ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                               PAGE

SUBJECT INDEX                                                                    6

SUMMARY                                                                        S-l

AIR                                                                            A-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Oxidants	     A-9
       Hazardous Air Pollutants	     A-21
       Mobil e Sources	     A-32
       Gases & Particles	     A-41
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Air Quality & Stationary Source Planning S Standards	     A-55
          Emission Standards & Technology Assessment	     A-58
          Pollutant Strategies S Ai r Standards Development	     A-59
          State Program Guidelines & Regulations Development	     A-60
       Mobile Source Air Pollution Control & Fuel  Economy	     A-62
          Emission Standards, Technical Assessment & Characterization	     A-64
          Testing, Technical & Administrative Support	     A-65
          Emissions 8 Fuel  Economy Compliance	     A-66
       State Programs Resource Assistance	     A-68
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)....     A-71
          Training	     A-72
       Air Quality Management Implementation	     A-73
       Trends Monitoring S Progress Assessment	     A-77
          Ambient  Air Quality Monitoring	     A-79
          Air Quality & Emissions Data Analysis & Progress Assessment	     A-81
    ENFORCEMENT
       Stationary  Source Enforcement	     A-85
       Mobile Source Enforcement	     A-89


WATER QUALITY                                                                  WQ-1

    RESEARCH I DEVELOPMENT
       Water Quality Research	     WQ-10
       Munici pal  Wastewater	     WQ-23
       Industrial  Wastewater	     WQ-31
    ABATEMENT «, CONTROL
       Water Quality and Grants Program Management	     VIQ-40
          Water Quality Management	.'	     WQ-42
          Great Lakes Program	     WQ-^o
          Chesapeake Bay Program	     WQ-J-5
       Effluent Standards  & Guidelines	     WCM9
       Grants Assistance Proarams	     WQ-5-1
          Clean La
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WATER QUALITY (cont.)                                                         PAGE

       Water Quality Monitoring & Analysis	    WQ-69
       Municipal  Source Control	    WQ-73
          Municipal  Waste Treatment Facility Construction	    WQ-75
          Corps  of Engineers	    WQ-79
          Waste  Treatment Operations & Maintenance	    WQ-80
    ENFORCEMENT
       Water Quality Enforcement	    WQ-83
       Water Quality Permit Issuance	    WQ-37

DRINKING HATER                                                                DW-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Drinking  Water Research	    OW-8
    ABATEMENT &  CONTROL
       Drinking  Water Criteria, Standards & Guidelines	    DW-23
       Drinking  Water State Program Resource Assistance	    DW-28
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants	    DW-29
          Underground Injection Control  Program Grants	    DW-31
          Special  Studies & Demonstrations	    DW-32
          Traini ng	    DW-33
       Drinking  Water Management	    DW-34
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance	    D4-36
          Underground Injection Control  Program	    DW-39
    ENFORCEMENT
       Drinking  Water Enforcement	    OW-42


HAZARDOUS WASTE                                                                HW-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Hazardous Waste Research	    HW-8
    ABATEMENT &  CONTROL
       Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies	    HW-25
          Regulations, Guidelines & Policies - Hazardous Waste	    HW-27
       Fi nanci al  Assistance	    HW-31
          Hazardous  Waste Management Financial  Assistance to States	    HW-32
       Waste Management Strategies Implementation	    HW-35
          Hazardous  Waste Management Regulatory Strategies Implementation.    HW-36
    EflFORCEMENT
       Hazardous Waste Enforcement	    HW-41


PESTICIDES                                                                    P-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Pesticides Research	    P-8
    ABATEMENT &  CONTROL
       Reai stration , Special  Registration & Tolerances	    P-20
         "Registration	    P-22
          Speci al  Regi stration	    P-25
          Tolerances	    P-27
       Generic Chemical  Review	    P-29
          Generic Chemical Review	    P-31
          Special  Reviews - Environmental Impact  statement (EIS)
              Preparation	    P-33
    ENFORCEMENT
       Pesticides Enforcement	    P-36
          Pesticides Enforcement	    P-J9
          Pesticides Enforcement Grants	    P-40
          Pesticides Certification & Training	    P-41

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RADIATION
R-l
    RESEARCH 8 DEVELOPMENT
       Noniomzi ng Radi at ion	     R-5
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Radiation Criteria, Standards 2 Guidelines	     R-12
       Radiation Program Impl ernentation	     R-15
       Radiation Environmental  Impact Assessment	     R-18

INTERDISCIPLINARY                                                              1-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Intennedi a Programs	     1-6
    ABATEMENT a CONTROL
       NEPA Compliance & Federal  Agencies Compliance	     1-19
          NEPA Compl i ance	     1-21
          Federal  Agencies Compliance	     1-22
       Accelerated Review and Permitting	     1-23
       Interdisciplinary Training Grants	     1-26
    ENFORCEMENT
       Enforcement Policy & Technical Support	     1-29
          Technical  Support - Office of Enforcement & Compliance
              Monitoring	     1-31
          Enforcement Policy & Operations	     1-33

TOXIC SUBSTANCES                                                               TS-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Chemical  Testing & Assessment	     TS-9
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Toxic Substances Strategies	     TS-27
          Toxics Integration	     TS-30
          Chemi cal  Testing	     TS-32
          Existing Chemical  Review	     TS-35
          New Chemical  Review	     TS-38
    ENFORCEMENT
       Toxic Substances Enforcement	     TS-43
          Toxic Substances Enforcement	     TS-45
          Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants	     TS-48


ENERGY                                                                         E-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Multi-Medi a Energy	     E-5


MANAGEMENT & SUFTjRT                                                           MS-1

    PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
       Program Ma nag me nt	•	     MS-8
          Program Management - Air & Radiation	     MS-12
          Program Management - Water	     MS-13
          Program  Management - Enforcement & Compliance Monitoring	     MS-13
          Program Management - External  Affairs	     MS-14
          Program Management - Pesticides S Toxic Substances	     MS-15
          Program  Management - General  Counsel	     MS-15
          Program Management - Research & Development	     MS-16
          Program  Management - Solid Waste & Emergency Response	     MS-17

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MANAGEMENT & SUPPORT (cont.)                                                  PAGE

   AGENCY MANAGEMENT
       Office of the Administrator/Executive Officas	    MS-19
          Immediate Office of the Administrator	    MS-24
          Office of Regional  Operations	    MS-25
          Office of Managenent Services	    MS-25
          Office of Executive Secretariat	    MS-25
          Regulatory Information Service Center	    HS-26
          Administrator's Representation Fund	    MS-27
          Office of Internationa] Activities	    MS-27
          Office of Civil Rights	    MS-23
          Science Advisory Board	    MS-29
          Office of Administrative Law Judges	    MS-30
          Office of Small & Di sadvantaged Business Utilization	    MS-31
       Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation	    MS-32
          Program Management - Policy, Planning & Evaluation	    MS-35
          Integrated Environmental  Management Program	    MS-36
          Office cf Policy Analysis	    MS-37
          Office of Standards and Regulations	    MS-38
          Office of Management Systems & Evaluation	    MS-39
       Office of General Counsel	    MS-41
          General  Counsel	    MS-42
       Office of External Affairs	    MS-44
          Office of Legislative Analysis	    MS-A8
          Office of Congressional  Liaison	    MS-49
          Office of Public Affairs	    MS-50
          Office of Intergovernmental  Liaison	    MS-50
          Office of Federal  Activities	    MS-51
      Office of Inspector General	    MS-53
      Office of Administration and Resources Management	    MS-56
          Program Management - Administration	    MS-61
          Financial Management - Headquarters	    MS-62
          Office of the Comptroller	    MS-63
          Contracts & Grants Management	    MS-63
          Personnel & Organization Services	    MS-65
          Facilities & Management Services	    MS-66
          Information Systems & Services	    MS-67
   REGIONAL MANAGEMENT
      Regi onal  Management	    MS-69
          Resource Management - Regions	,	    MS-72
          Financial Management - Regions	    MS-73
          Personnel Management - Regions	    MS-74
          Administrative Management -  Regions	    MS-75
          Regional  Managenent	    MS-75
          Regi onal  Counsel	    MS-77
          Planning, Evaluation & Analysis - Regions	    MS-78
   SUPPORT COSTS
      Support Costs	    MS-80
          Professional  Trai ni ng	    MS-82
          Nationwide Support Services	    MS-83
          Headquarters Support Services	    MS-84
          Regional  Support Services	    MS-84
          Automated Data Processing Support Costs	    MS-85
          Lab Support - Research & Development	:	    MS-86
          Lab Support - Ai r & Radiation	    MS-86
          Lab Support - Pesticides & Toxic Substances	    MS-87


BUILDINGS & FACILITIES                                                        BF-1

      Buildings and Facilities	    BF-3
          New Facili ties	    8F-5
          Repai rs & Improvements	    BF-6

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CONSTRUCTION GRANTS                                                           CG-1

       Construction Grants ................................................     CG-2

SUPERFUND                                                                     SF-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Hazardous Substances  Research ................. . ....................     SF-9
    ENFORCEMENT
       Hazardous Substance Response - Enforcement .........................     SF-21
          Hazardous Substance  Technical  Support - Office of Enforcement
             & Compliance Monitoring ......................................     SF-24
          Hazardous Substance  Technical  Enforcement .......................     SF-24
          Hazardous Substance  Legal  Enforcement ...........................     SF-26
    MANAGEMENT & SUPPORT
       Management & Support ...............................................     SF-29
          Hazardous Substance  Financial  Management - Headquarters .........     SF-36
          Hazardous Substance  Financial  Management - Regions ..............     SF-36
          Hazardous Substance  Administrative Management  - Headquarters....     SF-37
          Hazardous Substance  Administrative Management  - Regions .........     SF-38
          Hazardous Substance  Support Services - Headquarters .............     SF-39
          Hazardous Substance  Support Services - Regions ..................     SF-39
          Hazardous Substance  Computer Services ...........................     SF-40
          Hazardous Substance  Legal  Services - Headquarters ...............     SF-40
          Hazardous Substance  Legal  Services - Regions ....................     SF-41
          Hazardous Substance  -  Office of the Inspector  General ...........     SF-42
          Hazardous Substance  -  Office of Policy, Planning  & Evaluation...     SF-43
          Hazardous Substance  -  Office of the Comptroller .................     SF-43
          Hazardous Substance  -  Office of Research & Development -
             Lab Support ..................................................     SF-44
    HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE  RESPONSE ACTIONS
       Hazardous Substance Response - EPA .................................     SF-46
          Hazardous Spill  8  Site Response .................................     SF-48
          Assessing &  Replacing  Natural  Resources .........................     SF-51
          Mult! -medi a  Support .............................................     SF-52
       Hazardous Substance Response - Interagency .........................     SF-53
          Department  of  Health 5 Human Services (HHS) .....................     SF-56
          United States  Coast  Guard (USCG) ................................     SF-57
          Department  of  Justice  (DOJ) .....................................     SF-57
          Federal  Emergency  Management Agency (FEMA) ......................     SF-58
          FEMA - Relocation ...............................................     SF-58
          National  Oceanographic &  Atmospheric Administration  (NOAA) ......     SF-58
          Department  of  Interior (DOI) ....................................     SF-58
          Occupational  Safety  &  Health Administration  (OSHA) -
             Headquarters .................................................     SF-59
       Hazardous Waste  Site  Inventory .....................................     SF-61
SPECIAL ANALYSIS
                                                                              SA-1

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                               Subject Index By Media


AIR                                                                    Page

  Academic Training	   A-72
  Air Quality Monitoring	   A-79
  Ai r Toxi cs	   A- 59,7 L, 7 4
  China Studi es	   A-49
  Compliance Monitoring Inspections	   A-85
  Control Technology Development	   A-18, 30,50,58
  Emi ssion Waivers	   A-90
  Enforcement 	   A-85,90
  Epidemiology	   A-17,49
  Fuel  Economy	,	   A-65,66
  Fuels Programs	   A-91
  Hazardous Air Pollutants	   A-26,59
  Health Effects Institute	   A-39
  Indoor Ai r	   A-28
  Inspection and Maintenance Program	   A-64
  In-use Emission Factors	   A-65
  Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory	   A-66
  National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)	   A-59
  National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN)	   A-19
  National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollitants (NESHAPs)   A-58
  New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)	   A-58
  Prevention of Significant Deterioration	   A-75
  Recall of In-Use Vehicles	   A-90
  Regional Programs	   A-74,79
  Selective Enforcement Audits	   A-90
  State Grants	   A-71
  State Implementation Plans (SIP)	   A-60,74
  Stationary Source Enforcement	   A-85
  Tampering and Fuel  Switching	   A-90
  Trai ni ng Courses	   A-72


WATER QUALITY

   Ac ad em i c Trai ni ng	   WQ-57
   Advanced Wastewater Treatment Reviews	   WQ-75
   Aquatic Monitoring Methods	   WQ-72
   Bi omoni tori ng	   WQ-70
   Chesapeake Bay Program	   WQ-46
   Construction Grants Management	   WQ-75
   Cl ean Lakes	   WQ-55,68
   Combined Sewer Overflow	   WQ-77
   Corps of Engineers	   WQ-20,79
   Dioxin	   WQ-70
   Effluent Guidelines	   WQ-37,50
   Emergency Response	   WQ-65
   Enforcement	   WQ-84
   Great Lakes Program:
     Research and Development	   WQ-16,21
     Abatement and Control	   l-jQ-45

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                               Subject  Index by Media

                                     (Conti nued)
               ( Cont i nued )                                              Page
   Grosse He Laboratory	   WQ-5
   Innovative and Alternative Technologies	   WQ-26,76
   International Pollution Control Agreements	   WQ-20,45
   Marine Outfalls - Section 301(h)	'	   WQ-79,89
   Ocean Disposal	   WQ-15,19,63
   Operations and Maintenance	   WQ-80
   Operator Traini ng	   WQ-78
   Pretreatment	,	   WQ-26, 29,85,89
   SI p;dge Management	   WQ-26,76
   State Grants	   WQ-55
   Toxic Pollutants Research	   WQ-26,29,34,36
   Wastewater Treatment Compliance	   WQ-26, 29 ,80,84
   Water Quality Permit Issuance	   WQ-88
   Wetlands  (Section 404)	   WQ-62,67


DRINKING WATER

   Ac ad em ic  Training	   DW-33
   Enforcement	   DW-43
   Epidemic! ogy	   OW-16
   Ground Water Activities	   DW-24,37
   Ground Water Research Activities	   DW-13,16,20
   Health Advisories	   DW-7,13,24
   Health Effects	   DW-13, 25
   National  Primary Drinking Water Regulations	   DW-13,15,24
   National  Rural Water Association	   DW-32
   Public Water Systems Supervision (PWS)	   DVI-24,29,36
   Qua 1 i ty Assurance	   DW-13,15
   Small  Systems Engineering Research	   DW-13,19
   State Grants	   DW-29
   Surface Impoundments	   DW-25
   Temik Research	   DW-14,20
   Underground  Injection Control	   DW-24,31,39
   Water Utilities Industry Cooperative Research	   DW-13,18


HAZARDOUS WASTE

   Com pi iance Inspections	   HW-32, A3
   Dioxin	   HW-13-16,19,20,22
   Enforcement	   HW-33,43
   Ground Water Monitoring	   HW-15
   Hazardous Spills  Research	   HW-14-17,19-23
   Incineration	   HW-15,16,18,20,21
   Innovati ve/Al ternative  Technol ogi es	   HW-18,20
   Landfills	   HW-18,20
   Li sting/Del i sting	   HW-23,29
   Mom tori no Methods	   HW-14-17
   Permitting	   HW-32,38

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                            Subject  Index by Media

                                 (Conti nued)


HAZARDOUS WASTE (Continued)                                             Page

   Quality Assurance	    HW-15-17
   Regulation Development	    HW-27-29
   Risk Assessment	    HW-13-14
   State Authorizations	,    HW-27,37
   State Grants	,    HW-32-34
   Surface Impoundments	    HW-18,20,21
   Waste Characterization	.,    HW-15-17


PESTICIDES

   Backlog El i mi nation	     P-26, 28
   Biological Control  Agents/Pesticides	     P-3,16,22
   Certification  and Training	     P-41
   Colorado Enforcement  Program	     P-39
   Emergency Exemptions	     P-26
   Enforcement	     P-37
   Ethylene Di bromide	     P-33
   Nebraska Enforcement  Program	     P-39
   Pesticide Enforcenent Grants	     P-40
   Protective Clothing	     P-17,23
   Registration Fees	     P-23
   Re gist ration Standards	     P-32
   Reregi stration	     P-32
   State Grants	     P-40
   State Registrations	     P-26
   Tolerance Fees	     P-27


RADIATION

   Airborne Radionuclide Standards	    R-13
   Environmental  Radiation Ambient Monitoring System	    R-20
   Federal  Radiation Protection Guidance	    R-10,13
   Health Effects Research	    R-10
   Nevada Nuclear Test Site	    R-8
   Radiological Emergency Response Plans	    R-15
   Uranium Mill Tailing  Standards	    R-13


INTERDISCIPLINARY
   Academic Traini ng	   1-27
   Accelerated Review and Permitting 	   1-25
   Case Referral s	   1-33
   Compl iance Monitoring	   1-33
   Criminal Investigations	   1-31,33

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                            Subject  Index  by Media

                                  (Continued)


INTERDISCIPLINARY (Continued)                                          faoe_

   Economic Benefits Research	    1-10
   Enforcement	    1-31
   Enforcement Operations	    1-33
   Enforcement Pol i cy	    1-33
   Evidence Audits	    1-31
   Ex pi oratory Research	    I-14
   Federal Agencies  Compliance	    1-22
   Litigation	    1-33
   Mussel watch	    1-15
   National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC)	    1-31
   NEPA Compliance Program Consolidated	    1-21
   Office  of  EnforcRn5.it and  Compliance Monitoring	    1-31
   Quality Assurance	    1-16
   Risk Assessment Guidelines	    1-11
   Techni cal  Support	    1-31
   Visiting Scientist Program	    1-15


TOXICJUBSTANCES

   Asbestos Regul ations	    TS-36
   Chemical Substances Information Network  (CSIN)	   TS-30
   Di oxi n  Control	    TS-46
   Enforcement	   TS-45
   Epidemi ol ogy	   TS-18
   Genetic Engineering	   TS-20,38
   Interagencv Testing Committee  (ITC)	    TS-32
   MBOCA [4 4^-methylene Bis  ( 2-Chl orani 1 i ne) ]	   TS-36
   HOA (4,41-methyl enedi anil i  ne)	   TS-36
   National Center for Toxicol ogi  cal  Research	    TS-25
   Polychlonnated Biphenynls  (PCB)	   TS-17,36,46
   Ri s'< Li st	   TS-39
   Stratospheric Modi fi cat ion	   TS-24
   Test GUI del i nes	   TS-33
   Test Rcl es	   TS-32
   Toxic/C'nenical  Integration  Efforts	   TS-30


ENERGY
   Acid  Rain 	    E-10
   Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM) vs.  Industrial Models...    E-ll
   Limestone Injection Multi-stage Burner (LIMB)	    E-16
   Liming	    E-10
   National  Lake Survey	    E-10
   Synthetic Fuels	".	    E-15,16

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                               Subject Index by Media

                                    (Conti nued)
MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT
Paae
   Automated Data Processing (ADP) Modernization	   MS-85
   Fi seal  Integrity	   MS-62
   Legal  Advice		   MS-42,77
   Legislation/Congressional  Liaison Activities	   MS-^7
   Maintenance and Repair Projects	   BF-6
   Management Systems Integrated	   MS-67
   Managing for Environmental  Results	   MS-39
   New Radiation Laboratory	   BF-5
   Office  of General  Counsel	   MS-42
   Regulatory Reform - OPPE	   MS-38
   Support Services	   MS-80


SUPERFUND

   Cost Recovery - Superfund	   SF-23,24,26
   Dioxin	   SF-24 , 25,27,49
   Emergency Response	   SF-49
   Enforcement	   SF-23
   Engineering Evaluations	   SF-15-18
   Hazardous Waste Site Inventory	   SF-62
   Health  Assessments	   SF-13-14
   Interagency	   SF-55
   Management	   SF-35
   Private Party Settlements	   SF-23,24,26
   Qual i ty Assurance	   SF-14,15
   RCRA Section 3012	   SF-62
   Remedi al  Response	   SF-49
   State  Programs	   SF-50
   Suppl e-nental	   SF-25, 37 , 39 ,
                                                                          40,50
                                        10

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                            ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION  AGENCY

                                  1985  Budget  Estimate

                              Alphabetical  Subject  Index


                                                                        Page

            i n i no :
            	".	    A-72
                      	    WQ-57
                      	    WQ-33
                      	    1-27
                    	    E-10
                    Treatment Reviews	    WQ-76
Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM)	    E-ll
Airborne Radionuclide Standards	    R-13
Asbestos Regul at ion	    TS-36, 37
Automated Data Processing Consolidation  (ADPC)	    MS-85

B
£

Certification and Training	    P-41
Chemical Substances Information Network  (CSIN)	    TS-30,31
Chesapeake Bay Program	    WQ-46
China Studies	    A-49;  WQ-20
Clean Lakes	    WQ-55
Combined Sewer Overflow	    WQ-77
Compliance Monitoring Inspec* ions - Air	    A-85
Compliance Monitoring Interdisciplinary	    1-33
Construction Grants Management	    WQ-75
Corps of Engineers	    WQ-20,79;  SF-49-50
Cost Recovery - Superfund	    SF-23
Criminal Investigation.....	    1-31,33
Dioxin Control	   WQ-70; HW-13-16
                                                                        SF-24,25,27,49
Economic Benefits Research	    1-10
Effl uent Guidelines	    WQ-37,50
Emergency Response	    SF-^9; WQ-65
Enforcement - Legal :
  Office of Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring	    1-31
  Enforcement Policy and Operations	    1-33
  Criminal  Investigations	    1-31,33
  National  Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC)	    1-31
  General Counsel	    MS-A 2
                                          11

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                               A]chabetical  Subiect  Index
                                       (Conti nued)


E_  (Conti nued)                                                           P_a_g_e

Enforcement - Technical:
  Air Stationary Source Enforcement	    A-85
  Air Mobile Source Enforcement	    A-90
  Drinking Water Enforcement	    DW-43
  Hazardous Waste Enforcement	    HW-43
  Pesticides Enforcement	    P-36
  Toxic Substances Enforcement	    TS-45
  Water Quality Enforcement	    WQ-84
  Water Quality Permit  Issuance	    WQ-38
  Superfund Enforcement	    SF-23
Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring  System	    R-20
Epidemiology	    A-17,49;  WQ-27 ;
                                                                        DW-15;  TS-18,19
Ethylene Dibromide	    P-33
Evidence Audi ts	    1-31
Expl oratory Research	    I -14

£

Federal Agencies Compliance	    1-22
Federal Radiation Protection Guidance	    R-10,13

_G

Genetic Engi nee ring	    TS-20, 33
Great  Lakes Program:
  Research and Development	    WQ-16,21
  Abatement and Control	    WQ-45
Grosse lie Laboratory	    WO-5
Ground Water Activities	    DW-24,37
Ground Water Monitoring	    HW-15
Ground Water Research	    DW-13,16,20; HW-15

H

Hazardous Air Pollutants	    A-26,59
Hazardous Waste Site Inventory	    SF-62
Hazardous Spills Research	    HW-14,17 ,19-23
Health Effects Institute - Air	    A-39
Health Effects Research -  Drinking Water	    DW-13
Health Effects Research -  Radiation	    R-10
                                          12

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                                A]_phabet_i_ca1  Subject  Index

                                       (Continued)
                                                                        Paae
 Incineration	    HW-15,16,18,20,21
 Indoor Ai r	    A-28
 Innovative and Alternative Technologies:
  Water Quail ty	    WQ-26,76
  Hazardous Waste	    HW-18
 Inspection and Maintenance Program	    A-64
 Interacency Testing Committee  (ITC)	    TS-32,33
 Integrated Environmental Management	    MS-36
L
                                                                        h'W-18,20
                                                                        MS-4 7
                                                                        E-16
                                                                        HW-28,29
                                                                        E-10
M
Management	,	    MS-3
Management Systems Integrated	    MS-67
Marine Outfalls - Section  30'. (h)	    WQ-79,89
MBOCA [4, 4'-methylene Bis (2-Chl oram line)]	    TS-36
MDA (4, 4'-niethylenedi anil ine)	    TS-36
Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory	    A-66
Mussel watch	    1-15
National  Ambient Air Quality Standards  (MAAQS)	    A-59
National  Center for Toxicol ogical Research	    TS-25
National  Crop Loss Assessment Network  (MCLAN)	    A-19
National  Emission Standards for  Hazardous Air  Pollutants  (NESHAPs)..    A-58
national  Enforcanent Investigation Center  (NEIC)	    1-31
National  Lake Survey	    E-10
National  Rural  Water Association	    DW-32
Nebraska  Enforcement Program	    P-39
Nevada Nuclear Test Site	    R-8
New Source Performanc? Standards  (NSPS)	    A-58
Ocean Di sposal	    WQ-15,19,63
Operations and Maintenance	    WQ-80
Operator Traim ng	    WQ- 78
                                          13

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                                                                        Page
Pesticide Enforcement Grants	   P-40
Polychlorinated Biphenynls (PCB) Disposal	   TS-36,46
Polychl orinated Biphonynls (PCB) Rules	   TS-17,36
Premarket Manufacture Notices (PMN)	   TS-38
Prevention of Significant Deterioration	   A-75
Program  Integration/Toxics Integration	   TS-30;  MS-36
Protective cfothing	   P-17,23
Public Water Systems Supervision	   DW-24,29,36

Q

Qua! i ty Assurance:
  Hazardous Waste	   HW-15-17
  Research and Development	   A-14; WQ-16;
                                                                       DW-13;  R-8;  1-16;
                                                                       HW-15;  TS-17
  Superfund	   SF-14,15
  Toxic  Substances	   TS-17,18

R_

Recall  of In-use Vehicles -  Air	   A-90
Registration Fees	   P-23
Regi stration Standards	   P-32
Regulatory Development - Hazardous Waste	   HW-27-29
Regul atory Reform	   MS-38
Remedi al  Response	   SF-49
Risk Assessment Guidelines	   1-11

_S

Selective Enforcement Audits	   A-90
Significant New Use Rules (SNURs)	   TS-39
SI udge Ma nag erne nt	   WQ-26, 76
Small Systems Engineering Research	   DW-13,19
State Authorizations - Hazardous Waste	   HW-27,37
State Grants:
  Ai r	   A- 71
  Water 106	   WQ-56
  Water 205(g)	   WQ-56;  CG-5
  Clean Lakes	    WQ-55
  Public Water System Supervision	    DW-29
  Underground Injection Control (UIC)	    DW-31
  Hazardous Waste	    HW-32,33,34
  Pesticides r_nf orescent	    P-37
  Pest ici aes Certi f i cat ion	•	    D-41
  Special  Studies and Demonstrations-Drinking Water	    DW-32
State Implementation Plans (SIPs)	    A-60,74
Stationary Source Enforcement	    A-85;  TS-24
                                          14

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                                Alphabetical  Subject  Index

                                       (Continued)
                                                                        Pace
Stratospheric Modi f icati on	,	    TS-24
Superfund  Interaqencv  Funds:
  Coast Guard (USCG)".	    SF-57
  Department of Health  and  Human  Services  (HHS)	    SF-56
  Department of Interior  (DOI)		    SF-59
  Department of Justice  (DOJ)	    SF-57
  Federal   Emergency  Management  Agency  (FEMA)	    SF-58
  National Oceanic  and  Atmospheric  Administration  (f)OAA)	    SF-58
  Occupational  Safety  and  Health  Administration  (OSHA).l	    SF-59
Surface Impoundments	    HW-18,20,21 ;  DW-25
Synthetic  Fuels	    E-15,16
Tampering and Fuel Switching	,	    A-90
Test Guidelines	    TS-33
Test Rules	    TS-32
TEMIK Research	    DW-14,20
Tolerance Fees	    P-27

U
V

Visiting Scientists Program	    1-15

_W

Wastewater Treatment Compliance	    WO-25, 29,80,84
Water Utilities Industry Cooperative Research	    OW-13,18
                                           15

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                                    BUDGET SUMMARY


     The President's  request  for the  Environmental  Protection  Agency's 1985  budget
totals S4,249,254,000 supported by 12,297.8 total  workyears,  including 31,209,254,000
and 10,940,7  total  workyears  for the  Agency's  operating programs,  and $640,000,000
and 1,357.1 total workyears for  the Superfund program.  New budget  authority  in  the
amount of $2,400,000,000  is  requested  for  the  municipal  waste  treatment  facilities
construction program.  These  resources constitute  an increase  of  $295,154,000  and
750.0 total workyears for the  Agency as a  whole  in 1985.

     Major emphasis  continues  on  the Superfund  and Hazardous Waste  programs,   fund-
ing for  the  Superfund program increases  by $230,000,000,  to $640,000,000  supported
by 1,357,1 total  workyears in  1985.   EPA will  continue  it's  efforts to  increase
the role  of  States   in managing  response  actions  end in working with  other  Federal
agencies in the  implementation  of Superfund.  A  major portion  of this  funding will
be used  to  support  "a threefold  increase  in  the  number  of  sites  where  remedial
construction will begin.   Other   Superfund  program increases will   support  expanded
enforcement efforts, particularly in  the  area  of cost  recoveries,  and  for  research
and development  projects  in   support  of  Superfund  activities.    In  addition to  the
increase from  the  1984  appropriated  amount,  we  are  also  requesting a  supplemental
in 1984  of  550,000,000   to   support  increased  site  investigations,   designs   and
constructions.  The  request  for  the Hazardous Waste  program,  continues our  efforts
to develop  and  implement  cost-effective  regulations.    An additional   $7,300,000
will  be used to expand and strengthen the  existing Hazardous  Waste program.

     EPA will   continue to  improve its enforcement efforts with  a major increase  of
sixty percent  in the Superfund program.  This expanded resource  base will  enable  the
Agency to ensure  an adequate  enforcement  presence  given  the  increasing numbers  of
sites identified and included  on  the  National  Priorty List.   There  is  also  a  signi-
ficant increase  for  toxic  substances  enforcement to  support additional  inspections
and case  Development  for  the  PC3   and  asbestos-in-schools  rules.   In  addition,
enforcement increases will continue  our efforts  to  fully eliminate the backlog  of
major water permits  by  the   end  of  1985.   This will  assure   that industrial   and
municipal dischargers  have oennits   in  sufficient  time  to  comply -with  statutory
requi rements.

     The 19"5  research and development  program  places emphasis  on four  major  areas:
acid  rain; understanding the  risks  posed  by  hazardous  and toxic chemicals;  enhanc-
ing our research to  control pollutants; and improving the scientific  bases  for esti-
mating the human health  consequences  of environmental pollutants.   Our request  for
research activities   includes  $278,048,700  supported by  1,851.0  total  workyears,   an
increase c" $33,324,900.   In  addition,  we  are   requesting  a  1984  supplemental   of
$5,500,000 for acid  rain research to  support the National  Lakes  Survey in  order  to
give  us an accurate  and  uniform measure of acified lakes.

     Grants to State and  local  governments are at a  level  of $237,688,300, and  the
Construction  Grants   program maintains the authorized  lev«1  of   $2,400,000,000.   The
1985  budget request  also  includes  a  $10,000,000  program for the Chesapeake  Ray, which
is designed to  support  Bay States  through  cost-shading  grants  and continue EPA's
role  in monitoring  and  modelina.   This major  initiative  is support by an  increase
of $5,800,000  eve : the 1984 level.
                                          S-l

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     A summary of budget authority  for EPA's  six  appropriation  accounts  is  as  follows:

                       EPA's Request by  Appropriation  Account
Salaries & Expenses	       $578,400,000         ...          $629,275,000
Abatement, Control  & Compliance..        393,900,000         ...           396,042,000
Research 5 Development	        139,200,000      55,500,000      163,437,000
Buildings 8 Facilities	          2,600,000         ..	       10,500,000
    Operating Programs Subtotal..     $1,114,100,000     $5,500,000    $1,209,254,000

Construction Grants	     $2,430,000,000        ...        $2,400,000,000
Hazardous Substance Response
  Trust Fund	     	410,000,OOP    _S50,000.000    _Jil2jj300_-_000

        Total	     $3,954,100,000    $55,500,000    $4,249,254.000
     The following briefly describes the content of  each  appropriation  and  the  changes
requested within each from the Agency's current 1984  estimates.

S_AL ARIES AN_D EXPENSES

     EPA requests  an  increase  of  $64,375,000  for  its  Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
priation which  finances  salaries  and  related  costs  associated  with  administering  the
programs within  the  Environmental   Protection  Agency.    It  incorporates   all   costs
exclusive of  grant  programs  and  program-specific  contractual  agreements.   The  in-
crease reflects the  additional  v/orkyears  in 1985  and  increased  support  for  hazardous
waste regulations  development,  acid rain  research,  toxic  substances  inspections  and
case development, and elimination of major  water permits  backlogs  by the end of  1985.

ABATEMENT, CONT_R_OL_ A!!D COMPL.IANCE_

     The Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation  finances cr- .tracts,  grants,
and cooperative agreements for  pollution abatement,  control  and  compliance  activities.
EPA requests an  increase  of  $2,142,000 in  1985 for  this appropriation  which  continues
these activities at essentially the  1984 level.

         AHD DEVELOPMENT
     The 1985 budget increases  the Research and Development appropriation by  $20,737,000
to $163,437,000.   Program increases  are primarily  for acid rain  research and and toxics
health effects.  In addition,  we  have  requested  a 1984 supplemental  of $5,500,000  for
acid rain research.

BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

     EPA requests $10,500,000, an increase  of $7,900,000  for  the Building and  Facil-
ities appropriation  which  finances  the  construction,  repair,   improvement,  extension,
alteration,  and ourchase  of  fixed  equipment of facilities  owned, as well  as  existing
facilities occupied by  t~3  Environmental Protection  Agency.   The  funds in 1985  will
ensure healthy and  safe conditions  in  EPA  laboratories,  prevent deterioration  of  our
owned and leased  facilities,  and  begin  construction  of a new  radiation laboratory in
Montgomery,  Alabama to replace the outmoded  facility.
                                          S-2

-------
     The Construction  Grants  appropriation is  for  grants to  local  public  agencies
for construction  of  municipal   wastewater treatment  facilities  to  assist   States
and localities in attaining water quality  standards.

     In 1981  Congress  enacted significant  reforms  proposed  by the Administration.
These reforms provide  for  a  more  cost-effective  program and  reduce  the  long-term
requirements for  Federal  assistance.   Under  the  reforms, Congress  provided a  four
year authorization  at  $2,400,000,000  with  an  additional  amount  of   $200,000,000,
beginning in  1983 for  combined   sewer  overflow.   The  1934  appropriation  provided
$2^,430,000,000,  which  included $30,000,000 for combined  sewer  overflow.   In  1985,
the Agency  is  requesting  $2,400,000,000  to obligate  funds  to award a  total  of  650
grants resulting  in  4,710  active  projects.   In addition,  approximately  1,060  pro-
jects are expected to have construction completed  during  1985.

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESPONSE TRUST FUND

     The 1985 budget  requests $640,000,000,  supported by  1,357,1  total  workyears,
an increase of $230,000,  and 350.0 total workyears to  support  the  Haz;,dous  Substance
Response Trust Fund.   In  1985  these  funds will  be dedicated to  responding to  ha/ardous
waste sites  and  spills;  expanding  the number of sites  where remedial construction
wMl  begin, encouraging States to assume a larger role in managing  response  actions;
adapting existing  research and  development   data and technology  to  support   field
response activities;  expanding our  enforcement  activity;  and,  supporting  on   going
activities of other Federal agencies.
                                        S-3

-------
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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents




                                                                              PAGE

AIR                                                                           A-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Oxi dants	    A-9
       Hazardous Air Pollutants	    A-21
       Mobi 1 e Sources	    A-32
       Gases & Particles	    A-41
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Air Quality & Stationary Source Planning & Standards	    A-55
          Emission Standards & Technology Assessment	    A-58
          Pollutant Strategies & Air Standards Development	    A-59
          State Program Guidelines & Regulations Development	    A-60
       Mobile Source Air Pollution Control  & Fuel  Economy	    A-62
          Emission Standards, Technical  Assessment & Characterization	    A-64
          Testing, Technical  & Administrative Support	    A-65
          Emissions & Fuel  Economy Compliance	    A-66
       State Programs Resource Assistance	    A-68
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)....    A-71
          Training	    A-72
       Air Quality Management Implementation	    A-73
       Trends Monitoring & Progress Assessment	    A-77
          Ambient  Air Quality Monitoring	    A-79
          Air Quality & Emissions Data Analysis & Progress Assessment	    A-81
    ENFORCEMENT
       Stationary  Source Enforcement	    A-85
       Mobile Source Enforcement	    A-89
                                      A-l

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                                        AIR


OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Clean Air  Act authorizes  a  nationwide program  of  air quality  planning,
regulation, enforcement, and research  for control  of air pollution.   EPA's strategy
to meet the requirements of the Act in the  1980's focuses on  six major  objectives:

ACHIEVE NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQSs) NATIONWIDE

     Attainment of  the primary  NAAQSs  nationwide  is  among  EPA's  highest  public
health related  priorities.   EPA's  strategy   for  attaining  the  NAAQSs  includes
working with States to  complete  and enforce the State  Implementation Plans  (SIPs)
required by the  Act.   The  lead  responsibility for  completing, implementing,  and
enforcing SIPs rests with  States,  with  support from EPA.  Much  of  the  EPA  support
will be provided through EPA Regional  Offices.

     Since 1970, SIPs  have  been  the chief regulatory means to  reach  the healthful
levels of air  quality  set  by the NAAQSs.   The primary focus  of the SIPs has  been
the application  of  reasonably  available  control  technology  (RACT)  to  existing
sources of pollution to  achieve  needed emission  reductions.   Application of  RACT
will continue to be the foundation of  the SIP program in the  1980's.

     Although air quality  has  generally  improved as  a  result  of  the  measures  in
SIPs, EPA and  the States will  have to remedy  SIPs  which have proven  inadequate to
meet NAAQSs  by statutory  deadlines.   In  some instances,  measures  in SIPs  have
not been implemented or  enforced.   The  Clean Air Act  requires  that primary  NAAQSs
for total  suspended particulates,  sulfur  dioxide,   ozone,   carbon  monoxide,   and
nitrogen dioxide be met  by  December 1982.  Some States were  granted  extensions  of
this deadline, through December 1987,  to meet NAAQSs for ozone and  carbon monoxide.
Deadlines for  attaining the NAAQSs  for  lead vary, depending  on  the date of State-
plan approval  by EPA.  In 1985 EPA will complete the  review of  most of  the  remain-
ing State lead plans that have not been  approved.

     In addition to  remedying SIPs  still  inadequate  to meet  NAAQSs,  the  States
and EPA  will   carry out a  comprehensive  enforcement  program  aimed  at  achieving
continuous compliance   by  stationary  and  mobile  sources.  The  stationary  source
enforcement program will continue to  emphasize compliance  by  "significant  viola-
tors," particularly those major  sources  in or affecting areas not  meeting  health-
related air standards.   The program will allow States more   flexibility  in  sched-
uling inspections and  require  sources to  increase the use of continuous  emissions
monitoring.  Additional  elements  of  an  effective  continuous  compliance  program
will be  identified  in  1984,  as  part of the development of a  continuous compliance
strategy, and will be  implemented  beginning in 1985.  In the enforcement of SIPs,
sources of volatile  organic  compounds  will  receive  increased  attention in 1985.
Emissions from these  sources  are of  concern  both  because they contribute to  un-
healthful ozone  levels  and  because  their  components  may   be  toxic  in  nature.

     As a  result  of industry efforts in  controlling emissions  and the effective-
ness of  State,  local,  and  Federal  control programs,  approximately 90 percent  of
the more than  18,000  major stationary  sources have  achieved compliance with  all
applicable emission limitations.   An  additional  2.4  percent  are   meeting  accept-
able compliance  schedules.   Although the  current  rate  of   compliance  represents
a significant  achievement,  efforts  must  continue  to ensure that remaining  sources
come into compliance with present standards,  or any new or revised standards,  and
that compliance, once  achieved,  is maintained.

     Ensuring compliance by  Federal  facilities  will  be a priority  activity   for
EPA in  1985.   The  current  rate  of  compliance  by  Federal  facilities  with   SIP
emission limits is generally  very  good.   Efforts  will focus   on  keeping facilities
meeting limits in compliance and  on addressing the  relatively few  facilities  that
remain out of compliance.
                                       A-3

-------
     A continued reduction in emissions from in-use motor vehicles will  he a major
factor in meeting  NAAQSs,  particularly the standards  for  ozone, carbon monoxide,
and nitrogen dioxide.  To help ensure that vehicles meet emission  standards through-
out their useful life, EPA will  maintain  a  comprehensive Federal  compliance program
and will work with States  to  establish anti-tampering and fuel switching programs.

     The primary objective of the  Federal  compliance  program for  motor vehicles
is to  ensure  that  manufacturers design  and  produce vehicles that  are capable of
meeting emission standards throughout their  useful  life.   The  program includes
preproduction certifications   of  emission  control   systems,  Selective Enforcement
Audits (SEAs)  of manufacturers'  facilities,  and  recalls  of  insufficiently  con-
trolled vehicles.  Recall  investigations  of  vehicles  with  high  mileage are espe-
cially important in ensuring  that emission  standards continue to  be  met.

     EPA will support  the  establishment  of anti-tampering  and fuel  switching  pro-
grams in all  areas  where  health standards have  not  been  achieved,  or  have  been
only marginally achieved, for ozone,  carbon monoxide,  or nitrogen  dioxide.  Tamper-
ing with vehicle emission  control  systems and  switching to leaded fuels greatly
increase the  levels  of  these three  pollutants.    In  addition  to  supporting the
establishment of new anti-tampering and  fuel  switching programs, EPA will  also be
tracking the progress of existing programs  to  ensure that projected  emission  reduc-
tions are achieved.

     To assure the adequacy  of SIPs and the  effectiveness  of compliance programs
in meeting  NAAQSs, the States and  EPA will  continue  a comprehensive program for
the collection  and   analysis  of  ambient  air  quality   and  emissions  data.   The
credibility of  the  data will  be maintained  through  effective  quality assurance
procedures.

MAINTAIN STRONG STATE AND LOCAL PROGRAMS

     State and local  governments have  developed  air pollution control programs of
increasing scope and  effectiveness.   EPA will continue to   support these programs
by providing direct program assistance  and  training and by facilitating information
exchange.  The mechanisms  for  information  exchange  include   operation  of clearing-
houses for determining appropriate levels of control technology  and publication of
additional  Control  Techniques Guidelines  and  Control Technology Documents.

     The abatement  and  control  and  enforcement programs will  continue to reflect
full partnership with  the  States in air pollution  control.   States have been as-
sisted in assuming their responsibility under the Act by EPA's provision of  finan-
cial support.  State grant assistance  will  be  continued to  provide for  regulatory
reform and  allow broader State discretion  on  regulatory programs.   This  assistance
will emphasize improving State  capabilities  with  a corresponding reduction of de-
tailed Federal overview.

     A National Air Audit System (NAAS) was  initiated in 1984 to  identify obstacles
to control   agency effectiveness  and to help  EPA define  more  efficient  and meaning-
ful national programs. The NAAS, developed jointly  by  representatives  from State
and local  governments  and  EPA,  covers four  program areas:   air  quality planning,
new source  review,   compliance  assurance,  and  air  monitoring.   A  fifth  program
area, vehicle inspection and  maintenance,  will be added in   1985.  The entire  NAAS
will be continued in 1985 and a  national summary  report prepared.   The report  will
be used  by  EPA to help  identify the  program assistance needs  of State and  local
agencies.
                                         A-4

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REVIEW NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

     The establishment of  NAAQSs  at  levels that protect public  health  and  prevent
other adverse effects  has  been the keystone  of the national  air  quality  program.
The need to  revise NAAQSs  is  determined  based on  regular assessment  of the  most
accurate and up-to-date  scientific  data  available  on the  health and  other  effects
of the  various  pollutants.   These  effects  are summarized  in  criteria  documents
prepared by EPA's  research  program.   In  addition  to preparing  criteria documents,
the research program  develops  reliable monitoring  methods,  cost-effective  control
technologies, and  air  quality  simulation  models that help  States and  the  regulated
community comply with the NAAQSs.

     During 1985,  EPA will promulgate  revised NAAQSs  for particulate matter  and
sulfur dioxide.  Also  during  1985,  EPA will  complete the  review of the NAAQSs  for
ozone and lead and develop the support documentation for deciding  any  needed  revi-
sions to the standards.

     During 1984,  EPA  will  assess the current  process  for  reviewing  and  revising
NAAQSs.  The assessment will cover the scope of the criteria and regulatory  support
documents and the  associated  resource requirements.  The  assessment  may  result  in
modifications to the  NAAQSs  review process  and to the analyses supporting  NAAQSs
revisions in 1985 and later years.

ESTABLISH TECHNOLOGY-BASED STANDARDS

     Substantial progress has  been  made in establishing national  technology-based
standards for new  major stationary  sources and motor vehicles.  Promulgation  of
New Source Performance  Standards (NSPSs)  for   all   categories  of  major stationary
sources was not, however,  completed  by the 1982 deadline  in the Clean  Air Act.   A
revised schedule has  been  developed by EPA  that  will  accelerate  NSPS development
and provide for  coverage of all  major  source  categories  by the end  of  1986.   In
1985, 20 additional NSPSs  will  be promulgated  by  EPA.   An  additional  23  standards-
will be proposed or under  development.  Many of the  standards  promulgated  or  under
development will limit emissions  of particulates,  volatile  organic  compounds,  and
nitrogen oxides.

     Many major classes  of  new  motor  vehicles   are  now covered  by  Federal  emission
standards.  Future standard  setting will  focus primarily  on heavy-duty  vehicles.
In 1985,  final   standards  will  be promulgated for particulates  from  heavy-duty
vehicles and  nitrogen  oxides  from  heavy-duty engines  and   light-duty   trucks.

     Comprehensive compliance  activities,  described  earlier,  will   remain  major
components of the Federal motor vehicle air pollution control program.  The  Federal
motor vehicle testing program  will  include:   300 tests for  preproduction  certifi-
cates; 700 tests for fuel economy  labeling  and compliance;  and 2,500 tests  of in-use
vehicles for support  of  the  Federal  recall program and State  compliance  programs.
The results  of  the in-use  vehicle  testing  are also used  to  provide  States  with
information needed to develop  control  strategies.   The recall  initiative begun  in
1984 will   be  expanded  with  further  testing and  investigation of  both  moderate
mileage and high  mileage vehicles.  Developmental  work  will  begin  on new recall
programs covering heavy-duty engines and light-duty  vehicle  evaporative emissions.

DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT  NEW PROGRAMS

     In 1984 EPA  will better  define  the  nature and magnitude  of the air toxics
problem and  reassess  the  regulatory  options  for  dealing   with  the   problem.  The
results of this analysis,  scheduled for  completion in  late  1984,  will  provide the
basis for a  more  comprehensive  strategy   for  controlling   air  toxics.   While the
strategy is being  completed,  EPA will  continue to  screen chemicals  to determine
which ones may  pose  a significant  risk  to public  health  at ambient  levels.  De-
tailed assessments will  be prepared of health  effects,  current emissions, public
exposure,  public  risk,  feasible  emission  reductions,  and  regulatory  options.
Decisions  for Federal   regulatory  actions  will  be  made for  a  number of chemicals
in 1985.
                                      A-5

-------
     Toxic air  pollutants  are  now  controlled  both  through  State  programs  and
through Federal emission limits.  The Federal  limits, which  apply to both new and
existing sources, are  called  National Emission Standards  for Hazardous Air Pollu-
tants  (NESHAPs).  State and local  programs  for  controlling  air toxics  are  generally
less developed than the  programs  for  controlling pollutants  for which NAAQSs have
been established.  Some  air  toxics  are controlled  as  a result  of State plans to
meet NAAQSs.   These  pollutants  are  emitted as  particulates  or  volatile organic
compounds.  Similarly, some air  toxics are  controlled as the  result  of the applica-
tion of NSPSs.

     NESHAPs have been established for sources  of four pollutants:  asbestos, beryl-
lium, mercury and vinyl  chloride.  Benzene  and arsenic have  been  listed as hazard-
ous air pollutants and emission  control regulations have been  proposed. NESHAPs for
sources of  benzene  and arsenic  are scheduled  for promulgation  during 1984; emis-
sion standards for additional  arsenic  sources are scheduled in 1985.

     EPA will  also  monitor the  composition  of  motor  vehicle  fuels  and  fuel  ad-
ditives as part of the Federal  air  toxics  program and,  if necessary, take regula-
tory action  to protect  public  health.   In  addition,  EPA will assist  State  and
local governments in  air  toxics  monitoring,  emissions  estimations,  and control
techniques.

     Acid deposition is  a  growing issue of  national and international concern.   In
order to assess the  need for a full  program of  remedial  action,  further information
is needed  about  major  sources of acid  rain precursors  and the magnitude, extent,
and severity  of  acid  deposition effects.   Possible measures  for  mitigating these
effects need to  be  evaluated.  EPA's  research  program, in  cooperation  with other
Federal and State agencies, is  developing the  scientific and technical information
required for  dealing  with  the  acid deposition problem.   In  1984, EPA's research
program will  compile   and  analyze additional  emissions,   control  technology,  and
monitoring information.  Compilation  of an  improved data  base will  continue  in
1985.  A more detailed description of  the  program is included  in the Energy section
of the budget request.

CONTINUE RESEARCH TO SUPPORT REGULATORY  PROGRAMS

     In 1985,  the  EPA research  and  development  program will  continue  to support
the air quality regulatory program by providing  other EPA  offices,  State  and local
governments, and  the   regulated  community  with   information  necessary  to   reduce
ozone, gases, and particles;  hazardous air  pollutants; and  mobile  source emissions.
The scientific  assessment  program will   continue to update  criteria documents  on
the health and other adverse effects of  pollutants to support  the  review of NAAQSs.
The health effects research program will  continue to  focus  on  assessing the contri-
bution of  oxidants and  their  precursors,  as well as other gases  and particles,  to
chronic conditions such  as  chronic  obstructive lung disease  and immune deficiency.
Also, the  health effects program  will continue to develop methods  to evaluate the
genetic, developmental,  neutrotoxic, mutagenic,  and carcinogenic effects  of  poten-
tial hazardous air pollutants.

     The environmental engineering and technology program will continue to evaluate
and assess the  performance,  cost, and  reliability  of  existing, new, and emerging
air emission  reduction technologies.  The monitoring systems  and  quality  assurance
program will  continue  to  develop air  quality  monitoring  data  and methods  and  to
provide support  for  quality  assurance.   The  environmental  processes and effects
program will  continue to  develop  and   refine  air quality models  and  assess the
adverse effects of pollution on  materials  and vegetation.
                                        A-6

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                                        AIR
                       Actual
                        1983
 Budget
Estimate
  1984
Program Activities

National Ambient
 Air QualiTy
 Standards
  Proposals 	    0         1
  Promulgations.	    1*        3

 New Source Performance
  Standards

  Source categories
   covered	     46**      67
  Proposals	    11        12
  Promulgations	    12        18

 National Emission Standards
  for Hazardous Air
  Pollutants

  Number of pollutants
   covered	    4         6
  Proposals	   4         6
  Promulgations	   0         3

 Light-duty vehicle
  engine families
  certified	    302       250

 Vehicle tests
  emission

  Certification	   270       300
  Fuel economy	  630       700

 Assembly line testing
  test orders	  17        17

 Combined fuels/vapor
  recovery inspections..  15,000    15,000

 Recall  investigations..  45        44

 Compliance monitoring
  inspections  by EPA.....  1739      1694
Amendment/
 Current
Estimate
  1984
                55
                15
                12
                300
                300
                700
                17


                13,600

                60


                2017
Estimate
  1985
                                                            68
                                                             7
                                                            20
                                                           300
                                                           300
                                                           700
                                                           17


                                                           10,600

                                                           60


                                                           1685
 Increase(+)
 Decrease(-)
1985 vs.  1984
                                         -3
                            +13
                            - 8
                            + 8
                                        +1
                           -3,000
                           -332
 *Recision of hydrocarbon standard.

**Standards for 33 source categories  were  developed  prior to the August 1979
  priority listing.  Promulgations were  made  for  seven  source  categories  from
  the priority list between  August 1979  and September  30, 1982.
                                         A-7

-------

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents




                                                                              PAGE

AIR

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Oxi dants	    A-9
       Hazardous Air Pollutants	    A-21
       Mobi 1 e Sources	    A-32
       Gases & Particles	    A-41
                                       A-8

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                                        AIR
                                      Oxidants
                                         Actual
Major Outputs/Milestones                  1983

Develop and Validate Air Quality
Models

-  Report on improved chemical            3/85
   mechanisms for an urban scale
   ozone model  (Env.  Processes)

   Report on validation of regional       3/86
   scale ozone model (Env. Processes)

Develop Health and Welfare Effects
Information

-  Provide a national economic            8/84
   assessment of ozone impacts
   on major U.S. crops
   (Env. Processes)

   Update the national  crop loss          9/86
   assessment (Env. Processes)

   Journal  article on immunologi-         9/87
   cal and biochemical  response
   to 03 (Health)

-  Journal  article on comparative         9/87
   dosimetry models for oxidants
   (Health)

-  Journal  article on the effects         2/87
   of 03 and NOj on pulmonary
   host defenses in animals (Health)

-  Publish the criteria document          1/85
   for ozone and other  photochemical
   oxidants (Scientific Assessment)

Develop and Validate Measurement
and Monitoring Methods

   Provide QA support for the            12/83
   Oxidant program (Monitoring)

-  Provide Final Report for               6/84
   National  Atmospheric Pollutant
   Background Network (Monitoring)

Research and Assess Emission  Reduction
Technologies
Amendment/
Current
Estimate
  1984
  3/85



  3/86





  8/84




  9/86


  9/87



  9/87



  2/87



  1/85
Estimate
  1985
  3/86
  9/86


  9/87



  9/87



  2/87



  1/85
 12/84
  6/84
 12/85
                                       A-12

-------
Major Outputs/Milestones

-  Report on design and construction
   of a flare testing facility (Env.
   Technology)

-  Report on the results of joint
   demonstration with a major truck
   manufacturing company to evaluate
   microprocessor control  device for
   VOCs (Env. Technology)

-  Provide guidance on how to apply
   advanced heavy-oil, low NOX burner
   to oil  field steam generator
   (Env. Technology)

-  Report on the cost and  efficiency
   of improved VOC reduction technol-
   ogies (Env. Technology)

-  Provide report on the pilot-scale
   tests of reburning techniques on
   stationary combustors (Env.
   Technology)

-  Provide report on technical
   requirements for pellet fuel for
   NOv and
SOX control
from stoker
                              Actual
                               1983

                               3/83
                               6/83
                              12/83
                              12/85
                               6/84
                              12/84
                                  Amendment/
                                  Current
                                  Estimate
                                    1984
Estimate
  1985
   boilers (Env. Technology)

-  Provide report on bench-scale tests    6/84
   of potential for NOX reduction in
   industrial  glass furnaces (Env.
   Technology)
                                   12/85
                                    6/84
                                   12/84
                                                6/84
 12/85
 12/84
                                       A-13

-------
                                        AIR


                                     Oxidants


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $15,523,000 supported by 107.1 total  workyears
for 1985,  an  increase  of $832,500 from 1984.   Included in this total is $6,146,800
for Salaries  and Expenses  and  $9,376,200 for  Research  and Development,  with in-
creases of $305,700 and  $526,800,  respectively.  This  increase results from an ex-
panded effort  on the health impacts of  nitrogen dioxide  (N02)  and  additional  re-
search on  reduction technologies for volatile organic compounds.

Program Description

     The Clean  Air  Act,  as amended  in 1977 (the Act),  requires the Environmental
Protection Agency  (EPA)  to periodically  re-evaluate the  adequacy of  National  Am-
bient Air  Quality  Standards  (NAAQS)  based  upon  the most  scientifically  credible
data base  available  at the time  of  review.   Research  is also  needed  to  help the
regulatory decision-makers,  the  regulated  community and  the  Regional,  State and
local officials, develop  cost-effective control  strategies and implementation pro-
cedures for the  control of  oxidants which include ozone, volatile organic compounds
(VOC's), and nitrogen  oxides  (NOX).  The  following  objectives  support these goals:

     Objective 1.  Develop  and Validate Air  Quality Models  to  Support Implementa-
tion .""Maintenance  and   Enforcement  of  National  Ambient  Air  Quality Standards"
(NAAQS).Research under  this objective provides  the air  quality models, emissions
data, monitoring tools, and technical strategies required by the Act.

     Objective 2.  Develop  Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support Review
and Revision of  NAAQS.A criteria document  for health and welfare effects provides
the primary documentation of  scientific data for  use in the review of existing am-
bient air  quality standards.

     Objective 3.  Develop  and Validate Measurement and Monitoring Methods  in Sup-
port of the Oxidants Program Requirements.New and improved air pollution methodo-
logies and monitoring techniques are being developed and evaluated to determine air
quality trends, compliance, and enforcement  actions.

     Objective 4.  Research and Assess Emission Reduction Technologies  to Support
Permitting, New  Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Compliance Activities.  Trf
order to promulgate cost-effective NSPS and provide  assistance  to  EPA Regions, State
and local   officials  in  their  permitting, enforcement  and  compliance  activities,
research must be conducted  to identify design criteria  for developing more reliable
and less costly NOX and VOC emission  reduction technologies.

     Objective 5.  Provide  Quality Assurance Support for the Oxidants  Program  Re-
quirements.This task  specifies  mandatory  quality  assuranceforState  and local
air monitoring stations.  All measurements must be  traceable to  National  Bureau  of
Standards  standard  reference methods  (SRMs)  for the  purpose  of   providing  good
procedures, wherever possible,  thereby ensuring  that  Agency decisions are  backed
by technical  data that are accurate and precise.

SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $1,074,000 supported by 9.0 total workyears for
this program, of  which $473,200 is for  Salaries  and Expenses and  $600,800  is for
Research and  Development.   This  reflects an increase  of  $5,700 for Salaries  and
Expenses.
                                       A-14

-------
     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support the Review and Revi-
sion of NAAQS.The  current  Agency schedule  for  reviewing and updating  the  ozone
NAAQS cal 1 s  for  final   standard  promulgation in  September,  1986.   Thus,  revision
of the ozone  and  other photochemical  oxidants criteria document  will  be completed
in January,  1985.   In  addition,  literature retrieval and  procurement  actions  will
be initiated to begin the development of the criteria document for nitrogen oxides.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is allocating a  total  of $1,068,300 and 9.0  total  work-
years to this program, of which $467,500 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropri-
ation and $600,800  is  for  extramural  purposes  under the  Research  and Development
appropriation.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support the Review and Revi-
sion of NAAQS.  TiiTe  first  draft  of  the  revised  criteria  document  for  ozone  a"nd
other photochemical oxidants is being prepared for release to the public.  In early
1984, a peer review workshop on health effects was conducted.  In addition, techni-
cal support  is being provided  to  assist OAQPS in  developing a regulatory proposal,
reviewing public comments, and promulgating a revised ozone standard.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated a  total  of $807,100  and 8.6  total  workyears  for
this program, of  which  $366,200  was  under the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $440,900 was  for  extramural  purposes  under the Research and Development appro-
priation.

     Develop Health  and Welfare Effects Information to Support the Review  and Re-
vision of NAAQS.The  first  internalreview  draftof  the revisedcriteria  docu-
ment for  ozone  and  other  photochemical  oxidants was  prepared  and  a  public  peer
review on  welfare effects was conducted.

MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency 'requests  a total  of  $1,020,300  supported  by  14.8 total  workyears
for this program,  of which $779,800  is  for  Salaries and  Expenses and $240,500 is
for Research and  Development.  This reflects  an  increase  of $29,100 and a decrease
of $6,000, respectively.   This  net  increase will  be  utilized  to  increase the  fre-
quency of audits.

     Develop and  Validate Measurement and  Monitoring  Methods  in  Support  of  the
Oxidants Program^The  research  program  willfocus on  the development and evalua-
tion of methods  to measure  ozone,  nitrogen  oxides  (NOX), and other  oxidant  pre-
cursors.  Emphasis  will  be placed upon evaluating cryogenic  techniques to enhance
the detectability  of low  level  VOC   concentrations  and upon  evaluating existing,
commercial VOC  monitors.    Manuals  and  guidelines  will   be  prepared  to  provide
guidance on which commercial instruments are most appropriate.
                                       A-15

-------
    Provide Quality Assurance Support- for the Oxidants Program.  ORD  will  continue
to maintain therepository of  standard  reference materials.   Reference analyses,
and gas  samples traceable  to  NBS standards  will be provided to the user community.
The National Audit  Program will  be continued.  Two additional  standard ultraviolet
spectrophotometers will  be obtained  from  NBS  and  distributed  for  regional  use.

1984 Program

     In  1984, the  Agency is allocating $997,200 and  14.8  total  workyears for this
program, of  which  $750,700 is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation  and
$246,500 is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the   Research  and  Development  appro-
priation.

     Develop and Validate  Measurement and Monitoring  Methods  in  Support  of  the
Oxidants ProgranuEPA has proposed  performance standards  and  guidelines to limit
emissions of VOCs  from organic process equipment.   As a  result,  ORD is evaluating
instruments in compliance  with EPA methods.   Simplified methods for the measurement
of other oxidant precursors is continuing.

    Provide Quality Assurance Support for the Oxidants Program.  The National Stan-
da rdFT7bl>rTEoTy~Tnd~The~TiaTToT?aT^                               The audit program
assures  that the data base  used  for regulatory decision making is accurate, precise
and reliable.  The  National  Atmospheric  Background Network is  being  completed and
a final  report prepared.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$45,500 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammmings.   (-$45,500) Several reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted  in  a net decrease  of -$2,000 to the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and a net  decrease of -$43,500 to the Research and Development appro-
priation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In  1983, the Agency obligated  a  total  of $1,179,200 and  17.8 total  workyears,
of which $797,900  was under the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  and $381,300
was for  extramural   purposes   under  the  Research   and  Development  appropriation.

     Develop and Validate  Measurement and Monitoring  Methods  in  Support  of  the
Oxidants ProgranuResearch on monitoring systems for the measurement of ozone, NOX
and otheroxidant  precursors  was  conducted.   Research  was initiated  to evaluate
existing, commercial  VOC  monitoring  instruments  and to  prepare user  manuals  and
guidelines on the use of these instruments.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support for the Oxidants Program.  The repository of
standard reference materials  was maintained.   Reference  analyses and  gas  samples
traceable to NBS  standards were  provided  to  the user  community.  The  National Audit
Program was  continued.   In addition,  the  National  Atmospheric  Pollutant Background
Network was  continued  with five  stations  operating in National Forests.  This pro-
vided the data  necessary to review  SIPs  and assess  regional  pollutant transport.
Short term monitoring operations were  conducted for  OAQPS,  the Regions  and  several
State agencies.
                                       A-16

-------
HEALTH EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $4,431,900  supported  by 24.6  total  workyears
for this program,  of  which $1,564,700 is for Salaries  and  Expenses and $2,867,200
is for Research  and  Development.   This  reflects  increases of  $101,700  for Sala-
ries and Expenses and $456,300 for Research and Development.  This increase results
from an enhanced  research  effort  in N02 toxicology work.   Also,  in the extrapola-
tion program, studies to  determine  the sensitivity of  different  animal  species to
oxidant pollutants will  be conducted.

     Develop  Health and Welfare Effects Information  to  Support  the  Review  and
Revision of NAAQS"!EHrelies  on   animal  test   data  vn   setting  arfcl  revi sing
standards for protecting  human  health  under  the  Clean  Air Act.   These  tests  are
especially useful for determining the long term health effects  of chronic exposures
and for studying  the  effects  of  pollutant  inhalation  in potentially sensitive sub-
populations such  as  children.  In  1985,  the  animal  tests  are designed to examine
several biological endpoints, including  pulmonary structure and  function, ability
to fight respiratory disease, and cardiovascular changes following exposure to oxi-
dants.  Also, increased  emphasis will  be  placed on the  study  of  biochemical  and
immunological  effects and  on expanding  the data base  for  N02»   The ozone  uptake
model, developed in 1983, will be validated experimentally.

     In 1985, work with  potentially sensitive  populations,  such as persons with
chronic bronchitis, will  increase.   Clinical  studies  involve acute  exposures only.
To increase the  value of  clinical and animal  studies  from  a regulatory  standpoint,
it is  necessary  to have reliable models  for  extrapolating  animal  data to humans.
Mathematical  models  to   predict   the  sensitivity  of different  animal  species,
including man, to  the  Impact of  ozone will  be  developed.   Additional  theoretical
models for  respiratory  tract  deposition of ozone and  NOj  will  also  be developed.
In addition, increased  epidemiology  resources  will enable  EPA to collaborate with
other Federal  agencies in epidemiologic studies.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is allocating a total  of $3,873,900 and 24.6  total  work-
years to this program, of  which  $1,463,000 is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation and $2,410,900 is  for extramural  purposes under the Research and Develop-
ment appropriation.

     Develop''Health and Welfare Effects  Information  to  Support  the  Review  and
Revision of NAAQSTFollowing a  workshop  Tn1983  which identified  extrapolation
research needs,£PA  is  enhancing  its efforts to  improve  extrapolation techniques
and applicability.   Animal  toxicology  studies  are providing  data  on  functional,
morphological, and biochemical changes following  acute and chronic oxidant exposure.
Also, clinical studies  will  be  conducted to  assess the  response  of humans to acute
oxidant exposure.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$14,100 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$14,100)   A  reprogramming was made  to this  activity  which
was not reportable under  the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.  This change
resulted in a net decrease of -$14,100 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated  a total of  $3,002,900 and  18.6  total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $967,200  was  under the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and $2,035,700 was for Research and Development.
                                        A-17

-------
      Develop   Health  and  Welfare  Effects  Information  to  Support  the  Review  and
 Revision  of NAAQSlA workshop was sponsored by  the  Agency to identify extrapola-
 tion  research  needs for EPA.  Also, a mathematical  model  for ozone uptake was com-
 pleted  and reviewed at  the  workshop.    Controlled   human  studies were performed
 which described  changes in  pulmonary   structure  and   function,   blood,  and  host
 defense mechanisms  following chronic  pollutant exposures.

 ENVIRONMENTAL  ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

 1985  Program Request

      The  Agency  requests a  total  of  $3,561,400 supported  by 25.8 total  workyears
 for this  program,  of which  $1,350,400  is  for  Salaries  and Expenses and $2,211,000
 is for  Research  and Development.   This reflects increases  of  $92,900 and $300,000,
 respectively.  The  increase  represents additional  research  on VOC reduction tech-
 nologies.

      Research  and Assess  Emissions  Reduction Technologies   to  Support  Permitting,
 NSPS  and  Compliance Activities.Volatileorganic  compounds  are  a major  cause of
 the ozone  non-attainment  problems in the  country.   Reliable data on demonstrated,
 cost-effective and  energy-efficient emission reduction technologies for many medium
 and small  sources  of VOC's  are lacking.   Research  to optimize VOC reduction tech-
 nologies  will  be conducted  to  support the development of  NSPS  and the establish-
 ment  of  SIPs.   Emission  factors  for industrial  safety/relief  systems  will  be
 developed.  An analysis of generic technologies  for  VOC  control  will  be conducted
 for key industrial   sources.  Research  to determine the efficiency of  catalytic
 oxidizers will be continued, and  a  series  of field  tests  will  be conducted to eval-
 uate  the  accuracy of  performance  models for carbon  adsorption  and thermal incinera-
 tion.   Laboratory and field tests will be conducted  to  evaluate  methods developed
 in 1984 for evaluating  the  efficiency of  spray painting  systems.   The methods will
 be used to verify  compliance with NSPS and SIP regulations  for VOC emissions.  The
 use of  microprocessor technologies to  enhance the cost of controlling VOC emissions
 will  be evaluated   for  industrial  processes.   Research  on  road  dust  suppressants
 will  continue.

      Combustion  modification methods  for  reducing  NOX emissions  and improving the
 performance of industrial   furnaces  will   be  assessed.    Prior research  has  proven
 that  combustion  modification methods  can  be effective for  controlling  NOX  as well
 as other  emissions.

 1984  Program

      In 1984,  the   Agency  is allocating  a  total  of  $3,168,500  and   25.8  total
 workyears to this   program,  of  which  $1,257,500  is  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
 appropriation  and  $1,911,000  is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the Research  and
 Development appropriation.

      Research  and Assess Emissions Reduction  Technologies  to  Support Permitting,
 NSPS and Compliance Activities.Pilot scale tests are being conducted for catalytic
 oxidizers and  the  results  scaled  up to full size units.   Gases,  representative of
 emissions from  industrial   safety/relief   systems,  will   be  combusted  at a  pilot
 scale flare facility  to determine their destruction efficiencies.   Research will be
 initiated to measure  the  effectiveness of a number of road dust  suppressants  over
 a two year period.   In addition,  combustion  modification  tests  on a  full-scale
 cement  kiln are  being completed  and tests are being  initiated on refinery process
 heaters.

 1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$17,500 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$17,500)   A  reprogramming  was made  to this activity  which
was not  reportable  under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This  change
 resulted in a  net decrease  of -$17,500 to the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation.
                                        A-18

-------
1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated  a total  of $4,010,700  and  30.7  total  workyears
for this program, of which $1,442,800 was under the Salaries and Expenses  appropri-
ation and $2,567,900 was for extramural  purposes under the Research  and Development
appropriation.

     Research and Assess Emissions Reduction Technologies  to  Support  Permitting,
NSPS and Compliance Activities.  Field  evaluations 57  industrial  catalytic  oxi-
dizers were  conducted  at  six  sites  representing  eight incinerators.  A  number  of
field tests  were  completed on the  effectiveness  of dust  suppression  on  paved and
unpaved roads,  and  the effectiveness  of a latex  binder  on  a  coal  storage  pile.

     The use  of microprocessor  technologies  to  enhance  and  reduce  the cost  of
controlling  VOC emissions  from metal  coating ovens  was completed.   In  addition,
a study to define conceptual techniques to measure the capture  efficiency of hood-
ing systems  was completed.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of  $5,435,400  supported  by 32.9  total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $1,978,700 is for Salaries and  Expenses and $3,456,700
is for  Research  and Development.   This  reflects an  increase of  $76,300  and  a de-
crease of $223,500, respectively.   This net decrease reflects the completion  of the
first phase  of  the regional  scale modeling process  and  the completion of several
studies in the air ecology program.

Develop and  Validate Air Quality Models  to Support  Implementation,  Maintenance,
and Enforcement of NAAQSJUrbanscaleaTrqualitymodelswillcontinueto  be
developed, validated,and refined  for  dissemination  to the  user   community.   In
order to  address  inadequacies  in the  urban  models  production,  the  program  will
focus on improving the  chemical mechanisms  that quantitatively  describe ozone for-
mation in ambient air.

     An improved second generation  regional scale  air  quality model  for ozone will
be developed.  The deficiencies in various modular  components of the regional  model
such as  chemistry,  meteorology,  and  emissions  will  be  corrected  and tested  for
accuracy against  air  quality  data  obtained  from  the Northeast Regional  Oxidant
Study.
      *>

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects  Information  to  Support  Review and   Revi-
sion of NAAQS.As part of  the NationalCrop  Loss Assessment Network  (NCLAN), re-
search wil 1  Be  conducted  to quantify the  economic impacts  of  ozone  on  the yield
of major crop species.

     Research to determine the extent and  economic implications  of  the effects  of
ozone on forests  will   be  initiated.   To provide  a preliminary  indication  of the
extent and magnitude  of the problem, research  will  initially  focus  on evaluating
the relationship between  the  growth of  forest  species and estimates  of  ozone air
quality.  Studies are also planned,  under conditions which  will  reflect a range  of
air quality situations and forest types, to establish cause  and effect relationships.

     In the  biomonitoring  program,  the potential   for  using bees as  indicators  of
air pollution trends will  be evaluated.
                                       A-19

-------
1984 Program

     In 1984,  the  Agency   is  allocating  a  total  of  $5,582,600  and   32.9  total
workyears to  this program, of  which $1,902,400 is  for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $3,680,200  is  for the  Research and  Development appropriation.

     Develop  and  Validate Air  Quality Models  to Support Implementation, Mainte-
nance, and Enforcement of NAAQS.  A  number  of  urban  scale air  quality  models  for
predicting ambient ozone are being developed and validated for use in the  development
and implementation of SIPs.

     The first  generation  regional  scale ozone model  is being tested and evaluated
against the  available air  quality data  base.   These  tests  will  be used  to identify
any weaknesses  and make improvements in the models predictive capability.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support Review  and Revision
of NAAQS.Research to  address  the  impacts  of ozone on  major agronomic  crops  is
being conducted  under the  NCLAN program.   In  1984,  dose/response functions  are
being integrated  with  air quality  and  economic  data to  provide a  preliminary
assessment of the economic impacts of ozone  on major  crops grown in the U.S.   This
assessment utilizes applied economic models  to project data for  farm level  losses
through the market place to the consumer level.

     Also, a  biomonitoring program  using  bees as  bioindicators  of air pollution
trends is being conducted.   Studies  are being conducted in the Puget Sound area to
verify initial  observations with  respect to  arsenic  and fluoride pollutants  to
determine if a  more concentrated field sampling program is needed.

1984 Explanation of Change from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$26,100 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$26,100) A  reprogramming was made to this  activity  which
was not reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This  change
resulted in  a  net decrease  of  -$26,100 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated  a total  of  $4,367,500  and  27.0 total  workyears
for this program, of which $1,420,500 was under the Salaries and Expenses appropri-
ation and $2,947,000 was for extramural  purposes under the Research and  Development
appropriation.

     Develop and Validate Air Quality Models to Support  the  Implementation,  Main-
tenance, and Enforcement of NAAQS"   In  the urban scale modeling program, the  photo-
reactivity of  percholorethylene  to  produce  ozone  was  determined  and  found   to  be
less important  in  contributing  to ozone  problems than previously  thought.   Also,
an assessment  of the  strengths  and  weaknesses of  the  ozone  mechanisms  currently
used in urban  air quality  models  was  provided.   The  first  regional  scale  ozone
model  was formulated.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support Review and  Revision
of NAAQS.   iJnder the NCLAN program,  ozone dose/response  experiments" were conducted
for winter wheat,  soybean, and barley.  An  evaluation  of economic  and  crop  yield
assessment techniques  was completed  to  establish the  best  approach  to be used in a
preliminary national  assessment of the  impact of ozone.   This evaluation  was also
used to identify  research  areas  which  would  improve the accuracy  of assessing  the
effects of ozone on agriculture.
                                       A-20

-------

























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                                        AIR
                              Hazardous Air Pollutants
Major Outputs/Milestones

Prepare Health and Risk Assessments

-  Complete 6 health assessments
   (Sci. Assess.)

-  Complete 11 health assessments
   for new (or review of existing)
   listing decisions (Sci. Assess.)

-  Complete 9 health assessments
   for new (or review of existing)
   listing decisions (Sci. Assess.)

-  Complete 4 carcinogenicity
   assessments for new (or review
   of existing) listing decisions
   (Sci. Assess.)

-  Complete 1 carcinogenicity
   assessment for a new listing
   decision (Sci. Assess.)

Develop Information on Health,
Emission Reduction Technologies,
Monitoring and Transport and Fate

   Report on intercomparison of
   methods at the Non-Criteria
   Monitoring Center (Monitoring)

-  Report on Toxic Air Monitoring
   System (Monitoring)

   Report on organic compounds in
   indoor air (Monitoring)

-  Report on Integrated Cancer
   Project (Monitoring)

   Journal  article on neurotoxico-
   logic assessments (Health)

   Journal  article on toxic effects
   of HAP's on lung, liver, and
   kidney (Health)

-  Journal  article on genotoxic
   dose-response studies of selected
   individual  HAP's (Health)
Actual
 1983
 9/83


 9/84



 9/85



 9/84
Amendment/
Current
Estimate
  1984
Estimate
  1985
  9/84
  9/85
  9/84
                  4/85
  9/85
                 4/85
 9/83



 9/84


 9/84





 6/85


 1/86



10/87
  9/84



  9/85


  9/85





  6/85


  1/86



 10/87
  9/85



  9/86





  3/86


  6/85


  1/86



 10/87
                                       A-24

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                                                         Amendment/
                                                         Current
                                         Actual           Estimate       Estimate
Major Outputs/Milestones                  1983             1984           1985


-  Journal article on models for         10/88            10/88          10/88
   extrapolation of neurotoxic
   risks to humans (Health)

-  Journal article on data analysis      10/88            10/88          10/88
   methods for the comparative potency
   model for cancer risk (Health)

-  Journal article on genotoxic risks     9/89             9/89           9/89
   from complex mixtures of HAP's
   (Health)

-  Report characterizing hazardous                         1/85           9/86
   emissions and evaluating mitiga-
   tion technologies for selected
   industries (Env. Engineering)

-  Publish report characterizing HAP                       9/85
   emissions from residential  combustion
   and controls for these sources  (Env.
   Engineering)

-  Report on source characterization                                      7/86
   for the integrated air cancer
   project (Env. Engineering)

-  Determine wet removal mechanisms       4/84             4/84
   for HAP's (Env. Processes)

-  Report on the identification,          4/86             4/86           4/86
   screening, and measurements of
   HAPs in ambient air (Env.
   Processes)

Provide Duality Assurance Support

-  Issue Research Materials for 2          9/83             9/84           9/85
   HAP's per year from OAQPS
   priority list (Monitoring)
                                       A-25

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                                         AIR


                               Hazardous  Air  Pollutants


Budget Request

      The  Agency  requests  a  total  of $14,837,200 supported by 119.0 total workyears
for  1985,  an  increase of $2,110,900 and  11.0  total  workyears from 1984.   Included
in this  total  is $6,795,300 for  Salaries  and  Expenses  and $8,041,900 for  Research
and  Development,  with increases of $940,300 and  $1,170,600  respectively.   The in-
creases will  be  utilized to  accelerate  the  completion  of  comprehensive health
assessment documents  for  chemicals  now on  the  Agency's priority list  for regulatory
consideration, and to  fund  a long-term  cancer assessment program which  is  designed
to assess the relationship of  ambient air  pollution and human cancer.

Program Description

      The  Hazardous  Air  Pollutants  (HAP)  Research program  responds to the  regu-
latory needs  of the  Clean   Air Act  under  Sections  lll(d)  and  112.   The program
addresses several objectives:

      Objective 1.  Prepare Health and  Risk  Assessments to Support   Regulation  of
Hazardous Air Pollutants.TheOffice of  Research and Development(ORD)responds
to the  needs  of the  Office  of Air  Quality  Planning  and  Standards  (OAQPS)  to
conduct chemical-specific  risk assessments.   These  assessments  provide the health
and  environmental basis  to  determine if exposure  to  a  pollutant  can reasonably be
expected to  result  in  irreversible  or  incapacitating  reversible  illness.   The
assessments are  then  combined with OAQPS  preliminary exposure  analyses to provide
quantitative estimates  of the degree of population risk  and disease incidence.

      Objective 2.  Develop  Information on  Health,  Emission  Reduction Technologies,
Monitoring, and  Transport and  Fate  to  Support  HAP  Regulatory   Activities^Under
this  objective,  ORD  provides the scientific information to  OAQPS on what   contami-
nants are  present  in  the  air; their chemical  concentration, transport, transforma-
tion, and  persistence in the  atmosphere; and  the nature of  their  adverse health
effects.  This information  provides the  basis  for decisions made during the preli-
minary exposure  analysis as to  whether  risk  assessments need  to  be conducted.

      Objective 3.  Provide Quality  Assurance Support of  Hazardous  Air  Pollutants
Program Requirements.  TFJe  Quality  Assurance  activity provides  standard reference
materials that permit  decisions to  be made  with  the confidence  that the   research
results are not  spurious  and that chemical and physical  determinations of pollutant
fate, transport, and transformation are  not  in error.

SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1985  Program Request

      The Agency  requests  a  total of  $4,183,500 supported by  37.6  total  workyears
for this  program, of  which  $1,933,500 is  for  Salaries  and  Expenses and $2,250,000
is for  Research  and   Development.   This  reflects  an   increase   of  $412,400  and
$479,500 respectively and an increase of  5.0  total workyears.  The  increases will
be used to  accelerate efforts to prepare  comprehensive health  assessments for use
by OAQPS in hazardous air pollutant listing  decisions.

      Prepare Health  and Risk Assessments to Support Regulation  of  Hazardous
Pol lutants.  Nine  comprehensive  health  assessment  documents will   b"ecompleted.
Five  additional   documents will  be initiated.  By  the end  of  1985 assessment docu-
ments and/or  assessment   reviews  for  32  chemicals  will  be  completed.    Four  of
the evaluations  are  for  chemicals  which  are  already  regulated  and  for   which  a
five year review of  the  basis  for  regulation is  required.   Twenty-one  substances
are from  the  OAQPS list  of  "37 suspected  hazardous air  pollutants," and  seven
substances result from other OAQPS regulatory priorities.
                                       A-26

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1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of $3,291,600 and 32.6 total work-
years to this program, of which $1,521,100 is for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
priation and $1,770,500 is for extramural purposes under the Research and Develop.-
ment appropriation.

     Prepare Health  and Risk  Assessments to Support   Regulation   of   Hazardous  Air
Pollutants.In supportof  the OAQPS program to  evaluate  candidate hazardous air
pollutants, fifteen   comprehensive  health  assessment  documents  and/or  assessment
reviews are  being  completed.   In  addition  nine  assessments   will  be  started.

1984 Explanation of  Changes  from  the Amendment

     The net increase of +$35,500 results  from the  following  actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$35,500)  Several  reprogrammings were made  to this  activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable under the  Congressional reprogramming limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net  increase  of  +$40,000 to the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and a  net decrease of -$4,500 to the Research  and Development  appro-
priation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated a  total  of  $2,023,400 and 21.9  total workyears
for this program,  of which $1,288,300  was  under the Salaries  and Expenses appropri-
ation and $735,100 was for extramural purposes  under the Research  and Development
appropriation.

     Prepare Health  and Risk  Assessments to Support   Regulation   of   Hazardous  Air
Pollutants.Comprehensive assessmentsforsixchemicalswerecompleted.These
assessments will  be  printed  and distributed by  the middle  of   1984.  Assessments
and/or assessment  reviews for eight  chemicals were  initiated.

MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total  of $5,128,500 supported  by 35.8  total workyears
for this program, of which  $2,043,500  is  for Salaries and Expenses  and $3,085,000
is for  Research   and  Development.   This  reflects  an  increase  of  $208,100  and  a
decrease of $70,000,  respectively.   The  net increase reflects a multi-disciplinary
initiative to  determine  the  contribution   of   air   pollution   to   human   cancer.

     Develop Information on  Health,  Emission  Reduction  Technologies.  Monitoring.
and Transport and Fate to Support  HAP  Regulatory ActivitieT^ORD willcontinue  to
maintain non-criteria monitoring stations  to provide information useful  in selecting
chemicals for regulation  and  to  investigate  the  effectiveness   of existing  control
measures.  In ambient air, the focus will be on developing and  assessing sampling/
concentration methods and developing advanced methods  of analysis.   New techniques
will be ev-aluated and source  monitoring methods  will  also be developed, evaluated
and validated.

     An integrated  program  to  assess   the  contribution of  air  pollution  to  the
risk of  cancer  in  the  United States will  be initiated.   This  integrated  cancer
assessment program  will  involve  several  scientific  disciplines within ORD  (e.g.,
monitoring, health effects,  engineering) and  is  designed to address  a long-standing
major scientific  problem; the lack  of information  on  the relationship between  air
pollution and cancer.
                                         A-27

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     Provide Quality Assurance Support for HAP Program Requirements.   The  resposi-
tory for  reference  samples  will  be expanded with Research Materials  (RMs)  from the
National Bureau  of  Standards (NBS).  Additions  to the Quality Assurance  Handbook
will be developed, as will Technical Assistance Documents.  These  activities  assist
in ensuring  that  research  results  have the  highest  level  of  quality  assurance.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating  a total of $4,990,400 and  35.8 total work-
years, of  which $1,835,400  is   for  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$3,155,000 is under the Research and Development appropriation.

     Develop  Information on Health, Emission  Reduction  Technologies, Monitoring.
and Transport and Fate to Support HAP Regulatory Activities.  In   response  to   the
need for  a  more  coordinated effort  to  monitor non-criteria  contaminants at  the
regional, State,  and  local   level,  ORD   is  maintaining a non-criteria  monitoring
center in Philadelphia and is expanding  the program to  establish  three other trend
monitoring stations.  The  center functions  as  a  focal point  for the development
and evaluation of field and laboratory methodologies  to permit  the characterization
of urban and non-urban atmospheres.

     In the  area  of  indoor air  pollution, studies  are   being  undertaken in  two
major areas:  methods development (testing  smaller, quieter  monitors  for formalde-
hyde particles  and  N02);  and,  monitoring  (planning  a  large-scale multi-pollutant
survey of residences).

     Provide Quality Assurance Support for HAP Program Requirements.   A   repository
for reference samples is  being  expanded and maintained.   Quality  assurance  guide-
lines are  being developed detailing  the procedures  and   explaining  how to  apply
these procedures to laboratories.  Audits of  regional,  State, and  local  government
laboratories are being performed.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$194,100 results  from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$194,100) Several  reprogrammings  were  made to this activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable  under  the Congressional reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net  decrease of -$144,100 to  the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and a net  decrease of -$50,000 to the Research and Development  appro-
priation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated a total  of  $3,299,100  and  34.5 total  work-
years for  this  program,  of  which  $1,772,500 was  under the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $1,526,600  was for  extramural   purposes  under  the  Research  and
Development appropriation.

     Develop Information on  Health,  Emission  Reduction Technologies,  Monitoring.
and Transport and Fate to Support  HAP  Regulatory  Activities.  As  a  cooperative
effort, the first non-criteria  monitoring station  was established  in  Philadelphia.
In 1983,  ORD conducted a  study to  characterize the  types  and  concentrations  of
indoor air  pollution,  especially  on building materials   in structures  that   the
public has access to (e.g.,  office buildings, hospitals,  schools).  The  results  of
this study will  be compared  to  previous  studies.
                                       A-28

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     Provide Quality Assurance  Support  for  HAP  Program  Requirements.  Standard
Reference Materials  (SRM's)  were  validated and  issued  for  formaldehyde, asbestos,
and acrylonitrile.   The  sample  repository was  maintained  and  quality  assurance
performance audits were conducted  for Regions and local  governments  as  requested.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1985 Program Reouest

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $3,498,800  supported by 33.7  total  workyears
for this program, of which $2,028,800 is for Salaries  and  Expenses and  $1,470,000
is for Research and Development.   This reflects increases of 3.0  workyears, $97,000
for Salaries and  Expenses, and $716,500  for  Research and Development.  These  re-
sources will be  used to  conduct  the  health  research  component  of  an  integrated
program to  address  major  scientific  questions  about the relationship between  air
pollution and human cancer.

     Develop Information on Health, Emission  Reduction  Technologies, Monitoring,
and Transport and Fate to Support HAP Regulatory Activities.Tn~Ihealthresearch
component of the integrated cancer  project will use mutagenicity bioassays to direct
characterization of  emissions once they have  been  detected  and traced to a source.
This approach  has  been  successfully  used to  identify  potential  carcinogens  in
synthetic fuels, diesel  emissions,  and kerosene soot.

     The remainder of the health  research program  has three goals:   (1)  to develop
and validate methods  to produce dose-response data on  the  toxic effects of HAP's;
(2) to produce dose-response data on  the  toxic effects  of HAPs;  and (3)  to develop
models which improve our ability  to  use dose-response  data in  risk  assessments.

     In dose-response toxicological  research, chemicals  identified as  HAP's  will
continue to be studied  to determine their toxic  effects upon genetic material,  the
nervous and reproductive  systems,  the lungs,  the liver, and the kidneys.   A focal
point of these studies will be alterations in the lung's defenses  against  infection.

     Research will  also be continued  to  develop bioassays  which are  sufficiently
sensitive and reliable to evaluate  the neurotoxlc potential  of HAP's and  to develop
improved data analysis  techniques for use in  establishing  a  cancer  risk  assessment
method based on comparative mutagenic potency of chemicals.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating a total  of $2,685,300 and 30.7 total  work-
years to this program,  of  which $1,931,800  is for  the Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation, and $753,500 is for extramural purposes under  the Research  and Development
appropriation.

     Develop Information on Health, Emission  Reduction  Technologies, Monitoring,
and Transport and Fate to Support HAP  Regulatory  Activities.Toxicologic studies
of HAPs  have  been   broadened  to  include  additional  heal th endpoints.    Bioassay
techniques are  also  being  developed  which  will  provide  dose-response  data  more
rapidly, reliably, and  inexpensively.  The  genetic,  respiratory,  reproductive,  and
neurologic toxicity  of  chemicals  selected by OAQPS  are  being  studied.  Biological
models are  being developed  which  will  provide  better  methods  for  extrapolating
data on  neurologic   toxicology  from  animal  tests  to  predict  human  effects  and
methods for  extrapolating from  observed effects  at  high   doses to  those  at  low
doses.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$22,200 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$22,200)  A  reprogramming was  made  to this  activity  which
was not reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming limitations..  This change
resulted in a net decrease of  -$22,200 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.
                                        A-29

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1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the  Agency  obligated a total of  $2,080,500  and 22.6 total  workyears
to this program, of which $1,214,700 was under the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and  $865,800  was for  extramural  purposes  under the  Research and Development
appropriation.

     Develop Information on Health, Emission  Reduction  Technologies,  Monitoring,
and  Transport  and  Fate  to  Support  HAP  Regulatory  Activities.Emphasis was
placed on  development  of  bioassays  for  the identification and  screening  of HAPs,
primarily with carcinogenesis and mutagenesis as endpoints.  Studies were performed
to obtain genetic, neurologic, and pulmonary dose-response data on HAP's to support
regulation development and review.  Also, the development of genetic and neurologic
toxicity models was  continued to  improve  the  Agency's capability  to  perform risk
assessments based on data obtained from animal  studies.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $1,051,300 supported by 8.0 total workyears for
1985, of  which $451,300 is  for  Salaries  and Expenses and  $600,000  is  for Research
and Development.  This reflects  an  increase of $204,400 and a decrease of $50,000,
respectively, and  an  increase of  3.0  total workyears.   This increase  reflects  a
multi-disciplinary initiative  to determine the  contribution  of air  pollution  to
human cancer.

     Develop Information on Health, Emission  Reduction  Technologies,  Monitoring
and Transport and Fate to  Support  HAP  Regulatory  Activities.The  program will
focus on  characterizing emissions  and  evaluating mitigation  technologies  for HAPs
to assist  OAQPS in formulating  regulatory  strategies and  in  developing priorities
for reducing HAP emissions.   In addition,  as a component  of  the integrated cancer
assessment program, research  will  be conducted to characterize  HAP emissions from
high priority  industries  and combustion  sources.  For  a given  source,  hazardous
air pollutants emitted will be  characterized to establish  source emission factors,
and the  performance  of  potential  mitigation  technologies  will  be  described.

1984 Program

      In 1984, the Agency is allocating a total  to $896,900 and 5.0 total  workyears
to this program, of which  $246,900 is  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
and $650,000 is for extramural  purposes  under  the Research and  Development appro-
priation.

     Develop Information on Health, Emission  Reduction  Technologies,  Monitoring,
and Transport and  Fate to Support  HAP   Regulatory  Activities.Research is  being
initiated to:   TT]  characterize HAP emissions  an3evaluate  mitigation techno!ogy
performance for industrial  and combustion sources such as the metallurgical, petro-
leum, and  organic  chemical  industries  and residential  wood  heaters;  (2)  provide
OAQPS with assistance in developing a methodology for  ranking  sources  of HAPs; and
(3) characterize sources  of indoor  air  pollution and the  factors  affecting  them.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net increase  of +$79,000 results from  the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.   (+$79,000) Several reprogrammings were  made  to  this  activi-
ty whi'ch"  were  not  reportable  under the  Congressional   reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net increase of +$79,000 to the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.
                                        A-30

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1983 Accomplishments

     No resources were expended in this program in 1983.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of  $975,100 supported by  3.9 total  workyears  for
this program, of  which $338,200 is for  Salaries  and Expenses and $636,900  is  for
Research and Development.  This reflects increases of  $18,400  and  $94,600,  respec-
tively.  There will be  an  increased emphasis  on  characterizing HAPs  in  the  ambient
air as part of ORD's integrated program to assess the contribution  of air pollution
to the human cancer risk in the United States.

       Develop Information on  Health, Emission  Reduction  Technologies,  Monitor-
ing, and"  Transport and  Fate to  Support  HAP Regulatory Activities"!  Research   on
atmospheric transport,  transformation  and"fate  of  hazardous  air  pollutants  will
continue to be  conducted to support the  regulatory  needs of  OAQPS.  Studies  will
be continued to determine the factors  such as meteorology and atmospheric chemistry
influencing the  concentration  levels,  and  temporal   and  spatial   variability  of
volatile organic  HAPs  in  urban  air.    Smog  chamber  studies will   continue to  be
conducted to determine lifetimes and  chemical  removal rates of HAPs from the atmos-
phere and to  identify  the products remaining  from atmospheric reaction.  The  re-
sults of these  studies  will  be used  to simulate what  occurs physically  and  chemi-
cally in the  atmosphere.  Studies to  determine the  extent, quality and  accuracy
of existing ambient  air data  on  more than  150  volatile organic  compounds  (VOCs)
will be continued.  Also,  as  part of  an integrated  ORD  program to assess the  con-
tribution of air  pollution  to  cancer  risk in  the  United States, research  will  be
initiated to  simulate  atmospheric  photochemistry;  to  collect  and identify  the
transformation products  and  ultimately  describe  the  atmospheric  processes  which
led to the formation of bioactive products in the ambient air.

1984 Program

      In 1984, the Agency is allocating a total of $862,100 and 3.9 total workyears
to this program, of which  $319,800 is  for  the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation,
and $542,300 is for  extramural  purposes under the Research  and  Development  appro-
priation.

     Develop Information on Health, Emission Reduction Technologies,  Monitoring and
Transport and Fate to Support HAP Regulatory Activities.Studiestodetermine  the
factors responsible for the concentration levels, and temporal  and  spatial  variabi-
lity of  VOCs  in urban  air are being  evaluated.   In  addition,  studies are being
conducted to determine  the  extent,  quality,  and  accuracy of  existing  ambient  air
data on more than  150  VOCs.  A study  to determine  the  wet and  dry  deposition rates
of HAPs is being completed.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the  Amendment

     The net decrease of -$1,400 results from the following actions:

     - Reprogramming.   (-$1,400)  A  reprogramming was  made to this  activity which
was not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.  This change
resulted in a  net  decrease of -$1,400  to the  Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency obligated a total  of $979,200 and 5.7 total  workyears  for
this program, of  which  $302,600 was  under  the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation,
and $676,600 was  for  extramural purposes under the Research and Development appro-
priation.

     Develop Information on Health, Emission  Reduction  Technologies,  Monitoring,
and Transport and Fate to Support  HAP  Regulatory  Activities.An  assessmentwas
made on the accuracy of available ambient air quality data  bases  for a  variety of
volatile organic compounds.  Also, results from ambient air characterization studies
in ten urban areas for a selected number of  potentially  hazardous  VOCs  were compiled.

                                        A-31

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                                        AIR
                                   Mobile Sources
Major Outputs/Milestones

Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Carbon
Monoxide

-  Final  addendum to 1979 carbon monoxide
   criteria document (Scientific Assessment)

-  Reports on Denver and Washington, D.C.
   CO exposure studies  (Monitoring)

-  Report on validation of microenvironmental
   exposure model (Monitoring)

-  Report on relationship of CO exposure
   profiles to breath CO levels in Denver
   and Washington, D.C. (Monitoring)

-  Journal article on validated equations
   predicting COHb formation during CO
   inhalation at rest and exercise
   (Health)

-  Journal article on pre-anginal events
   of cardiac function  in patients with
   heart disease exposed to CO (Health)

Assess the Health Risks and Exposure to
Unregulated Mobile Source Pollutants

-  Report on the assessment of low ambient
   temperature on emissions from late model
   gasoline fueled vehicles (Env. Processess)

-  Report on the evaluation of methods for
   measuring emissions from vehicles utilizing
   blended fuels (Env. Processes and Effects)

-  Report on pollutant emission factors for
   heavy duty Class VIII in-use diesel  tractor
   trailers and buses (Env. Processes)

Collect and Maintain Data in Support of the
Fuel  and  Fuel  Additives Program

-  Updated list of fuels and fuel  additives
   (Monitoring)

Provide QA Support for Mobile Sources

-  Report on accuracy and precision of CO
   personal  exposure monitors (Monitoring)
Actual
 1983
Amendment/
Current
Estimate     Estimate
  1984         1985
 3/84
 6/85
 6/87
   1/84


   3/84


   6/85



   3/85




   6/85



   6/87
 1/85


 6/85



 3/85




 6/85



 6/87
 9/84
 8/83
 8/83
              2/86
             10/84
   9/84
   8/84
                2/86
               10/84
8/85
                                      A-34

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                                        AIR


                                   Mobile Sources


Budget Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $5,418,700 supported  by  24.1 total workyears
for 1985, a decrease  of $659,700 and 4.5 total workyears  from 1984.   Included in
this total is $1,494,700  for Salaries and Expenses and $3,924,000 for Research and
Development, with  decreases of $159,700  and $500,000,  respectively.  The decreases
occur primarily in the  scientific assessment and  environmental processes programs,
reflecting completion  of  the  first  revision  of  the  carbon  monoxide  criteria
document and completion  of studies on  gaseous  and particulate emissions from in-
use, heavy-duty diesel trucks  and buses.

Program Description

     Title II  of  the Clean Air  Act,  as  amended  in 1977,  requires  the Agency to
prescribe emission standards for carbon  monoxide  (CO), hydrocarbons, and oxides of
nitrogen for heavy-duty and light-duty  vehicles.   In  order to set justifiable and
cost-effective standards, the  Agency requires information on the  chemical composi-
tion of fuels, fuel  additives, and diesel and gasoline exhausts.  Also  required is
information on the exposure of drivers,  passengers  and the population  at large to
motor vehicle pollutants, the  effects  of that exposure, and the risks of sustaining
continued exposure.  The  Clean  Air Act  also  requires the  Agency to periodically
reevaluate the adequacy of  the National  Ambient Air Quality Standards  (NAAQS) for
all the  criteria  pollutants,   including  CO,  based upon  the  most   scientifically
credible data available.

     The following objectives  support  these  goals:

     Objective 1.   Assess the  Health  Risks and  Exposure to   Carbon Monoxide to Sup-
port Review and Revision of NAAQS and  Motor  Vehicle Emission  Standards.Work in
this objective includes determining population exposure  profiles  to CO using per-
sonal monitors and developing  a data base for  evaluating the  impact  of CO on car-
diovascular performance and neurobehavior  in  normal  and  susceptible humans.  The
Administrator must evaluate the NAAQS for CO every  five  years as provided by Sec-
tion 109 of the Clean Air Act.

     Objective 2.   Assess  the  Health Risks  and   Exposure  to Unregulated  Mobile
Source Pollutants.  Research in  this  area seeks  to  determine population exposure
distribution to pollutants other  than CO such as  polynuclear aromatic (PNA) organics
and particulates;  characterize the  gaseous  and particulate  emissions  from in-use
light and  heavy-duty  diesel and  gasoline powered  vehicles;  refine  existing air
quality models;  and  provide short-term  testing   guidelines to  evaluate potential
acute health risks from unregulated emissions.

     Objective 3.   Collect  and   Maintain Data  in  Support of  the  Fuel and Fuel Ad-
ditives Program.Sections 211  and 302(d) of the Clean  Air Act require the Environ-
mental Protection  Agency  (EPA) to provide a data  base to determine whether the use
of any  motor  vehicle fuels or fuel  additives pose an unreasonable risk to human
health.

     Objective 4.   Provide  Quality  Assurance  Support for  Mobile Sources Program
Requirements.   The Office  of  Research and Development fs  required  to  ensure that
all measurement data related to mobile source pollutants  are reliable and accurate.
                                       A-35

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SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $91,900 supported by 1.0 workyear for this  pro-
gram, of which $66,900 is for Salaries and Expenses and $25,000 is for Research and
Development.  This  reflects  an increase of  $15,200  for Salaries  and  Expenses  and
a decrease of $400,000  for  Research and  Development.   The  net  decrease of $384,800
reflects the cyclical nature  of the  revision process  for the  carbon  monoxide  cri-
teria document.

     Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Carbon Monoxide to  Support Review and Re-
vision of NAAQS and Motor Vehicle Emission Standards.  Analyses of  risk  assessment
issues related to the proposal or promulgation  of  a carbon monoxide standard will  be
provided.  Also, assistance in  interpreting  health and environmental  risk  data  re-
lated to the carbon monoxide standard will  be provided.

1984 Program

     Jn 1984, the Agency is allocating a total  of $476,700 and  1.0 workyear to  this
program, of  which  $51,700  is  under the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation  and
$425,000 is  for  extramural  purposes  under the Research and  Development  appropria-
tion.

     Assess Health  Risks and Exposure to Carbon Monoxide  to Support Review and Re-
vision of NAAQS and Motor Vehicle Emission Standards.  After taking  into  account
comments received from public  reviews,  the final  addendum to the  1979 CO  Criteria
Document will be completed.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the  Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated a total  of $73,300 and  1.0 workyear  for  this
program, of  which  $54,600 was  under  the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation  and
$18,700 was  for  extramural  purposes  under the Research and  Development  appropria-
tion.

     Assess Health  Risks and Exposure to Carbon Monoxide  to Support Review and Re-
vision of NAAQS and Motor Vehicle Emission Standards.Theaddendumtothe1979
carbon monoxide criteria document was  completed  for  public review  and comment  and
Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) review.

MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1985 Program Request

     In 1985, the Agency requests a total of $835,200  supported by 8.0 total work-
years for this program,  of which $496,800 is  for Salaries  and Expenses  and  $338,400
is for Research and  Development.   This  reflects  a decrease of  $43,700 in  Salaries
and Expenses.  This decrease represents a  reduction  in equipment  expenses  associa-
ted with quality assurance audits.

     Assess Health Risks and Exposure  to  Carbon  Monoxide  to Support Review and  Re-
vision of NAAQS and Motor Vehicle Emission Standards.  To   support  the  NAAQS   for
CO, analyses  and  reports  based on the human exposure  data  bases   collected in  the
Washington, D.C.,  and Denver  studies  will   be  completed.  The existing NAAQS  is
                                        A-36

-------
designed to assure that 99% of the population has blood levels below  2.5%  carboxy-
hemoglobin, and the data from these urban-scale studies will  be evaluated  to  assess
the proportion  of the  population below  this level  for  various  candidate  NAAQS
values.  An evaluation will be completed  of  the  validity  of  existing  activity pro-
files in actual  urban settings.    The  methodology for  the Denver and  Washington,
D.C., field studies  will  continue to be  evaluated  for its applicability to  other
criteria air pollutants for which NAAQS must  be reviewed and  revised.

     Assess the Health  Risks and Exposure to Unregulated Mobile Source Pollutants.
The results from human exposure field  studies  will  be evaluated for their  applica-
bility to unregulated mobile  source  air pollutants,  including  organics and  inhaled
particulates.   The activity  pattern  data   base obtained  in  these two  urban-scale
studies will be  evaluated for potential  use with human  activity  pattern-exposure
models that may be applicable to  unregulated emissions  from  mobile  sources.   Eval-
uation will be  undertaken of  personal  monitoring techniques for  inhaled  particu-
lates.

     Collect and Maintain Data in  Support of the Fuel  and Fuel  Additives   Program.
The registration of fuels and fuel additives  program, as mandated by Congress, will
be continued.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support for Mobile Source Program Requirements.  The
quality assurance program  willsupport the  State  and Local  Air Monitoring  System
(SLAMS).  The nationwide  audit program will   obtain, test, verify, and  distribute
carefully specified quality assurance samples.  The  quality assurance  and  standards
laboratory will   function  in   assisting  State  and   local  agencies  in  generating
precise and accurate  air  monitoring  data  used to judge compliance with the  NAAQS.

1984 Program

     In 1984,  the Agency  is allocating  a  total  of $878,900 and  8.0 total  workyears
for this program, of  which  $540,500  is under the Salaries and  Expenses  appropria-
tion and $338,400  is for  extramural  purposes under  the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

     Assess Health Risks and Exposure to  Carbon Monoxide to  Support Review and Re-
vision  of NAAQS  and  Motor  Vehicle  Emission Standards."  Work  completed  on  tH?
Denver, Colorado, and Washington,  D.C.,  human exposure CO field studies has  provided
a large,  valuable data  base  that  will  be  extensively  analyzed  and  evaluated.

     Assess the Health Risks  and Exposure to Unregulated Mobile Source Pollutants.
The methodology developed for  the  Denver  and Washington,  D.C.,  population  exposure
studies is being  evaluated  for possible use  with unregulated mobile  source  pollu-
tants, including  organics  and inhaled  particles.   The activity pattern data  base
obtained in these two field surveys is being analyzed for validation  of  exposure
model s.

     Collect and Maintain Data in Support  of  the  Fuel  and Fuel  Additives   Program.
The registration67fuels  andfueladditives  program,as  mandatedByCongress,
continues.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support for Mobile Source Program Requirements.  The
quality assuranceprogramsupportstHeStateand LocalAir  MonitoringSystem
(SLAMS).  The nationwide audit program obtains, verifies, and distributes  carefully
specified quality assurance samples.   Quality assurance audits  are being  conducted
on the CO exposure field studies  in Denver and Washington, D.C.
                                       A-37

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1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$5,000 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$5,000) A reprogramming was made to this activity which  was
not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.  This  change  re-
sulted in  a  net  decrease  of  -$5,000 to the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated  a total of $1,721,700  and  13.5 total  workyears
for this program, of which $630,200  was  under the Salaries and Expenses  appropria-
tion and $1,091,500 was for extramural  purposes  under the  Research and Development
appropriation.

     Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Carbon Monoxide to Support Review  and  Re-
vision of NAAQS and Motor Vehicle Emission Standards.    Exposure  studies  of  Cft
were undertaken  comparing  the levels people  come into  contact with  during  their
daily lives with actual readings at  fixed  air monitoring stations.   A  field survey
of 454 respondents was  completed  in Denver,  Colorado, and another field  survey of
712 respondents was completed in Washington,  D.C.

     Assess the Health Risks and Exposure to  Unregulated Mobile Source  Pollutants.
The statistical design and approach used in the Denver and  Washington,  D.C.  popula-
tion exposure studies were evaluated for use  with other air pollutants  such  as par-
ticulates and nitrogen dioxide where exposure data are needed.

     Collect and Maintain Data in Support of  the Fuel  and Fuel   Additives  Program.
The program to register fuels  and  fuel  additives, as  mandated  by Congress, regis-
tered over 250 fuels.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support for Mobile Source Program Requirements.  The
quality assurance  program  supported  the  State  and  Local Air Monitoring System
(SLAMS) for  those  pollutants  generated by  mobile sources.   Carefully   specified
quality assurance samples for mobile source air pollutants  were obtained, verified,
and distributed.   An evaluation was conducted of several  new CO personal  monitoring
instruments to determine their precision,  accuracy, and  sensitivity  to temperature
variation.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $3,892,900 supported by 7.4 total workyears  for
this program, of which  $595,600 is  for  Salaries  and Expenses and  $3,297,300 is  for
Research and Development.  This  reflects  increases  of $30,300  and $40,600  respec-
tively to  support  additional   testing  of  instruments that can be  used in  field
studies to measure changes  in  cardiac function.

     Assess Health  Risks and  Exposure to Carbon  Monoxide to Support  Review  and  Re-
vision  of  NAAQS  and  Motor   Vehicle  Emission   Standard's"! The   health  research
program for  this  objecti ve  has  two  goals:    TH to develop   and  validate  tech-
niques to  produce  dose-response  data  on  the toxic  effects   of  carbon   monoxide;
and (2) to  produce  dose-response  data  on the  toxic  effects   of  carbon  monoxide.

     The possibility of toxic effects  of  exposures  to  CO concentrations  (at  or
near the ambient  standard) needs  to be more definitively determined;  therefore,
clinical  and  animal  studies  to  produce dose-response  data on the  toxic  effects
of low-level  exposure to CO will  be conducted.  Techniques have  been  developed to
measure,  non-invasively, the  cardiac  effects of  CO   exposure.   These  techniques
will improve our ability to produce dose-response data in humans.  This information
will be used in  risk  assessments,  the  results of which  will improve the  data base
upon which OAQPS  can update the CO standard.
                                        A-38

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     Assess  the Health Risks and Exposure to Unregulated Mobile  Source  Pollutants.
Under this program funding continues  tor  the Health tftects institute  (Hti)~  HTTe
HEI was established  and is  funded  by both  EPA and  the motor  vehicle  industry  to
perform independent  studies  and  produce  health data  on  pollutants  emitted  from
motor vehicles.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating a total of $3,822,000 and 7.4 total  workyears
to this program, of which  $565,300 is  under the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation
and $3,256,700 is for extramural  purposes  under  the  Research  and  Development appro-
priation.

     Assess  Health Risks  and Exposure to  Carbon Monoxide to  Support Review  and Re-
vision~oT  NAAQS  and  Motor  Vehicle Emission Standards.Studiesa7ebeingper^
formed to provide dose-response  data  on cardiac and respiratory effects  in  humans
following exposure to low  levels  of CO.  In the human studies, both healthy  volun-
teers and  patients  with  heart  disease are being  studied.   The  data  from  these
studies will  contribute to ongoing risk assessments  which will  refine  the  data  base
for updating the CO standard.

     Assess the Health Risks  and  Exposure  to Unregulated Mobile Source  Pollutants.
The Health Effects Institute  (HEI)  is  completing  arrangements  for its  second  year
of funding, both  for  ongoing  work and new projects.  The  research  needs  submitted
for consideration  include formaldehyde,  methanol,   and  bioassay  development  for
fuels and  fuel  additives, as well  as ongoing  work on carbon monoxide, nitrogen
oxides, and ozone.

1984 Explanation of Changes from  the Amendment

     There is no change from  the  amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated a  total  of  $2,691,800  and  8.6 total  workyears
for this program, of which $639,800 was under the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and $2,052,000 was for  extramural purposes under the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

     Assess Health Risks and  Exposure  to Carbon  Monoxide to Support Review  and Re-
vision of NAAQS and Motor  Vehicle Emission Standards.Studieswere begun to  pro-
vide dose-response data on  cardiac and respiratory  effects  in  healthy humans  and
those with cardiovascular  disease exposed  to low levels of  CO.

     Assess the Health Risks  and  Exposure  to Unregulated Mobile Source  Pollutants.
The Health Effects Institute  completed arrangements for its initial year of funding,
and studies were initiated on the health effects of  diesel  emissions,  other  organic
emissions, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total  of $598,700 supported  by 7.7 total  workyears for
this program, of which $335,400  will be for the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation
and $263,300  is  for the  Research  and Development  appropriation.  This  represents
decreases of  $161,500  and $140,600  respectively, and 4.5 workyears.   The  decreases
reflect completion of  research  on  the gaseous  and  particulate emissions from in-
use, heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses.
                                       A-39

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     Assess the Health Risks and Exposure to Unregulated Mobile Source   Pollutants.
In 1985, studies will  continue  to provide the information necessary to  accurately
assess and evaluate the  impacts  of  unregulated mobile source  emissions  on  ambient
air quality.  Studies  initiated  in  1984  will  continue to:   1)  determine the impact
of emissions  from  vehicles  utilizing blended  fuel  mixtures  on ozone air quality,
2)  assess and  evaluate  the effects of  low  ambient temperature on emissions  from
late model, in-use light-duty diesel and  gasoline powered  vehicles,  3)  develop  and
refine real-time measurement  procedures  to permit  accurate  analysis of emissions
from vehicles utilizing fuel mixtures,  and 4) characterize  the  gaseous and particu-
late emissions from late model,  in-use  light-duty diesel  vehicles.

     Information from these research activities will provide  an updated,  comprehen-
sive in-use emissions data base; provide for the refinement of  existing  air  quality
models to assess the impacts of  mobile  source emissions on  ambient  air quality;  and
support the Agency's mobile source regulatory development programs.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating  a total  of $900,800  and  12.2  total workyears
to this program, of which  $496,900  is  for the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
and $403,900  is for extramural  purposes  under the Research  and Development  appro-
priation.

     Assess the Health Risks and Exposure to Unregulated Mobile Source   Pollutants.
Studies to characterize the gaseous  and particulate  emissions (and  the influence of
load on emissions)  from heavy-duty  diesel  and gasoline powered  trucks and  buses
will be  concluded.   In  response to  program  office  information  needs,  the  four
studies listed above have been initiated.  Information obtained from these  studies
will enable  researchers  to  develop and/or  modify  analytical  techniques  to  more
accurately measure mobile source  emissions  and to establish  the experimental  foun-
dation for more detailed characterization studies.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated  a total of $1,705,500  and  15.6 total workyears
for this program, of which  $530,300  was  under  the  Salaries and Expenses  appropria-
tion and $1,175,200 was  for extramural purposes  under the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

     Assess the Health Risks and  Exposure to Unregulated Mobile Source  Pollutants.
Emissions characterization studies on heavy-duty diesel  and gasoline  vehicles  using
transient engine dynamometers  were completed.   In addition, studies  to characterize
the gaseous and particulate emissions,  including volatile organic compounds  (VOCs),
from in-use gasoline  powered  passenger  cars  were also completed.  The  information
was provided to the program office  for use in determining the need for  regulatory
action.  The information was  also used to improve  the data  bases  for models used
to assess the impact of mobile source emissions on ambient  air  quality.
                                        A-40

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                                        AIR


                                Gases and Particles


                                                         Amendment/
                                                         Current
                                         Actual          Estimate       Estimate
Major Outputs/Milestones                  1983             1984           1985

Develop and Validate Air Quality
Models

-  Develop a users guide for an           6/85            6/85             6/85
   interim regional participate
   model (Env. Processes)

-  Report on extrapolation of             3/85            3/85             3/85
   turbulent fluctuation with
   height (Env. Processes)

-  Receptor modeling results and          9/85            9/85             9/85
   data base for comparison with
   dispersion modeling results
   for Philadelphia
   (Env. Processes)

-  Deliver an improved urban and         11/85           11/85            11/85
   mesoscale aerosol model to
   UNAMAP (Env. Processes)

-  Evaluate a complex terrain             1/86            1/86             1/86
   dispersion model for stable
   plume impaction (Env.
   Processes)

Develop Health and Welfare Effects
Information

-  Publication on the response of        10/84           10/84            10/84
   an atmospheric corrosion moni-
   tor as a proxy for damage to
   materials (Env. Processes)

-  Report evaluating the occurrence      12/84           12/84            12/84
   of pollutant mixtures and exposure
   regimes for dose/ response studies
   (Env. Processes)

-  Journal  articles on the response       3/84            3/84             3/84
   of asthmatics to S02 exposure
   (Health)

-  Journal  article on the neuro-         11/84           11/84            11/84
   behavioral  effects of lead in
   children  and adults (Health)

-  Journal  article on the deposition      9/85            9/85             9/85
   of S02 and hygroscopic particles
   in the respiratory tract (Health)
                                      A-44

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                                                         Amendment/
                                                         Current
                                         Actual           Estimate       Estimate
Major Outputs/Milestones                  1983             1984           1985

-  Journal  article on the responses      10/86            10/86          10/86
   of patients with chronic lung
   disease (Health)

-  Publish criteria document for                          12/84          12/84
   PM/SOX (Scientific Assessment)

-  Publish criteria document for         12/84            12/84          12/84
   lead (Scientific Assessment)

Develop and Validate GAP Measurement
and Monitoring Methods

-  Analyze filters and summarize          6/83             6/84           6/85
   IP data (Monitoring)

-  Review and process reference           9/83             9/84           9/85
   and equivalent methods
   applications (Monitoring)

-  Apply airborne lidar to plume          9/83             9/84           9/85
   particulate transport
   (Monitoring)

Provide QA Support for the GAP
Program Requirements

-  Provide QA for IP, SLAMS/NAMS          9/83             9/84           9/85
   ambient monitoring networks and
   for continuous emissions and
   other source monitors
   (Monitoring)

Research and Assess Emissions Reduction
Technologies

-  Issue assessment of fugitive           9/83
   emissions particle control methods
   (Env. Technology)

-  Report on prospective cost model      12/83
   for integrated air pollutant emis-
   sions reduction options for power
   utilities (Env. Technology)

-  Report on the field evaluation of      8/84             8/84
   the first generation full-scale
   utility spray dryer FGD system
   (Env. Technology)

-  Report for first generation two-      12/84            12/84
   stage electrostatic precipitators
   (Env. Technology)
                                       A-45

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                                        AIR


                                Gases and Particles


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests a total  of  $29,433,400  supported  by 214.4 total  workyears
for 1985, an  increase  of $668,000 and 7.0 total  workyears  from  1984.   Included in
this total  is $12,114,600 for  Salaries  and  Expenses and $17,318,800  for  Research
and Development  which  reflects  an increase  of $454,600 and $213,400, respectively.
The increase  results  from  an  enhancement  of the  epidemiology  research  program,
added emphasis  on  providing  environmental  engineering  and technology  technical
assistance, and  identifying the options  and  advantages of integrated air pollution
control technologies in coal-fired power plants.

Program Description

     The Gases and  Particles  research program provides regulatory decision-makers,
the regulated  community  and enforcement  officials  with the  monitoring  methodolo-
gies, air quality  models, health  and welfare assessments  and  emission  reduction
technology evaluations required to regulate atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and
its major components,  lead,  and  gaseous  sulfur  dioxide (SOj) under the  Clean Air
Act (CAA).  The  following objectives  support these goals:

     Objective 1.  Develop and  Validate Air Quality Models to Support  Implementa-
tion, Maintenance,  and  Enforcement of the National Ambient Air Quality  Standard's
(NAAQS).Research under this objective  provides the  air  quality models, emissions
data, monitoring tools,  and  technical support needed by States to  develop, adopt
and enforce cost-effective control  strategies  required by  the CAA.  The  results of
this work are disseminated for use in the development of State Implementation Plans
(SIPs), Prevention of  Significant  Deterioration  (PSD) determinations,  and  for pro-
tection from  visibility degradation in Class I pristine areas.

     Objective 2.  Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support Review
and Revision  of  NAAQS.Researchunder  thisobjectiveprovides  theOfficeofAir
Quality Planning and  Standards  (OAQPS) with  data  on the adverse  health and  welfare
effects of gases and  particles  needed to periodically  re-evaluate the adequacy of
National Ambient  Air  Quality  Standards  (NAAQS)  for  S02>  lead, and  particulate
matter.  Criteria  documents  for  health   and  welfare  effects provide the  primary
documentation for the  review.

     Objective 3.  Develop  and Validate Measurement and Monitoring Methods  for the
Gases and Particles Program.Todetermine   airqualitytrends,  compliancewith
permit conditions, and the need for enforcement actions, research under this objec-
tive provides OAQPS  and  the  Regions  with new and improved air pollution  methodolo-
gies and monitoring techniques.   Research  focuses  on ambient, source, and exposure
measurement methods.

     Objective 4.  Research  and Assess Emission  Reduction Technologies to  Support
Permitting, the  New Source Performance Standards  (NSPS) and  Compliance Activities.
Research under this  objective  provides  OAQPS,  the Regions, and  industry  with data
on the performance,  cost  and  reliability of existing, new,  and  emerging  emissions
reduction technologies.  This information helps to establish New Source Performance
Standards (NSPS) and is  used  for  SIPs, PSD determinations,  and  for  the  protection
from visibility degradation in Class I pristine areas.

     Objective 5.  Provide  Quality  Assurance (QA)  Support for the Gases and  Par-
ticles Program:Research under this  objective supports  Title  40, Part  58  of the
Clean Air  Act  which  specifies  mandatory   QA   for   State  and  local  monitoring.
                                       A-46

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SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $1,043,800  supported  by 10.0 total  workyears
for this program,  of which $549,600 is for  Salaries  and Expenses and  $494,200  is
for Research and Development.  This reflects an  increase  of $13,000  and a decrease
of $5,800, respectively.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support  Review and  Revision
of NAAQS.The finallead criteria document willbe  available in December,  1984.
Support will be provided to OAQPS to develop regulatory analyses,  respond to  public
comments and participate in the Clean Air  Science Advisory  Committee  (CASAC)  review
for the  lead  standard update.   Also,  consultative  guidance will  be provided  to
assist OAQPS in the development of revised particulate matter (PM) and sulfur oxide
(SOX) standards.  The  next  update  of  the  PM/SOX criteria document will  be initia-
ted.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating a  total of $1,036,600 and  10.0  total  work-
years to this program, of which $536,600 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropri-
ation and $500,000 is for the Research  and Development appropriation.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support  Review and  Revision
of NAAQS.  Work  on  the lead  criteria  document  is  continuing  to develop a  final
document in December, 1984.   The revised criteria document  for  lead was  made  avail-
able for public review and  comment  in  October  1983.   Technical  assistance is  being
provided to OAQPS on  the  PM/SOX criteria  document to help  develop regulatory pro-
posals, and participate in  the CASAC  peer review of  regulatory options  for  PM  and
SOX.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated a total  of $764,000 and 10.9  total  workyears,
of which $513,500 was  under the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation and $250,500
was for the Research and Development appropriation.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support  Review and  Revision
of NAAQS.  Efforts were directed towards revising and  updating  the current criteria
document for lead.  Also, technical assistance was provided  to  OAQPS on the  PM/SOX
criteria document to  help develop  regulatory  options,  respond to public  comments
on regulatory  proposals  and participate  in  the  CASAC  peer review  of  regulatory
options for PM and SOX.

MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1985 Program Request

    The Agency requests a total of $5,593,700 supported by  63.2 total workyears  for
this program,  of  which $3,354,800 is  for Salaries and Expenses  and $2,238,900  is
for Research and Development.  This reflects an  increase  of $84,000  and a decrease
of $177,800, respectively.  The net decrease results  from a reduction in the  number
of routine and special quality assurance audits required.
                                         A-47

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     Develop  and  Validate Measurement and  Monitoring Methods for  the Gases  and
 Particles  Program. The  Office of  Research and  Development will analyze the mass and
 chemical composition  of gases and  particles  from  filters collected by the Inhalable
 Particulate  (IP) Network.  Study  of the operational characteristics of the lOu fil-
 ter  system will be carried out.   Glass fiber filters  from National, State and local
 Air  Monitoring  Stations  (SLAMS  and  NAMS)   will   be  analyzed for  mass  and  trace
 metals.  Reference and  equivalent methods for  gases  and  particles  will  be evalua-
 ted.  Continuous emission monitoring methods for  stationary sources will be evalua-
 ted.  Data support will  be provided for international  monitoring programs.  Regional
 plume transport will  be  studied using airborne  lidar  techniques.

     Provide Quality  Assurance  (QA) Support  for the Gases  and  Particles  Program.
 Oua 1 ity assurance support  will  be provided  to  the IP Network, the  SLAMS/NAMS net-
 work, and  other air monitoring  efforts.  A standards  laboratory and a repository of
 OA materials will be  maintained for the user community.  Routine and special audits
 will be  conducted  on laboratories making ambient  and source measurements  and on
 compressed gas  vendors.  The  OA  guidelines,   Handbook,  Data Handling  System  and
 Precision  and Accuracy  Reporting  Systems  will  be  updated and  maintained.  An audit
 program for  continuous   emission  monitors  for  stationary  sources will  be  carried
 out. Statistical  techniques  will  be carried  out  for investigating  temporal  and
 spatial distributions of pollutants and corresponding  human exposures.

 1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is  allocating a total  of $5,687,500 and 63.2 total  work-
 years to this program,  of which $3,270,800  is  for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
 priation and $2,416,700  is  for  extramural  purposes under the  Research and Develop-
 ment appropriation.

     Develop  and  Validate Measurement and  Monitoring Methods for  the Gases  and
 Particles  Program. The  IP  Network was  originally  planned to  be transferred  to the
 States in  1984.  However,  OAOPS requested that 20 of  the sites be  kept  active and
 under the  supervision of the Office  of Research  and Development.   Thus,  these 20
 sites will be operated  for at least one more year  to  develop data for OAOPS.  Moni-
 toring systems  for  pollutants  in  ambient-air  and in  source emissions  are  being
 developed  and improved.  Selected  systems are  being subjected to single and multi-
 laboratory evaluation to identify and correct sources  of error.

     Provide Qua!ity  Assurance  (OA) Support  for   the  Gases and Particles  Program.
 Oua 1 ity control  samples  are  being obtained  and  used  in audits, and OA  support is
 being provided to the IP Network and the SLAMS/NAMS networks.

 1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$162,100 results from the following  actions:

     -Reprogrammings.   (-$162,100) Several reprogrammings were made to this activi-
 ty which  were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
 These changes resulted  in a net decrease  of -$106,100 to  the  Salaries  and Expenses
 appropriation and a net decrease of -$56,000 to the Research and Development appro-
 priation.

 1983 Accomplishments

     In  1983, the Agency  obligated a  total   of  $6,768,600 and  75.2  total  workyears
 for this  program, of  which $3,658,500 was  under the  Salaries and  Expenses  appro-
 priation and  $3,110,100  was  for  extramural   purposes  under  the  Research  and
 Development appropriation.

     Develop  and  Validate Measurement   and Monitoring Methods  in  Support  of  the
 Gases and ^articles  Program?Planning'continued Tor the transfer  of the IP  Network
to the States.  The mass and chemical composition of   samples were determined.   The
SLAMS/NAMS networks  were  continued and the  filters analyzed  to determine  ambient
air quality trends  and   the  effects of  Agency  actions  on  national   air  quality.
                                      A-48

-------
     Provide Quality  Assurance (QA) Support  for the Gases and Particles  Program.
In 1983, performance audits of SLAMS/NAMS  stations  were  conducted;  a  repository of
reference samples and standards was maintained; new and expanded QA  guidelines were
published; and the Mandatory QA Program was continued to  respond to  Regional,  State
and local needs.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $9,988,000  supported  by  66.5  total  workyears
for this program, of  which  $3,778,100  is for  Salaries and  Expenses and $6,209,900
is for Research  and  Development  activities.   This reflects a  decrease  of $189,800
for Salaries and  Expenses and  an  increase of  $1,050,800 for  Research  and Develop-
ment.  The net  increase  results  from the enhancement of the  Agency's  epidemiology
research program.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support Review and  Revision
of NAA'QS.  The  research  program  has three  major goals:    1)  to provide data  on  a
full range of  health  effects of exposure  to  gases, S02, particles, and  lead from
human and animal  studies; 2) to provide  better models to  extrapolate  animal  data
to humans; and  3) to develop  improved  test methods  for  use  by the  Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA)  and  others to  conduct improved  research into  the physio-
logic response of humans to gaseous air pollutants and particles.

     Work will  be initiated  to develop an aerosol  particle  generation  system to
study coarse mode particles  in animals.  Also,  screening  tests will  be performed
to rank the potency of coarse mode  particles in animals and man.  Animal  toxicology
studies of fine  and coarse  mode particles will provide data  on chronic  and  sub-
chronic effects,  including  pulmonary structure  and  function,  host, defense  mecha-
nisms, and  lung  biochemistry.  Human   studies  will  evaluate  the   respiratory  and
cardiovascular effects  of gases and particles  on  persons  with cardiovascular or
chronic pulmonary disease.   Research will  continue  on the  effects  of  S02 on sus-
ceptible populations,  with  expanded  efforts  on  biochemical  and  immunological
changes.

     Efforts to  improve  extrapolation  techniques and  their  application  will  be
initiated.  Theoretical   models  of  respiratory  tract  deposition   of  gases  and
particles will  be developed  and lung dosimetry  modeling  efforts will  be expanded
to include additional  compounds.   A portable  personal  monitor  which  provides  ob-
jective measurements  of  human  physiologic  response  to   gases will  be  refined.

     Since the developing nervous  system  of animals  and humans is known  to be more
vulnerable to  lead  toxicity  than  the  mature  system,  it   is  necessary to  obtain
quantitative data on  the  neurological  effects of lead at  lower levels,  especially
at levels previously  considered to  be safe  in  children.   In  1985,  a  study will
be completed which  uses  electrophysiological assessments of several  behavioral and
central nervous  system  responses.   The  significance  of the effects  noted will then
be evaluated for  use in assessing health risks from lead  at these levels.

   Under the  U.S.-China  Protocol   for   Scientific   and  Technical   Cooperation  in
Environmental Protection, a  comprehensive  study of  the  relationship  between  air
pollution and lung disease is being  undertaken in China.   U.S. experts in epidemi-
ology, cell   biology,  and   chemistry are  working with  Chinese scientists,  using
state-of-the-art  techniques and equipment, to monitor and sample indoor and outdoor
air, with special attention on coal and wood burning in the home.  Organic extracts
from these samples, and  similar ones taken  using  U.S.  coal, will be bioassayed for
oncogenic cell transformation and  gene  mutation.  Ultimately,  the  mutagenicity of
air samples and lung cancer incidence data from the Peoples Republic of China (PRC)
will be compared.

   Epidemiology studies  initiated  in 1984 will  be  continued  in 1985 and  new ones
initiated where  feasible.   It  is  anticipated that the increased resources availa-
ble for this program will enable EPA to collaborate  with  other agencies to improve
population exposure estimates.
                                       A-49

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1984 Program

   In 1984, the Agency is allocating a total of $9,127,000 and 66.5 total  workyears
to this program, of which $3,967,900 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $5,159,100 is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development appro-
priation.

   Develop  Health and Welfare Effects Information to  Support Review and  Revision
of NAAQS.In  response  to program  office  priorities,  additional  clinicalstudies
of normal  and  susceptible   populations  are  being  conducted.    In  addition,  the
effects of acute and chronic exposure to large inhalable particles are being close-
ly examined.   Both  human and animal  dose-response  studies are  focussed  on deter-
mining the deposition, clearance, and  pulmonary  effects  of particles,  alone and in
combination with ozone,  nitrogen oxide  and S02-  Extrapolation efforts  are  being
refined in accordance with findings of the 1983 extrapolation workshop.

     Field work began  on the China  study  of  air pollution and lung  disease.   In
1984, Chinese  scientists will  assist with bioassay  activities  and epidemiological
data analysis.   Feasibility  studies  will  be  conducted to  determine  the  role  of
epidemiology in  identifying  health  risks  from  gases  and particles  under varying
atmospheric and climatic conditions.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net increase of +$200,000 results  from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (+$200,000) A  reprogramrning  was  made to this  activity  which
was not reportable  under the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This change
resulted in a net Increase of +$200,000 to  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated  a total  of $7,095,400  and  55.3 total  workyears
for this program, of which $3,637,200 was  under the  Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $3,458,200 was for extramural  purposes under the Research and Develop-
ment appropriation.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to  Support Review and  Revision
of NAAQS.Major accomplishments included a  report on acute physiological  responses
on normal subjects  following inhalation  of  gases, particles,  and mixtures of both.
A national  workshop  was  held on extrapolation modeling  resulting in  a  long-term
research strategy.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total of $4,366,000  supported by 37.2 total  workyears
for this program, of which  $1,992,000 is for Salaries and  Expenses  and $2,374,000
is for  Research  and  Development.   This  reflects  an  increase   of  $616,600  for
Salaries and Expenses and 10.0 total workyears and a decrease of $46,300 in Research
and Development.   This  net  increase  results  from greater  emphasis  on  intensive
in-house activities   to  support  the  Agency's  compliance programs.   Specifically,
the additional  resources  will  be used to  provide additional technical  assistance
and to  identify  the options and advantages of  integrating  air pollution  control
technologies in coal-fired power plants.
                                       A-50

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     Research  and Assess Emissions Reduction Technologies  to Support  Permitting,
NSPS emd Compliance Activities"  How   cost,   highly  reliable  emissions   reduc-
tion technologydesignand  performance criteria  need to  be disseminated  to  the
user and permitting communities.  To meet this need, ORD will conduct the following
research activities.

     Research will  identify  the potential  of the  most promising sorbents  for  use
in spray dryer and  dry injection processes  for  sulfur dioxide  controls  from  coal
fired boilers as  a means to  amplify the potentials  of  these  very recent commercial
technologies.  The effects of  wide plate  spacing on ESP performance will be evalu-
ated with special emphasis on retrofit applications.

     The potential  of coal  cleaning  techniques to  further reduce  pyritic  sulfur
in coals will be  assessed,  and a first full  scale module test of an electrostati-
cally enhanced fabric filter (ESFF) pilot baghouse will be conducted under electric
utility operating conditions.

     The Tenth Flue  Gas Desulfurization  (FGD) Symposium and  Sixth Particle Collec-
tion Symposia will  be held  jointly  with the Electric  Power  Research  Institute to
transfer information on the technologies in these areas to the regulated community.
An engineering  operations   research   program  will  be  initiated to identify  the
options and  advantages of integrating  air pollution control  technologies  in  coal
fired power plants.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating a total   of $3,795,700  and 27.2  total  work-
years to  this  program,  of  which $1,375,400  is  for  the   Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $2,420,300 is  for  extramural  purposes under the Research  and
Development appropriation.

     Research  and  Assess Emissions Reduction Technologies  to Support  Permitting
NSPS, and Compliance Activities.  Research  on advanced  particle and   SOX  capture
techniques isbeing  conducted  to enhance the  performance  of fabric  filters  and
ESP's and  ease  their  transition  and  acceptance by the  regulating and  regulated
communities.  The engineering  pilot  testing of  these  systems are  being continued
with the objective of  increasing performance at  lower costs.

     Research on  the  fundamentals of  combined  SOX and  particle  emissions  capture
by new  and  conventional  technology is  being evaluated.  Emphasis  is  on assessing
the potential for dry sorbents as a means to capture SOX.

     The potential for optimizing the  combination  of air pollution  reduction tech-
nologies for coal-fired power  plants  is  being   assessed.  An  effort  to assess  the
impacts resulting  from integrating  air pollution  control  technologies on  power
plant operation and  emission  reductions is being  initiated  to identify the poten-
tial of this approach.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$195,200 results from  the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$195,200) Several  reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net decrease  of -$195,200 to the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  a  total of $6,465,700  and  36.5  total  workyears
for this program, of which $1,817,900 was under the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and $4,647,800 was for  extramural  purposes  under the Research  and  Development
appropriation.
                                        A-51

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      Research  and  Assess  Emissions Reduction Technologies to Support  Permitting,
NSPS, and Compliance Activities.Fabric  filter  baghouses  are being accepted as an
option  for  utility  and certain  industrial particle emissions  reduction applications
and are  known  to have potential  for  SOX reductions.  Therefore,  an  evaluation of
conventional baghouses for  particle  control  was completed and the data made avail-
able  to  support the  1985  NSPS  review for  utility  boilers.  Also,  field assess-
ments of the performance  of baghouses in conjunction with spray dryers for combined
S0x-particle capture were conducted to ascertain  the  reliability of this technology.

      A  state-of-the-art  F6D technology  assessment   for  fossil  fuel  fired boilers
was completed.   In  addition,  the  use  of  organic  acids   to  enhance  limestone
scrubbing performance  and  reliability  with  reduced  costs  was  commercialized.
These results  will  be  used for the 1985  NSPS  review and  for regional and enforce-
ment  permitting  purposes.   Evaluations  of  two methods  for  fugitive  particles
emissions reduction  were completed  and  a  technology assessment  made.   Operation
and maintenance  guides  for electrostatic precipitators were  completed and include
flue  gas conditioning methods  as stop-gap techniques to  improve  existing ESP per-
formance in low  sulfur coal applications.

ENVIRONMENTAL  PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1985  Program Request

      The Agency  requests  a total of  $8,441,900  supported by  37.5 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which $2,440,100 is for  Salaries  and  Expenses and $6,001,800
is for  Research  and Development,  with  decreases of  $69,200  and  $607,500, respec-
tively.  This  also reflects  a  decrease  of  3  workyears.   The  decrease  reflects
completion  of  work  in the air ecology research  program as well  as an extension to
the required schedule  for  the  development  of air quality  models for  urban  scale
particulate matter  and complex terrain S02.

      Develop   and   Validate Air Quality  Models to  Support Implementation, Mainte-
nance, and  Enforcement of NAAQS.Improved particulate models will be developed for
urban and mesoscale distances.   Fugitive dust transport and  modeling  studies will
be conducted and the reactive plume model for ozone will be modified to include the
non-linear chemistry for  sulfate, nitrate, and organics.

      A regional  scale particulate  matter air  quality model   is being  developed to
demonstrate the  long range  transport of particles and to demonstrate the effective-
ness  of  alternative control strategies  in  meeting  acceptable  ambient air quality
levels.  A  users  guide   for   the  interim  linear  model   for  fine  and  inhalable
particles will  be  completed.    Long  range tracer  experiments in  conjunction  with
the Department of Energy  (DOE), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), and the  Electric  Power Research Institute (EPRI) will  be  conducted during
the summer  of  1985.   These  experiments will involve  multiple tracer  releases from
Ohio and Canada to study transport and dispersion to the East.

     Work will  begin  on  the development of  second  generation source  apportionment
methods to identify the most effective mathematical  and analytical  models to use in
receptor modeling; to evaluate several  second generation receptor models using real
and simulated  aerosol data  sets; to determine  the limitation  of  receptor modeling;
to develop  internal and  external  verification procedures for each method;  and, to
develop protocols for combining  receptor  and dispersion models in order to address
source apportionment problems.

     Present S02 air quality  dispersion  models for  single and  multiple  sources in
complex terrain  are inadequate to meet  the  needs   of  the  Regions,  States,  local
governments and industry, especially in the mountainous West  where there is a  great
deal  of  energy development  activity.   A  full-scale  plume  study of a  three dimen-
sional complex  terrain area will be continued.  Also, a users guide for the complex
terrain dispersion model   for  stable  plume impaction will  be  delivered to  OAQPS by
early FY 1986.
                                       A-52

-------
     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support Review and  Revision
of NAff^-Hme  results  of  research  on the effects of  sulfur  dioxide and particles
on steel  will  be integrated into the materials  risk model.   In  addition,  a  field
research  program  will  be  initiated to  evaluate  the  effects of  gaseous  pollutants
on such  building surfaces  as paints,  stone, and  concrete,  and will  include  an
analysis  of weathering factors.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is allocating a total  of $9,118,600  and 40.5 total  work-
years to  this program, of  which $2,509,300  is for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation, and $6,609,300 is for extramural purposes under the Research and Develop-
ment appropriation.

     Develop  and  Validate  Air Quality Models to  Support Implementation, Mainte-
nance, and Enforcement of NAAQS.Research  focuses on the  following  projects:1)
development of  a  regionalparticulate model  which will provide  information  on  the
meteorological conditions that lead to  prolonged, elevated pollution  episodes;  2)
development of  an interim  linear  regional  particulate model  for  fine and inhalable
particles; 3) analysis  of  results  of  the 1983 Cross  Appalachian  Tracer Experiments
(CAPTEX); 4) completion of first generation source apportionment methods; 5) devel-
opment and  validation  of  urban and  mesoscale particulate models;  6)  initiation  of
a full  scale  plume  study  of a three  dimensional  complex  terrain  area; 7) develop-
ment and  validation of visibilty  models; and 8)  development of improved  procedures
for treating dispersion parameters from elevated sources.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support Review and  Revision
of NAAQS.  A material  risk model  is  being  developed  for use in  the  assessment  of
the effects of  S02  and particles on  various  types of materials  such  as  steel  and
paints.   A  corrosion  monitor  is  being  developed and tested to provide  greater
quantification of the  impacts  of air pollutants on  metals.  The  air  ecology pro-
gram is  evaluating  the  frequency  and  extent of  potentially  adverse air  quality
conditions relevant to pollutant mixtures (S02, 03, and N02).

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The  net decrease of -$164,000 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$164,000) Several reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted  in  a  net decrease of -$164,000 to the  Research and Develop-
ment appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated  a  total  of $10,955,200 and  46.4 total  workyears
for this  program, of which $2,573,700 was under the Salaries and  Expenses appropri-
ation, and  $8,381,500  was  for  extramural  purposes under  the Research  and Develop-
ment appropriation.

     Develop  and  Validate  Air  Quality Models to Support Implementation, Mainte-
nance, and Enforcement of NAAQTI   Tfie  major accomplishments of  this  program  were
as follows:1)  a new  dispersion  scheme for  elevated releases   was  developed;  2)
the Small Hill  Impaction Study #2 was conducted; 3)  improved local scale and meso-
scale air quality models  for western  Colorado and eastern  Utah  were delivered;  4)
a user's  guide  for  the Particulate  Episodic Model (PEM)  was developed and valida-
ted; 5)  Source  Apportionment  Methods (SAM)  were  developed;  and  6)  a  long  range
tracer experiment  (CAPTEX)  was  conducted  jointly  with  DOE,  EPRI,  and  Canada.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information to Support Review and  Revision
of NAAQS.The  air  ecology  program  focused on the ecological  effects  of pollutant
combinations  (S02, 03,  and  N02).   A workshop was  held to  develop  a  research  stra-
tegy for  evaluating the  impacts  of pollutant  combinations.   Research  in materials
damage concentrated on the development of  an atmospheric corrosion monitor  to  be
used as a proxy for damage to materials from S02 and particles.
                                       A-53

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-------OCR error (C:\Conversion\JobRoot\00000731\tiff\2000QK8S.tif): Unspecified error

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents




                                                                              PAGE

AIR

    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Air Quality & Stationary Source Planning & Standards	    A-55
          Emission Standards & Technology Assessment	    A-58
          Pollutant Strategies & Air Standards Development	    A-59
          State Program Guidelines & Regulations Development	    A-60
       Mobile Source Air Pollution Control & Fuel  Economy	    A-62
          Emission Standards, Technical Assessment & Characterization	    A-64
          Testing, Technical & Administrative Support	*....    A-65
          Emissions & Fuel  Economy Compliance	    A-66
       State Programs Resource Assistance	    A-68
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)....    A-71
          Training	    A-72
       Air Quality Management Implementation	    A-73
       Trends Monitoring & Progress Assessment	    A-77
          Ambient Air Quality Monitoring	    A-79
          Air Quality & Emissions Data Analysis & Progress Assessment	    A-81
                                        A-54

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                                       AIR


              Air Quality and Stationary Source  Planning and Standards


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $23,390,700  supported  by 256.9  total  work-
years for  1985.   Of the  total  request, $11,213,900  is  for the  Salaries  and Ex-
penses appropriation and  $12,176,800 is  for  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation, an increase of $1,816,200 and  26  total  workyears.

Program Description

     The program areas  under this subactivity include:

     Emission Standards and Technology  Assessment  —  This  program provides for the
establishment, review and  revision  of   national  emission  standards  for stationary
sources under Sections 111 and 112 of the Clean Air Act.  Section 111  requires the
Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA) to establish  New Source Performance Standards
(NSPSs).  Section  112  authorizes  National  Emission  Standards  for  Hazardous  Air
Pollutants (NESHAPs).

     NSPSs reflect the performance of the  best  control  systems  for reducing emis-
sions.  The  standards  are  set   taking  into   consideration  technical   feasibility,
cost, and economic,  energy,  and  environmental impacts.  The background information
published as part  of the  process for setting NSPSs  provides useful  data  to State
agencies in defining best available control technology,  lowest  achievable emission
rates, and  reasonably  available  control technology,  when such  determinations  of
appropriate control levels must  be made under other sections of the Clean Air Act.

     NESHAPs protect the  public  from pollutants  that  cause or  contribute  to air
pollution that  results  in  an increase  in   mortality  or  an  increase in  serious
irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness.

     Pollutant Strategies  and Air Standards Development — The  major activities  of
this program  include:THregularreview  andrevision,  as appropriate,  of all
existing National  Ambient  Air Quality   Standards  (NAAQSs);  (2)  identification and
assessment of potential hazardous  air   pollutants,  including the determination  as
to the  appropriateness  of a  listing under  Section 112  of the  Clean Air Act; and
(3) analytic  support to Agency  efforts  to  set  emission  standards  for pollutants
regulated under Sections lll(d)  and 112  of  the Act.

     State Program Guidelines and Regulations Development  — This  program includes:
(1) development of  guidelines and  regulations that  set  forth  requirements for air
pollution control  programs implemented  by the States  under  the Clean Air Act; (2)
development of  technical  guidance  for  air  quality  modeling,  emission  inventory
development, and air quality  standard  attainment  demonstrations;  and (3) overview
of the  development  and implementation  of State  and local  air  pollution control
programs.  The State and  local programs  provide-for the attainment  and maintenance
of NAAQSs, prevention of  significant deterioration  of air quality in clean areas,
and the  protection  of  visibility  in  national  parks and wilderness  areas.   The
overview carried out under this  program helps ensure  consistency  among  EPA Regional
Offices, States, and local  agencies  in  carrying out  the requirements of the Clean
Air Act.
                                        A-57

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EMISSION STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $13,006,100 supported by 98.6 total workyears
for this  program.   Of this  request,  $4,395,800 is for the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $8,610,300  is  for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appro-
priation.  This  is an increase of $214,900 for the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropria-
tion, but  no  increase for  total  workyears.   There is a  decrease  of $582,900  for
the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation.  The  increase reflects  in-
creased personnel and  support costs  and  the decrease reflects  the  completion of
technical studies  done  on  an expedited  basis  to  support   standards  required by
court order.

     Efforts will continue  in 1985 towards meeting the  requirements of the Clean
Air Act for establishing  NSPSs.   In 1985 seven  NSPS proposals (five  new  standards;
two revisions) and 20 promulgations (15 new standards;  five  revisions) are  planned.
The promulgations cover 13  source categories  on EPA's list   of high  priority cate-
gories.  Reviews will be  completed  for five more  existing NSPSs  in 1985.   In addi-
tion, two  NESHAPs  proposals  and three  NESHAPs  promulgations  are  scheduled   for
1985.  The proposals include  revisions to NESHAPs for vinyl  chloride sources  and
asbestos demolition and renovation.   The  promulgations will  cover coke oven emis-
sions from wet  coal  charging, arsenic  from glass manufacturing, and arsenic  from
low arsenic copper smelters.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating a total  of  $13,374,100 and 98.6 total work-
years to this program.  Of  the total, $4,180,900  is  for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $9,193,200  is  for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance  appro-
priation.

     In 1984 efforts  are  continuing  to  complete  NSPSs for  all  source categories
required by the  Clean  Air  Act.   Proposals  for 15 NSPSs  (12 new standards; three
revisions) and promulgations of 12 NSPSs (nine  new standards; three  revisions)  are
scheduled for 1984  covering nine additional  priority  list source categories.   Six
reviews of existing  standards  will  be  completed.   In addition,  Control Technique
Guidelines for  five  sources  of   volatile  organic  compounds are  being  completed.
An evaluation of auto surface coating  controls  is  also being  initiated.  An assess-
ment of waterborne  surface  coatings   is  being  conducted for  the wood furniture
industry.  The Control  Technology Document for  stationary sources of lead  is being
revised.

     Two NESHAPs,  one  for  coke  oven emissions  from wet   charging and  one   for
benzene from coke  oven by-product  recovery plants,  are scheduled  for proposal.
Three NESHAPs,   one  for   benzene  fugitive  leaks,  one  for high  arsenic   copper
smelters,  and one  for asbestos  work  practices,  are  scheduled  for  promulgation.
The review of the NESHAPs  for mercury  is  also  scheduled to be completed.

1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     The net  increase of +$68,100 results  from the  following  action:

     -Reprogramming.  (+$68,100)  A  reprogramming  was  made to this  activity which
was not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming  1 imitations.  This  change
resulted in a net increase  of  +$68,100 to the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.
                                       A-58

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1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  $13,880,600 and 97.0 total workyears  for this
program.  Of the  amount  obligated,  $4,180,100 was  for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $9,700,500 was  for  contract work under  the Abatement,  Control,
and Compliance appropriation.  The  contract  resources  were used to  continue work
related to setting NSPSs  and NESHAPs.

     In 1983, work  continued  on  setting NSPSs for  all  source categories  on EPA's
priority list.  NSPSs activity included:   proposal  of  nine new  standards  and two
revisions; promulgation   of  six  new standards,  covering  six  additional  priority
list source categories,  and  six other standards,  including four revisions.   Reviews
of two existing NSPSs were completed.  The Control  Technique Guideline for petroleum
solvent dry cleaning was  published and the  Control Technology Document for nitrogen
oxides was completed.

     Work continued toward  promulgation  of four  NESHAPs  for  benzene  sources and
proposal of a fifth.  Work  also  continued  on  proposal  of  a NESHAPs  for coke oven
wet charging and topside leaks.  Three  arsenic NESHAPs  and the asbestos work prac-
tices revision were proposed.


POLLUTANT STRATEGIES AND  AIR STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $5,524,700  supported  by  81.4  total  workyears
for this  program.   Of  this  request, $3,532,700  is  for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $1,992,000 is  for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance appro-
priation.  The request  includes increases of  $951,900 for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $399,000 for  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation,
an increase of 18 total  workyears.  The increase in total workyears and extramural
support will be used primarily to initiate  development  of a comprehensive  national
air toxics program and  accelerate the assessment  and decision-making on potentially
toxic ai r pollutants.

     In 1985, revisions  to  the  NAAQSs  for particulate matter and  sulfur  dioxide
will be promulgated. Risk assessment will be  applied and regulatory impact analyses
will be developed as part of the  review of the NAAQSs for ozone and lead.  Regula-
tory decisions will  be  published for 17 potential  hazardous  pollutants evaluated
in 1984.  Also  in 1985,  health,  exposure,  and source  assessments will  begin for
three to  five  additional  potential  hazardous  pollutants.   In  addition, operation
of the air toxics  clearinghouse to assist State and local agencies will  be continued.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is  allocating  a total of $4,173,800  and 63.4 total work-
years to this program.   Of this amount,  $2,580,800 is for the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $1,593,000 is  for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance appro-
priation.

     Revisions to the NAAQSs for particulate  matter,  nitrogen dioxide,  and sulfur
dioxide will  be  proposed  in 1984.  The final  promulgations of revised NAAQSs for
carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are also expected.   Reviews  of the NAAQSs for
lead and  ozone  are in process.   Application  of  a  risk  assessment  methodology is
planned in 1984 as part  of the review  of the  NAAQSs  for  lead.
                                        A-59

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      Pollutant assessment activities are to  result  in  the development of  strategy
 recommendations for  several  pollutants.   Decisions on  whether to  regulate  five
 substances are also expected in 1984: coke oven emissions,  aerylonitrile, manganese,
 carbon tetrachloride,  and  polycyclic  organic  matter.   Decisions  on  whether to
 regulate various benzene source  categories are  also being issued  in 1984.   Work
 will be underway on  an  additional  12 pollutants  in  1984.   Other activities  include
 the design of  an  air toxics  clearinghouse to  assist  State and local agencies  and
 initiate operation of the clearinghouse.

 1984 Explanation of Changes from  the Amendment

      The net  increase of +$98,700 results from the following action:

      -Reprogramming.   (+$98,700)   A reprogramming was  made to this activity which
 was not reportable under the Congressional reprogramming  limitations.  This  change
 resulted in a  net  increase of  +$98,700 to  the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.

 1983 Accomplishments

      In 1983,  the  Agency  obligated $3,932,700  and  63.6  total  workyears  for  this
 program.  Of  the  amount  obligated, $2,804,700  was  for the Salaries and  Expenses
 appropriation and $1,128,000 was  for  contract work  under the Abatement,   Control,
. and Compliance appropriation.  The  contract  funds provided support  for evaluation
 of NAAQSs; analysis  of  the  environmental,  economic,   and  regulatory  impacts of
 possible revisions to the  NAAQSs;  and  development  of  an  improved  risk assessment
 methodology.

      The NAAQSs for  hydrocarbons  were  revoked  in  1983.  In  addition,  work   was
 underway to promulgate revisions  to the  NAAQSs for  carbon monoxide  and to  propose
 appropriate changes to the  NAAQSs for nitrogen dioxide,  sulfur  dioxide, particulate
 matter, and ozone.   In  the pollutant  assessment  area,  detailed health  and  source
 assessments were  underway  for  22  pollutants.   Regulatory   recommendations   were
 developed for polycyclic organic  matter and acrylonitrile.  Work on  the regulatory
 decision for  toluene  was completed  in  1983.   The decision was  expected to  be  pub-
 lished in early 1984.  However, recent  studies indicate  toluene may be carcinogenic
 and further assessment will  be  required.  A  proposal  and negative  determinations
 for arsenic sources were published.


 STATE PROGRAM GUIDELINES  AND  REGULATIONS  DEVELOPMENT

 1985 Program  Request

      The Agency requests a total  of $4,859,900  supported  by  76.9  total  workyears
 for this program.  Of  this request, $3,285,400  is  for the Salaries and  Expenses
 appropriation and  $1,574,500 is  for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appro-
 priation.   The amounts represent  increases of  $493,800  and $339,500,  respectively,
 an increase of  eight total  workyears.   The  increases  in  workyears  and intramural
 resources  will  provide technical  assistance,   guidance  and additional analyses   for
 visibility, particulates, lead, and sulfur  dioxide issues.

      In 1985,  the  Agency  will  maintain  a  management   and overview   role  for   the
 review and approval  of  State  Implementation Plans  (SIPs).    Program  policy   and
 guidance will  be provided  for  SIP development  and  approval.   During 1985,  States
 should complete SIPs   for most  of  the  200  areas  where  the NAAQSs  for particulate
 matter, sulfur dioxide, ozone,  carbon  monoxide,  and nitrogen  dioxide were not   met
 by December 1982.  Policy  and  guidance  will   be developed to  resolve  any  issues
 associated with these SIPs.  Regulations  will  be promulgated and guidance provided
 to help States implement revised  NAAQSs  for particulate matter  and sulfur dioxide.
 Guidance will  be developed  to implement  revised  NAAQSs  for lead.  Regulations will
 be promulgated for  protection of  visibility and use of intermittent  control systems.
 Procedures  will  be  implemented  for  oversight of State programs.  A  report summariz-
 ing the 1984  results  of  the National Air  Audit  will  be completed.
                                       A-60

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     Emission factors for  toxic  chemicals and  other related  information  will  be
developed and  issued  in 1985.   Technical  assistance and  guidance on  data  bases
and modeling techniques for  areas  not attaining the  NAAQSs in 1982  will  be pro-
vided.  A revised version  of  EPA's Air  Quality  Modeling Guideline will be issued.
Also, guidance will  be provided to Regional Offices and the modeling  clearinghouse
will be  continued  to  promote  and  ensure Regional  consistency  in   the  use  of
models.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is  allocating  a  total  of $4,026,600 and 68.9 total  work-
years to this  program.  Of the  total, $2,791,600  is  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $1,235,000  is for contract work under the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.   Contract  funds are  being used to support development of
emission factors, evaluation  of air  quality models,  and  refinement  of  guidance for
implementing the revised NAAQSs  for particulate  matter and  sulfur dioxide.

     In 1984, national management  and  oversight  of major SIP programs  is continuing
to ensure that deficient SIPs are corrected and that  backlogs  of SIP  revisions do
not recur.   Emphasis  is  being placed on  completing SIPs  for  areas,  that  did not
meet the December 1982  attainment  deadline for existing  NAAQSs.  A  major policy
for post-1982 nonattainment areas was published in early 1984 outlining steps that
must be taken to  meet  NAAQSs  and establishing  schedules  for action.   Guidance is
also being provided  for  SIP  revisions for  implementing  revised NAAQSs, including
technical  guidance for revision of SIPs for the particulate  matter NAAQSs.  Develop-
ment of lead  SIPs  is being  coordinated to meet the requirements  of  a settlement
agreement resulting   from   litigation.   Visibility  regulations   for  35  States  and
intermittment control  system  regulations  are being proposed.   New  source review
program guidance is   being  provided.   Efforts to develop alternative  approaches to
regulations are  continuing.  The multi-year program  for evaluation and validation
of air quality  models and development  of emission  factors for SIP  revisions is
being continued.  The National  Air  Audit  System  is  being implemented  for  four
program areas:  air quality planning,  new source review,  compliance assurance, and
air monitoring.

1984 Explanation of  Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from  the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the Agency   obligated $4,084,100  and  76.0 total   workyears  for this
program.  Of  the  amount  obligated,  $3,124,400  was  for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $959,700 was  for  contract  work  under  the  Abatement,  Control,
and Compliance appropriation.  The contract efforts supported  general   SIP develop-
ment and air quality modeling.

     The emphasis in 1983 continued to be  national  management and evaluation of all
major SIP programs.   Policy guidance and program assistance were continued for the
areas that had been  granted  attainment  date extensions  to 1987 for the NAAQSs for
ozone and  carbon  monoxide.  A major  policy was proposed  for areas where the 1982
deadline for  meeting NAAQSs   was  not met.  A  settlement  agreement,  outlining   a
program for  completing  lead  SIPs,  was  agreed  upon by  EPA,  the Natural Resources
Defense Council, and other plaintiffs.

     Management of the  new source  review and prevention of significant deteriora-
tion programs  continued  with efforts to  encourage  additional  States  to take over
all permitting programs.   Assistance  was  furnished  to States  and Regional offices
in  regulation  development.  Policy  guidance,  modeling,  and monitoring  support for
control strategy development   was  also provided.  The model evaluation  program was
continued and  a  draft  of  revisions  to the Air Quality Modeling Guideline was  pre-
pared.  Emission factors for  criteria pollutants  and potentially toxic substances
were developed.
                                       A-61

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                                       AIR


               Mobile Source Air Pollution Control  and Fuel  Economy


Budget Request

    The Agency requests a  total  of $13,486,600 supported by 198.8 total workyears
for this  subactivity,  of  which  $9,988,300  will  be  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $3,498,300  will  be  for  the  Abatement, Control  and  Compliance
appropriation, an increase of $562,500 and 1.5 total  workyears.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the following mobile source programs:

     Emission Standards, Technical  Assessment and Characterization  — This  program
provides the standards development and analysis required  for the control of mobile
source emissions, as specified  by  the  Clean Air Act.  Work is also  carried  out  to
improve fuel economy testing procedures and evaluate fuel economy  retrofit  devices,
as required  by the Motor  Vehicle  Information and  Cost  Savings Act.  This  program
is responsible for  developing both light-duty vehicle and heavy-duty engine  emis-
sion standards.  Other major program activities  include:  characterization of hazar-
dous emissions,  assessment  of emissions  control  technology,  technical   assistance
to the States  for implementation  of local  control  programs,  assessment of  actual
emissions levels  from in-use  vehicles, and  analysis  of the  current and  prospective
impacts of motor  vehicle emissions on air quality.

     Testing. Technical, and Administrative Support  — This program provides  basic
testing, technical,  and  administrative  support  to the  mobile  source operating
programs of EPA.

    Emissions and Fuel  Economy Compliance — This program implements the emissions
certification and compliance requirements of the Clean Air Act  and  the fuel  economy
information and  compliance  requirements  of  the  Motor Vehicle Information and Cost
Savings Act.  As  part of  this program,  fuel  economy information is  made available
to the consumer  through the  mile  per  gallon values published  in  the  Gas  Mileage
Guide and on new  vehicle labels.


EMISSIONS STANDARDS. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT.  AND CHARACTERIZATION

1 985 Program Request

      The Agency  requests  $5,993,200 supported  by  71.9  total  workyears for this
program,  of  which  $3,429,900  is for  the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation and
$2,563,300 is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation. This  request
represents a $161,100 increase  for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation due  to
increased personnel  costs.  There is  no change in total workyears.

     In 1985,  standards   setting   activity  will  focus  primarily  upon   heavy-duty
engines.   The  final  rulemaking for  the  heavy-duty particulate  standards  and the
heavy-duty engine/light-duty truck nitrogen  oxides  standards  will  be promulgated.
Assessment of emissions  control  technology  will  continue.

     Acquisition  of  emissions  data from in-use vehicles using  new  control tech-
nology remains an  important  activity.   Analysis  of  these data will  allow EPA  to
determine the impacts of mobile  source control  programs  on  air quality.  Technical
support to States will also continue to  be  an important  priority.  Many  States are
expected to  be implementing local  control  programs, as  mandated  by  the Clean Air
Act.   All  of their programs will  be dealing  with new  technology vehicles.  A  report
on the implication  of  new technology vehicles  for local  control  programs  will   be
prepared.
                                        A-64

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     The characterization of emissions resulting  from the use  of  alternative  motor
vehicle fuels will continue.  The implications of new  vehicle  technologies and the
numerous emissions problems that may result will  also  be addressed.  An  assessment
of the driving cycle  for  light-duty vehicles is anticipated to result  in recommenda-
tions for test procedure changes.  Fuel economy work will focus on the differences
between in-use fuel economy and the EPA fuel  economy values,  in addition  to further
enhancements to EPA's fuel  economy information program.  The  testing  and  evaluation
of fuel economy retrofit devices will  continue.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is  allocating a  total  of  $5,832,100  and a  total  of 71.9
workyears to this program.   Of the total, $3,268,800 is for the  Salaries and Ex-
penses appropriation  and $2,563,300 is  for extramural purposes  under  the  Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1984, work will  concentrate on the  proposal of  standards  for  heavy-duty
engine particulate emissions and heavy-duty  engine  and  light-duty truck nitrogen
oxides emissions.  Adjustment factors,  accounting  for changes in EPA's fuel economy
testing procedures,  are  under  development.   The  program  continues  to  provide
technical assistance   and  review  of  State plans,  particularly as they  relate to
local motor  vehicle  emission  control  programs.   Additional  work  will   focus  on
testing in-use  vehicles,   including  the   evaluation of  new  technology  vehicles.
Characterization of emissions from vehicles powered  by  alternative fuels  continues,
as well as testing and evaluation of  eight fuel  economy  retrofit devices.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the  Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated a  total of $5,839,500  and used a total of 88.4
workyears.  Of the amount  obligated,  $3,759,900 was for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $2,079,600 was  for  extramural  purposes  under the   Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

     Standards development  work  focused  on diesel  particulates,  heavy-duty engine
emissions, and the emissions from  vehicles  operated at  high altitudes.  Efforts
related to  heavy-duty  engine  emissions   included  promulgation  of  standards for
evaporative hydrocarbon emissions and  standards for exhaust  hydrocarbon  and carbon
monoxide emissions.  Light-duty  diesel  particulate  standards,  originally  set for
model year 1985,  were postponed  to provide  time for the industry to develop adequate
control systems.  Support was  furnished to States developing implementation plans.
The testing  and  evaluation  of  20 fuel economy   retrofit  devices were  performed.


TESTING, TECHNICAL. AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total of $6,054,600 supported by  93.6 total workyears for
this program of which $5,154,600 is for the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation and
$900,000 is  for  the  Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.  The request
represents an increase of  $330,300 for the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation and
1.5 total workyears  from 1984  to 1985.  The  increase reflects  emphasis on in-house
testing in support of in-use vehicle  emissions determinations.  This  testing allows
EPA to improve and update data  bases  with  information on those  vehicle technologies
that will dominate the fleet during calendar  year  1985  and  later periods.
                                      A-65

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     This program  provides  testing,  technical,  and  administrative support to  the
operating programs of the Office  of  Mobile Sources at the EPA Motor  Vehicle  Emis-
sions Laboratory.  Activities  supported include  recall, tampering  and fuel  switch-
ing, standard  setting,  emissions characterization,  technology  assessment,  fuel
economy, in-use  vehicle  emissions assessment,  certification,  and  State and  local
vehicle emission control.  The support  provided  includes:   automated  data  process-
ing  (ADP) timesharing  services,  laboratory data  acquisition,  and  computer opera-
tions; testing  of  motor vehicles  to measure emissions and  fuel   economy;  quality
control and correlation services for  EPA and industry testing programs;  maintenance
and  engineering design of emission testing  equipment; and personnel, administration,
safety, and facilities support services.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $5,724,300  and  a total   of 92.1
workyears for  this program.   Of  the total,  $4,824,300  is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $900,000 is for extramural purposes  under the Abatement,
Control and  Compliance  appropriation.   Testing and  technical  support   activities
have been increased to operate at  a  level where  significant economies of scale  can
be obtained.  Similar testing activities have been consolidated.

     Testing support to the certification  and fuel  economy  labeling and compliance
programs continues, with  1,000 tests scheduled for these purposes.   An  additional
1,700 tests  of  in-use vehicles at the  Motor  Vehicle Emissions Laboratory  support
the  following  programs:  recall,  surveillance,   and  tampering and fuel switching
programs; testing  in-use  vehicles for  assessing emissions  performance; and  test-
ing  of  heavy-duty  engines.   Correlation  programs   maintain  correspondence  among
test facilities  between  manufacturers  and  EPA.   Personnel,  facility  support ser-
vices, safety,  ADP,  and administrative  management  functions  are  provided  for  the
Laboratory.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the  Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated a  total  of $5,175,400 and a total of  78.0  work-
years.  Of the  total,  $4,232,100  was for  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation
and  $943,300 was for extramural  purposes under the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

     During 1983, the program  focused  on  increasing  the  efficiency of testing  at
the Motor Vehicle  Emissions  Laboratory.  The resultant  improvements resulted in a
sizeable increase  in  the number  of  tests  from  1982, while  maintaining the same
level of quality.  A total  of 2,154  tests were  performed at  the laboratory during
the year.  Data  from these  tests  were analyzed  by other  programs.  The Laboratory
has developed  substantial  expertise in  procuring  and  testing  in-use vehicles.


EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY COMPLIANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a total  of  $1,438,800  supported  by a total of 33.3  work-
years for this  program,  of  which  $1,403,800 will be for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $35,000 for the  Abatement, Control  and  Compliance appropriation.
This represents no change for  either the total workyears  or the Abatement,  Control
and Compliance funds from 1984 to 1985  and  a $71,100  increase for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation due to increased  personnel costs.
                                       A-66

-------
     The emissions  and  fuel  economy  compliance  program will  continue  to  issue
between 300 and 400  certificates  of  compliance  during the year.  The fuel  economy
information and compliance  program will  generate information  for the Gas  Mileage
Guide, calculate fuel economy  labels, and  calculate each manufacturer's  Corporate
Average Fuel  Economy  (CAFE).   Evaluation  of road  load and its  implications for
certification and fuel  economy programs  will  be  pursued.   Consideration of alterna-
tive compliance programs will  continue.  Analytical  work related to such programs
will be  completed  during 1985.   Alternatives  for improving the  effectiveness of
the certification program,  aimed at  reducing high  mileage  in-use  noncompliance,
will be identified.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is  allocating $1,367,700  and  33.3 total  workyears for
this program, of  which  $1,332,700 is for  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $35,000 is for  extramural  purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

     The Agency is  continuing  to streamline  the certification  process by revising
requirements to reduce the  burden on industry without  sacrificing emissions reduc-
tions.  Programs  to  assess the  performance  of high  mileage  in-use  vehicles in
order to gather  data on in-use  emissions  and  emission  control  system deteriora-
tion are underway.  The  fuel  economy  program continues to generate  1,600 to 1,700
fuel economy  labels  a year, data for  the Gas Mileage  Guide,  and 40 CAFE calcula-
tions.  Increased effort is being devoted  to revising the fuel economy program to
more closely  approximate in-use  results,  improving  the labeling data  base, and
reducing the manufacturers'  reporting  costs.

1984 Explanation of  Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated  $1,366,000  and  used  35.0  total  workyears for
this program,  all   of  which  was for   the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.

     Certificates were issued  for 302  light-duty engine families.   The fuel  economy
program produced 1,700 labels  and performed 40 CAFE  calculations.  The final  rule-
making for changes to improve  the certification  process was promulgated.
                                      A-67

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                                       AIR


                        State Programs Resource Assistance
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $87,983,400  supported  by 4.0 total workyears
for 1985.  Included in this total  are $248,700 for the Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $87,734,700  for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation.
The request  is  a decrease  of  $6,000 for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation
and a decrease of $851,900 for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation.
There is no change in the number of total  workyears requested.

Program Description

     This subactivity provides financial  support  to  State  and local  air pollution
control agencies, including Indian  lands,  for the prevention, abatement,  and  con-
trol of  air  pollution.   The primary  objective of this subactivity  is to support
the development  and  implementation of effective  State  and  local  programs  for the
attainment and maintenance of the  National Ambient Air  Quality  Standards (NAAQSs),
in accordance with provisions  of the Clean Air Act.

     Direct grants assistance to control  agencies that  have major roles for  devel-
oping and  carrying  out  these  programs constitutes the  major  form of  EPA  resource
assistance.  Direct grants assistance is supplemented by the  training  of State and
local air pollution control personnel and the provision of  services  of contractors
for specific tasks identified by  the States  and localities.  Grants  support State
and local  control  agencies  In carrying  out  their roles under  the Clean Air  Act.
This includes:   development of State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for  the attainment
and maintenance  of the  NAAQSs;   enforcement   of  source emission  regulations  and
requirements; review  and  permitting  of   new   sources;  monitoring  of  ambient  air
quality, and development  of data  bases  necessary  for regulatory  decisions.    In
addition, these  funds promote the  assumption and implementation of other Clean Air
Act responsibilities including those for  the  prevention of significant deteriora-
tion (PSD),  and  the implementation  of  New Source  Performance  Standards  (NSPSs),
and National Emission Standards  for Hazardous  Air  Pollutants  (NESHAPs).

     Control  Agency  Resource  Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)  ~ Under  the
Clean Air Act, the control  of air  pollution at  its source is  primarily  the respon-
sibility of State and local governments.   States,  in cooperation  with  local agen-
cies, are  responsible  under the Act  for developing  and implementing  programs  to
attain and maintain the NAAQSs.  EPA grant assistance partially supports the costs
for the  operation  and  continued   efforts  of   State  and local  agency  programs  in
meeting these responsibilities.

     Training — Traditionally,  resource  assistance is  further   supplemented  by
the provision  of training  in  specialized areas   of  air  pollution  control.  New
courses are developed as  needed,  instruction  manuals  and materials are  revised and
updated, and manuals and  instructional materials  are provided to  university  train-
ing centers.  The  EPA staff  works with  university  centers  to develop State and
local self-sufficiency in training by  offering courses at  area training  centers.
                                       A-70

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CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION (SECTION 105 GRANTS)

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $87,734,700 for grants in the Abatement,  Con-
trol and  Compliance appropriation,  which  is  identical to  the 1984  Congressional
appropriation.

     In 1985, States will emphasize the development  of those additional  regulatory
steps or  programs  necessary  for  the  attainment of  NAAQSs,  particularly in  areas
missing the  statutory  1982  attainment deadline or  having  extensions  of the  dead-
line to 1987.   Additional  States will assume  responsibility  for the PSD  program.
States will  also  assume responsibility  for newly  promulgated  NSPSs  and  NESHAPs.
SIP revisions involving  visibility  protection  and  stack heights  will be  required
to meet the requirements of  court orders.

     States will maintain the full operation and  quality assurance of the  National
Air Monitoring  System  (NAMS) and State and  Local  Air Monitoring  System  (SLAMS)
networks.  A number of  States will  continue to develop new or expanded  air toxics
programs.  Several will  establish  air toxics monitoring facilities for  the permanent
collection of selected ambient air data.   These data will  allow the  assessment  of
trends in  key  areas,  consistent  with the  Agency's  newly  developed noncriteria
pollutant monitoring strategy.

     States will  continue to perform  required  inspections  and provide  associated
follow-up on all significant sources.  States will  maintain the  compliance program
at the level  required  by  established  Agency policies,  including efforts to imple-
ment newly assumed  or  expanded  responsibilties  for  new sources and to secure  com-
pliance of  sources subject  to  newly  enacted  SIP   requirements  in   nonattainment
areas.

     Grant resources will support the development in a limited number of States  of
new programs for  reducing vehicle tampering and fuel switching.  Grants will  also
help States  initiate the development of strategies  to implement the revised NAAQSs
for size-specfic particulates within  the  most  probable  nonattainment areas.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is  allocating a total  of $87,734,700  to this program, all
in the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.

     In 1984, States are initiating efforts for the  correction  of deficient SIPs  in
the over  200 areas  missing  the  statutory December 1982  attainment  deadline  for
NAAQSs.  States are also developing  necessary  regulations and  programs  in  areas
having extensions to 1987 for meeting the carbon monoxide and  ozone NAAQSs. States
without approved SIPs for lead are completing and submitting plans consistent  with
the requirements of the litigation settlement  agreement.

     Additional States are implementing newly assumed  responsibilities for  regula-
tion of new  sources,  and performing  the  initial compliance determinations  for the
additional existing sources subject to newly enacted SIP requirements for  nonattain-
ment areas.  States are continuing inspections  for all  significant sources, consis-
tent with Agency policy.  States are continuing the  operation  and quality assurance
of the NAMS  and SLAMS  networks.   The development  of size  specific particulate data
bases required  for regulatory  decisions  in the most probable nonattainment  areas
is being  initiated.  Other  major efforts  include   the  acceptance of  PSD  review
responsibilities by most remaining  States and the assumption  of  implementation
responsibilities for newly promulgated NSPSs and NESHAPs.

1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.
                                       A-71

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1983 Accomplishments

   In 1983, the  Agency  obligated $84,968,000 for this  program,  all  in the Abate-
ment, Control,  and  Compliance  appropriation.   Air management  efforts  included:
development and  submission  of the attainment SIPs  for the  1987 extension areas;
continued development of the overdue  SIPs for lead;  continued  development of mobile
and stationary  source  regulatory measures  required in the  1987 extension areas;
and implementation  of  previously transferred responsibilities  for  the regulation
of new  sources.   Enforcement  efforts focused on continued efforts  to verify and
maintain compliance  (principally  through  inspections  and   appropriate  enforce-
ment actions) of  all major  actions,  review  and  permitting of new sources, as well
as enforcement  of  delegated  responsibility  for NSPSs  and  NESHAPs.   Monitoring
programs provided  for  the  maintenance  of  current  ambient monitoring activities,
including the NAMS  network, and for the  completion  of the  SLAMS  network.   A number
of States,  on their own initiative,  undertook  efforts  to   assess  potential  air
toxic problems within  their jurisdictions and to  develop ongoing air toxic pro-
grams.


TRAINING

1 985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total of  $248,700,  all  for the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation supported  by  4.0  total  workyears for  this program.   This  request
is a decrease of  $6,000  for the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and a  decrease
of $851,900 for the Abatement, Control   and  Compliance  appropriation.   The  decrease
reflects the  Agency's  decision that  States  are capable   of  providing sufficient
training in the basic aspects  of air  pollution control.

     The program  will   manage  self-study training  courses;  provide support  to
universities, and to State  and local  agencies in planning courses  and workshops;
update existing courses  through use of  in-house  skills; and  develop  guidebooks to
accompany technical  and  legal  control  documents to  be used  by State  and  local
agency personnel.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating  $1,106,600 and 4.0 total workyears  for this
program.  Of the  allocation,  $254,700  is for the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and  $851,900 is  for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance   appropriation.

     Thirty training courses are being  conducted in the six area training  centers.
Also, six new and revised classroom,  self-instructional, and correspondence courses
are being  prepared.   In addition,  competitive   procurement mechanisms to  support
State and local  agency  training activities are being investigated.

1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated  $1,155,000  and 3.8 total workyears  for this
program.  Of  the  amount  obligated,  $220,500 was  for  the Salaries   and   Expenses
appropriation and $934,500 was for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance appropria-
tion.  A total of 28 training courses were  conducted covering 12 subject areas for
659 students at  seven area training  centers.  Graduate traineeships  or fellowships
were provided for  26 control  agency  employees.   In addition, 10 new  and  revised
classroom, self-instructional, and correspondence courses were  prepared.
                                       A-72

-------
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                                       AIR
                       Air Quality Management Implementation
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $11,773,400 supported by  294.4 total workyears
for this program, of which $11,478,800 will  be for the Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and  $294,600  for  the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.
The request represents  an increase of $506,200 and 12 total  workyears.

Program Description

     This subactivity provides  resources  for the  operation  and maintenance of  an
air quality management program in  each  of the Agency's ten Regional Offices.  The
Regional program, in partnership with  State and local air pollution control agen-
cies, has a major responsibility for meeting the  requirements of the Clean Air Act
and related EPA  regulations.   The air  management  program  provides  policy guid-
ance and technical  consultation to  States  in  the development  and  implementation
of the  strategies  and  regulatory  programs  for the  attainment  and  maintenance  of
National Ambient Air Quality  Standards  (NAAQSs).  The program  also  conducts  the
necessary regulatory review and coordination for approval  of  strategies  and  regula-
tions in State Implementation  Plans (SIPs)  submitted to EPA.  The Regional Offices
negotiate air quality program  grants  to  State and local  control agencies and pro-
vide oversight of the progress of  these  agencies   in  developing, implementing, and
enforcing regulatory programs.

     Extensive efforts  are  frequently necessary  to  provide  timely  and effective
guidance to States.  Under the Clean  Air Act, the  States  have primary  responsi-
bility for  preparing  attainment  strategies  and  meeting  the commitments  for  the
development and  implementation of  multiple regulatory programs  essential  to  the
attainment of  NAAQSs.  These programs  may have to be revised when  NAAQSs are re-
vised as a result of the  periodic  reviews by EPA.

     The 1977  Amendments  to the Act  also  impose new requirements  for  reviewing
and permitting new sources to  assure that they will  not cause deterioration  of air
quality in areas attaining the NAAQSs,  or  will not  delay attainment in areas not
yet attaining  the NAAQSs.   Effective guidance and  support  to States  assuming  respon-
sibility for these  review  and permitting requirements involve  extensive Regional
Office efforts.


AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT  IMPLEMENTATION

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total of $11,773,400 supported by  294.4 total workyears
for this program.  Of this  request, $11,478,800  is  for  the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and $294,600 is  for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropria-
tion.  The  request  is  an increase  of $506,200 for  Salaries and Expenses  and  12
total workyears.   The request  provides increased  support  to States for  completing
regulatory programs to  meet NAAQSs  and for improving  air toxics  programs.

     The resources  needed  for  the  review and approval  of  State regulatory plans
and actions will  ultimately decline  as   States  implement  regulatory  reforms,   as
EPA continues  to   streamline   its  review and  approval  process,  and   as  certain
regulatory planning tasks  are  completed.   There  will, however,  still   be  a sig-
nificant number   of plans  and  actions  requiring review  and  approval   in  1985,
especially for  areas  that  missed  the  statutory 1982  deadline  or that   cannot
                                       A-74

-------
adequately demonstrate attainment by  1987.   The Agency policy  for  the correction
of deficient SIPs and  the  imposition  of necessary sanctions  in  certain areas was
published on November 2, 1983.   The policy  povides  for a  case-by-case approach to
remedying the SIPs.   Implementation  of  the policy will  remain resource-intensive
during 1985.

     Direct Agency review and permitting of  new sources will be essentially elimi-
nated in  1985.    The   program  for  the   prevention   of significant  deterioration
(PSD) will be delegated to  the  few remaining States that do not have responsibility
for the  program.   Responsibility for  implementing   newly  promulgated New  Source
Performance Standards   (NSPSs)  and  National  Emission  Standards for  Hazardous Air
Pollutants (NESHAPs) will  also  continue to be delegated.   The fewer  EPA  review
actions will  facilitate  the  provision   of air  management   support  activities  con-
sidered critical  to  the Agency's  goal  of increased State self-sufficiency, includ-
ing the implementation of the recommendations  of the Administrator's Task  Force on
State Federal Roles.   These  recommendations   called   for  increased  and  improved
program support  to States.   This  includes guidance and support for the transfer of
key regulatory programs  and  responsibilitips  to the States,  and   for  preparing
States to  respond effectively  to new emerging  programs and  air quality problems.

     Significant  resources  will  be  provided  to  assist  States in  developing the
necessary regulatory programs  for attainment  of  NAAQSs  within areas  missing the
1982 deadline.  Particular  attention  will   he   given  to  the  more  populated  urban
areas where  regulatory programs  may  require highly  complex  stationary and mobile
source controls.   Resources will  be provided to help a sizeable  number  of States
and local air pollution control  agencies  develop  programs to prevent vehicle tamper-
ing and  fuel  switching in  areas  not  attaining  NAAQSs  for  ozone,  carbon monoxide,
or nitrogen dioxide.  Also,  resources will  be  provided to help  States respond to
the anticipated  revised NAAQSs  for size-specific particulates.

     Major resources will be provided for improving the air toxics programs at the
Regional Offices, reflecting the  increasing  concern and evolving regulation of air
toxics by the Agency and the States.   In response  to provisions of various settle-
ments of  litigation against  the  Agency, SIP  approval or  promulgation  of Federal
plans will be required where States fail to  provide approvable SIPs  for  lead or
for the protection of  visibility. Court  ordered regulatory  changes on stack heights
will be  required.  The recently  developed National Air Audit  System will  be  fully
operational during 1985, implementing Agency policies  for  effective oversight and
audit of State regulatory programs.

     Additional  activities  supportive of this  request will support  other Regional
baseline air management  functions, including attention to  the continuing develop-
ment and  implementation  of  tools for  improving regulatory  decisionmaking,  as well
as the  negotiation  of  air grants.   Extramural  dollars  are  provided  to  continue
support of interagency agreements with the  National  Oceanic  and Atmospheric Admin-
istration for the  detail  of  meteorologists in  four  Regional  Offices, providing
modeling expertise to  the Regions and States.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating  $11,267,200 and 282.4  total  workyears for
this program. Of the  total,  $10,972,600 is  for the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and  $294,600  is  for  the  Abatement,   Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.

     In 1984, the Regional  air  management program  is  completing necessary modifica-
tions to  attainment  status designations for  specific areas   and  making  the  final
notifications to States for those areas failing to  meet the  December  1982 attainment
deadline.  Some  notifications may include proposed  sanctions,  consistent  with the
Agency's  recently published  policy.   The Regional  program  is also  working  with
a number  of  States  to  complete  the  development  of  lead   SIPs.   In  addition, the
Regions are  completing  review  and  approval  or  disapproval  actions  for lead  SIPs,
where submitted,  and for a  number of  other major State regulatory  actions or plans.
                                        A-75

-------
     The program is providing extensive guidance and support to States missing the
1982 deadlines, to States developing additional  regulatory  programs in areas having
extensions to 1987, and to States defining requirements and  assessing the most prob-
able nonattainment areas  in  anticipation of  the promulgation  of  a size-specific
particulate NAAQSs in 1985.   Rulemaking actions for State  strategies and revisions
are continuing to be processed in an efficient manner to prevent recurrence of any
major SIP  backlog.   The program is  also  continuing to  perform the  necessary  re-
views for the  permitting  of  PSD sources within  the few remaining  States  which do
not have program  responsibility.  Finally, the  program is  continuing to negotiate
air grants and  is initiating the  National  Air  Audit  System for  review  of State
air quality planning, new source review, compliance assurance, and air monitoring.

1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     The net  decrease of -$9,100 results  from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$9,100)    Several reprogrammings were made to this activ-
ity which  move  all  non-program specific  "support"  type expense dollars  into  the
Regional Support program  element.   These  reprogrammings  to Salaries and Expenses,
totaling -$9,100, were included in  a reprogramming letter to  Congress on September
29, 1983.

1983 Accomplishments

    In 1983,  the  Agency obligated   $9,898,300  and  262.5 total workyears  for this
program.  Of  the  amount obligated, $9,821,300  was  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $77,000 was for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropria-
tion.  Extramural  resources  under the Abatement,  Control, and Compliance appropria-
tion were  used to  continue  interagency  agreements providing  meteorologists  for
four EPA Regional  offices in  support of air quality  modeling efforts.

    The Regional air management efforts  focused on  completing the  review and  ap-
proval  of  State  submitted strategies  for the  attainment of NAAQSs  for  ozone  and
carbon monoxide by  deadlines extended through  December 1987.  These  efforts  in-
cluded follow-up  with  individual  States  whose  strategies included  schedules  for
the development of  specific  regulatory programs.   The Regional  Offices provided,
upon request, specialized guidance   and support  to  the  States  developing the addi-
tional  or expanded regulatory programs approved  as  part  of the  SIP for the exten-
sion areas.  The  regulatory  programs  included  additional  controls  for stationary
sources and  additional  motor  vehicle  inspection and  maintenance  programs,  where
required programs were  not yet  operational.

     Also in  1983, approval  and support efforts  for a  number of other major stra-
tegies  and regulatory programs were provided.   Included  were:  (1)  the  transfer to
additional  States   of  responsibilities  for   implementing PSD  programs  and  newly
promulgated NSPSs and  NESHAPs;  (2) performance  of  new  source  reviews  for States
not having responsibility for PSD;   (3)  regulatory  reviews  and  rulemaking  for pro-
posed emission trades;  and   (4)  assistance  to  States  in developing overdue  SIPs
for lead.  In  addition,  State-submitted SIP  revisions  continued to  be  processed
efficiently to minimize a SIP  backlog,  air  grants  negotiations  were conducted  and
grants  awarded, and  oversight  of  State and  local  agency performance  in  meeting
grant commitments  was maintained.
                                        A-76

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                                       AIR


                     Trends Monitoring  and  Progress Assessment
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of  $5,656,200  supported  by 128.4 total  workyears
for 1985.   Included  in  this  total   is  $5,317,700 for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $338,500 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation,
a decrease  of  $927,800  and  an increase of 1.9  total  workyears.   The  decrease re-
flects a reduction of $1,323,400 for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appro-
priation offset by an increase of $395,600 for the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion.

Program Description

     Ambient Air Quality Monitoring  — Activity  in this program includes:  (1) EPA's
management overview  of  State  ambient air  quality monitoring  networks, associated
laboratory and field quality  assurance activities, and implementation  of air moni-
toring strategies described in  EPA  air monitoring  regulations;  (2) the  coordina-
tion of Regional  and State field investigation  activities  for  collecting ambient
air quality  samples  for subsequent  sample analysis  and  related  quality  control;
(3) the  review of  source  emissions  data;  and   (4)  the  necessary  management  and
coordination to  ensure   timely  storage  and  validation   of the  data  collected.

     Air  Quality  and Emissions Data Analysis  and Progress Assessment —  Major
activities include:  national   coordination of  Regional  office,   State,  and local
ambient monitoring programs;  issuance  of  new and  revised  regulatory  requirements
and related technical guidance; active oversight  and  auditing of  the  National  Air
Monitoring System (NAMS) network to  ensure continuing conformance  with all  regula-
tory criteria; operation of computer  systems  for storing, retrieving, and analyzing
ambient air quality  and emission  data; development  and implementation  of  systems
to meet  user  requirements; and preparation of trends analyses  and   related  air
quality and  emission progress  assessments  for  policy evaluation and development
and for public information  needs.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a  total  of  $3,615,900   supported by  92.5 total  workyears
for this  program.   Of this request,  $3,501,700 is  for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $114,200 is  for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropria-
tion.  This request is an increase of $210,600 for the  Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and a decrease of $8,800 for the  Abatement,  Control, and  Compliance appro-
priation.  The increase reflects increased personnel  and support costs.

     The Regional offices will  continue overview  and management of State air moni-
toring programs, including Section  105 grants review.  They will   also  continue the
coordination of  air  data bases involving emissions  data,  criteria pollutant  air
quality data, and related precision and accuracy  information  necessary for quantify-
ing data  quality.   A limited  number of  monitoring  networks  and data  supporting
highly controversial   or  technically  difficult  permits  for  the  prevention  of
significant deterioration will be  reviewed.

     The data  bases from the NAMS and State and  Local Air Monitoring System  (SLAMS)
Networks will  be  validated  for  completeness  and accuracy.   Most  of the SLAMS net-
works will  be  evaluated, as  required by  40 CFR  58.  Approximately  130  new or re-
vised NAMS sites will  be visited, evaluated, and  documented.  Data  analyses, includ-
ing air quality trends  information,  will   be developed as input to various Regional
environmental  management and  indicator efforts.   In  the area of quality assurance,
significant resources will  be used  for on-site systems  and performance  audits of
State networks  and  monitors.    In addition, the Regional  labs  will  participate in
the national air audit program.  The start-up of  State networks for measurement of


                                      A-79

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size-specific participates  will  require  review of  the  NAMS  and  SLAMS  networks,
including site  visits to  verify  compliance with 40 CFR 58  monitoring  regulations.
Also, resources will be used to increase the level  of Regional  oversight  and  audits
of State programs  through  evaluations  of additional SLAMS  monitors.   The  Regional
offices will expedite the reporting of  data  from around 200 critical SLAMS stations.

     Regional offices will  be  involved in  the implementation  of  the air  toxics
monitoring strategy.  This  involvement will  include  coordinating  with  State  and
local agencies  and the EPA Office of Research and Development to  set  up 15  air
toxics monitoring trend stations throughout the Nation,  assisting in site selection
for monitoring  stations, and  ensuring  samples  are  collected and sent to a central
laboratory for  analysis.  Regional  offices will also coordinate or  manage special
air toxics studies with a high priority in their Regions.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is  allocating a total of  $3,414,100  and  92.5 total  work-
years for this  program.  Of  the allocation,  $3,291,100  is for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  $123,000 is for the Abatement,  Control and  Compliance
appropriation.

     In 1984,  the Regions  are  continuing  the baseline  program  of  overview  and
management of State  air quality  monitoring programs, including Section  105  grants
review.  The validation, management,  and coordination of State and local air quality
and emission data  before the  data  are  submitted to central  EPA data banks is  also
continuing.   In 1984 special  emphasis  is  being placed on reviewing the data  bases
upon which  attainment  status  determinations  will   be  made   for  the revised   size-
specific particulate matter  NAAQSs.  The  Regions  and States  are beginning  their
analysis of  the total monitoring network needed to  support  development of SIPs  for
size-specific particulates and subsequent tracking  of progress  and trends  in  meet-
ing the  revised  NAAQSs.   The  data needed  for various  environmental  management
efforts are  being  compiled and  displayed  for  use  in  determining existing  condi-
tions, trends,  and progress  toward environmental   objectives.  Quality  assurance
activities and auditing of State programs  are continuing.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$90,100 results  from the  following actions:

     -Reproqrammings.  (-$90,100) A  reprogramming  was  made  to  this activity  which
was not reportable under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.  This  change
resulted in   a  net increase of +$12,600 to the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance'
appropriation.

     An additional  reprogramming was  made which  moves   all  non-program specific
"support"  type  expense   dollars   into   the  Regional   Support   program  element
(-$102,700).  This  reprogramming to  Salaries  and Expenses,  totaling  -$102,700,
was included in a reprogramming letter  to  Congress  on  September 29,  1983.

 1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated  $3,184,000  and 84.4  total  workyears  for this
program.  Of the  amount obligated,  $3,026,600  was for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $157,400 was for  the  Abatement, Control  and Compliance  appropria-
tion.  Contract  funds  from the  Abatement, Control,  and  Compliance appropriation
were used for Regional  data analyses and preparation of the  Regional Environmental
Management Reports.
                                       A-80

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     The five-year program  for  implementing the national  air  monitoring strategy
was completed in 1983.  The SLAMS networks (including lead networks) were completely
installed and operating during 1983.  The Regional  offices  continued  to  work with
States, through the  annual  review process,  in  identifying  and eliminating  air
monitoring sites which have only marginal utility  or  are the  least  useful  in sup-
porting program decisions.   The  Regions  continued their programs  of  site visits to
review and audit NAMS  stations,  as well  as a  small  percentage of SLAMS stations.
Laboratories were evaluated for proper operating and quality assurance procedures.
The validation, management, and  coordination  of State  and local air  quality  and
emission data bases  before submission to EPA  central  data banks  also continued.


AIR QUALITY AND EMISSIONS  DATA ANALYSIS AND  PROGRESS ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $2,040,300 supported  by  35.9 total  workyears
for this program.   Of the  request, $1,816,000 is  for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $224,300 is  for the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropri-
ation.  The request  is an  increase  of  $185,000  for  the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation.  Total workyears  increase  by  1.9.   There  is  a  decrease  of $1,314,600
for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Increased  workyears will
provide additional  statistical  analyses  for toxics data  bases.   The  decrease  re-
flects the completion  in 1984  of the one-time  purchase  of size-specific particu-
late monitoring equipment  for  use   by States  in anticipation  of the promulgation
of size specific particulate matter NAAQSs in 1985.

     Existing air data systems  will be maintained  and  guidance provided  to users.
Monitoring regulations, computer   software,  and data  files will  be  modified  to
accommodate changes  to NAAQSs.   The program  also will  produce  ambient and emission
trends analyses and  progress  assessments,  provide national oversight  of Regional
Office and State  and local  air  monitoring programs, and  manage  the  NAMS network.
The NAMS management  will  include  maintaining  a site  information  base,  reviewing
and validating data,  and issuing status  reports on  regulatory  compliance.   Stat-
istical analyses will be provided to support  new or revised  NAAQSs.

     In the  area  of  air  toxics,  the program  will  implement the  national  toxic
monitoring strategy.    Implementation  includes  national  assessment of  progress  in
strategy implementation, preparation of  an annual  status  report  on toxic pollutant
trends, analyses of  ambient toxics data, and  development  of  audit  procedures  for
toxic monitoring.   Consultation  on various  environmental  management  efforts  and
use of  environmental  indicators  will  be provided.   In  addition, the  program will
develop and publish   air quality  statistics, maintain the  State Implementation Plan
(SIP) Design  Value Tracking System, and  develop  and publish  an estimation  meth-
odology for  determining  the costs of air  toxics  monitoring.   The  program will
conduct on-site audits  at  NAMS  stations measuring size-specific particulates  and
update NAMS  operational  guidance.   The  program will   also  coordinate Agency-wide
emission data base efforts, including support to the Office and  Research and Develop-
ment and the Office  of  Solid Waste and Emergency Response  on data base management.
This program will  develop  software  and convert  data for the  air quality and facili-
ties segments of the new  air data  system and  develop  user materials and initiate
training.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating a total of $3,169,900  and 34.0 total  work-
years for  this  program.  Of the allocation,  $1,631,000  is for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $1,538,900 is  for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.
                                       A-81

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     All major program activities  are  continuing.   These activities  include: opera-
tion of existing air data systems and provision of training and guidance to system
users; production  of  the  annual  trends  report  and  other  statistical  analyses;
national oversight  of State  and local  monitoring programs;  and  evaluations  nf
NAMS stations, including on-site audits.  Support  is  also being provided to other
Agency offices for  data  base  management.   Also,  the  program is  evaluating  the
compliance of SLAMS networks with regulations  and  issuing  status  reports.  Revised
monitoring regulations and siting  guidelines  for the revised NAAQSs  for particulate
matter are being  proposed.   Revisions to the  monitoring  regulations  and guidance
for sulfur dioxide will  be developed,  if required.

     The program  is  also  responsible for the procurement of  ambient  monitoring
equipment necessary to  collect  initial  data  for  the  inplementation  of  a revised
ambient standard for particulate matter.  In  addition,  system  design, programming,
and data  base  conversion for the  new  air data  base  is  continuing.   The program
to implement  the strategy for air toxics  monitoring  is  continuing.  These efforts
include preparing  guidance  on  network  design  and operation;  assessing progress
in toxics  monitoring  by  Federal,  State, and local  agencies;  and  developing  a
long-term plan for the implementation  of the  toxic  monitoring strategy.

1984 Explanation  of Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency obligated  $2,044,400 and 33.5 total  workyears  for this
program.  Of  the  amount  obligated,  $1,600,500 was for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation, $243,900  was for  the  Abatement,   Control  and Compliance  appro-
priation and  $200,000 was  for  the Operations, Research  and Facilities appropria-
tion.  Contract  funds supported trends  reports and analyses, regulation review and
revision, guidance development, NAMS  management,   National Emissions  Data Systems
(NEDS) improvement  and  progress  toward the  development   of   a  new  data  system.

     In 1983  emphasis  continued on operating and updating existing  air  data systems,
and on  providing  training  and  guidance to  system users.   This  program provided
support to 35 State and local  agencies using EPA developed  data systems.  Other
major activities  included preparation  of special air quality and emission analyses,
statistics, and  reports;  national  oversight of State and local  monitoring programs,
evaluation of NAMS, including on-site audits; and  work  toward revising monitoring
regulations to reflect revisions to the NAAQSs for  particulate matter.  In addition,
a national strategy  for  air toxics  monitoring was developed.   Work was initiated
on a long-term plan for  toxics monitoring  and on guidance for siting and statistical
design.  Development of the  new  air  data system continued,  with  substantial progress
toward conversion of software for  the  air quality segment.
                                      A-82

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

AIR

    ENFORCEMENT
       Stationary Source Enforcement	    A-85
       Mobile Source Enforcement	    A-89
                                        A-83

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                                                           A-84

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                                       AIR


                           Stationary Source Enforcement
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $14,704,000 supported by  309.5 total workyears
in 1985,  of  which $11,666,000 is  for  the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation  and
$3,038,000 is  for the  Abatement,  Control   and  Compliance  appropriation.  There
is no  change in  the  number  of  total  workyears.   The  request is an  increase  of
$1,188,200 for  Salaries  and Expenses and a  decrease  of $1,770,700 for Abatement,
Control and Compliance.

Program Description

     The stationary source enforcement  program provides  support to  and  coordination
with State and local  air pollution control  agencies and direct Federal  enforcement
as required to ensure that stationary  sources  achieve and maintain compliance with
the rpquirements  of the Clean Air  Act,  as amended  in  1977.  The Headquarter's com-
ponent provides national  policy  and guidance, while the  regional program implements
the enforcement effort  and assists the  States.

     Stationary Source  Enforcement — This  program focuses  primarily on  enforcement
of the  requirements  established in State  Implementation  Plans (SIPs)   for  meeting
National Ambient  Air  Quality Standards (NAAQSs).   The enforcement  program also
focuses on new  source  programs   such as New Source Performance Standards  (NSPSs)
and National  Emission Standards  for Hazardous Air  Pollutants  (NESHAPS).

     As a result of industry efforts  in controlling emissions  and the effectiveness
of State, local, and  Federal  control  programs,  approximately  90 perce~nT~d7"~the more
than 18,000 major  stationary  sources have  achieved compliance  with all applicable
emission 1 imitations.  An additional  2.4 percent  are  meeting  acceptable compliance
schedules.  Although  the   current  rate  of  compliance  represents  a   significant
achievement,  efforts  must  continue  to ensure  that  remaining sources  come into
compl iance with present standards, or  any  new  or  revised standards, and that com-
pliance, once  achieved,  is maintained.  EPA will  continue  to provide  State  and
local  agencies with "technical  support  in their efforts to  realize these goals and,
where appropriate, to initiate their  own enforcement actions.


STATIONARY SOURCE ENFORCEMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $14,704,000 supported by  309.5 total workyears
for this  program.  Of  the  request,  $11,666,000  is for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $3,038,000  is  for  the Abatement, Control  and Compliance  appro-
priation.  The  increase  of $1,188,200 for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses is due  to
increased personnel costs.   The  decrease of  $1,770,700 in extramural funds  reflects
a greater reliance on the use of EPA Headquarter's  personnel rather  than  contractors
in the  presentation  of technical  workshops  to  States and a  similar  shift to  the
use of EPA Regional personnel  rather  than contractors  for conducting source  inspec-
tions.  This   shift  in  contractor  inspections  is   due,  in  part, to  court  rulings
limiting the   use  of contractors  for  inspection  purposes.   The  higher personnel
levels initiated  in 1984  are  maintained in  1985.   Extramural  funds will  be used
primarily for enforcement  case  support; compliance monitoring and  field   surveil-
lance; Regional  Office  data management  support;  and technical  workshops  and  manuals
to enhance the capabilities of State  and local  programs.

     In 1985, the stationary  source  compliance  program  will carry  forward   the
basic  thrust   of the  1984  budget.  The  program, working in  close  cooperation with
State  and local  agencies,  will   continue  to ensure that  noncomplying  significant
sources in areas  not meeting  NAAQSs  are brought into compliance,  consistent with
                                        A-85

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the Clean Air  Act.   A  major  focus in  1985  will be  sources  of  volatile organic
compound (VOC) emissions.  These sources  are  of  concern  not only because of their
contribution to ozone levels, but also because many of the  constituents of the VOC
emissions are toxic  in nature.

     Previous efforts have focused  on VOC emissions  only  to the extent that they
affect attainment of ozone   standards.   In   1985,  efforts will  be substantially
increased to enforce VOC  control  requirements in nonattainment areas.  Efforts to
ensure continued high  compliance levels  with NSPSs  and  NESHAPs  requirements  and
those for the prevention of significant  deterioration  (PSD)  are  continuing.  Funda-
mental activities such  as permitting and compliance  functions for non-delegated
programs, maintenance of  data systems,  participation  in  Section 105 grant manage-
ment and negotiation  of grant agreements, review  of  State programs, and response
to formal inquiries  will also be  maintained.

     During 1985, the Regional compliance program will  continue to provide assis-
tance in selected  Federal judicial  referrals,  consent  decrees,  and  Section  120
actions.  Also, EPA  will   issue  administrative  orders, as  necessary,  in environ-
mentally significant cases where States cannot  or  will  not take  appropriate enforce-
ment action.  There  are plans to  conduct  an estimated  1,685 inspections, and issue
approximately 46 administrative  orders  during 1985.   The  shift begun  in  1984 to
the use of EPA Regional  personnel  rather than  contractors  in conducting  inspections
will be fully accomplished in 1985.

     Major Headquarter's program  accomplishments  in  1985 will  include:  review of
proposed agency  regulations  under  NSPSs,  NESHAPs, and  new  source/PSD programs;
management  of the Compliance  Data System;  support of State  compliance data programs
development; provision  of  technical analysis  and case support  for Regional  office
compliance activities, development of three new  technical workshops to  enhance the
capabilities of State and  local  programs; and development  of  four  new compliance
manuals for State and local programs.


1984 Program

     The Agency is allocating a  total  of  $15,286,500 and 309.5 total workyears for
this program, of which  $10,477,800  is  for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $4,808,700 is for extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control  and Com-
pliance appropriation.  The extramural  funds  are being  used  for enforcement  case
support, compliance   monitoring  and field surveillance,  Regional  data management
support, development of technical  workshops and manuals to  enhance the capabilities
of State and  local  programs, and  providing  limited  assistance to  specific State
cases.

     The major focus  of the  stationary source compliance  program  for 1984, as it
will be  in  1985,  is  to  ensure that  noncomplying  significant sources in nonattain-
ment areas  are  brought  into compliance,  consistent  with  the provisions  of  the
Clean Air Act.  Federal  enforcement actions will focus heavily on  sources subject
to the Agency's Post-1982  Enforcement Policy  which  stipulates the manner in which
the Agency  will  respond  to   violating  sources   in  nonattainment  areas  after  the
December 31, 1982 Clean  Air  Act  attainment deadline.   The policy  calls  for a vig-
orous enforcement program to bring such  sources into compliance, and for collection
of civil penalties,   as  part  of the Agency's  comprehensive  response to the failure
of many  areas  and sources to meet  the December  31,  1982 deadline.  Although the
States will  play an  important role  in implementing the policy,  a significant level
of Federal   involvement  will  be required.   To  address  the problem of noncomp'l iance
by sources  of VOC emissions,  the  regions  will  undertake  a  major program to improve
the inventory of regulated VOC sources and to gather information on their compliance
status.
                                        A-86

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     Federal efforts will also be directed at resolution of NSPS  and  NESHAPs  viola-
tors, where the  standards have  not  been  delegated  or where State action is  inade-
quate.  The stationary  source compliance program  continues to provide  assistance
in selected judicial  referrals, consent decrees,  and  Section 120 actions, and to
issue notices  of  violation  and  administrative  orders  as  necessary.  In addition,
the program continues to manage the Compliance Data System.

     The 1984  budget  reflects  a major shift  in  the way EPA  conducts inspections.
EPA is  relying more on  its  regional  personnel,  rather than  contractors,  for  most
classes of  inspections  due,  in  part,  to court  rulings limiting the use  of  con-
tractors for inspection  purposes.   Contractor inspections  are being limited  pri-
marily to inspections of non-delegated NSPSs and  NESHAPs sources.

     EPA will   continue  to review performance tests,  monitor  enforcement  actions,
issue waivers  and permits, make  noncompliance penalty  determinations under Section
120, and  bring  enforcement  actions  in  environmentally  significant cases  where
States cannot or will not take such actions.  To  encourage  States  to  assume primary
responsibility, EPA  provides  limited  direct  case  assistance to  State  enforcement
efforts, when requested.

     Efforts designed to expand the  technical   capabilities  of  State  and  local
programs continue  in 1984.   This   effort  includes  Headquarter's  development  and
presentation of technical workshops, development  of compliance manuals,  and further
development of the State pilot programs begun in 1983.  Use  of continuous  emission
monitoring equipment continues to be  a  major objective for  1984.  In addition, to
ensure the  validity  of  the compliance data  base,  EPA is  initiating a  qualitative
audit of State compliance monitoring techniques.

     Program accompl ishments  in  1984  include final promulgation  of second-round
nonferrous smelter orders establishing a  regulatory framework for  compliance  exten-
sions through  January  1,  1988;  development  of  three   new  technical  workshops to
enhance the capabilities of State  and local  programs;  and development  of four new
compliance manuals  for   State  and  local  programs.   During  1984, the   compliance
program continues to assist the Office of Enforcement  and  Compliance Monitoring in
the development  of  civil and criminal  referrals.   In  addition,  the  program is to
conduct 2,017  inspections and issue an estimated 47 administrative orders  in 1984.

1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$211,900  results  from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$211,900)   A  reprogramming was   made to  this   activity
which was not  reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This
change resulted in a net decrease  of -$30,000 to the Salaries and Expenses  appro-
priation.

     An additional   reprogramming  was  made  which  moves all  non-program  specific
"support"  type   expense  dollars    into  the Regional  Support  program  element
(-$181,900).  This  reprogramming to  Salaries  and  Expenses,  totaling   -$181,900,
was included in a reprogramming letter to Congress  on September 29, 1983.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  -the Agency obligated  $14,533,900 and 263.0 total workyears for this
program, of which  $9,543,800  was for the  Salaries and Expenses   appropriation and
$4,990,100 was  for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.   Extramural
resources were used  for  enforcement  case development activities,  compliance moni-
toring and field surveillance,  Regional  data management,  development  of technical
workshops and manuals to enhance the  capabilities  of State and local programs, and
limited direct  case assistance to States.

     A major Headquarter's  initiative during 1983 was the development  of a compre-
hensive compliance strategy  for stationary  sources  of air pollution which brings
together in one  document all  of the  major thrusts  of the program.   The strategy
reaffirms the   basic  soundness  of the program,  but recognizes the need for  addi-
                                        A-87

-------
tional  attention to certain  elements  of the program, especially in  compliance by
sources that have  already  installed  control  equipment  and  expanded  use  of  con-
tinuous emission  monitoring  techniques.   In  addition,  the program  established
guidelines during 1983 for conducting qualitative  audits  of State  compliance pro-
grams,  to be implemented  beginning  in  1984.

     Also during 1983,  the  program  provided technical   and  cost  evaluations  of
applications submitted by steel companies under the provisions of the Steel Industry
Compliance Extension Act of 1981.  In addition, regulations for issuance and approval
of second-round nonferrous  smelter orders  were proposed.  Program accomplishments
during  1983 also included development of three  new technical  workshops  to enhance
the capabilities of State  and local  programs,  implementation of three  continuous
compliance pilot programs,  development of three new workshops,  and development of
four new compliance manuals.   During 1983,  EPA issued 35 administrative  orders and
conducted 1,739 inspections.

-------
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                                       AIR


                             Mobile Source Enforcement


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $6,561,600  supported  by 101.4 total workyears
for 1985, of  which  $4,740,100 will  be  for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $1,821,500 will  be for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation,
an increase of $531,000  in the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  for personnel
and support costs and 7.0 workyears.

Program Description

     The mobile source enforcement program  is  directed primarily at  ensuring com-
pliance with the  motor vehicle emission standards and fuel  regulations  required by
the Clean Air Act.  The activities carried out as  part  of  this program are designed
to ensure that new  vehicles  are  capable of meeting emission  standards throughout
their useful lives, that vehicle  emission control  systems  are  not removed or ren-
dered inoperative, and that  harmful  additives  are not present  in  gasoline.  The
program also includes the  issuance  of  California and statutory emissions waivers.


MOBILE SOURCE ENFORCEMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $6,561,600  supported  by 101.4 total workyears
for this program, of which $4,740,100 will   be for  the  Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $1,821,500 will  be for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropria-
tion, representing increases  of  $531,000 for  personnel  costs and  7.0 workyears.
The increase in resources  will  enable  the Agency to  expand the 1984 recall initia-
tive and to work  with  State  and local  governments  in the  development and implemen-
tation of their own tampering and  fuel  switching enforcement programs.

     The expanded recall  initiative will  include  additional testing and investiga-
tion of both mid-mileage and high-mileage vehicles.  In  addition,  developmental work
will proceed on new  recall programs for  heavy-duty engines and light-duty  evaporative
emissions.  California emissions waiver requests will be processed, as will applica-
tions for  retroactive  waivers  of the  Federal carbon monoxide  and nitrogen oxides
standards.  Regulatory changes to the  imports  program, scheduled for promulgation
in 1984, will  be  implemented, increasing  the efficiency of the program.  The Selec-
tive Enforcement  Audit (SEA)  program will conduct  17 audits  of manufacturer facili-
ties to ensure that  new production vehicles meet  emissions  requirements.  The lead
phasedown regulations will  be enforced  through monitoring  of reports from refiners.
Issuance of 32 notices of violation is  anticipated.

     Approximately 500  consumer   inquiries   on   emissions  warranty issues  will  be
answered.  The anti-tampering and  anti-fuel   switching  enforcement program will  be
expanded and will include investigations  and notices of violation.  Surveys of the
incidence of tampering and fuel  switching will be carried out at  various  sites.  EPA
will continue to  assist with  the development of State and local initiatives aimed at
preventing tampering and fuel  switching.  Implementation of eight  new State programs
is anticipated.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating a total  of  $6,030,600 and a  total  of 94.4
workyears.  Of the  allocation,  $4,209,100 is  for the Salaries and Expenses  appro-
priation and $1,821,500 is for extramural purposes under the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.
                                        A-90

-------
     A major  focus  in the  recall  program involves  the  testing and  investigation
of high  mileage  vehicles  in  order to  assure that  these  vehicles meet  emissions
standards throughout their useful lives.  The recall  program will  continue surveil-
lance and  confirmatory testing,  follow  up  and  investigation  of  suspect  engine
classes, and, if warranted,  issuance  of  recall  orders.   Statutory and  California
waivers will  be  issued  as  required.   The SEA program will  continue to  ensure that
new production vehicles  comply with  emission requirements.  Regulatory  revisions
for the  SEA program will  be  proposed.   Inquiries  and applications  for the importa-
tion of  noncertified  vehicles  will  continue, and regulations revising  the  imports
program will  be promulgated.

     Also underway is  the development  and  implementation  of a  strategy aimed  at
attaining increased State participation to reduce automobile  emissions  that  result
from tampering and  fuel  switching.  This  will  result in  the establishment  of  12
new anti-tampering and  fuel  switching  programs  by  States  and  localities.   Other
activities include:  conducting fuels inspections  for  compliance with  lead,  nozzle,
and label regulations; administering tampering and fuel switching  cases; evaluating
fuel and fuel additive  waiver  requests; and  collecting  data  on fuel  switching  to
assess misfueling rates.

1984 Explanation  of Changes from the Amendment

     The net increase of +$60,300 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.   (+$60,300) A  reprogramming  was made  to this activity  which
was not  reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This  change
resulted in a net increase of  +$60,300  to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated $5,927,300 and used  95.1  total workyears.   Of
the amount obligated,  $4,005,700  was  for the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation
and $1,921,600 was  for extramural purposes  under the Abatement,  Control and  Com-
pliance appropriation.

     Recall investigations were  conducted  for  42 mid-mileage  and 3 high-mileage
vehicle classes,  and  17 SEAs were performed.   Twelve  emissions waivers were  issued.
About 22,000  import   inquiries  were  answered  and   6,000  applications   processed.
Revised import regulations were  prepared.   Forty  notices of  violation  were  issued
under the  lead phasedown  program, and  485   notices  of   violation  under the  anti-
tampering and fuel switching program.   Six  States  and localities  implemented  anti-
tampering and fuel  switching programs.
                                       A-91

-------
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

BUILDINGS & FACILITIES                                                        BF-1

      Buildings and Facilities	    BF-3
          New Faci 1 i ti es	    BF-5
          Repairs & Improvements	    BF-6
                                       BF-1

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                               BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES


OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Buildings and  Facilities program  funds the  design,  construction,  repair,
and improvement of buildings  occupied  by EPA.   The  Agency currently has ten Regional
offices, three  large  Research and Development  laboratories,  several  field  stations
and laboratories, and a large headquarters facility.

     This program provides  a  safe and  healthful  work environment  for EPA employees
by producing  continuous  maintenance and  repairs of  our facilities.   Major efforts
are directed  towards  implementing  intermediate and  long-range  plans which  assess
alternative housing options for EPA  operations,  and continuing  a repair program that
protects the  investment  in EPA's  real  property holdings.  Resources  are  also  used
to adapt  current  facilities  to  more  adequately and  efficiently  address expanding
Agency programs.  Particular emphasis will continue  to be placed on modifying current
facilities in  order  to  respond  to the  growth  in  the  hazardous waste  program.   In
addition, in 1985 the Agency is requesting  funds to build a new radiation laboratory
to replace our outmoded facility in Montgomery,  Alabama.
                                           BF-4

-------
                              BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests $10,500,000  for  1985,  all  of which will be for the Build-
ings and Facilities appropriation,.an increase of $7,900,000 over 1984.

     The Agency  has  recently completed an  assessment of our  facilities  and eval-
uated our  expanding  program  operations  in  relation  to the  need for  repairs  and
improvements.  The  increase  in  this  appropriation   reflects  the  results  of  this
assessment, the  need  to address deferred maintenance and  repair projects ($1,000,
000), as well  as funding for construction  of a new  radiation laboratory in Mont-
gomery, Alabama  ($6,900,000).

Program Description

     This program funds the  design and construction  of new EPA facilities, as  well
as necessary repairs  and  improvements to buildings already  occupied  by EPA.  This
program contains the following two elements:

     New Facilities « This  includes  engineering  and  design services and  construc-
tion costs of  new, federally owned facilities to  be  occupied by EPA, or the expan-
sion of existing federally owned and EPA occupied facilities.

     Repairs and Improvements — This covers major repairs and capital improvements
to any buildings or facilities occupied by EPA.  Most of the projects relate to the
correction of  health  and  safety deficiencies, the  prevention of serious deteriora-
tion, or improvements required for program operations.


NEW FACILITIES

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  $6,900,000, all  of which  will be  for the  Building  and
Facilities appropriation,  and  represents  an  increase  of  $6,900,000  over 1984.
These funds will  be  used to construct a  new radiation laboratory  in  Montgomery,
Alabama.  At present, EPA's  primary  radiation  facility  consists of  12 wood frame
buildings in Montgomery,  Alabama,  which  are 30 to  50 years  old.   These separate
wooden buildings offer  no  fire  protection and have asbestos ceilings that fragment
whenever repairs are  attempted.  The physical location of  some  of  these  buildings
raises questions of  public   safety.   With  these funds we will  construct  a modern,
safe facility  as our  primary radiation laboratory, assuring the  continuity  of  the
radiation program without risk to employees or to the public.


1984 Program

     No funds are allocated  for New Facilities in 1984.

1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the  Agency obligated  $462,700,  all  of  which  was for  the  Buildings
and Facilities appropriation, to construct a shop  and warehouse facility  in  Gulf
Breeze, Florida, which  provides  storage and  work  space for the  EPA  operations  at
that installation.
                                        BF-5

-------
REPAIRS AND IMPROVEMENTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  $3,600,000  for this  program, all  of which  will be  for
the Buildings  and  Facilities appropriation, an  increase  of $1,000,000  over  1984.
The increase  will  be  used  to address  deferred  projects.   These  funds will  pro-
vide planning,  engineering  design,  and construction  related  to  the   repair  and
improvement of buildings  occupied  by  EPA.   Our projects include health  and  safety
improvements, maintenance  and repairs,  space  alterations,  engineering and  plan-
ning, energy  conservation,  emergency  repairs,  and facility  adaptations  related to
program changes.

     In 1985,  we will  address the maintenance and  repair projects  which  resulted
from our delay  of facilities projects  in  1982 and 1983 while  we  reviewed all  of
the Agency's  real property holdings with emphasis  on  program plans and  cost  effec-
tiveness of  specific  lab  operations.   We  now  have an excellent assessment  of  our
facilities, and  an  understanding  of  the  facilities  needs   of  our  programs.   Our
strategy will  establish  a level  of  effort  which  will complete  the projects  and
maintain a strong on-going facilities management  program.

     Again in  1985,  in conformance  with  the  Appropriation  Committees'  concerns,
this request  contains  funding  for   all   repairs  and  improvement  projects   over
$20,000.  The  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation  contains  funds  for  project  un-
der $20,000.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is allocating $2,600,000  for this  program, all  of  which
is for the  Buildings  and Facilities  appropriation.   We will  continue  across-the-
board health  and  safety changes  to protect EPA employees and respond to the  shift-
ing emphasis  on  hazardous  substances.   We  are  also addressing   basic  facility
needs, such  as  the installation  of  a  heating and cooling  system  and  electrical
supply at  our  Edison,  New  Jersey facility,  and  roof  and  emergency   repairs  at
several other  sites.   This  program,  in  conformance   with  the Appropriation  Com-
mittees'  concerns,  contains  funding  for  all  repairs  and improvement  projects
greater than  $20,000.  The  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation contains funds  for
repairs and improvement projects under $20,000.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the  Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

   In 1983, the Agency obligated $3,653,400 all  of  which  was for the Buildings and
Facilities appropriation  for  health and safety projects and  for facilities altera-
tions and modifications.   These projects  included  fume hood  modifications,  heat-
ing and ventilation system  repairs,  laboratory containment improvements, fire pro-
tection devices, and emergency  repairs such as  those  to  the collapsed  ceiling in
our motor vehicle testing laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
                                       BF-6

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                1985 Budget Estimate
                                 Table of Contents

                                                                              PAGE
CONSTRUCTION GRANTS                                                           CG-1
      Construction Grants	    CG-2
                                      CG-1

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                                CONSTRUCTION GRANTS

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The long  range  goal  of  the  construction  grants  program  is  to reduce  the
discharge of  municipal  wastewater  pollutants  in  order to  improve water  quality
and protect  public health.   To  meet  this  goal,  the  program  provides  grants  to
municipal and  intermunicipal  agencies  to.  assist in  financing the  construction  of
cost-effective and  environmentally  sound .municipal wastewater treatment facilities
to comply  with requirements  of the Clean  Water  Act.   In  addition,  the  program
provides funds to  assist States  in  carrying  out  their responsibilities in managing
the Construction  Grants  program and to assist them  in  carrying out  water  quality
management planning programs.   To  meet long-range goals,  EPA is working with  the
States to  direct   funds  to projects with  the  greatest water  quality and  public
health impacts; minimize  expenditures  for  wastewater treatment construction,  and
local operation and maintenance,  and replacement  costs; prevent waste, fraud,  and
mismanagement; ensure timely  construction; eliminate remaining  project  completion
and closeout backlogs; and  ensure effective  results-oriented program management  by
States.                                  !

     The Federal  Water Pollution  Control   Act Amendments  of  1972 (P.L.  92-500)
created the  basis  of  today's  Federal  program.  From  1973 through  1983,  Congress
authorized approximately  $42  billion  and  appropriated  approximately  $40  billion.
An estimated $39  billion  has  been  obligated  and  $30  billion outlayed under  P.L.
92-500.  As  of the end  of FY  1983,  approximately  3,550  P.L.  92-500  plants  have
been completed and  8,035  Step 1, 2, 3,  and 2+3 projects  remained  active.   During
these years  the  program  has  had two  major  midcourse corrections.  Amendments  in
1977 provided  for  delegation  of the  program to  the  States,   provided  financial
relief for small  communities, encouraged  innovative and  alternative technologies,
and extended  the   secondary  treatment   compliance  deadline.   Amendments  in  1981
recognized that national economic realities  dictated that Federal  dollars must  be
targeted towards  the   most  urgent  treatment  needs  with  greatest  water  quality
impact.  They  limited  Federal  eligibilities, provided for ensuring  that  treatment
plants operate  to  meet  design  specifications,  established  State  water  quality
management planning _activities,_and again extended  the  secondary treatment  com-
pliance deadlinef          ~                                           "~      "~

     EPA anticipates  that  the  construction  grants  program  will  be  essentially
fully delegated by  the end  of 1984 and that no  significant  changes  in delegation
status will  occur  in the  foreseeable  future.   With  the   passage  of  the  1981
amendments and  the development  of  simplified  program  regulations,  discretionary
guidance and State  and EPA program  oversight  systems,  States  will  have appropriate
flexibility for implementing  delegated construction  grants  management.  EPA  will
continue to maintain Federal  responsibilities for ensuring effective use of  Federal
funds; ensure program integrity in  meeting statutory requirements;  provide  techni-
cal assistance  and training;  monitor  projects with  overriding  Federal  interest;
define with  States annual  program  objectives and priorities;  and oversee  annual
program accomplishments.

     During 1984,  EPA will be  conducting a major study of alternative  Federal and
non-Federal financial  involvement in municipal wastewater  treatment  which  may  lead
to recommendations  for the program's future  when the  current  authorization  expires
in 1985.  The Agency intends  to work closely with  States,  communities,  and  various
interest groups throughout  the process  to assure  that all  interests  are effectively
represented in formulating feasible recommendations which will continue to  support
priority national   water  quality and public  health  goals  and objectives.   Future
program directions will be  determined during the  1984-1985 time  period.
                                       CG-3

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                                CONSTRUCTION GRANTS

Budget Request

     The Agency requests  an  appropriation of $2,400,000,000 for 1985 for  the munici-
pal construction grants  program established  under  Title II of the Clean Water  Act
(CWA), as  amended.   This  represents  a  decrease  of  $30,000,000  from  1984.   Net
obligations for 1985 are  expected  to  total  $2,400,000,000, which  is a  decrease  of
$200,000,000 from  1984.    This  decrease  in  obligations   is  attributable   to   a
decline in total funds available as a  result of the reduction in  carryover  funds.
                                         i
Program Description                      ,
                                         i
     This program  provides   grants  to  municipal  and   inter-municipal  agencies  to
assist in  financing the  construction  of - cost-effective and  environmentally  sound
municipal wastewater treatment facilities;  to  assist  delegated  States  in carrying
out their responsibilities to manage the Construction  Grants program;  and to  assist
States in  carrying  out  water  quality  management  planning  programs,.   The program
also provides  special  funding  to  address marine combined sewer  overflow problems.
Resources associated with the  management   of  these  funds  are described  in  the
Municipal Source Control  subactivity.

     From its annual construction grants allotment, a State may  reserve up to four
percent of its authorization or $400,000,, whichever is  greater,  to  manage its dele-
gated activities and may  reserve up to one  percent  of  its allotment or $100,000,
whichever is greater,  for water quality management  planning.  The Act  also requires
that each State set aside between  four  and  seven and one half  percent  of its  allot-
ment to provide incentives  to  communities  to use innovative  and alternative tech-
nologies in  constructing their wastewater treatment  facilities  and  that   States
having substantial   rural  populations  set  aside four  percent of  their funds  for
alternative projects  in   small  commmunities.   All  grants for  assisting  in  the
development and construction of wastewater treatment  facilities are to be awarded
on the basis of a  State's priority system, which  is designed to ensure that  funds
are awarded to  projects  with the  greatest  potential  for improving water quality.

     Before the f981~amendments~ proje'cts  were Hbne~i n~Tfhree~ stages" with" separate
grants awarded  to  a community  for the  planning  (Step  1), design  (Step  2),  and
construction (Step  3)  phases  of  each  project.  (Smaller  communities sometimes
combined design and construction into  a  single  "Step 2 and 3"  grant.)  In order to
make the  process  more efficient,  the  1981  amendments  eliminated the three-step
procedure at  the  time  of  grant  award  and  provided  instead  for allowances  for
planning and design costs and for advances of  funds to  enable small  communities  to
plan and  design projects.   Other  provisions  designed  to  make the  program  more
cost-effective include eliminating funding  to  construct  reserve  capacity, limiting
project eligibilities  beginning in 1985, providing for  State  discretion on certain
funding eligibilities,  expanding the secondary treatment definition, and extending
for one year  the  period  for coastal  cities to  seek  secondary treatment waivers.

     The 1981 amendments  also  emphasized increased non-Federal   responsibility  for
financing, constructing,  and operating cost-effective works that meet their  permit
requirements. The local  funding share  will  increase from 25  percent to 45 percent
for awards made beginning in 1985.  Grantees must demonstrate prior to award that
the most economical alternative has been selected, including construction,  opera-
tion, maintenance,   and replacement  costs.    Value  engineering•review is mandatory
for projects above  $10 million.  Additionally, engineering firms  will  be required
to oversee a project's first year  of  operation to help  ensure that it meets  design
and permit  specifications.   As  a  result of  these  amendments, the  Federal  funding
potential under the current  program is $37.3 billion as  reported in the 1982 Needs
Survey published by EPA.   As also reported by  the  Survey,  significant progress  has
been made since the 1980  Needs Survey  in meeting treatment  needs.
                                     .-.CG-4

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      The  goal  of  the State management assistance grant program under Section 205(g)
 is  to encourage  States  to  assume  responsibility  for  management  of  construction
 grants  and  other  priority programs, leading to full  delegation  of the program.  A
 grant is  provided to a State when it is able to exercise effective management for a
 substantial  portion  of  program activities.   EPA is  working  with  all States to con-
 tinue ensuring optimum  delegation and effective  State  oversight.  EPA anticipates
 that  all  States  and Puerto Rico will have  signed  delegation  agreements  by the end
 of  1985,  with  38  of the States fully delegated by that time.

      The  goal  of  the water quality  management  planning  grant program under Section
 205(j)  is  to  support priorities  for determining  the nature  and extent  of  water
 quality problems;  identifying  cost-effective  means  to  meet  and maintain  water
 quality standards,  including  nonpoint   source  control  programs;  and  identifying
 municipal wastewater treatment  construction  needs.   States  are required  to consult
 with  local,  Regional  and  interstate  agencies  in  developing  work  plans  for  using
 these funds.                             <

      In accordance  with Congressional directives,  the Administrator  is  reviewing
 all proposed  advanced  treatment  (AT)  projects  where the  incremental  cost of the
 advanced  component  is  greater than $3,000,000.   The  Regional offices are respon-
 sible for  a  similar  review  of projects:  with  an  incremental  cost  of  less  than
 $3,000,000.  With the issuance of the Agency's AT  policy,  increased  EPA guidance,
 and State  awareness  of appropriate AT  review procedures,  EPA is  requesting  Con-
 gressional consent to delegate AT review functions for all  projects to those States
 and Regions  which demonstrate capability.   Headquarters will  continue to maintain
 appropriate oversight.
                                         i
                                         !

 1985  Program Request                     \

      In 1985,  EPA requests  a construction  grants  appropriation  of $2,400,000,000,
 a decrease of  $30,000,000 from 1984.  The decrease reflects elimination of separate
 funding to  correct  Marine Combined Sewer  Overflow problems under  Section  201(n);
 such  projects  are  eligible  for  funding  under  State discretionary  authorities.
 This  funding level wij 1 jjrovjde _for a total  of  650 grant awards and $2,400,000,000
 in net  obligations.   Th"e~ Ag"ency~ esTimate's~That~" outlays" win total" approximately "
 $2,500,000,000.  A total  of 1,060 projects  are expected to complete  construction.
 With  this  appropriation  States are  expected to  obligate   $92,776,000 for Section
 205(g) delegation management  and  $24,447^320 for  water quality management planning
 under Section  205(j).

      EPA expects  that all  States  will  have  accepted  initial  delegation  by the end
 of 1985.  We expect that  38  States  will  be fully  delegated, including  support  from
 the Corps  of  Engineers,  an  increase  of  six from  1984.   The  remaining  States are
 expected to continue at approximately the same level  of delegation  for the forsee-
 able  future.   Including  expected  205(g)  obligations  of  $92,776,000,  States  will
 provide 2,086  workyears  or 68  percent  of the total  program  management  staffing,
 EPA 19 percent, and the Corps of Engineers the  remaining 13 percent.

      EPA will  continue  working  with  States  in  targeting  funds  towards  priority
water quality  needs;  assuring  that proposed plants  are within each community's
 financial  capabilities  and use the most  appropriate,  cost-effective technology;
 completing and closing  out  projects  as  quickly  as  possible; ensuring  effective
 facilities construction  including  improved first  year operations; preventing waste,
 fraud or  mismanagement  and  taking  necessary  corrective   action;  meeting  grants
obligation and outlay  projections  and  reducing  excessive  unliquidated  balances;
 and managing effectively shared EPA, State,  and Corps of Engineers responsibilities.

     EPA anticipates that  States will obligate $24,447,320  under  Section  205(j) in
 support  of  water  quality  management  priorities  including  review and  revision  of
water quality  standards; development of needed nonpoint source control and  ground-
water management   programs;  and  ensuring  consistency   of   proposed   permits   and
construction grants with approved  water  quality  management  plans.
                                       C6-5

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1984 Program

     With a 1984  construction  grants appropriation of $2,430,000,000, EPA  expects
to award 726  Step  3 and 2+3 grants and to  obligate  $2,600,000,000  (net).   A total
of 885  projects  are  expected  to  complete construction.   These funds  will  also
support construction  grants management  activities  in  50  delegated  States  with
estimated 205(g)  obligations of $97,752,000; 205(j)  water  quality management plan-
ning activities  with  estimated  obligations of  $38,472,077 including  $14,100,000
from 1983 appropriations; and  funding  of  Marine Combined Sewer  Overflow  projects.
Federal outlays are expected to total  $2,500,000,000.
                                         :
     By the end of 1984, EPA expects that'the  construction  grants program  will  have
achieved essentially  full delegation.   Although States  may assume  responsibility
for a  limited  number  of additional  activities,  the delegated workload will  remain
relatively constant.  Of the 50 jurisdictions  with  delegation  agreements,  32 States
are expected to  assume  full  delegation, an  increase  of three over 1983.  EPA  will
primarily exercise the role  of  overall  program manager for  the  States.

     The Agency will  work with  States  to define  annual  national  program priorities
and objectives,  monitor delegated  State  programs,   and  provide  needed management
assistance.  The   Federal  program   will  emphasize  results-oriented  oversight  of
high priority  activities  where  there  are direct   financial,  water  quality,  or
public health  concerns.   EPA  will  ensure  that  funds  are  targeted to identified
water quality  and  public health  needs;  projects  are technologically  appropriate
and are  within the  financial  capability;  of  the  communities  served;  appropriate
advanced treatment  funding  decisions  are  made;  projects are  completed and  closed
out as  quickly as  possible; waste, fraud,  and mismanagement in  the program  are
prevented; and that  obligation  and  outlay projections  are  met  and  unnecessary
unliquidated balances reduced.            ',

    The $38,472^077 to  be  obligated  under  Section  205(j)  will  primarily  support
updates of  water  quality  plans  and  standards; development  of  nonpoint   source
control and ground-water  management programs; and development  of wasteload  allo-
cations on priority waterbodies for determining treatment needs.
1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  construction  grant  obligations  totaled  $3,193,777,000  (net)  and
supported 809  awards  (280 step  2+3 and  529  step  3).   This  funding resulted  in
8,035 active  projects  by  year  end.    Federal   outlays  totaled  $2,982,669,000.
During the year  1,125 projects completed  construction  and,  by year  end,  approxi-
mately 3,550 P.L. 92-500 funded plants  were completed and on  line.

     During 1983, four  additional  States  signed  an initial  delegation  agreement.
Of the 50 jurisdictions with  delegation  agreements, 29 are considered to  be  fully
delegated.  Delegated States  obligated $126,849,000 under Section  205(g) in  1983
to support construction grants  and other eligible  program needs.   States  provided
1,973 workyears, or 63 percent of the total construction grants management  program.
States obligated $34,349,839  Section  205(j) funds,  including  $23,92~7,276  from the
1982 appropriation,  to  support  priority  water  quality management  planning  needs.
                                        CG-6

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents
                                                                              PAGE

WATER QUALITY                                                                 WQ-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Water Quality Research	    WQ-10
       Municipal  Wastewater	    WQ-23
       Industrial  Wastewater	    WQ-31
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Water Quality and Grants Program Management	    WQ-40
          Water Quality Management	    WQ-42
          Great Lakes Program	    WQ-45
          Chesapeake Bay Program	:	    WQ-46
       Effluent Standards & Guidelines	    WQ-49
       Grants Assistance Programs	    WQ-54
          Clean Lakes Program	    WQ-55
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106)	    WQ-56
          Training Grants (Section 104)	    WQ-57
       Water Quality Strategies Implementation	    WQ-59
          Dredge & Fil 1	    WQ-62
          Ocean Disposal  Permits	    WQ-63
          Environmental  Emergency Response & Prevention	    WQ-65
          Standards & Regulations	    WQ-66
       Water Quality Monitoring & Analysis	    WQ-69
       Municipal  Source Control	    WQ-73
          Municipal Waste Treatment Facility Construction	    WQ-75
          Corps of Engineers	    WQ-79
          Waste Treatment Operations & Maintenance	    WQ-80
    ENFORCEMENT
       Water Quality Enforcement	    WQ-83
       Water Quality Permit Issuance	    WQ-87
                                       WQ-1

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                                   WATER QUALITY


OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Agency derives  its  water quality objectives from two  statutes:  the  Clean
Water Act  and  the  Marine  Protection,  Research  and Sanctuaries  Act.   Both  laws
direct the Agency to take measures to protect the Nation's waters so as to safeguard
public health, recreational use, and aquatic life.

     The Agency's  charge  under the Clean Water  Act  is  to meet the goals  of  clean
water by (1) making regulatory decisions based on  sound,  comprehensive,  scientific
and technical assessments; (2) implementing  and enforcing control measures directly,
or indirectly through  State and local programs; (3) providing technical, managerial,
and administrative  assistance to State  programs,  as  well  as providing  program
oversight; and  (4)  providing financial  assistance to  supplement  State  and  local
resources.

     The Clean Water  Act  relies  on a well-defined partnership  between  EPA and the
States, and EPA continues to encourage the States to take on primary responsibility
for implementing the Act.  The Act envisions a dual approach to point-source pollu-
tion control:   the technology-based  approach,   which  uses  nationally  prescribed
effluent limitations  to  achieve  pollutant  reductions, and the  water  quality-based
approach, which is  used  to set permit limits on a  site-specific  basis  where  tech-
nology controls  are  insufficient  to  achieve  ambient  water  quality  standards.

     EPA and States issue permits  under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System to  impose  discharge  limitations  on  municipal  and  industrial  point-source
dischargers.  To date, permitting has focused primarily  on technology-based limits,
with industrial permits  developed using  best professional  judgment in  cases  where
technology standards  are  not available.  Water  quality-based  permitting  has  been
used to some extent in the  past and will  be used to a greater extent  as the Agency
and States refine biomonitoring and wasteload allocation techniques.

     The Marine Protection,  Research and  Sanctuaries Act authorizes the  Agency  to
develop criteria for the ocean disposal  of materials based on a number  of statutory
factors including  environmental   considerations  and  the  need  for disposal.    The
Agency is also authorized to designate disposal  sites for those materials and  issue
permits for all nondredged materials.   Another aspect of the ocean disposal program
is incineration-at-sea,  for which EPA issues permits and designates sites.

     Relevant to all these areas are the activities of the research and development
program, which must provide the timely analysis,  information,  and  analytical  tech-
niques to support the  regulatory program.

ISSUING NPDES PERMITS

    The primary focus of the NPDES permit  program in  1985  will  be the  reduction
of the backlog  of  major  permits to be issued by EPA so that  industrial  and  muni-
cipal  dischargers receive permits in sufficient  time to  comply  with requirements  by
July 1988,  the  Administration's  proposed  statutory deadline  for  industrial   dis-
chargers, and  by  July 1988  for municipal  dischargers  with extensions  authorized
under Section 301(i) of  the Act.

     Primary emphasis  will be  on  the  issuance of expired major industrial  permits,
using Best Available  Technology   guidelines  (BAT)  to impose toxic  limitations  and
water quality controls as  necessary.  The  Agency will also  emphasize the  issuance
of major municipal  permits using  available  tools (e.g., biomonitoring,  wasteload
allocations) consistent with Section 301(h) discharge waivers, pretreatment require-
ments, and revision to secondary  treatment  standards.   EPA  will also  provide  tech-
nical  assistance to the States in implementing BAT permit requirements.   The majority
of major expired or expiring permits will  be reissued by the end of 1985.
                                      WQ-3

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     Research in this area will  focus  on developing a method for  conducting  site-
specific toxicity  reduction  evaluations to  be used  by  permitting authorities  to
issue discharge permits to industry, based on  toxicity as  a  major  parameter.   Work
will also  take  place to  develop  Toxicity Reduction  Manuals,  which will  identify
the in-plant sources of aquatic toxicity and define the ability of various treatment
options to reduce or eliminate this toxicity.

IMPLEMENTING THE PRETREATMENT PROGRAM

     Local  POTW  pretreatment  program   development   and   approvals will   also  be
emphasized in 1984  and  1985,  resulting from the  July  1983 deadline for  State  and
EPA approval of  local  programs.   An estimated 370  of  1,700 needed programs  have
been approved to date.   If  local  programs are not  approved, EPA  and  States  will
ensure that the program is implemented.

     In addition to overseeing development of  pretreatment programs, EPA  will  also
take appropriate enforcement  measures   to  assure  implementation   of  the  national
pretreatment compliance  strategy.    In  cases  where  cities  have  not  implemented
approved programs,  EPA will  enforce national  pretreatment  requirements.

IMPROVING COMPLIANCE WITH NPDES PERMITS

     In 1985,  compliance efforts  will  emphasize  implementation   of  a  municipal
compliance strategy  to   assure  compliance  by   all  municipalities  by  July  1988,
wherever possible.    Our  goal  will  be  to  assure that  Federally  funded  treatment
facilities are constructed as  necessary and  properly operated and  maintained,  and
that unfunded municipal  dischargers take  necessary  steps  to meet  effluent  limits.
Where significant  noncompliance  persists,  EPA   will  take  necessary   enforcement
action.  The research  program  will provide expanded  engineering  support to  solve
operational and design problems, reduce costs, and  improve compliance  for existing
POTWs.

     We will also continue to maintain a strong enforcement presence with industrial
noncompliers to assure a continued high  rate of  industrial  compliance.   Industrial
wastewater research will  continue  to provide  quality assurance  support  for  NPDES
compliance and to   operate  the Discharge  Monitoring  Report -  Quality  Assurance
Program.

COMPLETING EFFLUENT GUIDELINES

      The Agency should  finish promulgating  all  the effluent  guidelines  covered
under the  Natural   Resources  Defense   Council  Consent  Decree  in  1985.   Twenty
regulations have been  promulgated,  and twelve  more  have been  proposed to  date.
The guidelines will be used  by the Agency  and  the States  in  developing  toxic  limi-
tations for industrial  dischargers.  Activities in 1985 will  also  include litigation
and negotiation support for  the guidelines  that have already  been  issued.

IMPROVING TOOLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISIONS

     The 1985  abatement  and   control  program  will  continue to  develop tools  for
determining control  needs beyond  technology-based  controls with work  in  areas
such as biomonitoring, site-specific criteria  protocols,  sediment  criteria,  sludge
criteria, and criteria  for marine  and  estuarine  situations.  We  will   continue  to
work with States to improve  the quality of monitoring data  generated by  the States,
including data collected in  cooperation with  local  governments  and industry.   In
1984 we will begin  and  in 1985 continue development of environmental criteria for
municipal sludge disposal  for  use in  determining  sludge toxicity and  selecting
environmentally appropriate  disposal  options.
                                      WQ-4

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     In 1985 we  will  carry out national  studies, such as the Dioxin Study begun in
 1984, to determine the extent  of  contamination  by these specific pollutants in the
 ambient environment.  These studies will  increase our knowledge base and enable the
 Agency to make better environmental decisions in the future.

     The research  program  will  continue  to define,  develop,  and validate protocols
 for adapting water quality criteria  to  site-specific field  applications  and  will
 upgrade and  validate the  field models  needed  to  identify  water  quality  limited
 stream reaches and to calculate wasteload  allocations.   Research  will  also  focus
 on development of  wasteload allocation procedures  based  on the net toxicity  of  a
 complex effluent.   An  expanded effort  for  integrating pollutant-specific  toxic
 control techniques  with  toxicity  testing procedures for  complex  effluents  for use
 in permitting will also be undertaken.

      As the Nation  completes  initial implementation of  technology-based  controls
 for municipal  and  industrial  point   sources, nonpoint  source  pollution is  being
 increasingly identified as  a  significant  pollution  problem  which must  be addressed
 in many areas  of the country.   In recognition  of this  problem,  specific activites
 which EPA  will   undertake  include issuing  in  1984  a  policy  statement  addressing
 nonpoint source  pollution  and  the use of  available funds  under Sections  106 and
 205(j) on these  programs  and developing  a  new  agreement with  the  U.S.  Department
 of Agriculture to  focus  technical  assistance and dissemination of  information to
 fanners in water quality limited  basins  on the  economic and  environmental  advan-
 tages of applying  various  proven  best  management  practices.   EPA  will  also  con-
 tinue working with the  Department of the  Interior  on controlling  nonpoint  source
 problems on Federal lands.

 FOCUSING ON BASINS OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE

     The Water Program will continue in 1985 to  focus on basins of major importance
 to the public and  the Congress, by significantly expanding  the  Federal  commitment
 to cleanup  of  the Cheasapeake  Bay.   The  Agency  will   work  with  the  States of
 Maryland, Viginia, and Pennsylvania and with  the  District of Columbia  to implement
 management plans  resulting  from the research  findings of  the seven-year  Chesapeake
 Bay Water Quality  Study.   The   Study  identified three areas  of  concern  facing the
 Bay:   (1) the  disappearance of submerged  aquatic  vegetation;   (2) the influx of
 nutrient loads from  point  and  nonpoint  sources; and  (3) the  contamination  of the
 Bay and its tributaries by  toxic substances.

     A State and Federal effort has been  organized  to address  these concerns.   The
 Bay Executive and  Implementation  Committees  were established on December  9,  1983
 by the EPA Administrator,  the  Governors  of the  three States, and the  Mayor  of the
 District.  The Agency in 1985  will support  actions to  address these  concerns, to
 include cost-sharing  grants  to the  States  for demonstration  of   nonpoint  source
 control  practices,   for development  of stringent  toxic  control  permits  using  bio-
 monitoring procedures,  for wastewater  plant operator  training,   for  improvement
 of local  pretreatment programs, and for  technical assistance to farmers and  small
 businesses  in designing controls.

     EPA's  Great  Lakes  National  Program  Office  will  continue  to  carry  out  the
 International Agreement   with   Canada  to   support  water  pollution  control  in  the
Great Lakes  with continued  support   from  our  Grosse He lab  and  other  research
 laboratories. The  focus  will  be on the  use  of fish,  water,  and  air sampling to
determine water  quality  improvement  and  to  identify  emerging problems as a  basis
 for resource  management  and allocations.  The  Agency will  also continue to  award
Clean Lakes grants to complete  existing lake restoration  projects.

 IMPLEMENTING  A  MARINE PROTECTION PROGRAM

     In  1985, the  Agency  will   promulgate  the  revisions  required  by  a  court  de-
 cision to the  ocean  dumping   regulation,  which  will  provide   for balancing  the
environmental effects of  ocean  disposal versus other disposal  methods while  meeting
                                      WQ-5

-------
specific environmental criteria contained in the statute.   The  Agency will  continue
to review, process, and  issue  permits  for  ocean  disposal.   EPA  win  complete  the
environmental impact  statements on  ocean  disposal   sites  for  site designations
required under the  National  Wildlife Federation  Consent  Decree.   Additional  site
designation work will  begin  on dredged  material  disposal  sites  not covered  under
the Consent  Decree.   The  Agency  will   conduct  monitoring  surveys   for  dredged
material and  other  ocean dumping  sites  to determine the  environmental  impact  of
ocean disposal.  Regulations  will  be promulgated for the  control  and  monitoring
of incineration-at-sea activities.   The  Agency will  continue to survey and monitor
existing ocean  incineration  sites  and   will  process additional  applications  for
incineration-at-sea permits.

     The research  program  will  continue to  develop  and  validate  techniques  for
assessing the impact  of  ocean  disposal of  wastes, develop  monitoring techniques to
evaluate the  long-term effects  of  ocean disposal,  and  evaluate  the trade-offs  of
alternative treatment   technologies  with  respect  to  environmental   effects.   The
research program will  also work on procedures to evaluate acute  and chronic  toxicity
and bioaccumulation potential  of contaminants in  sediments  for  use in the  dredge
disposal and  ocean  dumping permit  programs.  This effort  is  coordinated  with  the
National Oceanic  and   Atmospheric   Administration  and  the  Corps  of   Engineers.

MANAGING CONSTRUCTION  GRANTS

     EPA will continue to  provide  responsible fiscal stewardship  of Federal  con-
struction funds and to ensure  that  this  program, which  is essentially fully dele-
gated, continues to achieve  statutory  objectives.   EPA  will  ensure that  the  $2.4
billion requested in  1985  is  focused  on  priority projects with the greatest  water
quality and health impact,  while emphasizing  local  financial capability  and  imple-
mentation of  the  most cost-effective  wastewater  treatment  approaches.    Building
upon years  of  experience,  EPA will  assist  States  and  communities   in  making
appropriate technological and  funding decisions  through dissemination  of  informa-
tion on  effective  and ineffective  wastewater  treatment  technologies  and  sludge
management approaches.  EPA  will also assist States in  implementing the  remaining
statutory reforms  which  become  effective   in  1985,  particularly  revised  funding
eligibilities and engineering  performance  requirements.   In addition to  maintain-
ning effective oversight  of  delegated activities,  EPA  "will continue  to  exercise
responsibility for  providing  needed  program guidance  and  assistance,   performing
nondelegated activities,  working with the  U.S.   Corps  of  Engineers  in  assuring
technical integrity of wastewater  treatment projects and monitoring projects  with
overriding Federal  interest.

     The municipal  wastewater  research program  will  continue to provide the  tech-
nical  information and  engineering  assistance needed  by  EPA and municipalities  to
develop regulations and  guidance for  disposal  of  sludge  and  control  of  pollution
from municipal treatment  plants and to bring treatment plants into compliance  with
State discharge permits.   The  specific objectives of the research  program in  1985
are to  1)  accelerate  the  use  of   Innovative  and  Alternative  (I/A) technologies
through post-construction  evaluations  of  I/A treatment  technologies;  2)  develop
more effective sludge  treatment  methods  to  enhance  the  use of sludge  as well  as
reduce the volumes of  sludge expected from  construction of new systems;  3) support
guidance development to control  toxic  pollutants and minimize water quality  impacts;
and  4) provide the scientific assessment,  health, engineering, and monitoring in-
formation base for  a  systems analysis approach  for  the  States  to use in  evaluating
control options.

IMPROVING ASSISTANCE TO STATES

     To ensure that States have sufficient Federal  support  to carry out  require-
ments the  Federal   government  has   placed   on  them,  EPA  will  maintain  the  1984
appropriated level   for Section 106  grants.  Together with  available  funds  under
Sections 205(g)  and  (j),  States  will  be  able  to  carry  out their  basic  water
programs and deal with priority  needs,  including incorporation of  toxics  in  State
                                       WQ-6

-------
water quality  standards,  incorporation  of  toxic  limits  in permits,  reduction  of
permit backlogs,  implementation  of  pretreatment  programs,  and  development  of
nonpoint source  control  programs.   EPA will  improve its  efforts  to make  States
accountable for  outputs agreed  to  under delegation agreements  and will  continue to
strengthen our  oversight  of State  performance  to fulfill  EPA's  responsibility  to
ensure that the Congressionally mandated program is carried out.

CONTINUING PROTECTION OF WETLANDS

     The major  effort  in  1985  in  the dredge and  fill  program will  be  to develop
and apply technical  guidance and  regulations  to ensure  effective  protection  of the
wetland waters  of the  United States and to encourage States to assume Section 404
permitting authority from the Federal government.

     Headquarters will develop  guidance and  revise regulations  and  procedures  to
identify and  address  the  most  significant  environmental  problems in  wetlands and
other aquatic  systems.  The Regions will review  and  comment  on  public  notices  of
permit applications; elevate permits,  when  necessary, to  higher  levels  of manage-
ment; and establish jurisdictional  boundaries.

     In addition, Headquarters  will  work  with the  Regions to develop  innovative
techniques (e.g., a joint  pilot  permitting  program  with  the  States and  Federal
government) to  encourage  State  assumption  of  the program.   Regions will  manage
State program  development  grants,   consult  before  submittal,   review  submissions,
and coordinate with  other  agencies.

MAINTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL  EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY

     The environmental emergency  response  program will  continue  to maintain  an
around-the-clock capability to  receive  notice of  and  respond to major incidents  of
accidental  releases   of oil	and  other  petroleum  products (spills  of  hazardous
substances are  covered under   Superfund).   Removal  actions  will  be directed  by
Regional field  personnel  at  serious  incidents  where   the responsible  party  is
unidentifiable, refuses to clean up, or is incapable of  providing  adequate response
and where  State or local  authorities   lack  appropriate  expertise  or  resources.

     The cleanup  monitoring  program  will   continue to  provide  incentives   for
adequate removal by  the  responsible  party,  as  well  as serve  as a  mechanism  for
drawing State and local agencies into directing removals  themselves.   The Agency's
focus in 1985 will be  on encouraging State and local governments to assume a greater
share of the   responsibility  for  responding  to  oil  spills.   Federal  resources,
therefore,  will be  concentrated on  major  actions where  State,  local, or  private
response is not feasible.
                                      WQ-7

-------
WATER QUALITY
Program Activities
Effluent Guidelines
P roposed 	 	

Ocean Dumping Permits..... 	
Construction Grants Awards. .......
Active Construction Grants Proj...
Step 3 and Step 2+3 Project
Compl eti ons 	 	 	
Signed 205(g) Agreements.... 	 	
State Program Approvals, National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) 	
Adjudicatory Hearings Settled-
Permits Issued by EPA:
Municipal -

Non -municipal


Enforcement Actions
Judicial Enforcement Actions
Supported
Notices of Violation


Clean Lakes Projects Completed....
Spill Prevention Control and
Spill Removal Actions Conducted...
Spill Removal Actions Monitored...
Actual
1983
13
11
11
809
8,035
1,125
50
36
76
125
337
381
'1,357
6
85
831
1,994
16
11
1,700
120
400
Budget
Estimate
1984
18
29
55
597
4,764
1,200
49
38
76
181

300

58
88
673
1,978
0
40
2,000
120
400
Amendment/
Current
Estimate
1984
3
7
25
726
6,328
885
50
38
136
201

385

40
88
673
2,052
25
26
2,000
120
400
Estimate
1985
0
4
25
650
4,711
1 060
51
40
114
300

450

60
124
658
1,951
12
20
2,000
120
400
Increase +
Decrease -
1985 vs
1984
Compl eted
3

76
-1,617
+ 175
+ 1
f 2
22
+ 99

+ 65

+ 20
+ 35
15
- 101
13
6
--
    WQ-8

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-------

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

WATER QUALITY

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Water Quality Research	    WQ-10
       Munici pal Wastewater	    WQ-23
       Industrial  Wastewater	    WQ-31
                                       WQ-9

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                                   WATER QUALITY
                               Water Quality Research
Major Outputs/Milestones

Evaluate and Standardize
Monitoring Methods

- Sampling technology for
  representative analysis
  of ambient water quality
  (Monitoring)

- Evaluate enforcement
  potential of in vivo
  stress indicators for
  monitoring water quality
  (Monitoring)

Provide Quality Assurance

- Provide status report for
  repository, referee analytical
  services, QC sample program,
  and performance evaluation
  survey (Monitoring)

- Provide reference cultures of
  biological test organisms (fish,
  microbiota, etc) (Monitoring)

Develop the Data to Support
Water Quality Standards and
Permits

- Health effects bioassay
  methods for determining
  whether receiving streams
  meet wasteload allocations
  (Health Effects)

- Determine the effect of
  particulate size and
  density on the incidence
  rate of swimming-associated
  gastroenteritis (Health
  Effects)

-  Assistance in modifying or
   determining health criteria/
   standards for site-specific
   situations (Scientific
   Assessment)
         Amendment/
         Current
Actual   Estimate        Estimate
 1983     1984            1985
 9/83      8/84
           8/85
 6/85
 8/86
 7/83      7/84
 8/83      8/84
 7/85
 8/85
 6/86      6/86
12/84     12/84
 6/86
12/84
 9/83      9/84
 9/85
                                        WQ-13

-------
                                                      Amendment/
                                                      Current
                                            Actual    Estimate         Estimate                         J
 Major  Outputs/Milestones                      1983       1984             1985                            I

 -  Report  on  the  feasibility                12/84     12/84            12/84
    of  using chemical  speciation
    models  to  derive  site-specific
    criteria (Env.  Processes)

 -  Feasibility  report on  integrating                                   12/86
    single  pollutant  criteria  and
    complex effluent  approaches for
    regulatory application
    (Env. Processes)

 -  Manual  of  field validated  wasteload        9/86       9/86             9/86
    allocation models  (Env.  Processes)

 Develop Data  To Support a Sound
 Ocean  Disposal  Program

 - Project  report  on  partitioning            10/85     10/85            10/85
   of harmful  materials in sludge
   between  sludge  and  seawater
   (Env. Engineering)

 - Report on removal  of metals                1/85       1/85             1/85
   and  organics  in  alternative
   treatment systems  for ocean
   discharge (Env.  Engineering)

 - User manual for evaluation  of               9/86       9/86             9/86
   a waste  proposed for ocean                                                                           .
   dumping  (Env. Processes)                                                                             J

 - Final report  on  hazard  assess-              9/86       9/86             9/86
   ment methods  for evaluating
   ocean dumping impacts
   (Env. Processes)
<•»
 Implement  Great Lakes Study

 - Documentation of Great  Lakes                6/85       6/85             6/85
   Models  (Env.  Processes)

 - Report on methodology/protocol  for          1/86       1/86             1/86
   field exposure/effects  assessment
   of a Great  Lakes area of  concern
   (Env. Processes)
                                         WQ-14

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                                   WATER QUALITY


                               Water Quality Research
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $15,134,000  supported  by 238.6  total  workyears
for 1985, an  Increase  of  $86,500 and a decrease of 4.4 total workyears  from 1984.
Included in  this  total are  $11,559,000  for Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $3,575,000
for Research  and  Development,   with  an  increase  of  $1,488,000  and  a decrease  of
$1,401,500 respectively.  The  increase  in the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation
reflects a shift  of  resources  to support increased costs  of laboratory  operations
and joint  research  with  the  People's  Republic  of China.   The  decrease  in  RSD
reflects the  shift for laboratory  operations,  the  concentration of health research
in the Drinking Water  decison  unit, and  completion  of  a large part  of the environ-
mental processes  research  work  on  ocean  dumping  waste  evaluation  protocols.

Program Description

     Over the next several years, uniform technology-based requirements mandated by
the Clean Water  Act (CWA)  for municipal and  industrial  effluent  discharges  will
largely be  in place nationwide.   However,  in  water  bodies  where  these  controls
have achieved  State  water  quality standards,  the Clean  Water  Act  provides  for
additional control  measures.   The EPA's  research  and development program  will
provide the  scientific and technical  base  to  help States implement site-specific
standards through  water quality permitting.   We  are  shifting  our  emphasis  from
development of  single  chemical  criteria to development  of  methods  required  for
permitting on water  quality  limited segments where there  are multiple dischargers
with complex  effluents.   The  ocean  disposal  research  is  structured to  provide
information to  support the Agency  in  evaluating the  use  of the oceans  for waste
disposal.

     The following objectives support these goals:

     Objective 1.  Evaluate and Standardize Monitoring   Methods  to  Support  Water
Quality Programs I  This activity develops and standardizes water monitoring methods
needed for identifying toxic pollution problems, evaluating  stream  flow  and efflu-
ent variabil ities, and  evaluating  compliance with ambient water quality  standards
and permit requirements.

     Objective 2.  Provide  Quality Assurance to Support  Water  Quality  Programs.
This research develops  and standardizes  quality assurance methods,  provides  con-
tinuing basic quality  control  materials  and guidance,  and determines the adeauacy
of analytical procedures.

     Objective 3.  Develop the Data to Support Water Quality  Standards and Permits.
This activity provides the information and tools needed by Federal and State permit
programs to correct  ambient  water  quality problems that remain  after the mandated
minimum pollution  control  technology {e.g.,  secondary  treatment, effluent  guide-
lines) is in place.

     Objective 4.  Develop  Scientific  Data to  Support  an  Environmentally  Sound
Ocean Disposal Program!  This  research  program  develops   and val idates  protocol s
needed by EPA for predicting and evaluating  impacts from  ocean disposal  practices.
The major focus is on hazard assessments, biomonitoring techniques,  and identifying
acceptable disposal practices.
                                      WQ-15

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     Objective 5.  Implement Great Lakes Study.   This  program  evaluates,   measures,
and develops predictive tools needed for understanding the distribution of  pollutants
and resulting  effects  on  water quality,  aquatic life,  and  human exposure  through
aquatic food chains of Great Lakes ecosystems.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $302,700  supported  by  4.0 total  workyears  for
this program,  of which  $212,700  is  for Salaries  and Expenses and  $90,000 is  for
Research and  Development.   This  reflects an  increase of  $15,200  in the  Salaries
and Expenses  appropriation  and a  decrease  of  $10,000  in the Research and Develop-
ment appropriation.  The  increase  in  Salaries   and  Expenses  and  the  decrease  in
Research and  Development  are due  to  increased  support for  in-house  operations  and
a shift of extramural resources to support this.

     Develop the Data to Support Water Quality Standards and  Permits.   ORD   will  con-
tinue to support program  offices,  States, and  local officials  in  the  implementation
of site-specific human  health criteria.  This will  Include:   providing assistance  in
the evaluation  of  potential  local  health  hazards  caused  by  exposure  to  chemical
pollutants;  developing methods  for evaluating  effects of exposure to complex  mix-
tures;  and  providing  input to Clean  Water Act  Section  301(g) permit modification
requests.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency is allocating a total   of $297,500  and 4.0 total  workyears
to this program, of  which  $197,500 is under the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation
and $100,000  is  for extramural purposes  under  the  Research  and  Development  appro-
priation.

     Develop the  Data   to Support Water Quality  Standards and  Permits.  Methods for
assessing risk of human exposure to chemical  mixtures are  being revised and published
based on scientific workshops and public comments.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the  Agency  obligated a  total  of  $715,400 and  12.6 total   workyears
for this program,  of which $498,400 was  under  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropria-
tion and $217,000  was   for extramural  purposes  under  the  Research and Development
appropriation.

     Develop the  Data  to Support  Water Quality   Standards  and  Permits.   A working
draft of the  guidelines for evaluating  available health  data associated  with  human
exposure to  complex mixtures of chemicals was developed.   Seven mini-criteria (i.e.,
maximum safe  concentrations as  indicated by a   minimum  data  set)  for  preliminary
hazard assessments  were developed  in  lieu  of  full  criteria.   Updates of existing
guidelines and methodology were initiated in 1983.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND  QUALITY ASSURANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a  total  of  $2,283,100  supported by  36.9 total   workyears
for this program,  of which $1,858,100  is  for  Salaries and Expenses and $425,000  is
                                       WQ-16

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for Research  and Development.  The  decrease of  $244,000  reflects one  time funding
for the  development of  biological  monitoring techniques.   A one  position decrease
reflects a  transfer of  one  workyear to the  centralized quality  assurance effort in
the Intermedia  Decision  Unit.  Increased   funding  of   $66,800   will   support the
increased cost  of laboratory operation.

     Evaluate   and  Standardize Monitoring and Measurement  Methods to  Support  Water
Qual ity Programs'.   Biosurvey  techniques will be  evaluated and standardized for de-
termining use-attainability  and  wasteload   allocations.   Program focus  will   be on
taxonomic identification, enzyme  activity  level  monitoring and rapid  chronic  tests.

     Provide  Quality  Assurance  to Support  Water  Quality  Programs.  New materials
were furnished  to  enable States and EPA laboratories  to  check their monitoring pro-
cedures for  toxicity testing  regimes  promulgated  by  EPA.   The  performance of new
test organisms  will be  documented and  compared   for  quality to  existing reference
calibrants.  The  quality assurance program  will  be maintained for  existing biolog-
ical, chemical  and  physical tests used in water quality analysis.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating a total of $2,460,300 and 37.9 total workyears
to this program, of which $1,791,300 is under the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $669,000 is  for extramural purposes under the Research and Development appropria-
tion.

     Evaluate   and  Standardize Monitoring and Measurement Methods to  Support  Water
Quality Programs'.   Work  Ts  being  carried   out   on adapting  freshwater  monitoring
procedures foruse  in  marine  waters,  standardizing  a  procedure   for   using fish
lethality as a  way  of determining water quality,  evaluating  freshwater  methods used
to measure  the  condition  of  aquatic  ecosystems,  and   standardizing  stream flow
measurement methods.

     Provide  Quality  Assurance  to  Support  Water  Quality   Program.  The quality
assurance programcontinuestofurnishcalibrationmaterialsforStates and  to
standardize toxicity  tests  for the  permitting  process.   EPA  is  evaluating  a  rapid
and low-cost  (five  day)   subacute toxicity   test  to replace  an  existing  life  cycle
test (100 days).

1984 Explanation of Changes from  the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$102,300 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogramnrings.  (-$102,300) Several  reprogrammings  were made to this activity
which were  not  reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   These
changes resulted in a net decrease of -$96,300 to the Salaries and Expenses appropri-
ation and  a decrease  of  -$6,000  to   the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the   Agency  obligated  a  total  of  $2,581,000  and 51.7  total  work-
years for  this  program,   of  which  $2,313,000 was  under  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $268,000  was  for  extramural   purposes under  the  Research  and
Development appropriation.
                                       WQ-17

-------
     Evaluate and Standardize Monitoring and Measurement  Methods  to   Support   Water
Quality Programs!366 acute toxicity tests using aquatic  organisms  and  an enzyme
indicator were completed and used to support water quality  permits.   Acute toxicity
tests for iron and  steel  wastes were  conducted.   Laboratory precision tests  were
completed with fathead minnows  using  cadmium as  the toxicant.  The  reliability  of
acute toxicity tests which use an aquatic organism was evaluated  for  four toxicant
reference materials.

     Provide Quality Assurance  to  Support   Water  Quality  Programs. Performance
evaluations were provided  to over  600 participating laboratories.   A short  term
embryo-larvel test for effluent  biomonitoring was  evaluated.   Calibration materials
were provided to ensure acceptable  data quality,  with a major effort  on providing
biological test specimens.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $443,600 supported by 6.1 total  workyears  for
this program, all of which  is for Salaries  and Expenses.   This  reflects  a decrease
of $200,000  in the  Research  and  Development  appropriation  and an  increase  of
$22,900 in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.  This  decrease  reflects  the
continuing shift of health  research to the  Drinking Water health effects research
program to support  the  consolidation   of  water-related  health effect  issues  under
the direction  of  the  Drinking  Water  Office, and  the increase  reflects increased
support for laboratory  operations.

     Develop the Data  to Support Water Quality Standards   and  Permits.  The  Agency
has identified  specific  sites   where   waterborne  toxic  pollutants,  particularly
complex effluents, are of particular concern.  ORD  will  develop  techniques for use
in evaluating  site-specific human  health  problems  caused  by  complex  effluents.
Several new tests will  be  evaluated  and field tested,  and  the  most  useful  tests
will be described in a manual.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating  a total of  $620,700 and 6.1 total workyears
to this program, of which  $420,700 is  under  the Salaries  and  Expenses, appropriation
and $200,000 is for extramural  purposes under the Research  and  Development  appro-
priation.

     Develop the Data  to Support Water Quality Standards  and   Permits. Development
of short-term toxicological tests for  human  health effects  is continuing.  Research
to determine the effects  of particle  size on the  incidence  of  swimming-associated
gastroenteritis is being completed.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the  Agency  obligated a  total of  $1,064,600   and  17.7 total   work-
years for  this program,  of which  $864,600 was  under  the  Salaries   and Expenses
appropriation and  $200,000  was  for  extramural  purposes  under   the   Research  and
Development appropriation.

     Develop  the  Data  to Support  Water  Quality   Standards  and   Permits.  Re-
search studies on the  general toxicity  and  immunotoxicity  of napthalene  in surface
waters has been completed.   Studies on the  subchronic toxicity  of halomethane have
been published.
                                        WQ-18

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $237,500 supported  by  4.1 total  workyears for
this program, all  of which  is  for  Salaries  and Expenses.  This  is  an increase of
$12,500 in  the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  reflecting the  increased cost
of  laboratory expenses.

     Develop the Scientific Data to Support an Environmentally Sound  Ocean  Dispo-
sal Program.ORD  will  develop  methods  to determine  physical  properties  of sludge
relevant to engineering aspects of  ocean disposal and will  provide  assessments on
alternate sludge treatment technologies  in  order to  determine the least  risk.  ORD
will also   evaluate  the  reliability  of  existing  treatment  technology  to  meet
effluent limitations.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of $225,000 and 4.1 total  workyears
to this program,  all  of  which  is under  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

     Develop  Scientific  Data  to Support an Environmentally Sound Ocean  Disposal
Program.  Information on the effect  of various sludge treatment options on particle
size and density characteristics  is  being developed  for  use  in transport  and fate
models to help predict  sludge movement in the ocean.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There  is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated  a total  of  $97,400 and 2.3  total  workyears to
this program,  all  of  which was  under  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.

     Develop  Scientific  Data  to Support an Environmentally Sound Ocean  Disposal
Program.  Pilot  scale  treatment  units  were  fabricated   and  installed to  conduct
studies on  less-than-secondary   treatment processes  to  determine the  effect  of
treatment levels on pollutant uptake by marine organisms.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $9,356,400 supported by  179.5 total  workyears
for this program,  of which  $7,796,400 is for Salaries and  Expenses  and $1,560,000
is for Research and Development.  This is an increase of $1,359,900 in the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation and  a  decrease of $947,500 in the Research and Develop-
ment appropriation.  The increase reflects an additional  $525,000 for environmental
research in cooperation with  the People's  Republic of China and a shift of resources
to support  the  increased  cost  of laboratory operations.  The  decrease in  Research
and Development  reflects  this  shift and  a  decreased effort in  the  ocean  disposal
program as  a  result of completion   of  the bulk  of   research  in support  of  waste
evaluation protocols.

     Develop the Data to  Support Water Quality  Standards  and  Permits.   ORD will
provide field tested methods that States can use to  derive water quality  criteria
which take  into account  local  environmental  conditions  in   both  freshwater  and
                                       WQ-19

-------
marine environments.  Use-attainability research will  continue  to  develop  and test
assessment procedures for  determining  the  biological  integrity of  freshwater eco-
given site.   Wasteload  allocation  research  will  continue to develop,  upgrade,  and
test an  array of  models  that States  can  use  for setting  permit conditions  for
toxic as well as  conventional pollutants.  EPA will continue to operate the Center
for Water  Quality Modeling which will provide manuals,  computer tapes, and  other
assistance on various models  to  States and  EPA client offices.   Increasing effort
will be  given to development  of wasteload  allocation  procedures  based on  the  net
toxicity of a complex effluent.   An expanded research  effort  will  focus on  integra-
ting pollutant-specific toxicity testing procedures  for  complex effluents  for  use
in water quality permitting.

     The Agency  will  participate  in  a joint  research  program with  the  People's
Republic of China  (PRC) in three areas of mutual  interest.   They  are;   (1)  effects
of pollution  on  freshwater organisms,  (2)  pollution  of  soil and  groundwater,  and
(3) modeling of water pollution  fate and  transport.

     Develop the Scientific Data to Support  an Environmentally  Sound Ocean  Disposal
Program.  Ocean dumping research, coordinated with  the National  Oceanic Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) and  the Corps of Engineers,  will  develop and revise short-
term physical,  chemical,  and biological  screening procedures  for  characterizing
the toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation potential of  wastes to  be dumped in
the ocean.  Also,  hazard  assessment protocols will  be developed to permit better
evaluation of ocean  dumping  impacts.  Procedures  will  be  developed and  validated
for biomonitoring  dumpsites   for chronic  long-term  effects.   EPA  will  develop,
revise, and field validate procedures  to evaluate acute and chronic  toxicity  and
bioaccumulation potential  of contaminants in  sediments for use  in  the  CWA,  Section
404 dredged material  disposal  and  ocean dumping  permit  programs.  To  improve  the
technical basis for  regulation of  outfall discharges,  research  will  develop infor-
mation used  in  the  protection  of  biological  resources and  develop  predictive  a
methodology for  relating  waste  discharage  practices  to   temporal   and   spatial
exposure conditions.  Technical   assistance  will  be given to the  Office of Water,
Regions, and others concerned  with 301(h) waivers  to the  mandatory  secondary treat-
ment requirement  for the  discharge of  municipal  wastes through  ocean  outfalls.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is allocating a  total of  $8,944,00 and  182..9 total  work-
years to  this program,  of which  $6,436,500 is  under the  Salaries   and  Expenses
appropriation and  $2,507,500  is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the   Research  and
Development appropriation.

     Develop  the  Data  to  Support Water  Quality Standards  and  Permits.   EPA  is
completing the development  of protocols  for  determining the  nature and impact  of
pollutants on aquatic ecosystems under different  environmental  conditions.   Methods
for analyzing biologial  conditions of water  bodies  are being  developed  for applica-
tion in  use-attainability  assessments.  The  risk   to  organisms from  intermittent
exposure to pollutants  is being studied.   Newly  developed  site-specific  criteria
guidelines are  being  field evaluated  and  refined  in  conjunction with  developing
more precise  wasteload  allocation  models.    Models used  in  determining  National
Pollution Discharge Elimination  System (NPDES) permit  discharge limits for  contam-
inants of concern are being developed and field evaluated.

     Develop Scientific Data to Support an   Environmentally  Sound  Ocean  Disposal
Program.  Research will develop  techniques  and data for evaluating the  impacts  of
alternative ocean disposal strategies.  For  ocean-dumped material, research empha-
sis is  on  refining  measurements   of  ecological   impacts,  validating  predictive
methods, development of a  hazard assessment  protocol,  and  improving techniques  for
monitoring long-term  biological   impacts   at  dumpsites.   This  effort  is  being
coordinated with the NOAA and the Corps of  Engineers.
                                        WQ-20

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 1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$146,900 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$146,900) A  reprogramming  was made to this  activity  which
 was not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.  This change
 resulted in a net decrease of -$146,900 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

 1983 Accomplishments

     In  1983, the  Agency  obligated  a total  of $7,718,400  and  157.8  total  work-
 years for  this  program, of which  $6,193,500 was  under the Salaries  and  Expenses
 appropriation and  $1,524,900  was  for extramural  purposes  under the  Research  and
 Development appropriation.

     Develop the Data to Support Water Quality Standards and Permits.  The develop-
 ment of  protocols  for  determining  the  nature  of chemical  pollutants and  their
 impact on  aquatic  ecosystems  under  different environmental  conditions continued.
 Bioassessment methods for  determining biological  conditions  of  water  bodies  were
 developed and tested  to facilitate  establishment  of  use-attainability assessment
 procedures.  Revised  aquatic   criteria  for   ammonia  and  chlorine   were  prepared.
 Several mathematical models that have been developed  for identifying water quality
 limited stream  segments  and for making wasteload  allocation of most  conventional
 pollutants were field validated.

     Develop Scientific Data to Support an  Environmentally  Sound  Ocean  Disposal
 Program.  Development of techniques  for  measuring the  impacts  of  ocean  disposed
 materials on marine organisms  was  continued.  Techniques for estimating the impact
 of dredged material dumped in the ocean were  refined and field validated.  Biologi-
 cal techniques  for  monitoring long-term  impacts  on  dumpsites  were  developed  and
 validated.  This effort  was coordinated with the  NOAA  and the Corps of Engineers.


 GREAT LAKES RESEARCH

 1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total  of $2,510,700 supported  by 8.0  total  workyears
 for this program, of which  $1,010,700 is  for Salaries  and  Expenses and $1,500,000
 is for Research and  Development.  This is an increase of $10,700  in  the  Salaries
 and Expenses appropriation.  The Research and Development  appropriation request is
 the same amount as  1984.  The increase in the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
 reflects the increased cost of laboratory  operations.

     Implement  Great   Lakes  Study.  The  Great Lakes Research Program will  provide
 the U.S./Canada Water Quality Board and EPA Office of Water with technical  support
 under the  U.S./Canada  Water Quality  Agreement.    Intensive  field  studies  will  be
 conducted to evaluate  current methodologies for  development  of site-specific  water
 quality criteria and assessments  of use-attainability using existing  fish  popula-
 tion dynamics models and  bioassay,  biomonitoring,  and  bioavailability procedures.
 The extent of  fish  and  sediment  contamination  by polychlon'nated  and  other  syn-
 thetic organic compounds will  be emphasized.

 1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating a  total  of $2,500,000 and  8.0  total  work-
years to this  program,   of  which  $1,000,000  is under the  Salaries and  Expenses
 appropriation and   $1,500,000  is  for extramural purposes  under the Research  and
 Development appropriation.
                                        WQ-21

-------
     Implement Great Lakes Study.  Research is continuing to identify and  evaluate
sources of pollutants  found  in  the Great  Lakes.   Mathematical  models  and  other
predictive techniques will  be developed and field  validated  for use in understand-
ing the transport,  accumulation, loss,  recycling,  and  impact   of toxic  pollutants
in large lake  ecosystems.   In addition, technical  assistance  will  be provided  to
the International Joint Commission, Program Offices and  Regional Offices.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated a total of  $2,499,000  and   7.3 total  workyears
for this program, of which  $999,200 was under the  Salaries and Expenses  appropria-
tion and $1,499,800 was for  extramural purposes  under the  Research  and Development
appropriation.

     Implement  Great  Lakes   Study.  Research  in  site-specific water quality cri-
teria,  eutrophication,   and  ecological  assessment was  conducted   and  technical
support provided  to the   International  Joint  Commission   and  U.S./Canada  Water
Quality Board for the Great Lakes.  An  intensive field study of a watershed of the
Great Lakes was  conducted to determine exposure, dose and  effects on environmental
populations by evaluating  exposure potential, exposure  experience,  critical  dose,
and observed effects based on biological epidemiology.
                                        WQ-22

-------
































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-------
                                   WATER QUALITY

                                Municipal Wastewater
Major Outputs/Milestones

Evaluate Innovative and Alternative
Technologies

-  Assessment reports of emerging treatment
   technology processes (Env. Tech.)

-  Conduct post-construction evaluation
   of I/A projects and publish reports
   for feedback to States, municipalities
   and consultants (Env. Tech.)

-  Process design manual on wastewater
   disinfection (Env. Tech.)

-  Process design manual for wastewater
   stabilization ponds  (Env. Tech.)

-  Handbook for cost effective treatment
   and disposal  of sewage (Env. Tech.)

-  Evaluation of sewer rehabilitation
   techniques (Env. Tech.)

-  Report on health assessment of
   airborne exposure to wastewater
   pathogens (Health Effects)

Evaluate Sludge Management Methods

-  Design manual for the land
   application of sludge (Env. Tech.)

   Design guidelines for sludge
   treatment processes (Env. Tech.)

   Provide health appraisal  report
   on sludge application (Health Effects)

-  Assess human  health hazard/risk
   assessment methodology and
   guidelines (Sci. Assess.)

Provide  for Compliance Achievement and
Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Plants

-  Reports on design methods to correct
   poor  design practices,  and improve
   cost  and energy savings (Env. Tech.)
         Amendment/
         Current
Actual    Estimate   Estimate
 1983     1984        1985
 9/84      9/84
 9/83


 9/84


 6/83


 9/83
9/84


9/84
           9/85
9/85
           9/84
 6/86      6/86




 9/83


 6/84      6/84


 7/85      7/85



 6/85      6/85
           6/86
           7/85
           6/85
 6/84      6/84
           9/85
                                     WQ-25

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                                Municipal Wastewater
Budget  Request
     The  Agency  requests a total  of  $8,846,500 supported by  58.3  total  workyears
for  1985,  an  increase of $997,400  with  no increase in total  workyears from 1984.
Included  in this  total  is $2,854,100 for  Salaries  and  Expenses and $5,992,400 for
Research  and  Development, with increases of $82,100 and $915,300 respectively.  The
increase  provides  for new engineering research  efforts in toxic pollutants, compli-
ance, and  support  to water quality  standards.

Program Description

     The  purpose  of the  Municipal  Wastewater  Research Program is to  provide  the
technical  information and  engineering assistance needed  by  EPA and municipalities
for  the development  of  regulations and guidance  in  the disposal  of sludge, in the
control of  pollution  from municipal treatment plants and  to bring treatment plants
into compliance  with  National  Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination  System  (NPDES)
permits.

     The  following objectives support these goals:

     Objective 1.  Evaluate  and Assess Innovative  and Alternative (I/A| Technolo-
gies to"   Improve the Efficiency, Reliability  and  Effectiveness  of Municipal Waste^
water Treatment Systems.This  activityprovidestechnicalsupport,information
dissemination, post-construction evaluations  of completed projects, and engineering
assessments of  emerging  technologies required  to  accelerate and encourage  use of
Innovative and  Alternative technology in  the  Construction  Grants program  by  the
States and municipalities.

     Objective 2.  Evaluate and Assess Improved Treatment, Utilization and Disposal
Methods for the Management of Municipal Sludge.This research provides the scienti-
fic  assessment, engineering, health effects,  and monitoring  information needed  for
the  effective treatment,  conversion, use  and disposal  of  sludges.   This research
is needed  for the development  of regulations and guidance  in  order to comply with
the  mandates  of both the Clean Water  Act and  the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act.
     Objective  3.   Provide  for  Compliance  Achievement and Upgrading of Municipal
Wastewater Treatment Facilities.Tnis activity provides the municipal sector with
both the  information  to correct treatment plant  deficiencies  and upgrade existing
plant capacities  to  achieve   compliance  with  NPDES  permits  at  minimal  costs.

     Objective  4.   Evaluate  Wastewater  Toxics  Treatability of  Various  Municipal
Treatment  Processes.This research provides  the information needed for developing
regulations andguidance to  control  toxic  pollutants  and minimize  water quality
-impacts through  effective use  of  municipal   treatment  processes,  and  management
options which seek  to minimize pretreatment where possible.

     Objective  5.   Provide Water Quality Planning and  Regulation  Support for  the
Water Quality Standards  and Permit ProcessT  This  research  provides  protocols  to"
States to  perform  a systems analysis approach for  evaluating  various  options for
achieving  rational  water quality goals at minimal cost.
                                       WQ-26

-------
SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total of  $96,400 supported by 2.0  total  workyears for
this program,  all  of  which  is  for  Salaries and Expenses, an  increase  of $12,700
over 1984.   This  reflects the need for  additional  resources  to complete a method-
ology for conducting  health  hazard  and  risk assessment evaluations  of sludge dis-
posal options.

     Evaluate and Assess  Improved Treatment, Utilization and Disposal  Methods  for
Management of Municipal Sludge.Efforts  will  finalize risk  assessment  guidelines
for determiningcriteriafor  contaminant levels  in  sludge,  begun  in  1984.   The
potential health risks associated with the sludge disposal option of land spreading
will be assessed for five  contaminants.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $83,700 and  2.0 total workyears
to this program,  all  of  which is under the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

     Evaluate and Assess  Improved Treatment, Utilization[and  Disposal Methods  for
Management of Municipal Sludge.EPA sludge management policy needs to be supported
by multi-media exposure and  health  risk assessments  capable  of showing  that risks
will be minimized  under that  policy  for 1984.   Research is initiating the develop-
ment of risk assessment guidelines  for determining  criteria for contaminant levels
in sludge.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

    There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency did not obligate resources for this program.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total of  $1,711,100  supported by 21.7 total  workyears
for this program  of  which $964,800  is  for  Salaries  and   Expenses and $746,300 is
for Research and  Development.   This  reflects  a decrease  of $42,100  and  $316,600
respectively.  The decrease results  from completion  of research  in  health aspects
of land treatment in municipal wastewater.  The epidemiological  studies in Lubbock,
Texas, and  Israel  will  be nearing  completion.  Available  data  is  adequate  for
present Agency regulatory  priority needs.

     Evaluate and  Assess  Innovative and Alternative  (I/A) Technologies to  Improve
the  ETficiency, Reliability   and  Effectiveness  of Municipal Wastewater Treatment"
Systems.  This research, which provides data and appraisal documents  on the  health
aspects of land treatment of wastewater, will be drawing to a close.   Emphasis will
be on pathogens,  organic  chemicals,  nitrates  and  sodium.   Scientific information
is needed to  assess  the  effects on  human  health  resulting  from the exposure  to
biological  and  chemical  pollutants  contained  in wastewater.   This  research  will
assist State and  local  officials to  develop practices  which  are relatively  free
from risks to human health.
                                      WQ-27

-------
     Evaluate  and Assess Improved Treatment, Utilization and Disposal  Methods  for
the  Management of  Municipal Sludge.  Research will  focus primarily on identifying
the presence  of  adverse human  health-related  organic   chemicals  in  sludge  and
assessing their potential mutagenic  and  carcinogenic toxic effects.  Research will
provide definitive data on the fate of human pathogens  present in domestic sludges,
specifically viruses and parasites which possess resistence to inacti vation.   Field
studies will be  conducted under  various climatic conditions to  determine  the die-
off of parasites and  viruses.  Animals  will  be evaluated as  potential  human  surro-
gates to  study pathogen  infectivity.   Microbial data  are  necessary  to  form  the
basis for regulations and guidelines for land application of sludge.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating a total of $2,069,800 and  21.7 total  work-
years to this program, of which $1,006,900  is  for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $1,062,900 is for extramural purposes under the Research  and Develop-
ment appropriation.

     Evaluate  and Assess Innovative and Alternative  (I/A) Technologies to  Improve
the  Efficiency, Reliability and  Effectiveness  of Municipal   Wastewater  Treatment
Systems.Currentresearch  activitiesnearingcompletionin the land treatment
health program  include:   epidemiological studies in  Lubbock,  Texas,   and  Israel,
studies on movement  of pollutants through the  air and  soil,  and  studies on the up-
take of pollutants by  plants.  Research will provide data which will  determine if
pathogens have been  reduced  to a  safe infectivity level  for wastewater applied to
land.

     Evaluate  and Assess Improved Treatment, Utilization and Disposal  Methods  for
the  Management  of Municipal Sludge.  Research is focused on determining the trans-
port and fate  of  toxic pollutants resulting from land application  of  sludge.  The
focus is on pathogens, heavy metals, and organic  chemicals  that  may be transmitted
from sludge.  Methods  will  be adapted and  validated to  develop  data which  can be
used in quantifying  the degree  of human risk associated with  land treatment  of
sludge.  An appraisal document to support anticipated regulations is being prepared
as well as the  completion  of cooperative epidemiological studies  of farm families
utilizing sewage sludge for agricultural purposes.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the  amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  a total   of  $1,973,300  and  21.1 total  workyears
for this program  of  which  $742,100 was under the Salaries  and  Expenses appropria-
tion and $1,231,200 was  for  extramural  purposes under  the Research and Development
appropriation.

     Evaluate  and Assess Innovative and Alternative  (I/A) Technologies to  Improve
the  Efficiency, Reliability and   Effectiveness of Municipal Wastewater  Treatment"
Systems.  Research  reports   were   completed  on  disinfection,   infective  doses  of
waterborne pathogens, particular  virus  species in water  pollution  testing,  waste-
water aerosols emitted in sewage treatment,  and organic contaminants in wastewater.

    Evaluate and  Assess Improved Treatment, Utilization and Disposal  Methods  for
the  Management  of  Municipal  Sludge.  Research  reports  were  completed  on the
evaluation of mutagenicity of sewage sludge, human biological risks associated with
the composting of wastewater sludge, hazardous trace  amounts of selenium in sludge,
the effects of  cadmium on the kidneys, cadmium concentrations in the urine and its
relationship to  blood antibodies, the  inactivation  of viruses  in  sludge,  and the
identification and significance of viruses in sewage.
                                       WQ-28

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total of  $7,039,000  supported by  34.6  total  workyears
for  this program,  of which  $1,792,900  is  for Salaries and Expenses and $5,246,100
is for Research  and Development, representing increases of $111,500 and $1,231,900
respectively.  The  increases  reflect  new  efforts   in  the  areas  of  compliance
achievement,  toxics  treatability,  and  water  quality  planning  and  regulation
support.

     Evaluate  and Assess Innovative and  Alternative (I/A) Technologies to Improve
the  Efficiency, Reliability  and  Effectiveness  of Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Systems.ActivitiesTnthisareasupport the Construction Grant I/A program by
providing technical .assistance  in  reviewing  project  plans,  recommending innovative
technologies, and providing  planning, engineering  and analytical  assistance to the
Regions and States.   Information about  promising new treatment processes developed
by the  industrial   and  university  sectors will  be  evaluated.   Post-construction
evaluations of operational I/A  projects will  be  conducted in 1985 producing needed
information on  design,   energy  use,  and  the   operation  and  maintenance  costs.

     Evaluate and Assess Improved Treatment,  Utilization  and Disposal  Methods for
the Management  of  Municipal  Sludge.  Evaluations will be conducted on pilot  and
large scale combinations  of  multi-stage anaerobic digestion  and  wet  air oxidation
to determine the mass and volume reducing  capabilities  of the system.  Evaluations
of promising  conversion methods  such  as  mechanical  composting and  conversion  of
sludge to liquid or  gaseous  fuel will  be  completed.  Sampling  of digested  and un-
digested sludges from  several   plants will  be carried  out to  supplement  existing
data on  concentrations  of pathogens  bacteria,  viruses,  and  indicator  organisms.
This information will be used to judge  the effectiveness  of  new low-cost treatment
methods which meet  RCRA regulation  requirements.   Also, the effects of  selected
sludge treatment processes on the concentration  and  availability  of toxic  organics
and metals will  be evaluated.   The Teachability  of toxics and nutrients  from in-
cinerator sludge ash will be evaluated  to determine  whether  the  residue will have
a significant negative impact on a landfill.

     Provide  for  Compliance  Achievement  and Upgrading  of Municipal   Wastewater
Treatment  Facilities.  Expanded  resources will fund a series  of short  reports  on
solving operational  and design problems, reducing costs, and increasing compliance.
Research will  also  focus on two methods  for upgrading existing  overloaded plants
through the integration of a high  biomass  reactor and improved aeration technology
Design and cost information  will be provided  to the municipal sector to potentially
decrease capital  investments  by 20 to  40  percent  and lower  energy consumption  by
50 percent.

     Evaluate  Uastewater  Toxics  Treatability  of  Various   Municipal    Treatment
Processes.  Increases in  this  area will  support  a  new  program  for  determining
toxics removal  efficiencies   and reliability  of  various  treatment  processes  to
enhance toxicity removal  in  municipal  plants.  This  work  is in direct  support  of
the Office  of Water in  developing  regulations  and  guidance   to  control  toxic
pollutants  by  establishing    "rational permits"  and  minimizing pretreatment.

     Provide  Water Quality  Planning and Regulation Support for  the Water   Quality
Standards and Permit Process.  The engineering  data  base  necessary  for States  to
assess control options  and water quality  impacts in  order to issue realistic dis-
charge permits is incomplete.  This  may  result in the selection of costly treatment
alternatives.   Additional resources  will   provide  for analytical   methods  research
and support on engineering data base to  be used by States in  their planning  process
to achieve rational,  less  costly water  quality  goals.   Implementing this  systems
analysis approach should  result  in  more  equitable  wasteload  allocations,  ensure
reasonable margins  of safety  in stream loadings,  eliminate over-design of treatment
plants and produce  lower life-cycle  costs.
                                        WQ-29

-------
1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating a total of $5,695,600 and  34.6  total  work-
years to  this  program,  of  which  $1,681,400  is  under  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $4,014,200 is  for  extramural  purposes  under the  Research  and
Development appropriation.

     Evaluate  and Assess Innovative  and Alternative (I/A) Technologies to Improve
the  Efficiency. Reliability  and  Effectiveness of  Municipal  Wastewater Treatment
Systems.  Pre-construction  reviews  are   continually  being  carried  out  for  the
Regions and States to  determine  projects that qualify for  I/A  funding.   Post-con-
struction evaluations of  operational  I/A projects are being initiated  and will  be
used to accelerate  the transfer  of operational  and  cost  data  on successful  I/A
technologies to  the  municipal   sector.    Information  dissemination   is  achieved
through a centralized clearinghouse  operated  in direct  support  to  the  Construction
Grants program and through a series of regional  seminars.

     Evaluate and  Assess Improved Treatment,  Utilization   and  Disposal  Methods for
the  Management  of  Municipal  Sludge"!  Research   in  this  program is  being  con-
ducted in two  major areas:   the treatment  and the  disposal  of  sludge.  In  the
treatment area,  emphasis will   focus  on  innovative stabilization  and  digestion
processes such  as high  solids retention  reactors,  and  multi-stage digestion pro-
cesses that have the potential for destruction of  greater  quantities of sludge and
reducing costs.  Research  in the  disposal  area will include  those projects  that
show promise for minimizing  environmental  impacts from  land application  of  sludge
and focus on characterizing  the  mechanisms  which  control  the uptake and the  trans-
formation of toxic   organics  and  pathogenic  organisms  in  sludge amended  soils.

     Provide  for Compliance  Achievement  and  Upgrading   of Municipal   Wastewater
Treatment  Facilities.For 1984, efforts will be  continued in  assisting local com-
munities in improving the operational reliability, compliance rate, and  cost  effec-
tiveness of treatment  plants by  identifying  and  eliminating chronic  design  prob-
lems.  A new effort  will  begin  in evaluating new technologies  for upgrading  over-
loaded treatment plants, at minimal capital  costs.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net increase of +$152,200 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming. (+$152,200)  A  reprogramming  was made to  this activity  which
was not reportable under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This  change
resulted in a net increase of +$152,200 to the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated a total  of  $8,942,800  and  90.3 total  workyears
for this program,  of which  $4,183,500 was  under  the Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $4,759,300 was for extramural purposes under the Research  and Develop-
ment appropriation.

     Evaluate and Assess  Innovative and Alternative (I/A) Technologies  to  Improve
the  Efficiency, Reliability  and  Effectiveness  of Municipal  Wastewater Treatment"
Systems!  To  date,   approximately  200  detailed  engineering revi ews  of  faci lity
plans and designs of innovative technologies have  been  carried  out for the Regions
and the  States  in  support  of  the  Construction  Grants  program.   Ten  assessment
reports of  emerging innovative   technologies  were  completed.   Post-construction
evaluations of  operational  I/A  projects  were initiated and  included  technologies
such as ultra-violet disinfection, biological  phosphorus removal and land treatment
of municipal wastewater  (overland flow).
                                       WQ-30

-------

































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-------
                                   WATER QUALITY
                               Industrial Wastewater
Major Outputs/Milestones

Provide Quality Assurance and Monitoring

- Prepare annual OA Discharge Monitoring
  Report in support of NPDES (Monitoring)

- Develop quality control samples for
  6C/MS and other analytical series
  (Monitoring)

Develop/Validate Measurement Systems

- Correct deficiencies in the approved
  600 Series Methods for analysis of
  the organic priority pollutants
  (Monitoring)

- Review applications/recommend approval
  for 1-3 general and 90-100 specific
  equivalent test procedures
  (Monitoring)

Develop and Evaluate Scientific/
Technical Tools

-  Methods manual for asbestos in
   wastewater (Env. Processes)

-  Final report on independent
   testing and application of
   Master Analytical Scheme (MAS)
   (Env. Processes)

   Project report on organic compounds
   identified in Effluent Guidelines
   Division (EGD) samples by Liquid
   Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
   (LC/MS) (Env. Processes)

-  Toxicity reduction manual for organic
   chemicals industry (Env. Engineering)

-  Field evaluation of a prototype
   membrane process for electroplating
   wastewater treatment (Env. Engineering)
        Amendment/
         Current
Actual   Estimate   Estimate
 1983      1984       1985
 9/83      9/84
 9/83      9/84
           9/85
           9/85
           9/84
           9/85
 9/83
 9/84      9/85
6/84
 6/85      6/85


12/84     12/84




 2/86      2/86





 9/83      4/81


 9/84      9/85
                                     WQ-33

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                                   WATER QUALITY


                               Industrial  Wastewater


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $2,787,800  supported  by 28.5 total  workyears
for 1985,  an  increase  of $894,200  and 1.0  total  workyear  from 1984.   Included
in this  total is $1,593,900  for Salaries and Expenses and $1,193,900  for Research
and Development,  with  increases  of  $117,200 and  $777,000  respectively.  The  in-
crease reflects  engineering  research for developing  a  protocol  manual to be  used
by permitting officials  to  evaluate  the industry's toxicity  reduction procedures.

Program Description

     The Clean Water Act  requires that  industrial  wastewater  discharges  be  regula-
ted by technology based,  water quality  based  and toxicity based  regulations.   This
program provides  the research  support  areas of control technology,  quality  assur-
ance, monitoring systems, and industrial wastewater characterization.  This  support
assures that  regulation  of  industrial   wastewater  discharges  is based  upon  sound
science, and is cost-effectively implemented within the state-of-the-art.  The  pro-
gram will place  special  emphasis  on the reduction  of toxicity  of industrial  dis-
charges for  National  Pollutant Discharge  Elimination  System (NPDES)  permittees.

     Objective 1.  Provide  Quality Assurance and Monitoring  Support  for Industrial
Wastewater and  National  Pollutant Discharge Elimination  System (NPDES) ActivitTesT
This activity develops the quality assurance tools  and support programs to document
the quality of  all  measurements  related to Industrial  wastewater discharges,  for
compliance with  technology based  regulations, and  for toxicity reductions required
by water quality based regulations.

     Objective 2.  Develop  and  Validate  Measurement Systems for Industrial  Waste-
water Dischargers and NPDES SuppoTt^Cost-effectiveanalyticalmethodswhich  are
required by section 304(h) of the  Clean Water Act (CWA)  are developed and verified.
Approved methods  are  corrected for  deficiencies to  assure their  applicability to
industrial wastewater monitoring  for compliance with the technology based  regula-
tions or  for  toxicity  reductions  required  by the water quality  based  regulations.

     Objective 3.  Develop and Evaluate Scientific  and Technical  Tools  to  Support
Permitting and Enforcement Activities.  This  research  addresses   th~eneed  for  a"
method to  conduct site specific  toxicity  reduction  evaluations  (TREs) to be  used
by permitting authorities to issue  discharge permits  to industry.  This research
addresses the need  for  a  more complete data  base  to  enable  permitting authorities
to issue  Best Professional  Judgment  (BPJ)   discharge  permits  based  on  toxicity
reduction concepts  so  that  Industry  can meet water quality based  standards  in the
most cost-effective manner possible.  Separation,  characterization and measurement
of organic and  inorganic  chemical species from selected industrial  effluents  will
be made.

MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $1,515,900  supported  by 18.8 total  workyears
for this  program, an increase  of $47,000.   Included  in  this total  is $1,079,000
for Salaries  and Expenses,  and $436,900 for  Research and Development, an increase
of $27,000 and  $20,000  respectively.   This  reflects  a  level of  effort which is
                                       WQ-34

-------
essentially unchanged  from  1984.   This  increase  supports the  NPDES  program by
providing quick-term  research  support for analytical methods  for priority organic
pollutants for use  in the  field.

     Provide Quality Assurance and Monitoring Support for  Industrial Wastewater and
National Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination  System'  (NPDES)  Activities.  During the
year a voluntary  performance evaluation study will  be conducted on a representative
subset of  the  NPDES  enforcement  laboratories to  evaluate their  analytical profi-
ciency and  to  identify  analytical   problems.   The  Discharge Monitoring  Report-
Quality Assurance  (DMRQA)  Support  Program  will   be  continued.    It  is  a  special
analytical evaluation  study on  26  regulated parameters  aimed   at  evaluating the
quality of  self-monitoring DMRQA data  submitted  to the  States  and to  EPA by the
8000 major  dischargers  within  the   NPDES.   The  expected  accomplishments are  a
statistical evaluation  report  on the analytical   proficiency  of  the  NPDES labora-
tories and individual  debriefing  reports  to each  of the participating laboratories
indicating their  performance relative to their peer laboratories.

     Develop  and   Validate  Measurement Systems  for Industrial Wastewater  Discharges
and NPDES Support"!Chemicalinterferents  will  be  identified  in  the  discharges of
those industrial  categories where the  gas  chromotograph/mass  spectrograph (GC/MS)
methods prove to  be deficient.  The  correct test procedures  will  undergo regula-
tory review and  be  amended to  the analytical guidelines.   The equivalency  program,
which is  intended  to  encourage  analytical  methods  development  by  the  private
sector, will  be  continued.   Methods approved  for nationwide use will  be incor-
porated by reference into  the appropriate regulations.

1984 Program

     In 1984 the  Agency is allocating  a total  of  $1,468,900  and  18.8  total  work-
years to  this  program,  of which  $1,052,000 is   under the Salaries and   Expenses
appropriation and  $416,900  is  for   extramural   purposes   under  the  Research  and
Development appropriation.

     Provide Quality Assurance and Monitoring Support for  Industrial Wastewater and
National  Pollutant Discharge  Elimination System  (NPDES)  Activiti'eTI  The  National
NPDES StandardsRepository willbe  maintained,  andwhere appropriate,  standards
will be made traceable  to National  Bureau of Standards  (NBS)  reference materials.
Continued quality assurance audit support  will  be given to  the  NPDES Discharge
Monitoring Report monitoring  network to maintain the  reliability  of  the data and
document its precision and accuracy.

     Develop  and   Validate Measurement Systems for Industrial  Wastewater Discharge
and NPDES Support!ComponentelementsoftHeNPDESpriorityorganicpollutant
test procedures  approved  in 1983  under the  provisions  of  section  304(h) of the
Clean Water Act  will  be  re-evaluated for deficiencies  and modified to  make  them
more generally applicable  to all  wastewaters.    Test  procedures  will  be assessed
for applicability to  the  analysis  of  priority  pollutants in  sludges,  hazardous
wastes, brackish and marine waters, and sediments  and dredge spoils.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$20,000 results  from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$20,000) A  reprogramming  was made to this  activity  which
was notreportable  under  the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This change
resulted in a net decrease of  -$20,000 to the  Research  and Development  appropria-
tion.
                                      WQ-35

-------
1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated  a total  of $3,320,600 and  39.2 total  workyears
for this program, of which $2,045,400 was under Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and 1,275,200  was  for extramural  purposes  under  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

     Provide Quality Assurance and Monitoring Support for Industrial  Wastewater and
National  Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination  System (NPOES) Activities.   Performance
evaluation standardswerepreparedan"3verified  for  EPAregional   and  State
enforcement laboratories  and  for some  of EPA's  contract laboratories  for  profi-
ciency in  industrial  wastewater analysis.   The  annual  audit  report of  the  NPDES
Discharge Monitoring Report monitoring  network  for 1983 was completed  and  samples
were prepared and validated in preparation for the  1984 audit.

     Develop  and Validate Measurement Systems for Industrial  Wastewater Discharges
and NPDES Support"!  TfTIgas  chromatographic  (GC),  high pressure  liquid  chromato-
graphic (HPLC),  and GC/MS test  procedures   for  the analysis  of  organic priority
pollutants were  validated  by  multilaboratory tests.   Final  reports  of  these  tests
will be available  early in 1984.  Application of these test procedures to matrixes
other than treated  wastewaters  has  been demonstrated,  with  some modification  to
analysis of the priority pollutants in sludges.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of $952,600 supported by  4.0 total  workyears for
the program,  an increase  of  $839,600  and  1 total  workyear.   The  total  includes
$195,600 for Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $757,000 for Research  and  Development, re-
flecting an  increase  of  $82,600  and   $757,000   respectively.    The  increase  in
resources will  be  used  to improve the  Agency's ability to  conduct toxicity reduc-
tion evaluations   (TREs)  and  to  evaluate   cost-effective  control   alternatives.

     Develop and Evaluate Scientific and Technical Tools to Support Permitting  and
Enforcement  Activities.   Increases  provide for a data base to  enable  permitting
authorities to  issue  Best  Professional  Judgment  (BPJ)  discharge  permits  for indus-
try to  meet  water quality  based  standards  in   the  most  cost-effective  manner
possible.  These efforts  will  focus on  complex,  highly toxic wastewaters  such  as
dye and pigment manufacturing, aluminum smelters, and organic chemicals production.
Manuals, for permitting authorities, will be  produced for  conducting site specific
toxicity reduction  evaluations  and  to  issue discharge permits to  industry,  based
on toxicity as  a major parameter, particularly in the  case of multiple industrial
contributions.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is allocating  a  total  of $113,000  and 3.0 total  workyears
to this program,  all  of  which  is under  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.

     Develop and Evaluate Scientific and Technical Tools to Support Permitting  and
Enforcement  Activities.Evaluations of pollution control technologies for primary
aluminum processingaHd  foundry  wastewaters  are  being  conducted.  Cost-effective
treatment alternatives  will  be  determined and made  available  for  regional  offices
and State permitting officials to issue BPJ discharge permits.

     Toxicity reduction evaluations  for  organic  chemical  industry  are  being con-
ducted.  The  results  from these  evaluations  will be made  available to permitting
authorities for  issuing  toxicity based  discharge  permits,  especially  in the area
of multiple industrial contributions.
                                      WQ-36

-------
1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net increase of +$113,000 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$113,000)  Several  reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which were  not  reportable  under Congressional  reprogramming limitations.  These
changes resulted in a net increase of +$113,000 to the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the  Agency  obligated a total  of  $2,224,900 and  17.6 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $868,700 was under the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropri-
ation, and  $1,356,200 was  for extramural  purposes under the Research and Develop-
ment Appropriation.

     Develop and Evaluate Scientific and Technical Tools to  Support Permitting  and
Enforcement  Activities.Eighttreatmenttechnologiesfor  themetal  finishing
industry have  been identified which may justify the changes  in NPDES permit limita-
tions.  Two of these  technologies,  Bouyant Media Filtration and  Zerpol  Zero Dis-
charge, will  be further studied  to  determine their effects on  the permit limita-
tions.  The Treatability  Manual  which  provides  available  cost-versus-performance
data for frequently used  industrial  waste treatment technologies  has been updated
and made available  for  utilization by regional offices and  State  permitting offi-
cials.  Efficient,  low-cost  treatment technologies  for toxic  metals and  organic
pollutants have been evaluated for the organic chemical industry.


ENVIRONMENTAL  PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $319,300  supported by  5.7  total  workyears  for
this program,  all  of  which is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.  This
reflects an increase of $7,600.

     Develop   and  Evaluate  Scientific  and  Technical Tools to Support Permitting
and Enforcement Activities.In 1985 this program willsupport  the Effluent Guide-
lines Division  (EGO) in maintaining  the  GC/MS tape  library  and  to  further identify
those chemicals still unidentified that recur  frequently in industrial  effluents.
Separation and measurement of  organic and inorganic  chemical  species from selected
industrial  effluents will  be  made.   Nonvolatile  organics in suspended matter  and
sediments will be emphasized.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating  a  total  of $311,700  and  5.7 total  workyears
to this program,  all  of which  is under the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation.

     Develop and Evaluate Scientific and Technical Tools to Support Permitting  and
Enforcement  Activities.ReliableinformationontHecompositiono?complex
industrial  effluents  is  being  developed  to  identify  potential  problem  areas  and
to set priorities in taking environmental protection measures.   The information  is
also useful in  preventing new  problems  before they emerge  into  crisis  situations.
In 1984 this  information  on chemical composition of effluents  is  being  developed
by scanning the information generated  by  GC/MS under  the effluent guidelines pro-
gram.  Verification   is  accomplished   through   specialized  analytical  efforts.
Characterizations are being  conducted of selected industrial  effluents with respect
to pollutants  not  presently  identifiable or  measurable  but  which  are  found  to
recur frequently.
                                      WQ-37

-------
1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

      There 1s no change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated a total of $289,800 and 5.1 total workyears  for
this program,  all  of  which  was  under the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

     Develop and Evaluate Scientific and Technical  Tools  to  Support Permitting   and
Enforcement  Activities.In  1983,  accomplishmentsincludedtfiepreparation  of
a manual for comprehensive analysis of volatiles in  soils,  sediments, and  sludges;
and a  report based  on Effluent  Guideline computer  tapes   which  list  frequently
recurring compounds  in industrial  effluents  that  have  been  identified to date,
using special  techniques   that  are  not  identifiable  through  spectral  matching.
                                       WQ-38

-------

-------
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

WATER QUALITY

    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Water Quality and Grants Program Management	    WQ-40
          Water Quality Management	    WQ-42
          Great Lakes Program	    WQ-45
          Chesapeake Bay Program	    WQ-46
       Effluent Standards & Guidelines	    WQ-49
       Grants Assistance Programs	    WQ-54
          Clean Lakes Program	    WQ-55
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106)	    WQ-56
          Training Grants (Section 104)	    WQ-57
       Water Quality Strategies Implementation	    WQ-59
          Dredge & Fill	    WQ-62
          Ocean Disposal Permits	    WQ-63
          Environmental Emergency Response & Prevention	    WQ-65
          Standards & Regulations	    WQ-66
       Water Quality Monitoring & Analysis	    WQ-69
       Munici pal Source Control	    WQ-73
          Municipal Waste Treatment Facility Construction	    WQ-75
          Corps of Engineers	    WQ-79
          Waste Treatment Operations & Maintenance	    WQ-80
                                       WQ-39

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                                                           WQ-41

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                    Water Quality and Grants Program Management
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $16,155,600 supported by 96.6  total  workyears
for this  subactivity,  of which $5,038,400  will  be  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $11,117,200  will be  for the Abatement,  Control   and  Compliance
appropriation.  This represents  an increase  of  $776,700 in  the  Salaries and  Ex-
penses appropriation and  an increase of  $1,039,900 in the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

Program Description

     This area provides for the  management of State financial  assistance  programs
and other  local   programs  for  water  pollution  control.   For  Agency   budgetary
purposes, these activities are divided  into three  program elements:

     Water Quality Management --  This  program, which  supports both Headquarters
and Regionalstaff,includes  grants  management;  oversight  and  technical  assis-
tance activities involved in the implementation of  Federal, State,  and local  water
quality management; and State financial  assistance under  Sections  106, 205(g)  (non-
construction grants  management),  205(j),  208,  and  303  of  the Clean  Water  Act.

     Great Lakes Program — This program provides  assistance  in implementing  U.S.
programs in  support  of the U.S. -  Canada  Great  Lakes  Water Quality Agreement.   A
major focus  of  the program is the measurement of  ambient conditions in the  Great
Lakes in order to  determine compliance  with the objectives of  the  Agreement.   The
monitoring portions of the program measure  water  quality  trends and the  effective-
ness of remedial  responses to emerging  pollution  problems.

     Chesapeake Bay Program— As  a  result  of  the  Cheasapeake Bay Water Quality
Study, the Agency is committing significant resources to  restore Bay water  quality.
The Agency is assisting the Bay States  and the District of Columbia  in implementing
control activities to  control  nutrient  and toxic  effects in the Bay.  In  addition
to maintaining the  Bay Liaison  Office  in  Annapolis, the Agency will provide  cost-
sharing grant assistance  to the States for  implementing nutrient  and  toxic controls.
The Agency conducts detailed monitoring and  modeling studies to assist in  the  clean-
up effort.


WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

1985 Program Request

    The Agency requests  a total of  $3,627,300 supported  by  76.6 total  workyears
for this activity,  including $3,447,300 under the Salaries and  Expenses  appropria-
tion and $180,000 under the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance appropriation.   This
represents an increase of one workyear and $235,600 in  Salaries  and Expenses  and
a decrease  of  $2,000,000  in the Abatement, Control and  Compliance  appropriation.
The workyear increase  is  for completing  and implementing the recommendations  of  a
study on coordinated use  of water quality grant  funds by the States; the  increase
in Salaries and  Expenses  represents Agency adjustments to align personnel funding
with anticipated needs.  The $2,000,000 decrease  in  Abatement,  Control and Compli-
ance reflects the  completion of  the  Congressionally  requested study  on  nonpoint
sources.  The Agency believes that  funds  available  under Sections  106 and 205(j),
together with existing  State management programs,  adequately address the  Agency's
priority concerns.
                                      WQ-42

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     State Program Coordination— EPA  will  continue  working  with  the States  to
coordinate water quality program objectives, outputs, and Federal  and State funding
mechanisms.  EPA and State program managers will negotiate annual program priorities
and accomplishment  commitments;  Agency  personnel  will provide  feedback  and  assis-
tance based  on  the results  of  annual  evaluations.  These efforts are  intended  to
ensure that Federal and State objectives, priorities, and funds are meeting  priority
point and  nonpoint  source control management  needs through  the most  cost-effective
approaches,  the Federal  program  will  emphasize results-oriented oversight  of  ac-
tivities and funds in support of  priority water quality or public health objectives.

     Revised Program Regulations — During 1985, EPA will implement simplified water
quality management  regulations and guidance covering  Section  205(j)  eligibilities,
program management  under  the Continuing Planning  Process,  and water  quality plan
updates.  EPA will  continue to  focus  water  planning  activities  on ensuring  that
the States update  Water Quality  Management  plans  and  effectively  carry  out  plan
consistency reviews.

     Grants Management—  Grants  totaling $54,200,000  are  being  requested  for
award under  Section 106  of  the  Clean  Water  Act  to  support  State  and  Interstate
water pollution  control  programs.  EPA  will  work  with the  States  to  target  the
majority of  available  funds,  including funds  available under  205(g),  to  reduce
permit backlogs, issue Best Available Technology permits, and  support municipal  and
industrial compliance activities, including high priority water quality monitoring.
Recommendations from the 1984 study concerning improved  coordination  of  the  use  of
Sections 106 and 205(j) funds will be implemented  if appropriate.

     The Agency expects to  award  $24,447,320  to the States in  1985  for  activities
under Section 205(j).  Highest funding  priorities  are the development of  priority
nonpoint source  control   and groundwater  management  programs  and  needed  updates
of State water  quality  management  plans.   EPA will continue  its  efforts to  ensure
that State processes  for developing  Section  205(j)  workplans  focus on effective
approaches to  solving  water  quality  problems  and  involve  appropriate  local,
regional, and interstate agencies closest to priority problems.


1984 Program            "          ~           ""  '"   ""   "   '

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating  a total of $5,391,700 supported by  75.6 total
workyears to this  program,  of which  $3,211,700  is for  Salaries  and Expenses  and
$2,180,000 is for extramural  purposes  under the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

     EPA is continuing  to focus  on  coordinating  Federal and State water  quality
priorities and   programs.   Annual program  and  funding  priority  guidance  will   be
issued for Region and  State use.  EPA  will negotiate  with the States coordinated
use of Sections 106, 205(j),  and  non-construction  grant 205(g) funds  for  priority
areas.  A study of the  1982  and  1983 use of  Sections 106 and  205(j)  funds is also
being initiated.

     A simplified final Water Quality Management  (WQM)  regulation  will  be published
along with implementation  guidance.   EPA will  also continue work  with  States  in
updating their   Continuing  Planning Processes.   The primary  WQM objectives in 1984
are to improve  State decision-making  for pollution control on priority water bodies.

     In 1984 the Agency is issuing a  Report to Congress  on nonpoint  source  control
needs and costs, publishing a national  nonpoint  source control  policy and strategy,
and issuing the final  report on  the  Nationwide Urban Runoff  Program.   Using Con-
gressional  add-on   funds  and  Section  205(j)  funds, the  Agency  is  continuing   to
assist States  in  developing  implementation  strategies  for  controlling  priority
nonpoint source problems.   Technical  methodologies  for  determining instream effects
of nonpoint source  and  identifying  local  priority  nonpoint source problems,  based
on the National  Urban Runoff Program  report, will  be issued  to assist States,  local
                                       WQ-43

-------
government, and other Federal  agencies.   The Agency  is  also  continuing  coordination
efforts with  the  Departments  of  Agriculture  and  Interior to  promote  increased
information transfer  and  technical  assistance to the  Nation's farmers  concerning
water quality impacts of  farming practices  and land management efforts  for  meeting
overall water resource objectives.

     Funds totaling  $54,200,000  will  be  awarded under  Section  106 of the  Clean
Water Act  to  support  State  and  Interstate  water  pollution  control   programs.
Increased funding  for  permits   and  enforcement  activities,   including  necessary
water quality monitoring,  will  have highest  priority  under Section  106 in  1984.

     The Agency expects  to obligate $38,472,077 (including $14,024,757  obligated
from funds appropriated  in 1983)  to the  States  in 1984  for activities under  Section
205(j).  Priority activities for  Section 205(j) funding are  development  of priority
nonpoint source control and  ground-water  management programs,  and needed updating
of State  water  quality  standards  and  management  plans.   States  are  expected to
continue coordination  with  appropriate  local   agencies  in establishing  funding
priorities and allocation of funds.


1984 Explanation of Changes from  the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$164,700 results from the  following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$164,700) A reprogramming was  made to this activity  which
was not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This  change
resulted in a net decrease  of  -$3,900  to the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation.

     An additional  reprogramming  was made  moving  all non-program  specific "support"
type expense dollars into the Regional support  program  element.   This reprogramming
to Salaries  and Expenses,  totaling -$160,800,  was  included  in  a  reprogramming
letter to Congress  on September 29, 1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated $9,942,900 supported by 234.4 total  workyears
for this program activity, of which $9,572,900 was  under the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $370,000 was  for extramural  purposes  under the  Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation.

     EPA published  draft  water  quality management  regulations which  give   States
maximum latitude in  managing environmental  programs   while  retaining   appropriate
oversight responsibilities.  The  Agency also worked with the  States,   encouraging
them to  strengthen  their  State  plans  and planning  processes,  and  ensured  that
States maintained effective procedures  for ensuring  consistency of  proposed  permits
and construction grants  with approved  State plans.

     EPA worked with  the  U.S. Department  of Agricultural (USDA)  Rural   Clean  Water
Program to develop  Best  Management  Practices for  pest control and  salinity problems.
The Agency also  continued  work  with the  USDA  and  North Carolina  State  University
in monitoring selected  cost-sharing projects  to  determine  the most cost-effective
agricultural BMPs.    The  EPA-Forest Service  interagency agreement was   renewed to
continue work on silviculture nonpoint  source  control  implementation  and a  train-
ing program conducted for foresters and  forest  land  owners.

     The Agency issued  its  annual  funding guidance on  priorities  for  use of  Sec-
tions 106,  205(j),  and  non-construction  grants  management  205(g)  funds, reviewed
work programs submitted in grant applications, and negotiated use  of the funds.   A
total of  $54,144,900 in Section  106  grants  was awarded to State and  interstate
water pollution control  agencies.  A total of $34,349,839 under Section  205(j)  for
water quality management planning was obligated by  the  States.
                                       WQ-44

-------
      In  1983,  this program  also  included resources  to  monitor and  overview  con-
 struction grants  activities  delegated to  the States  and  Corps of  Engineers.   In
 1984  and  1985 these  resources are  included under  the  Municipal   Waste Treatment
 Construction program  element.   With  these resources, the  construction  grants  pro-
 gram  issued  and  implemented  streamlined  Section  205(g)  regulations establishing
 more  flexible  policies  and  procedures  for delegating and  improving oversight  of
 the program's  administration.   A baseline   study  was  completed   identifying  EPA
 functions, activities, and resources needed for managing a fully delegated program.

      Additionally  during  1983, EPA worked  with  the  Corps  of Engineers  to  assure
 sound management  of  projects  through  the construction cycle  and to provide  assur-
 ance  that  opportunities  for  waste,  fraud,  and  mismanagement were  minimized.   In
 accordance with  negotiated and  approved  workplans,  the  Corps conducted  precon-
 struction reviews,  managed  construction  activites   including  interim  and   final
 inspections, maintained  on-site  presence at  large, complex  projects, and provided
 increased support  in  completing and closing out projects.


 GREAT LAKES PROGRAM

 1985  Program Request

     The Agency  is requesting  a  total  of $2,528,300  supported  by  15.0  total  work-
years for this program in  1985, of which $841,100  is  for the Salaries and Expenses
 appropriation and  $1,687,200  for  extramural  purposes under the Abatement, Control
 and Compliance  appropriation.  This  represents  an  increase  of   $41,100  in  the
 Salaries and Expenses appropriation and  a decrease of $2,210,100 in the Abatement,
 Control and  Compliance   appropriation  from  1984.   The  increase  results from  an
 Agency adjustment  to  reflect  personnel  costs.  The decrease  is due to  the  comple-
 tion of Section  108(a) demonstration grants,  a reduction in  resources required  for
 the Atmospheric  Deposition  Network,  and  a   reduction  in  resources required  for
 special studies such  as  the connecting channels study, for which work will continue
 in 1985 using extramural  funds obligated in 1984.

     The Great Lakes  National  Program  Office will  continue to  support  the activi-
ties of the International Joint Commission.   It will respond to information requests
 and will provide  technical assistance  to Headquarters and the  State Department  on
 official Canadian  requests and notes  concerning  U.S. Great  Lakes  policies.   Staff
support to the Water  Quality Board and its  committees  will  continue to  ensure  that
 U.S. views and policies  are adequately represented.

     The program  in  1985  will  work  on the Great Lakes monitoring  plan  as required
by Annex 11 of the Great Lakes Water Quality  Agreement.   Surveys of the Lakes will
be conducted  in   cooperation  with State  and Canadian  agencies to  determine  the
annual variability of ambient  phosphorus concentrations  and  the levels  and  trends
 in metals and  conventional  pollutant parameters.  A Great Lakes surveillance program
to detect toxic substances in  Great Lakes  fish  and sediments will   be conducted  in
several tributaries and harbors.  The results will be analyzed  and reported  to  the
States for regulatory follow-up.

     The results  of the monitoring,  including water,  fish, and  sediment  data, will
provide the information  necessary to  assess  compliance  with  Agreement  objectives,
to evaluate effectiveness  of  control  programs,  and to identify emerging problems.


1984 Program

     In 1984,  the  Agency  is  allocating  $4,697,300 supported  by 15.0 workyears  to
this program,  of  which $800,000 is for the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation  and
$3,897,300 is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the  Abatement, Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.
                                       WQ-45

-------
     The major focus  of  the program  continues  to be  directed  toward meeting the
U.S. commitments  under the  Agreement including the  Supplement  to  Annex 3, Phos-
phorus, which was signed  by  the two countries  on October  16, 1983.

     Activities sponsored by the  Commission to  implement  the Agreement  are sup-
ported by the  United  States and Canada.   Annual  water  quality  surveys  are being
conducted on Lakes  Michigan,  Huron,  and  Erie.    Fish,  sediment and  air sampling
will continue to determine  levels  and trends  of  nutrients  and toxicants affecting
Great Lakes water quality and  to  identify new substances  which  may pose a  direct
threat to public  health.  Joint  State,  local,   and  other  Federal  agency  efforts
will continue  to  develop plans  for  further  phosphorus  reductions in  the Lower
Lakes.  EPA  and  the  States will  continue the  development  of  Actions  Plans   to
address remaining pollution problems  in  the 18  most  significantly degraded areas
of the Lakes.

     In 1984, a sampling network and strategy to monitor the trophic, status  of the
connecting channels  will  be  designed and  a study  initiated.  As part of this  study,
a special investigation of the  Detroit River will  be  initiated to address the major
public concerns related to contaminated  fish and  sediment.


1984 Explanation  of  Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the Agency obligated  $4,760,200  supported  by  20.1  total  workyears
for this program, of which  $1,248,900 was  for the  Salaries and Expenses  appropria-
tion and $3,511,300 was  for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1983,  the National  Program Office continued  its lead role  in coordinating
and implementing U.S.  programs  in  fulfillment  of the Agreement.  Specific  activi-
ties conducted in 1983 to  ascertain ambient conditions included fish flesh  analy-
ses from nearshore  and  open water  locations;  sediment  surveys  of  suspected toxic
hot spots in tributary mouths;  atmospheric deposition  collections  at 41 stations;
and mathematical   modeling  to  determine  transport,  fate,  and  maximum  allowable
loading of pollutants.  Other accomplishments  included  a  major ground-water  contam-
ination investigation  in the Niagara River Frontier in  cooperation with New York
and other Federal offices as part  of the Niagara  Frontier Agenda.

     The National Program Office  also continued  funding cooperative 108(a)  grant
programs with  State and  local  entities  in 31  counties  in  Indiana,  Michigan, Ohio,
and New York to  demonstrate voluntary  best management  practices to further reduce
phosphorus loadings, particularly  to Lakes Erie  and Ontario.

     Additional accomplishments included  participation  on  six standing  committees
and three  new  committees  of  the  International  Joint  Commission.  This  provided
major program  evaluations  and  new  monitoring  strategies to assess the  effective-
ness of U.S. and Canadian control  programs.


CHESAPEAKE BAY PROGRAM
 1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests $10,000,000  supported  by  5.0  total  workyears  for 19R5, an
 increase of  $5,750,000 from  1984.   Included  in  this total  is  $750,000  for  the
 Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  and  $9,250,000  for extramural  purposes  under
 the Abatement,  Control and  Compliance appropriation,   with  increases   of $500,000
                                       WQ-46

-------
and $5,250,000,  respectively.  The  increases  represent  an  Agency  initiative  to
work with  the  States to  implement  control  actions to  restore Bay water  quality.
The increase to  Salaries  and Expenses will  maintain the  program's data  base.   The
increase to Abatement,  Control  and Compliance funds cost-sharing  grants  for  State
control activities  as  well  as  an  increased emphasis on  the Agency's  own work  in
modeling and monitoring.

     The Agency  is  undertaking this  initiative  as  an  outgrowth  of an  Agreement
established December  9,  1983 by the  Administrator  and  the  Governors of  Maryland,
Pennsylvania, Virginia, the Mayor of the District of Columbia,  and the Chairman  of
the Chesapeake Bay Commission.   That  agreement  formally  supports two  Committees:
an Implementation  Committee,  consisting  of  senior staff,  and  an Executive Commit-
tee made up of the Governors, the District Mayor, and the  Administrator.

     Supporting those committees is the Chesapeake Bay  Liaison Office  in  Annapolis,
Maryland, which will be  staffed by a technical director  and  experts in  monitoring
and modeling.  Additional  technical  and program  support  will  be  provided through
Region Ill's water program office.

     The Agency  will supply  funds  for matching  grants  to  focus  State point  and
nonpoint source  control   efforts  on  critical   sub-basins.   These grants  will  be
targeted at reducing the loadings  of nutrients and toxics.  The grants will supple-
ment and  enhance  State  efforts in  establishing control  programs.   In  addition,
public participation projects will  receive  grant awards.   The  efforts of  National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the  U.S.   Geological  Survey  (USGS),
the Corps  of Engineers, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture  will be  coordinated
through the Liaison Office.

     Other activities of  the Liaison  Office will include complementing the tribu-
tary monitoring activities of the  States  by  monitoring the Bay's mainstem;  refining
the water quality  models  to  assess the impact of alternative  control options;  and
maintaining the program's computer  center, which stores the program's  extensive  data
base.


1984 Program                    ~   "~   """  ~'~        	"

     In 1984 the Agency  is allocating $4,250,000 supported  by  5.0 total workyears
to this program, of  which $250,000 is for the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation
and $4,000,000 is for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance  appropriation.

     During 1984 the Agency  completed  and published  the   final  reports  of  the
research program  and  is   continuing  to  emphasize  the  Liaison Office's  role  in
coordinating the Bay  cleanup effort.  The  program issued  two final  reports  dis-
cussing research findings: "Chesapeake Bay:  A Framework  for  Action" and  "Chesapeake
Bay: Findings  and   Recommendations".   The  Agency  also   co-sponsored,  and played
an important role  in,  the Chesapeake  Bay  Conference held  in  December 1983.   The
Agency signed the  Chesapeake Bay  Agreement with  the Bay States as  an  outcome  of
the Conference.

     The Liaison Office is providing  oversight of  the  development  of  the July  1,
1984 implementation plans  called for  in  the "Framework  for  Action" report.  These
include plans for nutrient control,  toxic control,  and monitoring.

     The program continues to maintain the  data base and retrieve information  for
use by the States and EPA.

     The Liaison Office  is also monitoring ambient  samples  at the Bay's mainstem
stations and conducting sediment and  biological  samples at  selected stations.   In
addition,  the tributary monitoring  efforts of the States, NOAA, and USGS are coor-
dinated through this  Office.  A water quality model task   force  was  convened  to
review available models, and  make  recommendations  and  initiate the development  of
a model to more accurately reflect  Bay conditions  and dynamics.
                                      WQ-47

-------
     The program continues to support the Resource Users  Management  Team,  a  monthly
newsletter, and  citizen  participation  at Management  Committee  meetings.   Public
input on Bay Program findings and  recommendations  were also  made  known  through  the
Bay Conference.

     The Agency  is  working with the  States  to  provide  financial  support  through
matching grants to address areas of concern such  as nonpoint  source  control, toxic
control, and monitoring.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     During 1983 the Agency obligated $1,112,900 supported by  3.8 total workyears,
of which $216,900 was  for the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation and $896,000  was
for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1983,  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Program  completed  the  research phase   of  the
program.  Key documents were  published  and  others were readied for  printing.   The
prime activity of the Program in 1983 was to  shift focus  from research to  implemen-
tation.  Extensive work went into producing  the second  and third  of  the  Bay  Program
Reports, "Chesapeake Bay: A  Profile  of Environmental Change"  and "Chesapeake  Bay:
A Framework  for Action."   The  program's findings  were   carefully  scrutinized  by
the Management  Committee,  EPA,  the  States,  and  citizen  groups.   As  a  result  of
these findings,  a  framework  was  developed,  presenting   a   series  of  alternative
control plans for controlling nutrient  and  toxic loadings from point and nonpoint
sources.  This framework  served  as  the focal  point for discussions at the Governors'
Conference and  will  also  serve as the  basis  of  the  July  1, 1984 plans.   These
plans,  defining  actions,  roles, and  responsibilities,  will  be  the blueprint  for
all future control actions.
                                     WQ-48

-------
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-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                         Effluent Standards and Guidelines
Budget Request
     The Agency requests  $9,484,400  supported  by  78.9 total workyears for  1985,  a
decrease of $7,070,300  and  16.0 permanent workyears  from  1984.   Included  in  this
total is $4,077,300 for Salaries and Expenses and  $5,407,100 for Abatement,  Control
and Compliance, with decreases of $540,300 and $6,530,000, respectively.

Program Description

     Effluent Standards Guidelines— This subactivity includes establishing efflu-
ent limitations  for industries  discharging  directly to  waterways and  indirectly
through publicly owned treatment works  (POTWs).  Effluent  standards and  guidelines
are promulgated under  the authority  of Sections  301,  304, 306,  307,  and  501  of
the Clean Water Act.

     The Clean Water Act  established a  comprehensive program to "restore and main-
tain the chemical, physical, and biological  integrity of the Nation's  waters."  This
program is a part of EPA's effort to implement this  legislative mandate through the
issuance of effluent limitations,  pretreatment  standards, and  new source  perform-
ance standards for  industrial  point  source  dischargers.  Through this program, the
Agency establishes a number of different kinds of  effluent standards and  guidelines
which are summarized below.

     Best Available Technology Economically  Achievable  (BAT) limitations  generally
represent the best  existing performance in the industrial category or subcategory.
The Act establishes BAT  as  the principal  national  means  of  controlling  the direct
discharge of toxics and nonconventional  pollutants  into navigable waters.

     Best Conventional  Pollutant Control Technology  (BCT) limitations   are  based  on
the "best conventional  pollutant control technology" for discharges of conventional
pollutants from  existing  sources.   Conventional  pollutants  include  biochemical
oxygen demand, total suspended solids,  fecal  coliform,  acidity (pH), and  oil  and
grease.  BCT is not an  additional limitation, but  replaces BAT  for the conventional
pol lutants.

     New Source Performance  Standards (NSPS)  are based on the best available demon-
strated technology.  New  plants  have the  opportunity to install the  best  and  most
efficient production processes  and  wastewater  treatment technologies without  the
retrofit problems experienced by existing plants.

     Pretreatment Standards  for Existing Sources (PSES) are designed to prevent the
discharge of polluants  which pass through, interfere  with,  or  are otherwise incom-
patible with  the  POTW's treatment process or  chosen sludge-disposal   method.   The
similar regulation for  new plants is Pretreatment  Standards  for New Sources (PSNS).

     In developing each  regulation,  the Agency examines  raw materials,  industrial
processes, water usage,  wastewater  characteristics,  and  treatment technologies  in
use or potentially applicable.  The  requirement for  economic achievability has led
the Agency to conduct extensive studies  of the financial and economic  achievability
of regulatory  options.   These  options  are  examined  separately  to   determine  the
potential for  plant  closures  as  well  as  such factors  as impact  on  production
levels, return on  investment,  employment, industry  size  and  concentration,  foreign
trade, regional economics, and the economics  of related industries.
                                      WQ-50

-------
     As a result of the 1976 Settlement Agreement between the NRDC and EPA and sub-
sequent revisions to the Act, the Act  now  requires  the  achievement  by July 1, 1984
of effluent  limitations  requiring application  of  BCT  for  conventional  pollutants
and classes  of  pollutants  which  Congress  declared toxic  under Section  307(a)  of
the 1972  Act.   Likewise,  NSPS  and  pretreatment standards  were  redirected  toward
toxic pollutant  controls.   In 1982, the Agency  established  a  schedule  for  guide-
line proposals and  promulgation  with  the  Court and is  meeting  the  schedule  with a
few exceptions, so that all  guidelines will be promulgated by 1985.


EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of  $9,484,400 supported  by 78.9 total workyears for
this program, of which  $4,077,300 will be for the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation
and $5,407,100  will  be for  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance  appropriation.
This is a  decrease  of  16.0  workyears and  $540,300 for Salaries and Expenses and
$6,530,000 for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation.   The decrease
reflects the  Agency's  progress  in  developing effluent  standards and  guidelines.

     The program will  provide  engineering, economic,  and  statistical  support  to
post-promulgation negotiation, litigation,  remand/repair,  and  petition  review ef-
forts.  These efforts  are intended  to  defend  the integrity  of the guidelines.  The
Agency reviews petitions filed  by  outside  groups  with  the courts  and attempts  to
resolve issues  out  of  court.   Some  are   successfully  resolved;  others  are  liti-
gated, which may require the Agency to respond to court remands.  The program will
also provide engineering, economic, and  statistical support  to Regional  and  State
permit writers  and  to  industry  (e.g.,  small  businesses)  through  planned  permit
workshops and small business  oriented  workshops.  It  is also  expected that support
will be provided in the review of  "fundamentally different  factors"  (PDF) variance
requests.

     The program will promulgate effluent  standards and  guidelines  for the remain-
ing four industries under the  NRDC  Settlement Agreement pursuant to  revised  court
schedules.  Regulations or  guidance will  also  be  developed  in  several  "reserved
subcategories" of previously regulated industries.  These  "reserved  subcategories"
were not  initially  regulated because  difficult  engineering decisions  required  of
the Agency would have  seriously delayed meeting  the Settlement Agreement's revised
court schedules.  Nonetheless, these issues must be resolved either  through regula-
tion, guidance,   or  permitting assistance  as  several   of  these subcategories  can
have a significant  impact on final  plant  effluent discharges.

     Industries not covered  by the  Settlement  Agreement  will  be investigated  to
determine the need  for  industry-wide  guidance  or regulation.   Industries  to  be
investigated will include  stripper gas  wells,  food  industries, phosphates  manu-
facturing, ferroalloy manufacturing,  synthetic  fuels,  coal slurry  pipelines,  haz-
ardous waste treatment  facilities, solvent  reclaimers,  transportation sources,  and
hospitals.  These  industries  have  the  potential   for   unregulated  discharges  of
toxic chemicals  to  waterways  or  POTWs.  Guidance  documents will be produced for four
industries excluded from  national  regulation under  paragraph 8 of the  modified
Settlement Agreement.  In addition, effluent standards and  guidelines  for offshore
oil  and gas drilling platforms, required pursuant to  another  Court  Agreement,  will
be promulgated.

     A review program  will  be undertaken  to fulfill the  Agency's  commitments  to
review/revise effluent   guidelines.  Among  those factors which  bring  about  review
are changing process lines,  significantly modified  wastestreams,  issues  related  to
the applicability of wastewater  treatment  technologies,  and  the current  economic
status of  the industries.  In some cases,  extensive data acquisition  may  be  neces-
sary to update "old" data bases from the mid-1970s which are no longer representative
of the industry.  In other  cases,  less extensive data acquisition efforts will  be
undertaken.
                                       WQ-51

-------
     Environmental assessments will be  prepared  for Settlement Agreement and  Non-
Settlement Agreement  industrial  facilities  to  support  regulatory  and   guidance
development activities.  Computer files will  be  expanded  and  refined  to  assist the
Agency in projecting  where  use impairments  may  occur post-BAT.  Risk assessments
will be conducted for several  pollutants.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency is  allocating  a total  of  $16,554,700  supported by  94.9
total workyears for this  program, including $4,617,600 for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $11,937,100 for the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance  appropria-
tion.  The 1984 allocation includes $6,926,900,  supported by  12.0 total workyears,
appropriated as a result of the President's amended  budget  request, which provided
for acceleration of the  program during  1984.   Extramural  funds are being used  for
engineering investigation,  sampling support, and support  for  litigation and  remand
work.

     In 1984, the program has promulgated  regulations for two  categories;  will  pro-
pose three Settlement  Agreement and  other standards and  guidelines (including  oil
and gas covered  under a separate Settlement Agreement);  and anticipates promulgating
five more  guidelines.    Intensive  standards  and  guidelines  development  work  is
underway in  the  offshore oil  and  gas  production,  nonferrous  metals (phase  II),
nonferrous metals forming,  plastics  molding and  forming, pesticides, and organic
chemicals and plastics and synthetic fibers industrial  categories.

     The program expects to  review 21  petitions  concerning regulations  that  were
promulgated in  1983 and  1984.  Post-promulgation activities are underway in three
industries and negotiated agreements  are  being  attempted.   Remand/repair work  is
expected in  other  industrial  categories.   Permit workshops  are being conducted  in
the Regions  on  rules  promulgated  in mid-  to  late-calendar  year 1983 and in 1984.
Detailed PDF  variances and  PDF-type  analyses are expected  for  several   facility
groupings, notably steam electric  generating  facilities  and pulp and paper  mills.
The program  is  assisting  Regional  permit  authorities  in  reviewing applications
submitted pursuant to  Section  301(m)   of  the  Act,  which  provides  two  pulp   and
paper mills in California with  the  opportunity to  obtain waivers from BPT/BCT  and
Section 403 effluent limitations.

     Environmental  assessments are completed for Phase  I  and some Phase  II  indus-
tries, and, in particular,  for paragraph 8 decisions, which  exclude  some  industrial
categories and  subcategories  from  national  regulation.   Information will be added
to the Reach File for use in  national and  Regional  assessments,  such as determining
areas which may need  post-BAT  controls.  Detailed risk assessments will be  conducted
for paragraph 4(c) toxic pollutants.


1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated  a total  of $15,796,400  supported  by  95.8 total
workyears for this program,  of  which $5,189,000  was for the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $10,607,400 was for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appro-
priation.

     The program  published   proposed  regulations  establishing  national   effluent
limitations and standards for  the 13 following  industries: Aluminum Forming; Battery
Manufacturing; Coil Coating (Phase II)   (Canmaking);  Copper  Forming;  Electrical  and
Electronic Components  (Phase  II);  Foundries  (Metal Molding  and  Casting);  Inorganic
                                       WQ-52

-------
Chemicals (Phase II); Nonferrous  Metals  (Phase I);  Organic Chemicals  and  Plastics
and Synthetic Fibers;  Pesticides Manufacturing; Pesticides Manufacturing (Analytical
Methods); Pharmaceuticals  Manufacturing;  and  Pulp,  Paper,  and  Paperboard  (PCB
limitations).  The Agency also proposed  revisions  to the BCT costing  methodology.

     The program also promulgated regulations  establishing  national  effluent limi-
tations and  standards for  the following eleven industries: Aluminum Forming;  Coil
Coating (Phase I); Copper Forming;  Electrical  and Electronic  Components  (Phase I);
Leather Tanning and  Finishing;  Metal  Finishing;  Ore Mining; Pharmaceutical  Manu-
facturing; Porcelain  Enameling;  Pulp,  Paper,  and  Paperboard;  and  Steam-Electric
Generating Plants.

     In a series  of  14  workshops  for EPA Regional  and  State permit  writers,  the
Agency provided assistance in analyzing  and  interpreting  information on  the treat-
ability of toxic  compounds,   conventional  pollutant cost  tests,  control of  toxic
pollutants not covered by national regulation,  controls  for facilities  that  include
manufacturing processes  not covered  by national effluent  limitations  and  standards,
and the bases and uses of the categorical standards.

     Eleven of the BAT/PSES/NSPS/PSNS  regulations  issued  under the Consent  Decree
have been involved in  litigation.  Petitions  against two categories were voluntarily
withdrawn and negotiated settlements  have  been reached  for three  categories.   The
Steam Electric case was  voluntarily  dismissed  based upon the Agency's agreeing  to
provide guidance to  all  EPA  Regions  and the  Timber  petition was dismissed  after
EPA amended the NSPS  applicability.   Negotiations  involving industry  and NRDC  are
currently underway for  Petroleum Refining  and negotiations  between  industry  and
the Agency are continuing for Leather  Tanning.  More  recently, petitions have  been
filed to review  regulations for two categories  (Copper Forming  and  Metal Finishing).
By and  large  the  petitions  for  review have raised technical  issues posed  by  the
regulations.

     The BPT  Electroplating  pretreatment standards originally  issued  under  Para-
graph 13  of  the  Consent Decree   were  also   challenged  in the Third  Circuit.   On
September 20, 1983, the  Court upheld  these  standards in  their entirety.  The  Ford
Motor Company and General Motors are still pursuing a challenge to EPA's denial  of
a petition to amend the  compliance deadline  for integrated facilities.
                                      WQ-53

-------

































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WQ-54

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY

                             Grants Assistance Programs
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $56,700,000 for  grants under the  Abatement,
Control and Compliance  appropriation, a decrease of $2,700,000 from 1984.

Program Description

     Clean Lakes Program — Section  314  of the  Clean Water  Act  sets  forth  the
principal administrative  and   technical   requirements   for   developing  a  national
program to enhance the quality  of  freshwater lakes.  The  Clean Lakes  regulation in
February 1980 established  an  operational  program of financial  and technical  assis-
tance to  the States  to  assist them  in  implementing methods  and procedures  to
protect and  restore  the  quality   of  their publicly  owned  fresh  water  lakes.

     Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106) —  Section  106  grants
supplement State  resources  for water pollution  control  programs.  They are  nego-
tiated annually with  50  States, 7  Territories, and  6  Interstate  compact  agencies.
Funds are directed  to cover  a  wide  range  of water  quality  programs,  including
permit issuance,  enforcement,   monitoring,  construction  grants  management,  water
quality planning  and  standards,  wasteload  allocations,  nonpoint  source  control
program management, pretreatment,  oil  and hazardous materials  spill  response,  and
other priority programs.

     States also  receive financial  assistance  for water quality  program activities
under Sections  205(g)  and  205(j)  of  the  Clean  Water Act  as  reserves from  their
annual Construction Grants  allotment  under the Construction Grants appropriation.
Primary funding is provided under Section 205(g)  for construction grants  management
in delegated States and  under  Section  205(j) for water quality  planning and  stan-
dards activities.

     Training Grants (Section  104)  —  Training assistance is provided to  institu-
tions of higher  education  and  other  public or  private  agencies and  institutions
to meet professional  manpower needs.


CLEAN LAKES  PROGRAM

1985 Program Request

     In 1985, the Agency requests  $2,500,000 for grants under the  Abatement, Con-
trol  and  Compliance   appropriation  for  the  Clean  Lakes  Program,  a  decrease   of
$2,500,000 from 1984.  The  decrease reflects the completion of Federal funding  of
several  lake restoration projects.   In  1985, the Agency  will  continue to  provide
technical  and financial  assistance to  the  States  for lake restoration projects.
Consistent with Congressional  intent, the  funds  provided  will  be used to  complete
existing projects which  need  additional  Federal  assistance to  restore  the  water
quality of freshwater lakes.


1984 Program

     The Agency  is allocating  $5,000,000  in the  Abatement,   Control and Compliance
appropriation for grants to  complete  existing implementation projects.  The  funds
provided will be used according to the intent of Congress so as  to  complete exist-
ing lake  restoration  projects.   The  Agency  expects  to  award  approximately   25
grants for improving conditions in  publicly owned freshwater lakes.
                                      WQ-55

-------
1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, $3,000,000 was  obligated  from the Abatement, Control and  Compliance
appropriation under the Clean Lakes Program to help complete 16 existing  implemen-
tation projects.  The  funds provided were  awarded  according to the  Congressional
criteria that only  existing Clean  Lakes  projects  would be  eligible  for  funding.


CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION  (SECTION 106)

1985 Program Request

     In 1985, the  Agency  requests  a  total  of $54,200,000 for  Section  106  grants
under the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance appropriation.  This  represents  the
same level as in 1984.

     State program priority  activities  funded  under Section  106  will continue  to
emphasize primarily National Pollutant Discharge Elimination  System  (NPOES)  permit-
ting, enforcement, and  associated  source and  ambient  monitoring.  Delegated  con-
struction grants management related activities  will  be  funded under  Section  205(g).
Water quality management planning including  water quality  standards  reviews,  waste-
load analyses, and program management for nonpoint  source control  and ground  water
will be funded primarily under Section 205(j).

     Assistance to the  States in 1985 will  emphasize issuance  of industrial  permits
for Best  Available Technology  (BAT)  and municipal  permits.   Grants will  continue
to stress  issuing  or reissuing major NPDES permits,  reducing backlogs,  improving
municipal compliance, and  monitoring and standard setting to  support permit  activi-
ties.  Over  900 major  discharger permits will  be issued or reissued  by the  States
and 4,200 compliance_inspections wilj be  conducted.   States  will  prepare over  200
intensive surveys  to~support permits'and standards  decisions.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is  allocating  $54,200,000 for Section  106  grants  under
the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     State activities  primarily  funded  under  Section  106 will  include  National
Pollutant Discharge  Elimination  System  permitting, ambient  and source  monitoring
of toxics and conventional  pollutants, enforcement,  and State programs administrat-
ion. Delegated  construction grants  management  related activities  will  be  funded
under Section  205(g).   Water quality  standards reviews,  planning and  associated
monitoring, and development programs  for nonpoint  source control  and ground-water
management will be funded  primarily under  Section 205(j).

     States will  focus  on   reducing their  NPDES permit backlogs,  especially  issu-
ance and  reissuance  of BAT permits,  by targeting  106  grant  dollars  to  this  area.
Enforcement efforts also will be strengthened,  with continued emphasis on municipal
facilities compliance.   States will  continue to  use Section  106 funds for monitor-
ing essential to  permits  issuance  and enforcement.   States with critical  nonpoint
source problems will use Section 106 funds  to initiate  control programs.

     During  1984,  three more  State NPDES programs  will  be approved, bringing  the
total to 38;  the other  States will continue to assist EPA in many aspects  of permits
issuance.  In addition, several  States  will be developing NPDES  program modifica-
tions to  assume  pretreatment, Federal  facility, and  general permitting  responsi-
bilities.  Approximately 600 major  discharger BAT permits, including toxics controls
                                      WQ-56

-------
will  be  issued or  reissued  by  the States.   Nearly 4,300  compliance  inspections
will  be conducted, and the States will  take increasing responsibility in compliance
activities.  States  will  develop  analytical   capabilities  to  support  increased
emphasis on  water  quality  based   permitting,  toxics  control,  and  requests  for
variances, as  well  as  strengthen their abilities to perform  conventional  pollutant
wasteload analyses for  major permits.   An  estimated  19  States  will  use  Section 106
grant funds to manage nonpoint source control activities.


1984  Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     There is  no change from the amendment.


1983  Accomplishments

      In 1983, $54,144,900 was obligated for Section 106 grants under the Abatement,
Control and Compliance  appropriation.   State  activities  funded under  Section 106
included National Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination  System (NPDES) permitting,  ambi-
ent and  source monitoring  of toxics and conventional  pollutants, enforcement, oil
and hazardous  materials  spill response,  nondelegated construction  grants  program
activities, water  quality   standards  reviews,   nonpoint  source  control   programs
management, water quality  planning, training,  and  State programs  administration.

     The States  increased  emphasis  on NPDES  permitting,  especially major  permit
reissuance and  BAT   permits.  Thirty five  States  had approved NPDES programs,  an
increase of three  in 1983.   States issued and  reissued more than  6,500  permits,
including 300  major  permits.  Enforcement  efforts  were also  increased.   National
reorientation of EPA water  programs which  emphasized a water  quality based  approach
was reflected  in  1983  State  workplans  for water  quality  standards reviews  which
incorporated use attainability and  site specific criteria considerations.   Overall
monitoring costs were reduced  by more  effective focusing of  resources  on  priority
program needs.    Section  106  support  to nondelegated  construction   grants  program
activities was  decreased   significantly  because  of  increased  construction  grant
delegation. __	     	       	

     Approximately 300 major discharger permits were  issued  or  reissued  by  the
States, including permits  for BAT  and  toxics;  over  4,000  compliance  inspections
were conducted.  State  NPDES programs were modified to include pretreatment  pro-
grams, and Federal  facilities permitting,  bringing to 15 the  total  number of States
with full  assumption.  Thirty  three States were  operating  biological  monitoring
programs during 1983; essentially  all  States  had developed capabilities to  perform
conventional  pollutant  wasteload  analyses  for major  permits.  Fifteen   States  used
Section 106 grants to manage nonpoint source control  activities.


TRAINING GRANTS (SECTION 104)

1985 Program Request

     No funds   are  requested  for these  grants in  1985.  The  Agency believes  that
sufficient interest   and  opportunities  exist  for  people  to  enter environmental
professions without  Federal support.

1984 Program

     A Congressional  add-on  of $200,000 in Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  is
being used to  support environmental  fellowships at  27 universities.
                                      WQ-57

-------
1984 Explanation of Changes  from the  Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments                                                                               ™

     In 1983, the Agency obligated $195,000  under  the  Abatement,  Control and Com-
pliance appropriation for training  grants.   These  funds  were used  to  support 63
environmental fellowships at 27 universities.
                                                                                                   4
                                       WQ-58

-------




































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WQ-59

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-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                      Water Quality Strategies Implementation
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  $18,959,900  supported by 270.6 total workyears  for 1985,
an increase  of $3,406,900 and  14.1  total  workyears  from  1984.   This  request  in-
cludes $11,575,500 for  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation  and  $7,384,400  for
extramural purposes  under the  Abatement,  Control   and  Compliance  appropriation.

Program Description

     Dredge and Fill —   In  1985,  the  focus of the  Section  404  Program will  be on
identifying the most significant problems in wetlands and other aquatic systems  and
on improving the scientific and administrative methods for dealing with those prob-
lems.  Headquarters  will  develop  guidance  and  revise  regulations  and  procedures
to ensure sound, effective, and consistent methods to identify and address the most
significant environmental problems.  The Regions will review and comment  on permit
applications; elevate permits, when necessary, to higher levels  of management;  and
establish jurisdictional  boundaries to  ensure  a  strong, efficient,  and  consistent
program.  Regions will  also  strengthen  efforts to transfer the Section 404 Program
to interested and qualified States.

     Ocean Disposal Permits— The ocean  disposal  program includes  the  regulation
of ocean disposal  by  outfalls and dumping and incineration  at sea,  designation of
disposal sites, development of ocean  disposal policies,  and participation  in inter-
agency programs that deal  with  the development and  protection of  ocean  resources.
The Agency's ocean disposal  programs  are  authorized by the  Marine Protection,  Re-
search and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972 and the Clean Water Act,  as amended,  and
are consistent with the mandatory provisions of the current Convention on Prevention
of Marine  Pollution  by Dumping  of Wastes  and Other Matter,  known  as the  London
Dumping Convention.

     To carry out  ocean  disposal  permitting  functions, the  Administrator  of EPA is
authorized to  regulate  the  disposition  of  all  materials except dredged  material,
which is regulated by  the Corps of Engineers.  MPRSA prohibits  the  transportation
and dumping in ocean water of chemical,  biological,  and  radiological  warfare agents
and high level  radioactive materials.   EPA has statutory  responsibility  for desig-
nating all ocean dumping sites, including those for dredged material.

     Environmental  Emergency Response and  Prevention —  The  objective  of  this  pro-
gram is to protect public welfare, property owners,  and the environment  from  the
hazards associated with accidental releases  of oil  and  other petroleum products to
navigable waters of the United States, as mandated by Section 311  of the Clean Water
Act.  The  Agency  shares  responsibility for this  program with  the  United  States
Coast Guard,  which addresses  those incidents in  coastal  areas and  the Great Lakes.

     Standards and Regulations — This  program includes  development  and publication
of water quality criteria and standards regulations, and  related guidance pursuant
to Sections  303,  304(a), 307(a)  and  405 of  the Clean  Water Act.   EPA  publishes
guidance on criteria  for water quality,  based on  the latest scientific knowledge on
the kind and  extent of all identifiable  effects of conventional and  toxic pollutants
on human health and aquatic life.  Criteria documents are also provided for sediment
and sludge.  Protocols  are developed to provide  scientific  and  technical  guidance
to States on  methods  for developing criteria which reflect site-specific conditions.
EPA provides assistance to the  States  in  applying these protocols.   Assistance in
the development and review of State  water  quality standards  is  provided  to  ensure
that attainable uses and  appropriate  criteria  are established.  This  program  also
includes Clean Lakes  grants management.
                                       WQ-61

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DREDGE AND FILL

1985 Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $2,780,200 supported by 63.8 total  workyears  for
this program,  of  which $2,539,300 is  for  the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation
and $240,900 is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.  This  re-
presents an  increase  of $347,200 supported  by  5.0 workyears  in  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  a decrease of  $104,000 in the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.  The increase in  Salaries and  Expenses funds five  addi-
tional workyears  and  an Agency  adjustment  for personnel  costs.   The decrease  in
Abatement, Control  and  Compliance   reflects  reduced  support  for  State  program
development grants.

     The major focus  of the Headquarters  program will be  to develop  a system  for
identifying the most   significant  problems  involving  wetlands and  other  aquatic
areas, and to  improve  scientific and  administrative methods  of addressing  them.
The Regions  will  resolve  over  500  problem  permits  and  will  initiate  action  to
address the  most   significant  environmental   problems  (for  example,  the  loss   of
bottomland hardwood wetlands).  Through increased guidance and  assistance,  as well
as continued  management  of  program  development  grants,  the  Regions will  also
strengthen efforts to  transfer the  Section  404  Program to  the States and ensure
general permits are environmentally  sound.


1984 Program

     In 1984,  the  Agency  is allocating  a  total   of $2,537,000  supported   by 58.8
total  workyears to  this  program,  of  which  $2,192,100  is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  $344,900  is for  the  Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  In 1984,  Headquarters  will  develop  a national  Section 404  Program
Strategy, revise  the  Section 404 State Program  regulations, and develop stronger
and more effective  Memoranda of  Agreement  with  other  Federal  agencies.    Regions
will resolve approximately 450 problems on  over 9,000 Section 404  permits  reviewed,
ensure general  permits are  soundly  developed,  continue   to  work  with  States   on
Section 404  program  assumption,  and exercise  authorities  to prevent  unacceptable
discharges of dredged and fill  material.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$187,500 results  from the  following action:

     -Reprogramming.   (-$187,500) A  reprogramming  was made moving all non-program
specific "support1 type expense dollars into the  Regional  support  program element.
This reprogramming to  Salaries and Expenses, totaling  -$187,500,  was  included in a
reprogramming letter to Congress on  September 29, 1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the Agency  obligated  a total  of $2,651,000  supported  by 58.6  total
workyears for  this  program,  of  which $2,169,900  was for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $481,100 was for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropria-
tion.   The major  emphasis  in Headquarters  was evaluating  the environmental effec-
tiveness of  alternative methods  of  achieving regulatory  reform of the Section  404
Program.  Regional efforts  focused on  resolving  450 problems on 10,000 dredge  and
fill permits reviewed, ensuring environmentally sound general permits, and managing
grants for State program development.
                                       WQ-62

-------
OCEAN DISPOSAL PERMITS

1985 Program Request

     In 1985 the  Agency  requests $4,167,300 supported by 39.5  total  workyears for
this program, of which $1,729,100 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and
$2,438,200 is for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation.  This is an
increase of $101,600  for  Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $235,000  for Abatement,  Control
and Compliance.   The  increase is  for  conducting field surveys and developing addi-
tional environmental assessments of dredged  material disposal sites for designation.

     In 1985, the program will  promulgate the  revisions  to the  ocean  dumping regu-
lation and criteria which will  provide for balancing the environmental  effects of
ocean disposal methods while meeting   specific  environmental  criteria  contained in
the statute.  Regulations will  be  promulgated  for the  control and  monitoring of
incineration-at-sea activities.

     The Agency will review, process,  and issue special  permits for ocean disposal.
This activity will  include  evaluating  and  characterizing waste  samples  on  a case-
by-case basis.   EPA will  review  dredged  material  disposal  permits   and  evaluate
requests by the Corps of Engineers for waivers.

     In the  area of  site  designation  and  monitoring,  the  program   will  conduct
approximately nine  surveys  of interim and  existing  ocean  disposal sites for  site
designation purposes  to  determine the environmental  impacts  of dumping.   All  re-
maining environmental  impact statements covered by the National  Wildlife Federation
(NWF) Consent Decree will be completed.  Approximately 10 environmental assessments
will be  issued  for  dredged  material  disposal   sites.   Ocean  disposal  sites  for
dredged material  will  be designated.   Additional site management  will  be  provided
to review  and evaluate  the  Corps of Engineers'  monitoring  reports  on  dredged
material disposal sites.    A final decision will be made on  the continuation of the
12-mile site for  sewage sludge disposal.

     Work will continue  on  examining  scientific parameters for the site selection
and designation  process   and assessment  of  permittee   wastes.   The  Agency  will
examine and field test predictive  indices  developed cooperation with  the  National
Oceanic and  Atmospheric  Administration  which   measure  environmental  impacts  to
determine the more  relevant  and applicable indices  in regard to ocean  dumping.
These indices will be  refined for use in site designation and  monitoring activities.

     The Agency  will  continue  to  survey and  monitor existing  ocean  incineration
sites, and will   process   additional applications for incineration-at-sea  research
permits.  Regulations for incineration at sea will  be published in final form.  An
environmental  impact statement will be issued  for a Pacific  incineration  site for
site designation  purposes.

     Finally, the program will   issue  guidance  documents to  provide   a  scientific
basis for  assessing  unreasonable  degradation.   The  program  will also issue  an
Annual Report to  Congress pursuant to Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries
Act.


1984 Program

     In 1984,  the Agency  is  allocating  $3,830,700 supported by 39.5 total  workyears,
of which $1,627,500 is for  the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation and  $2,203,200
is for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.   The majority  of the
extramural  resources are  for site  surveys, development  of environmental  assess-
ments,  and site  designation.

     EPA is proposing revisions  to  the ocean dumping regulations  to  implement the
1981 Court decision  which  ruled that  the  Agency  must consider  the  comparative
risks of land- versus  ocean-based  disposal  before precluding the  use  of the ocean
as a disposal  medium.
                                       WQ-63

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     EPA is reviewing, processing, and issuing special permits  for  ocean  disposal.
This includes  evaluating  and characterizing waste  samples  provided by facilities
applying for permits.  The waste characteristics  are being examined  for  suitability
for ocean  disposal  at  existing  sites  on  a case-by-case  basis.  The  Agency  is
reviewing dredged material  disposal  permits  and  evaluating  requests  by the  Corps
of Engineers for waivers.

     In the first quarter  of 1984,  the Agency has conducted eight  monitoring  sur-
veys of existing and  interim designated ocean disposal sites.   EPA  expects to  con-
duct up to 17 monitoring surveys throughout the  remainder of 1984.  Samples will  be
collected and analyzed to determine and monitor the environmental impacts of  waste
disposal at the designated ocean  sites.  Environmental Impact Statements  are  being
issued on ocean disposal  sites as  required under the NWF Consent  Decree.  Additional
site designation work  will  begin on  interim designated  dredged  material disposal
sites not covered under the Consent  Decree.

     The Agency is preparing a  technical  evaluation on the application and  inter-
pretation of bioaccumulation predictive assessment  techniques  and update the  bio-
assay procedures reflecting new  scientific  and site-specific information.

     The Agency expects  to propose  regulations  for incineration at  sea  and  will
review and respond to public comments on the proposal.   A final  determination  will
be made on research permit applications for incineration  of liquid  chemical  wastes
at sea.  EPA will begin  the  preparation of an  environmental impact statement  of  a
Pacific incineration   site  for   site  designation.   Field   surveys  will  continue  to
be conducted on existing and potential incineration sites  to  monitor areas  to  verify
predictive models and  assess the potential  of  long-term impacts  of incineration
at sea.

     The Agency will  issue  program  guidance to  provide  a scientific  basis  for
assessing unreasonable degradation.   The  Agency  will also issue  guidance  to  assist
Regions in designation and management of interim ocean disposal  sites.  The  Agency
will issue the Annual  Report to  Congress  pursuant  to MPRSA.


1984 Explanation of  Changes from the  Amendment

     The net decrease of -$27,500 results  from the  following action:

     -Reprogramming.   (-$27,500)  A reprogramming  was  made  moving  all  non-program
specific "support1  type expense dollars into the Regional support program element.
This reprogramming to Salaries  and Expenses,  totaling -$27,500, was included  in  a
reprogramming letter to Congress on  September 29,  1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, this program obligated $3,717,400 supported by 34.0 total workyears.
Of this  amount, $1,374,200  was  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$2,343,200 for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance  appropriation.  This included
support for  surveys  and  ocean  disposal  sites,  the  development of  court-ordered
environmental assessments, and site  designation.

     The Agency reviewed, processed, and issued 11  special  permit applications  for
ocean disposal  and reviewed 80 Corps  of Engineers  dredged material disposal permits
for environmental considerations pursuant to MPRSA.   During  1983, the  Agency  worked
with the  National  Oceanic  and  Atmospheric Administration  (NOAA) and the Regions
to collect and  analyze data  related to ocean dumping,  for use  in designating suit-
able sites, and for  monitoring  existing sites.  EPA  initiated revisions of the ocean
dumping regulation in response to the 1981 Court  decision.
                                       WQ-64

-------
     EPA  produced 4 draft and  7  final  environmental  impact  statements for dredged
material disposal sites  as  required by the Consent Decree.   The Agency designated
two ocean  disposal  sites:  the  Tampa dredged  material  disposal site  and  the New
York Cellar Dirt Site.

     The Agency  initiated work  on developing  incineration-at-sea regulations.  The
EPA made a tentative determination  to  issue permits  for  the  incineration of liquid
chemical wastes  at  sea  and  held a public hearing.  A field  study was conducted on
the proposed incineration site in the North Atlantic and a public hearing was held.
EPA conducted monitoring  studies  and evaluated results  of a second  trial  burn of
PCBs in the Gulf of Mexico.


ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND PREVENTION

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $4,867,000 supported by 68.1  total  workyears
for this  program,   of  which  $3,027,000  will   be  for  the  Salaries   and  Expenses
appropriation and $1,840,000  will  be for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.  This reflects  an increase of  $187,500 and a decrease of $100,000
respectively.  The  increase  in the  Salaries   and  Expenses appropriation is  based
on additional support  costs during  1985.  The decrease  in the  Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation  reflects the  completion  of  training activities funded
in 1984.  This training represented  a  one  year effort and will  not be required in
1985.

     The Agency  has a  24-hour-a-day  capability   to  respond to notifications  of
accidental spills or  threat  of releases.   Federal   removal  is  directed at  major
incidents where the  responsible party is  unidentifiable,  refuses  to  clean up,  or
is incapable  of  providing timely  and adequate removal  and  where  the  States  and
local authorities lack the necessary expertise, equipment, or funding.

     Spill notifications will be  processed to  determine  what, if any, response is
required.  The Federal  government  will  direct  response  operations  at  120  major
spills and will  monitor  on-scene  at 400 removals  conducted  by  responsible  parties
or State and local  authorities to ensure adequate  response.

     Federal  regulations require the implementation of a  Spill Prevention, Control,
and Countermeasure (SPCC) plan  at  oil  storage  facilities  and transfer points  that
could reasonably be expected to spill  a significant amount of oil  into the waters
of the United States.   Regional  staff,  with assistance  from  contractor personnel,
conduct compliance inspections at selected non-transportation-related  (NTR)  facili-
ties included in the SPCC program,  in an effort to  reduce  the frequency and volume
of releases that  occur.   An estimated  2,000  SPCC  inspections will  be conducted at
NTR facilities.

     The Agency   also  maintains  an  Environmental   Response Team (ERT) to  provide
Regional  and  State  personnel  with  response   training  and  on-site  technical  and
operational  assistance  at complex  emergency   incidents.   The ERT  is  staffed  by
personnel with a  high  degree of  expertise  in the areas of spill control and removal,
spill  sampling and analysis  techniques,  and damage assessments.

     Regional  response  capability  is  augmented through  the Technical  Assistance
Team (TAT)  contract.  This contract  provides contractor workyears  to assist Regional
staff and the ERT in responding to Clean Water  Act Section  311  spills and environ-
mental  emergencies.
                                      WQ-65

-------
1984 Program

     In 1984,  the  Agency is  allocating  a total  of $4,779,500  supported by  68.1
total workyears  to this  program,   of  which  $2,839,500  is  for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and  $1,940,000  is  for extramural  purposes under  the  Abate-
ment, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     Headquarters will ensure  overall  management  of the  program and the Regions
will be  responsible  for  managing response actions.  The  oil  component  of the ERT
will provide  special  engineering and  technical  advice at  any  unusually large  or
complex spills.  Regional personnel  will  be available on a 24-hour basis  to  respond
to the estimated  7,000 notifications  received  by  the  National  Response  Center  of
accidental releases of oil  and  other petroleum products.  The Agency  will  respond
on-scene at  400 removals  undertaken  by  responsible parties  or State  and  local
authorities and  will  direct  removals  at  120 major oil  incidents.   An estimated
2,000 SPCC inspections will be conducted  at NTR facilities.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the -Amendment

     The net decrease of -$57,200 results  from the following actions:

     -Reprogramtnings.  (-$57,200) A  reprogramming  was  made to this  activity  which
was not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.  This  change
resulted in a  net  increase  of  +$80,000 to the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     An additional  reprogramming was made  moving all non-program  specific "support"
type expense dollars into the Regional  support program  element.   This reprogramming
to Salaries  and Expenses,  totaling -$137,200,  was  included in  a  reprogramming
letter to Congress on September 29,  1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the  Agency obligated  a  total  of $3,933,00 supported by  58.0  total
workyears for this program,  of  which $2,340,000 was for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and  $1,593,000 was   for  extramural  purposes   under  the  Abatement,
Control and  Compliance  appropriation.   The Agency  directed  removals at  120  major
oil spills, responded on-scene at 400 non-Federally funded incidents, and conducted
over 1,700  SPCC inspections  at  NTR  facilities.   In   addition,  Regional offices
received and screened over 7,000 notifications of  oil spill  releases.


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

1985 Program Request

     In 1985, the  Agency   requests  a total of  $7,145,400 supported by  99.2  total
workyears.  This  amount  will  include  $4,280,100   for  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $2,865,300 for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropria-
tion, an increase  of  $739,600 and $2,000,000,  respectively.   The increase reflects
the Agency's emphasis on the development  of sediment criteria, estuarine criteria,
aquatic toxicity criteria,  and sludge criteria.

     Water quality  standards  are the  basis  for  establishing pollution abatement
efforts needed  to  maintain  and  enhance  the  ambient   condition of the Nation's
waters.  In  1985,  the  Agency  will   work with  the  States  to  implement  the recently
promulgated standards regulation.  A special  emphasis will be made to work with the
States in adopting toxic  criteria  and  to upgrade  water body uses  to  fishable and
swimmable standards.  The  Agency will  implement  the final  rule on water quality
standards and  will  field-test  guidance to  reflect the development  of new  or re-
fined procedures for setting water quality standards.
                                       WQ-66

-------
     These procedures  cover the  analyses  of  environmental  factors affecting  the
designated use  of  water bodies.  The  Agency  will adapt, test, and  validate  addi-
tional protocols to  develop   site-specific  criteria  for  water  bodies,  and  will
assist the  States  in  the  use  of these protocols.   EPA will  also  review  State-
initiated revisions  to  current water  quality  standards and  assist  the States  in
resolving inconsistent  or  incompatible water  quality  standards on  interstate  and
international waters.

     The Agency will  accelerate the development  of  marine and estuarine  criteria
using, to the extent possible, data  available  from  freshwater studies.   The Agency
will also move to implement the recommendations of the  Sludge  Task Force  by devel-
oping sludge  criteria   for  several  pollutants.   EPA  will  develop  and  field  test
technical guidance to derive site-specific  criteria  and standards  for estuaries  and
marine waters.  Assistance  will  be provided  to  the  States  to  modify  and  adapt
freshwater protocols for use on marine waters.

     Based on the  options  for sediment  criteria  development   completed in  1984,  a
scientific methodology  will  be developed,  peer  reviewed,   and tested.   Criteria
documents will be  issued for  toxic  pollutants  in sediments.   The Agency will  also
continue to  examine  and  improve  the  scientific basis of the toxicity  criteria
issued under  Section 304(a) of the  Clean Water Act, and develop  specific  criteria
to be  used   as  a   basis for  modifying the  Section  307(a) toxic pollutant  list.

     Field tests will be conducted  on  different types  of wetlands using the  envi-
ronmental criteria  and  improved  toxicological  testing  procedures.   A  procedures
manual specific to  a particular ecosystem will  be  developed  to assist the  States
and permit applicants.  Guidance  will  be developed  to  assist  Regional Offices  and
States in  resolving  controversial   jurisdictional   Section   404   issues   such   as
bottomland hardwood wetlands and tundra.

     The Agency will  continue to provide  overall  management  of  the  Clean  Lakes
projects and  assist  States  and local  agencies  in overseeing  lake  restoration  pro-
ject funding.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of  $4,405,800 supported  by  90.1
total workyears for this program,  including $3,540,500 for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $865,300  for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation.
Major accomplishments planned  for 1984  include  additional  field testing  on  the  use
of guidance on setting water quality standards,  assistance to the States  in  applying
water body  surveys  and assessments,  field  validation  of  site-specific  criteria
procedures,  and development of water quality  criteria  for estuaries,  marine  waters,
and sediments.

     The Agency promulgated a  revised water quality standards  regulation  on  Novem-
ber 8, 1983,  to  reaffirm EPA's commitment to  using water  quality  standards as  a
basis of achieving the  goals   of  the  Clean Water Act.   The  revised  rule places  a
much greater  emphasis on the  inclusion of criteria  for toxic pollutants in  State
standards and maintains a   strong antidegradation  policy  for protection  of  high
quality water, existing instream uses,  and  waters  constituting outstanding  national
resources.   The final rule  also sets the "fishable and  swimmable"  goals  of  the  Act
as the basis  for  all standards decisions  and  provides a mandatory  policy  for  up-
grading all  water  bodies to that use classification where attainable.

     Program objectives  include assisting  the  Regions  in  reviewing State-adopted
standards,  with an  emphasis  on the adoption of  criteria for toxic  pollutants  and  in
resolving questions  of  inconsistent  or incompatible  water   quality  standards  on
interstate and international waters.   Workshops will  be held   to provide technical
assistance to the   States in conducting  use  attainability  analyses  and developing
                                      WQ-67

-------
site-specific criteria.  The Agency  is  continuing  to work to develop criteria  for
making recommendations on the toxicity of  various  pollutants  on  aquatic  organisms,
and continues to  improve  the  scientific basis of the criteria guidance.  EPA will
work to develop  marine criteria, particularly  for dissolved  oxygen,  ammonia,  and
other selected pollutants.  EPA  will propose appropriate revisions to the  Section
404(b)(l) dredge and  fill  guidelines to comply  with instructions from  the  Presi-
dential Task Force on Regulatory Relief.

     The Agency  continues  to   provide  management   of  the  Clean  Lakes program,
reviewing and  approving  grant  applications  for the completion  of  existing lake
restoration projects,  and  maintains  overview  of  existing Clean  Lakes  projects.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$46,000 results  from the  following  actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$46,000) A  reprogramming  was  made to this activity  which
was not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations..  This  change
resulted in a net  increase  of  +$10,000  to  the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     An additional reprogramming was made  moving all  non-program  specific "support"
type expense dollars into the Regional  support program element.   This  reprogramming
to Salaries and Expenses, totaling -$56,000,  was included  in  a reprogramming  letter
to Congress on September 29, 1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated $2,909,200  supported  by  67.3 total  workyears.
Of this  amount  $2,570,000  was  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$339,200 was for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     A proposed water quality standards  regulation  was published  and subjected to  a
series of 11  public  meetings  involving  over 1,000 people; in addition,  over  1,400
written comments were  analyzed  and  answered.  The  proposal was  re-drafted  several
times to accommodate public comments and in  response to concerns  raised  by  several
members of Congress.  The guidance necessary  to implement  the  regulation  was  issued
in draft and  also  subjected to public  review  and  comment.  The  guidance includes
material on 11 subjects.  The  procedures for conducting use  attainability analysis
were tested  in  nine  States and  summary   reports  issued.   Site-specific criteria
development protocols  were  tested at  19   sites  in 15  States  and summary  reports
prepared.  Revised criteria were prepared  for several pollutants  including ammonia,
chlorine, and seven metals.  The program assisted in the review  of 23  State-adopted
standards and participated  in  three International  Joint  Commission meetings with
respect to criteria and standards, particularly on  ammonia.

     The Agency, in  conjunction  with the  Department of the Army,  considered  revi-
sions to the Section 404(b)(l)  Guidelines  in  response to the  recommendations  of  the
Presidential Task  Force  on  Regulatory  Relief.  The Agency   coordinated  referrals
pursuant to the Section  404(q)  Memorandum  of Agreement between  Army  and EPA.   The
Agency also worked  with the Army and the Regional  Offices  towards  resolution  of
major Clean Water Act jurisdictional issues.
                                       WQ-68

-------
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                                   WATER QUALITY


                       Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis
Budget Request
     The Agency requests  $14,230,600  supported  by 198.4 total workyears for  1985,
an increase  of $317,500  from  1984.   This  request  includes $9,090,500  for  the
Salaries and Expenses  appropriation and $5,140,100  for extramural purposes  under
the Abatement,   Control  and  Compliance  appropriation,  including  an  increase  of
$348,600 and a decrease of $31,100, respectively.

Program Description

     Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis  — This  program  supports  Headquarters
and Regional development  of strategies,  systems, and  procedures  used  for  water
quality monitoring  and analysis,   including  biological,  chemical,  and  physical
evaluations of water quality.  -Water quality monitoring is necessary  for assessing
water quality  status  and trends,  identifying  water  quality problems  and  their
causes, and determining cost-effective controls required to meet local  water quality
objectives.  Water quality  sampling and  analysis  for these purposes  are primarily
State activities,  supported  by  EPA.  Throughout,  the program  emphasizes  the effec-
tive use  of local,  State and  Federal   resources  for  collecting,  analyzing,  and
interpreting monitoring data.


WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND ANALYSIS

1985 Program Request

     In 1985, the Agency  requests  a total  of $14,230,600 supported by  198.4  total
workyears for this program,  of  which  $9,090,500  is  for the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $5,140,100 is  for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appro-
priation.  This is an  increase  of  $348,600 in Salaries and Expenses and  a  decrease
of $31,100  in  Abatement,   Control  and Compliance.   The increase  in  Salaries  and
Expenses reflects  increased personnel  costs, a  need to  purchase  additional  labora-
tory equipment  for  the analysis  of  organic  chemicals,  such as  dioxin,  and  for
biomonitoring.   The  decrease  reflects a net reduction  due  to  completion of  the
majority of the field  sampling  for dioxin  under the National Dioxin  Study, offset
by an  increase  for  development  of biomonitoring  guidance   and  field  analytical
activities.

     In an  effort to control the discharge  of  toxic  pollutants,  the program  will
conduct an  intensive  effort  to  provide technical  guidance and  assistance  on  bio-
monitoring.  This  will  include  the  revision of  existing  and development  of  new
technical guidance on the application  of bioassay tests for  calculating in-stream
effects of design conditions.   It  will  also include extending these  methodologies
to estuarine/marine  waters.   Technical  guidance on  total   maximum  daily  loads
(TMDLs) and  wasteload  allocations  (WLAs)  will  be  prepared  to address  the  more
complex toxic pollutants,  bioaccumulation factors, and  selected  innovative  modeling
approaches.

     The program  will  provide   consultation  and  technical  analysis   assistance  to
States for monitoring programs,  for WLAs/TMDLs, and  for direct field sampling  and
laboratory analysis  assistance   for toxic  pollutant  samples.   The  program   will
continue to  review State  WLAs/TMDLs,  with  special emphasis  on areas  where  control
decisions are forthcoming.   In the  area  of biomonitoring, the program will  provide
guidance and assistance to  States  in  the  use of  biomonitoring techniques as  well
as directly  assessing  the   chronic  and acute  toxicity  of  discharges permitted
under the  National   Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination  System   (NPDES).   This   will
improve State  and EPA  capabilities to  control  toxic discharges  by  locating  and
measuring the effects of pollution on  aquatic life.
                                       WQ-70

-------
     The program will  complete the development  of  a monitoring program  strategy,
and begin working with  States  to  implement  it.   This effort,  which  begins in  1984,
is designed to improve  EPA's  ability  to  assess  water quality  at  the national  level
and to  improve State and  EPA ability  to  collect  the  data  needed  to  establish  water
pollution controls and evaluate program effects.

     The 1984 Section  305(b)   report,  based on  improved  environmental  indicators,
will be prepared and  sent to  Congress in  the first quarter of  1985.   The  program
will also  issue  guidance for  the 1986 State  reports.   Further assessment of  the
magnitude and impact of  important pollution sources  will  take place.  In  addition,
the program  will   continue  to assess the  environmental  benefits  of  regulatory
actions, as well  as coordinate and  evaluate EPA and  State programs,  and  operate
and enhance the water quality information systems.

     The program will  implement the second year of  the  National  Dioxin Study.   This
effort includes sampling  a  representative  number  of  hydrologic  units to assess
dioxin build-up in  bed  sediments and  native  fish.   It  also  includes  intensive
surveys at a sample of manufacturing and  pesticide  use  sites.   Work  will be  carried
out primarily through  EPA offices and contractor laboratories.  Statistical  support
will be provided throughout this effort.   The program will also  begin an evaluation
of exposure and risk from selected persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants  other
than dioxins.

     The program will  continue to implement quality assurance  (QA)  efforts.   This
includes overseeing State QA  implementation  as  outlined  in  requirements for  EPA
grants and participating in inter-laboratory tests and audits,  as well as reviews of
QA procedures.  The States  will  also  be  provided  with  technical  assistance  as
necessary to  ameliorate  QA problems  with  new  sampling  and  analyses  techniques.


1984 Program                             |

     In 1984, the Agency  is allocating a total  of  $13,913,100  supported by  198.4
total workyears for this  program,  of which $8,741,900  is  for the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $5,171,200 is  for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.  "   ""'  ""  ~                      ~"   ~  ~~"   "~

     The Agency is  initiating  a major effort to promote  the  use of  biomonitoring
and technical  guidance on TMDLs/WLAs  as  part of an  integrated  approach to  control
the discharge of  toxic  pollutants.   The  Agency will   be pilot testing  technical
approaches, and collecting data to  verify  the validity of the approaches for  con-
trolling actual  in-stream  consequences of  the discharge  of toxicity  in effluents.
Interim technical   guidance  will  be  developed and  issued.   Regional Offices  will
establish a  base  capability   for  performing biomonitoring,  including  conducting
bioassays and biological field surveys.

   The program is  continuing  its  development of technical  guidance documents  to
support the water  quality-based approach  (developed in  concert with EPA Regional
Offices, other Federal  agencies,  States,  and industry and environmental groups).
These documents  include   improved  screening  techniques   for  States  to follow  in
setting priorities,  biomonitoring  technical   guidance,   step-by-step user guidance
for TMDLs and WLA  models, and  quality assurance.

     The program will   complete a  joint  State/EPA project to  develop improved  re-
porting of State and national  water  quality status  and trends.   A  joint  State/EPA
report to the Congress  will  describe the  extent to  which streams,  rivers, lakes,
and estuaries supported  their  designated  uses  in  1972  and  1982.    The  techniques
developed will be incorporated  into  future biennial  Section 305(b)   reports to  the
Congress.

     The program will  initiate development  of a monitoring program strategy  through
the Agency's Monitoring Task Force of EPA and State  representatives.
                                      WQ-71

-------
     The program  is  earring  out  the  first year of  the National  Dioxin Study.
Activities include development of site  sampling plans,  and  initiation  of collection
and analysis of field samples.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$485,000 results  from the  following  actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$485,000) Several  reprogrammings were made  to  this  activity
which were not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.  These
changes resulted in a net increase of +$125,000 to the  Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation and a  net  decrease of -$59,100 to the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

     An additional reprogramming was made moving  all non-program specific "support"
type expense dollars into the Regional  support  program  element.   This  reprogramming
to Salaries  and  Expenses,  totaling -$550,900,  was included in  a  reprogramming
letter to Congress on September 29, 1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  a total of  $8,335,200 supported by 185.6 total
workyears for this program,  of  which $7,847,700  was for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $487,500 was for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropria-
tion.

     In 1983, the program  completed the   initial Aquatic  Life  Survey,  the first
systematic assessment of  biological  conditions  in the  nation's waters.  This  sur-
vey, along with  the  initiation of  a joint State/EPA  project to develop  improved
reporting of water quality  status and trends, will  result in  an  improvement of the
Agency's ability  to  provide  national  assessments.   The  program  pilot tested  a
standardized reporting format in  10  States,  and received final  report submissions
from 49 States  and  7 interstate_and territorial  agencies.   The  program also issued
guidance to the States  for  preparing 1984'Section 305(b) reports to  the Congress.

     The program  also  developed the Agency's  Dioxin Strategy (issued in  December
1983).  This multi-media  strategy  is based on  a preliminary assessment of  sources
and environmental  pathways,  and includes a  seven-tiered  analytical  approach.   This
program element provides  resources for the National  Dioxin Study that covers tiers
3-7.  (The first  two tiers  are covered  under the  Superfund  program.)   Tiers  1-6
focus on  sites  where dioxin is likely to  occur  in  pesticides formulation or  use,
disposal, and air emissions  while Tier 7  is an  analysis  of background or  control
conditions.

     In addition,  the program issued technical  guidance for conducting TMDLs/WLAs,
focusing on conventional  pollutants, and on  techniques for applying  model  results
in NPDES permits.
                                       WQ-72

-------


































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                                                                   WQ-74

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY


                            Municipal Source Control
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a total  of $42,905,600  supported  by  577.8 total  work-
years for this  subactivity, of  which  $23,386,500  will be  under the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and  $19,519,100 will  be under the  Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.    This  is  an  increase  of  $1,014,400  in  Salaries  and
Expenses, representing Agency  adjustments  to  align  personnel  funding with  antici-
pated needs and a net decrease  of $1,160,300  in Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance,
representing elimination  of funds for  operator training  grants partially  offset
by an increase in funding for  an  interagency  agreement with the U.S.  Army Corps  of
Engineers.

Program Description

     This subactivity provides  resources  at  Headquarters  and in  the Regions  for
management of the Construction Grants program.  For  budgetary purposes,  resources
devoted to managing the Construction  Grants Program  are divided  into the  following
components:

     Municipal Waste Treatment Facility Construction— This program  includes  most
of the day-to-day in-house  management  activities associated with the Construction
Grants program in Headquarters and the Regional Offices.   Beginning in 1984  it also
includes construction grant management  resources previously budgeted in the  Water
Quality and Grants Management  subactivity and  resources associated  with  managing  an
interagency agreement with the Corps  of Engineers previously budgeted as a separate
program element.  Through this  agreement,  the Corps  provides a range of  construc-
tion management and training activities.

     Corps of Engineers— This  program  covers a range of  construction management
and related  activities  assigned  to  the Corps  of Engineers  under  an  interagency
agreement to  assure  the  technical  and  fiscal   integrity  of  wastewater  treatment
project construction.   It  includes  only  the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
resources supporting the  agreement.   These resources  are  combined  with  resources
in the Municipal  Waste  Treatment Facility  Construction program beginning in  1984.

     Waste Treatment Operations and Maintenance— This  program  involves develop-
ment of  State  programs  to  ensure that Publicly Owned Wastewater  Treatment  Works
(POTWs) meet effluent requirements.   It  also  provides construction  grants  program
support in implementing  the Agency's  National  Municipal Policy.


MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT  FACILITY CONSTRUCTION

1985 Program Request

      In 1985, the Agency requests $41,369,200 supported  by  543.3  total workyears
this program, including $21,850,100  under  the  Salaries and Expenses  appropriation
and $19,519,100 under the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation.  The
$926,100 increase in Salaries  and Expenses represents Agency adjustments to  align
personnel costs with anticipated  needs.  The  net decrease of $1,160,300 in  Abate-
ment, Control   and Compliance   represents  elimination  of  the  1984  Congressional
add-on for operator training grants  and  an increase  in new obligational authority
for the  interagency  agreement  with  the Corps  of Engineers.   The  Agency  is not
requesting 1985 funds for operator  training, as States  are conducting effective
on-site training  programs  using  1982-1984   Congressional  add-on  funds  and are
responsible for developing  self-sufficient State  programs for  ensuring  improved
                                       WQ-75

-------
operations and maintenance and  continuing compliance.  Corps expenditures in  1984
will total  $21,476,400  including  $16,000,000  in  1984  funds  and $5,476,400  from
prior year funds;  all available  Corps funds will  be  depleted by the end of  1984,
resulting in  no  carryover into 1985  so  that  the requested $17,300,000  represents
total Corps expenditures for the year. This decrease of  $4,176,400 in  Corps funding
from 1984 reflects  a  reduced  need  for the  Corps  as  the number of active projects
decreases and the  States  assume more  responsibility  for managing their  programs.

     With a proposed 1985 construction grants appropriation of  $2,400,000,000,  EPA
expects to  award  650 grants  resulting  in 4,711  active projects at year's  end.
Approximately 1,060 projects  are expected to complete  construction during  the year.

     We expect 51  States  (including  Puerto Rico) to have signed  delegation agree-
ments by the end of 1985.   Of  this  total, 38 States  will  be  fully  delegated (inclu-
ding assistance  provided by the  Corps of  Engineers), an  increase of  6 over  1984.
The Agency expects  this level  of  delegation to continue essentially  unchanged  for
the near  future.   In  1985,  States will  provide  2,086 workyears  or  68 percent  of
the total program  management  staffing, the Corps of Engineers  13 percent, and  EPA
19 percent.

     With the resources  in this program  element, EPA  will act primarily as overall
program manager  with  the  States and  the Corps  performing  most of the day-to-day
project management activities.  EPA will  continue to exercise remaining nondelegated
project management-related responsibilities in  the States and  territories.

     EPA will work closely with  the  States  to ensure  orderly implementation  of
statutory changes  coming into effect  in  1985.   The 1984 Needs  Survey  will present
for the first time water  quality  and use  improvements  for  each of 314 sub-basins
in meeting treatment  needs.   EPA  will   continue to  work with  States in refining
funding priority systems  and  lists and  in documenting  water quality  improvements
resulting from the  construction  grants  program.   EPA will also continue  assisting
States in assuring  grantee financial  and management  capability, preventing problem
projects, and identifying means to reduce  costs  of construction, operations,  and
maintenance.

     EPA will expand~effo~rts  to ~provide~~State  and grantee assistance  in  selecting
appropriate conventional,  secondary,  advanced,  alternative, or innovative techno-
logies; publish and actively disseminate  materials on latest  technological  findings,
including sludge management;  and  expand design  feedback  efforts to help  ensure
that engineers,   States,  and  municipalities  select  the  most  appropriate,   cost-
effective technologies.   Program staff,  in  conjunction  with  other Agency  programs,
will draft sludge  management  regulations including the  minimum requirements  for  a
State sludge management  program and provide technical guidance  for State  and  local
officials on municipal sludge  management.  With  Congressional  consent,  Headquarters
will delegate to qualified Regions  and  States  the review of  all  proposed Advanced
Treatment (AT) projects,  while maintaining necessary  national oversight.  EPA  will
also assist  States and  grantees  with implementing the  secondary  treatment regula-
tion which was revised in  1984.

     The Corps  of   Engineers  will  continue to  help  EPA  and  the  States  ensure
project construction integrity;  prevent project  waste, fraud,  or mismanagement;  and
train program personnel.  The  $17,300,000 funding level  will  purchase  408  workyears
of effort and provide 13  percent  of the  total  construction grants program staff.
The Corps will  continue  its  traditional   pre-construction and construction manage-
ment activities  including conducting  996 biddability and constructability reviews
prior to  construction award,  performing  monthly  interim inspections  on 1,248  proj-
ects, conducting  final  inspections  on  approximately  695  projects.,  managing  65
percent of active  projects under construction,  and  maintaining  on-site presence at
large complex projects.    Additionally, the Corps will  assist  EPA in  implementing
recent initiatives  to ensure  construction integrity.   The Corps will  help conduct
Program Management  Conferences  with  all  new grantees to provide  detailed guidance
on grant  and construction  management techniques,  and   will  conduct  Construction
Management Evaluations  jointly  with  EPA  and  the  States  to  assess   construction
quality and identify potential problems on selected projects.
                                       WQ-76

-------
     The Administration  is expected to propose  to  Congress in  1985  its  recommen-
dations on  the future  of the  construction  grants program,  including  appropriate
Federal and  non-Federal  roles.  In  accordance with the Agency's  oversight  policy
staff will  continue working  with  the  States  in  refining  oversight systems  and
approaches which  recognize  Federal and  State  roles  and  responsibilities  while
maintaining Federal  accountability  for  national  goals.   EPA  and   State  program
managers will  determine  annual  program  priorities,   negotiate  commitments,  and
monitor annual accomplishments.  Agency personnel will provide feedback  and assist-
ance based upon  annual  evaluations.  These  efforts will provide essential  links to
ensure that Federal and State objectives,  program priorities, and funds  are meeting
national program objectives through the most cost-effective approaches.


1984 Program

     In 1984,  the  Agency  is allocating $41,603,400 supported  by  543.3  total  work-
years for  this  program,   including  $20,924,000 under  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $20,679,400  under the  Abatement, Control and  Compliance  appro-
priation.

     With a  1984 construction  grants  appropriation  of $2,430,000,000 EPA  expects
to award 726  construction  grants resulting  in 6,328 active projects  at  year's end.
Approximately 885 projects are  expected to  complete  construction  during the  year.

     We expect  32   of  the 50 delegated States  to  assume full  responsibility  for
managing the  program,  an  increase of 3 over 1983.  States are  expected to  commit
2,083 workyears or  65  percent of the total  construction grants management  staffing
in 1984.  The  Corps of Engineers will  provide  17 percent  of  the total  and  EPA the
remaining 18 percent.                    i

     In accordance  with the  1981  Amendments,  States  are  to have  in  1984  water
quality based  priority  systems and  lists  which  serve  as the  basis  of  funding
decisions.  EPA  will  continue  working  with  States in  refining  and revising  these
lists and  systems   and  developing  measures  for  evaluating  their  water  quality
effectiveness.
     EPA will also  work with  States  in implementing the  financial  and  management
capability policy,  issuing  guidance,  conducting  ten workshops  on how  to  perform
a financial  capability  analysis, identifying  potential  problem projects for  cor-
rective action,   and helping  States  and  grantees  plan  for  and  establish  sound
operations and maintenance,  user charge, and financial  management systems.

     EPA is  placing increased  emphasis  on  ensuring  that  States,  grantees,  and
consultants are  provided  continuing  information  and support  concerning selection
of appropriate secondary*  advanced, innovative/alternative  (I/A),  and  traditional
technologies.  A program will  be initiated to ensure that  information on  success-
ful/unsuccessful  technologies is made known.  Guidance will be issued on  delegating
I/A responsibilities to the States.   An Advanced Treatment effectiveness  evaluation
will be completed leading to  technological  and  policy recommendations.  The Agency's
AT policy will be published providing for a consistent national  approach in reviewing
AT projects; an AT Technical  Handbook will also be published  summarizing the  find-
ings of Headquarters AT reviews since 1979 and providing a framework for  conducting
such reviews. EPA will   promulgate the final  Construction  Grants  program  regulation
and issue a  revised  regulation  expanding the  secondary treatment  definition.   EPA
will also issue final guidance  on,  review applications  received, and  obligate  1983
and 1984 Congressional  add-on  funds for  Marine  Combined   Sewer  Overflow projects.

     Regions will review 167 AT projects, referring  those with  over $3  million  in
incremental costs to Headquarters for final  review and  approval.   EPA will  develop
guidelines for future  delegation of  all  AT  project  review to  Regions  or  States
which demonstrate the knowledge and  capability to conduct  such reviews.
                                      WQ-77

-------
     In 1984, 885 projects will  be physically completed and 865 closed out.   With
assistance from the Corps of Engineers, a program of Program Management  Conferences
will be initiated with  all  new  grantees to  ensure  adequate record keeping,  grant
management, and  construction   management  practices;  emphasis  will  be  placed  on
completing or  terminating Step  1  and  2   grants   (planning  and  design—rendered
ineligible for  direct  grant  funding  under  the  1981  Amendments)  and  initiating
construction expeditiously;  the Agency's Construction Management  Evaluation  program
will be expanded; and efforts will be  made  to reduce the  volume  of claims.   The
Corps will  also perform  1,270  biddability  and  constructability  reviews,   manage
58% of  active  projects  under  construction,  perform interim  inspections  on  1,229
projects,  conduct 610  final   inspections,  and maintain on-site  presence at  large
complex projects.

     A major study will  be  completed  examining alternative approaches  for  Federal
and non-Federal financial involvement in municipal  wastewater treatment which  may
lead to legislative  proposals for  Title II  reauthorization.   Additionally,  with
the $2,625,000 Congressional  add-on for  operator training the Agency will continue
to make grants  to States  and other organizations for on-site assistance to operators
in noncomplying small facilities.


1984 Explanation of  Changes  from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$65,600 results from the  following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$65,600) A reprogramming was  made to this activity  which
was not reportable under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This  change
resulted in a net decrease of  -$40,000  to  the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.

     An additional  reprogramming was made moving all  non-program  specific "support"
type expense dollars  into the Regional  Support program element.   This reprogramming
to Salaries and Expenses, totaling  -$25,600,  was included in a  reprogramming letter
to Congress on  September 29,  1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     Obligations for management  of the  Construction  Grants  program  in  1983  totaled
$41,379,600 and 448.4 total  workyears,  of  which  $16,662,600  was for Salaries  and
Expenses and $24,717,000 was  for extramural  activities  under the  Abatement,  Control
and Compliance  appropriation.

     EPA awarded 809 step  3  (construction)  and  step 2+3 awards  and obligated
$3,193,777,000 (net)  under the  construction   grants  program,  resulting  in   a  total
of 8,085 active  projects at year  end.   Approximately  1,125  step 3 and step  2+3
projects completed construction during the year, and  by  year's end a total of  approx-
imately 3,550 P.L.  92-500 treatment plants  were completed and  on-line.

     During 1983, four  additional  States accepted  initial  Section 205(g)  delega-
tion, bringing  to 50 the total  number of delegated  jurisdictions—49  States  and
Puerto Rico.  With support  from the Corps  of Engineers,  29 States are considered
fully delegated, an  increase of 9 over 1982.

      EPA provided  assistance to States in  targeting funds  to  meet  highest priority
water quality and public  health  needs;  ensuring that  projects are technologically
appropriate and within the financial capability of the  communities  served;  comple-
ting and closing out projects  expeditiously;  meeting obligation  and  outlay  projec-
tions; and  managing  delegated activities.   EPA is  also  ensured that  appropriate
Advanced Treatment  funding decisions were made,  maintained  involvement  in projects
with overriding  Federal  interest,   and  exercised  nondelegated  project  management
responsibilities.
                                       WQ-78

-------
     In response  to  the  1981  Amendments,  EPA  provided   guidance  to  States  in
revising their priority  systems  to ensure  water  quality based  funding  decisions.
The 1982 Needs Survey  was published documenting the  impact  of the 1981  Amendments,
including an addendum which estimated costs  for  controlling marine CSO  discharges.
The Agency  completed  a  national  financial  capability policy  requiring  applicants
to demonstrate financial  and  management  capability to construct,  operate and  main-
tain proposed treatment works prior to receiving a construction grant.

     The Agency  continued to encourage  use of  innovative  and alternative treat-
ment technologies.  Through  1983,  awards.totaling $295  million  have been made  to
1,400 facilities  for  innovative  and alternative  technology  implementation.  178  of
these have  been  completed and  are operational.   Information  on  promising techno-
logies was published to help consulting engineers, grantees, and reviewing agencies.

     EPA Headquarters  continued  to  review  proposed   AT  projects   with  incremental
costs above  $3  million.   Including  the 13  projects acted  upon  in  1983,   these
reviews have  saved $834 million  in  construction  costs  plus substantial  annual
operations and maintenance cost  savings.  Additionally,  EPA  conducted 30 detailed
reviews of  proposed  new  phased/segmented  projects  to ensure appropriate funding
decisions.

     Early in  1983,  the Agency  published  streamlined final  Section 301(h)  regu-
lations in  response  to  the   1981  Amendments  along  with  advisory monitoring and
technical  support documents.  A total of 137 new waiver requests  were received  by
December 29,  1982 in  response to  the amended  deadline,  thus producing  a total  of
207 waiver  requests.   During the  year the  Agency made  40  tentative  and 12  final
decisions.  Decisions to date have resulted in cost  savings of $848 million due  to
projected reduced treatment costs.

     During 1983,  1,125  projects  completed  construction   and 942  projects   were
closed out.  EPA  published  Standard Operating Procedures  for the Corps to follow
in performing  interim construction  inspections  and  guidance on  expanded  use  of
Construction Management  Evaluations (CMEs)  for  all   new projects.  The  Corps  of
Engineers also assisted  EPA  and  States  in the  prevention of  waste,  fraud, and
mismanagement through  on-site presence  at  all  large facilities,  preconstruction
conferences with ~new~~grantees,~more~ frequent interim inspections," and  responses
to allegations or evidence of problems  identified  to  the  program.

     Consolidated program  guidance was  updated  to   be  published  with  the   final
construction grants  regulation.   The   Agency   published  a  final  regulation  on
delegated State  management  which   streamlined program  requirements and defined
further EPA  and   State  responsibilities related  to  oversight,  evaluation, and
planning.

     In response  to Congressional  directives to focus training funds on alleviating
noncompliance problems in Federally funded  municipal  plants, EPA  awarded  $2,425,000
from the 1983  Congressional  add-on to  fund States  for  on-site operator training
programs,  primarily for  small facilities.  These funds  provided  assistance to 380
facilities in 35  States.  The  remaining $200,000 was used  to conduct  a national
program evaluation and  to provide State data  for  use  in  a  mandatory  report  to
Congress.


CORPS OF ENGINEERS

1985 Program Request

     Resources for this  program  are  now shown  in  the  Municipal  Waste  Treatment
Facility Construction  program element under which the Agency  is  requesting a  total
of $17,300,000 for the Corps,  an increase of $1,300,000 over 1984.
                                       WQ-79

-------
1984 Program

     Beginning in  1984,  resources  for this  program are  in  the  Municipal  Waste
Treatment Facility  Construction  program  element.   In  1984,  $16,000,000  is  being
allocated for the Corps.                                                                            A


1983 Accomplishments

     The $20,187,400  obligated  under Abatement,  Control,  and  Compliance  for  the
interagency agreement  purchased  544  workyears  of  support  to  EPA and  States  in
ensuring technical and fiscal integrity of construction  projects.

     The Corps performed 1,265 biddability  and  constructability reviews to  assure
that designs  were  technically   adequate  prior  to  construction   contract  award,
managed 62 percent of active projects under  construction,  performed interim inspec-
tions on 1,340 projects, and performed 748 final inspections.  Continuing  on-site
presence also was  maintained  at  large, complex  projects to minimize  potential  for
waste, fraud, and mismanagement.  The Corps provided  significant  support to State and
EPA efforts to eliminate backlogs through handling  change orders,  making payments,
resolving project  deficiencies,  and  assisting  States  with  other related  needs.


WASTE TREATMENT OPERATIONS  AND MAINTENANCE

1985 Program Request

     In 1985, the Agency requests $1,536,400 supported by 34.5 total workyears  under
the Salaries  and Expenses   appropriation.   This  represents  a level  program.   The
$88,300 increase  in  Salaries and Expenses  represents  Agency adjustments to  align
personnel  funding with anticipated needs.

     The impact  of the  performance  certification  requirements contained  in  the
1981 Amendments  will  begin  to be felt  significantly in  1985.  EPA will work  with
States in  implementing  procedures  for  engineering  firms to  supervise first  year
plant operation and personnel training.  Supporting  implementation  of the  National                  M
Municipal  Compliance Policy,  operations  and maintenance staff  will  also  evaluate                  fl
municipal  compliance plans  submitted  for  current and proposed  facilities,  provide                  ^
assistance in  development   of  composite  correction  plans,   and provide technical
support to  formal  and informal   enforcement actions  by  Agency and  delegated  State
enforcement staff.  Additionally, EPA  will  manage  remaining  active State  operator
training grants,  provide on-site  assistance  and  operations  and maintenance  training
to operators in  noncomplying  plants,  monitor  and evaluate State operator  training
programs,  and  prepare  a  followup Report  to Congress including a   multi-year  plan
for ensuring effective, self-sufficient State  training programs.

1984 Program

     In 1984 the Agency is allocating $1,448,100 supported by  34.5 total workyears
for this activity under the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     Implementing provisions  of  the  1981  Amendments, EPA  will  issue   guidance  for
implementing grantee  certification  of plant performance  following the first  year
of operation including recommended corrective  actions.   EPA will also  assist States
and grantees  in   performing  plant  diagnostic  inspections  to  identify  potential
problems related to  operations and  maintenance.   Additionally, program staff  will
manage $9 million  of  1982,  1983, and  1984 grants  (funded under  the Municipal  Waste
Treatment Facility  Construction  program)  added  by Congress  to  provide   on-site
training for  resolving  operations  and  maintenance problems  that  prevent  plant
compliance in  small  communities  and will evaluate  State programs.   EPA will  also
submit to  Congress  an initial report  on  the use and  impact of operator  training
funds in remedying compliance problems  and  a  preliminary action plan for  ensuring
effective, self-sufficient  State  operator training programs.
                                       WQ-80

-------
1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$2,400 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogramrnings.  (-$2,400) A  reprogramming was  made moving all  non-program
specific "support1  type expense dollars into the Regional  Support  program  element.
The Salaries and Expenses  reprogramming above,  totaling  -$2,400,  was included  in  a
reprogramming letter to Congress on September 29, 1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated  $1,262,200  supported  by  27.1 total workyears
under the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.   EPA began preparing  for  the  new
performance certification  requirements  mandated in  the  1981  Amendments by  clari-
fying responsibilities between  EPA  and  State agencies in their implementation  and
by developing program guidance.  EPA also assisted States  and grantees in developing
and maintaining effective  operations  and  maintenance  programs;   assisted  in  the
development of the  Agency's  National  Municipal   Compliance strategy  to  ensure  im-
proved performance   and  compliance   by  municipal facilities;  and  managed  operator
training grants in   35 States to support  on-site training designed  to improve small
facility compliance.
                                      WQ-81

-------
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

WATER QUALITY

    ENFORCEMENT
       Water Quality Enforcement	    WQ-83
       Water Quality Permit Issuance	    WQ-87
                                       WQ-82

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                                   WATER QUALITY

                             Water Quality Enforcement
 Budget  Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $15,715,600  and 370.8  total  workyears  for
 1985, an  increase of  $2,329,400 and  18.0  workyears  from  1984.  Included  in  the
 total is  $14,368,200  for Salaries and  Expenses  and $1,347,400  for  Abatement,
 Control and  Compliance,  an increase of $1,186,600  and of $1,142,800 respectively.
 The program  includes both  Headquarters and Regional resources.

 Program Description                      ,

     Water Quality Enforcement—  The  National  Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination
 System (NPDES)Enforcement Program  monitors compliance,  initiates  administrative
 enforcement  actions,  and  provides  technical  support  for  enforcement  litigation
 against violators  of  NPDES permit  conditions.  This  subactivity covers  compliance
 monitoring,  inspections,  compliance strategy development,  administrative  enforce-
 ment remedies and technical support for judicial enforcement actions.

     Major functions  of   this  program  include  identification  of  noncompliers,
 initiation of  informal  actions to  secure  compliance,  and  negotiation  leading  to
 administrative enforcement actions.  Where informal negotiations and administrative
 enforcement  actions do not achieve compliance, cases will  be forwarded for judicial
 action.

     In addition  to  the NPDES  portion of the  Water Quality  Enforcement  Program,
 administrative and technical  support is provided for the issuance of administrative
 enforcement  actions against violations of the Spill Prevention Control  and Counter-
 measure Plan  requirements.  Referrals  are  made to  the  U.S.  Coast Guard  for civil
 penalty assessment for oil and hazardous substance spill violations  (Section 311(b)
 (6)(A)) in waters  where EPA has  jurisdiction,  and inspection  support  is  provided
 for enforcement against illegal dredge and fill  activities (Section  404).


 WATER QUALITY ENFORCEMENT

 1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $15,715,600 supported by  370.8  total  workyears
 for this  program,  of  which  $14,368,200  will  be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
 appropriation and  $1,347,400  will  be  for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
 appropriation.  This  is  an  increase  of $1,186,600 and $1,142,800,  respectively.
 The increase of 18.0  workyears  and  $1,186,600 in the Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
 priation for this activity from 1984 to 1985 is  for additional  resources  to support
 the municipal  compliance  and  pretreatment  enforcement initiatives of the  program.
 The increase of $1,142,800 in Abatement, Control  and  Compliance will  provide tech-
 nical  support for municipal and pretreatment  compliance activities.

     Two major initiatives will  be  emphasized in  1985.  One initiative  will  focus
 on continued implementation of the  National  Municipal  Policy  (NMP)  to ensure that
 POTWs not in compliance  with CWA requirements have developed  and are  implementing
 plans to comply  with  all  applicable  requirements  of  the  Act.  EPA will  continue
 to develop compliance  schedules  (in non-NPDES States) for noncomplying  POTWs that
 receive EPA  funds  for  needed  construction;  major  noncomplying  POTWs that  will  not
 receive construction grant support;  one-half of the minor noncomplying  POTWs that
will  not receive construction  grant  support; major noncomplying constructed  POTWs;
 and one-half of the minor, noncomplying,  constructed POTWs.
                                       WQ-84

-------
     The second  initiative  will  be to  take  appropriate  enforcement  measures  to
assure implementation of  the national  pretreatment compliance  strategy.   EPA  in-
tends to ensure  implementation  of  the program  in cities  where neither the  State
nor the  city  has an  approved  pretreatment program and  will  enforce  pretreatment
requirements in  cities  which have  failed  to  implement approved pretreatment  pro-
grams.

     Along with  these two initiatives,   EPA will  continue its  basic, program  with
vigorous compliance  monitoring,  enforcement  of  EPA-issued  permits,  and   support
of approved  State  programs.  These  efforts will  focus on ensuring  compliance  by
major industrial   permitees,  Federally  funded  POTWs,  and  other  permitees  where
noncompliance threatens   public   health   or water  quality  objectives.  EPA  will
continue to  rely  upon increased  use  of less  resource-intensive  Compliance  Eval-
uation Inspections  (CEIs)  to  obtain maximum  coverage with  available resources.
Total inspections  will   decrease  slightly (5  percent)  to   approximately  1,951.

     The issuance of  administrative orders and  notices of violation will  increase
with priority  emphasis  on  municipal  compliance  and   pretreatment  enforcement  as
discussed above.

     Support for non-NPDES enforcement will include  inspections to verify  compli-
ance with Section  404 dredge or fill  requirements and  to determine  jurisdiction
under Section 404,  penalty assessments for spills  of  oil and hazardous materials,
and SPCC enforcement.


1984 Program

     The Agency  is  allocating  a total   of $13,386,200  supported  by  352.8  total
workyears to this program,  of  which $13,181,600 is for Salaries and Expenses  and
$204,600 is for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance  appropriation.   During  1984,
the program  continues  to emphasize achieving  an  improved rate  of  municipal  and
industrial  compliance while  working  to promote  cooperation  among  Headquarters,
Regional Offices, and State  agencies.   In  1984  the National  Municipal Policy  will
be finalized and Regions  and States_wi11 submit Municipal Strategies.  Initial  AO
actions will  be  taken  by  Regions  and  States  a'gainst  completed plants"violating
their limits as specified in State strategies.

     The compliance program  is  encouraging the  development of  greater State  tech-
nical expertise and will encourage States to assume more  of the  compliance  monitor-
ing activities.  A  revised strategy for  the compliance inspection program  is  being
developed.   A  neutral inspection scheme, to satisfy the  judicial  requirement  for
objective random  selection   of   candidates  for  compliance inspections, has  been
implemented.  An estimated 2,052 compliance inspections  will  be conducted  by  EPA.
Quality assurance  will   continue to be  emphasized as an  important  part of  the
program.

     Approximately 695  administrative  orders  and notices  of  violations  will  be
issued for  violations of  NPDES  requirements.   Non-NPDES  administrative enforcement
activities are expected to  result  in  approximately  452  actions  under  the  Spill
Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures program, 770  oil  and hazardous substances
spill referrals to the U.S.  Coast Guard,  and 93  dredge  and fill  compliance  inspect-
ions.

     Support will be  provided to help  NPDES States develop their enforcement  man-
agement systems and maintain their  data  systems.  The  Permits  Compliance ADP System
(PCS), used by both States and  Regions,  will be  maintained and upgraded.   Increased
State direct use of PCS  and  link-up between existing  States systems and PCS will  be
encouraged.
                                       WQ-85

-------
1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$371,800 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$371,800)  A  reprogramming  was  made  to  this  activity
which was  not  reportable  under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This
change resulted  in  a net  increase  of +$5,500  to  the Abatement, Control and  Com-
pliance appropriation.

     An additional reprogramming was made moving all non-program specific "support"
type expense dollars into the Regional Support program element.  This reprogramming
to Salaries  and  Expenses,  totaling  -$377,300,  was  included in  a  reprogramming
letter to Congress on September 29,  1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983 the  Agency obligated a total of $13,664,100 supported  by  366.8  total
workyears for this  program,  including $13,412,000  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $252,100 for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     Contract resources were used to  meet  ADP information  needs, provide technical
and legal  case  support,  and  conduct  monitoring and  inspection training.  During
1983, the activities supporting enforcement actions in emergency  situations  involv-
ing substantial  threats  to public health  and  safety  received the  highest  program
priority.

     The national permit compliance  rate  for publicly  owned  treatment works  (POTWs)
in 1983  was  88  percent  for major municipal  dischargers  on  final  effluent  limits.
The national permit  compliance  rate  for  industrial  and  other nonmunicipal   dis-
chargers in 1983 was 91 percent for  major permits.

     Regional Offices  conducted  approximately   1,994  compliance  inspections  and
issued 50 Notices of  Violations  and 781  Administrative  Orders.  In  States  without
approved NPDES programs,_EPA  reviewed major dischargers' self-monitoring  reports.
Technical support was  provided "for "the~development "of  44  civil" cases'which  were
referred to Headquarters for review.

     Enforcement of  Section  311  oil  and  hazardous  substance spill requirements
consisted of 516 referrals to the U.S  Coast Guard for  assessment  of civil  penalties
and 207  administrative  actions  for  violations  of Spill  Prevention  Control  and
Countermeasure plan  requirements.

     Enforcement of   Section  404  provisions  focused  on identifying  illegal   dis-
charges of  dredge  and  fill  material.   Three  administrative  actions  were taken.
                                      WQ-86

-------
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-------
                                   WATER QUALITY

                           Water Quality Permit Issuance
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests a total  of  $16,790,800  supported  by  340.9 total  workyears
for 1985.  This  represents an increase  of  $1,621,600 and 38.5 workyears from 1984.
Included in  the  request is  $12,629,500 for Salaries  and  Expenses  and $4,161,300
for Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance,   representing  an   increase  of $2,146,600
and a decrease of  $525,000,  respectively.   This  program includes both Headquarters
and Regional resources.

Program Description

     Water Quality Permit Issuance— The  National  Pollutant  Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permit  program  is a comprehensive legislative  mandate  in  the Clean
Water Act  (CWA)  to  reduce  or  eliminate  point  source pollution  from industrial,
municipal, commercial,  and  agricultural dischargers.   The Act  prohibits  the dis-
charge of pollutants into all waters of the United States unless a permit is issued
by EPA or  an EPA-approved  State program.   A primary  function  of the permit program
is the encouragement  of State  assumption  of responsibility for  the  NPDES program.
At present,  35 States and one Territory have approved NPDES programs.

     Controlling discharges  of  priority pollutants  including toxics  is  the major
emphasis of  the  NPDES  permit program.   Direct discharges  of  these  pollutants into
navigable waters are controlled by the inclusion of Best Available Technology (BAT)
limitations  into industrial  permits.   Indirect discharges   of priority pollutants,
i.e., industrial  discharges to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs),  are control-
led through  the  pretreatment program.   Municipalities  have primary  responsibility
for enforcing national  pTetreatment  requirements.   EPA and the  19 approved  States
with authority  for  pretreatment  are  responsible  for  assuring POTW  pretreatment
program development and implementation.

     Another" important  function" of "the" TJPDES "program is  to  provide  technical
support for  evidentiary hearings held on the terms and  conditions of  permits and to
review requests  for  several  types of  variances  from  permit  effluent  limitations.
EPA must also  evaluate requests  for  extension of  BAT compliance deadlines  where
innovative pollution  control  technologies  are to  be  demonstrated.    EPA  conducts
non-adversarial panel hearings for municipalities which have  requested marine dis-
charge modifications under Section 301(h)  of the  CWA.   Non-adversarial panel hear-
ings are also  used to  resolve  appeals to  conditions  in  NPDES  permits  issued  the
first time for a facility,  as well as in decisions on variances requested  by direct
dischargers.


WATER QUALITY PERMIT ISSUANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $16,790,800 supported  by  340.9 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $12,629,500  will  be  for  the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $4,161,300  will be  for  the Abatement,   Control  and Compliance
appropriation.  The increase  from 1984 of  $2,146,600  in  Salaries and  Expenses  is
primarily for the costs of  an additional  38.5 workyears. These additional  workyears
are necessary for  EPA to eliminate its major permit backlog by the end of 1985,  to
support implementation  of  pretreatment programs,  and  to  assist delegated  States
in reducing their permit backlogs.  The decrease of $525,000  in  Abatement,  Control
                                      WQ-88

-------
and Compliance includes $200,000  due  to a reduced need for  pretreatment  technical
support for  POTW  program  approvals  and  $325,000  in  funds  for tentative  Section
301(h) waiver determinations because of lower costs for each waiver review  action.

     In order to  meet the  goal  of  eliminating the  backlog  of  major permits  to
be issued by the Agency by  the  end  of 1985,  priority  will  be  given to  issuance  of
major industrial  permits.    The  water  quality-based permitting initiative begun  in
1984 will continue,  emphasizing permit issuance  in  water quality  impacted  areas;
priority will also  be given to issuing permits  for  which best available technol-
ogy guidelines have  been  promulgated.   Emphasis  will  also be  given to  issuance  of
major municipal  permits.   During 1985,  450 major  industrial  and 300  major  municipal
permits will be issued.

     During 1985, increased emphasis will  be  given to modifying permits to  incor-
porate appropriate revisions to discharge limitations  or  other permit  conditions.
For example, permits  will  be modified  as appropriate to  reflect  results of  bio-
monitoring data collection concerning  toxicity.

     Continued emphasis will  be given to  developing  and  issuing general permits,
including outer  continental  shelf  general  permits (for  discharges from drilling
rigs).  Wherever possible, general permits will  be issued to categories of  facili-
ties in order to  reduce  the backlog  of  expired permits and to ensure control  of
pollutants from facilities which might otherwise  remain  unpermitted.

     In 1985, there will be many requests  for  fundamentally different factor (PDF),
Section 301(g) water quality,  and  Section  301(c)  economic  variances. Additionally,
EPA expects   requests  for  extensions of BAT  compliance deadlines where innovative
pollution control technologies  are  to  be demonstrated.  Evaluation and review  of
such variance and deadline extension requests  will  continue.

     EPA will continue to  review  Section  301(h)  marine discharge  waiver requests
from POTWs.    This  Regional  responsibility is  technically  complex and  the  sole
responsibility of EPA, even in approved  NPDES  States.   Contractor support  ($1.7
million) is   provided  for   technical  reviews  of  Section   301(h)  applications and
followup monitoring after  waiver decisions are made.

     During 1985, requests  for  evidentiary hearings are expected  to be granted  on
about 25 percent of  the  major  industrial  permits  issued.   These  granted requests
will be in  addition to the  requests that  will carry  over  from  1984.   An  estimated
114 granted   requests  will   be  resolved  in  1985;  108 will be  resolved through  nego-
tiation and  six will  require formal  adjudicatory  hearings.   EPA experts in specific
industrial categories will  assist in   resolution  of  evidentiary hearing  requests.

     Emphasis will  continue to be  placed on assisting  in the  development and  formal
approval of new State NPDES programs and necessary program modifications for  assum-
ption of pretreatment and  Federal  facilities responsibilities.  It  is estimated that
during 1985 two States will  receive full  NPDES  authority  and  10 NPDES  States  will
receive program modification  approval  for pretreatment and/or Federal facilities
permitting.   To a limited  extent, EPA  will  be working with  NPDES States to  assist
in reducing the  NPDES State permit backlog.  Requests  by  NPDES States for  permit
assistance are  expected  to  increase   as  they focus  on the more  difficult,  high
priority second round permits.

     EPA will  continue to  review  and approve  local  POTW  pretreatment programs
during 1985  in States lacking approved pretreatment authority.  It  is  assumed that
all 1,700 POTWs required to develop  a  pretreatment  program, including some  700 POTWs
in approved  pretreatment  States,  will  have approved programs  by  the end of  1985.
EPA must  also evaulate POTWs'  requests to grant  removal  credits to indirect  dis-
chargers' requests for categorical  standard  determinations  and FDF  variances.   In
                                      WQ-89

-------
addition, indirect dischargers  are  required to submit  baseline  monitoring  reports
within six months  from  promulgation of categorical  pretreatment  standards.   Base-
line monitoring  reports provide the  indirect dischargers'  assessment  of  compliance
with the  standards and, where  necessary,  a schedule  for the facility  to  achieve
compliance with  the  standards.  These  reports  will  be  reviewed by  EPA,  States,  or
POTWs, depending on which is the primary pretreatment authority.

     Promulgation  of  NPDES  and  pretreatment regulation  revisions  proposed  in  1984
and responding to  new litigation  challenges will  be a  major regulatory focus  in
1985.  In addition, work on NPDES permit application forms will  continue, including
final forms for  new  sources,  existing  industrial  facilities,  nonprocess  industrial
dischargers, and POTWs.

     In 1985,  national   NPDES program  overview  activities   will   include  quality
review of selected permits, mid-year Regional  and  State  program evaluations, review
of Memoranda of  Understanding,  review  and  assistance  in  correcting  legally  defi-
cient State programs, assistance in  the development and  review  of State  permitting
strategies for  industrial  and  municipal  facilities, and evaluations of  approved
POTW and State pretreatment programs.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is  allocating a total of  $15,169,200  supported by  302.4
total workyears to the  Permits  Issuance program,  of  which $10,482,900 is  for  the
Salaries and Expenses  appropriation and $4,686,300  is  for the Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1984, emphasis will  continue to be placed on issuing "second  round"  major
industrial permits in water  use  impaired  areas and where  BAT  guidelines have  been
promulgated.  Approximately 385 major  industrial  permits will be issued by EPA  in
non-approved States.   Modifying major  industrial  permits to  reflect  biomonitoring
results will also  be a  priority  in 1984.   A  new  water  quality-based  permitting
initiative will begin in 1984 with the  issuance of an Agency  policy and a technical
support document.  Emphasis will continue  to  be given  to  issuing  general  permits,
including outer continental  shelf general  permits.

     During 1984,  added emphasis will  be  given to reducing the backlog  of  expired
municipal permits  and  to  modifying municipal  permits  to reflect  Section  301(h)
waivers and  revisions  to  secondary  treatment   standards.  Priority lists  will  be
developed for  municipal permits  to  be  issued  during  1984.  The Agency  will  issue
201 major municipal permits.

     As effluent guidelines are  promulgated, the number  of requests  from  industries
for PDF,  Section  301(c)  and  Section 301(g)  variances  will   increase.   Evaluation
and review of such variances will  continue  into 1985 and beyond.

     During 1984, requests for evidentiary  hearings will  be granted on about 30 per-
cent of the  major industrial permits  issued.   These granted requests  will be  in
addition to the granted requests that will  carry  over from 1983.   An  estimated  136
granted requests will be resolved  in 1984;  130 will  be resolved  through  negotiation
and six will  require  formal  adjudicatory hearings.

     During 1984,  two  States will  receive full  NPDES  authority  and eight  NPDES
States will receive program modification approval  for Federal  facilities  permitting
and/or pretreatment.   EPA  will  be  working  with  NPDES  States  which  request EPA
assistance in developing permits,  especially where effluent limitations  guidelines
are not available.

     During 1984 the  Regions will assist POTWs in the development  of  local pretreat-
ment programs.    Approximately  1,700 POTWs  are  required  to  develop  pretreatment
programs, of which 1,100 are in  States  not  now  approved  to administer  the pretreat-
ment program.   About  170  of  the 1,100  programs were  approved by EPA in 1983, and
                                      WQ-90

-------
another 300 to  400  should be approved by EPA  during  1984.   In addition, EPA  will
initiate program  reviews  at  POTWs  with  approved programs  to  assure  satisfactory
implementation of pretreatment  programs.   EPA  will  begin  to  review  requests  for
removal credits,  review  industrial  baseline  monitoring  reports,  and make categor-
ical determinations  for industrial users.

     During 1984, emphasis will  be given to approval or denial  of  Section  301(h)
marine discharge waivers consistent with  the  large increase  in  applications  follow-
ing the December 1981 CWA amendments.   EPA will evaluate 20  applications  for marine
discharge waivers during 1984.

     In 1984, EPA will  promulgate final   rules  concluding rulemaking  initiated  by
the settlement of NPDES issues  with industry  litigants.   An  NPDES  regulatory reform
package has also  been drafted  and should  be  proposed  in 1984.  During  1984,  EPA is
continuing work on the development of new, snorter  NPDES application forms  and the
revision of existing forms based on litigation.  The removal  credits  portion of the
pretreament regulations will  be promulgated  in  1984.


1984 Explanation of  Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$260,900 results from the  following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$260,900) A reprogramming was  made  to this  activity which
was not reportable under the Congressional reprogramming limitations.  This  change
resulted in a net decrease of  -$65,000 to the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.

     An additional reprogramming was made moving all  non-program specific "support"
type expense dollars into the Regional  Support  program element.  This reprogramming
to Salaries  and  Expenses,  totaling -$195,900,  was  included  in  a  reprogramming
letter to Congress on September 29, 1983.'


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the-Agency-obl1-gated a-total'-of $llr,786,40a supported  by 207.7 total
workyears for this  program,   including  $7,612,200  for  the   Salaries and Expenses
appropriation, and $4,174,200 for the Abatement, Control, and Compliance  appropria-
tion.

     In 1983, EPA issued  a total  of 506  major  and  1,694 minor permits.   Of these
2,200 permits,  1,738 were industrial  (381  majors),  and 462  were  municipal  (125
majors).  Other  activities  included promoting  and  approving  State  NPDES  program
assumption and  program  modification approvals,  assisting  in  the development  and
approval of local pretreatment programs,  and  regulatory  reform.

     In 1983, emphasis was placed on the  issuance of major industrial permits based
on the "second round" industrial  permit strategy.  In addition,  a new water quality-
based permitting  initiative  began  with  the drafting  of an Agency policy  and  a
technical support document.  Five field  studies were conducted  on  complex, multiple
discharge sites, and-training seminars  were  held for EPA and the States.

     Currently, 35 States  and  one Territory have approved  NPDES programs  and are
issuing permits.  One State was  approved for  full  program administration  during
1983.  In  addition,  four previously  approved  NPDES  States received  pretreatment
authority, and two received Federal facility authorization.  This  brings the total
to 19  approved  States  with  pretreatment  authority and  25 approved  States  with
Federal facility permitting authority.
                                       WQ-91

-------
     In 1983, the Regions  and  the States increased their emphasis on  issuing  gen-
eral permits.  Six final  general  permits issued in 1983 authorize discharges  from
3,000 facilities, eighteen  proposed  general  permits  cover  3,500 facilities,  and
15 draft permits  will  cover an  additional  21,000  facilities.   The  first  general
permit issued covering a particular category  of discharge is used as a  "model"  for
similar general  permits issued  in other geographical areas.

     In 1983, EPA increased  its  pretreatment  program  activity.   Pretreatment  liti-
gation was  settled and  categorical standards  were promulgated.   Local  pretreatment
programs were reviewed and  170 POTW  pretreatment  programs  were approved by EPA by
the end of 1983. Finally,  over 1,000 additional Regional and State POTWs  submitted
initial portions of their programs for  review.
                                      WQ-92

-------
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents
                                                                              PAGE

DRINKING WATER                                                                DW-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Drinking Water Research	    DW-8
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Drinking Water Criteria, Standards & Guidelines	    DW-23
       Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance	    DW-28
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants	    DW-29
          Underground Injection Control Program Grants	    DW-31
          Special  Studies & Demonstrations	    DW-32
          Trai ni ng	    DW-33
       Drinking Water Management	    DW-34
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance	    DW-36
          Underground Injection Control Program	    DW-39
    ENFORCEMENT
       Drinking Water Enforcement	    DW-42
                                       DW-1

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                                   DRINKING WATER


OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (SDWA) charged EPA with the responsibility
of ensuring that the Nation's water  supplies  are  free  from  contamination  which may
pose a risk to human health.  In carrying  out this mandate, EPA  is  required to set
standards for  contaminants  and to  assure  compliance  among public water  systems.
The Agency is  also  required  to protect underground sources of drinking water  from
contamination due to underground injection practices.  Although  EPA is  required to
establish minimum national  requirements  for these  programs, the Act clearly intended
that the States  (and Territories) would assume primary  enforcement  responsibility,
primacy, for implementing these programs.   In  the event a State  does  not  choose to
accept primacy, and on  Indian Lands  for  which  the States do not have civil  jurisdic-
tion, EPA must implement and enforce the regulatory  requirements directly.

     Over the past years, the Agency worked  closely  with the States in  promoting
primary enforcement responsibility  for  the  Public Water  Systems  Supervision  (PWS)
program.  This effort  resulted in  delegations  to 51  States and  Territories.   One
additional State, South Dakota, has achieved primacy  in 1984.   The Regional  Offices
are continuing to  work closely with  Pennsylvania and  Indiana  in  anticipation  of
program delegations in 1985.

     The Underground Injection Control  (UIC)  program  is designed to protect under-
ground sources of drinking water  from contamination  by unsafe injection practices.
The Agency's priority  has  been to delegate the  UIC  program to the States.   Early
in 1983,  the  Agency began  to develop  a  rulemaking  package to  establish programs
for States which  have made clear their lack of  interest in  primacy.  Under a consent
decree stemming  from a  lawsuit  by  the National Wildlife  Federation,  these  regula-
tions are to be  promulgated  by the  end  of March  1984.  In addition, a second  rule-
making package to cover additional  direct  implementation  States is to  be proposed
by May 1984 and promulgated  by October  1984.   Therefore,  by the  beginning of  1985,
all jurisdictions (with the exception of certain Indian lands) will have  operational
UIC programs.                       _       _

REVISE CURRENT HEALTH PROTECTION STANDARDS

     The Public Water  Systems  Supervision  program is  currently  operating  under the
National  Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations.   Generally,  these  regulations
codified the  historical  health  standards  that   reflect  the  prevailing  norms  of
treatment technology.   The  SDWA  required  EPA to  revise these interim  regulations
based upon a determination  made  by  the  National Academy of Sciences  (NAS) or  some
other independent  scientific group.   These  revisions  were  to  establish  numbers
which express health goals  and identify the level  at  which "no known or  anticipated
adverse effects  on the health of persons occur and which  allows  an  adequate margin
of safety."  These  levels  are called  "recommended maximum contaminant  levels"  or
RMCLs.  In order to  make  an accurate assessment  of  the  health risk,  EPA must as-
semble and analyze all the  available  toxicological data and establish the level  of
approximate human exposure  from drinking water.  The  latter requires EPA to  conduct
surveys of drinking water quality to establish a  profile  of contaminant  occurrence
nationwide.

     From this information EPA  is  required  to establish RMCLs after  formal notice
of proposed  rulemaking and  public  review.    An  enforceable  maximum  contaminant
level, or MCL, is derived  from the health  goal (the RMCL value)  taking into  account
the feasibility and cost of  treatment  by the  water  supply.  If  it  is not  feasible
to measure a contaminant at  the  utility level, EPA can consider  setting  treatment
requirements to  reduce the level  of the undesirable contaminants.   The  enforceable
regulation is established in  the  framework  of a  Regulatory Impact  Analysis, where
the benefits in  terms  of  the level  of  risk  reduction are analyzed in  relation  to
                                      DW-3

-------
  the financial  burden imposed.  To make  the  ultimate regulatory decision, EPA must
  assemble and consider data on the performance and cost of both treatment and moni-
  toring technology.   Because  the  task  is  complex,  EPA is  developing  the  Revised
  National Primary Drinking Water Regulations  (NPDWR)  in  four  phases.

       Phase I of the Revised NPDWR addresses presently unregulated volatile organic
  contaminants which  occur widely  and  often  at  high concentrations.   The Agency
  published the Advance Notice  of  Proposed  Rulemaking (ANPRM)  for Phase I in March
  1982, and expects to propose  RMCLs,  the health  goals,  in  early 1984 and to simul-
  taneously promulgate the  RMCLs  and  propose  the MCLs, the  enforceable  standards,
  in late 1984.   Promulgation  of final  MCLs  is  scheduled  by  Fall  1985.

       Phase II  will  address  inorganic  chemicals,  pesticides,  and microbiological
  contaminants,  including  a reconsideration  of  the  existing  standards.  The ANPRM for
  Phase II was published on October 5, 1983, and we anticipate  proposal  of the Phase
  II RMCLs in late  1984 followed   by  proposal  and promulgation  of  the MCLs  in late
  1985 and mid-1986, respectively.   As a  separate  part of  Phase II, the Agency will
  propose regulations for  fluoride (in response to  a  petition by the State of South
  Carolina) based upon findings  of  the Surgeon  General.

       We are in the early  stages  of  Phase  III—revising the  regulations for radio-
  nuclides, which will  cover both natural  and man-made radioactivity.   The Agency
  published the ANPRM in October 1983  and  anticipates  proposal  of RMCLs in  late 1985.

       Phase IV  wil 1 review the existing  trihalomethane  regulations and address the
  broader issues of  the  respective  health  risks  of   alternative  disinfectants  and
  additional  organic chemical by-products of  disinfection.   Once  the  full revision
  process is complete,  the SDWA requires an ongoing assessment  of emerging contaminant
  threats, with  a formal review  of  standing  regulations every  three years.

	Jo assist States in managing  instances  of drinking water  contamination  not
—covered by  existing  regulations, the  Agency prepares health  advisories.   These
  advisories  are  proving helpful  to States in  managing  serious  incidents of ground-
  water contamination  until  additional   standards  become  available.  Although  not
  enforceable standards,  they contain a  summary  of the best  scientific  evidence on
  the relative toxicity  of  a contaminant,  together  with  any  available  information
  on  sources, detection  and  measurement  methods,  and  treatment  to neutralize  or
  remove it.   Furthermore, they are  being  used by other  environmental programs  for
  evaluation  of  contaminants  found in  ground  waters in  the vicinity of hazardous
  waste sites.

       The Office  of Research and Development provides direct input into  the regula-
  tory development  process  by  providing current data on  the toxicity of chemicals
  of  concern. The program also pursues longer term research to provide a more accurate
  basis for future  regulatory decision making.  A major  effort will be to develop and
  apply less  costly methods  to establish the toxicological potential  of contaminants
  at  low dosages  and  in combinations.  Efforts to understand the  health effects of
  disinfectant by-products  will  be  expanded.   Research   will  continue   to  provide
  assessments of  treatment effectiveness and feasibility  to  support  the  development
  of  drinking water regulations.

  IMPROVE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE  STANDARDS

       Compliance  rates  with the PWS  program requirements  have greatly improved since
  the Agency  first  compiled  annual  reports for 1978.   However,  data indicates that
  small systems  represent the largest  percentage  of violations.   In an  effort to
  correct compliance problems, the  Agency and the  States developed  a  series of guid-
  ance documents  including a compliance  policy  for  public  water systems.  This policy
  is  aimed at full  compliance with  MCL and  monitoring  requirements, which  will  be
  achieved by identifying problems, evaluating  health  risks,  realistically developing
  alternatives, and  moving toward  compliance.   The  States  or EPA will develop State-
  specific strategies  for bringing  systems  into compliance, recognizing the differing
  circumstances among  the States.  The strategies will  rank violations  based on public
                                        DW-4

-------
health threats and  set  priorities for  followup  actions  to provide for  the  appro-
priate enforcement  actions  based upon  the ranking  schemes.   Finally,  the  policy
provides for  data  verification to assure  that  the data being  used by  the  States
and EPA is  an accurate  indicator of  the water quality  and the  program's progress.

     The Research and Development program contributes towards  this effort by  study-
ing and providing  data  on  cost-effective treatment  technology  for small  systems
and providing a  quality assurance program for laboratory  certification.  Research
will be expanded  on the  problem of  maintaining  microbiological  water  quality  in
distribution  systems after  treatment.   Research  will  continue  on  identifying  and
solving problems which corrosion may  pose to drinking water quality.

MAXIMIZE UIC DELEGATIONS AND IMPLEMENT FEDERAL PROGRAMS

     During 1983, the UIC  program emphasized primacy delegations  to States.   At  the
end of 1983, we had approved UIC programs covering  19 States (12 full and 7 partial)
out of a total of  57  States and Territories.   This is a slower  rate  of delegation
than was anticipated  earlier,  due to  the need to  negotiate  necessary  changes  in
State applications.  The  work done  with the States  in 1983 is  expected to  bear
fruit in 1984 in the  form of a larger number of delegations.  By  the  end of 1984,
we expect to  have  approved  a cumulative total of  28 full  and 8  partial  State  pro-
grams.

     In 1984, the  Agency  is also  preparing to  implement the UIC  program in  those
States which  have  not  assumed primacy.   We expect to promulgate  programs for  the
first batch  of  direct  implementation  States  in  March  and to operate programs  in
these States during the  second half of 1984.  In  response to a suit by  the National
Wildlife Federation, the Agency has  committed itself to  achieve  operating UIC  pro-
grams in all  57 States and Territories by the  beginning  of  1985.   In  1984,  the
Agency will, therefore,  propose direct implementation programs for a second  set  of
States.  These programs  are to be promulgated  in  October 1984.   While  the Agency  is
proposing and promulgating  direct implementation programs to achieve full  coverage
for the UIC program, it will  also  continue to review and approve State  applications,
with the likelihood that several of the States for which direct  implementation  pro-
grams are being  prepared  will  achieve  primacy in  1984.  At the beginning  of  1985,
the Agency  expects  to be  responsible  for" the operation of  21  full and  8  partial
programs.

ADDRESS AND RESPOND TO GROUND-WATER PROBLEMS

     The drinking water  program will  focus on two distinct activities in the ground-
water protection area.  First,  the  Agency  takes  an active  role  in responding  to
ground-water contamination  instances  as they may  threaten public  water supplies.
The Regional  drinking water programs  will  (1) provide assistance  in responding  to
an increasing number  of  contaminated  ground-water  supplies  which  serve  as  source
waters of public water  systems,  (2)  assess the  magnitude  of the  problem, and  (3)
identify alternative remedial  measures  needed to protect public health.   In  addi-
tion, the Agency  will provide advisory  services on the health effects of unregulated
contaminants to the States and utilities.

     Second, the drinking  water program will work with other EPA  programs to  assess
the magnitude of the  risks  posed by  contamination  from hazardous  waste  sites  and
evaluate the drinking water aspects of alternative cleanup  proposals.

     The Agency will continue to pursue a coordinated ground-water research  effort.
The objective of this program is to predict and  estimate the movement,  persistence,
and/or transformation of  plumes  of  contaminants  in  the  subsurface  environment,
and to increase  development  of  new technologies  for use in detection,  prevention,
and remediation.    Work  will  focus  on  improving  the  methods to  investigate  and
monitor contamination.    In   addition,  the  health  research program  will provide
information on the health  effects of  contaminants  found  in  ground  water  for  Agency
and State use in addressing ground-water  pollution.   A  pilot  scale evaluation  of
in situ aquifer restoration  methods will be started in order to judge the feasibility
and cost-effectiveness of  methods developed in laboratory studies.
                                      DW-5

-------
                                   DRINKING WATER
Actual
 1983
Program Activities

Cumulative Number of
States with full or
partial primary
enforcement respon-
sibility for:
   Public Water Systems
     Supervision	   51
   Underground Injection
     Control
      - Full  primacy	   12
      - Partial primacy....    7

 Sole source aquifer
 designations	

 Underground Injection
 Control  permits issued  by
 EPA in nonprimacy States..  —

 Laboratory certifications
 in PWS nonprimacy
 States	  120

_Revi_si_on to National
 Interim Primary Drinking
 Water Regulations

   Phase I   "~   ~  "~          ~
   Propose RMCL	
   Propose MCL	
   Promulgate MCL	

   Phase II
   ANPRM	   9/83
   Propose RMCL	
   Propose MCL	

   Phase III
   ANPRM	   9/83
   Propose RMCL	

   Phase IV
   ANPRM	
          Amendment/
 Budget    Current                Increase +
Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
  1984       1984       1985     1985 vs 1984
  51


  39*



  +5



+295



+125
                                                   52
                                                   28
                                                    8
                                   54
                                   32
                                    7
                                      +2
                                      +4
                                      -1
                      +162
                                                 +120
                                                            +300
                                  +65
                                    +138
                                     -55
                                                   2/84
                                                   9/84
                                                             12/84
                                                              9/85
                                                              9/85



                                                              9/85


                                                              9/85
* Number indicates programs, did not distinguish between full  or partial  programs.
                                       DW-6

-------
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

DRINKING WATER

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Drinking Water Research	    DW-8
                                       DW  7

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                                   DRINKING WATER

                              Drinking Water Research
Major Outputs/Milestones

Provide Health, Monitoring and
Engineering Data

- Prepare health criteria documents
  which evaluate and assess the
  human health impact of exposure
  to specific constituents found in
  drinking water (Scientific
  Assessment)

- Assist in development and review
  of methods for formulating
  drinking water standards
  (Scientific Assessment)

- Develop, produce and distribute
  quality control  and performance
  evaluation samples for chemical,
  microbiological  and radiochemical
  analysis (Monitoring)
 _Proyide report whTch evaluates
  the validity of extrapolation
  models for tumor promoters and
  initiators (Health)
- Prepare report on removal of
  pesticides from drinking water
  (Engi neering)

- Prepare report on treatment
  techniques for removing nitrates
  from drinking water (Engineering)

- Complete report on small system
  bacteriological sampling frequency
  models (Engineering)

- Prepare state-of-knowledge report
  on the removal  of organic materials
  (Engi neering)

Provide  Quality Assurance

- Provide reports on international
  symposia on the health effects of
  drinking water disinfectants and
  disinfection by-products (Health)
Actual
 1983
 9/83
Amendment/
Current
Estimate
  1984
  9/84
Estimate
  1985
  9/85
 9/83
 9/83
  9/84
  9/84
  9/85
  9/85
 9/86
 2/87
                 6/88
                 2/85
                 2/85
  9/86
  2/87
                 6/88
                 2/85
                 2/85
  9/86
  2/87
                 9/86
                 9/88
                                     DW-11

-------
Major Outputs/Milestones

- Conduct laboratory certification
  evaluations (Monitoring)

- Provide quality control procedures
  and guidelines to document data
  quality and systems performance
  (Monitoring)

Provide Health and Engineering Information

- Prepare annual reports summarizing
  the occurrence, cases and causes of
  water-borne disease outbreaks by
  year (Health)

- Report on target organ toxicity
  of chemicals tested for health
  advisory development (Health)

- Produce a report on filtration to
  meet coliform and turbidity MCLs
  (Engineering)

- Provide a report on the cost and
  effectiveness of trihalomethane
  control (Engineering)

Provide Scientific Data for
Protection of Ground Water

- Establish groundwater research
  program for locating abandoned
  wells, fluid movement in injection
  wells, and develop monitoring
  equipment (Monitoring)

- Evaluate possible Temik (aldicarb)
  contamination of Florida's citrus
  belt ground water (Monitoring)

- Report on Influence of Chemical
  Concentration on Prediction
  Confidence (Env. Processes)

- Report on laboratory-scale evalu-
  ation of aquifer restoration
  methods (Env. Processes)
Actual
 1983
 9/83

 9/83
Amendment/
Current
Estimate
  1984
 9/84

 9/84
Estimate
  1985
 9/85

 9/85
12/84
 9/84
12/85
 9/86
                1/85
                2/86
 9/86
 9/88
                1/85
                2/86
 9/85
 9/85
 9/85
10/85
 9/85
               12/84
10/85
 9/85
10/85
 9/85
                                      DW-12

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                                    DRINKING WATER


                               Drinking Water Research
 Budget Request
      The Agency requests a total of $23,124,500  supported  by  191.4  total  workyears
 for 1985, a decrease of $674,100 and an increase of 5.0 total  workyears  from 1984.
 Included in this  total  are  $9,777,200  for Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $13,347,300
 for Research  and  Development,  with an  increase  of $386,600  and  a  decrease  of
 $1,060,700, respectively.   The  increase  in   Salaries  and  Expenses and  workyears
 will expand quality  assurance  efforts.   The  decrease,  primarily  in  engineering,
 reflects the  completion of funding of  a cooperative research agreement with  the
 water utility industry.

 Program Description

      EPA's drinking water  research program provides  support  to  the States  and  to
 the EPA Office of Drinking Water  (ODW) in  implementing the  Safe  Drinking  Water Act
 (SDWA) in the areas of contaminant occurrence related to  health effects,  analytical
 methods to  monitor  contaminants,  control  technology and  the  related  costs,  and
 pertinent data to support  the protection  of ground water  resources.

 Objectives designed to implement this  program are:

      Objective 1.   Provide the Health,  Monitoring and Engineering Data  Necessary to
 Develop and Revise Drinking Water Regulations.This  research  provides  information
 in the areas  of scientific  assessment, health effects, and treatment technology to
 support the ODW in developing revised regulations  and Health  Advisories to  control
 drinking water-cofrtamfnants  under  Section 1412  of  the  SDWA.   It also  provides
-anaiytfcal procedures—for—use  by  the Agency,  States,   municipalities  and  system
 operators to  monitor  contaminants to assure  compliance  with maximum  contaminant
 levels pursuant to Section 1401  of the  SDWA.

      Objective 2.   Provide Quality Asssurance Support to Agency and State Drinking
 Water Laboratories"!   This   activity provides  analytical   ana"systems   performance
 procedures for on-site  evaluation  and certification  of  drinking water  monitoring
 laboratories and  makes  possible  mandatory  quality   assurance  activities  of  all
 laboratories and offices involved with  data collection.

      Objective 3.   Provide Health and Engineering Information  to  Assist  States  and
 Municipalities  in  Complying  with Drinking  Water   Regulations.  Health research
 assists the States  in  ascertaining  causes of waterborne infectious disease outbreaks
 and improving  reporting of these  incidents,  as  well  as  determining the  hazard  to
 humans from exposure to  infectious  agents  through drinking  water.  It also provides
 support for the  issuance  of Health  Advisories  by  EPA.   Engineering  technology
 research is directed toward the  compliance and reporting  problems of small  systems.
 This work supports technical  assistance  to States  and  municipalities as  required
 by Section 1442 of the SDWA.

      Objective 4.   Provide  Scientific  Methods and  Data  for  Protection  of Ground-
 Water Resources.This research  provides  the  scientific basisfor  the  protection
 of underground drinking water sources  as  required to implement Section 1421  and
 1424 of the SDWA.
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SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $492,200  supported  by 9 total  workyears  for
this program,  of  which  $417,200  is  Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $75,000  is  for
Research and Development.   Thi s 'reflects  a decrease  of  $26,400 for  Salaries  and
Expenses and a decrease  of  $30,500  for  extramural  purposes  under the Research  and
Development appropriation.  This decrease  reflects  the completion  of  funding  for
research work on  Temik  contamination in  Florida.

     Provide the  Health.  Monitoring  and  Engi neering Data Necessary to  Develop  and
Revise Drinking Water Regulations.   This program  will  provide  assessment  ex pert i se
and technical  assistance  in support of drinking water regulations,  health  advi-
sories, methodology development, and other  guidance to States  and operators.   Such
support will include:  (1) initiation of 13-15 health  assessment/criteri a documents
which evaluate and assess the  human  health impact of exposure to specific chemicals
designated by  the ODW;   (2)  preparation  of  criteria documents  and  Recommended
Maximum Contaminant Levels (RMCLs) initiated in 1984;  (3)  preparation of supporting
material for health advisories;  (4)  evaluation of carci nogenicity data, cancer risk
estimates, as well as evaluation of new cancer  studies  for consistency of scientific
interpretation and analysis  techniques  for use in ODW  regulatory activity;  and (5)
guidance and input relevant  to human health assessment  methodology.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is allocating  a  total  of $549,100 and  9  total  workyears
to this program,   of  which  $443,600 is  under  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation
and $105,500 is for  extramural purposes under the  Research  and  Development appro-
pri at ion.

     Provide the  Health,  Monitoring  and  Engineering Data Necessary to  Develop  and
Revise Drinking Water Regulations'!   Revised primary drinking water regulations must
be fi nali zed by 1986.  Health  assessment documentation for  10  chemicals  are  being
finalized and development initiated  for 12 more contaminants.   Support is provided
for a study  of the degree and impact of possible Temik (aldicarb) contamination of
drinking water supplies in Florida.

1984 Explanation  of Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no  change from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $88,700 and  1.9 total  workyears for
this program,  of  which $58,500 was under the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $30,200  was   for  extramural   purposes  under  the Research   and  Development
appropri at ion.

     Provide the   Health, Monitoring and Engineering Data Necessary to Develop  and
Revi s~Dri nki ng Water Standard's!   The  i niti al  drafts  of  health  effects  documents
dealing with  silver,  1,1-di chl oroethane,  and  mercury were prepared.   After peer
review, these  documents  were  released to  the  public  for  comment   in  mid-1983.

MONITORING SYSTEMS AND  QUALITY ASSURANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $2,586,600 supported by  30.1  total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $1,701,800  is for Salaries  and Expenses and $884,800 is
                                      DW-14

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for Research  and  Development.  The  increase of  5 workyears  and  $281,600  in  the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation  reflects increased support for  conducting  the
annual laboratory  certification  and  developing  analytical   methods  to  monitor
contaminants in drinking water.  The decrease of $143,500  in  Research and Develop-
ment funds reflects the completion of funding for Temik research.

     Provide the Health, Monitoring and Engineering Data Necessary  to  Develop  and
Revise Drinking Water Regulations.Research  willb"edirectedtowardsupporting
the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations and the Safe Drinking Water
Act.  The program evaluates methods  for measurement of radionuclides, and sampling
holding times for microbiological  analysis,  and develops  alternate membrane filter
media for analyzing total coliforms.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support to  Agency  and State Drinking Water Labora-
toriesT  Quality  control  procedures and  guidelines to document  data quality  and
systems performance,  quality  assurance   support   in   radionuclides  analysis,  and
overview of Agencywide  mandatory  quality  assurance activities  related  to drinking
water will be provided.   Interlaboratory performance evaluation studies and on-site
evaluations are conducted  annually of principal laboratories  and  regions required
to perform microbiological, chemical and  radiochemical  analysis of drinking water.
Additional resources reflect  work to be  done  in  the  production,   maintenance  and
distribution of  quality  control   and  performance  evaluation  samples  to  support
laboratory certification.

     Provide Scientific  Methods and Data for Protection  of Ground  Water Resources.
Work in 1985  will  build on  research  in  a  number of areas  where  work  has been
supported in previous years.   Efforts will develop/modify  well  sampling equipment/
instrumentation, and develop  a non-contaminating  submersible pump  for  monitoring
water supply  wells.  The  use  of fiber  optics and  laser  technology to  monitor
groundwater quality will be  evaluated.   Studies will  be conducted  to evaluate  the
feasibility^ using airborne  and surface-operated instrumentation to locate aban-
doned weTls ano1 to  investigate the feasibility of mapping  underground  fluid move-
ment from injection wells.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating  a total  of $2,448,500  and  25.1  total  work-
years to this program of which $1,420,200 is for the  Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation and $1,028,300  is for  extramural  purposes  under  the  Research and Develop-
ment Appropriation.

     Provide the Health, Monitoring and  Engineering Data Necessary   to Develop  and
Revise Drinking Water Regulations"Activities include  the  evaluation of methods  for
measurement ofradionuclides,chemicals  and microbes,  the  evaluation  of  sample
holding times for microbiological  analysis,  and the development of alternate mem-
brane filter media for analyzing total  conforms.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support to Agency and State Drinking  Water  Labora-
torieT^This effort provides  quality assurance support in  radionuclides,  chemical
and microbiological  analyses,  and referral  laboratory services.    An overview  of
Agencywide mandatory quality assurance activities  of all  laboratories and  offices
involved with data collection for drinking water supplies  is provided.  The program
supports the production  and distribution of quality control  and performance evalua-
tion samples for chemical and microbiological analysis  for  water supply laboratory
certification.   In addition, the program develops  and  distributes  radioactive
standards and reference  materials for radiochemistry analysis.

     Provide Scientific  Methods and Data for Protection of Ground Water  Resources.
The program includes modification  of wellsampling equipment and publication of a
report on non-contaminating  pumps.   The  use  of fiber  optics  and  laser  technology
                                       DW-15

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to monitor  groundwater quality is being evaluated, and a report on the feasibility
of using  airborne  and surface-operated instrumentation to  locate  abandoned wells
i s bei ng  published.   Alternate  test  procedures  for  chemistry,  microbiology  and
radi o-chemi stry are being evaluated.   The  possible contamination of Florida's citrus
belt ground water by Temik contamination is being  evaluated.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$17,300 results  from the following  action:

     -Reprogrammi ng.  (-$17,300) A  reprogrammi ng  was  made to  this  activity which
was not reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogrammi ng limitations.  This change
resulted in a  net decrease  of -$17,300  to the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  a  total  of  $1,720,300 and  21.4 total  workyears
for this program,  of which $1,001,400  was  under  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropri-
ation and  $718,900 was  for  extramural  purposes  under  the Research and Development
appropriation.

     Provide the Health, Monitoring and  Engineering  Data Necessary to  Develop  and
Revise  Drinking  Water Regulations^The  program  provided  criteria and procedures
for on-site evaluation and  certification  of laboratories  associated  with drinking
water monitoring and analysis  and provided evaluation  of alternate test procedures.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support to  Agency and  State Drinking Water   Labora-
t ori esT  The program:   1) produced  and disseminated  quality control and performance
"evaTuation  samples  for  chemical  and  microbiological  analysis  for   water  supply
laboratory certi fi cation; 2)  developed  and distributed radioactive  standards  and
reference mat eri als for  radi ochemi stry  analysis;  3) validated  studies for  chemis-
try, radiochemistry and  microbiology; and 4)  conducted  laboratory evaluations and
i ntercompari son studies.

     Provide   Scientific   Methods   and   Data  for  Protection  of   Groundwater
Resources.  This program provided  support Tor   a  national  program  which  conducted
feasibi lity studies to locate abandoned wells  and investigated the feasibility of
mapping the underground movement of fluids from  injection wells.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total of  $10,040,500 supported  by 68.5 total  workyears
for this program, of  which  $3,537,100 is  for  Salaries and Expenses  and $6,503,400
is for Research and Development.   This  reflects a decrease of $93,600 in Salaries
and Expenses and an increase of $784,300 in Research and Development.  The increase
reflects additional   support  for epidemiology  research and  work  on the  health
effects of  drinking  water  disinfection  by-products.    The decrease  reflects  the
transfer of  support contracts to the Research  and  Development appropriation where
they are more appropriately funded.

     Provide the Health, Monitoring and  Engi neeri ng  Data Necessary to  Develop  and
Revi s¥~ Dri nki ng  Water  Regulations.   Toxicological   research  wTTT   continue  for
speci fie chemi cal  contami nant~s,  for  water treatment  and for  materials  capable of
leaching from surfaces in contact with potable water.  Dose-response  data on treat-
ment chemicals and leachates wi 11 be developed especially for central  nervous system
effects, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive effects.
                                      DW-16

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     Additional resources  will  be devoted to research  of  drinking  water disinfec-
tants and  their  by-products.  Toxicological  data  will be  provided to  the  ODW to
evaluate the  health  effects  of  disinfectants used  in drinking  water  treatments.
By-products formed by  reaction of disinfectants  with background organic  material
will be  a  major  subject  of study.   These  by-products  will   also  be  examined
toxicologically to determine the  specific  health   effects  posed  by  exposure  to
such chemicals.   Most  chemicals  occurring  in  drinking water cannot  be  identified
analytically, therefore,  studies  will  be  directed  toward examining the  extent to
which the  unidentified fraction  (more than  90  percent)   of  organic chemicals  in
drinking water pose  hazards  to  human  health.  The  issue of exposure to  multiple
chemicals of  the  same  general class,  or in combination  or  independently,  will  be
addressed.  The  interactive  effects  of  characterized chemical  mixtures  will  be
investigated.

     Epidemiological  studies  will  be  planned  to  help   resolve  the human  health
issues facing EPA.  Such studies will be initiated, however, only after feasibility
of the  approach  has  been demonstrated  and  suitable  study populations  have  been
identified.   These studies will   primarily  be  performed in cooperation  with  other
agencies.  The quality assurance  and exposure assessment aspects of epidemiological
studies will  be strongly emphasized.

     Provide  Health and Engineering Information to Assist States and Municipalities
in  Complying  with  Drinking  Water  Regulations.Th~edrinking waterinfectious
disease burden, both epidemic and endemic, in the  U.S. will  be determined through
disease surveillance and  analysis activities and epidemiological  study.   Technical
assistance wil1  be  provided to the  Center  for Disease Control  (CDC),  States, and
municipalities in investigations of waterborne disease outbreaks.

     Toxicological data will  be  provided to ODW to  develop guidance for States on
the potential  health   effects  related  to  the  exposure of  chemicals  in  drinking
water^and—ground" water sources.   This  data  is  needed  for Health  Advisories and to
define groundwater  associated  health  risks.   Dose-response  characterizations
will be made  using  both  J_n_ vivo  and  J_n_ vitro methods,  and  sensitive  populations
will be defined.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is allocating a total  of  $9,349,800  and 68.5 total  work-
years to  this program  of  which  $3,630,700 is  under Salaries  and Expenses  and
$5,719,100 is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development  appropria-
tion.

     Provide  Health,  Monitoring and  Engineering  Data  Necessary to Develop  and
Revis~ Drinking  Hater  Regulations.The program currently focuses on:(1)  study
of the  health effects  of  specific chemicals  designated  by  ODW  for  regulatory
decisions; (2) research on the toxicology  of alternate disinfectants and disinfec-
tion byproducts  to  support  revisions  of  the  trihalomethane  (THM) standard;  (3)
research to  improve  and  validate methods  of extrapolating data to improve  risk
assessments, with particular  emphasis  on initiators and  promoters  of  carcinogene-
sis.  A study of the feasibility of conducting drinking water epidemiology research
is also being initiated.

     Provide Health and Engineering Information to Assist  States and Municipalities
in Complying with Drinking Mater Regulations.Health research  under this objective
supports the development of Health Advisories  for  guidance in  emergency  contamina-
tion episodes or  spills.   The ODW  has  developed a series of  Health Advisories  to
provide guidance  for exposures  that can  be  tolerated for  various  time  intervals.
Chemicals of  interest  include  chlorinated phenols,  chlorinated benzenes,  and  fuel
oil s.
                                     DW-17

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     Health research is aimed toward designing the most  cost-effective  methods  to
identify and evaluate  outbreaks  of water-borne infectious diseases to help  States
improve their reporting.   Assistance is  provided to  determine  the cause of  out-
breaks and recommend remedial action.  This activity is  carried  out  with the  CDC.
The results from this  activity are  used  not  only to identify and  stop  the  trans-
mission of  disease  from  common   water  sources  but   also  to help contribute  to
improvements in  standards  and treatment  processes by  identifying the  magnitude
of the waterborne  disease  problem.   Improved  investigation  and  reporting methods
are being published in  1984, based  on the  results  of  specific projects  undertaken
i n three states.

1984 Explanation of Changes from  the Amendment

     There is no change from the  amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency obligated  a total of  $8,440,000 and  56.8 total  workyears
for this program, of which  $2,698,600 was under the Salaries  and  Expenses appropri-
ation and $5,741,400 was for extramural  purposes  under the Research and Development
appropri at ion.

     Provide the Health. Monitoring and Engi neen'ng Data Necessary to Revise  Drink-
ing Water Regulations.   In  1983,  toxicologicalstudies focused  on  cari nogenicity,
mutagenicity and target  organ  toxicity  for chemicals found  in  drinking water  or
used in  the distribution  system,  e.g.,   2,  4  dichlorophenol,  haloacetonitri les,
organotoxi ns, and coal  tar  and  asphalt  paints.   The currently  available  health
effects data on disinfectants and disinfectants by-products  were summarized  in the
proceedings of the  first  international   symposium on this   subject.   Studies  on
the role  of waterborne  asbestos  in causing  gastrointestinal   cancer  have  been
completed.

      Provide Health and Engi neering Information to  Assist  States and Municipali-
ties  in Complying with Drinking  Uater Regulation.  Technical assi stance was  provi-
ded to States and municipalities  on  a continuing  basis.   Health effects personnel
participated in investigating several waterborne disease  outbreaks involving viral
gastroenteritis and   gi ardi asi s.   Toxicity  studies  on the  aqueous components  of
gasoline, kerosene and  fuel  oils  were conducted.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $5,396,300 supported by  59.3  total  workyears
for this program, of which  $2,950,400 is  for  Salaries and  Expenses and  $2,445,900
is for  Research  and Development.   The increase  of $161,500  in the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  reflects an expansion  of  research  on microbiological  prob-
lems of  water  distribution systems.  The decrease of $1,381,500 in  the  Research
and Development  appropriation  results largely  from the  completion of  funding  of
cooperative research with the water utility industry.

     Provide the Health, Monitoring  and Engineering Data Necessary to  Develop   and
Revise Drinking Water Regulations.   Work  will  continue to fully  evaluate treatment
processes for  removal   o?  organic,  inorganic,  and  microbial  contaminants.    This
research will provide the  ODW  with  a data  base for the  next  triennial  revision  of
the National Primary Drinking Water  Regulations  (NPDWR).   Cost  data  will also  be
compiled for  unit  processes and  treatment to  do  cost-effectiveness analyses  of
proposed treatment systems.
                                       DW-18

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      Provide Health and Engineering Information to Assist States and Municipalities
 in Complying with Drinking Water Regulations.Thisresearchwillfocusontech-
 nology which will assist  water  utilities  in complying with drinking  water  regula-
 tions with particular emphasis  on the needs of  small  systems.   Areas  included  are:
 (1) maintaining microbial  quality in distribution systems, (2)  treatment technology,
 and (3)   control  of  corrosion  and  unwanted  additives.   Research  will  determine
 factors  which contribute to deterioration  of water quality in  distribution systems,
 methods  for controlling these factors and evaluations of technologies  for  removing
 volatile organics and pesticides.   Studies will be conducted  on conditions  affect-
 ing corrosion  and  its  prevention,  and characterization  and  control   of  unwanted
 additives from treatment  chemical  residuals  and coating  of  pipes  and  other  water
 contact  surfaces.

 1984 Program

      In  1984, the Agency  is  allocating  a  total of $6,616,300  and 59.3 total  work-
 years to  this  program  of which   $2,788,900  is  under  the Salaries  and  Expenses
 appropriation and $3,827,400  is  for extramural  purposes  under the  Research  and
 Development appropriation.

      Provide  Health, Monitoring  and  Engineering  Data Necessary to   Develop   and
 Revise Drinking Hater Regulations"Work in  the treatment area  includes evaluations
 of processes for removalof  volatile organic  compounds,  pesticides and other  or-
 ganics,  and radionuclides.   Work  on inorganics removal  is  concentrating on  field
 testing  of various treatment  systems with different  raw waters and under  a  range
 of flow  capacities.   In the  microbiological  area, evaluations  are  being  conducted
 on the effectiveness of treatment processes, disinfection, and  other  factors  which
 contribute to microbial  deterioration in distribution  systems.

      Provide Health  and Engineering Information to Assist States and Municipalities
 in Complying with Drinking Water Regulations.   The majority of  violations  of drink-
"ingTfirtBr~regutations  occur  in small  systems  (less than 10,000 population).   The
 emphasis is  therefore   on technology  which  is  appropriate   for   small   systems.
 Research is being conducted on  processes for removing  organic,  inorganic and parti -
 culate contaminants  with emphasis  on groundwater  supplies.  Research  is addressing
 the causes of  corrosion in water distribution  systems  and methods  for prevention
 and control.   Cooperative  research  with the water  utility  industry will begin  in
 the areas  of  treatment   of  regulated  contaminants   and  improved  drinking water
 quality  in distribution systems.

 1984 Explanation  of  Changes from the Amendment

      There is  no  change from  the amendment.

 1983 Accomplishments

      In  1983,  the Agency  obligated  a  total  of  $7,165,000 and  65.4  total workyears
 for this program  of  which  $2,980,700 was under  the Salaries and Expenses Appropria-
 tion and $4,184,300  was for extramural purposes under the  Research  and Development
 appropriation.

      Provide   Health,  Monitoring and   Engineering   Data   Necessary  to  Develop   and
 Revise  Drinking  Water Regulations.   Research  ffi  1983  emphasized high priority
 areas in support of new and revised drinking water regulations.   These areas  included
 the evaluation  of treatment techniques  for the  removal of volatile organic contami-
 nants (VOCs),   of  disinfection  by-products,  and  of  inorganic  contaminants   from
 drinking water.   Specific  outputs  were  reports  on  laboratory  and   pilot plant
 removing VOC's,  on field  experiences  for  removing  organics  by granular activated
 carbon (GAC)  including GAC reactivation,  and  on the  economics  of  water treatment
 processes.
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     Provide Health and Engineering Information to Assist States and Municipalities
in Complying with Drinking Water Regulations.ResearchTn1983evaluatedtech-
nologies to help  water utilities and  regulatory  agencies achieve  compliance  with
drinking water  regulations  in   cost-effective  ways.   Specific  outputs  included
reports on  removing  trihalomethane  precursors, on establishing corrosion control
methods for a  city's water  supply  and an initial evaluation  of effects on  water
quality of lead  leaching  from pipe  solder joints, and on the  stability  and  effec-
tiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution  systems.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of $4,608,900 supported by 24.5  total  workyears
for this program,  of  which $1,170,700  is for Salaries and  Expenses and $3,438,200
is for  Research  and  Development.   This reflects  an  increase of $63,500 and  a de-
crease of  $289,500 respectively.   The decrease  results from the  completion  of
funding for the study of Temik  in Florida and  the  completion of projects to develop
methods for determining  the quantity  of  subsurface  microorganisms.  The  addition
in Salaries and Expenses reflects an increase  of in-house support costs.

     Provide Scientific  Methods and Data for  Protection  of  Groundwater   Resources.
This research willsupport groundwater protection efforts  in  a number  of program
offices including  Drinking Water,  Solid Waste,  Superfund, Pesticides  and  Toxic
Substances, as well as  State and local efforts.   Although the  research  is directed
toward providing  widely  applicable  prediction tools,  these  tools will  in  most
cases be specifically applicable to improving  the  implementation of the  Underground
Injection Control program and protection of underground  sources  of drinking  water.

     In order to  provide  the scientific bases for regulatory  and  management deci-
sions on  the  protection  of underground  sources   of  drinking  water,  research  is
focusing in the  following three areas:   (1)  improved  methods  for determining the
transport and transformation of  contaminants  in   the  subsurface;  (2)  methods  for
predicting the  behavior  of pollutants  in  aquifers  based on  subsurface  (site-
specific) characteristics  and   pollutant  characteristics;  and  3)  evaluation  of
aquifer in situ reclamation methods.

     In the transport  and  fate  area, acceleration of research  in  1984  will  permit
the study of the  interrelationship between biological  and non-biological  processes
affecting groundwater quality in  1985  in  order to include  this  data in predictive
models.  Specific attention will be given to  the interaction of injection materials
with geologic materials,  which  could affect transport  and tranformation processes.

     In the in situ aquifer restoration area,  resources  will be increased  slightly
in order  to~b~egin pilot  scale  evaluation  of  methods  judged  feasible and  cost-
effective in  1984 laboratory  studies.  Process  parameters  will  be selected  and
optimized  based  on  understanding of subsurface processes gained  in our transport
and fate research program.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is allocating a total of $4,834,900  and 24.5  total  work
years to  this  program,  of which $1,107,200  is  under the   Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $3,727,700  is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the Research  and
Development appropriation.

     Provide Scientific Methods  and Data for Protecton of Ground Water   Resources.
A number of parameters  have been identified which provide  information  on  the fate
and transport of contaminants   in  ground  water.   Research  will  be  developing and
evaluating improved methods  for using  these parameters (for example, oxidation re-
duction potential)  in  assessing  groundwater  contamination.   Such technology  is
                                        DW-20

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available for  surface  water,  but  not  for  ground  water.   The effects  of  well
materials and  sampling  methods  on  these parameters  is  being  evaluated.   Support
for  information   transfer  activities,  specifically  the  National    Groundwater
Information Center  and  the  International  Ground  Water  Modeling Clearinghouse  is
provided.  Laboratory studies  are investigating  how  organic chemicals  and  patho-
gens of  concern  behave  in the subsurface.   This area is  supplemented  by  research
in the Hazardous  Waste  decision  unit.   In  the  in  situ  aquifer  reclamation  area,
methods and data  are  being developed to  determine  the costs and applicability  of
practices which have  the  potential  for  success.   Research will also be  conducted
on the effects of the contaminant Temik in Florida ground water.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change  from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  a total  of $4,420,600  and 20.5  total  workyears
for this  program  of which $990,900  was under the Salaries and  Expenses Appropria-
tion and  $3,429,700 was for  extramural  purposes  under the  Research  and  Development
Appropriation.

     Provide  Scientific Methods  and Data for Protection of Groundwater Resources.
An articlewas  publishedon  "BiologicalTransformation of  Organic Pollutants  in
Ground Water."  The Sixth  National Groundwater Quality Symposium, entitled  "State,
County, Regional,  and  Municipal  Jurisdiction  of  Groundwater  Protection,"   was
held.  The  Third  National  Symposium  and Exposition  on  Aquifer Restoration  and
Groundwater Monitoring was  also  held.   A number of  short training sessions  were
conducted for EPA Region,  State,  and EPA headquarters Personnel  on  the  utilization
of groundwater models.
                                      DW-21

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

DRINKING WATER                                                                DW-1

    ABATEMENT X CONTROL
       Drinking Water Criteria, Standards & Guidelines	    DW-23
       Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance	    DW-28
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants	    DW-29
          Underground Injection Control Program Grants	    OW-31
          Special  Studies S Demonstrations	    DW-32
          Trai ni ng	    DW-33
       Drinking Water Management	    DW-34
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance	    DW-36
          Underground Injection Control Program	    DW-39
                                       DW-22

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                                   DRINKING WATER


                 Drinking Water Criteria, Standards and Guidelines
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total  of  $10,185,200  supported  by 103.5 total  workyears
for 1985, an increase  of $1,921,200  and  3.0 workyears from 1984.  Included in this
total is $5,640,000 for Salaries and Expenses and $4,545,200 for Abatement, Control
and Compliance.

Program Description

     This activity  represents the entire Headquarters  component  of  the drinking
water abatement and control program.   This involves the following:

     Regulations Development and Review:   EPA has the responsibility  to  review and
revise the  existing  NationalPrimary Drinking  Water Regulations  (NPDWR)  in  light
of latest  scientific   and  field  evidence  and,  as  necessary,  to  augment existing
regulations with standards  for newly identified  contaminants.

     Complementing enforceable  primary drinking water  regulations are health  ad-
visories.  They  are  used  principally to  guide  State  and  local authorities  in
deciding the course of action to take  in potentially health-threatening  situations
by providing  quantitative  limits  for transient  exposure.   Together,  regulatory
standards and  health  advisories serve as  benchmarks for  public health  protection
not only  for  drinking  water  supplies but also in   other environmental  programs.

     The Agency also has the  responsibility  for  establishing Underground Injection
Control (UIC)  program  regulations   for  preventing   contamination  of  underground
drinking water  sources by  well   injection  of  fluids.  The Safe  Drinking  Water Act
(SDUA) prohibits all underground injection  that  has  not been sanctioned  by  appro-
priate EPA  or  State regulations.  Regulations  detailing the minimum requirements
for operating programs were promulgated  in 1980.

     National  Stewardship of PWS and  UIC  Programs:   National  program  direction  for
the Public  Water  Systems Supervision (PWS) and Underground  Injection Control  pro-
grams is provided  by   Headquarters to  assure consistency  and  progress in  meeting
the goals of the SDWA.

     Ground-Water Protection:   The need  for ground-water  protection  is  a  growing
national concern highlighted by  the  increasing number of ground-water  contamination
cases being discovered by  the Agency's  hazardous waste  cleanup  efforts and  by the
water systems.  (About 80% of the top priority  Superfund  sites have contaminated
ground water.)  States and  communities  frequently  call  upon  the laboratory  and
technical  services  capacity   maintained  for  standards  development  to  assist  in
identifying, assessing,  and   controlling  contamination  of  public  water  systems
which poses a  human health  risk.   As cleanup  activities are  expanded  under  the
Hazardous Waste and Superfund programs to find and  confine  contamination sources,
more threats to drinking  water supplies  will  likely  be discovered.   This  will
increase the demand for such advisory services.


DRINKING WATER CRITERIA,  STANDARDS AND  GUIDELINES

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total of  $10,185,200  supported by  103.5  total workyears,
of which  $5,640,000 will  be  for the   Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation  and
$4,545,200 will be for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.   This
                                      DW-24

-------
represents an increase of  3.0  workyears  and $471,200 in the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation, which reflects  an Agency adjustment  of personnel  costs.   The  in-
crease of $1,450,000 in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation supports
an increased effort  in evaluating the health effects of both  regulated  and unregu-
lated contaminants  and a  study  on  surface impoundments  and  their  contamination
potential.

     Revision of the National  Primary Drinking  Water Regulations will  continue  to
be the focal  point  of  regulatory development efforts during 1985.  In  early  1985,
we expect to complete the  first  phase of the revision with  the proposal of maximum
contaminant levels  (MCLs)  for  volatile  organic  contaminants (VOCs)  followed  by
promulgation late  in the  year.   EPA will  promulgate  final  Phase  II  recommended
maximum contaminant  levels  (RMCLs)  and  simultaneously propose MCLs  in late  1985.
The final phases  of revising  the NPOWR,  Phase III (radionuclides)  and  Phase  IV
(disinfectant by-products  including  trihalomethanes) will  still  be  in the  early
stages of development  in  1985.   EPA  will  propose  RMCLs  during 1985 for   Phase
III.

     In addition, we will  continue  to complement the enforceable primary drinking
water standards  with health advisories  developed  from toxicological  information.
The demand for health  advisories has  increased  as the Agency's program  to clean  up
hazardous waste sites revealed  a  large number of unregulated contaminants in ground-
water supplies.  These  health  advisories  contain the  best scientific  information
on the health  risk.   With the increase  in  resources the  program will  enhance  the
scientific content  of  advisories  ensuring evaluation  for long-term  chronic,  as
well as  short-term,  exposures.  These  advisories  will then  better  support  their
use as criteria  for  emergency  response  and remedial  management decisions  in  other
environmental programs.

     The drinking water program will be faced with the challenge  of  the first year
of full national implementation  of the UIC  regulations.  EPA expects to be respon-
sible for full  or partial  programs  in  29  States and  for  most programs on  Indian
lands.  The program emphasis shifts  from delegating  primacy  programs  and developing
nonprimacy programs  to  program implementation.   The highest  priority  will  be  to
provide the guidance, and support  necessary  so that Regions  and  States  can implement
effective programs.  We  will  also continue  to  develop and exercise oversight  to
assure the adequacy of Regional and  State programs.

     In both the  UIC and  PWS  programs,  the Agency  will  continue to  collect  and
analyze compliance data  as well  as  compiling the  data into a  national report  on
progress of the  program  in meeting  the  goals of the Safe Drinking Water Act.   The
Agency will   sponsor  a  followup  study  of   surface  impoundments   to  determine  the
potential risk to ground water posed  by  the  various  types of  surface impoundments,
the feasibility and  cost of  their  control, the  effectiveness of  existing and pro-
spective State programs,  and the ability of  existing and potential  Federal regulatory
frameworks for dealing with such  problems.   The study will  also address surface dis-
posal of brine generated  during oil production.  Following completion  of this  study,
the Agency will  begin  analyzing the data  gathered  and  move forward  as warranted.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency  is allocating  a  total of  $8,264,000  supported  by  100.5
total workyears  for  this  program,  of  which  $5,168,800  is for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $3,095,200 is for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.  Extramural  funds  support  projects to  assemble the  latest  toxicologi-
cal information  on  contaminants  of  concern, to compile  data on  human  exposure  to
waterborne contaminants  which  may  support  new  primary  standards, to collect  data
on treatment technology,  performance  and cost, and the financial impact of regulatory
requirements, to provide analytic support and technical  expertise  to address ground-
water contamination  issues,  and  to  support   activities  for  developing   health
advisories.
                                       DW-25

-------
     Phases I and II of the development of  Revised  National  Primary  Drinking  Water
Regulations are  the focus  of the  program  in  1984.   Prior to  proposing Phase  I
RMCLs in February 1984, the Agency  continues to analyze  comments  received from the
workshops and scientific  data  to determine  health goals.  The Agency  is  reviewing
all comments  on the RMCLs,  as  well  as completing the  technology  and  monitoring
documents and the  Regulatory  Impact  Analyses,  in  anticipation  of  proposing  MCLs
in early 1985.  The Agency  will  propose RMCLs  for Phase  II in late  1984.  A  sepa-
rate proposal will also be  prepared  for fluorides based  upon the  Surgeon  General's
report as  part   of  the Phase II  revisions.  For  Phase  III  (radionuclides)  the
Agency is  about to begin  sampling  for the  radionuclide and inorganic  occurrence
survey prior to proposal of RMCLs and MCLs.  Finally, the Agency  is  reviewing  work
of the  research and development program  for  Phase  IV  regulations.  In  addition
to the  revisions  to the  drinking  water regulations, the  Agency  will continue to
develop health  advisories   which apply to  contaminants  not covered  by  existing
regulations.

     Because UIC delegation of primacy  did  not  proceed  as rapidly as  anticipated,
processing the remaining primacy  applications continues to be an  important  activity.
By the end  of 1984, we expect to  have approved  a total  of  28 full  and  8 partial
State programs.    The   Agency  will  also .operate  Federal  programs  in  nonprimacy
States and on several  Indian  lands  beginning in  March 1984.  We  will  also propose
regulations for  additional direct implementation  programs.

     In addition to oversight  activities,  the Agency's  concern with environmental
effects of Class I  (deep injection) wells has led to a study of 21 sites  to deter-
mine the extent  and magnitude  of the problem.  The Agency will begin  to  structure
a study  on surface impoundments which will  assist in  determining  their overall
contamination potential.  Meanwhile,  we are  continuing  to  provide  staff support
to the  Deputy  Administrator  in  the  development  of  the  Ground  Water  Protection
Strategy.  The Agency  is working on  final revisions to its Strategy, which focuses
on building State  institutional  capabilities,  assessing  major unregulated sources
of contamination  such   as   surface  impoundments   and  leaking  underground storage
tanks, creating  a policy for increased consistency and coherence  among EPA programs
protecting ground water, and improving EPA's institutional capability  by designating
organizational responsibility. 	  	 	  	  _	


1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the  amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated $8,017,000 supported  by  103.6 total   workyears
for this program, of which  $5,353,700 was  for the Salaries and Expenses  appropri-
ation and $2,663,300 was  for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.
Regulation development  and  review  activities  were  conducted on  various  phases  of
developing revised primary drinking water regulations.   As part of Phase  I (VOCs),
the Agency completed the  Ground  Water  Survey,  summarized comments  on the Advance
Notice of Proposed  Rulemaking  (published  in March  1982),  and  conducted  workshops
where EPA solicited comments and ideas  on  issues  connected with the  regulation  of
these contaminants.  Supporting documentation (14 occurrence and exposure documents,
nine health effects  criteria  documents, draft  technology and  cost  document,  and
draft analytical methods  document)  were  prepared.   The proposed RMCLs  for   VOCs
were developed and reviewed within  the Agency.

     The ANPRM  for  Phase  II  was  signed  by the  Administrator  in late  1983,   one
public workshop  was conducted,  and three  more  were  scheduled  for  1984.  Initial
development of  the  RMCLs  began  with  the  completion of  various  support  documents
and studies.   A  comprehensive  two-year national   survey  for inorganics and radio-
nuclides was developed  as the  first step  in the  revisions  for  Phases II and  III.
                                      DW-26

-------
     Health advisories were prepared for six additional  chemicals.   In  the  additives
program, the  Agency  reviewed  approximately  250  petitions,  published  the  first
edition of the National Academy of Science  Codex,  and  prepared a notice to  solicit
for third party certification of additives.

     By the end  of  1983,  the Agency  had approved  12 full  and 7 partial  State  UIC
programs.  In  addition,  the Agency proposed  in the Federal  Register Federal  UIC
programs for certain  nonprimacy  States and  Indian lands.  PWS  primacy was  dele-
gated to one Territory,  Northern  Marianas,  for the PWS program bringing  the  total
to 51.   In  the PWS  program, seminars  were  held on data  management  as  part  of  an
overall effort to provide  for  more accurate  and up-to-date compliance data.   The
Agency also  initiated  an  assessment  of  PWS  direct implementation  programs   both
in the States and on Indian lands. Technical  assistance was provided  to the States
through the development of  sanitary survey training manuals, a compendium of  State
management practices,   operator  certification  materials,   and  treatment  guides  for
small water  systems.   Staff support  was  provided  to  the  Deputy Administrator  for
the development of an  Agencywide Ground Water  Protection Strategy.

     The Agency's Ground  Water Task  Force reported to  the  Administrator  on  the
extent of ground-water contamination,  the  roles and relationships among  State  and
EPA programs,  inconsistencies  among  existing  EPA  programs  affecting ground-water
quality, and unaddressed  sources  of  contamination.  The  Task  Force arrayed alter-
native actions EPA  might  take to  improve  its  effectiveness  in each of these areas,
leading to the selection  of a proposed  strategy.
                                       DW-27

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                                   DRINKING WATER


                  Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $34,950,200  for the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation  of  which  $27,450,000  is  for  the Public  Water  Systems
Supervision Program (PWS)  Grants  and $7,500,200 is  for  the Underground  Injection
Control Program (UIC)  Grants.

Program Description

     The intent of  the  Safe Drinking  Water  Act is that  States  should assume  the
primary role for  implementing and enforcing  the drinking  water and  the  underground
injection control  regulations. Federal financial assistance, in the form of grants,
is provided to States to  develop  and maintain these programs.  To be eligible  for
grants, States must have primary  enforcement  responsibility.

     Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants  — The  program  provides grants
to States which have been delegated primary  enforcement  authority for  implementing
a Federally approved PWS  program.   EPA may also use the  funds  allotted to a  non-
primacy State to  defray the  cost of Federal  implementation  of  the program.   The
funds used by  EPA also support  travel associated with  Federal  implementation  of
the programs.

     Underground  Injection Control Program Grants —  This program  provides  grants
to support  StateactivitiesTnimplementingthe  Underground  Injection  Control
program.  As with the PWS  program,  EPA may use the funds allotted to a  nonprimacy
State for program  implementation and  travel  associated with support activities  in
nonprimacy States.

     Special  Studies and Demonstrations— This program includes resources  for  the
National Rural  Water Association  for training and technical  assistance  to  operators
of small rural  water systems.

     Training —  This  program includes funds  for  fellowships to  State  personnel  in
the public  water  systems  supervision and  underground  injection  control  program
areas and for academic  grants.


PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS SUPERVISION  PROGRAM GRANTS

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  $27,450,000-  for Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  ap-
propriation for public  water  systems  supervision  grants.  There  is no  change  from
1984 in the  funds requested  to  support  this  program.  These funds  will  support
programs to  supervise  the  application of primary  drinking water  regulations  by
public water systems in all  57 States and Territories, and  on  Indians  lands either
by the primacy States  or by EPA in nonprimacy States.

     During 1985  primary emphasis will  shift from compliance by  larger systems  to
improving the  compliance  rate among  small   systems, particularly  in  instances  of
violations posing serious health threats.  States will conduct sanitary  surveys of
these systems to  identify  potential  or existing  problems and to evaluate  the  as-
sociated risks.  In the course of these surveys, the  States  will  conduct  reviews of
the files (general, chemical, and bacteriological files), self-monitoring  reports,
                                      DW-29

-------
complaints against the  systems,  and monthly operating and  monitoring  reports;  in-
vestigate the  supply,  treatment,  and distribution facility;  sample  (as  required);
notify systems  of  findings; and  follow  up to determine if progress is  being made
and provide technical  assistance  as necessary.  In cases  of  persistent  violations
where no progress is indicated, the States will initiate formal enforcement activi-
ties.  Another  major 1985 activity  will  be the revision  of programs  to include the
development of  laboratory   capability  to  support  implementation  of the  volatile
organic contaminants regulations and to strive toward full  compliance with existing
regulations.

     In addition to these  priority  activities, the grants  will  support  activities
to maintain existing programs including data management and compilation of required
annual reports,  preparation of grant  applications,  development of  program plans,
financial management activities, and emergency response.


1984 Program

     The Agency  is  allocating  $27,450,000  for  public  water systems  supervision
grants to 57  States, Territories  and Indian lands  under  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.   Fifty-three  States are  receiving grants (one  develop-
mental grant  to  Pennsylvania),   and  EPA  is  using   the  funds  allocated  to  the
remaining States for  EPA direct  implementation  activities.  The grant  funds  sup-
port basic  PWS programs, including such  activities  as  laboratory  certification,
on-site evaluations in  cases of persistent  violations of  regulatory requirements,
and initiation  of  enforcement  actions  as  necessary.   The  States  are  working  to
bring the  systems  in  violation  of  the  trihalomethane maximum  contaminant  levels
(MCLs) and  monitoring  and  reporting  requirements   into  compliance.   They  are
working toward  improved  compliance  among  small  systems  by developing  State  com-
pliance strategies and  goals.   These strategies  will  provide  for  a  State-specific
compliance target,  particularly focusing on  small  systems  with serious violations.
The strategies  acknowledge  that  the  small  systems  are  usually  under  financial
constraints and offer alternative methods for achieving and maintaining compliance.
The State  agencies  also make  their  expertise   available  in   implementing  these
strategies.

     The grants  also   support  management  activities  such as   fiscal   management,
program planning, employee training, and emergency response.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     The Agency  obligated  $27,654,600  under the  Abatement, Control  and  Compliance
appropriation for public water  system  supervision  grants to  the  57  States  and
Territories.  The Agency's   general  grant  regulations  allowed  EPA  to  use  grant
funds allotted to nonprimacy  States for direct  implementation activities.   Grants
were awarded to  primacy  States,  and EPA used  the  funds  allotted to  the  nonprimacy
States for implementation of the Federal  programs.

     State programs  focused  on achieving  and  maintaining  compliance  among  public
water systems.  Data indicated that the large  systems  were  generally in  compliance
while many of the smaller  systems were facing  major  problems.   These small  systems
are typically the ones  with  financial constraints  and  limited experienced  personnel.
To improve compliance among  these systems the States provided guidance and assistance
in determining causes and corrective actions  for MCL  violations.   Where  corrective
action was not taken or  no  progress made,  the  State  agencies  initiated enforcement
actions.
                                      DW-30

-------
     The grants  also  supported  management  activities  such as  program planning,
financial management,  implementation of regulatory changes,  employee training, and
response to contamination incidents.


UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM GRANTS

1985 Program Request
                                         i
     The Agency  requests  $7,500,200 for grants  under the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.  There is  no  change  in the funding level of  the  program
from 1984.  The funds will support  implementation of  underground injection  control
programs for all 57 States  and Territories  and  Indian  lands.  EPA will use  grant
funds allotted to  nonprimacy States to  support  direct implementation  activities.

     Fiscal year 1985 will  be the  first  full  year  of  implementation  by both EPA
and many  of  the States.  With the  completion of the developmental phase  of the
program, emphasis will  be redirected to support such activities as permit  review
and issuance,   assessment  of Class  V (miscellaneous  injection)  wells,   witnessing
mechanical integrity tests,  and  compliance monitoring.   The States and EPA will
conduct on-site  inspections  of wells,  following up  on  recalcitrant  violators of
permit conditions and  initiating enforcement  actions as necessary.   In the area
of permit  reviews,  highest  priority is placed  on review and  issuance   of  permits
for existing Class  I  wells   (those  which may  inject  hazardous  waste) and existing
Class III wells  (which  are  used to  extract minerals).   Following  the  issuance of
these permits, the States and EPA will be encouraged  to process  applications  for all
new oil and gas  wells (Class II) in  order to prevent  the disruption of  oil  produc-
tion.

     The grant funds also support other activities such as program  planning,  finan-
cial management, employee training,  and response  to  emergencies.


1984 Program

     The Agency  is  allocating  $7,500,200 "for  grants  under  the'Abatement,   Control
and Compliance  appropriation to support  implementation of underground injection
control programs  in  all  57  States and Territories  and on Indian  lands   either
directly by the States  or by EPA in nonprimacy  States.  The States and  EPA are at
various stages  of  program implementation.   States  with primacy  are  issuing per-
mits for  existing  Class I and  III  wells  and new Class II  facilities,   conducting
assessments of Class V wells, ensuring  closure  of Class IV wells  (those  that  inject
into an  aquifer),   witnessing  mechanical  integrity  tests, reviewing   compliance
monitoring, and conducting surveillance and  inspection of permitted wells.

     EPA is not  beginning full program  implementation  in  nonprimacy States  until
mid-1984.  At  this  time, we  are  establishing  the  administrative and  procedural
framework for  program implementation and  beginning  review  of permit applications,
assessing Class  V  wells, and  initiating the  closure  of   Class  IV wells.    These
Class IV wells must be  closed  within six months  after promulgation  of the program.
Both the  States  and EPA  are  required to maintain  inventory data  and   compile an
annual report  of monitoring  and  compliance  data.  The States and  EPA also  provide
for emergency response capability.


1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.
                                       DW-31

-------
1983 Accomplishments

     During 1983 the Agency  obligated  $7,039,000 under the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation to  support  underground  injection  control program  grants.
The major  grant-supported activity  was  the  review  of  existing State  laws  and
regulations and preparation  of  regulatory  and  statutory  amendments  in  order  to
conform to Federal  regulatory  requirements  for program  delegation.   Nineteen  State
programs were approved  for primacy by the end  of 1983.   Activities in  these  States
centered around establishing permit programs (and issuance of  permits), initiating
Class V  inventories,  and  ensuring the  closure  of  Class  IV  wells.    Training  was
also provided to well  operators  on  the  requirements of the UIC program.  EPA  used
the funds allotted  to  nonprimacy States to perform aquifer mapping, inventory  up-
dates, data management, and training.

     State-specific programs  were  also  developed for  each Federal  implementation
program and were published in the Federal  Register on  September 2, 1983.


SPECIAL STUDIES AND DEMONSTRATIONS

1985 Program Request

     No funding is  requested  for 1985.   The  Agency  believes that the National
Rural Water Association has demonstrated the effectiveness of  grass  roots training
and technical assistance programs to benefit small  systems and that  the individual
State associations should be able to move toward self-sufficiency through the  use
of organizational  dues and training  fees.


1984 Program

     The Agency is  allocating  $1,900,000 for  grants  under the Abatement,  Control
and Compliance  appropriation  to support  the training and  technical assistance
activities of  the  National  Rural  Water  Association.    The  National  Association,
through 31  State   associations,   provides  guidance  and  instructions to   public
water systems  on   determining   compliance,   problem solution,  and  prevention  of
future problems.  Five  State associations  are  working  closely with  Indian  Nations
and the  Indian  Health Service in  developing training  programs  focusing  on  water
systems on Indian  lands.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the  Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     The Agency obligated  $1,900,000  for grants  under  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation  in  support  of  the  National  Rural  Water Association's
outreach program.   Each of the  31 State  associations  conducted at  least 12  work-
shops where  operators  of  small  rural  water  systems  were  provided training  and
guidance on complying with the Safe  Drinking Water Act.   In addition  to  training,
the State  associations  responded to   an   estimated  10,000  technical assistance
requests from  rural  systems.  Five  State  associations  provided  training designed
specifically for Indian lands.
                                       DW-32

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TRAINING

1985 Program Request                                                                                -

     No funds are  requested  for this  program in  1985.   The  Agency believes that                 ™
there are  sufficient   opportunities  for -State  personnel  to  obtain  training  in
environmental and public health fields  without Federal  support.

                                         1
                                         I
1984 Program

     The Agency  is  allocating $200,000 for  grants  under the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation to provide for training of State  Agency personnel.  These
funds will provide  training in  the  form ,of  fellowships  to State Agency personnel
in areas  related  to public water  systems  supervision and  underground  injection
control.
                                         i

1984 Explanation of Changes from the  Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.


1983 Accomplishments

     During 1983 the  Agency  obligated  $200,000 for  grants under  the Abatement,
Control and  Compliance  appropriation.   The funds  supported  academic training  for
108 State  agency  personnel.   Of these,  10 went  to State  personnel  directly  in-
volved in  State UIC  programs  and the remainder  provided training  to  employees
directly involved in State PWS programs.
                                      DW-33

-------
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                                    DRINKING WATER


                             Drinking Water Management
Budget Request
     The Agency requests  a  total  of $9,640,100 supported by  261.9  total  workyears
for 1985 for the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation.   This  represents an increase
over the 1984 level  of  $1,153,100  and  10.0  workyears,  reflecting increased efforts
in Underground Injection Control (UIC)  permitting in nonprimacy States.

Program Description

     This subactivity,  which  consists  of two major  Regional  programs, encompasses
EPA Regional efforts to prevent and  control the  contamination of drinking  water
supplies and their sources.              ,

     Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance — This  program  consists
of Regional activities  related  to  national  implementation of  drinking water  regu-
lations.  The Regional  Offices  provide oversight  and  support to primacy  States
in administering  public  water  systems  supervision  (PWS)  programs and  implement
programs in those States which do not have primacy and  on Indian lands  where States
do not have civil jurisdiction.  The Regions assist  States  where specific problems
are identified,  evaluate  State programs,, and  award the  PWS  grants.    The  Regions
continue to respond  to  contamination incidents  which may potentially  affect public
water supplies.

     Underground Injection Control  Program —  This  program  consists  of  Regional
activities related to  theprotection  of underground  water sources.    The  Regions
are responsible for  ensuring  implementation of  the Underground  Injection  Control
Regulations, either  through oversight  and  assistance to primacy  States  or  Federal
implementation in nonprimacy States and on Indian lands.  They are also responsible
for review of sole  source  aquifer  designatioji  petitions.   Grant awards for the UIC
program are also" administered  by" the" Regions.


PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS SUPERVISION PROGRAM ASSISTANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  $4,999,700 for Salaries  and  Expenses supported  by  132.4
total  workyears   for  this  program.  This  represents  an  increase  of   $300,500  in
the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation over  1984 to  reflect an Agency  adjust-
ment of personnel costs and a  decrease  of  $20,000  in  the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     During 1985,  we expect to delegate primary enforcement  responsibility to  two
additional  States, bringing the total  to 54.  EPA  will  negotiate with  each  State
specific annual  targets for reducing the violation  rate.   Although  the PWS  program
has a high rate  of  compliance  with existing standards  and  reporting  requirements,
the systems remaining out  of  compliance tend to be small systems,  either recalci-
trant  or clearly  lacking  the  ability to comply.   EPA has  issued  a national  com-
pliance strategy  which  urges  States  to rank  violations  and  address  them  in  a
systematic  fashion.

     While the Regions continue  to  encourage the remaining States to  assume primacy,
they also will  be responsible  for implementing  Federal  PWS  programs  in  three States
and on Indian lands.  Federal  programs will  focus on compliance with  microbiological
and turbidity maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) as well  as  monitoring and reporting
requirements,  particularly among small  systems.  The Regions will  focus on informal
enforcement measures to assure  compliance   including  site  visits.   Recalcitrant
                                      DW-35

-------
violators will be referred for formal enforcement action.  The Regional Offices will
also work with the  systems  in  implementing and improving compliance  with  trihalo-
methane (THM) regulations.  EPA  is  allowed use of the PWS grant funds  allotted  to
nonprimacy States for conducting program activities.

     The Regions are  also  responsible  for  oversight  of primacy States, which  will
include working with the States  in  achieving increased compliance particularly for
microbiological  and turbidity MCLs and for  the inorganic and radionuclide standards.
As part  of  this effort,  the Regional  Offices  will  negotiate  compliance targets
with States and  follow up to ensure that the States are making progress in  achieving
their goals.  They  will  guide  and  assist  States  before the  actual  implementation
of the  volatile  organic  compounds  regulations as  well  as  certify the  necessary
laboratories for conducting required analyses.

     The Regions will  respond  to contamination of  public  water supplies, usually
by a  ground-water  source located in the vicinity  of hazardous  waste  sites.   They
will take an active role in these situations  by working with the States in  gathering
information, assessing  the  health  impacts,  and  establishing  the  necessary EPA
groundwork to develop an EPA and State response.  The  Agency will negotiate an  action
plan with  the  States  which  will  delineate  cleanup  responsibilities  and  time
schedules.  At the same time, they will make available to the States  and  utilities
their services and expertise on  determining health effects  and levels  of contamina-
tion, investigating pathways of contamination, and advising  on the proper procedures
to correct the situation.


1984 Program

     The Agency  is allocating a total  of $4,719,200  supported by 132,4  total  work-
years for this program,  of which $4,699,200 is  for the Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
priation and $20,000  is  for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation.
We expect one  additional  State  to  assume  primacy during  1984  for a total  of  52
primacy States.   EPA will implement the program on  Indian lands and  in  the  remaining
five nonprimacy  States.   The Regions  are  continuing  to work  with these nonprimacy
States to encourage their assumption of primacy.

     The Agency  is  emphasizing  increased  compliance  in  nonprimacy States,  parti-
cularly among small systems.   They are focusing on decreasing the number of persis-
tent violations  of microbiological  requirements and  chronic  violations of  inorganic
and radiological   requirements.   The Regions  are  conducting informal  enforcement
activities (phone calls, letters, on-site visits)  in  an  effort to achieve  increased
compliance.  Enforcement actions are being initiated when no action has been taken
or progress is  not  being made.  In addition,  the Regions  are working  toward  full
compliance with  the THM  regulations by providing  guidance and technical assistance
to those systems having problems meeting the regulatory  requirements.   Information
and experience gained during  implementation will be used by  Headquarters in revising
the THM regulations during Phase IV  of the  regulatory process.  Other  activities  in
nonprimacy States include certifying laboratories, preparing  inventory  updates and
preparing annual   reports.   The  Agency uses  the  PWS  grant  allotments of the  non-
primacy States to support these activities  in the  nonprimacy  States.

     Regional oversight  activities are focusing on State  compliance  rates  to  deter-
mine the  effectiveness  of the programs  and on progress  in  meeting  environmental
goals.  The Regional  Offices  provide technical assistance and guidance  to the  States
in implementing the  THM regulations  as  well as  in  identifying specific  problems
and corrective actions in emergency  situations.  They also  ensure proper management
of the grant program.

     The Regions are  responsible for  planning, implementing, and evaluating  State
program activities as part of Regional management  responsibilities.   Responsibili-
ties include providing input into the development of  National policies  and regula-
tions, and  responding to  Congressional  inquiries   and  citizen  complaints.  The
                                       DW-37

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Regions also  are  assessing underground  and  surface water  contamination  incidents
which may affect public  water  supplies,  advising  programs  on  precautions  necessary
to protect  public  health,  and  coordinating  activities  with  Superfund  and  other
emergency response programs  at  the Regional,  State,  and local levels when  public
water supplies are involved. They are working with the National program in  providing
health advice  on  the toxicology of  unregulated  contaminants   identified  in  public
water supplies.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$290,500 results from the following  actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$290,500) Several  reprogrammings were made to this activity
which were not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   These
changes resulted in a net  increase  of  +$24,600 to the  Salaries and Expenses  appro-
priation and a  net  increase of +$20,000  to  the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

     An additional reprogramming was mace moving all non-program specific  "support"
type expense dollars into the Regional  Support program element.  This  reprogramming
to Salaries  and Expenses,  totaling -$335,100,  was  included  in  a  reprogramming
letter to Congress on September 29, 1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     During 1983 the Agency obligated $4,622,300 supported by  130.9 total  workyears
for this program,  of which $4,458,600 was for  the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation
and $163,700  was  for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.   The
program continued to  support  State activities aimed at assuring  implementation  of
drinking water regulations.  The Region VII office  worked  closely  with Iowa  in  the
transition period before  it  returned primacy  to the State.  The  Agency also dele-
gated primacy to the Northern Mariana Islands, bringing  the total  number of primacy
States and Territories to 51.  EPA was  responsible for  implementing programs  in  the
remaining nonprimacy States and on Indian lands.

     In the six nonprimacy States and on Indian  lands, Regional activities focused on
assuring compliance among small  systems.  The Regions  emphasized compliance efforts
in those systems which persistently  violated monitoring  requirements  or that posed
serious health threats.   They conducted sanitary surveys,  which  are the primary means
of technical assistance to systems with  water quality problems.  When violations were
detected,  the Regions  issued warnings and initiated formal followup.  They also main-
tained and analyzed data  on  compliance.   They assisted community  systems  with  MCL
violations in an effort to help solve individual  problems.  Other activities included
preparing annual   reports  on the  program's progress, updating inventory   data  and
providing  technical  assistance and guidance as requested,  and  developing strategies
for delegating the PWS program to  the remaining nonprimacy States.

     Regional  overview of  primacy  States  focused  on  State program accountability
to foster improved compliance.  Regions  provided assistance to  States  in  verifying
the accuracy of their data systems.  Approximately  half the States have  also  prepared
compliance strategies. Regions  also reviewed and approved State grant  applications,
conducted  on-site reviews of State activities,  and conducted audits of  State grants.

     Regional  management   activities  included  the  administrative  and compliance
support for both  primacy and  nonprimacy  States  such  as  responding  to  Congress-
ional  inquiries and  citizen complaints  and  analyzing  nationwide  compliance data
for inclusion   into  annual  reports.   They  provided assistance  to the States   in
revising their programs  to  include any  regulatory updates.   Coordination of  the
PWS program with other related programs  at the Regional and State levels was expanded
to ensure  adequate protection of drinking water sources in the event of contamination
incidents.
                                      DW-38

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UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  $4,640,400  supported by  129.5  total  workyears under  the
Salaries and Expenses  appropriation,  an increase  of $872,600  and  10.0 workyears
over 1984.  The increase will support increased UIC permitting  in nonprimacy  States
by EPA in 1985 as well  as an Agency adjustment for  personnel  costs.

     Agency activities related to the protection of underground sources  of  drinking
water are divided  into the  following  areas:   oversight  of States with  primacy  for
UIC programs, implementation of programs in nonprimacy States, designation of  sole
source aquifers, and Regional management.

     Oversight of primacy States will  include  reviewing  State  activities to  ensure
program consistency and to  evaluate environmental progress on  ground  water protec-
tion.  The  Regions  will  review annual  State  compliance and monitoring reports  to
assess compliance with  the regulations as well  as identify problem areas  and provide
technical assistance on mechanical  integrity  testing and  permit application review.

     Direct Federal programs in  nonprimacy  States  will   be  in  the first full year
of implementation.  During 1985 Regional activities will focus on  reviewing  permit
applications for existing Class  I  and  III wells  (deep injection  and mining), which
present the  greatest  danger to  underground  sources of   drinking water, new Class
II wells  (oil   and  gas),  witnessing  mechanical   integrity  tests,  and assessing
Class V  wells  (miscellaneous)  to  determine  the need  for  regulation.   They will
monitor compliance  reports  and provide assistance to the  operators  as necessary.
In cases  of serious non-compliance  or where  no action  is  being  made  to correct
deficiencies, the Regional  Offices will initiate  enforcement  actions.   They will
maintain inventory data  and prepare  an annual  report of State  activities.  As  in
primacy States, they will begin  to conduct  a technical   review of program  require-
ments to determine  if  regulatory  changes  are needed.   The  UIC  grant  funds will
partially support these nonprimacy State activities.

     In addition  to protecting  underground  sources of  drinking water from con-
tamination caused by  improper  injection practices, the  Agency is responsible  for
designating and protecting  sole  source aquifers from contamination.  During 1985,
the Agency  expects  to  designate  three  aquifers as  sole   sources  of drinking  water.
The Agency  is  also responsible  for  ensuring  that  Federally financed  projects  in
the recharge area  of  a  sole source  aquifer  will  not  potentially contaminate  the
designated  aquifer.


1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is  allocating  $3,767,800 supported by 119.5 total workyears
to this program  under  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.  During the  second
half of 1984 the Agency will begin implementing Federal  UIC  programs  in nonprimacy
States and  programs on  Indian  lands.   In  addition to ensuring  the  implementation
of the  UIC  regulations,  the Regions  are responsible  for  implementing  the  sole
source aquifer  program,  providing  coordination of  ground-water  activities,   and
conducting  Regional management activities.

     The Regions also are continuing to  process the remaining State primacy  applica-
tions and are negotiating with States on program plans and implementation  activities.
For those States  with  primacy, the Regional  offices are reviewing compliance  and
monitoring  reports  and  providing  guidance  and assistance on  mechanical integrity
testing and technical  program requirements.  They are reviewing  the States'  annual
report data and  processing  the  information  for compilation  into the  annual  report
of program  accomplishments.  They are also  responsible  for  managing  the  State
grant program,  which  includes  review of program plans,   negotiating changes, grant
award, and  grant audit.
                                       DW-39

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     In the direct implementation programs,  activities  are focusing  on working  with
facility operators to  notify them  of the  UIC requirements,  issuing  permits  for
existing Class  I  and III  and  new Class  II   facilities  (in  order  to prevent  the
disruption of oil  and  gas  production).   Another  major  activity  will  be  ensuring
that Class  IV wells are properly  closed  within  six  months  of promulgation  and
initiating the  assessment  of Class V  wells  to determine regulatory need.  Other
activities will  include updating inventory  data and  witnessing mechanical  integrity
tests.  The Agency  is  using the  Underground  Injection  Control grants allotted  to
these nonprimacy programs to support its  implementation  activities.

     The Regions will  continue  to process applications  for sole source  aquifers.
We anticipate three  designations  during   1984.   The Agency  is reviewing  proposed
Federally financed projects on sole source1 aquifers to ensure they will not  endanger
the sole source aquifer.


1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of  -$332,100 results  from the  following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$332,100)  A   reprogramming was  made  to   this   activity
which was not reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This
change resulted  in a net increase of  +$25,000 to  the Salaries and  Expenses  appro-
priation.

     An additional  reprogramming was made moving all  non-program  specific  "support"
type expense dollars into the Regional  Support program  element.  This  reprogramming
to Salaries  and Expenses,  totaling -$357,100,  was included in  a  reprogramming
letter to Congress on September  29,  1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     The Agency  obligated  $3,458,600  supported  by 100.6 total workyears under  the
Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation^   The_funds  were  used _to support activities
related to the protection of ground water."  ~  	""

     During 1983,   the  program  focused   on  processing   primacy applications.   The
Regions worked  with  the   States  in developing  their programs, negotiated  changes
and processed final  applications  to Headquarters.   The  Regions  also  managed  the
UIC grant program  and  provided  guidance  and  assistance  in  response to technical
aspects of the  program to those States which  had already been delegated  primacy.

    The Regions  developed  State-specific nonprimacy programs  which were  proposed
in the Federal Register  on  September 2,  1983.   The Agency  conducted  inventories  of
existing wells,  provided   for the  mapping of  aquifers,  and ensured  that the  proper
procedural framework for  implementation  activities  such  as the  permit  process
and Class V assessment  were established.

     The Regions  continued to  review  petitions  for aquifer  designations.   They
also reviewed a limited  number  of  Federally  financed  projects to  ensure no  con-
tamination potential  exists.
                                       DW-40

-------
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                1985 Budget Estimate
                                 Table of Contents
                                                                              PAGE
DRINKING WATER                                                                DW-1
    ENFORCEMENT
       Drinking Water Enforcement	    DW-42
                                      DW-41

-------
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                                   DRINKING WATER


                             Drinking Water Enforcement
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a total of  $1,374,500  supported by 34.7 total  workyears
for  1985 for this  subactivity  under the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.   This
represents an  increase of  $260,700  and  5.0  workyears  from  1984.   This  program
element includes both Headquarters and Regional resources.

Program Description

     The Safe Drinking Water Act  (SDWA) charges EPA to establish minimum requirements
for  programs to assure that all drinking water supplies are free from contamination
and  to  protect  underground  sources  of drinking  water from  contamination  arising
from unsafe  injection  practices.   The  Act,  however,  clearly  intended that  the
States would be responsible for enforcing these programs.  Should a State be unable
or unwilling to do so, EPA would assume the responsibility.

     Drinking Water Enforcement —  This program  encompasses enforcement  for  two
Agency programs.

     The Public Water Systems  (PWS) Supervision program is responsible for assuring
the  implementation of the drinking water regulations either by oversight of primacy
States or  by  direct  implementation  in  nonprimacy  States  and  Indian  lands.   The
enforcement activities associated with this program include providing legal  support
against violators  of  the  statutory  provisions  in  nonprimacy  jurisdictions.   As
part of this, the Regions are responsible for developing the technical and supporting
documentation for enforcement actions, providing expert testimony, and participating
in negotiations with  violators.   Other  enforcement  responsibilities  include  review
of primacy applications for conformance with enforcement requirements and developing
critical data relating to  emergency  actions  in the  face_ of imminent health hazards
under Section 1431 of the SDWA.

     The Underground  Injection Control  (UIC) program is  responsible  for preventing
the  contamination  of underground  sources  of  drinking water  by  unsafe injection
practices.   The enforcement program participates in  the  review  of  primacy  applica-
tions, ensuring that  all  enforcement  requirements  are  met.   In nonprimacy  States,
activities center  on  working with the drinking water  personnel to develop  Federal
programs for nonprimacy States and  Indian  lands,  reviewing permits for administra-
tive and legal  considerations,  initiating  enforcement actions against  violators,
and  providing assistance in emergencies  as  necessary.


DRINKING WATER  ENFORCEMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of  $1,374,500  supported  by 34.7 total  workyears
for this program for 1985 in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.   This  increase
of $260,700 and 5.0 workyears over 1984  will  cover permitting activities associated
with the  full   implementation  of  the  UIC  program  in  nonprimacy  jurisdictions.

     During 1985 enforcement activities  in  the PWS program will  focus on compliance
with microbiological   and  turbidity  maximum contaminant levels, particularly  among
small systems.   As  part of  this  compliance effort, the  enforcement program  will
work with the  drinking water  program personnel  in negotiating compliance  targets
and schedules  with the  systems   in  violation of  the maximum  contaminant  level.
They will  continue to  supply  the technical  support in legal  actions  taken  against
                                      DW-43

-------
recalcitrant violators.  This  will  include  developing  the technical  and  support
documentation for  cases  referred to  EPA's  Office  of  Enforcement  and Compliance
Monitoring and ultimately  the  Department  of Justice, as  well as providing  testi-                   >
mony.  They  will  provide  support for cases  referred  by State authorities if  they                  I
choose to pursue violations under Federal  law.                                                       ™

     Regional enforcement  activities   for  the  UIC   program  will   focus   on  the
administrative aspects of  permit  issuance in nonprimacy jurisdictions.  This  will
involve the administrative  review of the application, working with the drinking water
personnel on the review of the technical aspects, conduct  of  hearings  as  required,
and issuance of  the  final  permit.  They  will  review  compliance reports to  ensure
adherence to the  regulations  and,   as  necessary,  initiate  enforcement   actions.


1984 Program

     The Agency  is allocating  $1,113,800  supported  by 29.7 total workyears  during
1984 in the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.  The  enforcement program is working
closely with the drinking  water  program in implementing the  compliance strategies
for public water systems  supervision programs  and  with the  States in developing
compliance targets and providing  alternative ways which  compliance  can  be  achieved
and maintained especially  for  small  systems.  They  are  conducting  the  enforcement
aspects of  Federal  programs  in   nonprimacy  States  and Indian  lands, initiating
formal enforcement proceedings against  recalcitrant violators,  preparing the back-
up and technical  documents  for the Office  of Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring,
and providing testimony  in support  of  the  cases.  They are  also   responsible for
reviewing the enforcement section of primacy applications.

     During 1984, the Regions are beginning  implementation of UIC programs in  non-
primacy States and  Indian  lands.   Activities  focus  on  reviewing  the  legal  and
administrative aspects of  UIC  permits  to  be issued.    Regions  will be initiating
formal enforcement actions  against operators not complying  with  the  UIC regulations
and reviewing additional primacy  applications.   To  ensure  adequate  provisions for    -----
enforcement of the program, the Regions  are assisting  in the development of Federal
programs for programs not delegated  to the States during 1984.
1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$16,800 results  from  the  following  action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$16,800)  A  reprogramming  was  made moving all  non-program
specific "support1  type expense dollars into the Regional  Support program  element.
This reprogramming  to  Salaries and  Expenses,  totaling -$16,800, was included  in
a reprogramming letter to Congress on September 29, 1983.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  $785,500  supported  by 21.7 total workyears  for
this program  under  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.  During  1983,  EPA
referred nine  civil  actions  for violations of the  Safe Drinking Water Act to  the
Department of Justice for filing and prosecution.

     Drinking water enforcement activities also  included  participation  in  develop-
ment activities for the Federal UIC programs  for  nonprimacy States and  Indian  lands
and review  of  draft and  final  UIC  State  program approval applications.   Nineteen
programs were approved by the end of 1983.
                                                                                                    A
                                      DW-44

-------
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents
                                                                              PAGE

HAZARDOUS WASTE                                                               HW-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Hazardous Waste Research	     HW-8
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Waste Management Regulations,  Guidelines and Policies	     HW-25
          Regulations, Guidelines & Policies - Hazardous Waste	     HW-27
       Fi nancial  Assistance	."	     HW-31
          Hazardous Waste Management  Financial Assistance to States	     HW-32
       Waste Management Strategies Implementation	     HW-35
          Hazardous Waste Management  Regulatory Strategies Implementation.     HW-36
    ENFORCEMENT
       Hazardous Waste Enforcement	     HW-41.
                                      HW-1

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                                  HAZARDOUS WASTE

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     Subtitle C  of  the Resource Conservation  and  Recovery Act of  1976  (RCRA),  as
amended, provides the legislative mandate  for  the  Federal  development  of effective
national programs to  regulate  hazardous  wastes from  generation,  through transpor-
tation, storage,  or treatment,  to  disposal.   RCRA  also imposes  significant  civil
and criminal penalties  for  failure  to comply with Federal  requirements.   The RCRA
program is  designed to  respond comprehensively  to  the  environmental  and  public
health problems  caused  by hazardous  wastes.   It does  this  through regulatory deve-
lopment, State  program authorization, permit  issuance,  enforcement,  and  research
and development.

STRENGTHENING THE REGULATORY PROGRAM

     The Agency's  strategy   for the  hazardous waste  program  involves  regulating
those wastes  or  processes  that are not  currently  covered  or  are  inadequately
covered under existing  RCRA  regulations.   It provides national guidance and over-
sight to the Regions  and  States for  implementing the  hazardous waste  program,  and
it includes reviewing  and revising  existing hazardous waste  regulations  for areas
that provide the greatest environmental  benefits.

     The Agency  promulgated  the core RCRA regulations between May 1980  and July
1982.  The  regulations establish  lists  and  characteristics  of hazardous  waste
(Section 3001);  generator  and   transporter  requirements  (Sections 3002  and  3003);
financial responsibility,  interim  status, and  technical  permitting standards  for
new and  existing storage,  treatment, and  disposal  facilities  (Section  3004);  and
requirements for State programs and permitsJSections  3005 and 3006).

     Since promulgating the  core regulations, the  Agency has  embarked  on an inten-
sive effort to   finalize  the hazardous  waste  regulatory  program.   However,  gaps
still exist in  the  coverage of the  RCRA  hazardous  waste program.   To  fill  these
gaps, the Agency is reviewing  additional  listings of hazardous  wastes,  focusing
particularly on  the organic  chemical industry.   The Agency   is  re-examining  the
small quantity  generator  exclusion.  It  is  also  undertaking the  following  major
new regulatory  efforts  in 1984 and  1985:   Waste  oil;  boilers  burning  hazardous
waste; restricting certain wastes from land disposal;  and air emissions from hazar-
dous waste facilities.  The Agency will also  begin the remaining  RCRA  Section 8002
large volume studies in 1985.

     The Agency  will  propose land  disposal liner  standards,  promulgate  regulatory
amendments for  liquids  in landfills  and  class permits for  storage  facilities,  and
propose amendments for  underground  tanks  and miscellaneous hazardous  waste  stand-
ards.  Regulatory impact analyses to  support  these  efforts will identify potential
areas for  increased  program  effectiveness  and  cost  savings.   The  preliminary
findings of a  recent survey,  undertaken  to develop  data bases to support  regulatory
impact analyses,  suggest  that  as  much  as 150  million metric tons  of  hazardous
waste were generated in 1981,  compared  to previous annual  estimates of  40 million
metric tons.

DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS

     One of the Agency's  highest RCRA  program priorities  in  1984  and 1985  is  to
authorize States  to operate their  own  hazardous  waste  programs  in  lieu of  the
Federal regulatory program.   State  programs  are authorized  in phases:  Phase  I  -
manifest and interim  status  standards;  Phase  IIA  - permitting tanks,  containers,
and piles; Phase IIB  - permitting  incineration facilities;  and  Phase  IIC  - per-
mitting land disposal  facilities and  surface  impoundments.   The Agency has already
granted interim  authorization  to  States   and  Territories  whose  programs  provide
substantially  equivalent coverage to that  of the RCRA  regulations.
                                        HW-3

-------
     State programs  became eligible  for  full authorization  in  January  1983.   In
accordance with RCRA  statutory  requirements,  interim authorization will  expire  in
January 1985.   States  with interim  authorization  must receive  full  authorization
by that date  or the responsibility to  operate  their hazardous waste program  will
revert to  EPA.   However,  States  which  miss  the  deadline can continue  to develop
programs for  full  authorization  at  a later date.   The Agency assists  the States  to
upgrade their program  capabilities  to  meet Federal  standards.   It  also provides
guidance on development  of applications for full  authorization and approves  State
applications.  By  the  end  of  1985,  the  Agency estimates 40  States to be fully  au-
thorized and  an  additional 11 States will  have applications under Agency  review.

     In addition to program development guidance, the  Agency will  continue to pro-
vide financial  assistance  to  States to encourage  them to accept and to implement
their own hazardous waste  program,  as  RCRA envisions.   If States do not  have  in-
terim or full authorization, the Agency  must administer the RCRA  program.  However,
since Agency  policy  encourages  State participation  even  prior  to  authorization,
Cooperative Arrangements allow  States  to  operate  parts   of the RCRA   program  on
behalf of the Agency and to receive financial  assistance.

ISSUING RCRA PERMITS

     The issuance  of environmentally  sound  permits  is another major RCRA priority.
The ultimate  success  of RCRA rests  on  national progress  in  permitting  treatment,
storage, and disposal  facilities.  In 1982, the Agency, in cooperation with interim
authorized States, began processing permits for storage and  treatment of hazardous
wastes in tanks,  containers,  and piles.   However, when  the permit  standards  for
incineration and land disposal facilities became effective,  the Regions  and  States
shifted their permitting emphasis  to  incineration  and  land  disposal   facilities
because of their  greater potential  for  adverse environmental impacts.   By the end
of 1983, EPA and the States had made final  determinations  on  over  500  permit  appli-
cations.  The Agency  estimates  that  an additional  1,400 permit actions will  be
completed by the end of 1985.

IMPROVING RCRA COMPLIANCE

     The Agency's compliance strategy places priority on inspecting  major hazardous
waste handlers.   These  major  handlers  include  all   facilities  required  to  comply
with ground  water monitoring requirements;  incineration  facilities:;  and  selected
storage and treatment  facilities,  generators, and transporters.  During these  in-
spections, EPA and the States will focus on evaluating  compliance with  the interim
status standards with  special emphasis on  ground water  monitoring,  closure/post-
closure plans, and financial assurances.

     EPA and  States will expand their  compliance  monitoring programs in  1984  and
1985 to  include  activities which support  the  permit  program  such  as  pre-permit
inspections and  initiating enforcement  actions  if  these facilities  are  out  of
compliance with  the interim status standards.   In  addition, EPA and  the  States  will
enforce against  late  and/or incomplete permit  applications  and  violations of  re-
cently issued permit conditions.

     EPA and the  States  will  work to reduce  the  number  of  significant  violations
through an increased emphasis  on issuing Compliance and Administrative  Orders  and
assessing consistent  penalties  nationwide.   Where  States  lack the  authority  to
assess penalties, EPA may intervene using federal  authority.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

     The research  and  development  program  provides the scientific  and  engineering
basis for characterizing wastes,  determining  the  specific problems  they  represent,
and formulating the controls  necessary  for  their proper management.   Research also
plays a  key   role  in   implementing  the  program  at  the State  level  by providing
information and technical  assistance to permitting and enforcement officials.   It
                                       HW-4

-------
also supports responses for  cleaning  up  and removing spills of hazardous  substan-
ces.  More specifically, the research  program is  organized  to achieve  the  following
objectives: Developing the tests  and  procedures  needed  for  characterizing  wastes;
developing technical  data needed to support treatment, storage, and disposal  regu-
lations; developing technical data to  support permitting and  enforcement  actions;
developing the techniques  and  equipment   needed  to prevent  and  contain  hazardous
spills; providing quality assurance for  sample  collection  and  analysis  activities;
and conducting the assessment  and control  research  necessary  to address  dioxin.
                                       HW-5

-------
                                    HAZARDOUS  WASTE
     Program Activities
Actual
 1983
           Amendment/
 Budget     Current                 Increase*
Estimate    Estimate    Estimate    Decrease-
  1984        1984        1985     1985 vs.  1984
     RCRA Standards
     Proposals and
     Promulgations	      10          15*          16

     Section  3001
     Listings Proposal  &
     Promulgation	       2—6

     Implementation
     Guidances	      17          20           15

     Reports  to Congress.      ~          —           1

     States with Hazardous
     Waste Grant/Coopera-
     tive Arrangements...      51           56           51

     States with
     Authorization:
      Phase  I only	      25           7           15
      Phase  I and  II.....      16          25           21
      Full	      --          18           11

     Compliance Monitoring
     Inspections:
      EPA	   3,873**     1,085          915
      State	  12,874      10,320       11,970

     Permit Call-Ins:
      EPA	     758         325***       774
      State	     594          --          276

     Permits  in Process:
      EPA	   1,132         500***     1,652
      State	   1,052          --        1,038

     Final Determinations:
      EPA	     249         575***       342
      States	     295          --          395
                                      22



                                      11


                                      20

                                       2



                                      51
                                      40
                                   1,399
                                  12,236
                                     137
                                     205
                                     918
                                   1,377
                                     294
                                     440
                                       +6



                                       +5


                                       +5

                                       +1
                                      -15
                                      -21
                                      +29
                                     +484
                                     +266
                                     -637
                                      -71
                                     -734
                                     +339
                                      -48
                                      +45
  *Includes listing actions

 **Includes Cooperative Arrangement  State  inspections

***Nationwide permit estimates
                                            HW-6

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

HAZARDOUS WASTE                                                               HW-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Hazardous Waste Research	    HW-8
                                       HW-7

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                                  HAZARDOUS  WASTE


                              Hazardous  Waste  Research


                                                         Amendment/
                                                         Current
                                              Actual      Estimate       Estimated
Major Outputs/Milestones                .       1983         1984           1985

Develop Techniques and Procedures to
Characterize Wastes and Listing and
Other RCRA Regulatory Activities

     - Prepare health and environmental         9/83          9/84           9/85
       effects profiles for specific
       chemicals (Scientific Assessment)

     - Prepare hazard profiles for specific     9/83          9/84           9/85
       chemicals (Scientific Assessment)

     - Evaluate inductively coupled plasma                   9/85           9/85
       technique (Monitoring)

     - Provide research support on final                    10/86          10/86
       evaluation of prescreen protocol
       (Health)

Develop Technical Data Necessary to Support
RCRA Treatment, Storage and Disposal  Regula-
tions

     - Evaluate the volatile organic  industry                9/85           9/85
       stack sampling train (Monitoring)

     - Prepare report on synthetic liner       9/85          9/86           9/86
       design, operation and maintenance
       for waste management facilities
       (Engi neeri ng)

Develop Technical Data and Methods
Necessary to Support RCRA Permitting
and Enforcement Activities

     - Prepare draft report on evaluation       9/85          9/85
       of existing alternative systems  for
       hazardous waste treatment
       (Engi neeri ng)

     - Prepare hydrogeological                 12/85         12/85
       protocol or deternri ni ng the
       suitability of a site for
       waste disposal  (Environmental
       Processes)
                                      HW-10

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                                                         Amendment/
                                                         Current
                                              Actual      Estimate       Estimated
Major Outputs/Milestones                        1983         1984           1985

Develop Techniques & Procedures to
Prevent & Contain Hazardous Materials
Releases

     - Field evaluate biological                             9/85           9/85
       protocol  for assessment  of
       hazardous releases
       (Environmental  Processes)

Conduct the Assessment and  Control
Research Necessary to  Address  Dioxin

     - Prepare guidance for exposure and                     7/84           9/85
       risk assessments from dioxin
       (Scientific Assessment)

     - Prepare report  on  the use of UV                       9/85           9/85
       photolysis and  APEG  reagents on
       di oxi n-contami nated  soils
       (Engineering)
                                     HW-11

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                                  HAZARDOUS  WASTE


                              Hazardous  Waste  Research


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $34,756,700 supported by 227.5 total workyears
for 1985, an  increase  of $2,454,900 and 20.9  permanent  workyears  from 1984.  In-
cluded in this total is  $13,147,300 for Salaries  and Expenses and $21,609,400 for
Research and  Development,  with  increases of  $2,434,700  and  $20,200 respectively.
The increases  occur  mainly  in  the monitoring  systems and quality  assurance and
health effects program  elements,  respectively.  These increases  will  support the
validation of  waste  characterization  methods  for  li sti ng/deli sting  decisions and
accelerate the development  of an inexpensive battery of health tests for screening
wastes for li sting/deli sti ng purposes.

Program Descri pti on

     The Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act   (RCRA)  authorizes  a regulatory
program to identify those  wastes  which pose  a  substantial hazard  to human health
or the  environment,  and management standards  sufficient  to  prevent  such  harm.
Research funded through this program provides  the  scientific  and engineering basis
for characterizing and determining  the  extent  of  the problems and for  formulating
controls.  Section 311  of  the Clean  Water  Act of 1977  (CWA)  and  its amendments
also mandate  some  of  the  research  conducted  under this  program,  specifically the
hazardous materials release efforts.

     Objective!.   Develop   Techniques   and  Procedures to  Characterize  Waste for
Listing and Other   RCRA Regulatory   Activities^  Section  3001  of RCRA requires that
the Agency designate  hazardous wastes  and the  characteristics  of  wastes  which
cause them to be  hazardous.   Research  under this  objective  develops analytical
procedures and techniques  required  to characterize  a waste and assess the hazards
posed from exposure that  will  be used  for  li sti ng/deli sti  ng decisions by the Office
of Solid Waste.

     Objective 2.   Develop   Technical  Data  Necessary  to Support RCRA  Treatment,
Storage and Disposal  Regulations.Section 3004 of  RCRA requires the Agency to pro-
mulgate regulations and  establish performance standards for the treatment,  storage
and disposal  of hazardous waste  as  may be  necessary to  protect  human health and the
environment.   Research  under this objective develops the  engineering and technical
data necessary to support  the Agency in the development  and  revision  of hazardous
waste regulations.

     Objective 3.   Develop   Technical  Data  and Methods Necessary to  Support  RCRA
Permitting and Enforcement  Activities.   Section 3005 of  RCRA  requires that  aTT
hazardous waste treatment,   storage,  and disposal  be conducted  in accordance with
operating permits.   This research  provides  the necessary data  and  techniques for
permit writers to  assess  permit  applications  and  provide enforcement  officials
with legally defensible sampling and analysis procedures  and  information to ensure
compli ance with permits and agreements.

     Objective 4.   Develop  Techniques  and  Procedures to Prevent  and Contain  Hazar-
dous Materials Releases.  Section  311  of the Clean  Water  Act mandates Spill  Preven-
tion Control  and  Countermeasure (SPCC)  plans be prepared  for all facilities engaged
in the  production,  storage,  refining,  processing  and  distribution  of hazardous
materials, and that the  Agency maintain  an emergency  support  program.  Research
support! ng this objective  assesses the most cost-effective technology and scienti-
fic techniques available for  prevention  and control  of releases of hazardous sub-
stances so that emergency  response  personnel can direct countermeasure  operations.
                                       HW-12

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     Objective 5.  Provide  Quality Assurance  to  the Hazardous Waste   Program.  A
quality assurance program is  being  conducted  to provide a scientific data base of
known quality to  support  RCRA regulatory  activities.   The  program includes  a re-
pository of  calibration  standards,  reference  materials  and  solutions  and on-site
evaluations of contractor laboratories.

     Objective 6.  Conduct the Assessment and Control  Research  Necessary to Address
Pi oxiTTDue to discovery of numerous instances of dioxi n-contaminated  soils,  fish,
and wastes in  various  parts of the  United States, concern is increasing  about the
magnitude of the  dioxin  problem  in  this country.  Research  supporting this objec-
tive will determine  the nature  and extent  of di oxi n  contamination in the  U.S.,
evaluate the potential  for human  and environmental  effects,  and determine  the  effi-
cacy and costs of potential  control  technologies.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $1,831,500  supported by 21,1 total  workyears
for this program, of which  $1,020,000 is  for  Salaries and Expenses  and  $811,500 is
for Research and Development.  This reflects a decrease of $40,900 in  Salaries and
Expenses, a decrease of $168,900  in  Research  and Development, and  a  decrease of 2.5
total workyears.   These resources were transferred  to  the interdisciplinary program
to consolidate ORD's efforts to develop uniform  risk  assessment guidelines.   Simi-
larly, hazardous spills research  was transferred to the Superfund  program  where the
work is more appropriately carried out.

     Develop Techniques and Procedures to Characterize Wastes for  Listing  and  Other
RCRA Regulatory Activiti e"s^   Health  effects assessments will  be prepared at varying
levels of detail  for specific  chemicals  or hazardous  waste  sites.   These  may  range
from detail ed,  exhaustive  assessments  on  a  particular  site through summarized
assessments leadi ng to  determinations  of  "Acceptable Daily Intakes,"  accompanied
only by a brief explanation.  Assessment methods developed in 1984 will be revised
to reflect recent developments in toxicology and  exposure evaluation.  Of particu-
lar concern will   be developments  in the  areas  of metabolism  studies and prediction
of physical  and chemical  parameters  from chemical  structure.  Also, to  correct fre-
quent limitations in transport and fate  assessments, critical physical  and chemical
properties wi 11 be obtained  for compounds contained in hazardous wastes.

     Conduct the Assessment  and Control  Research Necessary to Address  Dioxin.  The
ri sk assessment methodology for hypothetical  exposure  situations wi 11 be compl eted.
Risk assessment models  for  other i somers also  will be developed.  The most   toxic
i  somers will be used in  chronic  and subchronic animal testing to determi ne ti ssue
distribution, and simple neurologic  and  reproductive  endpoints.   The  birth weight
and childhood cancer rate studies will continue in  an  effort to determine  if di oxi n
exposure is   statistically  correlated   with   abnormalities  in  these  parameters.

1984 Program

     In 1984,  the Agency is allocating  a total  of $2,041,300 and  23.6 total   work-
years to this program,  of which $1,060,900 is  for the  Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $980,400 is for extramural  purposes  under the Research and Development
appropri ation.

     Develop Techniques and  Procedures to Characterize Wastes for  Listing  and  Other
RCRA Regulatory Activities.   Ongoing support  activities include the preparation of
Health and  Envi ronmental  Effects Profiles  (HEEP)  for approximately   one hundred
chemicals to support regulatory  office  listing decisions  and preparation  of  other
health assessments  at   different  levels  of  detail   as  needed   by the  program.
                                      HW-13

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     Develop Technical Data and Methods  Necessary  to  Support  RCRA  Permitting  and
Enforcement Activities.   Health  risk  assessments  are  being  modified  to  reflect
recent developments in toxicology and  exposure evaluation.  Of  special concern will
be developments  in  the  areas  of  structure-toxicological  activity  relationships,
metabolism studies,  prediction  of  physical  and chemical  parameters  from chemical
structure, risk associated  with  less than lifetime exposure, and estimating exposure
from waste site vapors and  dust.

     Develop Techniques  and Procedures to  Prevent  and Contain   Hazardous  Materials
Releases.Ongoing support  activities  include  preparation  of approximately one hun-
dred health  summaries and  developoment of  chemical-speci fie  data  regarding  the
properties and health  hazards of substances involved  in spills for use by on-scene
personnel.

     Conduct the Assessment and Control  Research Necessary to Address  Dioxin.  Ex-
posure and risk  assessment techniques applicable to  2,3,7,8-dioxi n exposed popula-
tions are being developed and should be  completed  early in  1984.  A risk  assessment
technique for individuals  involved in specific hypothetical exposure  situations is
bei ng i niti ated.  An  effort  is also underway  in conjunction with  the Missouri
Health and Vital  Statistics  Department  to geographically  correlate  birth weights
and childhood cancer rates  with documented  2,3,7,8-di oxi n  levels.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net increase  of  +$169,500  results  from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammi ngs.   (+$169,500)  Several  reprogramnri ngs were  made to this activi-
ty which  were not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramnri ng limitations.
These changes resulted in a net increase of +$169,500 to the Research and Develop-
ment appropriation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983 the  Agency  obligated  a total  of $1,447,700  and  18.4  total workyears
for this program, of which $832,300 was under the Salaries and Expenses  appropria-
tion and $615,400 was  for  extramural  purposes under the  Research  and Development
appropri ation.

     Develop Techniques  and Procedures to  Characterize Wastes for Listing and Other
RCRA Regulatory Activities.  Tn  I9~8~3^Health  and Environmental  Effects Profiles
were updated for 48 chemicals and ten  Profiles were completed on chemicals not pre-
viously addressed to  support  the  listing  of  hazardous wastes under RCRA Section
3001.

     Develop Technical Data and  Methods Necessary to  Support  RCRA Permitting  and
Enforcement Activities.   In 1983, a symposium was held  to assess the  state-of-the-
art methods which have been and are being used in health risk  assessments for mul-
tiple chemical  exposures.   Results will  enable  use  of improved  methods in  risk
assessment to support  permitting and enforcement functions.

   "  Develop Techniques  and  Procedures  to  Prevent and  Contain Hazardous Releases.
In 1983, enforcement-related  health summaries  were completed for 30 chemicals like-
ly to be involved in accidental  release  situations.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $10,120,400  supported by 43.0  total workyears
for this program, of  which $3,905,000 is  for Salaries  and Expenses  and  $6,215,400
                                       HW-14

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is  for  Research  and  Development.   This   reflects  an  increase  of  $1,278,500 in
Research and Development, an increase of $1,005,900  in  Salaries and  Expenses and an
increase of 8 total workyears.   The increases will  support the continuing valida-
tion of  waste  characterization  analytical  methods  and validation  of  methods for
i nstack monitoring.

     Develop Techniques and Procedures to  Characterize  Wastes  for Listing  and Other
RCRA Regul atory Activities^  Cost  effective  procedures for  characterizing wastes
wi 11 be accel erated.Obtaining  high  quality data will  be  emphasized as analytical
methods are  evaluated.   Where  proven methods  are  lacking  for  analysis  of   RCRA
wastes, new  methods  will  be evaluated,  such  as the  inductively  coupled plasma/
Atomic Absorption method for  contaminated soils.  Laboratory techniques to deter-
mine such characteristics  of  wastes as corrosivity, gas generation reactivity and
ignitability are also being developed.  Validation  of  the methods contained in the
publication "Test Methods for Evaluating  Solid Waste"  (SW-846) will continue.  New
ambient air monitoring techniques for rapid screening and identification of organic
air pollutants  such as benzene and toluene will  be developed.

     Develop Technical  Data Necessary to Support  RCRA   Treatment, Storage  and  Dis-
posal Requlati ons.  Fi el dmoni tori ngmethods  wi 11  conti nue  to  be  devel oped  for"
hazardous wastesite  investigations.   These  will  include  geophysical techniques
such as  downhole sensors,   vadose  zone monitoring,  and plume  detection  methods.
Evaluation of two methods for determining  the effectiveness of incinerators will be
accelerated.  These methods are the volatile organic industry stack sampling train
and semi volatile organic  stack sampling train.

     Develop Techni cal  Data and  Methods Necessary to Support   RCRA   Permitting  and
Enforcement  Acti viti es.   Analytical methods  will  be developed for  use in rapidly
identifying hazardous wastes  at  permitted  sites.  A  portable  x-ray   fluorescence
device will  be developed  for screening suspected  wastes.  A technique for  screening
organic compounds with infrared  spectrometry  will  be  evaluated.   Guidance will be
provided on the  selection  of  parameters which  will  reliably  indicate the presence
of hazardous  constituents  in groundwater during site operation and  post closure
mom'tori ng.

     Develop Techniques ancd Procedures to Prevent and  Contain Hazardous  Materials
Releases.   The  technology  and  remote monitoring techniques  requi red  to  support
Regional compliance programs will  be  applied.  Aerial  photo  analysis  will be  pro-
vided at a centralized  data gathering and  interpretation facility.   New methods and
techniques for  analyzing aerial  photos,  satellite imagery,  thermal  and multi spec-
tral data  will   be  developed for identification  of   spills  and  spill  movement.

     Provide  Quality   Assurance to the Hazardous   Waste Programs.  Evaluation and
distribution of  standard reference materials  will  be  continued.   The site labora-
tory performance evaluations effort started last  year will increase  and include the
preparation  of  performance  samples  for  submission to  the analytical laboratories.
The Dioxin Monitoring Program will  assure that  OSW  and Regions acquire analytical
data of known quality.

     Conduct  Assessment   and Control Research to Address Dioxin.   Dioxin research
initi ated in  1984 wi 11 continue to develop  sampling and analysis  guidance at the
parts per trillion or  parts per quadrillion level for di oxi n in air,  water,   soil
sediment and fish.   Guidance for additional  i somers  will also  be developed.  Issues
will include the use of high resolution methods,  their  sensitivity and  limitations.

1984 Program

     In 1984,  the Agency is  allocating  a  total  of $7,836,000 and 35.0 total  work-
years for  this program  of which  $2,899,100 is for the  Salaries and  Expenses appro-
priation and $4,936,900 is  for  extramural  purposes under the  Research and Develop-
ment appropriation.
                                       HW-15

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     Develop Techniques and Procedures to  Characterize Wastes for Listing and Other
RCRA Regulatory Activities?  Procedures  for   efficiently  character! zi ngspeci fie
wastes and  criteria  and  tests  for determining if a waste  constitutes  a potential                  j
hazard continue to be investigated.   A protocol is being prepared and tested to de-                  I
termine the precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and  reliability of advanced analytical
methods when applied to  highly toxic wastes.   Methods  are  being  developed for de-
tection of organics in the ambient air around  waste disposal facilities.

     Develop Technical  Data Necessary to Support  RCRA Treatment,  Storage  and Dis-
posal Regulations.  Monitoring  research is exploring improved field methods.  Guide-
lines for  post-closure  monitoring of ground  water  and techniques  for  monitoring
soils, air, and biota are being developed.  Geophysical techniques are being inves-
tigated for hazardous waste  landfill monitoring, and  an extraction  procedure  for
use in determining the Teachability  of cyanide in wastes is being developed.  Vali-
dation of methods  for instack  monitoring  of  volatiles  and  semi-volati les  is being
initiated.

     Develop Technical  Data and Methods Necessary to  Support RCRA Permitting  and
Enforcement Acti vi ti es.   Screeni ng methods and  biological  monitoring  methods  are
being developed for use in identifying hazardous  wastes at permitted sites.  Remote
monitor! ng techniques will be investigated for use in  issuing  permits  and for  en-
forcement activities.

     Develop Techniques and Procedures to   Prevent and  Contain Hazardous Materials
Releases.  Technology and related  remote monitoring techniques  required to support
Regi onal  compliance  programs  and  methods  necessary  to  provide  data to  on-scene
coordinators in emergency situations are being developed.  Centralized data gather-
ing and  interpretation  facilities are  applying  methods  and  techniques to analyze
aeri al photos.
     Provide Quality Assurance to  the  Hazardous Waste Program.  Evaluation of stan-
dard reference materials is continuing.   On-site laboratory performance evaluations
have increased and preparation of performance samples  are  being  submitted  to con-
tract and Regional analytical  laboratories.  The Agency's Dioxin Monitoring Program
is being  expanded  to  ensure that the data  collected  by the Program  and  Regional
offices are of known quality.

     Conduct Assessment  &  Control Research to  Address Dioxin.  A  methodology for
measuri ng dioxi ns  an3  dibenzofurans at  the parts  per  trillion  1 eve!  usi ng hi gh
resolution GC/MS is being developed.   Standard approaches for sampling and analysis
of 2,3,7,8  TCDD  and  other  chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxi ns in  environmental  samples
is being  investigated.   A  guidance document  for  managers  and analysts is  being
prepared for sampling and measuring  dioxin.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$150,400 results from the  following actions:

     -Reprogrammi ngs.   (-$150,400) Several reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty whicfiwere not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogrammi ng limitations.
These changes resulted in  a net decrease of  -$87,400 to the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and a net  decrease of  -$63,000 to the  Research and Development appro-
pri ation.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983 the Agency obligated  a  total  of $7,127,700 and 27.9 total workyears of
which $3,108,000  was  under the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation and $4,019,700
was for  extramural   purposes   under the  Research  and   Development  appropriation.
I
                                       HW-16

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     Develop Techniques and Procedures to Characterize Wastes  for Listing and Other
 RCRA Regulatory ActivitiesTAnalytical methods were  evaluated  to determine their
 precision, accuracy, and reliability.   Studies  were performed to identify instru-
 ment operating conditions  and quality assurance requirements  for  the analysis of
 wastes.  Methods  for  use in  determining  whether  a waste is  hazardous  due  to  its
 flash point were evaluated.

     Develop Technical Data Necessary to Support RCRA Treatment, Storage and Dispo-
 sal Regulations.   Research  was conducted  on techniques for detecting contamination
 before it  gets to the water table.  Geophysical  techniques (resistivity,  electro-
 magnetic induction, and  ground  penetrating  radar) to  detect  contamination  were
 evaluated.  Research  was conducted  on  how  to monitor  leachates  resulting  from
 ruptured synthethic and natural  liners.

     Develop Technical Data and  Methods Necessary  to  Support RCRA Permitting  and
 Enforcement Activities.  Research on analytic methods for dioxin was initiated and
 technical assistance  to  Regional  and  State  enforcement  officials  was provided.
 Methods were evaluated to  determine corrosivity,   i gnitabi li ty, and  reactivity of
 wastes.

     Develop Techniques and Procedures to Prevent  and  Contain Hazardous  Materials
 Releases.  TRe  1983 Hazardous  SpTl Is  Program  was transferred  to  the Hazardous
 Waste Program from the Municipal  Wastewater Program.  Remote  sensing  of spills  was
 conducted with overhead  aerial  support.  Interpretation  of imagery  for the Spill
 Prevention, Containment  and  Control  (SPCC)  Program was conducted  and  river spill
 contingency planning was  accomplished.

     Provide Quality Assurance  to  the Hazardous Haste  Program.  This program de-
 veloped, evaluated, and  provided  standard reference materials in  support  of  RCRA
 waste characterization.  A  repository  of  standard  reference  materials containing
 priority pollutants and  hazardous  substances was   provided.   Support  was  provided
 to the OSW in the areas of  methods validation, and  development of quality assurance
 criteria for analytical data.


 HEALTH EFFECTS

 1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $1,343,300 supported by 8.0 total workyears  for
this program, of  which $756,400 is for Salaries and Expenses  and  $586,900  is  for
 Research and Development.  This  reflects  an  increase of $375,200  in  Salaries  and
 Expenses to support an increasingly in-house program to develop  a  series  of tests
to characterize wastes as hazardous.

     Develop Techniques and  Procedures  to  Character! ze Wastes for Listing and Other
 RCRA Regulatory Activities"!   The goal  of this program  is  to  provide an inexpensive
 and rapid qualitative  screening protocol (prescreen) for  use in characterizing  the
health hazards  of substances proposed  for listing  and deli sting actions.   Research
will focus on developing  a  biological testing battery of short term tests to deter-
mine potential  adverse human  health-effects.  These tests  will  emphasize  exposure
to complex mixtures.   Once  completed,  these tests  will  support li sti ng/deli sti ng
decisions as well  as permitting and enforcement activities.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency  is allocating a total  of $968,100  and 8.0 total  workyears
to this program of  which $381,200 is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
 and $586,900 is for extramural purposes  under the  Research  and  Development  appro-
pri ation.
                                      HW-17

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     Develop Techniques and Procedures to  Characterize Wastes for Listing and Other
RCRA Regulatory Activities.  Short-term  test  systems for  use  in  evaluating  the
health effects of exposure to complex hazardous waste mixtures are being developed.                  A
These test  systems  are  state-of-the-art  for testing single  compounds  but  require                 1
development and validation for use on complex mixtures.                                              ™

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change from the amendment.

1983 Accompli shments

     In 1983,  the Agency obligated a total of $1,050,000 and  4 total  workyears  for
this program,  of which  $358,300  was under the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
and $691,700 was for extramural purposes  under the Research and Development appro-
pri at ion.

     Develop Techniques and Procedures to  Characterize Hastes for Listing and Other
RCRA Regulatory Activities.  Development of  a neurological  field testing system to
determine the adverse  effects of exposure  to  hazardous wastes on  human  behavior
was completed  and  is  being  validated.    A  normative data  base was developed  to
determi ne human  sensory,   cognitive,  and  motor  performance capabilities.   This
effort provided a battery  of  tests to rapidly  identify  health  problems  in  workers
at hazardous  waste  sites.  The  tests  will   also  be used during  permitting,  com-
pliance monitoring and  cleanup operations.


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  AND TECHNOLOGY

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $16,351,900 supported by 102.4 total  workyears	
for this program, an increase of $2,400 and  15.4 total worJcyears from 1984.   Inclu-
ded in this total is $4,784,600  for Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $11,567,300  for  Re-
search and  Development  with  an  increase  of $948,200 and  a  decrease  of  $945,800
respectively.   The increase primarily reflects  a greater  emphasis toward evaluating
and comparing alternative  treatment technologies  to land disposal.   The decrease
reflects completion of  the field assessment  project for incinerators.

     Develop Technical  Data Necessary to Support RCRA Treatment, Storage and Dispo-
sal Regulations.  Section   3004  of  RCRA  requires the Agency  to  promulgate  regula-
tions establi shi ng  performance  standards  for  both  new  and existing  facti Titles
that treat, store, and dispose of hazardous wastes.  Analytical methods to determine
incinerator destruction efficiency and  a  methodology for continuous control tech-
nology monitoring will  be  developed to  support regulations.   Surface impoundments
research will  include analysis of infiltration  data and leakage rate data to deter-
mi ne performance of installed  clay  liners.   Land  disposal  research will  emphasize
analysis of  (1) the  cause/effect  relationship  of  subsidence on cover  systems
integrity; (2)  the  long-term  viability   of  modified bentonite  clay  for  liners;
(3) redesign  of land disposal  systems  proven to be  inadequate;  and (4)  processes
for solidifying  and  fixing  wastes.   Data  will  be  obtained for  the design  and
operation of  land  treatment   facilities  including:  (1)  the  effects  of  waste
mixtures; (2)  closure   procedures;  (3)  examination  of  treatment  zone  limitation
required by  RCRA,   and  (4)  evaluation  of  run-off  control  needs.   A manual   on
hazardous waste  land treatment  will be  updated  to  reflect  the state-of-the-art.

     Develop Technical  Data and  Methods Necessary to  Support RCRA  Permitting  and
Enforcement  Activities.  Engineering    research   is  divided  into  four   areas:
laboratory scale incineration;  pilot  scale  incineration; high  temperature indus-
trial processes; and alternative technology  assessment.   Laboratory scale research
will continue to focus  on  the development  of destruction efficiency and by-product
                                      HW-18

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formation data of  selected  hazardous  compounds.   In addition,  research on combus-
tion processes to  better  understand  the  failure modes  of  incinerators  will  be
undertaken.  Pilot   scale  research  will  continue to  develop data  on destruction
efficiencies under  varied waste loads  and  operating conditions  using two types of
incinerators.  Destruction  of  hazardous   waste   in   high  temperature  industrial
furnaces will continue to  be investigated.

     Performance evaluations and engineering assessments of hazardous waste treat-
ment processes which  can provide  alternatives  to land  disposal  and incineration
wi 11 be accelerated.  Both  existing technologies  and  emerging technologies are in-
cluded in this effort.  The goal of this effort is to characterize the performance
of these systems and  to quantify  the  character  of process residues, liquid efflu-
ents and air emissions.

     Special attention will  be devoted  to high hazard  wastes.  The chemical detoxi-
fication of these high hazard wastes will be evaluated.   A field application manual
will be produced and  made  available to  the Office  of   Solid Waste  and  Emergency
Response and the  Regions  and  will include  alternative, cost  effective chemical
methods that may be applied to a variety of  high  hazard  wastes.  As  an alternative
to chemical methods,  genetic engineering studies  will  be initiated to evaluate the
technical  and environmental  implications  of these  organisms.

     Technical  Resource Documents   (TROs)  will be  updated in  the following subject
areas:  (1) liner compatabi lity guidance, (2) soil liner  design, and  (3) clay liner
desi gn.

     Develop Techniques  and Procedures to   Prevent  and Contain Hazardous  Material
Releases.  Research  will focus  on the  evaluation  of  technology  to  detect  and coun-
teract leaks from underground storage tanks,  as well as continuation  of the examin-
ation of emerging  commercially available technologies for  applicability  to spill
and waste  site cleanup problems.   Additionally,  performance testing will  be  con-
tinued in order to  provide technical guidance for selecting and using chemicals to
control releases  of   floating  hazardous substances.   This  program  will  provide
emergency response  personnel  with  information regarding the most  cost  effective
technologies available as well  as data to  support  Agency policy on chemical  use
in accordance with  the National  Contingency  Plan.

     Conductthe  Assessment   and   Control   Research  Necessary to Address Dioxin.
Dioxin Engineering  research  will focus  on  continuation   of work initiated in  1984
and on evaluation  of  the  technical feasibility  and costs  of alternative remedial
techniques.  Specific  activities  will  include:  expanding the  Method 5  sampling
train to  characterize di  oxi n  emissions from  combustion  processes; testing  and
evaluati ng the mobile incinerator   and  soils  washer  in New  Jersey;  and testing and
evaluating ultraviolet photolysis  and  solvent reagents on di oxi n contaminated  soil
plots.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating a total  of $16,349,500 and  87.0 total  work-
years to this program, of  which $3,836,400  is for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $12,513,100 is  for-extramural  purposes under the Research and Develop-
ment  appropriation.

     Develop Technical Data  Necessary to Support RCRA  Treatment, Storage and Dispo-
sal  Regulations.  Research is  being conducted  on process measurement  and the de-
velopment  of improved  sampling  and  analysis protocols  which can be used to routine-
ly sample incinerators  being  used  to  dispose  of hazardous  wastes to  ensure  they
mai ntai n thei r destruction  efficiency.   On-going  research  in land disposal  is
focusing on the study of  synthetic and natural  liners to determine  their expected
service life and  ability to  retain or  retard the movement of hazardous pollutants.
                                      HW-19

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Research on containment systems is being conducted to provide reliable information
for policy guidance to State  agencies  and  for  determining whether regulations are
adequate or excessive.

     Design, operation, and closure  procedures  for surface impoundments  is being
developed to minimize  environmental  and  health impacts.   Land  treatment  research
is directed  toward  determining  optimum  techniques  for   using the  assimilative
capacity of the  land  for application  of  hazardous wastes, providing  guidance on
leachate control, site selection, fate and transport, and establishing waste load-
ing rates commensurate with  organic degradation.

     Develop Technical  Data   and Methods  Necessary to Support RCRA Permitting  and
and Enforcement Activitiel^Technical  Resource Documents  (TRD's) are being updated
for di sposal   faci lities  lo  provide  more  detailed,  up-to-date  guidance  to  the
Regions and  State agencies  responsible  for  permitting  and  enforcing  applicable
regulations.   The TRD's document procedures for design, operation, maintenance, and
closure of facilities  and the extent to which these  procedures  will  minimize the
release of pollutants  to  the environment.

     Research is also   focusing  on the assessment of incinerator performance, other
high temperature processes,  and alternative technologies  which  may be  used  in the
destruction of hazardous  wastes.

     Develop Techniques and  Procedures  to Prevent and Contain  Hazardous  Materials
Releases.  Activities   are  concentrating  on  development  of  new,  more  effective
techniques and procedures in support  of emergency  responses to  hazardous materials
releases.  Research  is  being conducted  to evaluate the feasibility of using specia-
lized equipment and  techniques from different industries for adaptation to removal
of releases.    User's  manuals  are  being prepared  on prevention, containment  and
cleanup of residuals.

     Conduct  the Assessment   and  Control Research Necessary  to  Address  Di oxi n.	
Research will provide  data in  the  following areas:the release of dioxin from con-
taminated soils; dioxin emissions from industrial  boilers and commercial incinera-
tors; the technical  and economic feasibility  of  existing  technologies  for on-site
treatment; an effective sol vent/reagent scheme for  field  treatment of  dioxin con-
taminated soils; and an assessment  of transformer fires for dioxin and fur an forma-
tion.

1984 Explanation of  Changes  from the  Amendment

     The net decrease  of  -$15,800 results from the  following actions:

     -Reprogramnrings.   (-$15,800)   Several reprogramnri ngs  were made to this activi-
ty which  were  not  report able  under  the Congressional  reprogrammi ng  limitations.
These changes resulted in a net  increase of  +$68,200 to the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and a  net decrease of -$84,000  to the Research and Development appro-
pri ation.


1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983 the Agency obligated a total  of $18,429,700 and 108.9 total  workyears
for this program, of  which  $4,998,700  was under the  Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation and  $13,431,000  was   for   extramural  purposes  under  the  Research  and
D ev el opment ap pr opri at i on.

     Develop Technical  Data  Necessary to Support RCRA Treatment, Storage and Dispo-
sal Regulations,  A"niniti al  assessment  of  the effecti veness  o7clay  soTTsas
li ners for landfills and  surface impoundments by determining the effects of organic
                                      HW-20

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 solvents on the  permeability  of  clay  soils  was completed.  In the chemical stabi-
 lization area, the assessment of the long-term field performance of the solidified
 treated wastes was completed.

     A Hazardous Waste  Land Treatment  Pilot Research  Facility  was established to
 develop a broad, comprehensive data base relating  to  the  efficacy of land treatment
 as a  hazardous  waste management  alternative  for  a  wide variety  of  waste types.

     Develop Technical  Data  and   Methods Necessary to  Support  RCRA Permitting and
 Enforcement Activities.   Two  additional   Technical  Resource Documents were  prepared
 and submittedto the  Office  of Solid  Waste  and  Emergency  Response  for public
 notice.  These documents related to waste leaching  and clay soil   liners.   Labora-
 tory and pilot  scale research was  conducted to better define the  operating condi-
 tions required for the  destruction  of  hazardous wastes and  to simulate full  scale
 i ncinerati on conditions.   This  included  research   on  destruction  efficiencies,
 by-product formation and  air emission  characteristics to allow  scale-up  to  full
 scale i nci nerators.

     Research was conducted to obtain emission and  performance  data  at full  scale
 industrial  facilities for  the combustion  of  hazardous wastes  mixed  with  conven-
 tional fuels in industrial  boilers and  a cement kiln.  Research was also conducted
 to evaluate advanced hazardous  waste  treatment technologies  including  studies  on
 advanced biological   conversion  processes,   supercritical   solvents  and  metals  re-
 covery using adapted metallurgical  techniques.

     Develop Techniques  and Procedures to Prevent  and Contain  Hazardous  Materials
 Releases.   Over  one dozen hazardous material release research reports  were comple-
 ted during 1983.  They  cover such issues  as  prevention,  situation assessment  and
 analytical  support,   containment   and  confinement,  separation  and concentration,
 ultimate destruction, and  restoration.   In addition,  research  was initiated  for
 development of a cover  system for waste  lagoons  to  eliminate rain water   overtop-
 ping, and development of  improved  techniques  for  removal of  sediments containing
 hazardous materi als.


 ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES  AND EFFECTS

 1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a  total  of $5,109,600 supported by  53.0  total  workyears
 for this program, of which  $2,681,300 is for  Salaries  and Expenses and $2,428,300
 is for  Research  and Development.   This reflects  an increase  of  $146,300 and  a
 decrease of $143,600 respectively.  The  decrease  reflects completion  of a  project
to develop, evaluate, and recommend a biological   screening protocol for assessment
 of hazardous releases.   The increase reflects the  need for additional  resources to
 support  in-house projects.

     Develop Techniques  and Procedures to Characterize  Wastes  for Listing and Other
 RCRA Regulatory  Activities.   The  two research areas  that   support listing decisions
 for new, complex wastes  streams wi 11 be  continued.  Quantitative Structure  Activity
 Relationship (QSAR)  methods,  which are  used to  predict the toxicity of single
 chemicals,  will  be  adapted  for use with  complex waste mixtures.   Classes of chemi-
cals which  have  the  same modes of toxicological action will  be defined.  Microcosm
technology will  test specific wastes.  When  completed, this technology will  provide
 a fast and  inexpensive determination of  a waste's  potential to move in the  environ-
ment.

     Develop Technical Data Necessary to Support RCRA Treatment, Storage and Dispo-
 sal  Regulations.   Field  and laboratory studies  of  the processes studied in   1983 and
 1984 on individual waste components in ground water will be accelerated with empha-
 sis on the  effects of subsurface  variabilities and mixtures of organic co-solvents.
 In addition, the adaptation and improvement  of models for  predicting human   exposure
to emissions  from landfills  will  be accelerated.
                                      HW-21

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     Develop Techniques and Procedures  to  Prevent   and Contain Hazardous  Materials
Releases.  This  program  provides  on-scene  coordinators  with  evaluated  methods,
criteria, and  guidance with  which  to conduct  and  interpret  bioassessments  of
samples from hazardous release  sites.   Bioassessment methods developed  and  field
evaluated during 1983 and  1984  will  be synthesized into a user-oriented protocol.
The battery of evaluated  bioassessments will enable response personnel to determine
the extent and degree to which an area is contaminated with biologically available
hazardous substances.

     Conduct  the  Assessment  and Control  Research  Necessary to  Address  Dioxin.
Research in two areas  will  continue to  support  efforts to assess and control dioxin
contamination.  Laboratory  experiments  will define  the potential  uptake, bi oaccumu-
lation and bioavai lability  of  2,3,7,8-TCDD  in selected  fish,  plants and mammals.
Laboratory studies will  define  the  potential   movement  and persistence  of 2,3,7,
8-TCDD in  soils  and  water.  These  studies will  provide an initial  assessment  of
the movement and  food-chain impact  of   2,3,7,8-TCDD  and  will  be used in modelling
the risk it poses to  humans and  ecosystems.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the Agency is allocating  $5,106,900  and 53.0 total workyears to this
program, of  which  $2,535,000  is for the  Salaries   and  Expenses  Appropriation  and
$2,571,900 is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the  Research and  Development appro-
pri at ion.

     Develop Techniques and Procedures  to  Characterize Wastes for Listing and Other
RCRA Regulatory Activities. Research developing quantitative  structure  activity
relationships and microcosm technology methods for  predicting  waste toxicity  and
mobility are currently underway.  QSAR  methods were first  developed  in the Toxics
program for predicting the  toxicity of  single  chemicals.

     Develop Technical Data Necessary to Support  RCRA Treatment, Storage and Dispo-
sal Regulations.  This research   is developing models to determine potential -human—
exposure result! ng from various  methods of hazardous waste disposal.  A consider-
able portion of this  research  is devoted to developing, improving, and field evalu-
ating groundwater models  (by supplementing the groundwater research  in the Drink-
ing Water  Decision Unit),  since this  is  considered the major  potential  route  of
exposure to hazardous  wastes.   Other efforts  include coordinating groundwater with
other exposure routes  for multimedia predictions.

     Develop Technical Data and  Methods Necessary to Support RCRA  Permitting  and
Enforcement Acti viti es.   Criteria developed in 1983 for  site  selection and evalua-
tion based on  site-specific hydrogeological  factors are being evaluated in several
hydrogeological settings  jointly by EPA and US6S.

Develop  Techniques  and  Procedures to Prevent  and  Contain Hazardous  Materials
Releases^Fi eld  evaluations  o?  bi oassessmentsampling and  assay  procedures  and
comparisons of bioassessment results  with documented environmental  field  assess-
ments are  being  evaluated  at  a   semi-tropical   geoclimatic  region.   Evaluations  of
terrestrial indicator  species  responses are being conducted and the recommendations
of a technical  program review  panel  are being  implemented.

     Conduct  the  Assessment  and   Control  Research Necessary to Address  Dioxin.
Laboratory studies are being initiated  to define the potential  transport  and fate
of 2,3,7,8-TCDD through human  food chains and the environment.  These data  will  be
used to estimate human and  ecosystem exposure  to  2,3,7,8-TCDD.
                                      HW-22

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 1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$57,000 results from  the  following  action:

     -Reprogrammi ng.  (-$57,000)  A reprogrammi ng  was  made to this activity which
was not report able  under the Congressional  reprogrammi ng limitations.  This change
resulted in a net  decrease of  -$57,000 to the Research and Development appropria-
tion.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the  Agency obligated  a  total  of  $5,376,700  and 48.5 total workyears
for this program,  of  which $2,823,300 was  under the  Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $2,553,400 was for extramural  purposes under the Research  and Develop-
ment appropriation.

     Develop Techniques and Procedures to Characterize  Wastes  for  Listing and Other
RCRA Regulatory ActivitiesAn integrated  computer  system  to estimate properties
of chemicals such  as bi oconcent ration  factor and  acute  toxicity in aquatic animals,
was completed.  Microcosm technology was developed, constructed and tested, and is
now being used to  predict  the subsurface behavior  of actual  chemicals  of interest.

     Develop Technical  Data Necessary  to  Support  RCRA Treatment Storage, and Dispo-
sal Regulations.  A study  was  completed  entitled "Groundwater Modeling of Selected
Hydrogeol ogi c al  Sett i ngs to Determine  Leachate  Fate and Transport  from  Waste Facil-
ities." The second year's  monitoring  at a  small  field  site  was completed where
five chemicals and two tracers  were injected into an aquifer.   The results  will be
available for  model  verification in  1984.   This  is the  first  groundwater field
project to  use  a  natural   gradient  and  follow  an  organic chemical  plume  from its
i nception.

     Develop Technical  Data and Methods  Necessary to Support   RCRA Permittingand
Enforcement Activities.   A" scTenti f i c  advisory  group was formed to develop the pro-
tocol for judging  the suitability of a site for waste disposal based on hydrogeolo-
gical factors.

     Develop Techniques and Procedures to Prevent and   Contain Hazardous  Materials
Releases.The 1983 Releases Program was  transferred to the Hazardous Waste Program
7ronT'the  Municipal  Wastewater  Program.   During  1983,  environmental  sampling  and
field assessments  were conducted  at  a  semi-arid geoclimatic region.
                                      HW-23

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents
HAZARDOUS WASTE

    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Waste Management Regulations,  Guidelines and Policies	     HW-25
          Regulations,  Guidelines & Policies - Hazardous Waste	     HW-27
       Fi nancial  Assistance	     HW-31
          Hazardous Waste Management  Financial Assistance to States	     HW-32
       Waste Management Strategies Implementation	     HW-35
          Hazardous Waste Management  Regulatory Strategies Implementation.     HW-36
                                       24

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                                  HAZARDOUS WASTE

               Waste Management  Regulations,  Guidelines, and Policies


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $34,509,900 supported by 217.4 total workyears
for this subactivity  of which $10,311,900 will  be for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $24,198,00 for the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropria-
tion.  This represents a net increase  of  $7,312,900 and  25.0 workyears.

Program Description

     The Agency's hazardous waste  regulatory,  guidance, and policy making  activi-
ties are carried out  under  this program.  Activities include provision of national
guidance and oversight to the Regions and States for implementation of the  hazard-
ous waste  regulatory  program,  including  facility  permitting, and  management of  a
national compliance monitoring and technical  enforcement program.  Other activities
include reviewing and revising existing hazardous waste regulations, as necessary,
and completing  the  development  of the  hazardous  waste  program  to  fill  in  key
regulatory gaps.

     Regulations, Guidelines,  and   Policies - Hazardous  Waste — This Headquarters'
program providesforth~emanagemento?th"inationalResource  Conservation  and
Recovery Act  (RCRA)  Subtitle  C  hazardous  waste program.   Activities  include  the
issuance of guidance to the Regions  and  States for nationally consistent adminis-
tration of  the Subtitle  C  regulations  as   well  as  evaluation  of implementation
policies.  In  addition, this  program includes the promulgation  and  refinement  of
the criteria and regulations for identification,  tracking, management, and disposal
of hazardous wastes.  Technical  studies,  regulatory  impact  and economic analyses,
and assessments  of  control  options  and  technologies  necessary  for  regulatory
decision-making are also covered.


REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND POLICIES  - HAZARDOUS WASTE

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $34,509,900 supported by 217.4 total workyears
for this program, of which $10,311,900 will be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses appro-
priation and $24,198,000 will  be  for  the Abatement, Control, and  Compliance appro-
priation.  This represents an increase of $7,312,900 and 25.0 total workyears.   Of
this amount,  $2,176,400 will  be  for  the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation  and
$5,136,500 will be  for the  Abatement, Control  and  Compliance appropriation.  These
increases will  support  the  Agency's  efforts to  list  new wastes,  ban  wastes  from
land disposal,  and  develop  regulations for boilers and small quantity  generators.

     Resources  requested will  concentrate on granting  States full  authorization to
administer their own  hazardous  waste program  in   lieu  of the  Agency.   The  Agency
will review  applications  for  authorization  against  criteria  for full  equivalence
with the Federal program and will  prepare guidance documents on  full authorization
and implementation  of State  hazardous  waste  programs.   Other activities  include
reviewing and  refining  State  reporting  requirements,  as  necessary,  for national
program management  and  accountability to Congress,  and establishing policies  and
procedures for  approving revisions to State programs  after full  authorization.  The
annual on-site  program reviews will continue.  The focus  of these in-depth  program
evaluations will  shift  to  program performance  in authorized  States.   EPA  will
analyze data on the status of Regional and State permitting  activities  for perform-
ance against  call-in  and  final determination  (includes  issuance,  denial,   and  ap-
proved closures  or  withdrawals) targets, identification of impediments to  permit-
ting, and development of recommendations  to improve Regional  and State  performance.
                                        HW-27

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 Permit Assistance  Teams  (PATS)  will  support  permit  development.   They  will  be
 responsible for  reviewing  and commenting on  major  (incineration  and land disposal
 facilities) permit  actions  conducted by the  authorized  States.   PAT reviews serve
 to ensure proper application  and interpretation  of  regulations,  nationally consis-
 tent permit conditions, and technical advice  on difficult issues.

     Resources in the Headquarter's enforcement program will support the compliance
 monitoring and  enforcement  programs  in  the  States  and  Regions.  The  Agency will
 review the  enforcement aspects  of  full authorization  applications with  special
 emphasis on  ground  water monitoring,  closure plans, and  financial  responsibility
 instruments.  In  addition, the  Agency  will  develop  program  policy  and  provide
 information on technical  issues  to Regional  and State  personnel  to address defi-
 ciencies and  improve  implementation  of  the technically  complex  aspects   of  the
 program.  Contract   resources  will  provide  technical   assistance,  training,  and
 specialized expertise for the Regions and States.

     The Agency plans to complete the regulatory impact analysis for small quantity
 generators and the  evaluation of  air emissions from storage,  treatment,  and dis-
 posal facilities.   The  Agency will propose  standards  for  waste  oil  and rules  for
 restricting land disposal  of  wastes  containing solvents and dioxins.   The Agency
 will also propose technical  standards and  promulgate administrative standards  for
 boilers.  In  addition  to  these activities,  the Agency will  propose  and/or promul-
 gate the following  Section 3001 listings:  Pesticides, organo bromines, carbamates,
 chlorinated aliphatics, and lithium batteries.

     To fullfill mandates under RCRA Section  8002, the Agency will complete reports
 to Congress on utility  and metals mining wastes  and  propose  a  regulation on smelt-
 ing and  refining  wastes.   The Agency will  also  begin  the  other  studies  required
 under Section 8002.  The  Agency  will  propose RCRA Section  6002  procurement guide-
 lines for paper containing recovered  materials.  Work  on other required guidelines
 under Section 6002 will be initiated.

    In order  to  review  and  revise  existing  regulations,   the  Agency  will  begin
 development of location standards  addressing hydrogeologic  and  climatic locations
 that are  not  appropriate  for land disposal.  The  Agency  will  also  propose land
 disposal liner  standards   covering the  use  of soil  liners  in   conjunction  with
 synthetic liners.   In  addition,  the  Agency will promulgate regulatory amendments
 for liquids  in  landfills  and class  permits  for  storage  facilities   and  propose
 amendments for underground tanks.

     The Agency will develop  guidance on new regulatory actions  which  will  affect
the implementation  of  the  RCRA program, particularly regulations  covering  boilers
 and banning certain wastes from landfills.   Additionally,  the Agency  will  revise
and update existing documents to reflect regulatory and policy  modifications  and
new technical  information.

 1984 Program

     In 1984,  the   Agency  is   allocating a   total  of  $27,197,000 and  192.4 total
workyears to  this  program,  of which  $8,135,500 is  for  the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation  and  $19,061,500 is  for  extramural  purposes  under the  Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation.

     Under the  implementation and  enforcement  components  of  this program,  the
Agency will  focus   on  assisting  the  Regions  and  States  on State  authorization,
permitting,  and  enforcement   activities.  These activities  include timely  review
of applications  for final  authorization, training  for  permit writers  and  inspec-
tors,  and developing program policy and guidance documents.

     The Agency  will continue  to develop regulations to fill in  gaps  in the regu-
latory program.   For small quantity  generators, the Agency  will  complete  a survey
to determine  the  numbers  and types  of  generators,  quantities  and types of  waste
                                        HW-28

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generated, and waste  management  practices.   In addition, the Agency will  evaluate
State program data  on small quantity  generators.   The  effort to restrict  certain
wastes from land  disposal  will  focus  on  an  analysis  of wastes  containing dioxins
and solvents.  The  Agency  will   develop  standards  governing  the  management  and
listing of  waste oil.   In  conjunction  with  these  activities, the  Agency  will
continue to list  waste  from  processes within  the  organic  chemical industry.   An
interim final   rule  on  chlorinated  aliphatics will  be proposed.   Proposals  for
lithium batteries and toluene diisocyanate,  to name a few, will  occur.   The Agency
will promulgate the dioxin  waste listing.   In  addition, the Agency will  complete
the risk  assessment analysis to support development  of air emission  standards.

     The Agency will continue to review and  revise existing  hazardous waste regula-
tions.  Major regulatory amendment activities  include:   Proposal of standards  for
class permits of  storage  facilities;  proposal  of standards  governing bulk liquids
in landfills  and  notice  of free  liquids test  methods;  and  promulgation  of  the
definition of  solid waste  and   satellite  accumulation.  The Agency  will  conduct
regulatory impact analyses  to  support development  of  regulatory  amendments  for
liner standards and underground  tanks.

     The Agency plans to  draft   reports to  Congress on  utility  and metals  mining
wastes and develop  regulations  on smelting  and  refining wastes.  The Agency  will
also prepare  a  report  to  Congress  on  the  Post-Closure  Liability  Trust  Fund.

1984 Explanation of Changes from the Amendment

     There is no change  from the amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983,  the Agency obligated  $25,172,000 and 164.6 total  workyears  for  this
program, of which $7,994,900  was for  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation  and
$17,177,100 for extramural  purposes  under the  Abatement,  Control,  and  Compliance
appropriation.

     Headquarters provided  national  guidance  to  the Regions  and  States  on  RCRA
implementation policies  and requirements.  State  authorization  activities  included
pre-application reviews  of  State  statutes, review of draft and complete  applications
for authorization, and  guidance  documents such as the  full  authorization  guidance
manual.  The Agency also proposed regulations  revising the  State RCRA  program  by
allowing States one  full  year from the  effective date of amended  Federal  regula-
tions to  make  revisions in their programs.  In  addition,  annual RCRA program  re-
views were started.  Teams, led  by Headquarters,  assessed management of  the imple-
mentation activities  by the  Regional  offices  as  well  as  by  selected  States.

     The Agency  established  the Permit  Advisory  Committee (PAC)  consisting  of
representatives from  industry,   government,   and environmental  interest  groups  to
make recommendations  on policy,  technical,  and  procedural   improvements  for  the
RCRA permit  program.    In   addition,   Headquarters  continued to provide  national
Permit Assistance Teams (PATs).   The  teams provide  expert technical  and  procedural
assistance for developing sound  facility permits.

     Management of the  RCRA enforcement activities included  development and issu-
ance of  guidance  documents;  the provision  of  expert  witnesses for  Federal  and
State enforcement actions;  laboratory testing  and  analysis  in   support  of Federal
enforcement actions and compliance sampling inspections.

     The Agency initiated regulatory activities to cover small quantity  generators,
waste oil,  boilers,  the  restriction  of  certain  wastes  from  land disposal,  and
financial responsibility requirements  for corrective  action  at  land disposal faci-
lities.  The Agency also  began  a study to identify wastes and  to evaluate control
technologies for  air  emissions  from hazardous  waste facilities.  In addition,  the
                                        HW-29

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Agency continued  to  document  and propose  the  listing  of wastes  from  processes
within various  organic  chemical  industries.   The Agency  proposed  the listing  of
dioxin-containing wastes and developed an interim final  rule on chlorinated alipha-
tics.

     The Agency continued its review and revision of the  RCRA Section  3004 facility
standards.  Major activities included:  Evaluation  of liner requirements, develop-
ment of standards  for  storage of  wastes  in underground tanks,  and development  of
standards for  class  permits  of  storage facilities.   The Agency  also  developed
plans to  modify  CFR  Part  264/265 of  RCRA  Section  3004  to  prohibit disposal  of
bulk liquids in landfills and to specify test  methods for identifying  free liquids.
                                       HW-30

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                                  HAZARDOUS WASTE

                                Financial Assistance
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $47,000,000 for this  program under the Abate-
ment, Control, and  Compliance  appropriation.   This  is  the  same resource level pro-
vided for 1984.

Program Description

     This program provides financial assistance to State governments for developing
and implementing the  hazardous  waste management programs  under  Subtitle C  of the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

     Hazardous Haste Management Financial Assistance to States — This program pro-
vides financial  assistance  to States to  develop,  implement,  and  enforce programs
that monitor and control  hazardous  wastes from cradle to  grave,  including  genera-
tion, transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO STATES

1985 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $47,000,000 for this  program under the Abate-
ment, Control, and Compliance appropriation.  Resources  remain constant with 1984.
This level is  due to a shift in program  emphasis  from program development  activi-
ties, as the  States achieve authorization, to  permitting  and enforcement  activi-
ties.

     States that are  awarded grants  must  either be  operating a substantially equi-
valent hazardous waste  program  under interim authorization or working  toward full
authorization through a Cooperative Arrangement.  State grant targets are allocated
on a  formula  basis  that  accounts  for  a  State's  population,  land area,  number  of
hazardous waste generators,  and amount  of hazardous waste.   The actual grant amount
is negotiated based  on  the  target,  but depends on  the portion of the Federal pro-
gram the State is operating.   States are required to provide  a  25%  match in order
to receive these funds.

     States will  use these funds to continue progress toward authorization.   States
will submit applications  for full  authorization and work to ensure that their pro-
grams are equivalent  to the Federal  program.   The Agency  estimates  40  States will
receive full  authorization  by  the end  of  1985.   The remaining  States  will  have
applications  under review.

     States will  also play  a strong role in  national  permitting efforts.    As  in
1984, almost  half of the  State  grant  resources will  be earmarked  for permitting
activities.  In  order to  expedite  the  processing  of  permits   for new  or expanding
facilities, States  will devote  sufficient permitting  resources  to  respond  to  all
anticipated applications from these  facilities.  Authorized States will  be  respon-
sible for  processing approximately  1,377 permits  in 1985.   However,  the  States
will not complete processing  on all of these  permits  to the  point  of  issuance  or
denial in 1985  because of  the length  of time required for  final  determination.
Of the permits in process,  the  Agency  expects States  to complete final  action  on
440 permits.

     The States,  in  conjunction with  the Regions,  will  continue  their focus  on
improving compliance  with  the  interim   status  standards.    States  will  perform
approximately 12,000  compliance  monitoring inspections.   Emphasis  will  remain  on
                                       HW-32

-------
evaluating the  adequacy  of  ground  water  monitoring  systems.   In  addition,  the
States will complete technical reviews of  closure/post-closure plans and  financial
assurance instruments  for all  non-major  interim status  facilities.   States  will
issue, as necessary, administrative  enforcement  actions in  response to  significant
violations.

1984 Program

     In 1984, the  Agency is allocating $47,000,000  to  State  financial  assistance
under the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropriation.   States  are  using these
funds to  continue  working toward  interim  and full  authorization  and  to  continue
operating the Federal program for  unauthorized phases through  Cooperative  Arrange-
ments.

     Based on the  Agency's  promulgation  of the  land disposal  regulations in  July
1982, Phase IIC  (permitting of  land disposal facilities)  and full authorization
became available January 1983.   By  the  close of  1984,  47  States and  Territories
will be in some phase  of authorization as  a  result  of their progress in developing
satisfactory hazardous waste management  authorities  and  programs.

     States with Phase  II authorization will  be expected  to  focus  50 percent  of
their resources on  permitting  new and expanding facilities and major  facilities,
i.e., incineration  and  land disposal facilities.   Cooperative Arrangement  States
will be eligible,  based  on  Region  and State negotiations,  technically  to  evaluate
permit applications; however,  EPA  retains  responsibility   for  making  the  final
permit decision of  issuance  or denial.   Authorized  States will be responsible  for
processing approximately  1,038 permits  in 1984.  It is  estimated that the  States
will make final determinations  on approximately 395  permit applications.

     State compliance  monitoring  and enforcement  efforts,  in  partnership  with
Federal activities, will concentrate on  establishing an enforcement   presence  in
the regulated  community.  State  compliance monitoring  activities  will  focus  on
compliance with the  ground water  monitoring,  closure/post-closure,  and  financial
assurance requirements.  The States will conduct intensive  ground water monitoring
inspections which will  include  a detailed technical analysis  of  the ground  water
monitoring systems   (e.g., placement  and  depth of monitoring  wells).   States  will
also complete technical  reviews of closure/post-closure plans  and financial  assur-
ance instruments for  all major interim  status  facilities.   Where  violations  are
detected, States will  initiate  and follow-up on all  enforcement actions.

1984 Explanation of Changes from  the  Amendment

     There is no change from the  amendment.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency obligated $43,975,000  for  this  program  under the  Abate-
ment, Control, and  Compliance appropriation.   The  grant  funds  supported  continued
development of  substantially  equivalent  legislation and  regulations  required  for
interim authorization,  implementation of those programs,  and operation  of delegated
aspects of the Federal  program (manifest,  compliance monitoring, permit  evaluation)
through Cooperative Arrangements.

     States were eligible to apply for interim authorization for Phase  I,  Phase IIA
(permitting of tanks,  containers  and  piles), and  Phase  I IB (permitting  of incinera-
tion facilities).  By the end of  1983, 41  States  had received interim authorization
for Phase I and 16  of  these  States also had interim authorization for  Phase IIA/B.

     Grant funds also  supported  Cooperative Arrangements  for  11 States  to operate
selected aspects of the  Federal program.   States negotiated with  Regions  the tasks
they performed while  working toward   interim  authorization.  After final  negotia-
tion of the grants, both for interim  authorized and  Cooperative Arrangement States,
                                       HW-33

-------
funds which the States could not expend were used by the Region to provide contrac-
tor support for implementation of the Federal  hazardous waste program.

     The States  called  in and  initiated  the permit  process  for  533  storage  and
treatment facilities, 46 incineration facilities, and  15 land  disposal  facilities.
In addition, the  States processed  nine permits  for  new  or  expanding  facilities
whose owners or operators submitted applications voluntarily.

     State compliance monitoring  and  enforcement activities  concentrated  on  those
handlers which posed  the greatest  potential  for environmental  problems, such  as
ground water monitoring  facilities.   States conducted  approximately  13,000 compli-
ance monitoring inspections  and initiated  enforcement actions as necessary.
                                      HW-34

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-------
                                  HAZARDOUS  WASTE

                     Waste Management  Strategies Implementation
Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $18,320,900 supported by 451.9 total workyears
for this subactivity,  of  which $15,334,500 will  be  for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $2,986,400 for the Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance appropri-
ation.  This represents a  net  increase  of  $2,093,300  and 12.3 workyears.

Program Oescription

     This program includes  the  hazardous  waste  implementation  program  which  sup-
ports the Regional activities necessary to oversee, and operate  when  required,  the
RCRA-mandated hazardous waste  program.

     Hazardous Haste Management Regulatory Strategies  Implementation  —  This   pro-
gram supports the Regionalactivities  necessary  to provideguidance  and technical
assistance to authorized States and to operate the Federal  hazardous  waste program
in unauthorized  States.   Regions  assist  the  States in  developing  substantially
equivalent hazardous waste  management  programs to qualify  for  interim authoriza-
tion and fully equivalent programs to  qualify for full  authorization which became
available in January 1983.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REGULATORY STRATEGIES  IMPLEMENTATION

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $18,320,900 supported by 451.° total workyears
for this program of which $15,334,500  will  be for the Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation and $2,986,400 will  be  for  the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appro-
priation, representing  an  increase  of $2,093,300 and  12.3 total  workyears.   Of
this amount,  $1,165,600 will  be for  the  Salaries and  Expenses appropriation  and
$927,700 will  be  for the Abatement,  Control, and Compliance  appropriation.   This
increase reflects the  growing permitting workload  facing the Agency.   In addition,
this increase will support Regional efforts to enhance State technical capabilities
through training and guidance.

     The Regions' highest, priority activity  in 1985  is  State  program development.
Aggressive delegation  efforts will  ensure that  a  substantial  number  of  States
achieve full authorization before January  1985.  The  statute intends  for the States
to have  full  responsibility  for operating  a  Federally  equivalent hazardous  waste
program.  State programs were eligible for  full  authorization  beginning in January
1983.  The  statute  requires  the States  to receive  full  authorization by January
1985 or the  Agency  must operate  the hazardous waste  program.   However,  this  dead-
line does  not  preclude States from  continuing to develop  their own programs  and
attaining full authorization at a later date.

     This request  will  enable the  Regions to assist  States in  the  development of
both their  authorization  applications  and their  program capabilities.  The Regions
will review  full  authorization  applications  against  full  equivalence  criteria,
recommend approval  of  applications  in  a timely manner,  and  negotiate State grants
and Cooperative Arrangements.

     As a  result  of  this investment, the  Agency anticipates  that  by  the end of
 1985, 40 States will be fully authorized and  11 States will  have applications  under
 review.  States with full authorization applications pending by the end of  the year
will be  working  under  Cooperative  Arrangements for  portions of  the  program.
                                        HW-37

-------
     The Regions' second  priority  is  the preparation and processing  of  permits  in
unauthorized States  for  new and  expanding  hazardous waste  management  facilities,
existing incineration  facilities,  and  existing  land  disposal  facilities.   These
facilities will  be  a high permitting priority  due  to  their greater  potential  for
adverse environmental impacts.  The Regions will complete processing of 294 permits
in 1985.  In addition, the Regions will  call in 137 facilities  in order to maintain
a timely  and  effective  program to  permit  facilities  of  the  most  environmental
concern.

     In authorized States, Regions will  review State permit actions on major faci-
lities to  ensure technical  adequacy,  enforceability,  and  national  consistency.
Regional review  of  the  initial  State   processed  permits  will  provide  increased
technical knowledge  and understanding to the States and will  result  in  a stronger
and more effective State permitting process.

1984 Program

     In 1984,  the Agency  is  allocating a  total  of $16,227,600  and 439.6  total
workyears to the program of  which $14,168,900  is  for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $2,058,700  is  for  extramural   purposes under  the  Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation.

     The Regions are  negotiating,  awarding,  and administering  grants and Coopera-
tive Arrangements based on the  individual State's authorization  status  and accept-
ance of  delegable  activities.   The  Regions  operate  all manifest  activities  and
technical evaluations of permit  applications  not  delegated  to  Cooperative Arrange-
ment States.

     The Regions are  focusing  on delegating  the  various phases of program authori-
zation.  Regions are  assisting  States  to develop application  packages,  design  and
strengthen their  programs,  and  ensure  that  all  interim authorized  programs  meet
substantial  equivalence requirements.   In addition,  the  Regions review applications
for full authorization  and  ensure that  the  State  programs meet full  equivalence
requirements.  By the end of 1984, the Agency anticipates that 15 States  will  have
Phase I only interim authorization,  21  States will possess   one  or  more  components
of Phase II  interim authorization, and at least 11 States will  be fully  authorized.

     The second  critical  implementation  task is completing  the  processing  of  per-
mits.  The  Regions  will  make  final  determinations on  342 permits  in   1984.   In
addition, the Regions will begin to review State permit  actions on  major  facilities
to ensure national consistency.  '

1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$970,800 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$970,800) Several  reprogrammings were  made  to  this  acti-
vity which were  not  reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes  resulted in a  net decrease of  -$171,400 to the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and a net increase of +$21,000 to the Abatement, Control and  Compli-
ance appropriation.

     An additional reprogramming was  made moving all  non-program  specific "support"
type expense dollars  into  the Regional Support program element.  This  reprogramming
to Salaries   and Expenses,  totaling  -$820,400,  was  included  in  a  reprogramming
letter to Congress of September 29, 1983.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the Agency  obligated  $12,857,300 and  339.2 total  workyears  for  this
program, of   which  $11,166,00   was  for  the   Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation
                                       HW-38

-------
and $1,691,300 for extramural  purposes  under the Abatement, Control, and Compliance
appropriation.

     The Regions focused on assisting States to achieve various phases of authori-
zation.  As of  September  1983, 41 States had  achieved  Phase I interim authoriza-
tion and 16 of  these  States had  also  received Phase IIA/B interim authorization.

     The Agency  called  in  and initiated  the  permit process  for 437  storage and
treatment facilities,  37 incineration facilities, and 284 land  disposal facilities.
In addition, the Regions processed 29 permits for new or expanding facilities whose
owners or operators submitted  applications voluntarily.
                                        HW-39

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget  Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

HAZARDOUS WASTE                                                               HW-1

    ENFORCEMENT
       Hazardous Waste Enforcement	     HW-41
                                      HW-40

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                                 HAZARDOUS WASTE


                           Hazardous Waste Enforcement


Budget Request


     The Agency requests a total  of $8,680,400 supported by 193..4 total  workyears
for this program of which  $6,930,400 will  be for the Salaries and Expenses  appro-
priation and  $1,750,000  for  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation.
This represents a net  increase of $2,749,800 and 16.9 workyears.

Program Description

     This program serves to  ensure compliance  with  the Resource Conservation  and
Recovery Act  (RCRA).  The principle objectives  are to monitor and  evaluate hazardous
waste generator, transporter, and facility compliance with the statutory and regula-
tory requirements of RCRA; encourage and promote voluntary  compliance  by hazardous
waste handlers; take  appropriate administrative, civil,  and criminal  enforcement
actions when necessary;  and assist and evaluate  program implementation in the States.

     Hazardous Waste Enforcement— This  program supports  Regional  activities  to
operate and  enforce the Federal  regulatory  program  in States which have not  re-
ceived interim or full  authorization.   These activities  include compliance monitor-
ing of interim status  facilities, permitted facilities,  and hazardous waste genera-
tors.  Enforcement actions against  violators of RCRA or its regulations  are taken
when necessary.  The Agency  is  also responsible for evaluating programs  in  autho-
rized and  Cooperative  Arrangement  States  to assess their progress  in  conducting
hazardous waste compliance monitoring and enforcement activities.


HAZARDOUS WASTE ENFORCEMENT

1985 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $R,680,400 supported by 193.4 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which $6,930,400  will  be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  ap-
propriation, and $1,750,000  will  be  for  the  Abatement,  Control,  and  Compliance
appropriation, representing  an   increase   of  $2,749,800  and 16.9  workyears.   Of
this amount,  $999,800  will  be   for  the  Salaries  and   Expenses  appropriation  and
$1,750,000 will be  for  the Abatement,  Control,  and  Compliance  appropriation.  This
increase supports a growth in the level of Regional compliance monitoring inspec-
tions and technical support activities  that are provided to the States.

     EPA will conduct  compliance evaluation inspections  at permitted  facilities and
interim status  ground  water  monitoring facilities.   All  ground  water  monitoring
facilities will  receive  a  detailed technical evaluation to  ensure that  monitoring
equipment is  adequate  and  properly installed  and that  sampling  and  analysis  are
being conducted properly.  Awareness of  both public  and  Congressional  concern that
adequate independent sampling be  conducted to evaluate the quality of  ground water
and the extent  of  contamination has led the  Agency to the decision to  increase the
level of effort for compliance sampling inspections.   The Regions  will  also conduct
technical evaluations of closure/post-closure plans  and financial  assurance instru-
ments for all non-major hazardous waste facilities in unauthorized States.

     The Agency  plans  to  continue  its  expanded enforcement  efforts.  It  is  the
goal of  the  program  to foster  compliance and  lower  the  rate  of  noncompliance.
The Regions  will  initiate warning letters  and  compliance orders in  unauthorized
States in  order  to  secure  compliance with interim status  standards.   In addition,
enforcement  resources will  be provided  for  the Regions to  continue their support
                                        HW-43

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of the  permitting  program.   This request will  support pre-permit  inspections  and
enforcement actions in  response  to  violations occurring during the  permit  or clo-
sure process.  The  Regions  will  also continue their support  for  criminal  investi-
gations.

     This request  includes  resources for continued  State evaluation  and  support.
The Regions  will  conduct  program  reviews  for  all  52  participating  States.   In
addition, the  Regions  will  conduct  over 1,000 joint  inspections  and  initiate  en-
forcement actions  in  States that fail  to  secure compliance,  or  in response to a
State request for enforcement assistance.

     Extramural funding will provide technical assistance in the areas  of training,
ground water monitoring, sampling and lab support.

1984 Program

     The Agency  is allocating  a total  of  $5,930,600 and  176.5 total  workyears
for this program,  all   of  which  is  for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.

     The 1984 Hazardous Waste Enforcement Program expands  significantly  from 1983.
Recent program experience  and  a  number of   studies  have highlighted the level  of
non-compliance with the interim  status  standards in  the  regulated community,  in
particular, the  ground  water monitoring requirements.  The  Regions will  increase
their efforts in unauthorized States to focus the compliance evaluation inspections
at interim  status   ground water  monitoring   facilities.   In  addition,  the  Regions
will complete technical reviews  of  closure/post-closure  plans  and financial assur-
ance instruments for all major interim  status  facilities.  These  reviews  will  help
to ensure that these facilities have adequately planned  for  closure activities  and
that sufficient assurances are available to  support  closure requirements.

     In the event that  inspections or report reviews reveal violations, the  Regions
will initiate  appropriate  enforcement  actions.  The Agency  expects to issue  RCRA
Section 3008 Compliance Orders,  RCRA Section  3013 Administrative Orders  requiring
monitoring and analysis  of  sites which  may  present  a  substantial threat to  human
health or the environment, and RCRA  Section  7003 Administrative Orders to handlers
posing imminent and substantial endangerment.  The Regions will also assess finan-
cial penalties in  conjunction with  Compliance and Administrative  Orders.   In  addi-
tion, the Agency will  develop the technical  aspects of civil  and criminal  actions
under the authority of RCRA Sections 7003 and 3008.

     As part of  State   evaluation efforts,  the Agency will  conduct joint  inspec-
tions with State personnel  and  will  review  the compliance monitoring  and enforce-
ment programs in all authorized  and  Cooperative  Arrangements  States.  In  addition,
the Agency will  support State  enforcement  actions by  providing technical support,
such as expert  witnesses,  sampling  and laboratory  analysis,  and other  technical
expertise not normally found in  State governments.

1984 Explanation of Changes  from the Amendment

     The net decrease of -$735,500 results from the  following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$735,500) A   reprogramming was  made moving all   non-program
specific "support1  type expense dollars  into the Regional  Support program element.
This reprogramming to Salaries and Expenses, totaling  -$735,500,  was included  in a
reprogramming letter to Congress on  September 29,  1983.

1983 Accomplishments

     In 1983, the  Agency  obligated   $3,119,800 and  79.2 total  workyears  for this
program, of which  $2,806,800  was for  the  Salaries   and  Expenses  apropriation  and
$313,000 was for  extramural  purposes under  the  Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.
                                       HW-44

-------
     In 1983, the Agency conducted  compliance  monitoring  inspections of 100 percent
of designated major handlers,  25 percent  of  other  interim  status facilities,  and
10 percent of selected generators and  transporters.  To return  violators to compli-
ance, the Agency issued 46 RCRA Section 3008 Warning Letters, 12 RCRA Section  3008
Compliance Orders,  15 RCRA  §3013  monitoring  and analysis  Administrative Orders,
and, where,  practices presented an  imminent  and   substantial  endangerment,  RCRA
Section 7003  Administrative  Orders.   Technical  support for  the development  of
civil actions and criminal investigations were provided.

   In its State oversight  role, the Agency  conducted  joint  inspections with State
personnel to evaluate the quality of inspections as well as to train State inspec-
tors.  In addition, the Regions provided technical support and  assistance  to  States
conducting compliance monitoring and enforcement  activities.
                                        HW-45

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

PESTICIDES                                                                    P-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Pesticides Research	    P-8
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Registration, Special  Registration & Tolerances	    P-20
          Regi s trat i on	    P -22
          Speci al  Regi strati on	    P-25
          Tolerances	    P-27
       Generic Chemical  Review	    P-29
          Generic Chemical  Review	    P-31
          Special  Reviews - Environmental  Impact Statement (EIS)
              Preparati on	    P-33
    ENFORCEMENT
       Pesticides Enforcement	    P-36
          Pest i ci des Enforcement	    P-39
          Pesticides Enforcement Grants	    P-40
          Pesticides Certification & Training	    P-41
                                        P-l

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                                      PESTICIDES


 OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      As a class,  pesticides  are among the most  beneficial  and the most  hazardous
 of substances.  The  Federal  Insecticide,. Fungicide,  and Rodenticide Act  (FIFRA),
 as amended,  and  Sections  402,  406,  408,  and  409  of the Federal  Food, Drug,  and
 Cosmetic Act  (FFDCA)  invest  in the  Environmental  Protection  Agency the  authority
 to regulate  the  distribution  and  use  of pesticides  in the  United  States.   The
 Agency is thereby charged with a regulatory task of enormous  scope and  complexity.
 An estimated 2.7 billion pounds  of  pesticide active ingredients are used  annually
 in this country,  representing about  40,000 products.   These  products  provide  social
 as well as economic benefits to society by  substantially contributing to agricultural
 productivity and   controlling  human  disease  vectors,  such  as  mosquitoes.   At  the
 same time, pesticides are inherently hazardous in that they  are specifically  formu-
 lated to be injurious to  living target organisms,  and are  deliberately introduced
 into the environment for this purpose.  The hazards of pesticide exposure  are thus
 by no  means  incidental  to the  use  of these  products.   While many pesticides  are
 available for use only by  trained pest control operators and farmers, many  others
 are used  by persons  who  have no  special  expertise in the  use of pesticides.   In
 addition, many pesticides  are  used   on food   or  animal  feed  crops,  so  that  human
 dietary exposure  cannot  be  avoided,  although  it can be  controlled  by regulatory
 measures.

      Under FIFRA  and the  FFDCA, the Agency is  responsible for ensuring  that  pesti-
 cides perform their  intended  functions   without  unreasonable  adverse  effects   on
 public health and the environment.   The projected 1985 Pesticides Program  strategi-
 cally builds on accomplishments achieved  by  EPA  in previous years, and reflects  a
 continued active  commitment  to  fulfill our  congressional  mandate.  The  statutory
 goal  of balancing health and environmental protection with  economic stability  and
_growth requires regulatory operations within  EPA that are flexible,  efficient,  and
^effective.  It also  requires  ongoing close cooperation with  pesticide users,  public
 interest groups,  and the  regulated  industry.   In  addition,  the Agency intends  to
 encourage increased   involvement   by  State  and  local  governments  in regulatory
 matters, especially  in  connection with local pest 'control  needs  and  emergencies,
 the enforcement  of regulations, and the  education  and training of persons such  as
 applicators  and farmworkers who are particularly likely to be  exposed  to pesticides.

      The Agency's  pesticide  regulation  strategy  focuses  on  four  broad program
 areas:   1) registration of new products,  2)  review and reregistration  of existing
 products, 3) enforcement  of  pesticide  use rules,  and 4)  research and  development
 to support and improve EPA's ability to  evaluate the  risks  and  benefits  of  pest-
 icides.   The continued  importance of  improving review processes  is  reflected  in
 1985 projections  for  the separate  program areas.

 REGISTRATION ACTIVITIES

      FIFRA and  FFDCA authorize  EPA to set  the terms  and  conditions  of  pesticide
 registration,  marketing,  and use.   The purpose  of Federal  registration  of  pest-
 icides  by EPA is  to  protect public  health  and  the  environment  from  unreasonable
 risks while  allowing users  the benefits   of  needed pesticides.   Under the Regis-
 tration  program,   new   pesticide  products are  registered  on  the  basis   of  data
 reviewed by  Agency scientists,  and  current  registrations  are amended  to add new
 uses and/or  new formulations.

      The Registration program faces major uncertainties as a result  of two recent
 court decisions,  the  scope  and  effect  of   which  have not  yet  been  determined.
 Depending on the  outcomes  of detailed  negotiations,  rule-making,  and the appeals
 process, these  decisions   could   necessitate  comprehensive   revisions  to  Agency
 policies and procedures.
                                         P-3

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   The Special Registration program will  continue to perform  an  auxiliary  function
by permitting certain unregistered  pesticide uses to serve for experimental  purposes
(including temporary tolerances for residues on food destined for the market) and to
deal with  emergency  pest  situations.    It  also  provides  oversight and  guidance to
State Registration  and  Experimental  Use  Permit  programs.   The  Tolerance  program
establishes safe and enforceable tolerance levels (or in  some instances exemptions
from tolerance  requirements)   for  pesticide  residues   in  or on  raw  agriculture
commodities and processed  foods.   Tolerances  (maximum permissible  residue  levels)
are set for both active and inert pesticide ingredients.

     The Agency will  initiate a  program  of  field  and laboratory  studies  of  the
efficiency of protective  clothing  and the efficacy of current  protective  clothing
technology as a means of reducing exposure. This activity will  build upon  previous
investigations of protective clothing  and develop options  for a  regulatory  strategy
and will propose ways to  increase use of protective clothing.  This  is  a  critical
area, since requiring protective  clothing is  a  key strategy  to  reduce  exposure to
an acceptable level.

     The Agency will  continue the enhancement  of  outmoded information  management
support systems to improve Agency responses to public  requests for pesticide infor-
mation.  This  system  will  thus facilitate  not  only the  Registration program,  but
also reregistrations and special  reviews.

GENERIC CHEMICAL REVIEW AND REREGISTRATION

     The registrations of  the  majority of  existing pesticide chemicals are supported
by data bases which the Agency has found insufficient to  support  statutory  determi-
nations of no unreasonable  risk.   The Generic Chemical  Review program  is  designed
to remedy this  by  reviewing  current  knowledge  about  each  chemical,  requiring  up-
grading of the  scientific  data  base supporting  registrations,  and establishing
scientifically based regulatory  standards for reregi strati on of  existing  products
and registration of  future products.   The Agency will  review,  for the  first  time
in significant  numbers,  scientific studies  conducted by registrants  in  response
to recently established data requirements.

     The Generic  Chemical  Review  program, through  its  special  review  (formerly
Rebuttable Presumption  Against  Registration,   or  RPAR)   activities,  also   system-
atically identifies  and  takes appropriate  regulatory  action  on special  problems
which some pesticides  are  found   to  pose  for  human  health  and the environment.

PESTICIDES ENFORCEMENT

     Pesticides enforcement  activities  and  the  certification   and training  of
restricted use  pesticide   applicators  are undertaken   primarily  by  States   and
Territories through  two  grant  programs.   The  Agency  will  continue  to  provide
program direction  and management for the operation  of the  grant  programs.

     In addition  to  supporting   State  activities,  the  Agency  also  conducts  a
limited Federal Pesticide  Enforcement  program,  principally  through the  Regions,
which initiates enforcement in  response  to the  four nondelegated State referrals,
undertakes laboratory  inspections   and  data  audits,  conducts   import  and  export
surveillance, provides technical  and compliance  assistance to States, the regulated
community, and the public, and operates a  computer system for data  on registration
of pesticide   producer  establishments and  for  other  enforcement   related  data.

     Headquarters  enforcement   personnel   provide  support  for the  development  of
FIFRA regulations, development of  compliance monitoring strategies  and  enforcement
response policies as new  rules  become effective, as well  as  annual  grant  guidance
for both the  Enforcement and Certification and Training  grant programs.
                                       P-4

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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

     EPA's pesticides research efforts  provide  the scientific basis  for  pesticide
compliance and  registration  activities.   The  thrust  of  these  activities  is  to
provide an understanding of pesticide interactions with  humans  and the environment
in order  to  ensure  maximum  effectiveness  of  pest control  measures  with  minimum
adverse effects to human health and the  environment.   The research program provides
an integrated mix  of health, monitoring,  environmental processes,  engineering,  and
risk assessment activities  to improve the scientific  basis  for pesticide abatement,
control, and compliance  efforts.

   In 1985, the  research program will devote  additional  resources to  develop  and
validate test methods necessary to  measure  the  effect  of pesticides.   In  addition,
a portion of the increase will be  used  to support quality assurance,  and research
to evaluate  the safety  of  protective   clothing  used   by  pesticide  applicators.
                                        P-5

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                            Actual
                             1983
                                     PESTICIDES
Budget
Estimate
  1984
Program Activities
Registration Standard
 Guidance Packages
 Established	      23
Chemical Data Call-In
 Requirements	      75
Incoming Data Call-In and
 Registration Standard
 Data Reviews	
Special Review Decisions..       8
Laboratory Data Audits....      36
New Chemical and Biora-
 tional Reviews	     281
Old Chemical Reviews	   8,455
Amended Registration
 Reviews	2_/   8,971
New Use Reviews	
Emergency Exemption
 Reviews	     754
Experimental Use Permit
 Reviews	     399
24(c) State Registration
 Reviews	   1,058
Temporary Tolerance
 Petitions	     141
5(f) State Experimental
 Use Permit Reviews	
Tolerance Petition
 Reviews	     551
Inert Ingredient
 Request Reviews	      46
Producer Establishment
 Inspections	4/   2,236
Use/Reentry and
 Experimental Use
 Observations	4_/  16,328
Marketplace
 Investi gati ons	4/  20,896
Import Inspections	4/     512
State Applicator License
 and Record Inspections...  16,508
State Dealer Record
 Inspections	  12,414
Federal Laboratory
 Inspections	      39
  9,344

  6,402
     80

  9,530

  6,049

     40
Amendment/
Current
Estimate
 1984
Estimate
 1985
35
70
10
18
250
8,500
20,300
1503/
770
425
1,100
175
100
640
50
2,360
25
70
10
60
260
3,700
7.0001/
135~
770
425
1,100
175
100
600
50
2,411
25
70
560
11
60
280
3,750
7,000
135
770
425
1,100
175
100
600
50
2,410
 16,306     19,175
 19,203
    703

 16,304

 12,355

     40
 16,530
    703

 16,304

 12,355

     40
Increase +
Decrease -
1985 vs. 1984
                                          +560
                                          +  1
                                          + 20
                                          + 50
                                            -1
      -2,673
\J  The number projected in the 1984 justification was 20,300.  This number included
    13,300 "supplemental"  registrations.   Since these  are  no longer processed  or
    tracked, they have been removed for proper comparison purposes.
2/  Amended  registration  reviews include  amendments  to current  pesticide  labels,
    administrative amendments, and supplemental  registrations.
3/  Included  in  earlier years under Old Chemical Reviews and Amended  Registration
    Reviews.
4/  Includes both Federal and State enforcement activities.
                                             P-6

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                          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                1985 Budget Estimate

                                 Table of Contents



                                                                              PAGE

PESTICIDES                                                                    P-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Pesticides Research	    P-8
                                        P-7

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                                     PESTICIDES
                                Pesticides Research
Major Outputs/Milestones

Develop and Validate Test Methods
That Identify Health and Environ-
mental Effects

- Report on the effects of toxic
  exposure during selected
  critical  development periods on
  sexual dimorphisms ^Health)

- Report on data requirements
  for testing the safety of
  Biological  Control Agents
  (Env. Processes)

- Report on method evaluation
  for predicting the effects
  of a pesticide on non-target
  organi sms i n a freshwater
  pond (Env.  Processes)

- Report on field evaluation of
  EPA reproductive test for avian
  speci es usi ng Endrin
  (Env. Processes)

Provide Quality Assurance Assistance

- Provide high purity chemicals
  and comparison samples
  (Monitori ng)

Develop and Validate Techniques That
Assess Exposure

- Report on the pesticide leaching/
  migration field study (Env. Processes)

- Manual -  Pesticide leaching potential
  using PRZM-1 (Env. Processes)

- Report on review publication
  describing  and evaluating
  available methodology for
  human exposure estimation (Health)

Conduct and  Review Risk Assessments

- Provide human health related risk
  assessments  (Scientific Assessment)
Actual
 1983
Amendment/
Current
Estimate    Estimate
  1984        1985
  6/86
 10/83
  5/84
  6/86
 10/84
  5/84
 6/86
10/85
                1/85
              1/85
  9/83
  9/84
 9/85
  3/84
  4/84
 12/86
  3/84
  4/84
 12/86
 3/85
12/86
 9/83
  9/84
 9/85
                                       P-ll

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                                     PESTICIDES


                                Pesticides Research


Budget Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $8,038,500 supported by  109.3  total  workyears
for 1985, an  increase  of  $1,743,500 and 1.0 workyear from  1984.   Included in this
total is  $5,310,100 for  Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $2,728,400  for Research  and
Development, with increases of $688,100 and $1,055,400 respectively.  The increased
resources will be used for the development and validation of test methods necessary
to measure the  effect  of pesticides, quality  assurance, and  research  to evaluate
the safety of protective clothing used by pesticides applicators.

Program Description

     Research focuses  on  increasing our  understanding  of  how  pesticides interact
with man's activities  and the environment,  to  assure that  their use  can minimize
damage from pests,  while maximizing the  protection  of man's food and fiber and the
environment from unreasonable adverse effects.

     Objective 1.  Develop Methodologies That Improve the Agency's Risk  Assessment
Capability Under FIFRft.Thisactivitydevelopsand"validatesneworimproved
environmental  and  public  health  risk  assessment  methods.   The  risk  assessment
methods represent an improved capability for the Office  of Pesticide Programs (OPP)
to analyze and  aggregate  the  data  submitted  by  the pesticide  industry to determine
the risks and benefits resulting from pesticide  usage.

     Objective 2.  Develop  and  Validate  Test   Methods  That  Identify  Health  and
Environmental   Effects  of  Pesticides  for  the FIFRA Registration and Enforcement"
Programs^This  research  effort  wil 1  supply  validated   environmental  and  health
assay methods  for  use  by  industry.  Research  under  this  objective is  needed  to
develop valid test  protocols  to meet • pesticide  registration  requirements  and  en-
forcement responsibilities under Section 3 and 26 of FIFRA.

     Objective 3.  Define  the Environmental, Health and  Engineering  Endpoints  of
Pesticides to Determine Possible Future Test Method Development.This work identi-
fies the toxic  effects  of  pesticides with which the  Agency should  concern itself.
Once the appropriate  effects  of  concern  are identified, research  results  can  be
utilized to determine likely candidates for test method development.

     Objective 4.  Provide Quality Assurance Assistance and  Support for the  Pesti-
cides  Repository Program. Regional/State Laboratories,  and  Other FIFRA ActivitiesT
EPA maintains a repository  of high purity  chemicals  that  serves as  standards  for
internal  quality control to ensure  that data  in  support  of  pesticides registration
is accurate,  precise  and  reliable.   In  addition,  the  program provides  quality
assurance support  to  the  Office of  Pesticide Programs  contract  laboratories  in
their analytical efforts.

     Objective 5.  Develop and Validate Techniques  That  Assess Human and  Environ-
mentaT"Exposure  to  Pesticides for the FIFRA Registration and Enforcement Program.
In the health area, exposure  data will  be developed to enable the Office of Pesti-
cides