fate and impacts of toxicants and nutrients on sludge processing and disposal.
Work on sludge management will continue to study techniques which reduce energy
consumption.

     A high priority area in the waste water management program is improved
performance reliability and efficiency of publicly owned treatment plants through
the application of better operation and maintenance (0&M) practices, instrumentation,
and control systems.  The relationships between O&M practices and plant performance
will be studied to determine which factors in O&M have potential for the greatest
cost reduction and improved performance.  Emphasis in this area will be on
small plants where O&M costs are high per unit of production.  The instrumentation
and process control work will develop and evaluate strategies for process control
of conventional plants.  The work will include development of selected sensors
to measure specific constituents together with the corresponding control
strategies employing the sensors for improved plant operations.

     The treatment of smaJl waste water flows has recently been given high
priority.  The objective of this activity is the development of practical
handbooks or manuals with specific details on the design, operation, applicability,
capital and operating costs, and environmental implications of alternatives
available for the treatment and disposal of waste water generated from individual
homes, rural communities, and recreational vehicles.  These handbooks will  be
used by regulatory agencies, planning agencies, consulting engineering, and the
general public.  Emphasis has been placed on the improvement of septic tank
treatment and effluent percolation in the area of on-site disposal.  In addition,
the R&D program has developed and demonstrated use of pressure and vacuum sewer
systems which provide a more economical alternative for sewer service in many
areas.

     The control of toxic pollutants in municipal waste water effluents is  a
new high priority program.  Little definitive information is available concerning
the extent of toxic organics and heavy metals in effluents.  This program will
attempt to characterize various municipal effluents and develop control options.

     The urban runoff research program includes:  problem definition; manuals and
aids for planners and engineers; developing preventive land management
techniques; collection system flow control; storage, treatment, and disposal of
wet weather flows and sludges; developing best management practices and
integrated systems; providing technical assistance; and investigating hydrologic
modification effects.  Emphasis is also placed on urban nonpoint pollution
controls utilizing nonstructural methods to discover lower cost control techniques
as opposed to the combined sewer treatment hardware development of the past.  The
products of this research are guidelines, manuals, methods, management tools,
and supportive data which are used by planners, designers, and policy makers in
carrying out assessments and formulating solutions to urban sewered and unsewered
wet weather pollution.
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     The activities of the soil treatment systems research program are interwoven
with waste water treatment research activities and with research activities of other
agencies such as the Corps of Engineers and the Department of Agriculture.  The
research is oriented toward field evaluation and development of design manuals
for three major methods or processes which can be utilized to achieve "best
practical treatment" or "nonpolluting discharge" for municipal sewage treatment
systems.

     The development of new technology that is cost effective is needed to meet
higher water quality requirements in many areas.  Approximately half of the
treatment facilities in this country discharge to water quality limited
streams, and many other plants are overloaded because of growth.  The objective
of this program will be to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the cost,
reliability and efficiency of advanced treatment systems.  A new test and
evaluation facility for program support will be completed in FY 1979 and is
planned to be contractor operated.  The facility will be utilized by the
Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, the Industrial Environmental
Research Laboratory, and other research components to evaluate performances,
operating cost, and other scientific factors associated with waste water
treatment processes which are surfacing throughout the country as newly
developed technology.

     The objective of the water conservation and reuse program is  the
development of the technology necessary to implement a nationwide program for
water supply conservation and waste water reuse.  New direction will be
given to development of devices, systems, and policies to achieve maximum
reduction of unnecessary water consumption.  Research on waste water reuse
will concentrate on characterizing the constituents in renovated waste
water and determine the potential health effects.

1977 Accomplishments

     During FY 1977, extramural resources were divided as follows:  grants $3,566j700,
contracts $2,099,200, and interagency agreements $683,800.  In FY 1977, the
waste water management research program in the public sector:

          -  Completed a "Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal
             Waste Water" which was jointly sponsored with the U.S. Army
             Corps of Engineers and supported by U.S. Department of Agriculture.
             This manual is a practical guide for designers, planners, regulatory
             personnel, and others considering land treatment and presents the
             latest information on land treatment in readily useable form.  The
             manual is particularly timely and should materially facilitate the
             implementation of the Agency's policy which encourages land treatment
             as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment where it is
             cost effective.   The manual has been widely distributed to the
             municipal  sector and consultants.

          -  Conducted a series of regional seminars and workshops on the
             problems of small  community waste management and on-site treatment,
             to acquaint municipalities with the technology needed to meet
             water quality standards.

          -  Completed a 3-volume "Areawide Assessment Procedure Manual" for
             field use by water pollution control planners, engineers, and
             municipal  decision makers.  This manual provides a uniform
             methodology for areawide assessments and will allow comparative
             evaluations to be made for prioritizing remedial planning.  This
             product will  aid in shortening the time between planning and
             water quality improvement.
                                                                                        WQ-85

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          -  Published the initial generalized analysis of urban runoff impacts
             on  receiving waters entitled "Nationwide Evaluation of Combined
             Sewer Overflows and Urban Stormwater Discharges."  It contains
             nationwide loading data of selected parameters from urban runoff
             sources, remedial cost estimating methods, and case studies of
             receiving water impacts.  The report discusses the more
             pertinent elements in nationwide probleir  of applicable technology,
             definition, and abatement cost and tradeoffs between wet weather
             correction and advanced treatment of dry weather flows.  The
             information is intended for use by decision makers in planning and
             executing correction of wet weather pollution.

          -  Completed and published the "Sewer Infiltration and Inflow
             Control Product and Equipment Guide."  This guide lists and
             discusses new and existing equipment, materials, and practices
             comrnercially available to prevent the entry of unwanted water
             into sewer systems from infiltration and inflow.  It was designed
             for use by local municipalities and .the Federal construction grant
             program.

          -  Conducted a technology transfer capsule workshop on the design and
             use of the Swirl device for regulating and treating combined sewer
             overflows.  The Swirl device regulates sewage flow into sewer
             interceptors and separates about 50 percent of the solids in short
             detention periods over a range of surcharge flow conditions.

          -  Demonstrated that the addition of lime was an effective stabilizer
             for raw sludge.  The liming process economically produces sludge
             with odors controlled and pathogenic organisms attenuated for ultimate
             disposal.  The process is useful as an alternative to digestion as
             a supplemental or standby system, or for upgrading an inadequate
             stabilization process.

          -  Completed evaluation of facultative and aerated lagoon systems through
             a carefully controlled series of on-site field studies.  The
             results will improve operating practices for the 4,000 lagoons
             existing in the country, and offer guidance to new lagoon construction.

1978 Program

     In the area of waste water management, the total resources for FY 1978 are
$20,462,500 and 114 positions.  During 1978, the following extramural expenditures
are planned for grants, $13,200,000; contracts, $2,100,000; and interagency
agreements, $700,000.  Highlights of the FY 1978 program are presented below:

     Urban Runoff - In keeping with the goals of the program, the 1978 activities
will stress investigation of low and nonstructural runoff control.  The initial
steps will be in obtaining and analyzing information on urban runoff hydraulic
contol methods now in practice, determine how these practices perform as
pollution abatement schemes and evaluate the potential for urban flood control
and pollution reduction by modifying these accepted practices.  Concurrently
research will be initiated in new and novel methods for flow control and
"in situ" treatment.

     To support and refine the initial analysis of urban runoff impact published
in 1977, the quantitative problem assessment activity continues and evaluates
both receiving water impacts and performance/cost of abatement technologies
developed by the program, such as high gradient magnetic separation.

     The Phase I work in handling and disposing of sludge from combined sewer
overflow treatment will be completed as will the evaluation and reporting of
a  trench!ess sewer construction method.  The trench!ess method is expected to
have a significant impact in cost reduction in the estimated $4.9 billion for
new sewer construction and existing sewer repair required by 1985.

 WQ-86

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      Soil Treatment - The principal thrust of the land treatment program is
 expected to be in completing studies on the long term effects of soil treatment
 systems and an interim assessment of research progress on overland flow design
 information.  This material will serve to update the process design manual
 completed in FY 1977.  Upon approval of a pending supplemental, a major
 project demonstrating the application of waste water to the land will be
 initiated in 1978 at Lubbock, Texas.  Currently estimated to cost $9.5 million
 and to require about 6-years to  complete, the project will accomplish a side-by-side
 comparison of the latest soil treatment technology with a similar facility which
 has been in service for more than 40 years.  Information gathered from the project
 is expected to update the design manual and resolve many of the potential health
' effects issues relating to soil treatment systems.  Current estimates indicate
 that 55 to $5.6 million will be applied to project design and construction, and
 that S3.9 to $4.5 million will be utilized for several years of research.

      Small Flows - The small flows program is expected to concentrate efforts
 in on-site systems, develop a test protocol for on-site devices, demonstrate the
 most promising on-site options, and exhibit septage handling.

      Waste Water Treatment Technology - In FY 1978, sludge management will
 continue to hold a very high priority in the program.  The projects implemented
 will focus on:   Mitigating the potential environmental impacts and health
 effects caused by past sludge disposal practices; the public desire for
 conservation and recycling of potential resources contained in sludge; and
 the need to avoid energy consuming sludge treatment and disposal methods.

      In recent years, studies have been made to improve effluent quality through
 improved operation and maintenance practices.  In addition to determining best
 practice strategies for plant operation, the Office of Research and Development
 will begin to develop reliability/design analysis of the biological process
 and mechanical aspects of a waste water system.  The Office of Research and
 Development will  also continue to evaluate instrumentation systems and other
 process control strategies for their potential in improving plant performance,
 reliability, and cost effectiveness.

      Disinfection alternative process evaluations will be close to completion
 in the areas of dechlorination and ozonation.  The Qfffce of Research and
 Development will  continue testing the ultraviolet disinfection process at
 pilot scale.  Stabilization pond performance and methods to reduce suspended
 solids are being investigated which will result in a design manual for upgrading
 effluent quality.  A similar manual is planned for disinfection practice.

      The toxics control  program was initiated in FY 1S78.  Emphasis has been
 placed on control of toxic metals and organics.  In FY 1978 and FY 1979, the
 program will begin collecting data to define the problems quantitatively.
 Laboratory and pilot scale treatability studies on metal and organic
 toxicants will be continued.

      The reuse program will develop feasible strategies to extend valuable
 water supplied by source substitution, and undertake long term research aimed
 at evaluating the feasibility of reusing waste water for potable purposes.
 Guidelines will be developed for municipalities to implement source substitution
 projects and characterize the viological, organic, and inorganic residues
 in waste water effluents.  This program requires coordination with the Office
 of Water Research and Technology of the Department of Interior, and EPA's
 Office of Health and Ecological Effects and Office of Water Supply.
                                                                                             WQ-87

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The 59,662,500 increase over the budget estimate results from a reprogratnning
of $140,000 to support personnel who were reassigned from other water quality research
and development activities; from the FY 1978 pending supplemental of $9,500,000 to
initiate a major project demonstrating the application waste water to the land
at Lubbock, Texas; and from a congressional add-on of $22,500 for authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 plan includes a total of $10,940,000 and 114 positions.  During FY 1979,
extramural expenditures are planned for grants, $3,600,000; contracts, $2,100,000; and
interagency agreements, $700,000.  Highlights of the FY 1979 program plan are
presented below.

     Urban Runoff - The 1979 plan is divided into four major areas which will provide
a data base for wet weather pollution abatement decisions.  The four major areas are:
technology development assessment; assessment of existing technology and impacts;
development of user assistance tools; and evaluation of remedial implementation
consequences.

     For 1979, the major activity in technology development assessment will be to
develop and evaluate best management practices via low and nonstructural •   .
methods.  This is continuation of work initiated in FY 1978'on controlled release,
up-system storage, and in-line liquid/solids separation methods.  Continued efforts
will be made in the development of flexible treatment methods which can be used
at existing treatment works as dual or multiuse facilities.  These include high
gradient magnetic separation and ultra-high-rate filtration.

     Assessment of existing technology and its impact will continue and the
analysis of standard parameters in receiving waters such as oxygen demand and
suspended sol ids will be completed.  Work in bottom effects and toxicants will be
initiated and evaluation of urban hydraulic controls for pollutant removal will
continue.

     User assistance tools will include the users manual for land development
pollution control allowing incorporation of best management practices (BMP's)
for pollution prevention after development.  Also included in the manual will
be a guidance document describing how to modify existing land use or hydraulic
control to gain runoff pollution abatement.

     Characterization and evaluation of treatment alternatives for combined sewage
sludges will be initiated in order to evaluate remedial implementation
consequences.

     Small Flows - This program will develop a manual on advanced collection
systems, evaluate certain residential units, and demonstrate percolation bed
techniques for small waste water systems.

     Land Treatment - The land treatment program for FY 1979 will complete
assessment of the long term effects of irrigation and high rate infiltration
systems, interim assessment of nitrogen management, and phosphorus management
studies.  This data will be incorporated into a design manual due for
completion in late 1979.
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     Waste Water Treatment Technology - The top priorities in the waste water
management program will be the sludge management and toxics control programs.
Studies will be upgraded to include full scale evaluations of those   disposal --
combustion processes -- technologies that were advanced in FY 1978.  Because
of energy considerations, the program will concentrate on improving the
production of by-product fuels for small communities.  Investigation of
processes for extraction of toxicants from sludge, continuation of uptake studies
of pesticides and PCB's, and evaluations of long term land application sites for
transport and transformation of heavy metals and microorganisms will be continued.

     The toxics control program will expand the data collection to quantify the
source and magnitude of the toxics problem in municipal waste water effluents.
The program will develop cost benefit analyses and model technology to
evaluate advanced methods for reducing the discharge of potentially toxic pollutants.

     The new alternatives-process development program will complete the evaluation
of first generation full scale disinfection alternatives and continue the on-going
upgrading program.  This program will begin the in-house pilot scale evaluation
phase, providing short response technology feasibility studies aimed at solving
national and localized problems.  It will concentrate on technology development for
small communities that is low cost, highly efficient, and less energy intensive.

     Data obtained from studies of publicly owned treatment works performance will
by synthesized into practical and useful operations guidance which will assist in-
upgrading the quality of effluents from small communities.

     Studies aimed at providing comparative analyses of the reliability of
treatment alternatives will be continued.  Process control strategies will be
tested to determine cost effectiveness and improvement on plant performance.

     The research and development associated with water conservation and
reuse has, due to other more pressing problems, been carried out as a low
priority, low funded program area.  This technical area will be upgraded as
needed, based on close examination of reuse research needs, the 1977
Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), and the
Agency's reuse/recycling policies which are as yet in the developing stages.
                                                                                           WQ-89

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                                          WATER QUALITY

                                    Research and Development

                                Monitoring and Technical Support


                                            Budget    Current             Increase +
                                   Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                                    1977     ,1978      1978      1979    1979 vs. 1978
                                                     (dollars in thousands!

Appropriation
Characterization and Measurement
  Methods Development	   $2,057    $1,968    $1,677    $2,112      +$435
Measurement Techniques and
  Equipment Standardization	    1,592     1,202     1,232     2,002       +770
Technical Support	    1,469     1.317     1,733     1,425	-306

     Total	    5,118     4,487     4,642     5,539       +897

Permanent Positions
Characterization and Measurement
  Methods Development	       43        41        37        37
Measurement Techniques and
  Equipment Standardization	       24        36        30        33         +3
Technical Support	       22	32	19	19	...

     Total	       89       109        86        89         +3

Budget Request

     An appropriation of $5,539,000 and 89 positions is requested for FY 1979.  This
represents an $897,000and three position increase over the FY 1978 level.  It includes
a net increase of $435,000 in the characterization and measurement methods development
program to carry  out measurement methods development  research in support of monitoring,
through an agreement with National  Bureau of Standards. A three position  and  $800,000  increase
in measurement techniques and equipment standardization will provide for both an  agreement  with
the  National  Bureau of Standards and  for the equivalency program.

Program Description

     The monitoring and technical support program relating to water quality  supports
three activities:  (1) characterization and measurement methods development  for observing
pollutants contained in surface and ground waters, sludges and soils, and the effluents
from municipal,  industrial, and nonpoint sources; (2) measurement techniques and  equipment
standardization  for routine monitoring functions; and (3) the provision of technical  support
by which the  results of research and  development programs, the expertise of  researchers,
and  the specialized facilities and equipment of the  Office of Research and Development are
made available to the program and regional offices of the Agency in response to requests
for  support.  This technical support  activity is planned for and provides resources to
respond to both  planned and emergency requests for laboratory and monitoring services.

CHARACTERIZATION AND MEASUREMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     The FY 1977  level for this subactivity was $2,056,600 and 43 positions.  Of these
resources $218,700 was for grants and $95,100 for contracts.  These resources were allocated
to the development of methods for (1) volatile organic compounds in water, (2) the
WQ-90

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simultaneous determination of several toxic elements,  (3) nonvolatile organic compounds, and
(4) the different ionic species of elements and asbestos.  Among the accomplishments in
FY 1977 were the following:

     -  A protocol was developed for use by the Effluent Guidelines Division in
        analyzing industrial waste waters for organic  compounds identified as high
        priority pollutants in the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Consent
        Decree of June 1976.  The protocol will allow  the program office to analyze
        several hundred samples from plants representing 21 industrial classes for
        114 different organic compounds.  Although some adaptation to the different
        waste waters will be necessary, the effort required will be minimized and the
        comparability of data among the different contractors will be enhanced by the
        protocol.

     -  The computer based information system which provides assistance in the
        identification of organic compounds from their mass spectra was updated to
        include the 114 organic compounds named in the Consent Decree.  The system
        will be used by the program offices to aid in  the identification of the 114
        other compounds.

     -  The acceptability of the EPA interim method for determining asbestos in water
        samples was substantiated.  The method is now  being used by the Effluent
        Guidelines Division to obtain data on the occurrence of asbestos in the
        effluents from 21 industries.  (Asbestos is one of the pollutants identified
        in the June 1976 Consent Decree.)

     "  The organic contaminants causing the closing of the Louisville, Kentucky,
        sewage treatment plant were identified and the source was traced to a chemical
        disposal company.

1978 Program

     The FY 1978 resource level for the characterization and measurement methods'
development program is $1,677,000 and 37 positions.  Of these resources, approximately
$50,000 will be used for contracts.

     The major activities in FY 1978 will focus on the methods of analysis for volatile
organics and for the simultaneous analysis of several  trace elements,  A master scheme
is to be developed for the accurate measurement of any specific compound in the volatile
organic class.  The scheme allows regional laboratories, commercial laboratories, and
industrial laboratories to carry out measurements on the Natural Resources Defense
Council (NRDC) Consent Decree organics and any other volatile organic named in the
future, at minimal cost and with acceptable accuracy.

     In the case of trace elements, experience indicates that methods now utilized for
these measurements are frequently in error and time consuming when applied to industrial
wastes since equipment changes are required for each element of concern.  Efficient
sampling and sample treatment procedures are being developed to allow existing multielement
analytical methods to provide accurate measurements at reasonable cost.  Several trace
elements are on the NRDC Consent Decree list of pollutants.

     Analytical methods for nonvolatile organics, which constitute 80 percent of the
organics in water, are nonexistent.  Means for separating the nonvolatile organics so
that they can be detected on an individual basis are being developed.  Detectors which
produce fingerprint spectra will be developed or adapted for use with the separation
procedures.   The fingerprint spectra are necessary to  allow rapid and consistent
identification of these compounds.
                                                                                          WQ-91

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     Methods for the direct measurement of different inorganic species, particularly ionic
species are being improved.  Selective sampling methods for the species of interest are
being developed as are separation techniques which allow large quantities of water to be
processed.  The successful development of one of these techniques allows the available
selective techniques, but not sensitive techniques, to be applied to low concentrations
of toxic members of these species.  Special problems are presented by asbestos and viruses.
A screening method for chrysotile asbestos will be completed and evaluation on natural
waters will begin.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $291,000 from the budget estimate results from a reprogramming
of $306,000 to the'water quality transport and fate of pollutants and the water quality
renewable resources activities to support those programmatic support personnel that
were reassigned to these activities, and a Congressional add-on of $15,000 for authorized
positions.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan includes resources of $2,112,000 and 37 positions.  Of these resources,
approximately $230,000 will be used for grants and $100,000 for contracts.  In addition,
the increased resources of $435,000 will be used to support the National Bureau of
Standards to carry out measurement methods development research in support of monitoring.

     This fiscal year, the master scheme for the analysis of volatile organics will be
completed and any necessary adjustments made.  Marker compounds, to be used in conjunction
with the master scheme to allow accurate quantification, will be identified.  In the area
of multielement analysis, work will begin on the sampling and sample preparation problems
associated with sediments and soils.  For water samples, these same problems will be
sufficiently well resolved to begin the transfer to regional and other laboratories.

     The effort on nonvolatile organics will be increased by shifting some resources
from the volatile organic activity,  work on separation techniques will continue and
a preliminary version of a spectral generating detector will be available for trial.  The
procedures needed to confirm the identity of these nonvolatile organics will be studied
and utilized on an interim basis to investigate emergencies involving these compounds.
Work will continue on the problems of inorganic species, viruses, and asbestos.

MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT STANDARDIZATION

1977 Accomplishments

     The 1977 resources supported the development, adaptation, and evaluation of
measurement methods for use in Federal and State monitoring and enforcement programs.
Approximately $571,300 was obligated for contracts, $15,000 for interagency agreements,
and $134,200 for grants.

     Accomplishments of the FY 1977 program included:

     -  Development of sampling and analytical protocol for evaluation of best available
        treatment of industrial discharges, as required by the Natural Resources Defense
        Council (NRDC) Consent Decree.

     -  Development of analytical test procedures for pollutants specified in the
        National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits, as required
        by Section 304(g) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended."

     -  Investigation of new test procedures for contaminants  specified in National
        Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations.

     -  Initiation of contracts for development of analytical methods for priority
        pollutants identified in the NRDC Consent Decree.
 WQ-92

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     -  Development of  improved procedures for the  identification and enumeration of
        indicator and pathogenic microorganisms  in  drinking water and waste discharges.

     -  Update of system for  the storage and retrieval of biological data obtained from
        EPA and State biological monitoring programs.

1978 Program

     The FY 1978 resource level for this subactivity  is $1,232,000 and 30 positions, which
is basically an intramural program.  However, approximately $200,000 will be devoted to
grants.  This program emphasizes the development of new reference methods and publication
of methods  manuals for field application to support  the Agency's NPDES program and
monitor pollutants contained  in fresh and marine waters.  Specific outputs from the 1978
program include:

     -  New reference methods for toxic and hazardous substances in drinking water, waste
        water, ambient waters, and sludges.

     -  Revised edition of the methods manual for chemical analysis of water and wastes
        which includes analytical procedures required by NPDES regulations.

     -  A manual on microbiological methods for monitoring the environment which provides
        procedures to produce consistent analytical results between microbiological
        analysts.

     -  Revised edition of the manual for biological  field and laboratory methods to be
        used in the evaluation of species diversity and population densities in receiving
        waters.

  •  -  Standardized bioassay methods for monitoring  the toxicity of industrial effluents.

     -  Maintain and improve  instrumentation and computer systems for the identification
        of toxic and hazardous organic compounds in drinking water and waste discharge.
                                                      •
1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $30,000 over the budget estimate reflects a congressional add-on for
authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 program for the measurement techniques and equipment standardization
program includes resources of $2,002,000 and 33 positions of which $300,000 will be
devoted to grants and contracts.  In addition, $500,000 of the $770,000 increase will
be transferred to the National Bureau of Standards  for basic research in water quality
monitoring; the remaining increase requested, $270,000 will support the equivalency
program.  The program will continue to:  (1) emphasize the development of monitoring and
reference methods; (2) implement the alternate methods equivalency program; (3) correct
deficiencies in existing reference methods in support of the Agency's needs in the
enforcement and monitoring areas particularly in the  National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) program; (4) monitor pollutants contained in fresh and
marine waters; and (5) provide effective field methods for priority pollutants required
by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Consent Decree.

     Specific outputs from the FY 1979 program will include:

     -  Improved analytical  test procedures for waste monitoring under Section 304(g).

     -  Revised editions of manuals for monitoring for chemical pollutants, microorganisms,
        viruses, and biological  indicators of water quality.

     -  Improved bioassay techniques for monitoring the toxicity of waste waters and
        ambient waters.
                                                                                         WQ-93

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     -  Candidate reference methods for monitoring pathogenic microoganisms in municipal
        waste waters.

     -  Development and field tests of analytical methods for priority pollutants required
        by the Consent Decree.

     -  Evaluation of alternate measurement methods to verify their equivalency to
        reference methods.

TECHNICAL SUPPORT

1977 Accomplishments

     The 1977 resource level for technical support included approximately $389,100 for
contracts and $51,300 for interagency agreements.  Major activities in 1977 were:

     -  Provision of analytical services for monitoring viruses in waste water.

     -  Collection and analysis of sludges, river and ocean samples in support of
        regional activities.

     -  Surveys of"the Atchafalaya Basin and Lake Tahoe to assist in development of
        a basin management plan.

     -  Assessment of agriculture and silviculture practices as they impact water
        quality.

     -  Measurement of transport and diffusion of thermal effluent plumes from power
        plants.
                                                    •t
     -  Monitoring of water quality using aircraft mounted systems and specialized
        instrument packages.

     -  Assistance in documenting episodal events, nonpoint sources and assessing
        their impact on the environment.

1978 Program

     The 1978 resources for technical support include $1,733,000 and 19 positions.
Approximately $552,000 will be obligated for contracts.

     Since the technical support program is one which responds to real time needs of
the program and regional offices it, as with all level-of-effort type programs, cannot
be entirely planned with certainty.  However, based upon FY 1977 experience, the program
will perform most of the following activities:

     -  Study of the impacts of drainage from meadows and other land types on Lake Tahoe.

     -  Assistance on the development of the basin management plans for the Atchafalaya
        and Apalachicola Rivers.

     -  Study of the methods for wetlands development.

     -  Review of dredge spoil utilization practices.

     -  Emergency assistance on evaluation of spills and other episodal events.

     -  Evaluation of the trophic level of lakes.

     -  Provision of unique analytical services.

     -  Application of specialized monitoring capabilities, such as spectral sensor
        equipment to water quality measurements.
  WQ-94

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $416,000 over the budget estimate is the result of a transfer of funds
from the interdisciplinary media to cover increased priority given to study the impact of
drainage and land use on Lake Tahoe, study of methods for wetlands development, and study of
dredge spoil utilization practices.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 plan for technical support includes resources of 19 positions and $1,425,000,
of which approximately $500,000 will be allocated for contracts.

     These resources will provide funds and positions with which  to respond to regional
and program office priority requests for assistance.  The work planned, and that
anticipated to be requested, is as follows:

     -  Specialized assistance on problems of dredge spoil placement, and basin plan
        development and evaluation.

     -  Complex studies of nonpoint sources requiring the application of advanced
        remote sensing and specialized water monitoring equipment.

     -  Application of newly developed techniques to assess the effect of development
        on water quality.

     -  Application of sophisticated analytical chemistry, advanced remote sensing,
        and other unique research capabilities to realtime  regional and program office
        problems.
                                                                                            WQ-95

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                                          WATER QUALITY

                                       Construction Grants


                                           Budget       Current                       Increase +
                               Actual     Estimate      Estimate      Estimate        Decrease -
                                1977        1978          1978          1979        1979 vs.  1978
                                             (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation	   $1,980,000   $4,500,000    $4,500,000    $4,500,000

Obligations......	    7,501,146    5,540,000     4,000,000     5,000,000      +$1,000,000
  Appropriation	   (1,161,732)  (4,540,000)   (3,566,477)   (5,000,000)     (+1,433,523)
  Contract Authority....   (6,339,414)  (1,000,000)     (433,523)          ...        (-433,523)

Outlays	    3,529,577    5,190,000     4,135,000     4,660,000         +525,000
  Appropriation	     (820,587)    (660,000)     (495,000)   (1,020,000)       (+525,000)
  Contract Authority	   (2,708,990)  (4,530,000)   (3,640,000)   (3,640,000)

Liquidation of Contract
  Authority	    3,800,000    5,000,000     5,000,000     1,400,000       -3,600,000
Authorization Levels	    1,930,000      950,000     5,525,000     6,025,000         +500,000

Budget Request
     An appropriation of $4.5 billion is requested for FY 1979 to continue the municipal-
construction grants program established under Title II of the Federal  Water Pollution
Control Act, as amended (FWPCA).  Funds have been authorized for this request in the
Clean Water Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-217), enacted on December 27, 1977.  An appropriation
of $1.4 billion is also requested for FY 1979 for the liquidation of contract
authority pursuant to authority contained in Section 203 of the FWPCA.

     Obligations for FY 1979 are expected to total $5 billion, an increase of
$1 billion over FY'1978, primarily resulting from the unexpected delay in receiving
the $4.5 billion of supplemental funding for FY 1978.  'As a result of this, as many as
30  States  and  Territories  have been forced  to  alter work plans  and funding strategies.


Program Description

     This program provides grants to municipal, intermunicipal, State, and interstate
agencies to assist in financing the planning, design, and construction of municipal
waste water treatment facilities.  Amounts made available for obligation are allotted
to each State on the basis of formulas set forth in the Federal  Water Pollution Control
Act, as amended (FWPCA) and subsequent amendments.  Within these allotments,, grants
are awarded on a priority basis for individual  projects.  Generally, each project is currently
eligible for 75 percent Federal assistance.   The recently enacted Clean Water Act. of
1977 amended selected portions of the FWPCA, including a 5-year extension of the
funding authorization, but did not substantially alter the scope nor intent of the
1972 Amendments.

     Under the current legislation, a 3-step approach to funding projects 1s
required.  The first step is development of the facilities plan, which includes a
preliminary description of the project, a cost-effectiveness analysis of several
alternatives, an environmental  assessment, an infiltration/inflow evaluation, and
identification of effluent discharge limitations.  The second step is the development
of design plans and specifications.  The third and final step is to fund the actual
construction of the treatment works.  Grants are made for each of these steps, with
funding of subsequent steps contingent on the successful completion of prior steps
and the availability of funds.   Under the new legislation, upon completion of an
approved facility plan, communities of 25,000 or less are eligible for a combined
design and construction grant in those cases where total estimated cost of
treatment works does not exceed $2 million.   Payment against these obligations
are made to the grantee as all  or portions of each of these steps are completed.
                                                                                             WQ-96

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     Funding for the program includes both contract authority and budget authority.
The initial $18 billion authorized under the 1972 Amendments was contract authority.
For obligations incurred under contract authority, payments cannot be made until
funds are appropriated for this purpose.  Additional funds were appropriated and
future funding will be provided through the appropriation process.

Long Term Funding Program

     EPA is recommending a long term program strategy that would both meet the most
critical treatment needs in the shortest possible time and provide sufficient funding
stability to allow effective planning and management in the States and municipalities.

     The principal goal of the funding strategy is to meet the total construction
needs in an efficient, effective, and timely manner.  An integral part of this goal
is the recognition that there are limited resources available for critical pollution
control needs and that the funds available must go toward assisting municipalities in
meeting the environmental requirements established in the Act.  The strategy
encourages alternatives to conventional treatment technologies in an effort to adopt
more environmentally compatible solutions to waste control and. focuses on ensuring
fiscal, technical, and operational integrity of the projects funded.  The new Clean
Water Act defines the extent of this Federal funding strategy -- new amendments on
reuse and reclamation, innovative technology, marine discharge treatment requirements,
and others are expected to significantly alter funding needs and Federal eligibilities.
Current needs estimates have not yet accounted for the impact of these new amendments
on the Federal commitment.  The 1978 Needs Survey, now in preparation, will develop
more precise estimates of the remaining municipal needs under the amended Act and will
provide the basis for the long term funding strategy under which the program will
propose to operate.  The States and local communities need some assurance of funding
to be available in future years.  The $4.5 billion FY 1979 request is consistent with
our proposed long term funding strategy.  -The recent Admendments authorize a 5 year -
$24.5 billion program.


     The long term strategy must be designed to reflect the progress of the program
to date and to recognize the limits of the public and private institutions that must
administer the program.  Although EPA has funded approximately 13,000 projects
under the amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500} to date, only one-third of all municipalities
were able to meet the July 1, 1977, deadline for secondary treatment of effluent.
About 6,800 projects funded by EPA are still in the preliminary planning and design
stages.  Projects currently under construction total 4,400, of which 900 are still
active from grants given prior to P.L. 92-500.  It is estimated that approximately
$8-12 billion is currently in the project pipeline, that is for projects that
have received a grant, but have not yet reached the construction phase, with the
remainder awaiting their first facility planning grant.  In order for EPA and the
States to properly address this massive backlog of need, EPA has recommended a long
term, $4.5 billion per year funding strategy to phase these projects into the public
and private sector without undue disruption to available resources.

FY 1977 Accomplishments

     FY 1977 marked the fifth year of EPA grants administration under P.L. 92-500.
It also included the first major deadline, July 1, 1977, established in the Act for
meeting effluent standards.  Municipalities were required to treat all effluent to
at least secondary treatment level by July 1, 1977 — an accomplishment met by
only one-third of all municipalities.  Half of the remaining two-thirds are in various
stages of treatment facility planning, design, or construction that would move them
toward compliance.  Nearly all expect Federal assistance in reaching the 1977 goal.
 WQ-97

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      Since the enactment of P.L. 92-500, EPA has awarded funds to approxomately 13,000
waste water treatment projects.  During the same time frame, EPA has completed 1,594
projects under the original Act  (P.L. 84-660), and 1,461 facility plans, 1,007 plans
and soecifi cations, and 772 construction projects under P.L. 92-500.  The balance of
the nearly 13,000 awards are still active, 4,888 planning grants, 1,944 design grants,
and 4,366 construction grants.  These efforts, in conjunction with other initiatives
on the industrial side side, are beginning to have msasureable impacts on our waterways.
Of 11 major cities studied in a recent report, eight showed significant water quality
improvement.  State-by-State assessments of water quality improvements were recently
reported to Congress, pursuant to Section 516(a) of the Act, and the results give
indications of significant progress in many areas.  These positive signs of pollution
abatement are expected to accelerate over the next several years as projected are
completed and new clants begin operation.

      The grant orogram is FY 1977 obligated more funds, made more grants, and paid out
more for work performed than any other year since the program began.  The S7.5 billion
obligated for both construction grants and Section 206)a) reimbursables was 74 percent
larger than the previous annual high (54.3 billion FY 1976) and more than 25 percent of
all funds awarded since FY 1956.  The Agency processed 4,326 new awards to municipalities
in FY 1977, up 10 percent from FY 1976.  The number of on-going projects for all Steps
on September 30, 1977, totalled 11,198, with a grant award total of more that
520 billion.

1978 Program

      A total of S4 billion in obligations is projected during FY 1978.  This will include
approximately $116 million to reimburse projects eligible under Section 206(a) during
FY 1977 and 5,600  new awards (totalling S3.9 billion) for the planning, design, and
construction of treatment facilities. Based on the most recent information available by
the end of the year, about 12,000 projects will be in various stages of preconstructioa
or construction activity.   This represents an increase of 1,330 over the estimates in
the 1979 budget appendix.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

      The budget estimate and current estimate remain the same, $4.5 billion, although
the current estimate funding is contained in a pending supplemental request.

1979 Plan

      In FY 1979, obligations totalling $5 billion are projected.  The new obligations
will support approximately 6,400 new awards.  Based on the most recent information
available, the total number of projects in various stages of completion at the end of
FY 1979 will be about 12,600, an increase of 1,305 over the estimate in the 1979 budget
appendix.  The following table summariries the FY 1979 program and compares the activity
levels to the previous two years:

                                        FY 1977           FY 1978          FY 1979
       Item                              Actual          Estimated        Estimated
                                                  (dollars in billions)

Total Obligations                          $7.5               $4.0             $5.0

New Awards:
  New Step 1 Awards                       1,361              2,000            2,100
  New Step 2 Awards                       1,390              2,300            2,300
  New Step 3 Awards                       1,575              1,300            2,000
                                                                                       WQ-98

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FY 1977
Actual
11,198
797
$3.5
FY 1978
Estimated
12,000*
1,040
$4.1
FY 1979
Estimated
12,600*
2,000
$4.7
Active Projects
Construction Completions
Total Outlays
* The latest information available as reflected herein shows  increases  over the amounts
  orginally reported in the 1979 budget appendix which were (1)  actual  FY 1977  awards for
  Step 1:  1,361; Step 2:  1,390; and Step 3:   1,575;  and  (2)  estimated active  projects
  for FY 1978:  10,670 and FY 1979:   11,295.
 WQ-99

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                                         DRINKING WATER
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                     Actual
                                      1977
       Budget
      Estimate
        1978
                                                          Current
                                                         Estimate
                                                           1978
                    Estimate
                      1979
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	 $28,550
  Permanent Positions	     191
                                                       (dollars in thousands)
Enforcement:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions.
160
       $38,282
           229
                                                   154
                                                     7
                                                          $39,338
                                                              275
              176
                8
                     $53,014
                         408
961
 43
        Increase +
        Decrease -
      1979 vs.  1978
         +$13,676
             +133
+785
 +35
15,200
    91
                                                53,636
                                                   327
                                                34,454
                                                           16,110
                                                               97
                              16,150
                                  97
                   55,624   .  70,125
                      380 y    ' 548
                   37,950     40,900
                  112,000     81,000
              +40



          +14,501

           +2,950
Research and Development:
  Appropriation ....................  14,539
  Permanent Positions ..............      98

Total, Drinking Water Program:
  Aporopriation ....................  43,249
  Permanent Positions ..............     297
  Outlays ..........................  29,180
  Authorization Levels .............  78,500

* Authorization was pending.
a/ Includes 45 positions added to Abatement and Control for drinking water strategy
   implementation.

b/ The net increase reflects the inclusion of 45 additonal postions in the 1978 current
   estimate for drinking water strategy implementation; without this addition, the net
   change would be +213.

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Public Health Service Act and the Interstate Quarantine Regulations provided the
original statutory authority for the Federal drinking water program.  The inadequacies
of these Acts became apparent through a community drinking water supply study conducted
in 1969.  Random samples of tap water indicated that a moderate percentage had constituents
that exceeded Public Health Service Standards.  Several systems had physical deficiencies,
such as inadequate 'disinfection and clarification capacity.  There was inadequate plant
operator training as well as a lack of thoroughness in inspection procedure by State and
local authorities.

     The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, an amendment to the Public Health Service Act,
significantly increased the Agency's authorities and responsibilities to improve the quality
of drinking water and to protect the public health and welfare.  The Act covers approximately
500,000 community water supplies, 200,000 noncommunity supplies, and 200,000 facilities that
utilize underground injection to dispose of contaminants such as industrial byproducts and
municipal wastes.

     Safety of drinking water is primarily the concern of State and local governments.
However, Congress  has determined that the Federal Government shares in this responsibility.
Assurance of safe drinking water is to be found in a cooperative effort in which the Federal
Government assists, reinforces, and sets standards for State and local efforts.

     EPA is required to establish primary and secondary drinking water regulations specifying the
maximum permissible bacteriological, chemical, and physical constituent levels necessary to
protect the public  health and welfare, taking health risk, economics, and technology into account.
Interim primary water regulations which cover" such contaminants as bacteria and turbidity have
toeen in effect since June 1977.  Revised primary regulations will be forthcoming as a result of
the recently completed National Academy of Sciences Report on drinking water and health.
Regulations will  have to be developed to cover organic contaminants such as trihalomethanes and
synthetic organics.  Secondary regulations will be promulgated to include drinking water
characteristics such as color, taste, odor,- and appearance.
                                                                                     DW-1

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      State participation is essential to the successful implementation of the Act.  States may
have primary enforcement responsibility for public water systems to ensure compliance with the
national drinking water regulations.  Should a State fail to seek primacy or to satisfy the
minimum State program regulations, EPA is required by the Act to establish and enforce a
program of public water systems supervision in the State.  The drinking water -inolementation
regulations specifying the requirements for minimum State programs and State program grants
have been effective since January 1976.  The public water systems supervision program includes
laboratory certification, sanitary surveys, review of variances and exemptions, enforcement
actions, and public notification activities.  In FY 1977, 14 States achieved primacy for the
program and another five States will achieve primacy in the first quarter of FY 1978.
Most of the remaining States and territories will continue to work toward achieving primacy
over the next several months.

     The Act also requires EPA to establish regulations for State underground injection
control programs in orde1" to protect underground sources of drinking water from contamination.
EPA is required to designate those States for which an underground injection control program
is necessary.  The underground injection control program is designed to regulate the subsurface
enrolacement of fluids which may endanger drinking water sources.  The program regulations
will set forth minimum State program requirements for monitoring, permitting, enforcement, etc.
Designated States are intended to have primary enforcement responsibility for this program
and must satisfy the State program regulations to assume it.  Should States fail to assume or
qualitfy for this responsibility, EPA must implement this program and enforce the regulations.
EPA proposed these regulations in the Federal Register in August 1976.  Since that time,
the Agency has received approximately 400 responses in regard to these proposals.  It is
anticipated that by March 1978, EPA will repropose the Underground Injection Control
regulations.  Upon promulgation of these regulations, the States will begin to establish
a program to enable them to assume primacy.

     The drinking water program policy and strategy recognize that providing safe
drinking water to all Americans cannot be achieved immediately.  As such, the program".
regulations rely on a phased approach to implementation, providing adequate time for a
State to implement the monitoring, surveillance, public notification, reporting, and
recordkeeping requirements.

     Participation by State representatives and responsible interest groups and citizens
has incorporated into the regulatory development process.  This approach ha-s also been used
for the development of the underground injection control program to ensure that regulations
do not disrupt existing programs and pose an unreasonable burden on the injection facility
operators. Special attention has been given to protection of public health, economic impact,
and building on existing State institutions in developing the regulations.

     The major program emphasis for FY 1979 will encompass several key areas:  (1) developing
revised primary regulations as a follow-on to the National Academy of Sciences study;
(2) oroviding scientific assistance for the implementation of standards for organics and
developing feasible treatment technology;  (3) continuing to aid more States in achieving
primacy in the public water systems supervision and the underground injection control
programs;  (4) implementing a suitable program in nonprimacy States; (5) providing technical
assistance to States where necessary; (6) giving variance from organic requirements and
standards; and (7) completing the assessments of surface impoundments.  The goal is to have
the States and local governments assume the principal role in assuring safe drinking water
with the Federal Government providing technical and financial support.

     Research and development activities in the drinking water program will include:
(a) development of new and-improved analytical methods to identify and measure the
contaminants in drinking waters;  (b) identification and quantification of the health effects
of contaminants in drinking water;  (c) development of new or improved methods of economically
controlling contaminants found in raw water to prepare it for drinking; and (d) improvement
of methods and determination of pollutant source for protecting underground supplies of
drinking water from contamination.

     In FY 1979, research and health effects, treatment, and analytical methods will continue
to concentrate on organics and some of the inorganics recommended for research by the National
Academy of Sciences.  The health effects of by products of alternative disinfectants will
continue to receive major attention.  Treatment methods for removing organics from drinking


  DW-2

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water will be evaluated for a variety of water treatment conditions in the field.   The
effort to develop more simple, economical, and reliable treatment methods for small systems
will be accelerated.  Ground water research will develop new and improved methods  for evaluating
the extent of contamination and for developing source control criteria for protection of under-
ground sources.   Research will continued to develop and implement quality assurance procedures
and protocols for water supply laboratories to assure that monitoring and enforcement data are
accurate and legally defensible.  Resources for this effort are included under the inter-
disciplinary activity as part of a comprehensive quality assurance program for all environmental
media.

     Enforcement activity in the drinking water program will be to assure expeditious compliance
with the Safe Drinking Water Act by public water systems which are in violation of primary
drinking water regulations.  The FY 1979 program will focus on issuing variances and exemptions,
as authorized by the Act, and initiating enforcement actions, where necessary, to  assure compliance
with the requirements of the Act.  Additional resources will be devoted to examining State program
applications for adequate enforcement provisions and preparing program guidance for implementing
Safe Drinking Water Act requirements.  Drinking water enforcement activities also  will be directed
at responding to emergency actions involving imminent and substantial endangerment to  public  health.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES                                 (in thousands of dollars)

1978 Drinking Water Program	         555,624

     Abatement and Control	         +13,676
       The increase of 313,676,700 is primarily to provide
       increased support to rural water systems and grants to
       States for implementation of public water systems
       supervision and underground injection control programs.
       Also included is funding support for additonal personnel
       for criteria, standards, and guidelines activities and for
       public water systems supervision and underground injection
       control programs development and implementation.

     Enforcement	          +785
       The increase of $785,200 will support the additional
       positions required for enforcement of the public water
       systems supervision program.

     Research and Development	'.	           +40
       A slight increase of 540,000 is to provide additional
       contractual support for health effects studies on the
       effects of chlorine disinfection byproducts and on tech-
       nology for small drinking water supply systems.                	

1979 Drinking Water Program	       70,125

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     1.   Summary of Budget Request

              An appropriation of 570,125,500 is requested for 1979.   This request, by
appropriation account, is as follows:

                      Abatement and Control	  553,014,600
                      Enforcement	      960,900
                      Research and Development	   16,150,000

              This request represents an increase of 514,501,400 over the 1978 program and provides
primarily for increased grant support and support of additional personnel requested for the
abatement and control and enforcement activities.

     2.   Changes from the original budget are as follows:
                                                                   (in thousands of dollars)
         Original  1978 estimate	
         Congressional  increase for academic training	
         Congressional  increase for authorized positions	
         Regional  reprogrammings	'	
         Office  of Research and Development reprogrammings	
         Current 1978 estimate	„	
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     The Congress increased the Agency's budget request by S3 million for academic training;
the allocation to the drinking water program was 5610,000.  In addition, the Congress also
added on funds for authorized positions, of which 3447,500 was allocated to this media.

     Regional reprogrammings resulted in a net increase of 5147,600 from other media to support
increased efforts in the public water systems supervision program implementation.

     The Office of Research and Development applied a reprogramming of 5783,000 to reflect
primarily the transfer of ground water research activities from the interdisciplinary media
to the drinking water media.

ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                             Current
                                                            Estimate            Estimate
                                                              1978	     1979
                                                              (in thousands of dollars]

     Prior year obligations	      543,249             558,663
     Change in amount of carryover funds available	       +5,514              -3,039
    ' Program increases	       +9.900             +11,811

     Total estimated obligations	       58,663              67,435
       (From new obligation authority)	      (48,174)            (59,985)
       (From prior year funds)	      (10,489)             (7,450)

     Carryover funds affecting obligations in 1978 are estimated to be 510,489,000, an increase
of 55,514,000 over the 1977 level.  In 1979, obligations from carryover funds are estimated to
be 57,450,000, a decrease of 53,039,000 from the 1978 level.

     Increases in 1978 to the new obligation authority over the 1977 level are expected to
create an additional 57,087,000 of obligations.  In 1979, the requested program increases are
expected to result in an increase of 511,811,000 to obligations.
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                                         DRINKING WATER
                                             Budget    Current               Increase +
                                  Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                   1977      1978       1978       1979     1979 vs. 1978
PROGRAM LEVELS
Number of State applications
  for public water systems
  supervision grants	       52         47         52         52

Number of States with primary
  enforcement responsibility
  for public water systems
  supervision programs	       14         54         31         49         +18

Applications submitted for
  underground injection control
  grants	      ...         19         18         18

Number of States with primary
  enforcement responsibility
  for underground injection
  control programs	      ...         10        ...          1          +1

Variances and exemptions
  granted*	        1        ...          9         20         +11

Sole source aquifers designated        1        ...         12         17          +5

Laboratories certified	      ...        ...     .25         30          +5

Enforcement actions taken	      ...        ...        ..:         20         +20
* Assumes that a blanket exemption for multiple systems is one exemption granted.
                                                                                     DW-5

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s

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                                          DRINKING WATER

                                       Abatement and  Control
 Appropriation
 Criteria,  Standards,  and
   Guidelines	
 State  Program  Resource
   Assistance	
 Strategy Implementation..
         Total.
 Permanent  Positions
 Criteria,  Standards,  and
   Guidelines	
 State Program Resource
   Assistance	
 Strategy Implementation..
         Total.
                                              Budget
                                   Actual    Estimate
                                    1977       1978
56,279

18,257
 4,014
28,550
   191
                     Current               Increase +
                    Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                      1978       1979     1979 vs.  1978
                    (dollars in thousands)
57,967     57,971
26,500
 3,815
27,110
 4.257
58,693

36,000
 8,321
38,282
39,338
   229
   27 s
   408
 +5722

+3,890
+4,064
53,OU    +13,676
48
143
74
155
79
196
105
303
+26
+107
                                               Page
DW-8

DW-12
DW-15
      The Abatement and  Control  appropriation encompasses activities relating  to the
..development  of regulations  and  establishment of standards necessary to protect the
 public   health  and welfare, the development of control  strategies and programs, and the
 implementation of  such  programs as  mandated by the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended.
 These activities  include the promulgation of primary and secondary drinking water
 regulations  which  include maximum contaminant levels,  the establishment of minimum
 requirements for  State  public water systems supervision and  underground injection
 control  programs,  and the Federal implementation of these programs if necessary.

      The paramount priority of  this program is the protection of the public from harmful
 contaminants found in drinking  water.   The abatement and control program launches a
 threefold approach at resolving this problem.   Through  the development of drinking
 water standards and regulations, the health quality of  drinking water can be  achieved
 and  maintained. The Federal  Government,  realizing the  increased administrative costs
 involved, has provided  financial  assistance for States  which  bear primary
 enforcement  responsibilities.   Also, technical assistance is  provided to help the
 States  implement their  programs.
    —'  Includes 45  positions  added  to  strategy implementation.

    y  The  net  increase  reflects  the inclusion of 45  additional  positions  in  the
        1978 current estimate  for  strategy implementation;  without this  addition,  the
        net  change would  be  +178.
                                                                                      DW-6

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     The abatement and control activities are classified under the following subactivites:

     Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines— This subactivity is related to the development
of drinking water standards and regulations and to the development of State program
guidelines and regulations.  This activity includes development of information from
fundamental studies on health effects, control  technology, and monitoring to determine
the concentration of hazardous substances in the environment.   These include
microbiological contaminants (bacteria and virus) and toxic chemicals from natural and
synthetic sources.  Economic analyses associated with these activities are also included.
Under this subactivity, the primary and secondary drinking water regulations are
established and the minimum requirements for State programs for the public water systems
supervision and underground injection control programs are established.  In addition,
guidance to the regions for program implementation is provided and congressionally mandated
studies are conducted.

     State Program Resource Assistance--This subactivity involves the provision of
financial assistance to support State activities in implementing the public water
systems supervision and underground injection control programs.  Training support is also
provided.

     Strategy Implementation--This sufaactivity is related to the implementation of
regulatory requirements for which the Federal Government is responsible.   This includes
program oversight in States with primacy, as well as program implementation in States
without primary enforcement responsibility, on Indian reservations, and for the
interstate carrier programs.  Other activities include technical assistance to States
in the implementation of public water systems supervision programs and in the
establishment of underground injection control  programs; technical evaluations of
petitions for designation of sole source aquifers; coordination with water quality
management planning programs to ensure proper consideration of water supply activities;
and technical and policy guidance relating to underground injection.
  DW-7

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                                          DRINKING WATER

                                       Abatement and Control

                                Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines
                                  Actual
                                   1977
Appropriation
Drinking Water Standards and
  Regulations Development	   $4,109
State Program Guidelines and
  Regulations Development	
        Budget
       Estimate
         1978
        Current
       Estimate
         1978
       Estimate
         1979
        Increase +
        Decrease -
      1979 vs.  1978
                                                          (dollars in thousands)
       Total,
$4,109
2,170
6,279
'S3, 411
4,556
7,967
$4,469
3,502
7,971
$4,969
3,724
8,693
+$500
+222
+722
Permanent Positions
Drinking Water Standards and
  Regulations Development....
State Program Guidelines and
  Regulations Development....
27
21
49
25
52
27
70
35
+18
+8
       Total.
48
74
79
105
+26
Budget Request
     An appropriation of $8,693,100 and 105 positions is requested for FY 1979.  This represents-
an increase of 5722,600 and 26 positions over the FY 1978 appropriation.  The increased personnel
resources and the funding to support them will provide the scientific expertise to develop
additional contaminant standards and for toxicological and other technical assistance to the
regions and States for organics Removal, treatment technology, emergency situations, and review
of variance requests.  In addition, program guidance documents will be developed on State require-
ments for implementation of new organics standards, reporting requirements, etc.  To expand and
clarify regulatory requirements of the underground injection control program, technical guidance
will be prepared on requirements for a minimum State program, permit procedures, underground
injection methods which do not endanger drinking water sources, construction and monitoring,
assessments of drainage wells, and subsidence control wells.

Program Description

     The Safe Drinking Water Act requires EPA to assure the safety of drinking water through the
establishment and implementation of national primary drinking water regulations specifying
maximum permissible bacteriological, chemical, and radiological constituent levels required to
protect the public health and welfare.  This requires EPA to determine exposure and health risks
of drinking water contaminants and to conduct assessments of the technological and economic
feasibility of controlling these contaminants.  Interim primary regulations which addressed only
bacteriological, radiological, and some chemical contaminants became effective in June 1977.
Based upon the National Academy of Sciences report received by the Agency in May 1977, revised
primary drinking water regulations are being developed.  In addition, standards for organic
contaminants in drinking water, as amendments to the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations,
are to be established.  The secondary drinking water regulations to protect the public welfare
will be promulgated.  While the basis for the initial standards has been generally established
over the years, the basis for new standards to control contaminants such as trace organic
substances approach the limits of existing scientific knowledge in many areas and require signi-
ficant work in the future.

     EPA is also responsible for the development of regulations and program guidance that ensure
that State programs will  comply with the primary and revised drinking water standards.  These
program regulations apply to public water systems to ensure the safety of the drinking water.  In
addition, EPA is to establish guidelines and regulations to protect, the existing and potential
drinking water sources from underground injection control practices which may endanger them.
                                                                                       DW-8

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As part of the effort to protect underground sources of drinking water, the guidelines for the
designation of sole source aquifers are to be established.  Activities to support Statf program
development such as data management, public awareness, special monitoring studies, and toxicological
assistance will continue.

DRINKING MATER STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS DEVELOPMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     Over $1.7 million was expended on contracts and resulted in the completion of the report by
the National Academy of Sciences on contaminants in drinking water, the preparation of a report
on the. economic impact of the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations on public water systems,
and the development and implementation of a model State information .system to process data
required by the regulations for the public water systems supervision program.  These activities
will provide data to be used in the development of revised primary drinking water regulations.

     The secondary drinking water regulations which protect the public welfare were proposed in
the Federal Register.   Emergency technical assistance was provided to address a major carbon
tetrachloride spill in tne Ohio River.  Procedures relating to emergency situations were developed
based upon experience with the Ohio spill.

     Also, standards development to regulate organic contaminants such as trihalomethanes and
synthetic organics found in the drinking water continued at a high level.

1978 Program

     In FY 1978, $4,469,100 and 52 positions have been allocated to this program element.  Contracts
totalling approximately $3 million will be initiated to evaluate health effects of specific con-
taminants in drinking water, to determine the economic impact of regulatory alternatives and to
examine technological  alternatives, to perform special studies in problem areas, to maintain the
public water systems data system, and to develop an underground injection control data system.

     Special emphasis will be given to the completion of several studies associated with the
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1977.  One of these studies will be of the anticipated costs
of compliance with interim and revised national primary drinking water regulations.  Another study
will examine the alternative methods and treatment techniques for compliance with the regulations.
Other studies will cover methods of paying costs of compliance by public water systems, sources
of revenue presently available for public water systems to meet expenses, and costs of drinking
water paid by residential and industrial consumers.  One further study will show the present
and projected 'future availability of an adequate and dependable supply of safe drinking water to
meet present and future needs.

     Some of the major outputs planned include the promulgation of standards and regulations for
trihalomethanes and synthetic organics and the completion of a final economic assessment for these
standards.  Associated with this activity is the development of treatment manuals for organics
removal and guidance on approval of variances to the organics standards.

     Activities relating to the assessment of health risks, economic impact, and treatment
techniques of other contaminants in drinking water will continue.  The feasibility studies for the
development of management information system to process the information and maintain the inventory
data required by the underground injection control regulations will be initiated.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $1,058,100 over the budget estimate results from several factors.  Congress
provided an increase of $30,000 for authorized positions; the regional offices reprogrammed $50,700
to public water systems supervision program implementation; and the headquarters Office of Water
Supply reprograimied $1,078,800 from State program guidelines and regulations development, within
this subactivity, in order to support additional contracts relating to economic impact of proposed
regulations and to the development of the ADP system for the public water systems and underground
injection control regulations.
  DW-9

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1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 request is for $4,969,300 and 70 positions which is an increase of $500,200
and 18 positions.  Approximately $3 million will be used for extramural funding.  Standards and
regulations development activities will address some of the contaminants identified by the
National Academy of Sciences in their report.  At present, there are over 200 contaminants named
in the report.  The development of standards to control these contaminants will be initiated and
work will continue on the health implications of drinking water contaminants such as nitrosamines,
viruses, synthetic organics, and hardness/softness of water.  The promulgation of the organics
standards will substantially increase the need for technical assistance to the regions and States
in this highly complex area, and will require input into the approval of exemptions from the
organic standards and the establishment of compliance schedules.  Guidance on treatment alternatives
and on technological requirements will be developed.  In addition, studies of the economic impact
of regulatory requirements and treatment techniques will be conducted to ensure that costs are
taken into consideration in the regulatory development process.  Assistance will also be provided
in response to emergency or imminent hazard situations such as the carbon tetrachloride spill in
the Ohio River.

STATE PROGRAM GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS DEVELOPMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     Approximately S2.3 million was directed to extramural funding to support primacy implementa-
tion, to develop public awareness programs and to develop training materials.  Also, 14 State
applications were reviewed and technical approval given to these States for primary enforcement
responsibility for public water systems.  Guidance was also provided for the nonprimacy States in
implementing the program.  In addition, an interagency agreement with the Indian Health Service
was negotiated to establish a cooperative effort to address problems on Indian lands.  Major
guidance documents prepared for the public water systems supervision program include a handbook
for public notification of violations by water systems; the regulatory aspects of the drinking
water program; an implementation plan for Federal facilities and Indian lands; and a state-of-the-
art report on small water treatment systems and costs of compliance.  Pursuant to Section 1442(a)
of the Safe Drinking Water Act, a report on National Waste Disposal Practices relating to ground-
water protection was prepared and submitted.  Guidelines relating to Section 1424(e) of the Act,
dealing with sole source aquifers, were prepared.  Work continued on the development of under-
ground injection control regulations to.prevent ground water contamination from this source.  In
addition, plans and guidance for an assessment of surface impoundments were developed to obtain
national data on the number of impoundments, to evaluate the pollution potential of these
impoundments based upon hydrogeologic criteria, to obtain information on existing State regulations
and programs, to obtain information on monitoring activities, and to compile data on ground water
pollution cases.

1978.PI an   -

     The funding for this program is $3,501,400 and 27 positions of which approximately SI.4
million will be used to complete the rural water survey, to conduct ground water studies, to
develop public awareness, and training materials.  A major focus of this activity is the
development and promulgation of the underground injection control regulations which include
publication of the list of States which require an underground injection control program and
the promulgation of the program grant regulations.  Final guidance on the assessment of surface
impoundments—pits, ponds, and lagoons will be issued, the program will be implemented, and
training sessions on the evaluation system will be conducted.  In the public water systems
supervision program, revised regulations will be prepared to reflect the changes produced by
the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1977 and guidelines on State and regional implementa-
tion review, minimum requirements for program oversight of primacy States, and Federal program
implementation in nonprimacy States will be prepared.  A review will be made of variances and
exemptions issued and the compliance schedules approved for the variances/exemptions.  It is
anticipated that approximately 17 State applications for primacy for public water systems
supervision programs will be reviewed and approved.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $1,054,400 from the budget estimate results from several actions.  The
Congress added $25,000 for authorized positions and the headquarters Office of Water Supply
reprogrammed $1,079,400 to other drinking water activities primarily for increased contractual
efforts.
                                                                                      DW-10

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1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 request includes 33,723,800 and 35 positions for this program, an increase of
S222.400 and eight positions.  These resources will provide guidance to the States for the
incorporation of noncommunity water systems into public water systems supervision requirements,
establish guidelines relating to small  systems serving less than 10,000 people, implement
monitoring and surveillance activities  relating to interstate carriers, and provide guidance
on radiological data monitoring and implementation of the organics standard.  Extramural  funds
estimated at $1.4 million will be used  to conduct ground water studies and public awareness
activities relating to the underground  injection control program and the requirements of the
organics regulations.

     State primacy applications for the underground injection control program will be reviewed;
guidance documents relating to construction and monitoring of injection wells included in the
regulations will be developed; procedures for permitting well injections will be established;
and guidance for establishing inventories and assessments of drainage wells, and subsidence
control wells will be developed.  Based upon the State assessments of surface impoundments
and the data collected, the final report will prepared.
   DW-11

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                                          DRINKING WATER

                                       Abatement and Control

                                 State Program Resource Assistance
                                  Actual
                                   1977

Appropriation
Public Water Systems Supervision
  Program Grants	 $16,737
Underground Injection Control
  Grants	
Special Projects	
Drinking Water Training	

     Total	  18,257

Permanent Positions	
 Budget
Estimate
  1978
 Current
Estimate
  1978
Estimate
  1979
             (dollars in thousands)
  Increase +
  Decrease -
1979 vs.  1978
16,737

814
706
$20,500
6,000
«

$20,500
6,000
• . <
610
$26,400
7,600
2,000

+$5,900
+1,600
+2,000
-610
  26,500
  27,110
  36,000
    +8,890
Budget Request

     An appropriation of $36,000,000 is requested for FY 1979.  This represents an increase of
$8,890,000 over the FY 1978 level.  The funds will go to the States in the form of grants to
assist them in acquiring and implementing primary enforcement responsibility for the public
water systems supervision program and the underground injection control program.  Funding for
assistance to rural water systems and for other special studies will also be provided.

Program Description

     Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the States are to have the primary responsibility for
implementation of the public water systems supervision and the underground injection control
programs.  The Congress, however, recognized that the States would require financial assistance
to develop and maintain State programs that would satisfy the minimum requirements of the
regulations designed to protect the public health and to protect underground sources of
drinking water.  Financial assistance is available to the States for implementation of the
public water systems supervision program and the underground injection control program.  In
the public water systems supervision program, States that have assumed primary enforcement
responsibility—primacy—and those that will achieve primacy between now and the close of FY
1979 will be eligible for their full allocation, and States that are making a diligent effort
to assume primacy will be eligible for 75 percent of their allocation pursuant to the Safe
Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1977.  Any State that assumes primacy during the fiscal year
is entitled to receive the remaining 25 percent of grant funds.

     In the underground injection control program, a designated State must assume primacy within
2 years after the date of the initial grant award to continue to receive a grant.  These assist-
ance programs are a means to strengthen the cooperative relationship between the Federal and
State governments.  It is the intent that through this arrangement, the States will be able
to assume primary responsibility for assuring the protection of underground sources of drinking
water.

     Other areas of the program include financial assistance to support special projects
directed at rural wat*>r supplies and, through FY 1978S academic training which encompasses
fellowships and curriculum development.
                                                                                        DW-12

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PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS SUPERVISION PROGRAM GRANTS

1977 Accomplishments

    .Public water systems supervision program grants totalling $16,736,700 were awarded to 52
States.  The Federal grant dollars were spent by the States for program development contracts,
for salaries of new staff and for purchasing new equipment in preparation for full implementa-
tion of the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations.  As a result, 14 States were approved
for primacy during FY 1977.

1978 Program

     A total of $20,500,000 will be available to the States that attained primary enforcement
responsibility.  States that are making a diligent effort and substantial progress to achieve
primacy will be eligible to receive up to 75 percent of their fiscal year allocation.  The
remaining funds will be awarded to the State if it assumes primacy during the year.  A major
portion of these grant funds will be utilized to pay for the salaries of program employees.
The remaining grant dollars will be spent for data management, public notification, laboratory
certification, and training activities.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.

1979 Program

     A total of 526,400,000 is requested for this  program element in FY 1979.  This is an
increase of $5,900,000 over the FY 1978 budget.  The grants will be available to States with
primacy and to States that are making a diligent effort and substantial progress toward the
assumption of primacy.  The funding will provide support to the States for the expansion of
their programs to include noncommunity systems.  EPA expects that, by this time, the public
water systems supervision program in most of the States that have been receiving Federal
grant funds will have stabilized. Consequently, most of the expenditures will be for
administration, surveillance and technical assistance, data management, enforcement, and
public notification activities.

UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM GRANTS

1977 Accomplishments

     The underground injection control grants were not obligated due to the delay in reproposing
and promulgating applicable program regulations.

1978 Program

     A total of 56,000,000 was appropriated for this program and will be available to those States
designated by the Administrator as requiring underground injection control programs.  The Agency
intends to aaopt "forward funding" in the grant program whereby the FY 1978 approprations will
fund program activities conducted during FY 1979.   Grant applications from the States are
expected during late summer after the promulgation of the underground injection control
program regulations.  The funds will be used to support the establishment and maintenance of
underground injection control programs which include the inventory of injection facilities,
permitting of existing and new facilities, and monitoring.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.

1979 Program

     A total of $7,600,000 is requested for this program in FY 1979; this represents an increase
of 51,600,000 over FY 1978.  The funds will support the States that the Administrator designates
as requiring an underground injection control program.  These grants are intended to support
the State programs for FY 1980 which will include the inventories"of underground  injection
facilities, permit issuance, training and public awareness, and surveillance.

  DW-13

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SPECIAL PROJECTS

1977 Accomplishments

     A grant totalling $813,900 was awarded to the National Rural Water Association for the
purpose of developing and demonstrating training programs to assist rural water districts,
including incorporated areas, in complying with the provisions of the Safe Drinking Water
Act.  From this grant, 12 State rural associations received $52,000 each from the national
association.

1978 Program

     The Senate Report on the FY 1978 appropriation request stated "The Committee concurs with
the House in directing EPA to program $2,000,000 to be used for providing grants to State
associations of rural water districts for the purpose of establishing training and technical
assistance programs to assist rural water systems in complying with the provisions of the
Safe Drinking Water Act."  In response to this directive, plans are being developed to initiate
programs in additional States and to expand current programs to provide more comprehensive
technical assistance for the small rural systems.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate as yet.

1979 Program

     In 1979, $2,000,000 is requested for this program.  The funds will be used to provide support
to rural water districts for training, technical assistance, demonstrations, public awareness
projects, and for other special studies.

DRINKING WATER TRAINING GRANTS

1977 Accomplishments

     A total of $706,000 in grants was awarded for academic training and related activities.  An
increase to an interaqency agreement with the Office of Education was funded for vocational
training in drinking water supply.  In addition, 24 professional education grants and 19 fellow-
ships were awarded for academic training of State regulatory personnel in the drinking water
field to increase existing knowledge and to obtain advanced degrees.

1978 Program

     A total of $610,000 is available for academic training grants in FY 1978.  Funds will be used
in a manner similar to FY 1977.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $610,000 over the budget estimate is the result of a congressional increase
for academic training.

1979 Program

     This program will not be continued in 1979.
                                                                                       DW-14

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                                         DRINKING WATER

                                      Abatement and Control

                                      Strategy Implementation
                                       Budget    Current                Increase +
                             Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                              1977      1978       1978       1979    19.7? vs. 1978
                                                (dollars in thousands)"
Appropriation
Public Water Systerns
  Supervision Program
  Implementation	
Underground Injection
  Control Program
  Implementation	
S3,491     S3,003    S3,340     56,571
   523
  812
917
1.750
                                 +53,231
+833
     Total.
Permanent Positions
Public Water Systems
  Supervision Program
  Implementation	
Underground Injection
  Control Program
  Imp!ementati on	
 4,014
   124
    19
3,815     4,257      8,321
  127
   28
160
 36
  239
   64
                      +4,064
 +79
 +28
     Total.
   143
  155
           303
Budget Request
     An appropriation of 58,321,500 and 303 positions is requested for FY 1979.  This
represents an increase of 54,064,100 and 107 positions.  These resources will be used
to operate programs in the States that do not have primacy for the public water systems
supervision program, and to implement a program while working with States that are
continuing their efforts to achieve primacy, to oversee the States with primacy, and
to provide guidance to all States in meeting the organics standard.  In addition,
technical assistance on the review of existing statutes and regulations and in the
development of programs will be provided to States designated as requiring underground
injection control programs, and to coordinate and conduct, if necessary, the assessment
of surface impoundments (pits, ponds, and lagoons) in all States and territories.

Program Description

     The congressional intent of the Safe Drinking Water Act is that the States would
be primarily responsible for assuring the safety of drinking water and the
protection of the underground sources of drinking water.  However, the Federal
Government is to provide technical assistance to the States in the development of the.
public water systems supervision and the underground injection control programs.  These
activities include the participation of EPA personnel in the preparation of program
      ay  Includes 38 positions added to public water systems supervision program
          implementation and 7 positions added to underground injection
          control program implementation.

      y  The net increase reflects the inclusion of 45 additional oositions in the
          1978 current estimate; without this addition, the net chanae would be +152.
  DW-15

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plans and grant applications, the review of existing State programs, and the
evaluation of the adequacy of legislative and regulatory authorities.  In the
event that States are unable or unwilling to assume these responsibilities, EPA
will develop control strategies and programs that will be administered by the
Federal Government.  This will require monitoring and surveillance activities as
well as recordkeeping responsibility.  In addition, EPA is required to establish
and implement similar program activities on Indian reservations and for interstate
carrier conveyances.  Programs will also be implemented on Federal facilities in
nonprimacy States.  The strategy implementation activities for the public water
systems supervision programs are directed at implementation of Federal
responsibilities in those States that have not assumed primacy but are diligently
pursuing efforts in this direction and in those States that do not intend to
assume primacy, the oversight of States with primacy, review of variances and
exemptions, and assistance in the implementation of organics standards.  Or, the
other hand, since the underground "injection control program is in a developmental
stage, the strategy implementation activities are confined to technical assistance
activities which will enable the designated States to achieve primacy within 2
years, the oversight of the State assessments of surface impoundments, and technical
evaluations of petitions for sole source designations.

PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS SUPERVISION PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1977 Accomplishments

     Fourteen States assumed primary enforcement responsibility.  For the States
who had elected to definitely not accept primacy, partial programs were established
and implemented by EPA to ensure that Federal standards were being maintained.  The
remaining States are continuing their efforts to assume primacy and have entered
into cooperative agreements with EPA to assist in implementing the Safe Drinking
Water Act until such time as the State assumes primacy.  Public notification was
used extensively in several States—primacy and nonprimacy—to inform consumers
of problems associated with public water system deficiencies and failure to meet
the requirements of the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations.  "Boil water"
orders were issued in about 200 communities.

1978 Program

     The public water systems supervision strategy implementation program has been
allocated $3,340,400 and 160 positions.  The resources are intended to provide the
States with assistance to enable them to assume primacy.  It is estimated that
approximately 17 additional States will achieve primacy during FY 1978.  Current
programs for Indian lands and interstate carriers will continue.  Also, Federal
public water systems supervision programs in the States that have indicated they
will not assume primacy will be continued and Federal programs with State
cooperation will be implemented.   Review of variances and exemptions will continue
as well as program implementation for Federal facilities in nonprimacy States.
                                                                                       DW-16

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $337,100 results from several actions.  The Congress added
$150,000 to the request for authorized positions.  The regional offices reprogrammed
$185,100 to support additional costs required to support the increased program
efforts in this area, and the headquarters Office of Water Supply reprogrammed
$2,000 from other drinking water programs.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 request for this program element is $6,571,500 and 239 positions,
an increase of 33,231,100 and 79 positions for program implementation.  Approximately
$600,000 will be used for extramural funds to support primacy implementation.  The
public water systems supervision implementation program will continue in those
States that have not attained primacy.  In the States working towards primacy, EPA
will perform inventory and data management activities.  EPA will continue to
implement the laboratory certification program, conduct sanitary surveys to
determine compliance, assure that the public notification process is carried out,
and process variances and exemptions.  Also, EPA will review planned constructions
and respond to emergencies and imminent hazards situations.  The regions will assist
the States in expanding their programs to include noncommunity systems.  The regions
will provide assistance in the implementation of trihalomethanes and organics
regulations.  For those States who have declined to accept primacy, EPA will
implement the program utilizing Federal resources exclusively.  Current programs
on Indian lands and interstate carriers, as well as implementation for Federal
facilities in nonprimacy States will continue.  EPA will continue its oversight
of programs in the primacy States.

UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1977 Accomplishments

     Underground injection control strategy implementation resources were used to
review sole source aquifer petitions and to formulate the plans for the assessment
of surface impoundments to determine the ground water pollution potential from
these sources.  Feasibility of alternative.regulatory proposals relating to the
underground injection control regulations were discussed with the States.

1978 Program

     The underground injection control strategy implementation program has been
allocated $917,000 and 36 positions for FY 1978.  These resources will be used
to continue technical evaluations of petitions for sole source designations and
to assist the States in the conduct of the assessment of surface impoundments to
determine pollution potential.  Upon promulgation of the underground injection
control regulations in the summer of 1978, the regions will provide technical
assistance to the designated States to review and develop legislative and
regulatory authorities, to assist in the establishment of a data reporting system,
to develop program grant applications and plans, and to provide guidance to States
on ground Water problems.
  DW-17

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of 5105,100 results from a congressional increase for
authorized positions (+3115,000), a regional office reprogramming to other
drinking water activities (-58,500), and a headquarters reprogramming to
other drinking water activities  (-51,400).

1979 Plan
     The FY 1979 request is for $1,750,000 and 64 positions, an increase of
5833,000 and 28 positions.  During this fiscal year, the regions will provide
guidance to the States on program development to satisfy the requirements of
the underground injection control program, to process sole source designation
petitions, to oversee the State assessment of surface impoundments and prepare
a regional overview of the problem, to provide grant assistance to the
designated States and to those States participating in the assessment, and to
provide technical assistance on ground water related problems.  Reviews will
be conducted on existing State programs, statutes, and regulations.  In
addition, contingency plans for Federal program implementation in those States
that indicate an unwillingness to assume primacy and for those injection
practices that the State will not regulate in their programs are to be developed.
In some instances, the regions will be required to begin issuing underground
injection control permits if the State does not assume primacy within the
mandated timeframe.
                                                                                       DVJ-18

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                                          DRINKING WATER

                                            Enforcement

                                          •  Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                 Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                  1977       1978        1978        1979      1979 vs. 1978
                                                      (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation
Drinking Water Enforcement...      $160        $154        $176        $961        +$785

Permanent Positions
Drinking Water Enforcement...         8           7           8          43          +35


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $960,900 and 43 positions is requested for FY 1979, an increase of
$785,200 and 35 positions.  The increased resources are for enforcement of the public water
systems supervision program in nonprimacy States, oversight of State enforcement programs, and
emergency situation enforcement.

Program Description

     The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, an amendment to the Public Health Service Act, provides
the statutory requirements for a Federal/State drinking water program.  The Act provides for
assurance of the safety of drinking water through the establishment and enforcement of Primary
Drinking Water Regulations which specify the maximum levels of drinking water contaminants
allowable.  The Act provides for State assumption of the drinking water program, but requires
EPA to implement the program in States that have not received primary enforcement
responsibility.  The drinking water enforcement program encompasses activities related to
issuance of variances and exemptions to public water systems, where EPA has primacy, that
are not in compliance with Primary Drinking Water Regulations; the investigation and initiation
of civil or criminal actions for violations of Primary Drinking Water Regulations in States
without primary enforcement responsibility and in States that have primacy but have requested
EPA assistance; the review of variances and exemptions issued and enforcement actions taken
by States with primacy;  and  emergency  enforcement  responses.


1977 Accomplishments

     FY 1977 resources were used to respond to an emergency action involving a carbon
tetrachloride discharge that affected public water supplies along the Ohio River.  The
response included the initiation of two civil actions, monitoring of discharge, and participation
in investigations for determining the possibility of criminal action.  Other activities included
the issuance of guidance for conducting emergency enforcement actions under the Safe Drinking
Water Act and evaluating regional progress towards enforcement program goals.  In addition,
policy and legal  memoranda were provided to guide regional activities and to administer the
program.

1978 Program

     FY 1978 resources for this program are $175,700 and eight positions.  During FY 1978, the
drinking water enforcement program will conduct limited enforcement of the public water supply
program in nonprimacy States.  The drinking water enforcement program will evaluate regional
progress toward program goals, provide policy and legal memoranda to guide regional activities,
and administer the national enforcement program.   Enforcement may also be required to respond
to emergency situations by conducting investigations for assessing the need for enforcement
action pursuant to Section 1431 of the Safe Drinking Water Act, prepare or review documentation
required for the Administrator to reauest legal action by the Department of Justice, prepare
proposed pleadings, prepare cases, and participate in civil and/or criminal actions.
                                                                                      DW-19

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $21,700 over the budget estimate results from regional office reprogramming
from other media in order to provide the necessary regional support to the enforcement program.

1979 Program

     In FY 1979, the request is for 43 positions and $960,900, an increase of 35 positions and
$785,200.  The increased resources will be used to move toward the primary goal of the drinking
water enforcement program—to ensure expeditious compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act by
public water systems which are in violation of Primary Drinking Water Regulations.

     The FY 1979 program will focus on issuing variances and exemptions, where EPA has primacy,
to public water systems that are not in compliance with Primary Drinking Water Regulations.
Variances and exemptions with corresponding compliance schedules will be issued and reports
from public water supplies that have been issued variances and exemptions will be reviewed.
The program will also focus on initiating enforcement actions where necessary to assure
compliance with the requirements of the Act.  An estimated 20 enforcement actions will be
undertaken for violations of the regulations in States without primary enforcement responsibility
and in States that have primacy but have requested EPA assistance.

     Additional resources will be devoted to examining State program applications for primary
enforcement responsibility, overviewing State public water supply primacy programs, and preparing
program guidance for implementing Safe Drinking Water Act enforcement requirements.  Drinking
water enforcement activities will also be directed at responding to emergency actions involving
imminent and substantial endangerment to public health.
   DW-20

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                                          DRINKING WATER

                                    Research and Development


                                       Budget    Current               Increase +
                             Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                              1977      1978       1978       1979    1979 vs. 1978
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation

Public Sector Activities... $14,539    $15,200    $16,110    $16,150      +$40

Permanent Positions

Public Sector Activities...      98         91         97         97
     The research and demonstration effort in this program area supports implementation
of P.L. 93-523, the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974.  Research, studies, and evaluations
are conducted relating to:  (1) causes, diagnoses, and prevention of diseases and other
impairments of man resulting directly or indirectly from contaminants found in drinking
water; (2) the treatment and control of those contaminants; and (3) the provision of
dependable, economic, and safe supplies of watsr.

Budget Request

     It is requested that $16,150,000 and 97 positions be approved for the drinking
water research and development program.  This is a net increase of $39,500 over the
1978 resource level.  It includes a $260,000 increase which will be used to supplement
health effects studies on the by-products of chlorine disinfection and efforts to adapt
treatment processes for small systems offset by a reduction of $127,500 for a nonrecurring
congressional add-on for authorized positions.

Program Description

     Research and Development in this program area is directed toward implementation of
P.L. 93-523, the Safe Drinking Water Act.  The water supply program activities include
research and development with field evaluations designed to provide a dependable and
safe supply of drinking water.  The program investigates the health effects resulting
directly or indirectly from contaminants found in drinking water, and thereby supports
the development of criteria for establishing standards for organic, inorganic, and
microbiological contaminants found in drinking water.  It also evaluates, improves, and
develops the control technology necessary for the adoption of drinking water standards
achievable at a reasonable cost.  Both the adaptation of large scale technologies to
small water supply systems and the development of new or special technologies are
involved.  In addition, analytic methods are developed to assess the quality of drinking
water treatment processes for the reduction of contaminants in water supplies to
acceptable levels.
                                                                                      DW-21

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     Research, studies, and field evaluations are conducted relating to:  (1) the causes,
diagnoses, and prevention of diseases and other impairments of man resulting directly
or indirectly from contaminants found in drinking water; (2) the treatment and control
of those contaminants; and (3) the provision of dependable, economic, and safe supplies
of water (Section 1442 of P.L. 93-523).  The activities can be grouped into four areas:
health effects, treatment technology and systems management, identification and
measurement, and ground water management.  The products of these activities include:
(a) data on the health effects of contaminants in drinking water; (b) new or improved
methods of economically controlling contaminants found in raw water, to prepare it for
drinking; (c) improved analytical methods to identify and measure the existence of
contaminants in drinking water; and (d) improved methods of protecting underground
supplies of water from contamination.

     Research is also conducted to develop and implement quality assurance procedures
and protocols for water supply laboratories to assure that laboratory analytical data
are accurate and valid for proceedings.  Resources for this program activity are
included under the interdisciplinary media, monitoring and technical support, as part
of a comprehensive quality assurance program for all environmental media.

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, approximately 37,642,700 was devoted to grants; $2,896,000 to contracts;
and 5646,900 to interagency agreements.

     In the health effects area, results in' 1977 included:-

     -  Descriptive epidemiologic studies which indicated some correlation between
        certain site-specific cancer mortality rates and levels of trihalomethanes
        in municipal drinking water supplies.

     -  A file on "Organic Compounds Identified in Drinking Water in the United
        States:  Safety/Hazard Evaluation."  Some 650 organic compounds have now
        been identified.

     -  A review of the causes of waterborne disease outbreak was jointly conducted
        with the Center for Disease Control, which showed'that Giardiasis is more
        widespread than previously believed.

     -  Preliminary results from an epidemiologic investigation of the relationships
        between drinking water constituents and cardiovascular disease supported
        previous studies in other countries which indicated lower cardiovascular
        disease mortality in areas with harder water.

     -  Determination that addition of polyphosphates to drinking water in excess
        of the concentrations needed to control manganese to acceptable limits
        results in depletion of tissue manganese.

     -  Showed that delays in early postnatal development of rat brain correlate
        with blood lead concentrations, suggesting that the safety factor associated
        with the current  lead standard may be minimal.   .

     -  Determination from advanced waste treatment plant of the mutagenic activity
        of organics concentrated  in effluents.
   DW-22

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     In the treatment and systems management area, results in 1977 included:

     -  Publication of a "Manual of Treatment Techniques for Meeting the Interim
        Primary Drinking Water Regulations" to aid the implementation of the
        regulations.

     -  Determination that asbestos-cement pipe may release asbestos fibers when
        water with certain chemical characteristics is transported.

     -  Studies which showed that asbestos fibers are efficiently removed by
        coagulation and filtration.

     -  A report on "The Cost of Water Supply and Water Utility Management",
        providing basic cost impact data to aid regulatory decision making.

     -  Discovery that water passing through polyvinyl chloride (PVC) becomes
        contaminated, but at concentrations far below levels expected to cause
        adverse effects.

     -  Studies which shewed that chlorine dioxide (which does not produce
        trinalomethanes) is as effective as chlorine in inactivation of
        viruses.

     In the identification and measurement area, result; in 1977 included:

     -  The development of two techniques for trihalomethanes sampling and
        analysis.

     -  A new nondestructive analytical method called instrumental neutron
        activation analysis was developed.  It allows for up to 52 elements
        to be identified and measured using a single reference standard—
        versus having a different method for each element.

     In the ground water area in 1977, results included:

     -  A state-of-the-art report on  salt water  intrusion  showed  a  severe
        ground water contamination  problem in coastal  regions.

     -  A how-to document on "Sampling for Organic Chemicals and Microorganisms
        in the Subsurface", which will aid in the determination of impacts from
        pollutant sources.

     -  A report on "Impact of Abandoned Wells on Ground Water", required by
        Section 1442 of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

1978 Program

     $16,110,500 and 97 positions have been allocated to this subactivity in 1978, of
which approximately 58,301,000 is for grants; $2,120,000 for contracts; and $440,000
for interagency agreements.
                                                                                      DW-23

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     Contaminants being addressed include organics, inorganic (including asbestos),
and microorganisms.  Organics remain the highest priority research area; accordingly,
the  greatest effort will continue toward determining and controlling that problem.
The health effects of inorganics, especially those considered important in the National
Academy of Sciences report, also will constitute & large effort.  Microbiological
contaminant occurrences, health effects, monitoring and control  retain a high priority
relative to public health, since outbreaks of waterborne disease still occur in the
United States, especially in areas served by poorly operated distribution systems.

     In the health effects area, 37,125,000 and 44 positions have been allocated.  The
major emphasis in 1978 will be on organic contaminant effects, directed toward organics
concentrated from finished water, tribalomethanes and other classes of organics, and
the organic by-products resulting from the use of disinfectant alternatives to chlorine.

     Information to be developed includes:  (1) the effects of combined organics on
various toxicological screening systems to determine priorities  for intensive studies
for cancer, birth defects, and mutations; (2) the identity of specific compounds and
mixtures that are resoonsible for the observed toxicity; (3) the chronic toxicity of
the more potent compounds present in tap water including effects at the organ, cellular,
and biochemical levels; (4) the appraisal of the most appropriate models for
extrapolation of toxicity data to man; (5) the elucidation of the factors that alter
toxicity of organics in tap water including diet, other environmental agents,
physiological status, and disease; (6) determination of mutagenic, carcinogenic, and
teratological activity of compounds in tap water; .and (7) investigations of
epidemic logical correlations between organics in drinking water and various chronic
diseases in man including cancer.

     The nature and concentration of inorganic constituents in drinking water supplies
will be determined.  The health effects of these inorganic constituents will be
evaluated through literature searches, short term and long term toxicologic studies,
and epidemiologic studies.  The rationale for existing standards will be strengthened,
where required, and a scientific basis will be developed for establishing standards for
inorganic constituents which occur in drinking water but for which no standard currently
exists   Particular attention will be given to those inorganics  considered important
by the National Academy of Sciences.  While the initial approach to obtaining health
effects data must concern itself with the toxicity of individual inorganics, combinations
also occur in drinking water.  Thus synergistic/antagonistic effects will be considered.
Epidemiologic and toxicologic studies are being conducted to determine the carcinogenic
potential of asbestiform fibers.

     The occurrence and significance of microbiological contaminants in drinking water
supplies will be determined.  Studies will include surveys for the occurrence of viruses,
Giardia lamblia, Yersinia enterocolitica, and other pathogens in treated water supplies,
determinations of the diseases that are or may be transmitted by drinking water, and the
conditions that allow this to occur.  Outbreaks of waterborne disease are being  investigated
to identify preventive measures and a study to determine infective dose levels of viruses
for humans continues.                                                            —

     Health effects associated with consumption of renovated waste water will be
determined and analyses of organics in advanced waste treatment effluents made.
Toxicity screening tests and short term feeding studies will be conducted using
selected organic concentrates.
   DW-24

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     In the treatment technology and systems management area, S6,484,500 and 35
positions have been allocated.  The lack of firm health effects data for organics
does not relieve the Agency from the responsibility to provide guidelines for
economical treatment methods when reasonable doubt about the health effects exists
and monitoring is not practical.  Thus, there will be a continuation of pilot plant
and field scale studies to extend the Agency's information on control of the four
trihalomethanes that are potentially toxic and have been shown to occur widely
where chlorination is practiced.  Unit processes such as granular activated carbon
beds, powdered activated carbon, and macroreticular resins are also being studied
to determine their capabilities to remove specific organic contaminants within
reasonable economic limits.  Several projects evaluating these processes in the
field will produce preliminary reports in 1978.  Disinfection processes considered
as alternatives to chlorine will continue to be examined to assure protection of
the public health.  Costs of unit processes will be developed as well.

     There is great concern about the capabilities of small systems to meet the
requirements of the primary drinking water standards in an economic and reliable
way.   In 1978, work will continue to evaluate and adapt treatment technology for
inorganic contaminate control to make the technology more adaptable to small systems.
Techniques for control of fluorides, nitrates, and arsenic, as well as treatments
costs for small systems will be developed.

     Efforts on microbiological contaminants in 1978 include a study on factors
affecting quality of water during storage, continuing work of disinfection
efficiency of chlorine alternatives, and a study of the effects of distribution
systems on microbiological quality.  A state-of-the-art report on the disinfection
efficiency of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone is expected.

     In the identification and measurement area, SI,000,000 and two positions are
allocated.  Trace chemicals identification and measurement techniques for municipal
water supplies are different from those for other waters (such as waste water),
since finished drinking water usually contains extremely low concentrations or
soluble material,  relative to other waters.

     This monitoring research is proceeding along three lines to develop techniques
for (1) general organic parameters (groups of compounds), (2) specific organics,
which are widely distributed and may have health significance, and (3) unit processes
for organics removal effectiveness.  Both short term evaluations and long term
improvement of the techniques are being pursued.

     For monitoring inorganics, multielement analysis techniques—both field and
laboratory—ere being emphasized.  Also, efforts to improve sample collection,
shipping, storage, and preparation for asbestos fiber counting are continuing.
Work is also continuing to improve and standardize asbestos fiber counting methods.

     In the ground water research area, SI,501,000 and 16 positions are allocated.
The major objective of this research is to determine ways of protecting underground
water supplies from contamination.   Thus, the principal output of this program is
the data on which to base criteria for pollution source control—19 categories of
pollution sources have been identified.  In 1978, major efforts will continue to
develop better ways of describing the underground environment—surface water sampling
and analysis methods are often not appropriate for ground water.  Considerable
effort will be expended in assisting the pit, ponds, and lagoons survey to be
conducted in 1978 by the Office of Water Supply.
                                                                                       DW-25

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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of 3910,500 over the budget estimate results from a (1) transfer
of $783,000 for the ground water research program from the water quality transport and
fate of pollutants activity and a congressional add-on of $127,500 for authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     A total of $16,150,000 and 97 positions is requested for FY 1979, an increase of
$39,500.  In 1979, it is planned to allocate approximately $8,200,000 to grants;
$3,000,000 to contracts; and $500,000 to interagency agreements.

     A preliminary review of the National Academy of Sciences report, received in
June 1977, indicates that much of the work already planned addresses the needs in
the report, and thus the report does not seem to require any major program shifts.
The program will continue in 1979 to emphasize organic and inorganic contaminants
research recommended by the Academy.

     In the health effects area, $7,150,000 and 44 positions are planned, an increase of
$25,000.  The increase will be used to supplement ongoing activities to determine the
relationship between chlorinated water consumption and cancer occurrence.  A major
effort will continue to determine the health effects of by-products of alternative
(to chlorine) disinfection methods.  Also planned for 1979 are continued studies on the
health effects of lead, arsenic, selenium, and other inorganics in drinking water as
recommended by the National Academy of Sciences.  Relationships between inorganic
contaminants and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular problems, will continue to
receive attention.  New toxiologic and epidemiologic data on asbestos will be obtained.
The health effects associated with consumption of renovated waste water will be determined.
Investigations of waterborne disease outbreaks must also continue.  Finally, but equally
important is the continuation of toxicity and mutagenicity screening of organics
concentrated from municipal water supplies.

     In the treatment and systems-management area, $6,499,000 and 35 positions are
planned, an increase of $14,500.  The increase will be used to supplement ongoing
activities directed toward adapting treatment technologies for small system use.
Efforts will also continue in the further development and evaluation of technology
for the control of organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbiological contaminants.
This effort includes the .development of cost effective information for water treatment
unit processes.  Distribution system effects on inorganic and microbiological quality
of water will continue to be studied.

     In the identification and measurement area, $1,000,000 and two positions are
planned.  Efforts will be continued to increase the number of organics substances
that can be identified and measured, improve methods for multielement analysis, and
to develop better methods for asbestos determinations.

     In the ground water research area, $1,501,000 and 16 positions are planned.
In 1979, development of information to permit establishing criteria for pollutant
source control and indicators of ground water pollution will be continued.  An
evaluation of the economic benefits of ground water protection will be completed,
and guidelines for restoration of existing water wells will be prepared.
 OW-26

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                                           30LID WASTE
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                              Actual
                               1977
            Budget
           Estimate
             1976
               Current
              Estimate
                1978
             Estimate
               1979
                                                      (dollars in thousands)
               Increase +
               Decrease -
             1979 vs.  1978
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions. .   .

Enforcement:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions. .   .

Research and Development:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions. .   .

Total Solid Waste Program:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions. .   .
  Outlays.  ... 	
  Authorization Levels .   .

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY
$14,456
    167
  4,229
     23
 18,688
    192
 19,955
 37,000
$28,556
    203
             1,093
                 5
  7,718
     22
 37,367
    230
 21,900
180,241
$31,168
    204
$44,895
    245
                  995        1,094
                    5           28
  7,662
     21
 39,825
    230
 27,040
181,250
 10,912
     22
 56,901
    295
 29,100
160,250
+$13,727
     +41
                                 +99
                                 +23
  <-3,250
 +17,076
     *65
  +2,060
     The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) of 1976, authorizes a national program of hazardous waste regulation and enforcement,
control of land disposal practices, comprehensive solid waste management program planning,
and solid waste research and demonstration.  Passage of RCRA signifies the Federal Government's
recognition of the growing problem of solid waste management and disposal.  In 1976, the
United States generated an estimated six billion tons of solid waste, a figure which is expected
to grow substantially in the next 15 years.  The improper management and disposal of solid
waste often results in health, environmental, and national resource damage.

     Two definitions within RCRA are particularly important;  the definition of solid waste
and disposal in RCRA is broad and inclusive.  These definitions indicate that the Congress
intended that any waste material that goes on the land, regardless of its physical fonr,,
must be managed in a manner consistent with the provisions of RCRA.  This clearly has
important implications for all programs developed under RCRA authorities.

     There are two broad goals which are essential to an effective national program of solid
waste management.  These goals, which are the goals of RCRA, and EPA's strategy for
implementation of RCRA are:

     -  To assure that all solid wastes are managed in a manner that will protect public
        health and the environment.

     -  To conserve natural resources directly and through the management, reuse or
        recovery of solid wastes.

Consistent with these goals, more specific and measurable objectives are:

     -  To establish solid waste disposal practices that provide acceptable levels of
        protection of public health and the environment, and to discontinue or upgrade
        existing unacceptable practices.

     -  To establish practices for the transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal
        of hazardous wastes that will eliminate present or potential hazards to human
        health or the environment.
                                                                                          SW-1

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     -  To develop regulations to protect human health and the environment and to foster
        voluntary compliance with such regulations whenever and wherever possible.

     -  To develop, through studies and research and development, improved technologies
        necessary to achieve environmentally acceptable, cost-effective, solid and
        hazardous waste management in which conservation and recovery of resources are
        prime considerations.

     -  To establish Federal, State, and local programs to achieve the above objectives.

     The key to the successful implementation of RCRA with minimum Federal investment lies
in maximum State assumption of the provisions of RCRA.  This is particularly true for
the hazardous waste provisions, which can be likened to the permitting and enforcement
provisions.of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) in the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act (FWPCA).  EPA will assume the responsibilities of the hazardous waste
provisions of RCRA only after State governments determine they will not.

     While EPA does not have to assume a land disposal program if a State government fails
to act, RCRA encourages State governments to move aggressively in this area by providing
Federal financial and technical assistance to assure that all solid wastes go either to
acceptable land disposal facilities or are recovered in an environmentally sound manner.
RCRA sets a time limit of  5 years from the date of publication of the land disposal
inventory for prohibition of open dumping of solid waste.  EPA plans to implement the
land disposal program through its regional offices.

     To accomplish the objective of States' assuming acceptable hazardous waste management and
land disposal programs, RCRA establishes a timetable for the initial 3 years after enactment.
Within 12 months of enactment, EPA is to establish national criteria for acceptable land
disposal facilities and 12 months later, to publish an inventory of facilities that do not
meet these criteria.  State governments that accept EPA's financial assistance must develop
plans to either upgrade or close those facilities which cannot meet the criteria within 5
years after the unacceptable site is included in the inventory.

     Within 18 months of enactment, EPA is to issue regulations establishing criteria for
what constitutes a hazardous waste; regulations for generators of hazardous wastes, which
will require the establishment of a labeling and transport manifest system for the
management of all hazardous wastes generated; regulations applicable to transporters of
hazardous waste to ensure that they properly comply with the labeling and manifest system
developed by EPA; regulations for owners and operators of hazardous waste storage, treatment,
and disposal facilities; regulations for a hazardous waste facility permit program; and
guidelines that establish what comprises an acceptable State hazardous waste program.
State governments must develop programs consistent with these hazardous waste regulations
if they are to be authorized to receive Federal financial assistance.  Should a State
choose not to assume the program, EPA must, as a minimum, implement the hazardous waste
facility permit program and its attendant enforcement program to ensure compliance with
the regulations issued for such facilities.

     With the implementation of the hazardous waste regulations, the land disposal criteria
and inventory listing, and with the actions of the States to meet the land disposal criteria,
EPA anticipates that there will be a significant increase of instances when the Agency will
be called upon to render judgments on the ability of existing approved and unapproved
sites and facilities to safely manage solid waste.
  SW-2

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     Anticipating that all hazardous waste regulations and the land disposal criteria will be
promulgated during 1978, the 1979 solid waste program intends to shift resources to decentralize
the program to the regions. This will ensure that there is at least a minimum enforcement and
hazardous waste program capability in all regional offices to begin the implementation of &
Federal hazardous waste regulatory program in those States which do not assume the program.

     Within 2 years of enactment EPA, in cooperation with other Federal agencies and through
the auspices of a statutorily-established Resource Conservation Committee, must determine
which public policies and incentives will foster resource conservation and propose to the
President and the Congress appropriate action steps to implement these determinations.

     Priority efforts in FY 1979 relate to the increased emphasis given to the regional  solid waste
program and the headquarters guidance and technical support and laboratory research necessary
to assist the regions and State and local governments to meet the hazardous waste and land disposal
provisions of RCRA.  Emphasis will be placed on the continued development of critically-needed
information and direct assistance for the implementation of the regulations and guidelines and
the continuation of the inventory of land disposal facilities which receive nonmunicipal
solid wastes.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES                    (in thousands of dollars)

1978 Solid Waste Program 	           339,825

  Abatement and Control	           +13,727

     The increase of $13,727,000 will provide
     $11.9 million in financial assistance to
     States for the development of solid waste
     management programs, including the completion
     of State plans and the initiation of State
     land disposal regulatory programs, and for the
     development of authorized hazardous waste
     programs. The increase will also provide for
     additional regional office support to implement
     the hazardous waste regulatory program mandated
     under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  Enforcement	                +99

     Enforcement activities will provide the administrative
     support for issuing hazardous waste permits.  There
     will also be limited response to emergencies and
     incidents and minimal inspection and enforcement with
     regard to hazardous waste generators who dispose on
     site.

  Research and Development	           +3,250

     During FY 1979, research and development in the
     solid waste area will be expanded to focus on the
     development of comprehensive information and
     methodology for improved site selection, design,
     operation, maintenance, and closure of solid and/or
     hazardous waste land disposal sites.  The program
     will provide necessary technical support for Agency
     guidance documents on remedial actions to minimize
     or prevent the adverse environmental impact of
     unacceptable land disposal sites.  In the resource
     recovery area, plans call for the improvement or
     development of new techniques.  Finally, an
     extramural program to establish technology control
     requirements of large toxic/hazardous residuals
     sources will be initiated.                                    	
1979 Solid Waste Program	           56,901
                                                                                         SW-3

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SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     1.  Summary of Budget Request

        An appropriation of 556,900,900 is requested for 1979.   This request, by
appropriation account, is as follows:

        Abatement and Control 	 :  	            $44,894,900

        Enforcement 	 '             1,094,000

        Research and Development	             10,912,000

        This represents an increase of $17,075,800 over the 1978 solid waste program and
is required to implement the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

     2.  Changes from Original 1978 Budget Estimate

        Changes from the original budget estimate are as follows:

                                                          (in thousands of dollars)

        Original 1978 estimate	            $37,367

        Operating adjustments	             +2,458

        Current 1978 estimate	            $39,825

        The operating adjustment of $2,458,100 includes a congressional adjustment of
$2,300,000 for expansion of State planning activities in fulfillment of RCRA, an increase
of $320,000 for positions authorized by the Congress, and an offsetting reduction of
$161,900 reprogrammed to other media.

ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                                    Current
                                                                   Estimate       Estimate
                                                                     1978           1979......
                                                                   (in thousands of dollars)

     Prior year obligations	          $18,688         $39,353
       Change in amount of carryover funds available . . .           -1,751            +472
       Increase in State grant program 	          +11,700         +11,700
       Program increase	          +10,716	+5,100

     Total estimated obligations 	           39,353          56,625
       (From new obligation authority)	          (36,752V        (53,552)
       (From prior year funds) 	           (2,601)         (3,073)
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EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBIISATIONS

     The amount of carryover funds affecting obligations after FY 1977 results  in  a  decrease
of SI,751,000.  Obligations in 1978 from carryover funds are expected to be $2,601,000;  in
1979, obligations are expected to be S3,073,000,  an increase of $472,000.

     The increase of S14.300.000 in 1978 for the  State grant program is estimated  to
generate $11,700,000 of obligations; in 1979, the increase of $11,900,000 will  increase
obligations by $11,700,000.   The program increases in 1978 and 1979 are estimated  to
increase obligations by $10,716,000 and £5,100,000, respectively.
                                                                                         SW-5

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a



3


9°

O
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                                         SOLID WASTE

                                    Abatement and Control
                               Actual
                                1977
          Budget
         Estimate
           1978
          Current
          Estimate
            1978
          Estimate
            1979
            Increase  +
            Decrease  -
          1979 vs.  1978
                                                 (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
Waste Management Practices,
  Procedures, Guidelines
  and Regulations	
Financial Assistance	
Waste Management Strategies
  Imoleroentation	
Resource Conservation	
            Total.
Permanent Positions
Waste Management Practices,
  Procedures, Guidelines
  and Regulations	
Financial Assistance	
Waste Management Strategies
  Implementation	
Resource Conservation	
            Total.
56,373
 1,667
14,456
    89
   167
$12,423
 12,000
 28,556
    109
    203
312,638
 14,300
$10,016
 26,200
 31,168
    109
    204
 44,895
    116
    245
-52,622
+11,900
4,832
1,584
1,943
2,190
2,240
1,990
7,050
1,629
+4,810
-361
                                                           SW-8
                                                          SW-15
                                                          sw-ie
+13,727
60
18
71
23
72
23
90
39
+18
+16
    +41
     The abatement and control appropriation encompasses the activities of the solid
waste management program devoted to the development and implementation of solid waste
management strategies; the translation of these strategies into guidelines, regulations,
and management tools; interaction with Federal and State agencies, local government,
industry, organizations, and individuals to gain implementation of the strategies; and
the demonstration of resource recovery, resource conservation, and solid waste manage-
ment systems and technologies.  The activities reflect the increased emphasis in land
disposal, hazardous waste management, and State program development, (including both
technical and financial assistance), which is implicit in the amendments to the Solid
Waste Disposal Act passed by the 94th Congress.

     Solid waste abatement and control includes the following subactivities:

     Waste Management Practices, Procedures, Guidelines, and Regulations

     This subactivity involves the development and implementation of solid waste
management strategies.   This is accomplished by the translation of strategies into
guidelines, regulations, and management tools; interaction with implementing agencies
and organizations; and the provision of supportive information, data, and materials on
solid waste management systems and technologies.   Through these efforts, State and local
governments will assume the principa"1 implementation requirements of Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act  (RCRA).
                                                                                        SW-6

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      Financial Assistance

      This subactivity provides the funding needed to support the efforts of State and
local governments in developing comprehensive solid waste management programs that
fulfill the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

      Haste nanagetnent Strategies Implementation

      This subactivity contains all functions and activities of the regional office
solid waste management program, which provides the technical, analytical, and management
support necessary to State and local governments for developing and Implementing
comprehensive solid waste management programs.

      Resource Conservation

      The purpose of this subactivity is to reduce the generation of solid waste,
encourage recycling of recoverable materials, and promote the conservation of energy
and materials.
SW-7

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                                            SOLID WASTE

                                       Abatement and Control

                Waste Management Practices, Procedures, Guidelines and Regulations
Appropriation

Hazardous Waste Management
  Guidelines & Regulations.
Solid Waste Management
  Guidelines	
State & Local Programs,
  Guidelines & Regulations
  DeveIopment	
                              Actual
                               1977
$2,778

 1,851


 1,744
            Budget
           Estimate
             1978
            Current
            Estimate
              1978
                    Estimate
                      1979
33,675

 4,398


 4,350
(dollars  in thousands)




        $4,710        $4,211

         4,343         2,170


         3,585	3,635
             Increase +
             Decrease -
            1979 vs.  1978
              -S499

             -2,173


                +50
         Total	

Permanent Positions

Hazardous Waste Management
  Guidelines & Regulations..
Solid Waste Management
  Guidelines	
State & Local  Programs,
  Guidelines & Regulations
  Development	
 6,373




    25

    27


    37
12,423




    33

    31


    45
        12,638




            43

            31


            35
10,016




    58

    22


    36
-2,622




   +15

    -9
         Total.

Budget Request
    89
   109
           109
   116
     The Budget request for this subactivity is $10,016,000 and 116 positions.  This
reflects a decrease of $2,622,000 which will be shifted to the Waste Management
Strategies Implementation subactivity to implement hazardous waste management and
solid waste management programs through the regional offices.

Program Description

     Solid waste regulations and guidelines, mandated under the Resource Conservation  and
Recovery Act (RCRA), are developed and promulgated under this subactivity.  These
include, for example, guidelines for States to develop solid waste management program
plans, regulations specifying criteria for classifying land disposal sites as
sanitary landfills or open dumps, and comprehensive regulations for the cradle-to-grave
management of hazardous wastes.  The documents developed under this subactivity will be
used by the States and local governments, with assistance from EPA regional offices,
to assume primary responsiBility for implementation of RCRA requirements. The following
program elements are included under this subactivity:

     Hazardous Waste Management Guidelines and Regulations

     This program element includes activities and outputs related to the development and
publication of guidelines, criteria, and regulations for transporting, treating, storing,
or disposing of hazardous wastes.  This program element includes the supportive analysis
and assessments of existing technologies necessary for development of hazardous waste
guidelines and regulations.
                                                                                           SW-8

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     Solid Waste Management Guidelines

     This program element includes the activities and outputs related to the development
and publication of the guidelines, guidance materials, and regulations to provide for
improved storage, collection, transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes.
The activities include the study, development, demonstration, and promotion of
institutional and technological aspects of solid waste management.

     State and Local Programs, Guidelines and Regulations Development

     This program element includes the activities and outputs related to the development
and publication of guidance materials and regulations for use by State and local governments
in implementing the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS   -

1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977 extramural efforts were approximately $2.2 million; work began on the
development.of hazardous waste guidelines and regulations mandated by the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act.  These included development of criteria for determining
if a waste is hazardous; development of standards for generators and transporters of
hazardous waste; development of standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste
treatment, storage and disposal facilities; and establishment of a permitting system
for treatment, storage or disposal of hazardous waste.  In addition, work began on
the development of guidelines for authorization of State hazardous waste programs.
Regulations governing grants to States for solid and hazardous waste management planning
were promulgated.  Drafts of the hazardous waste criteria, generator and transporters'
standards and notification system regulations were completed.

1978 Program

     The current estimate for this program element is $4,710,000, of wnich $3.1 million
is directed to extramural funding, and 43 positions.  These resources will be used
to complete the development of the hazardous waste regulations.  The Federal guidelines
for authorization of State hazardous waste programs will be developed and promulgated.
Regulations governing the disposal of waste oil and pesticides will be published.

     The assessment and demonstration of existing hazardous waste treatment and disposal'
technologies such as the evaluation of neat recovery techniques from hazardous waste
incinerators will be carried out to support the development and implementation of
the hazardous waste regulations.  The chemical waste landfill demonstration in the
State of Minnesota will continue to operate.  Inflationary impacts and environmental
assessments for the required standards and regulations will be completed as part
of the final rulemaking effort.  Manuals for operating and design, training, monitoring,
and matching hazardous waste specific treatment to disposal technology will be
published as part of implementation of the regulations applicable to owners and
operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $1,035,000 represents a reprogramming by the Office of Solid Waste
from solid waste management guidelines  ($55,000), State and local programs, guidelines,
and regulations development ($765,000), Federal agency guidelines implementation
($15,000), and resource conservation strategy implementation  ($200,000).  This
reprogramming is necessary, within the solid waste media, to provide the increased
effort necessary to support the development and implementation of the hazardous waste
regulations.
   SW-9

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1979 Plan

     Resources required for this activity are 54,211,000, of which approximately
$2.5 million is for extramural funds, and 58 positions.  This represents a
decrease of $499,000 due to the completion of the bulk of contract work necessary
for promulgation of hazardous waste regulations and the shift of these funds to
support regional implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
The 15 position increase will be utilized for completion of any remaining hazardous
waste regulations, and supporting additional hazardous waste standard setting
activities such as evaluating regulations promulgated in FY 1978 to identify the
need for amendments, conducting economic analyses and establishing quality
assurance programs.  Work regarding the authorization of State hazardous waste
programs will be undertaken with approximately 30 States.  Guidance to State
and local officials will be provided.  An updated listing of hazardous wastes will
be developed.  Disposal recommendations for toxic hazardous wastes will be developed.
Approximately 10 hazardous waste streams from which valuable materials can be recovered
will be identified.  The Minnesota chemical waste landfill demonstration will continue.
Approximately six damage reports identifying environmental and economic problems
occurring from improper hazardous waste management will be published.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977 resources were allocated to develop criteria for determining acceptable
land disposal facilities consistent with the requirement of Section 4004 of the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  A manual was developed to provide instruction
for proper landfilling of municipal solid waste as well as a municipal sludge cost
estimator's handbook.  An action plan for residual sludge management was also formulated,
and efforts were initiated to develop guidelines for solid waste land disposal.
Approximately $1.2 million was devoted to extramural efforts.

T978 Program

     The resources currently allocated to this program element are $4,343,000,
of which approximately S3 million is for extramural funds, and 31 positions.  In
FY 1978, work will begin on the development of guidelines for the landfilling,
landspreading, and surface impoundment of solid waste.  Guidelines leading to the
identification and closure or upgrading of open dumps will also be promulgated.
A report on the economic and environmental impacts of regulations which establish
criteria for sanitary landfills will be published.  Reports on sludge management
and mining wastes will be submitted to Congress.  A-demonstration of liquid sludge
disposal at a municipal sanitary landfill will be initiated.  Demonstrations and
evaluations of existing methods and technologies for converting present open
dumps to sanitary landfills will be initiated.  These demonstrations include
counter-pumping, groundwater diversion, leachate collection, and retrofitting.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $55,000 from the budget estimate represents a reprogramming by the
Office of Solid Waste to hazardous waste management guidelines and regulations
for increased support on regulations.
                                                                                           SW-10

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1979 Plan

     Resources required for this program element are $2,170,000 and 22 positions.
This represents a decrease of $2,173,000 due to the completion of the majority of
required guidelines within this program element and the shifting of these funds
to support regional implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act.  The decrease of nine positions is due to internal reprogramming to
accomplish the additional requirements needed within the hazardous waste guideline
and regulation development activity.  Approximately $1.5 million will be directed
toward extramural funding.  Resources will be used for the development and
completion of guidelines and design and operation manuals for land disposal.
Guidelines will be initiated for thd disposal of nonhazardous industrial process
waste, for residues and sludges from pollution control facilities, pretreatment
facilities, and energy conservation facilities.  Demonstrations and evaluations of
existing methods and technologies for converting or closing unacceptable land
disposal sites or upgrading these sites to acceptable land disposal sites,
started in FY 1978, will be completed.  Systems to be demonstrated include
counter-pumping, groundwater diversion, leachate collection, and retrofitting.
The results of the demonstrations and evaluations will be published in the guides
and technical bulletins for conversion of existing municipal open dumps to sanitary
landfills.

STATE AND LOCAL PROGRAMS. GUIDELINES, GUIDANCE AND REGULATIONS DEVELOPMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, resources were allocated for development of a guidance document
for use in the evaluation of State grant applications.  Approximately $500,000
was directed to extramural funding.  Regulations for implementing grant programs
under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were also promulgated.
The development work for the land disposal inventory required by RCRA was initiated
and the Bureau of the Census was brought into the effort by an interagency agreement
to develop and operate the data management system for the inventory of land disposal
sites.  In addition, well over 50 public meetings were held around the United States
to discuss RCRA and its provisions and to provide other information and viewpoints
on how the various mandated regulations, guidelines, and programs of RCRA should
be developed.

1971 Program

     The current estimate for this program element is $3,585,000 of which approximately
$2.2 million is for extramural funding, and 35 positions.  Efforts include the
completion and issuance of guidelines for the identification of regions with
common solid waste management problems, and the finalization and promulgation of
guidelines to assist States in the development and implementation of solid
waste management plans.

     In addition, public participation and citizen suit regulations will be published
and the first annual report on the progress of implementing the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act, as required by the Act, will be completed and
submitted to the President and Congress.

     An activity and control schedule for the land disposal inventory will be
proposed and meetings with State and Federal personnel involved in the inventory
will be held to discuss the scope and content of the inventory data collection form.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $765,000 from the budget estimate results from a reprogramming
by the Office of Solid Waste to provide increased support to hazardous waste
management guidelines and regulations.
  sw-n

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1979 Plan

     The resources required for this program element are 33,635,000 and 36 positions.
This is an increase of $50,800and one position which will basically  maintain the
same level of activity as in FY 1978; approximately 52.2 million will be directed
to extramural funding.  Resources will be used to support the revisions to the
regional identification guidelines including the identification of new regions and
scheduling strategy for future identifications in each State.

     The inventory of land disposal sites will begin after the sanitary landfill
criteria are published in FY 1978 and an interim list of open dumps will be
published.  Technical assistance efforts to local governments will be expanded in
the area of landfill siting and collection productivity.  Work with the States
involving the developing of State plans and programs for the control of all solid
waste in accordance with the land disposal criteria and resource conservation
provisions will  continue.
                                                                                          SW-12

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                                           SOLID WASTE

                                      Abatement and Control

                                      Financial Assistance


                                          Budget       Current                      Increase +
                              Actual     Estimate      Estimate      Estimate       Decrease -
                               1977        1978          1978        .. 1979        1979 vs. 1978
                                                      (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation
State Program Resource
  Assistance	      31,667      512,000       $14,300       $26,200      +$11,900
Permanent Positions	

Budget Request

     The budget request for this subactivity is $26,200,000.  This reflects an increase of
$11,900,000 which will be provided to States as grants to implement the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act.  No positions are budgeted for this subactivity.

Program Description

     The objective of the funding under this subactivity is to support the establishment of
State solid waste management programs that include, at a minimum, a land disposal regulatory
program", a hazardous waste regulatory program, and a resource conservation program.  At
the State level, these programs will require the necessary authorities, capabilities, and
resources needed to establish proper legislation, permitting, regulation, surveillance,
and monitoring programs.  At the local level, funds are needed to meet the land disposal
requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and to implement resource
conservation programs.  These State and local program goals will also be supported by
resources under the Waste Management Strategies Implementation subactivity which provides
regional manpower and by the Waste Management Practices, Procedures, Guidelines, and
Regulations subactivity.

STATE PROGRAM ASSISTANCE
1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977, $1,667,000 was provided to the States for completion of planning
activities related to the Solid Waste Act prior to its amendment in 1976.  Included in
these efforts were the development of State strategies for land disposal, hazardous
waste management, and resource conservation.

1978 Program

     In FY 1978, $14,300,000 will be provided to the States for the initiation of the
inventory of land disposal sites and facilities and otner activities outlined under
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  (RCRA).  Because of limited State resources
and the need to develop experience in site  assessment and in remedial actions for
compliance, the land disposal site inventory will initially focus on municipal solid
waste disposal sites and municipal sewage sludge sites.  Some States, by choice,
will also begin to inventory disposal sites for industrial and other wastes.  Funds
will be granted to States on the mandated population formula basis with 75 percent
funding by EPA.  Efforts will include on-site surveys and evaluations of sites utilizing
EPA-developed criteria and data systems.  On-site surveys could include soil samples,
groundwater and surface water analyses, air monitoring, disease vector studies, and
analysis, of operating practices.
   SW-13

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     In addition, funds will be provided for States to begin movement toward assuming
hazardous waste management programs consistent with the regulations of RCRA; to
develop plans for upgrading or closure of unacceptable land disposal sites; and to
establish resource conservation options to hazardous waste storage and disposal or
nonhazardous waste land disposal.  State efforts will include the establishment of
regional solid waste management planning and implementation programs, initial assessments
and establishment of legislative needs, initial development of appropriate regulatory and
enforcement programs, compliance schedules for those unacceptable sites inventoried,
and determination of needs and ability of State governments to assume the hazardous waste
management provisions of RCRA.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of 52,300,000 over the budget estimate was provided by the Congress
as an adjustment to the Agency's request.

1979 Plan

     The 326,200,000 requested for FY 1979 will be used for State grants to implement
the hazardous waste regulatory program.  These grants will ensure that the maximum number
of States with on-going hazardous waste activities will commit to take over and implement
the hazardous waste program.  Grant funds will also be awarded to update State plans
and to complete the inventory and classification of municipal solid waste and municipal
sewage sludge sites.

     Funding will also be available to States for the development of land disposal
programs to deal with those sites classified as open dumps.  The land disposal programs
cover areas such as legislation, permitting authority, site surveillance and monitoring,
and enforcement.  They are designed to ensure that sites listed as open dumps can be
converted to sanitary landfills or closed as required by the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act.
                                                                                           SW-14

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                                           SOLID WASTE

                                     Abatement and Control

                          Waste Management Strategies Implementation
                                    Budget
                         Actual    Estimate
                          1977       1978
Appropriation

Federal Guidelines
  Implementation	      S265       S270
Solid Waste Management
  Program Implementation
Hazardous Waste
  Management Regulatory
  Strategy Implementation

         Total ....    4,832      1,943

Permanent Positions

Federal Guidelines
  Implementation	     10          9
Solid Waste Management
  Program Implementation
Hazardous Waste
  Management Regulatory
  Strategy Implementation

       Total  ....         60         71

Budget Request
Current                  Increase +
Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
  1978        1.9.79__    1979 vs 1978
(dollars in thousands)
  S270
               -$270
4,559
8
1,373
300
1,747
223
33,910
3,140
+2,163
+2.917
 2,240
7,050
+4,810
                               -9
50
52
10
55
8
35
55
-20
+47
    72
   90
   +18
     The budget request for this sufaactivity is S7,050,300 and 90 positions.  This
represents an increase of 54,810,200 and 18 positions over the 1978  level which will
be used to provide additional support to the regional offices to implement the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

Program Description

     The objectives of the regional offics solid waste management program include:
support State completion and approve initial State solid waste management plans  (both
hazardous and nonhazardous);  manage and complete the first phase of the land disposal
inventory; develop and approve State land disposal regulatory programs; manage the
initial State efforts in implementation of the resource recovery programs; guidance  and
technical assistance to State and local governments; and review and  approve  the first
major hazardous waste facility permits.  The following program elements are  under
this subactivity:
  SW-15

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     Federal Guidelines Implementation—This program element covers the activities
and outputs related to the implementation of the provisions of the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act which pertain to Federal agencies.  These include
implementation of source separation, recycling guidelines, procurement guidelines,
and beverage container guidelines.

     Solid Waste Management Program Implementation—This program element includes
activities and outputs related to increasing the capability of the States to implement
solid waste management programs.  Included are the provisions of assistance to State
governments for the development of solid waste management plans and programs, and
support for the technical assistance panels established under the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act.

     Hazardous Maste Management Regulatory Strategy Implementation—This program
element includes activities and outputs related to implementation of the
hazardous waste regulations promulgated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act.  Included are the authorization of State hazardous waste programs,
the review and approval of permits for treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous
waste, and the provision of technical assistance for hazardous waste management.

FEDERAL GUIDELINES IMPLEMENTATION

1977 Accomplishments

     Resources in FY 1977 were utilized to implement the provisions of the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) related to Federal agencies.  Source separation
(recycling) guidelines were implemented at Federal agencies covering 80,000 Federal
workers.  A RCRA-mandated study concerning removal of solid waste from Federal lands
in Alaska was initiated.  Assistance was provided to Federal agencies in connection
with implementation of the land disposal guidelines.

1978 Program

     The resources allocated to this program are $270,000 and 9 positions.  These
resources will be used to continue the implementation of the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act guidelines which will pertain to Federal agencies.  Implementation
of the source separation guidelines will be expanded to increase the number of
Federal workers covered from 80,000 to 500,000.  Guidelines for procurement of
recoverable materials will be initially implemented. The study recommending best
procedures for removal of solid waste from Federal lands in Alaska will be completed.
Assistance will be provided to Federal facilities to help them implement
the resource recovery and 1-and disposal guidelines.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.
                                                                                         SW-16

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1979 Plan

     No resources are requested for this program element in FY 1979 as activities
will be performed as part of the Resource Conservation subactivity.  Positions
were reprogrammed to the Hazardous Waste Management Strategy Implementation
program element to support implementation of the hazardous waste regulatory
program in the States and the review and approval of permits for hazardous waste
facilities.

SOLID UASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1977 Accomplishments

     Enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in FY 1977 brought
major new opportunities and authorities to State and local governments, contingent
upon their willingness to redesign their waste disposal programs to meet RCRA standards.

     Regional resources were used to assist State governments in completing past
planning and strategy-documents in land disposal and resource conservation and to develop
work plans for State and locaT solid waste management programs that meet the
provisions of Subtitle D of RCRA.  In addition, preliminary efforts were directed
toward assessing the impact of the hazardous waste provisions of RCRA on the States
and in supporting the development of regulations mandated by the Act.  Over
S3 million was directed to extramural funding.

1978 Program

     The current estimate for this program element is 51,747,000 and 55 positions.
Funds will be utilized to contract for support to the technical assistance panels and
for regional office personnel costs.  The regional program will align EPA financial
and technical assistance programs with the efforts of State and local governments
to meet the following objectives:  complete the first phase of the land disposal
inventory; develop initial comprehensive State and local solid waste management and
land disposal programs; manage the technical assistance panels efforts of Section
2003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and provide assistance to
headquarters in developing guidelines and regulations.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate
                          *
     The increase of $374,000 over the budget estimate results from (a) a congressional
add-on for authorized positions ($215,000) and (b) regional office reprogrammings
necessary from other solid waste activities to fund increased efforts of technical
assistance (3159,000).

1979 Plan
     The resources required for this activity are 33,910,300 and 35 positions.
This represents an increase of 32,163,700 and a decrease of 20 positions.  These
regional positions were shifted to the Hazardous Waste Management Strategy Implementation
program element to support the authorizing of State hazardous waste programs and the
review and approval of permits for hazardous waste facilities.  Approximately  S2.8 million
will be used for extramural funds. Resources will be used for regional office  personnel
costs to contract for support to the technical assistance panels, and to support land
disposal technical assistance and State program development activities in the  regions.
 SW-17

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HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REGULATORY STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION

1977 Accompl1shments

     Initial regional efforts under this activity were accomplished as part of the
Solid Waste Management Implementation program element.

1978 Program

     The allocation for this activity is $223,100 and eight positions.  These
resources, in conjunction with resources available under the regional solid waste
management program implementation activity, will be used to begin implementation
of the hazardous waste regulatory program in the States in anticipation of
establishing a permitting system scheduled to begin in FY 1979.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of 577,000 results from a regional office reprogramming of
5117,000 to solid waste management program implementation, offset by a congressional
add-on of 540,000 for authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     Resources required for this activity are 53,140,000 and 55 positions. This
represents an increase of S2,916,900 and 47 positions due mainly to the shift of
regional emphasis from the solid waste management role to supporting State
implementation of the hazardous waste requirements under the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to review and approve permits for hazardous waste
facilities.  Approximately SI.5 million will be directed toward extramural funding.
Funds will be used both to pay for regional office personnel and for contract support
to the technical assistance panels.  Full implementation of the hazardous waste
regulatory program mandated in RCRA will begin in FY 1979.  Standards applicable to
owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities
are planned to be promulgated, and permit regulations for hazardous waste facilities
will be published.   Regional office personnel will begin reviewing permit applications
and approving them if acceptable.  Authorization of State hazardous waste programs
will also begin in 'November, 1978.  Regional office personnel will work with
approximately 30 States in the authorization process (completion and review of
applications) and in providing grants to States for the establishment of State
hazardous waste programs.
                                                                                         SW-18

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                                          SOLID WASTE

                                     Abatement and Control

                                     Resource Conservation
                                          Budget
                                Actual    Estimate
                                 1977      1978
                   Current                Increase •*•
                   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                     1978       1979     1979 vs. 1978
                  (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
Resource Conservation
  Strategy Development	
Resource Conservation
  Strategy Implementation.
S973
611
SI ,000
1,190
SI ,000
990
$639
990
-S361
        Total.
1,584
2,190
1,990
1,629
-361
Permanent Positions
Resource Conservation
  Strategy Development	
Resource Conservation
  Strategy Implementation.
8
10
10
13
10
13
9
30
-1
+17
        Total.
   18
   23
   23
   39
Budget Request
     The resources requested for this subactivity are $1,628,600 and 39 positions, a
decrease of $361,400 and an increase of 16 positions.  The additional positions will
be orovided to EPA regional offices to support technical assistance panel activities.

Program Description

     The objectives of this subactivity are accomplished by:  examining factors that
inhibit,- and developing techniques that promote, resource conservation; demonstrating
conservation techniques; providing technical assistance to'State and local governments
in implementing resource recovery programs; issuing guidelines to Federal agencies
for the procurement of recoverable materials; and staffing and participating in the
Resource Conservation Committee. The efforts of this subactivity are also directed at
supporting EPA's leadership role in the field of resource recovery.  The following
program elements are under this subactivity:

     Resource Conservation Strategy Development— This program element includes activities
and outputs associated with the Resource Conservation Committee, an interagency committee
established under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act with the mandate to study
the economic, social, and environmental consequences of resource conservation and to
report their findings to the President and the Congress.  This activity also includes efforts
and outputs related to the evaluation of concepts which would contribute to the reduction
of wastes being generated.
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     Resource Conservation Strategy  Implementation—This program element includes
activities and outputs related to the evaluation of existing energy and material
recovery technologies and to the implementation of resource conservation methods.
Assistance will also be provided to  regional personnel to enable them to assist
State and local governments in the appropriate application of technologies and
conservation methods available as a  result of activities performed within this
program area.

RESOURCE CONSERVATION STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     The Resource Conservation Committee was staffed and initial work was begun.
The program focused on analyzying beverage container deposit policy and solid waste
product charges.  The first committee report, the Implementation Plan, was published.
EPA's Fourth Report to Congress on Resource Recovery and Waste Reduction was published.
Approximately 5600,000 was directed  to extramural efforts.

1978 Program

     The current resources for this  activity are Si,000,000, of which $700,000 is for
extramural funding, and ten positions.  These resources will be used to carry on the
efforts of the Resource Conservation Committee initiated in FY 1977.  The program
will study issues in policy areas such as recycling subsidies, removal of virgin
material extraction subsidies, severence taxes, and product regulations.  Economic
models for basic material industries such as steel, glass, and aluminum will be
developed to estimate the impacts and effectiveness of alternative policy proposals
being considered by the Resource Conservation Committee.  Results of this work will
be incorporated into reports issued  to the President and Congress.  Three public
meetings are planned to be held in conjunction with the Committee efforts.  Two
waste reduction reports developed in FY 1977 concerning disposal versus reusable
containers and milk container studies are planned to be published in early FY 1978.

1978 Explanation of Changes from the Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.


1979 Plan

     Resources is this activity for  FY 197? are $636,600 and nine positions.
This represents a decrease of $361,400 and one position.  Funds were reprogrammeci
to the Waste Management Strategies Implementation subactivity due to the shift of
programmatic emphasis towards strengthening the regional capacity to implement,
together with the States, the solid  and hazardous waste requirements delineated
under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  Approximately $300,000 will be
directed to extramural  funding.  Resources will be used to complete the policy design
work of the Resource Conservation Committee on waste disposal charges, deposit/
bounty systems, severance taxes and product regulations of the Committee.  Draft
legislation Incorporating the recommendations proposed by the Committee will be
developed.

     Assistance will be provided to Federal agencies for implementation of the
beverage container guidelines which were issued by EPA in FY 1977.  A minimum
level  of effort sufficient to respond to Congressional inquiries, give policy
guidance, and provide recommendations to other Federal agencies is planned in the
area of waste reduction.
                                                                                        SW-20

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RESOURCE CONSERVATION STRATEGY  IMPLEMENTATION

1977 Accomplishments

     In FY 1977, studies were conducted on resource recovery options and facilites.  Guidelines
for resource recovery facilities, resource conservation, and beverage container
recycling were published, and assistance was provided to several Federal agencies  for
implementation of these guidelines.  Recycling demonstration projects and facilities
for the production of energy from solid waste were evaluated.   Program plans to
conduct the technical assistance panels called for in the Resource  Conservation and
Recovery Act were developed.  Approximately $300,000 was directed to extramural funding.

1978 Program

     Resources for this activity in FY 1978 are 5990,000, of which  $600,000 is directed
to extramural fundings, and 13  positions.  FV 1978 plans include the evaluation of three
resource recovery systems:  Luxemburg (solid waste pyrolysis);  Bridgeport, Connecticut
(Eco-Fuel II process); and Lane County, Oregon (refuse-derived  fuel system).  Guidelines
for the procurement of recoverable materials will be written and product regulations
drafted.  Resource recovery seminars will be held in selected locations.  Demonstration
projects in Chicago and Milwaukee will continue.   Technical assistance will be provided
by EPA headquarters to regional personnel as needed.-  Funds will be used to implement
recycling guidelines  among  500,000 Federal workers in approximately 1,000 Federal
facilities.

1978 Estimaje of Changes from the Budget Estimate

     The decrease of 5200,000 from the budget estimate results  from a reprogrartming of
the Office of Solid Waste to provide increased support to hazardous waste management
guidelines and regulations.

1979 Plan

     The resources requested for the program element are 3990,000 and 30 positions.
This represents an increase of  17 positions of which 16 positions will be provided
to the regions to support the technical  assistance panels'  activities which are
mandated by RCRA.  Demonstrations and evaluations of resource recovery technology begun in
previous years will be completed.  The guidelines for procurement of recoverable
materials will be promulgated.  Assistance will be provided to  EPA  regional personnel
in an effort to institute at State and local levels the best energy and material recovery
technologies and resource conservation methods.
 SW»21

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2°
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                                         SOLID WASTE

                                    Research and Development
                                              Budget    Current               Increase +
                                   Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                    1977      1978       1978       1979,    1979 vs., 1978
                                                       (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation
Public Sector Activities	  54,229     57,718     $7,662    $10,912      +$3,250

Permanent Positions
Public Sector Activities	      23         22         21         22           +1
    The purpose of this research program is to develop cost effective technology in
support of the Agency's strategy for achieving the goals of the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act of 1976  (RCRA).   It directly supports the research needs of the Office
of Solid Waste.  These needs generally require that the Office of Research and
Development develop new technologies to meet program requirements of the Office of Solid Waste,
and generates  a data base to support Agency regulations and  guidelines and/or policies related
to solid waste disposal and resource recovery.  The current research program is developing
solutions for the following major  problem areas:  materials released into the environment
from solid and hazardous waste disposal; reduction, separation, processing, and recovery
of waste resources, including energy; environmental impact of unsound past land disposal
of sludges resulting from waste water and air pollution control activities, and
industrial residues; and cost of collection, storage, and transportation of solid waste.

Budget Request

    An appropriation of 510,912,000 and 22 positions is requested for this program.
This is a net increase of  $3,250 and oneposition over 1978.  Research efforts will be
continued at a level commensurate  with 1978 efforts except for two areas in which there
will be an expansion.   The two areas are:  (1) remedial measures for restoring areas
damaged by environmentally unsound landfill practices, $750,000 and (2) development
and application of technology for  containment, disposal and reuse alternatives for
controlling industrial wastes, $2,500,000 and one position.

Program Description

    EPA's research and development efforts are directed toward supporting the goals
and objectives of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), through
the development of improved solid  waste management practices, disposal, and resource
recovery technology.  These technological advances will enable local agencies to
handle their solid waste problems  in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable
manner.
                                                                                         SW-22

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    Research and development efforts in the solid waste program are directed
toward the development of technologies necessary to achieve environmentally
acceptable and cost effective solid and hazardous waste management oractices
in which energy conservation and recovery of material resources are prime
considerations.  Major objectives of the program are:

    -  To develop methodology and/or equipment  to  control the release into  the
       environment  of  materials present in solid and hazardous waste which
       adversely affect public health and welfare.

    -  To evaluate and develop new or improved management practices and methods
       of collection, storage, transportation, and disposal.

    -  To evaluate and develop new or improved methods for the reduction, separation,
       processing, end recovery of resources.

    -  To establish a technical basis to support the Agency's efforts in developing
       Guidelines and regulations for solid and hazardous waste management as required
       by the RCRA.

1977 Accomplishments

    1977 resources included $1,928,500 for contracts, SI ,039,100 for grants,  and
5363,600 for interagency agreements.  Specific accomplishments include:

    -  Completed laboratory studies and reports on the movement of selected hazardous
       substances through soil.  This information can be applied to the problem'of
       selecting and operating land disposal sites for waste containing arsenic, asbestos,
       beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selenium,
       and zinc.

    -  An exntensive analysis was made of both organic and inorganic contaminants
       present in landfill leachate, and bench scale data for selected treatment
       methods of leachates were obtained.  It was found that leachate from recently
       constructed landfills was best treated by aerobic or anaerobic biological
       treatment processes.  Physical chemical treatment processes, especially activated
       carbon and reverse osmosis, were most effective in treating leachate from old
       landfills.

    -  A laboratory testing program to investigate the physical and engineering
       properties of raw and chemically fixed hazardous industrial wastes and flue
       gas desulfurization (FGD) sludges indicated that methods of testing currently
       used in soils engineering can be successfully used in testing raw and  fixed
       sludges.  On the basis of test specimen  behavior, fixed FGD sludges can be
       expected to exhibit substantial engineering strength and suitability for landfill
       embankment construction.

    -  A polymeric cementing and encapsulating process for managing hazardous wastes was-
       developed and evaluated.  Wastes cemented with three to four percent by eight
       polybutadiene binder and encapsulated in 1/4 inch polyethylene jackets were
       subjected to exacting leaching conditions and mechanical testing.  The encapsulated
       wastes exhibited excellent retention of contaminants and withstood high compressive
       and impact mechanical forces.

    -  First year exposure of six polymeric liner membranes, four aspnaltic admix materials,
       and two asphaltic materials to municipal waste landfill leachate indicated that all
       the polymeric materials and the asphaltic membranes withstood the 1-year exposure .
       However, the seams of three of the polymeric matarials deteriorated in strength
       and leachate leaked through two of the aspnaltic admixtures.
 SW-Z3

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    -  A microwave plasma system for the destruction of hazarouds wastes was
       developed and tested.  With a throughput of 450 to 32,000 gm/hr of waste,
       the system successfully detoxified a typical organophosphorous pesticide
       (malathion), a rodenticide (methyl bromide), two polychlorinated biphenyl
       liquids (PCB's, a mercury containing fungicide (ohenylmercuric acetate),
       and a highly chlorinated insecticide (Kepone).  It is anticipated that this
       technology will find applications in hospitals, universities, commerical
       laboratories, and hazardous waste disposal firms.

    -  Laboratory studies determined time and temperature relationships for the
       destruction of Kepone.  This information was used in a pilot test burn that
       demonstrated that Kepone and Kepone contaminated sludges can be thermally
       destroyed in a commerical system.  The results of this research and demonstration
       will provide design criteria for a full scale system that the Commonwealth
       of Virginia is planning to construct at Hopewell.

    -  Completed compilation of a data base for the development of standards or
       regulations for land disposal of flue gas cleaning sludges.

    -  A municipal solid waste symposium; "Management of Gas and Leachate in Landfills"
       was held to disseminate the latest research results.

    -  Completed an assessment of deep well injection of hazardous wastes and compiled
       information on current practices for deep well injection.

    -  Completed a cost and benefit analysis for alternative systems for the management
       of waste passenger car tires.

    -  Provided a report on demonstration of dewatering and disposal techniques for
       paper mill sludges.

    -  Conducted an environmental assessment of disposal  of metallurgtcal process and
       control residuals.

1978 Program

    The amount of resources allocated to this program for 1978 i's  $7,662,000 and 21
positions.  Of this amount it is estimated that $3,905,000 will be expected through
contract efforts, $2,000,000 for grants, and $800,000 for interagency agreements.
The 1978 program includes:                              •   '

    -  Continuing research to establish data on the decomposition of landfill municipal
       wastes under differing moisture regimes and the development of techniques for
       collecting and treating leachates.  The research will lead to the develooment of
       criteria for the selection of site, design, maintenance, and operation of landfills
       to prevent environmental insult, and to effect rapid stabilization and settlement
       to that landfills can be put to use for other constructive purposes in a relatively
       short time after closure.

    -  Continuing improvement in waste water treatment sludge management by land
       application.   Research efforts will be directed to determining when and where
       sludge can be applied, how it can be applied, in what quantities it can be applied,
       and what alterations to the sludge are required.

    -  Continuing research to develop and evaluate remedial methods for minimizing the
       environmental impact of environmentally unacceptable land disposal sites.
                                                                                         SW-24

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      -   Continuing  technical, economi c, and environmental assessments of existing
         methods  for processing  or  treating hazardous waste materials and the
         development of  cost  effective  new or  improved technology.

      -   Evaluation  of existing-resource recovery systems in order to provide
         a  "state-of-the-art" report.   Evaluation will include environmental aspects;
         energy balance;  product quality; system operability, maintainability, and
         reliability; and economics.

      -   Support  of  special studies requirements under Subtitle H of RCRA dealing
         with mining wastes and  sludges.

 1978  Explanation  of Changes  from Budget Estimate

    The  net decrease of  356,000  from the budget estimate results from a transfer to
 other media to cover increased  personnel costs, $71,000, offset by a congressional
 add-on for authorized positions, S15,000.

 1979  Plan

    The  FY 1979  plan provides a total  of $10,912,000 and 22 positions.  Of the
 $10,912,000, it  is  estimated that  $5,000,000  will  be expended in contracts, $4,000,000
 on  grants, and 3800,000  in interagency  agreements.

    Specific items  of research  include:

      -   Landfill ing: Continuation  of research aiming at FY 1980 completion of bench
         and pilot scale,  and lysimeter studies of  rates of leachate and gas production
         under different moisture regimes; gas and  leachate migrations, leachate
         attenuation in  various  soils,  characteristics of natural and synthetic liners;
         of control  technology for  the  treatment of leachate and gas; site selection
         and design  of the following field verification studies: (a) gas and leachate
         migration model,  (b) natural and synthetic liners (c) soil modification
         techniques  for  controlling pollutant  transport, and (d) leachate treatment
         scnemes.  Initiation of field  verification for gas and leachate migration
         models and  natural and  synthetic liners.

      -   Hazardous Waste Disposal:  Program toward comoletion by FY 1930 of the
         following small  scale studies: time and temperature requirements for
         destruction, detoxification, biodegradation.and bulk encapsulation of
         hazardous materials.  Site selection, design, and initiation of four from
         the following processes: thermal processing, disposal pits for pesticides,
         biodegradation  processes,  encapsulation, microwave plasma detoxification,
         and chemcial detoxification.

      -   Remedial  Action:  Two sites—a  polluting municipal solid waste site and a
         polluting hazardous waste  site—will  be selected, remedial schemes designed,
         and field verifications initiated.  Remedial schemes may include such actions as
         in situ  neutralization, injection grouting, slurry wall construction, surface
         sealing,  in situ  fixation, leachate collection and treatment, and gas migration
         control with b?rriers and  gas  collection.

      -   Resource  Conservation and  Recovery: Continue ongoing research in waste
         processing  and  preprocessing tor resource  recovery.  Initiate studies  toward providing
         a  Research and Development  plan  for  the  development  of marketable  products
         (protein, animal  feed,  chemical feed  stocks) from mixed wastes other than
         extracted materials  or  energy.

      -   Alternative Land Methods:  Continue the development and evaluation in the
         field of  processes which will  render  waste water treatment sludge not only
         environmentally  suitable but beneficial for soil enhancement by:  (a)
         determining fate and effect, transport and transformation.of contaminants
         in land  spreaded  sludge; and (2) investigating processes for extracting metals

SW-25

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       and organics from sludge.

     - Industrial:  Initiate a program to establish and resolve technology control
       requirements of large toxic and/or hazardous residue sources. Program
       activities will include:  (1) development of separation techniques
       (activated carbon-resin adsorption and froth flotation) for  organics and metal
       containing wastes; (2) development of treatment alternatives to minimize
       or eliminate evaporation of organics at chemical landfills;  (3) demonstration
       of techniques for chemical conversion of organic  residues for recycle and
       reuse; (4) evaluaton of extraction and concentration techniques for recovery
       of inorganic substances from residues; and  (5) evaluation of technology for the
       regeneration of spent adsorbent  media used in waste recovery processes.

    The $3,250,000 increase in funds over FY 1978 will support an exoansion of research
in two areas:    industrial   and remedial action.  Past research has been oriented
towards the municipal solid waste program and the industrial component has been of
lesser priority.  Title C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  (RCRA) olaces
emphasis on hazardous waste disposal.   Most of the hazardous wastes are  industrial wastes.
Compliance with RCRA emphasis, together with the technology gaps that exist, dictates
the need to expand  research in the industrial area.  The act also calls  for an inventory
of all open dumps and specifies that all open dumps will be closed out or upgraded
within 5 years.   The expansion in remedial action anticipates the technical assistance
that States and municipalities will need in order to close out or upgrade open dumps.
                                                                                       SW-26

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                                          SOLID WASTE

                                          Enforcement
Actual
 1977
 Budget
Estimate
 J978
                 Current
                Estimate
                  1978
       Estimate
        _J979._
                                                                            Increase •>•
                                                                            Decrease -
                                                                          1979 vs. .1978
Appropriation
Solid Waste Enforcement.

Permanent Positions
Solid Waste Enforcement.

Budget Request
S3    51,093
                                                                _._
                                                     (dollars  in thousands)'
S995    Sl,09^        +S99
            28         +23
     Twenty-eight positions and 51,094,000 are  requested for solid waste  enforcement
in FY 1979.  The resources requested will support the enforcement of  regulations unaer
the  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of  1976.  Solid waste enforcement will
primarily be concerned with the administrative  support aspects of permit  issuance
and compliance monitoring and enforcement activities in those States  that do not assume
the hazardous waste management program.

Program Description

     The EPA solid waste enforcement program  is authorized by the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA).  This legislation provides for comprehensive control over the
handling of solid and hazardous wastes.  The  Act authorizes EPA to promulgate regulations
to control hazardous wastes from the point of generation to the point of final disposal.  It
is the first legislation to provide for direct  Federal enforcement of hazardous waste regulations.

     The solid waste enforcement program is responsible for developing the enforcement
provisions of regulations implementing RCRA.  RCRA requires generators and trans-
porters of hazardous wastes to comply with certain procedural standards, such as record keep ing,
reporting and proper containerization.  In addition, RCRA requires that durina transportation,
hazardous wastes be accompained by a manifest and that they be taken  only to permitted
hazardous waste management facilities.

     The hazardous waste regulations will establish design and procedural standards which
will  be placed on treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.  These will include operating
standards, recordkeeping, reporting requirements and acceptance of only manifested hazardous
wastes.   Hazardous waste management facilities will be required to obtain a permit from
EPA or an authorized State in order to operate.

     Procedures for the inspection and sampling of facilities which generate, transport,
store, treat, or dispose of hazardous wastes  will be developed.  Guidelines will be
promulgated which establish standards of evidence needed to support enforcement actions.
Rules of practice governing the issuance of compliance orders and hearings conducted in
the assessment of administrative penalties or the suspension or revocation of permits
will  also be promulgated.

1977 Accomplishments

     The solid waste enforcement program was  established in FY 1977,  providing minimum
resources to assist in the development of the hazardous waste aspects of the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).  Resources also went toward the preparation of the
RCRA hazardous waste enforcement strategy which will be completed by  FY 1979.
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1978 Program

     The FY 1978 budget includes 3995,000 and five positions for solid waste
enforcement.  Of the total funds,  S800.000 is to be used for contracts.
These contracts will be used to (a) develop manuals for inspections and sampling,
enforcement criteria and for the administrative support aspects of permit issuance;
(b) analyze techniques of compliance monitoring and of phasing enforcement priorities;
(c) develop an AOP enforcement management system in conjunction with the abatement
and control program; (d) develop a program of innovative enforcement techniques
to provide for voluntary industry compliance; and (e) analyze enforcement aspects of
applicable EPA and State programs.

     The solid waste enforcement activities will continue to focus on assisting in
the development and implementation of hazardous waste regulations.  There will be
special emphasis given to regional office concerns in implementing the solid waste
enforcement program.  The major areas of activity are:  (a) continue support in the
development, promulgation, and implementation of hazardous waste regulations;
(b) complete the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enforcement strategy;
(c) prepare regional guidance on compliance monitoring, enforcement priorities, and
the administrative support aspects of permit issuance; (d) develop policy concerning
enforcement penalties; (e) prepare enforcement- provisions on the use of the imminent
hazard provision under RCRA and response to emergencies; and (f) begin minimal
compliance monitoring of the notification requirement under the Act.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of 398,000 from the budget estimate represents a change in the
original estimate of contracts; the funds were reprogrammed to the regional offices
to support increased hearings costs in other media.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 budget request for solid waste enforcement is 31,094,000 and 28 positions.
This represents an increase of 599,000 and 23 positions will  be allocated to the regions and are
required to enforce the hazardous waste regulations in those States that do not assume the program,
and which become effective in October 1978.  The request includes 3400,000 for contract support
for'(a) enforcement inspections; (b) enforcement aspects of sample analysis;
(c) training programs for regional and State enforcement personnel; and (d) guidance
on enforcement  policies  and procedures.

     The enforcement activities planned for FY 1979 include:

         Joint response with abatement and control and regional personnel to emergencies.

         Response to reports of violations.

         Administrative support for the issuance of permits to hazardous
         waste facilities.

         Assist States in planning and implementing the enforcement portion of
         State hazardous waste control programs.

         Provide guidance to regions on enforcement policies and procedures,
         rules of practice, more elaborate compliance monitoring, and penalty
         policy.

         Monitor compliance and enforcement of hazardous waste regulations in
         those States that do not accept the program.

         Development of innovative enforcement programs for voluntary industry compliance.
                                                                                     SW-28

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                                           PESTICIDES
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	

Enforcement:
  Apnropriation	
  Permanent Positions	

Research and Development:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
Total, Pesticides Program:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
  Outlays	
  Authorization Levels	
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY
                                  Actual
                                   1977
525,136
    649
  5,089
    146
 10,406
    155
 40,631
    950
 43,592
 23,600
            Budget
          Estimate
            1978
524,420
    657
 10,768
    185
 10,798
    156
 45,986
    998
 44.700
           Current
          Estimate
            1978
          Estimate
            1979
           Increase +
           Decrease -
          1979 vs.  1978
                                                        (dollars in thousands]
524,748
    666
 10,172
    182
 12,073
    158
 46,993
  1,006
 49,790
 10,800**
$36,356
    712
 12,363
    143
 11,998
    158
 60,717
  1,013
 53,080
+311,608
     +46
  +2,191
     -39
                                                 -75
 +13,724
      +7
  +3,290
                                    Authorization pending.

                                    Amount shown is authorized by Environmental Research,
                                    Development, and Demonstration Authorization Act of
                                    1978; remaining authorization is pending.
     The EPA pesticides program is operated under the authority of two statutes: the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), and the Federal Food, Drug,
and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) which requires establishment of tolerances for pesticide residues
on crops.

     The FIFRA as amended requires the EPA to strike the proper balance between
necessary pest control  and protection of the public health.  Through & premsrket
review of data on the safety and effects of pesticide products, the Agency issues
individual registrations to manufacturers based upon a finding that the product will
perform as claimed on the label, and will not oose "unreasonable adverse effects" to man
or the environment.  Pesticides not meeting that statutory standard must be cancelled,
or in cases of an imminent hazard to the public, suspended.  The finding of "unreasonable
adverse effects" defined by the FIFRA as "...any unreasonable risk to man or the
environment, taking into account the economic, social, and environmental costs and
benefits of the use of any pesticide," is the heart of the decision making process for
all regulatory action initiated by the Agency.
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     The 1972 amendments have added major new requirements over the previous 1947 Act;
the primary task of which is the reregistration of all  pesticide products now on the
market.  That job entails the review of all  previous pesticide registrations made over
the course of 25 years in a context of evolving regulatory policy and growing scientific
awareness and encompasses some 33,000 Federal and 7,500 State registrations.  This
"reregistration" is to update labeling, require more extensive safety data, and eliminate
unreasonably hazardous pesticides.  The 1972 Act also requires the Agency to classify
pesticides into "general" or "restricted" categories.  General use products are to be
available to the general public; restricted  use pesticides are those posing greater
hazards and are limited to use by certified  applicators.  The States are assigned the
responsibility to certify applicators.

     The 1972 FIFRA also authorizes pesticide monitoring, publication of guidelines for
data requirements for registration, specific exemptions for emergency pest outbreaks,
an enlarged experimental use permit program, supervision of State registrations for special
local needs, resolution of data disputes between registrants, and enforcement of proper
pesticide use.

     Obviously, the most important task in terms of public health and environmental
protection, as well as resources, is the requirement to register and classify pesticides.
Major opportunities for risk reduction exist by using currently available scientific
knowledge  to examine studies used to originally register pesticides and by updating data.
Similar opportunity exists under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, which charges
EPA with the establishment of pesticide residue tolerances on food and animal feed crops.

     In planning initial implementation of the 1972 legislative requirements pertaining
to registration, the Agency had three variables to consider: time to complete the entire
task, depth of review of the scientific data, and resources.  Since resources were
severely constrained, the Agency was forced  to limit the depth of data review in order
to complete the review of over 40,000 products in the period allowed by the statute
(4 years from date of enactment; later extended 1 year to 1977).

     The strategy previously employed to limit the depth of data review was to assume
that data on file were basically valid and properly interpreted by today's standards,
and that the Agency need only scan the files to identify gaps, i.e., information
required by current standards which had never been submitted.  However, during 1976
and 1977, as a result of an EPA internal review and a year long investigation by the
Senate Health Subcommittee staff, it became  apparent that the Agency could not rely on
the validity of previously submitted data underlying all current pesticide registrations.
There is evidence that some of the testing was sloppy, or even fraudulent, and that data
previously submitted had not in all cases been handled appropriatelv.  Following these
discoveries, the Agency pledged, in a December 1976 letter to the Chairman of the Senate
Health Subcommittee, that it would review all data and validate all the bioeffects and
environmental chemistry data in its files prior to reregistration.  At present there
are over 1 million pieces of data on file, one-third of which represents bioeffects
information, for which scientific revalidation is necessary.  The following breakdown
of the data on file gives an idea of the size of this task:

          Toxicological Data	    300,000 tests
          Chemistry Data (Product, Residue and
            Environmental Chemistry)	    210,000 tests
          Efficacy Data	    515,000 tests
          Environmental Data (Fish and
            Wildlife Safety)	     46,000 tests
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     In light of the 1976 findings, and  with present resources and depth of review
variables limited, a new strategy has  been developed which will:

     -   Aggregate reviews of available information in order to make more
        efficient decisions, to be accomplished through (1)  a generic
        registration approach, in which the Agency builds a standard to
        encompass all  approved and specifically disapproved uses of a chemical,
        rather than the present individual product-by-product effort and
        (2) through a rebuttable presumption against registration procedure,
        which is a specialized benefit/risk approach for the examination of all
        uses of chemicals for which registration appears contraindicated.
        Priority will  be given in the  following order:

           1.   Chemicals currently on  the rebuttable presumption against
               registration (RPAR) list.
           2.   Large volume chemicals  used on food commodities.
           3.   Large volume home and garden uses likely to cause widespread exposure.
           4.   Low volume, low residue chemicals used on food commodities.
           5.   Other pesticides in order of volume potential exposure and similar
               parameters.

     -   Seek legislative approval of an extended reregistration period.

     -   Reduce significantly the efficacy testing and EPA efficacy data review that
        is required for a registration.

     -   Continue and expand upon a program of systematic audit of the aualit.v nf
        laboratory studies in cooperation with the Food and Drug Administration
        and evaluate their impact upon decision making.  Under a pilot program,
        problems have been discovered which indicate that defects in basic studies
        are not necessarilv functions  of the size of the company providing the data
        nor the contemporary prestige  of the laboratory or institution performing the
        actual study.

     -   Advance critical legislative changes and urge approval by Congress to
        remove major stumbling blocks.  Briefly, these will remove constraints
        from the consideration of registrant submitted data, support reduced
        efficacy data review, incorporate a standards process in the registration
        system, and provide for conditional registrations to ease transition problems
        from the old to the new statute.   Bills have been passed by the Senate and
        House with conference expected in early 1978.

     -   Control pesticide use by regulation, registration and requiring restricted
        use pesticides tc be used only by applicators certified and trained under
        Section 4 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.
        Begin an Integrated Pest Management program to (1) provide guidance to users
        aimed at reducing the demand for pesticides, and  (2) require the incorporation
        of selected Integrated Pest Management practices as a condition of certain
        emergency applications, experimental use permits, or in conjunction with the
        retention of a specific'use which otherwise might need to be cancelled to
        reduce exposure.

     -   Exempt from regulations many relatively harmless compounds which now tie up
        significant manpower.

     -   Shift to more reliance on contract support for data review and validation and
        routine laboratory support to  make best use of the Federal positions available.
                                                                                   P-3

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     -  Reorganize the Office of Pesticide Programs in EPA to improve efficiency
        and the quality of regulatory actions.

     -  Use, to the fullest, interagency effort to cooperate in reducing pesticide
        hazards.  EPA, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Food and Drug
        Administration, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration have
        jointly committed to cooperation in the area of hazard and health protection.

     The chemical review process which underlies the development of pesticide chemical
standards will provide an especially large return for the resource investment in that it:

     -  Provides for review of health effects data, underlying both registration and
        tolerances established under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, to
        reaffirm or cause reconsideration of human exposure and currently established
        tolerances, albeit over a period of at least a decade.

     -  Provides the data validation needed to proceed with actions to identify and
        remove problem pesticides from the market or restrict their use.

     -  Provides the data validation needed to establish chemical standards for stream-
        lined registration and reregistration.  This approach is a type of regulatory
        reform helpful to producers as well as government.

     The single most significant factor in the area of enforcement is the development of
Federal/State cooperative enforcement grants.  This activity has received increasing
emphasis' over the past several years.  In 1977, for example, grants were established
with 17 States with total funding of over SI million.   For 1978, a total of S5 million
will be available for funding an estimated 35 grants.   With an increase in 1979, EPA
intends to develop cooperative grants with as many of the remaining States and Territories
as possible.

     Whether carried out by participating States, or by EPA in those States not having
grants, the activities of the pesticides enforcement program serve to support the
objectives of regulating pesticide supply and use.  As in previous years, the FY 1979
enforcement program will focus upon the general areas of ensuring user compliance with
label directions and ensuring industry compliance with registration and classification
requirements.  User compliance activities focus on ensuring that only certified applicators
use restricted pesticides and that pesticide applications are conducted in conformance
with label directions.  Industry compliance efforts are directed toward ensuring that
products are manufactured, sold, and distributed in accordance with  registration and
classification requirements including quality control  and labeling standards.

     As a consequence of the shift in emphasis to a more prominent State role in
pesticides enforcement, the Federal role will be modified.  Federal sources which in
the past were directed to such activities as use, establishment, and marketplace
inspections will be available to support new program initiatives.  Included are such
necessary efforts as enforcement of Federal certification of applicators in those States
not having  approved  certification plans and enforcement support of conditional  registration.

     The Federal, Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act authorizes research
and development activities to (1) provide scientific data to the program offices on the
health and ecological effects of pesticides;  (2) develop methods for analyzing and
monitoring pesticides and their residues, ensuring quality control; and (3) develop
biologically integrated alternatives for pest control.

     The health and ecological research is undertaken  to determine potential  hazards of
of major classes of pesticides now registered by EPA and in common use and to investigate
the metabolites and residues of the compounds.  The program also includes work on new and
innovative pest control  agents to evaluate their impact on health and environmental  safety.
P-4

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     The health portion of the program will examine acute and chronic exposures to
determine effects on biologic function.  This work includes development and validation
of new and improved toxicological testing methods for registering pesticides and the
development and application of analytical methods for detecting these compounds in
environmental samples and human tissue.  The ecology portion of the program will
investigate the routes, rates, and degradation of pesticides in ecosystems and their
effects on, and bioaccumulation in, selected aquatic and terrestrial species.  This
will include development of ecosystem simulations and refinement of bioassay techniques.
While the major thrust is on the aquatic environment, which encompasses marine, estuarine
and fresh water ecosystems, work continues on terrestrial systems as well.

     The program will continue to contribute to EPA's effort concerning the rebuttable
presumption process.  The program also includes healtn and ecological studies on
substitute chemicals to contribute to EPA's assessments of chemicals considered for use
as replacements for cancelled compounds.  EPA's review process provides for developing
scientific criteria and protocols for delineating the hazards associated with the use
of each compound.

     Research in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is aimed at reducing excess reliance
on chemical pesticides for controlling pests.   This research develops management practices
for specific applications and will include multicrop ecosystems as well as urban situations.
While reducing direct terrestrial burdens, outputs from IPM can also lead to less
pesticide movement into streams, rivers, and lakes and lowered use in urban environments.

     The Agency's priorities for the pesticides program over the next serveral years
include the following elements:

     Priority 1

     -  Review benefits and risks of compounds identified as posing potentially
        unreasonable adverse effects, reach final risk/benefit determinations and
        reduce public health impect, if necessary, by restricting or removing pesticides'.
        from the market for some or all uses.

     -  Process new registration applications to bring new products and uses onto the
        market in an efficient, effective manner.

     -  Review pesticide chemicals and prepare standards.

     -  Assess basic and validity of toxicological data underlying specific residue tolerances
        in conjunction with the development of pesticide chemical standards and adjust
        tolerances as necessary.

     -  Enforce to ensure compliance with use directions including applicator and worker
        safety provisions.

     -  Audit laboratories to assure underlying validity of toxicology data.

     Priority 2

     -  Monitor applicator certification to ensure that restricted use pesticides are
        applied properly  and only by certified applicators.

     -  Strengthen Federal/State cooperation in the enforcement of FIFRA.

     -  Disseminate Integrated Pest Management information and use in emergency
        exemptions and other regulatory actions.
                                                                                   P-5

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     Priority 3

     -  Monitor for hazard prediction and significant potential  problems.

     -  Ensure industry compliance with registration requirements.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES

                                                       (jnthousands of dollars)

1978 Pesticides Program	            $46,993

     Abatement and Control	            +11,608

       The increase will be directed to data
       validation, information support, lab
       audits, rebuttable presumption against
       registration (RPAR) actions, and
       registration standards including
       tolerance assessment and new registration
       actions.

     Enforcement	             +2,191

       Included is anincrease for grants-in-aid
       for the Federal/State cooperative enforcement
       agreements offset by a reduction in position.

     Research and Development	                -75

       The decrease is due to a nonrecurring
       requirement of funds made available  to the
       program in 1973.                                         	
1979 Pesticide Program	              60,717

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES.

     1 •   Summary_of Budget Request

             An appropriation of 360,716,900 is requested for 1979.  This request,
Dy appropriation, is as follows:

                 Abatement and Control	         536,355,300
                 Enforcement	          12,363,100
                 Research and Development	          11,998,000

     This is an increase of $13,723,600 above the 1978 pesticides program.   The bulk
of the increase ($10,379,400) is in pesticides registration and tolerances and will
provide salaries for 115additional positions and additional contracts to support the
development of chemical and formulation standards.   An increase of $2,190,600 will
permit an increase in grants to States  for cooperative enforcement agreements, and an
increase of $1,205,700 is for the hazard evaluation program, particularly epidemiological
studies.   Other minimal program changes are in the areas of Federal and State program
support (+$22,900) and a nonrecurring  research and development  requirement (-$75,000).
P-6

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     2.  Change from Original 1978 Budget Estimate

             Changes from the original budget estimate are as follows:

                                                       (in thousands of dollars)

               Original 1978 estimate	                $45,986
               Congressional increase for
                authorized positions	                    +75
               Change in research and development
                structure	
               Regional reprogrammings	
               Headquarters reprogrammings	

                 Current 1978 estimate	                 46,993

     An increase of 575,000 was added on by the Congress  for authorized positions.
The Office of Research and Development redefined program  element activities and
$1.2 million previously reflected under the interdisciplinary media was reorogrammed to the
pesticides media.

     A net increase of $55,300 was reprogrammed to the regional  offices from the
headquarters activities.

     Headquarters reprogrammings resulted in a net decrease of$323,000, a portion
of which was transferred to the regions with the remainder transferred  to other media.

ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                        Current
                                                        Estimate        Estimate
                                                          ,1978            1979
                                                       (in thousands of dollars)

     Prior year obligations	       $40,631        $51,906
     Change in amount of carryover funds available        +5,275         -4,913
     Program increases	        +6,000        +13,600

              Total estimated obligations	        51,906         60,593
             (From new obi igation authority)	       (43,396)       (56,996)
             (From prior year funds)	        (8,510)        (3,597)

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

     Obligations from carryover funds in 1978 are estimated to be $8,510,000, an  increase
of $5,275,000 over the T977 level; in 1979 obligations from carryover funds are expected
to be $3,597,000, a decrease of $4,913,000 from the 1978  estimate.

     Changes in new obligation authority result in an estimated  increase of $6.0  million
in 1978; in 1979, the program increase requested will increase obligations by approximately
$13.6 million.
                                                                                P-7

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                                            PESTICIDES
PROGRAM LEVELS
Actual
1977
Completed registration data
review of new products
and amendments 	 	 4
Tolerance petitions and inert
clearances processed 	
Section 5 registrations 	
Section 18 registrations 	
Section 24(c) registrations.
Generic Standards:
Active ingredient standards
Formulation standards 	
Chemical reviews with
rebuttable presumptions
against registration 	
Lab audi ts 	
State Certification Plans
for Applicators:
Final approval 	 	 	
Contingency approval 	
State plans/programs
moni tored 	
Applicators Certified:
Pri vate 	
Commercial 	
Applicators recertified 	
Establishment inspections... 1
Use/ re-entry and experi-
mental use observations.. 1
Marketplace investigations. 2
Imoort investigations 	
,653
209
300
100
75'
N/A
N/A
15
5
18
24
61 %
86S
,684
,416
,415
578
Budget
Estimate
1978
16,000
320
350
120
100
N/A
N/A
50
70
54
56
1002
100%
10%
135
2,295
225
450
Current
Estimate
1978
<,400
256
280
100
80
3
40
35
50
25
100%
100%
10%
900
1,050
1,500
400
Increase +
Estimate Decrease -
1979 1979 vs. 1978
8,500
320
350
120
780
50
69
50
70
52
25
100%
100%
10%
1,425*
3,000*
3,640*
400
+4,100
+64
+70
+20
+700
+47
+69
+10
+35
+2
+525
+1,950
+2,140
*  Includes State program outputs.
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                                           PESTICIDES

                                      Abatement and Control
Appropriation
Registration and
  Tolerances.	
Hazard Evaluation.
Federal and State
  Program Support.
     Total	

Permanent Positions
Registration and
  Tolerances	
Hazard Evaluation...
Federal and State
  Program Support...
                                     Budget    Current                 Increase +
                           Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate     Decrease -
                            1977     J9.78       1978       1979     1979 vs. 1978
                                              (dollars in thousands)
SI 0,079
5,548
9,509
25,136
$10,579
5,264
8,577
24,420
$15,788
3,788
5,172
24,748
$26,168
4,993
5,195
36,356
+310,380
+1,205
+23
+11,608
     Total.
394
85
170
649
382
89
186
657
435
96
135
666
550
52
no
712
+115
-44
-25
+46
 Page
P-12
P-18

P-24
     The EPA pesticides abatement and control program has the major responsibility
for implementing the requirements of the Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenti-
cide Act (FIFRA) as amended and consequently the lead role in the "design and
implementation of the Agency's pesticide strategy.  Supply control attempts to
keep hazardous chemicals off the market so as to prevent unreasonable adverse
effects to man or the environment.  This is accomplished through registration of
new products and reregistrati on of previously registered products, wherein newly
submitted toxicological data or that submitted in the past are examined to
determine acceptability under current scientific and regulatory standards.  The
reregistrati on process allows the Agency to make a rebuttable presumption against
registration of pesticides which appear to cause unreasonable adverse effects to
human health or the environment.  In addition, control is exercised through the
process of classification of pesticide products for restricted or general use,
pesticide residue tolerance setting, and product labeling.  In 1979, implementation
of a generic class standards system  will be initiated to accomplish reregistrati on,
rebuttable presumptions, and registration in a more efficient manner.  By producing
a set of chemical monographs—generic standards—which address several pesticide
ingredients at a time rather than evaluating them one-by-one, a significant
process efficiency will be introduced.
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     New amendments to the Act are projected to be in place by mid FY 1978,
reducing major impediments to an orderly registration review and permitting
conditional registrations, thus increasing efficiency and providing the flow
of registration activity necessary for full implementation of the statute
Making intrastate as well as interstate products subject to the requirements
of the Act has increased significantly the Agency's overall registration/
classification responsibilities and these products will be considered part
of the generic review of the active ingredients.  In 1978, EPA anticipates
that most of the certification and training plans will be completed and
approved, and that only minimal monitoring and oversight will  be required
in 1979.  Exceptions exist, for States which will have to be covered by
Federal certification programs because of their failure to implement their
own program.  The refinement and oversight function will require some regional
support as well as continued Federal funding but nowhere near the amount
requested in prior years.  Major efforts to improve public understanding of
pesticides policies, regulations, and decisions, as well as to encourage
public participation in the decision making process, are also included in
this program.

     In developing the 1979 resource request, the Agency submitted its entire
program operation to close scrutiny and explicitly considered a wide range of
operational, policy, legislative, and manpower tradeoffs.  In  determining
manpower requirements, availability of large scale contractor support was used
as a basic premise.  The requested increase for abatement and control activity
is the result of that analysis.

     .In this analysis, the most critical questions to be answered centered on
the time in which the reregistrati on job could or would be completed, the
manpower savings anticipated by the reform of the regulatory process through
policy and legislative initiatives, and of course major shifts in internal
priorities.  Included in regulatory reform were such actions as the separation
of classification from reregistration and development of the generic approach
for the validation  of studies and the assessment of hazards,  as well as
the concept of conditional registrations.

     The Agency considered completion of the reregistrati on process at
intervals of 7 years, 10 years, or 15 years and beyond.  Coupled to the basic
time periods was the associated question of contract support at optimum and
maximum levels.  Specific analysis also occurred for the period of less than 7
years, but because'Of difficulties in adding an extraordinarily large number
of highly skilled scientists necessary in the first years, the less than 7
year  option was judged infeasible.  Uncertainties on the timing of legislative
changes and essential up-front design time for the generic standards process
also militate against the less than 7 year option.

     The basic tradeoff against time and the Federal resource commitment is,
of course, the continued exposure of the American public to potential
carcinogens, mutagens, and other hazards with resulting higher deaths and
debilities.  Quite obviously, the more people and dollars working on the job
of review and assessment of hazard, the earlier EPA will detect adverse
effects.  It is less apparent, and certainly less quantifiable at the present,
that there is also a tradeoff with the uncertainty in the agricultural
community about what chemicals will actually be available over the next
decade.  This uncertainty has associated with it explicit costs in terms of
delayed pest control programs, vacillation in the commitment to develop
alternatives for potentially hazardous compounds, and continuing concerns of
the agricultural community and other users as to EPA's credibility.
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     In addition, many operational tradeoffs were considered, several of which
proved to have significant impact on not only the resources required to complete
the review of the basic reregistrati on job while continuing to handle the new and
conditional registrations anticipated, but also on the utility of the generic
standards approach.  For example, assessing all the technical grades of active
ingredients, 1,400, and deferring the development of standards for formulated
products until technical standards are develooed. which would reouire fewer
resources, also defers  reregistrati on of the bulk of products until
the very last years of any given period.  Instead, the Agency believes the
technical and formulation standards can be developed collaterally with significant
savings over the present product-by-product method and, at the same time, foreshorten
the period in which all products will undergo reregistrati on review.

     In the final analysis, the preferred and most feasible path is a 10 year
period for rompletion of the reregistration and tolerance reviews. While authorization
of the positions and "dollars requested for 1979 will allow the process discussed
above to proceed, major decisions remain to be made as to the overall acceptability
of a 10 year versus a 15 year or more review time, and the level, character, and timing
of the direct Federal operations vis-a-vis contract efforts.
                                                                                P-ll

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                                            PESTICIDES,

                                       Abatement and Control

                                    Registration and Tolerances
Appropriation •
Product Regi strati on...
Criteria and Standards.
     Total.
Permanent Positions
Product Registration...
Criteria and Standards.
     Total.
                                       Budget
                             Actual   Estimate
                              1977      1978
$6,360
 3.719
10,079
   394
                    Current                Increase +
                    Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                      1978       1979    1979 vs. 1978
                   (dollars in thousands)
$6,985
 3.594
10.579
   332
$10,931
  4.357
$15,532
 10,636
 15,788     26,168
    435
    550
+$4,601
 +5.779
            +10,380
259
135
244
138
330
105
323
227
-7
+122
   +115
Budget Request

     A total of $26,167,600 and 550 positions is requested for 1979 for registration
and tolerances.  The increase of $10,379,400 and 115 positions over the 1978 level
will permit the initiation of generic standards development, which is crucial to the
establishment of a streamlined, resource effective registration and reregistrati on
program in the future, and the most deliberate means of properly protecting the
public from unreasonable risk.  The important laboratory audit program will be
accelerated to ensure the validity of data presented by registrants in support of
continued or future registrations.  The budget will also permit the processing of
approximately 50 rebuttable presumptions against registration (RPAR) actions, which
are necessary to the proper assessment of the health and safety of suspect compounds
which are long overdue for regulatory scrutiny.  The processing of an annual
workload of some 10,000'actions regarding registration applications, tolerance
petitions, experimental use permits, and emergency exemptions will also be
accommodated.

Program Description

     Major programmatic efforts are directed toward (1) registration of pesticides
previously registered at Federal and State levels through development of a class
standards process; (2) completing registration actions on new chemicals, new
products, and new product uses and amendments; and (3) setting new and reexamining
existing domestic tolerances for pesticides residues on food and feed crops, as
well as participating in the establishment of international tolerances.  Special
pesticide reviews of products that are candidates for rebuttable presumptions are
an  important core program established to scrutinize chemicals which are suspect
of  hazardous consequences and subsequently conduct public hearings if necessary to
reach final risk/benefit determinations.  To reach a final decision to cancel the
use of any chemical or family of chemicals for cause requires a high quality risk/
benefit determination in addition to hazard/safety toxicological review.
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     A systematic audit of the quality of laboratory work done in support of
registration and its impact upon decision making will begin in 1978 and
increased in 1979.  During 1978, emphasis will be placed on the establishment
of new processes, such as generic standards and the lab audit program, and
consolidating process review cycles effected by new legislative amendments.

     In addition, a portion of the data identified as reregistrati on data gaps
during 1977 will be submitted by registrants in 1978, 1979, and 1980.  Evaluation
of these data as well as continuing the in-depth reexamination and validation of
previously submitted toxicological data on other products in the reregistrati on
process will be among the higher priority efforts.  The temporary decline of new
product applications in 1977 and 1978 is expected to readjust upwards in 1979
and 1980, requiring a higher concentration of effort to prevent processing
backlogs.

     The Department of Agriculture is now working with EPA on the collection of
pesticide benefit data as an input to the overall rebuttable presumption process
and there is also close coordination of effort with State agencies and industry.
Scientific and socioeconomic studies are an integral part of the rebuttable
presumption process and public participation is actively solicited at key points
in the decision making process through notices in the Federal Register and other
means,

PRODUCT REGISTRATION

1977 Accompli shments

     In 1977 approximately $662,000 was obligated for microfiche and typing
service contracts.  EPA processed 29 applications to register new chemical uses
including three significant new use patterns, 4,653 applications for new products
and amendments, and 18,500 supplemental registrations.  Due to litigation over
trade secret provisions of the Act, data availability was significantly affected.
The Agency is currently involved in litigation over its intent to use safety and
efficacy data submitted by one company for the purpose of registering another
company's product.  Several companies which have submitted data for which trade
secret status is claimed under Section 10 of the Act have enjoined EPA's use of
this data and, pending final resolution of these cases, EPA is not considering
use of any such data in support of registration.  Because thousands of studies
are involved, EPA's ability to register and reregister products is significantly"
affected.  The registration program has labored under this quite significant
restriction and others, and legislative changes have been introduced to produce
a more workable process in the future.

     Also in 1977, 300 Section 5 registrations, 100 Section 18 registrations,
75 Section 24(c) registrations, and 209 tolerance petitions and inert clearances
were processed.  Rebuttable presumption notices on 15 chemicals were published in
the Federal Register with continued review of 31 chemical classes.  Also, the
generic class standards process to aggregate scientific reviews by types of
ingredients and product groups in order to make more efficient regulatory
decisions were conceived and development of the process started. Under this process a chemical
monograph is written to encompass all uses of a chemical, rather than the
present individual product-by-product approach, which is then used to register,
reregister, and classify as well as process pesticides for rebuttable presumptions.
Five lab audits were conducted to serve as pilots for the lab audit program.
                                                                              P-13

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 1978 Program

      A total of 330 positions and $10,931,200 is available for 1978, of which
 $3 million will  be for contracts for registration data compilation and retrieval,
 literature searches, and validation reviews.   Generic registration/reregistration
 commitments for 1978 and the ensuing strict quality controlled data review and
 evaluation will  require significant Agency efforts.

      Major components of the generic registration/reregistration approach for
 1978 and future years will  be:   to examine files more closely and determine
 whether studies are valid and proper follow-up has occurred;  to develop standard
 procedures for reviews to document findings;  to present all  pertinent findings
 to a national review panel; to continue the rebuttable presumption against
 registration (RPAR) process; and to continue the review of all other pesticides
 for which there are tolerances or exemptions from tolerance requirements.

      In 1978, the generic registration process will be further developed to
 include pilot standards and full incorporation of the process into Agency
 procedures for the registration of pesticides.  The lab program audit will progress
 from completion of five audits into a program of 70 audits.   Along with the passage
 of new amendments to FIFRA will go concontnitant readjustments in policy/direction
 of-all registration program phases, especially as regards increased new
 registration workload and inert ingredient and tolerence
 reassessments.  Because only certified applicators will be able to apply
 restricted use pesticides required for the 1978 growing season, an available
 restricted use product list must be produced for use of certified private
 and commercial pesticide applicators.

      The 1978 objectives are to complete rebuttable presumptton decisions on a
 list of 40 chemical classes; to make the basic registration/reregistration/
 rebuttable presumption process more efficient by introduction of the generic
'standards approach; to continue registration data review on new product uses
 and amendments; and to complete a restricted use list for certified pesticide
 applicators.

 1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

      The increase of $3,945,900 over the budget estimate reflects a reprogramming
 within the pesticides media to reflect the increased efforts  on the generic
 registration/reregistration approach.  Resources have been reprogrammed from
 pesticides residue profiles ($275,900); pesticides information services
 ($1,079,300); pesticides program cooperation and aid ($1,063,700); pesticides
 epidemiologic studies ($1,227,000); and from other media activities ($300,000).

 1979 Plan
      In 1979, $15,532,300 and 323 positions are requested, of which $8,486,000
 will be used for contracts for data validation/review for the registration,
 rebuttable presumption, and generic standards processes, including use profiles,
 risk/benefit analyses of cancellation/suspension  actions and validation reviews.
   P-14

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     Highest priority will be given to reviewing benefits and risks of rebuttable
presumption compounds and conducting hearings to reach final risk/benefit
determinations for the reduction of unreasonable adverse public health impact by
modification, restriction, or removal from the market of some or all pesticide
uses; processing new registration  applications bringing new products and uses
onto the market in an efficient, effective manner; and assessing the basis for
tolerances in conjunction with standards for food uses and adjusting the
tolerances as necessary.

     Seventy laboratory units will be audited to ensure the validity of data
presented by registrants in support of continued future registrations.  Increased
funding will support a high level of contractor support for data and literature
searches, retrievals, and data validations.  The budget will also permit the
processing of approximately 50 rebuttable presumptions which are necessary for
the proper assessment of the health and safety of suspect compounds, and could
result in as many as 30 administrative hearings over and above the workload of
hearings underway in 1978, all of which require quality risk/benefit analyses
and hazard/safety toxicological reviews.  Also to be undertaken will be the
processing of the usual annual workload of some 10,000 registration applications,
tolerance petitions, experimental use permits, and emergency exemptions.

CRITERIA AND STANDARDS

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977 approximately $749,000 was expended for contracts for risk/benefit
studies and the development of standards, criteria, and test protocols.  The
efforts devoted to this program focused on three areas: (1) the development of
guidelines for registering pesticides; (2) the basic planning work toward
establishment of a generic standards process; and (3) the development of criteria
for specific chemicals which gave evidence of chronic or acute hazard.

     The guidelines for registering pesticides include information on tests which
must be conducted and on data which must be supplied by registrants when making
application for the registration of pesticides.  In 1977, preparation of the
guidelines sections, product performance and label development, product chemistry
and environmental chemistry, wildlife and aquatic organisms, and hazard to
humans and domestic animals were continued by an Office of Pesticides
Programs working group and subjected to close scrutiny by the FIFRA Science
Advisory Panel and the EPA Steering Committee.  Completion is projected for 1979
but requests for specific clarifications by the review groups and others could
extend completion significantly.

     The basic generic registration standards process was planned in 1977 to
include an orderly and efficient review of all available data pertaining to a
pesticide.  It will provide for consistent, swift, and predictable regulatory
decisions and cyclic reconsideration of standards which will  help  to  keep  regulatory
judgments current with new data.  Pilot studies were also made on the development
of standards for a few chemicals.
                                                                           P-15

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     Efforts in the areas of criteria and standards also contributed significantly
to the rebuttable presumption process.  Scientific documentation led to the issuance
of 15 rebuttable presumptions, one Notice of Intent to Cancel, and five voluntary
cancellations.  Review and analysis carried out in 1977 will also enable the
determination of whether to presume against 31 additional pesticides, or groups
of pesticides, early in 1978.

1978 Program

     Of the $4,857,000 and 105 positions currently programmed for 1978, $2,500,000
will be used for contracts to develop standards and criteria for registration,
reregistrati on and rebuttable presumption programs, studies culminating in the
preparation of risk/benefit packages, guidelines for registering pesticides, and
scientific review to facilitate risk/benefit analyses.  The budget permits the
initiation of generic registration, which is crucial to the establishment of a
streamlined, resource efficient registration and reregistrati on program in the
future, and the most deliberate means of properly protecting the public from
unreasonable risks.  With the implementation of generic registration, 5,600
chemical/pesticide monographs must be produced on technical grade pesticide
ingredients and on formulated products.  In 1978, standards development will be
in a planning and pilot phase while in subsequent years actual standards production
in quantity will begin.  During 1978, the rebuttable presumption process will carry
those pesticides upon which a presumption notice has been issued through the risk/
benefit analysis stage which culminates in an administrative decision regarding
reregistrati on or cancellation.

     The registration guidelines document must be revised and modified based upon
comments stemming from the published version and from new developments in the
pesticide industry.  Specific areas requiring further work are the registration
and labeling of insect pheromones, growth regulators, microbials, fungi, protozoa,
and nematodes.

     Standards and criteria will be developed for the use of viruses, biological
pesticides, cooling tower additives, spray drift, bioaccumulation of pesticides
'in fish and aquatic organisms, and registration requirements for inert chemicals.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of SI,263,300 over the budget estimate will permit the initiation
of generic registration; the reprogramming of resources is from the pesticides
program cooperation and aid (31,234,400) and from other media (528,900).

1979 Plan

     In 1979, 227 positions and $10,635,300 are requested, of which $5,700,000
will be used for contracts to develop standards and criteria for the generic
standards process.  Highest priority will be given in 1979 to developing generic
standards.  Developing these standards over the next several years will require
writing 1,400 monographs on chemicals used as active ingredients and 4,200
monographs on common formulations of these chemicals.  The greater emphasis to
be given this process will require an increase of $5,778,300 and 122 positions
in 1979.  This level of support was determined so as to start the issuance of
active ingredient and formulation standards in 1979 and provide a manpower base
to conclude as quickly as possible the pesticide reregistrati on task which, even
at these levels of support,will project a number of years into the future.
  P-16

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     The chemical review process which underlies the generic approach will provide an
especially large return for the resource investment in that it will provide review of
all data underlying tolerances established under the Federal Food, Drug.and Cosmetic
Act and reaffirm or cause reconsideration of currently established tolerances; it will
provide the data validation needed to proceed with actions to remove problem pesticides
from the market or restrict their use; it will streamline registration/reregistration
which is helpful to producers as well as to government at all levels; and it will
provide the data validation required to reregister products.

     Other standards and criteria activity that will continue include  completion  of
guidelines for registration and providing expert testimony and related analyses for
administrative hearings.
                                                                               P-17

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                                           PESTICIDES

                                     Abatement and Control

                                       Hazard Evaluation
Actual
 1977
 Budget
Estimate
  1978
         Current
        Estimate
          1978
                              Estimate
                                1979
                                                                             Increase +
                                                                             Decrease -
                                                                            1979 vs. 1978
                                                       (dollars in thousandsT
Appropriation
Epidemiologic Studies...
Residue Profiles	
Accident Investigations.
Market Sample Analyses..
$2,857
1,665
395
631
$2,628
1,689
315
632
$1,401
1,413
346
628
$3,355
1,219
...
419
•f$l ,954
-194
-346
-209
        Total.
5,548
5,264
              3,788
                                  4,993
+1,205
Permanent Positions
Epidemiologic Studies...
Residue Profiles	
Accident Investigations.
Market Sample Analyses..
9
36
14
26
10
36
14
29
14
40
14
28
19
24
...
9
+5
-16
-14
-19
        Total.
   85
   89
                 96
                                     52
   -44
Budget Request
     An appropriation of $4,993,200 and 52 positions is requested for 1979.  This is
an increase of $1,205,700 over the 1978 level for hazard evaluation and a decrease of
44 positions.  This is a result of reprogramming of positions.to the generic standards
building program and increased reliance on contracts for hazard evaluation.


Program Description

     Hazard evaluation consists of programs to determine pesticide residues in the
ecosystem, conduct epidemiologic studies in response to critical data needs of
registration and rebuttable presumption against registration  (RPAR) processes,
investigate pesticide accidents and incidents through the Pesticide Incident Monitoring
System  (PIMS), and to analyze samples of pesticide products taken from the marketplace.
The goals of the hazard evaluation program are to facilitate decisions on the registration,
cancellation, suspension, classification, and labeling of specific pesticide products,
or classes of products; to provide an information base for potential changes to
registration requirements; and to identify the need for potential changes in the pesticides
program.  These objectives are accomplished by performance of several functions: defining
and delineating pesticide hazards; alerting the Agency to potential pesticide problems;
collecting, verifying and analyzing information; predictive modeling; and hazard
determination.
 P-18

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EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

1977 Accoropli shments

     In 1977, approximately $2.6 million was used for contracts to conduct epidemiologic
studies on the relationships between pesticide exposure and human health, including
determination of pesticide use patterns and collection of pesticide accident information.
The program operated through State universities and health departments.

     During 1977, the more significant studies that were conducted were those  on
hospital-admitted pesticide poisonings, pesticide usage, residues in mothers' milk,
chlorinated hydrocarbons in human milk, and health effects of pesticides on farm
workers (reentry).

     The Pesticide Incident Monitoring System  (PIMS) was designed in 1977, for
implementation in 1978.  This system will receive, store, and coordinate pesticide
incident  data received through regional offices from State, Federal, and private
sector personnel.  This system will allow the Agency to develop and disseminate the
necessary reporting documents, and to provide technical and administrative assistance.
PIMS operates through heavy reliance on several contractors, geographically distributed
throughout the Nation and assigned responsibility on an area basis, who perform incident
investigations, lab confirmations, and encourage incident reporting.  One contractor,
in particular, has overall responsibility for data collection and storage and information
retrieval and summaries for specific program needs.

1978 Program

     The 1978 program includes 14 positions and $1,401,000 including approximately
$1 million for contracts.  The contracts will be used to continue the 1977 epidemiologic
studies and to perform rapid response studies on rebuttable presumption chemicals and
farm worker safety.

     There are four general epidemiologic study program areas.  The first is human
monitoring where human tissue and fluid is collected for analysis to determine the
magnitude of human exposure to pesticides on a national basis.  FY 1978 plans include
blood and urine analyses, a national tissue monitoring survey, completion of the
National Study of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in human milk, and establishment of blood
and urirw banks for future rebuttable presumption against registration (RPAR) analyses.

     The second epidemiologic  studies area is health effects data where studies are
conducted on human populations to relate pesticide exposure and disease incidence.
For 1978, the following studies are planned: retrospective cancer studies in Iowa,
Colorado, California, Utah, Hawaii, and Texas; the relation of liver cancer to
pesticide usage; cancer studies on the effects of nitrosamines and morbidity and
mortality near pesticide formulating plants; the study of major disease patterns in
relation to pesticide usage; rapid screening of pesticides for potential mutagenic
and/or carcinogenic effects on man; dietary influence on the occurrence of PCB's and
chlorinated hydrocarbons in mothers' milk; and occupational  and residential exposure
to arsenic.

     The third program area is special studies under this program, for example, rapid response
studies are performed on RPAR chemicals of high interest; a study is being conducted of
workers exposed to cadmium, and data is being collected on populations exposed to
ethylene dibromide and dibromochloropropane.
                                                                            P-19

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     The fourth area is farm worker reentry.   The Agency conducts studies •
relating to farm worker safety and protection, where emphasis is placed on
defining the risks associated with field reentry and developing methods for
monitoring populations exposed in such situations.  Included in 1978 activities
are studies on the permeability of protective clothing to pesticides and on
nitrosamine decomposition, a study to measure the concentration and toxicity
of pesticide residues on foliage, and screening studies for rautagencity.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $1,227,000 from the budaet estimate reflects the reprogramming of resources
to the pesticides product registration for increased efforts on the generic registration/
reregistration and rebuttable presumption against registration (RPAR) programs.

1979 Plan

     In 1979, 19 positions and $3,355,200 are requested.   Contract support of approximately
$3.1 million will be used for epidemiologic studies for the rebuttable presumption and
registration programs.  The work conducted during 1979 will be essentially an extention
of the 1978 program.  Ihe epidemiologic studies will provide human health effects data
and will continue to assist in the analyses and interpretation of data with regard to
human health effects, exposure, and pesticide incidents.

RESIDUE PROFILES

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977 $873,000 was expended for contracts and included the collection and analysis
of air, water, soil, human, and estuarine samples to determine the levels and trends
of pesticide residues.  During 1977, ambient pesticide monitoring continued for human
adipose tissue, urban soil, surface water and sediment, and estuarine and ocean
finfish.  Chemcial analyses of soil samples were provided in support of the rebuttable
presumption process.  A blood serum and urine survey, part of the Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey II initiated in cooperation with the National Center for Health
Statistics of the U.S. Public Health Service in 1976, was in full operation.   This and
other cooperative programs, surface water and sediment, estuarine and ocean, represent
significant savings to the'Agency, since samples are provided without cost by the
cooperating agency.

     Activities undertaken were in the following areas: National Pesticide Monitoring
Plan— initiated development of this plan, a coodinated approach to pesticides
monitoring required by Section 20(b) of FIFRA; Human Adipose Monitoring—  1,600 adipose
samples collected at 75 sampling  locations; Urban Soil Monitoring— completed  planning and field
sampling of four standard metropolitan statistical areas  and chemical analyses
for 11 chemical residues; Air Studies— 60 samples analyzed from five cities;
Water Monitoring— analyses completed on 900 surface water and bottom sediment samples
from 153 sampling stations and a one-time repeat sampling study (85 estuaries) was
performed, which indicated a drastic reduction in DDT levels in estuarine mollusks;
Blood Serum and Urine Monitoring-- 5,000 samples analyzed; Dioxin Monitoring— Extracted
and processed approximately 600 samples.  Special projects undertaken in 1977 included
the investigation of mirex concentrations in the immediate vicinity of the mirex
formulating plant, Aberdeen, Mississippi, and provision of technical assistance on the
PC8 situation in Michigan.
 P-20

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     Human and environmental monitoring data were extensively used in the ongoing
chlordane/heptachlor cancellation hearings.  A special study was conducted which
assisted a State in determining the aquatic transport of a herbicide used to control
multi-flora rose in river drainage basins.  Another study explored human exposure to
mirex as used in the imported fire ant control program in the southeastern United States;
the results of this study, which indicated that approximately 25 percent of the population
of treated areas had measurable residues, were used in the settlement reached for the
regulation of mirex usage.  Monitoring reports, including data interpretation and
analyses, were prepared on all activities for use in the rebuttable presumption against
registration (RPAR) and reregistration processes.

     The initiative for an environmental monitoring signaling system was undertaken in
1977 which will be completed by the end of the first quarter of 1978.  Continued
attention is being given to reformatting and managing data so that it may be more readily
available in usable form.

1978 Program

      In 1978, 40 positions and $1,413,100 are allocated to the program; $200,000 will
be used for contracts.  The program will concentrate heavily on the development of methods
to more readily detect pesticide residues in order to be more responsive to programmatic
needs.  In addition, ongoing work from 1977 will continue.  This includes participation in
the Health and Nutrition Survey II; ambient residue monitoring activities on human adipose
tissue, blood serum and urine, agricultural and urban soils, surface water and bottom
sediment; limited surburban air monitoring studies at five sites directed at pesticides
of high regulatory interest; and a small survey of pesticide residues found in soils
and associated crops from human food cropland areas of Florida and California.  Operation
of the Interagency Pesticide Monitoring Council of the National Pesticide Monitoring Plan
is scheduled to begin.  This Council will be responsible for coordination and -review of
Federal, State, and local government pesticide monitoring activities.  Special studies of
an immediate responsive nature will also be undertaken.
     •
1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $275,900 from the budget estimate results from the transfer to the
pesticides product registration, for increased efforts on the generic registration/reregistration
and'rebuttable presumption against registration (RPAR) programs.

1979 Plan

     In 1979, 24 positions and $1,219,000 are requested, of which $700,000 will be used for
residue profile analyses contracts.  The National Pesticide Monitoring Plan will continue to be
implemented.  One thousand urine and blood  serum samples will be analyzed for the Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey II and limited health effects data will be collected.
Crop and agricultural soil samples will be.analyzed from 460 sites.  Chemical methods for
human tissue will be developed and special studies will continue to be undertaken as
required.

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS

1977 Accomplishments

     The program was focused  on the collection of pesticide episode reports for the
Pesticide Incident Monitoring System and investigation as feasible.  Reports are prepared
on a voluntary basis by State, Federal, and private sector personnel with coordination
through regional  offices.  Some 3,000 episode reports were collected during 1977 including
689 suspected pesticide poisonings and 2,893 laboratory analyses were conducted.
                                                                             P-21

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Better accident Investigation information networks were sought through an initial
agreement with the Consumer Product Safety Commission to provide data on pesticide
poisonings treated in hospital emergency rooms.   Individual  episode reports were
consolidated into special  reports on chemicals,  uses, etc.,  for support of
registration, rebuttable presumptions, and other pesticides  activities.   A manual for
the clinical recognition and treatment of pesticide poisonings has been written and
distributed.  In addition, 16 field presentations of a pesticide protection seminar
have been made with attendance by over 800 persons representing medicine, nursing,
public health,  emergency  medical technology, and agricultural disciplines.

1978 Program

     In 1978, 14 regional  positions and $345,600 are programmed.  Major objectives
are to complete the National Study of Hospital-Admitted Pesticide Poisonings; to
complete the agreement with the Consumer Product Safety Commission and begin receiving
poisoning reports from hospital emergency rooms; to provide responses to a projected total
of 40 pesticide incidents;  and to report on 3,000 incidents for storage and processing of
data on pesticide poisonings.  The Pesticide Protection Seminar will be prepared in kit
form consisting of slides/tapes and printed material for field use and at least one
per State made available through regional offices.

     During the in-depth review of programs and  resource requirements for 1979, it was
decided that regional participation in this program should cease and the resources
reprogrammed to higher priority programs.  Therefore, phase-out will commence in 1978.
States and other reporting agencies will be encouraged to continue forwarding reports
which will be entered into the data system.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     An increase of $30,400 over the budget estimate results from a transfer in the
regional offices from pesticide market sample analysis ($4,000) and pesticides program
cooperation and aid ($26,400) to support increased personnel  costs.

1979 flan

     There is no 1979 program for accident investigations as a distinct program element
due to more pressing resource needs in other pesticide areas.  However, highly critical
activities will continue as part of the epidemiologic studies program.

MARKET SAMPLE ANALYSIS

1977 Accomplishments

     The program is conducted by four pesticide  analysis laboratories located in New York,
Mississippi, Colorado, and California.  Pesticide product samples are analyzed by the
laboratories to determine if the products contain the active ingredients in the amounts
claimed on the  labels, and if the product contains adulterating chemicals including
pesticides not claimed on the label.  A total of 4,650 samples was analyzed during
1977.

1978 Program

     In 1978, 28 positions and $627,800 are available.  The  pesticide product sample
analysis program will remain at approximately the 1977 level.
 P-22

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1978 Explanation of Changes from the Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $4,000 from the budget estimate results from regional  office
reprogrammings to  pesticides  accident investigations to support increased  personnel
costs.

1979 Plan

     Market sample analysis will be reduced to nine positions and $419,000 in 1979.
Outputs are expected to remain at about the same level  as 1978, however, with the use
of contract laboratories for the more routine analyses.
                                                                                   P-23

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                                           PESTICIDES

                                      Abatement and Control

                                Federal  and State Program Support
                                         Budget
                              Actual     Estimate
                               1977       1978
                        Current
                        Estimate
                          1978
                          Estimate
                            1979
                                                     (dollars In thousands)
                         Increase +
                         Decrease -
                         1979 vs 1978
Appropriation
Information Services	
Program Cooperation and
  Aid	
$2,384
7,125
$1 ,982
6,595
$903
4,269
$1 ,822
3,373
-(•$919
-896
       Total.
9,509
8,577
5,172
5,195
+23
Permanent Positions
Information Services....
Program Cooperation and
  Aid	
67
103
65
121 "
43
'92
60
'50
+17
-42
       Total.
  170
  186
  135
  110
-25
Budget Request
     An appropriation of $5,195,000 and 110 positions is requested in 1979, an increase of
$22,900 and a decrease of 25 positions.  This decrease reflects the need for less
technical assistance to the States in tfie applicator certification and training program.

Program Oescri pti on

     EPA is committed to ensuring that State and local governments assume a large
responsibility for pesticide control programs.  To this end the Agency, through
its regional offices, has been working with States in the implementation of
cooperative Federal/State programs especially those involving the certification
and training of applicators to apply restricted use pesticides.  The Agency believes
that this will not only result in better control of pesticides and fewer accidents,
but will also be more cost effective and responsive to local need.  The States are
now extensively implementing certification programs and the Agency is consequently
beginning to monitor the programs and assist in their implementation.  The States,
with EPA guidance, will also begin planning for recertification and modifications to
existing programs as indicated by field experience and changing technology.

     The Agency also provides information to the public on activities associated
with pesticides registration and conducts activities directed at educating the
public on safe use practices.  In accord with Section 4(c) of the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, instructional materials on pest management
practices, especially integrated pest management techniques, have been distributed
to the public.  Federal Register activities and responses to inquires under the
Freedom of Information Act are included in this activity.  In addition, significant
levels of programmatic information support services are essential for the
registration, reregistrati on, and rebuttable presumption process to operate and
are provided by maintenance of company data search and retrieval capability, literature
searches, bibliographic services and maintaining the  Index to Pesticide Chemicals
site/pest files.  Not only is such  information support required for daily operational
needs of the Agency but significant systems upgrading and validation of extensive,
historical pesticide files are required.
  P-24

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INFORMATION SERVICES

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, $910,000 was obligated for contracts for data support.  The information
services function supports (1) the internal/regulatory program of EPA (registration,
tolerances, monitoring, etc.), (2) information sharing between the Agency and other
Federal, State, and local agencies, and (3) information dissemination under the
Freedom of Information Act and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act (Section 3c2) to public groups and individuals.  This function provides collection,
storage, retrievals, publication, dissemination, and systems services for information
required by and generated from the regulatory process.  Major efforts in 1977 were
directed to the continued maintenance, microfilming, and computerization of the data
submitted by registration applications, known as company data; preparation and
maintenance of the indexes to the company data in a Company Date Catalog; restructuring
the format of the compendium of registered pesticides so a contract may be let in
1978 to provide Agency users with a more inclusive index of pesticide chemicals and
use patterns including methods of application, limitations and restrictions;
maintaining information about the site of application and the pest to be controlled
by registered pesticides in a Site/Pest File; developing scientifically accurate,
hieratically  structured site and pest thesauri; providing to the user community (FDA
inspectors, USDA Extension Agents, etc.) a Tolerance Index of tolerances cross-referenced
by chemical and commodity; providing technical literature searches, including hard copy
retrievals, translations of foreign articles, abstracting services, and bibliographic
preparation of pesticide literature; preparing and publishing notices in the Federal
Register, providing common  management services for all rebuttable presumptions:reviewing
daily issues for notices having an'impact on pesticide programs, and responding to
requests made under the Freedom of Information Act.  Available computerized pesticide
information was disseminated to the regions and State agencies on microfiche.

1978 Program

     In 1978, 43 positions and $903,000 are available.  The support programs will
be continued with substantially greater effort being made to increase the reliable
data bases needed for registration, reregistrati on, generic standards, and
rebuttable presumptions.  The computerized tracking system already used to maintain
information on the status of products in the registration and reregistrati on
processes will be modified and improved to expand its capabilities.  A tracking system
to maintain information on the status of chemicals in review will be developed and
implemented.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $1,079,300 from the budget estimate reflects the reprogramming
of resources to pesticides product registration to support increased efforts on
the generic registration/reregistrati on process.

1979 Plan

     In 1979, 60 positions and $1,822,000 are requested.  Contract support of
$422,000 will permit an increase in information support to the rebuttable presumption
process, generic standards building, product registration, and maintenance of the
Index to Pesticide Chemicals.  The functions currently performed will continue but
at higher levels in the area of Federal Register activity and much greater effort
will also be expended on Freedom of Information Act requests.  Pesticides activities
receive approximately 65 percent of the Agency's  Freedom of Information Act inquiries.
                                                                               P-25

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PROGRAM COOPERATION AND AID

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, extramural funds amounted to $4,859,000 for State programs to assist
in establishing applicator certification programs for commercial and private
applicators.  At the end of 1977, 50 States had legislation in place which was
considered adequate to implement Section 4 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act — certification of applicators.  There were 18 States with
fully approved plans and 24 States with plans approved on a contingency basis
pending the meeting of some specified criteria such as promulgation of regulations.
The State Cooperative Extension Services, using EPA budgeted funds, had provided
initial training to 86 percent of commercial applicators and 61 percent of private
applicators.

     The program to certify applicators in States without approved State certification
plans was initiated for three regions.  Examinations for all commercial applicator
categories and the necessary regulations were developed with final publication of
the regulations scheduled for early 1978.

     To expedite the certification process, regulations were developed and
published which classified for restricted or general use products containing 23 active
ingredients.  Products classified by these regulations will later be called in and
subjected to the full reregistration.  An interagency agreement with the Council on
Environmental Quality was put in final form in 1977 to allow for future, independent
evaluation of the value of the certification and training program.

     The authority to allow all Federal agencies who have pest management
programs to develop plans for certification of their employees was granted in a
Federal Register notice which established the necessary procedures.  EPA provided
assistance to several Federal agencies in the development of plans.  A review
of the Department of Defense plan has already been published.  Final approval is
expected to be granted in early 1978.  Since States have no authority to regulate
pesticide use on Federal Indian reservations, a program was instituted to allow
Indian tribes to develop certification programs.  To assist the Agency in this
activity, a contract was let with Americans for Indian Opportunity, a private
organization active in Indian affairs.

     A rapid system of communications with Agency regional offices, States,
and outside organizations was established to support all pesticide programs.  Under
a contract with the General Services Administration, all EPA headquarters pesticide
mailing lists were consolidated and computerized.  This allowed for the development of
mailing lists for specified audiences.  Also, a listing by State of all pesticide
products registered to meet special local needs pursuant to interim Section 24(c) plans
was compiled.

     The regions, in addition to certification and training support, were active to
varying degrees in a number of other areas:  assistance to manufacturers on registration
requirements, review with States of Section 24(c) special local needs registrations
and Section 18 exemptions, monitoring Section 5 experimental use permits, training
fire departments to handle pesticide fires and spills, and assisting clinics with
the treatment of pesticide poisonings.  The regional offices also conducted pesticide
accident investigations resulting in improved data on pesticide accidents and misuse
which will in turn be used to support registration decisions and label changes.  The
regional pesticide officials worked with their counterparts in the water programs to
improve pesticide use practices around water.
  P-26

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-------
1978 Program

     In 1978, 92 positions and $4,269,100 are available.  Of this amount, $2,200,000
of extramural funds will be provided to the States for support of certification and
training.  Initial certification and training will be underway in 1978 and the Agency
will begin to evaluate the programs.  Plans for recertifi cation and retraining will
begin with changes made based on experience and changing technology.  EPA will be
assisting States in this area as well as administering Federal certification programs
in States without State certification plans.  In addition to the already submitted
Department of Defense plan to certify its employees, it is expected that several other
Federal agencies will be working cooperatively with EPA to develop plans.

     Guidance and assistance will be provided through regional offices for States in
the review of State registrations for special local needs under Section 24(c),
emergency exemptions under Section 18, and monitoring Section 5 experimental use permits.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimates

     The decrease of $2,325,600 from the budget estimate reflects the reprogramming
of $1,063,700 to pesticides product registration and $1,234,400 to pesticides criteria
and standards to support the increased efforts on the generic registration/reregistration
process.  In addition, the regional offices reprogrammed $26,400 to pesticides accident
investigations and $1,100 to other media to support increased personnel costs.

1979 Plan

     In 1979, 50 positions and $3,373,00 are requested, of which $2,000,000 is for
extramural funds for State applicator certification programs and to support Federal
certification programs.  The decrease of positions is due to lessened State technical
assistance requirements.  Minimal Federal involvement will be maintained in the
dissemination of integrated pest management information and in overview of the existing
certification program, and certification for Indian reservations and Federal
agencies and States which may lack their own certification programs.  The regions will
provide assistance to manufacturers on registration requirements under Section 3 of
the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and.Rodenticide Act; they will provide guidance and
assistance to States and participate with EPA headquarters in the review of State
registrations for special local needs under Section 24(c); and they will assist
States in the submission of Section 18 exemptions when special emergency conditions
exist within States.
                                                                                 P-27

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                                           PESTICIDES

                                           Enforcement


                                         Budget        Current                     Increase +
                              Actual     Estimate       Estimate      Estimate      Decrease -
                               1977       1978           1978          1979        1979 vs 1978
                                                     (dollars in thousands)


Appropriation

Pesticides Enforcement	  $5,089      $10,768        $10,172       $12,363      +$2,191

Permanent Positions

Pesticides Enforcement	     146          185            182           143          -39

Budget Request

     A total of $12,363,100 and 143 positions is requested for the FY 1979 pesticides
enforcement program.  This request includes an increase in grants-in-aid for the
Federal/State cooperative pesticides  enforcement grant program and a decrease of
39 pesticides enforcement positions.   The additional  funding requested for pesticides
enforcement in FY 1979 reflects an expansion of Federal/State cooperative enforcement
activities; the decrease in positions reflects a lessened demand for Federal activity
resulting from increased State activity under the grant program.
     The EPA pesticides enforcement program is directed toward achieving compliance
with the various standards and regulations in force for pesticide registrants,
producers, and users.  The program is administered pursuant to the Federal  Insecticide
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended, and emphasizes compliance on the part of
the pesticide industry with registration, classification, and labeling requirements,
and compliance by the users and applicators of pesticides in observing proper label
directions for use.  As a result of active efforts to involve the States in pesticides
enforcement activities, the program is conducted increasingly by cooperating State
agencies.  The overall program includes the registration of pesticide producing
establishments; sampling and label checks of pesticides at the production site and
in the marketplace; observation of pesticide applications; and, when violations are
found, initiation of enforcement actions including civil actions, criminal  prosecutions,
seizures, stop sales, and injunctive actions.  This program covers the approximately
7,000 firms involved in the production of pesticides sold and distributed in the U.S.
and millions of persons using those pesticides.

     State agency cooperation in pesticides enforcement efforts has become the
primary feature of the program.  Enforcement agreements are developed pursuant
to the authority of Section 23(a)(l.) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act, as amended.  With State participation, the scope and effectiveness
of the pesticides enforcement program are significantly enhanced.
                                                                                      P-28

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1977 Accomplishments

     During FY 1977, the following accomplishments were realized by EPA:  inspections
of 1,684 pesticide producing establishments; collection of 4,460 samples for chemical
analysis; observation of  1,103  pesticide applications; observation of 313 experimental
use applications; 578 inspections at ports of entry; and 2,415 marketplace inspections.
As a result of these efforts,, the following enforcement actions were taken:  331
civil actions for product/producer/use violations; two criminal prosecutions for use
violations; 40 Section 14 notices of warning for use violations; 579 Section 9
notices of warning for product/producer violations; 40 recalls; 71 import detentions;
and 156 stop sale, use, or removal orders.

     In FY 1977, the Agency developed cooperative enforcement agreements with 30
States, including 17 grants-in-aid.  Under these agreements, States conducted 813
use and reentry inspections and 688 inspections of pesticide producing establishments.
The States collected 2,504 samples.

     Also in FY 1977, $85,400 was obligated for contracts for ADP support, training, and
regional activities.-

     The Agency also published two Pesticide  Enforcement Policy Statements in the
Federal Register setting forth Agency policy for the enforcement of certain
statutory provisions; continued efforts to develop Memoranda of Understanding with
other Federal agencies, leading to increased coordination of enforcement activities
through exchange of enforcement related information; participated in investigations
of incidents of alleged falsification of data submitted in support of product
registration; and published Notices of Judgment, detailing the legal disposition
of those civil and criminal actions instituted under the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, as amended.

1978 Program

     The FY 1978 pesticides enforcement program will be-significantly affected by
the increased emphasis upon the establishment of Federal/State cooperative
enforcement grants.  As in previous years, the pesticides enforcement program will be
directed in general toward the objectives of ensuring user compliance with label
directions for use, and ensuring product and producer compliance with registration,
classification, and labeling requirements of the Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).  Many of the enforcement functions supporting
these objectives, however, will  be conducted primarily by State agencies under the
grant program; approximately 35 States will participate  in the cooperative
enforcement program.  These grants will provide for participation by the States
in all areas of the pesticides enforcement program.  The FY 1978 planned resource
level for this program is $10,172,500 and 182 positions, of which S5 million will
be used to fund States grants.  Additionally, contract funds in the amount of
3588,000 will be used for evaluation studies of Federal/State FIFRA enforcement,
specialized training for Federal and State pesticides enforcement personnel,  AOP
support, and preparation and revision of manuals.

     Federal pesticides enforcement activities will be limited to those States not
participating in the grant program  and to  those States having  programs which do  not
adequately address certain  enforcement concerns. User  compliance activities will
include  1,050 use  and experimental  use inspections.  Product and producer  compliance  activities
will  includeabout 900 inspections, 1,500  marketplace inspections, and 400 port inspections.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $595,500 from the budget estimate reflects transfers to
the noise enforcement activity ($139,400) and to the water quality enforcement activity
($456,100) for increased contract support and personnel costs.
   P-29

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1979 Plan

     In FY 1979, the expansion of the role of the States in the pesticides enforcement
program will continue; plans are to include the participation of all or nearly  all  States  and
Territories through the grant program.  This development is consonant with anticipated
legislative changes which envision significantly enhanced responsibilities on the
part of the States in pesticides enforcement activities.

     The FY 1979 budget for this activity is $12,363,100 and 143 positions; these
figures represent an increase of $2,190.600 and a decrease of 39 positions.  Of the
total budget, about $9 million is designated for grant funding.  Contract funds
will be approximately the same as in FY 1978, with ADP support and
specialized training for pesticides enforcement personnel being important items.

     Grant funds will be available to initiate or maintain comprehensive pesticides
enforcement programs in all the States and Territories.  State activities will  include
use, reentry, and experimental use inspections, establishment inspections and
marketplace inspections, and data validation efforts.  As a consequence of this enhanced
State role in the overall program, the Federal role will increasingly become one of
program management, oversight, and training.  In States without grants, and in  States
having programs which do not adequately address certain enforcement concerns, Federal
enforcement activities will continue.   Some Federal resources previously directed
toward various pesticides enforcement efforts will become available for utilization
in other program areas, primarily the toxic substances enforcement program.  The reduction
in the pesticides enforcement program of 39 positions is reflective of this trend.
                                                                                 P-30

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                                          PESTICIDES

                                  Research and Development
                              Actual
                               1977
Appropri ati on
Health and Ecological
  Effects..	   $10,406
Industrial Processes	
       Budget
      Estimate
        1978
       Current
      Estimate
        1978
      Estimate
        1979
        Increase +
        Decrease -
      1979 vs.  1978
                                                    (dollars in thousands)
     Total	

Permanent Positions
Health and Ecological
  Effects	
Industrial Processes. ,
.10,406
*
10,406
$10,798
*
10,798
$10,873
1,200
12,073
$10,798
1,200
11,998
-$75
-75
Page
                                                      P-32
                                                      P-40
155
 *
156
 *
158
158
     Total,
155
156
158
158
* These figures are included in the section on industrial processes in the interdisciplinary
media.  The program description and an explanation of the change appears in the industrial
processes section of this media.
     This program is conducted to support the Agency's pesticides regulatory activities,
including the development of data required to support administrative reviews and
litigation.  Such data are required not only on the major classes of pesticides now
registered by EPA and in common use, but on chemicals considered as possible substitutes
for cancelled compounds.  In addition, research is carried out to obtain data which will
permit evaluations of the safety of the "new generation" pest control agents such as insect
viruses, sterility agents, and insect hormones.  Research is also undertaken to develop
means of pest management which can economically and acceptably reduce the quantity of
pesticides applied and thus their introduction into the environment.
                                                                                P-31

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                                           PESTICIDES

                                    Research and Development

                                  Health and Ecological  Effects
Appropriation
Health Effects	
Ecological Effects...
Substitute Chemicals.
     Total-.
Permanent Positions
Health Effects	
Ecological Effects...
Substitute Chemicals.
     Total.
                                            Budget     Current                 Increase +•
                                Actual     Estimate    Estimate    Estimate    Decrease -
                                 1977        1978        1978        1979     1979 vs. 1978
                                                      (dollars in thousands)
$6,351
1,780
2,275
$5,738
2,560
2,500
35,775
2,598
2,500
$5,738
2,560
2,500
-$37
-38
10,406
   155
10,798
   156
10,873
10,798
   158
   158
-75
75
52
28
71
50
35
71
52
35
71
"52
35
• • •
• • *

Budget Request

     In FY 1979, $10,798,000 and 158 positions are requested for this program, representing
a reduction of $75,000 from the FY 1978 level.

Program Description

     This program includes the development of information on the health and ecological
effects of pesticides and development of long term pesticide research strategy.  Major
areas of ongoing research include (1) determination of human health effects; (2) development
of pesticide residue analytical methods; (3) development of model ecosyste'ms;
(4) determination of ecological effects; and (5) development of information on substitute
pesticides or chemicals as alternatives for those pesticides under litigation or review
as potentially detrimental and for those for which registrations are not being renewed.

     Research programs investigating the health effects of pesticides result in information
used extensively by the Agency in its regulatory decision-making.  In addition to the Agency's
need to document the environmental impact of exposures to persistent pesticides, considerable
attention is focused on the potential health hazards associated with the use of pesticides
in agricultural situations.  A number of accomplishments in these areas of research have
provided a sound basis for the Agency's administrative decisions on the regulation of
pesticides.
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     The program includes the evaluation for safety of pesticides considered as
substitutes for compounds whose registrations are not being reviewed; the development
and validation of new toxicological and analytical methods; and the provision of
technical support to the Office of Pesticide Programs, the enforcement program, and
the regional offices, in the form of pesticide research expertise for use in
administrative decision-making pertinent to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).

     Pesticide research supported under F1FRA is also utilized by other segments of
the Agency interested in regulating under different legislative authorities.  For
example, results from the program are used to support toxic effluent standards,
issuance of permits, and water quality criteria for fresh, estuarine, and coastal
waters under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (P.L. 92-500).  Data developed
by the pesticides research program are also used in support of pending regulations
under the Safe Drinking Water Act (P.L. 93-523).

     The ecological effects research program consists of two parts:  the study of the
ecological effects of pesticides in general, and determination of the ecological effects
of specific candidate substitute pesticide chemicals.  These programs provide information
to aid the Agency in the reregi strati on. of pest control agents and in the formulation
policies involving the registration process.  The general ecological effects portion of
the program deals with the determination of fate, transport, and the effects of pesticides
and substitute chemicals in ecosystems.  As part of this work, the program develops,
validates, and utilizes suitable methods and techniques to assess the ecological effects
of pesticides and substitute chemicals.  The substitute chemical portion of the program
deals with the determination of the adequacy, suitability, and availability-of substitute
pesticides or chemicals to act as replacements for other pesticides considered problematic
by the Agency.

     The Research and Development appropriation includes resources of $2,500,000 and 35
positions allocated to the Office of Pesticide  Programs (OPP) in support of the
substitute chemical program.  The OPP portion appears as & separate section
within this media.  The research and development portion of the substitute chemicals
program is part of the health and ecological effects descriptions below.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, $1,270,015 was spent for contracts, $1,389,785 for grants, and $57,764 for
interagency agreements.  These figures include funds for substitute chemicals research.
Significant accomplishments are detailed below:

     -  Delayed neurotoxicity was demonstrated in hens following daily oral
        administration of leptophos at low doses (below levels producing
        event neurotoxicity).  A dose/response relationship was defined for
        this and other compounds under the provisions of rebuttable
        presumption against reregistration.

     -  An experiment was completed in which the offspring of mothers treated
        with polychlorinated biphenyls were observed to develop tumors and
        to have reduced survival rates compared to control animals.
                                                                                P-33

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     -  Preliminary evidence indicated that there are no cytopathic effects
        of a particular insect virus on mammalian cells in culture.  It was
        found, however, that the virus can adsorb to the cells, perhaps
        even penetrate the cell, and cannot be removed by available techniques.

     -  An extensive study was completed on the use of Drosophilia milanogaster
        (fruit fly) in a sex-linked recessive test for mutagenic effect of
        chemicals.   Thirty pesticides and four reference mutagens were examined.
        Some problems were encountered with pesticidal compounds proving lethal
        to the test animals.  However, of the 15 pesticides which could be
        tested at adequate concentrations, four (Captan, Folpet, Bromacil, and
        Simazine) were found to be weak mutagens and one (cacodlyic acid) was
        questionable.

1978 Program

     The 1978 resource level for health effects research is $5,775,500 and 71 positions,
including $1,750,000 and 12 positions for substitute chemicals.  In 1978, $1,211,000 will
be spent for contracts, $796,000 for grants, and $75,000 for interagency agreements.

     In the 1978 health effects pesticides research program, the improvement of quality
control for analytical techniques continues to be an important goal.  At the same time,
projects are underway to develop and refine techniques for detecting new generation and
other pesticide agents and their metabolites in mammalian tissues, soil, sediment,
biological samples, and ambient air.

     Investigations are being conducted in the use of laboratory animals and selected
in vitro mammalian cell cultures in providing research information on the toxicological
effects of high priority pesticides and substitute chemicals administered at various
exposure levels and durations.  This is a continuing feature of the program, with the
specific compounds for study selected on the basis of their pdtential for concern.
Major types of compounds now under consideration are the currently and commonly used
pesticides, including garden pesticides and new generation pesticides, and those
substitute chemicals being considered as replacements for banned pesticides.  In the
health research program, inhalation toxicology studies are investigating the exposure
of animals to pesticides as gases, vapors, or particulates.  Inhalation has been
determined to be an important route of exposure to pesticides.  Further, in addition
to conducting toxicologic and metabolic studies, tests are carried out to reveal the
carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and reproductive effects of pesticidal compounds.
Thus, a variety of tests for possible health effects are conducted on each pesticidal
agent.  When a substitute chemical is tested, results are analyzed and compared to
the agent that it is to replace.

     The health effects program also conducts human studies, such as those based on
clinical investigations of pesticide poisoning cases.  In'the field, health status
surveys of agricultural workers are under way and human exposures from handling
pesticides are evaluated.  At the same time research is under way to improve available
field methods of measuring pesticide exposure for use in setting field reentry
standards.  Field trials are assessing techniques for measuring exposure, as well as
ways of minimizing exposure such as through the use of protective clothing and
decontamination of spills.
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1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $37,500 over the budget estimate results from a congressional
add-on for authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 resource level for health effects research will be $5,738,000 and 71
positions, including $1,750,000 and 12 positions for substitute chemicals.  Approximately
$1,136,000 will be spent for contracts, $800,000 for grants, and $75,000 for interagency
agreements.

     The 1979 health effects research program includes the activities described below:

     -  Development of analytical methodology for pesticides and their metabolites
        in human and animal samples will continue to be important in the health
        effects program.  Improvement of quality control work will continue and
        will include the isolation, identification, chemical characterization, and
        confirmation of pesticide compounds in environmental samples.  In addition,
        the methods development portion of the program will cover new generation
        pesticides as well as those agents and their metabolites which are already
        commonly used.

     -  The major-portion of the program will continue to be devoted to discerning
        potential health hazards from exposure to pesticides, including hazards
        associated with their metabolites.  Commonly used agents, such as EPA-300
        and the garden pesticide compounds carbaryl and methomyl, will continue
        to be subjects of study, as will new generation pesticides and substitute
        chemicals such as dinitrobutylphenol.  High priority will be given to
        those compounds of concern to the Office of Pesticide Programs.  This will
        be especially true for compounds such as merphos, .dimethoate, and rotenone
        under review in the rebuttable presumption against reregistrati on (RPAR)
        process.  Studies will also continue on fungicides such as maneb and polyram.

     -  In addition to the tests previously noted as being currently used,
        investigations will continue to include projects on acute and subchronic
        toxicity, including delayed neurotoxicity.  These data will be available
        for use in registration decisions.  Where sufficient data are available
        for selected compounds, -attempts will be made to develop biological and
        mathematical models for predicting human health effects.  The models will
        contribute to the improvement of techniques for detecting deleterious
        effects.

     -  The studies being conducted under field conditions will be continued.
        Results of these studies will yield information on human exposures,
        provide data for human safety assessment under actual environmental
        conditions, and will be compiled for use with the laboratory results.
                                                                             P-35

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ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, $3,000 was spent for contracts and $299,519 for grants.   These figures
include funds for substitute chemicals.

     Techniques were developed to detect the effects of pollutants on  sensitive
life-stages of marine fish and invertebrates.

     -  Useful information on the pesticide Kepone was obtained,  including
        ecological, physical, and chemical  data for modeling purposes  which
        will allow for the estimation of routes and rates of movement
        through the aquatic environment, and estimation of the concentration
        in ecological entities within the system; and information on
        concentrations in biological samples suitable for use by  the Food and
        Drug Administration in establishing or modifying its action levels in
        fish, shellfish, and wildlife.  It  was observed through a series of
        food chain studies using microcosms and through toxicity  studies,
        that Kepone is highly stable and does not degrade, and that Kepone
        is both bioaccumulated and bioconcentrated.  It was also  found,
        however, that under certain conditions, contaminated oysters from
        the James River will purify themselves when placed in water free of
        Kepone contamination.  This finding suggests that James River  oysters
        can be transplanted-to other parts  of the Chesapeake Bay  and the State.
        In addition to this information  developed on Kepone, direct assistance
        was provided to the State of Virginia in running sediment samples and
        in activities relating to quality assurance.

     -  Information was obtained on the  relative importance of pesticides in
        fish food and water.  For example,  the presence of pesticide
        contamination in the food may correspondingly lower the otherwise
        acceptably safe concentration level in water.  Such information is
        highly important to the accuracy of estimate for acceptable levels
        of pesticides in water.

1978 Program

     The 1978 resource level for ecological effects research is $2,597,500 and 52
position's, including $750,000 and three  positions for substitute  chemicals.  Approximately
$365,000 will be spent for grants and $20,000 for interagency agreements.

     As in the health effects program, ecological research deals  with  the commonly
used pesticides and their metabolites, new  generation pesticides, and  substitute
chemicals.  The ecological effects program  is focused at a variety of  trophic
levels; that is, the projects range from investigations of the simplest planktonic
organisms to those on more complex system interactions.  Toxicological studies are
carried out to obtain dose/response functions for various durations of exposure
in samples of single species.  Other projects seek information about the environmental
importance of various species.  Investigations are being conducted on  the potential
effects on populations  within a species and on the groups of such populations.  At
the most complex level, the studies investigate how pesticides can affect entire
ecosystems; that is, how pollutant stress can alter the structure and  dynamic,
functional interrelationships among the  ecosystem's many components.
     P-36

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     As in the health program, the ecology program develops and refines experimental
methods and tools.  In the laboratory, for example, efforts are under way to improve
a technique whereby natural estuarine water flows into an experimental system which
allows small organisms to settle out and grow in size and numbers.  Effects of various
compounds on these groups of organisms can be examined without lengthy manual sample
collections.  Further, the microcosm is being refined as a major research tool which
simulates actual ecosystems or segments in the laboratory where exposure conditions
can be carefully controlled.  Two examples of the uses of microcosms are the
predictive estimation of the movement and transformation of an agent through an
ecosystem and the study of predator/prey relationships.   Information on predator/prey
relationships is important to the body of information on the effects of any given
compound.  For example, if a compound adversely affects an organism's nervous system,
the organism's ability to escape predation may be impaired.  This could have
implications not only to the existence of that particular species, but to community
structure as well.  Such information is sought in this work.  Other projects under
way include tests of lethality and sublethality, such as growth and development.
This also includes investigations to determine the life stages of representative
organisms which are most sensitive to various compounds.  Investigations of the
effects of pesticides on. reproduction and viability of the young are being carried
out, as are investigations of potential behavioral effects.  Validation of laboratory
results in natural environments, including samples of animals taken from their
natural habitats, is being carried out.  Field studies are important not only for
validation, but can yield valuable information about processes and effects which
might not be searched for in the laboratory.   Thus both field and laboratory
studies are being conducted simultaneously.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $37,500 results from a congressional add-on for authorized positions.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 resources for ecological effects research will be $2,560,000 and 52
positions, including $750,000 and three positions for substitute chemicals.  Approximately
$365,000 will be spent for grants.

     The 1979 research program will be similar to the current program, with
particular compounds investigated varying as each series of studies is completed,
and in conjunction with the information needs of the Agency's regulatory and
enforcement offices.  Studies on Kepone will  have been completed, and this
compound will be used only-insofar as it is a representative compound for which
available modeling of "effects" data can be applied to predictions or estimates
needed for other compounds.

     That portion of the program aimed at improving experimental techniques will
continue to be significant.   In addition to improving the capabilities and
applications of microcosms, field validation efforts will be sustained.  This is
true as well for research which seeks to modify and enhance methods and procedures
for bioassays.  This is an example of a particular area where the results will be
useful to EPA, not only in conjunction with its mission under the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, but also to EPA's responsibilities in toxic substances
and water pollution abatement and control.
                                                                         P-37

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     Projects will be undertaken to determine the toxic effects of pesticides on
selected, representative organisms, and on communities.  At the ecosystem level,
parameters to be examined include toxic effects on species diversity, and ecosystem
productivity.  Other investigations will center around the effects of viruses and
carcinogens on a pesticide stressed ecosystem.

     Projects will also be initiated on pesticide exposure levels and concentrations
which produce sublethal effects; for example, interference with an organism's ability
to find prey or, conversely, to escape predation.  Another series of projects will
deal with microbial degradation in the environment.  Such information will contribute
to an understanding of pesticide transformation after introduction into an ecosystem.
This program will continue to include modelling.  This involves development of
laboratory and mathematical simulations whose ultimate purpose is to predict pesticide
behavior in marine and estuarine environments, and the effects which it or its
metabolites may exert.   Marine and estuarine studies on the fate and effects of
synthetic organic compounds in aquatic ecosystems will investigate the effects of
selected pesticides on planktonic organisms.  Studies will be carried out to determine
acute and chronic effects of organic and inorganic compounds to establish "no effect"
levels and dose/response relationships on estuarine organisms under unstressed
conditions.

     Research on pesticide microbial interactions in the estuarine environment
will determine pesticide effects on microbial activity and determine pesticide
breakdown rates and residual products.  Research is also under way on the occurrence
of carcinogens, teratogens, and mutagens in the marine environment.  The effects of
selected pesticides and related compounds on the inhibition of ATP-ase, an important
enzyme in living organisms, are being studied as well.  In addition, work is
continuing to refine terrestrial microcosms to evaluate ecological effects of
substitute pesticide chemicals on terrestrial flora and fauna.

     Some examples of specific series of projects to be undertaken are highlighted
as follows.  The bioaccumulation of selected pesticides, combination thereof will
be determined, along with their acute and chronic toxicity in both fresh water and
estuarine organisms.  Effects of biocides on natural estuarine communities will be
investigated, as will behavioral responses to pesticides of estuarine fish and
shellfish.  Projects will be undertaken to determine the physical/chemical fate of
pesticides in estuarine ecosystems.

     A report is anticipated on the fate and effects of the substitute chemical
Guthion on brackish wetlands.  A report is also expected to be available on the fate
of several substitute chemicals tested in a microcosm.  In addition, data collection
and analysis will be completed vhich will permit derivation of a preliminary model
of the fate of compounds in a microcosm.

SUBSTITUTE CHEMICALS

1977 Accomplishments

     The 1977 resources include SI,700,000 in contracts and interagency agreements.
1977 accomplishments include:

     -  Toxicological and environmental studies to evaluate potential alternatives
        to rebuttable presumptions against registration (RPAR) chemicals including:
        trefluralin, methomyl, monocrotophos, dasanit, fenthion, propoxur, dyfonate,
        ethoprop, ethion, dicamba, dinoseb, aspon, chloropyrifos, thiram, chlorothalonil,
        endosulfan, carbophenothion, ferban, BTC-2125M, monitor, CDEC, chlorophorpham,
        barban, and difenzoquat.
    P-38

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     -  Benefit analyses on RPAR chemicals and possible alternative pesticides.
1978 Program
     The 1978 resource level for the substitute chemical program is $2,500,000
and 35 positions.   This includes approximately $1,700,000 in contracts and
interagency agreements.  FY 1978 commitments include:
     -  Development of comparative data concerning "no effect" concentration
        on RPAR chemicals and alternatives on aquatic organisms.
     -  Determination and comparative analysis of transport, fate, and exposure
        data for RPAR chemicals and alternatives.
     -  Expansion and updating of computerized state recommendation file and
        site/pest matrix for analysis of RPAR chemicals and recommended
        alternative uses.
     -  Analysis of nonagricultural uses of RPAR chemicals and evaluation of
        non-RPAR chemicals as alternatives.
     -  Development of use pattern compilations for each of the alternative
        chemicals and current RPAR chemicals.
     -  Continuation of extensive benefit analyses on RPAR chemicals and
        alternatives.
     -  Continuation of hazard evaluations of alternatives to RPAR chemicals.
1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate
     There is no change from the budget estimate.
1979 Plan
     The 1979 resource level for the substitute chemical program is $2,500,000
and 35 positions.   These resources include approximately $1,700,000 in contracts
and interagency agreements.  The 1979 program will be similar to the 1978 program
and will include:
     -  Continuation of work to incorporate comprehensive benefit analysis of
        the RPAR chemical and alternatives into the RPAR procedure.
     -  Maintenance and expansion of data sources .for continued development
        of site/pest matrix and use" analysis of RPAR chemicals and alternatives.
     -  Performance of selected toxicological and environmental studies to
        provide data needed to evaluate possible alternatives to RPAR chemicals.
     -  Development of models for socioeconomic data and cost/benefit analysis
        methodology, and correlation of models with hazard evaluation.
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                                           PESTICIDES

                                    Research and Development

                            Industrial Processes/Renewable Resources
                                         Budget        Current                      Increase +
                              Actual    Estimate       Estimate      Estimate       Decrease -
                               1977       1978           1978          1979        1979 vs. 1978
                                                 (do!1ars in thousands!
Appropriation
Renewable Resources.

Permanent Positions
Renewable Resources.
$1,200
$1,200
   * These figures are included in the section on industrial processes in the interdisciplinary
     media.

Budget Request

     In 1979, $1,200,000 is requested for the renewable resources program, the same as
the 1978 resource level.  This is an extramural research program administered with less
than 1 work year of effort by staff allocated to other pesticide research programs.
A separate program element was established for this program subsequent to preparation
of the 1978 budget estimates.  Hence, this figure as well  as the 1977 actual •
expenditures are shown under the former category in the interdisciplinary medi'a.

Program Description

     The pesticides/renewable resources subprogram encompasses the development and
demonstration qf integrated pest management strategies based upon sound biological,
ecological, environmental, and economic information.  Combinations of nonchemical
and chemical controls will be optimized to reduce the usage and runoff of chemical
pesticides.

     The integrated pest management research program supports Section 20(a) of the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).  The research
objective is to reduce dependence upon chemical pesticides as the sole means of
pest control and provide economically acceptable control options for agricultural
and urban pests.  Such options should be equal in efficacy to current methods
and be able to be implemented with reasonable ease.  The program is designed
to couple ecological, biological, and economic information with economically
acceptable practices to keep the insect or plant pest populations at levels
that do not cause economic hardship to the farm     producer.  The program is
coordinated with U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).


     The technical program structure is based primarily upon study of
individual crop ecosystems.  Each crop has its own special set of cultural
needs and its own unique pest management problems.  Crops of major acreage and
pesticide need receive the major research effort.  Crops now under study
are cotton, citrus, alfalfa, soybeans, stone and pome fruits (primarily apple),
pine, and corn.  Some insect/multicrop interactions have also been studied in
this program.
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     The strategy of research is similar for all crops.  Major insect pests are
identified for intensive study.  For each crop, insect population dynamics, and
biological and ecological influences are carefully determined and their interactions
with the plant community are identified.  The effects of natural  field control
mechanisms such as predators, temperature, moisture, diseases, and similar controls
are identified and studied.   The research information is incorporated into mathematical
models so that control tactics and control strategies may be developed for a range
of situations in each crop system.

     In addition to the crop ecosystem studies, individual control techniques with
potential to control specific insect pests receive limited research attention.  The
use of insect growth regulators (IGR's) such as juvenile hormones or phermones to
control specific development or life functions of a particular target pest is now
being studied.

     The use of pesticides within and around homes and urban work places is of
continuing concern as inexperienced and unknowledgeable people are in close
proximity to potentially hazardous pesticide compounds.  Therefore, an urban integrated
pest management program has been structured to investigate possible alternative
controls for pests found in and around the home.  Improved sanitation coupled with
trapping and the use of predator insects is the present program emphasis.  Information
is also being gathered on the pesticide use practices and the social attitudes regarding
pests and pest management in urban situations.

     Close working relationships are maintained by the EPA program staff with the
researchers and in turn with the agricultural experiment stations, Extension
Service agents, and fanners who ultimately implement the research findings.
Integrated pest management strategies have been successfully demonstrated in a
number of .field studies arising from the EPA sponsored research.               ,

     The distribution of research findings and technology transfer are necessary
steps in the research program.  In addition to publication in the scientific and
popular literature, seminars and workshops are sponsored to meet these needs.  In
a pilot program in one State, farmers may phone their county Extension Service
agents to obtain computer based, up-to-date recommendations for pest control for
their specific location.

1977 Accompli shments

     The FY 1977 resource level for this program element included $650,700 for grants
and $753,200 for interagency agreements.

     A study was completed to ascertain whether normal populations of insects would
develop resistance to juvenile hormone mimics and other insect growth regulators
in the same way that insects have developed resistance to the conventional insecticides.
The investigation showed that when juvenile hormone mimics are applied in successive
generations to representative insect species, the surviving insects will have
developed resistance to them.  In many cases, however, these populations have
become handicapped by a reduction in reproductive success, and occasionally the
experimental treatment results in greater susceptibility.

     Final report drafts have been received on a major study of soil arthropods
infesting corn.  Cutworms, white grubs, and nematodes were the subject of a
4-year study by over TOO researchers in a 5-5tate program.  The data collected filled
voids in our previous knowledge.  Comprehensive literature reviews were undertaken,
and research was conducted on the morphology, host ranges, life history, behavior,
responses to cultural practices, and responses to edaphic factors.  Life mortality
tables were constructed for the insects.  Economic thresholds of damage, control
practices, and mathematical models to develop pest management strategies were
developed.  The use of this information will result in economically and more
acceptable means of controlling pests.
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1978 Program

     Resources devoted to the pesticides renewable resources Industry subactivlty
in FY 1978 are planned to be $1,200,000.  The program will continue to be wholly
extramural.  Resources include $575,000 for grants and $625,000 for interagency
agreements.

     No major programmatic changes are anticipated from the 1977 research effort
delineated in the program description above.  Research on pest plants will be
included because the impact of long term herbicide use is largely unexplored.
Research on Insect pests will continue.  Transition from a six crop ecosystem
study program, via an interagency agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF),
to a four crop (cotton, soybean, alfalfa, and apple) ecosystem program, via an
interagency agreement with USDA and NSF, will be initiated.  Another ecosystem,
corn, will be continued on a separate- grant.  Work on transfer of research results
into user acceptable formats will also be initiated as final research results become
available.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The $1,200,000 increase over the budget estimate is the result of a transfer
from the interdisciplinary, industrial processes account.

1979 Plan
     The 1979 program will expend $1,200,000 on extramural research, including
$500,000 for grants and $700,000 for interagency agreements.  There will be no
in-house research program and the overall activity will continue the general
approach of previous years.  However, there will continue "to be changes in the
balance of the technical content to meet the changing needs of the Agency.  For
example, more emphasis will be given to urban pest management problems and the
information dissemination approach may possibly be switched from seminars to film presentations,
which can be more widely disseminated.

     The existing interagency agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF)
will be terminated as ongoing projects on the majority of the crop ecosystems are
completed.  A new interagency agreement between EPA, NSF, and USDA will be
established with USDA as the lead administrative agency, replacing NSF, to
continue support of the four major crop systems (cotton, soybean, alfalfa, and apple).
This work is essentially the follow-on research to convert the huge amount of
information already obtained into farm practice form and to continue the research
into related and new areas.  Whereas the previous work dealt with insects, the
new program is planned to include pest plant controls as well.  This more
holistic approach is a closer reflection of the actual farm management problems
faced by the farm operator.  The corn ecosystem research grant will be continued.

     Integrated pest management (IPM) programs will be developed in areas of
pest plant control with the objective of reducing dependence upon herbicides.
This is a largely unexplored area, yet it is estimated that a very large proportion
of the pesticides used are herbicides and long term dependence on these chemicals
necessitates close examination.  The effort in urban IPM control alternatives will
be strengthened.  Research results can directly assist the urban dweller.
Technology transfer of completed research findings will be accomplished through
workshops, preparation of instructional materials based upon research data, and
distribution of technical information through regional offices and State and Federal
extension services.
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 PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
 Abatement and Control:
   Appropri ation........
   Permanent Positions..
 Research and Development:
   Appropriation	
   Permanent Positions	
 Total, Radiation Program:
   Appropriation	
   Permanent Positions	
   Outlays		
   Authorization Levels...
                                   Actual
                                    1977
$5,320
   179
   839
    31
 6,159
   210
 5,861
                                            RADIATION
          Budget
         Estimate
           1978
$4,815
   164
   830
    30
 5,645
   214
 5,930
          Current
         Estimate
           1978
         Estimate
           1979
           Increase +
           Decrease -
          1979 vs.  1978
                                                        (dollars in thousands;
$4,864
   184
   830
    30
 5,694
   214
 5,900
   830*
$10,408
    191
    930
     26
 11,338
    217
  5,900
+$5,544
     +7
   +100
     -4
 +5,644
     +3
                                    * Authorization is by virtue of the Appropriation Act.

                                   ** Amount shown is included within the Environmental
                                      Research, Development, and Demonstration Authorization
                                      Act of 1978; remaining funds are by virtue of the
                                      Appropriation Act.
 OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY
      Individual exposures to ionizing radiation result principally from naturally-occurring
 sources, some of which have been enhanced through man's intervention in mining and
 manufacturing processes;  from  medical applications of radiation and radioactive materials;
 and from a variety of sources in the environment and the work place.  The current annual
 estimates pf serious health effects-cancers and serious genetic defects-from natural,
 medical  and occupational exposures are about 12,000, 8,000, and 100, respectively.
 These estimates are based on assumptions which reflect radiation as a nonthreshold
 pollutant for which the effect, is linear with exposure.

      The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency is to eliminate or reduce unnecessary
 potential health effects by limiting exposure from radiation sources.  This goal will be
 attained through programs of environmental monitoring, risk assessment and, as necessary,
 establishing standards, criteria and guidance to minimize risk in a cost-effective manner.

      Most of the potential health effects from natural exposures result from unavoidable
 radiation and radioactive materials in air, water, foods,and land.  However, an estimated
 100 to 500 possible health effects per year resulting from exposures to naturally-occurring
 radioactive materials due to Industrial processes can be avoided through various control
 measures.  Improved medical practices in the use of x-rays could avoid an additional 3,000
 health effects each year and at a reported significant savings in the cost of medical
. care.
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     Although the potential health impact from the existing nuclear sector, including
nuclear power generation, is low, any  significant growth in nuclear activities could
greatly increase this problem.   EPA promulgated the uranium fuel cycle standard in 1977
to assure protection of the public against radiation doses and to limit the burden of
long-lived radioactive materials that may accumulate as a result of the fuel cycle
operations including fuel reprocessing, but not including waste disposal.  Implementation
of the standard by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will result in a significant
reduction of the potential health impact of long-lived materials to the environment.
EPA is currently making an assessment and developing an amendment to the standard which
will control releases of carbon-14, another long-term radioactive material of worldwide
interest.

     The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 confer major new responsibilities on EPA's
radiation program and represent major new authorities for minimizing risk from
potentially hazardous radiation exposures.  Airborne radioactive pollutants, if
determined to endanger the public health, will be controlled under the provisions of the
Act. Such a determination must be made by August 1979.  Other principal authorities of
the radiation program are those from the Atomic Energy Act (tranferred to EPA under
Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970) to establish generally applicable environmental
standards and to establish guidelines for radiation protection within the Federal
establishment.  The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Marine Protection Research
and Sanctuaries Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking
Water Act, the Public Health'Service Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act
also contain authorities applicable to the radiation program.  These authorities
define a standard-setting, environmental assessment, and technology assessment role for
EPA.

     In 1979, EPA will be involved in a major effort mandated by the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1977 (CAAA) to study the levels and effects of radioactive emissions to
determine whether they should be controlled.  Studies will concentrate on sources of
natural radioactivity and Department of Energy facilities (both of which are currently
unregulated), as well as activities licensed by the NRC.  In addition to CAAA mandates,
emphasis will be given to the environmental problems surrounding the management of
various classes of radioactive wastes.  Other significant activities are directed
toward development of guidance for ambient levels of nonionlzing radiation and for
the control of several environmental problems involving natural radioactivity.

     The radiation research and development program is limited to the area of nom'onizing
radiation.  Although no detrimental effects have yet been observed in the general
population exposed to nonionizing radiation from environmental sources, TV, radio, and
radar, EPA research has observed demonstrable effects from chronic, low-level exposure
in  laboratory studies.  Further, these emerging data are beginning to confirm results
reported internationally, particularly by investigators in the U.S.S.R.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES                            (in thousands of dollars)

1978 Radiation Program	                        $5,694

     Abatement and Control..'.	                        -t-5,544

        The increase of $5,544,000 is requested in
        order to fulfill the requirements of the
        Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  The
        Amendments significantly expand the re-
        sponsibilities of the radiation program
        by including airborne radioactive pollutants
        specifically as pollutants to be controlled
        under the provisions of the Clean Air Act,
        if it is determined that they endanger the
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         public health.  Such a determination must
         be made by August 1979.  The increase will
         be used to conduct studies to determine
         the sources, levels, and pathways of radio-
         active emissions as well as methods of
         controlling emissions and health effects
         evaluations.

     Research and Development	                    +100

         The increase in funds is to cover the costs
         of converting a portion of the program to
         extramural research.

1979 Radiation Program	                  11,338

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     1.  Summary of Budget Request

         In 1979, a total of $11,337,600 is requested.  This request, by appropriation
account, is as follows:

            Abatement and Control	             $10,407,600
            Research and Development	                 930,000

         This represents an increase of $5,643,400 from the 1978 radiation program
which will provide primarily for the increased studies required by the Clean Air Act.

     2-.  Changes from Original 1978 Budget Estimate

         Changes from the original budget are as follows:


                                                        (in thousands of dollars)

            Original 1978 estimate	                  $5,645
            Regional reprogramming	                      +5
            Reprogram from other headquarters
              activities	                     +44

            Current 1978 estimate	                   5,694

     A net regional reprogramming of $4,800 was made in order to meet increased costs
of personnel; a similar reprogramming was made in the headquarters office in the amount
of $44,400.

ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                         Current
                                                        Estimate          Estimate
                                                          1978              1979
                                                          (in thousand of dol1ars)

     Prior year obligations	       $6,159            $6,138
     Change in amount of carryover funds available.         +129              -444
     Change in budget authority	         -150
     Program increase requested	       __iii.            +5.600
     Total estimated obligations	        6,138            11,294
       (From new obligation authority)	       (5.565)          (11,165)
       (From prior year funds)...	         (573)             (129)

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EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

     Carryover funds available for obligation after FY  1977  results  in  an increase
of $129,000 in 1978; in 1979, obligations are expected  to  be $129,000 from carry-
over funds, resulting in a decrease of $444,000.

     A  decrease of budget authority in 1978 from the 1977 level  is  expected  to  cause
a decrease in obligations of $150,000.

     The 1979 requested increase of budget authority to carry  out certain requirements
of the Clean Air Act is expected to increase obligations in  1979  by  $5.6 million.
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                                              RADIATION

                                        Abatement  and  Control
                                Actual
                                .  1_977__

 Appropriation
 Radiation Criteria,  Standards,
   and  Guidelines	  $1,303
 Environmental  Impact
   Assessment	
        Total.
 Permanent  Positions
 Radiation  Criteria, Standards,
   and Guidelines	
 Environmental  Impact
   Assessment	
        Total.
179
       Budget
      Estimate
        1976
       Current
      Estimate
        1978
      Estimate
        1979
        Increase +
        Decrease -
      1979 vs.  1978
                  (dollars in thousands)
$1,303
4,017
5,320
$1 ,229
3,586
4,815
$1 ,363
3,501
4,864
$3,103
7,305
10,408
+$1,740
+3,804
+5,544
40
139
51
133
55
129
64
127
+9
-2
184
184
191
+7
        Page



        R-7

        R-ll
     The radiation program's abatement  and  control  activities  concentrate  primarily  on
establishment of specific criteria  and  standards  for  environmental  radiation  and  development
of Federal guidance which forms  the basis for  all  Federal  radiation protection  programs.
Complementing the criteria and standards-setting  effort, EPA conducts  programs  of surveillance
and monitoring to determine levels  of environmental radiation;  reviews federally  supported or
licensed projects which are sources tjf  environmental  radiation; and provides  technical
assistance to other government agencies.

     EPA accepts as a prudent public health assumption  the concept  that any radiation exposure
may result in some adverse health effects.  While some  public  exposure to  radiation  is
inevitable, no avoidable risk due to radiation exposure should  be permitted to  occur to
individuals, the population at large, or the environment without the existence  of adequate
offsetting benefits.

     The principal objective of  the radiation  abatement and control  program is  to eliminate
unnecessary potential health effects by minimizing  population  exposure to  radiation  sources.
This goal will be attained by environmental monitoring, risk assessments and, as  necessary,
by establishing standards, criteria and guidance  to minimize risk in a cost-effective manner.

     Previously, emphasis in the radiation  program  has  been given to implementing the
authority, transferred from the Atomic  Energy  commission under  Reorganization Plan No. 3
of 1970, to establish generally applicable  environmental standards  for the protection of
the general environment from radiation  and  radioactive  materials and to establish Federal
radiation protection guidance for Federal activities.   EPA has  no radiation enforcement
authorities under the Atomic Energy Act and depends on  the Nuclear  Regulatory Commission
for the implementation of its standards through enforcement of compatible  regulations.
However, EPA does maintain an overview  to insure  that its  standards and guides  are followed.

     The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 have significantly expanded  EPA's radiation
responsibilities by requiring control of airborne radioactive  pollutants should they be
determined to endanger public health.   The Administrator is required to make such a  deter-
mination by August 1979.  Should an  affirmative decision be made, the  Agency must simultaneously
decide the appropriate regulatory pathway to follow under  the  Clean Air Act.  Authority provided
by the Clean Air Act includes the establishment of  (1)  National Ambient Air Quality  Standards,
(2) New Source Performance Standards, and (3)  National  Emission Standards  for Hazardous Air
Pollutants.  The Act also requires  that a study be  conducted of the health and  welfare effects
of radioactive pollutants.
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     Other authorities which mandate EPA radiation activities are contained in the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act, the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, the Safe
Drinking Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Public Health Service Act,
and the National Environmental Policy Act.   These legislative authorities define the standard-
setting, environmental assessment and technology assessment activities carried out under this
appropriation.

     The abatement and control activities are grouped under the following subactivities:

     Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines—Activities in this subactivity are related
to the development of environmental  standards and Federal  radiation guidelines for protection
of the public health and the environment from radiation exposures from nuclear energy
applications, naturally-occurring radioactive materials, medical and occupational radiation
and nonionizing radiation.

     Environmental Impact Assessment—Environmental impact assessment activities relate to the
collection of information and the evaluation of public health and environmental impact from
both ionizing and nonionizing radiation sources.  Technical information is gathered from
monitoring the ambient environment as well  as through special field studies to determine levels
of radiation and present and potential population and environmental exposures.  This technical
information provides a base of knowledge from which substantive reviews of environmental
impact statements are performed and from which decisions are made related to setting required
standards, guidelines or general criteria.   The monitoring activity also aids in determining
conformance with EPA standards.  State radiation control programs are supported through the
provision of consultation services,  laboratory analysis and assistance on specific problems.
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                                            RADIATION

                                      Abatement and Control

                          Radiation Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines
                                     Budget
                           Actual   Estimate
                            1977      1978
                   Current                 Increase +
                   Estimate    Estimate    Decrease -
                     1978        1979    1979 vs.  1978
                  (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
Environmental Standards
Federal Radiation
  Guidelines	
$587
716
$625
604
$655
708
$2,497
606
+$1,842
-102
     Total.
1,303
Permanent Positions
Environmental Standards
Federal Radiation
  Guidelines	
     Total.
   40
1,229
   51
1,363
   55
3,103
   64
+1,740
20
20
25
26
27
28
44
20
+17
-8
    +9
Budget Request

     The resources requested for this budget subactivity are $3,103,000 and 64
positions.  This reflects an increase of $1,740,200 over the.FY 1978 level for
activities associated with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  A study of
the health and welfare effects of radiation will be conducted, as mandated by
the Amendments, and strategies will be developed to determine the appropriate
regulatory method for controlling airborne radioactive pollutants under the
Clean Air Act.  A listing will be made, in August 1979, of those radioactive
pollutants for which standards wVII be promulgated under this Act.

Program Description

     Environmental standards and Federal guidelines are developed and promulgated
under this subactivity.  These standards and  guidelines protect the public health
and the environment by minimizing risk from radiation exposures from nuclear energy
applications, naturally-occurring radioactive materials, medical and occupational
radiation and nonionizing radiation.

     The radiation control problems associated with nuclear power generation are
broader than those associated with emissions from nuclear power facilities.  The
uranium fuel cycle includes uranium milling, conversion enrichment, fuel fabrication,
fuel reprocessing, waste disposal, and transportation of radioactive materials. All
of these activities have potential problems that require evaluation and control.
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     Naturally-occurring radionuclides may be released to the environment from
many industries which mine and process raw material's containing significant
concentrations of uranium, thorium, and their daughter products.  This includes
industries such as phosphate, rare earth, and several other mining industries.
When the ore is mined, separated, and processed into commercial products and
when the commercial products are distributed and used, individuals and large
populations can be subjected to exposures from naturally.occurrlng radioactive
components.

     The use of radiation by the medical profession is recognized as the
largest manmade component of radiation dose to the U.S. population.  The main
contributor to the total dose from medical exposures is diagnostic x-rays,
accounting for at least 90 percent of the total manmade radiation dose and
35 percent of the total radiation dose from all sources.  The objective of
EPA's program is to reduce the doses being received without jeopardizing
diagnostic effectiveness.

     Currently available data indicate that in the U.S. there are approximately
one million persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.  The emphasis
of the EPA occupational radiati'on program is to review and update the occupational
Radiation Protection Guides issued by the former Federal Radiation Council.

     Electromagnetic radiation frequencies below 10   Hertz (i.e., cycles per
second) are commonly called nonionizing radiation.  The nonionizing part of the
electromagnetic spectrum includes ultraviolet, visible and infrared light,
radiofrequencies, and electric power distribution frequencies at 50 to 60 Hertz.
Prolonged exposures to nonionizing radiation may affect health, including thermal
damage to sensitive organs and the formation of cataracts.  Sources include lasers,
radars, radio and television broadcast stations, industrial heating equipment,
microwave ovens, communications satellites, mobile communications systems,
navigational aids, and medical diathermy devices.

     Environmental Standards,—Priority for environmental standards is given to
controlling ambient levels of radiation resulting from emissions from activities
in the uranium fuel cycle and to establishing standards for allowable levels of
radioactivity in drinking water.  Within the uranium fuel cycle, emphasis is
placed on establishing standards for disposal of various classes of radioactive
wastes and for controlling carbon-14 releases.  Strategies are being developed
to determine the appropriate regulatory method for controlling airborne
radioactive pollutants under the Clean Air Act.

     Federal Radiation Guidelines—The development and publication of basic
radiation protection policy and guidelines to be followed by other Federal
agencies are covered in this activity.  The present emphasis is on control of
medical and occupational exposures in Federal facilities, transuranium
contaminated land criteria, and accident related Protective Action Guides,
The emphasis will be broadened to include control of emissions from sources
of naturally-occurring radiation.
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ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

1977 Accomplishments

     Resources for 1977 included in-house expenses only.  The generally
applicable standard for facilities in the uranium fuel cycle was promulgated
in the Federal Register.  The major effort during 1977 was the initial
development of environmental standards for the disposal of high level
radioactive waste.  This included developmental efforts for an impact
assessment analyzing the operations preceding disposal, such as solidification
and transport; investigation of the feasibility of implementing a potential
standard; and an environmental impact statement.

1978 Program

     The current estimate for this program element is $655,100 and 27 positions.
In 1978, EPA is broadening the impact of the uranium fuel cycle standard by
proposing standards for the control of carbon-14 from the uranium fuel cycle.
An assessment is being made of the need to include radon and uranium in the
drinking water standards.  An environmental standard for the disposal of high
level radioactive waste will be proposed.  The Clean Air Act'Amendments of
1977 require that a determination be made by August 1979 of the need to regulate
airborne radioactive pollutants.  Evaluation of health effects will begin in
order to provide information necessary to make the determination.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $30,100 over the budget estimate results from a reprogramming
with the radiation program at headquarters to support increased efforts required
to begin evaluations under the Clean Air Act Amendments.

1979 Plan

     Resources in this activity for FY 1979 are $2,497,000 and 44 positions.
This represents an increase of $1,841,900 and 17 positions because of Clean
Air Act Amendment  activities.  The amendment to the uranium fuel cycle standard
for carbon-14 will be promulgated.  The drinking water standards will be amended,
if necessary, to include radon and uranium.  Studies relating to the determination
of the need to regulate airborne radioactive pollutants, required by the Clean
Air Act Amendments, will be completed.  A listing will be made, in August 1979,
of those radioactive pollutants for which standards will be promulgated under the
Clean Air Act.  An environmental standard for the disposal of high level radioactive
waste will be promulgated.  This standard will be used by the Department of Energy
in its efforts to establish a waste disposal site by 1985.
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FEDERAL RADIATION GUIDELINES

1977 Accomplishtnents

     1977 resources included $59,200 in contract support for statistical data on
U.S. occupational exposures to radiation and for an assessment of population risk
to radiation exposure in buildings.  Recommendations were proposed for guidelines
on radiation protection in the use of x-rays for diagnostic purposes by Federal
agencies.  The guidelines promote the elimination of unnecessary radiation
exposure to patients.  Two public workshops were conducted to support development
of environmental criteria for disposal of radioactive wastes.  Development of
draft guidance for plutonium contamination in soil was completed.

     As a result of concerns for passenger safety aboard high altitude commercial
aircraft which may intersect the path of a radioactive cloud, EPA began to-develop
guidance to the Federal Aviation Administration for radioactivity contamination
limits for commercial aircraft.  These concerns arose after the 1976 Chinese
nuclear detonations.  An interim set of limits was issued during the year.

1973 Program .

     The current estimate for this program element is $707,700 and 28 positions.
EPA will promulgate jointly with the Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
recommendations for guidelines on radiation protection in the use of diagnostic
x-rays.  Recommendations for Federal guidelines will be promulgated for cleanup,
restoration and occupancy of land areas contaminated by plutonium.  Environmental
criteria for disposal of all classes of radioactive wastes will be proposed.  The
criteria will address what constitutes radioactive waste; the need and requirements
for conducting risk assessments; and other considerations for environmental
protection such as operational controls, retrievability, monitoring, and transfer
of information to succeeding generations.  Guidance to the Federal Aviation
Administration for radioactivity contamination limits for commercial aircraft
will be issued.

     Protective Action Guides (PAG) will be proposed for airborne releases.  PAG's
are levels of projected exposure above which corrective actions are recommended to
be taken during nuclear incidents.  .

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $103,700 over the budget estimate results from a reprogramming
within the headquarters radiation program in order to support increased efforts
on environmental criteria for radioactive waste management.

1979 Plan

     Resources required for this activity are $606,000 and 20 positions.  This
represents a decrease of $101,700 and eight positions because of a shift of
emphasis from the Federal guidance role to standard setting during this period.
Recommendations for Federal guidelines for protection from radiation exposures
from reclaimed phosphate mined land and for protection from radiation from
construction materials will be proposed.  Studies will be conducted leading to
future guidelines for uranium mill tailings waste.  Protective Action Guides will
be proposed for the ingestion pathway and promulgated for the airborne releases.
Environmental criteria for radioactive waste disposal will be promulgated.
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                                             RADIATION

                                       Abatement and Control

                                  Environmental Impact Assessment
                                  Actual
                                   1977
            Budget
           Estimate
             1978
            Current
           Estimate
             1978
           Estimate
             1979
           Increase +
           Decrease -
         1979 vs.  1978
Appropriation

Federal Activities/
  Environmental Impact
  Statement Assessment..
Monitoring and Analysis.
Technology Assessment...
State Program Support...
                                                            (dollars in thousands)
$451
1,478
1,229
859
$398
1,400
975
813
$557
' 1 ,368
746
830
$538
3,984
1,946
837
-$19
+2,616
+1 ,200
+7
     Tota i	

Permanent Positions

Federal Activities/
  Environmental Impact
  Statement Assessment..
Monitoring and Analysis.
Technology Assessment...
State Program Support...
4,017
3,586
3,501
7,305
+3,804
16
53
41
29
16
58
24
35
21
56
26
26
18
60
26
23
-3
+4
. • .
-3
     Total.
  139
  133
  129
  127
    -2
Budget Request
     The resources requested for this subactivity are $7,304,600 and 127 positions.  This reflects
an increase of $3,803,200 from the FY 1978 level.  The increase is needed to conduct studies con-
tributing to the determination of the need to regulate airborne radioactive pollutants, as required
by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.  Studies will be conducted to determine the sources,
levels, and pathways of airborne radioactive pollutants as well as methods of controlling emissions.

Program Description  •

     The activities in this area provide the information necessary to identify and analyze
potential radiological health problems having public health impact and to support the development
of standards and guidelines.  Review of environmental impact statements, monitoring of environ-
mental radiation and laboratory analysis, data analysis, technology assessment, and State program
support activities are also included.

     Federal Activities/EIS Review ~ EPA reviews environmental impact statement (EIS's) for
nuclear facilities licensed or operated by other Federal agencies.  These reviews assure the
public that other Federal agencies are fully implementing the National Environmental Policy Act
process in their nuclear decision making.  The review process entails pre-EIS liaison on major
Federal EIS's, in-depth review, comment and follow-up.
                                                                                             «
     Monitoring and Analysis -- A monitoring and analysis program is maintained in order to
identify and analyze radiation problems for potential control by standards and guidelines, to
support technical reviews of EIS's, to assess the radiological quality of the environment, and to
provide information on which to base public health protection actions during nuclear incidents.
This is a cooperative program with the States which includes environmental monitoring, laboratory
analysis of environmental samples, development of monitoring and analytical procedures, special
monitoring studies and evaluation of data.  The program will also begin to measure radiation
levels to ensure confonrtance with promulgated standards.

     Technology Assessment ~ To provide a sound technological basis for EIS reviews and a base
of data and information for setting technologically feasible standards and guidelines, assess-
ments of technology in the radiation field are conducted.  The assessments cover technologies
                                                                                          R-11

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such as new types of nuclear power reactors, designs of fuel  reprocessing plants, nonnuclear
energy alternatives, and waste disposal  facilities.

     State Program Support -- States are assisted in the development of their radiation control
programs.  Assistance is provided in conducting field radiological assessments of special problems
and through special laboratory analyses  of air, water, soil,  food, and milk samples.

FEDERAL ACTIVITIES/ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  STATEMENT REVIEW

1977 Accomplishments

     Resources for 1977 included in-house expenses only.  Generic environmental impact statements
(EIS'sU high-level waste solidification  (draft), and offshore power systems were reviewed and
comments provided.  EIS's for advanced nuclear applications,  including the Idaho nuclear engi-
neering lab, the Savannah River plant, the Clinch River liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and
Oak Ridge hydrofacturing (draft), were reviewed and comments  provided.  EIS reviews for light
water reactors were conducted.

1978 Program

     The current estimate for this program element is $557,200 and 21 positions.  The number of
major environmental impact statements (EIS's) expected for review is increasing from the 12-15 of
previous years to 15-25 because of increased Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission
activity in developing advanced nuclear  applications and proposing waste management options.
EIS's on advanced nuclear applications and generic concepts are expected to include safeguards for
mixed oxides reactors, a generic statement for uranium milling, performance criteria for solidi-
fied high level waste, the Los Mendanos, New Mexico, waste site, and standardized nuclear plants.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget  Estimate

     The net increase of $159,200 over the budget estimate results from a reprogramming within
the radiation program ($125,600) and a reprogramming from other media ($44,400) at headquarters
due to the increasing number of reviews  expected in FY 1978.   In addition, the regional offices
reprogrammed $10,800 to other radiation  programs to reflect reassignments of personnel.

1979 Program

     Resources required for this program element are $538,000 and 18 positions, a decrease of
$19,200 and three positions due to internal 'reprogramming to  accomplish Clean Air Act activities.
Environmental impact statements for generic issues and1 advanced nuclear technologies are expected
to address the final generic statement for uranium milling, transportation of radionuclides in
urban .environments, the Kerr-McGee plutonium fuel plant, and  the Westinghouse recycle plant.

MONITORING AND ANALYSIS

1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, $49,300 was spent for contracts for an evaluation of health and environmental effects
of nonionizing radiation from extra high voltage transmission lines and for the repair and modi-
fication of field monitoring equipment.   EPA conducted over 7,000 analyses of air, water, milk,
and borre samples from approximately 150 U.S. locations, collected from monitors in the Environ-
mental Radiation Ambient Monitoring Systems.  The annual Radiological Quality of the Environment
Report which includes ambient trends analyses was prepared.  The report showed that the largest
radiation dose to the U.S. population is from ambient ionizing radiation.  The largest individual
doses are from technologically enhanced natural radiation and medical radiation.  Surveys of
nonionizing radiation levels in major west coast cities were  completed.  Preliminary results,
which will be used to support a decision on the need to regulate nonionizing radiation, show
generally low ambient levels with specific locations having appreciable exposures.  Analyses of
operating data from selected nuclear facilities were performed to provide base-case generic data
and technical information to be used in assessing facility design and monitoring program require-
ments, and in identifying radiological health problems.  These studies characterize radiation
sources and environmental effects as well as validate calculated doses and dose models.  Reports
were completed on radionuclide accumulation in a reactor cooling lake, fuel fabrication plant
surveillance, and the Puget Sound Naval  Shipyard.  Models for air pathway exposure were validated.
    R-12

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1978 Program

     Resources for this program element are $1,367,600 and 56 positions.  The Environmental
Radiation Ambient Monitoring Systems will continue to monitor levels of ionizing radiation in the
environment.  The third annual Radiological Quality of the Environment Report will be published.
Environmental measurements will be reported to determine conformance with the drinking water
standards.  A report on the Quad Cities, Iowa, radioactive studies (radioactive pathways from
boiling water reactors) will be published.  Activities required to make the determination of the
need to regulate airborne radioactive pollutants, required by Clean Air Act Amendments, such as
stack sampling, field measurements, laboratory analysis of emissions, modeling, and pathway
analysis will begin.

1978 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $32,100 from the budget estimate reflects a reprogramming within the radiation
program at headquarters to radiation environmental standards activities.

1979 Plan

     Resources required for this program element are $3,983,600 and 60 positions.  This represents
an increase of $2,616,000 and four positions due to increased monitoring and analysis requirements
associated with Clean Air Act Amendment activities.  The Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring
Systems will operate at the 1978 level.  Field studies will be conducted to collect and analyze
data in support of standards and guidelines.  Studies will be conducted to determine levels of
radiation in construction materials, reclaimed phosphate mined land, and from extract!on industries.
Measurements will be taken around two Department of Energy (DOE) facilities (one with a desert or
semiarid environment and one with a green environment) to ensure compliance with plutonium
guidelines promulgated in 1978.  Various studies related to the determination of the need to
regulate airborne radioactive pollutants will be completed.  This includes studies of emissions
from nuclear power related facilities; DOE facilities; nuclear accelerators; the radiopharmaceutical
industry; and emissions of naturally occurring radionuclides from a variety of mines, mills, and
tailings piles.

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

1977 Accomplishments

     Contracts amounting to $609,500 were negotiated to support the Pacific Ocean waste disposal
site survey, to examine the long term implications of radioactive waste management and  to study
packaging of low level radioactive waste.  Assessments of the West Valley, N.Y., and the Maxey
Flats, Ky.", waste disposal sites were published.  The West Valley report concluded that although
there was contamination  on the site, there were no serious health implications for offsite dose
levels at this time.  However, significant improvements are needed in solidification, container-
ization and methods of trench construction.  Support documentation needed to promulgate environ-
mental protection criteria for radioactive waste disposal was prepared.  A draft analysis of the
cost-effectiveness of carbon-14 controls was prepared.  An evaluation of tritium build-up and
releases at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) was published indicating that uncontrolled
environmental releases could be reduced by 65 percent or more during the 40-year lifetime by
recycling the tritiated liquid within the reactor core, dependent upon meeting occupational
exposure levels and meeting a prescribed generation rate.  To support the development of criteria
and standards for ocean disposal of low level radioactive waste, a series of surveys is being made
of previous disposal sites to obtain a base of information on the performance of containers;
capability of the sediments to absorb released radioactive material; strength, direction, and speed
of the currents; biological activity and pollutant bio^effects; and the extent of radionuclide
contamination in and beyond the dumpsite area.  Two surveys were conducted of the Pacific Ocean
radioactive waste disposal site located near the Farallon Islands.  The surveys were conducted to
implant long term current monitors;' and to examine sea life genetics, bioaccumulation of plutonium
in fish, and food chain transfer.  A container was retrieved for analysis of the effects of pro-
longed exposure to sea water.
                                                                                          R-13

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1978 Program

     Resources for this program element are $746,000 and 26 positions.  Packaging studies for
ocean disposal of low level radioactive waste will be initiated, and a report on previous surveys
will be published.  A survey of the Atlantic Ocean 3800 meter dumpsite will be undertaken to
determine biological abundance, current movement, container corrosion, and geology and geochemistry
at the depth being recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency for ocean disposal of
low level radioactive wastes.  Studies on radiation control technology will begin 1n order to
provide information necessary to make the determination of the need to regulate airborne radio-
active pollutants.  A report on carbon-14 control technology will be issued as part of the
information needed to amend the uranium fuel cycle standard to include control of carbon-14.
Available and future technology for shallow land burial will be assessed and a development plan
for a standard will be completed.  The technical support document for the high level radioactive
waste disposal standard will be completed and published.

1973 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $229,000 from the budget estimate results from a reprogramming within the
radiation program at headquarters to Federal radiation guidelines and environmental impact assess-
ment to support the increased efforts required in those activities.

1979 Plan

     Resources required for this program element are $1,946,000 and 26 positions.  This represents
an increase of $1,200,000 in contracts associated with Clean Air Act activities.  Operating data
from nuclear power plants will be analyzed.  Reports will be published on previous ocean dumping
site surveys.  Options for segregating wastes will be assessed as will the potential character and
volume of wastes.  Studies on radiation control technology in relation to nuclear power related
facilities, Department of Energy facilities, nuclear accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry,
and mines, mills, and tailings piles will be completed, contributing to the decision on the need
to control airborne radioactive pollutants.

STATE PROGRAM SUPPORT

1977 Accomplishment

     Contracts totalling $10,100 were awarded for laboratory analyses.  States were assisted in
tne use of Protective Action Guides and in implementing emergency response plans for nuclear
facilities.  State and regional EPA drinking water program personnel were assisted in implementing
the radiological portion of the drinking water standards.  Technical information was provided and
assistance with laboratory analyses of special samples was given to Federal, State, and local
agencies.

1978 Program

     The current estimate for this program element is $830,600 and 26 positions.  Technical
information and assistance with laboratory analyses of special samples will be given to Federal,
State, and local agencies.  States will be assisted in the use of Protection Action Guides and in
implementing emergency response plans for nuclear facilities.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net  increase of $17,300 results from regional office reprogrammings  ($15,600) and
headquarters adjustments ($1,700) required to support  increased technical assistance requirements
not previously budgeted for.

1979 Plan

     Resources for  this activity are $837,000 and 23 positions, an increase of $6,400 in order to
maintain the  current level of State program support on a contractual basis.  A decrease of three
positions  is due to internal reprogramming to accomplish Clean Air Act activities.  States will be
assisted in  implementing the radiological portion of the drinking water standards and emergency
response plans.  EPA will  be able to respond to an estimated 75 percent of the State requests for
laboratory analysis of special samples, representing a continuation of the present level.  A medium
level of benchside  training will be provided to State  employees, also maintaining the current level.
EPA will provide guidance  to States on implementing radiological assessment programs with national
impact.  The  regional offices will conduct studies of  radiation problems within their locality
having national  impact or  interest.

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                                           RADIATION

                                     Research and Development

                                             Budget     Current               Increase +
                                   Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                    1977      1978       1978       1979     1979 vs. 1978
                                                      (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation
Health Effects.	        $839       $830       $830       $930       +$100

Permanent Positions
Health Effects	          31         30         30         26          -4
     The establishment of guidelines for permissible environmental levels of radiation to
which the public may be exposed is an EPA responsibility.  Reorganization Plan No. 3 of
1970 transferred all functions of the Federal Radiation Council to EPA.  It also transferred
to the Administrator the authority, under provisions of the Public Health Service Act, as
amended in 1970, to conduct research to provide scientific data needed for the formulation
of radiation standards.  In addition, because-of great concern about the potential biological
hazards of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), a multiagency program is coordinated by the
Office of Telecommunications Policy, Department of Commerce, to assess the effects of
nonionizing radiation.  EPA has been assigned the responsibility of conducting research
on health effects associated with EMR frequencies of potential environmental consequences.

Budget Request

     An appropriation of $930,000 and 26 positions is requested for 1979.  This request
represents a shift in a portion of the program from in»bouse to extramural research.

Program Description

     The health effects radiation program was reoriented in FY 1975 to eliminate research
on ionizing radiation.  This reorientation allowed the Agency to capitalize on the extensive
body of knowledge available on ionizing radiation and on information from ongoing programs
of the Department of Energy (DOE> and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission  (NRC).  EPA's limited
laboratory studies on the toxicity of radionulcides, support of epidemiological studies
conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, and research on radiation exposure pathways
were phased out by the end of FY 1976.   Efforts were then fully concentrated on the health
effects of exposure to nonionizing i«adiation which is a relatively new,  complex, and growing
area of concern.  The program of studies in nonionizing radiation focuses on the potential
biologic effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation'as shown through toxicological
investigations, and on the mechanisms of interaction of EMR, including frequency dependence,
with biological and biochemical systems.  This accounts for 15 percent of the total Federal
effort in nonionizing radiation research and the largest intramural effort in the field of
the United States.

     EPA conducts a radiation monitoring and research program at the Las Vegas Laboratory
to support the DOE's operations at its nearby nuclear test site.  Positions for this program
are allocated to EPA and are carried in the Agency's reimbursable account since the Agency
is reimbursed by DOE for their salaries and other expenses; consequently, they do not appear
in the tabular presentation for the radiation research program.  Priorities dictate that the
research component be eliminated and that the staff positions involved be redirected to
higher priority programs.  However, 53 personnel remain to conduct the radiological monitoring
activities in the areas adjacent to the DOE test site.  Details of the FY 1979 program will
be set when the EPA/DOE project agreement, which is negotiated annually, is completed.
                                                                                        R-15

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1977 Accomplishments

     In 1977, $29,700 was spent for contracts,  $33,700 for grants,  and $17,300 for
interagency agreements.   Major accomplishments  of the program included:

     -  Experiments in which rats were exposed  to 2450 MHz, 5-15 mw/cm2 for 15 hours/night
        at various ambient-temperatures and constant humidity showed a synergistic interaction
        resulting in depressed operant behavioral performance.   These results support a theory
        that ambient temperature is a factor which must be accounted for in setting microwave
        exposure standards.

     -  Experiments with isolated radioactive (45 Ca-labelled)  chick brains have shown
        that exposure to an  amplitude modulated (AM) carrier wave (147 MHz) results in
        a loss of calcium from the irradiated brains.  These studies confirmed earlier
        published work on the effects of AM radiation.   Research extended these studies
        to a number of power density levels and resulted in the observation of a power
        density "window." The effect was only  present at a power density of 0.75 mw/cm2
        and was not evident  at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mw/cm2.   These  observations have potential
        implications for standard setting.   If  a presumptive "no effect" level is reached
        in the standard dose effect study,  it may indicate that the researcher may not
        have tried low enough power densities to find the "window."

     -  Experiments in which rats were exposed  in utero postnatally for a period of
        40 days, 4 hours/day, 7 days/week,  to 5 mw/cm2 at 2450  MHz, resulted in
        significant increases In the responses  of peripheral  blood  lymphocytes to
        nitrogen stimulation.  This observation may be indicative of the beneficial
        effect of microwave  exposure in increasing responsiveness of a major line            .
        of immune defense, or may possibly be an early indication of the potential
        leukemogenic response to microwaves.

1978 Program

     The 1978 resource level for health effects research is $830,000 and 30 positions.
Approximately $58,000 will be spent for contracts'and $14,000 for grants.

     Investigations are continuing on the health effects of nonionizing radiation from
environmental sources such as television, radio, and radar transmissions.  Emphasis has
been placed on chronic, low level exposures using low power densities in the range of
5-10 mw/cm2.  The health effects being investigated include:  nuerophysiologic and behavioral
responses to repeatedly exposed low level environmental EMR (microwaves, UHF, FM, diathermy,
L-band radar); chronic low level exposure effects on immune defense mechanisms, teratogenic
and mutagenic effects of radio and radar frequencies; microwave dosimetry in biological
systems; determination of specific absorption frequencies in biological systems; interactions
of amplitude modulated EMR with biological systems; and radio and radar frequency
interactions on biological systems in vitro.

1979 Plan

     In 1979, $930,000 and 26 positions are requested.  The increase in funds is to cover
the cost of converting a portion of the program to extramural research as reflected in the
decrease of positions.  Approximately $75,000 will be spent for contracts and $95,000 for
grants.

     The 1979 plan  is projected at essentially the same level of effort as in 1978.  Of
concern will be health effects of repeated low level exposures, especially for power densities
less than 5 mw/cm2.  Sensitive parameters of effect are teratologic, immunologic, and mutagenic
responses, as well as neurophysiologic and behavioral responses.  Dose absorption,
distribution, and thermographics will be measured and analyzed.  In addition, determinations
will be made as to whether power density "windows" occur for given frequencies, and the
resultant health effects of  such spikes in a range of frequencies will be analyzed.
 R-16

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PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions....

Enforcement:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	

Total, Noise Program:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
  Outlays	
  Authorization Levels...
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY
                                  Actual
                                   1977
       $12,160
            79
           742
            22
                                               NOISE
                    Budget
                   Estimate
                     1978
$9,994
    77
   888
    24
            Current
           Estimate
             1978
            Estimate
              1979
                                                          (dollars in thousands)
$10,040
     78
  1,027
     24
$9,725
    73
   916
    22
        12,902       10,882
           101          101
         7,904       10,300
        14,619          *
 * Authorization by virtue of Appropriation Act.
** Authorization pending.
             11,067
                102
              7,890
                *
              10,641
                  95
               7,880
                 **
           Increase +
           Decrease -
         1979 vs.  1978
-$315
   -5
 -111
   -2
               -426
                 -7
                -10
     Consistent with the policy set forth in the Noise Control Act of 1972, the overall objective
of the noise program is to achieve an environment free from noise which jeopardizes health or
welfare.  Noise is defined in the Environmental Protection Agency Report to. the President and
Congress on Noise as "any sound that may produce an undesired physiological effect in an
individual and that may interfere with the social ends of an individual or group."

     Harmful effects from noise include:

          -  Noise can cause permanent damage to the inner ear, resulting in
             hearing loss that ranges from mild to severe, depending upon the
             level and duration of exposure; other health effects are suspected.

          -  Noise can cause interference with communication and thus disrupt the
             social use of sound and the performance of a variety of tasks.

          -  Noise by intrusion can distrub sleep and thought processes.

     The actual number of people with noise induced hearing loss is unknown, as is incidence of
other health problems possibly caused by noise.  However, noise induced hearing loss is a
recognized problem in the military, in highly mechanized industries, and other high noise
exposure occupational situations.  An estimated 14.7 million American workers are exposed to 8-
hour average sound levels (Leq (8)) above 75 decibels (dB) which pose a possible hazard to hearing.
The impact of high occupational exposure can be added to by high environmental exposure,  for
example, an estimated 13.5 million Americans are exposed to Leq (8) of 75 dB or greater as opera-
tors of or passengers in transportation or recreational vehicles.

     The EPA identified level for protection of the general population with an adequate margin of
safety against activity interference is a "day-night sound level" (Ldn) of 55 dB.  This level
incorporates a penalty of 10 dB for noise occurring during the night.  As outdoor noise levels
increase above Ldn 55 dB they are increasingly likely to interfere with speech communication,
sleep, relaxation, and privacy, and result in community manifestations of annoyance.  An estimated
103 million Americans are exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB or greater; this is virtually half of the
Nation's population.   Some residential  areas have been sampled where the Ldn was 75 dB and
higher.   Thus, in these areas the environmental noise background, without occupational or
other exposures, is probably sufficient to induce hearing loss after many years of exposure.
                                                                                       N-l

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     Without coordinated, Federal, State, and local programs to abate and control noise:

          -  Urban noise levels can be expected to increase roughly in proportion
             to growth in population density.

          -  Airport noise will continue to be a'major source of noise even with the
             short term improvements that will result from the introduction of larger
             numbers of new quieter wide body jets and retrofitting of noise control
             on older jets.  The estimated number of people exposed to noise levels
             of Ldn 65 dB or greater due to aircraft noise will remain essentially
             unchanged in the year 2000 unless further actions are initiated now.

          -  An estimated 60 percent increase will occur in the number of person-hours
             of exposure to construction noise above Ldn 55 dB by the year 2000.

     To combat the existing problem and its tendency to increase, the Noise Control Act of 1972
allows EPA to regulate the noise emissions from new products identified as major sources of noise,
other than aircraft.  Emission standards may also be set for in-use equipment of interstate motor
carriers and in-use equipment and facilities 'of interstate rail carriers (i.e., on equipment
presently in use).  Both noisy products and produ'cts sold to control noise may be regulated to
require labeling and thus aid consumers in product selection.  Such labeling allows use of market
place pressure to obtain quieter products.  Assistance may be provided to State and local govern-
ments in developing programs aimed at achieving ambi_ent noise standards.

     EPA also has the responsibility to coordinate Federal noise related research and control
activities.  Furthermore, the Act allows EPA to designate low noise emission products for pre-
ferential Federal purchase, thus bringing added marketplace pressure to bear on the development
of quieter equipment.

     Other than the mandatory time constrained actions under the Act, EPA's general strategy has
been as follows:

     1.   Give initial high priority to regulation of new products which tend
          to have wide urban impact.

     2.   As the major product sources come under regulation, emphasis is to be
          shifted to improving State and local capability to control noise.  This
          shift is desirable both because of the long turnover time before the
          quieter products replace those in use and because the impact of noise is
          often highly dependent on the in-use situation.  Appropriate State and
          local control can achieve some benefits in the near term, assist in the
          maintenance of new product standards and obviate the need for quieting
          the environment solely by setting high cost product standards.

     3.   Marketplace pressure will be used to quiet appropriate products both through
          labeling  (thus aiding consumer choice) and through the designation of qualifying
          products  for preferential Federal purchase.

     4.   Emphasis will be given to cooperative efforts among the Federal agencies to use
          their grant powers and policies to bring about noise control.  Cooperative efforts
          will also be used to develop and demonstrate new technology and new techniques for
          controlling in-use problems of concern to the agencies and also having application
          to State  and local problems.  Such efforts are viewed by EPA as a particularly
          cost effective way of multiplying the impact of its limited available resources
          and  is efficient in  the use of resident skills among the cooperating agencies.
  N-2

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     Consistent with the above, regulatory actions through FY 1978 and contemplated for FY 1979
will have resulted in the proposal or promulgation of new product emission regulations for the
major components of surface transportation and construction noise.  General regulations and
specific product standards have been established for low noise emission products.  A general
labeling regulation will have been promulgated and a substantial increase in emphasis on the
labeling of household and consumer products will begin in FY 1978.

     The Each Community Helps Others (ECHO) and Quiet Community Program (QCP) will be implemented
in FY 1978.  These programs stress the provisions of technical assistance between existing and
developing State and local programs and self-help with guidance from EPA.  Thus, the major
Federal role is to provide coordination among the many agencies involved in ECHO and guidance
and some technical expertise in the case of the two to three agencies initially participating in
QCP.

     Coordination of Federal noise research and development has been revamped to allow more
meaningful participation by the involved agencies.  It is moving rapidly to the identification
of areas of mutual concerns and recommendations for complimentary efforts.  EPA has now broadened
the coordination effort to include joint study projects aimed at demonstration of methods for
abatement of noise problems relating to occupational, construction, roadbuilding, use of recrea-
tional land, and transportation malls.  These projects should reach the stage of implementation
into Federal policies and procedures as well as technology transfer to State and local agencies
in FY 1979.

     The EPA noise enforcement program is responsible for Federal enforcement of noise standards
and labeling requirements applicable to new products.  The main emphasis of the EPA enforcement
effort in 1979 will be on enforcing the new product noise emission standards for portable air
compressors and medium and heavy duty trucks through production verification and selective enforce-
ment audits.  An EPA Noise Enforcement Facility will provide technical support necessary to the
enforcement of the new product noise emission standards.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES                                   (in thousands of dollars)

     1978 Noise Program	            '    $11,067

       Abatement and Control	                   -315
            This decrease is the result of the near completion
            of Work needed for tire developing of new emission
            regulations for transporation and construction
            noise.

       Enforcement	                   -Ill
            This decrease  will allow for continued enforcement
            of new product standards for medium and heavy duty
            trucks and portable air compressors.


     1979 Noise Program..	                 10,641

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     1.  Summary of Budget Request

         An appropriation of $10,641,600 is requested for FY 1979.  This request, by  appropria-
tion account, is as follows:

           Abatement and Control	            $9,725,200
           Enforcement			               916-.400

         This request represents a decrease of $426,100 from the  1978 level, reflecting near
completion of the development of new emissio   regulations and a  reduction in the area of
compliance standards.
                                                                                         N-3

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      2.   Changes  from Original  1978 Budget Estimate

          Changes  from the  original budget estimate are as follows:

                                                                       (in thousands of dollars)

          Original  1978  estimate	                $10,882
          Reprogrammings	                    +46
          Increased contract  costs	                   +139
          Current  1978 estimate	                  11,067

          A net reprogrammlng of $46,300 was made  in the regional offices in order to provide for
 the increased technical assistance support to States and local communities.

          An increase of $139,400 was  provided from other media for increased contract costs in
 the noise enforcement activity.

 ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND  DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
                                                             Current
                                                            Estimate           Estimate
                                                              1978                1979
                                                              (in thousands of dollars)

      Prior year obligations	         $12,902            $11,315
      Change in amount of carryover
        funds available	          -1,987               -247
      Program changes	            +400               -400
      Total  estimated obligations	          11,315             10,668
        (From new obligation authority)	          (9,353)            (8,953)
        (From prior year funds)	          (1,962)            (1,715)

 EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
      Carryover funds  affecting  obligations  after  1977  result in a decrease of $1,987,000; obliga-
 tions in 1978 from carryover funds  are estimated  to be $1,962,000.   In 1979, obligations from
 carryover funds are expected to be  $1,715,000, a  decrease of $247,000 from the 1978 estimate.

      Changes in new obligation  authority  result in an  increase in 1978 of $400,000; the program
.decrease in 1979 of new obligation  authority will result in a decrease of obligations of $400,000.
  N-4

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                                              NOISE


                                         Budget        Current                      Increase +
                              Actual    Estimate       Estimate      Estimate       Decrease -
                              _1977       1978_         197J3          1979        1979 vs.  1978


PROGRAM LEVELS

Review production                ...         300            300           660      +360
  veri f i cation reports ........

Monitor production
  verification tests .............                         25            25

Monitor Selective Enforcement                 1B~
  Audit tests ....................                         11            21       +10

Conduct  production
  verification tests .............           5              5             5

Conduct Selective Enforcement
  Audit tests ....................           1              11

Inspect manufacturer's
  records ........................         ...             18            18

Propose Enforcement
  regulations .................     7            21           ^       .   ...       -11
                                                ~
Promulgate Enforcement
  regulations ....................                          7           ...        -7

Provide Enforcement Guidance
  re:  State/local Enforcement
  procedures .....................         ...              4           ...        -4

Develop State/local Enforcement
  procedures .....................         ...              2           ...        -2

Conduct site comparison tests.     5         ...             10            10
     I/  Combined number for monitoring production verification and Selective Enforcement
     ~   Audit tests in 1978 Budget Estimate.

     ZJ  Combined number for proposed and promulgated Enforcement regulations in 1978
         Budget Estimate.
                                                                                       N-5

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                                               NOISE

                                       Abatement and Control

                                            Budget       Current
                                Actual     Estimate     Estimate     Estimate
                                 1977        1978         1978__._       1979
                                                        (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
  Environmental Noise
    Strategies and Standards.
  Program Implementation	
$9,811
2,349
$6,994
3,000
$6,971
3,069
$5,749
3,976
-$1,222
+907
       Total	  12,160
Permanent Positions
  Environmental Noise
    Strategies and Standards.
  Program Implementation	
       Total.
79
          9,994
77
         10,040
78
                                              Increase •*•
                                              Decrease -
                                            1979 vs.  1978  Page
                                                         N-8
                                                         N-13
          9,725
73
           -315
44
35
44
33
44
34
36
37
-8
+3
-5
     The Abatement and Control appropriation encompasses program activities related to the develop-
ment of noise control strategies and the implementation of these strategies.  This program is
carried out with.an overall objective of promoting an environment for all Americans free from noise
that jeopardizes their health and welfare.  This objective is being met  through three major program
thrusts as provided for in the Noise Control Act of 1972:  First, by strengthening State and local
noise control efforts through the provision of technical assistance; second, by prdmulgating
emission standards and/or labeling regulations on selected products; and third, "by coordinating
Federal activities relating to noise research, abatement, and control.

     Abatement and control specific activities include identifying major sources of noise and
the subsequent development of new product emission regulations.  These standards-are intended to
protect the public health and welfare through the application of the best available technology,
taking into account the cost of compliance.  Labeling regulations are also set for products which
emit noise capable of adversely affecting the public health and welfare and for which consumer
choice provides a more effective noise control mechanism.  Labeling will also be required for
products which are sold on the basis of their effectiveness in reducing noise.  Technical
assistance is provided to other Federal agencies and to State and local governments for the develop-
ment and implementation of noise control programs.  Assistance is provided in establishing comple-
mentary State/local in-use enforcement activities for noise sources where new product regulations
have been federally established and in developing programs directed at localized problem areas
that are particularly susceptible to State/local actions.

     Technical assistance is also provided in the form of direct guidance to State and local
agencies on how to carry out environmental assessment in order to define noise problems and to
other Federal agencies whose programs and activities have noise control implications.  Noise
abatement and control are characterized under the following subactivities:

Environmental Noise Strategies and Standards

     This subactivity is related to (1) the established of noise emission standards for selected
new  products;  (2) the establishment of noise labeling requirements for new consumer products;
(3) the establishment of regulations requiring labeling for noise protection and control devices;
(4) general investigations into the human health and welfare effect of noise; (5) coordination of
Federal research on noise; and (6) the demonstration of control technologies that are in direct
support of regulations.
                                                                                        N-6

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Program Implementation

     This subactivity involves programs designed to improve the ability of States, local
governments, and other Federal agencies to reduce the level of noise injurious to human health
and welfare.  State and local governments are provided technical assistance to aid them in
identifying noise problems and in the development of regulations and programs to abate these
problems.  Technical assistance and coordination is provided to other Federal agencies to aid them
in dealing with the noise'implications of their activities.
   N-7

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                                               NOISE

                                       Abatement and Control

                           Environmental Noise Strategies and Standards
                                     Budget    Current                 Increase •*•
                           Actual   Estimate   Estimate    Estimate    Decrease -
                            1977      1978       1978        1979    1979 vs. 1978
                                              (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
Regulation of Indoor
  Noise Sources	
Regulation of Outdoor
  Noise Sources	
Regulation of Protective
  and Control Devices...
$1,189
8,499
123
$1,937
4,864
193
$1,937
4,804
230
$1,403
4,296
50
-$534
-508
-180
     Total	

Permanent Positions
Regulation of Indoor
  Noise Sources	
Regulation of Outdoor
  Noise Sources	
Regulation of Protective
  and Control Devices...
9,811
6,994
6,971
5,749
-1,222
10
32
2
12
28
4
13
29
2
10
25
1
-3
-4
-1
     Total.
   44
   44
   44
   36
Budget Request
     The resources requested for this budget subactivity are $7,749,000 and 36
positions.  This reflects a decrease of $1,221,800 and eight positions.  The
decrease is the result of the near completion of work needed for the development
of new emission regulations for transportation and construction noise am) the
labeling of hearing protectors.  It also reflects a shift in program emphasis
away from the preparation of emission regulations and toward the strengthening
of State and local noise programs.  A vigorous program of noise labeling will,
however, continue to be a major part of the overall noise abatement and control
effort.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the setting of noise emission standards for
selected new products which are determined to be major sources of noise; the
establishment of noise emission labeling requirements for new consumer products,
thus allowing the purchaser to make a choice of quieter products; and the
establishment of regulations requiring labeling for noise protection and control
devices showing their effectiveness.  It also includes the development of
regulations for proposal to the Federal Aviation Administration on aircraft and
airport noise.
                                                                                  N-8

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     This work includes background studies required for the development of
overall program strategies and strategies within regulatory categories of
products; studies on the need for specific regulations; investigations necessary
for the preparation of regulations; and their preparation, proposal, and
promulgation.  Also included within this area is general investigation of the
effects of noise and specific control technology, demonstration programs (such as
the quiet truck program) since these activities contribute to the understanding
of costs, benefits, and available control generally associated with the
development of strategies and regulations.  This subactivity is divided into
three major areas: the regulation of indoor noise, the regulation of outdoor
noise, and the regulation of protection and control devices.

Regulation of Indoor Noise

     Generally, noise sources regulated under this program element are of
concern to people within a structure and frequently there is a degree  of
personal voluntary choice associated with the purchase and use of a product.
Most of the products considered for regulation are consumer products.   The
preferred method of regulation being developed is through labeling indicating
the level of noise emission.  Comparison with the noise emission of similar
products provides the consumer with a choice based on personal preference as
to noise.  In this manner, market place forces can generate quieter products
without undue Federal regulation.  Industrial equipment used in indoor work
spaces are also under study for potential future regulation in cooperation
with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the control  of
occupational noise exposures.  Investigation of noise effects and coordination
of Federal research is also conducted under this element.

Regulation of Outdoor Noise

     Generally, noise sources regulated under this program element affect the
outdoor environment and frequently impose an involuntary exposure to noise on
people and other life forms.  Major emphasis has been placed on developing
emission regulations for new products used in surface transportation,  construction
equipment and yard-care equipment using small electrical and gasoline  powered
engines.  The potential benefits of requiring labeling rather than emission
standards for some of these products, particularly where the primary noise impact
is on the user rather than the general  public, is under study.  The development
of data and models used in preparing'Overall program strategies is also
conducted under this element.

Regulation of Protective and Control Devices

     The Noise Control Act establishes  the responsibility of EPA to control
devices sold to reduce noise.  Such devices either specifically control the
noise emission, such as mufflers, or impose a barrier between the noise source
and the recipient, such as ear plugs or building materials.  These products
can be labeled to show their effectiveness in reducing noise.  Emphasis has
thus far been placed on regulating devices sold to protect hearing.
  N-9

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Regulation of Indoor Noise Sources

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately $800,000 in contract support for this
program element.  The work included the major investigations of two indoor noise
sources, vacuum cleaners and air conditioners, for potential regulation.  A 4-year
study of potential cardiovascular effects of noise was begun.

     Regulatory activities included the development of a general labeling strategy
for consumer products and the publishing of proposed general labeling provisions
preparatory to developing specific product regulations.  Public hearings were held
on the desirability of labeling noise emissions from consumer products and a review
of these comments was initiated.

1978 Program

     The regulation of indoor noise has been allocated $1,937,000 and 13 permanent
positions.  These resources include 51,485,000 in contract funds to be used for the
study of indoor noise sources including industrial machinery, electronic equipment,
and household and consumer products.  Studies of cardiovascular effects from noise
will be continued.  Anticipated regulatory action includes promulgation of final
general labeling provisions and the proposing of labeling regulations for four
additional household products.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes $1,403,000 and 10 positions.
This represents a decrease of $534,000 and three positions from 1978 which reflects
planned decreases in the total resources applied to preparation of regulations.
Contract work will include investigations on the economic and technological bases of
regulation development and the continuation of research effects on the, identification
of noise health effects.  Regulatory activities anticipated in FY 1979 include the
final promulgation of labeling regulations on consumer products.

     Preliminary studies will be completed on three types of industrial equipment
which, if regulated in subsequent years, will be regulated in coordination with the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Regulation of Outdoor Noise Sources

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately $7,300,000 in contract support for studies
leading to the idenfification or regulation of outdoor noise sources.  Preidentification
studies were conducted on chain saws, motor boats, earth moving equipment, light duty
vehicles, tires, and snowmobiles.  A demonstration project on truck quieting technologies
was continued.  Regulatory action in FY 1977 included the proposing of regulations for
four major noise sources: crawlers, tractors, buses, and truck mounted compactors.
                                                                                      N-10

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Regulatory proposals were under development for motorcycles and truck mounted
refrigeration units, both previously identified as major noise sources.
lawnmowers, pavement breakers, and rock drills were formally identified as
major noise sources.  Studies were completed on the nature of and potential
for control of noise from automobiles and light trucks.

     Regulations were proposed setting out the process and criteria by which
State and local jurisdictions can be exempted from the preemption provisions
of the Noise Control Act of 1972 with respect to interstate motor and rail
carrier noise regulations.

1978 Program

     The development of regulations for the control of outdoor noise has been
allocated $4,803,800 and 29 permanent positions.  The resources include
approximately S3.7 million in contract funds for studies on the economic and
technical feasibility of regulating selected outdoor noise sources and for the
demonstration of noise quieting technologies in support of these regulations.
The quiet truck demonstration will be continued and new demonstration projects
will commence on design methods for quieting internal combusion engines and
vehicle tires.

     Products being studied for potential regulation include guided mass
transit, tires, motor boats,, and earth moving equipment.  The desirability of
labeling noise emissions from some types of construction and surface trans-
portation equipment, in addition to setting standards for such emissions, is
being studied.  Such labeling can assist State and local enforcement.  Work
will begin on revision of the noise emission standards for interstate motor
carrier regulations to make their regulation consistent with the second stage
of emission regulations on new heavy duty trucks scheduled to become effective in
January 1979.

     The noise level and noise criteria documents will be updated.  These
documents delineate the acceptable levels of noise under various conditions,
considered as environmental goals, and the documentation of effects on noise
underlying the choice of the levels.

     Regulatory actions to be taken during FY 1973 include the promulgation of
regulations for crawlers, tractors, buses, and truck mounted compactor units.
New in-use regulations will be promulgated for railroad facilities as required
by court order.  Regulations to be proposed in FY 1978 include motorcycles,
truck mounted refrigeration units, lawnmowers, pavement breakers, and rock
drills.  Labeling regulations will be proposed for two products.  Two additional
sources of surface transportation noise, automobiles and light duty trucks, may
be named as major noise sources dependent on results of on-going studies.

1973 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The decrease of $60,200 from the budget estimate reflects a reprogramming
within the'noise program to provide for additional contract support with investigations
of protective and control devices and technical assistance.
  N-n

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1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes $4,296,000 and 25
positions.  This represents a decrease of $507,800 and four positions which reflects
a further planned reduction of work in the naming of new sources and the preparation
of regulations.  The internal combustion engine, tire, and quiet truck demonstration
projects will continue.

     Regulatory activities for 1979 will include promulgation of emission regulations
for pavement breakers and rock drills, buses, lawnmowers, motorcycles, and truck
mounted refrigeration units.  Regulations will be proposed on any additional sources
of surface transportation noise if named as major noise sources in FY 1978.  Interstate
motor carrier revisions and two labeling regulations will also be promulgated.  Two
new emission regulations will be proposed.  No new products will be formally named as
major noise sources since program emphasis will have shifted to labeling of consumer
products and expansion of regional staff to support development of State and local
programs.

Regulation of Protective and Control Devices

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately $70,000 in contract support to provide
technical and economic feasibility studies needed for the regulation of hearing
protectors and noise control devices.  Principal actions in 1977 were the publication
of a proposed rule for hearing protectors and continued work on a muffler labeling
regulation to be proposed in FY 1978.

1978 Program

     The regulation of protection and control devices has been allocated $230,000
and two positions.  The resources include $170,000 in contract funds.  These funds
are to be used in support of two regulatory actions to be taken in fY 1978:
promulgation of a labeling regulation for hearing protection devices and the
proposing of a labeling regulation for mufflers.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $37,000 over the budget estimate was reprogrammed from the
regulation of outdoor noise sources in order to support increased costs of these regulatory
actions.

1979 Plan

     The 1979 plan for this program element calls for $50,000 and one
position.  The only major activity planned is the promulgation of a muffler labeling
regulation and minor investigations on the potential for labeling various building
products such as accoustical tiles.
                                                                                    N-12

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                                             NOISE

                                     Abatement and Control

                                    Program Implementation
                                             Budget
                                  Actual   Estimate
                                   1977      1978
                    Current
                   Estimate
                     1978
                   Estimate
                     1979
                    Increase +
                    Decrease -
                   1979 vs. 1978
                                                       (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
  Federal Agency Coordination.
  Noise Strategies Implement-
   ation	
  Noise Strategy Evaluation...
 $598
 $672
 S672
 $672
1,455
296
2,082
246
2,151
246
3,058
246
+$907
      Total.
2,349
3,000
3,069
3,976
+907
Permanent Positions
  Federal Agency Coordination.
  Noise Strategies
   Implementation	
  Noise Strategy Evaluation...
25
2
22
2
23
2
26
2
+3
      Total.
   35
   33
   34
   37
Budget Request
     The resources requested for this budget subactivity in 1979 are $3,976,200 and 37
positions.   This reflects an increase of $906,700 and three positions.  This increase
comes from a shift in program thrust away from the generation of additional emission
regulations and toward the strengthening of State and local noise programs.  Specifically
this increase will be used in support of two technical assistance efforts:  The "Quiet
Community Program" (QCP) and the "Each Community Helps Others" Program (ECHO).  QCP will
work with a few selected communities to develop comprehensive noise programs.  ECHO will
provide technical assistance to local communities on specific noise problems by providing con-
sultative services from officials of communities which have successfully overcome similar problems.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes activities and outputs related to the implementation of
regulatory requirements for which the Federal Government has primary responsibility -- the
control of noise emissions at Federal facilities and review of environmental impact
statements for noise impacts — and coordination of Federal programs for noise control;
for development of State and local capability to implement noise control activities;
consultation with States or local governments on specific noise abatement problems; and
the evaluation of the effectiveness of nationwide efforts to control noise.  This subactivity
is divided into three program elements: Federal agency coordination, noise strategies
implementation, and noise strategy evaluation.
 N-13

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     Federal Agency Coordination — This program element incorporates those activities
and outputs related to:(1) tne coordination of other Federal agencies' activities
on noise control as mandated in Section 4 of the Noise Control Act;  (2) the responsi-
bilities for monitoring other Federal facilities' noise abatement activities;  (3) the
review of other Federal agencies' environmental  impact statements insofar as noise
impacts are concerned;  (4) maintaining an overview of Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) action on regulations proposed to them by  EPA for control of aircraft or airport
noise or self initiated regulations by FAA; and  (5) definition of present and potential
problems around airports since such airports are controlled by Federal agencies or
regulated by the FAA.

     Noise Strategies  Implementation — This program element includes those activities
and outputs related to  the development of State  and local capability to implement noise
abatement activities,  including the development  of Guidelines and information, model
codes or model legislation, consultation with State/local control program on specific
control or planning problems, and assistance in  the interpretation of Federal regulations
and guidelines.  It also includes Each Community Helps Others and Quiet Community Programs.
The demonstration of techniques which may be used in controlling airport noise by lower
levels of government within Federal regulatory constraints are also  carried out under this
program element.

     Noise Strategy Evaluation — This program element encompasses those activities and
outputs related to the  evaluation of noise program effectiveness in  reducing the levels
on noise, including the gathering and evaluation of data to determine environmental noise
trends and their population impacts.

FEDERAL AGENCY COORDINATION

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources included approximately £400,000 jn contract support for the
demonstration of the application of noise abatement technologies in  Federal
Government programs and the collection and management of data needed for the coordination
of Federal noise activities.

     Six major joint demonstration projects were initiated with other Federal agencies
through the use of interagency agreements.  These projects addressed noise problems
associated with recreational vehicles on Federal lands(Department of Agriculture);
techniques for quieting  bus transit malls (Urban Mass Transportation Administration);
optimum methods for limited noise from major expressways through highway design (Federal
Highway Administration); highway construction (Federal Highway Administration); building
construction noise control (Department of Defense); and occupational noise control in'
shipyards (Department of Navy).  This last project is also coordinated with the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration.  These projects constitute  major Federal
efforts in demonstrating the practicability of noise reduction technologies within the
Federal establishment where success will be of aid to the involved agencies and also
produce techniques having general application to important national  problems.

     Several reports were developed and published during FY 1977.  These included reports
on highway noise impact, a comparison of highway noise models, a summary report on the
Department of Housing and Urban Development noise policies, and a report on methods of
using compatability land use zones around Department of Defense air  bases for noise control.
These reports are generally aimed at improving Federal noise control planning and improving
understanding of noise  impacts in the National Environmental Policy Act process.
                                                                                        N-14

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     A study was initiated to define existing and future noise problems of joint-use
military and commerical airports.  A cooperative effort with the General Services
Administration was started to modify procurement procedures in order to facilitate
procurement of quieter products.  Administrative procedures for the Low Noise Emission
Products Program were also finalized.  This program, required under the Noise Control
Act, provides for Federal preferential purchase of products which are significantly
quieter than Federal standards.

1978 Program

     Federal agency coordination of noise related activities has been allocated $672,000
and nine permanent positions.  These resources include approximately $400,000 in contract
funds for interagency agreements for applied technology demonstrations and information
collection.  These funds support the continuation of interagency agreements initiated in
1977 and completion of the joint-use miIftarycommerical airport.study started in 1977.
An interagency noise land use compatability working group will be established to examine
present Federal policies on land use and planning as they impact on noise problems.
A study will begin of noise problems associated with general aviation airports—those used
by private and light planes.  Summary reports will be publisned on the Federal Highway
Administration's noise policies and those of at least one other agency.  The ongoing
review of the Federal Aviation Administration's action in response to regulation
proposed to them by EPA will continue.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 budget for this program element includes $672,000 and nine permanent
positions.  This represents no change from FY 1978.  The six applied technology
demonstration projects started in 1977 will be completed in 1979.  Successfully
demonstrated noise abatement technologies will then begin to be applied agencywide by
participating agencies  in  such areas as off-road vehicles, highway construction, and
certain types of occupational noise.   The results of the demonstrations will be provided
to other Federal agencies, State and local governments, and the private sector in order
to encourage the nationwide implementation of the noise control techniques proven success-
ful in these projects.  Three new demonstrations on occupational noise control will also
begin through the use of the interagency agreement mechanisms.  The land use task force
will continue with added emphasis.  Studies on the noise problems of general aviation
airports will continue.  An anticipated increase in Low Noise Emission Product applications
is expected to result from promulgated Federal regulations containing stipulated emission
levels which allow a product to qualify for the program.

NOISE STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources include 3800,000 in contract support funds.  Program activities in
1977 included the development and testing of an airport noise control analysis methodolgy
which permits the assessment of various measures aimed at decreasing airport noise impact.
A film describing airport noise abatement planning was also produced.  Publications
included a manual on methods of calculating noise levels generated by railroad operations,
a revised version of the community model noise ordinance, a noise ordiance workbook, and a model
building code.  A major accomplishment of 1977 was the publication of an environmental noise
strategy document.  This document outlines the options and alternatives for the Federal
program in noise abatement.
 N-15

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     In 1977 the first Quiet Community Program  (QCP) in Allentown, Pennsylvania,
was initiated.  QCP is a program designed to demonstrate, through example, how a
community can develop a comprehensive community noise program. This initial pretest
will serve as the model for additional QCP's in 1978 and 1979.  Each QCP effort is
expected to continue for a minimum of 2 years in a given community.

     In addition, the preliminary work necessary for launching the "Each Community
Helps Others" (ECHO) program was completed.  This program provides technical assistance
to local communities on specific noise problems by providing consulting services from
officials of communities which have successfully overcome similar problems.

     Finally, preliminary work needed for the consumer education program was also completed.
This program is intended to assist consumers by informing them on how to use the information
required by noise labeling regulations in making consumer decisions.

1978 Program

     Noise strategies implementation will be allocated $2,151,500 and 23 permanent positions
in FY 1978.  This includes approximately SI.3 million in contract and interagency agreement
funds.   Major efforts during this year will include the initiation of two additional Quiet
Community Programs (QCP) and the selection of 20 communities to receive technical assistance
through the Each Community Helps Others  (ECHO) program.  In addition, recipients will be
chosen and placement made for 10 State assignees who will assist State programs in
developing key aspects of their noise control programs.  The effort to be put forth by these
three programs, QCP, ECHO, and State assignees, marks'a significant increase in the amount
of technical assistance support given to States and local communities.  Other efforts in
1978 include the launching of a consumer education program in support of the labeling
regulatory program and the.voluntary application of noise control analysis methodology and
planning procedures at six airports as part of the demonstration of this methodology.
A series of reports outlining Federal research needs for noise will be published in
conjunction with other agencies as a result of the effort to coordinate Federal noise
research.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget  Estimate

     The increase of $69,500 over the budget estimate reflects a reprogramming of funds
to the regional offices from within the  headquarters noise program  ($23,200) and from
other media ($46,300) to provide increased technical assistance associated with the
Quiet Community Programs and the Each Community Helps Others Program.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element calls for $3,058,200 and 26
positions.  This is an increase of $906,700 and three positions.  This increase reflects
the additional effort being applied to technical assistance and State assignees.
During  1979, 30 new Each Community Helps Others (ECHO) recipients and three new
Quiet Community Programs (QCP) participant conmunities will be chosen bringing the total
number of on-going QCP's to six.

     Three additional permanent positions will be added to the existing 12 regional
positions for use in strengthening the abilities of key regional offices to provide
technical support to the ECHO and QCP programs.  There will be a continuation of the
consumer information program in support  of approximately eight labeling regulations.
The six airport noise control analysis methodology and planning demonstration projects
will be completed.  The resulting documentation and demonstration of this process will
make available an important tool for the significant abatement of present and future
airport noise within the constraints of  existing techniques and delegation of
authorities among various levels of government.  Two demonstration projects on using
planning mechanisms to abate surface transportation noise will be initiated.  Reports
on Federal research needs will be updated.


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NOISE..STRATEGY EVALUATION

1977 Accomplishments

     1977 resources Included approximately $240,000 for contract support.   A significant
part of the 1977 effort was spent in preparing for and assisting in the the Al]entown
Quiet Community Program.  This support concentrated on development of procedures for
carrying out attitudinal and noise evaluation surveys.   Another project conducted in
FY 1977 was the initiation of work that will lead to the development of a  national
noise assessment protocol.  Additionally, a set of guidelines for the development
of community noise strategies was prepared and published.

1978 Program

      The FY 1978 plan for this program element includes $246,000 and two  positions.
Of this, $190,000 is for contract support.  Efforts in 1978 will include the revision
of the community noise strategy guidelines, completion of the national noise assessment
protocol, and the continuation of support to the Quiet Community Program.   New efforts
in FY 1978 involve the initiation of a State and local noise program survey and the
development of a data base management system for the coll'ection and analysis of data
from accoustical and attitudinal surveys.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the the budget estimate.

1979 Plan

     The FY 1979 plan for this program element includes $246,000 and two
positions.  This represents no change over FY 1978 levels.   Efforts planned for
FY 1979 include the issuance of national noise environmental assessment protocols,
an update of the State and local noise program survey, and  a continuance of support to
Quiet Community Programs.
  N-17

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                                             NOISE

                                           Enforcement


                                       Budget     Current                  Increase +
                             Actual   Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                              1977      1978        1978        1979     1979 vs. 1978
                                            Cdollars in thousands)

Appropriation
  Noise Enforcement	    $742      $888       51,027       $916         -$111

Permanent Positions
  Noise Enforcement	      22        24           24         22            -2

Budget Request

     The request for $916,400 and 22 positions will provide for continued enforcement
of new product noise emission standards for medium and heavy duty trucks and portable
air compressors and for the operation of the Noise Enforcement Facility at Sandusky,
Ohio.

Program Description

     The noise enforcement program provides for the enforcement of new product noise
emission standards and labeling regulations pursuant to Sections 6 and 8, respectively,
of the Noise Control Act of 1972.  It also provides for development of enforcement
regulations for additional new product noise emission standards and for labeling
requirements as necessary, tampering inspections, surveillance activities, recalls, and
continued participation in providing assistance to States and local jurisdictions for
the development of in-use noise enforcement programs.

1977 Accomplishments

     The FY 1977 resources included $191,000 for contracts used primarily to conduct a com-
pliance surveillance program for trucks, to develop a quality control procedure for the Noise
Enforcement Facility testing program, to develop an enforcement officer training program
and to conduct a data base feasibility study.

     Noise enforcement activities focused on the completion of preparations for the
enforcement of new product standards for medium and heavy duty trucks and portable
air compressors.  These included development of regulations for controlling the
importation of trucks and compressors and for administrative hearing procedures (both
to be completed in FY 1978); conducting site comparison studies with manufacturers of
trucks and compressors;  and development of an inspector's guidebook.  In addition,
enforcement regulations for new product noise emission standards were proposed for
wheel and crawler tractors, buses, and mobile solid waste compactors.  Enforcement
regulations for the general labeling requirements and for hearing  protector labeling
were also proposed.  Efforts on the development of enforcement regulations for motor-
cycles and other new products continued.
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     During FY 1977, the noise enforcement program also provided guidance to
nine States and to approximately 20 communities.  This guidance" generally took,
the form of issue-specific guidance such as specific language for State and
local noise control regulations and description of State and local options for
enforcement of noise control regulations for interstate motor carriers, interstate
rail carriers, Federal facilities, and new products, and general guidance such as
model State and local noise control regulations and information regarding potential
State and local noise enforcement issues such as Federal and State preemption.

1973 Program

     The FY 1978 resources include $300,000 allocated for contracts primarily for
special acoustical projects, truck and air compressor surveillance,
enforcement measurement methodology, compressor truck test
consultants, maintenance instructions and review of product verification reports
for general and transportation products, hearing protector testing and surveillance,
and data base implementation.  Program resources will be used primarily for the
enforcement of the new product noise emission standards for medium and heavy duty
trucks and portable air compressors.  The noise emission standards for trucks and
smaller compressors (less than.or equal to 250 cubic feet per minute (cfm)) become
effective on January 1, 1978.  For larger compressors (greater than 250 cfm) the
standard will become effective on July 1, 1978.

     Enforcement activities for these products in FY 1978 will include reviewing
production verification reports from manufacturers, conducting and monitoring
production verification tests, conducting and monitoring selective enforcement
audit testing, inspection of manufacturers records and facilities, and exchange
testing with manufacturers' to determine site correlation with the Noise Enforcement
Facility.

     Enforcement regulations for buses, wheel and crawler tractors, and mobile
solid waste compactors will be promulgated in FY 1978.  Regulations for the
importation of regulated products and administrative hearing procedures will be  •
completed.  Enforcement regulations for general labeling provisions and hearing
protector labeling will be promulgated.  Additional enforcement regulations for
other products will be proposed.

1978 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The increase of $139,400 over the budget estimate reflects a reproqramming
from other media in order to support the total contractual effort  in 1973.
discussed in  the previous section.

1979 Plan

     In FY 1979, the resources requested are $916,400 and 22 positions.  This
represents a  decrease of 5111,000 and 2 positions.  This will still allow the
Agency to assure compliance with new product regulations for trucks and
compressors.  'Contract funds  totaling  $391,500 will  be  used  to  continue
surveillance  and  testing efforts  initiated  in  FY  1978 for assisting in  report
reviews  and  data  base  implementation.
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     Program resources will be concentrated on the enforcement of new product
noise emission standards for medium and heavy duty trucks and portable air
compressors, because compliance with these regulations will provide the
greatest environmental benefit, such as reduced levels of environmental noise
and associated adverse impacts on the public health and welfare, for the
resources expended.

     Specifically, these resources will allow the Agency to review and monitor
manufacturers' noise production verification (PV) reports, to monitor a portion
of PV tests, to conduct some PV tests, to issue and monitor Selective Enforcement
Audit (SEA) tests to assure that manufacturer compliance is continued after the
initial PV tests (one of these will be conducted by EPA), and to conduct
investigations of manufacturers' records to ensure that only complying products
are distributed in commerce.  Also, as necessary, EPA will conduct investigations
of alleged noncompliance, prepare administrative orders, and participate in
administrative hearings.  EPA will also correlate manufacturers' noise testing
facilities with its facility located at Sandusky, Ohio.
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                                        INTERDISCIPLINARY


PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                           Budget     Current                Increase +
                                 Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate     Decrease -
                                  1977      1978       1978 _      1979_    1979 vs.  1978
                                                [dollars in thousands)
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation.......	   58,896    $13,983    $14,867    $12,668      -$2,199
  Permanent Positions....	      148        143        152        133          -19

Research and Development:
  Appropriation	   26,888     25,368     23,392     34,757      +11,365
  Permanent Positions	      228        187        228        259          +31

Total, Interdisciplinary
  Program:
  Appropriation	   35,784     39,351     38,259     47/425       +9,166
  Permanent Positions	      376        330        380        392          +12
  Outlays	   21,605     30,100     26,690     27,080         +390
  Authorization Levels	      *          *       43,273        *

* Authorizations are contained within amounts authorized for Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, Clean Air  Act, Solid Waste Disposal Act, Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, as well as certain portions by virtue
of the Appropriation Act.  In addition, funds are authorized in 1978 specifically under
the Environmental Research, Development, and Demonstration Authorization Act of 1978.
In FY 1979, authorizations have been proposed for the Research and Development
activities.

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     Although many problems are best approached directly by specific media programs,
effective management of environmental problems also requires cutting across the usual
media lines when the problem, skill, or technique involved is not readily assignable
to a specific medium.  This interdisciplinary approach is consistent with the original
concept behind the establishment of the Agency:  an integrated organization to regulate
pollution in all media  and to assure that control measures applied to one media do not
result in adverse impacts on other media.  EPA applies this intermedia concept in the
abatement and control and the research and development programs where the problems,
tools, and results are  frequently multidisciplinary in nature.

     Within the research and development area, the health and ecological effects
program includes the development of pollutant assessment documents and cost benefit
analyses, the continuation of long range health studies at the National Center for
Toxicological Research  (NCTR), and assessment of carcinogens.  Multimedia pollutant
assessment documents which integrate the scientific and technical information on
health and environmental pollution effects are prepared to assist the Agency in
regulating environmental pollutants.  In addition, special studies are carried out
to advance the methodology available for determining the optimum levels for setting
pollution control standards and the benefits of pollution control.  The NCTR, funded
jointly by the Food and Drug Administration and EPA, conducts studies on long term
health and ecological effects of chronic low doses of chemical toxicants by various
exposure routes.

     The environmental  management program provides practical means for evaluating
the relative effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of alternative incentives for
implementing environmental quality objectives.
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     The anticipatory research program, first identified as a separate effort in FY 1978,
includes research to:  (1) identify or characterize long range problems which may be
perceived but for which no specific regulatory action is currently planned; (2) support
baseline studies which may require several years to complete; and (3) support basic
environmental research.  This program provides the scientific foundation-for future
work to solve specific problems and provides the scientific information necessary for
future regulatory research.

     The monitoring and technical support program includes the following major activities:
measurement techniques and equipment development, quality assurance, and technical support.

     The measurement techniques and equipment development activity develops cost effective
and efficient multimedia monitoring systems and techniques required by EPA 1n meeting its
regulatory and enforcement responsibilities.  This activity includes the development of
advanced techniques and integrated systems for aircraft or remote location use.  FY 1979
emphasis will be on development of measurement methodologies, remote sensing techniques;
instrumentation and monitoring packages for all media; new methods for the trophic
classification of lakes; and nonpoint source monitoring methods for tracking a pollutant
from the source to the receptor.

     Quality assurance addresses the operational monitoring needs of the Agency by
providing reference methods for sampling  and analysis; and by developing an Agency
quality control program of manuals,, guidelines, samples, and performance evaluations
necessary to assure the acquisition of accurate and legally defensible environmental
quality data.  Emphasis will be given to the promulgation of procedures for reference,
equivalent, and research methods, and the production of standard samples and reference
materials needed to enforce the standards and regulations.  FY 1979 program emphasis
will be on water supply, pollutants identified in the Natural Resources Defense Council
(NRDC) consent decree and air monitoring quality assurance needs of the Agency.

     Technical support includes activities which serve both research and agency program
office needs.  In FY 1979, the technical information activity will provide for active
dissemination of user oriented outputs in technological areas involving municipal water
supply, industrial  pollution control, nonpoint pollution sources management, advanced
monitoring methods and quality assurance protocols.  The technical support/technical
services activity provides assistance to the Agency's operating programs through the
direct application of the expertise and facilities of the research program to immediate
Agency problems.  This activity also includes efforts to enhance the capabilities of
minority institutions to conduct environmental research.

     Under abatement and control, the environmental impact statement (EIS) program
involves EPA in the preparation of EIS's and negative declarations for such areas as
construction grants, new source discharge-permits, certain other nonregulatory actions,
and certain regulatory actions—on which EPA voluntarily prepares EIS's.  To minimize
the use of the Agency funds and personnel, the Agency utilizes "third party" and
"piggyback" methods, whereby an EIS is prepared by a contractor who is mutually selected
by EPA and the applicant and paid by the applicant, to the maximum extent possible.
However, the majority of EIS's must be prepared through the use of contracts or EPA
personnel.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES
                                                               fin thousands of dollars)

  1978 Interdisciplinary Program	         $38,259

      Abatement and Control	          -2,199
        The Agency anticipates that implementation of the
        agreement with the Corps of Engineers for construction
        grants management will permit this decrease.
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      Research and Development	          +11,365
        The requested net increase will provide $625,000 to
        support the carcinogen assessment group; $3,209,000 to
        support development of methodologies for the consent
        decree pollutants and for quality assurance required
        by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977; and
        $9,131,000 for the new area of anticipatory research
        to expand on-going projects and initiate new long-term
        studies on acid rain and for analysis of emerging
        industrial, agricultural and urban trends to forecast
        environmental insults.  The public sector activities
        will be reduced by $1,600,000 and resources directed
        to higher priority activities.                                    	._

  1979 Interdisciplinary Program	           47,425

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     1.  Summary of Budget Request

         An appropriation of $47,425,000 is requested for 1979.  This request, by
appropriation, is as follows:

                    Abatement and Control	   $12,668,000
                    Research and Development	    34,757,000

         This represents an increase of $9,166,300 over the 1978 interdisciplinary
program.  The net increase results from an increase of $625,000 for health and'ecological
effects; a decrease of $1.6 million for public sector activities; an  increase of $3,209,000
for monitoring and technical support; an increase of $9,131,000 for anticipatory research;
and a decrease of $2,198,700 for environmental impact statement preparation as a  result
of the Corps of Engineers agreement.

     2.  Changes from Original 1978 Budget Estimate

         Changes from the original budget estimate are as follows:

                                                            (in thousands of dollars)

         Original 1978 estimate	               +39,351
           Congressional increases	
           Office of Research and Development
             reprogranmi ngs	
           Headquarters and regional offices
             reprogrammings	
         Current 1978 estimate.
         The Congress added on $220,000 for an environmental impact study of the proposed
coal fired thermal power development project near the East Poplar River north of Montana
in Canada, and $400,000 for Initial funding of an environmental impact statement on
natural resource development in the Flathead River Basin in Montana.  The Congress also
increased the budget request by $232,500 for authorized positions.

         The net decrease resulting from Office of Research and Dveloproent reprogrammings
results from a transfer of $5,650,000 to the water quality and pesticide media to reflect
the transfer of the industrial processes program to the appropriate media.  Offsetting
this decrease is a transfer from the air media ($1,953,000) and the water quality media
($2,226,000) reflecting the new program identification, anticipatory research.  The
remaining transfer from this media, $737,000, is due primarily to a transfer to the water
quality media for studies on wet land development, dredge spoil utilization,and drainage
and land use impact on Lake Tahoe.
                                         •

         The headquarters and regional offices reprogrammed $263,700 from other media to
support increased salary costs.                                                       _

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ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                              Current
                                                             Estimate           Estimate
                                                               1978               1979

    Prior year obligations	          $35,784            $39,543
    Congressional increases	             +800
    Change in amount