ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page

SUBJECT INDEX                                                               7


SUMMARY                                                                     S-l


AIR_                                                                         A-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Oxidants	-	 A-9
       Hazardous Ai r Pol 1 utants	 A-21
       Mobile Sources	 A-34
       Gases & Particles	 A-43
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Air Quality & Stationary Source Planning & Standards	 A-56
          Emission Standards & Technology Assessment	 A-58
          Pollutant Strategies & Air Standards Development	 A-60
          State Program Policy Guidelines & Regulations Development	 A-62
       Mobile Source Air Pollution Control & Fuel Economy	 A-64
          Emission Standards, Technical  Assessments Characterization	 A-66
          Testing, Technical & Administrative Support	 A-68
          Emissions & Fuel  Economy Compliance	 A-69
       State Programs Resource Assistance	 A-71
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)	 A-73
          Training	 A-75
       Air Quality Management Implementation	 A-77
       Trends Monitoring & Progress Assessment	 A-81
          Ambient Air Quality Monitoring	 A-83
          Air Quality 8 Emissions Data Management & Analysis 	 A-85
    ENFORCEMENT
       Stationary Source Enforcement	 A-89
       Mobile Source Enforcement	 A-94


MATER QUALITY                                                               WQ-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Water Quality Research	 WQ-9
       Municipal  Wastewater	 WQ-22
       Industrial  Wastewater	 VIQ-31
       Comprehensive Estuarine Management	 WQ-39
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Water Qua! i ty and Grants Program Management	 WQ-42
          Water Quality Management	 WQ-44
          Great Lakes Program	 WQ-46
          Chesapeake Bay Program	 WQ-48
       Effluent Standards  8 Guidelines	 WO-51
       Grants Assi stance Programs	WQ-'ie
          Clean Lakes Program	 WQ-57
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106)	 WQ-58
          Training  Grants  (Section 104)	 WQ-59

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                                                                            Page

WATER QUALITY (cont.)

       Water Quality Strategies Implementation	  WQ-61
        ,  Dredge & Fi 11	  WQ-64
          Ocean Disposal  Permits	  WQ-65
          Environmental  Emergency Response & Prevention	  WQ-67
          Standards &  Regulations	  WQ-59
       Water Quality Monitoring & Analysis	  WQ-72
          Comprehensive Estuarine Management	WQ-74
          Water Qua! i ty Moni tori ng & Anal ysi s	  WQ-76
       Municipal Source Control...	  VJQ-80
          Municipal Waste Treatment Facility Construction	  WQ-82
          Waste Treatnent Operations & Maintenance	  WQ-85
    ENFORCEMENT
       Water Quality Enforcement	  WQ-88
       Water Quality Permit Issuance	  WQ-92
         " Permi t Issuance	  WQ-93


DRINKING HATER                                                              DW-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Drinking Water Research	  DW-8
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Drinking Water Criteria, Standards & Guidelines	  DW->22
          Criteria, Standards & Guidelines	  DW-23
       Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance	  DW-26
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants	  DW-27
          Underground  Injection Control Program Grants	  DW-29
          Special  Studies & Demonstrations	  DW-30
          Training	  DW-30
       Drinking Water  Management	  DW-32
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance	  DW-34
          Underground  Injection Control Program	  DW-36
       Ground-Water Protection	  DW-39
    ENFORCEMENT
          Drinking Water Enforcement	  DW-44


HAZARDOUS WASTE                                                             HW-I

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Hazardous Waste Research	  HW-1Q
    ABATEMENT * CONTROL
       Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies	  HW-25
          Regulations, Guidelines & Policies - Hazardous Waste	  HW-2.7
          RCRA Regulatory Program - Office of Air & Radiation	  HW-30
          RCRA Regulatory Program - Office of Water	  HW-31
       Fi nanci al Assi stance	  HW-33
          Hazardous Waste Management Financial Assistance to States	  HW-34
          Hazardous Waste Management Conpl iance Grants	  HW-36
          Hazardous Waste Management Initiative Grants	  HW-36
          Underground Storage Tanks State Grants	  HU-37
       Waste Management Strategies Implementation	  HW-38
          Hazardous Waste Management Regulatory Strategies Imp! ementation..  HW-40
    ENFORCEMENT
       Hazardous Waste Enforcement	  HVI-44

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                                                                            Page

PESTICIDES                                                                  P-l-

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Pesticides Research	 P-9
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Registration, Special  Registration & Tolerances	 P-23
          Registration	 P-25
          Special Registration	•	 P-27
          To!erances	 P-28
       Generic Chemical  Review	 P-30
          Generic Chemical Review	,	 P-32
          Special Reviews - EIS Preparation	 P-34
    ENFORCEMENT
       Pestidices Enforcement	 P-37
          Pesticides Enforcement	 P-39
          Pesticides Enforcement Grants	 P-41
          Pesticides Certification & Training	 P-42


RADIATION                                                                   R-l  -

    RESEARCH 6 DEVELOPMENT
       Non-ionizi ng Radiation	 R-6
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Radiation Criteria, Standards & Guidelines	 R-l3
       Radiation Program Imp! ementation	 R-17
       Radiation Environmental  Impact Assessment	 R-20


INTERDISCIPLINARY                                                  '         !-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Intermedi a Programs	'.	 1-7
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       NEPA Compliance & Federal  Agencies Compliance	 1-19
          NEPA Compl iance	 1-21
          Federal  Agencies Compliance	 1-22
       Accelerated Review and Permitting	 1-24
       Interdisciplinary Training  Grants	'... 1-26
    ENFORCEMENT                                          .                      .  -
       Enforcement Policy & Technical  Support	 1-30
          Technical  Support - Office of Enforcement & Compliance Monitoring 1-32
          Enforcement Policy &  Operations	 1-24


TOXIC SUBSTANCES                                                     "       TS-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Chemical  Testing  & Assessment	 TS-8
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Toxic Substances Strategies	 TS-24
          Toxics Integration	 TS-27
          Chemical  Testing	 TS-29
          Existing Chemical  Review	 TS-31
          New Chemical  Review	 TS-3R

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                                                                            Page
TOXIC SUBSTANCES (cont.)

    ENFORCEMENT
       Toxic Substances Enforcement	 TS-39
          Toxic Substances Enforcement	 TS-41
          Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants	 TS-43


ENERGY      '                                                                E-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Multi-Media Energy	 E-5


MANAGEMENT & SUPPORT                                                        MS-1

    PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
       Program Management	 MS-7
          Program Management - Air & Radiation	 MS-12
          Program Management - Water	 MS-13
          Program Management - Enforcement & Compliance Monitoring	 MS-14
          Program Management - External  Affairs	 MS-15
          Program Managenent - Pesticides & Toxic Substances	•-	 MS-16
          Program Management - General  Counsel	 MS-17
          Program Management - Research & Development	 MS-18
          Proqrari Management - Solid Waste & Emerqency Response..	 MS-19
    AGENCY MANAGEMENT
       Office of the Administrator/Executive Offices	 MS-22
          Immediate Office of the Administrator	:	 MS-27
          Office of Regional Operations	 MS-28
          Office of Executive Support	 MS-29
          Regulatory Information Service Center	 MS-30
          Administrator's Representation Fund	 MS-31
          Office of International Activi ties	 MS-31
          Office of Civil Rights	 MS-32
          Science Advisory Board	 MS-33
          Office of Administrative Law Judges	 f'S-34
          Office of Small & Di sadvantaged Business Utilization	 MS-35
       Office of Inspector General	 MS-38
       Office of General Counsel	 MS-41
          General  Counsel	 MS-42
       Office of External Affairs	 MS-44
          Office of Legislative Analysis	 MS-48
          Office of Congressional Liaison	 MS-49
          Office of Pub! ic Af fai rs	 MS-50
          Office of Intergovernmental  Liaison	 MS-51
          Office of Federal Activities	 MS-52
       Office of Policy, Planning & Evalation	 MS-54
          Program Management - Policy, Planning 5 Evaluation	 MS-58
          Integrated Envi ronmental Management Program	 MS-58
          Office of Policy Analysis	 MS-59
          Office of Standards & Regulations	 MS-60
          Office of Managenent Systems & Evaluation	 MS-61

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MANAGEMENT & SUPPORT (cont.)                                                Page

       Office of Administration & Resources Management	 MS-63
          Program Management - Administration	 MS-68
          Financial  Management - Headquarters	 MS-69
          Office of the Comptroller	 MS-70
          Contracts & Grants Management	 MS-71
          Personnel  & Organization Services	 MS-72
          Facilities & Management Services	 MS-73
          Information Systems & Services	 MS-74
          Human Resources Management	 MS-76
   REGIONAL MANAGEMENT
       Regional  'Management	 MS-78
          Resource Management - Regions 	 MS-81
          Financial  Management - Regions	 MS-82
          Personnel  Management - Regions	 MS-83
          Administrative Management -  Regions	 MS-84
          Regional  Management	 MS-85
          Regional  Counsel	 MS-85-
          Planning,  Evaluation & Analysis - Regions	 MS-86
   SUPPORT COSTS
       Support Costs	 MS-89
          Professional  Training	 MS-91
          Nationwide Support Services	 MS-92
          Headquarters Support Services	 MS-93
          Regional  Supnort Services	 MS-93
          ADP Support Costs	 MS-94
          Lab Support - Research & Development	 MS-95
          Lab Support - Air & Radiation	 MS-95
          Lab Support - Pesticides S  Toxic Substances	 MS-96


BUILDINGS & FACILITIES                                                      BF-1

       Buildings &  Facilities	 BF-2
          New Facilities	 BF-5
          Repairs &  Improvements	 BF-6


CONSTRUCTION GRANTS                                        •                  CG-1

       Construction  Grants	 CG-3


SUPERFUND                                                                   SF-1

   RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Hazardous Substances Research	 SF-9
   ENFORCEMENT
       Hazardous Substance  Response -  Enforcement	 SF-19
          Hazardous  Substance Technical  Support - Office of Enforcement &
             Compl iance Monitoring	'	 SF-21
          Hazardous  Substance Technical  Enforcement	 SF-23
          Hazardous  Substance Legal  Enforcement	 SF-24

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                                                                            Page

   MANAGEMENT & SUPPORT
       Management & Support	 SF-28
          Hazardous Substance Financial  Management - Headquarters....-	 SF-35
          Hazardous Substance Financial  Management - Regions	 SF-36
          Hazardous Substance Administrative Management - Headquarters	 SF-36
          Hazardous Substance Administrative Management - Rsgions	 SF-37
          Hazardous Substance Support Services - Headquarters	 SF-38
          Hazardous Substance Support Services - Regions	 SF-38
          Hazardous Substance Computer Services	~	 SF-39
          Hazardous Substance Legal  Services - Headquarters...	 SF-39
          Hazardous Substance Legal  Services - Regions	 SF-4Q
          Hazardous Substance-Office of the Inspector General	 SF-41
          Hazardous Substance-Office of Policy, Planning & Evaluation	 SF-41
          Hazardous Substance-Office of the Comptroller	 SF-42
          Hazardous Substance-Office of Research & Development-Lab Support. SF-43
   HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESPONSE ACTIONS
       Hazardous Substance Response - EPA	 SF-45
          Hazardous Spill  & Site Response	 SF-47
          Assessing & Replacing Natural  Resources	 SF-50
       Hazardous Substance Response - Interagency	 SF-51
          Department of Health 8 Human Services.....	 SF-54
          United States Coast Guard	 SF-55
          Department of Justice	 SF-55
          Federal Emergency Management Agency	 SF-56
          Federal Emergency Management Agency - Relocation	 SF-57
          National  Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration	 SF-57
          Department of Interior	 SF-58
          Occupational Safety & Health Administration	 SF-58
       Hazardous Waste Site Inventory	 SF-60
SPECIAL ANALYSES
SA-1

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1986 Budget Estimate

                            Subject Index By Media


AIR                                                           Page

  Academic Training	  A-75
  Ai r Qua"! i ty Morn tori ng	  A-83
  Air Toxics	  A-61,73,78
  Asbestos Demolition	  A-91
  China Studies	  A-53
  Compliance Monitoring Inspections	  A-90
  Emission Waivers	  A-95
  Enforcement 	  A-90,95
  Fuel Economy	  A-69
  Fuel Programs	  A-95
  Health Effects Institute	  A-41
  Indoor Air	  A-3Q
  Inspection and Maintenance Program	  A-67
  In-use Emi ssion Factors	  A-67
  Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory	  A-68
  "National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)	  A-61
  National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN)	  A-19,20
  National Emission Standards for Hazardous
    Air Pollutants (NESHAPs)	  A-58
  New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)	  A-58
  Prevention of Significant Deterioration	  A-73
  Recall  of In-Use Vehicles	  A-95
  Regional Programs	  A-78,83
  Selective Enforcement Audits	  A-95
  State Grants	:	  A-73
  State Implementation Plans^(SIP)	  A-73,78
  Stationary Source Enforcement	  A-90
  Tampering and Fuel  Switching	  A-32,33,95
  Training Courses	  A-75


WATER QUALITY

   Academic Training	  WQ-59
   Advanced Wastewater Treatment Reviews	  WQ-84,85
   Aquatic Monitoring Methods	  WQ-13
   Biomoni toring	  WQ-12,16,72
   Chesapeake Bay Program	  VIQ-40,48
   Comprehensivp Estuarine Management	  WQ-12,39,74
   Construction Grants Management	  CG-3,4
   Clean Lakes	  WQ-57,58
   Combined Sewer Overflow	  WQ-84
   Corps of Engineers	  WQ-83,84
   Effluent Guide! ines	  WQ-35,52
   Emergency Response	  WQ-67
   Enforcement	  WQ-89,90

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                            Subject Index by Media

                                 (Continued)


WATER QUALITY  (Continued)                              "      Page

  Great Lakes Program			  WQ-12,13,20,40,46
  Grosse He Laboratory	  WQ-12,13,20,40
  Incineration-at-Sea.	  WQ-63,65
  Innovative and Alternative Technologies	  WQ-24,25,26,29,83
  International  Pollution Control  Agreements	  WQ-20,46
  Marine Outfalls - Section 301(h)	  WQ-13
  Nonpoint Source	  WQ-6,45
  Ocean Di sposal	  WQ-12,14,18,19,65
  Operations and Maintenance	  WQ-85,86
  Operator Training	  WQ-82,83
  Pretreatment	  WQ-3,89,90
  SIudge Management	  WQ-4,24,25,26,27,29
  State Grants	  WQ-14,57,58,59
  Toxic Pollutants Research	  WQ-12,20,21,36
  Wastewater Treatment Compliance	  WQ-85,89,90,94
  Water Quality Permit Issuance	  WQ-4,93,94
  Wet! ands (Secti on 404)	.'	  WQ-64


DRINKING WATER

  Academic Training	  DW-30
  Enforcement	  DW-44
  Epidemiology	  OW-16,17
  Ground Water Activities	  DW-5,40
  Ground Water Research Activities	  DW-11,12,15,16,19,20
  Health Advisories	  DW-3,14,23
  Health Effects	:.  DW-11,12,16,17
  National Primary Drinking Water  Regulations	  DW-3,11,12,14,15,23
  National Rural  Water Association	  DW-30
  Public Water Systems Supervision	  DW-4,23,27,34
  Quality Assurance	  DW-11,12,15,16
  Small Systems Engineering Research	  DW-18
  State Grants	  DW-27
  Underground Injection Control	'	  DW-4,15,23,27,36


HAZARDOUS WASTE
  Air Emission Standards	  HW-30,31
  Compliance Inspections	  HW-4,45,47
  Oioxi n	  HW-13,14,16-21,28
  Enforcement	•	  HVI-45,47
  Ground Water Monitoring	  HW-4,14,17 ,18,21,
                                                                 28,45-47
  Hazardous Spills Research	  HW-13,14,17,20-.21
  Inci neration	  HW-13,14,18,20,21,
                                                                 34-36,41,42
  Innovative/Alternative Technologies	  HW-13,14,19,20,
                                                                 27-30,37
  Landfills	  HW-13,14,20,22,
                                                                 34-36,41,42

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                            Subject Index by Media

                                 (Continued)


HAZARDOUS WASTE (Continued)                                   Page

  Li sti ng/Del i sti ng	  HW-16,21,28-30
  Monitoring Methods	  HW-17,18
  Permi tti ng	  HW -34-36,41,42
  Policy and Guidance	  HW-28-30
  Quality Assurance	  HW-13,14,17,18
  Regulations Development	  HW-28-30
  Risk Assessment	  HW-16,18,21
  State Authorizations	  HW-40-42
  State Grants	  HW-34-37
  Subtitle D Facilities	  HW-17,20,2R-30
  Surface Impoundments	  HW-20,22,31,32
  Underground Storage Tanks	  HW-14,16,17,18,28,29,37
  Underground Injection Wells	  HW-31,32
  Waste Banning Activities	  HW-28-30
  Waste Characterization	  HW-13,14,17


PESTICIDES

  Biotechnology	P-18
  Certification and Training	  P-4,39,42
  Data Call-In	  P-4,32
  Emergency Exemptions	  P-3,25,27
  Enforcement	  P-37
  Ethylene Dibromide	  P-33
  Experimental  Use Permit	  P-3,25,27
  Ground-Water	,	  P-26
  Lab/Data Integrity	  P-4,12,13,14,16,20
                                                                32,39,40
  Nebraska Enforcement Program	  P-40
  Pesticide Enforcement Grants	  P-4,41
  Protect! ve Cl othi ng	  P-4,12,19,26
  Registration Fees	  P-26,27
  Registration Standards	  P-4,32,33
  Reregi strati on	  P-4,32
  Risk Assessment	  P-12,13,14,15,17
  Special  Review (RPAR)	  P-4,32
  Special  Local  tJeed	  P-3,25,27
  State Grants	  P-41,42
  To!erance Fees	  P-29


RADIATION

  Airborne Radionuclide  Standards	  R-14
  Environmental  Radiation  Ambient Monitorinq System	  R-21
  Federal  Radiation Protection Guidance	  R-10,14
  Health  Effects Research	  R-10,11
  Nevada  Nuclear Test Site	  R-9,10
  Radiological  Emergency Response Plans	  R-18
  Uranium Mill  Tailing  Standards	  R-15

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                            Subject Index by Media

                                 (Continued)                                                   >


INTERDISCIPLINARY                                             Page

  Academic Training	   1-27
  Accelerated Review and Permitting	   1-25
  Case Referral s	   1-34
  Compliance Monitoring ...*..	   1-34
  Criminal Investigations	,	   1-34
  Enforcement	   1-32
  Enforcement Operations	   1-34
  Enforcanent Policy	   1-34
  Evidence Audits	   1-33
  Exploratory Research	   1-9,10,16,17
  Federal  Agencies Compliance	   1-22
  Interdisciplinary Training Grants	   1-27'
  Litigation	   1-35
  Mussel watch	   1-9,16,17
  National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC)	   1-32
  NEPA Compliance Program	   1-21
  Office of Enforcement and Compliance  Monitoring	   1-32
  Quality  Assurance	   1-9,10,14,15
  Risk Assessment Guidelines	   1-9,10,12,13
  Snail Business Innovation Research	   1-16
  Technical Information	   1-9,10,13,14
  Visiting Scientists Program	   1-16,17


TOXIC SUBSTANCES

  Asbestos Regulations	•	   TS-3,32,33
  Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act  (ASHAA)	   TS-3,27,33,34
  Bi otechnol ogy	   TS-4,11,16,18,35,36
  Chemical Substances Information Network (CSIN)	   TS-27,28,29
  Ehfo rcement	   TS-39
  Epidemiology	   TS-17
  Existing Chemical Review Expansion	   TS-3,31
  Interagency Testing Committee (ITC).-	   TS-26,29,30,31
  Lab/Data Integrity	   TS-4,11,12,13,17,18,
                                                                 20,26,29
  MBOCA [4,4'-methylene Bis (2-Chloraniline)]	   TS-32,33
  MDA (4,4'-methylenedianil ine)	   TS-32,33
  Polychlorinated Biphenynls (PCB)	   TS-4,33,34,35,36,37,42
  Ri sk Assessment	   TS-12,13,17 ,18,21
  Structure Activity Relationships	   TS-4,12,13,14,20,21,35
  Test Guide! ines	   TS-11,13,29,30,31
  Test Rules	   TS-20,29,30,31
  Toxic/Chemical Integration Efforts	   TS-27


ENERGY

  Acid Rain 	   C-3,10,11,12
  Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM)	   E-12
  Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB)	   E-3,4,13,14
                                       10

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                            Subject Index by Media

                                 (Continued)



ENERGY  (Continued)                                           Page

  National Surface Water Survey	  E-11,12
  National Terrestial  Survey	  E-10,11
  Synthetic Fuels	  E-4,13,14


MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

  Automated Data Processing (ADP)	  MS-94
  Fi seal Integri ty	  MS-70
  Human Resources Management	  MS-76
  Legal Advice	  MS-42
  Legislation/Congressional Liaison Activities	  MS-48,49
  Maintenance and Repair Projects	  BF-6
  Management Systems Integrated	  MS-75
  Managing for Environmental Results	  MS-61
  Office of General Counsel	  MS-42
  Regulatory Reform -  OPPE	  MS-60
  Support Services	  MS-91


SUPERFUND

  Cost Recovery - Superfund	  SF-4,21-26,35
  Emergency Response	  SF-4,47-49
  Enforcement	  SF-4,21-26,, 40
  Engineeri ng Evaluations	  SF-3,11,15,16,47-49
  Hazardous Uaste Site Inventory	  SF-61
  Health Assessments	  SF-11,12,14,48-49,53-55
  Interagency	  SF-3,5,48,49,53-59
  Management	  SF-5,34-43
  Private Party Settlements	  SF-4,21-26
  Quality Assurance	  SF-5,11,12,14,15,22
  Remedial  Response	  SF-3,4,47-49
  Research and Development	  SF-4,9-18,43
  State Programs	  SF-4,40,48,49
                                      11

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGEMCy

                             1936 Budget Estimate

                          Alphabetical  Subject Index                                           ™
                                        «

A_                                                             Page

Academic Training:
  Ai r	,	   A-75
  Water Quality	   WQ-59
  Drinking Water	   DW-30
  Interdisciplinary	   1-26
Accelerated Review & Permitting	   1-25
Acid Rain	   E-3,10,11,12
Advanced Wastewater Treatment Reviews	   WQ-84,85
Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM)	   E-12
Airborne Radionuclide Standards	   R-14
Air Emission Standards (Hazardous Waste)	   HW-30,3l
Air Toxics	   A-61,73,78
Asbestos Regulation	   TS-3,32,33
Asbestos Demol i tion	   A-91
Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act	   TS-3,27,33,34
Automated Data Processing (ADP)...	   MS-94
Biomonitoring		   WQ-12,16,72; 1-9,16,17;
                                                              SF-14
Biotechnol ogy.	   P-18; TS-4,11,16,18,
                                                                       35,36

C_

Certification and Training	   P-4,39,42
Chemical Substances Information Network (CSIN)	   TS-27,28,29
Chesapeake Bay Program	   WQ-4fi,48
China Studies	   A-53
Clean Lakes	   WQ-57,58
Combined Sewer Overfl ow	   WQ-84
Compliance Monitoring Inspections - Air	   A-90
Compliance Monitoring Interdisciplinary	   1-34
Comprehensive Estuarine Management	   WQ-12,74,75
Construction Grants Management	   CG-3,4
Corps of Engineers	   WQ-83,84; SF-4,48,49
Cost Recovery - Superfund	   SF-4,21,23-26,35;
Criminal Investigation	   1-34

D_

Di oxi n	   WQ-76; P-4,32
                                                              HW-13,14,16-21,28
Dredge and Fill (Section 404)	   UQ-64
                                      12

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                          Alphabetical Subject Index

                                 (Continued)
                                                              Page
Effluent Guidelines	   WQ-35,52
Emergency Response	   WQ-67; SF-4,47-49
Enforcement - Legal:
  Office of Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring	   1-32
  Enforcement Policy and Operations	   1-34
  Criminal  Investigations	   1-34
  National  Enforcement Investigation Center (MEIC)	   1-32; SF-21,22
  General Counsel	   MS-42
  Regional  Counsel	   MS-85
Enforcement - Technical :
  Air Stationary Source Enforcement	   A-90
  Air Mobile Source Enforcement	   A-95
  Drinking  Water Enforcement	   DW-44
  Hazardous Waste Enforcement	   HW-45-47
  Pesticides Enforcement	   P-4,38
  Toxic Substances Enforcement	   TS-39
  Water Quality Enforcement	   WQ-89,90
  Water Quality Permit Issuance	   WQ-4,93,94
  Superfund Enforcement	   SF-4,21-26
Engineering Evaluations	   SF-11,15,16; HW-19,20
Environmental Evaluations (Superfund)	   SF-3,4,47-49
Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System	   R-21
Epidemic! ogy	   TS-17
Estuaries	   WQ-48,74
Ethylene Dibromide	   P-33
Evidence Audits	   1-33
Existing Chemical Review Expansion	   TS-3,31
Exploratory Research	   1-9,10,16,17

F_

Federal  Agencies Compliance	   1-22
Federal  Radiation Protection Guidance	   R-10,14

G_

Genetic Engineering	   TS-4,35,36
Great Lakes Program:
  Research  and Development	   WQ-12,13,20,40
  Abatement and Control	   UQ-46
Grosse He  Laboratory	   WQ-12,13,20,40
Ground Water Activities	   DW-5,40
Ground Water Monitoring	   HW-4,14,17,18,21, 28,
                                                                 45-47;  DW-40;  P-26
Ground Water Research	   DW-11,12,15,16,19,20 ;
                                                              HW-14,17,18,21,22;
                                                              SF-17
                                      13

-------
                          Alphabetical  Subject Index

                                 (Continued)


H                                          .                   Page

Hazardous Waste Site Inventory ........... . .................    SF-61
Hazardous Spills Research .............. . ....... . ---- . ---- ..    HW-13,14,17,20,21

Health Advi sories .................................... . .....    DW-3,14,23
Heal th Assessments .........................................    SF-11 , 12, 14,48,49, 53,54
                                                              HW-16, 18,21
Health Effects Institute - Air .............................    A-41
Health Effects Research - Drinking Water ...................    DW-11,12,16,17;  P-33
Health Effects Research - Radiation ........................    R-10,11
Human Resources Management .................................    MS-76
Incineration- at- Sea ........................................    WQ-63,65
Indoor Air .................................................    A-30
Innovative and Alternative Technologies:
  Water Quality ............... ... ..........................    WQ-24,25,26,?9,83
  Hazardous Waste ..................... . ....................    HW-13,14,19,20,27-30,37
Inspection and Maintenance Program .........................    A-67
Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) ........ . ...............    TS-26, 29-31
Interdisciplinary Training Grants .......... . ............ ...    1-27
Integrated Environmental  Management ........................    MS-58

L_

Lab/Data Integrity ....................... . ..... .. ..... . ----    P-4, 12,13, 14, 16, 20,
                                                                32,39,40;  TS-4,11,12,
                                                                13,17,18,20,26,29,41
Landfills .......................................... . .......    HW-13,14,17,18,20,22,
                                                                 34-36,41,42; SF-11,
                                                                 12,14,15
Legislation/Congressional Liaison Activities ...............    MS-48,49
Limestone Injection Multi-stage Burner (LIMB) ........  . .....    E-3,4,13,14
Li sti ng/Del i sti ng ......................... . ........... , ----    HW-16 ,21 , 28-30

M

Management ..................... .  ...........................    MS-4
Management Systems Integrated ..............................    MS-75
Maintenance & Repair Projects ..............................    BF-6
Marine Outfalls - Section 301(h)  ...........................    WQ-13
MBOCA [4, 4 ' -methyl ene Bis (2-Chl oranil ine)] ...............    TS-32,33
MDA  (4, 4'-methylenedianiline) .............................    TS-32,33
Monitoring Methods .........................................    HW-17,18:  DW-15; SF-15
Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory .........................    A-68
Mussel watch ................................................    1-9,16,17
                                       14

-------
                          Alphabetical Subject Index

                                 (Continued)
N
Paae
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)	   A-61
National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN)	   A-19,20
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...   A-58
National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC)	  "1-32; SF-21-22
National Rural Water Association.	   DVI-30
National Surface Water Survey	   E-11,12
National Terrestrial Survey	   E-10,ll>
Nebraska Enforcement Program	   P-40
NEPA Compliance Program	   1-21
Nevada Nuclear Test Site	   R-9,10
New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)	   A-58

0

Ocean Disposal	   WQ-12,14,18,19,65
Operations and Maintenance	   WO-85,86
Operator Training	   WQ-82,83

P_

Permitting - Hazardous Waste	   HW-34-36,41,42
Pesticide Enforcement Grants	'.....   P-4,41
Polychlorinated Biphenynls (PCB) Disposal	   TS-42
Polychlorinated Biphenynls (PCB) Rules	   TS-4,33,34,42
Premarket Manufacture Notices (PMN)	   TS-4,35,36,37
Prevention of Significant Deterioration	   A-73
Protective Clothing	   P-4,12,19,'26; SF-11-16
Public Water Systems Supervision	   OW-4,23,27,34

Q

Quality Assurance:
  Research and Development	   A-15,27,39,49; WQ-15
                                                              SF-11,12,15; P-12,13,16;
                                                              R-9; 1-9,10,14,15;
                                                              HW-13,14,17,18; TS-15
  Superf und	   SF-5,14,15,22

R_

Recall of In-use Vehicles -  Air	   A-95
Registration Fees	   P-26,27
Regi stration Standards	   P-4,32,33
Regulatory Development - Hazardous Waste	   HW-28-30
Regul atory Reform	   MS-60
Remedial Response	   SF-45-50
Risk Assessment	   P-4,12-15,17,32;
                                                              TS-12,13,17,18,21;
                                                              HW-16,18,21; SF-11,12,14
Risk Assessment Guidelines	   1-9,10,12,13
                                       15

-------
                          Alphabetical  Subject Index

                                 (Continued)
1                                                             Pa9e

Selective Enforcement Audits	    A-95
Significant Mew Use Rules (SNURs)	    TS-27,35,36,37
Sludge Management	    WQ-4,24,25,26,27,29
Small Systems Engineering Research	    OW-18
State Authorizations - Hazardous Waste	    HW-40-42
State Grants:
  Ai r	    A-73
  Water 106	    WQ-58
  Water 205(g)	    WQ-58;  CG-5
  Water 205(j)	    WQ-58;  CG-5
  Clean Lakes	    WQ-57,58
  Public Water System Supervision	    DW-27
  Underground Injection Control  (UIC)	    DW-29
  Hazardous Waste	    HU-34-37
  Pesticides Enforcement	    P-41
  Pesticides Certification and Training	    P-42
  Special Studies and Demonstrations-Drinking Water	    DW-30
State Implementation Plans (SIPs)	•	    A-73,78
Stationary Source Enforcement...	    A-32,33,90
Stratospheric Modification	    TS-4,12,13,14,20,21,35
Superfund Interagency Funds:
  Coast Guard ( USCG)	:	    SF-53,55
  Department of Health and Hunan Services (HHS)	    SF-53,55
  Department of Interior (DOI)		    SF-54,58
  Department of Justice (DOJ).	    SF-53,55,56
  Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)	    SF-53,56
 •Federal Emergency Management Agency - Relocation	    SF-54,57
  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)...    SF-54,57
  Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)	    SF-54,58,59
Support Services	    MS-91
Surface Impoundments	    HW-20,22,31,32
Synthetic Fuels	    E-4,13,14

T

Tampering and Fuel  Switching	    A-95
Technical Information	    1-9,10,13,14
Test Guidelines	    TS-11,13,29-31
Test Rules	    TS-20,29-31
Tolerance Fees	    P-29
Toxic/Chemical Integration Efforts	    TS-27
Toxic Pollutants Research	    WQ-12,20,21,36

U_

Underground Injection Control (UIC)	    DW-4,15,23,27,36
Uranium Mill  Tailing Standards	    R-15

V

Visiting  Scientists Program	    1-16,17

W_

Waste Characterization	    HW-13,14,17
Wastewater Treatment Compliance	    WQ-4,85,89,90
                                       16

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                             ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                   1986 Budget Estimate

                                      BUDGET SUMMARY


     The President's  request  for  the  Environmental  Protection  Agency's  1986  budget
totals ?4,667,596,000 suoported  by 13,080.7 total   workyears,  including  $1,367,596,000
and 11,364.7  total  workyears  for the  Agency's operating  programs,  and  $900,000,000
and 1,716.0 total  workyears  for  the  Superfund program.  New  budget  authority  in  the
amount of  $2,400,000,000  is  requested for  the municipal  waste treatment  facilities
construction program.  These  resources  constitute  an  increase of  $320,397,600  and
504.9 total workyears for the  Agency  as a  whole in  1986.

     The 1^96 request  contains  ma.ior increases for the Superfund and Hazardous  Waste
programs.  Funding for  the Superfund program increases by $280,000,000,  to $900,000,000,
supported by  1,716.0 total  workyears in  1986.   A  major  portion of  this  funding  will
be used  to  support a better  than twofold  increase  in the  number of  sites where  EPA
will undertake the  final  cleanup phase of  remedial  actions.   Other  Superfund  program
increases will support greatly expanded enforcement efforts, to ensure  that responsible
parties begin site  cleanup  and  to facilitate  the  recovery  of funds expended from  the
Trust Fund.   An  increase in  research  will  support  additional  technical  support  and
laboratory assistance necessary  for  the anticipated  increase  in remedial  and  removal
actions.

     In addition to  correcting  the neglect  of  the past through  Superfund,  the  Agency
is working to prevent the generation of new Superfund sites through  the  implementation
of the  Hazardous  and Solid  Waste Amendments  of   1984,  better  known  as  the  Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act  (RCRA)  program.  The Agency  has  redistributed resources
from within the  1985 budget, resulting  in increases  for the total RCRA program of  over
100 workyears and almost  $28  million.   The  President's  1986 budget  for  the  agencywide
RCRA program  contains  an additional   increase  of  146  workyears  and $54  million  over
these adjusted 1985  levels.   These  funds  will  fully  support  the Agency's  efforts  to
implement existing as 'well  as  new program  responsibilities,  such  as banning  wastes
from land  disposal   facilities,  and   regulating underground  storage  tanks  and  small
quantity generators.

     The 1Q86 request for enforcement includes  $193,124,600 supported  by  2,777.7 total
workyears, an increase  of $34,110,700  and  277.4   total  workyears.   Two-thirds   of  the
enforcement increase supports the Superfund program,  where significant increases  are
essential for maintaining the momentum  of the  program and ensuring  an  enforcement pre-
sence sufficient to avoid undue  use of Fund  resources.  The  President's Budget  also  in-
creases resources for hazardous  waste enforcement activities.  This increase,  $5,823,800
anH 54.1 total workyears, is  necessary to  meet the special compliance  monitoring  and
enforcement retirements of  the  new RCRA legislation.   Additional enforcement resources
are also  requested  in  the  water quality  area for  continued  implementation  of  the
pretreatment program to control   the  discharge of  toxic  substances into  publicly owned
v/aste treatment  facilities.

     The 1986 research  and  development program places  emphasis  on three  major  areas:
acid rain, hazardous waste,  and pesticides and  toxic  substances  research.  Our  request
for research  activities  includes $324,760,700  supported by  1,876.5  total  workyears,
an increase  of  $19,413,000  and 12.0  total  workyears.   The  1986 acid  rain  research
orooram will be   accelerated to  ensure  that  timely  infonnation is available  to  develop
effective, scientifically sound,  regulatory  policies.   The hazardous waste  research
oronram in  1986  will  be  increased  in response  to  new requirements  related   to  the
disposal of hazardous waste  on  land and mandated by the 1984 RCRA reauthorization.   In
addition, new resources  in  toxic  substances  and  pesticides will  supoort  research  to
improve the  Agency's  estimates   of  human  health   and  environmental  risks  from  toxic
chemicals and nesticides.
                                         S-l

-------
     Grants to  State  and local  governments  are at  a  level  of  $278,087,600, and  the
Construction Grants  program  maintains   the   current  level   of  $2,400,000,000.    All
grants directly  supporting   State  operations  continue   at  their  full  1985  enacted
levels, except for hazardous  waste  State grants  which increase by almost  S8 million.
The increase  for  the  hazardous  wast2  grants  will   provide  additional  support  for
regulating snail quantity generators and underground storage tanks as  well  as continued
implementation of the National  Permits Strategy.  The 1986 budget request also continues
support in the amount of $10,075,200 for the  Chesapeake  Bay program,  which is designed
to support Bay States through cost-sharing  grants and continue EPA's role in monitoring
and modeling.  The 1986 request also proposes $6.1  million for the Great Lakes program.
In addition,  the  budget  request maintains   the  54 million  support for the  Estuarine
program, created this past year, for water  quality  management in four  important coastal
water bodies.

     In EPA's  largest  grant program, construction  grants,  the President's  budget  re-
quests $2.4 billion in 1986.  Because the current authorization for the program expires
at the end  of  1985,  the  Agency  is currently  developing  a proposal  for reauthorization
of the program.  This  request  is based on the  assumption that funding for the program
will be phased  out  over the  next  four years.  It  is anticipated that this will  be
accomplished through a  reduced Federal   role in terms  of  financing while at the  same
time maintaining a commitment  to  fund existing  projects  which have  previously received
Federal funds.

     A summary of  budget  authority  for  EPA's six  appropriation accounts is  as follows:

                       EPA's Request by Appropriation Account
Salaries & Expenses	
Abatement, Control & Compliance..
Psesearch & Oevel oprnent	
Buildinns & Facilities	

    Operating Programs Subtotal..
Construction Grants	
Hazardous Substance Response
  Trust Fund	
      1985
Current Estimate

  $661,698,400
   460,500,000
-   193,000,000
    12,000.000

$1,327,198,400

$2,400,000,000

   620,000,000
      1986
Budget Authority

  $654,696,000
   495,500,000
   212,400,000
     5.000,000

$1,367,596,000

$2,400,000,000

   900,000,000
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1986 vs 1985

 -$7,002,400
 +35,000,000
 +19,^00,000
  -7,000,000

+$40,397,600
+280,000,000
        Total	  $4,347,198,400
                    $4,667,596,000    +$320,397,600
     The 1985 estimate  does not  include  the Rescission  request that  responds  to the
1984 Deficit  Reduction  Act.  The  Act  requires reductions  to travel,  motor vehicles,
publications, printing, reproduction and audiovisual  activities and consulting services.
This Rescission  reduces  Salaries  and  Expenses  by  $1,862,800,  Abatement,  Control  and
Comnliance by $7,413,000,  and   Research  and  Development  by $4,125,200.   In addition,
the 1935  estimate  does not  include the amount  withheld  from the  Hazardous Substance
P.esoonse Trust Fund, $1,770,000, which responds to Section 515 of the Treasury - Postal
Service Appropriations Act,  1985,  which requires that certain agencies withhold funds
for consulting services.

     The followim briefly  describes the content  of each  appropriation and the changes
requested within each from the Agency's current 1985 estimates.
                                          S-2

-------
ft
SALARIES AND EXPENSES

     EPA's reouest  decreases  by  57,002,400,  which  represents the  Agency's support  of
the President's proposal  to reduce pay by  5%  and  administrative  services by 10% in 1986.
This appropriation  finances  salaries  and  related  costs  associated with  administering
the programs  within  the  Environmental  Protection  Agency.   It  incorporates  all  costs
exclusive of qrant programs and program-specific contractual  agreements.

ABATEMENT,_CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

     The Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation finances  contracts,  grants,
and cooperative agreements  for pollution  abatement,  control  and  compliance activities.
EPA requests  an  increase  of  $35,000,000  in  1986,  which  will   primarily  support  the
hazardous waste program.

RESEARCH AMD DEVELOPMENT

     The 1986 budget  increases the Research  and Development  appropriation  by $19,400,000
to $212,400,000.  Program increases  are  primarily for acid rain,  hazardous  waste,  toxic
substances and pesticides research.

BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

     EPA requests $5,000,000, a  decrease  of 57,000,000 for the Buildings  and  Facilities
appropriation, which  finances  the construction,  repair,  improvement,  extension,  alter-
ation, and purchase of fixed equioment of facilities owned, as well as existing
facilities occupied by the  Environmental  Protection  Agency.   This  decrease was a  one-
time add in  1985  for  the  construction of a radiation laboratory  in  Montgomery,  Alabama.
The funds in 1986  will continue to ensure healthy  and safe conditions in  EPA laboratories,
and prevent deterioration of our  owned and leased facilities.

CONSTRUCTION GRANTS

     The Construction  Grants  approoriation  request  for  1986  is $2,400,000,000.   This
program provides  grants  to  local public  agencies  for  construction  of  municipal  waste-
water treatment facilities  to  assist  States  and localities  in  attaining  water  quality
standards.   The 1986  request  is   based  on  the  assumption that  funding for the  program
will be phased out over  the  next  four years.

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESPONSE TRUST FUND

     The 1986  budget  requests $900,000,000,  supported  by 1,716.0  total  workyears,  an
increase of  $280,000,000  and  358.9  total  workyears to  support  the  Hazardous  Substance
Response Trust  Fund.   In 1986 these  funds  will be  dedicated to  expanding the  number
of sites where  EPA  will  undertake the critical  final  cleanup phase  of remedial  action;
providing additional   technical   support  and  laboratory  assistance  necessary   for  the
anticipated increase in remedial  and  removal  actions;  expanding our enforcement  activity;
and supporting on  going activities of other Federal  agencies.
                                                 S-3

-------
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                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents
AIR                                                                         A-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Oxidants	 A-9
       Hazardous Air Pol 1 utants	 A-21
       Mobile Sources	 A-34
       Gases & Particles	 A-43
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Air Quality & Stationary Source Planning & Standards	 A-56
          Emission Standards & Technology Assessment	 A-58
          Pollutant Strategies & Air Standards Development	 A-60
          State Program Policy Guidelines & Regulations Development	 A-62
       Mobile Source Air Pollution Control  & Fuel  Economy	 A-64
          Emission Standards, Technical  Assessment & Characterization	 A-66
          Testing, Technical  & Administrative Support	 A-68
          Emissions  & Fuel  Economy Compliance	 A-69
       State Programs Resource Assistance	 A-71
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)	 A-73
          Training	 A-75
       Air Quality Management Implementation	 A-77
       Trends Monitoring & Progress  Assessment	 A-81
          Ambient Air Quality Monitoring	 A-83
          Air Quality & Emissions Data Managements Analysis 	 A-85
    ENFORCEMENT
       Stationary Source Enforcement	 A-89
       Mobile Source Enforcement	 A-94
                                      A-l

-------

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                                        AIR


OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY


     The Clean Air  Act authorizes  a  nationwide program  of air  quality  planning,
regulation, enforcement,  and  research  for  control ,. of  air  pollution.   The  EPA
strategy for  implementing  the  nationwide program  is  based  on  six  major  goals:

     Achieve  National  Ambient  Air Quality  Standards (NAAQSs) in areas currently
not meeting the standards^EPSwillcontinueto  placetfiehighest priority  on
attaining healthful  air quality  for the  150 million people  that live  in  nonattain-
ment areas.

     Reduce  the   risk of  exposure to  hazardous  air pollutants.  EPA will  begin
implementation of acomprehensivenationalstrategyto  address the  significant
public health problem  caused  by  toxic compounds in the air.   One important objec-
tive of the hazardous air oollution strategy  will  be to prevent toxic compounds in
land and water from  becoming air quality problems.

     Increase  the  capacity  and  improve the effectiveness of State  and local  air
quality  agencies"WkwTllcontinue  to work toward a stronger, more effective
partnership with  State  and local  agencies and help them improve their capabilities
to address existing  and emerging  problems and to maintain  high levels of environ-
mental quality.          '  •

     Ensure that  the  NAAOSs are based on  accurate,  up-to-date information on pub-
lic health  and  other effects.EPA will place strong emphasis on improving the
scientific bases  of the MAAQSs and  on streamlining the process for their revision.

     Develop  and  support  programs  to address  emerging air quality problems  and
maintain environmental quality.EPA  willreview policy 'alternatives  andstrategy
options available to  address  acid deposition.  The  program will ensure  that aci"1
rain policy  information needs  are  addressed  by  the national  Federal   research
program and if necessary,  alternative  remedial actions will  be thoroughly analyzed,
in cooperation with  States.    EPA will also act to ensure that gains made in
environmental quality  are  not  lost  and  that potentially  serious  environmental
problems are identified early and addressed.

     Maintain  a   comprehensive  research  program to support regulatory activities.
The EPA  research  and"development program  wil 1  continue to  provide  ET^ftoffices,
State and local  governments,  and the  regulated  community with  the scientific  in-
formation necessary  to  regulate  ozone", gases  and particles, hazardous  air pollu-
tants and mobile  source emissions.

Achieve NAAQSs Nationwide

     EPA's strategy  for  achieving the NAAQSs  centers  on working  with   States  to
complete and enforce  the  State Implementation Plans  (SIPs)  required  by  the  Clean
Air Act.  Although air  quality has  generally improved as a  result of the measures
in SIPs, many of  the  SIPs have proven inadequate to meet .NAAQSs by  statutory dead-
lines.  The  NAAQS for  ozone  has proven  the  most difficult  standard to  meet.   A
number of the 51  areas  now in violation  of the standard will   still   not  meet  the
standard in  1987.   The affected  population  of  the  post-1987  attainment  areas
totals over 50 million.  In  1986, EPA will give priority to  strengthening control
of the  volatile   organic  compounds   (VOCs)  that  contribute  to  ozone  formation.
                                      A-3

-------
     A continued  reduction  in  emissions  from motor  vehicles  will   be  a  major
factor in meeting  NAAQSs,  particularly  the standards  for  ozone,  carbon monoxide,
and nitrogen dioxide.  To help  ensure that manufacturers  design and produce vehi-
cles that meet emission standards throughout their useful lives, EPA will  maintain
a comprehensive Federal  compliance  program.  This  program  includes preproduction
certification of emission  control  systems,  selective  enforcement audits at  manufac-
turers1 facilities, and  recalls  of  insufficiently  controlled  vehicles.    In   1986
EPA will  focus  on reducing exhaust emissions  from  heavy-duty  engines  and evapo-
rative emissions fron automobiles.

     Tampering with vehicle emission  control  systems, switching  to leaded fuels,
and failing  to  properly  maintain  engines  greatly  increase  pollutant  emissions.
Federal efforts alone cannot  effectively  address these  problems.  EPA will  continue
to work  with  State  and  local   governments  to establish  and  maintain  effective
anti-tampering/fuel switching  programs  and  inspection and  maintenance  programs.

     In addition  to  remedying  SIPS  still  inadequate to meet  NAAQSs  and  ensuring
compliance of in-use vehicles, the States  and  EPA  will carry out a vigorous,  com-
prehensive program aimed at  achieving  continuous  compliance  by  stationary  sources,
particularly major sources  in  or affecting  areas not meeting the health-related
NAAQSs.  The program will  emphasize implementation of  the "timely and  appropriate"
guidance and the  continuous  compliance  strategy.   The program will  allow States
more flexibility  in  scheduling  inspections  and  require  sources to  increase the
use of continuous  emissions  monitoring.    In the  enforcement  of  SIPs,  sources of
VOCs will receive  increased attention.  Emissions from these sources  are of  concern,
not only  because  they   contribute to  unhealthful   ozone  levels, but  also  because
their components may  be hazardous to public health.

     In addition to focusing on  reducing ozone levels in 1986, EPA will  also support
State development  of SIPs  to  attain the  revised  NAAQS for size-specific particulate
matter (PM^n,).  Approximately 100 areas will probably not  meet the  revised standard,
now scheduled for promulgation  in early  1986.   The population of  these areas is
about 20 million people.  States must  complete SIPs  for these  areas by early 1987.

Reduce Risk of Exposure to Hazardous Pollutants                                  "

     In 1985, EPA  will  better define the  nature and  magnitude  of the hazardous air
pollution problem and reassess  the regulatory options for dealing with  the  problem.
This analysis  will  culminate during  1985 in  the  development  of  a comprehensive
strategy for controlling hazardous pollutants.

     In 1986, EPA will  continue to screen compounds  to determine  which ones may
pose a significant risk to public health  at ambient  levels.  Decisions for federal
regulatory actions will be made  for up to 13 compounds.

     EPA will also continue to  develop  and promulgate National Emission Standards
for Hazardous Air  Pollutants (NESHAPs) in  1986.  These standards apply to  both new
and existing sources of hazardous air  pollutants.

     The success  of the lead  phasedown  program has  prompted the makers  of vehicle
fuels to  add new components  and  additives to  fuels.   In  1986,  EPA  will   take
active steps to ensure  that  substitutes  for lead  now  in fuel  do not contribute to
emissions of hazardous air pollutants  or degrade the operation  of  vehicle  emission
controls.

Strengthen State and Local Programs

     EPA will  continue  to support State  and  local  air pollution control  programs
by identifying   obstacles  to   program   effectiveness,  providing   direct  program
assistance, and facilitating information  exchange.   The  National Air Audit System,
initiated in  1984, will  be  used to identify obstacles to  State and local control
                                      A-4

-------
agency effectiveness and to help EPA define more  efficient  and  meaningful  national
proyrans.  During 1986, all  State  and  key  local  agencies  will  be  evaluated  using
national criteria for  five  major program areas:   air quality planning,  new  source
review, compliance  assurance,  air  quality  monitoring and  vehicle inspection  and
maintenance.  The results of  the national  audit  will be used to  identify  both  the
problems of individual  State and local  agencies and  more  generic national  problems.

     During 1986, State and  key locaf agencies,  with  the  support  of EPA  Regional
Offices, will initiate the actions  necessary to  address  the  problems  identified  by
the 1985  audits.    Nationally,  EPA will  use  the  results  of  the 1984  and  1985
summary reports to  review  and  adjust  priorities and  resources to better  support
State and local  needs and  achieve the  desired  environmental  results.

Review and Update NAAQSs

     The establishment  of NAAQSs at levels  that  protect  public health and  prevent
other adverse effects  has  been the keystone of  the national air  quality  program.
The need to  revise  NAAOSs  is  determined  based on  regular  assessment of the most
accurate and up-to-date scientific  data  available on the health and  other  effects
of the  various   pollutants.    In  1986,  EPA will   promulgate   revised  NAAQSs  for
sulfur dioxide and  PM^Q.  EPA  will  also propose  to revise  or  reaffirm the  HAALjSs
for lead.

Address New Problems and Maintain Environmental  Quality

     Acid deposition is a continuing national and international concern.   Before a
program which could  require  remedial  actions  can be analyzed,  further information
is needed about  the  major sources of acid rain  precursors  and  the magnitude,  extent,
and severity of  acid deposition effects.   Possible  measures  for  mitigating  these
effects'"need to  be  evaluated.   EPA will ensure  that policy information  needs  are
being addressed  by  the National  Acid  Precipitation Assessment  Program  and that
alternative remedial actions  are  thoroughly evaluated.  The  analysis of  remedial
actions will be done in cooperation  with States.  •

     EPA, States, and  local  agencies  must  protect the  gains  made  in   improving
environmental  quality,   while   at  the  same  time anticipating  new problems.    In
1986, EPA will  continue to develop national,  technology-based  New Source  Perfor-
mance Standards  (NSPSs) for all major  source  categories.   NSPSs  for seven  addi-
tional source categories  on  EPA's  priority list  will   be  promulgated.   An  addi-
tional 11 NSPSs will be proposed or  under development.

     EPA will  also  continue  to promulgate  SIPs  to  protect  visibility in  pristine
areas of  those  34  States  that  did not  prepare their  ov/n plans.   In  addition,
EPA will  evaluate  long-term,   regional   scale   visibility  and  haze   problems   to
determine the need for  additional research or  regulatory  actions.

Continue Research to Support Regulatory Programs

     In 1986,  the Office of  Research  and  Development will  continue to provide  the
monitoring-methods,  air quality models, health and welfare assessments, and  emission
reduction technology evaluations required to evaluate NAAOSs, promulgate NSPSs  and
NESHAPs, and develop SIPs.

     In accordance with the  regulatory  schedules  for reviewing flAAOSs, the  emphasis
of the  scientific assessments  program  will  shift from  ozone and  lead to  nitrogen
oxides, participate   matter,  and sulfur  oxides.   Comprehensive health   assessment
documents for potential  hazardous   air pollutants  will  continue  to  be provided.
                                      A-5

-------
     The monitoring systems and quality assurance program will continue to provide
monitoring data;  develop and  validate  monitoring methods  for air pollutants; and
provide quality  assurance  support.  The major  initiative  in this program provides
for the expansion of the Toxics Air  Monitoring  System and development of additional
ambient and source monitoring methods  to better ascertain the nature and extent of
hazardous air pollutants.

     Research on  the  adverse  health effects  of air  pollutants  will  continue to
focus on developing  test  methods; producing dose/response  data  for a  variety of
effects; and developing techniques to extrapolate animal data  to  hunans.

     The environmental  engineering and  technology program  will  continue to assess
the performance,   cost,  and  reliability  of  emission  reduction  technologies  and
provide technical  assistance  to  the  Regions  to support  permitting,   NSPSs,  and
compliance activities.

     Research to  determine the atmospheric transport, transformation, and  fate of
air pollutants,   and  refine air quality models  will  continue,,  Research to assess
the adverse effects of  air pollution on materials  and  vegetation will  continue as
well .
                                     A-6

-------
                                                  AIR
ft
          PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
                            Actual
                             1984
                    Budget
                   Estimate
                     1985
          National Ambient Air
          Qua! ity Standards

          Number of Pollutants
           Covered (Cunulative) ........ 6          6
          Proposals* ................... 2          0
          Promulgations* ............... 0          2

          New Source Performance Standards

          Source Categories
           Covered (Cunulative) ....... 53         68
          Proposals** ................ 12          7
          Promulgations** ............  8         20

          National Emission Standards
          for Hazardous Air Pollutants

          Number of Pollutants
           Covered (Cunulative) ........ 5          6
          Proposals** ................. 1          2
          Promulgations** .............. 2          3

          Enforcement Actions -- Stationary Sources

          Inspections ............. ; ____ 2,474      1,685
          Notices of Violations ........   232        200
          Administrative Orders ........   Ifil         46
          Civil  Litigation Support***..   142        157
          Criminal Litigation Support..     6          6

          Enforcement Actions -- Mobi-le Sources
State and Local Tampering/Fuel
Switching Programs (Cumulative). 18
Assembly Line Testing ...........
Test Orders ..................... 16
Recall Investigations ........... 55
Notices of Violations
                                                      22

                                                      17
                                                      72
                                             Current
                                             Estimate
                                               1985
      Estinate
        1986
                                                   67
                                                   11
                                                   20
                                                                6
                                                                1
                                                                2
                                             74
                                              6
                                             12
                                                    1,685
                                                      200
                                                       88
                                                      157
                                                        6
                                    22

                                    17
                                    72
     Increase (+)
     Decrease (-)
     1986 vs. 1985
                                                                        + 7
                                                                        - 5
                                             1,725
                                               200
                                                92
                                               167
                                                 6
                                                               32

                                                               17
                                                               72
                                                                        +40

                                                                        + 4
                                                                        +10
Tanpering/Fuel
Lead
Switching.
                                420
                                 32
                                                     420
                                                      32
420
 32
420
 32
          *
          **
    Revisions or reaffirmations
    New source categories and revisions
*** Includes new and ongoing caseload
          NOTE:  All  outputs are incremental  except as indicated.
                                               A-7

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estinate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page
AIR
    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Oxidants	 A-9
       Hazardous Ai r Pol 1 utants	 A-21
       Mobile Sources	 A-34
       Gases & Particles	 A-43
                                      A-8

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                                        AIR


                                      Oxidants
               *
                           Principal Outputs by Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS
=: = = = ss = = = =:= = = = = = = = — =

Objective 1:  Develop and Validate Air Quality Models

0  Report on the validation  of  a  second generation regional  model  (Env. Processes)
0  Report on  the  development and  evaluation  on an  improved carbon  mechanism for
   urban and regional models (Env. Processes)

Objective 2:  Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information

0  Final criteria document on ozone and other  oxidants (Sci.  Assessment)
0  Journal  articles  on the  effects of 03  and N0£  on  pulmonary host  defenses  in
   animals (Health)
0  Journal  article  on  immunological   and  biochemical   response  to  03  (Health)
0  Update of the national crop loss assessment (Env. Processes)
0  Journal article on the effects  of ambient  soil  moisture changes  on estimates of
   crop loss due to 03 (Env. Processes)

Objective 4:  Research and Assess Emission Reduction Technologies

0  Report on  results of  the  carbon adsorption pilot plant  test  (Env.  Technology)
°  Report  on  the  evaluation  of   boilers/process  heaters  for  VOC  control  (Env.
   Technology)

Objective 5:  Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Annual report on  the  State and  Local  Air  Monitoring Stations and  the  National
   Ambient and Monitoring Program  (Monitoring)
0  Final  report  of  the  National  Atmospheric  Background   Network  (Monitoring)


1985 PLANNED OUTPUTS
Objective 1:  Develop and Validate Air Quality Models

0  Report on improved 03  and  NO^ chemical  mechanisms for the urban  scale  03 model
   (Env.  Processes)
°  Report on the test and evaluation  of the  second  generation  regional  model (Env.
   Processes)

Objective 2:  Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information

°  Journal  article  on effects  of  combinations  of  03  and  N02  on  pulmonary  host
   defenses (Health)
0  Annual project report  on NCLAN activities (Env.  Processes)
0  Project  report  evaluating the  occurrence  of  pollutant  mixtures and  exposure
   regimes for dose/response studies  (Env.  Processes)

Objective 3:  Develop and Validate Measurement and  Monitoring Methods

°  Report on the evaluation  of  methods for  determining  fugitive  organic  emissions
   (Monitoring)
                                       A-12

-------
Objective 4:   Research and Assess  Emission  Reduction  Technologies

0  Final   report  on  the  pilot-scale  cement  kiln  test  to  evaluate  the  application            •
   of NOX combustion modification  controls  (Env.  Technology)
0  Final   report  on  the  evaluation of  a  selective  catalytic  reduction  system  for
   NOX control on stationary engines  (Env.  Technology)
0  Reports on  industrial  applications of  carbon  adsorption and catalytic  oxidation
   for controlling VOC emissions (Env. Technology)
°  Report on  the  emissions  characteristics of  industrial  safety systems  (Env.  Tech-
   nology)

Objective 5:   Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Annual reports  on the State and  Local  Air Monitoring  Stations and the  National
   Ambient and Source Monitoring Program (Monitoring)


1984 ACTUAL  OUTPUTS
Objective 1:  Develop and Validate Air Quality Models

°  Report  on  the protocols  for developing  reactivity  classifications for  organics
   (Env. Processes)
0  Report  on  the  formation  and  transport  of  03  in  urban  plumes  (Env.  Processes)

Objective 2:  Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information

0  External review draft  of  the  criteria document  on ozone and  other photochemical
   oxidants (Sci. Assessment)
0  Journal article on species sensitivity to ozone (Health)
0  Journal article on the biochemical  response to 03 (Health)
0  A national  economic assessment of 03 impacts on major U.S. crops (Env.   Processes)

Objective 4:  Research and Assess Emission Reduction Technologies

°  Report on  the  results  of  field tests for  NOX  control  on  refinery process heaters
   (Env. Technology)
0  Report on  tests evaluating  reburning  for  simultaneous NOX-SOX control  (Env. Tech-
   nology)

Objective b:  Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Data on ozone concentrations in five national forests (Monitoring)
                                       A-13

-------
                                        AIR


                                      Oxidants


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $14,021,700 supported  by  99.2 total  workyears
for 1986,'a decrease  of  $704,300  and an increase  of 0.6 total  workyears from 1985.
Of the request,  $5,299,300  will  be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and
$8,722,400 will  be  for the  Research  and  Development appropriation,  a  decrease of
$32,600 and a decrease of $671,700, respectively.

Program Description

     The following  objectives  support  the  regulation  of ozone   (03),  volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOX):

     Objective 1:  Develop and Validate Air Quality Models.    Ambient air  quality
models are  being developed  and  validated  to develop  State  Implementation  Plans
(SIPs) and  make  Prevention  of  Significant  Deterioration  (PSD)  determinations.

     Objective 2:  Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information.    Data  on  the
adverse health and welfare  effects  of 03,VOCs and NOX  are being developed to sup-
port the  periodic  review  of  the  adequacy  of  the National  Ambient  Air  Quality
Standards (NAAQS)  for 03  and  NOX.  The  primary  documentation' for  these  reviews
is the  criteria  documents  for photochemical  ozone  and  other  oxidants   and  NOX.

     Objective 3:  Develop and Validate Measurement and  Monitoring Methods.     New
and improved  aTrpol1ut ion  methodologies  and  monitoring  techniques  are  being
developed and  validated  to determine  air  quality  trends,  compliance  with  permit
conditions, and the need for enforcement actions.

     Objective 4:  Research and Assess  Emission Reduction Technologies.     Data  on
the performance, cost and  reliability  of  reduction technologies  for VOCs  and NOX
are being provided  to develop  New  Source  Performance  Standards  (NSPS),  establish
SIPs and make PSD determinations.

     Objective 5:  Provide Quality Assurance Support.     Quality   Assurance  (QA)
support is  provided  in accordance  with  requirements in  the  Clean  Air  Act  (CAA)
to ensure that  Agency decisions  are  backed by  technical  data  of  known  precision
and accuracy.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a  total  of $862,100 supported by  8.0  total  workyears for
this program, of which $424,700 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $437,400 will be for the Research and Development appropriation.  This represents
a decrease  of  $51,300 and  $143,600, respectively,  and  a decrease  of 1.0  workyear.
These decreases  reflect  the  completion  of  the   criteria  document  for ozone  and
other photochemical  oxidants.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information.     The final ozone  and other
photochemical  oxidants  criteria "document   wi 11  be~ published.   In  accordance  with
the Agency's regulatory  schedule, assessment activities will  focus on updating the
N0y criteria document.
                                      A-14

-------
1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audi o-vi sual ,  and  consulting services.   The reduction of
$2,000 in the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation   represents  decreases to all
of the above  categories.  The decrease  of  $18,900  in 'the Research and Development
appropriation reflects reductions to  consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating a  total  of  $1,057,000  supported by 9.0
total workyears for this program, of which $476,000  is for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $581,000  is  for  the Research  and  Development   appropriation.
This reflects an increase  of $249,800 total  dollars over  1984.

     In 1985 the program focus is shifting from updating the criteria document for
ozone and other photochemical  oxidants  to initiating  the  review  and  update of the
NOX criteria document.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The net decrease  of -$900 results  from  the  following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.     (-$1,500)     This   reprogramming  reflects a shift of
resources within the Agency  to fund the  expanded  needs  required by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This change  resulted in  a net decrease of
-$1,500 to the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.    (-$3,900)  A reprogramming was made  to this  activity  which
was not reportable under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.  This change
resulted in  a  net  decrease  of -$3,900  to the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.

     -Pay Rai se.     (+$4,500)  This program  was  increased by  +$4,500  reflecting the
amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the  Agency  obligated  a  total  of $807,200  supported   by  9.1   total
workyears for this  program, of   which $446,300  was  for the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $360,900  was  for  the  Research  and  Development   appropriation.

     During  1984 the  first  external  review  draft  of  the  ozone  and  other photo-
chemical oxidants  criteria  document  was   completed   and  published   for  comment.


MONITORING SYSTEMS  AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $926,400 supported by  12.9 total   workyears for
this program, of which $573,300  will  be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation
and  $353,100  will  be  for  the  Research  and Development appropriation.  This repre-
sents a decrease of $81,100 and an increase of  $116,600,  respectively,  and   a de-
crease of 0.4 total   workyears.    The decrease  in  Salaries  and  Expenses reflects
Government-wide reductions  to pay  and  administrative services.   The increase in
Research and  Development   reflects  increased   emphasis   on  providing   additional
quality assurance for  the  research  program.
                                       A-15

-------
     Develop and Validate Measurement and Monitoring Methods.    Tests will  continue
to be developed to evaluate, improve and standardize methods for measuring  oxidants
and oxidant precursors, with emphasis on VOCs,

     Provide Quality Assurance Support.  Nationwide and special  audits of laborato-
ries and field  stations making ambient  or  source  measurements  of 63, NOX,  and VOCs
will be  conducted.   In  addition,  ORD  will   produce  guidelines  on   air  pollution
methodology and QA techniques; develop and distribute reference  materials;  maintain
the repository for these materials; distribute quality control  samples; and conduct
performance audits.  The  increase  in  Research and Development  reflects  additional
audits.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to  the Deficit   Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following   categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing,' publication and audio-visual, and consulting  services.  The reduction  of
$8,400 in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases  to  all
of the above  categories.   The decrease of $20,000 in the  Research  and Development
appropriation reflects  reductions to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is allocating  a total of  $890,900  supported by  13.3  total
workyears for this  program,   of  which  $654,400 is for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $236,500 is   for  the  Research   and  Development   appropriation.
This reflects a decrease of $60,500 total  dollars  over 1984.

     The major difference between the 1985 and 1984 programs is  that  data collected
in prior years  through  the National Atmospheric Background Network   is  being ana-
lyzed.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$40,600 results  from the  following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.    (-$2,100)    This   reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to fund the expanded needs required  by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This  change  resulted in  a net decrease  of
-$2,100 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogramming.  (-$45,000)    A reprogramming  was made to this activity  which
was not reportable  under the  Congressional reprogramming limitations. This change
resulted in a net decrease  of -$45,000 to  the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$6,500)    This program was  increased by +$6,500  reflecting the
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency  obligated  a total   of  $951,400  supported  by  16.0  total
workyears for this  program,  of  which  $706,100  was for  the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $245,300  was  for  the  Research  and  Development   appropriation.

     Two additional   standard  ultraviolet  spectrophotometers were delivered to  EPA
by the National  Bureau  of  Standards  for  distribution  to  the  Regions.  The  field
work for the  National  Atmospheric  Background Network,  which   provided  background
aata on ozone concentrations in remote national  forests,  was completed.
                                       A-16

-------
HEALTH EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $4,478,500  supported  by 24.6 total  workyears
for this program,  of which  $1,361,300 will  be  for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and  $3,117,200  will  be  for the Research  and Development  appropriation.
This represents a  decrease  of  $35,200  and  a  decrease  of  $28,700,   respectively,
and an  increase  of 2.4  total  workyears.   The decrease in  Salaries and  Expenses
reflects Government-wide  reductions  to  pay  and  administrative  services.  Thfe  de-
crease in  Research  and Development  reflects  the  completion of  several  03  dose-
response studies.   The increase in total workyears  reflects  additional  emphasis  on
dose-response studies  of N02-

     Develop  Health  and  Welfare  Effects   Information.     Phase two of the dose-
re spoTJ?i~sTudy of  N02  effects  in  exercising asthmatics will  be completed as will
a study to  determine the  extent  to  which N0£  inhalation affects the permeability
of  lung membranes.   Studies will be conducted with animals of the effects  of oxidants
on susceptibility  to  viral  infection.   Studies  of  the  nasopharyngeal   removal  of
oxidants by animals, which  complement human  studies  performed in  1985,  will  begin.
Epidemiology studies will focus on  defining the effects of  oxidants, particularly
N02, on susceptible populations.   Special attention will be  given to the  po-ssibility
that N02  causes  increased  susceptibility  to   respiratory   infection  in  children
and other sensitive groups.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the  Agency's  response to the  Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the   following categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual,  and  consulting services.  The reduction  of
$7,100 in  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of $4,542,400  supported by  22.2
total workyears for this program,   of  which  $1,396,500 is  for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  ana  >j,145,900  is  for  the  Research   and  Development  appro-
priation.  This reflects an  increase of  $929,500 total  dollars over  1984.

     A major difference between the 1985 and  1984 programs is  that  a greater emphasis
is being placed on  determining the health effects associated  with N02.   Particular
attention is being  given to  determining  the  effect  of acute  exposures on exercising
asthmatics and on  determining the  accumulated effects of typical N02  exposures over
an animal's lifetime.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$180,100 results  from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.    (-$24,000)      Tnis reprogramming reflects  a shift   of
resources within the Agency to  fund the expanuea  needs  required by  the reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation and Recovery  Act.  This change resulted in a net decrease
of  -$24,OUO to the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogr.ammi ngs.    (-$166,900)  Several reprogrammings  were made to this acti-
vity wnich  were not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramrning limitations.
These changes  resulted  in a net decrease  of -$166,900 to the Salaries and Expenses
appropri ation.
                                        A-17

-------
       »-Pay Raise.     (+$10,800)    This program was increased by +$10,800 reflecting
"  the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


  1984 Accomplishments

       In 1984,  the Agency  obligated  a total of  $3,612,900  supported by  21.9  total
  workyears for this  program,  of  which $1,213,400 was for the Salaries  and  Expenses
  appropriation and $2,399,500  was  for  the  Research and Development  appropriation.

       Studies on the nasopharyngeal removal of  03  by humans  were initiated  to  vali-
  date an  extrapolation  model  of pulmonary  dosimetry   for  oxidants.   A study   to
  describe the dose-response  curve  for 03 in healthy humans  was initiated  as  well.
  In addition, a clinical  study  to  replicate  prior research  on  the effects of  low
  levels of NO;? on  asthmatics was  completed.


  ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

  1986 Program Request

       The Agency  requests  a  total  of $3,095,700 supported  by 25.8 total workyears
  for this program, of which  $1,294,"200  will  be  for the  Salaries  and Expenses appro-
  priation and $1,801,500  will be  for the  Research  and Development  appropriation.
  This represents an  increase  of  $141,500 and  a decrease of  $282,300,  respectively,
  and no change  in  total  workyears.   The increase in Salaries and  Expenses  reflects
  enhancement  of  research on  VOC  control  technologies.   The decrease in  Research  and
  Development  reflects de-emphasis of extramural  research on  NOX  contol  technologies.

       Research and Assess Emission  Reduction Technologies.     Research  to assess  the
  applicability of  the low NOX heavy oil  burner  technology to  industrial  boilers will
  continue.  An advanced  low  NOX  burner  capable  of achieving  NOX  levels as low as
  0.1 Ib/million  BTU will be  evaluated on an industrial   package  boiler.   In-furnace
  NOX reduction technologies will  be evaluated on a pilot-scale, coal-fired combustion
  system.  Research to  evaluate and  optimize  the  efficiency  of emission reduction
  technologies for  VOCs will  continue.


  1985 Rescission

       This reduction   reflects  the  Agency's  response  to the  Deficit Reduction  Act
  which requires  decreases   in  the   following   categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
  printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting  services.   The  reduction  of
  $8,000 in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases  to  all
  of the above categories.  The decrease of  $53,600 in  the Research and Development
  appropriation reflects reductions  to  consulting services.


  1985 Program

       In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of  $3,236,500  supported  by  25.8
  total workyears  for  this program,  of  which  $1,152,700 is  for  the  Salaries  and
  Expenses appropriation and  $2,083,800  is for the  Research  and Development appro-
  priation.  This reflects an  increase  of $174,400 total  dollars  over 1984.

       The major  differences between the 1985 and  1984 programs  are  that  NOX  research
  on the  application  of  the  heavy  oil  low NOX  precombustor technology  is  being
  extended to  oil-fired  packaged  boilers;  and research  on  in-furnace NOX reduction
  (reburning)  for  coal-fired  burners  is  being  expanded  from bench  scale to  pilot
  scale, and is being  field tested for gas-fired  refinery heaters.
                                        A-18

-------
1985. Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$49,100 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.      (-$4,200)  This reprogramming reflects a shift of re-
sources within the Agency  to  fund  the expanded needs  required  by  the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change  resulted in a  net  decrease  of
-$4,200 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogramming.     (-$57,400)   A reprogramming was made to  this activity which
was not reportable under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.  This change
resulted in a^ net  decrease of -$57,400 to  the Research and Development appropria-
tion.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$12,500)  This  program was increased by +$12,500 reflecting the
amount requested for  the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,   the  Agency  obligated a total  of  $3,062,100 supported  by 27.1 total
workyears for   this program, of  which $1,353,600 was  for  the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation  and  $1,708,500  was for  the  Research and Development  appropriation.

     A precombustor  technology  was successfully  applied  to enhanced oil  recovery
steamers with   80  to  90  percent  NOX control.  The  fundamentals of reburning  were
explored at bench  scale  for gas, oil, and  coal  use,  and  .an air lance  NOX  control
system for gas-fired refinery heaters  was  field demonstrated.   An  air  staging and
recirculation  NOX control technique  was  applied  successfully to a  spreader-stoker-
fired industrial  boiler.   The  VOC  destruction  efficiency  of   safety  and  relief
systems were tested at  pilot and commercial scale.


ENVIRONMENTAL   PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total of $4,659,000  supported by 27.9  total  workyears
for this  program,  of  which  $1,645,800  will  be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and $3,013,200 wi11 be for  the Research and Development appropriation.
This represents a decrease  of $6,500  and a decrease  of $333,700,  respectively, and
a decrease of  0.4 total  workyears.   The  decrease  in  Salaries and  Expenses  reflects
Government-wide reductions  to  pay   and  administrative  services.   The  decrease  in
Research and Development reflects the completion of a major portion of the National
Crop Loss Assessment  (NCLAN) field  program.

     Develop and Validate Air  Quality Models.     Improved 03,  VOC and NOX chemical
mechanisms willbe developed  to  determine  the role of  major VOCs  (e.g.,  aromatics
hydrocarbons,  olefins,  paraffins and aldehydes) in producing elevated levels of 03.
The improved 03 chemistry  mechanisms  will  be incorporated into  air quality  simula-
tion models that  can  be  used  as  guidelines  in  the  development of cost-effective
SIPs.  To  assist  in  the  formulation of  oxidant  control  plans,  a  regional  scale
model will be  utilized to  assess the potential 03  reductions that  can  be  achieved
by various target emission reduction scenarios.

     Develop Health and Welfare Effects  Information.    Research  to  determine the
impacts of 03  on  U.S.   crop acreage will  continue through the  National  Crop Loss
Assessment Network (NCLAN).   The program will continue to  focus on evaluating the
impacts of  varying  soil  moisture   and  ozone  exposure fluctuations.   These data,
combined with  03  air  quality data  estimates and agro-economic  factors,   will  be
used to review secondary ambient air quality  standards.
                                      A-19

-------
1985 Rescission

     »This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to  the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The  reduction  of
$14,700 in  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases  to  all
of the above  categories.  The decrease  of  $125,000  in the  Research  and Development
appropriation reflects reductions to consulting services.


1985 Program

   In 198b, the Agency is allocating a total of $4,999,200 supported by  28.3 total
workyears for this program, of  which $1,652,300 is  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $3,346,900  is  for  the  Research  and   Development  appropriation.
This reflects a decrease of $279,800 total  dollars  over  1984.

   The major  differences  between  the  1985  and 1984 programs are  that  the  chemical
mechanisms for the urban scale model are being improved  using  smog chamber  irradia-
tion data  obtained  in 1984,  and a  regional  scale  ozone  model  is being  tested  and
evaluated against the air quality data  base obtained during the Northeast  Regional
Oxidant stuay.  Also, the  NCLAN  data  base  is  being improved by examining the  role
of soil moisture and ozone fluctuations  on  crop loss.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$54,000 results from the  following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.    (-$4,600)     This  reprogramming reflects a  shift  of  re-
sources within  the  Agency to  fund  the  expanded  needs   required  by the  reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation and Recovery  Act.  This change resulted in a  net  decrease
of -$4,600 to the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$44,900) Several reprogrammings  were  made to this  activity
which were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional   reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in  a net  increase of +$44,900 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$13,700)   This program was increased  by +$13,700 reflecting  the
amount requested for the pay  raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

   In 1984,  the Agency  obligated  a total   of  $5,279,000  supported by  35.4  total
workyears for this program, of  which  $1,930,800  was for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $3,348,200  was for the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.
     A report was  prepared on protocols for developing ozone reactivity  and  volatil-
ity classifications  for  a   variety  of  organic  compounds  to  establish the  extent
that individual organic compounds contribute to ozone  formation.   A  major  national
economic assessment  report  was  completed  and  approved  for  publication  on  the
economic effects  of  ozone  on  agriculture.  This  report,  the  most  comprehensive
economic work  to  date  on ozone  effects,  utilized the  NCLAN  field  research  data.
Also two reports  were  prepared on  the  economic methodology  used  to  assess  ozone
damage to agricultural  crops.
                                       A-20

-------


































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                                        AIR


                              Hazardous Air Pollutants

                           Principal  Outputs by Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS
= = = == = = = = = =:= = = = = = = = =

Objective 1:  Prepare Health and Risk Assessments

0  Final comprehensive health assessment  documents for nine pollutants (Sci. Assess-
   ment)
0  Initial health effects summaries for six pollutants (Sci.  Assessment)

Objective 2: Develop Information on Health Effects,  Monitoring,  Transport  and Fate,
and Emission Reduction Technologies

0  Report on  the  development and evaluation  of  sampling and analysis methods  for
   asbestos  (Monitoring)
0  Report on  atmospheric monitoring  for  fifteen  elements and benzo-a-pyrene (Moni-
   toring)
0  Report on  the  operation  of the Toxic Air  Monitoring  System  (TAMS)  (Monitoring)
0  Report on the  development and evaluation of methods  to apportion the  mutagenicity
   of ambient air to sources (Health)
0  Report on the  effects of  HAPs on lung metabolism and host defenses, liver toxici-
   ty,  and kidney toxicity  in animals (Health)
0  Report on the  identification, screening and measurements of hazardous  air pollut-
   ant  concentrations in ambient air  (Env. Processes)
0  Report  on  atmospheric  depletion   rates  of  selected  hazardous   air  pollutants
   (Env. Processes) •
°  Interim report on the Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP)

Objective 3:  Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Report on QA for HAP monitoring projects (Monitoring)


1985 PLANNED OUTPUTS
Objective 1:  Prepare Health and Risk Assessments

0  Final comprehensive  health  assessment documents  for thirteen  pollutants  (Sci.
   Assessment)
0  External   review  draft health  assessment  documents  for  three  pollutants  (Sci.
   Assessment)
°  Initial  health effects summaries for eight pollutants (Sci.  Assessment)

Objective 2: Develop Information on Health Effects,  Monitoring,  Transport and  Fate,
and Emission Reduction Technologies

0  Report on the use  of  a nitrogen-specific  detector  for  organic HAPs  (Monitoring)
0  Report on the evaluation  of vinyl chloride continuous  emission monitors  (Monitor-
   ing)
0  Report on the neurotoxicological assessment of  HAPs (Health)
0  Final report on the emission  of copper compounds  (Env.  Technology)
°  Report on  atmospheric  depletion  rates  of  selected  hazardous air  pollutants
   (Env.  Processes)
                                        A-24

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Objective 3:   Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Report on  the  stability of  organic audit materials and  the  results of  source
   test audits (Monitoring)
0  Report on the development of standard reference materials  (Monitoring)


1984 ACTUAL  OUTPUTS
Objective 1:   Prepare Health and Risk Assessments

0  Final  comprehensive  health  assessment  documents  for  seven  pollutants  (Sci.
   Assessment)
0  External   review  draft  health   assessment  documents  for  thirteen  pollutants
   (Sci. Assessment)

Objective 2:  Develop Information on Health Effects,  Monitoring,  Transport and Fate,
and Emission  Reduction Technologies"
0  Report on a cryogenic system for ambient air monitoring (Monitoring)
0  A  survey  of  .methods for  metal  speciation  in  particulate matter  (Monitoring)
0  Report on  the development  and evaluation of the micro-bore monitoring methodology
   (Monitor!ng)
0  Report on the  analysis  of  polynuclear  aromatic  hydrocarbons  in air (Monitoring)
0  Report on collection methods for asbestos (Monitoring)
0  Articles  on  the  metabolism,   mutagenicity,  and  activation  of 1-nitropyrene
   (Health)
0  Report on  preliminary method for ranking industrial HAP sources (Env. Technology)
0  Report on a  wet  removal  mechanism  for hazardous air pollutants (Env. Processes)

Objective 3:   Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Report on the development of QA materials for organics (Monitoring)
                                        A-25

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                                        AIR


                              Hazardous Air Pollutants


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $17,667,600  supported  by 118.8 total  workyears
for 1986,  an  increase of $57,200 and a decrease of  1.5  total  workyears  from 1985.
Of the request,  56,506,100 will  be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and
$11,161,500 will be  for the  Research and Development  appropriation,  a decrease of
$451,200 and  an  increase  of $508,400, respectively.

Program Description

     Under Section 112  and lll(d) of the  Clean  Air Act (CAA),  EPA  is responsible
for limiting  emissions  of air  pollutants  that  are  hazardous  to  human health,  and
are not already  regulated as criteria pollutants.  The following objectives support
the development  of   National  Emission  Standards   for  Hazardous  Air  Pollutants
(NESHAPs).

     Objective 1:  Prepare Health and Risk Assessments.     These assessments, when
combined with preliminary exposure analyses developed  by the Office  of Air Quality
Planning and  Standards  (OAQPS),  provide  quantitative estimates  of  the degree of
population risk  and disease incidence which is needed to develop NESHAPs.

     Objective 2:  Develop Information on Health Effects, Monitoring, Transport and
Fate, and  Emission Reduction Technologies.To develop NESHAPs, data are  needed on
what contaminants are present in  the  air;  their  chemical concentration;  transport,
transformation,  and persistence in the atmosphere;  and the  nature of their adverse
health effects.

     Objective 3:  Provide Quality Assurance Support.-   Quality assurance  (QA) sup-
port is provided in  accordance  with  requirements in the CAA to ensure that Agency
decisions  are backed  by technical data of known precision and accuracy.

     Objective 4:  Assess Stratospheric Modification.   Research is being  conducted
to assess  the health anHenvironmentalimpacts 67" lower   levels  of ozone  in  the
atmosphere and the anticipated  increased  levels  of  exposure  to ultraviolet radia-
tion.  This research  supports Title I, Part B of the CAA.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $3,735,800  supported  by  37.6 total  workyears
for this program, of  which $1,935,200  will  be for  the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and  $1,800,600 will be  for the  Research   and  Development  appropriation.
This represents  a  decrease  of  $26,400  and a  decrease  of  $427,500,  respectively,
and no change  in total  workyears.  The decrease in  Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects
Government-wide  reductions to  pay and  administrative services.   The decrease  in
Research and Development reflects a reduction in the number of comprehensive health
assessment documents  that  will   be  initiated  and  completed,  which  is consistent
with the regulatory schedule  for listing  hazardous air pollutants.

     Prepare Health and Risk  Assessments.       Nine comprehensive health assessment
documents wil1be completed  and  at  least  seven preliminary  health effects  summary
documents  (Tier  1)  will  be  initiated.  Six of  the  Tier 1   documents begun  in 1985
will  be completed.
                                       A-26

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1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects   the   Agency's  response  to  the  Deficit  Reduction
Act which requires decreases in the  following  categories:   travel,  motor vehicle,
printing, publication" and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
of $89,300  in  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases  to
all of the above categories.  The decrease  of $42,000 in the Research and Develop-
ment appropriation reflects  reductions to consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is allocating  a  total  of  $4,189,700  supported  by  37.6
total workyears  for  this program,  of  which  $1,961,600  is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and  $2,228,100 is  for the Research  and  Development appro-
priation.  This reflects  an  increase of $972,000 total dollars over  1984.

     The major  difference  between  the  1985 program  and  the  1984  program is  an
increase in the  number  of  chemicals undergoing health assessment  review in 1985.
Fourteen Tier   I  summaries  are underway  with  eight  scheduled  for  completion  in
1985.  In  addition,  thirteen  final  comprehensive health  assessment  documents  and
three external   review draft   health  assessment  documents   are  being  completed.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net increase of  +$9,000 results  from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogrammi ng.     (-$6,000)    This reprogramming reflects a shift of re-
sou reeTliJTHTTrTFFlTgency to  fund  the  expanded  needs required  by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.   This  change resulted in  a net decrease of
-$6,000 to the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$3,300)  Several reprogrammi ngs were made to this activity
which were  not  reportable   under   the   Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted in a net  increase  of +$2,000 to the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and a  net decrease of  -$5,300 to the  Research  and Development appro-
pri ation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$18,300)  This  program  was  increased by +$18,300 reflecting the
amount requested for the  pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the Agency  obligated  a total  of $3,217,700  supported  by 26.3 total
workyears for  this  program, of which  $1,415,900  was for  the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and $1,801,800  was  for the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.

     During 1984, thirteen  external  review draft health  assessment  documents  and
seven final comprehensive health assessment  documents were completed.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $7,807,100  supported by 35.6 total  workyears
for this program, of which  $1,965,700 will  be  for the Salaries and  Expenses appro-
priation and  $5,841,400  will   be  for the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.
This represents a decrease  of  $43,000 and an increase of $1,309,800,  respectively,
and  an  increase  of  0.3  total  workyears.  The  decrease  in  Salaries  and  Expenses
                                        A-27

-------
reflects Government-wide reductions  to  pay and  administrative  services.   The in-
crease in Research and Development reflects an expansion  of the Toxics Air Monito-
ring System; and development  of  additional  source and ambient monitoring methods.

     Develop  Information  on  Health  Effects, Mom toring, Transport  and Fate, and
EmissTon Reduction Technologies.      Research  wi 1 1   be   accelerated to develop new
sampli ng and analytical  systems  for  monitoring  important  sources  of HAPs.   Also,
work on direct  methods of monitoring ambient HAP  concentrations will  be accelerat-
ed.  Research will  expanded  on passive  monitors and new  sorbents,  to  extend the
range of present methods to  new  pollutants and   new  monitoring  situations  such as
exposures near  hazardous  waste sites.   A nationwide Toxic Air  Monitoring  System
(TAMS)  wi 11 be  expanded.   Exposure monitoring  for the Integrated Air Cancer Project
(IACP)  will continue to improve our knowledge of normal daily exposure to atmospheric
card nogens.

     Provide Quality  Assurance Support.  Quality assurance samples will be obtained,
verified,  and used in performance  audits  of HAP  monitoring projects.  A repository
of QA and audit materials will be  maintained  and  reference samples will be develop-
ed.  Procedures for measuring HAPs will  be evaluated  and  standardized.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the  Agency's   response  to  the  Deficit  Reduction
Act which requires decreases in the  following categories:   travel, motor vehicle,
printing, publication and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The reduction
of $16,800  in  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases  to
all of  the  above  categories.   The  decrease  of  $265,000  in  the  Research  and
Development appropriation  reflects  reductions  to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is allocating  a  total of  $6,540,300 supported  by  35.3
total  workyears  for  this  program,  of which  $2,008,700  is  for  the  Salaries'  and
Expenses appropriation and $4,531,600  is  for the Research  and Development appro-
priation.  This  reflects   an  increase  of  $1,496,500 total   dollars   over  1984.

     A major difference between  the  1985  and  1984  programs is that  an interdis-
ciplinary program to  assess  the contribution  of  air pollution to the risk of cancer
in the  United  States is  being initiated (i.e., the  Integrated  Air Cancer Project
(IACP)).


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The net decrease of -$34,100  results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.     (-$5,700)  This  reprogrammi ng reflects a shift of re-
sour ceT17rrhTn~TFe~Tgericy to fund  the expanded  needs required  by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted in  a  net decrease
of -$5,700 to the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.   (-$45,500)  Several reprogrammings were made to this activity
which  were  not  reportable   under  the  Congressional  reprogrammi ng  limitations.
These  changes resulted in a  net decrease of  -$45,500 to the  Salaries and Expenses
appropri ati on.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$17,100)  This  program was increased by +$17,100 reflecting the
amount requested for  the pay  raise  supplemental.
                                       A-28

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1984 Accomplishments
     In 1984,  the Agency obligated  a total of $5,043,800 supported  by  39.3 workyears
for this program, of which  $2,012,500  was  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropri-
ation and $3,031,300 was  for the  Research and Development appropriation.
     Field evaluations  of  newly developed  sampling  and analysis  techniques  were
conducted.  Smaller,  quieter monitors  for  measuring formaldehyde, particles and NO?
were developed.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $3,057,900 supported by  33.7  total  workyears
for this program,  of which  $1,804,600 will  be  for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and  $1,253,300  will  be  for  the Research  and  Development appropriation.
This represents a decrease  of $142,500  and a  decrease  of  $305,800,  respectively,
and no change in total workyears.   The  decrease  in  Salaries and Expenses reflects
Government-wide reductions  to pay  and  administrative  services.   The  decrease  in
Research and  Development reflects  a reduction in dose-response  research studies.

     Develop  Information  on Health  Effects,  Monitoring,  Transport and Fate, and
Emi ssi on Reducti on Techno! ogi es.     Test methods wi 11 be developed to identify com-
pounds suspected  of adversely affecting reproduction and/or development.   Research
to develop methods for assessing neurologic  toxicity will be continued  also.  Dose-
response studies  will  focus on determining the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity
of potential  HAPs;  evaluating the  effects  of  potential HAPs  on the  nervous and
respiratory systems;  and, investigating  hepatic and  renal effects.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the  Agency's response   to   the  Deficit  Reduction
Act which requires decreases  in  the following  categories:   travel, motor vehicle,
printing, publication and   audio-visual,  and  consulting services. "  The  reduction
of $2,000  in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents   decreases  to
all of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In  1985, the  Agency is  allocating  a total   of  $3,506,200 supported  by  33.7
total workyears for  this  program,  of  which  $1,947,100 is  for the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $1,559,100 is for the  Research and Development appropri-
ation.  This reflects an  increase of $965,700 total  dollars  over 1984.

     The major difference  between the  1985  and 1984 programs  is the initiation of
an interdisciplinary project  to determine the  contribution  of  air  pollution to the
incidence of  cancer  in  the United  States.   As part of this  project,  a  data base
is being developed to identify associations between selected pollutant sources and
human cancer  risk.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of  -$98,100 results  from  the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.    (-$5,400)    This reprogrammi ng  reflects  a  shi ft. of re-
sources within the Agency  to  fund  the expanded needs required by the  reauthorized
                                      A-29

-------
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change  resulted in  a  net  decrease  of
-$5,400 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ng.   (-$109,100)  A reprogramming  was made to  this activity  which
was not reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This  change
resulted in a net decrease of -$109,100 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Rai se.  (+$16,400)  This program was increased by +$16,400 reflecting the
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $2,540,500 supported by  27.7  total
workyears for this  program,  of  which $1,797,500 was  for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $743,000  was  for  the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.

     Major program  accomplishments  included  the establishment  of  a data base for
developing a  comparative potency  method   for  assessing  cancer risk  from  source
emissions; and the  completion of comprehensive  neurotoxi ci ty  studies  on  toluene.


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total of  $1,192,000 supported  by  8.0 total workyears
for this program, of  which  $506,100  will  be for the Salaries and Expenses approp-
riation and  $685,900 will  be  for  the  Research   and  Development   appropriation.
This represents  a decrease  of  $61,200  and a decrease  of  $280,400,  respectively,
and no change in total  workyears.   The decrease in  Salaries and  Expenses  reflects
Government-wide  reductions   to  pay  and administrative services.   The   decrease  in
Research and  Development  reflects  the completion  of  studies  characterizing the
indoor air and evaluating mitigation techniques.                  , •

     Develop  Information  on  Health  Effects,  Monitoring,  Transport  and Fate,.and
Emission  Reduction   Technologies.      As  part  of  the  Integrated Air  Cancer Project
(IACP), particul ate  and  gaseous  emi ssions  from  wood burning will  be  characterized
with emphasis  on organic  tracer substances for source  apportionment.   Engineering
evaluations will  be  conducted for  selected stationary sources of airborne carcin-
ogens.   In addition, investigations  will be undertaken of  industry-specific control
technologies for high-priority sources.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the  Agency's   response   to   the   Deficit   Reduction
Act which requires decreases in  the following categories:   travel, motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and  consulting  services.  The decrease of
$15,700 in the Research  and  Development  appropriation  reflects  reductions to con-
sulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency is allocating  a  total   of  $1,533,600  supported  by 8.0
total workyears for this  program,  of which $567,300 is for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and   $966,300   is  for  the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.
This reflects an increase of  $564,100 total dollars over  1984.
                                       A-30

-------
     A major di fference between the  1985 program and the  1984  program  i s that an
interdisciplinary research  project is  being  initiated to  assess  the contribution
of air pollution to the risk of cancer in the United States.  As part of the IACP, •
methods are being developed  to  characterize emissions  from wood  stoves.                          M


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The net decrease of -$12,500  results  from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.     (-$1,200)    This reprogramming  reflects  a shift of re-
sources within the Agency to fund  the  expanded  needs required by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.   This  change resulted  in a net decrease of
-$1,200 to the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ng.    (-$15,200)   A reprogrammi ng  was made to  this  activity which
was not reportable under the Congressional reprogrammi ng limitations.  This change
resulted in a net decrease of -$15,200 to the Research and  Development  appropriation.

     -Pay Rai se.    (+$3,900)    This program was  increased by +$3,900  reflecting the
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency obligated  a total   of $969,500  supported  by  7.0 total
workyears for this  program,  of which $319,500  was  for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $650,000  was  for  the  Research   and  Development   appropriation.

     Technical  assistance was provided to  Agency offices  on hazardous air pollutant
emissions resulting from the smelting of copper  ore and the manufacture of butadi-
ene.  A preliminary method  for ranking  industrial hazardous  air pollutant sources
by process parameters was also developed.  Research on  the performance of generic              ^—
air pollution control  devices was  initiated.                                           •          ^1


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND  EFFECTS
1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $974,800  supported  by 3.9 total  workyears for
this program, of which $294,500  will  be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and $680,300 will  be for the Research  and Development appropriation.  This represents
a decrease  of  $42,800  and  an increase of $47,700,  respectively,  and  no  change in
total  workyears.  The  decrease  in Salaries and  Expenses reflects Government-wide
reductions to pay and  administrative  services.   The  increase in Research and Devel-
opment reflects enhanced research  on  the Integrated  Air Cancer Project.

     Develop  Information  on  Health Effects,  Monitoring, Transport and Fate, and
Emission Reduction Technologies.    Research  to determine  the reaction products, and
spatial and  temporal  variabilities  of  hazardous  air pollutants  under regulatory
review will  continue.   The  atmospheric   chemistry  of  certain  potential  hazardous
air pollutants will continue to be studied  in  photochemical  smog simulation  cham-
bers.   The  chemical and  physical  processes  by  which mutagenic species are created
and removed in the atmosphere will be studied as part of the Integrated Air Cancer
Project (IACP).
                                       A-31

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198b Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a total of $969,900 supported  by  3.9  total
workyears for this  program,  of  which $337,300  is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $632,600  is  for  the  Research  and  Development appropriation.
This reflects an increase of $216,100 total  dollars  over 1984.

     The major  difference  between the  1985 and  1984  programs  is the  initiation
of an interdisciplinary  research  project  to assess  the contribution of  air pollu-
tion to  the  incidence  of  cancer in the  United  States.   As  part of  the  IACP,
research is  being  conducted to determine  the  chemical and  physical  processes  by
which mutagenic species are created and  removed in  the atmosphere.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net  decrease of -$2,500 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming. (-$800)   This  reprogramming reflects  a  shift  of resources
within the Agency to fund the expanded needs required  by the  reauthorized Resource
Conservation  and Recovery Act.   This change  resulted  in a  net  decrease  of -$800  to
the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.   (-$3,600)    A reprogramming  was made to this activity  which
was not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.  This change
resulted in  a net  decrease  of  -$3,600 to the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$1,900)   This program was increased by +$1,900 reflecting the
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, sthe  Agency  obligated a  total  of  $753,800  supported  by  4.0  total
workyears for this  program,  of which $211,500 was   for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $542,300  was  for the  Research  and Development appropriation.

     Studies  were completed to  quantify  the  role  of  dry and wet atmospheric removal
processes for selected hazardous air pollutants.   A  study was  also  completed on the
generation of potentially  hazardous  air pollutants  as a  result  of   atmospheric
transformation.


STRATOSPHERIC MODIFICATION PROGRAM  '

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a  total  of $900,000 for this  program,  all  of which will
be for  the  Researcn  and Development appropriation.  This represents  a  decrease
of $135,300  in  Salaries  and Expenses;   an   increase  of $164,600  in  Research and
Development;  and a decrease  of  1.8 total  workyears.  The  increase in Research and
Development reflects  increased  emphasis  on  the  assessment   of  ozone  depletion
through models.

     Assess  Stratospheric  Modification.    The health and  environmental  impacts  of
stratospheric ozone depletion  and associated ultraviolet-6  (UV-B)  radiation  will
continue to  be  investigates   Moaeis will  be  applied  to  determine the  impact  of
new data on  ozone  depletion  predictions.   EPA  will  continue to coordinate work  on
stratospheric ozone; update  a  comprehensive assessment of the state  of  knowledge
in this area; and,  prepare a biennial  report to Congress.
                                        A-32

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1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a total  of $870,700 supported by  1.8  total
workyears for this  program,  of  which  $135,300  is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $735,400  is  for  the  Research  and  Development appropriation.
This reflects an increase of  $66,900 total  dollars  over 1984.

     The major  difference  between the  1985 program  and  the  1984 program is  the
initiation of modeling  to determine the  impact  of  new  data  on  ozone  depletion
predictions.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$3,200 results from the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming. (-$400)  This  reprogramming reflects a shift of  resources
within the Agency to fund the expanded needs  required  by  the  reauthorized Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change  resulted in a net decrease  of -$400 to
the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.    (-$3,700)  A reprogramming was made to this activity  which
was not reportable  under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This change
resulted in  a  net decrease  of  -$.1,700  to the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation
and a  net  decrease  of  -$2,000  to  the  Research   and Development appropriation.

     -Pay Raise. (+$900)  This program was increased by +$900 reflecting the amount
requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated a  total of  $803,800 supported  by.  1.8  total
wprkyears for this  program,  of  which  $114,400  was  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $689,400  was  for the Research  and Development appropriation.

     The major  accomplishments  for  1984  inciuaea  additional   work  on  the  effects
of ultraviolet  B  radiation  and  ozone  depletion  on  key  crops  (i.e.,  wheat,  corn,
soybeans, rice and citrus) and on organisms in the  food chain.
                                       A-33

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                                        AIR


                                   Mobile Sources

                           Principal  Outputs by Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS


Objective 1:  Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Regulated PoTlutants—NAAQS

0  Report  of  human exposures  to  CO  in  highway  microenvironments  (Monitoring)
0  Model of human exposure inside vehicles on highways  (Monitoring)
0  Report on the impact of  methanol fuels on evaporative emissions  (Env.   Processes)

Objective 2:  Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Mobile Source  Air  Pollutants

0  Report summarizing human  exposure assessment  field  investigations  (Monitoring)
0  Article  on  the  evaluation  of  emissions  from diesels  equipped  with  advanced
   emission control  technologies  (Env. Processes)

Objective 3:  Provide Quality Assurance Support for  the Mobile Sources  Program

0  Annual report on the QA program for  the  State and Local  Air  Monitoring  Stations
   (SLAMS) network   (Monitoring)
0  Annual report on  the  National  Ambient QA program  (Monitoring)


1985 PLANNED OUTPUTS


Objective 1:  Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Regulated Pollutants—NAAQS

0  Journal  articles  on  population exposures  to  CO  in  Denver  and  Washington,_ DC
   (Monitoring)
0  Report  on  relationship  of  CO exposure profiles  to carboxyhemoglobin  levels
   (Monitoring)
0  Journal article  on behavorial  effects of CO  exposure  on  human  subjects  (Health)
0  Article on cardiac response  in patients with heart disease exposed to CO  (Health)
0  Report on cancer  studies using diesel exhaust materials (Health)
0  Article  on  the   characterization  of  emissions from  late  model  in-use,  light-
   duty diesel  vehicles  (Env. Processes)

Objective 2:  Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Mobile Source  Air  Pollutants

0  Report on role of  human activities and  microenvironments in exposure to  mobile
   source air pollutants  (Monitoring)

Objective 3:  Provide Quality Assurance Support for  the Mobile Sources  Program

0  Annual report on  the  QA program for the SLAMS network (Monitoring)
0  Annual report on  the  National  Ambient QA program  (Monitoring)
                                      A-36

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1984 ACTUAL OUTPUTS


Objective 1:   Assess Health  Risks  and Exposure  to  Regulated  PoTlutants--NAAQS

0  Evaluation  of  health effects  associated with  carbon monoxide  exposure  (Sci.
   Assessment)
0  Report  on  the  determination  of pollutant emission  factors for heavy-duty,  in-
   use diesel tractor-trailers/buses  (Env.  Processes)
0  Report  on  the   determination  of  emission   factors  for  Class  II-III,   in-use
   gasoline delivering trucks  (Env.  Processes)

Objective 2:   Assess Health  Risks  and Exposure  to  Mobile  Source Air Pollutants

0  Report  on  the  use of  genetic bioassays  in  evaluating  unregulated  emissions
   (Health)
0  Article on the  effects  of  traffic speed  on   ambient  pollutant   concentration
   near roadways (Env. Processes)

Objective 3:   Provide Quality  Assurance Support for the Mobile Sources Program

0  Annual report on national ambient  QA program (Monitoring)
                                        A-37

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                                        AIR


                                   Mobile Sources


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $5,821,700 supported  by 29.8 total  workyears
for 1986, an increase of $545,300 and an increase  of 7.7  total workyears  from 1985.
Of the  request,  $1,606,600 will  be  for  the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$4,215,100 wi11  be for  the  Research and Development appropriation, an increase  of
$234,300 and $311,000, respectively.

Program Description

     The following  objectives   support  the  regulation  of   carbon  monoxide  (CO),
hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen:

     Objective 1.  Assess Health Risks  and Exposure to  Regulated Pol1utants--NAAQS.
Research under this objective  provides  the Office of Air and Radiation  (OAR) with
data to evaluate the  National  Ambient  Air Quality  Standards  (NAAQS)  for CO.   EPA
must evaluate the NAAQS for CO  every five years as provided by Section  109  of  the
Clean Air Act  (CAA).

     Objective 2. Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Mobile  Source Air Pollutants.
Research under this objective determines population exposure to pollutants such  as
organics and particulates; characterizes emissions  from  vehicles;  refines existing
air quality  models;  and provides short-term  testing guidelines.   The information
from these  studies is  used  by  the  Office  of  Mobile Sources Air  Pollution Control
(OMSAPC) to protect public health from vehicle emissions as  provided under Section
202(a)(l) and 202(a)(4) of the  CAA.

     Objective 3. Provide Quality Assurance Support for the  Mobile Sources Program.
The Office of  Research-  and  Development  is required to  ensure that all measurement
data related to mobile source  pollutants are reliable.

     Objective 4.   Collect  and Maintain Data  in Support  of  the Fuel and  Fuel  Addi-
ti ves Program.  Research under this  objective  supports Sections  211  and  301(0)  of
the CAA which  require  EPA to  provide a  data  base  to determine  whether the  use  of
any motor vehicle fuel  or fuel  additive  poses  an unreasonable risk to human health.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $331,200 supported  by 3.0 total   workyears
for this program,  of  which  $148,500 wilt  be  for  the Salaries and Expenses  appro-
priation and  $182,700  will  be  for the  Research  and  Development appropriation.
This represents an increase of  $80,600  and $157,700, respectively, and an increase
of 2.0 total workyears.  The increased resources will  be used to  support  an  accel-
erated effort on revising the CO criteria document.

     Assess Health  Risks and Exposure to Regulated Pollutants—NAAQS.   Revision  of
the criteria document for CO,begun  in1985,  willcontinue as a  full-scale  effort
in 1986.  Data published,  since  the 1984  addendum to  the  criteria document, will
be identified and retrieved.  This data  will be the  basis  for any necessary  update
of the various CO criteria document  chapters.
                                        A-38

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1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency is  allocating  a  total  of $92,900  supported  by  1.0 work-
year for this  program,  of  which  $67,900  is  for the Salaries  and Expenses appropria-
tion and $25,000 is for the Research  and Development  appropriation.   This reflects
a decrease of  $97,600 total  dollars over 1984.

     The major difference  between the  1985 and  1984  programs  is that the initial
stages of the review and update  of  the carbon monoxide  air quality  criteria doc-
ument will begin during 1985.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the  Enacted

     The increase of +$500  results  from  the following  action:

     -Pay Raise.  (+$500)    This  program  was  increased  by  +$500  reflecting  the
amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the Agency obligated  a total of $190,500  supported  by  1.1 workyear
for this program, of which $65,400  was  for the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
and $125,100 was for the Research and Development  appropriation.

     The addendum to the  1979 carbon  monoxide  air  quality  criteria  document  was
published during  1984.   Evaluations  of health and welfare  issues associated with
promulgation of the NAAQS were provided  to  OAQPS  during  1984.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND  QUALITY ASSURANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total of  $686,000  supported  by 7.4 total  workyears for
this program,  of  which $385,400 will be  for  the Salaries  and Expenses appropri-
ation and $300,600  will  be for  the  Research  and Development  appropriation.  This
represents a decrease  of  $30,700 and a decrease  of  $37,800, respectively,  and an
increase of 0.4 total  workyears.   The decrease  in Salaries and  Expenses reflects
Government-wide reductions  to  pay  and  administrative services.   The  decrease  in
Research and Development reflects  a  reduction in  research  on developing exposure
methods.

     Collect and Maintain Data in Support  of the  Fuel  and Fuel  Additives  Program.
New fuels and  fuel  additives  introduced in the nation  will  conti nue  to be  regi s-
tered in accordance with the law.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support  for  the Mobile Sources Program.  The  quality
assurance programwTTTbe maintained tosupporttheaTrregulations  of  40 CFR,
Part 58, Appendices A and B, and audits will  continue to be  performed  on the SLAMS
network and human exposure studies.

     Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Mobile Source Air Pollutants.     Research
will be continued to extend the  general exposure methodology used successfully for
carbon monoxide to other mobile source air  pollutants.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
                                       A-39

-------
of $2,000  in  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation represents decreases  to  all
of the above categories.  The decrease of  $47,900 in the Research  and   Development
appropriation reflects reductions to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating a total of $754,500 supported  by  7.0 total"
workyears for this  program,  of  which $416,100  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $338,400  is   for  the  Research and  Development  appropriation.
This reflects a decrease of $66,100 total dollars over 1984.

     The major difference  between  the 1985  program  and  the  1984 program  is that
field data collected  in the Denver-Washington, DC, human exposure CO field  studies
will be used to develop exposure models.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$22,800 results from the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$1,200)  This  reprogramming reflects  a  shift  of  re-
sou rces~~wTtTTTnTne~7fgency to  fund the  expanded  needs  required  by  the  reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change resulted in  a  net  decrease
of -$1,200 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation. •  •

     -Reprogramming.  (-$25,000)  A reprogramming was  made to this activity  which
was not reportable  under  the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This  change
resulted in a net decrease of  -$25,000 to the  Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$3,400)  This  program  was  increased by +$3,400  reflecting  the
amount requested for the pay  raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated  a total of $820,600 supported by 8.8 total work-
years for this program,  of which $482,200 was  for the Salaries  and Expenses appro-
priation and $338,400 was  for the Research and Development appropriation.

     Work was completed  in  assembling  an  extensive  data  base from  the  Denver-
Washington, DC,  human exposure CO field studies.  Statistical  analyses were conduct-
ed of the exposure  and activity patterns from these two  cities, and "several  scien-
tific papers were prepared summarizing these data.


HEALTH EFFECTS
1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total of  $3,740,200 supported  by  7.4 total  workyears
for this program, of which $532,200  will  be for the Salaries and  Expenses  appropri-
ation and $3,208,000 will be  for the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.   This
represents a decrease  of  $18,000 and a  decrease of $78,100,  respectively, and  an
increase of 1.0  workyear.  The  decrease  in Salaries and Expenses  reflects  Govern-
ment-wide reductions to pay  and administrative  services.  The  decrease  in  Research
and Development  reflects  the  completion  of  studies on  low-level  exposure to CO.

     Assess Health Risks and  Exposure to  Regulated  Pollutants—NAAQS.       Clinical
studies on the toxic  effects  of low-levelexposure to  CO willbe  continued.   Non-
invasive techniques will  also  be developed to  measure  objective  (electrochemical)
cardiac effects of CO  exposure for use in field studies  to improve  risk  assessments.
                                       A-40

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     Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Mobile  Source  Air  Pollutants.   Support  for
the Health Effects Institute (HEI)  will  be  maintained.The HEI was  established  and
funded by  both  EPA and the motor  vehicle  industry  to  perform independent  studies
and produce health data on pollutants emitted  from motor vehicles.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is allocating a total of $3,836,300 supported  by  6.4  total
workyears for this  program,  of  which $550,200  is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $3,286,100  is  for  the Research  and Development appropriation.
This reflects an increase of $1,383,400 total  dollars over  1984.  -

     In 1985, the  Health  Effects  Institute  will  increase the number of its  grants
reflecting the latest research  priorities of the  auto industry  and  EPA.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$57,900 results from the following actions:

     -RCKA Reprogramming.  (-$25,500)   This  reprogramming  reflects   a  shift   of
resources within the Agency to  fund the expanded needs  required by the  reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change resulted in a  net decrease
of -$25,500 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi'ngs.  (-$35,500)  Several reprogrammings were made to  this activity
which were  not   reportable  under   the  Congressional   reprogramming   limitations.
These changes resulted  in  a  net  decrease of -$26,600  to the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and a  net decrease of  -$8,900 to the  Research and  Development  appro-
priation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$3,100)  This  program was  increased by  +$3,100 reflecting  the
amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency obligated  a  total of  $2,452,900 supported  by  6.0  total
workyears for this  program,  of  which  $328,900  was  for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and  $2,124,000 was  for  the  Research  and  Development appropriation.

     Final reports were  prepared  for research under the Diesel  Emissions Research
Program.  A preliminary report  on the CO clinical study was completed.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency   requests  a total   of  $1,064,300  supported  by 12.0 total  workyears
for this program,  of which $540,500  will  be  for the  Salaries and  Expenses  appro-
priation and $523,800 will  be  for  the  Research  and  Development  appropriation. This
represents an increase  of  $202,400 and $269,200, respectively,  and an  increase of
4.3 total workyears.  The increases will be used to  support definition  of  state-of-
the-art analytical  procedures  for measurement   of   methanol  and  formaldehyde  in
tailpipe and evaporative emissions.
                                        A-41

-------
     Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Regulated Pollutants—NAAQS.     Increased
use of methanol fuels necessitates comprehensive examination of the impact of these
fuels on  motor  vehicie tailpipe  ana  evaporative emissions.  The  compatibility  of
current technology emission  control  devices  with methanol  fuels  will  be  studied.
State-of-the-art analytical procedures for measurement of methanol  and formaldehyde
will be defined.  Support  research  will  also be provided  to  define procedures  for
certification of emissions from motor vehicles using methanol  fuels.,.

     Assess Health Risks and Exposure to Mobile Source Air Pollutants. Studies will
continue tocharacterizeparticulate emissionfrom controlled diesel  late  model,
in-use and future model year  light-duty motor  vehicles.   State-of-the-art  chemical
analytical procedures will be evaluated for application to mobile  source emissions.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating a total  of  $592,700 supported by  7.7 total
workyears for this  program,   of  which $338,100  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $254,600  is  for  the  Research   and  Development  appropriation.
This reflects a decrease of $273,300 total dollars  over 1984.

     The major  difference between  the 1985  and 1984  programs  is  that  research
characterizing the  gaseous  and particulate  emissions  from heavy-duty diesel  and
gasoline powered trucks was concluded in 1984.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$7,900 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$1,200)  This reprogramming reflects  a  shift  of  re-
sou reeT^rfhTn~the~~A~g^ncy  to  fund the expanded  needs required  by  the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.  This change  resulted in a  net  decrease'of
-$1,200 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$10,400)   Several  reprogrammings were made to this activity
which were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted  in  a  net decrease  of  -$3,500  to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and a  net decrease  of  -$6,900  to  the  Research and Development  appro-
pri ation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$3,700)  This program  was increased by +$3,700 reflecting  the
amount requested for the pay  raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total   of $866,000  supported by 11.1  total
workyears for this  program,  of which  $462,100  was  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $403,900  was  for  the" Research   and  Development  appropriation.

     Research characterizing  the  gaseous  and  particulate  emissions  from heavy-duty
diesel and gasoline powered trucks and buses  was concluded.
                                       A-42

-------




































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-------
                                        AIR


                                Gases and Particles

                           Principal  Outputs by Objective
1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS
Objective 1:   Develop and Validate Air Quality Models

0  Article on the  evaluation  of  receptor modeling results from  Philadelphia  (Env.
   Processes)

Objective 2:  Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information

0  Journal article on  the  deposition  of 502 anc* particles in the lungs  of  animals
   and man  (Health)
0  Journal articles on  acute,  subchronic,  and chronic effects of gases and particles
   in animals  (Health)
0  Journal article on small particle soiling of building materials  (Env.  Processes)

Objective 3:   Develop and Validate Measurement  and Monitoring Methods

°  Report on  the development  of  automated methods  to  analyze  PM-10  (Monitoring)
0  Report on  support  activities for the National Filter Analysis Network (Monitoring)
0  Report on  the  monitoring and QA support for international organizations (Monitor-
   ing)

Objective 4:   Research  and Assess  Emission Reduction  Technologies

0  Report on  the  in-house pilot  tests  of low  cost SOX  control  processes  (Env.
   Technology)
0  Report 'on  the reactivity  of promising sorbents  for  spray dryi'ng S0£  controls
   (Env. Technology)

Objective 5:   Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Annual reports on the State and  Local  Air Monitoring  Stations, and the  National
   Ambient and Source Monitoring programs  (Monitoring)


1985 PLANNED  OUTPUTS
Objective 1:   Develop and Validate Air Quality  Models

0  User's  guide  for  an  interim  regional   particulate   model   (Env.   Processes)
0  Article on  the  application  of the  receptor model  to Denver aerosol  (Env.  Pro-
   cesses)

Objective 2:   Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information

0  Final  air  quality criteria document for lead  (Sci.  Assessment)
0  Journal article  on the  deposition  of insoluble particles  in the lungs  of  small
   animals  (Health)
0  Journal articles  on  the  neurobehavioral  effects of  lead-exposed  children  and
   adults  (Health)
0  Report to  Congress on environmental  cancer  and heart  and lung  disease  (Health)
0  Journal article  on the  response  of an atmospheric corrosion monitor  as  a  proxy
   for damage to materials  (Env. Processes)
                                        A-46

-------
Objective 3:   Develop and Validate Measurement  and  Monitoring  Methods

0  Interim report on the tranfer of the Inhalable Particulate  Network  to  the  States
   (Monitoring)
0  Report on the operation of the  LIDAR  system for monitoring aerial  plumes  (Moni-
   toring)
0  Annual report on the National Filter Analysis Network  (Monitoring)
0  Annual report on monitoring support for international  organizations (Monitoring)

Objective 4:   Research and Assess Emission Reduction Technologies

0  Users  manual  on  the  cost   &  performance  characteristics  of  state-of-the-art
   integrated coal-fired  boiler air  pollution control .systems   (Env. Technology)

Objective 5:   Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Annual reports  on  the National  Ambient and Source Monitoring  Programs,  and the
   State and Local  Air Monitoring Stations (Monitoring)


1984 ACTUAL OUTPUTS
Objective 1:  Develop and Validate Air Quality Models

0  Assessment document  on  the  status  of complex  terrain  dispersion models  (Env.
   Processes)

Objective 2:  Develop Health and Welfare Effects  Information

0  First  external  review  draft  of the  lead  criteria  document  (Sci .  Assessment)
0  Journal article on the response of  asthmatics  to SO;? exposure  (Health)
°. Journal  article  on  the  biochemical  response  of   normal  individuals  to  S02
   (Health)

Objective 3:  Develop and Validate Measurement and Monitoring Methods

0  Annual report on the operation of the National  Filter Analysis Network  (Monitor-
   ing)
0  Report  on  the  monitoring  support  for international  organizations  (Monitoring)

Objective 4:  Research and  Assess Emission Reduction Technologies

0  Full-scale field  evaluation  of  a lime spray dryer method for S0£ control  at an
   electric utility  (Env. Technology)
0  Full-scale evaluation of  the use of a diabasic  acid to enhance the  performance
   of limestone scrubbing (Env. Technology)

Objective 5:  Provide Quality Assurance Support

0  Annual  reports  on the  National  Ambient  and Source  Monitoring  Programs  and the
   State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (Monitoring)
                                        A-47

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                                        AIR


                                Gases and Particles


Budget Request

     The Agency requests* a total of  $27,879,300  supported  by  207.1  total  workyears
for 1986,  a  decrease of  $1,588,000  and  an  increase of  3.7  total  workyears  from
1985.  Of the  request, $11,146,700 will 'be for  the Salaries and Expenses appropri-
ation and  $16,732,600  will  be  for  the Research  and Development appropriation,  a
decrease of $354,800 and a decrease of $1,233,200, respectively.

Program Description

     The following  objectives  support  the regulation  of  particulate matter  (PM)
and its major components, lead and  gaseous sulfur dioxide (S02).

     Objective 1:   Develop  and Validate _Air Quality Models.     Ambient  air  quality
models are being  developed  andvalidated  to develop SIPs, make PSD determinations
and protect Class I pristine areas  from visibility degradation.

     Objecti ve 2:    Develop  Health  and  Welfare  Effects  Information.     Data on
the adverse health  and  welfare effects of  gases and particles and lead  are  being
developed to support the  periodic  review  of the  NAAQS for  S02,  particulate matter
and lead.  Criteria documents  for -each  pollutant  serve  as the primary  source  of
documentation for these reviews.

     Objective 3:   Develop  and  Validate  Measurement  and Monitoring  Methods.   New
and improved  air  pollution monitoring  methodologies  are  being developed  and evalu-
ated to  determine air  quality  trends,  compliance with  permit  conditions  and  the
need for enforcement actions;

     Objective 4:    Research  and Assess Emission Reduction Technologies.    Data on
the performance, cost and reliability  of  emission  reduction technologies  for  gases
and particles are  being  provided to  develop NSPS, establish  SIPs,  make  PSD deter-
minations and protect Class I  areas from visibility degradation.

     Objective 5:   Provide Quality  Assurance Support.   Quality  Assurance (QA)  sup-
port is provided  in  accordance  with  requirements in the CAA  to  ensure that Agency
decisions are backed by technical  data of known  precision and  accuracy.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of  $735,100 supported by 9.0  total  workyears  for
this program, of which  $469,600 will  be for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation
and $265,500  will  be for the  Research and  Development  appropriation.    This  rep-
resents a decrease  of  $88,700  and  $225,200  respectively,  and  a decrease  of  1.0
workyear.  These  decreases  reflect  the completion  of  the lead  criteria  document.

     Develop   Health  and  Welfare   Effects  Information.    In  accordance with  the
Agency's regulatory schedule,  efforts to  update  the  criteria  document  for particu-
late matter will  continue, and the  review and update of the  SOX  criteria document
wi 11 be i niti ated.
                                      A-48

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 1985 Rescission

      This reduction  reflects  the  Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
 which requires  decreases  in  the   following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,              A
'printing, publication  and  audio-visual,   and  consulting services.   The  reduction              •
 of $1,500  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents   decreases  to
 all  of the above  categories.  The decrease of $62,800  in the Research and Develop-
 ment appropriation  reflects  reductions to  consulting services.


 1985 Program

      In 1985,  the Agency  is allocating a  total  of  $1,049,000 supported  by 10.0
 total workyears  for this program,  of which" $558,300 is for the Salaries and Expen-
 ses  appropriation  and  $4911,700 is  for the Research and Development  appropriation.
 This reflects  an  increase  of $104,000 total  dollars over 1984.

      The major difference  between  the  1985  and  1984  programs  is  that  the second
 external review draft  of the leaa  criteria document is oeing reviewed by the Clean
 Air  Science Advisory  Committee  and their  comments   incorporated  into the  final
 document, as necessary.   Also, efforts to  review and  update the criteria document
 for  particulate matter will  be initiated.


 1985 Explanation  of  Changes  from the Enacted

      The net increase  of +$3,300 results from the following  actions:

      -RCRA Reprogramming.    (-$1,600)    This reprogramming  reflects  a shift of re-
 sources within the Agency to  fund  the  expanded  needs   required by the reauthorized
 Resource Conservation  and  Recovery Act.  This change  resulted in a net decrease of
 -$1,600 to the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

      -Pay Raise.    (+$4,900)   This program was increased by  +$4,900  reflecting the              fl
 amount requested  for the pay raise supplemental.                                                 ^


 1984 Accomplishments

      In 1984,  the  Agency  obligated a total  of  $945,000  supported   by  7.8 total
 workyears for  this  program,  of which $442,500 was for the  Salaries and Expenses
 appropriation  and $502,500  was  for the  Research  and Development  appropriation.

      Technical evaluations were provided  for health  and welfare issues associated
 with the proposal  and  promulgation of the  NAAQS for particulates and  sulfur oxides.
 In addition, the  first  external   review  draft  of  the lead air  quality  criteria
 document was completed.


 MONITORING SYSTEMS  AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

 1986 Program Request

      The Agency  requests  a  total  of $5,296,500 supported  by 63.8 total  workyears
 for  this program,  of which  $3,231,700 will  be for  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
 priation and $2,064,800  will   be  for  the  Research  and Development  appropriation.
 This represents  a decrease  of  $65,000 and $171,100,  respectively,  and an  increase
 of 1.2 total workyears.   The decrease  in Salaries and  Expenses  reflects Government-
 wide reductions  to  pay  and  administrative services.   The  decrease in Research and
 Development reflects  reduced  emphasis  on  developing monitoring   methods.   The
 increase in workyears  reflects an  expansion of the  visibility program.
                                        A-49

-------
     Develop and  Validate Measurement and Monitoring Systems.   Monitoring systems
for measuring pollutants  in  the  ambient air and  from  emissions  sources will  con-
tinue to  be  evaluated,  tested, and  standardized.   An  airborne LIDAR  system  which
monitors the detailed structure of plumes from  source  to  receptor  will  continue to
be used to  assist in the  development  and  evaluation of predictive  models.   Visi-
bility studies will  be  augmented  through  a  multi-station  monitoring  network  of two
stage particle  samplers to  evaluate  the effects  of the  proposed PM-10 NAAQS  on
visibility..  The  Inhalable Particle  Network  will   continue  to  be  maintained  to
obtain data for the development of PM-10 standards and  regulations.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support.   Quality control  samples will  be obtained,
verified, and  used  in  nationwide  and  special  performance  audits.   Certified
reference materials will  be verified,  and  a system for  receiving,  analyzing,  and
reporting the precision and accuracy of data will be operated.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  Decreases   in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual,  and consulting  services.  The  reduction
of $19,900  in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation   represents  decreases  to
all of the above  categories.   The decrease  of  $2,500  in the  Research  and Develop-
ment appropriation reflects reductions to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency   is  allocating a  total  of $5,532,600  supported by  62.6
total workyears for  this  program,  of  which $3,296,700  is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and $2,235,900  is for the  Research and  Development  appro-
priation.  This reflects an increase of $72,900 total dollars  over  1984.

     There are no significant  differences  between  the 1985  program and the  1984
program.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net  decrease of -$61,000 results from the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.     (-$24,400)    This  reprogramming  reflects  a shift of
resources within  the Agency  to  fund the expanded  needs  required  by the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This   change resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$24,400 to the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.        (-$67,000)  Several  reprogrammings   were  made to this
activity which were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional   reprogramming  limit-
ations.  These  changes  resulted  in  a  net   decrease  of -$67,000  to the  Salaries
ana Expenses  appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$30,400)  This program was increased by +$30,400 reflecting the
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total   of  $5,459,700  supported by  67.1  total
workyears for this program,  of which  $3,263,400 was for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and  $2,196,300  was  for  the  Research  and Development  appropriation.
                                       A-50

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     During 1984,   standard   operating  procedures  for  sampling  ambient  PM  were
developed.   In addition,  a  detailed  PM-10. inlet  comparison  study  was conducted.
Alternative analysis techniques for measuring VOCs  were  analyzed,  and methods for
measuring total  reduced  sulfur  from recovery  plants were validated.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total  of  $10,616,000  supported  by 66.5 total workyears
for this program,  of which $3,611,100 will be for the Salaries  and Expenses appro-
priation and  $7,004,900  will  be  for  the Research  and  Development appropriation.
This represents a  decrease of $33,600  and  $51,100, respectively, and an increase of
6.5 total workyears.  The decrease in Salaries  and  Expenses reflects Government-
wide reductions to pay and administrative services.   The increase in total workyears
reflects enhanced  work on dose-response research  on  gases and  particles.

     Develop Health and  Welfare Effects Information.  Animal  studies of the chronic
effects of inhalable coarse  mode particles will begin.  Clinical studies will  focus
on the  respiratory  and   cardiovascular  effects  of  S02  inhalation.    Efforts  to
improve extrapolation techniques and  their application will  be continued.  Theoret-
ical models  of  the  respiratory tract  deposition of  gases  and particles  will  be
developed and lung dosimetry modeling efforts will be  expanded  to include additional
compounds.   Data  from  a  comprehensive  study completed  in  1985,   which  looked  at
the effects of  low  to moderate lead  body burdens in  children and  adults,  will  be
analyzed.  In addition,  data obtained from a study  of lead-exposed rhesus monkeys
will be analyzed.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,   and  consulting  services.   The reduction
of $54,400  in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  -appropriation  represents  decreases  to
all of  the  above   categories.   The  decrease  of  $145,000  in  the   Research  and
Development appropriation  reflects  reductions  to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In  1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total of $10,700,700  supported  by 60.0
total workyears  for  this  program,  of which  $3,644,700 is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $7,056,000 is  for the Research  and Development appropri-
ation.  This reflects an increase of $2,594,000  total dollars over  1984.

     There are  several  major  differences between the  1985  and 1984  programs: (1)
research to refine  exposure levels  and health  endpoints is being  accelerated; (2)
greater  emphasis is  being placed  on evaluating  the effects of  gases  and particles
in susceptible  populations  such  as  asthmatics and  emphysemics;  (3)  efforts  to
develop  extrapolation models are being accelerated.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$173,200 results from  the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.     (-$114,400)     This reprogramming   reflects a shift of
resources wi thi n the  Agency to  fund the  expanded  needs  required   by  the reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.    This   change   resulted  in   a  net
decrease of -$114,400 to the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.
                                       A-51

-------
     -Reprogrammings.      (-$88,000)   Several   reprogrammings  were  made to this
 activity which  were not  reportable under the  Congressional  reprogrammi ng  limit-
 ations.  These  changes resulted  in a  net decrease  of -$88,000  to the  Salaries
 and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Rai se.  (+$29,200)  This program was increased by +$29,200 reflecting the
 amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


 1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated a total of  $8,106,700  supported by  53.3  total
 workyears for the program,  of which $3,326,200  was  for the Salaries  and  Expenses
 appropriation and $4,780,500  was  for the Research and Development  appropriation.

     Major accomplishments included the  completion of' a clinical  study  describing
 the range of health effects seen in mild asthmatics exposed to  S02  during exercise.
 Two articles  were  published  on  developmental  changes and  other  neurobehavioral
 effects seen  in children  with  elevated  lead body burdens.    An  animal  study  was
 completed of  acute   and  subchronic  respiratory   effects  following intratracheal
 installation of fine and coarse mode particles.


 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

 1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of $3,875,800  supported  by  37.2 total  workyears
 for this program, of which $1,903,700 will be for  the  Salaries and Expenses appro-
 priation and  $1,972,100 will  be for the  Research and Development  appropriation.
 This represents  an  increase  of  $61,500  and a decrease of $264,800, respectively,
 and no change in  total  workyears.   The  increase in Salaries and Expenses  reflects
•enhanced research to assess the cost-effectiveness, performance and  reliability  of
 FGDs.   The decrease  in  Research and Development  reflects the completion  of  studies
 on ESPs and ESFFs.

     Research and Assess Emission Reduction Technologies.     Research to  assess the
 mechani sms and  veri fy   the theory behi nd  multi-stage  electrostatic preci pitators
 (ESPs) for high and  low sulfur coals will  continue in  order  to reduce  the  costs  of
 particle emission control.   Research on  the  effects  of  precharging and  particle
 charge on  filtration  performance will   be  continued  to improve  the operation .and
 maintenance of  baghouses.    Studies  of  conventional   spray  drying  and   flue  gas
 desulfurization (FGD) methods will be continued.   Research  on dry,  post combustion,
 SOX removal  processes  will  continue to  focus on  evaluating the  parameters  which
 impact the reactivity and performance of sorbents.


 1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
of $13,400  in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases  to
all of  the  above   categories.   The  decrease  of   $187,000  in  the  Research  and
Development appropriation  reflects  reductions  to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of $4,079,100  supported  by 37.2
total  workyears  for  this  program,  of  which  $1,842,200 is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and  $2,236,900 is for the Research  and Development  appropri-
ation.   This reflects an increase of $682,700  total  dollars over  1984.
                                      A-52

-------
     A major difference  between  the  1985  and  1984  programs  is that  pilot  scale
research on  dry,  post-combustion  FGD  systems  is  being  initiated  with emphasis
on the  use  of  alternate sorbents  and  additives for  SOX  control.   Also, research
on the fundamental  chemistry  of low-cost  FGD  systems  is  being  started.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from  the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$49,800 results from the  following actions:

     -RCRA  Reprogramming.     (-$6,000)   This  reprogramming  reflects   a shift  of
resources within the Agency  to  fund the  expanded  needs  required by the reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation   and  Recovery  Act.  This  change  resulted  in   a net
decrease of -$6,000 to the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogramming.  (-$61,900)     A reprogramming was  made to  this  activity  which
was not  reportable  under the Congressional reprogramming  limitations.  This  change
resulted in a  net  decrease of  -$61,900  to the  Research and Development  appropria-
tion.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$18,100)   This program was increased by +$18,100  reflecting the
amount requested for the pay  raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In  1984, the Agency obligated a total  of  $3,396,400 supported  by  28.6  total
workyears for this  program,  of which $1,441,200 was for the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $1,955,200  was for the  Research and Development  appropriation.

     Full-seale evaluations  of  lime spray-drying  and limestone  scrubbing  using  a
diabasic acid  to  enhance S02  removal  were  completed.  This  research  showed that
the NSPS  for  SOg and particulate  matter  can be met at  costs  lower  than when wet
scrubbing systems are used.   The  limits of using wide diameter  electrodes  to  improve
ESP performance were determined and the  principal  parameter which makes electrosta-
tically  enhanced fabric  filters  perform  superior  to  conventional  bag filters was
identified.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a total of $7,355,900 supported by  30.6 total workyears
for this program, of which $1,930,600 will be for  the Salaries  and Expenses appro-
priation and $5,425,300  will  be for the  Research and Development  appropriation.
This represents a  decrease of  $229,000  and  $521,000, respectively,  and  a decrease
of 3.0 total workyears.  These decreases reflect the  completion  of several  studies
to improve urban scale particulate models.

     Develop and Validate Air Quality Models.     Regional,   urban,  and  mesoscale
particulate matter  air quality models will  continue to be improved  to  support the
development of  the  proposed  PM-10  NAAQS.   The complex  terrain dispersion  model
will be  evaluated and  refined to predict one-hour  average, ground-level  concentra-
tions.   Visibility/emission  relationships  will  be  studied  by   modeling during  a
periou of  reuucea  emissions,  ana field  studies win  oe  conducted  to determine the
sources  of  visibility  reducing  aerosols.    Data   collected  from  the  China  field
study will  be  analyzed  and  additional  cooperative  studies will be undertaken  to
evaluate 03  formation,  materials damage, and  S02  conversion  in a  water  solution.
                                       A-53

-------
     Develop Health and Welfare Effects Information.     Research on the impacts of
$62 on galvanized steel and particles on painted surfaces will  continue.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to  the Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.  The  reduction
of $2,000  in  the   Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation   represents  decreases  to
all of  the  above   categories.   The  decrease  of  $278,200 in  the  Research  and
Development appropriation reflects reductions  to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is allocating  a total  of $8,105,900  supported by  33.6
total workyears  for this  program,  of  which  $2,159,600  is  for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $5,946,300 is for the Research and Development appropri-
ation.  This reflects a decrease of $480,500 total  dollars over 1984.

     A major difference between  the  1985 and  1984 programs is  that less emphasis
is being  placed  on the development  of  nitrate and  organic  aerosol modules.   Re-
search to  develop   complex  terrain  models  is  shifting  away  from field  studies,
which were  completed  in  prior  years, to the  analysis  of data obtained  from  these
studies.  In addition, a field  study  of the  soiling of  material  surfaces by partic-
les is being initiated.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the  Enacted

     The net decrease of -$40,800 results  from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.     .   (-$5,200)     This  reprogramming reflects a shift of
resources within the Agency to  fund  the expanded  needs  required  by the reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation and  Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$5,200 to the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$51,900) Several  reprogrammings  were made to this activity
which were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional   reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted in  a net  decrease  of -$37,000 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and a net decrease of -$14,900 to the Research and  Development  appro-
priation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$16,300)  This program was increased  by +$16,300 reflecting  the
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $8,586,400  supported by  42.7  total
workyears for  this  program, of  which  $2,353,900 was for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $6,232,500 was for the Research and Development  appropriation.

     A users guide  for a  single  source  dispersion  model  was delivered;  the results
of the 1983  Cross  Appalachian  Tracer  Experiment were analyzed;  a  full-scale  plume
study of a three-dimensional  complex  terrain area  was conducted;  and a  site specif-
ic S0£  complex terrain model   was  developed  for  the Green  River  oil   shale  area.
                                       A-54

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                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page
AIR
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Air Quality & Stationary Source Planning & Standards	  A-56
          Emission Standards & Technology Assessment	  A-58
          Pollutant Strategies 8 Air Standards Development	  A-60
          State Program Policy Guidelines & Regulations  Development	  A-62
       Mobile Source Air Pollution Control  & Fuel  Economy	  A-64
          Emission Standards, Technical  Assessment & Characterization	  A-66
          Testing, Technical  & Administrative Support	  A-68
          Emissions & Fuel  Economy Compliance	  A-69
       State Programs Resource Assistance	  A-71
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)	  A-73
          Training	  A-75
       Air Quality Management Implementation	•	  A-77
       Trends Monitoring &  Progress Assessment	  A-81
          Ambient  Air Quality Monitoring	  A-83
          Air Quality & Emissions Data Management & Analysis	  A-85
                                     A-55

-------























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                                       AIR
              Air Quality and Stationary  Source  Planning  and  Standards


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $20,976,700  supported  by 227.8  total  work-
years for 1986,  a  decrease of $1,451,400  and  a decrease  of 2.1  total workyears.
Of the total  request,  $10,477,900  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
and $10,498,800  is  for  tne Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation,  a
decrease of  $368,000 and  $1,083,400, respectively.

Program Description

     The program areas under this subactivity include:

     Emission Standards and Technology Assessment—  This program  provides for the
establishment, review, and  revision of national  emission standards for stationary
sources under Sections 111 and 112 of  the  Clean Air Act.   Section 111  requires EPA
to establish  New  Source  Performance  Standards  (NSPSs).  Section  112 authorizes
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants  (NESHAPs).

     NSPSs reflect  the performance of the  best  control  systems for reducing emis-
sions.  The   standards are  set  taking  into consideration  technical   feasibility,
cost, and economic, energy,  and  environmental impacts.   The  background  information
published as part  of  the process for  setting NSPSs  provides useful  data  to State
agencies in  defining best  available control technology,  lowest achievable emission
rates, and  reasonably  available  control   technology,  when  such  determinations  of
appropriate  control  levels must be made  under other sections of the Clean Air  Act.

     NESHAPs protect  the  public  from  pollutants  that  cause or contribute  to air
pollution that  results  in  an  increase  in mortality  or  an increase  in  serious
irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness.

     PollutantStrategies and Air Standards Development  -- The  major activities  of
this programinclude:(T)regularreview andrevision, as  appropriate,  of all
existing National  Ambient  Air  Quality  Standards  (NAAOSs);  (2) identification and
assessment of  potential  hazardous  air pollutants,  including the  determination  as
to the  appropriateness  of a listing under Section 112  of  the Clean Air Act; and
(3) analytic  support  to  Agency  efforts  to set emission standards  for pollutants
regulated under Sections  lll(d) and 112 of the  Act.

     State Program Pol icy Guide!ines and  Regulations  Development   —   This program
includes:  (~1) developnent of guidelines  and regulations that set forth  requirements
for air  pollution  control  programs implemented  by the  States  under the Clean Air
Act; and (2) overview of  the development   and implementation  of State and  local air
pollution control programs.  The  State and  local programs provide  for the attainment
and maintenance  of  NAAOSs,  prevention  of significant deterioration of  air quality
in clean areas,  and the  protection of  visibility  in national  parks and wilderness
areas.  The   overview  carried out  under this  program  helps  ensure  consistency among
EPA Regional Offices, States,  and  local  agencies  in carrying  out the  requirements
of the Clean Ai r Act.


EMISSION STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $12,077,500 supported by  96.5 total  workyears
for this  program.   Of this  request,  $4,480,200 is  for  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $7,597,300  is  for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appro-
                                      A-58

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pnation.  This represents a decrease  of  $210,600  and  51,068,400,  respectively,  as
well as  a  decrease  of  2.1  total  workyears.  The decrease in Salaries  and  Expenses
reflects Government-wide  reductions  to  pay  and   administrative   services.   The
decrease in Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  reflects the  completion  of  NSPSs for
a majority of the source categories on the Agency's priorvjty list.

     The major program emphasis in 1986 will be  reducing emissions from sources  of
hazardous air pollutants.  This includes  source  assessments to  support  Section 112
listing decisions for potentially  hazardous pollutants and  development  of  NESHAPs.
During 1986, NESHAPs promulgations  include  one new NESHAPs for benzene (coke oven
by-product plants) and  revised standards  for vinyl chloride and mercury.  One new
NESHAPs for  coke  oven  emissions  (wet  charging  and topside leaks)  and a revised
standard for asbestos (demolition and renovation) will be proposed.  Ongoing NESHAPs
work includes development  of new  standards for sources  of  chromium and benzene
(gasoline marketing), as well as  revised standards  for  beryllium.   NESHAPs  activity
will also  include development of three  new  standards  from  the  listing  decisions  to
be made  during  1985.   The   program  will   also provide  implementation  support   to
States as  part  of the   new  air toxics Agency  initiative  whereby  decisions on the
control of  selected  air pollutants will  be  made by individual  States  rather than
through Federal  NESHAPs.

     In 1986, efforts are  continuing to  complete  NSPSs  for all source categories
required by the Clean Air Act.  Promulgations of  12 NSPSs (seven new standards; five
revisions) covering seven additonal priority  list source categories  are scheduled  in
1986.  NSPS  proposals  include  six  standards  (five  new  standards; one revision).
Developmental work will  continue  on five NSPSs.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires   decreases  in  the  following categories:   travel,   motor   vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The  reduction  of
-$17,400 in the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to all   of
the above  categories.   The decrease  of  -$795,200  in the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation reflects reductions to consulting  services.


19R5 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency is allocating  a total  of  $13,356,500 supported  by 98.6
total workyears for  this program.   Of  the total,   $4,690,800  is  for the  Salaries
and Expenses appropriation  and  $8,665,700 is  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and Com-
pliance appropriation.

     In 1985 NSPS  development  is  continuing.   Proposals  for 11  NSPSs (eight new
standards; three  revisions)  and  promulgation  of 20 NSPSs  (14  new standards; six
revisions) are   scheduled for  1985  covering   14 additional  priority  list source
categories.  In addition, three  NSPS  reviews are being completed.  Other  activity
includes the completion  of auto  surface coating  and  wood furniture surface coatiny
assessments.

     NESHAPs proposals   include  revisions   to   vinyl  chloride  and  mercury.  Three
NESHAPs, one for arsenic glass manufacturing,  one  for  low arsenic  feedstock copper
smelters, and one  for  high  arsenic  feedstock  copper  smelters,  are  scheduled for
promulgation.  Source assessments  for several  compounds are  also  being  completed
to support listing decisions  in 1985  and 1986.  Ongoing NESHAPs  development  includes
coke oven emissions, benzene  (gasoline marketing),  chromium, and asbestos.
                                      A-59

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1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The net decrease of -$442,500 results  from  the  following actions:

     -RCRA Reurogramming.   (-$16,600)   This   reproyranming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to  fund  the  expanded needs  required  by the reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted   in  a  net
decrease of -$16,600 to the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$473,800)  Several  reprogrammings  were made to  this ac-
tivity which were not reportable under  the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes resulted  in a net decrease of  -$163,600 to the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and a  net decrease  of  -5310,200 to the Abatement,  Control  and Con-
pliance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$47,900)  This program was  increased   by  +$47,900  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated a total  of $13,618,700 supported by 97.6'total
workyears for this program.   Of the amount  obligated, $4,513,900 was for the Sala-
ries and  Expenses  appropriation and  $9,104,800  was  for  contract  work  under the
Abatement, Control and  Compliance appropriation.  The contract   resources were used
to continue work related to  setting NSPSs and  NESHAPs.

     In 1984, work  continued  on  setting NSPSs  for  all  source  categories  on EPA's
priority list.  NSPS  activity included:  proposal of eight  new standards  and four
revisions; promulgation of  seven  new standards,  covering  seven  additional  priority
list source  categories, and  one NSPS revision;  and  completion  of five  reviews of
existing NSPSs.  Control Technique Guidelines were  completed  for  four  sources of
VOCs.

    •Work continued toward  promulgation  of NESHAPs   for three  sources  of  arsenic.
Work also  continued  on NESHAPs proposals  including coke ovens  (wet  charging and
topside leaks), and  revisions to NESHAPs for  mercury, vinyl chloride, and  asbestos
demolition and  renovation.  One  benzene  NESHAPs  (coke oven by-product plants) was
proposed'and  one  benzene NESHAPs for equipment  leaks  was promulgated  in   1984.
Other NESHAPs activity  included the withdrawal of three proposed  benzene standards
and promulgation of the asbestos work practices revision.  The review of the NESHAPs
for mercury was completed, as well as  source assessments for four chemical compounds.

     During 1984 work was  also initiated  for the development of  air emission regula-
tions under RCRA for TSDF area sources.   Standards  to be  developed  include  the  fol-
lowing TSOF  area  sources:   landfills,  surface  impoundments,  land treatment, con-
tainers, waste  piles,  storage tanks,  and transfer  operations.   Beginning  in  1985,
this activity  will   be  reflected  in  Program Element,  RCRA Regulatory  Program  -
Office of Air and Radiation.


POLLUTANT STRATEGI-ES ANO AIR STANDARDS  DEVELOPMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $6,181,800  supported  by  85.4 total  workyears
for this  program.   Of  this  request,  $3,804,800  is  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $2,377,000  is  for  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance  appro-
priation.  This  represents  a decrease of  $100,200  and  $15,000, respectively,  but
no change  in total  workyears.    The  decrease  in  Salaries and  Expenses  reflects
Government-wide reductions to pay and administrative services.
                                       A-60

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     In 1986,  NAAQS   revision  or  reaffirmation  for  lead  will  be  proposed  and
revised or  reaffirmed NAAQSs  for participate  matter  and  sulfur  dioxide  will  be
promulgated.  The  development  of  regulatory  impact  analyses  for   ozone   will  be
completed.  Regulatory decisions  will  be made  for 9-13  potential  hazardous pollu-
tants.   Involvement in air toxics activities  will  continue.  This  includes  support
for the implementation of  the  National Air Toxics  Strategy,  operation  of.  the Air
Toxics  Clearinghouse   to  support  State programs,  conducting  workshops,  providing
information on health, exposure and risk assessment,  and support to ensure adequate
control of  localized  air toxics  problems  that may not  be  suitable  for  a  national
regulatory program.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to  the Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting  services.  The reduction  of
-$2,600 in  the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation represents  decreases to all  of
the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is allocating  a total  of $6,297,000  supported  by  85.4
total workyears for  this program.   Of this amount, $3,905,000  is  for the  Salaries
and Expenses appropriation  and $2,392,000 is  for  the  Abatement, Control and  Com-
pliance appropriation.

     Revision or reaffirmation  of the NAAQS  for sulfur dioxide is  being  proposed
in 1985.  The final promulgations  of revised or reaffirmed NAAQSs for carbon monoxide
and nitrogen dioxide  are also  expected.   Reviews of the NAAQSs  for  lead  and ozone
are underway.  Application of  a  risk  assessment methodology  is  planned  in  1985  as
part of the review of the  NAAQSs for ozone and. lead.   An Advance Notice of Proposed
Rulemaking for a fine particle secondary  NAAQS is  also  being  completed.   Pollutant
assessment activities will  result in  listing  decisions  for  17  substances.   Work  is
continuing on  a  number  of other  pollutants  scheduled  for  regulatory decisions  in
1986.-  Other activities include:   completion  of a  National  Air Toxics  Strategy,
implementation of  the Air Toxics Clearinghouse,  refinement  of the exposure  and
risk assessment methodology, and  support  to  State  and  local programs on  air toxics
problems.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$215,800 results from the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$85,800)    This  reprogramming  reflects  a   shift  of
resources within the  Agency to fund the  expanded  needs required by  the reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation and   Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$85,800 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$260,100)  Several  reprogrammings were made to this ac-
tivity which  were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limit-
ations.  These  changes  resulted  in a net  increase  of  +$260,100  to the  Salaries
and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$41,500)    This  program was increased  by  +$41,500  reflecting
the amount  requested for the pay raise supplemental.
                                       A-61

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1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a  total  of $5,081,900  supported  by 66.9 total
workyears for this program.   Of the amount obligated, $3,045,100 was for the Sala-
ries and  Expenses  appropriation and  52,036,800  was  for  contract work  under the
Abatement, Control  and Compliance  appropriation.

     Revisions to the NAAQSs for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were pro-
posed in  1984 and work was  underway to propose appropriate revisions to the NAAQSs
for sulfur dioxides,  lead,  and ozone.   In  addition, work continued  toward final
action on review  of the  NAAOS  for carbon monoxide.   In  the pollutant assessment
area, work continued  on  the health  and  risk assessment  of  potentially  toxic air
pollutants to determine the  need for regulations.   Listing  decisions were published
for toluene,  polycyclic organic  matter,  and  coke  ovens emissions  in  1984.  Other
activities included  completion  of  the  development  plan  for  the  the  Air Toxics
Clearinghouse.and initiation of  the operational  phase in  the  form of information
exchange.  In addition, a six-month study on air  toxics  was completed which pro-
vided the first step toward  the development  of a  comprehensive  air  toxics strategy.


STATE PROGRAM POLICY GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS DEVELOPMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $2,717,400  supported  by 45.9 total  workyears
for this  program.   Of this   request,  $2,192,900  is for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $524,500  is   for  the  Abatement,  Control   and  Compliance appro-
priation.  This  represents  a  decrease  of $57,200  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation but no  change for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropria-
tion and in  total workyears.  The decrease in Salaries and  Expenses reflects Govern-
ment-wide reductions to pay  and administrative services.

     In 1986, the program will   continue to provide  national  direction, management,
and assistance to the air  quality management process.- The  program will  also develop
regulations,  policies, and  technical   guidance  to  support  the  implementation   of
revised NAAQSs for  lead,  size-specific  particulate matter (PMio)t  sulfur  dioxide,
and fine  particles.   Regulatory actions  will  include promulgation of PM}Q  regula-
tions to  implement  the revised NAAQS.   Implementation  of the  National  Air Audit
System will   be a  major activity.   Revised audit  criteria will also be provided  to
Regions for their use  in  conducting  State  audits and a national audit report will
be published.  Management of the  program for new  source"  review and prevention  of
significant deterioration  will  also continue.  This will encompass  technical analy-
ses and  support  to  litigation including promulgation  of strip  mines  rulemaking
and proposal  of  vessel emissions  rulemaking.  In  addition, management and  overview
of the  State Implementation Plan  (SIP)  process  will  continue,  together  with the
management and overview  of   the  Post 1982  attainment program.  Tne  operation   of
the VOC  control  strategies   clearinghouse  will   be continued  and  support  will   be
provided to  implement  the State  pilot  control  program for acrylonitrile and other
toxic pollutants.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual,  and  consulting services.  The decrease  of
-$100,000 in the  Abatement, Control and  Compliance appropriation reflects  reduc-
tions to  consulting services.
                                      A-62

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1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of $2,774,600  supported  by  45.9
total workyears to  this  program.   Of  the total,  $2,250,100  is  for  the  Salaries
and Expenses appropriation and  $524,500  is  for contract work under the  Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

     National management  and  oversight  of major   SIP  programs  is  continuing to
ensure that  deficient  SIPs are  corrected  and  that SIP  revision  backlogs do  not
occur.  Program policy  and  guidance  is  being provided  for SIP  development  and
approval,  nuring  1985,  States  should complete  SIPs for most  of the 39 areas  where
the NAAOSs  for  sulfur dioxide,  ozone,  carbon  monoxide, and  nitrogen  dioxide  were
not net by  December  1982.   Policy  and  guidance are  being developed to resolve  any
issues associated  with these  SIPs.   Regulations are being  developed  to implement
the revised  NAAQS for PM^g-   Regulations  are  being promulgated  for stack  heights,
visibility, and intermittent control systems.   Other activities include  management
of the new source  review/prevention  of  significant  deterioration program, continua-
tion of the  National  Air  Audit  System,  and development  of  an  initiative  for  the
control of toxic pollutants,  using  State or  local  regulations, rather than  NESHAPs.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$10,000 results  from  the  following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramnnng.   (-$12,300)    This   reprograming   reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to  fund the expanded  needs  required by the reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.  This   change   resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$12,300 to  the Salaries and Expens'es  appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$22,300)   This  program  was  increased by  +$22,300  reflecting
the amount requested for the  pay raise  supplemental.


1984Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency obligated  a  total  of  $4,862,400  supported  by 74.6  total
workyears for this program.   Of  the amount obligated, $3,220,100 was for the  Sala-
ries and  Expenses  appropriation and  $1,642,300 was for the  Abatement,  Control,
and Compliance appropriation.

     National management and evaluation of all  major SIP programs continued  in  1984.
Program guidance,  policy papers, and technical  information were  developed on  a  var-
iety of issues  including post-1982  attainment,  PH^g. and  lead.   A major policy  for
post-1982 nonattainment  areas  was  published  in  early 1984  outlining steps that  must
oe taken to meet the NAAQSs.   Policy guidance and  program  assistance were continued
for the areas that  had  been  granted attainment date extensions for the  ozone  and
carbon monoxide NAAQSs.   Lead SIPs  were  developed  in accordance with  the  schedule
and requirements of  the  litigation  settlement agreement.   New  source review program
guidance was provided and the  National  Air Audit  System  was  implemented  for  four
program areas (air quality planning, new  source review, compliance assurance,  and
air monitoring).  A National  Air Audit  report was  also  prepared.
                                      A-63

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-------
                                        AIR


                Mobile Source Air Pollution Control  and Fuel  Economy
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $13,560,800  supported  by  198.8  total  workyears
for 1986, a decrease  of $119,500 and no  change  in total workyears  from  1985.   Of
the request, $9,808,200  will  be for  the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation  and
$3,752,600 will  be for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation,  a
decrease of $498,800 and an increase of  $379,300, respectively.

Program Description

     This subactivity  includes the  following mobile source programs:

     Emission Standards, Technical  Assessment and Characterization  —  This  program
provides the standards development  and analysis  required  for  the control  of mobile
source emissions, as  specified  by  the Clean Air Act.  Work is  also carried out to
improve fuel economy testing procedures  and evaluate fuel economy retrofit devices,
as required by  the Motor Vehicle  Information  and  Cost  Savings  Act.   This  program
is responsible  for  developing both light-duty vehicle and  heavy-duty  engine emis-
sion standards.  Other major program activities include:  characterization of hazar-
dous emissions, assessment  of  emissions  control  technology,   technical  assistance
to the  States  for implementation  of  local  control programs,   assessment  of actual
emissions levels from  in-use  vehicles,  and  analysis  of  the current  and prospective
impacts of motor vehicle emissions  on air quality.

     Testing,  Technical and Administrative Support  — This  program  provides  basic
testing, technical,  and  administrative  support  to  the mobile  source  operating
programs of EPA.

     Emissions and Fuel Economy Compljjnce — This  program implements the emissions
certification and compliance requirements of the Clean Air Act and  the fuel  economy
information and compliance  requirements  of the Motor Vehicle  Information  and Cost
Savings Act,  As  part  of this program,  fuel economy  information is made available
to the  consumer through the  mile  per  gallon  values  published in   the  Gas  Mileage
Guide and on new vehicle labels.


EMISSION STANDARDS. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $6,308,400  supported by   71.9  total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $3,490,800 is for  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropria-
tion and $2,817,600  is  for  the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation.
This represents a  decrease  of $152,700  and  an increase  of $379,300, respectively,
and no  change  in  total  workyears.   The  decrease in  Salaries  and Expenses reflects
Government-wide reductions  to pay   and  administrative  services.  The  increase in
Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  reflects  support for  evaluating  potentially
hazardous fuels.

     Following the promulgation of heavy-duty  engine  standards  for  nitrogen oxides
and particulates  in  1985,  the  program  will  focus  on  implementation  support.  The
final rule  for standards  and test  procedures  for  methanol  fueled  vehicles  will
also be  completed.   A  notice  of  proposed, rulemaking  for  evaporative  emissions
control during  refueling  will  be completed.  Assessment  of emissions control tech-
nology will continue.
                                       A-66

-------
     Resources devoted to motor vehicle fuels  issues will help discourage the use of
environmentally damaging fuels  and  fuel  additives while promoting the introduction
of environmentally sound alternatives.  Technical  evaluation  and emissions charac-
terization of  vehicles  using alternative  fuels,  particularly methanol,  will  con-
tinue; a new  emphasis will  be on undertaking technology  assessment  projects which
will address  the  information gap on  the  overall   performance  of methanol  engines.
Assessment of the effectiveness  of  operational  vehicle  inspection  and maintenance
(I/M) programs  will  continue.   Fuel  economy work will  focus   on  the differences
between in-use  fuel  economy and the EPA  fuel   economy  figures,  and on  further
improvements to  EPA's   fuel  economy information  program.   The  testing  and  evalu-
ation of fuel economy retrofit devices will continue.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects the Agency's  response to  the Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in the  following  categories:    travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and   audio-visual,   and  consulting  services.   There  is  no
reduction in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.   The decrease  of  -$278,300
in the  Abatement, Control   and  Compliance  appropriation  reflects   reductions  to
consulting services regarding technology and pollutant assessment.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency is  allocating  a total  of  $6,081,800  supported  by  71.9
total workyears  for  this  program,  of  which $3,643,500  is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and $2,438,300 is  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

     During 1985 efforts will be concentrated on  standards for heavy-duty nitrogen
oxides and particulate emissions.  The final rulemaking for the heavy-duty particu-
late standards  and  the  heavy-duty  engine and  light-duty truck  nitrogen  oxides
standards will  be promulgated.   Renewed   interest  in  the  issue  of  evaporative
emissions control during refueling  has  resulted in the preparation  of a  technical
paper on  control  options,  and  in  the  initiation of  a   rulemaking.  The program
continues to provide implementation assistance  and review  of  State  Implementation
Plans, particularly as  they  relate  to I/M,   In  1984,  a pilot program of  I/M pro-
gram audits  was  initiated  to assess the effectiveness  of the State  and  local  I/M
programs; the pilot audit program continues in 1985, with 15 percent of I/M programs
scheduled for audit.   Additional work focuses  on  the  testing of  in-use  vehicles,
including the evaluation of  new technology vehicles.  Characterization of emissions
from vehicles powered  by alternative fuels continues.  Work has begun on a rulemaking
which will establish  standards  and  a  test  procedure  for  methanol-fueled  vehicles.
In 1985, test  procedures for  trap-equipped diesel  vehicles  and  engines  will  be
proposed.  Evaluation  of  the  effectiveness  of  fuel   economy  retrofit  devices
continues.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$144,000  results from  the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.   (-$178,900)   Several reprogrammings were made to this  activ-
ity which were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes resulted  in  a  net decrease of  -$53,900 to the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and a  net decrease of  -$125,000  to the  Abatement, Control  and  Com-
pliance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$34,900)   This  program  was  increased  by +$34,900  reflecting
the amount requested  for the pay raise supplemental.
                                       A-67

-------
1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total of  $5,921,500  supported by  71.5  total
workyears, of which $3,548,700 was  for  the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation and
$2,372,800 was for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation.

     Standards development work  focused on diesel particulates,  heavy-duty  engine
emissions, and the  emissions  from  vehicles  operated  at  high  altitudes.   Efforts
related to heavy-duty engine  emissions  included preparation for  implementation  of
standards for evaporative hydrocarbon emissions  and standards for exhaust hydrocar-
bon and carbon monoxide emissions.  Light-duty diesel particulate standards,  origi-
nally set  for model  year 1985,   were  postponed to  1987  to provide  time for  the
industry to  develop  adequate control  systems.   Support  was  furnished to  States
developing implementation plans.   The testing  and  evaluation of  five  fuel  economy
retrofit devices were performed.


TESTING, TECHNICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $5,664,600  supported  by 93.6  total  workyears
for this program, of  which $4,764,600 will  be for  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $900,000 will be for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropria-
tion.  This  represents a  decrease of $290,000 in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
priation, no  change  in the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation,  and
no change  in total  workyears.    The  decrease  in  Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects
Government-wide reductions to pay and administrative services.

     This program will  provide  testing,  technical,  and administrative  support  to
the operating programs of the Office of  Mobile Sources at the  EPA Motor  Vehicle
Emissions, Laboratory  (MVEL).  Activities   that  will  be  supported  include  recall,
tampering and fuel  switching,  standard  setting, emissions  characterization,  tech-
nology assessment,  fuel   economy,  in-use   vehicle  emissions assessment,  and  motor
vehicle emission  certification.    The   support   that   will   be  provided  includes:
automated data processing  (ADP)  timesharing  services,  laboratory data  acquisition,
and computer  operations;  testing  of   motor   vehicles to   measure  emissions  and
fuel economy; quality control  and correlation  services  for  EPA and industry testing
programs; maintenance  and engineering  design  of  emission   testing equipment;  and
personnel, administration, safety, and facilities support services.


1985 Rescission

     The reduction  reflects  the  Agency's response  to the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.  The  reduction
of -$3,500 in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation  represents  decreases  to all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a   total  of $5,954,600   supported  by  a 93.6
total workyears  for  this  program,   of  which  $5,054,600  is for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and  $900,000 is  for the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance
appropriation.  Testing  and  technical   support  activities  have  been  increased  to
operate at a  level where  significant economies of scale can be obtained.  Similar
testing activities have been consolidated.
                                        A-68

-------
     Testing support to the certification  and  fuel  economy labeling and compliance
programs continues, with  1,000 tests scheduled for  these  purposes.   An additional
1,840 tests of-in-use  vehicles at the MVEL  support  the  following programs:  recall,
surveillance, tampering and fuel  switching,  and emission factor programs.  Testing
also includes support  for the  heavy-duty   emission  factors  program.   Correlation
programs ensure  consistency  among test  facilities  between manufacturers  and EPA.
Personnel, facility  s,upport  services,  safety,  ADP,  and  administrative management
functions are provided for at the MVEL.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted
                                               *
     The net increase of +$1,400 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$3,400)  This  reprogramming reflects  a  shift  of  re-
sources within the  Agency  to  fund the  expanded needs required  by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This  change  resulted in a  net  decrease of
-$3,400 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogramming.  (-$40,700)  A  reprogramming  was made to this  activity  which
was not reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This change
resulted in a net decrease of -$40,700 to the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$45,500)    This  program  was increased  by +$45,500  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of $5,813,100 supported  by 89.6 total
workyears for this  program,  of which $4,713,100 was  for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $1,100,000  was  for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appro-
priation.

     During 1984, the program continued to increase testing and vehicle procurement
at the MVEL.  A  total  of 2,639 tests  were performed at  the  laboratory during  the
year.  Data from these  tests  were analyzed by  other  programs and  used  by the pre-
production certification and fuel  economy programs.


EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY COMPLIANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $1,587,800 supported by 33.3  total  workyears
for this program, of which $1,552,800 will  for the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and $35,000 will  be  for  the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.
This represents a decrease of $56,100  in the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation,
no change in the Abatement, Control  and Compliance  appropriation,  and  no change in
total workyears.  The  decrease in  Salaries  and Expenses  reflects  Government-wide
reductions to pay and administrative services.

     The emissions  and fuel  economy  compliance  program  will   continue to  issue
between 300 and  400  certificates  of compliance during  the year.   Participation in
the certification program  by  importers  for resale  is  expected  to  increase.   The
fuel economy  information   and compliance  program  will  generate  information  for
the Gas  Mileage  Guide,  calculate  fuel  economy labels,  and  calculate  each  manu-
facturer's Corporate Average Fuel  Economy (CAFE).   The in-use technology assessment
program will continue to stress the examination of continuing durability of control
technology at high  mileage.   Alternatives   for  improving the effectiveness  of  the
certification program in reducing high mileage in-use noncompliance will be identi-
fied, as will  the possibilities for further cost reduction.
                                       A-69

-------
1985 Rescission

     The reduction  reflects  the  Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and  audio-visual, and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
of -$7,300 in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation represents decreases  to  all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is allocating a  total  of $1,643,900  supported by  33.3
total workyears  for this  program,  of  which  $1,608,900  is  for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and  $35,000  is  for  the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

     The Agency is  continuing to streamline the certification process  by revising
requirements to reduce the burden on  industry  without  sacrificing emissions  reduc-
tions.  Programs  to assess  the performance  of high  mileage  in-use  vehicles  in
order to  gather  data on  in-use emissions  and  emission  control  system  deteriora-
tion are underway.   The fuel economy  program continues to generate  1,600 to 1,700
fuel economy  labels  a year,  data for the Gas  Mileage  Guide, and 40 CAFE calcula-
tions.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net  increase of +$90,900 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$5,300)  This  reprogramming  reflects a  shift  of  re-
sources within the  Agency  to  fund the  expanded needs  required  by the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.  This change resulted in  a  net  decrease of
-$5,300 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogramming.  (+$80,000)  A reprogramming  was  made to this  activity which
was not  reportable  under  the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This  change
resulted in a  net  increase  of +$80,000 to the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$16,200)  This  program  was increased  by +$16,200  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the  Agency  obligated  a total   of  $1,454,700 supported by  33.2 total
workyears for  this  program,  of  which $1,420,200 was for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation a'nd $34,500 was for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropria-
tion.

     Certificates were issued for 307 light-duty engine families.  The fuel economy
program produced  2,053 labels and performed 48  CAFE  calculations.   The  final rule-
making for changes  to improve the certification process was promulgated.   Increased
effort is being devoted to revising  the fuel economy program to more closely approx-
imate in-use  results,  improving the labeling data base,  and  reducing  the manufac-
turers'  reporting  costs.
                                        A-70

-------
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-------
                                       AIR
                        State Program Resource Assistance
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $95,261,900  supported  by 4.0 total  workyears
for 1986, an  increase  of $4,240,100 from 1985.  There  is  no change in the  number
of total workyears  requested.   Of  the  request,  $227,900 is  for the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $95,034,000 is for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation, a decrease of  $9,200 and an  increase ot $4,249,300,  respectively.

Program Description

     This subactivity provides financial support  to State and local air  pollution
control agencies, as well as air quality programs for Indian  lands,  for  the  preven-
tion, abatement,  and  control  of  air  pollution.   The  primary  objective  of  this
subactivity is to  support the  development  and  implementation  of effective  State
and local programs  for the  attainment  and  maintenance of the National  Ambient  Air
Quality Standards  (NAAQSs),  in accordance with  provisions  of the  Clean  Air  Act.

     Control  Agency Resource Supplementation  (Section 105 Grants) --  Direct   grants
to control  agencies that have major roles for developing and  carrying out programs
under the Clean Air Act  constitute the major form of  EPA  resource assistance.   The
grants support State and local activities which  develop  State Implementation  Plans
(SIPs) for the  attainment  and  maintenance  of the  NAAQSs;  enforce source emission
regulations and  requirements  contained  within  the   SIPs;  review and  permit  new
sources; monitor ambient air quality  for assessing  environmental quality and  pro-
gress; and develop  data  bases  necessary for  regulatory  decisions.   In  addition,
these funds promote .the assumption  and  implementation  of other Clean  Air  Act  respon-
sibilities  including those for the  Prevention  of Significant Deterioration  (PSD),
protection  of visibility  and the  implementation  of New Source Performance  Standards
(NSPSs) and  National  Emission  Standards for Hazardous  Air'  Pollutants (NESHAPs).

     Training --  Traditionally,  resource assistance is  further  supplemented  by
the provision  of  training  in  specialized  areas of  air pollution  control.   Mew
courses are developed as needed, instruction manuals  and materials are  revised  and
updated, and  manuals and  instructional  materials  are provided to university  train-
ing centers.   The  EPA  staff  works with university  centers  to  develop State  and
local self-sufficiency  in training  by  offering  courses  at  area training centers.


CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION  (SECTION  105  GRANTS)

1986 Program  Request

     The Agency requests a total of  $95,034,000  for grants,   all in the Abatement,
Control and  Compliance   appropriation.   This  request  represents  an  increase  of
54,326,300.  The increase provides  for enhanced  enforcement  activity to obtain  and
maintain source compliance with SIP  requirements,  NSPSs, and NESHAPs;  purchase  of
new or replacement monitors  for the ambient  networks,  including  visibility monitors
in selected Class  I  areas;  and improved  State air toxics assessment and regulatory
act ivit les.

     In 1986, States will continue  to  develop and  implement the  regulatory programs
necessary for  the  attainment  of   NAAQSs  in  areas  missing  the  1982  deadlines
or having extensions to  1987.   States will   also  prepare necessary  corrections  to
the SIPs where State/EPA  reviews of progress identify needed  changes  in attainment
strategies  or  new  nonattainnent  problems   are  documented.   States  will   prepare
regulatory  plans for the attainment  of  the   standard  for size-specific  participate
                                     A-73

-------
matter (PMio)  upon   promulgation  of  the  NAAQS.   Revisions  to  SIPs  addressing
EPA's revised  stack  height  regulations  will  be  completed.   States  will  assume
responsibility for newly promulgated NSPSs and NESHAPs.

     States will   continue  to  fully  operate  and quality assure  the  National  Air
Monitoring System (NAMS) and  State and Local Air  Monitoring System (SLAMS) networks.
A number of  the  more seriously deteriorated  network  monitors for ozone'  and  carbon
monoxide will  be  replaced.   States will  continue to modify existing networks  to
collect data  necessary  for  regulatory  decisions and the  development  of  required
PM}Q SIPs,  including the  purchase  of  monitoring equipment  for determining  PM}Q
levels in  probable  nonattainment areas.   States  will  also purchase  instrumenta-
tion and conduct  limited background  visibility  monitoring   in  key  Class  I  areas.

     States will   carry  out  their  inspection  and source  monitoring programs  for
assuring initial   and  continuous compliance  by  stationary  sources, including  the
provision of "timely and appropriate"  response to violations.  Emphasis will  conti-
nue to focus  on  volatile organic compounds  (VOCs)  sources and sources  subject  to
NESHAPs, including significantly expanded efforts to  implement the asbestos  work
practices NESHAPs.  Grant resources  will also support the implementation  of ongoing
vehicle anti-tampering  regulatory  programs  and  the  development  of new programs.

     Grants will   help   States   having  high  risk  sources  to  evaluate  emissions,
exposure, and develop regulatory programs as necessary  for  control  of four to five
air toxic compounds  where  EPA  has  determined through formal Agency  decisions  that
national risks are  not  of sufficient  magnitude to  warrant  a  Federal standard  or
program.  These efforts will build  upon the findings and results  of the acryloni-
trile pilot program  implemented  in  1984 and  1985.  State efforts  for these type  of
compounds will  improve  the  timeliness  and   efficiency  of  regulation.    Specific
projects to analyze  and  develop technical  and  institutional foundations for possible
future acid rain control strategies  will continue in  selected States.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency  is allocating  a  total of  $90,707,700  to this  program,
all in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1985,  States are  completing  development of  corrective  SIPs  where  they
have been  notified  by  EPA during  1984  of SIP  deficiencies  or  new nonattainment
problems.  States are also developing and implementing the regulations and programs
necessary for  attainment in  areas having  extensions  of  the  attainment  deadline  for
carbon monoxide and for  ozone to 1987.   Revisions  to SIPs accommodating requirements
of the court order and modified Agency stack  height regulations are being  initiated.

     States are  continuing  the  operation and  quality  assurance of the  NAMS  and
SLAMS networks.   Selected  States  are  initiating programs to develop technical  and
institutional foundations for possible future acid rain control  strategies including
improvement of  date  bases  and  evaluation  of  control  options.   State  and  local-
agencies are continuing to develop and improve their air toxics programs.

     State compliance programs are  continuing  to focus  efforts  on  assuring  ini-
tial and  continuous  compliance by  stationary sources through  improved  inspection
techniques and  continuous  monitoring  activities.   Emphasis  is   being  placed  on
violating sources of  VOCs  and  sources subject to  NESHAPs.   States  are negotiating
and implementing  efforts to  improve the Federal/State enforcement process described
in their  cooperative agreements  with  EPA  in  defining  "timely  and  appropriate"
response to  violating sources.


1985 Explanation  of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$4,427,000 results from the following actions:
                                       A-74

-------
     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$4,400,000)  This  reprograroning reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to fund the expanded needs required  by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change  resulted in  a  net  decrease  of
-$4,400,000 to the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     -Reprogramminfts.  (-$27,000)   Several  reprogrammings  were  made  to  this  ac-
tivity which were not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net  decrease  of  -$27,000  to  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.


1984 Accomplisnnents

   In 1984, the  Agency  obligated $87,450,700 for  this  program,  all  in the  Abate-
ment, Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.-   Air  management  efforts  included:
analyses of the SIPs for  areas missing the December 1982 NAAQSs  attainment  deadline;
development and  adoption  of additional  regulations and  programs  in areas  having
extensions to 1987 for meeting the carbon monoxide and ozone NAAQSs;  and  continued
development of overdue SIPs  for  lead.   Enforcement  activities focused  on  continued
efforts to  verify  and maintain   compliance,  principally through  inspections  and
enforcement actions, review and permitting of new  sources,  enforcement of  delegated
responsibility for  NSPSs  and  NESHAPs,  and  initial  compliance  determinations  for
the additional sources subject  to newly enacted SIP  requirements in  nonattainment
areas.   Monitoring programs  provided  for the  operation and quality  assurance  of
NAMS and  SLAMS  networks.   Other  activities  included  the initiation  of activities
to develop size-specific  participate data bases necessary for  regulatory  decisions
and the continued development of State and local  air toxics  programs.


TRAINING

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total   of $227,900, supported  by  4.0 total  workyears  for
tnis program, all  for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.   This request  is
a decrease of $9,200 for the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation  and  a decrease  of
$77,000 for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation  and  no  change  in
total  workyears.   The decrease  in Salaries  and  Expenses reflects  Government-wide
reductions to pay and administrative  services.  The decrease in Abatement, Control
and Compliance reflects the Agency's decision that  States are capable  of  providing
sufficient training in the basic  aspects of  air  pollution control.

     In 1986, EPA will manage  the self-study training program.  Technical support
will  be provided  to States and  Regions planning  workshops and training courses.   In
addition, existing courses will  be updated  using  fn-house skills.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of  $314,100  supported  by  4.0  total
workyears for this program.  Of  the allocation, $237,100 is for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and  $77,000  is  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.  Activities include management  of  the self-study  training 'program,
technical support to States  and  Regions planning  workshops and  training cou-rses,
and updating of existing  courses  using in-house  skills.


1985 Explanation  of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of  -$321,800 results  from  the following actions:
                                      A-75

-------
     -RCRA Reprograrnning.   (-$450,700)   This  reprogramming  reflects  a   shift   of
resources within the Agency to  fund  the expanded  needs  required by the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.    This  change  resulted  in  a   net
decrease of  -$700  to the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation and  a  net  decrease
of -$450,000 to the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$127,000)   Several  reprogrammirvgs  were nade  to this  ac-
tivity which were not reportahle under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted  in  a net  increase  of +$127,000  to  the Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$1,900)   This program  was  increased  by  +$1,900  reflecting  the
amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the  Agency  obligated a  total  of  $1,206,100  supported  by  4.0 total
workyears for  this  program.  Of the  amount obligated, $228,900  was for  the Sala-
ries and  Expenses  appropriation and  $977,200 was for the. Abatement,  Control   and
Compliance appropriation.   A total of  35  training courses were  conducted covering
15 subject areas for 667 students at six area training centers.  Graduate trainee-
ships or  fellowships were provided for  23  control agency employees.   In  addition,
nine new  and  revised  self-instructional  correspondence and classroom  courses were
prepared.
                                      A-76

-------




























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                                       AIR


                       Air Quality  Management  Implementation
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total  of $11,698,100 supported by 294.4 total workyears
for this program,  a  decrease  of  $258,500 hut  no  change in  total  workyears from
1985.  Of the  request,  $11,403,500  is  for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $294,600 is for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation, a decrease
of $258,500 for the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

Program Description

     This subactivity provides resources  for  the  operation an-d  maintenance of an
air quality  management program  in each  of  the  Agency's  ten  Regional  Offices.
Under the  Clean  Air  Act,  the  States  have  primary responsibility  for preparing
attainment  strategies  and  meeting  the  commitments  for the  development  and  imple-
mentation of multiple  regulatory programs essential  to  the  attainment  and main-
tenance of  National Ambient Air  Quality  Standards  (NAAQSs).  State strategies and
programs have to be  revised  when NAAQSs  are modified  or  new  standards are  estab-
lished.  The Regional  program,  in  partnership with  State  and local air pollution
control agencies,   has  a  major responsibility  for   implementing  the  requirements
of the  Clean  Air  Act  and  related  EPA  regulations governing  the  attainment and
maintenance of  the  NAAQSs.  The air  management program  provides  policy  guidance
and technical  consultation to States helping  them to prepare strategies  and  regula-
tory programs.   The  program  also   conducts  the necessary  regulatory  review and
coordination for approval  of  strategies  and   regulations  in  State Implementation
Plans  (SIPs) submitted to  EPA.  The program also plays the  principal role in nego-
tiating air quality program grants  to  State and local control  agencies and auditing
the progress and effectiveness  of  these  agencies  in developing, implementing, and
enforcing regulatory  programs.


AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $11,698,100 supported by 294.4 total workyears
for this program.  Of  this request, $ll,403,bOO is  for  the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $294,600 is  for the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance appropria-
tion.  This represents  a decrease of $258,500  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation, but  no  change for  the  Abatement,   Control  and  Compliance appropriation
and in  total workyears.  The  decrease  in Salaries  and  Expenses reflects  Govern-
ment-wide reductions  to pay and administrative services.

     The Regional  air  management program  will  continue efforts to  restore environ-
mental quality, particularly the protection  of public  health within the remaining
nonattainment areas.    Nonattainment efforts  will  focus  on the  most  severe ozone
areas which have  the  largest  sensitive  population.  Support of  State  efforts to
evaluate and develop  both  the stationary and  mobile source controls  (e.g., addi-
tional emission  regulations,   anti-tampenng/mi sfuel i ng  programs,  Stage  II vapor
recovery programs, and  specific  extraordinary measures)   necessary  for   reducing
further the  emissions  of  volatile  organic  compounds  (VOCs)  will  be  emphasized.
Support of  State  programs  for regulating vehicle  tampering  and  misfueling will
continue reflecting  the  importance  of these  programs  to the  attainment  of  stan-
dards.
                                      A-78

-------
     With the promulgation of a 'NAAQS  for  PMjQ'  m^jor  efforts  will  be conducted to
help States develop the  required SIPs.  Analyses  to assess State  progress toward
the attainment  of  standards  will be  conducted in several  of  the  more significant
extension areas.  The  SIPs will  continue  to  be  processed on  schedule  minimizing
major backlogs  including  those  implementing  revised Agency regulations  governing
stack heights.

     Resources will  be  provided to  ensure  effective and timely  implementation  of
the National  Air  Audit System  (NAAS),  particularly the  provision  of  feedback  to
the audited  agencies.   The  Regional  program  will  provide implementation  support
for delegated  programs  to  help resolve  problems  identified  during the  annual
audits.

     With the completion by the Agency of a national  strategy for air toxics during
1985, differing regulatory approaches  are  expected to evolve.  The  results of the
Agency's current pilot project  with acrylonitrile, which  explores  State  and local
agency responsibility  for assessing  and   regulating  high  risk  sources  where  a
national standard cannot  be  justified,  are expected to promote the  use  of similar
approaches for an additional  4-5 compounds  during 1986.  Regions will also continue
programs which facilitate the transfer of  information  on  air toxics  and  facilitate
responses to State assistance requests and  needs.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction   reflects  the Agency's  response to  the Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in the  following  categories:    travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual, and  consulting  services.    The  reduction
of -$24,800 in the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation represents decreases to all
of the  above  categories.   The  decrease  of -$2,300  in  the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation reflects reductions to consulting services.


1985 Program
                      I
     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $11,956,600 supported  by 294.4
total workyears for  this  program.  Of the  total,  $11,662,000  is for the  Salaries
and Expenses appropriation and  $294,600  is  for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

     The Regional  air  management program  is  focusing  on  the  development,  review,
and approval  of  State strategies,  regulations,  and actions  in areas that missed
the statutory 1982 deadline or that cannot demonstrate attainment by 1987.  Implemen-
tation of  the  Agency  policy  for remedying deficient  SIPs in  areas  violating the
NAAQSs is  continuing,  including appropriate  sanctions  under  the Clean Air Act  in
those cases where States  do  not correct deficient SIPs or progress  toward correc-
tive actions is inadequate.

     Resources are also  being  provided to  assist  States  to develop  and  implement
the necessary regulations and programs for  attainment of NAAQSs within areas having
extensions of the attainment deadline.  Particular attention is  being given to the
more populated  urban  areas requiring highly  complex stationary and  mobile source
controls.  Resources  are  being  provided to  help  a  sizeable number  of States  and
local air  pollution control  agencies  develop programs  to  prevent  vehicle tampering
and fuel switching and to inspect motor  vehicles in  areas  not  attaining  NAAQSs  for
ozone, carbon monoxide or  nitrogen  dioxide.   Also,  resources are  being provided to
help States prepare  to respond to the anticipated  NAAQS  for size-specific particu-
lates.

     During 1985,  EPA  will  complete a  national  air  strategy  for air toxics.   The
Agency is also undertaking a pilot  program (with acrylonitrile)  which will explore
the merits and problems with the  control of  certain  toxic air  pollutants  solely at
                                       A-79

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the State and local  level.  Major  resources  are also being provided to help State
and local agencies  develop  and improve  their  own air  toxics  programs reflecting
the increasing concern and evolving regulation  of air toxics by the Agency and the
States.


1985 Explanation of Changes  .from the Enacted

     The net increase of  +$136,000  results  from  the following actions:

     -Reprogramming.  (-$7,000)   A reprogramming  was made to  this  activity which
was not  reportableunder the Congressional reprogramming limitations.  This change
resulted in a net  decrease  of  -57,000  to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$143,000)   This program  was  increased  by  +$143,000 reflecting
the amount requested for  the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

    In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of $10,651,300 supported by 272.5 total
workyears for this  program.   Of  the  amount obligated,  $10,353,200  was  for the
Salaries and Expenses  appropriation  and 5298,100  was for the  Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1984, Regional   air  management  efforts  focused  on  completing  necessary
modification to  attainment  designations  for  specific areas and  issuing  the final
notifications to States  calling for  corrective  SIPs  in  those  areas  failing to
meet the December  1982 attainment  deadline.   Some notifications included  proposed
sanctions.  The  Regional   program  also  worked with  a number of  States to develop
lead SIPs  consistent with  provisions   required  by  the  settlement  of litigation
against the  Agency.   The  Regions  completed review  and  approval   or disapproval
actions where lead  SIPs were submitted.

     The program provided  extensive  guidance and  support to  States  which missed
the 1982  deadlines,  to  States  developing additional  regulatory  programs  in areas
having extensions  to 1987, and  to  States  defining requirements  and assessing possi-
ble problems  in  anticipation  of the  promulgation of  a size-specific particulate
NAAQS.  Rulemaking   actions  for  State   strategies  and  revisions  continued  to be
processed in an efficient manner to  prevent  recurrence of any  major  SIP  backlog.
Finally, the program continued  to  negotiate  air grants  and initiated the  NAAS for
review of State air quality planning,  new source  review,  compliance assurance, and
air monitoring programs.
                                      A-80

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                                       MR


                     Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $8,102,000  supported  by  158.1  total  work-
years for  1986,  a  decrease  of $218,700 and 0.9 total workyears  from  1985.   Of the
request, $6,713,500 is  for  the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation and  $1,388,500
is for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance  appropriation,  a  decrease  of  $218,700
for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

Program Description

     Ambient Air Quality Monitoring -- Activity in this  program includes:  (1)  EPA's
management overview of  State ambient  air  quality monitoring  networks,  associated
laboratory and field quality  assurance  activities, and  implementation  of  air  moni-
toring strategies described  in  EPA air  monitoring regulations; (2) the  coordina-
tion of Regional  and  State  field  investigation  activities  for  collecting  ambient
air quality  samples for  subsequent  sample analysis  and  related quality  co'ntrol;
(3) the  review of  source  emissions  data;  and  (4)  the  necessary  management  and
coordination to  ensure  tinely   storage  and   validation  of  the  data   collected.

     Air  Quality and  Emissions  Data  Management and Analysis   — Major   activities
include"! (T)  national  coordination, of  Regional  Office,  STate,  and local  ambient
monitoring, air quality modeling,  and  emission inventory  programs;  (2) issuance  of
new and revised  regulatory  requirements  and  related  technical  guidance;  (3) active
oversight and  auditing  of the National  Air Monitoring  System (NAMS)  network;  (4)
development and operation  of computer systems for storing,  retrieving,  and  analyzing
ambient air quality and emission  data  at  the  State and national  level;   and  (5)
preparation of  trends   analyses  and  related  air  quality  and  emission  progress
assessments for  program  evaluation  and  development and for  public  information
needs.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $3,770,100  supported by 92.5 total workyears
for this program.   Of  this  request,  $3,6b5,900  is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $114,200  is for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropria-
tion.  This represents  a  decrease  of  $69,800  for the Salaries and  Expenses appro-
priation, but  no  change  for  the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation
and total   workyears.  The decrease in  Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects Government-
wide reductions to pay  and administrative services.

     The EPA Pvpgional Offices will continue the overview and  management  of  State air
monitoring programs, including  review  of  grants  made  under  Section 105  of  the
Clean Air Act.  They will also   continue the  coordination of data  bases  involving
emissions data,  criteria  pollutant air quality  data,  and   related  precision  and
accuracy information necessary  for quantifying data quality.  Monitoring  networks
and data  supporting highly  controversial   or technically  difficult   construction
permits under the prevention of  significant deterioration  program will  be  reviewed.

     The data bases from the NAMS and  State and Local  Air  Monitoring System (SLAMS)
networks will   be validated  for  completeness  and  accuracy.  Most of the SLAMS  net-
works will  be  evaluated,  as required  by 40 CFR  58.   Approximately  150 new or re-
vised NAMS sites  will be visited, evaluated, and documented.   Data analyses,  includ-
ing air quality  and emission trends  information, will   be  developed  as  input  to
                                      A-83

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 various environmental  management  and  indicator efforts,  including  the  Regional
 Environmental Management  Reports.   In  the  area  of  quality  assurance, significant
 resources will be used for on-site systems and performance audits of State networks
 and monitors.   In  addition,  the Regional  labs will participate in the national air
 audit  program.   The start-up  of State  networks for measurement  of  size-specific
 particulates  (PMjo)  will  require review of the  NAMS  and  SLAMS networks, including
'site  visits to verify  compliance with monitoring regulations.

      Regional Offices  will   be  involved  in  the implementation  of  the  air toxics
 monitoring strategy.   This   involvement  will  include  coordinating   with  State and
 local  agencies  and  the  EPA  Office  of Research  and  Development   to set  up air
 toxics monitoring trend  stations throughout the  Nation, assisting in site selection
 for monitoring  stations,  and ensuring samples are  collected  and  sent to a central
 laboratory for analysis.


 1985  Rescission
      This  reduction  reflects the  Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
 which requires  decreases  in the   following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
 printing,  publication  and  audio-visual,  and  consulting services.  The reduction of
 -$3,500  in the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation  represents  decreases to all of
 the  above  categories.   The decrease of  -$1,000  in  the Abatement,  Control  and  Com-
 pliance  appropriation  reflects  reductions  to  consulting services.


 1985 Program

      In  1985,  the Agency  is  allocating a  total of  $3,839,900 supported  by  92.5
 total  workyears  for  this program.  Of  the  allocation, $3,725,700  is for the  Sala-
 ries and  Expenses appropriation  and $114,200   is  for the Abatement,  Control and
 Compliance appropriation.

      In  1985,  the Regions are  continuing  the  baseline  program  of  overview and
 management of State emissions and air  quality monitoring programs,  including  section
 105  grants review.   The validation and  coordination of  State and local  air  quality
 and  emission data, before  the data  are  submitted to  central EPA data  banks,  is  also
 continuing.  In  1985 special  emphasis  is  being  placed on reviewing  the data  bases
 upon which attainment  status determinations  will be  made for the revised National
 Ambient  Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  for PM^g.   The Regions and States are beginning
 their analysis  of the  total  monitoring network needed  to  support  development of
 SIPs for size-specific particulates and subsequent tracking of  progress and trends
 in meeting the  revised  NAAQS.   The  data  needed ,for  various environmental management
 efforts  are  being compiled  and displayed  for  use  in  determining  existing  condi-
 tions, trends,  and  progress  toward  environmental  objectives.   Quality assurance
 activities and  auditing of State  programs  are continuing.


 1985 Explanation  of  Changes  from  the  Enacted

      The net  increase  of +$44,900 results  from the  following  action:

      -Pay  Raise.   (+$44,900)    This program  was  increased by  +$44,900  reflecting
 the  amount requested for the  pay  raise  supplemental.


  1984 Accomplishments

      In  1984,  the Agency  obligated  $3,322,800  supported by  87.0  total workyears
 for  this  program.   Of  the amount  obligated, $3,218,500 was  for  the Salaries  and
 Expenses appropriation  and $104,300  was for the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance
 appropriation.   Contract funds  from  the Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance appro-
 priation were  used  for  Regional  data  analyses and  preparation  of the  Regional
 Environmental  Management Reports.
                                       A-84

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     The SLAMS  network  was  reviewed and  an  assessment  of  equipment  needs  made.
The Regional  Offices  continued  to  work  with  States,  through  the  annual  review
process, in  identifying  and  eliminating  air  monitoring  sites which  have  only
marginal utility  or  are  the  least  useful  in  supporting program  decisions.   The
Regions continued  their programs  of site  visits  to  evaluate  and  document  NAMS
stations, as  well  as  a  small  percentage  of SLAMS  stations.   Laboratories  were
evaluated for proper operating  and quality assurance procedures.   The  management,
coordination, and  validation  of  State  and  local  air  quality  and  emission  data
before submission to EPA's central data  banks  also continued.


AIR QUALITY AND EMISSIONS DATA MANAGEMENT AND  ANALYSIS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $4,331,900  supported by 65.6  total  workyears
for this program.   Of  the  request, $3,057,600  is for the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $1,274,300 is  for the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appro-
priation.  The  request  is  a  decrease   of  $148,900 for the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation but  no  change for  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropria-
tion as  well  as  a decrease of  0.9  total  workyears.  The decrease  in Salaries  and
Expenses reflects  Government-wide reductions  to  pay  and administrative  services.

     Existing air data  systems  will  be  maintained and  guidance  provided  to users.
Monitoring regulations,  modeling  guidance, emission factors, and computer  software
will be modified  to accommodate changes to NAAQSs.  The  program also will  produce
ambient and  emission -trends analyses  and  progress  assessments, provide  national
oversight of  Regional   Office  and  State  and  local  air  monitoring  programs,  and
manage the NAMS network.  NAMS management will  include maintaining a site information
base, reviewing  and  validating  data,  issuing  status  reports   on   regulatory  com-
pliance, and performing on-site evaluations of  a  sample of NAMS monitors.   A  fine
particulate monitoring  strategy will be developed.- The program  will  also  continue
development of the  air quality  segment  of the  Aerbmetn'c  Information  Retrieval
System (AIRS).   Statistical  analyses will  be provided  to  support  new or  revised
NAAQSs/

     In the area of air toxics,  the program will  continue  to implement the national
toxic monitoring strategy and will  continue to  develop  air  toxics emission  factors
and related information.  In addition, the  program will provide specialized scienti-
fic data and  guidance   to  States  developing  State  Implementation  Plans for  PM^Q.
The program will  also  develop  data and technical guidance  to support new and revised
NAAQSs, with emphasis on  rural  ozone and  fine  particulates.   Specialized  analyses
will also  be conducted to  assist  in resolving remaining post-1982  nonattainment
problems.

     In addition,  emission  factors  for criteria  pollutants  will   be updated  and
work will be initiated  on the development  of  fine particulate  emission  factors  and
guidance.  The  modeling  program  will   continue.    This   includes  promulgation  of
revisions to the  modeling guideline, guidance  and oversight of modeling  applica-
tions, impact  analyses  to  support  NSPSs,  NESHAPs,  and NAAQS development,   and
operation of the modeling  clearinghouse.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is allocating  a total  of $4,480,800  supported  by  66.5
total workyears for this  program.   Of  the allocation, $3,206,500 is  for  the Sala-
ries and Expenses  appropriation and $1,274,300 is  for  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.
                                       A-85

-------
     Improvements  to  the  monitoring  regulations  are  being  proposed,  and  during
1985 the  program   is  distributing  650  retrofitted  PM^g  monitors  to   State  and
local agencies for immediate use in those areas of highest priority  for  the imple-
mentation of  the   proposed  PM^Q  MAAQS.    Implementation  of  the  toxic pollutant
monitoring strategy is beginning.   Implementation  includes  national  assessment of
progress in  strategy  implementation,  preparation  of an  annual  status  report on
toxic pollutant trends, analyses of ambient  toxics data,  and development of audit
procedures for toxic  monitoring.

     The emissions program  is  concentrating on completing  PMiQ  emission factors,
conducting dioxin   emission  testing,   and  providing  preliminary  data   for  toxic
pollutants.  The modeling program is  being  maintained.  An updated modeling guide-
line is  being  proposed,  operation of  the  sulfur  dioxide Model  Clearinghouse  and
other photochemical and dispersion modeling  guidance activities are  continuing and
the multi-year  program to  evaluate  model   accuracy is  proceeding  on schedule.
Development of the air quality  subsystem  for the  proposed AIRS is continuing;  and
options for maintaining  a  national  emissions  data  base, possibly  including  com-
pliance information,  are  being  evaluated. • Scientific analyses in  support  of  new
and revised ambient and emission  standards  are continuing.   Major emphasis  in  all
program areas  is  being  focused  on developing  the  scientific data, monitoring  re-
gulations, emission factors, and other technical guidance necessary  for  successful
implementation of  the proposed  new PMjg NAAQS,  scheduled  for promulgation in 1986.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net increase of  +$11,300 results  from  the  following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$5,800)  This  reprogramming  reflects a  shift  of  re-
sources within the Agency to fund the expanded needs required by  the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change resulted in a net  decrease of
-$5,800 to the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogramming.   (-$15,200)  A  reprogramming was  made  to this activity which'
was not  reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.  This change
resulted in a  net  decrease  of -$15,200 to the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$32,300)  This  program   was  increased  by  +$32,300  reflecting
the -amount requested  for  the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In  1984,  the  Agency  obligated $3,130,100 supported by  32.2 total workyears
for this  program.  Of the  amount  obligated, $1,591,400  was  for the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $1,538,700  was for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.  Contract  funds supported procurement of  retrofitted  PHjo monitors,
the emission  factor   program,  air  quality  modeling,  guidance  for  revised NAAOS
implementation and trends reports and  analyses.

     In  1984,  emphasis  continued on  operating the existing air data systems, and
on providing  support to  35  State  and  local   agencies  using EPA developed  data
systems.  Other major  activities included  preparation  of special air  quality and
emission analyses, statistics,  and  reports;  national oversight of State and local
monitoring programs  including on-site  audits of 138  NAMS; and proposal  of  revised
nonitoring regulations to  reflect revisions to the  NAAOS for particulate  matter.
Implementation of  the  national   strategy   for air  toxics   monitoring   continued,
including preparation  of  guidance   on  network design   and  operation; assessing
progress  in toxic  monitoring by  Federal,  State, and  local agencies;  and developing
a  long-term  plan  for the implementation  of the toxic monitoring  strategy.  Also,
                                       A-86

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in 1984, the  program  published  one criteria pollutant  emission  factor supplement
and emission  factors  for  six toxic substances.  PM^o  emission  inventory  guidance
was also prepared.  Development  of AIRS  continued  with completion of  the  design
requirements and specifications  for the  air  quality  subsystem and the geographical/
common identifiers  subsystem.   Activity  to develop  the  facility  (emissions  and
compliance data)  subsystem was  suspended  to focus  all  available  resources  on the
air quality subsystem.
                                     A-87

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                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page
AIR
    ENFORCEMENT
       Stationary Source Enforcement	 A-89
       Mobile Source Enforcement	 A-94

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                                                                      A-89

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                                       AIR


                           Stationary Source Enforcement
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $14,661,200  supported  by  312.5 total  workyears
for 1986, a decrease of $107,200 and an increase  of  3.0 total  workyears from 1985.
Of the request $11,623,200 will  be  for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and
$3,038,000 will  be  for the  Abatement,  Control   and   Compliance  appropriation  a
decrease of $107,200  in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation and  no  change in
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

Program Description

     The stationary source enforcement program provides support to and coordination
with State and local  air pollution  control  agencies and direct Federal enforcement
as required to ensure that stationary  sources  achieve  and  maintain compliance with
the requirements  of  the Clean  Air  Act,  as amended  in  1977.   The  EPA headquarters
component provides national policy and guidance,  while the Regional  Office program
implements the enforcement effort and assists the States.

     Stationary Source Enforcement— This program focuses  primarily on enforcement
of the  requirements  established in  State Implementation  Plans  (SIPs)  for meeting
National Ambient  Air Quality  Standards  (NAAQSs).   The  enforcement  program  also
focuses on new source  programs  such  as  New  Source Performance  Standards (NSPSs)
and National  Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs).

     As a result of industry efforts in controlling emissions and the effectiveness
of State, local,  and Federal  control programs, approximately 90 percent of the more
than 18,000 major  stationary  sources  have achieved  compliance  with  all  applicable
emission limitations.  Although the current rate of compliance represents a signifi-
cant achievement,  efforts  must  continue  to  ensure  that   remaining  sources  come
into compliance with  present  standards, that  compliance  is obtained  with any  new
or revised  standards,   and  that  compliance,   once  achieved,  is  maintained.   EPA
will continue to  provide State  and  local  agencies with  technical  support  in their
efforts to realize these goals and, where appropriate, initiate its own enforcement
actions.


STATIONARY SOURCE ENFORCEMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $14,661,200  supported  by  312.5 total  workyears
for this program, of which $11,623,200 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and  $3,038,000 will be  for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropria-
tion.  This represents  a decrease  of $107,200 in the  Salaries  and Expenses appro-
priation, no   change  in the  Abatement, Control  and Compliance  appropriation,  and
an increase of 3.0 total workyears.   The decrease in Salaries and Expenses reflects
Government-wide reductions  to  pay  and  administrative  services.   The  increase in
total workyears  reflects   accelerated  implementation  of  the  Agency's  Continuous
Compliance Strategy,  specifically  in  the  following areas:  development  of  guidance
on the major  causes  of malfunctions  for  various types  of control  equipment  and
process operations to enable control agencies to evaluate and respond to allegations
of malfunctions by sources;  study  and  design of  a  computer-based  malfunction data
system; and development of a model recordkeeping  system for major  types  of control
devices and record analysis procedures to  facilitate review of the data associated
with the system.
                                        A-90

-------
     In 1986,  the  stationary  source  compliance program  will   carry  forward  the
basic thrust of  the  program now  being  implemented  in 1985.  The program,  working
in close cooperation  with  State and  local  agencies,  will  continue to ensure  that
noncomplying significant  sources  in  areas  not  meeting  NAAQSs  are  brought  into
compliance, consistent with the Clean Air Act.   Enforcement  actions  will  be brought
against NSPS, NESHAPs,  and prevention of  significant  deterioration  (PSD)  violators
and against  Class A  sources in nonattainment  areas  (i.e.,  sources- with  actual  or
potential uncontrolled emissions of at least 100 tons/year),  thus fully  implementing
the Agency's Post-1982 Enforcement Policy.

     Implementation  of  the  asbestos  demolition and  renovation  strategy  will  con-
tinue, as will  initiatives  to  enforce other NESHAPs.  Use  of Continuous  Emissions
Monitoring (CEM) data  will  be expanded  in  inspection  targeting and  enforcement.
If a  revised size-specific  particulate  matter  NAAQS has  been promulgated,  SIPs
will be  reviewed for enforceability and enforcement  aspects   of  the  transition
period addressed.  The  fundamental   activities  such  as  permitting  and  compliance
functions for nondelegated programs, maintenance of data systems, participation  in
section 105  grant  management  and  negotiation  of  State/EPA Agreements,   review  of
State programs, and  response to formal  inquiries  will  also  be maintained.

     During  1986, the Regional  compliance program will  continue to provide assis-
tance in  selected  Federal  judicial   referrals,  consent  decrees,  and  section  120
actions.  There  are  plans to  conduct  an estimated  1,725  inspections,   and  issue
approximately 92 administrative  orders  during  1986.   The  Regional  Offices  will
also provide training and  workshops  for State  inspectors and support  the develop-
ment of local compliance strategies.

     In 1986, EPA headquarters will  participate  in development  of policy  guidance,
planning and  budgeting, review  of   selected  Regional activities and  of  Regional
program performance;   assure  the  enforceabi1ity  of  proposed  Agency   regulations
under NSPS,  NESHAPs,  and  new source/PSD programs;   respond  to formal  inquiries;
manage the Compliance Date  System;  develop workshops, manuals,  and pilot studies;
and manage a program  to provide  technical analysis and  case support   for Regional
compliance activities.


1985 Rescission

     The reduction  reflects  the  Agency's response  to  the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following   categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
of -$29,600  in the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation  represents decreases to all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $14,768,400  supported  by  309.5
total workyears  for  this program,  of  which $11,730,400 is  for the   Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and $3,038,000 is  for the Abatement,  Control and  Compliance
appropriation.

     The major  focus  of the stationary  source  compliance   program in 1985  is  to
ensure that  noncomplying significant  sources are  brought into compliance.  Efforts
to improve working  relationships  with  State  and local  air  pollution  agencies  and
to improve their technical capabilities  is continuing through such  program-building
activities as technical  workshops  and  manuals,  as  well  as  direct  case  assistance
where requested.   Federal   enforcement   action  is  focusing  heavily  on  violating
sources in nonattainment areas,  with particular emphasis on  volatile  organic com-
pound (VOC)  sources.   EPA  is  working  closely with  States  in  this effort.   This
activity involves initial  implementation of Agency  guidance on timely  and appro-
priate enforcement actions.    Substantial  efforts  are  continuing  to  improve  the
                                        A-91

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inventory of  regulated  VOC  sources  and information  on source  compliance  status.
Efforts are also being directed at  resolution  of  NSPS and  NESHAPs violators,  where
the standards  have  not  been  delegated or  where  State  assistance is  required.
Major initiatives in  1985  include  implementation  of  the Agency's NESHAPs enforce-
ment strategy  for  asbestos demolition  and  renovation  sources  and  enforcement  of
continuous emissions monitoring requirements  for  Subpart D and  Da  NSPS standards.

     During 1985, the  Regional  compliance  program is  also  continuing  to  provide
assistance in  selected  Federal judicial  referrals,  consent  decrees,  and  section
120 actions.   Also,  EPA   is  to  issue  administrative  orders,   as  necessary,  in
environmentally significant cases where  States cannot or will  not take appropriate
enforcement action.   There  are plans  to conduct  an  estimated  1,685  inspections,
and issue approximately 88 administrative orders during 1985.

     Headquarters efforts   in  1985  include  continuation of  continuous  compliance
pilot projects.   Two   new  projects  relating  to  inspection  targeting  are  being
initiated.  Work to  promote  utilization of  CEM  equipment,  including  support  for
Regional and  State  efforts directed at enforcing CEM  requirements for NSPS  sources
is a major  activity in  1985.   Guidance relating to timely  and  appropriate enforce-
ment actions  developed  in  1984  is  being  implemented  and,  as   necessary,  revised
during 1985.

     Major headquarters program accomplishments in  1985  include:   review of proposed
Agency regulations under NSPS, NESHAPs,  and  new source/PSD programs; management  of
the Compliance Data System;  support  of State compliance data  programs development;
provision of  technical  analysis  and  case  support  for Regional  Office compliance
activities, development of  three new technical  workshops to enhance the capabilities
of State and  local  programs;  and  development  of three  new compliance  manuals  for
State and local programs.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase  of +$152,200 results  from the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$5,200)   This  reprogramming reflects  a shift of  re-
sources within the  Agency  to  fund  the expanded needs  required  by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.  This  change  resulted  in a  net  decrease  of
-$5,200 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogramming.  (+$7,000)  A  reprogramming  was  made  to  this  activity  which
was not reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This  change
resulted in a  net  increase of -$7,000 to the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$150,400)  This program  was increased  by  +$150,400 reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the Agency  obligated  $15,178,500 supported by 284.1  total  workyears
for this program, of which $10,088,700 was  for the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and $5,089,800 was  for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation.
Extramural resources were  used for  enforcement case development  activities,  com-
pliance monitoring,  Regional  data  management,  development  of  technical  workshops
and manuals to  enhance  State and  local  programs  capabilities,  and  limited  direct
case assistance to States.

     A major  headquarters   accomplishment in  1984  was  the  completion of  a  compre-
hensive air  compliance  strategy  for  stationary  sources  of  air  pollution.   This
strategy brings together in  one document all of the  major thrusts  of the program.
                                       A-92

-------
Other important strategy efforts  included  completion of the  continuous  compliance
and asbestos demolition  strategies.   The program  also  implemented guidelines  for
conducting qualitative audits  of  State compliance programs.  Guidance  relating  to
timely and appropriate enforcement actions  was also developed in 1984.

     Also during  1984,  the  program  continued  work  toward  final  promulgation  of
second-period nonferrous smelter order regulations establishing  a regulatory frame-
work for  compliance  extensions through January  1, 1988.   Program  accomplishments
during 1984 also  included  work toward  the development  of  three  technical  workshops
to enhance the  capabilities  of State  and  local programs,  initiation of  three  con-
tinuous compliance pilot programs, and  completion of four  new  compliance  manuals.
During 1984, EPA issued 101 administrative  orders, and conducted 2,474  inspections.
                                       A-93

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                                        AIR


                             Mobile Source Enforcement


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $6,438,300 supported by  101.1  total  workyears
for 1986, a decrease  of $130,400 and no  change in total workyears  from  1985.   Of
the request,  $4,616,800  will  be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$1,821,500 will  be for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation,  a
decrease of $140,400 and an increase of $10,000, respectively.

Program Description

     The mobile source  enforcement  program is directed primarily at  ensuring com-
pliance with the motor vehicle emission  standards  and  fuel  regulations  required by
the Clean Air Act.  The activities carried out as part of this program are designed
to ensure that  new vehicles are  capable of meeting  emission  standards  throughout
their useful lives, that vehicle  emission  control  systems are not  removed  or ren-
dered inoperative,  and  that harmful  additives  are not  present  in  gasoline.   The
program also includes the  issuance  of California  and  statutory  emissions waivers.


MOBILE SOURCE ENFORCEMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $6,438,300 supported by  101.1  total  workyears
for this program,   of  which  $4,616,800  will  be for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $1,821,500 will be for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropria-
tion.  This represents  a decrease of $140,400 and  an  increase  of $10,000,  respec-
tively, and no  change in total  workyears.   The decrease in  Salaries  and Expenses
reflects Government-wide reductions to  pay  and  administrative  services.   The  in-
crease in Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  reflects slightly higher  support  for
the recall program.

     The recall  program  will  involve  investigation  of  69  light-duty  vehicle
exhaust emissions  classes,  together with  related  diagnostic  evaluation  and remedy
development work.   The light-duty evaporative emissions recall program will  involve
investigation of three vehicle classes.  Noncompliance penalties for heavy-duty en-
gines will be implemented.   California emissions waiver requests will be processed,
as will any application for retroactive  waivers  of the Federal  carbon monoxide and
nitrogen oxides standards.

     The regulatory  revision  of  the  imports  program (scheduled  for  promulgation
in late  1985)  will  be implemented.   The Selective  Enforcement  Audit (SEA)  program
will conduct  17  audits  of  manufacturer  facilities to  ensure that  new  production
vehicles meet  emissions requirements.   The  fuels  program  will  consist of  9,400
inspections, in addition  to  13,500  observations   of  vehicle fueling  activities.
The lead phasedown  regulations will  be enforced through the monitoring of refiners'
reports; 32  resultant  notices   of  violation  are  anticipated.   Rulemakings  will
address categories  of fuel  additives  (alcohols,  consumer  additives)  for  which  a
formal regulatory  structure has  not been  developed.  Approximately  1,200 consumer
inquiries regarding emissions warranty issues will  be answered.  The anti-tampering
and anti-fuel  switching enforcement  program will  include  325  investigations  and
an estimated 42U notices of violation.

     Surveys of the  incidence  of tampering and fuel  switching will  be  carried out
at 20  sites.   EPA will  continue to assist  with  the development  of  State and local
initiatives aimed  at  preventing tampering  and  fuel  switching.   Implementation of
ten new State programs, for a cumulative total of 32, is anticipated.
                                         A-95

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1985 Rescission

     The reduction  reflects  the  Agency's  response  to the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the   following  categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.  The  reduction
of -$32,700 in the  Salaries and  Expenses appropriation represents decreases to all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,   the  Agency is  allocating a total  of  $6,568,700 supported  by  101.1
total workyears  for this  program,  of  which  $4,757,200  is   for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $1,811,500 is  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

     The recall  program  will  continue  surveillance  and  confirmatory  testing,
follow-up and  investigation of  suspect  engine classes, and,  if warranted, issuance
of recall orders.   New activities  underway in  the recall program  include  a  pilot
evaporative emissions  recall   investigation  program.   Statutory  and  California
waivers will be  issued  as  required.  The SEA program  will continue to ensure that
new production vehicles  comply with  emission  requirements.    Regulatory  revisions
for the SEA program will be proposed.  Inquiries  and applications for the importation
of noncertified  vehicles  will   continue,  and   regulations   revising  the  imports
program will be promulgated.

     Also underway  is  the  development  and  implementation of  a  strategy  aimed  at
attaining increased State participation to  reduce  automobile emissions that result
from tampering and  fuel  switching.  This  will  result  in the  establishment of  eight
new anti-tampering  and  fuel   switching  programs by  States  and  localities.   Other
activities include: conducting fuels inspections  for  compliance  with lead, nozzle,
and label regulations; administering tampering and fuel switching cases; evaluating
fuel and fuel   additive  waiver requests; and  collecting data on fuel  switching  to
assess misfuel.ing  rates.  The highlight  of  the  fuels  program' is  a  rulemaking  aimed
at expediting  the lead phasedown schedule.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$92,800 results from the following  actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$141,900)  Several  reprogrammings were made to this activ-
ity which were  not reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes   resulted  in a net  decrease of -$131,900 to the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and a net  decrease  of -$10,000  to the Abatement, Control and Compli-
ance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$49,100)   This  program was increased by +$49,100  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,   the  Agency obligated $5,894,500  supported  by 98.8  total  workyears
for this program, of which $4,364,200 was  for the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and $1,530,300 was  for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation.

     Recall investigations  were  conducted for  32  mid-mileage  vehicle  classes,  and
16 SEAs were performed.  Two emissions waivers  were issued and nine were reviewed.
About 22,000  import  inquiries  were  answered  and  6,000 applications  processed.
Revised import regulations  were  prepared.   Twenty-seven notices  of  violation were
issued under  the  lead phasedown  program,  and  585 notices  of violation  under  the
anti-tampering and fuel switching program.  Eight States and  localities implemented
anti-tampering and  fuel switching programs.
                                        A-96

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page
                         i*

WATER QUALITY                                                               WQ-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Water Quality Research	  WQ-9
       Municipal  Wastewater	  WQ-22
       Industrial  Vlastewater	WQ-31
       Comprehensive Estuarine Management	  WQ-39
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Water Quality and Grants Program Management	  WQ-42
          Water Quality Management	  WQ-44
          Great Lakes Program	  WQ-46
          Chesapeake Bay Program	  WQ-48
       Effluent Standards & Guidelines	  WQ-51
       Grants Assi stance Programs	  WQ-56
          Clean Lakes Program	  WQ-57
          Control  Agency Resource  Supplementation (Section  106)	  WQ-58
          Training  Grants (Section 104)	  WQ-59
       Water Quality Strategies Implementation	  WQ-61
          Dredge  &  Fill	  WQ-64
          Ocean Disposal  Permits	  WQ-65
          Environmental Emergency  Response & Prevention	  WQ-67
          Standards & Regul ati ons	  WQ-69
       Water Quality Monitoring &  Analysis	  WQ-72
          Comprehensive Estuarine  Management	  WQ-74
          Water Quality Monitoring & Analysis	  WQ-76
       Municipal  Source Control	  WO-80
          Municipal  Waste Treatment Facility Construction	WQ-82
          Waste Treatment Operations & Maintenance	  WQ-85
    ENFORCEMENT
       Water Qual i ty Enforcement	  WQ-88
       Water Quality Permit Issuance	  WQ-92
          Perni t  Issuance	  WQ-93
                                     WQ-1

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                                    WATER  QUALITY


 OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      The Agency derives  its  water quality objectives from two statutes:  the  Clean
 Water Act and  the  Marine  Protection, Research  and  Sanctuaries  Act.   Both  laws
 direct the   Agency  to  take  measures  to  protect  the Nation's  waters  in  order to
 safeguard public health, recreational  use,  and  aquatic  life.

      The Clean   Water  Act  provides a  comprehensive structure  for  water pollution
 control.  The Act relies on a well-defined partnership between EPA and the  States,
 and  EPA continues  to  encourage  the  States  to take on  primary  responsibility  for
 implementing the Act.   The  Act provides for monitoring  water  quality,  water  quality
 management  planning to  design  needed  control  measures, developing  water  quality
 standards,  and   establishing technology-based  and  water  quality-based  effluent
 limits for  point-source dischargers.   EPA  and the  States  implement  a permit  and
 enforcement  program for  municipal  and  industrial  point source  dischargers.   EPA
 and  the Corps of Engineers  regulate  discharges of  dredged  and fill  materials  into
 waters of the  U.S.   In  addition, the  Act  provides  for  grants to  communities  for
 construction of wastewater  treatment  facilities.

      Although we have made  great strides  in  controlling conventional pollutants,
 the  problem  of  toxic contamination  from industrial,  municipal, and nonpoint  sources
 remains a challenge.  Implementation  of strategies  for identifying and controlling
 toxic pollutants in surface waters under  the  Clean Water Act is one  of EPA's  high-
 est  priorities  for  the remainder  of the decade.

      The Marine Protection,  Research  and Sanctuaries  Act authorizes  the Agency to
 develop criteria for the ocean disposal of  materials based on  a number  of statutory
 factors including environmental  considerations and  the  need  for  disposal  into  the
 oceans.  The Agency is  also authorized to  designate sites  for those materials  and
 issue permits for  all  nondredged materials.    Although  the  Corps of Engineers is
 responsible  for  issuing .permits  for  dredged, material,  EPA must   review  those
 applications for consistency with Agency-issued  environmental  criteria.    Another
 aspect of ocean disposal  is  the incinerat>on-at-sea  program,  under which the Agency
 is charged with issuing  permits and designating sites.

      Relevant to all  these  areas  are  the  activities  of  the research and development
 program, which  provides  timely  analysis,  information,  and analytical techniques to
 support the  regulatory program.

      The 1986 Water Quality  request  focuses  on  several  major objectives  to meet
•the  requirements of the  Act  in the  1980s:

 Implement the Pretreatment  Program

      The pretreatment  program is  directed at controlling  toxic discharges into com-
 munity wastewater treatment  plants.   Its major thrust  in 1985 and  1986  is  to  get
 programs developed  by  publicly  owned  treatment  works (POTW)  approved and to imple-
 ment  recommendations of the Pretreatment Implementation  Task  Force.  During  1986,
 priority will  be given to POTW  program approval and technical assistance to S,tates
 and  POTWs in  developing  approvable   programs  and   implementing  the  program  once
 approved.  Pretreatment  enforcement  support  in  1986   will  continue  to  emphasize
 actions against POTWs that  did not  submit  required pretreatment  programs   or that
 are  not  adequately  implementing   approved  programs.   EPA  will  take  enforcement
 actions against noncomplying industrial  users  where EPA  is  the control authority.
                                       WQ-3

-------
Issue NPDES Permits

     The major focus  for the permits  under  National  Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination
System (NPDES) in  1986 will continue to be  issuance  of major  permits,  particularly
those controlling toxics and requiring  implementation of approved  pretreatment  pro-
grams and State-issued permits.   Priority  attention  will  be  given  to  Best  Available
Technology (BAT)  permits based  on effluent  guidelines  promulgated  in  1985  and  to
water quality-based permits.   Technical assistance through both workshops and  hands-
on assistance will be provided  to States  for  the application of tecnnol ogy-based
guidelines for the water quality-based  Best  Professional  Judgment  permits.

     EPA will  work  with  States  in  adopting  toxic  criteria  in   water quality
standards which  can  be  translated into  permit  limits.  The  application  of these
standards into permits  will  be  further  advanced through  the delivery  of  basic
wasteload allocation   training  seminars  and  hands-on  assistance.    Biomonitoring
approaches will  be developed, tested, and applied through municipal  and industrial
permit modifications.

Improve Compliance with  NPDES Permits

     During 1986,  compliance  with  NPDES permit limitations will  continue to be  a
priority activity, particularly  for municipalities.   The National  Municipal Policy,
first issued  in  1984, will  focus on  establishing enforceable  compliance  schedules
for municipalities that  are not  in compliance with permit conditions.   The goal  is
to assure that Federally funded  treatment  facilities are constructed  as  necessary
and properly  operated and  maintained,  and that  unfunded municipal  dischargers  take
necessary steps to meet  permit limits.

     We will   also  continue to maintain a  strong  enforcement  presence  with  indus-
trial noncompliers  to  assure a  continued  high  rate  of  industrial   compliance.

Assess and Address Emerging Problems

     Recent data  indicates that   some stream  segments will  have toxic problems  even
after the application of BAT limits.   EPA  will  address this  problem by  working  with
States to identify specific  waterbodies where .toxic  pollutants  are  known or  sus-
pected to be  impairing  uses  of  the water.  The Agency  will expand the development
of criteria for  toxic pollutants in  freshwater, marine, and estuarine environments
and in sediments.  The monitoring program will provide  States  with methods  for and
assistance in toxics  monitoring, wasteload  allocation,  and  biomonitoring  necessary
to take  control  actions.   In  1986,  EPA  will  conduct  a   National  assessment  to
identify and  characterize problems from bioaccumulative  pollutants,  by  reanalyzing
the dioxin study  samples and using other data.

     Initial   studies  have  indicated  that  several  industries not  covered  under  the
Natural Resources  Defense  Council  Consent Decree  are more  significant  in terms  of
toxic loadings than  several  industries requiring effluent  guidelines  as a  result
of the Decree.   As a consequence, EPA will  begin investigating  a small  nunber  of
these industries   that are  potentially significant  sources  of  toxic  pollutants.

     EPA will propose technical   regulations for  sewage sludge disposal  and  regu-
lations governing  sludge  management  practices.   In  1986,   EPA  and   States  will
emphasize inspections  at  larger  POTWs  required  to  have  pretreatment  programs.

Continue Protection of Wetlands
     The major  effort  in 1986  in  the dredge and  fill  program  program will  be  to
develop and  apply  technical  guidance and  regulations  to ensure  effective protec-
tion of the wetlands and  other  aquatic  systems  of  the  United  States and to encour-
age States to assume Section 404 permitting  authority  from the  Federal  government.
                                        WQ-4

-------
     Headquarters will  develop  guidance  and revise  regulations  and  procedures  to
identify and address the  most  significant  environmental  problems  in  wetlands  and
other aquatic systems.  The  Regions  will review and  comment  on public  notices  of
permit applications; elevate  permits,  when  necessary, to higher levels  of  manage-
ment; and  establish jurisdicational   boundaries;  assist in'the  identification  of
critical wetlands; and strengthen 404 compliance and  enforcement  efforts.

     In addition, Headquarters  will   work  with the  Regions  to develop  innovative
techniques (e.g., a joint  permitting program with the  States  and  Federal  govern-
ment) to  encourage  State  assumption  of  the program.  Regions  will  manage  State
program development grants, review submissions, and coordinate  with  other agencies.

Focus on Basins of Major Importance

     We will continue in 1986 to focus on  basins  of  major  importance  to  the public
and the Congress, by continuing the Federal  commitment to the  Chesapeake  Bay clean-
up, the  Great  Lakes program,  and  the Comprehensive  Estuarine Management  program
begun in 1985.   The Agency will  continue  to support actions  to  address the  concerns
identified in the Chesapeake Bay Study, through cost-sharing grants to the  States,
primarily for  implementation  of  nonpoint  source  control  practices  on  critical
sub-basins.

     In 1986, the  Agency  will  continue  work begun  in  1985 to  support  State  and
local sampling,  monitoring,  and  assessment for  Long  Island  Sound,  Narragansett
Bay, Buzzards Bay,  and Puget  Sound.   The objective of these  studies  is to  develop,
in conjunction  with Federal,  State, and local  authorities,  a  comprehensive  environ-
mental master plan to address environmental  problems  for each  estuary.

     EPA's Great  Lakes  National  Program Office  will  continue  to  meet  the  U.S.
obligations under the international  agreement  with Canada  to support water  pollu-
tion control in  the Great  Lakes, to  include continued  support from the  Grosse  lie
lab and other research laboratories.   The focus will   be on the use of fish,  water,
and air  sampling  to determine water  quality  improvement  and to identify  emerging
problems.

Manage Construction Grants

     EPA will continue to  provide  responsible   fiscal  stewardship  of Federal  con-
struction grant  funds and to  ensure  that this   essentially fully delegated  program
continues to achieve  environmental  and  statutory  objectives.   EPA  will   provide
National oversight  to  focus   funds  on priority  projects  with the  greatest  water
quality and public health  impact; minimize expenditures for facility  construction,
operation, and   maintenance;  select  appropriate technologies; ensure plants  meet
design and performance  requirements;  initiate, construct,  and  close out  projects
on time;  and develop  regulations and  guidance  to   implement  needed legislative
changes affecting  the  Federal  role   in  financing  municipal  wastewater  treatment
works.  Within  these activities, increased attention   will be placed on strengthen-
ing technical program  assistance  and  improving  Federal  and  State   oversight  and
management as identified by internal  program reviews.

Improve Assistance to States

   . EPA will increase the level for  Section 106  grants in 1986.  States will  use
grants to  increase  emphasis   on  enforcement  and permitting;  support  the  Agency's
National Municipal  Policy; expand pretreatment  programs, one of the Agency's prime
means for controlling toxic wastes; develop and  selectively implement ground-water
management programs; and target  funds  to  address  nonpoint  source pollution  in  se-
lected critical  water body segments.   Together  with  funds  available under  Sections
205(g) and 205(j),  States  will be able to carry  out  their priority water programs.
                                        WQ-5

-------
Address Nonpolnt Source Problems

     In recognition of the significance of  nonpoint  source (NPS)  pollution  nation-
wide, EPA will  issue  an  implementation  strategy to ensure a coordinatPd  effort  on
the part  of  various  Federal  agencies and  National  guidance  consistent  with  the
nonpoint source policy adopted in  1985;  work closely  with other  Federal  agencies
to carry out NPS  strategies  within  their  existing  resources;  and  focus  implementa-
tion efforts on priority waters where NPS  controls  are essential  for the attainment
of water quality goals and beneficial uses.

Implement a Marine Protection Program

     In 1986 guidance on balancing the environmental  effects  of ocean- versus lan'd-
based disposal  options will  be  developed  so appropriate disposal   decisions  can  be
made.  Thp Agency  will continue to review, process,  and  issue permits  for  ocean
disposal.  EPA will  begin  additional  site work  on dredged material  disposal  sites
not covered  under the  National  Wildlife  Federation  Consent  Decree.  The  Agency
will conduct  comprehensive  monitoring  of  thp   two  deep  water  dumping  sites  to
ensure there is no unreasonable degradation  of the marine environment.

     An integrated  program approach  to  incineration-at-sea  will  be  established,
including comprehensive incineration  site monitoring  to assure  adequate baseline
information for designation and adequate site management.

Maintain Environmental Emergency Response  Capability

     The environmental  emergency  response  program  will  continue  to maintain  'an
around-the-clock capability to respond to  major  releases of oil and other  petroleum
products.  Removal actions will be  directed  by  Regional personnel  at serious inci-
dents where the responsible party is unidentifiable,  refuses  to clean, or is incap-
able doing so  or  where local  authorities  lack  appropriate expertise or resources.
The cleanup  monitoring program  will continue  to  provide  incentive for  adequate
removal by responsible parties and a mechanism for drawing State and local agencies
into directing  removals.   The Agency will focus  in  1986 on encouraging  State  and
local governments to assume a greater share  of  responsibility  for implementing  the
program.

Provide Timely and Effective Research

     The research  program  will  continue  to  make  a  significant  contribution in a
wide variety of  areas.  Areas of  special emphasis  in  1986 will  include develop-
ment of  methods  for  detecting  toxics   in   receiving   waters,  identifying  their
sources, and  methods  for  evaluating their  effect   when  issuing  NPDFS permits.
Other areas  where  major contributions  are  expected  include technical  support  for
the development  of  sludge regulations,  improved methods  of  sludge disposal,  vali-
dation of  techniques  for  impact  assessment  of   ocean  disposal  of wastes,  and  de-
velopment of  monitoring technologies  to  evaluate the  long-term  effects  of  such
di sposal .
                                        WQ-6

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY
                            Actual
                             1984
 Budget
Estimate
  1985
Current
Estimate
  1985
Estimate
  1986
 Increase ( + )
 Decrease (-)
1986 vs.  1985
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
Incremental  Outputs

Ocean Dumping Permits	    55

Construction Grants
Awards	   726

Active Construction
Grants Projects	  6027

Step 3 and Step 2+3
Project Completions	   901

Permits Issued by EPA:
    Municipal
     Major	   298
     Minor	   330
    Non-Municipal
     Major	   471
     Minor	   957
     General	    16
    Adjudicatory Hearings
     Settled	    36

Enforcement Actions:
    Inspections	 2,400
    Notices of Violation..    94
    Administrative
     Orders	 1,644
    Civil  Litigation	    90
    Criminal Litigation...     4

Clean Lakes Projects
Awarded	    27


Cumulative Outputs

Signed 205(g) agreements..    50

Effluent Guidelines	    24

Propose Regulations for
Sludge Reuse/Disposal
Options	   —

NPDES State Program
Approvals	    38

Local Pretreatment
Program Approvals	   390
   25


  650


 4711


 1060



  300


  450

   60

  114
2,100
  110

  703
  144
   25




   51

   29
   25


  650


 4952


  773
  256
  320

  172
  760
   14

  114
2,100
  110

  579
  124
    2
   11




   51

   28
    25


   683


  3972


   942
   216
   250

   187
   500
    15

   104
 2,100
   110

   491
   159
     7
   40
   39


  660
    51

    29



     5


    41


   730
    +33


   -980


   + 169
    -40
    -70

    + 15
   -260
     + 1

    -10
      0
      0
    +35
     + 5
              -11
     +1



     + 5


     +2


    + 70
                                        WQ-7

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY*

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page
WATER QUALITY
    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Water Quality Research	  WQ-9
       Municipal  Wastewater	  WQ-22
       Industrial  Wastewater	  WQ-31
       Comprehensive Estuarine Management	  WQ-39
                                     WQ-8

-------









































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                                   WATER QUALITY


                               Water Quality Research

                           Principal Outputs by Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS


Objective 1:   Provide Quality Assurance to Support  Water Quality  Programs

0  Annual  status  report  of  the  quality  control   sample   program   (Monitoring)

Objective 2:  Develop Data to Support Water Quality  Standards  and  Permits

0  Users quide to the conduct and interpretation  of  complex effluent toxicity tests
   at estuarine sites (Env. Processes)
°  Report on  pilot  study with state(s)  to demonstrate use of the  ecoregi on  system
   in water quality management (Env. Processes)
0  Rapid bioassay indicator of subchronic stress  (Monitoring)
°  Status report for Repository of Toxic Materials  (Monitoring)
0  Status report for Repository of Hazardous Materials  (Monitoring)

Objective 3:  Develop  Scientific Data to Support an   Environmentally   Sound  Ocean
Disposal Program

0  Final report  on  hazard  assessment methods for evaluating  ocean dumping impacts
   (Env. Processes)
0  Final report  on  impact  assessment of ocean outfall discharges  (Env. Processes)

Objective 4: Implement Great Lakes Study

0  Report on  methodology/protocol  for  field  exposure/effects  assessment  of Great
   Lakes areas of concern (Env. Processes)
°  Documentation of  Great Lakes models (Env.  Processes)

Objecti ve 5:	Develop and Standardize Monitoring  and Measurement Methods to Sup-
port Hater Quality Programs

0  Journal  publication on extraction methods for  inorganic pollutants  from biologi-
   cal  ti ssue (Monitori ng)


1985 PLANNED OUPUTS
Objective 1:   Provide Quality  Assurance  to  Support Water  Quality Programs

°  Report on  the precision  of  acute toxicity  tests  on  marine  fish (Monitoring)
°  Manual for identification of  marine invertebrates (Monitoring)

Objective 2:   Develop Data  to  Support  Water  Quality Standards and Permits

0  Health section of technical   support  document   for  water  quality-based  toxics
   control  (Health)
0  Reports  for health issues  relative to  Clean Water Act  Section  301(g) variance
   applications (Sci. Assessment)
0  Report on potential applications of the  ecoregi on approach to state water qual-
   ity management (Env.  Processes)
0  Report on  the results  of  field  validation  studies  to  evaluate  site-specific
   criteria  guidelines (Env.  Processes)
                                     WQ-12

-------
Objective 3:   Develop  Scientific   Data   to  Support  an  Environmentally Sound  Ocean
Pi sposal  Program

0  Report on field verification of  Section  301(h)  predictions  of  ecological impacts
   near outfalls (Env.  Processes)

Objective 4:  fmplement  Great  Lakes  Study

0  Report on  presence  of dioxin and related  compounds  in Great  Lakes harbors and
   near-shore areas (Env. Processes)
0  Documentation manual  on the three-dimensional physical  transport model, hydrody-
   namic model and phytoplankton simulation  model  (Env.  Processes)

Objective 5:   Develop and Standardize Monitoring and Measurement  Methods to Support
Water Quality Programs

0  Manual on  measurement  of  chronic  toxicity  of  effluents to freshwater  organisms
   (Monitori ng)
0  Report on techniques  for assessing complex effluents in receiving waters (Moni-
   tori ng)


1984 ACTUAL OUTPUTS
Objective 1:   Provide Quality Assurance to Support  Water  Quality  Programs

0  Individual  laboratory performance evalaution  reports distributed to participants
   in study WP011 (Monitoring)

Objective 2:   Develop Data to Support Hater Quality Standards  and  Permits

0  Report on the requirement  of the  mini  data  set for  calculation of final acute
   value based  on tested species sensitivity (Env.  Processes)
0  Report on field testing results  of the complex  effluent toxicity protocol (Env:
   Processes)
°  Laboratory  performance  audit  reports to approximately 8000 participants  (Moni-
   tori ng)
°  Report on the calibration  material  repository status (Monitoring)
°  Document on  freshwater recreational water quality criteria  (Health)

Objective 3:   Develop Scientific Data to Support  an  Environmentally  Sound  Ocean
Disposal Program

0  Final report on hazard assessment of drilling muds (Env. Processes)
0  Report  on  the  field assessment  of monitoring techniques  for dredge material
   (Env. Processes)

Objective 4:  Implement Great  Lakes Study

0  Feasibility   report  of "Complex-Effluent Toxicity" approach under  site-specific
   conditions  in Great Lakes  (Env. Processes)
°  Input to IJC Science Advisory Board, Great Lakes National  Program Office  and  Wa-
   ter Quality  Committee Annual  Reports (Env.  Processes)

Objective 5:   Develop and Standardize Monitoring and Measurement  Methods to  Support
Water Quality  Programs

0  Effluent toxicity test manual (Monitoring)
0  Field methods  for  modeling toxicity persistence in receiving  streams  (Monitor-
   ing)
                                      WQ-13

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                               Water  Quality  Research
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total  of $16,740,600 supported by  239.2 total workyears
for 1986, an  increase  of  $782,900  and an  increase  of  11.6  total  workyears  from
1985.    Uf  the  request,   $12,061,600 wi 11  be for  the Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $4,679,000 will  be for the Research and  Development  appropriation, an
increase of $153,100 and $629,800,  respectively.

Program Description

     This program involves the following  objectives:

     Objective 1.    Provide Quality  Assurance  to  Support  Water Quality  Programs.
This activity develops  and standardizes  quality assurance  methods,  provides  con-
tinuing basic quality  control  materials  and guidance, and determines the  adequacy
of analytical procedures.

     Objective 2.    Develop  Data   to  Support  Water Quality  Standards and  Permits.
This research provides  the information and tools needed by Federal and State  permit
programs to'correct ambient water  quality problems that remain  after the  mandated
maximum pollution control  technology.

     Objective 3.   Develop Scientific Data  to  Support  an Environmentally  Sound
Ocean  Disposal Program.This  activity develops and  validates protocols  needed by
EPA for  predicting  and  evaluating  impacts  from   ocean disposal   practices.  The
major  focus  is  on  hazard  assessments, biomonitori ng  techniques,  and identifying
acceptable disposal  practices.

     Objective 4.   Implement  Great  Lakes  Study.   The  research   program   evaluates,
measures, and develops  predictive tools  needed  for understanding the distribution
of pollutants  and  resulting   effects  on  water  quality,  aquatic  life,  and  human
exposure through aquatic food  chains of Great  Lakes ecosystems.

     Objecti ve 5.   Develop and Standardize  Monitoring and Measurement  Methods  to
Support Water Quality Programs.  This  research develops and standardizes  water  mon-
itoring methods needed  for identifying toxic pollution problems, evaluating  stream
flow and effluent variabilities, and evaluating compliance with  ambient water qual-
ity standards and permit requirements.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $292,100  supported by 4.0 total  workyears for
this program, of which  $202,100 will be for  the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation
and $90,000 will  be for the  Research  and Development appropriation.   This  repre-
sents  a decrease of $14,000  and  no change,  respectively,  and  no  change  in total
workyears.     The  decrease  in Salaries  and Expenses  reflects   Government-wide re-
ductions to pay and administrative  services.

    Develop Data to Support  Water  Quality Standards  and  Permits.   Evaluation  and
expertise will be provided for the  Office of Water  Regulations and Standards  (OWRS)
State,  Regional  and local  offices  for modification of  human  health  criteria on  a
site-specific basis by  providing guidance on  the  evaluation  of  local  human  health
hazards from  exposures  to  complex  pollutants in  accordance with Clean  Water Act
                                      WQ-14

-------
Sections 304(a)(l) and 307(a)(l).

1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a total of  $306,100  supported  by 4.0 total
workyears for this  program,  of  which $216,100  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $90,000  is   for  the   Research   and  Development  appropriation.
This reflects an increase of $143,700 total  dollars  over FY 1984.

     The major  difference  between the 1985  program and  the 1984 program  is  that
the guidance  for  evaluation of  effects   of  complex  chemical  mixtures  and  evalu-
ation for Section  301(g)  permit modification  requests  is being  initiated  and  ex-
panded.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$1,200 results  from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$700)   This  reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of  re-
sources within  the  Agency to  fund the  expanded  needs  required  by the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This  change   resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$700 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$1,900)  This  program   was  increased  by  +$1,900  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $162,400 supported  by 4.3  total
workyears for thfs  program,  of  which $150,400 was  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $12,000 was   for  the   Research   and  Development  appropriation.

     In 1984, applications for Section 301(g)  waivers  by the Weirton and Bethlehem
Steel Corporations were  evaluated.   In  addition,  a technical   guidance  manual  for
the regulations  promulgated  pursuant  to Section  301(g)  of the  Clean  Water  Act
of 1977 was reviewed.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY  ASSURANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $2,178,900  supported  by  35.7 workyears  for
this program,  of  which  $1,753,900 will   be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
priation and  $425,000 will  be  for  the  Research  and   Development  appropriation.
This represents an increase of  $18,200 and no change, respectively, and an  increase
of 0.8  total  workyears.    The   modest   increases   in   Salaries   and  Expenses  and
workyears will  enhance  the  program's  capacity  to  standardize  more  biological
assays.

     Provide Quality Assurance  to Support Water Quality Programs.     The analytical
monitoring laboratories  will continue to provide authoritative  calibration mater-
ials to the  program  offices, Regions, States,  industry  and  municipalities.  These
laboratories are  the  authoriative  reference point   for  water  monitoring  methods.
Other guidance  on monitoring will  be provided  as   necessary  and periodic  formal
reviews will  be made  of  Regional, State, and  industry  and municipal  laboratories'
performance.

     Develop  and  Standardize   Monitoring and Measurement Methods to  Support  Wa-
ter Qua1ity_ Programs.   Work will be carried out on standardizing biological  meth-
                                     WQ-15

-------
6ds for  assessment  of  ambient  water  quality  (e.g., microbial  effluents  toxicity
tests, mutagenicity tests  (Ames test), tests  using  mammalian cell  culture).   The
program also  intends  to  evaluate  chemical  monitoring  for  screening by  chemical
class.  The  program  will  conduct  field  trials  of  protocols  designed to  monitor
various site-specific aspects of water quality.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to  the Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:    travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
of $7,300  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation   represents   decreases  to
all of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency is  allocating  a  total  of $2,160,700  supported by  34.9
total workyears  for  this  program,  of  which  $1,735,700  is for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  $425,000  is   for  the  Research  and Development  appro-
priation.  This reflects a decrease of $627,000 total dollars from 1984.

     The major  difference  between  the  1985 program and  the 1984 program  is  that
the 1985 program accelerates  a  shift  in  emphasis  in  monitoring of  ambient  water
from a chemical-by-chemical approach to a  biological  one.   This  change is in anti-
cipation of  and  supportive  of  site-specific  water  quality  based  restructuring  of
effluent discharge  permitting.


1985 Explanation of Changesfrom the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$9,600 results  from the  following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$5,600)   This  reprogramming  reflects a  shift of  re-'
sources within  the Agency to  fund  the expanded needs required by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This  change  resulted  in  a  net decrease  of
-$5,600 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$21,000)  Several reprogrammings  were made to this activi-
ty which were   not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted in a  net decrease  of -$21,000 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$17,000)   This  program  was  increased  by  +$17,000  reflecting
the amount  requested  for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of $2,787,700  supported  by 44.9  total
workyears for this program, of  which $2,107,400 was for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $680,300  was  for the  Research  and  Development  appropriation.

     In 1984,  this  program  published  several  significant  toxicity  and  virology
measurement methods   documents.   We  have   successfully  cultured  the  marine  fish
Mem'dia berylina over a  full  life  cycle,  which is a significant  step in  transfer-
ing freshwater  bi omonitoring/bioassay  technology  to the marine/estuarine  environ-
ment.
                                     WQ-16

-------
HEALTH EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $989,000 supported  by  6.1  workyears for this
program, of which $469,000  will  be  for the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation and
$520,000 will   be  for  the Research  and  Development appropriation.   This  represents
an increase of  $43,000  and no  change,  respectively, and an increase  of 3.0 work-
years.  The increase  in Salaries   and  Expenses   will  be  used  to  accelerate  the
development  a  valid   health  effects  indicator   for  shellfish  growing  waters.


     Develop Data to  Support Hater   Quality Standards and Permits.   The  additional
resources willbeusedtoaccelerate  the developmentofavalid  health effects
indicator for shellfish growing  waters.   The  application  of  health effect bioassays
to develop  water  quality-based  pollution  controls will  be  evaluated.   The Tier  1
carci nogenesi s bioassay wi 1 1 be  confirmed  and will  be used to  evaluate the toxicity
of several waste streams.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency is allocating  a  total  of $946,000 supported by  3.1 total
workyears for   this program,  of'which  $426,000  is  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and  $520,000  is  for  the   Research  and  Development  appropriation.
This reflects  an increase  of $561,500 total dollars  over  FY  1984.

     The major  difference between  the 1985  and  1984   program includes  the field-
testing of  short-term  toxicological  tests to evaluate the potential  carcinogeni-
ci ty of  wastewater  effluents.    Research also  begins  to  develop  health effects
indicators to  support  revising the  shellfish  growing  water  quality  criteria.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the_Enact_ed

     The net decrease of -$20,500  results  from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammi ngs.   (-$22,000)   Several  reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which  were not reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes  resulted  in a net decrease of  -$22,000  to the Salaries and Expenses
appropri ati on.

     -Pay Rai se.  (+$1,500)   This program was increased  by +$1,500 reflecting the
amount requested for  the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the Agency obligated  a total  of $384,500  supported by 4.2 total work-
years for this program, of which $353,800 was for the  Salaries  and Expenses appro-
priation and $30,700  was for the Research and Development appropriation.

     The freshwater recreational water quality  criteria document  was completed in
1984.  This document  summarizes  the dose-response  relationship between the bacteri-
al indicators, enterococci  and _E.  Coin , and  gastroenteritis in  swimmers.  This do-
cument, along  with the companion  marine  recreational  water quality criteria docu-
ment, was used to revise the  recreational  water quality criteria.
                                      WQ-17

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $431,500 supported  by  4.1  total  workyears for
this program,  of which $231,500  will  be for the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropri-
ation and $200,000  will  be  for  the Research and  Development  appropriation.  This
represents increases of $21,500 and  $200,000,  respectively,  and no change in total
workyears.  The  increases will be used to develop predictive methods for treatabil-
ity and  distribution  of toxics  with sea water  from industrial  ocean  discharges.

     Oevelop Scientific Data to Support an  Enviornmentany  Sound  Ocean  Disposal
Program.  The additional  resources  will  be  used to  develop  predictive  methods for
treatability and distribution of  toxics  with sea water  from  industrial' ocean dis-
charge.  Information will be  obtained  on the appropriate  level  of waste treatment
for specific marine  environments.   Waste  characterization  of  sewage  sludge will
continue to focus on determining  whether  contaminants  continue to circulate in sea
water or are  attached  to particulates  which settle into  the  sediment.   A  report
will be prepared on the degree to which  metals  and organics adhere to particles in
wastewater during treatment for ocean discharge.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is allocating a total  of  $210,000  supported by 4.1 total
workyears for this program, all  of which is  for the Salaries and Expenses appropri-
ation.  This reflects a decrease of $64,000  total dollars from 1984.  There is lit-
tle change between the 1985 program and the  1984 program.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$1,300 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$700)   This  reprogramming  reflects  a"  shift   of  re-
sources within the Agency to  fund the expanded  needs  required  by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery  Act.  This  change  resulted  in a net  decrease
of -$700 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$2,000)    This  program   was  increased  by  +$2,000  reflecting
the amount  requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated a total  of $274,000  supported by 6.2  total work-
years for this program, all  of  which was for the Salaries and  Expenses  appropria-
tion.  In support  of  the Section  301(h)  marine discharge waiver  program,  a major
report was  produced on removal efficiencies  for  contaminants  (metals  and  organics)
for less than secondary treatment alternatives.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $11,677,600  supported by  181.3 total  work-
years for this   program,  of which  $8,733,600 will  be  for  the  Salaries  and  Ex-
penses appropriation and  $2,944,000  will  be  for  the  Research   and  Development
appropriation.   This represents  increases of $418,400 and $1,419,600,  respectively,
and an increase of 7.8  total workyears.   The increase in  Salaries and  Expenses will
                                      UQ-18

-------
be used to  expand  the  in-house capability  of  research laboratories to  assist  the
program office  and  States  in  development  and   implementation  of  NPDES  permits
based on water  quality,  and  in  addressing ocean  disposal  options.  The  increase
in Research  and  Development  will  be used  to  initiate  several  specific  applica-
tions of expert systems technology.

     Develop  Data  to  Support Vlater Quality  Standards  and   Permits.     Expanded
research will develop  methods to determine  what  uses are  attai nBble  in  aquatic
systems.  This  includes  work  on aquatic  ecoregions,  methods to  test  sediments
for contamination,  and  wasteload  allocation models.   Research will  continue  on
integrating pollutant-specific control techniques  with  whole-toxicity  testing  pro-
cedures and  BAT  limits for use  in  water  quality permitting.   The National  Water
Quality Criteria Guidelines will  be  evaluated,  and work will   continue  on  develop-
ment of a  protocol  for testing complex effluents.   Field  tests  will  be  conducted
to combine  site-specific  criteria modification  techniques with the whole  effluent
toxicity approach.   The  cooperative  ecological   research  effort  with the  People's
Republic of China will  continue to address  the  impact of contaminants  on freshwater
organi sms.

     Additional  resources in  1986 will  be  used  to explore several  specific  appli-
cations of  expert  systems  technology:   improving the  usability  of  environmental
models for  NPDES  permitting and  general environmental  and human exposure  assess-
ments; development  of  methods  for  estimating  chemical  properties  from  knowledge
of chemical  structure,  for use  in  environmental  models  for  NPDES permitting  and
other regulatory activities; and estimates  of toxicity or  other effects  information
for hazard  assessment.   These activities  are  all very dependent  on  expert  know-
ledge, and   placing  this  expertise at the  disposal  of  environmental  professionals
via computerized'expert systems will  considerably enhance  productivity.

     Develop Scientific Data to Support  anEnvironmentally  Sound   Ocean  Disposal
Program.Ocean disposalresearch wi11increase  in 1986 to determine the" relative
safety of ocean disposal and  to provide a comparison  for  various disposal  strate-
gies for establishing  future  ocean  policies.   Research will  focus  on the  develop-
ment of transport  and  fate models  and  hazard  assessment procedures to  define  the
probability of harm to the marine environment resulting from the ocean  disposal  of
wastes.  Research  will   continue  on  residues  of contaminants  in  fish  tissues,
drilling muds and ocean outfall impacts.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response   to the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and   audio-visual,  and consulting  services.   The  reduction
of $28,400  in the   Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation   represents  decreases  to
all of the  above  categories.   The decrease  of $10,500 in  the  Research  and Develop-
ment appropriation reflect reductions to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is allocating a total  of $9,839,600 supported  by 173.5 to-
tal workyears for  this program,  of  which  $8,315,200 is  for  the  Salaries and  Ex-
penses appropriation and $1,524,400  is  for the  Research  and  Development appropri-
ation.  This reflects an increase of $1,116,200 over  1984.

     The major difference  between the  1985  program   and  the  1984  program  is  that
in 1985  research  is being  shifted  from  controlling  single  contaminants to  con-
trolling complex  unknown  mixtures.   Also,  research  is  being  initiated to  study
water quality problems  in  estuaries,  and  a  cooperative  study  with the  People's
Republic of  China  is  begining  on  ecological  effects  of pollutants   on  aquatic
organi sms.
                                      WQ-19

-------
^985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$178,500 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$94,200)  Several reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes  resulted  in  a net  increase of +$99,200  to  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and a  net  decrease  of  -$5,000 to the Research and Development appro-
priation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$84,300)  This program was increased by +$84,300 reflecting the
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated a total  of  $8,723,400  supported by 143.0  total
workyears for  this  program,  of  which $6,380,200 was for  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $2,343,200  was for  the Research and Development  appropriation.

     In 1984, major  accomplishments  included  the completion  of  a  report  on  field
testing results of the complex effluent toxicity protocol; a report on the require-
ment of the  mini  data  set for calculation  of final   acute  value based  on tested
species sensitivity;  a   report  on the  field   assessment  of  monitoring  techniques
for dredge  material;  and  also  a  final  report  on hazard  assessment of drilling
muds.


GREAT LAKES RESEARCH

1986 Program Requests

     The Agency requests a total  $1,171,500 supported  by 8.0 total  workyears  for
this program of which $671,500 will  be for  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $500,000 will be  for the Research'and Development  appropriation.  This repre-
sents decreases of  $334,000 and  $989,800,  respectively,  with  no  change  in ^otal
workyears.  The decrease  in  Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects Government-wide  re-
ductions to  pay  and administrative  services,  as  well  as the  completion  of  sev-
eral water  quality  studies.   The decrease  in Research  and Development  reflects
the completion  of the Fox  River  Study  and the  development  of  the data  base  for
open lake model ing.

     Implement  Great Lakes  Study.   Research  will  continue  to  develop   and   test
methods to  measure,  describe, and  predict  the  sources, distribution,  movement,
dynamics,  and  effects,  of  organic  toxic  substances   in  areas  identified by  the
US/Canada Water Quality  Board.   This  program  will  also  provide the  International
Joint Commission,  Great  Lakes National  Program Office, Regions II,  III,  and V  and
Great Lakes States with  technical  support and  research data  related  to  activities
under the US/Canada  Water Quality Agreement.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction   reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires   decreases  in  the  following   categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing,  publication and  audio-visual, and consulting  services.   The  reduction  of
$12,000 in the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation represents decreases  to all  of
the above  categories.
                                      WQ-20

-------
1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of $2,495,300  supported by  8.0
total workyears  for  this  program,  of  which • $1,005,500  is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation- and  $1,489,800  is for the  Research and Development  appro-
priation.  This reflects  a decrease of $136,200  total  dollars  from 1984.

     The major difference between the 1985 program and  the  1984 program  is that in
1985 the emphasis has  shifted  from studying the  near-shore  areas to the  study of
connecting channels,  in support of the US/Canada bilateral'agreement.
1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted                                 <

     The net decrease of -$8,100 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Re programming.  (-$1,200)  This reprogramming reflects a  shift  of   re-
sources within the Agency  to  fund  the expanded needs  required  by  the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change  resulted in a net  decrease  of
-$1,200 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$10,800)  Several  reprogrammings were made to  this  activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in  a  net  decrease of -$10,800 to the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.
     -Pay Raise.  (+$3,900)   This program was increased by +$3,900  reflecting
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.
the
1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $2,631,500  supported by  15.1  total
workyears for this  program,  of  which $1,131,500 was for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $1,500,000  was  for the  Research and Development  appropriation.

     In 1984, major accomplishments  included  the  completion  of a  report on  evalu-
ation of  site-specific  criteria guidelines  for a  Great Lakes  site; a feasibility
report on the  "Complex-Effluent Toxicity"  approach under site-specific  conditions
in the  Great  Lakes; a  report  on chronology  of original  contaminant  accumulation
in sediment cores taken from  a  Great Lakes Class  A area of  concern;  and inputs to
the IOC  Science  Advisory  Board, the  Great Lakes  National  Program Office,  and  the
Water Quality Committee Annual Reports.
                                      WQ-21

-------
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                                       WATER

                                Municipal Hastewater

                           Principal Outputs by Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS


Objective 1:  Evaluate Innovative and Alternative (I/A) Technologies

0  Reports  of  results  of  I/A  post-construction   evaluations   (Env.  Technology)
0  Regional I/A technology transfer seminars (Env. Technology)

Objective 2:  Evaluate Sludge Management Alternatives

0  Design  and  performance  information  for  disposal  of municipal  sludges  to land-
   filIs (Env. Technology)
°  Reports on chemical health risk assessments (Sci. Assessment)
0  Research report  evaluating the health  implications  of mutagenic sludge (Health)
°  Report on Ascaris egg survival (Health)

Objective 3:  Provide for Compliance Achievement and Upgrading

0  Reports on  improved design  information  for correcting major treatment plant de-
   sign deficiencies (Env.  Technology)
0  Pretreatment/guidance manual  for Office of Water on managing toxics interference
   at municipal treatment plants (Env. Technology)

Objective 4:   Evaluate Wastewater Toxics Treatability of Various Processes

0  Report on application of  bioassay methods to manage toxicity reduction at muni-
   cipal treatment plants '(Env.  Technology)

Objective 5:   Provide Water Quality Planning and Regulation Support

0  Report on methods to  control  treatment plant  effluent variability (Env. Techno-
   logy)


1985 PLANNED OUTPUTS
Objective 1:  Evaluate Innovative and Alternative (I'/A) Technologies

0  Reports  of  results  of  I/A  post-construction   evaluations  (Env.  Technology)
0  Reports on new and  improved  alternative  on-site  system designs,  costs, and per-
   formances (Env. Technology)
0  Health assessment of airborne exposure to wastewater pathogens (Health)

Objective 2:  Evaluate Sludge Management Alternatives

°  Technical support  to  Office  of  Water to revise  sludge  management alternative,
   disposal  regulations,   including  costs,   incinerator  emissions,  and  pathogen
   control (Env. Technology)
°  Health appraisal  report on sludge application (Health)

Objective 3:  Provide for Compliance Achievement and Upgrading

°  Ten regional  technology transfer seminars  on improving POTW performance  using
   the composite correction approach (Env. Technology)
                                      WQ-24

-------
•°  Municipal  wastewater disinfection  and  nitrogen control  process  design manuals
    (Env.  Technology)


 1984  ACTUAL  OUTPUTS
 Objective  1:   Evaluate  Innovative and Alternative  (I/A) Technologies

 °   Eleven  regional  and  three  state  seminars to transfer information on-I/A technol-
    ogies  (Env.  Technology)
 0   Reports of  results  of  four emerging  innovative technology  assessments  (Env.
    Technology)
 0   Report  on  the  distribution of  bacterial   infections  in  the  Lubbock infection
    surveillance  study of wastewater spray irrigation  (Health)
 0   Report  on  the bacteriological,  virological and  chemical  evaluation of a waste-
    water  aquaculture system  (Health)

 Objective  2:   Evaluate  Sludge  Management Alternatives

 0   Five  regional  seminars  on  municipal  sludge  composting  and  incineration  (Env.
    Technology)
 °   Health  risk assessments for cadmium, lead, zinc,  and  nickel  (Sci.   Assessment)
 0   Report  on  evaluation of  health  risks associated  with  wastewater treatment and
    sludge  composting (Health)
 °   Report  on  the effectiveness of  conventional  treatment  processes  for removal of
    mutagenic  activity from municipal wastewater  (Health)  '

 Objective  3:   Provide for  Compliance Achievement and  Upgrading

 0   Handbook  on  improving POTW  performance  using the composite correction approach
    (Env.  Technology)
                                      WQ-25

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                                Municipal Wastewater
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $8,746,000  supported by  58.3  total  workyears
for 1986, an  increase  of  $86,400,  and an increase  of  0.7  workyears from 1985.  Of
the request,  $2,991,600  will be  for  the.Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation and
$5,754,400 will  be  for the Research and Development appropriation, an  increase of
$132,100 and a'decrease of $45,700, respectively.

Program Description

     The purpose of this  program  is to provide the  technical  information  and engi-
neering assistance needed  by EPA  and  municipalities for the development and imple-
mentation of  regulations  and guidance for disposal  of sludge and  control  of pol-
lution from municipal  treatment plants  and  to bring treatment  plants  into compli-
ance with State  discharge permits.   This program is conducted  in full  cooperation
with the private  sector  and  supports the  Agency's development  and implementation
of regulations and guidance  for achieving water quality improvement.

     The following objectives support these goals:

     Objective 1.  Evaluate  Innovative and Alternative   (I/A)  Technologies.   This
activity provides technical  support,  information  di ssemi nation,  post-construction
evaluations of full-scale  operational  I/A projects, and engineering assessments of
emerging technologies  required  to  accelerate and  encourage  use  of Innovative and
Alternative technology in the Construction Grants program by the States and munici-
pal ities.

    Objective 2.    Evaluate Sludge Management Alternatives.  This research provides
the scientific assessment,  engineering,  health  effects and  monitoring  information
needed for the effective treatment, conversion,  use and disposal  of sludges.  This
research is needed  for the  development  of  regulations  and   guidance  in  order to
comply with the mandates of  both the  Clean  Water Act and  the Resource  Conservation
and Recovery Act.

     Objective 3.	Provide for  Compliance Achievement and  Upgrading.   This acti-
vity provides the municipal  sector  with  the information to  both  correct  treatment
plant deficiencies and to  upgrade  existing  plant capacities  to  achieve compliance
with NPDES permits at minimal costs.

     Objective 4.     Evaluate Wastewater Toxics  Treatability of Various Processes.
This research  provides the   information  needed  for  developi ng   regulations  arid
guidance to  control  toxic pollutants  and  minimize  water quality  impacts  through
effective use of municipal  treatment  processes,  and management options  which seek
to minimize pretreatment where possible.

     Objective 5.  Provide Water Quality   Planning  and  Regulation   Support.  This
research provides protocols  toStates  to perform asystemsanalysis approach  for
evaluating various options  for  achieving rational  water  quality goals  at  minimal
costs.

SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $91,900  supported by 2.0 total workyears for
this program, all  of  which  will  be for the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.
                                      WQ-26

-------
This represents a decrease of $6,200,  reflecting  Government-wide reductions to pay
and administrative services.

     Evaluate  Sludge  Management  Alternatives.   Research will  provide scientific
assessments for use  in regulating  selected  contaminants  of  sludge  under  Section
405 of the Clean Water Act.  These assessments  and guidance will  provide the criti-
cal scientific  basis  for  the  Office   of  Water Regulations and  Standards  used  in
regulatory efforts associated with sludge management.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating a total of  $98,100 supported  by  2.0 total
workyears for this program, all  of which is for the Salaries and  Expenses appropri-
ation.  This reflects an increase of $46,500 total dollars over 1984.

     The major  difference  between the  1985  program and  the  1984 program  is  that
ORD is  preparing  revised  preliminary data profiles  for approximately  30  chemical
contaminants of municipal  sludge for  use by  the Office  of  Water  Regulation  and
Standards as  the  scientific  basis  for their  regulatory  assessment  in  support  of
proposed sludge management regulations.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$600 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$400)   This   reprogramming  reflects  a   shift   of  re-
sources within the Agency  to fund the expanded needs  required by  the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.  This  change resulted  in a  net decrease  of
-$400 to the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$1,000)  This program  was  increased by +$1,000  reflecting the
amount requested for the pay  raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated a total of  $51,600  supported  by 1.6 total work-
years for this program, all  of  which  was for the Salaries  and Expenses appropria-
tion.

     Four preliminary  data  profiles/hazar'd indices  for contaminants  of  municipal
sludge relative to  disposal  options  were drafted  for  Cadmium, Lead,  Nickel  and
Zinc.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total of  $1,966,200  supported by  21.7 total  workyears
for this  program,  of  which  $1,025,600  will   be for  the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $940,600 will  be  for the Research and Development appropriation.
This represents an  increase  of  $112,500  and  no  change,  respectively,  and  an in-
crease of 0.7 total  workyear.  The increases in Salaries and Expenses and workyears
will be used to accelerate the work to determine the health significance of complex
chemical mixtures in sludges.

     Evaluate Sludge Management Alternatives.   This research  will  assist in deter-
mine tTorT~oFth~eneedforaregulatoryoption   related  to  any   identified health
hazard from  mutagens  and   infectious  diseases  in  sludge.  Chemical  stability and
                                      WQ-27

-------
mobility will  be  detertni ned, -  parti cul arly  for  mutagenic  organic  chemicals   in
sludge applied to soil for use  or disposal.  The  chemicals  responsible  for  detect-
ible mutagenic activity  will  be identified.   In  addition, the  health  aspects  of
sludge pathogens  and  potential  risk  of human infectious disease  will  be studied.


1985 Rescission
   This reduction  reflects  the  Agency's  response  to  the Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audi o-vi sual ,  and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
of $500.00  in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation   represents  decreases to
all of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $1,853,700  supported  by  21.0
total workyears  for this  program,  of which $913,100  is for the  Salaries  and  Ex-
penses appropriation and  $940,600  is  for the  Research  and Development  appropri-
ation.  This reflects an increase of $200 total  dollars  from 1984.

     The major difference between  the  1985  program  and the  1984 program is  that
research on  health  aspects  of  land  treatment  of municipal  wastewater  is drawing
to a  close  and   resources are being reduced for  this  research to those minimally
sufficient to allow for the  statistical  evaluation of results  and  final reporting.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$62,300 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammi ngs.    (-$72,500)    Several  reprogrammings were  made to this  acti-
vity which were  not  reportable  under the Congressional  reprogrammi ng limitations.
These changes resulted  in a  net  decrease of -$72,500 to the Salaries and  Expenses
appropri ation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$10,200)   This  program was   increased   by   +$10,200  reflecting
the amount requested for the  pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accompli shments
     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of $1,853,500  supported  by 20.8 total
workyears for this  program,  of which  $830,700  was  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $1,022,800 was  for  the Research  and Development appropriation.

     A major accomplishment  for  the Office of  Health Research  was  the Municipal
Wastewater Sludge Health  Effects Research  Planning  Workshop  with  peer  non-gov-
ernment scientists,   Agency  scientists,   and  Agency   regulatory   and  enforcement
staff members participating  in an  evaluation  of health  research needs.    A fur-
ther accomplishment  was the  implementation  of the  Sludge  Health  Effects  Research
Program based on  the  recommendations  of the  Sludge   Workshop.   In  addition,  re-
sults were published in journal  articles of  sludge research  completed  on  viruses
in sludges applied to land.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  AND TECHNOLOGY

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of $6,687,900  supported  by  34.6 total  workyears
for this program,  of which $1,874,100  will be for the  Salaries and Expenses  appro-
                                      WQ-28

-------
priation and  $4,813,800  will  be  for  the Research  and  Development  appropriation.
This represents an  increase  of  $25,800  and  a decrease of  $45,700,  respectively,
with no change  in total   workyears.   The net  reduction  of $19,900  will  maintain
current program priorities.

     Evaluate Innovative  and  Alternative  (I/A)  Technologies.    Three to five post-
construction  evaluationsof full-scaleoperationalI/A  projects  will  be conducted
in 1986.  Concise reports on design,  energy,  operation  and  maintenance costs will
be developed  and widely disseminated through  the  Agency's  I/A Technology Clearing-
house.   The information will  be  utilized  by the Office of  Water Program Operations
and the Congress to  evaluate  the success  and  impact  of the I/A program.

     Evaluate Sludge Management Alternatives.   This  program will continue to evalu-
ate pTTot   a7fd  large seal e  combi nati ons  oT  activated sludge,  multiple anaerobic
digestion  and wet oxidation to determine the mass and volume-reducing capabilities
of the system.   The potential  for  pathogen  destruction and  organics  reduction will
also be evaluated.   This  information  is  needed  to  provide technical  data  to
support the new sludge  regulations.

     Provide  for Compliance Achievement  and Upgrading.     In  support of the Office
of Water's high priority  need to  implement  the National  Municipal  Policy,  a  series
of short reports on  new  approaches  and  feedback  to treatment  plant  design  will  be
produced based   on  problem  assessments  in  the  field, including  documentation  of
improved performance, reduced  costs,  and  increased  compliance.  Also, relationships
among process  reliability,  effluent  variability,  and cost  will  be established.

     Evaluate Wastewater  Toxics Treatability  of Various Processes.    A  data  base
will be assembled for determining  specific toxics  and  toxicity removal efficiencies
of various treatment  processes.    Over  a   3-year   period,  approaches  to  enhance
toxicity removal in  treatment processes  will  be made available.  This  work  is  in
direct support  of the Office of Water in  developing  technical  guidance to implement
the Agency's  policy  for the  development  of  water quality-based permit  limitations
for toxic  pollutants.

     P r o y i d e  W at e rQu a 1i t y P1 a n n i n g  a n d  Regulation  S u p p o r t.  A 3-year  effort  wi 11
focus on providing the analytical tools  and  the  supporting  engineering data base
to the  States  for integrating their  planning  process to  achieve rational,  less-
costly water  quality goals.   Implementing  the systems analysis approach will  re-
sult in more equitable wasteload  allocations,  ensure reasonable  margins of  safety
in stream   loadings,  eliminate  over-design  of  treatment  plants and  produce  lower
11fe-cycle costs.


1985 Resci ssi on
   This reduction  reflects  the  Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,   motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audi o-vi sual,   and  consulting   services.   The reduction
of $15,500 in the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation represents decreases  to all
of the above  categories.  The decrease of $161,300 in the Research  and  Development
appropriation reflects reductions to  consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 198b, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $6,707,800  supported  by   34.6
total workyears  for  this program,  of which  $1,848,300  is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  $4,859,500  is  for the  Research  and Development  appro-
priation.  This reflects an  increase  of  $338,500 total dollars  over  1984.

     The major difference- between the 1985 program and the  1984  program is that in
support of  the  Agency's  promulgation  of  new  sludge  regulations,   research is
                                      WQ-29

-------
being accelerated in the characterization of sludges, with respect to heavy metals,
toxic organics, and pathogenic organisms, and in the development of sludge handling
techniques.   Also, evaluations of process modification for upgrading aerobic
digestion to meet  RCRA requirements  on  pathogen destruction are  being  initiated.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$67,100 results from the following actions:

     -P.eprogr.ammings.  (-583,900)  Several reprogrammings were made to  this  acti-
vity which  were  not  reportable under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes resulted  in  a  net increase of +$14,100 to the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and a  net decrease of  -$98,000  to the Research  and  Development  ap-
propriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$16,800)   This program was  increased  by  +$16,800  reflecting
the amount requested for the  pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $6,369,300 supported  by  64.4  total
workyears for this program,  of  which $3,035,200 was for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $3,334,100  was for the Research and  Development  appropriation.

     The engineering research program conducted  nineteen Regional  and State  semi-
nars on municipal  sludge  composting  and   incineration and  I/A technology transfer.
ORD published and distributed  a  handbook on "Improving POTW  Performance Using  the
Composite Correction Approach".
                                      WQ-30

-------
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WQ-32

-------
                                   WATER  QUALITY


                               Industrial Wastewater

                           Principal  Outputs  by Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS


Objective 1:  Ensure  Data Accuracy/Reliability Through Quality Assurance

0 Status reports of the  calibration  repository,  QC sample program, referee analy-
  tical  services,   and  performance  evaluation  of  NPDES   permittees  (Monitoring)

Objective 2:  Develop/Validate/Standardize  Reliable Low-Cost Analytical Methods

0 Standardize   test   procedures    to   support   expanded   NPDES needs (Monitoring)

Objective 3.  Develop  and Evaluate  Scientific/Technical Tools to Support Permitting
and Enforcement Activities

°  Reports  on  toxicity reduction  evaluations for organic, inorganic chemicals and
   metal finishing industries  (Env. Technology)
0  Methods manual  for  asbestos in wastewater  (Env.  Processes)


1985 PLANNED OUTPUTS
Objective 1:   Ensure Data Accuracy/Reliability  Through  Quality Assurance

0 Annual   QA  report  for  discharge  monitoring  in  support  of  NPDES (Monitoring)

Objective 2:   Develop/Validate/Standardize  Reliable Low-Cost Analytical Methods

0 Standardize test  procedures  for  pesticides  and  other parameters  proposed  for
  incorporation into NPDES program (Monitoring)

Objective 3:   Develop and Evaluate Scientific/Technical  Tools to Support Permitting
and Enforcement  Activities

0  Report on evaluations  of control  of toxic discharges  from ore mining operations
   (Env.  Technology)


1984 ACTUAL OUTPUTS
Objective 1:   Ensure Data Accuracy/Reliability  Through  Quality Assurance

0 Annual QA discharge monitoring report  in  support  of  NPDES  (Monitoring)

Objective 2:   Develop/Validate/Standardize  Reliable Low-Cost  Analytical Methods

0 Manuals on  methods  for organic analyses  of  municipal  and industrial wastewater
  (Monitor! ng)

Objective 3:   Develop and Evaluate Scientific/Technical  Tools to  Support Permitting
and Enforcement Activities

0  Toxicity reduction  manuals  for pulp and  paper  industry,  organic chemicals  in-
   dustry, and petroleum refinery industry  (Env.  Technology)
                                      WQ-33

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                               Industrial  Wastewater
Budget Request
     The Agency requests  a  total  of $2,712,200  supported  by 28.0 total workyears
for 1986, an increase  of  $9,800 and in increase  of  0.3 total  workyear from  1985.*
Of the  request,  $1,557,900 will  be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation
and $1,154,300 will be  for  the Research and Development appropriation, a decrease
of $8,300 and an increase of $18,100,  respectively.

Program Description

     The Clean Water  Act  requires that industrial wastewater  discharges  be  regu-
lated by  technology-based  water   quality-based   and  toxicity-based   regulations.
This program provides the research support  in industrial  wastewater  characteriz-
ation control technology,  quality  assurance and  monitoring  systems.   The program
places special  emphasis on  the development  of  protocols for reduction of toxicity
of industrial discharges  for  the  National  Pollutant  Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES) permitting authorities.

     The following objectives  support  these  goals:

     Objective 1.   Ensure  Data  Accuracy/Reliability  Through  Quality  Assurance.
This activity develops the quality  assurance tools  and support  programs to document
dompli ance wi th technology based regulations, and for toxicity reductions required
by water quality based regulations.

     Objective 2.   Develop/Validate/Standardize Reliable Low-Cost  Analytical  Meth-
ods.   Research will  focus on  identifying  chemical  interferents in discharges  from
those industrial  categories where the monitoring methods are deficient.  This will
result  in a  supplement  to the  "Manual  for  Organic Analysis of  Water and  Wastes"
which will  include the corrected procedure.

     Objective 3.   Develop and Evaluate  Scientific/Technical  Tools to  Support  Per-
mitting and Enforcement  Activities.This  research  addresses the  need for a method
to conduct  site specific  toxicity  reduction evaluations (TREs) to be used  by per-
mitting authorities to issue discharge permits  to industry.


MONITORING  SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  $1,440,200  supported by  18.3 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $1,003,300  will  be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $436,900 will be for the  Research and  Development appropriation.
This represents a  decrease of  $11,400 and  no change, respectively,  and an increase
of 0.3 total  workyear.  The decrease in Salaries and Expenses reflects Government-
wide reductions  to pay and administrative  services.

     Ensure Data Accuracy/Reliability  Through Quality Assurance.     The  Discharge
Monitoring  Report-Quality  Assurance (DMRQA)  Support Program will  be-continued.  It
is a special analytical  evaluation  study  on twenty-six  regulated parameters  aimed
at evaluating the  quality  on self-monitoring DMRQA  data  submitted to the States and
to EPA  by the 7,500 major dischargers within the NPDES.   Briefing reports are used
by Regional  and  State  NPDES inspectors to  communicate constructively with deficient
laboratories and,  when necessary,  to take  regulatory  actions to  assure that  NPDES
laboratories are generating high quality data.
                                     WQ-34

-------
     Develop/Validate/Standardize  Reliable  Low-Cost Analytical Methods.    Research
will focus on identifying  chemical  interferents in discharges from those industrial
categories where the 40 CFR Part  136  methods  of gas chromatography (GC), gas chrom-
atography/mass  spectrography  (GC/MS),   or   high  pressure   liquid  chromatography
(HPLC), prove to be deficient.   This  wi 11 result in a  supplement to the "Manual for
Organic Analysis of  Water  and Wastes"  which  will  include the  correct procedure.


1985 Resci ssion
     This reduction reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual,  and  consulting services.  -The reduction of
$11,400 in the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation represents  decreases  to  all of
the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is  allocating  a  total  $1,451,600 supported  by  18.0 total
workyears for this program,  of  which  $1,014,700 is  for the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $436,900  is for the  Research  and Development  appropriation.   This
reflects an increase  of $9,100 total dollars over  1984.

     The major difference  between  the  1985 program  and the  1984  program  is  that
the 1985 program  restricts  calibration  material  requests   from an  as needed basis
to a maximum  of two times per year  for  any  group  other than  EPA.   The Regions and
Program Offices within EPA  continue to receive  unlimited services.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease  of -$46,900 results  from  the  following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprbgrammi ng.   (-$2,900)  This  reprogrammi ng  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to  fund the expanded  ^needs required  by  the reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation  and  Recovery Act.    This  change resulted  in  a  net de-
crease of -$2,900 to the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.   (-$52,700)  Several reprogrammings  were made to this activi-
ty which  were not reportable under the  Congressional  reprogrammi ng limitations.
These changes resulted in  a  net  decrease  of -$52,700 to the  Salaries and Expenses
appropri ation.

     -Pay Rai se.    (+$8,700)    This program was  increased  by +$8,700 reflecting
the amount requested  for the  pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated  a  total  of  $1,442,500  supported  by 20.4 total
workyears for this program, of  which  $1,012,700 was  for the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $429,800  was  for the  Research  and  Development   appropriation.

     In 1984, approval  was  received to promulgate a revision  to 40 CFR 136, "Guide-
lines Establi shi ng Test  Procedures  for  the   Analysis  of  Pollutants." This  was
published was published in  the Federal Register on  October  26,  1984.  These methods
are used by  all  NPDES  parties (dischargers,  States,  and EPA) to  access compliance
to permit conditions.   Also, the successful  completion  of  an annual  Quality Assur-
ance Test of  the  7,500  major  dischargers'  laboratory performance  as  well  as State
and  Regional laboratories.   This was  reported  as  the DMRQA annual  report covering
over 8,000 participants.
                                      WQ-35

-------
 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

 1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $931,000 supported by 4.0 total workyears  for
 this program,  of  which $213,600 will  be for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropri-
 ation  and  $717,400  will  be  for  the Research and  Development  appropriation.   This
 represents a decrease  of  $17,400 and an increase  of $18,100,  respectively,  and  no
 change in  total workyears.   The decrease in Salaries and  Expenses reflects Govern-
 ment-wide  reductions to pay and  administrative  services.  The  increase in  Research
 and Development  will   be  applied to  field  validations of  the toxicity  reduction
 evaluation (TRE)  protocol,  and  to  the  development  of industry-specific  toxicity
 reduction  manuals.

     Develop and Evaluate Scientific/Technical  Tools to Support Permitting  and   En-
 forcement  Acti viti es.  The  TRE  protocol  wi 11   be  developed  Tn  cooperati on  with
 industry by measuring  aquatic  toxicity,  identifying possible causes  of the toxici-
 ty, and recommending   control  technology or  in-plant processing  alternatives.   The
 protocol will  be  verified at specific  sites, including the critical  Chesapeake  Bay
 area, and  will  be  applicable  to complex  effluents not easily  controlled by  the
 chemi cal -by-chemi cal approach.    Completion  and  validation of the  TRE protocol  will
 meet a high priority need of the Effluent Guidelines Division, Regions and  States.


 1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency'^ "response to the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following   categories:   travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication and  audio-visual, and consulting services.  The  reduction  of
$4,100 in the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to all  of
the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating a total  of  $930,300  supported  by  4.0 total
workyears for this program, of which  $231,000 is  for the  Salaries and  Expenses  ap-
propriation and $699,300  is  for  the Research and Development  appropriation.   This
reflects an increase of $759,700  total dollars over  1984.

     The major difference between the  1985  program and  the 1984 program is  that
work is being  carried  out to develop  and  verify  in the  field  a  protocol   for  con-
ducting industrial  toxicity  reduction  evaluations  (TREs)  for use  by permitting
authorities in writing Best Professional  Judgement (BPJj NPDES  permits.


1985 Explanation of Changes from  the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$22,500 results from the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogrammi ng.  (-$700)   This  reprogrammi ng  reflects  a  shift  of   re-
sources within the  Agency  to  fund the expanded needs required  by the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery'Act.  This change resulted in  a  net decrease  of
-$700 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$23,700)  Several  reprogrammings  were  made  to  this activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogrammi ng  limitations.
These changes resulted  in  a  net  increase of  +$10,000 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and   a net  decrease  of  -$33,700  to the   Research  and  Development
appropri ati on.

     -Pay Rai se.   (+$1,900)   This program  was  increased  by   +$1,900 reflecting
the amount requested for the  pay  raise supplemental.
                                      WQ-36

-------
1984 Accompli shments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  $170,600  supported  by 2.7 total work-
years for this program, all  of  which  was  for the Salaries and  Expenses  appropria-
ti on.

     The accomplishments included the preparation  of  reports on  physical/chemi cal
treatment for primary  aluminum  wastewater  and  a  design  manual  for  air  and steam
stripping of organic pollutants from aqueous  wastes.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $341,100 supported  by 5.7  total   workyears
for this program, all of which will  be for the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.
This represents -an increase  of $20,500 and no  change  in total workyears.   This  in-
crease will   be  used to separate, characterize and measure organics  and  inorganic
chemical species in industrial effluents.

     Develop  and  Evaluate Scientific/Technical Tools to   Support   Permitting   and
Enforcement  Activities.Non-volatile organics in  suspendedmatterandsediments
will be  emphasized.   This   research  will   also enhance  the existing  GC/MS tape
library and   generate reliable information on the composition  of complex  industrial
effluents.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a total of $320,500  supported  by  5.7 total
workyears for this program, all  of which  is  for the Salaries  and Expenses  appropri-
ation.  This reflects an increase of $4,300  total  dollars  over 1984.
     The major difference  between  the  1985  program and the  1984 program is  that
research underway will identify those  chemicals  in  industrial  effluents previously
unrecognized.   In addition, measurements are being  made of organic  and  inorganic
1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted
     "~  ™"""""""-™    ' - -- •         - -     	 ••"•"' --                                 ^

     The net decrease of -$1,500 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$900)   This  reprogrammi ng  reflects  a   shift  of  re-
sources within  the  Agency to  fund  the  expanded  needs  required  by  the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This   change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$900 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$3,400)   Several  reprogrammings  were made to this  activ-
ity which  were  not   reportable  under  the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes resulted  in a net  decrease  of  -$3,400 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropri ation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$2,800)   This   program   was  increased  by  +$2,800  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated  a total  of $316,200  supported  by 4.8 total  work-
years for this  program,  all  of which  was  for the Salaries and  Expenses  appropri-
ati on.
                                      UQ-37

-------
     In 1984,  the accomplishments  included the publishing of an article on clean-
up procedures  for analysis of inorganic ions in  wastewater,  and  a  report on EGD
types which hit   compounds  that  cannot  be  identified  by  spectral  matching.
                                     WQ-38

-------


































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WQ-39

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                         Comprehensive Estuarine Management
Budget Request
     The Agency  is  not  requesting  resources under  this subactivity  for  1986,  a
decrease of  $4,000,000  from  1985.   During  1986,  this  program  will  be  supported
under the  Water  Quality  Monitoring  and  Analysis  subactivity  in  the  Abatement
and Control function.

Program Description

     Comprehensive Estuarine Management --  This  program  provides   assistance  to
support selected estuarine initiatives by State  and local  governmental  entities for
the identification of nutrient  and toxic  pollution problems  and  the  development  of
recommended State/local  activities  for pollution abatement.  The program includes
the use of technology transfer to make the experiences from t^e  Chesapeake  Bay and
Great Lakes programs  available  to  the selected  estuarine  initiatives and  others,
as appropriate.


COMPREHENSIVE ESTUARINE MANAGEMENT

1986 Program' Request

     The Agency  is  not  requesting  resources  for this program in the  Research  and
Development appropriation leading  to  a decrease  of  $4,000,000 to that  appropria-
tion.  However, $4,000,000 is requested under the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation for similar activities.


1985 Program

     In 1985, thp Agency is  allocating  a  total  of $4,000,000,  all  of which  is  for
the Research and Development appropriation for this program.

     This was the initial funding provided  to assist Long Island Sound, Narragansett
Bay, Buzzards Bay, and  Puget  Sound  in developing programs to protect  the critical
ecosystems of the estuarine  zones from land-generated nutrient and toxic pollutants.

     The Agency, in  coordination with  NOAA,  is  assisting State  and  local  agencies
dealing with  these   four  water  bodies during   1985  in  the  formulation  of  work
programs to carry  out  studies to determine wasteload sources and characteristics,
to locate and quantify  nutrient  and  toxic problem areas, and to  identify the  man-
agement and data needs for the design  of control and  abatement  programs.

     Workyear support for this  program  is described  under the Water  Quality  Moni-
toring and Analysis subactivity.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The was no change to this program.


1984 Accomplishments

     There was no program in FY 1984.
                                      WQ-40

-------

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents
WATER QUALITY

    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Water- Qual i ty and Grants Program Management	  WQ-42
          Water Quality Management	  WQ-44
          Great Lakes Program	WQ-46
          Chesapeake Bay Program	  WQ-48
       Effluent Standards & Guidelines	  WQ-51
       Grants Assistance Programs	WQ-56
          Clean Lakes Program	  WQ-57
          Control  Agency Resource Supplementation {Section  106)	WQ-58
          Training  Grants (Section 104)	  WQ-59
       Water Qual i ty Strategies Impl ementation	  WQ-61
          Dredge &  Fill	".	  WQ-64
          Ocean Di sposal  Permi ts	  WQ-65
          Environmental Emergency Response & Prevention	  WQ-67
          Standards & Regulations	  WQ-69
       Water Quality Monitoring & Analysis	  WQ-72
          Comprehensive Estuarine Management	  WQ-74
          Water Quality Monitoring &  Analysis	  WQ-76
       Municipal  Source Control	  WQ-80
          Municipal  Waste Treatment Facility Construction	  WQ-82
          Waste Treatment Operations  & Maintenance	  WQ-85
                                     WQ-41

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-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                    Water Quality and Grants Program Management
Budget Request
     The Agency request a total  of  $18,797,700 supported by  106.6  total  workyears
for 1986, a decrease of $524,500 and no change in total  workyears.   Of the request,
$5,470,400 wil1 be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation   and  $13,327,300
will  be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance appropriation,  a decrease  of
$237,400 and  $287,100, respectively.

Program Description

     The program areas under this subactivity include:

     Water Quality Management --  This  program includes management  of  State  finan«-
cial  assistance under  Sections  106, 205(g)  (non-construction grants  management),
205(j), 208,  and 303 of the  Clean Water Act.

     Great Lakes Program—  This program provides  assistance in implementing  U.S.
programs in  support  of the  U.S. -  Canada  Great  Lakes Water  Quality  Agreement.   A
major focus  of  the  program  is the measurement of  ambient  conditions  in  the  Great
Lakes in order  to determine  compliance with  the  objectives  of the  Agreement.   The
monitoring portions  of the program measure water  quality trends  and the effective-
ness  of remedial responses to emerging  pollution  problems.

     Chesapeake Bay  Program  --  As  a result  of  the Chesapeake  Bay  Water  Quality
Study, the Agency is committing significant resources to restore  Bay water quality.
The Agency is assisting the  Bay States  and  the District  of  Columbia  in implementing
control activities to  control  nutrient  and toxic effects in -the Bay.   In addition
to maintaining the Bay  Liaison  Office  in  Annapolis, the Agency  will  provide  cost-
sharing grant assistance to  the States  for  implementing nutrient and toxic controls.
The Agency conducts  detailed monitoring and modeling studies to assist in the clean-
up effort.


WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total of $3,780,700  supported  hy 76.6  total  workyears
for this program,  of which  $3,600,700  will be for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
priation and  $180,000 will be  for the  Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropria-
tion.  This  represents a  decrease   of $135,300  and $48,700,   respectively.   The
decrease in  Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects  Government-wide  reductions to pay  and
administrative services.  The  decrease in Abatement,  Control and  Compliance  re-
flects completion  of a study on the  use of  106 and 205(j)  funds.

     EPA will continue  working  with  the  States to  coordinate water  quality program
objectives, outputs,  and  Federal  and   State  funding  mechanisms.   EPA  and  State
program managers  will  negotiate annual  program priorities  and accomplishment  com-
mitments; Agency  personnel   will  provide  feedback  and assistance  based  on  the
results of annual evaluations.   These  efforts are  intended  to ensure that Federal
and State objectives, priorities, and funds are meeting priority  point and nonpoint
source control   management  needs  through   the  most  cost  effective  approaches.
                                       WQ-44

-------
     Grants totaling $64,900,000 are  being requested  for  award under  Section  106
of the  Clean  Water  Act  to  support  State and  Interstate  water pollution  control
programs, an increase of  $3,700,000.   EPA will  work with the  States  to target  the
funds to reduce permit backlogs,  issue Best  Available Technology permits,  support
municipal and industrial  compliance activities,  and develop  ground-water protection
programs.  New grants oversight policies  issued  in 1985 will  be fully  implemented
to ensure that  State output and  expenditure  commitments are  met  and  results  are
achieved.

     The Administration  is  considering major revisions  to   Section  205(j)  of  the
Clean Water Act which  authorizes  various planning activities.  However,  under  the
current authorization,  the  Agency  expects to award  approximately  $24,400,000  to
the States in 1986 for planning activities under this  section.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the  Agency's  response to  the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories: travel,   motor vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The reduction  of
-$fi,500 in  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation   represents decreases  to  all
of the  above  categories.   The decrease  of  -$9,100 in the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation  reflects  reductions  to  consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is allocating  a total  of $3,964,700  supported by 76.6
total workyears for  this  program,  of which  $3,736,000 is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  $228,700  is for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

     EPA is continuing to focus on  coordinating Federal and  State water  quality
priorities and  programs.   The  primary objectives  in 1985  are to  improve  State
decision-making for pollution control  on priority water bodies  and to  strengthen
EPA oversight  and  State  management of water  pollution control resources.  Annual
program and funding  priority  guidance is  being  issued for  Region  and   State use.
EPA is negotiating coordinated  State  use  of Sections 106, 205(j), and  non-construc-
tion grant  205(g)  funds   for priority  areas.  A  simplified  final  Water  Quality
Management regulation is   being published  along  with implementation  guidance.   EPA
guidance is being  issued  on development  of State  priority  water bodies  lists  and
their uses in water  quality management.   A study  of  1982 through  1984  use of  106
and 205(j) funds is  being  completed,  and indicated changes   in policy and guidance
will be  issued.    Policies  and  guidance  on  improving  grants work  programs  and
managing to meet   both  program  and  financial   commitments  are   being  developed
for implementation in 1986.

     EPA continues  to manage contracts  providing States with  technical   assistance
in developing  nonpoint source  control strategies.  A methodology  for  determining
instream effects of  NPS pollution  and identifying  local  NPS problems will  be pub-
lished.  The Agency maintains liaison with other  agencies implementing the national
strategy developed in
     EPA has  released  a proposed  National   Nonpoint  Source Policy  and an  Agency
strategy for nonpoint sources.  EPA has worked  with  15 other agencies to get com-
mitments to individual  nonpoint  source strategies  for  those agencies' -activities
within their base resources.

1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The net increase of +584,100  results  from the  following  actions:
                                      WQ-45

-------
     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$1,900)  This  reprogramming  reflects  a  shift of  re-
sources within the Agency  to  fund  the expanded needs  required  by  the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.   This change  resulted  in a  net  decrease  of
-$1,900 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$48,700)  Several  reprogrammings  were made to  this activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable under  the  Congressional reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a net  increase of  +$48,700 to the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$37,300)   This  program  was  increased by +$37,300  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated  $6,331,400 supported by 89.2 total workyears  for
this program, of  which  $4,206,200  was for  the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation
and $2,125,200  was  for  the  Abatement,   Control   and  Compliance  -appropriation.

     EPA initiated development of policies  and guidance to strengthen  Agency  over-
sight and State management  of water pollution control resources.   The  Agency  also
worked with the States, encouraging them to  strengthen their  State plans  and  plan-
ning processes and  to  implement effective  procedures for ensuring consistency  of
proposed permits, construction grants, and  approved plans.

     The Agency issued a report on nonpoint source control needs and costs, and  the
final report on the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program.   Contracts were used to assist
the Agency in developing  a  national  nonpoint  source policy  and to  support  a  Non-
point Source Task Force in  developing a national  strategy.   The Agency  also worked
with the States to gather information on the status of nonpoint source  problems  and
their water  quality  impacts  to  assist  EPA  and the  States   in  developing  nonpoint
source control  implementation  strategies.   The -Agency also  continued  working  with
the Departments of Agriculture and Interior on nonpoint source activities.

     The Agency issued  its  annual  funding  guidance  on priorities  for  use  o"f  Sec-
tions 106,  205(J) and  non-construction  grants management  205(g)  funds,  reviewed
work programs  submitted  in   grant  applications,  and  negotiated  priority  use  of
funds.  A total  of $53,877,500 in  Section  106 grants was  awarded  to State  and  In-
terstate water pollution  control  agencies.   A total  of  $22,955,793 under  Section
205(j) was obligated for water quality management  planning.


GREAT LAKES PROGRAM

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total of  $4,941,800  supported by  20.0  total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $1,044,500 will  be for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $3,897,300  will  be for  the Abatement,   Control   and  Compliance appro-
priation.  This  represents  an  increase  of  $5,100   and  a  decrease   of  $238,400,
respectively, and no change in total workyears.  The decrease in Abatement, Control
and Compliance reflects a  shift  to  a  less  intense  water  chemistry  program for  con-
ventional pollutants and to less intensive  Atmospheric Deposition Network sampling.

     The Great  Lakes  National  Program  Office (GLNPO)  will  continue to  provide
leadership in  meeting  the  U.S.  obligations  under  the Great Lakes Water Quality
Agreement with Canada  and  will  continue  to  support  the  activities of  the Inter-
national Joint Commission (IJC).  It will  be  responding to information requests and
providing technical assistance to Headquarters and the State  Department on official
Canadian requests  and  notes  concerning U.S.  Great Lakes policies.   Staff support
                                         WQ-46

-------
'to the IJC's Water  Quality  Board and its  committees  will  continue to ensure  that
 U.S.  views and policies  are adequately represented.   GLNPO will provide  support
 for the U.S. review of the  Water Quality Agreement that will be the basis  for its
 renegotiation.

      The  Program will  work  on the  Great  Lakes monitoring plan as  required  by  Annex
 11 of the Agreement with  Canada.  Surveys  of  the Lakes will be  conducted in  co-
 operation with  State and Canadian  agencies  to  determine the annual variability  of
 ambient phosphorus  concentrations and the  levels  and  trends  in  metals and  conven-
 tional  pollutant parameters.  A  surveillance program to detect toxic substances  in
 Great Lakes fish and sediments  will be  conducted  in several tributaries and  harbors
 The results will be analyzed and reported  to the States for regulatory  follow-up.

      The  results of the monitoring, including water, fish, sediment, and air  data,
 will provide the information necessary  to  assess  compliance  with Agreement objec-
 tives,  to  evaluate  effectiveness  of  control programs,  and  to  identify  emerging
 problems.  Attention in  sediment  sampling will  be  focused on  the problem  of  pollut-
 ed sediment in  the  "Areas  of   Concern"  identified  by  the  Uater  Quality Board.
 Remedial  action  plans  will  be  completed  for  20  areas  and  alternative abatement
 technologies will  be  identified  and  evaluated.   The  second  and  final  season  of
 monitoring work, including water and sediment  sampling,  for  the Upper Great  Lakes
 Connecting Channels  Study  will  be completed and a  draft final report will be  writ-
 ten.  The U.S.  Phosphorus  Reduction plans for Lakes Erie and  Ontario will  continue
 to be implemented  by the States with  GLNPO  oversight and  assistance.


 1985 Program

      In 1985, the  Agency is  allocating  a  total of  $5,175,100 supported by  20.0  work-
 years for this  program,  of which  $1,039,400 is  for the Salaries and  Fxpenses appro-
 priation  and $4,135,700  is  for  the  Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The  Upper  Great Lakes Connecting Channels Study is  being implemented;  1985  is
 the first of two field seasons of  this binational ecosystem analysis during  which
 sampling  of the  channels'  water  and  sediment is being conducted.   The  National
 Oceanographic and  Atmospheric Administration and  the Fish and Wildlife Service are
 also contributing  to this  effort.

      In April  of 1985, the  U.S.  will  submit to the International  Joint  Commission
 the complete Phosphorus  Reduction Plan  called for  in' the  recently  signed  Supplement
 to Annex   3  of  the  Water  Quality Agreement.   This will  include  State  plans   from
 Indiana,  Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York.  In  addition,  negotiations with
 Canada  will  be completed to allocate the additional phosphorus load reduction needed
 for Lake  Ontari o.

      GLNPO is  continuing  its  sampling  network  and  laboratory  activities.  Uater
 chemistry, biota,  and sediment  analysis that  are requested  by the Agreement are
 being carried out.   This work will  be used  as the  basis  for the 1985 Biennal Report
 on Great  Lakes  Water Quality which  is to  be  completed in  April, 1985.  In addition,
 new surveillance plans  for  the  individual  lakes  are  being completed  this year.

      The  Water  Quality Board has  revised the tracking system for  "Areas of Concern".
 In 1985,  each area  is  being  analyzed  under  the  new system and model  remedial action
 plans is  being  completed  for Grand  Calumet,  Indiana;  Saginaw Bay,  Michigan; and
 Green Bay, Wisconsin.

 1985 Explanation of  Changes  from  the  Enacted

      The  net decrease  of -$541,800  results  from the following actions:
                                       WQ-47

-------
     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$551,500)    This  reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to  fund the expanded  needs  required by  the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.    This  change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of  -$551,500  to  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$9,70n)    This   program  was  increased  by  +$9,700  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, thp Agency  obligated  a total  of  $4,019,700  supported  by  17.7  total
workyears for this  program, of which  $911,500  was for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $3,108,200 was  for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appro-
priation.

     In 1984, the National  Program  Office  continued  its  lead role  in coordinating
and implementing U.S.  programs  in fulfillment of the Agreement.  Specific activities
conducted in 1984 to ascertain  ambient  conditions included analyses  of  fish  flesh
from nearshore and  open  water locations, sediment  surveys of suspected toxic  hot
spots in tributary mouths,  atmospheric  deposition collections at 41  stations,  and
mathematical modeling  to determine  maximum allowable loading  of  pollutants.   Other
major accomplishments   included  completion  of  the  Niagara River  Toxic  Committee
Report in cooperation with  New York, other  Federal offices, and Canadian  agencies
as part of the ongoing Niagara Frontier Agenda.

     The National Program  Office provided funding  through the  Clean  Water  Act's
Section 108(a) cooperative  grant program with State and  local entities  in  31  coun-
ties in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and New York  to demonstrate  voluntary best manage-
ment practices to further reduce phosphorus  loadings  to Lake  Erie and Lake  Ontario.

     Additional  accomplishments included participation on  seven committees of  the
Water Quality  Board, which  deal  with  the   individual   lakes  and  two  connecting
channels', and also with various task forces of  the  International Joint  Commission.
This provided major program evaluations  and  completed  new  monitoring  strategies
to assess effectiveness of U.S. and  Canadian  control  programs.


CHESAPEAKE BAY PROGRAM

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $10,075,200 supported by 10.0  total  workyears
for this program, of  which $825,200 will be  for the Salaries and  Expenses  appro-
priation and $9,250,000  will  be for the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appro-
priation.  This  represents a decrease of $107,200 and  no change,  respectively, and
no change  in total  workyears.  The  decrease  in  Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects
Government-wide  reductions to pay and administrative  services.

     In 1986, the  Agency  will  continue  to  provide technical  and  administrative
staff support to the Chesapeake Bay  Implementation Committee  and Executive Council.
Coordination functions  will  be  carried out  with the  Bay  States,   other  Federal
Agencies, and other  Bay management   agencies  to ensure  continued progress  is made
in restoring Bay water quality.  Uater quality models  will  be available  to more
accurately reflect Bay conditions and dynamics and will support  cleanup and control
decisions.  The  Agency will continue to support and coordinate  efforts  to monitor
the mainstem of the Bay in concert with the States'  focus on  the major tributaries.
Continued support will  bo  provided for maintaining and improving  the  Chesapeake
Bay data  system and public  participation will  continue  to be an integral  part of
the decision-making process.
                                       WQ-4S

-------
     The Agency will make  funds available to the  Chesapeake  Bay States in the form
of 50  percent  matching  grants  with  special  emphasis  on  problems  resulting  from
nonpoint sources  of  pollution.    Projects   will  -focus  on   priority  watersheds:
those causing the most  significant  delivery of phosphorus and  nitrogen  to  the Bay
and its tributaries.  Within these watersheds, projects  wil.l  address the "critical
areas" which are major  sources  of the  nonpoint  pollution  load.  The  State  grants
will be consistent  with  and fully  supportive  of  the  Comprehensive Plan for  Protec-
tion and Restoration  of  the Chespeake  Bay,  which will  be completed  in  July  1985.


1985 Program

     In 1985. the  Agency  is  allocating a total   of  $10,182,400 supported by  10.0
total workyears  for this  program,  of   which  $932,400  is  for the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $9,250,000 is  for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

     During 1985, the  Implementaion  Committee is developing a  comprehensive  plan
which will   be  the   basis  for  State  grant  proposals.  We  are supplying  fuads  for
matching grants to focus State point  and nonpoint  source control efforts on critical
sub-basins.  These  grants  are targeted  at  reducing  the  loadings of  nutrients  and
toxics and  are  intended  to supplement  and  enhance  State  efforts  in  establishing
control programs.   In  addition,   formal  mechanisms  for  public participation  and
education are  being established   in  accordance  with  recommendations  of  a  study
initiated by the Executive Council  in  1984.  The  efforts  of the  National  Oceanic
and Atmospheric  Administration   (NOAA), the  U.S.  Geological  Survey  (USGS),  the
Corps of Engineers, the  U.S.  Department of  Agriculture, and  the  Fish  and Wildlife
Service are being coordinated  through the Liaison  Office.

     Other activities  of the  Liaison  Office include  complementing the  tributary
monitoring activities of  the  States  by  supporting and coordinating  the  monitoring
of the Bay's  mainstem;  refining  and enhancing  water quality models to  assess  the
impact of  alternative  control  options;  and  maintaining the  program's  computer
center, which stores the program's extensive data  base.


1985 Explanation of Changes from  the  Enacted

     The net increase of +$182,400 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.   (+$177,600)   Several  reprogrammings were made to this  activi-
ty which were  not  reportable under the  Congressional   reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in  a net increase  of  +$177,600 to the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$4,800)   This  program  was   increased  by  +$4,800  reflecting
the amount  requested for the pay  raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency  obligated  a total  of $1,291,200 supported by  7.1  total
workyears for this  program,  of which $606,900  was  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $684,300 was  for  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appro-
priati on.

     The Agency completed  and published the "final reports of the  research  program
and continued to  emphasize the  Liaison  Office's  role  in   coordinating  the  Bay
cleanup effort.   We  co-sponsored,  and  played an  important  role in  the  Chesapeake
Bay Conference held in December 1983, when the Chesapeake Bay Agreement  was  signed
by the Administrator, the  Governors  of  Maryland,  Pennsylvania,  Virginia,  the  Mayor
of the District  of  Columbia,  and  the   Chairman of the  Chesapeake Bay  Commission.
                                       WQ-49

-------
This Agreement  formally   supports  two  Committees:  an  Implementation  Committee,
consisting of  senior  staff, and  an  Executive  Council  made  up  of the  Governors,
the District Mayor,  and  thp Administrator.  The  Chesapeake  Bay Liaison Office  in
Annapolis Maryland, and  additional  technical  and program  support being  provided
through Region Ill's water  program  office, supported the Committees.   The  Liaison
Office provided oversight  of  the development  of the  July  1,  1984  implementation
plans which  include  plans  for  nutrient  control,  toxic  control,  and  monitoring.

     The Agency established a  framework  to  provide matching  grants  to  the  Bay
States to support  cleanup  activities.   By the  end of 1984, EPA had  receive^  grant
applications from Maryland,  Virginia, and  Pennsylvania and began grant negotiations.
Pennsylvania received the first  Chesapeake Bay implementation  grant  of $1,000,000
matching funds on  October  5,  1984;  the  Agency  expects to  obligate  the  remaining
1984 funds  to Maryland,  Virginia,  and  the  District  of  Columbia  during  1985.

     The Liaison Office  coordinated  a  strategy  and  provided  funds  to the  States
for monitoring ambient  samples at the Bay's mainstem stations  and  conducting  sedi-
ment sampling at selected  stations.   In addition, the  tributary monitoring  efforts
of the States, NOAA,  and  USGS were coordinated through this Office.   A water  quality
model task force was convener!  to review available models and  make recommendations
and initiate the development of  a  model to more accurately reflect  Bay conditions
and dynamics.
                                       WQ-50

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                                   WATER  QUALITY


                         Effluent  Standards' and  Guidelines


Budget Request

     The Agency requests  a  total of ' $7,993,800 supported by 71.0 total  workyears  for
1986, a decrease of $1,198,900 and 4.0 total workyears from 1985.  Of the  request,
$3,593,800 will be for the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and $4,400,000 will
be for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance  appropriation, a  decrease  of  $392,200
and $806,700, respectively.

Program Description

     Effluent Standards  and Guidelines --  This  program  includes  establishing  ef-
fluent limitations for industries discharging directly to waterways and  indirectly
through publicly owned treatment works (POTWs).   Effluent standards and  guidelines
are promulgated under the authority of Sections 301,  304,  306,  307, and  501  of  the
Clean Water Act.   Through thi*; program, the Agency establishes a number of different
kinds of effluent standards and  guidelines.

     Rest Available Technology Economically Achievable  (RAT) limitations generally
represent the best existing performance  in  the industrial category or  suhcategory.
The Act establishes BAT  as the  principal national means of controlling  the  direct
discharge of toxics  and  nonconventional   pollutants  into navigable  waters.   Best
Conventional Pollution Control Technology  (BCT),  the  basis  for limiting  discharges
of conventional pollutants  from existing  sources,  is  not an additional  limitation,
but replaces BAT for the conventional pollutants.   New Source  Performance Standards
(NSPS) are  based  on  the  best   available  demonstrated  technology.   Pretreatment
Standards for  Existing   Sources  (PSES)   are designer!  to prevent  the  discharge  of
pollutants which pass through,  interfere with,  or are otherwise  incompatible with
the POTW's treatment process or  chosen sludge  disposal  method.   The similar regula-
tion for new plants is Pretreatment Standards  for  New Sources  (PSNS).

     The Act now  requires  the achievement by  July 1,  1984  of  effluent  limitations
requiring application of BAT  for  conventional pollutants and classes  of  pollutants
which Congress declared  toxic under Section 307(a) of the 1972  Act.  Likewise, NSPS
and pretreatment standards  were  redirected toward  toxic pollutant  controls.


EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a total  of  $7,993,800 supported  by 71.0 total workyears
for this program,  of  which $3,593,800  will  be for the Salaries and Expenses  appro-
priation and $4,400,000 wi 1 1  be  for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropria-
tion.  This  represents  a  decrease of $392,200 and  $806,700,  respectively,  and  a
decrease of 4.0 total workyears.  The decrease in  both  appropriations  and  in total
workyears reflects  the   Agency's  progress  in developing   effluent  standards  and
guidel i
     In 19H6,  the  program  will  promulgate  regulations  to  establish  national
effluent limitations and  standards  for one remaining,  very  complex  category  under
court-ordered schedule:  organic  chemicals,  and  plastics   and  synthetic  fibers.

     The program  will  provide  engineering, economic,  and  statistical  support  to
post-promulgation negotiation,  litigation,  remand/repair, and petition  review  ef-
forts.  These efforts  are  required  to  defend  the integrity  of the  guidelines.  The
                                       UQ-52

-------
Agency reviews petitions  filed  by  outside groups  with  the courts  and  attempts  to
resolve issues  out  of  court.  Some  are successfully  resolved;  others are  liti-
gated, which  may  require the Agency  to  respond  to court  remands.   In 1986,  the
program anticipates complex  petition  review for  regulations  in at least eight  of
the categories  promulgated  during  1984  and  1985.  Four  of  these petitions  are
likely candidates  for  court  decisions  resulting  in   remand/repair  efforts.   In
addition, approximately  seven  of  the  thirteen  petitions  received in  1985  will
be undergoing remand/repair in 1986.

     The program  will  also  continue  to  emphasize  engineering,  economic,   and
statistical support to Regional  and State permit writers  and  to industry in reissuing
expired permits which will incorporate  BAT.  Increased  support  will  be  provided  to
conduct additional  permit  workshops  and  training  sessions.   This  will   include
providing data and  assisting the Regions  and  States  on developing  site-specific
BPJ (best  professional  judgment)  for toxic pollutants,  implementing  categorical
pretreatment standards,  resolving the  backlog  of  modification  requests,  variances
and evidentiary hearings, and writing new source  discharge  permits.

     The program  will  begin  investigating  additional   industries  that  are  poten-
tially significant dischargers of toxic  pollutants.  Initial  studies have indicated
that several of these industries may be  more significant in  terms  of toxic  loadings
than several  industries  now  regulated under  the  Natural Resources Defense  Council
(NRDC) Consent  Decree.   The  program  will  examine  industries  such  as  hazardous
waste treatment facilities, solvent reclaimers,  transportation  sources,  hospitals,
and ferroalloy  manufacturing  facilities.   We  will   also   continue  to  evaluate
toxic compounds in  four  industries  using analytical detection  methods  refined  for
these compounds in 1985.  These analyses will  be used in the  future development  of
final  regulations for these industries.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual,  and consulting  services.   The reduction  of
-$8,200 in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation represents  decreases  to all
of the above  categories.  Thr decrease  of -$279,500 in the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation reflects  reductions  to consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating a  total  of $9,192,700 supported by 75.0 total
workyears for this program,  of  which $3,986,000 is  for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $5,206,700  is  for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appro-
priation.

     The program  continues  to  promulgate effluent  standards  and  guidelines  for
industries on court-ordered  schedules.   The  program plans  to complete  regulations
for Nonferrous hetals  Forming,  Nonferrous Metals  (Phase  II),  Foundries,  Plastics
Molding and Forming,  and Pesticides.   Extensive development  work is underway for
promulgating regulations  on   the  category,  organic  chemicals  and  plastics  and
synthetic fibers.  The  program  is  also  developing  regulations  for  offshore  oil
and gas production,  gold placer  mining,  and  Pharmaceuticals.

     Post-promul-gation support continues on  litigation,  remand/repair, and  petition
review efforts for thirteen industries.    Also, the  program  expects to review peti-
tions  concerning regulations  that  were promulgated  in  1984  and  1985.
                                      WQ-53

-------
     The program is providing,  in conjunction with the Office of  Water  Enforcement
and Permits (OWEP), engineering, economic, and statistical  support to Regional  and
State permit writers  through  20  technical  workshops  and  seminars  for  Regional',
State, and  industry  representatives.   The program will  conduct compliance  assis-
tance workshops for the foundry  industry as  a  pilot for the  Agency's  small  business
initiative and  will develop a quality  assurance  program for assessment of  permits
and the pretreatment program.

     Environmental  assessments   will  he prepared  for  Phase  II  industries such  as
coil  coating and for non-NRDC facilities to support regulatory  and  guidance develop-
ment  activities.   The  program   is  incorporating  data  on non-BAT  industries  into
the Reach  File for  use in  regulatory analyses  and  develop   risk  assessments  of
toxic chemical  compounds.


1985  Explanation of Changes from the  Enacted

     The net decrease of -$142,400 results from the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$153,600)    This   reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to  fund  the expanded needs  required  by the  reauthor-
ized  Resource  Conservation and Recovery  Act.   This  change   resulted   in  a  net
decrease of -$153,600 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.   (-$25,?00)  Several  reprogrammings were  made to this  activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes  resulted  in  a  net decrease of -$16,800 to the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and a net  decrease  of  -$8,400 to the Abatement,  Control  and  Compli-
ance  appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$36,400)  This  program was  increased  by  +$36,400  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984  Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency obligated a total  of $16,745,000  supported by  92.9 total
workyears for  this  program, of  which $4,648,000 was   for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $12,097,000 was for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appro-
pri ati on.

     The program  published proposed   regulations  establishing  national   effluent
limitations and standards for three industries:  Nonferrous Metals  Forming, Plastics
Molding and Forming, and Nonferrous  Metals  (Phase II).   This  completes  proposal  of
all effluent standards  and  guidelines required by the  1976 NRDC Settlement  Agreement
with  the  exception  of  those industries  excluded  from  regulation in accordance with
paragraph 8 of  the modified settlement  agreement.

     The program also  promulgated regulations  establishing  national  effluent limi-
tations and  standards   for  five industries:   Battery  Manufacturing,  Coil  Coating
(Phase II),  Electrical  and Electronic  Components  (Phase II),  Inorganic  Chemicals
(Phase II), and  Nonferrous  Metals  (Phase  I).  The program  also proposed  revisions
to the Phosphate Fertilizer industry  in response to  an industry petition.

      In a  series  of 18  workshops  for  FPA  Regional  and State  permit writers, the
program provided assistance in  analyzing and interpreting information on the treat-
ability of  toxic  compounds and the  basis  and use  of  the  categorical  standards.
                                       WQ-54

-------
     The program reviewed  11  petitions  concerning regulations promulgated  in  1°83
and 1984.   Post-promulgation  activities  are  underway   in  three  industries,   anri
negotiated agreements  are  being  attempted.    Detailed   "fundamentally   different
factors" (FOF)  variances  were  completed  for  pulp  and  paper  mills.   The  program
assisted Regional  permit  authorities  in  completing  reviews  of  applications  sub-
mitted pursuant to  Section 301(m) of  the Clean  Water  Act  by  two  pulp  and paper
mills in California  to  obtain  waivers  from  Best Practicable  Technology  (BPTJ/BCT
and Section 403 effluent limitations.

     Environmental  assessments were completed  for Phase  I and  some  Phase  II  indus-
tries.  The program used these analyses  to make regulatory decisions, in  particular,
to exclude  some industrial  categories  and subcategories from  national  regulation.
Information was added to  the  Reach File  for  use in national   and Regional  assess-
ments, such as determining areas which  may require post-BAT  controls.
                                       UQ-55

-------
































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WQ-56

-------
                                 UATER QUALITY


                           Grants Assistance Programs
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a total 'of $64,900,000  for  grants under  the  Abatement,
Control and  Compliance appropriation  in 1986,  a  decrease  of  $50,000  from  1985,

Program Description

     Clean Lakes Program —  Section 314  of the  Clean  Water  Act  sets  forth  the
principal administrative  and  technical   requirements   for.  developing  a  national
program to enhance the quality  of  freshwater  lakes.  The Clean  Lakes regulation in
February 1980 established an operational  program of financial and technical  assist-
ance to the States to assist them in implementing methods and procedures  to  protect
and restore the quality of their publicly owned freshwater lakes.

     Control  Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106) --  Section  106   grants
supplement State  resources  for water pollution  control  programs.  They are  nego-
tiated annually with  50  States,  7  Territories, and  6  Interstate  compact  agencies.
Funds are  used  to carry  out  a  wide range of  water  quality  programs,  including
permit issuance,  enforcement,  monitoring,  construction  grants management,  water
quality planning  and   standards,  wasteload  allocations, nonpoint  source  control
program management, pretreatment,  oil  and hazardous materials  spill  response,  and
other priority programs.

     States also receive financial  assistance  for  water quality program  activities
under Sections  205(g)  and  205(j)  of the Clean  Water  Act  as  reserves from  their
annual Construction Grants  allotment under  the Construction  Grants  appropriation.
Funding is provided  under  Section   205fg)  for construction  grants   management  in
delegated States and  under Section  205(j)  for  water quality  planning  and  stan-
dards activities.

     Training Grants  (Section 104)  -- Training  assistance is provided to  institu-
tions of higher  education  and  other public or  private  agencies  and  institutions
to meet professional  manpower needs.


CLEAN LAKES PROGRAM

1986 Program  Request

     In 1986, the Agency  requests  no funds for  the  Clean Lakes  Program.   In  past
years the  Agency  has  developed  and demonstrated  lake  restoration  techniques  and
assisted States  in  classifying  lakes,   identifying  techniques   for  restoring  the
level of water quality needed to maintain or enhance uses, and  implementing  cleanup
and control projects.   Since the  Agency has  provided  guidance to  the  States  on
maintaining clean lakes, it believes that the States are now able to  address  lake
restoration needs,  along with  other local  priorities,  under their  existing  water
quality management programs.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is  allocating  a total of $3,750,000 under  the  Abatement,
Control  and Compliance appropriation  for  grants  for the Clean  Lakes  Program.   The
funds provided are being used  only  for existing implementation projects  (Phase  II).
The Agency expects to  award approximately  eleven  grants for improving  conditions
in publicly owned freshwater lakes.
                                       WQ-57

-------
1985 Explanation of Changes from the .Enacted

     The net decrease of -$1,250,000 results  from the  following  action:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$1,250,000)   This  reprogramming  reflects a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to fund the expanded needs required  by  the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.  This chan-ge  resulted in a  net decrease  of
-$1,250,000 to the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a  total  of  $6,100,000 from the  Abatement,  Con-
trol and  Compliance  appropriation under the  Clean  Lakes Program to  help  complete
27 existing projects.


CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION (SECTION 106)

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total of  $64,900,000  under the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation,   an   increase  of   $3,700,000   from  1985.   The  increase
will be directed  to activities  to improve  compliance  by  dischargers  with  their
National Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination System  (NPDES)  permits.   Because  of  the
major potential for water  quality impairment  and sludge contamination, the  increase
will be focused on  improving  compliance  of publicly owned  treatment works  (POTWs),
especially those  required  to  administer  pretreatment  programs,  under the  National
Municipal  Policy.

     State program priority activities  funded  under  Section  106 will continue  to
emphasize primarily  NPOES  permitting,  enforcement,   and   associated  source  and
ambient monitoring.  Additionally,  funds will  be devoted  to  assisting  States  as
they develop  ground-water  programs.   Enforcement and  compliance  efforts will  ex-
pand to assure  that, as the number of dischargers  and the  complexity  of  effluents
increases, sources are meeting permit  limits."

     Assistance to the States  in 19R6 will  emphasize issuance  of industrial  permits
for Best Available Technology  (BAT) and municipal permits.   States  will  continue to
stress issuing or reissuing major NPDES permits, reducing backlogs,  improving muni-
cipal compliance, and monitoring and standard setting to support permit  activities.
Over 1,100 major  NPDES permits  will  be  issued or reissued  by  the  States,  which
should fully  eliminate the  NPDES State major  permit backlog,  and  12,000  compliance
inspections will  be conducted.   A limited  amount  of  Section  106  funds  will  be
devoted to management of State sludge and nonpoint source programs.

     The Administration is  considering major  revisions  to Title  II  of the  Clean
Water Act beginning  in  1986.   However, under the  current  authorization,  delegated
construction  grants  management   related  activities will  be  funded  under  Section
205(g).  Water  quality  management  planning  will  be funded  primarily  under Section
205(j).


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $61,200,000  for Section  106
grants under  the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     State activities primarily  funded under Section 106 include NPDES  permitting,
ambient and  source  monitoring of toxics and  conventional  pollutants, enforcement,
ground-water  program  strategy development  and  administration  of  State  programs.
                                       UQ-58

-------
     States are focusing  on  their NPDES permit  backlogs,  especially  issuance  and
reissuance of BAT permits, by  targeting  106 grant dollars 'to this  area.   Enforce-
ment efforts  continue  to  emphasize  compliance.   Monitoring  essential to  permits
issuance and  enforcement  is also  funded using  Section 106  funds.   An  estimated
20 States with  critical  nonpoint  source  problems are  using  Section  106  funds  to
initiate control programs or  manage existing control  activities.

     During 1985,  one more State  NPDES  program is expected to be  approved,  bring-
ing the total  to  38;  the other  States  continue  to assist  EPA  in  many  aspects
of permits  issuance.   In  addition,  several  States  are  developing NPDES  program
modifications to assume pretreatment, Federal  facility, and general  permitting  re-
sponsibilities.  Approximately  1800 major NPDES permits, including  toxics  controls,
are being issued or  reissued by  the States.   Nearly 12,000 compliance inspections
are being conducted,  and  the  States  will  take  increasing  responsibility  in com-
pliance activities.   States are  developing  analytical  capabilities to  support  in-
creased emphasis on  water quality based permitting,  toxics  control,  and  requests1
for permit variances, and  strengthen  their  ability to  perform conventional  pollu-
tant wasteload  analyses  for major permits.   Finally,  all  States are developing
or implementating  ground-water management  plans  based  on  guidance  published   in
early 1985.

     Delegated construction grants management  related  activities are  being  funded
under Section  205(g).   Water  quality  standards  reviews,  planning and associated
monitoring, and development programs  for  nonpoint  source  control management  are
being funded primarily under  Section  205(j).


1985 Explanation of  Changes from  the  Enacted

     There is no change from  the  enacted  level  of the 1985 budget.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated $53,877,500  for  Section 106  grants under  the
Abatement, Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.   State activities   funded  under
Section 106 included NPDES permitting, ambient and source monitoring of toxics  and
conventional  pollutants,  enforcement, oil and  hazardous materials  spill  response,
nondelegated construction  grants  program activities, water qua-lity standards  re-
views, nonpoint source control  program management and State  program administration.

     The States increased  emphasis  on  NPDES  permitting,  especially  major  permit
reissuance and  BAT permits.  Thirty-eight  States  had  approved  NPDES  programs,   an
increase of one in 1984.   States  issued and  reissued  more  than  1,100  majors per-
mits and  6,000 minor  permits.  Enforcement  efforts  were  also  increased.  Over
11,700 compliance  inspections   were conducted.   State NPDES programs were  modified
to include pretreatment programs,  and Federal  facilities  permitting.   Thirty-three
States were operating  biomonitoring  programs  during 1984;'  essentially all  States
had developed  capabilities  to  perform  conventional  pollutant  wasteload   analyses
for major permits.   Seventeen  States used  Section 106 grants to  manage  nonpoint
source control activities.


TRAINING GRANTS (SECTION  104)

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  no  funds for these  grants  in 1986.   The Agency  believes
that sufficient interest  and opportunities  exist  for people to enter environmental
professions without  Federal support.
                                      WQ-59

-------
1985 Program

     The Agency is not allocating any 1985 funds to this program.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$214,000 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$216,000)    This   reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to fund the expanded needs required by the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This  change  resulted  in  a  net  decrease  of
-$216,000 to the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$2,000)  Several  reprogrammings were made to this  activity
which were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted  in  a  net increase of +$2,000  to the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency  obligated $200,000 under the  Abatement, Control  and  Com-
pliance appropriation  for  training grants.  These  funds were  used to support  77
environmental fellowships at 27 universities.
                                       WQ-60

-------










































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-------
                                   WATER QUALITY


                      Water Quality Strategies Implementation
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of  $24,811,300  supported  by 284.5 total  workyears
for 1986,  an  increase   of   $5,826,100  and  8.1  total   workyears   from  1985.   Of
this request,  $11,997,500  will  be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation
and $12,813,800 will  be for the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance appropriation,
an increase of $156,200 and $5,669,900,  respectively.

Program Description

     Dredge and Fi 11  --  The  focus  of the  Section  404  Program  will  be to  ensure
that the most  significant problems in wetlands  and  other aquatic systems  are iden-
tified and  appropriately  addressed  through  implementation  of  improved  scientific
and administrative methods  for  dealing with  those  problems.   Headquarters  will
develop guidance and  revise  regulations  and  procedures  to  ensure sound,  effective,
and consistent methods  to  identify  and  address the  most  significant  environmental
problems supported by an active  enforcement  and compliance  program.   Regions  will
use their authorities to review and comment on public notices nf permit applications
and, when necessary  to  protect  significant resource values,  will  elevate  permits,
restrict or prohibit  discharges, and establish  jurisdictional  boundaries to  ensure
a strong, efficient and consistent  program.  Regions will assist in the identifica-
tion of  critical  wetlands  requiring immediate  protective  action,  will  strengthen
efforts to  have  an  effective  404  compliance  and  enforcement  program,  and  will
continue their  work  in  transferring the  Section  404  Program  to interested  and
qualified States.

     Ocean Disposal Permits  --  The ocean disposal  program includes the  regulation
of ocean disposal  by outfalls,  dumping,  and incineration  at sea, designation  of
disposal sites, development  of  ocean  disposal  policies,  and participation  in  inter-
agency programs that deal with 'the  development and  protection  of  ocean  resources.
The Agency's ocean disposal  programs are  authorized by the  Marine  Protection,  Re-
search and Sanctuaries Act  (MPRSA)  of 197?  and the Clean Water Act, as amended,  and
are consistent with the  mandatory provisions  of  the  current Convention on  Prevention
of Marine Pollution  by  Dumping  of  Wastes  and  Other Matter,  known as the  London
Dumping Convention.  This program  supports both  Headquarters and  Regional  staff.

     To carry out  ocean disposal permitting  functions,  the  Administrator  of  EPA is
authorized to  regulate  the  disposal  of   all  materials  except  dredged material,
which is regulated by the  Corps  of Engineers.  MPRSA prohibits  the transportation
and dumping in ocean  water  of chemical,  biological,  and  radiological warfare  agents
and high level  radioactive materials.  EPA has  statutory  responsibility  for  desig-
nating all  ocean dumping sites, including those for  dredged material.

     Environmental  Emergency Response and  Prevention—  This  program  will  continue
to maintain an  around-the-clock  capability  to  receive  notice  of  and respond  to
major incidents of accidental  releases  of oil  and other  petroleum products.  (Spills
of hazardous  substances are  covered under  'Superfund.)  Removal  actions  will   be
directed by Regional  personnel  at serious  incidents  where  the responsible  party is
unidentifiable, refuses  to  clean  up,  or  is  incapable of  providing adequate  response
and where  State   or  local   authorities  lack  appropriate  expertise or  resources.

     The cleanup monitoring  program  will  continue to provide incentive for  adequate
removal  by responsible parties, as well as  serve as a  mechanism for  drawing  State
and local agencies into directing removals themselves.  The  Agency's  focus  in  1986
will  be on encouraging State and  local governments to assume a greater share  of  the
responsibility for responding to  oil  spills.   Federal resources,  therefore, will  be
concentrated on major actions where  State,  local, or private response  is not  feasi-
ble.
                                       WQ-63

-------
     Standards and Regulations  --  This program implements water quality-based  con-
trols bysetting  water quality  standards pursuant  to Sections  303,  304(a),  and
307(a) of the Clean Water Act.  EPA  and  the  States use the water quality  criteria
adopted in the standards  as  the  basis for water quality-based controls.   EPA pub-
lishes guidance on  water quality  criteria  applicable to  freshwater,  marine,  and
estuarine environments and sediments.  Under  Section 405,  the Agency develops  and
publishes regulations  providing  guidelines  for the  disposal  and  utilization  of
sludge.  This  program also  includes  Clean  Lakes  grants  management.   Both  Head-
quarters and Regional  programs  are  supported  by this  program  element.


DREDGE AND FILL

1986 Budget Request

     The Agency requests  a total  of  $4,674,300  supported  by  75.3 total workyears
for this program,  of  which $3,021,000 will be for  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appro-
priation and $1,653,300 will  be  for the  Abatement,  Control  and   Compliance  appro-
priation.  This represents an  increase of $226,300 and an increase of  $1,161,400,
respectively, and  an increase of  7.0  in total  workyears.  The  increases  in  Salaries
and Expenses and  total  workyears  reflect  increased  enforcement  and monitoring  of
general permits.   The  increase  in  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance reflects  im-
proved permit  reviews  of  areas with  high levels of environmentally damaging  dis-
charge activity.

     The major focus  of  the  Headquarters program  will be  to ensure that  the  most
significant problems  in wetlands and  other aquatic  systems are identified  and pro-
tection increased  appropriately through  development  of  related  guidance,  revised
regulations  and  procedures, and   through  implementation   of improved  scientific
and administrative methods of  addressing  significant problems.  This will  increase
program predictability  and   efficiency  for  the  regulated  public.   Regions  will
continue to use their authorities tn  protect   significant resource values.   Regions
will also  increase  their enforcement  and   compliance  efforts   and   continue  to
encourage the  transfer  of the Section  404   Program  to interested  and  qualified
States under the revised regulations.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  re-sponse  to the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following   categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle.
printing, publication and audio-visual,  and consulting services.  The reduction  of
-$5,700 in the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation represents decreases to  all  of
the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $3,286,100  supported  by  68.3
total workyears for  this  program,  of which   $2,794,200 is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $491,900  is  for the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance
appropriation.

     Headquarters  is  developing  a  system  for  identifying  the  most   significant
problems involving  wetlands  and  other   aquatic  areas,  improving  scientific  and
administrative methods  of addressing them,   and  finalizing-  revisions  to the  404
State Program  regulations.   Regions  are initiating  action  to   address  the  most
significant environmental  problems  (for   example,  the  loss  of bottomland  hardwood
wetlands).  Regions  will  also  strengthen  efforts  to  transfer the  404  Program  to
the States and to ensure general  permits  are  environmentally  sound.
                                       WQ-64

-------
1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$31,100 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$2,100)   This  reprogramming reflects  a shift  of  re-
sources within the  Agency  to  fund the expanded  needs  required  by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.   This  change  resulted  in  a net  decrease
of -$2,100 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$33,200)    This  program  was  increased  by  +$33,200  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated a total  of  $2,637,100 supported  by  59.3 total
workyears for this  program, of which $2,300,600 was  for  the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $336,500  was for  the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appro-
priation.

     Headquarters initiated development  of  a  national  404  Program  Strategy,  and
proposed revised 404 State Program regulations.   Regions  reviewed over 6,000 Section
404 permits,  ensured  general   permits were  soundly  developed,  continued  to  work
with States on 404  program assumption, and exercised EPA's  authorities  to prevent
unacceptable discharges  of dredged and fill  material.


OCEAN DISPOSAL PERMITS

j.986_ Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $8,863,800  supported by 45.6  total  workyears
for this program, of which $2,066,600  will  be  for  the Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $6,797,200  will  be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance  appro-
priation.  This  represents  an  increase  of  $51,100  and  $4,486,800,  respectively,
and an  increase  of  1.1  in  total  workyears.  The  increase  in both  appropriations
and in total workyears  reflects  support  for the monitoring  of  deep water  disposal
sites and the  establishment  of a  comprehensive  integrated  approach to  incinerate
hazardous waste at se*a.

     The program  will  be implementing  the  ocean  dumping regulations modified  in
response to the  1981 court decision,  which  ruled that the Agency must consider  the
comparative environnental effects  of  land  versus ocean disposal  in  considering  an
ocean-disposal  permit application.   At the  same time,  work  will continue  on  the
development of a comprehensive revision to the regulations to provide for balancing
the environmental effects  of  ocean disposal  methods, while  meeting  specific envi-
ronmental criteria established by the Statute.

     The Agency  will  continue  reviewing  and issuing  permits  for  ocean  disposal.
This activity will  include evaluating  and  characterizing waste  samples  on a case-
by-case basis.   EPA will  also  continue to  review dredged material disposal  permits
issued by the Corps of  Engineers.   We will accelerate  the  preparation of  environ-_
mental  assessments to support  site designations for those dredged-material  disposal
sites not  covered  by  the National   Wildlife   Federation  (NWF)  Consent  Decree.

     In the  area of  site designation  and  monitoring,  the  program will  conduct
approximately eight  surveys of  interim  and  existing ocean disposal  sites  for  site
designation purposes  and determine  the  environmental  impacts   of  disposal.   Two
deep water sites within  the New  York  106-mile  site will  be  monitored in  accordance
with a comprehensive monitoring plan.
                                       WQ-65

-------
     Of particular concern in 1986 will  be  the  implementation  of  the  incineration-
at-sea regulation, which will be  paralleled by  the implementation of the  research
strategy for this  program.   Additional  ports  of  loading  and potential  incinera-
tion sites  will  be surveyed for  designation in the  Atlantic and Pacific  Oceans.
Comprehensive incineration  site monitoring  programs  will  be  implemented to  assure
adequate baseline information for  designation  and/or  to assess continuing  protec-
tion of  the .marine  environment  through  adequate  site management.   Permits  will
have to  be  prepared  for  each   research  burn  as   well  as   special  or  operational
permits for  the  operation  of  a  designated incineration  site.   The  Agency  will
participate in the monitoring of research burns and will establish a  comprehensive
monitoring assessment  and  impact  analysis  program to  review the monitoring  data
from each burn to  support  authorization of  subsequent  burns.  A major element  of
the impact  analysis  program  will  be  the development  of a  predictive  model to  be
used in  the assessment of  the  environmental  impacts  of  proposed  quantities  and
characteristics of toxic compounds to be  incinerated.   This will  include the  basic
field studies to  identify  and   refine  key  parameters  and  to  develop  and test  the
validity of the model itself.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects the  Agency's  response to the Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel, motor   vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting  services.  The reduction  of
-$5,600 in  the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation represents decreases to  all  of
the above  categories.   The  decrease  of  -$169,200 in  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation reflects  reductions to  consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is allocating  a  total  of $4,325,900  supported  by  44.5
total workyears  for this program,  of  which $2,015,500 is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and   $2,310,400   is  for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Com-
pliance appropriation.

     The program  is  promulgating  a  revision  to  the  ocean  dumping  regulation.
Separate regulations  are  being  promulgated  for  the   control  and  monitoring  of
incineration-at-sea activities,  'and  an  incineration-at-sea  research  strategy  is
being developed.  A  new incineration  site in the  North Atlantic  has  be^n  proposed
and may be designated in 1985.

     All remaining  environmental  impact  statements  covered   by  the  NWF  Consent
Decree should be completed.   Sites are being designated and additional  site  manage-
ment is  being  provided to  monitor environmental  impacts.   A   final  decision  is  to
be made  on  whether  to continue the  use of the  New York  Bight  12-mile site  for
sewage sludge disposal.  Permit applications for  the  New  York 106-mile site  will
require Agency review and decisions.

     Work is  continuing  to  examine  scientific  parameters  for the  site  selection
and designation process and  assessment  of permittee  wastes.  The  Agency is  examin-
ing and field testing predictive indices developed in  cooperation  with the  National
Oceanic and  Atmospheric Administration  which measure environmental  impacts  to de-
termine the more relevant and applicable  indices in regard to ocean disposal.   These
indices are  being  refined  for  use  in site  designation and monitoring  activities.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$208,800 results  from the following  actions:
                                       WQ-66

-------
     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$3,400)  This  reprogramming reflects  a  shift  of  re-
sources within the Agency  to  fund the expanded needs  required  by the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change  resulted  in  a  net  decrease of
-$3,400 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (+$190,600)  Several  reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which  werenotreportable under  the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a net increase of  +$190,600 to the Salaries  and Expenses
appropri ati on.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$21,600)   This  program  was  increased  by  +$21,600  reflecting
the anount requested  for the pay raise supplemental.
                                                                         i

1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $4,061,700 supported by  41.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $1,794,500 was  for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $2,267,200  was  for the Abatement,  Control and  Compliance  appro-
priation.

     The majority of the  extramural  resources were for site  surveys,  development
of environmental assessments,  and site designation, and the review, processing,  and
issuance of permits for ocean  disposal.   This  includes evaluating and characterizing
waste samples provided by  facilities  applying for  permits.   The  waste  characteris-
tics are examined for  suitability for ocean disposal  at existing  sites  on  a case-
by-case basis.

     The Agency  conducted  monitoring  surveys of  existing  and  interim  designated
ocean disposal  sites.    Samples  were  collected   and  analyzed  to  determine  and
monitor the environmental impacts of  waste  disposal at  the designated ocean  sites.
Environmental Impact  Statements  were  issued  on ocean  disposal  sites  as  required
under the National  Wildlife Federation Consent Decree.  Additional  site  designation
work was begun  on  interim designated dredged material  disposal  sites  not  covered
under the Consent Decree.

     Additionally,  we prepared a  technical  evaluation of the  bioaccumulation  pre-
dictive assessment  techniques  and updated  the  hioassay procedures reflecting  new
scientific  and site-specific   information.    Regulations  were  proposed  for the
incineration-at-spa program and  public  comments   on  the  proposal  were  reviewed.


ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND PREVENTION

19J36> Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $4,548,700 supported  by 68.1  total  workyears
for this  program,  of  which  $2,700,700  will  be   for  the   Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $1,848,000  will be  for  the Abatement,  Control, and  Compliance
appropriation.  This  reflects  a  decrease  of  $66,000  and  an increase  of  $17,200,
respectively.  The  decrease  in   Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects  Government-wide
reductions to pay and administrative services.

     The Agency has  a 24-hour-a-day  capability to  respond to  notifications of acci-
dental  spills or threats  of  releases.  Federal  removal is directed at major inci-
dents where the  responsible party is  unidentifiable, refuses  to  clean  up, or  is
incapable of providing timely  and adequate  removal and where the  States  and local
authorities lack the  necessary expertise,  equipment, or funding.

     Spill  notifications will   be  processed  to determine what,  if any,  response  is
required.  The  Federal  government  will  direct  response  operations at   1?0  major
spills  and will  monitor on-scene  at  400  removals   conducted  by  responsible  parties
or State and local  authorities to ensure  adequate  response.
                                       WQ-67

-------
      Federal  regulations  require  the  implementation  of  a  Spill  Prevention,  Control,
 and  Counter-measure  (SPCC)  plan at oil  storage  facilities and transfer  points  that
 could reasonably  be expected to spill  a  significant amount of oil  into the waters
 of the United  States.   Regional  staff,  with  assistance  from  contractor  personnel,
 conduct  compliance  inspections  at  selected  non-transportation-related  (NTR)  facili-
 ties included  in  the SPCC program, in an effort to  reduce the  frequency and  volume
 of releases  that  occur.  An estimated  2,000  SPCC  inspections  will be conducted  at
 NTR  facilities.

      The Agency  also  maintains an  Environmental  Response  Team  (ERT)  to  provide
 Regional  and  State  personnel   with   response  training and  on-site  technical   and
 operational  assistance at complex emergency incidents.  The ERT is  staffed  by  per-
 sonnel with  a  high  degree of expertise  in  the  areas of spill- control and  removal,
 spill sampling and  analysis  techniques,  and damage assessments.

      Regional  response capability  is  augmented  through   the  Technical   Assistance
 Team contract.  This  contract provides contractor  workyears to  assist  Regional
 staff and the  ERT in  responding to Clean Water Act  Section 311 spills and  environ-
 mental emergencies.


 1985 Rescission

      This reduction reflects  the  Agency's  response to  the  Deficit Reduction  Act
 which requires decreases  in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor   vehicle,
 printing, publication  and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The reduction  of
 -$20,900 in  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation  represents decreases to  all  of
 the  above categories.


 1985 Program

      In  1985,  the  Agency  is allocating  a  total   of $4,597,500  supported  by  68.1
 total workyears  for  this  program,  of which  $2,766,700 is for the Salaries  and  Expen-
 ses  appropriation and  $1,830,800 is for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appro-
 priation.

      Headquarters  is ensuring  overall  management  of  the program, and the  Regions
 are  responsible  for managing response  actions.  The oil  component  of the  ERT  pro-
 vides special  engineering  and  technical  advice at  any unusually  large  or  complex
 spill.  Regional  personnel  are  available  on  a  24-hour  basis to  respond to  the
 estimated 7,000  notifications  received  by the  National  Response  Center  of  acci-
 dental releases  of  oil and  other  petroleum products.  The Agency  is  providing on-
 scene monitoring  at  400  removals undertaken  by  responsible  parties  or State  and
 local authorities and  is  directing  removals  at  approximately 120 major oil  inci-
. dents.  An estimated 2,000 SPCC inspections are being  conducted  at  NTR  facilities.


 1985 Explanation  of Changes  from  the  Enacted

      The net decrease of  -599,300 results from the following  actions:

      -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$101,200)    This   reprogramming   reflects  a  shift  of
 resources within  the Agency to  fund  the expanded needs  required by  the  reauthor-
 ized Resource Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This change resulted  in  a  net
 decrease of  -$1,200 to the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation and  a  net  decrease
 of -$100,000 to  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation.

      -Reprogrammi ngs.   (-$31,200)  Several  reprogrammings were made to this activi-
 ty whi~ch  were not  reportable  under the Congressional  reprogrammi ng  limitations.
 These changes resulted in  a net  decrease  of  -$7,000 to  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
 appropriation and a net decrease  of  -$24,200  to the Abatement, Control  and  Compli-
 ance appropriation.
                                         WQ-68

-------
     -Pay Raise.  (+$33,100)   This  program  was  increased  by +$33,100  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligatpd  a total  of  $4,599,000 supported  by  59.2  total
workyears for this  program,  of which $2,262,900 was  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $2,336,100 was for the  Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance appro-
priation.  Regional   Offices  received  and  screened over 7,000  notifications  of  oil
spill releases.   Of these, the Agency  directed  removals  at  120 major  oil  spills
and responded  on-scene at  400 non-Federally funded  incidents.   In  addition,  the
Agency conducted over 1,700 SPCC inspections at  NTR facilities.


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of $6,724,500  supported by  95.5 total  workyears
for this program, of which $4,209,200  will  be   for  the  Salaries and  Expenses  ap-
propriation and  $2,515,300 wil^ be  for  the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation, a decrease  of  $55,700  and  an increase of  $4,500,  respectively,  and
no change  in  total   workyears.  The  decrease in  Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects
Government-wide reductions  to  pay  and  administrative services.   The increase  in
Abatement, Control  and  Compliance  reflects  the  Agency's  emphasis  on the  further
development of water quality criteria.

     State water  quality   standards  serve as the  regulatory  basis   for  treatment
controls that go  beyond  technology-based  treatment requirements.  The Agency  will
continue to work  with  States  to identify  water  quality  limited stream  segments
where standards  revisions  may  be warranted.  The  revised water  quality  standards
regulation specifies that  States must identify  specific  water bodies where  toxic
pollutants are  known  or suspected  to  be  causing  use impairment.  To ensure  that
water quality standards  are based  on  adequate  data and information  and that  they
meet the  requirements  of  the  Act,  the Regional   Offices  will  continue  assisting
States in  collecting  data  and  selecting appropriate  procedures to  conduct  use
attainability analyses  and determining  where site-specific   criteria  development
may be warranted.   The  program will  provide additional  guidance  and  assistance, to
the States for  conducting  use  attainability  analyses to resolve  intra-  and  inter-
state issues affecting toxic pollutant  permit controls.

     In 1986, the program will  continue to develop  and issue water quality  criteria
and advisories  for  aquatic life to  help   States determine appropriate  protection
levels for  toxic  and  other  pollutants.   State  adoption  of  criteria  for  toxic
pollutants is a  requirement  under  the  revised regulation.   The  program will  con-
tinue to work with  States  in  integrating  the development  of  site-specific  criteria
into the  States'  standards  review   and   revision process.   Criteria  for  toxic
pollutants will  be  developed  for freshwater, marine,  and estuarine  environments.
The program will continue  to develop application guidance to  help  States establish
and implement approaches  for  applying  numerical  or  narrative toxic  standards  in
permitting programs.  Assistance will  be   provided through  technical  workshops  in
the implementation  of  the  approaches  as   well   as  the  application  guidance  on  a
case-by-case basis.   In  addition,  the program  will  field  test  methodologies  for
the development of  sediment criteria and  refine those  criteria  proposed  in  1985.

     The Agency will  propose  technical  criteria and  management  practices  for  the
reuse or disposal of municipal sewage  sludge through regulations.  These  regula-
tions will  address  distribution  and  marketing,   land  application  to  food and  non-
                                       WQ-69

-------
food chain crops,  land  filling,  incineration, and  ocean disposal.  An  intermedia
analysis will  be used to  assess  risk  and evaluate health and environmental  impli-
cations of the various disposal  options.   We will also continue to provide overall
management of  those Clean  Lakes  projects  which  are  still  underway.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response  to  the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The reduction of
-$9,500 in the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation represents decreases to  all of
the above  categories.   The decrease  of  -$138,100  in the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation reflects reductions  to consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating a total of $6,775,700 and  95.5 total  work-
years for  this  program,  of  which  $4,264,900 is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and  $2,510,800  is  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appro-
priation.

     The program is working with the  States to implement the  revised water quality
standards regulation with  special  emphasis in adopting  toxic criteria  and  to up-
grade water body uses to  fishable  and swimmable  standards.  Much  greater  priority
is being given  to  examining  the  adequacy of  any  narrative criteria for  toxics and
identifying the method  by which the  State intends  to  regulate point  source  dis-
charges of toxic  pollutants.   Regional  Offices  continue  to review State-adopted
additions or  revisions  to  water  quality  standards.    EPA   is  working  with the
States to  resolve  complex  issues  involved  in the  revision and  modification of
water body uses  and differences among State  use  classification  systems.    EPA is
assisting the  States  in the  use  of  site-specific criteria  and use attainability
protocols.

     The program continues to develop criteria,  specifically for  toxic  pollutants
in freshwater, marine and  estuarine environments.  The program  is  also  investigat-
ing methodologies  for developing  sediment  criteria and  initiating the development
of sediment criteria.  A detailed National assessment of the  contaminated  sediment
problem is being developed  to provide guidance and  support  to  the development of
sediment criteria.

     The Agency is  starting  a major  effort for the development  of regulations for
the disposal  and utilization  of municipal  sewage  sludge.   The program will  propose
methodologies  for  developing  numerical  limits, management  practices,  and techno-
logical controls  of  sludge,  develop   environmental  profiles for  contaminants of
concern, and  issue technical  summary  documents  for each  sludge disposal option.
This effort will  provide  the technical  basis for  conducting  intermedia  analyses
and subsequent development of sludge  regulations  in 1986.

     The Agency will  continue to provide  management of the Clean Lakes  projects
and assist States and local  agencies in overseeing lake restoration  project  funding.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the  Enacted

     The npt decrease of -$40,400 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$6,900)    This  reprogramming reflects  a  shift  of re-
sources within  the  Agency  to  fund  the expanded needs required  by  the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.  This  change  resulted in a net decrease of
-$6,900 to the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.
                                       WQ-70

-------
     -Reprogrammings.   (-$80,100)   Several  reprogrammings  were  made  to  this  activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable  under the . Congressional reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net  decrease  of -$75,600 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and a net  decrease  of -$4,500 to the Abatement, Control  and  Compli-
ance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$46,600)   This  program was  increased  by  +$46,600  reflecting
the amount requested for the  pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated  $4,557,600 supported by  85.6 total workyears
for this program, of  which $3,492,300  was  for the Salaries and  Expenses appropri-
ation and $1,065,300  was for the  Abatement, Control and  Compliance  appropriation.

     A revised water  quality standards  regulation that  governs the  development,
review, revision, and  approval  of  standards  was issued  in   November  1983.   The
regulation maintains  a   strong  anti-degradation  requirement  and emphasizes  State
standards as the  basis for permit limitations.  Technical  workshops  were conducted
on the implementation  of the  regulation, use attainability analyses,  and the  devel-
opment of site-specific  criteria.   The Water Quality Standards Handbook  was  issued
to assist States  in  determining  appropriate uses and  criteria  in  setting  water
quality standards.   The  Agency  responded to hundreds  of  requests from all  States
for support   in  conducting use  attainability  analyses,  in  setting  site-specific
criteria, and increasing the coverage  of toxic pollutants in  State  standards.   In
addition, the program continued its emphasis on developing criteria,  specifically
for toxic pollutants in  freshwater  and marine environments.  The program  proposed
revisions for water  quality  criteria  on   nine  toxic  chemicals,  final   criteria
for dioxin,  proposed  a   new  bacteriological  indicator   criterion,  and  updated  the
National  Guidelines  for  Criteria Development.  The program continued management  of
the Clean Lakes  program,  which included reviewing  and  approving  grant  applications
for existing Clean  Lakes  projects.
                                       WQ-71

-------
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                                                                   WQ-73

-------
                                   UATER  QUALITY


                       Water Quality Monitoring  and  Analysis
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $15,651,400 supported by  176.8 total-  workyears
for 1986, an  increase of $1,349,100 and a  decease of 26.6 total workyears from 1985.
Of the  request,  $7,835,800  will  be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation
and $7,815,600 will be  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation,  a
a decrease of $1,495,000 and an  increase  of $2,844,100,  respectively.

Program Description

     Comprehensive Estuarine Management --   This   program provides   assistance   to
support selected estuarine initiatives by State and  local  governmental  entities  for
the identification of nutrient  and toxic pollution problems and the development  of
recommended State/local  activities for pollution  abatement.  The program includes
the use of technology transfer to make the experiences from the Chesapeake  Bay  and
Great Lakes programs available  to  the selected estuarine  initiatives and  others,
as appropriate.   This   program  supports  both Headquarters  and  Regional  staffs.

     Water Quality Monitoring emd_ Anjajysis  --  This   program  supports  biological,
chemical, and physical  evaluations of  water  quality to assess water quality  status
and trends, identify water  quality problems  and  their causes, and determine  cost-
effective levels  of controls  required  to meet  local   water quality  objectives.
Throughout, the  program emphasizes  developing effective  technical   guidance  and
assistance to the States,  which  are primarily  responsible for collecting,  analyzing,
and interpreting  monitoring data.   This  program  supports  both  Headquarters  and
Regional staffs.


COMPREHENSIVE ESTUARINE MANAGEMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total of  $4,302,000  supported  by 6.0 total  workyears
in this program, of which $302,000 will be  for the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropria-
tion and $4,000,000 will  be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.
This represent an  increase  of  $10,000 and  $4,000,000, respectively,   and  no  change
in total workyears.  The  increase  in  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  reflects  a
shift of the  1985 level  of funding  from Research  and  Development   to  Abatement,
Control and Compliance  for  further technical  studies  and  investigations  of  complex
nutrient and toxic pollution problems in major estuaries.

     The comprehensive   estuarine  approach includes  quantifying  pollutant  loads,
assessing impacts on estuarine water  quality and  resources,  and  providing recommen-
dations on priority trade-offs  of  load  reduction between  sources so  that  EPA  and
States can take  the  appropriate steps to  restore or  maintain and, where possible,
enhance environmental   quality.   The   approach  uses   participatory  management  and
joint decision  making   among  Federal, State,  and local  authorities,  as well   as
the public,  to  define  the  nature  and  extent of  environmental   problems,  analyze
appropriate data,  relate  ambient  water quality conditions  to land-based pollutant
loads, gather monitoring data and develop  monitoring  plans, and  recommend alterna-
tive management actions to abate environmental problems.

     In 1986, the program will  integrate products from 1985  (problem  identification
and assessment, pollutant source quantification, and assessment of impacts on envir-
onmental quality) into  a monitoring program and begin  development of a comprehensive
                                      WQ-74

-------
environmental master plan  for  Long Island Sound,  Narragansett  Bay,  Buzzards  Bay,
and Puget Sound.  The plan  will  balance  pollution  control  levels  between point and
nonpoint sources  and  will  form  the  basis  for  implementing  control   actions  to
achieve environmental  results.

     The Agency,  in coordination  with  National  Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra-
tion (NOAA), will assist  selected State  and  local  agencies  in  the development and
implementation of  estuarine studies   and  programs  through   financial  assistance,
both matching grants and contracts, and  generic  guidance  developed on the basis of
the Agency's experience in the  Chesapeake Bay and Great Lakes programs.  The Agency
will also develop a technology  transfer  system to aid  the selected estuarine pro-
grams and  other  estuarine  initiatives,  as  appropriate,  in the  interchange  of
technical methodologies and program management  techniques.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response  to  the Deficit Reduction  Act,
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting  services.   The  reduction  of
-$1,200 in  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation represents  decreases to  all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is allocating a total  of $292,000, all  of which is for the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  supported  by 6.0 workyears  for this  program.

     Under the Comprehensive  Estuarine  Management subactivity in  the  Research and
Development appropriation,  $4,000,000  is  allocated  for  water  quality  research,
sampling, monitoring, and  assessment  in this area.   This  was the  initial  funding
provided to  assist  Long Island  Sound,  Narragansett Bay,  Buzzards Bay, and  Puget
Sound in developing  programs  to  protect the critical  ecosystems  -of the  estuarine
zones from land-generated nutrient and toxic pollutants.

     The Agency,  in  coordination with NOAA, is  assisting  State and local  agencies
dealing with these   four  water  bodies during  1985  in the  formulation  of  work
programs to  carry out  studies to determine wasteload sources and  characteristics,
to locate and  quantify  nutrient  and  toxic  problem areas,  and to  identify  the  man-
agement and  data  needs  for the  design of  control   and  abatement programs.   Once
work programs  are  set,  EPA  will  provide  financial assistance  through  matching
grants and contracts to carry  out the studies.   The  overall schedule for completion
of each estuary will vary depending on the  complexity of the  estuary and extent  of
previously completed work.

     On the basis of nutrient  and toxics abatement experiences gained  in the Chesa-
peake .Bay Program and the Great  Lakes Program, the Agency  is  developing  a  national
estuarine policy  and generic  estuarine  program  guidance document  for   use  by  State
and local officials  in program design and  implementation.


1985 Explanation  of  Changes  from  the  Enacted

     The net increase of +$2,200  results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$700)   This  reprogramming  reflects   a  shift  of  re-
sources within the  Agency  to   fund  the expanded  neeHs   required  by the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.    This  change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$700 to the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.
                                      WQ-75

-------
     -Pay Raise.  (+$2,900)    This  program  was  increased  by  +$2,900  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     Therp was no program in FY 1984.


WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND ANALYSIS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $11,349,400 supported by  170.8 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $7,533,800 will  be for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  ap-
propriation and $3,815,600 will be  for  the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appro-
priation.  This  represents  a  decrease  of $1,505,000  and  $1,155,900,  respectively,
and a decrease  of  26.6  total  workyears.  The decrease  in  Salaries and  Expenses
primarily reflects  the  transfer  of the  water  quality information system  (STORET)
to the  Office  of  Information  Resources  Management  (-11.9  total  workyears).   The
remainder of the  decrease to  Salaries   and  Expenses  and total  workyears and  the
decrease in Abatement, Control and  Compliance  primarily  reflects the  completion  of
dioxin sampling for the National  Dioxin  Study.

     The program will  continue to  implement the water quality  monitoring  strategy,
including State implementation of the revised  Basic Water Monitoring  and  Wasteload
Allocation Program.  This effort is designed  to improve EPA's and States' ability
to collect  the  data  needed to  establish water  pollution  controls  and  evaluate
program effects.   Emphasis  will be  placed  on  systematic  screening to  identify
waters not  fully  supporting  designated  uses,  with   a  particular focus  on   toxic
pollutant problems.

     The program  will  provide  technical  support  to  States  for  developing   water
quality-based limitations and  improving methods used to  support State permit  writ-
ers.'  The program will provide technical  assistance in analyzing the  current  State
backlog of toxic pollutant samples.  We will  provide  additional assistance  to  State
permit writers  in  the use  of  biomonitoring  techniques  and  in directly  assessing
the chronic and  acute  toxicity of  discharges.  Review  of State  wasteload alloca-
tions (WLAs)  and  total  maximum daily  loads   (TMDLs)  will  continue  with special
emphasis on areas where control decisions are most  needed.

     Headquarters will  issue   further  technical  guidance and  conduct  additional
workshops on wasteload allocations  and  biomonitoring  approaches.   This will include
the revision  of existing technical  guidance  and  development  of  new material  on
the application  of bioassay  tests for  calculating  in-stream effects  of  design
conditions.  These methodologies will  be extended  to estuarine and  marine waters.
Technical guidance  on  TMDLs and WLAs  will  be  issued  to address  the more complex
toxic pollutants,  bioaccumulation  factors,  and innovative modeling  approaches  for
water quality-based permitting.

     The National Dioxin  Study  will  be  finalized;  in December 1985,  a  report will
be prepared for  Congress.   Follow-up  assessments  will be conducted  in  those  areas
where dioxin was  found  but  a  source  could not  be  immediately  identified.  Samples
collected from  the  dioxin  study and  other  sites  will be analyzed to identify and
characterize problems   from  bioaccumul ative  pollutants,  before they  become  major
National concerns.

     The program  will  continue to  implement  quality  assurance  (QA)  efforts.   This
includes overseeing State OA  implementation  required in  EPA  grants,  participating
in interlaboratory tests and audits,  and  reviewing  OA procedures.   The program will
also continue to  operate and  enhance the  water quality  information  systems.  The
Regional offices  will  work  with the  States  in preparing the 1986  Section  305(b)


                                       WQ-76

-------
reports, which describe  the status  and  trends  of  surface  waters  in  their  juris-
dictions.

198b Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response  to  the Deficit Reduction  Act,
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
of -$33,500 in the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  represents decreases  to all
of the above  categories.   The  decrease of -$324,500 in the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation reflects reductions to  consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency is allocating a total   of  $14,010,300 supported by  197.4
total workyears  for  this  program,  of  whfch  $9,038,800  is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $4,971,500  is  for  the  Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

     The program  is  continuing  to  assist  and  promote  use of  biomonitoring  and
technical guidance on  TMDLs and  WLAs  as  part  of the water quality-based  approach
to control  the  discharge   of  toxic  pollutants.   Emphasis  is  being  placed  on
improved screening techniques  for  States to follow  in  setting  priorities,  bio-
monitoring technical  guidance,  step-by-step  user guidance  for  TMDLs and WLA  models,
and quality assurance.   The Technical  Support Document (developed in 1984} will  be
finalized.  The  Agency  is  making pilot tests of  technical  approaches   and is  col-
lecting data  to   verify  the  validity  of the  approaches  for  controlling  actual
instream consequences  of the  discharge   of toxicity  in  effluents.  The  Regional
Offices are continuing to provide technical  advice on the application  of EPA  guid-
ance to  site-specific  situations to improve  State  TMDL  and  WLA programs.   We  are
continuing to provide sampling  and laboratory  analysis  assistance  to the the  States
upon request, particularly  for  toxic pollutants  and  biomonitoring.

    •The program  is  in  the  second year of the  National Dioxin  Study.   This  effort
includes sampling  a  representative  number  of  hydrologic units  to assess  dioxin
build-up in bed  sediments and  native fish.   It'also includes  intensive surveys  at
a sample  of manufacturing  and  pesticide  use  sites.  A  draft  report is beiny  pre-
pared on the results  of the study.

     The program  is beginning to  implement  the  monitoring  strategy issued  in  1984.
Consistent with  the  strategy, technical  guidance  is  being  revised  to  emphasize
State monitoring   programs  necessary for  reporting  national  baselines and  trends
in water  quality.  The program  will  issue  the  1984 Section  305(b) Water  Quality
Inventory Report   to   Congress  and  issue  guidance  to  the  States  for  preparing
the 1986 Section  305(b) report.


1985 Explanation  of Changes from  the Enacted

     The net increase of +$42,600 results  from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reproyramming.  (-$45,800)   This,  reprogramming  reflects   a  shift  of
resources within  the  Agency to  fund the   expanded needs  required  by the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and   Recovery  Act.    This  change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$45,800  to the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$7,500)   Several  reprogrammings  were  made to  this  activ-
ity which were not reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted   in  a  net decrease  of  -$7,500  to the  Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation.
                                       WQ-77

-------
1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the  Agency's response to  the  Deficit  Reduction  Act,
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual, and consulting  services.  The  reduction  of
-$33,500 in the  Salaries and  Expenses appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the above  categories.   The  decrease of -$324,500 in the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation reflects  reductions  to  consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating a total   of  $14,010,300  supported  by  197.4
total workyears  for  this  program,  of  which  $9,038,800 is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $4,971,500  is  for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance
appropriation.

     The program  is  continuing to  assist  and  promote  use of  biomonitoring  and
technical guidance on TMDLs  and  WLAs  as  part of the  water quality-based  approach
to control  the  discharge  of  toxic  pollutants.   Emphasis  is  being  placed  on
improved screening techniques  for  States to follow  in setting  priorities,  bio-
monitoring technical  guidance, step-hy-step user guidance for TMDLs  and WLA models,
and quality assurance.  The Technical  Support Document  (developed in 198^)  will  be
finalized.  The  Agency  is  making  pilot tests of  technical  approaches  and  is  col-
lecting data  to   verify  the   validity   of the  approaches  for  controlling  actual
instream consequences  of  the  discharge  of  toxicity  in effluents.   The  Regional
Offices are continuing to provide  technical advice on the application  of  EPA  guid-
ance to  site-specific  situations  to improve State TMDL and  WLA  programs.  We are
continuing to  provide  sampling and laboratory analysis  assistance  to the  the States
upon request,  particularly for toxic pollutants  and  biomonitoring.

     The program  is in  the second year of the  National  Dioxin  Study.  T-his  effort
includes sampling  a  representative  number of  hydrologic  units  to  assess  dioxin
build-up in bed  sediments  and  native fish.  It  also includes intensive  surveys at
a sample  of manufacturing  and pesticide use sites.  A  draft  report is being  pre-
pared on the results  of the study.

     The program  is beginning to  implement the  monitoring  strategy  issued in  1984.
Consistent with  the  strategy, technical  guidance  is   being  revised  to  emphasize
State monitoring  programs  necessary for  reporting national  baselines and  trends
in water  quality.  The  program will  issue the  1984 Section  305(b) Vlater  Duality
Inventory Report  to   Congress  and  issue  guidance  to   the  States  for   preparing
the 1986 Section 305(b) report.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase  of +$42,600  results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$45,800)   This   reprogramming  reflects   a   shift  of
resources within  the  Agency  to  fund the  expanded  needs required by the  reauthor-
ized Resource   Conservation  and   Recovery  Act.    This   change   resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$45,800 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.   (-$7,500)   Several  reprogrammings were made to this activ-
ity which  were  not reportable under the.  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes   resulted  in  a net  decrease of  -$7,500  to  the  Abatement,  Control
and Compliance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$95,900)    This  program was increased  by  +$95,900  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.
                                       WQ-78

-------
1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  $13,082,200 supported by 180.8 total  workyears
for this program, of which $8,307,600 was  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropria-
tion and $4,774,600 was  for  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation.

     The Agency developed a monitoring program strategy to  modernize  State  and  F.PA
programs.   A biomonitoring policy was  developed and Regional  biomonitoring capabil-
ities expanded to provide an  integrated  approach  using  both  chemical  and  biological
methods to assess and  control  toxic  substances  in surface water.   A draft Technical
Support Document was produced jointly with the National  Pollutant Discharge Elimina-
tion System (NPDES)  program to implement  the  biomonitoring policy.

     In December  1983,  the Agency  issued the  Dioxin  Strategy to  determine  the
nature and extent of dioxin contamination throughout  the  Country.  Seven  categories
of sites are being investigated, ranging from sites where contamination  is strongly
suspected  (tiers  1-2), to  ambient  sites with  no known sources  of  dioxin  (tier  7
control sites).   This  program  element provides  resources  for  the National Dioxin
Study that covers tiers  3-7;  tiers  1-2 are covered  under  the Superfund program.

     In addition, the  program  issued  a  series  of  technical   guidance  documents
on wasteload allocation procedures and provided  technical assistance  to  the States
to support the  water quality-based approach  to permitting.   The program  also com-
pleted a joint  effort  with the  States to  develop  and  use  a standardized approach
for assessing and reporting water quality; this  will improve inputs to the  Section
305(b) Water Quality Inventory  Report.
                                     WQ-79

-------
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-------
                                 WATER QUALITY


                            Municipal  Source Control
Budget Request
      The Agency requests a total  of $42,698,700 supported by  557.8 total  workyears
for 1986,  a  decrease  of $14,935,400 and  25 total  workyears from  1985.  Of  the
request $22,719,600  will  be  for  the   Salaries   and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$19,979,100 will be  for the Abatement,  Control   and  Compliance  appropriation,  a
decrease of $1,841,500 and  $13,093,900,  respectively.

Program Description

     This subactivity  provides  resources at  Headquarters  and in  the Regions  for
management of the  Construction  Grants program.  For budgetary purposes,  resources
devoted to managing the  Construction  Grants- Program  are  divided  into  the  following
components:

     Municipal  Waste Treatment Facility  Construction  -- This  program  includes  most
of the  management  activities associated  with the Construction  Grants program  in
Headquarters and Regional  Offices.   Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  resources
support an  interagency  agreement  with  the  Corps  of  Engineers.   Through   this
agreement, the  Corps  provides  a   range   of  construction  management  and  training
activities to assure  the technical  and  fiscal  integrity  of  wastewater  treatment
project construction.

      Waste Treatment Operations and Maintenance -- This program  involves develop-
ment of  State  programs  to  ensure that   Publicly  Owned Wastewater Treatment  Works
(POTWs) meet effluent  requirements.   It  also provides  support in  implementing  the
Agency's National Municipal Policy.


MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY CONSTRUCTION

198_6_ Program Request

     The Agency  requests a total  of  $41,171,000  supported  by  523.5 total  workyears
for this  program,  of  which  $21,191,900 will  be for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $19,979,100  will  be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance
appropriation.  This  represents   a  decrease  of  $1,775,700 and  $13,093,900,  resp-
ectively, and a decrease of 25 total workyears.

     The decrease  in  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  reflects  termination  of  a
special appropriation  to support  the operation  of a solid waste disposal facility
in Akron,  Ohio  and elimination  of funds  for  operator training  grants  as  States are
conducting effective onsite training programs with funds  appropriated from 1982 to
1985.  These decreases are  offset  by  an  increase  in funds for the  interagency agree-
ment with  the Army  Corps of  Engineers.   The decrease  in total  workyears reflects
increased levels  of  State  delegation  and  a  reduced  number   of  active  grants.

     We expect  all States  and Puerto Rico to have signed  delegation  agreements by
the end of 1986. Of this total, 39 States will be fully delegated  (including assis-
tance provided  by  the  Corps  of Engineers),  an  increase of 6 over  1985.   In  1986,
States will  provide  2113 workyears  or  69 percent of  the  total  program  management
staffing, the Corps of Engineers  13 percent, and EPA 18 percent.

     With the resources  in  this program  element,  EPA will  act primarily  as overall
program manager  with  the States  and the Corps  performing most  of  the  day-to-day
project management activities. EPA will  continue to exercise remaining nondelegated
                                        WQ-82

-------
project management-related  responsibilities   in  the  States   and  territories.   In
addition, EPA will  work closely with States to effectively implement  new legislative
changes in 1986.

     Under the  Federal  Managers  Financial  Integrity  Act and  OMB Circular  A-123,
EPA will  continue  to  improve overall  program  management,  particularly  based  on
results of prior year  Internal  Control  Reviews  (ICRs),  and will  initiate  new  ICRs
in other identified priority areas.

     The 1986  Needs  Survey  will integrate for  the  first time priority lists  with
identified treatment needs.   EPA will  continue to work with States to  target  avail-
able funds to highest  priority  water  quality   needs  and document  water  quality
improvements  resulting from the Constructions Grants program.

     EPA will continue efforts to provide State  and  grantee assistance in  selecting
appropriate conventional, secondary,  advanced,  alternative,   or innovative  techno-
logies; publish and actively  disseminate materials on latest technological  findings;
and expand design  feedback efforts to help ensure that  engineers, States  and muni-
cipalities select  the most  appropriate  cost effective  technologies.   Pending  1986
publication of  final  regulations,  EPA  will  issue  guidance  and  provide  technical
assistance to  States  and grantees  on  sludge management  programs  and practices.
EPA will  continue  to  review  Advancer)  Treatment  (AT)   projects  with  incremental
costs above $3 million in Headquarters and others in Regions.

     Expenditures for the  Corps of  Engineers interagency agreement  in 1986  will
total $18,342,500  including $17,842,500 in 1986  funds  and  $500,000  from prior  year
funds.  The $17,842,500 request for  the Corps of Engineers will purchase  390 work-
years of  effort  to provide  construction  management  support  and  assistance  to  EPA
and the States.  The Corps will  emphasize training of selected States  to accelerate
delegation of  construction  management  activities  in  addition  to its  traditional
construction  management  activities  at  about  1,150  active  construction   projects
and participate  in approximately 108 Construction  Management  Evaluations  (CMEs)
and 300 Project Management Conferences (PMCs).

     To reflect  EPA  and  delegated   States'   experience,  findings  from  Inspector
General (IG)   and  General  Accounting  Office   (GAO)  reports  and statutory  changes,
consolidated  program  guidance  will  be  revised.  Tightened  procedures to  prevent
bidrigging will  also  be  implemented.   Construction Management  Evaluations  will
continue to be  used  as a management  tool  in  providing  general  oversight of  the
construction  grants program.   A report will be issued on findings  of  over  200  CMEs
to identify trends.   Guidance  will  be issued on  contract bidding and  specifying,
conduct of pre-application   conferences   and  financial  management   capability  to
ensure that grantees have the financial and management  capability to  support their
projects.

     Headquarters will work  with Regions  to eliminate all  remaining step  1/2 back-
logs, continue to complete and closeout  projects  in  a timely  manner, resolve  'claims
and appeals  of  EPA/State decisions,  and  reduce  excessive  unliquidated  balances.

1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the Agency's  response to  the  Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:  travel, motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual,  and consulting  services.  The  reduction  of
-$107,900 in  the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the above   categories.  The  decrease  of -$814,400 in the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation  reflects reductions  to  consulting services.
                                      WQ-83

-------
1985 Program

      In 198F>, the Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of $56,040,600 supported by  548.5
total workyears for  this  program,  of  which  $22,967,600  is for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and  533,073,000  is  for the  Abatement, Control,  and  Com-
pliance appropriation.  A  special  appropriation  of $13,000,000  is  being used  to
support the operation of  a  solid waste  disposal  facility  in  Akron, Ohio.

      In 1985, the POTW  Funding Task Force  is  completing  its findings on  funding
strategies to  promote long-term  State  and  local  self-sufficiency  in  financing
wastewater treatment   and long-term  municipal  compliance.   Workshops  will be  con-
ducted to assure that  Regional  and  State program managers  are adequately informed
about potential new  directions.  The  Administration  will   propose  to Congress  in
1985 its  recommendations  on  future funding  of  the  construction  grants  program
and appropriate Federal and non-Federal  roles.

     In accordance with the Agency's oversight policy  and  experience  in  managing a
fully delegated program,  Regional staff  are continuing to work with  the  States to
refine oversight  systems  and' approaches  which recognize  Federal-State  roles  and
responsibilities while maintaining  Federal  accountability  for national   goals  and
use of  public  funds.  Findings  from prior year  Internal   Control  Reviews  of  the
Construction Grants program will  be implemented.   During 1985, reviews on  grantee
project management controls in  the  areas  of construction  management,  land acquisi-
tion, financial  management  and  operation  and   maintenance  will   be   conducted.

      EPA is working  closely  with the  States to' ensure orderly  implementation of
the 1981 statutory changes  coming into  effect in  1985.  The  1984  Needs  Survey  will
be published in 1985  and present  for the  first time water  quality and use improve-
ments for each  of 314 sub-basins.   EPA is  implementing  the  Financial  Management
Capability Policy  and conducting  workshops  on  review  procedures  and  technology
selection.

     The Agency will  propose sludge  management regulations,  issue  further  revisions
to secondary treatment regulations and provide implementing  guidance  .for  State and
local officials.  EPA will  submit to Congress a study of Regional  and  State  manage-
ment of Advanced  Treatment  reviews.  We  will also  award the  remaining  funds  for
Marine Combined Sewer Overflow projects.

      The Corps  of Engineers  continues  to  assist  EPA  and the  States   to  ensure
project construction   integrity.   The J15,973,500 funding  level   will  purchase 405
workyears of effort and provide 13% of  the total  construction grants program staff.
The Corps will  continue its  traditional pre-construction and construction  management
activities and maintain on-site presence at large complex projects.   The $1,250,000
allocated for  operator training  will  be  targeted  to  States providing  .effective
on-site assistance to operators  in  small  facilities with  compliance  problems.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net dpcrease of  -$1,287,200 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$1,511,900)   This  reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the  Agency to fund the expanded  needs required by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This  change  resulted  in  a  net  decrease of
-5161,900 to  the  Salaries  and  Expenses   appropriation  and  a  net  decrease  of
-$1,350,000 to the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$41,800)  Several  reprogrammings were made to this  activi-
ty whicTi  were  notf~reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes  resulted in  a net decrease  of  -$38,000  to the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  a  net  decrease of -$3,800  to the  Abatement, Control  and  Compli-
ance appropriation.
                                       WQ-84

-------
     -Pay Raise.  (+$266,500)  This program  was  increased by  +$266,500 reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency  oblig-ated  $41,168,000  supported  by  538.6 workyears  for
this program.  Of which $20,560,500 was for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and 520,607,500  was  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.

     In anticipation of the  Clean  Water Act reauthorizaton hearings,  EPA  formed  a
POTW Funding Task  Force to  examine alternative  approaches  for  Federal  and  non-
Federal financial involvement in municipal wastewater  treatment.   Five major  fund-
ing options  were  evaluated  including:  municipal  financing,  municipal bonds  with
credit enhancements, Federal loans, Federal  grants, and  capitalization grants  for
State Revolving Funds.

     In 1984, EPA initiated  Internal  Control  Reviews  of  the national  Construction
Grants program under the Federal Managers  Financial  Integrity  Act.   Seven  priority
areas were evaluated including  State  priority systems, appropriate  technology  and
facility sizing, claims and  change  orders, bidding and specifying,  financial  cap-
ability, value engineering and  operation and maintenance.

     EPA promulgated the final  Construction  Grants  program  regulations,  issued  the
Financial  Management Capability  Policy and obligated  $31,502,800 for Marine  Com-
bined Sewer Overflow projects meeting  national  priority criteria.

     The Agency's AT  policy was  published to provide for a  consistent  national
approach in  reviewing AT projects.  Regions  reviewed 147  AT projects,  referring  20
with over  $3 million  in  incremental  costs to  Headquarters  for  final review  and
approval.

     In 1984, 885  projects  were physically  completed  and  883 closed out.   Under
the interagency  agreement  totaling $16,000,000,  the   Corps performed  1,270  bidd-
ability and  constructahility  reviews,  managed  58% of  active  projects under  con-
struction, performed interim inspections  on  1,229 projects,   conducted  610  final
inspections, and maintained  on-site  presence at  large  complex  projects.   Addi-
tionally,  $2,621,000  for  operator  training  was   awarded  to   States and  national
organizations to  provide  on-site  permit  compliance_  assistance  to  operators  at
small facilities.


WASTE TREATMENT OPERATIONS AND  MAINTENANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $1,527,700  supported by   34.3 total workyears
under the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation..   This  represents  a  decrease  of
$65,800 and  no  change  in  total  workyears.   The  decrease  to Salaries  and  Expenses
reflects Government-wide reductions to pay and administrative  services.

     In support  of  the  National Municipal  Policy, staff  will  continue to  assist
enforcement staff  in  the  development   of  Composite  Correction  Plans (CCPs)  and
Municipal  Compliance  Plans  (MCPs)  for those  facilities  not  meeting their  NPDES
permit.  EPA  will   work  with  States   in  implementing   procedures for  engineering
firms to supervise  first year  plant  operation and personnel training.  Staff  will
also continue to monitor  State operator training  activities   supported with  prior
year Congressional  add-on  funds.

     Based on the  1985  Operator  Training  Report  to  Congress  and  results  of  the
Internal Control  Review  on  Operation  and  Maintenance,  EPA  will  develop   and
implement  needed policies and  guidancp.   Staff will continue  developing  incentive
                                       WQ-85

-------
awards programs,  leveraging  construction  and  State   grants,  providing  technical
information and assistance,  and  maintaining effective  coordination  among EPA  and
State construction grants, enforcement,  permitting  and  operator  training  programs.


19B5 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the  Agency's  response to  the  Deficit  Reduction  Act,
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:  travel, motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual, and consulting  services.  The  reduction  of
-$1,500 in  the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation   represents  decreases  to  all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

      In 1985.  the  Agency is allocating  a total of  $1,593,500  supported by  34.3
total work years under the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

      The inpact  of the  grantee  first year performance  certification  requirements
contained in the  1981  Amendments  are  beginning to  be  felt  significantly  in  1985.
Additionally, EPA  is  managing active  State  operator  training  grants  supporting
on-site assistance and  operations and maintenance  training to  operators in  non-
complying plants, monitor and evaluate  State  operations and maintenance  programs,
and prepare a followup Report to  Congress.  The report on development  of  wastewater
treatment plant operator  training programs for  improved publicly owned  treatment
facilities compliance  will include a multi-year  plan  for ensuring  self-sufficient,
compliance oriented State training programs.


1985 Explanation of Changes from  the  Enacted

     The net increase  of +J8,300  results  from  the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$8,400)   This  reprogramming. reflects a  shift of  re-
sources within  the Agency  to  fund thp expanded needs  required by the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation  and Recovery Act.  This  change  resulted in a net decrease  nf
-$8,400 to the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$16,700)   This  program was  increased  by  +$16,700  reflecting
the amount requested for the  pay  raise supplemental.


1984 Accompli shments

      In 1984  the  Agency  obligated a total of  $1,414,100 supported  by  32.5  total
workyears for this program under  the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

      EPA assisted  States  and   grantees  in  developing  improved  operations  and
maintenance and  operator  training programs.  Additionally,  staff managed  1982  and
1983 operator training funds  and  awarded $2,625,000  for that purpose.   Approximate-
ly 850 small communities in 48 States were provided  on-site  assistance and training
to resolve  operations  and maintenance problems that  prevent plant compliance.   Of
these, more  than   350  plants  were brought  into compliance  and  nearly  150  more
significantly  improved  performance.  EPA  also  submitted a  preliminary  report  to
Congress on operator training.
                                       WQ-86

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986  Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page


WATER QUALITY

    ENFORCEMENT
       Water Quality Enforcement	  WQ-88
       Water Quality Permit  Issuance	  WQ-92
          Permit Issuance	  WQ-93
                                     WQ-87

-------
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                                                                      WQ-88

-------
                                  WATER QUALITY


                            Water Quality Enforcement
Budget Request
   The Agency  requests  a  total  of $17,064,400  supported  by 392.4  total  workyears
for 1986,  an  increase  of  $1,382,300  and 21.5 total  workyears from  1985.   Of the
request, 515,062,500  will   be   for  the  Salaries   and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$2,001,900 will  be for the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation,  an
increase of $681,500 and $700,800, respectively.

Program Description

     Water Quality Enforcement --  The  National   Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination
System (NPDES)EnforcementProgram  (including   pretreatment)  covers  compliance
monitoring, inspections, compliance  strategy development,  administrative  enforce-
ment, and  technical  support for judicial enforcement actions.  Major functions  of
this program include identification of noncompliers, initiation of informal  actions
to secure  compliance,  and  initiation  of Administrative Orders  (AOs)  and follow-up
to ensure  compliance with  order  requirements.   Where  informal  negotiations  and
administrative enforcement  actions do  not  achieve  compliance,  cases  are forwarded
for judicial action and appropriate technical support is  provided.

     In addition to  the NPDES  portion  of the Water Quality  Enforcement  Program,
administrative and  technical  support   is  provided  for   the   issuance  of  admini-
strative enforcement actions  against  violations  of the  Spill Prevention  Control
and Countermeasure Plan requirements.   Referrals  are made to  the U.S.  Coast  Guard
for civil  penalty  assessment  for oil  and  hazardous  substance  spill  violations
(Section 311(b)(6)(A)) in  waters where EPA has jurisdiction, and inspection  support
is provided  for  enforcement against  illegal  dredge and  fill   activities  (Section
404).


WATER QUALITY ENFORCEMENT

19R6 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $17,064,400 supported  by  392.4  total  workyears
for this program, of which $15,062,500 will  be for the Salaries and  Expenses appro-
priation and $2,001,900 will  be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and  Compliance appro-
priation.  This  is an  increase  of  $681,500 and  $700,800,  respectively,  and  an
increase of 21.5 total  workyears.   The  increase  in  Salaries and  Expenses  reflects
increased workyear  support  for  the municipal compliance  and  pretreatment  enforce-
ment initiatives of the program.  The increase in  Abatement, Control and Compliance
reflects increased  technical  support  for  municipal and  pretreatment  compliance
acti vities.

     Two major initiatives  will  he emphasized  in  1986.   The  first will focus  on
continued  implementation  and  enforcement  of the  National  Municipal   Policy  (NMP)
to ensure  that  all  POTWs  (Publicly Owned Treatment  Works) comply  with applicable
requirements of the CWA by  the 1988 statutory  deadline.  EPA will establish  enforce-
able schedules for  all  major  facilities that  need  construction to meet  statutory
requirements and completed  P.L. 92-500 minor  facilities that are  not  in compliance
with final  effluent  limits.  Increased  emphasis  will  be  given to  the initiation
of referrals,  especially   for  major   facilities   that  have   not  yet  established
schedules to  meet  requirements   by   1988  or that  fail  to  implement  schedules
which have been previously established.
                                       VIQ-89

-------
     The second  initiative  will  be  to  take  appropriate enforcement  actions to
assure implementation of the  national  pretreatment  compliance strategy.  EPA  will
overview implementation   of  pretreatment  programs  by  approved  States  and   POTWs.
EPA will also  enforce  where  POTWs  have  not submitted  required  programs  and  will
initiate appropriate enforcement  against  Industrial  Users  (Ills)  in  such   areas.
Approximately 93 AOs and 25 referrals will  be  initiated to enforce  requirements in
cases where POTWs have  failed  to implement  the  program or  where  IDs  discharing  into
unapproved POTWs have failed to comply with categorical standards.

     Along with  these two  initiatives,  EPA  will  focus on  ensuring compliance by
major industrial  permittees,   POTWs,  and   other   permittees  where noncompliance
threatens public health  or  water quality  objectives.  EPA will  continue to  rely
upon increased use  of less  resource  intensive  Compliance  Evaluation Inspections to
obtain maximum  coverage  with  available  resources.   Total  inspections   (2100)  will
remain at  approximately  the  same  level  as 1985.    Support  will   continue  to be
provided to  help NPDES  States  develop  their  enforcement management  systems  and
maintain their  data systems.   AOs  and  Notices  of  Violations,  including  the 93
pretreatnent AOs, will  total  601 in  1986.   Civil  and criminal  litigation  actions
will total  166 in 1986.

     Resources in  support   of non-NPDES  enforcement  will  remain  unchanged  from
1985.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:   travel,   motor   vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The reduction  of
-$45,100 in the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the  above  categories.   The decrease of  -$11,000  in the.Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation (or Research and  Development appropriation  as appropriate)
reflects reductions to consulting services.

1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of $15,682,100  supported   by  370.9
total workyears to this program, of which $14,381,000  is  for  Salaries and  Expenses
and $1,301,100 is for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     During 1985, the program continues to emphasize achieving an improved  rate  of
municipal and  industrial compliance.   Aproximately 689  AOs and Notices of  Violation
will be issued  for  violations  of NPDES requirements.  Along  with  124  civil  and  2
criminal cases under the  NMP,  Regions  and States will  update municipal strategies
and issue AOs  or initiate referrals  against POTWs violating  enforceable  schedules
and/or permit   limitations.   Additionally,   priority  continues   to be   given   to
enforcement actions  against  POTWs that have  not  submitted   required pretreatment
programs.

     The compliance program is  encouraging  the  development of greater State  tech-
nical expertise  and  will  encourage   States  to  assume  more  responsibility  for
compliance monitoring activities.  Also,  a  revised Compliance Inspection  Strategy
is being developed.   An estimated 2,100  compliance  inspections  will be  conducted
by EPA during  1985.  Quality assurance will  continue to be emphasized as  an impor-
tant part  of  the program.  The  Permits Compliance ADP System (PCS), used  by both
States and Regions,  is  being  maintained  and upgraded.   Increased State direct  use
of PCS  and interface  with existing  State  systems  and  PCS  is  being encouraged.

     Non-NPDES administrative  enforcement  activities  are  expected to  result  in
approximately 313  actions  under  the  Spill  Prevention,  Control, and  Countermeasures
program, 770  oil  and  hazardous  substances spill  referrals to the U.S. Coast  Guard
and 108 dredge and fill compliance inspections.
                                       l/Q-90

-------
1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$370,000 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$468,500)   This  reprogramming   reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the  Agency  to  fund the  expanded  needs required  by  the reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and   Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$468,500 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$81,800)  Several reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which  were  not  reportable under  the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted in  a  net  decrease of  -$81,800  to the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$180,300)  This program  was increased by  +$180,300  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984 the Agency  obligated a total of  $13,271,000  supported  by 359.1  total
workyears for this program, of which  $13,039,500  was  for the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $231,500 was for the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropria-
tion.

     Contract resources were  used to  meet  ADP information  needs, provide technical
and legal  case support,  and  conduct monitoring  and  inspection  training.   During
1984, the activities  supporting  enforcement  actions in emergency situations invol-
ving substantial threats to  public  health and safety  received  the  highest  program
priority.

     In 1984,  the  national permit . compl iance  rate  for POTWs  was  89 percent  for
major municipal dischargers on final  effluent limits.   The  national  permit  compli-
ance rate for industrial  and other nonmuncipal dischargers was 94 percent for  major
permits.

     Regional Offices conducted approximately  2,400 compliance inspections, issued
94 Notices  of  Violations  and  1,644  Administrative   Orders.    In  States  without
approved NPDES programs, EPA  reviewed major dischargers'  self-monitoring  reports.
Technical support was provided for the development of 90 civil and 4 criminal  cases
which were referred to Headquarters  for review.

     Enforcement of  Section   311  oil   and  hazardous  substance  spill  requirements
consisted of 401 referrals to the U.S Coast Guard for assessment of civil penalties
and 288  administrative  actions  for  violations  of Spill  Prevention, Control  and
Countermeasure Plan requirements.  Enforcement  of  Section  404 dredge  and fill  pro-
visions focused  on  identifying  illegal  discharges  of dredge  and  fill   material.
Thirteen administrative actions  were taken.
                                       WQ-91

-------
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                                                             WQ- 92

-------
                                  'WATER QUALITY
                           Water Quality Permit Issuance
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $18,520,600 supported by  334.0  total  workyears
for 1986, an increase of  $1,684,700 and a decrease of  5.7 total workyears from 1985.
Of the  request,  $12,451,400  will* be  for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation
and $6,069,200  will  be for  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation,
a decrease of $319,000 and  an increase of $2,003,700,  respectively.


Program Description

     Permit Issuance -- The  Clean Water Act (CWA) authorizes a  National  Pollutant
Discharge Elimination  System  (NPDES)  permit program  to  reduce  or  eliminate  point
source pollution.  The discharge of pollutants into waters of the United  States  by
point sources is prohibited unless  in  compliance with  an NPDES permit.   At present,
36 States and one Territory have approved NPDES programs.   EPA issues NPDES permits
in the remaining jurisdictions.

     Currently, the  NPDES  program  is  focusing  on   control  of  toxic  pollutants
through technology-based and  water  quality-based  limits  in  NPDES permits,  imple-
mentation of the  pretreatment program  for  indirect   discharges  to  publicly  owned
treatment works (POTWs) and  approval  of local  and State pretreatment  programs  (24
States are approved to implement pretreatment programs).

     The NPDES  program  also   allows permittees and interested  parties to  request
evidentiary hearings on permits and variances  from certain  permit  effluent limita-
tions.


PERMIT ISSUANCE

1986 Program Request  •

     The Agency requests a total of $18,520,600 supported by  334.0  total  workyears
for 1986, an increase of $1,684,700  from 1985.   Of the request,  $12,451/00 will  be
for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation, and  $6,069,200 will be  for the Abate-
ment, Control and  Compliance  appropriation,  a  decrease  of  $319,000  and an increase
of $2,003,700,  respectively,   and a  decrease of 5.7 total workyears.   The increase
in Abatement, Control  and  Compliance  will  be  directed to pretreatment implementa-
tion to  Regions,   approved  pretreatment  States   and  approved POTWs,  support  for
evidentiary hearings,  and  technical  assistance  to   States   for  pretreatment  and
regular NPDES permitting.   The  decrease  in  workyears  and in  Salaries  and Expenses
reflects the  reduced  workload  for  EPA because   of  the  substantial  progress  in
eliminating the backlog of  EPA-issued  major  permits by the  end of 1985.

     During 1986,  the  highest  priority  will  be  to   issue  permits   in areas  with
water quality problems and to incorporate permit  limits based on  newly promulgated
effluent guidelines.  New controls  on toxic  effluents  will be based  on biomonitor-
ing.  Industrial permits  with  reopener  clauses  will  be  modified  to  incorporate
new conditions  based  on biomonitoring  studies, new wasteload allocations,  changes
in NPDES or effluent guidelines  regulations  and best management  practices.  Munici-
pal permits will also be reissued  or modified to incorporate  final  301(h)  decisions
(coastal outfalls),  requirements for  implementing approved pretreatment  programs,
biomonitoring,  revised definition  of  secondary treatment,  water quality  standards
and removal  credits.   During 1986,  EPA  will  issue  187  major  industrial  permits
                                        WQ- 93

-------
and 216 major  municipal  permits.   Continued  emphasis  will  be given  to  issuing
other priority permits including new source permits,  general  permits  for  categories
of similar  dischargers  and  smaller  facilities  that  impact water  quality  uses,
particularly those with toxic discharges.

     In 1986, EPA will  continue  to  review and evaluate requests for  fundamentally
different  factor,  water quality  (including thermal),  and  economic  variances  as
well as requests  for  compliance  date extensions for innovative technologies.   The
relative emphasis of the 301(h) program will shift  from  issuing  permits to managing
and analyzing permit monitoring  data.   EPA also expects to  resolve about  104  evi-
dentiary hearing  requests and to promulgate new simpler application  forms for  some
types of facilities.

     Emphasis will  continue  on  developing  new State NPDES  programs and  required
program modifications.   Two  States   will  receive  full  NPDES  authority  and  seven
States will  revise  their programs  to  assume  pretreatment  and/or  federal  facility
permitting authority.   EPA will  assist  NPDES   States in reducing their  backlog  of
expired major permits, primarily through technical  assistance and training.

     During 1986, the quality assurance program for  NPDES  permits will continue to
be a priority.   Activites  include  review  of  selected  permits, mid-year  Regional
and State   program evaluations, review  of  Memoranda of Understanding,   review  and
assistance in  correcting  legally  deficient  State  programs,  and  evaluations  of
approved POTW and State pretreatment programs.

     EPA will  continue to  review  and approve  the  remaining  local pretreatment
programs that are required by  Federal  regulation.   The  major effort for  1986  will
be implementation, and  in  some cases modification,  of  approved programs.   Changes
due to  local  limitations,  sludge  or  toxic pollutant  limitations  for   POTWs  and
removal credits authority will  force  changes  to approved  programs  and permit  modi-
fications.  The  review  of removal   credit  applications  from POTWs,  baseline  moni-
toring reports from  indirect  industries and annual  reports on pretreatment program
status from  POTWs will  continue or  increase  in  19P6.   The overview of  approved
programs by use  of  on-site  audits  will accelerate and  may  result  in program  modi-
fications.  A  pretreatment  regulation  revisions   package  will   be promulgated.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to  the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting  services.  The  reduction  of
-$33,400 in the  Salaries and  Expenses appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the above  categories.   The  decrease of -$253,900 in the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation reflects reductions to consulting services.

1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating a total  of  $16,835,900 supported  by  339.7
total workyears  for  this program,  of which  $12.,770,400 is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $4,065,500  is  for  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

     In 1985, efforts  are continuing  toward  meeting the  goal  of  eliminating  the
backlog of expired major  permits to  be issued hy EPA,  especially in water quality
impacted areas and where  BAT  guidelines  have   been promulgated.   EPA  will  issue
172 major industrial  and  256  major  municipal  permits.   Emphasis  also  continues  on
issuing general  permits.

     In 1985, EPA  continues to  review and evaluate  fundamentally  different factor,
water quality, and economic  variance requests.   In a'ddition,  EPA is  reviewing  re-
quests for  extensions  of  BAT   compliance  deadlines   where  innovative  pollution
                                       WQ-94

-------
control technologies  are  to be demonstrated.  The  Agency is  continuing  to  review
301(h) applications,  issue  decisions  and  permits  expeditiously,  and  assure  that
POTWs are implementing approved monitoring  programs.   An estimated 114 evidentiary
hearings will be resolved in 1985.

     During 1985, one  State  will  receive  full  NPDES authority  and  six NPDES  States
will receive approval  for pretreatment  and/or  federal  facilities permitting.  To a
limited extent, EPA is assisting NPDES States in  reducing their permit backlog.  In
addition, EPA is reviewing  the  quality of  selected NPDES State permits  and State
regulations to ensure consistency  with NPDES regulations and the CWA.

     EPA will continue to  review,  approve  and assist  in  development  of local  pre-
treatment programs.   By the  end  of 1985, all  1,530 POTW  programs  should  either  be
approved or subject to enforcement action for  failure  to  submit required programs.
EPA will  also  act  on  POTW  applications  for  removal   credits,  review  baseline
mom'toring reports, make  industrial  user  categorical  determinations  and  continue
to overview approved pretreatment  programs.

     In 1985,   NPDES  regulations   governing certain  variance  and extension  pro-
visions will be  promulgated  and  regulations promulgated  in  1984  will  be  defended
against legal challenge.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net incrpase of  +$95,100  results from the following actions:

     -RCRA' Preprogramming.   (-$53,400)   This  reprogramming  reflects   a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to fund the expanded  needs  required by  the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This  change resulted  in a  net decrease  of
-$53,400 to the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$16,500)   Several  reprogrammings were made to this activi-
ty which were  not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramning  limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net decrease  of -$16,500 to the  Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$165,000)  This program  was  increased by  +$165,000 reflecting
the amount requested for  the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated a total  of  $14,662,200  supported by 286.7 total
workyears for this  program, of which $10,386,800  was for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $4,275,400 was  for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appro-
priation.

     In 1984, EPA issued  a  total  of 769 major and  1,287 minor permits.   Of these
2,056 permits,  1,428  were  industrial   (471  najors) and  628  were municipal  (298
majors).

     In 1984, one  State  was approved  for full  NPDES  program  administration,  one
previously approved  NPDES  State  received  pretreatment  authorization  and  one  re-
ceived Federal  facility permitting authorization.

     During 1984, EPA  continued to assist  POTWs  in the development  of  local  pre-
treatment programs.    EPA   approved  228  POTW  pretreatment   programs  (pretreatment
States approved 167).  EPA  began  the review  of  State  and local pretreatment  pro-
grams, with the  national  pretreatment  contractor  conducting  seven  State program
audits and 21 local  program audits.

     EPA promulgated final rules  concluding  rulemaking  initiated by the settlement
of NPDES issues  with  industry  litigants  and  the  removal credits  portion  of the
pretreatment regulations.


                                        WQ-95

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page


DRINKING WATER                                                              DW-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Drinking Hater Research	  DW-8
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Drinking Water Criteria,  Standards & Guidelines	  DW-22
          Criteria,  Standards &  Guidelines	  DW-23
       Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance	  DW-26
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants	  DW-27
          Underground Injection  Control  Program Grants	  DW-29
          Special  Studies & Demonstrations.^	  DW-30
          Training	  DW-30
       Dri nki ng Water Management	  DW-32
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance	  DW-34
          Underground Injection  Control  Program	  DW-36
       Ground-Water  Protection	  DW-39
    ENFORCEMENT
          Drinking Water Enforcement	  DW-44
                                     DW-1

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-------
                                   DRINKING WATER


OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (SDWA) assigned EPA the responsibility for
ensuring that the Nation's drinking water  supplies are  free  of  contamination which
may pose  a  public  health risk.   In  addition, the Act  mandates a  national  Under-
ground Injection Control  (DIG)  program to protect underground  sources  of drinking
water.

     EPA is  required  to  set  national  drinking  water  standards  for public  water
systems and minimum requirements for the Public Water Systems Supervision (PUS) and
the UIC programs.  Tne  States  retain  the 'lead role  of  administering  and enforcing
regulatory provisions.  Only if a State fails to assume primary enforcement respon-
sibility does EPA directly implement and enforce a regulatory program.  In assuming
primacy, the States  may establish more  comprehensive and stringent  standards and
provisions.  The Act  prescribes Federal financial and technical assistance to States
to help them  carry  out  their  responsibility.   EPA  has  also developed  a  Ground-
Water Protection  Strategy and  created  an  Office  of  Ground-Water  Protection  to
focus action under all  current authorities  to  protect  the  Nation's  ground  water.

     A deliberate strategy of  encouraging  State  primacy as the  first step  for the
PWS program has  produced  virtually nationwide  delegation.  The  pooling  of Federal-
State resources  has  led  to marked  progress  in  PWS  compliance.   EPA is  trying  to
build a  similar record  of  successful  delegation for  the  emerging  UIC  program.
The inaccessibility  of  the  ground-water  environment makes  finding  and  remedying
contamination once it  occurs  very  difficult,  which  puts  a   premium  on  preventing
contamination through careful  controls  on potential  sources.  The  Agency  has  just
completed nationwide  implementation of UIC  programs through a combination of primacy
delegations and direct implementation  regulations.

Revise Current  Health Protection Standards

     Since 1977,  EPA and  the  States  have   been  exercising  supervision  of  PWS
under Interim National  Primary Drinking  Water Regulations  (NPDWR)  based on  his-
torical  contaminants   of  concern in  drinking  water.  The  succeeding  revised  NPDWRs
are to  stand,   in  contrast,  as  comprehensive  protection  against  drinking  water
contamination risks,  incorporating the  product  of  extensive  scientific  and  health
research, treatment  technology  advances,  and  the experience EPA  and  the  States
have had  with  interim  regulations  to   reduce  unnecessary administrative  burdens.

     Revised NPDWRs may  take  the  form  of enforceable  Maximum Contaminant  Levels
(MCLs) or treatment  requirements,  depending   on  whether  monitoring  at  the  system
level is  feasible.   In  either  case a  risk assessment  process  precedes  regulatory
proposal  with prior  establishment  of  a  separate "Recommended Maximum  Contaminant
Level" (RMCL)  for every contaminant  to  be  regulated.

     NPDWR revision,  across  several  kinds  of  contaminants,  will  proceed in phases:
Phase I  addresses  volatile  organic  chemicals frequently  found  in drinking  water
supplies drawn  from ground-water sources;  Phase II pertains to about 50 contaminants
(pesticides and other organic  compounds, inorganics and heavy metals,  and microbio-
logical  contaminants); Phase III will  substantially  revise  standards  for radionuc-
1 ides, both naturally  occurring  (radium,  radon, uranium)  and  man-made; Phase  IV
will address the broad  issue  of  disinfection  and  disinfectant  by-products  in
conjunction with review  of the  Interim  Trihalomethane MCI.    A separate  issue,  the
reconsideration of  the existing  standard  for fluoride, is  on a separate  schedule
as part of the  Phase  II  regulations.

     Complementing  enforceable  regulations  are  health  advisories:  nonenforceable
guidance dealing with the toxicology of unregulated  contaminants.   New  advisories,
are being  produced in conjunction with  NPDWR revisions;  these  will  be  available
                                         DW-3

-------
for use  by  State  and  local  authorities  to  determine the  need  for  response to
specific contamination  instances.   With  new  MCLs  and advisories, there  will  be
standards prepared in 1986 for as many as  60 specific  compounds.   Other  advisories
will*be  prepared   in  conjunction  with  the  unregulated  contaminant   surveillance
program and t^e  pesticides  contamination   survey.   Together,  MCLs and  advisories
will  be  applicable  to  other  environmental   programs with  responsibilities  to
limit human exposure to health risks.

Implement and  Enforce Underground Injection  Control

     With nationwide UIC  programs in place  either through  delegation or  promul-
gation of  EPA  direct  implementation  regulations,  the actual  work  of  permitting
and assuring compliance with  permit  and regulatory provisions begins.  Control of
underground injections  is accomplished through a combination  of  design,  operation,
siting, and engineering  controls.   Regulations may  take  the  form of  a  facility-
specific permit or more general  rule; in  either case,  operators  have  responsibili-
ties  for monitoring and reporting and for periodically testing engineering controls.

     The first  priority in each  program,  whether  State or EPA administered,  is  the
closure of shallow wells  receiving wastes  designated as hazardous (Class  IV  wells).
In order not to unnecessarily  impede  energy  production, the program's  second  prior-
ity is  permitting  of  new Class  II  wells  (related to  oil  and  gas  production).
Because of the  high volumes  of hazardous wastes being  injected, existing  waste dis-
posal  wells (Class I),  along  with  high  volume  mineral  extraction injections  (Class
III), also have high priority.  EPA will address the vast  number  of existing Class
II wells  over  a  5-year  period.   Delegated States  have  the  option of  regulating
existing Class  II wells by rule rather than  by  permit.

     Permit determinations (whether to issue or  deny),  review of wells  authorized by
rule, failures  to apply for  permits and  report  on  operations, and the  other  program
activities all  generate an  accompanying compliance and enforcement workload.   The
objective of preventing endangerment to underground sources is  compromised  unless
unauthorized injections are  safely discontinued through proper plugging and abandon-
ment  procedures.   Likewise,  oversight "of  authori zed _wells -is just as  important to
ensure protection  as laying down  conditions  in a  p~ermit.   Thus, a high  priority
for both  EPA  and  State  programs  is  to  establish  a  compliance  presence,  making
inspections and  witnessing  mechanical  integrity   tests,  and  taking  appropriate
enforcement actions against  violators.

Improve PWS Compliance  with  Applicable Standards

     The principal  nationwide PWS program  compliance  objectives  include:   1)  the
eventual elimination of all  persistent  violations  of  microbiological  and  turbidity
regulations; 2) the  reduction  of all  MCL  and monitoring  and  reporting violations,
even  intermittent, to a minimum;  and 3) the imposition of formal compliance schedules
on all  systems  in  violation.   As we make  progress and  the number of  persistent
violators shrinks, the  compliance effort  will intensify.  The  remaining  problems
include the small-scale systems with limited means to correct problems  and recalci-
trant violators.   Dealing  with  this  requires the proper  balance  of  intensive
technical assistance and  resolute  enforcement.  Thus,   both  EPA and  the  States
will  display a more  visible enforcement presence  in the  future.   While maintaining
progress in compliance with existing  standards, EPA and the States must  prepare to
apply and enforce  new standards and regulations.

Anticipate and  Address  Future  Contamination Problems

     To be  certain drinking  water  supplies are  not  endangered, EPA must  detect
unrecognized or newly emerging health risks.  To accomplish this, we will  undertake
a monitoring effort to give both regulators and the public a more accurate picture
of the  contaminants  present  now  or  in  the future  and the health  risk  they pose.
                                       DW-4

-------
     The Agency will  promulgate  regulations for a surveillance  program  under SDWA
Section 1445(a) to  require  contaminant monitoring beyond  regulatory requirements.
This monitoring will  give public-water consumers  information on  unregulated con-
taminants in  the  water  they drink,  help  the  Agency  evaluate  prospective  health
risks,  and guide future  regulatory developments.  The Agency guidelines,  incorporat-
ing State  input,  will  stipulate  the  spectrum  of  chemical  contaminants  that  may
be monitored  in water systems along  with  the analytical, sampling  frequency,  and
reporting requirements  for each  system.   The Agency will  supply  health  advisories
for the targeted contaminants so that  the  results  of monitoring  can be  interpreted
properly.

     Pesticide contamination of  drinking  water supplies and sources is an important
emerging problem.   There are hundreds  of constituent pesticide  chemicals in  use in
the United  States  that  have t'oe potential  for migrating  into  surface  and  ground
waters; a  growing number  of  such  chemicals are  found in  drinking water  wells.  The
Agency plans to obtain more systematic occurrence data to  set priorities for standard
setting and  to  estimate the consequent  exposure risk.   The  Office  of  Pesticides
Programs will  use  similiar  data to determine  any  appropriate  restrictions.   The
two programs  are working  together in  design  of  a  nationwide  survey and  investigat-
ing alternative means to carry  such  a survey out.

Pursue Ground-Hater Protection

     The Agency's  principal  objectives are  articulated  in  the  Ground-Water Pro-
tection Strategy published in 1984.  Fi rst , the most effecti ve and broadly acceptable
way to increase the  national  capability  to  protect  ground water  is  to  strengthen
State  programs.  EPA  will  encourage States to make use  of existing grant programs
to develop  ground-water  protection  strategies and programs,  and  work with  States
to develop institutional capabilities.

     A second  concern is to address  the problems  from  contamination sources that
maybe largely unaddressed at a  national  level,  particularly leaking storage  tanks,
pesticide use, landfills, and surface impoundments.   EPA is undertaking  new evalua-
tions  of the threats  from these  sources and appropriate controls  under existing  and
new legislative authorities.   Third, a fundamental  part of the Strategy  is a  policy
to set priorities  for  ground-water protection according to  use and relative vulnera-
bility to contamination, based on three  classes of ground water.   The Agency will
issue  guidelines for  its decisions   affecting  ground-water protection and cleanup
to provide for greater consistency  among  separate programs.

Contnuje Research  and Development

     The Office of Research  and Development  provides direct  input into the regula-
tory development process  by  providing current  data  on  the  toxicity of  chemicals
of concern.  The program  also  pursues longer term  research  to  provide   a  more  ac-
curate basis  for  future  regulatory decision making.  A major effort  will   be  to
develop and apply less  costly methods to  establish the  toxicological potential  of
contaminants at low dosages and  in conbinations.   Research will  continue  to provide
assessments of treatment effectiveness and  feasibility to support  the development
of drinking water  regulations.

     The program helps  to promote  compliance by  studying public  water  systems'
contamination proolems,  providing  data on  cost-effective  treatment  technology  for
small   systems,  and  providing   quality  assurance  for  laboratory  certification.
Research continues   on  post-treatment contamination   problems  that  arise  within
distribution systems,   such  as  regrowth   of  microbiological   contaminants,   water
quality deterioration, and corrosion.

     The Agency will  pursue  a  coordinated  ground-water  research effort.  The  ob-
jective is to predict  and estimate the movement,  persistence,  and/or transformation
of plumes of  contaminants  in tne subsurface environment  as  well  as  remediation.
Work will  focus on  improving the methods to  investigate  and monitor  contamination.
                                         DW-5

-------
                                   DRINKING WATER
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

 Incremental Outputs
         Budget
Actual   Estimate
 1984     1985
Current
Estimate
  1985
Estimate
  1986
 Increase^)
Decrease(-)
1986 vs. 1985
UIC Permit Determinations:
 - for existing facilities,
    by primacy States	  200
 - for existing facilities,
    by EPA	    2       30dl/
 - for new facilities, by
    EPA	  100

Enforcement Actions - PWS:
 Inspections	   N/A
 Notices of Violation	   N/A
 Administrative Orders	   N/A
 Civil Litigation	   29
 Criminal Litigation	    0

Enforcement Actions - UIC:
 Inspections	   N/A
 Notices of Violations	   N/A
 Administrative Orders	   N/A
 Civil Litigation	    0
 Criminal Litigation	    0


Cumulative Outputs:

 PWS Primacy States	'.   52         -54
 UIC Primacy States (full and
  partial programs)	   35          39
 Designated Sole Source
  Aquifers	   17          20
 Percent of Community Water
  Systems (CWS) in Compliance
  with Microbiological MCL	  93%
 Percent of CWSs in Com-
  pliance with Microbiolog-
  ical Monitoring/Reporting
  (M/R)  Requirements	  79%
 Percent of CWSs in Com-
  pliance with Turbidity MCL...  97%
 Percent of CWSs in
  Compliance with  Turbidity
  M/R Requirements	  92%

 A/ 300  Includes new and existing wells
   180

    40

   300
    33
     0
     0
     0
    53
    39
    23
    93%
    85%
    97%
    92%
    150

    300

    350
    -30

   + 260

    + 50
     41
      0
      0
      0
     53
     42
     27
     93.5%
     86.5%

     97%
     93%
     + 3
     + 4
     +0.5%
     + 1.5%
     + 1%
                                        DW-6

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986  Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page
DRINKING WATER

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Drinking Water Research	  DW-8
                                      DW-7

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                                   DRINKING  WATER


                              Drinking  Water Research

                           Principal  Outputs by  Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS


Objective 1:	Provide the Health,  Monitoring  and  Engineering Data for Drinking
Water Standards

°  Reports  on  removal processes for  organic, inorganic and mi crobi al contaminants,
   and on undesirable disinfectant  byproducts  (Env. Technology)
°  Report on cancer  and reproductive hazards of principle contaminants of Drinking
   Water (Health)
0  Testing  and validation  of  methods  for  measurement  of  radi onuclides in drinking
   water (Monitori ng)
0  Provide  eleven  drinking water  criteria  documents (Sci. Assessment)

Objective 2:   Provide Quality Assurance Support to Agency and State Drinking Water
Laboratori es

0  Distribution of  quality control  and  performance evaluation samples for chemical,
   radiochemi cal  and microbiological  drinking water analysis  (Monitoring)

Objective 3:  Provide Health  and  Engineering Information to Assist States and Muni-
cipalities in'Complying with  Drinking Water  Regulations

0  Report on technology to assist  small water utilities in complying with drinking
   water regulations (Env.  Technology)
0  Report on corrosion prevention  and control (Env. Technology)
0  Publication  of Annual  Summary of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks (Health)
0  Report on target organ  toxicity  of chemicals  tested for health advisory develop-
   ment (Health)

Objective 4: .    Provide  Scientific  Methods and Data  for Protection of Groundwater
Resources

0  Provision of data  and  methods  to  support  groundwater  regulations, enforcement
   and management programs (Monitoring)
0  Evaluation and  development of  laser-induced  fluorescence  for monitoring ground-
   water using  fiber optics (Monitoring)
°  Journal  article  on methods for identifying and characterizing subsurface mi cro-
   bi al activity  (Env.  Processes)


1985 PLANNED OUTPUTS
Objecti ve 1:	Provide the  Health, Monitoring  and Engineering Data for Drinking
Water Standards

°  Reports on evaluation  of  processes  for removal of  volatile  organic  compounds,
   pesticides  and  other  organics,  and radionuclides (Env. Technology)
0  Report on  field testing  of various  treatment systems  for  inorganics  removal
   (Env.  Technology)
0  Report on  the improved  methods  for Gi ardi a detection (Health)
0  Nine  draft  drinking water  criteria documents (Sci. Assessment)
                                      DW-11

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 Objective  2:   Provide Quality Assurance Support to Agency  and  State  Drinking Water
 Laboratorles

 0   Distribution  of  55,000  QA  and  performance  evaluation   samples  (Monitoring)

 Objective  3:  Provide Health and Engineering Information  to  Assist  States and Muni-
 cipalities  in Complying with Drinking Water Regulations

 0   Report  on  technologies  appropriate to  small  communities  for  removing organic,
    inorganic and particulate contaminants (Env. Technology)
 0   Report  on the performance of package plants (Env.  Technology)"

 Objective  4:    Provide  Scientific  Methods and Data for Protection  of Groundwater
 Resources

 0   Annual  report on the use of fiber optics for monitoring  groundwater  contaminants
    (Monitori ng)
 0   Report  on use of diverse surveillance data for determining major contributors to
    ground-water-contamination (Env. Processes)


 1984 ACTUAL OUTPUTS
 Objective  1:	Provide the Health,  Monitoring and Engineering  Data  for Drinking
 Hater Standards

 0   Summary  statement  on  the  operation  and  cost  of granular  activated carbon treat-
    ment of drinking water (Env.  Technology)
 0   Report  on  the  direct  toxi cologi cal properties  of  chlorine, chlorine dioxide  and
    chloramine  (Health)
 °   Report  on   effects of  holding  times and  temperature  on  drinking  water  samples
    (Monitori ng)
 °   Twenty-nine draft drinking water criteria documents (Sci.  Assessment)

 Objective  2:   Provide Quality Assurance Support to Agency  and State Drinking Water
 Laboratori es

 0   Maintenance and distribution  of 55,000 quality control  and  performance  evaluation
    samples and 5,000 calibration standards (Monitoring)
 °   Completion  of  methods studies  for  Trihalomethanes and Purgeables  (Monitoring)

 Objective  3:   Provide Health and Engineering Information  to Assist  States and Muni-
 cipalities in  Complying with Drinking Water Regulations'

 0   Report  on  new methods for studying  the public health impacts   of microinverte-
    brates  in  potable water (Env. Technology)
 0   Report  on  Seattle  Distribution  System  Corrosion Control Study  (Env. Technology)
 0   Publication  of  the  Annual   Summary  of Waterborne Disease  Outbreaks (Health)

 Objective  4:    Provide  Scientific  Methods and Data for Protection of Groundwater
•Resources

 0   Successful  application  of time-domain  electromagnetics  at  two  sites in Osage
    County, Oklahoma,  to  map  intrusion  of  brine  into   groundwater   (Monitoring)
 0   Demonstration  of  the  feasibility  of  fiber optics  for subsurface in-situ detec-
    tion of groundwater contaminants (Monitoring)
 0   Evaluation  of  three  methods  for locating abandoned wells:  record  search,  air-
    borne magnetometer surveys and  historical aerial photography surveys  (Monitoring)
• °   Report  on  determining the location of abandoned wells  (Env. Processes)
 0   Report  on  determining  the  mechanical  integrity  of  Class   II  injection wells
    (Env. Processes)
                                       DW-12

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                                   DRINKING WATER


                              Drinking Water Research


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $23,924,800  supported by  192.4 total workyears
for  1986, a decrease of $742,800 and an increase of 4.0 total workyears  from  1985.
Of the request, $9,698,500 will  be  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation and
$14,226,300 will be  for the Research  and Development appropriation, an increase of
$160,600 and a decrease of $903,400, respectively.

Program Descri pti on

     The drinking water  research program  provides  support  to States  and  the EPA
Office of Drinking Water  (ODW) in  implementing the Safe Drinking Water  Act (SDWA)
in the areas of  contaminant occurrence  and health  effects,  analytical  methodology,
control technology and  related costs, and the protection of  groundwater  resources.

     Objective 1.   Provide the Health,  Monitoring and Engineering  Data  for Drinking
Water  Standards.     This  activity  provides information  in  the areas of  scientific
assessment,  health effects, and treatment technology to support the Office of Drink-
ing Water in developing revised  regulations to control  drinking water  contaminants
under Section  1412 of the SDWA.  It also provides analytical procedures  for use by
the Agency,  States,  municipalities  and  system  operators to monitor   contaminants
pursuant to Section 1401 of  the SDWA.

     Objecti ve 2.     Provide Quality Assurance Support  to Agency and State Drinking
Water Laboratori es.   Thi s research  provides  analyti cal  arid  systems  performance
procedures for on-site  evaluation  and  certification of  drinking  water  monitoring
laboratories and  supports  the mandatory quality assurance  activities   of  all  EPA
laboratories and  offices.  It  also  provides methods  validation studies to support
drinking water  maximum  contaminant  levels   (MCLs)  to  be   promulgated  in   1986.

     Qbjecti ve 3.    Provide  Health  and Engineering  Information to  Assist  States and
Municipalities  in Complying  with  Drinking Water  Regulations.  The  health  research
program assists States  in ascertaining causes of  waterborne  infectious  disease out-
breaks, improving reporting of these  incidents,  and  determining  the  hazard  to hu-
mans from exposure  to  infectious agents through drinking   water.   Health  effects
data is developed to support  Health Advisories.   Engineering  research focuses  on
the compliance and reporting probems of  small  systems.  These efforts provide tech-
nical assistance to  States and municipalities as required  by  Section  1442  of the
SDWA.

     Objective 4.     Provide   Scientific Methods  and Data for Protection  of Ground-
Water Resources.   Thi s  actTvTty  provides the sci enti fi c basi s  for  the  protection
of underground  drinking water  sources required  to  implement Section  1421 and  1414
of the SDWA.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $485,800 supported by  9.0 total  workyears for
this program,   of  which  $410,800  will  be for  the Salaries  and Expenses  appropria-
tion and $75,000 will be for the  Research and Development appropriation.  This rep-
resents a decrease of $16,300  and no  change,  respectively,  and  no change in total
workyears.   The decrease in Salaries  and Expenses  reflects  Government-wide  reduc-
tions to pay and  administrative services.
                                       OW-13

-------
     Provide  the  Health,   Monitoring   and Engineering Data Necessary for Drinking
Water Standards^     Research  wi 11   support  dri nki ng  water criteria documents and
assessment documents for drinking water disinfectants  and by-products and chemical
pollutants.   ORD  will  continue to provide technical evaluation  and  support  to re-
solve health issues that arise during regulatory development.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency is  allocating  a  total  of $502,100  supported by 9.0 total
workyears for  this  program,  of  which  $427,100 is  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $75,000 is for the Research  and Development appropriation.  This
reflects a decrease of  $237,700 total dollars  from  1984.

     The major di fference between the  1985  program and the 1984  program i s a re-
duction in  1985  in the  number  of drinking water  criteria documents  and assessment
documents for drinking  water disinfection  required by  the Office of  Drinking Water
(ODW).   Eleven criteria documents on  specific contaminants  are  being produced  in
1985 compared  to  31 in  1984.


1985 Explanation  of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net increase  of +$5,000 results from  the  following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$1,400)   This reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of re-
sources within the  Agency  to  fund  the expanded   needs  required  by  the reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation   and  Recovery  Act.    This  change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$1,400 to  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.   ( + $2,000)  Several  reprogrammings  were  made  to this activ-
ity which were not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted   in a  net  increase  of   +$2,000 to  the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.   (+$4,400)   This program  was  increased  by  +$4,400  reflecting the
amount  requested  for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,   the  Agency  obligated  a  total  of  $739,800  supported  by  8.0 total
workyears for this  program,  of  which  $354,400 was  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and  $385,400  was  for the  Research  and  Development   appropriation.

     Major accomplishments  included  the preparation of  31 criteria  documents that
were used  by  ODW  in  developing  Health Advisories  and  adjusted  Acceptable Daily
Intake (ADI)  levels.  These  documents  are used by ODW to estimate  safe levels  of
contaminants in the nation's drinking water.


MONITORING SYSTEMS  AND  QUALITY ASSURANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a  total  of $3,052,100  supported by  30.1  total workyears
for this program, of which $1,564,200 will be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation and  $1,487,900 will  be for  the  Research  and Development   appropriation.
This represents  a  decrease  of $100,600 and an increase  of  $222,300  respectively,
and no change  in total  workyears.   The decrease  in  Salaries and Expenses reflects
Government-wide reductions  to pay and  administrative services.   The  increase in Re-
search and  Development  reflects the  need for additional resources for technical
                                        DW-14

-------
assistance to  Regional  and State  implementation  of Underground  Injection  regula-
tions, and to  investigate  the  effects  of seasonal variation and  sampling  on  moni-
toring results.

     Provide  the  Health,  Monitoring  and  Engineering  Data   for  Drinking  Water
Standards.   This program will  continue to provide analytical  procedures to monitor
drinking water contaminants.  Specific work will focus on improving coliform analy-
sis methods and  evaluations  and  modification of procedures for a  number  of radio-
active contaminants.  The  methods  development  program will be  expanded  to include
new drinking  waterr  pollutants  to  support ODW  regulations and related  compliance
efforts.

     Provide  Quality  Assurance Support to Agency and State Drinking Hater Labora-
torieTiThisactivitywillinvolve the development and distribution of 55,000
quality control performance evaluation samples  for drinking water  laboratory certi-
fication and evaluation.  The  national  quality  assurance  program  supports  the  SDWA
and National Interim Primary Drinking  Water  Regulations  (NIPDWR)  by providing  pre-
cise, accurate and  reliable total  measurement  systems,  quality  control  procedures,
and procedures  for  on-site  evaluation  and  certification  by  EPA  of  laboratories
which conduct drinking water monitoring and analysis.

     Provide  Scientific  Methods and Data for  Protection of Groundwater Resources.
Expanded resources  will  provide  technical  assistance  to Regional   and  State imple-
mentation of the  Underground Injection  Control  (UIC)  regulations  through  location
of abandoned wells  and  determine  the  effects  of  seasonal  variation and  sampling
frequency on the accuracy and confidence of  groundwater monitoring.   Research  will
also evaluate  monitoring  techniques  identified  in' 1985  such  as the use  of hollow
stem augers in difficult hydrogeologic conditions.


1985 Rescission

   This reduction reflects the'Agency's response to the  Deficit  Reduction Act  which
requires decreases  in the  following  categories:  travel,  motor vehicle,  printing,
publication and  audio-visual,  and  consulting services.   The  reduction  of  $33,200
in the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation represents  decreases  to all  of the  above
categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,   the Agency is allocating  a total  of  $2,930,400 supported  by  30.1
total workyears  for this  program,  of  which $1,664,800  is for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  $1,265,600  is for the  Research and Development appro-
priation.  This  represents  an  increase  of $537,400  total   dollars  over  1984.

     The major difference between the 1985 program and the 1984  program is  a slight
increase in methods validation to  meet  the  new  drinking  water  pollutant  parameters
for radiochemical,  chemical  and microbiological  analysis.  This  program  is  also
improving and  updating  existing  measurement methods,  and  increasing  the  alternate
test procedures program. The increase in  activity  is providing  some technical  sup-
port of Regional  programs for locating abandoned wells,  and determining the effects
of seasonal variation and variability on the accuracy  and confidence of groundwater
monitoring.  The  program  is also  identifying  special  hollow  stem  auger  drilling
techniques for difficult geology, and field-evaluating promising methods.


1985 Explanation of  Changes from the  Enacted

     The net decrease of -$61,000 results from  the following actions:
                                       DW-15

-------
     -Reprogramnri ngs.   (-$75,500)   Several  reprogrammings  were made to this activ-
ity which were  not  reportable under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net decrease  of  -$62,300 to the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  a net  decrease  of -$13,200 to the  Research and Development ap-
propri ati on.

     -Pay Rai se.  (+$14,500)   This  program  was  increased  by  +$14,400  reflecting
the amount requested for  the  pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In  1984,  the  Agency   obligated   a  total  of   $2,393,000   supported by 27.5
total workyears for this program,   of  which  $1,414,800  was  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $978,200  was  for  the Research  and  Development  appro-
pri ation.

     The program maintained  and distributed  55,000 quality control and performance
evaluation samples  and 5,000  calibration  standards to  Regional,  State,  local and
contract laboratories  for analysis  of  public drinking  water.   Inter! aboratory meth-
ods studies  for Tri hal omethanes  and Purgeables  were completed.   The feasibility
of using  fiber  optic  techniques for  subsurface i n-situ detection  of groundwater
contaminants  was demonstrated and  three'methods  for  locating  abandoned  wells were
compared.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total  of $9,844,700  supported  by  69.5 total  workyears
for this program,  of which $3,318,800 will be  for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and   $6,525,900  will  be  for  the Research  and  Development  appropriation.
This represents increases  of $65,900  and  $84,600,  respectively,  and an increase
of 7.0 total   workyears.   The increase  reflects the  need  for additional  resources
to develop and  validate   toxicological  extrapolation models  for  contaminants  in
drinking water which the  Agency  will  regulate  over the next  two years.

     Provide  the  Health,  Monitoring   and  Engineering Data for   Drinking Water
Standards.Increasedresourceswillb"eused"to  develop  methods  for improving
existing and   proposed  extrapolation models  used in  establishing drinking  water
standards.  Microbiological  research will  emphasize  development  and   validation of
more sensitive  detection methods,   evaluation  of  newly identified  pathogens and
analysis of the influence of  various water treatment and  distribution  systems on
waterborne pathogens and  disease.

     Provide Health and Engineering Information to Assist States  and  Municipalities
in Complying with Drinking Mater Regulations.   Research  wi 11   conti nue at  the same
level as i n  1985  to determine the  drinking  water infectious disease  burden in the
U.S. through disease surveillance  and analysis and epidemi ologi cal studies.  Tech-
nical assistance  will  be provided   to  the Center for Disease Control,  States and
municipalities in  investigations   of   waterborne disease   outbreaks.    Innovative
methods  will   be developed and  used to  more  effectively  identify  the  causes of
di sease  outbreaks.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor   vehicle,
                                       OW-16

-------
 printing,  publication  and  audio-visual,  and consulting  services.   The  reduction
 of  $11,400  in  the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation represents decreases to  all
 of  the  above  categories.  The  decrease  of  $200,000  in the Research  and  Development
 appropriation  reflects reductions to consulting services.


 1985  Program

      In  1985,  the Agency is  allocating  a total  of  $9,694,200  supported  by  62.5
 total workyears  for this program,  of  which $3,252,900  is  for the  Salaries  and
 Expenses  appropriation  and  $6,441,300  is  for the  Research and Development appro-
 priation.   This  represents  an  increase  of  $1,401,900 total  dollars  over  1984.

      The major  difference between the  1985  program  and  the  1984  program is  the
 initiation  of  epidemiological  and  clinical  studies  to determine the  effects  of
 various drinking  water  disinfectants  on  cardiovascular   disease  in  humans.    In
 addition, the  toxi cological  effects  of  characterized chemical  mixtures  found  in
 drinking water are being investigated.


 1985  Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

      The net decrease of -$331,800 results from  the  following  actions:

      -RCRA  Reprogrammi ng.  (-$253,600)   This  reprogrammi ng   reflects   a   shift  of
 resources within the Agency  to fund  the expanded needs required  by the reauthorized
 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change  resulted in a net decrease  of
 -$253,600 to the Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation.

      -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$108,600)  Several reprogrammi ngs  were  made to this activ-
 ity which  were not reportable  under the  Congressional reprogramming limitations.
 These changes  resulted in a net  decrease  of  -$96,600 to the Salaries and  Expenses
 appropriation and a net decrease of  -$12,000  to  the  Research and Development appro-
 pri ati on.

      -Pay Rai se.   (+$30,400)   This  program  was  increased  by  +$30,400  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


 1984  Accomplishments

      In 1984,  the Agency  obligated  a total   of  $8,292,300  supported  by  63.8 total
workyears for  this program,  of  which $3,229,500 was for the Salaries and Expenses
 appropriation and $5,062,800 was  for  the  Research  and Development  appropriation.

      EPA provided considerable technical  assistance to Pennsylvania to investigate
a major  waterborne  outbreak of  giardiasis.   An  EPA-developed immune-fluorescent
antibody technique was used  to identify the presence of Gi ardi a cysts in the water
 supplies verifying the  cause  of  the  outbreak.   EPA  sci enti sts also participated
in a training  course to teach  water  suppliers how to use this technique.

     A peer review panel  recommended four  areas where EPA should use epidemiology
as a tool  for determining the  health  effects  of drinking water contaminants.  This
report will be  used  to direct  epidemiology  research  to  areas  with  potential  for
significant impact on  developing  drinking water  standards.   Also,  a  method  was
developed to concentrate, grow,  and quantify  hepatitis  A  virus  in  culture  from
dri nki ng water.
                                      DW-17

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $5,101,300  supported  by 59.3 total  workyears
for this program, of which  $2,932,000 will  be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
priation and  $2,169,300  will  be  for the  Research  and Development  appropriation.
This represents an increase of $176,600  and a  decrease  of  $1,130,000,  respectively,
and no  change  in  total  workyears.   The  increase in Salaries and Expenses  reflects
increased work on technologies  applicable to   small  systems.   The  decrease in Re-
search  and Development reflects completion in  1985  of  a cooperative  research  agree-
me/it with the American Water Works Association  Research Foundation.

     Provi de  the  Health,  Monitoring  and Engineering  Data   for   Dri nki ng Water
Standards.This program will continue  to evaluate  treatment  processes for removal
of organic, inorganic  and  microbial  contaminants.   This research will provide the
ODW with a data base for  the next triennial revision of  the National  Interim Primary
Drinking Water Regulations.   Cost data  will also be compiled for unit  processes to
do cost-effectiveness analyses of  proposed treatment systems.

     Provide Health and Engineering Information to  Assist  States and Municipalities
in Complying with Drinking Water Regulations.   In-house resources will  increase for
research emphasizing technology particularly adaptable to  small systems.    Research
will continue to determine factors which contribute  to  deterioration of water qual-
ity in  distribution systems  and methods  for controlling these  factors.   Technology
evaluation will  continue to-  focus  on  removing  volatile  organics  and pesticides.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to the  Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The  reduction
of $20,700 in the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation represents decreases to  all
of the  above  categories.   The decrease  of $130,000  in  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation reflects reductions to consulting  services.


j.985 Program

     In  1985, the  Agency is  allocating  a total  of $6,054,700  supported  by  59.3
total workyears for this  program,  of  which  $2,755,400  is  for the Salaries and  Ex-
penses  appropriation  and  $3,299,300  is for  the  Research  and  Development  appro-
priation.  This  represents  a  decrease  of  $621,200   total  dollars   from   1984.

     There are no major differences between  the  1984 and 1985 programs.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$32,300 results from the following  actions:

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$61,100)  Several reprogrammings were made to  this  activ-
ity which  were  not reportable  under  the Congressional reprogrammi ng  limitations.
These changes resulted in  a  net increase of  +$5,900  to the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  a  net  decrease of  -$67,000 to  the Research and Development  ap-
propri ati on.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$28,800)  This  program  was  increased by  +$28,800  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.
                                        DW-18

-------
 1984 Accomplishments

     In  1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $6,675,900  supported by 70.0  total
 workyears for this  program,  of  which  $3,247,900 was for the $alaries  and  Expenses
 appropriation and $3,428,000  was for the  Research  and Development  appropriation.

     Major accomplishments included  reports on  filtration to  control  Gi ardi a  cysts,
 aeration technology for reducing  volatile  organics  in  groundwater,  treatment  tech-
 nology to control  excess  fluoride and lead, counteractive effects  of  disinfection
 and corrosion control, costs  of  treating water  for  unit processes for  small  utili-
 ties, and a novel method for studying the  public health  significance of microinver-
 tebrates occurring in potable water.


 ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

 1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $5,440,900  supported  by 24.5 total  workyears
 for this program,  of  which $1,472,700 will  be  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses ap-
 propriation and  $3,968,200 will  be   for the Research  and  Development appropria-
 tion.  This  represents  an  increase   of $35,000  and  a  decrease  of  $80,300,  res-
 pectively, and  a decrease  of  3.0  total  workyears.   The  decrease  in extramural
 resources reflects a move  toward  fewer  field studies,  although the net  effect  of
 the resource  changes  is  to  maintain  the  program at  approximately  the same  level
 as in 1985.

     Provide  Scientific  Methods and Data  for  Protection of  Groundwater Resources.
 Research will  focus on  describing  specific  subsurface  processes  affecting the
 transport and fate  of  contaminants.   This  program  will continue  to provide both
 technical information and   improved methods  for  predictive contaminant  movement and
 transformation.   Information transfer  activities  will  include  support  to  the Na-
 tional  Ground Water Information  Center and the  International  Ground  Water Modeling
 Center.


 1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,   and  consulting  services.   The reduction
of $9,300 in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents decreases  to all
of the above  categories.  The  decrease of $80,300  in the Research and Development
appropriation reflects reductions to  consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is allocating  a total of  $5,486,200  supported  by 27.5
total workyears for  this program,  of which  $1,437,700 is  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $4,048,500 is for the  Research  and Development  appro-
priation.  This represents  an  increase   of  $1,147,900 total  dollars  over   1984.

     The major difference  between the  1985 program  and  the  1984 program  is the
addition of research  addressing:   (1)  an  evaluation of  State  groundwater protection
programs; (2) evaluation of subsurface cleanup  methods  at  one field  site;  (3) de-
velopment of methods  for  testing the  integrity of injection wells; and (4) contami-
nation of soil and groundwater  from the  use of  wastewater for  irrigation (coopera-
tive research with the People's Republic  of  China).
                                       DW-19

-------
1985 Explanation of Changes  from  the  Enacted

     The net  increase  of  +$192,900  results  from the  following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogrammi ng.   (-$4,100)   This  reprogrammi ng  reflects  a  shift  of  re-
sources within  the  Agency to  fund  the expanded  needs  required  by  the  reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This  change resulted  in a net  de-
crease of -$4,100 to the  Salaries and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  .(+$183,600)  Several  reprogrammings were made to this activity
which were not  reportable  under  the  Congressional  reprogramrm ng limitations.   These
changes resulted in a net increase  of +$70,000 to  the  Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and  a  net  increase  of  +$113,600 to the  Research and  Development  appropn-
ati on.

     -Pay Rai se.  (+$13,400)   This program was increased  by +$13,400  reflecting the
amount requested for the  pay  raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the  Agency  obligated  a  total  of  $4,338,300 supported  by  23.6 total
workyears for  this  program,  of  which $1,142,900  was  for the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $3,195,400  was  for  the  Research and  Development   appropriation.

     In 1984,  published  reports  included:   (1) Methods  for Determining the Mechani-
cal  Integrity  of Class II  Injection  Wells;  (2)  Methods  for Determining the Location
of Abandoned   Wells,  (3)  Evaluation  of  Septic Tank  System Effects on Ground Water
Quality; and   (4)  Handbook  of  Mathematical  Models  for Ground  Water  Transport.   In-
formation and  technical  transfer activities  included  support  of  a  number  of  sym-
posia and  conferences  as well  as  continuing support  of the  National  Ground Water
Information Center and the International  Ground Water Modeling  Center.
                                                                                               i
                                       DW-20

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                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents
                                                                            Page
DRINKING WATER
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Drinking Water Criteria, Standards & Guidelines	DW-22
          Criteria, Standards & Guidelines	 DW-23
       Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance	 DW-26
          Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants	 DW-27
          Underground Injection Control  Program Grants	 DW-29
          Special  Studies & Demonstrations	 DW-30
          Training	 DW-30
       Drinking Water- Management	 DW-32
          Public Water Systems Super-vision Program Assistance	 DW-34
          Underground Injection Control  Program	 DW-36
       Ground-Water Protection	 DW-39
                                      DW-21

-------
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                                                        DW-22

-------
                                   DRINKING WATE,R
                 Drinking Water Criteria, Standards and Guidelines
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of  $10,539,SOU  supported  by 101.8 total  workyears
for 1986, an  increase  of 5629,900 and 1.8 total workyears  from 1985.  Of the request,
55,436,500 will be  for the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation  and 55,103,000 will
be for the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance  appropriation,  a decrease of $121,300
and an increase of $751,200, respectively.

Program Description

     Criteria, Standards and Guidelines:  The  program  supports  the  Headquarters
component with responsibilities for implementing  the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
Two major functions  are  the  focus  of  this  program:   regulations  development  and
review and  national   direction and  implementation  of  the   Public  Water  Systems
Supervision  (PWS)  and Underground  Injection Control (UIC) programs.

     EPA is  required to review and  revise the National  Primary Drinking Water Regu-
lations (NPDWR) in light of the latest scientific  data  and evidence  of contamination,
and, as necessary,  to  add  new  maximum contaminant levels  (MCLs)  or  treatment  re-
quirements for previously  unregulated  contaminants.   In either  case, a  separate
"Recommended MCL"   (RMCL)  precedes  regulatory proposal  for   every contaminant  to
be regulated  and  represents the value  at  which  "no  known  or  anticipated adverse
effects on the health  of  persons  occur  and  which  allow[s]  an  adequate  margin  of
safety."  Complementing primary  drinking  water   standards  are  health  advisories,
non-enforceable guidance for  unregulated  contaminants,  which provide quantitative
limits for  short- and  long-term  exposure,  based  on  the  available  toxicological
evidence.

     The Headquarters program shares  in the  implementation  of the PWS and UIC pro-
grams by providing implementation  tools (such as guidances  and technical  materials)
and technical   assistance.   This program  also tracks  national  environmental  pro-
gress: establishing performance measures and  compiling data  on  national  compliance
with PWS and  UIC  regulatory requirements.   For  this  purpose Headquarters develops
and maintains automated  data  systems;  it also  maintains central financial  management
and program  planning  responsibilities.   EPA  also has  responsibility to  provide
scientific and technical  information  to States, localities, and  utilities.


CRITERIA, STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of  $10,539,500  supported  by 101.8 total  workyears
for this program,  of which $5,436,500 will  be for  the Salaries  and Expenses appropri-
ation and $5,103,000 will be for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.
This represents a  decrease  of  $121,300 and an increase  of $751,200,  respectively,
and an increase of  1.8 total workyears.  The  decrease  in Salaries and Expenses  re-
flects Government-wide reductions  to  pay and administrative services.   The increase
in Abatement, Control  and  Compliance  and total workyears  will support  a new initia-
tive to promote monitoring  for unregulated  contaminants.

     The Agency  will   promulgate  regulations to  require   contaminant  monitoring
beyond regulatory  requirements  to  give all public water consumers information  on
unregulated  contaminants  in  the water they  drink,  as  well  as  help the  Agency
evaluate prospective health  risks.   The Agency  will  supply  health advisories  for
every contaminant  targeted   so  that  the results  of monitoring can  be  properly  in-
terpreted.
                                        DW-23

-------
     The drinking water and pesticides programs will continue in their joint  study
of a nationwide survey for a wide spectrum of  contaminants  as  a  means to establish
a reliable estimate of  the exposure risk to the public.  This study, which will  help
the Agency set its  priorities  for  future  standard setting, involves using data on
pesticide use, chemical  transport and fate characteristics,  and  site hydrogeology to
target sampling.  -For those contaminants to  be  monitored, health  advisories will be
prepared, using health  effects data from both  drinking water and  pesticides programs.

     EPA will  promulgate  the first revised  NPDWRs,  new MCLs for Phase I, volatile
organic contaminants (VOCs), in 1986.   Within 18  months,  EPA must be sure all  State
primacy agencies  have  legal  authority  and   administrative  regulations  to enforce
new MCLs.  We will  propose  Phase  II  Regulations   (inorganic, pesticides and  micro-
biological contaminants) after public  comment and review of RMCL proposals made in
1985.  We will also propose RMCLs  for  Phase  III  (Radionuclides), after considering
the need  for  new standards for  natural  contaminants, such  as   radon and uranium.
Health advisories for  those contaminants  considered  under  Phases  I,  II,  and  III
but found  unnecessary  to  regulate  will   be  finalized and  issued.  Added  to  new
MCLs, standards  for as  many  as  60   specific  compounds will  be  available,  with
applications in waste management  as well as  public health programs.

     As the UIC programs move  into  operation  nationwide,  there will  be an increased
demand on national  managers to  advise  on or  resolve  technical issues on permitting,
well closure,  inspections,  and  compliance.    We  will   prepare  various  program  and
technical guidances and  compile  nationwide  data  on  compliance  with  UIC provisions
and environmental results of the  UIC program.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects the  Agency's response to the  Deficit  Reduction  Act,
which requires decreases  in  the  following  categories:  travel,   motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and   consulting services.   The reduction-of
-$10,800 in the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation   represents decreases  to  all
of the above  categories.   The  decrease  of -$241,500 in the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation reflects reductions  to consulting  services.


19R5 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency is allocating  a total   of $9,909,600  supported  by  100.0
total workyears  for this  program,  of which $5,557,800  is  for the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $4,351,800  is  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

     NPDWR Revision  is  the centerpiece  of  Headquarters  PWS  program  concerns in
1985.  Revised standards  are  being developed  in phases across  several  different
kinds of  contaminants.   In  1985  we are promulgating  RMCLs and  proposing MCLs  for
VOCs.  Phase  II RMCLs are also  being proposed.

     We are laying  the  groundwork  for the  forthcoming  monitoring program for  un-
regulated contaminants  and a  national  pesticide  contaminants  survey.   For  the
former, we plan to propose regulations invoking Section 1445(a)  authority to  imple-
ment a  monitoring  program.  For the  latter, the  planning  and  development   of  the
survey design  continue.

     With UIC  programs   effective  in   December  1984  in  the  remaining nonpn'macy
States, Headquarters  is  focusing  on  providing  guidance  and  technical assistance
including completion  of  a  national   UIC  compliance  strategy   and  development of
compliance and environmental payoff measures.
                                        DW-24

-------
1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$148,800 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$176,400)    This   reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resource's within the"~Agency  to  fund the expanded  needs  required by the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$17fr,400 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$21,000)  Several  r?programmings were made to this activity
which were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional   reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted in  a  net  decrease of -514,300 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and a net  decrease  of -$6,700 to the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriati on.

       -Pay Raise.  (+548,600)   This program was  increased by +$48,600  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the  Agency  obligated  $8,805,900  supported  by 102.7 total  workyears
for this  program,  of which  $5,480,600  was  for the Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $3,325,300  was for the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.

    The Agency  proposed  RMCLs   for  VOCs  (Phase  I)  in  June  1984.   Meanwhile,  an
Advance Notice of Proposed  Rulemaking for Phase II revision was published in October
1983.  Work focused on review of  public  response as well  as completion of  supporting
health criteria documents  and  occurrencp data  summaries  for over 70 contaminants.
We began with the first year  of data collection in the National  Inorganic  and Radio-
nuclides Survey, to  generate a  more  thorough  data base  of  national  occurrence  for
an array of  contaminants (occurrences  other than  MCL violations  for  inorganics  and
radionuclides) as well  as  testing new monitoring methods  and designs.

     Part of EPA's mandate  is to  prevent  adverse health risks posed by either delib-
erate or incidental  additives  introduced into  water  systems,  through product eval-
uation.  In August,  we  published our intent to delegate the provision  of  advisory
opinions to  manufacturers  to a  suitable  indpppndent  organization under  close  EPA
oversight.

     In May 1984, EPA promulgated Federally administered  UIC programs for  22 States
(and some  Indian  lands) along  with regulatory amendments  to put a  ban on  shallow
hazardous waste injection wells  into effect.   Following  this  effort, EPA  developed
regulations for the remaining nonprinacy States and Indian  lands.
                                       DW-25

-------




































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-------
                                   DRINKING WATER


                  Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance *
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $38,550,200  for 1986, a decrease  of  $500,000
from 1985.   All   of  the  request  will   be  for  the  Abatement,   Control  and  Com-
pliance appropriation.

Program Description

     The intent  of the  Safe Drinking Water  Act  is  that  States   should  assume  the
primary role for  implementing  and  enforcing  the drinking  water and the underground
injection control  (UIC)  regulations.   Federal  financial   assistance,  in the  form
of grants,  is  provided  to  States  to develop  and  maintain these  programs.  To  be
eligible for grants,  States must have primary enforcement  responsibility.

     Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants -- The program provides grants
to States which have bpen delegated  primary  enforcement authority for implementing
a Federally approved Public  Water  System Supervision (PWS) program.   EPA  may  also
use the funds  allocated  to  nonprimacy  States to defray the cost  of  Federal  imple-
mentation of the program, including travel.

     Underground -Injection Control  Program Grants --  This  program provides  grants
to support  State  activities  in implementing  the  UIC  program.   -As  with the  PWS
program, EPA may  use the  funds allotted  to a  nonprimacy State for  program  im-
plementation and travel   associated  with support  activities  in  nonprimacy  States.

     Specia1 Studies  and D em o n s t r a tions  -- This program includes  resources  for  the
National Rural  Water Association for training and technical assistance to operators
of small rural  water  systems.

     Training -- This program includes  funds  for  fellowships  to  State personnel  in
the PWS and UIC program areas and for academic grants.


PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS  SUPERVISION PROGRAM GRANTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $29,450,000 for this  program, all  of which  will
be for  the  Abatement,   Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.   This  represents  an
increase of $1,000,000 to support an enhanced compliance  effort.

     These funds  will  support  programs to  supervise the  application  of  primary
drinking water  regulations by  public water systems in all  57 States and Territories,
as well as  on  Indian  lands.   During  1986,  States will focus  on  improving  the  com-
pliance of  community  water  systems  with  the regulations.   States will work  with
systems where compliance is  declining or progress  has not  been made  and will  con-
duct spot checks  to assure adequate  enforcement.   In  cases of persistent violations,
where there is  no evidence that systems  will take corrective action, the States  will
initiate enforcement  actions.   Another  major  activity results from  the increasing
number of  ground-water   contamination   incidents,  requiring  State  officials   to
gauge the public health  risk  and  arrange the appropriate  response.   This  involves
the collection  and use  of  pertinent  health  effects  and  treatment  information  to
quickly formulate management  options.   Funds will  also  be  used  to  assist  States
with the  adoption  of volatile  organic  contaminants  (VOC) regulations  which  must
be implemented  within 18 months of promulgation.  These VOC standards  will  contain
                                        DW-27

-------
analytic and treatment requirements at levels of precision far  beyond  the  existing
norm for the small,  ground-water source  systems  which  might he  at  risk.   The  States
will work with  laboratories  to make personnel  and  equioment available  for  VOC
analysis, train  operators,  and assist systems as required.

     In addition to  these priority  activities, funds will be used  for  primacy  pro-
gram activities   including  analytical services,  sanitary  surveys,  training,  data
management,  disease  surveillance and  on-site technical  assistance.  Additionally,
the grant funds  support activities  such  as data, administrative,  and  financial  man-
agement, as  well as  training.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is allocating a total  of $28,450,000 for  this  program, all
of which is  for  the  Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.

     Fifty-three States are expected  to  receive grants and EPA is using the  funds
allocated to the  remaining  States  for  EPA  direct implementation  activities.   EPA
is providinq transition assistance  to Pennsylvania,  which we  anticipate will  assume
primacy during 1985.   The grant funds support basic  PWS program operations, includ-
ing laboratory  certifications,  on-site  evaluations of persistent violations,  and
initiation of enforcement  actions  when  necessary.   States  are assisting  systems
in violation  of the  trihalomethane  maximum contaminant  levels  and  bringing  them
into compliance  or placing  them on formal compliance   schedules.  They  continue  to
assist utilities  with an increasing  number  of  emergencies  involving   giardiasis,
cholera, hepatitis,  etc., and  respond  to public water system contamination involving
underground  sources  of drinking water.

     The grants  also  supoort  program  and  data management, review of existing  reg-
ulations, development  of modifications   in  anticipation  of  promulgation  of  VOC
regulations, and employee training.


1985_Explanation of  Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$1,000,000 results from the  following action:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$1,000,000)  This  reprogramming  reflects  a   shift  of
resources within theAgency to  fund  the  expanded  needs  required by the  reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation  and Recovery  Act.   This  change   resulted  in  a  net
decrease of  -$1,000,000  to the Abatement,   Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.


1984 Accomplishments
                                                                                 \
     In 1984, the Agency obligated a  total  of  $27,421,300  for  this program,  all  of
which was for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     Fifty-three States  received  grants,  including   one  developmental  grant  to
Pennsylvania.  EPA used the funds allotted to the nonprimacy  States for implementa-
tion of the Federal  programs.   State programs focused  on imoroving compliance among
public water systems,  and in particular among small systems, by developing compliance
strategies and  goals.  Although 1984  data is not yet  available,  we expect improved
compliance with  both  the turbidity and  monitoring and  reporting requirements.   The
data collected  in March  1983 demonstrates  an  improvement from  83.7% in 1982  to
89.5% in  1983.  The number  of formal  State enforcement actions is also increasing.
                                       DW-28

-------
UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM GRANTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of  59,100,200 for this program, all  of  which  will
be for  the  Abatement,  Control  and   Compliance  appropriation.   This  represents  an
increase of $500,000 to augment surveillance and  compliance activities.

     These funds will  support  programs  to protect underground  sources  of drinking
water from  contamination  through   underground   injection   in  all  57  States  and
Territories, as well  as  on  Indian   lands.   EPA  will  use  grant  funds  allotted  to
nonprimacy States   to  support  direct  implementation  activities.    During  1986,
States and EPA will  focus  on  permitting,  with the  highest  priority  being  new  wells
associated with oil and gas production (Class II) to  avoid  delays in energy produc-
tion.  States and   EPA  will  then address the next  priority,  existing  Class I  (deep
well injection  of   hazardous   waste),  followed  by  existing  Class  III  (mineral
extraction), new Class I, and new Class  III wells.   Primacy States  are not required
to reissue permits  for existing  Class II  wells,  which  are  authorized  by  rule  for
the life of the well.  However, as these  wells must meet most  of the  same require-
ments as wells  authorized  by permit, States must  thoroughly review  them  at  least
once every five years.

     Grant funds will  also  support   surveillance  and  compliance activities.   The
program's primary  means of surveillance  is through the  receipt and  review of  oper-
ation reports.  For  this  system to  be  effective,  there must be no question  about
the credibility of operators'  data.  This  requires  the  program  to  maintain  an
effective verification effort.   In   addition, demonstrated  absence  of  leaks  is  an
important element   of  compliance.   Where  violations  are  evident,  appropriate  en-
forcement action will be  initiated.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency is  allocating  a  total  of  $8,500,200 for this program,  all
of which is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.

     By the end of  1985,  we anticipate that 32 States  will  achieve  full  primacy  and
seven States  will  have partial  primacy.  On December  30,  1984,   EPA  promulgated
direct implementation programs  for  additional  States  bringing the  total  number  of
Federally administered  programs to   21  full  and seven   partial   programs.   With
additional  delegations, we anticipate the  number of direct  implementation programs
will decrease  to   18  full  and  seven  partial  programs  by  the  end  of the  year.

     As in 1986, permitting new Class II wells  is the  highest priority,  followed  by
existing Class I and  III  wells, new  Class  I  and III  wells, and existing  Class  II
wells.  We anticipate that the States and EPA will  complete  125 Class  I and 95 Class
III permit determinations  for  existing  wells.   In  addition, EPA and the States  are
expecting to conduct 16,700  file  reviews for Class II  wells  and  22,100 mechanical
integrity test reviews.  States and  EPA  are conducting on-site inspections  of wells,
following up on violators  of  permit  conditions,  and  initiating  enforcement actions
as necessary.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of  -$600,000  results from the following action:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$600,000)   This reprogramming  reflects  a   shift  of
resources within the Agency  to fund  the expanded  needs required by  the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and Recovery  Act.    This  change   resulted   in  a  net
decrease of  -$600,000  to  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation.
                                         DW-29

-------
1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated  a  total  of $7,290,500 for this program,  all
which was for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.
                                of
     Twenty-nine States achieved full primacy and six had partial  primacy by  the  end
of 1984.  These  States  issued  permits  for existing  Class  I  and III wells  and  new
Class I! facilities,  conducted assessments of Class  V wells, ensured closure of Class
IV wells  injecting  into aquifers, witnessed  mechanical  integrity tests,  reviewed
compliance monitoring, and  conducted surveillance and inspection of permitted wells.
The Federally administered  programs were implemented during  the  last quarter of 1984.
EPA administered  18  full  and three partial  programs.   Approximately  100  permits,
mostly emergency, were issued during  this  period.


SPECIAL STUDIES AND DEMONSTRATIONS

1986 Program Request

     No funding  is  requested for this  program.    This  represents  a  decrease  of
$2,100,000 in  the  Abatement, Control   and  Compliance appropriation.   The  decrease
represents the  Agency's  position  that  the  National  Rural  Water  Association  has
demonstrated the  effectiveness  of grass  roots training  and technical  assistance
programs to benefit small  systems  and that  the individual  State associations should
be able to move toward  self-sufficiency through the  use of  organizational  dues  and
training fees.
1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is  allocating a total  of  $2,100,000  for  this  program,  all
of which is for the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance appropriation.

     These funds support the training  and technical  assistance activities  of  the
National Rural  Water Association.  The National Association, through its 31 current-
ly funded State  associations  covering  33  States,  is providing  guidance  on  ways
promote compliance among rural  water-systems
more additional State associations in 1985.
The Agency expects to  fund  one
to
or
1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     There is no change from the enacted level  of the 1985 Budget.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a  total  of $1,899,700  for this program,  all  of
which was for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     These funds supported the National  Rural  Water Association's outreach program.
The State  associations funded  a total  of 323  workshops  in  33  States to  train
operators of small water systems.


TRAINING

1986 Program Request

     No funds are requested for this program.   This represents  no change from 1985.
The Agency believes  that  there  are sufficient  opportunities  for State  personnel
to obtain training in environmental  and public  health fields without Federal support.
                                        DW-30

-------
1985 Program

     The Agency is allocating no funds for this program.
                                             »

1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -5214,000 results from the  following  action:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$214,000)   This   reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency  to  fund the expanded needs  required by the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted  in  a   net
decrease of  -$214,000  to  the  Abatement,   Control  and  Compliance   appropriation.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, thp  Agency obligated a  total  of $199,200  for  this  program, all  of
which was for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation.

     The funds  supported  academic training  for  123  State agency  personnel.    Of
these,  28 went to  State  personnel  directly  involved in State UIC programs and  the
remainder provided training to employees  directly involved  in State PUS  programs.
                                      DW-31

-------
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-------
                                   DRINKING WATER


                             Drinking Water Management
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total  of $10,544,900  supported  by  286.4  total  workyears
for 1986, an increase  of  $439,100  and  20.0 total workyears from  1985.   All  of the
request will  be for the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

Pro gram Descri ption

     This subactivity, which  consists  of two major  Regional  programs,  encompasses
EPA Regional  efforts  to  prevent  and  control the  contamination  of drinking  water
supplies and their sources.

     Public Water Systems  Supervision  Program Assistance -- This  program  consists
of Regional  activities related to  national  implementation  of drinking  water  regu-
lations.  The Regional Offices provide  oversight and support to  primacy  States in
administering Public  Water  Systems Supervision  (PWS)  programs  and  implement  pro-
grams in those  States which do not have  primacy aid on Indian lands where  States
do not have civil  jurisdiction.  The Regions assist  States  where  specific problems
are identified, evaluate  State programs,  and  award the  PWS  grants.   The  Regions
continue to respond to contamination incidents  which may potentially affect  public
water supplies.

     Underground Injection Control  Program --  This  program  consists  of  Regional
activities related to  the  protection  of underground  water  sources.   The  Regions
are responsible  for  ensuring   implementation of  the Underground  Injection  Control
(DIG) Regulations, either  through   oversight  and assistance  to  primacy  States  or
Federal  implementation in  nonprimacy  States and on Indian  lands.   They  are  also
responsible for review of  sole source  aquifer  designation  petitions.   Grant  awards
for the UIC program are administered by the Regions.


PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS SUPERVISION  PROGRAM ASSISTANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $4,923,000  supported  by  132.4 total workyears,
all of  which will  be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.  This represents
a decrease of $149,800, which  reflect Government-wide reductions  to pay and adminis-
trative services and no change in total workyears.

     Review of  delegated  State programs will  be a  major  initiative.   The purpose
of the  review  is  twofold:  (1) to enable the States  to  retain primacy by assisting
them in the  adoption  of volatile  organic  contaminant  (VOC)  regulations  which EPA
will promuglate  in 1986,  and (2)  to  evaluate  the  operational  effectiveness  of
State programs  in  fulfilling the  role of primacy agents.  At the same time, further
progress in compliance with  existing regulations  will remain important.  The Regions
will negotiate  with the  States to  achieve,  together,  no  more than 0.4% persistent
violations of microbiological  and turbidity regulatory requirements in 1986, towards
the goal of eliminating persistent violations by 1988.

     EPA will  directly implement  the   program   in  four nonprimacy  States and  on
Indian  lands.   Attention  will focus on the forthcoming implementation  of  the VOC
regulations; Regions  will  be  engaged  in assuring  a  sufficient  laboratory capacity
for VOC analyses and working with utilities  on analytic and reporting requirements.
EPA will  intensify negotiations  with  Oregon and  Indiana  in  an effort  to delegate
the program  by 1987.  Although  Pennsylvania will  have  primacy  in  1986,  EPA will
                                        DW-34

-------
continue to provide transition support in  such  areas  as  data management,  follow-up
of compliance, completion of  formal enforcement actions,  staff  training,  and  other
appropriate activities.
                       t
     The Regional  program will play an instrumental  role  in  the  Agency's  comprehen-
sive drinking water monitoring program designed  to (1) assess the  quality of drink-
ing water in  public water  systems  across the country  and (2) provide  for rational
responses to detection of contaminants in drinking water. The Regions  will  respond
to the growing number  of contamination incidents stemming  from assessments of Super-
fund sites, monitoring in the vicinity  of  Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act
sites, and  State   surveillance  programs.   Instances  of   ethylene  dibromide,  BOB,
contamination problems in  various  States  and  ground-water  contamination  continue
to arise and  require  coordination  with  the  Ground-Water Protection,  Solid  Waste,
and Superfund  programs.   The Regions   will  respond  to  contamination   incidents
involving regulated and  unregulated   contaminants  by  helping  States  to  interpret
health advisories, defining  the urgency of the  contamination  problem, and  identify-
ing available treatment technologies.   With  the State primacy   agencies,  they  will
confirm the contaminant  concentration  levels  and advise on the appropriate sampling
and analytical procedures, determine  the health effects, investigate  the pathways
of contamination,  and advise  on  remedial  measures,  including treatment techniques,
alternate sources, and monitoring for  follow-up  purposes. Regional  staff  will  also
be actively  involved  in investigating  and  controlling  the   causes   of  disease
outbreaks such as  the continuing  occurrences of  Giardiasis.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit Reduction  Act,
which requires  decreases in   the  following  categories:  travel,  motor  'vehicle,
printing, publication  and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The  reduction  of
-$7,900 in  the  Salaries  and   Expenses  appropriation   represents  decreases  to  all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $5,072,800  supported by  132.4
total workyears for this  program,  all of  which is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.

     We expect to  delegate  primary enforcement responsibility  to  one  additional
State for a total   of  53  primacy  States.  The Regions  are working  with the  primacy
States in  achieving   increased  compliance,  particularly for  microbiological   and
turbidity maximum  contaminant  levels   and  for the  inorganic and  radionuclide  stand-
ards.  Compliance  targets are being   negotiated with  States  and  follow-up  actions
to ensure  that  the States  are  making  progress  in   achieving  their  goals.   They
are also  negotiating  specific  annual targets  for  reducing  the  violation  rate.
The Regions continue to provide assistance to States  and utilities  as  they  respond
to contamination of public water  supplies.

     The Regions  are  directly implementing programs  in  four  States and   on  Indian
lands, with transition assistance being provided to  Pennsylvania.   Federal  programs
are emphasizing  improved  compliance   with  basic  microbiological   and   reporting
requirements among non-community  water   systems serving  transient or  intermittent
populations.  The  Regions are  focusing  on informal  enforcement  measures  to  assure
compliance including site visits.  Systems are  receiving  assistance  in  implementing
and improving compliance  with the trihalomethane regulations.   EPA's  efforts  are
being supplemented with the use  of PWS  grant  funds  allotted  to nonprimacy  States
for conducting program activities.
                                        DW-35

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1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$63,800 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$500)   Several  reprogrammings  were made to  this  activity
which were not reportable under the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   These
changes resulted in a net decrease of -$500 to the Salaries and  Expenses appropria-
tion.

     -Pay Raise.  (+564,300)   This  program was  increased  by  +$64,300  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total of $4,466,200  supported  by  123.5 total
workyears for this  program,  of which 54,412,800  was  for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $53,400 was  for the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropria-
tion.

     Significant program accomplishments fall  in  two major areas:  State  delegations
and compliance  and  enforcement.   Regional efforts   over  the   past  several  years
resulted in the delegation  of  primary  enforcement  authority to  South Dakota.  This
brings the total delegated programs to 52  or  91%  of all  57 States and Territories.
In addition, the Regions  have successfully initiated the  first steps  toward dele-
gating the PWS program to Pennsylvania with the award of a PWS  grant  which  requires
a written intent to assume primacy.

     Regional  efforts with primacy States on their enforcement activities have shown
a significant increase in the number of enforcement actions.  Additionally, the Re-
gions focused  on  improving  national  compliance  with regulatory requirements  for
microbials, turbidity, and  monitoring  and  reporting.   Special   emphasis  was  placed
on the persistent  violators.


UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $5,621,900 supported  by  154.0  total  workyears
for this program,   all  of which will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.
This represents an  increase  of  $588,900 and   20.0  total  workyears.  The  increase
reflects an expanded UIC permitting effort  in  nonprimacy States.

     For EPA's  direct  implementation  in 25 States  (18  full, seven  partial)  and on
Indian lands.   The  UIC  program  implementation strategy  for  permit  determinations
is to  review  all  new Class II  applications first  in  accordance with the statutory
mandate not to  impede  oil  and gas production. The  second priority,  existing Class
I wells,  reflects  the  Agency's  concern  about  the  disposal  of  hazardous  wastes
through underground  injection.   Out of concern  about potential  contamination from
mining operations, Regions  will  review  existing  Class III  wells.   The Regions will
then review  new Class I  and   III wells  to ensure construction activities  are  not
hampered, and finally  review  existing  Class  II wells,  which by regulation must be
permitted within five  years  of UIC  implementation.   An  expanded  permitting effort
will enable  Regions  to  complete determinations   on  all existing  Class I  and  III
applications, 20% of  existing Class II applications, and  new Class  I,  II, and III
applications.  The  Regions  will  also  complete  the  assessment  of  Class  V  wells,
continue technical reviews  of permit  applications,  maintain a  current inventory of
all  injection  wells,  witness mechanical  integrity  tests  for  some   categories  of
wells, review  monitoring  reports,  maintain an accurate and  current  data base, and
conduct surveillance activities  to  ensure  compliance.
                                        DW-36

-------
     The Regions will  oversee and provide technical  assistance to 39 States operat-
ing 32  full  and seven partial  programs.   Oversight activities  include  evaluating
State implementation  programs,  working  with  the  States  to  identify  and  address
compliance problems,  negotiating  annual  program  outputs  to  meet  annual  operat-
ing objectives,  and verifying data to ensure accuracy of  information used to report
environmental results.

     Regions will   continue  to  process  petitions to designate  sole  source aquifers
and will  continue  to  evaluate proposed  Federally  funded  projects in  designated
sole source  aquifer areas  to  determine if any  contamination  potential exists  and,
based upon  the  determination,  make  appropriate  recommendations to  the  Adminis-
trator.  In  addition, they  will provide  hydrogeological assistance  on  ground-water
contamination incidents  and  emergency  response,   conduct   grants   and   financial
management activities, provide  training,  and  coordinate  UIC activities  with  other
related programs.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the  Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction  Act,
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The  reduction  of
-$5,300 in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency, is  allocating  a total of  $5,033,000 supported  by  134.0
total workyears  for this  program, all   of which is  for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

     Agency activities related to the protection of underground sources of drinking
water include oversight  of States  with  primacy  for  UIC programs,  implementation
of programs in nonprimacy States,  designation'of sole source, aquifers,  and Regional
management.  Oversight of  primacy States  includes  reviewing  State activities  to
ensure program  consistency  and evaluating  environmental  progress  on  ground-water
protection.  The  Regions  are   reviewing  annual  State compliance  and  monitoring
reports to  assess  compliance  with  the  regulations as  well  as  identify  problem
areas and providing technical  assistance on mechanical  integrity testing  and permit
application review.

     Direct Federal programs  in nonprimacy States  are in the  first  full year  of
implementation.   During  1985, Regional  activities are  focusing  on  reviewing permit
applications in  the  same priority order  as mentioned above  for 1986,  witnessing
mechanical integrity  tests,  and  assessing  Class  V  miscellaneous wells to  de-
termine the  need for  regulation.  They are also monitoring compliance reports  and
providing assistance to the  operators  as  necessary.   The  Regions  are maintaining
inventory data and preparing  an annual  report of State activities.  The  UIC  grant
funds will partially support these nonprimacy State activities.

     In addition to  protecting underground  sources of  drinking water   from  con-
tamination caused   by  improper  injection  practices, the  Agency is  responsible  for
designating and   protecting  sole-source  aquifers   from   contamination.    Nineteen
petitions are currently under review.  During 1985, the Agency expects  to designate
six aquifers as  sole  sources  of  drinking water.  The Agency  is also  responsible
for ensuring that  Federally financed  projects  in the recharge  area  of  a sole source
aquifer do not potentially contaminate  the designated aquifer.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the  Enacted

     The net decrease of  -$451,800 results from  the following  actions:
                                        DW-37

-------
     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-5462,400)    This  reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency  to  fund  the expanded  needs  required by  the  reauthor-
ized Resource  Conservation   and  Recovery  Act.    This change  resulted  in  a  net
decrease of -$462,400 to the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$54,500)  Several  reprogrammings were made  to  this  activ-
ity which  were  not  reportable  under  the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes resulted  in a  net decrease of  -$54,500 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropri ation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$65,100)   This  program was  increased by  +$65,100  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental,


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated  a  total  of $3,756,800 supported  by  110.8 total
workyears for  this   program,  all  of  which  was  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.

     The Regions  continued   to  process  State  primacy applications   and  negotiate
with States  on  program plans and implementation  activities.   By the end  of 1984,
35 States had achieved primacy,  with  29  having full  primacy  and  six  having partial
primacy.  For those  States  with primacy, the Regional Offices reviewed  compliance
and monitoring  reports and  provided  guidance  and  assistance  on  mechanical  integrity
testing and  technical  program  requirements.   They reviewed  the  States'  annual  re-
port data and processed  the  information for  compilation into the annual  report of
program accomplishments.  They  were  responsible  for  managing the State  grant pro-
gram, which  included reviewing program plans,  negotiating changes,  awarding grants,
and auditing grants.

     During the  last  quarter of  1984,  the Agency began implementing  Federal  UIC
programs in  nonprimacy  States  and on  Indian  lands.  Activities  focused  on working
with facility operators to  notify them  of  the  UIC requirements and  issuing permits
for existing Class   I  and  III  and  new  Class II  facilities.    In another  effort,
Regions worked   toward  ensuring  the  proper  closure  of   Class  IV wells  within  six
months of  promulgation  and  initiated  the assessment  of  Class  V  wells to determine
regulatory need.   Other activities  included  updating  inventory  data,  reviewing
Class II well  record  files,  and witnessing mechanical integrity  tests.  The Agency
used the UIC grants  allotted to these  nonprimacy programs  to support its implemen-
tation activities.

     Responsible for  implementing  the  sole  source  aquifer  program, the  Regions
processed six  applications   and  reviewed proposed Federally financed  projects to
ensure they  will not endanger the aquifer.  In addition,  they provided coordination
on ground-water activities. and conducted Regional management  activities.
                                        DW-38

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-------
                                   DRINKING WATER


                              Ground-Water  Protection


Budget Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $2,345,200  supported  by 28.0  total  workyears
for 1986,  an  increase  of  $391,900 and  5.0  total   workyears.   Of  the  request,
$1,345,200 will  be  for  the  Salaries   and  Expenses  appropriation  and  51,000,000
will be  for  the Abatenent, Control  and Compliance appropriation,  an  increase  of
$88,800 ana $303,100, respectively.

Program Description

     Ground-Water Protection -- The  purpose of  the  ground-water  protection program
is to  focus action under  current authorities to  protect the  Nation's  ground  water.
The program's major objectives include:  building and  enhancing  institutions  at the
State level;   coordinating  ground-water protection activities across  EPA programs;
providing assistance  in   addressing  problems  that  arise  from  major  unaddressed
sources of ground-water  contamination;  and reviewing  guidelines  for  EPA decisions
affecting ground-water protection  and  cleanup.   Both  Headquarters  and  Regional
staffs are supported by  this program.


GROUND-WATER  PROTECTION

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total  of  $2,345,200  supported by 28.0 total  workyears for
this program,  of  which $1,345,200 will  be  for  the Salaries and  Expenses appropria-
tion and $1,000.,000 wi 11  be  for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.
This represents an increase of $88,800  and  $303,100,  respectively,  and an increase
of 5.0 total  workyears.   The  increase  in  Salaries and Expenses  and  total  workyears
will provide  additional  Regional  assistance to  States  in developing  ground-water
programs.  The  increase in Abatement and Control  will  support  the program's  guide-
line development  activities  and  examination  of  issues  relating  to  unaddressed
sources of contamination.

     EPA will  continue to implement the provisions of  the Ground-Water Protection
Strategy.  Headquarters  and Regions will  further develop guidance on the  use  of
State grant funds  for  ground-water  protection  activities.   Regions will  work  with
States to develop  and  implement  coordinated ground-water  work  plans   and  to carry
out comprehensive  ground-water protection programs.   Headquarters and  Regions  will
jointly conduct State  program development  workshops  to  exchange  information among
States and to  'identify  common technical  and  management problems and  experiences.

     The Agency will implement the ground-water monitoring strategy, which will set
forth a cohesive EPA approach  providing decision makers at the EPA,  State, and site
manager levels the data necessary to make decisions relating to  ground water.  The
strategy includes  all EPA programs responsible  for ground-water monitoring and will
specify tasks  which will   cut across program areas.  Workshops will be  held with the
States to discuss  the monitoring  strategy and  to  assist  States  developing  ground-
water data management systems.  At least one manual for local managers, accompanied
by a  Technical  Advisory,  will be developed.   The manual   will  describe successful
practices for  dealing  with  selected unregulated  activities  affecting  ground-water
qua!ity.

     During 1986,  the Agency will issue and implement final  ground-water protection
guidelines which  take  into account  the  value  and relative vulnerability  of the
resource.  These guidelines will  be  incorporated  into  the policies, regulations, and
procedures administered   by  other  Agency  programs  dealing  with  ground  water.
                                        DW-40

-------
     Headquarters and the Regions  will  manage internal  coordinating  committees  to
assure that major ground-water  policy questions are addressed.  External  cordinating
committees will  be managed  to  ensure  involvement of  key groups such as  State and
local governments  and  other  Federal   agencies.   A  Memorandum  of  Understanding
between EPA and  the U.S. Geological Survey will  be implemented.  We will  coordinate
implementation of the  recommendations  made by a  panel  of ground-water experts  on
the priority areas of ground-water research.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's response  to the Deficit Reduction  Act,
which requires  decreases  in  the   following  categories:  travel,  motor   venicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting services.   The  reduction  of
-$8,500 in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the  above  categories.  The decrease of -534,200  in the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation reflects reductions  to  consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency is  allocating  a total  of   $1,953,300  supported by  23.0
total workyears   to  this  program,  of  which  $1,256,400   is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  5696,900 is for the  Abatement, Control and  Compliance
appropriation.

     During early 1985,  grant  guidance  was  developed for the  State  ground-water
protection grants as  provided  for under  section 106  of the Clean  Water Act.   Each
Region established an  organization  to  make grants available to  the States  and and
is providing  assistance  to  States  as  they  develop  and  implement  consolidated
ground-water management  plans.   Headquarters  staff  provide   assistance  to  the
Regions in conducting State program development  workshops.

     A monitoring task  force,  composed  of  representatives  from  the  States,  EPA
Regional and Headquarters Offices,  and the U.S.  Geological  Survey, has  been estab-
lished to  initiate  planning   for  th~e  development   of   a  ground-water monitoring
strategy.  A draft  ground-water  monitoring strategy  will  be issued in the  Summer
of 1985.

     Guidelines  are being developed to define ground  water to  be protected  and the
level of that protection  for various  kinds of  ground water.  These will  apply  to
all EPA programs  which  protect  or clean  up  ground  water.   For example, work  is
underway to develop  a  program to address  pesticide contamination  of  ground  water,
locational  standards  and  guidelines under the  Resource  Conservation and  Recovery
Act, a Superfund cleanup policy for incorporation into the site assessment process,
and a  program  for regulating  leaking  underground storage tanks.   Those  programs,
frequently spanning several  offices, are  implemented  by  the  primary office after a
coordinated approach  is  developed  with  the  help of  the ground-water  protection
program. •

     Two new permanent committees are being formed in 1985: 1)  a committee of  State
and local  organization  representatives  to assure participation  of  State  and  local
officials in the development of ground-water policies  and programs  within EPA; and
2) a committee made up  of  other  Federal agencies  which have  an  interest in  ground-
water protection to provide for an  exchange of  information and program coordination.
A Memorandum of  Understanding is being developed  between EPA and the U.S. Geological
Survey to clarify their respective roles  in ground-water  protection.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$681,200 results from  the following actions:
                                        DW-41

-------
     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (-$650,300)   This  reprogramming  reflects a shift of  re-
sources within the Agency to  fund  the  expanded needs required by  the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.   This change resulted in a  net decrease  of
-5650,300 to  the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$42,100)   Several  reprogrammings were made to  this  activi-
ty which  were not  reportable under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a net  decrease of  -$40,800 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  a  net decrease of -$1,300 to the Abatement, Control and  Compliance
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$11,200)    This  program was  increased   by  +511,200  reflecting
the amount requested for  the  pay  raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency conducted the  ground-water  activities  within  the  Drinking
Water Criteria, Standards  and  Guidelines program.

     The Ground-Water Protection  Strategy  was  issued to set forth  EPA's  approach
to a  coordinated  ground-water protection  effort  and  to   focus  current  statutory
authorities to  protect  the  Nation's  ground  water.   The   Headquarters  Office  of
Ground-Water  Protection was  established  to  implement  the Strategy and an  Agencywide
work plan was developed to measure  overall progress.  An Oversight Committee  (four
Assistant Administrators   and   two  Regional  Administrators)  was   established  to
provide general  oversight  and policy direction.   A  Steering  Committee of Office
Directors and Water  Management Division Directors was  also established to assure
integration of the Strategy into  EPA program  efforts.
                                       DW-42

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table o'f Contents

                                                                             Paqe
DRINKING WATER
    ENFORCEMENT
          Drinki ng Water Enforcement	  OVI-44
                                      DW-43

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                                   DRINKING WATER


                             Qrinking Water Enforcement
Budget Request
     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $1,346,800  supported by  33.7  total  workyears
for 1986,  a  decrease of  $18,000  from  1985.   All  of the  request  will be  for the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

Program Description

     The Safe Drinking Water  Act  (SDWA) charges EPA to  establish  minimum require-
ments for  programs  to assure  that all  drinking  water  supplies are  free  from reg-
ulated contamination  and  to  protect  underground  sources of  drinking water  from
contamination arising from  unsafe injection practices.   The Act,  however,  clearly
intended that the States would be responsible for enforcing these programs.   Should
a State be  unable  or unwilling  to do  so, EPA must  assume the responsibility.  This
program element includes both Headquarters and Regional  resources.

     Drinking Water Enforcement  -- This  program  provides  for enforcement  responsi-
bilities mandated  by the SDWA  as  they apply  to  public  water  systems  (PWS)  and
underground injection control  (UIC)  in  both  primacy  and  nonprimacy  States.  This
program also provides  for administration  of  the  UIC permit determination  process
in nonprimacy States and on  Indian lands.

     Enforcement activites  relating  to  the  PWS  program  include providing  support
in legal  actions  against  violators  of  the  statutory  provisions  in  nonprimacy
jurisdictions.   As  part  of  this, the Regions  are  responsible for  developing  the
technical and  supporting  documentation  for  enforcement' actions,  providing  expert
testimony, and   participating  in  negotiations  with  violators.  Other  enforcement
re_sponsibi lities include  review  of  primacy  applications  for co.nformance with  en-
forcement requirements and developing  critical  data relating  to emergency  act-ions
in the face of   imminent  health hazards  under Section 1431 of the SDWA.

     The UIC enforcement  program  performs  support activities  similar to  PWS  en-
forcement, for   legal  actions  against  violators   of   UIC  provisions.   It  also
participates in the  review  of primacy  applications, ensuring  that  all  enforcement
requirements are met.


DRINKING WATER  ENFORCEMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $1,346,800  supported by  33.7  total  workyears
for this program, all of which will  be  for the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation.
This represents a decrease of $18,000  reflecting Government-wide  reductions to pay
and administrative services  and  no change in total  workyears.

     Regional  PWS  and  UIC  enforcement  activities  will  focus  on  enforcing  the
respective program requirements in those nonpn'macy States and  on  Indian  lands  for
which EPA has direct implementation responsibilities.   EPA will develop  notices  of
violation and formal enforcement  actions for Department of  Justice  (DOJ) referral
against persistent  violators  of  the  microbiological   maximum contaminant  levels
(MCLs) and prepare case documentations  in  coordination  with  the  Regional  Counsel's
Office to assure appropriate and accurate data.  While it is EPA's intent to  promote
voluntary compliance with  UIC requirements coming into  effect, development of simi-
lar enforcement actions  may  become necessary.
                                         DW-45

-------
     The keystone of  the  UIC  regulatory  program,  permitting,  provides  the  most
effective means to protect underground  sources  by  taking  into  account  site-specific
factors while managing the controlled disposal of  hazardous wastes and other fluids.
Consulting UIC technical  personnel,  the  Regional  enforcement  staff  will  process
the permit applications and perform the  administrative  activities such as  setting
up preappllcation conferences and  public  hearings,  reviewing public  comments,  and
similiar activities   associated  with  permit  issuance.    The  technical   review  of
permit applications  is provided  for under the UIC Drinking Water  Management  program.
Priorities for issuing  UIC  permits are  consistent  with  those  identified for  the
technical program.  The Regional  enforcement staff  will  complete permit determina-
tions on 650 applications.

     At the national  level,  staff  will  coordinate  referrals  to DOJ   for  civil  ac-
tions against PWS and UIC violators with EPA's  Office  of  Enforcement  and Compliance
Monitoring (OECM).  Headquarters  will  develop  and  maintain  a  tracking  system  to
improve case  monitoring.   Staff  will  revise  enforcement strategies  for the  PWS
program to reflect new regulatory  requirements.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction   reflects  the  Agency's  response to  the Deficit Reduction  Act,
which requires  decreases   in  the  following  categories:  travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual, and consulting services.  The reduction  of
-$1,000 in  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of  $1,364,800  supported by  33.7
total workyears  for  this  program,  all   of  which  is  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation.

     Staff are  focusing   on  compliance with  microbiological  and turbidity  MCLs,
particularly among small  systems.  As part  of  this  compliance effort, the enforce-
ment staff"  are  working  with  the  drinking  water  program personnel in  negotiating
compliance targets and  schedules  with  the systems in violation  of MCLs.   They  are
continuing to  supply  the  technical  support  in  legal  actions taken against  recal-
citrant violators.  This includes developing the technical and support  documentation
for cases referred to OECM and ultimately DOJ , as well  as  providing testimony.   They
also are  providing  support for cases  referred by  State authorities which  choose
to pursue violations under Federal  law.

     Regional enforcement  activities  for  the  UIC  program  are  focusing  on  the
administrative aspects  of  permit  issuance  in  nonprimacy  jurisdictions.   This
involves the  administrative  review  of the application,  work   with  the  drinking
water personnel  on  the  review  of the  technical  aspects,  conduct  of hearings  as
required, and  issuance  of the final permit.  They are reviewing  compliance reports
to ensure adherence  to  the  regulations, and, as  necessary,  initiating  enforcement
actions.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of  -$23,300 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (-$1,000)   This  reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of  re-
sources within the  Agency to  fund the expanded needs required  by the reauthorized
ized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted  in  a  net de-
crease of -$1,000 to the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation.
                                       DW-46

-------
     -Reprogrammings.   (-$38,600)   Several  reprogrammings were  made  to  this  activ-
ity which were  not  reportable  under  the Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in  a  net decrease of -$38,600 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$16,300)    This  program was  increased by  +$16,300  reflecting
the amount requested for  the  pay raise supplemental.


1984 Program Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $896,000 supported  by 23.7  total
workyears for  this  program,   all   of  which  was   for the  Salaries  and   Expenses
appropri ation.

     The enforcement  program  worked  closely  with  the drinking  water program  in
implementing the compliance  strategies  for PWS supervision  programs and  with  the
States in developing compliance targets and providing alternate ways through  which
compliance can   be  achieved  and maintained, especially  for  small   systems.   They
conducted the enforcement  aspects  of Federal  programs  in  six  nonprimacy  States
and on Indian lands, initiating formal enforcement  proceedings  against  recalcitrant
violators (resulting  in  fifteen  DUJ   referrals),  preparing  backup  and technical
documents for OECM, and  providing testimony  in  support  of the  cases.  They  also
reviewed the enforcanent  section of  primacy applications.

     During  1984, the  Regions began implementating UIC programs in  nonprimacy States
and on  Indian lands.   The  Regions  established  permit determination  procedures  for
processing applications  from  these  nonprimacy  jurisdictions.   Although  implemen-
tation did not   occur  until  the last  quarter of  1984, the Regions issued  a  number
of permits,  mostly emergency.  They also reviewed  additional  primacy applications.
                                        DW-47

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986  Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page


HAZARDOUS WASTE                                                             HW-1

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Hazardous Waste Research	  HW-10
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Waste Management Regulations,  Guidelines and  Policies	  HW-25
          Regulations, Guidelines  &  Policies  -  Hazardous  Waste	  HW-27
          RCRA Regulatory Program  -  Office of Air &  Radiation	  HW-30
          RCRA Regulatory Program  -  Office of Water	  HW-31
       Fi nancial  Assi stance	  HW-33
          Hazardous Waste Management  Financial  Assistance to States	  HW-34
          Hazardous Waste Management  Compliance Grants	  HW-36
          Hazardous Waste Management  Initiative Grants	  HW-36
          Underground  Storage  Tanks  State Grants	  HW-37
       Waste Management Strategies Implementation	  HW-38
          Hazardous Waste Management  Regulatory Strategies Implementation..  HW-40
    ENFORCEMENT
       Hazardous Waste Enforcement	  HW-44
                                     HW-1

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-------
                                  HAZARDOUS WASTE


OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments  of  1934  to  the  Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act  (RCRA) provide the legislative mandate  for  a greatly expanded and
accelerated nationwide program to  manage  hazardous wastes from  generation through
disposal.  Congress  recognizes that  much  remains to be  accomplished  in  protecting
the public health and environment from current hazardous waste management  practices.
Numerous wastes  are   still  unregulated,  and  disposal   practices,  particularly  at
many land disposal facilities, do  not  adequately protect ground or  surface water.
Many facilities are not in compliance with our less stringent interim status stand-
ards and  some  States  lack  the  legal   authority  and resources to  take  enforcement
action in a timely  and appropriate manner.   To  overcome these  obstacles,  EPA has
developed a strategy which encompasses six major objectives.   These are:  (1) imple-
ment strong State  programs;  (2)    improve  permitting  performance; (3)   strengthen
compliance monitoring  and  enforcement;  (4)   develop  new regulatory  programs;  (5)
review existing regulations; and (6)   conduct research and development  to  support
regulatory programs.

Implement Strong State Programs

     The effective management of  hazardous wastes  rests  in  a  strong  Federal/State
partnership.  To  establish  and  maintain  this  relationship,  EPA  will   continue
to help  States  to assume  full  authorization by  providing  direct program  assist-
ance,  training,  guidance,  and financial  support.   In  addition,  the Agency  will
assist the States  in  upgrading their program  capabilities to  meet  changing  Federal
standards.  The Agency and  the States  will  continue to  operate  within the  Interim
National Criteria.  These  criteria define the key  factors  and performance  expecta-
tionsfor maYTagi rig and evaluating  the  RCRA program under regulations  and  policies
developed prior to the 1984  Amendments.   They are  elaborate  in  scope  and  form the
basis  for the  State  grant  work program, program  reviews,  and  other State oversight
tools.  In  1985,  this document  will   be  revised to  reflect  the  1984 Amendments.

     Existing  1985 State  authorization  schedules  should  not  change as a  result  of
the Amendments.  The States  will  need  to  examine  the  new requirements and  begin to
develop schedules for State program revisions.  Such new schedules  will be  included
in the 1985 grant work program as "revision plans".   Headquarters,  Regions,  and the
States will  be  jointly  involved in  examining existing State statutory  and  regulatory
authority for  the new requirements.  The plans will  indicate  what new authorities a
State  must obtain, whether  statutory or  regulatory amendments are needed,  and  the
schedule for obtaining the amendments and  the subsequent authorization.

Improve Permitting Performance

     A major objective of  EPA's  National   Permits  Strategy  (NPS)  is  to  permit all
land disposal  facilities  by the end  of 1988  and all incinerator facilities by the
end of  1989.   This  objective is consistent  with the  provisions  of  the  1984  RCRA
Amendments.  As part   of the  NPS, EPA and  the States will  accelerate  their  permit-
ting efforts by  requesting  all   remaining land  disposal and  incinerator  permit
applications by the end of 1985  and  provide  national  direction  for  developing  in-
dividual State   strategies  for  addressing their  total  facility   permit  workload.-

     Permitting activities  will  be  significantly affected by the  1984 Amendments,
resulting in a  more  extensive permit  processing  program.  A  revised  NPS  will  be
prepared to reflect  the  requirements  of the  1984  Amendments.  All  permits issued
after  November  8, 1984 must  incorporate many  new provisions  (i.e., double  liners,
corrective action for  prior  releases,  exposure assessments).  In  addition, permit
applications must  be  submitted  by  November  1985  for  land  disposal facilities;
November 1986  for incinerator facilities;  and  November 1988  for all  other  facili-
ties.   If a facility  does  not  submit  its  application  by  these dates,  it  will  lose
interim status  and must close.
                                        HW-3

-------
     Submission and review  of  additional  information  related  to new  requirements
will  add time to the  permitting process, thus affecting  previously planned  outputs
that would otherwise  be  expected.   Not  only  will  the length of  the  permit  process
he extended,  but the new requirements  also entail  additional  effort on  each  permit.

     In many   instances,  EPA and  authorized  States  will  be involved  in  a  joint
permit process.  Permits  currently  in  process  must  address the new  requirements
before issuance.   In  authorized  States, EPA  will  be  responsible  for preparing  a
portion of the  permit that  incorporates  new provisions  of the RCRA  Amendments.
Therefore, issuance of a valid  RCRA  permit  in  authorized  States  will  be accomplish-
ed through joint  permit  processing  with EPA  until  States  are  authorized  for  the
new provisions.

     Between  1985 and  1986, a major  shift  in  overall  permitting  workload will  occur
between EPA and the States  as  an  additional  17  States receive  final  authorization
for the base  RCRA program.  Cumulatively, this amounts  to 52 States  and territories
by the end of  1986.   Because of  this, the States portion  of the permit  processing
workload will  increase   significantly  between  1985  and   1986  while  EPA  workload
shifts more towards detailed reviews of State permits, program  oversight  and  tech-
nical  assistance.

Strengthen Compliance Monitoring  And Enforcement

     The number  of handlers subject  to the  RCRA  regulations,  as  amended,   will
greatly expand, Hue primarily  to  the  regulation of  small  quantity  generators  and
underground storage tanks.  New and innovative  approaches  will  have  to be designed
to create a credible compl iance monitoring  and enforcement program.  The Agency will
also explore  different techniques, including the use of  non-government  inspectors,
for inspecting  and  enforcing RCRA requirements  for  the  newly regulated  community.

     In support of the permitting  activities  and as  a  result of  the  new Amendments,
interim status  facilities must  certify their compliance with groundwater monitoring
and financial responsibility requirements by  November  1985  or face loss  of  interim
status which   could lead  to  closure.   Also,   inspections  of these facilities  must
occur at a minimum of once  every two  years.   The  new Amendments also  mandate  the
annual inspection of Federal, State, and local government owned  or operated  facili-
ties.  Further,'as a 'result  of  the  minimum technology requirements, 'facilities
must be monitored  for compliance  with the double  liner and  leachate  collection and
removal systems requirements.

     The RCRA enforcement  program will  initiate appropriate administrative, civil,
and criminal   enforcement  actions  when  violations  of  the  program are  discovered.
Corrective action  enforcement  authority  at   interim  status facilities  for  prior
releases and   off boundary  contamination are among the  new RCRA  enforcement  author-
ities.  The  program will  continue to emphasize timely and  appropriate enforcement
action for late  or incomplete  permit applications, non-compliance  violations,  and
interim status  violations.   The implementation  of the  Enforcement .Response  Policy,
Interim National Criteria and Civil  Penalty  Policy will lead  to significant improve-
ments  in the  rate  of  compliance with the RCRA program.

Develop New Regulatory Programs

     Probably the most challenging provisions of,the  new law are those that ban or
restrict the  disposal  of  hazardous  waste  on  land.   Most hazardous wastes  are
managed by depositing them  into  or  on  the  surface  of   the land.   Many of  these
wastes are placed  in  surface  impoundments,  injected  into  underground wells,  or
dipsosed of  in  landfills,  land treatment facilities,  or  waste  piles.  All  of  these
facilities could  potentially  release  hazardous  materials  into the  environment.
Because the  new law  puts into place  provisions  that will  severely  restrict  the
disposal of  waste  on  the land, a shift towards the reduction  of waste generation,
recycling, and  the use of more sophisticated treatment  and destruction techniques
will occur.
                                        HW-4

-------
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-------
                                    HAZARDOUS WASTE
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
           Budget     Current
Actual     Estimate    Estimate    Estimate
 1984       1985        1985        1986
          Increase (+)
          Decrease (-)
          1986 vs. 1985
  Incremental  Outputs

   RCRA Standards	    _4	       22
    Proposal s	     2
    Promulgations	     2

   Section 3001  Listings         2         11
    Proposal s  	     2
    Promulgat ions	

   Implementation	
    Guidances	    17         20

   Reports to  Congress          --          4

   States with Authorization
    Phase I only	    45
    Phase I &  II	    25
    Ful'l	     4         36

   Permit Call-Ins	 1,193        34_2
    EPA	   537        137
    State	   656        205

   Final Determinations        669        73_4
    EPA	   301  .      294
    State	   368        440

   Permits-in-Process	 1,953      2 ,295
    EPA	   879        918
    State	 1,074      1,377

   Enforcement Actions

   Inspections
    EPA I/	   981 2/   1,399
    State	 3 ,598 7/  12,236

   Notices of  Violation
    EPA	   324
    States	 1,025 2/

   Administrative Orders
    EPA	   355
    State	   364 2/

   Civil Litigation
    EPA 3/	    34
    States	   173
                          16
                         To"
                           6

                         Ji-
                          ll
                           3
                          58

                           4
                          31

                         565
                         254
                         311

                        _212_

                         116

                       2,306
                       1,036
                       1,270
                       1,867
                       8,649
                         105
                       1,977
                         428
                        2432
                          35
                         131
   20
   12
    8

   17
   31

    2




   17
  502
 ~9Q
  412

1,804
  324
1,480
2,172
9,662
  130
2,540
  550
 2472
   41
  174
    4-4
    +2
    +2
    +3
    -3
    +6
   -27

    -2




   -14

  -565
  -254
  -311

  +290
   - 6
  +296

  -502
  -719
  +217
  +305
+1,013
   +25
  +563
  +122
   +40
    +6
   +43
                                         HW-7

-------
                                  HAZARDOUS  WASTE


                                        Budget       Current                 Increase  ( + )
                            Actual      Estimate      Estimate    Estimate    Decrease  (-)
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES           1984         1985         1985         1986       1986  vs.  1985

 Incremental  Outputs

  Criminal  Litigation
   EPA	    11          --         33            35           +2
   States	     1

 Cumulative Outputs

  States with Authorization
Phase I only ....,....,
Phase I * II 	
Ful 1 	 ,
Permi t Cal 1-Ins 	
FPA 	 ,
Statp 	
Final Determi nations
EPA 	
State 	 ,
45
25
4
, . 3,377
.. 1,520
. 1 ,857
724
326
398


40
3,719

2,062
1,458
6?0
838


35
3,942
1,774
?,168
936
422
514


52
3,942
1,774
2,168
1,438
512
926


+17

_. _.

+502
+ 90
+412
I/  Includes compliance and oversight inspections only

2/  Major handlers only •

3/  Includes new civil referrals and support for on-going cases
                                        HW-8

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page
HAZARDOUS WASTE
    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Hazardous Waste Research	  HW-10
                                     HW-9

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-------
                                 HAZARDOUS WASTE


                            Hazardous Waste Research

                          Principal Outputs by Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS
=S==================

Objective 1:   Develop  and  Evaluate  Procedures  for  Conducting Risk Assessments

0  Health and Environmental Effects Profiles (Sci. Assessment)         '
0  Report on final evaluation of prescreen protocol  (Health)

Objective 2: Conduct the Assessment and Control  Research Necessary to Address Dioxin

0  Report on  field  evaluation  of alkaline polyethylene  glycolate  (APEG)  complexes
   to detoxify dioxins in Missouri  soils (Env. Technology)
°  Report on plant uptake of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) (Env. Processes)

Objective 3:   Develop  Procedures   to  Identify  and  Measure  Chemicals in Wastes

°  Report on fiber optic sensors for subsurface  monitoring  (Monitoring)
0  Report  on  vadose  zone  monitoring  at  land   treatment   facilities  (Monitoring)
0  Reports on validation of four SW-846 analytical methods  (Monitoring)

Objective 4:    Provide   Quality  Assurance  Support to the Hazardous Waste Program

0  Report on performance evaluations of contract laboratories (Monitoring)
c  Report on technical support  to State laboratories (Monitoring)

Objective 5:	Develop  Procedures  to  Prevent  and  Contain  Hazardous Releases

0  Report on management  of high-strength  spills  and landfill leachates (Env. Tech-
   nology)
0  Handbooks  on  hazardous  releases  prevention  and  removal  (Env.   Technology)

Objective 6:	Develop  Data to Support Development, Implementation and Enforcement
of the Treatment, Storage and Disposal  Regulations

0  Updated  design  information  on  clay  and flexible  membrane landfill  liners  and
   assess settlement  and  subsidence effects  on  landfill covers  (Env.  Technology)
0  Technology transfer  reports  on  the effectiveness of  alternative  treatments  for
   banned wastes, and reports  on incinerator  and  industrial  boiler operating para-
   meters to ensure proper waste destruction (Env. Technology)


1985 PLANNED OUTPUTS
Objective 1:     Develop  and  Evaluate  Procedures  for Conducting Risk Assessments

0  Health and Environmental  Effects Profiles (Sci. Assessment)
0  Report on  hydrogeological vulnerability classification protocol (Env. Processes)

Objective 2:  Conduct the Assessment and Control  Research Necessary to Address Dioxin

°  Reports on  analysis  of tetrachlorodioxins by  high  resolution  mass  spectrometry
   and development  of  analytical   methods   for   chlorinated  dioxins  (Monitoring)
0  Field evaluation report  on  the mobile incinerator  tests  on  dioxin-contaminated
                                       HW-13

-------
   soils in Missouri  (Env. Technology)
0  Interim  report  on  dioxin  emissions from  industrial  boilers  (Env.  Technology)
°  Report on the nobility of 2,3,7,8-TCDD  in soils (Env.  Processes)

Objective 3:    Develop  Procedures  to  Identify  and  Measure Chemicals in Wastes

0  Reports  on  validation  of  four  analytical   methods  in  SW-846  (Monitoring)
0  Report  evaluating  Volatile  Organic Stack  Sampling  Train  method  (Monitoring)

Objective 4_:	Provide  Quality  Assurance Support to the Hazardous Waste Program

0  Report on Hazardous Waste Materials  Bank (Monitoring)
0  Report on development of standard reference materials  (Monitoring)

Objective 5:	Develop  Procedures  to  Prevent  and  Control  Hazardous Releases

0  Final report on Florida field sites  evaluations (Env.  Processes)
°  Summary report on  remote sensing for hazardous spills  (Monitoring)
°  Report  on  the design  of  waste   lagoon  leakage  controls   (Env.  Technology)

Objective 6:	Develop Data_to Support Development, Implementation  and  Enforcement
of the Treatment, Storage and  Disposal  Regulations

0  Report  on  evaluation  of  alternative  approaches to  meet  hazardous   waste  land
   treatment closure  requirements (Env. Processes)
0  Report  on  status  of  underground  storage of  hazardous  waste  (Env.  Technology)


1984 ACTUAL OUTPUTS
Objective 1:     Develop  and  Evaluate  Procedures  for Conducting Risk Assessments

0  Health and Environmental  Effects Profiles (Sci. Assessment)
0  Report on proposed  in vivo/in vitro approach to  the  toxicological  assessment  of
   hazardous  waste (Health)

Objective 2:  Conduct the Assessment and Control  Research Necessary to Address Dioxin

°-  Initial   study  of  dioxin  mobility  in  contaminated  soils   (Env.  Technology)

Objective 3:	Develop  Procedures  to  Identify  and Measure Chemicals in Wastes

0  Report on  downhole  geophysical   monitoring  of  groundwater  contamination (Moni-
   toring)

Objective 4:     Provide  Quality  Assurance  Support to the  Hazardous Waste Program

0  Annual  report  on  status   of  Quality   Assurance  Materials  Bank  (Monitoring)
0  Report on performance of RCRA contract  laboratories (Monitoring)

Objective 5:	Develop  Procedures  to  Prevent   and  Contain  Hazardous Releases

0  Summary  report on remote sensing and emergency  support for hazardous
   releases (Monitoring)

Objective 6:     Develop Data to Support Development, Implementation and Enforcement
of the Treatment. Storage and  Disposal Regulations

0  Reports  on  performance  of  eight hazardous waste  incinerators  (Env. Technology)
°  Pilot tests on  three  innovative techniques to detect  and  locate leaks in land-
   fill liners (Env. Technology)
                                      HW-14

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                                  HAZARDOUS WASTE


                              Hazardous Waste Research


Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $49,561,700  supported  by  241.3  total  work-
years for 1986,  an  increase  of 58,477,200 and  3.2 total  workyears  from  1985.   Of
the request,  $13,935,600  will  be for  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  and
$35,626,100 will  be for  the Research  and Development  appropriation,  a  decrease
of $432,500  and  an increase  of  $8,909,700,   respectively.   The  large  increase  in
extramural resources responds to  the  need  for new data  and  techniques to  meet  the
requirements  of the 1984 RCRA Amendments.

Program Description

     The Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act  (RCRA)  authorizes  a  regulatory
program to  identify those wastes which  pose  a substantial hazard  to  human health
or the  environment, and  management   standards  sufficient  to prevent such  harm.
Research in this  program  provides  the scientific  and  engineering  basis for  char-
acterizing and  determining  the  extent  of  the  problems  and  for  formulating  con-
trols.

Objective 1.	Develop  and  Evaluate  Tests  and  Procedures for Conducting Risk
Assessments.  Research supporting this objective will  provide more applicable, less
expensive, simpler, and  more accurate  risk  assessment methodologies, as   well  as
actual risk assessments for decision-making.

     Objective 2.  Conduct the Assessment and Control  Research Necessary to Address
Pi oxi n.  Research  supporting  this  objective  will  determine  the  nature and  extent
of dioxin contamination in the U.S.,  evaluate the  potential  for  human and  environ-
mental effects,  and determine the efficacy  and costs  of  potential  control  tech-
nologies.

     Objective 3.   Develop Procedures to Identify  and Measure Chemicals in Wastes.'
Research develops and  validates  the  analytical procedures and techniques  required
to characterize  wastes  for  Sections  3001  and  3013  of RCRA.  These  are  used  for
listing and other regulatory decisions made by the  Office of Solid  Waste.

     Objective 4. Provide Quality Assurance Support to the Hazardous Waste  Program.
A quality assurance program is being  conducted to provide  a scientific data base  of
known quality to support RCRA regulatory  activities.   The program  includes  a repos-
itory of calibration standards,  reference materials and on-site evaluations of con-
tractor laboratories.

     Objective 5.	Develop Procedures  to Prevent and Contain Hazardous  Releases.
Research supporting this  objective  assesses  the  most  cost-effective  technology
and scientific techniques  available  to prevent and  control  releases  of  hazardous
substances so that  emergency response personnel  can  direct countermeasure  opera-
tions.
     Objective 6.  Develop Data to Support Development, Implementation and Enforce-
ment of the Treatment, Storage and Disposal  Regulation's^Researchunderthisob-
jective develops FRe  engi neeri ng  a~ndtechnical  i nformation  necessary to  support
the Agency in the development  and revision  of hazardous waste  regulations  and the
assessment of permit applications.
                                       HW-15

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SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $2,799,700  supported  by 22.5 total  workyears
for this program, of which  $1,165,900 will  be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $1,633,800  will   be  for the  Research and  Development  appropriation.
This represents  an  increase of $200 and  $228,000  respectively, and a decrease  of
2.6 total   workyears.   The  increased  resources  will  increase  the availability  of
technical  assistance to the Regions to provide  more accurate and timely assessments
of risks posed  by hazardous wastes.    Additional  resources will  support  assessing
the hazards  associated  with  additional  dioxin  compounds  and  leaking  underground
storage tanks.

     Develop and Evaluate Procedures for Conducting Risk Assessments.     Additional
resources  will  support  provision of technical  assistance to Regional  permitters and
enforcement actions in  the form of application  and  interpretation  of new and  exist-
ing exposure  and health  risk  procedures  and  evaluation  of  existing health  risk
data for determining the hazards  represented by  leaking  underground  storage  tanks.
Health and  Environmental  Effects  Profiles  will  be prepared  to support RCRA  3001
listings of  hazardous  wastes.   Risk  assessment   methodology  will be  revised  to
accommodate new  scientific  information  in such areas as metabolism and  structure-
activity relationships.

     Conduct  the Assessment  and   Control Research  Necessary to   Address   Dioxin.
Increased  resources  will  expand  exposure  and  risk  assessment methodologies  for
2,3,7,8-TCDD to  include  scientific advances and  new information  in  the areas  of
bioavailabi1ity and body burden.  Assessment methods will be extended  to additional
forms of dioxin -and dioxin-like compounds which have been found  at sites containing
2,3,7,8-TCDD, in order  to determine whether they also pose potential health  threats.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of $2,571,500  supported  by  25.1
total workyears  for this  program,  of which $1,165,700 is  for the  Salaries and Ex-
penses appropriation and $1,405,800  is  for the  Research and Development appropria-
tion.  This represents  an increase of $452,600 total dollars over 1984.

     The 1985 program includes increased efforts to evaluate approaches to  estimate
exposure and risk  from  various  forms of dioxin.   Assessment methods  are being re-
vised to include  recent  developments in toxicology  such as the use  of  structure-
activity relationships  to predict  exposure and  risk.  Increased  resources  also  sup-
port preparation of  additional  Health  and Environmental Effects  Profiles, and the
development of monoclonal  antibodies for dioxin isomers which can  be used  to  screen
human populations exposed to dioxin.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$136,300 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogramming.  (+$124,100)    A  reprogramming  was  made   to  this   activity
which was   not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This
change resulted  in a net increase  of +$124,100 to  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$12,200)   This  program was  increased  by  +$12,200  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.
                                      HW-16

-------
1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency  obligated a total  of $2,118,900 supported  by 22.5 total
workyears for  this  program,  of  which   $1,194,900  was  for  the  Salaries  and  Ex-
penses appropriation  and  $924,000  was  for  the  Research  and  Development appro-
priation.

     During 1984,  Health   and  Environmental  Effects   Profiles   were   provided  to
the Office  of  Solid  Waste  (OSW).   Risk assessment  methods  for  hazardous wastes
were also  improved  and  documentation  of   chronic  and  carcinogenic  effects  were
provided to the  program  office for  use in  adjusting  reportable quantities during
the year.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $15,654,700 supported by  47.5 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $3,736,900 will  be for  the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $11,917,800  will  be  for the  Research and  Development appropriation.
This reflects a  decrease  of $163,500 and an  increase  of $5,682,400, respectively,
and an  increase  of  4.7  total  workyears.   The decrease  in  Salaries  and  Expenses
reflects Government-wide  reductions  to  pay  and  administrative  services.   The  in-
crease in Research and Development will  support the RCRA amendments and development
of additional  field  monitoring methods,  validation  of  additional  existing analy-
tical  methods, detection  and  monitoring of  leaking underground  storage tanks,  and
additional  remote sensing support.

     Conduct  the Assessment  and  Control   Research  Necessary to  Address  Dioxin.
Research will  produce interim and  final  guidance  for  sampling  and analysis of air,
water, soil/sediment and  fish  for  chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins  and other chlorin-
ated hydrocarbons.   Quality  assurance  standards and  samples  will  be  provided  and
bioassay screening  procedures  will  be  evaluated  for  use  in  chemical  detection.

     Develop  Procedures  to Identify and  Measure  Chemicals   in Wastes.  Increased
resources will  be  used to validate  additional existing analytical methods and dev-
elop new analytical  methods and development  of  new  subsurface  monitoring methods
for use in the  unsaturated  zone  around  landfills.  This  research will  help detect
leaks   that   could  threaten  groundwater.    Also,   existing  methods for monitoring
leaks  from underground storage tanks  and Subtitle  D landfills  will be evaluated to
support development  of new regulations  required  by  the  1984  RCRA  Amendments.

     Provide Quality Assurance Support to the Hazardous Waste  Program.   The quality
assurance program willcontinue to provide  calibration  standards, referee analysis
and the repository  of  working  standards.   Additional   resources  will  provide addi-
tional  performance evaluation and  calibration samples  to State laboratories to  aid
them in performing accurate  sampling  and monitoring.   They will  also support eval-
uation of the  data available  for  Subtitle  D  facilities.   This  increase  reflects
the increased role  State  laboratories  will  play  in  analyzing  the  growing  volumes
of hazardous  wastes.

     Develop  Procedures  to  Prevent  and   Contain Hazardous  Releases.    The pro-
gram wil 1  produce ten  Spill  Prevention  Control and Countermeasure  Studies  and  ten
to fifteen  River  Contingency  Studies  to  meet  Regional  priorities.   Additional
remote sensing will  be provided  for  on-scene coordinators for cleaning  up  acci-
dental  releases  resulting from truck  and train accidents and  spills into  navigable
waters.
                                      HW-17

-------
1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency is  allocating  a total  of  $10,135,800 supported  by  42.8
total workyears for this  program,  of which $3,900,400 is for the  Salaries  and  Ex-
penses appropriation and 56,235,400  is  for the  Research  and Development appropria-
tion.  This represents an increase of $2,489,100 total dollars over 1984.

     Additional resources in  1985 are providing  a higher  level  of effort  for  the
validation of  existing analytical methods  for  characterizing  hazardous  wastes,  and
for development of new methods.  Current efforts are producing a standard analytical
method for monitoring at the parts-per-trillion and parts-per-quadril1 ion level  for
2,3,7,8-dioxin.  Additional   quality  control   and performance  evaluation  samples
are being  provided  to  private and  governmental  laboratories.  Remote  sensing  and
subsurface methods  are  being developed to  identify  locations of  waste leachates.
Stack sampling methods for  detecting volatile  and semivolatile organics  in incin-
erator emissions are also being evaluated.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$16,600 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$37,400)  Several re'programmings were  made to  this activ-
ity which  were not reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted in a  net decrease of -$33,600 to the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and a net  decrease  of  -$3,800  to the Research and Development appro-
priation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$20,800)   This  program was   increased  by +$20,800  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the Agency  obligated  a total of  $7,646,700  supported by  31.6  total
workyears for  this  program,  of which 2,567,800  was  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $5,078,900  was for the Research and  Development  appropriation.

     Analytical methods   for determining  whether  a waste  should be  considered  haz-
zardous were developed,  as   were  standard  reference  materials  for  validation  of
these methods.  Dioxin monitoring  methods and  surface  and  subsurface  methods  for
detecting leachate  plumes were  evaluated.  Quality assurance  support for  contract
laboratories was provided through production of performance evaluation  samples  and
maintenance of the  materials  bank.    Also,  geophysical  and groundwater monitoring
techniques were evaluated and reported on.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of  $1,769,900  supported  by 12.0 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which  $832,600  will  be  for the Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation and $937,300 will be for the Research and Development appropriation.   This
represents an  increase of $68,400 and a decrease  of  $28,300,  respectively, and an
increase of 4.0 workyears.  The  increase  in Salaries  and Expenses  reflects  greater
use of  in-house  staff to  conduct  the  health  research  needed  to  support  program
office listing decisions.

     Develop and Evaluate Procedures for Conducting Risk  Assessments.     Additional
resources will accelerate the development of a battery of  bioassays  into screening
                                       HW-18

-------
protocols for  determining  waste  toxicity.   These tests  are  essential  for  deter-
mining the  potential  toxicological   effects  of  complex  mixtures  of  wastes  which
require classification under section 3001 of RCRA.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency  is  allocating  a  total  of $1,729,800  supported  by  8.0
total workyears  for  this  program, of  which  $764,200 is  for  the Salaries and  Ex-
penses appropriation and $965,600 is  for the  Research and Development appropriation.
This represents an increase of $751,800 total dollars over 1984.

     The 1985  program  increase reflects  additional  validation  research  studies  of
the protocols  for integrated, short-term prescreen and confirmation screen bioassay
test batteries.  These studies determine  if  the  methodologies  being developed  will
have the  necessary  sensitivities  for  the  types and  concentrations  of  chemicals
expected to be found in RCRA manufacturing residues.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$13,000 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogramming.    (-$16,900)   A  reprogramming  was  made  to  this  activity
which wasnotreportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.   This
change resulted  in  a  net  decrease  of  -$16,900 to the  Research  and Development
appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$3,900)   This  program   was   increased  by  +$3,900  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated a total of $978,000 supported by 4.8.total  work-
years for this program, of which  $328,200 was  for the  Salaries and Expenses  appro-
priation and $649,800 was for the Research and Development appropriation.

     During 1984, the validation study  was initiated for the in vivo/in vitro toxi-
cological screening  protocols  using a  series   of  positive and  negative  control
compounds with well-known toxic human disease endpoints.


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $20,681,100  supported  by  101.2  total  workyears
for this program, of which $5,083,200  will  be  for- the  Salaries and  Expenses  appro-
priation and $15,597,900 will  be for  the Research and  Development  appropriation.
This represents a decrease of $203,600  and an increase of $1,200,800, respectively,
and a decrease of  1.2  total  workyears.  The decrease in Salaries and  Expenses  re-
flects Government-wide  reductions  to  pay and  administrative   services.   The  in-
crease in Research and Development  is  in  response to a  need to evaluate additional
technologies to support decisions banning wastes from  landfills,  to support  devel-
opment of new  regulations  governing the  installation,  design  and monitoring  of
underground  storage  tanks,   and  evaluating  current  practices -for handling  high
volume mining wastes.

     Conduct  the  Assessment  and  Control  Research Necessary   to Address Dioxin.
Evaluations  of technologies  for  destroying  or   neutrali zing dioxinswil 1 be  con-
tinued for APEG  reagents,  ultraviolet  photolysis  and  other  chemical  and thermal
                                      HW-19

-------
processes.  New research will assess supercritical  extraction techniques for dioxin-
contaminated soils, although overall  resources  for this objective remain  the  same
as in 1985.

     Develop Procedures to Prevent and Contain Hazardous Releases.   Evaluations  of
spill dispersants, nondestructive testing procedures and concentration  and separa-
tion techniques will  continue and reports will be  issued.   Manuals will  be prepared
on the design  of  impoundment  and waste lagoon leakage  controls  and  on the preven-
tion of hazardous materials releases.

     Develop Data to Support  Development,  Implementation   and  Enforcement of the
Treatment, Storage and Disposal  Regulations.     Increased  resources will  be used  to
evaluate technologies  which  will support the RCRA  amendments  including  evaluation
of alternative technologies  for  disposal  of  wastes  banned from  landfills;  review
and revision  of  Subtitle D criteria for  non-hazardous  landfills  and  impoundments;
development of engineering information  for  controlling underground  storage tanks;
and evaluation of the practices for use for  managing mining wastes.  Evaluations  of
existing technologies  employed for  waste treatment and disposal  will  be  continued
at the same level  as  in 1985.   Included will  be landfill liners and covers, leachate
collection systems, air  emissions  from  waste facilities,   industrial  boiler opera-
tions, and incineration facilities.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency is  allocating a total of $19,683,900 supported  by 102.4
total workyears  for  this  program,  of  which $5,286,800 is  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $14,397,100  is for the Research and  Development appro-
priation.  This  represents an  increase  of   $3,158,500  total  dollars  over  1984.

     The major difference  between the 1985 program  and  the 1984  program  is greater
emphasis on the evaluation  of  existing  alternative technologies  for  use .on wastes
which will be  banned  from landfills.  The 1985 program  accelerates  research on the
movement of  leachates  through  landfill   liners  and on  design  criteria   for  land
disposal facilities,  with  a  focus  on  techniques  for detecting  and  locating leaks
in liners.  New work  is  aimed  at the development  of operational  guidance for dis-
posal of wastes in industrial  boilers.   Research  is also determining 
-------
     Major accomplishments  included  the  assessment  of  current  incinerator facili-
ties in  meeting  RCRA's destruction  requirements, assessments  of the effectiveness
and durability of  a  variety of liners under exposures  of  up  to seven and one-half
years, completion of a handbook on the state-of-the-art of in-place treatment tech-
nologies for  contaminated  soils,   and  studies  that  established  the  feasibility  of
using the mobile incinerator on dioxin-contaninated soils.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests  a total   of  $8,656,300  supported by 58.1  total  workyears
for this program,  of  which $3,117,000  will  be  for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and  $5,539,300  will  be   for  the  Research  and  Development appropriation.
This represents a decrease of 5134,000 and an increase of 51,932,800, respectively,
and a decrease of  1.7  total workyears.  The decrease in Salaries  and  Expenses  re-
flects Government-wide reductions  to pay and administrative services.  The increase
in Research and  Development  reflects initiation  of work on the transport and  fate
of dioxin  and  dioxin-like  compounds,  field  evaluation of  groundwater  models,  and
initiation of  transport  and fate  research  needed  to address  leaking  underground
storage tanks in support of the RCRA Amendments.

     Develop and Evaluate  Procedures for Conducting  Risk  Assessments.    Increased
resources will accelerate  work in three  areas  needed to develop  data  and methods
which will assist  the Office  of   Solid Waste  (OSW)  in listing  and permitting  de-
cisions mandated by Sections 3001  and  3004  of  RCRA.   First,  data bases  on activity
endpoints such as  acute toxicity  and  bioaccumulation will  be  developed.  Second,
soil microcosm systems  will be developed  and  evaluated to determine  the mobility
of wastes  proposed  as hazardous  under Section  3001.  In  support of  the  leaking
underground storage tank  program, a  two-phase  pollutant transport  model will  be
developed, as will methods for evaluating the  effectiveness  of  corrective actions.
Field evalutions  of  groundwater  contaminant transport  and transformation  models
will be conducted including models and scenarios  currently in use by OSW.  In coop-
eration with  USGS,  a  field-evaluated protocol  will  be  developed to  determine  a
site's vulnerability to  groundwater contamination.   Third,  development  of  an  ap-
proach for evaluating  the  tradeoffs  offered by  different  waste  treatment  alter-
natives will  continue.

     Conduct  the  Assessment  and  Control   Research  Necessary to Address Dioxin.
Additional resources will  support  new research on the bioavailabi1ity and environ-
mental  mobility of other  isomers  and dibenzofurans  which pose potential threats  to
human health.  At  this  time,  little is known  about  the behavior  of  these isomers
in the environment.   Research  will  continue to  determine  both  the  potential  bio-
availability through the human  food  chain  and the  potential  mobility  of 2,3,7,8-
TCDD dioxin.

     Develop Procedures to Prevent to  Contain   Hazardous  Releases.     Additional
resources wil1support completion  of the development,  evaluation and demonstration
of a new  multiple bioassay  protocol 'for screening  contaminated soil,   water,  and
sediments.  The protocol will provide a basis for estimating the extent  of contami-
nation, bioavailabi1tiy,  and toxicity  of  hazardous   substances   in  environmental
field samples.

     Develop  Data  to  Support  Development. Implementation and Enforcement of the
Treatment, Storage and Disposal Regulations.   Additional   resources  wil 1  support
evaluations of  the effectiveness  of  in-situ   clean-up technologies   for  leaking
underground storage tanks.   Research will  continue developing  a  technical  data  base
on the feasibility of land treating wastes  which  cannot be economically  incinerated
or otherwise disposed.  Bench-scale  studies  will  be conducted  for  site selection,
monitoring, fate and transport models, organics degradation and pretreatment  regi-
mens.  These  data  are  required for  implementation  of land treatment  regulations.
                                      HW-21

-------
1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of $6,857,500  supported by  59.8
total  workyears  for this  program,  of  which $3,251,000 is for the Salaries and  Ex-
penses appropriation and $3,606,500 is for the  Research  and Development  appropria-
tion.   This represents an  increase of $2,057,400 total  dollars over  1984.

     The major difference  between the  1985  program  and the  1984  program  is  the
addition of resources for the  development of bioassays a-nd  predictive methods  for
1isting/delisting decisions,  screening methods  for environmental mobility of  RCRA
wastes, and prediction  of environmental  concentrations of  hazardous  wastes.   This
work includes studies  of  waste  migration,  hydrogeology  of  waste  sites,  and  con-
tainment techniques that will  enable  the  Agency to assess the potential  for ground-
water contamination and exposure to hazardous substances  from landfills  and surface
impoundments.  Increased resources are also  supporting studies  of  the accumulation
and uptake of dioxin in the  human food chain.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The net increase of +$59,100 results from the following actions:

     -Reprogramming. .(+$30,000)  A reprogramming  was  made  to this activity  which
was not reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming limitations.  This  change
resulted in a net  increase  of +$30,000 to the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$29,100)   This  program  was increased  by +$29,100  reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency  obligated a total  of  $4,800,100 supported  by  50.1  total
workyears for this  program, of which  $2,421,600 was for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and  $2,378,500  was for  the Research and  Development  appropriation.

     Major accomplishments  included  the  successful demonstration  of the  Kriging
technique as a means  of identifying  hazardous  waste "hot spots".   Short-term  bio-
assays were shown  to  be useful in evaluating environmental  impacts  of  .land  treat-
ment of hazardous  industrial  waste.   Assistance was provided on  the application of
risk and  uncertainty  analysis to hazardous  waste  management decisions  and  on  the
utility of  surface and groundwater  models  for evaluating   potential hazards  from
waste disposal sites.


INTEGRATED HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests no resources for this  activity in 1986.


1985 Program

     No resources  have  been  requested  for  this  activity  in 1985.   However,  the
Agency has  re-directed  a  total of $106,000  for this  program, all   of  which  is for
the Research and Development  appropriation.     Funds  are  being used for the reim-
bursement  of  architectural  and  engineering  fees  incurred  by the  Tufts   University
Center for  Environmental Management.
                                       HW-22

-------
1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

  •   The net increase of +$106,000 results from the following action:

     -Reprogramming.  (+$106,000)  A reprogramming was  made  to this  activity  which
was  not reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This  change
was  the result  of  the  Conference Report  for House Joint Resolution 648,  which  re-
quired EPA to provide resources  for the  reimbursement  of  fees incurred by the haz-
ardous waste  management  center  for  architectural and  engineering studies.   This
reprogramming resulted in a net  increase  of  +$106,000  to  the Research  and Develop-
ment appropriation.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency obligated a total  of  $2,000,000  for this  program from the
the  Research and Development appropriation.

     Accomplishments included  completion  of  a  research plan  for the Tufts  Univer-
sity multidisciplinary research Center  for Environmental Management,  and initiation
of six studies  on  the health  effects of  hazardous  waste and  control  and monitoring
techniques.
                                      H.W-23

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents
                                                                            Pane
HAZARDOUS HASTE


    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Waste Management Regulations,  Guidelines and Policies	 HW-25
          Regulations,  Guidelines & Policies - Hazardous Waste	 HW-27
          RCRA Regulatory Program - Office of Air & Radiation	 HW-30
          RCRA Regulatory Program - Office of Water...'	 HW-31
       Fi nanci al  Assi stance	 HW-33
          Hazar-dous Waste Management Financial  Assistance to States	 HW-34
          Hazardous Waste Management Compliance Grants	 HW-36
          Hazar-dous Waste Management Initiative Grants	 HW-36
          Underground  Storage Tanks State Grants	 HW-37
       Waste Management Strategies Implementation	 HW-38
          Hazar-dous Waste Management Regulatory Strategies Implementation.. HW-40
                                      HW-24

-------








































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                                  HAZARDOUS  WASTE


               Waste Management Regulations,  Guidelines,  and  Policies


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $78,712,400 supported by  323.4 total  workyears
for 1986,  an  increase of  $25,518,000  and  an increase of 50.4 total workyears  from
1985.  Of  the request, $16,656,400 will be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropri-
ation and  $62,056,000 will be  for the  Abatement,  Control, and  Compliance  appropri-
ation, an  increase of $2,992,800 and  522,525,200,  respectively.

Program Description

     The program areas under this subactivity include:

     Regulations, Guidelines, and Policies - Hazardous  Waste  —   This   Headquarters
program provides  Tor tfn~emanagement  oT  th~enational   Resource  Conservation  and
Recovery Act  (RCRA)  hazardous  waste   program  and the  Hazardous  and  Solid  Waste
Amendments of 1984  (HSWA).   Activities include:   providing  national  oversight  and
guidance for  implementing consistent  State  and  regional  hazardous  waste  permitting
programs;  providing guidance and technical  assistance for implementing  an  effective
national compliance monitoring  and  enforcement program;  promulgating and  refining
requlations for the identification,  tracking, management, and  disposal  of  hazardous
wastes; conducting  technical   studies,  regulatory  impact analyses,  and  economic
analyses;  and assessing control  options and technologies necessary for  regulatory
deci si on-making.

     RCRA  Regulatory Program - Office of Air and Radiation --  This  program provides
support for the implementation of air emission standards  under the  Resource Conser-
vation and Recovery Act (RCRA).  The  recently enacted  1984 RCRA  Amendments require
standards  for area  sources  at hazardous waste treatment, storage  and  disposal  fa-
cilities (TSDFs).   This  program assesses the  nature  and  quantities  of  emissions
at TSDFs,   develops  emission modeling  and  testing methods,  assesses public  health
risks and  evaluates emission  control  techniques from  which cost-effective regula-
tions and  standards can be promulgated.

     RCRA  Regulatory Program - Office of Water --  This  program   provides  support
for implementation  of RCRA  reauthorization  requirements  which  impact water quality
and drinking  water prograns.   There  are  four  major actions  where  the   Office  of
Water has   assumed  lead  responsibility.  They include  §3004  review of disposal  of
hazardous  wastes into injection  wells; §3018  study  to  investigate  unregulated dis-
charges to publicly  owned treatment  works and  related regulations; §3005(j)  rules
and waivers  for retrofitting  surface  impoundments;  and  support for the  National
Ground Water Commission created under §704.


REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES, AMD POLICIES - HAZARDOUS WASTE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total of $69,915,500  supported by  303.5 total  workyears
for this program, of which $15,724,500 will  be for the  Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $54,191,000  will  be  for  the  Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance appro-
priation.   This represents an increase  of $2,398,300  and  an increase of  $17,225,200,
respectively, and  an  increase  of  38.3 total  workyears.  These increases support
the Agency's efforts to list  new wastes;  ban wastes  from land disposal;  complete a
generic study  en alternative  treatment technologies;  promulgate  final   rules  for
small quantity  generators,   boilers,   underground tanks, and  used oil  management
standards; and examine  revisions to  RCRA  §4004  criteria  for  Subtitle  D facilities.
                                       HW-27

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     Regulatory Development, Revision and Analyses -- In response to the 1984 Amend-
ments, the Agency will accelerate the  regulatory  schedules  for  wastes or processes
not currently  covered  under RCRA regulations.  The  Agency  will  promulgate regula-
tions for  small  quantity generators,  administrative  standards  for  boilers,  and a
notification rule  for  underground  storage  tanks.   Other  storage  tank  activities
will include proposals  for  new tank  performance  standards  and all  tank  standards
for petroleum.   The  decision to  restrict  certain wastes  from  land  disposal  will
focus on proposals for banning  dioxins  and  solvents, evaluating petitions, report-
ing on alternative treatment technologies, and proposing effective dates for a land
disposal ban.  In addition  to'these  activities,  the  Agency  will propose or promul-
gate several listings of  wastes  from  processes within  the organic chemical  industry.
The amended delisting procedures also will be promulgated.

     The Agency will  continue to review and revise existing  hazardous waste regula-
tions.  Major  regulatory  activities  will  include:  a  proposal  for  alternate concen-
tration standards for groundwater monitoring, a mandatory inspections rule, ground-
water (Subpart F) regulations,  and  regulatory amendments for liquids in landfills.
The Agency will conduct special  analyses to ensure that regulations promulgated are
enforceable.  Revised tank  standards  will 'be  promulgated, and a report  to  Congress
on the dioxin  strategy implementation will  be prepared.  The Agency  will  continue
to revise the RCRA Section 3004 facility standards and will  issue  guidances addres-
sing location  standards  and  double liner  requirements.   Efforts to revise  perform-
ance and  operating  criteria, if appropriate,  for  Subtitle  D facilities will  also
continue.  The Agency will prepare a  report  to Congress on utility and mining wastes
and promulgate a mining waste exclusion reinterpretation.

     Program Implementation and Pol icy Guidance -- The  first priority  will   be  to
oversee the  completion  of  full  authorization of  States to  administer their  own
hazardous waste programs   in  lieu of  the  Agency.   Both Headquarters and  the Regions
will review  complete  applications   for  authorization  against  criteria  for  full
equivalence.  The annual  on-site  program  implementation   reviews  will  continue.
The focus  of  these  in-depth  program eva-luations  will  be  shifted  to  assessing
regional and State program  performance consistent with  the factors  identified  in
the Interim National  Criteria.

     The Agency will  continue to send Permit Assistance Teams (PATs) to  the Regions
to assist in permit  processing.   They will  be  responsible  for reviewing  and  com-
menting on major  (incineration  and  land  disposal facilities) permit actions  conduct-
ed by the authorized  States.  The Agency will provide guidance and  training  on a
wide range  of  permit and enforcement policies and  procedural  issues  since  there
will continue  to  be  a  need  for  assistance  to  permit  writers and  inspectors  in
resolving site specific  questions and  issues  in  a  nationally  consistent  manner.
The Agency  will  develop  new or  revised permit  guidance  manuals,   and  technical
resource documents to  assist the  Regions and  States in implementing the  CFR  Part
264 hazardous  waste  land treatment,  storage,  incineration, and disposal  facility
permitting standards.

     This request will  provide for technical enforcement case support and compliance
monitoring and enforcement  guidance  documents  on ground water, corrective action,
administrative compliance orders,  closure,  and permit enforcement  along with  com-
pliance monitoring inspection support and guidance.  Changes to  the RCRA regulations
will require that  various documents  be  updated  to  reflect  regulatory and  policy
modifications and new technical  information.

1985 Rescission

     This reduction   reflects the Agency's  response   to  the  Deficit  Reduction  Act
which requires decreases  in  the  following categories:  travel,  motor vehicle,  print-
ing, publication   and  audio-visual,  and  consulting   services.   The  reduction  of
-$35,800 in the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation   represents  decrease to  all  of
the above categories.  The  decrease  of  -51,482,600  in the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation   reflects reductions to consulting  services.   No  impact  is
expected since the reductions will  be spread across   a  series of  regulatory  devel-
opment,  guidelines and  policy activities.
                                       HW-28

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1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $50,292,000  supported by  265.2
total workyears for  this  program,  of  which  $13,326,200  is for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $36,965,800 is  for the Abatement, Control, and  Compli-
ance appropriation.

     Regulatory Development,  Revision and Analyses -- The Agency  is  continuing  to
develop regulations  arid  respond  to accelerated Fegulatory  schedules  as  specified
in the  1984  Amendments.   The  Agency is  reporting  on  and proposing  regulations  for
small quantity generators, waste  oil management,  corrective action  and  financial
responsibility, manner and frequency  of  inspect ions,.and administrative  standards
for boilers.   Because  of  risks associated  with current land disposal techniques,
the Agency  is  proposing  a  schedule  for  determining  the  restriction  of  certain
wastes from  land disposal.  The Agency  is  continuing to propose  or  promulgate  the
listing of  wastes produced by manufacturing processes within the  organic  chemical
industry.   A  revision  to the  definition  of  solid  waste  is also being  planned.
Amended delisting  procedures,  an  organic  toxicity  characteristic,  and  leaching
test methods are being proposed.   The Agency is  promulgating an  interim  prohibition
interpretive rule  for the installation of new underground  storage  tanks.

     The Agency is  continuing  to  review   and  revise  existing  regulations.   The
Agency is  preparing   reports to  Congress  on the Post-Closure Liability Trust  Fund,
Subtitle D  activities,  and the feasibility  of  using non-government  inspectors  to
supplement EPA and  State  inspections.   The Agency   is  issuing  liner guidance  and
corrective action  guidance.   To  fulfill  statutory  obligations,  a  mining  waste
exclusion  reinterpretation and procurement guidelines are  being  proposed.

     Program Implementation   and  Policy   Guidance  -- The  RCRA   implementation  and
enforcement  program  is focusing on State authorization,  permitting, and  compliance.
Program activities  include:  developing program  policy and implementation  guidance;
providing permit assistance  and  training to  Regions and States;  providing  direct
support and  training  for  regional  and   State  permit writers  and inspectors;  and
evaluating regional  and State program quality.  As a result  of  the 1984 RCRA Amend-
ments, Headquarters  staff  are assisting  Regions  and States  in  understanding  the
effect that  new  regulatory  requirements will  have  on  State  program  development
and permitting and  providing  numerous activity-specific  guidances.  The  National
Permits Strategy and  Interim National Criteria are  being  revised.   In  addition,
Headquarters, in conjunction   with  the Regions and  States, is developing  plans  for
revisions to State  programs.   The Enforcement  Response Policy  is  being  issued  to
provide guidance on  classifying  violations,  selecting  the  appropriate enforcement
action  in  response  to various  categories  of RCRA  violations,  and taking  Federal
enforcement action  in States  with  authorized programs.


1985 Explanation of  Changes  from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$12,042,800 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (+$12,116,500)   This  reprogramming   reflects  a  shift
of resources within  the Agency to  fund the expanded  needs  required by  the reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change resulted in  a net increase
of +$1,752,000 to the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation   and  a net increase  of
+$10,364,500 to the  Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In particular,  these resources are  being used  for  several  regulatory develop-
ment activities including:   banning waste  from landfills,   developing  regulations
for underground storage tanks;  listing new waste streams; and  reissuing the criteria,
if appropriate, for Subtitle  D facilities.

     -Reprogrammings.  (-$202,700)  Several reprogrammings were made to this activ-
ity which  were  not  reportable  under the Congressional  reprogramming limitations.
These changes  resulted  in  a  net decrease of  -$41,900 to the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  a  net decrease of -$160,800 to the Abatement,  Control  and Compli-
ance appropriation.
                                        HW-29

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     -Pay Raise.  (+$129,000)  This program  was increased by  +$129,000 reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.

1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated 527,094,700 supported by  188.3  total  workyears
for this  program, of  which  $8,339,300 was for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropri-
ation and $18,755,400 was for the Abatement,  Control, and Compliance appropriation.

     Regulatory  Development, Revision and Analyses -- The   Agency   continued   to
develop regulations to  fill gaps  in  the  regulatory  program.  A  survey  of  small
quantity  generators  (SQGs)  was  completed.   As  part  of  its  efforts to  govern  the
management of hazardous  waste  generated  by  SOGs, the  Agency  began  developing  a
public education  program  to explain  new  requirements to  SQGs.   In  addition,  the
Agency completed a  survey  on handlers  and burners of used oil  and  hazardous  waste
burned as fuel.   The Agency developed  reports on alternative treatments for solvents
and dioxin-containing waste  and  initiated studies on alternate treatment technolo-
gies available to treat wastes likely  to be banned from land  disposal.  In conjunc-
tion with land  disposal  restrictions,  the Agency continued to test,  document,  and
propose the listing of wastes from processes  within various  organic  chemical  indus-
tries.  The Agency  proposed the listing  of  toluene di-isocyanate and  proposed  an
interim final rule for chlorinated aliphatics.

     The Agency  continued  to review  and  revise  existing  hazardous waste  regula-
tions, culminating in the promulgation of  regulations establishing  a  national  uni-
form manifest.  The Agency  initiated  efforts to evaluate  regulatory  criteria  under
Subtitle D.  As part of this effort,  waste  management practices  at  municipal  land-
fills were evaluated  and  appropriate technologies  for  these facilities  and  their
attendant costs were  identified.   In  addition,  a study  of utility wastes  was  con-
ducted in preparation for a report to  Congress.

     Program Implementation and  Policy Guidance  --  Headquarters  provided  national
guidance to the Regions  and  States  on RCRA implementation policies and requirements,
provided permit and  enforcement  guidance and training  to  the Regions  and  States,
reviewed State  applications for  full   authorization, and evaluated  'regional  and
State performance.  The  National  Permits Strategy,  designed to  accelerate  permit
processing, was  issued.   The  Interim National  Criteria  was  issued  to  implement
nationwide program  performance  consistency  and provide  oversight  and  compliance
guidance.  The Agency issued the  RCRA Civil  Penalty  Policy  and developed  and  made
operational the Enforcement Response Policy which  sets out an  approach for strength-
ening the RCRA enforcement program by  concentrating its  efforts  on the most serious
violators and by ensuring that  these  violators  receive timely and  appropriate  re-
sponses.  Permit  Assistance Teams  continued to  provide  technical  and  procedural
assistance for developing sound  facility permits.


RCRA REGULATORY PROGRAM - OFFICE OF AIR AND RADIATION

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total  of $3,110,700  supported by 8.0  total  workyears  for
this program, of which $345,700  will  be for  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation
and $2,765,000  will  be for  the  Abatement,   Control   and Compliance  appropriation.
This represents  an increase  of  $94,200 and  $1,200,000,  respectively as well  as  an
increase of 2.1 total  workyears.   These  increases  support  the development of  air
emission standards for hazardous  waste  treatment, storage and disposal  facilities
(TSDFs).

     In 1986,  the program will  continue the  RCRA  work began  in 1985 to  support  the
proposal of regulations for  TSDF area source types.  This will  include  an assessment
of the nature  and quantities  of emissions from TSDFs, development  of  emission model-
ing and testing methods,  assessment of public health  risks,  evaluation  of emission
control techniques and economic  analyses.   As a  result of these  efforts,  the Agency
expects to propose  regulations  for tanks,   containers,  and  transfer and  handling
faci1ities.
                                       HW-30

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1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a  total   of  $1,816,500 supported  by  5.9
total workyears  for this program, of which $251,500 is  for the  Salaries  and  Expen-
ses appropriation  and  Si,565,000  is   for  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

     In 1985, efforts are continuing on the  development of  air emission regulations
for'TSDF area sources under RCRA.   Work  in  process  includes  the development  of  the
required information and data, as  well  as technical  and economic  analyses  for  the
regulation of these sources.


1985 Explanation of Changes from  the Enacted

     The net increase of +$1,816,500 results  from  the  following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (+$1,285,000)   This  reprogramming reflects a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to  fund the expanded  needs  required  by the  reauthor-
ized Resource Conservation  and  Recovery Act.   This  change  resulted  in  a net  in-
crease of +$85,000  to the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation  and a  net  increase
of +$1,200,000 to the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance appropriation.

     These resources provide  immediate  support  for implementation  of the  1984 RCRA
Amendments by initiating  the  development of  air  emission  standards  at  hazardous
waste treatment, storage and  disposal  facilities.

     -Reprogramming.  (+$528,600)  Several  reprogrammings were made to  this activi-
ty which  were not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a net  increase  of  +$163,600  to the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and a net  increase  of +$365,000 to the Abatement,  Control and Compli-
ance appropriation.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$2,900)   This program was increased by  +$2,900  reflecting  the
amount requested for the pay raise  supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     The Agency  obligated no funds under this program since  it was created in 1985 as
a result of  the  1984 RCRA Amendments.  However,  approximately $957,000 was obligated
under the Regulations, Guidelines  and  Policies  -  Hazardous Waste  program  in  1984.


RCRA REGULATORY  PROGRAM  - OFFICE  OF HATER

1986 Program Request

     The Agency   requests  a  total  of $5,686,200  supported  by 11.9 total  workyears
for this program,  of  which $586,200 will be  for  the  Salaries and Expenses  appro-
priation and  $5,100-,000  will  be  for the  Abatement,  Control   and Compliance  appro-
priation.  This   represents  an  increase  of  $500,300 and $4,100,000,  respectively,
and an  increase  of  10.0  workyears.  The  increase  to  both Salaries  and  Expenses  and
Abatement, Control and  Compliance  reflects  increased  Office   of Water  (OW)  support
for implementation  of the  1984 RCRA Amendments,  particularly in the  areas of haz-
ardous waste  disposal in  deep  injection  wells  (§3004)  and regulatory  follow-up to
the pretreatment  study  (§3018).  Support  is  also provided for  guidance  related to
National Pollutant  Discharge  Elimination System  (NPDES) permit modifications  due
to the  impact  of  the   §3005(j)  surface  impoundment   retrofitting  requirements.

     Under revised Section 3004  of  RCRA,  the Agency will  determine  for  individual
wastes whether  deep  well  injection  is  sufficiently protective of  human  health  and
the environment   or should  be prohibited.   The  Administrator  must  prohibit  such
disposal on  a  schedule  starting 45  months  after enactment  of  RCRA and  ending 66
months after enactment.   For banned wastes,  treatment standards or  levels for mini-
mizing threats  to  human  health and  th.e environment will be  promulgated.   The pro-
gram may  also have to  review particular  injection practices in response  to  peti-
tions.

                                        HW-31

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     In order to make such determinations,  the Office of Water will  first  review in
1985 the available information on the possible sources  of  waste  release-.   In 1986,
we will apply this data and generate data on transformation and transport  of speci-
fic wastes in deep regions to derive an approach  or decision rule and make determi-
nations according to the statutory schedule.

     The Agency will prepare a report to Congress evaluating the  existing  pretreat-
ment controls on  substances  listed  under RCRA  and  take  actions where existing  con-
trols are not sufficiently protective  of human health  and  environment.  The Office
of Water will complete the pretreatment study,  evaluate control  options  and develop
regulatory approaches to control  unregulated discharges to  Publicly  Owned  Treatment
Works (POTWs).  This will  include evaluation of control options under existing Clean
Water Act authorities for  the control of unregulated discharges to POTWs, including,
but not limited to, categorical pretreatment standards.  We will also develop appro-
priate revisions to general  pretreatment regulations and guidance for municipal  per-
mit and pretreatment implementation activities.

     The Agency also will  set criteria for granting exemptions  of  existing waste-
water surface impoundments that  meet  the  conditions  set out in  the  statute.   The
Office of Water will have  responsibility for defining  the  statutory conditions re-
lated to the NPDES program.  These conditions will  constitute a significant portion
of the final criteria for review  of exemption requests to retrofitting requirements
for surface  impoundments.   Finally, we will  develop  guidance on modifications  to
existing NPDES permits  and  issuance of  new NPDES permits  based on the  impact  of
this RCRA provision.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is allocating a total  of $1,085,900 supported by  1.9 total
workyears to this program, of which $85,900 is  for the Salaries and  Expenses appro-
priation and $1,000,000 is for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     The program  is developing a   report to  Congress  investigating substances  which
are not  regulated  under RCRA by  reason of  the exclusion for mixtures  of domestic
sewage and other  wastes that pass through  a sewer  system  to  POTWs.   The'Agency  is
investigating the types, size, and number of generators  which dispose of  hazardous
substances through sewer systems  and identifying  substances and sources  of concern.
This involves  analysis  of data  on  specific  industries,  generators of  hazardous
wastes, and POTWs, as well as limited field sampling to fill gaps in existing data.


1985 Explanation of Changes from  the Enacted

     The net increase of +$1,085,900 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.   (+$1,085,000)  This  reprogramming reflects  a  shift of re-
sources within the Agency to fund the expanded needs  required by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change  resulted  in a  net  increase  of
+$85,000 to the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation and a  net increase of +$1,000,000
to the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     These resources provide  support for the implementation of RCRA  reauthorization
requirements which impact  water  quality and drinking  water programs,  including  a
study to  investigate unregulated  discharges to publicly-owned treatment  works  and
rules and waivers for retrofitting surface  impoundments.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$900)   This program was  increased by +$900 reflecting the amount
requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     The Agency obligated  no  funds for this  program since it was  created in 1985  as
a result of the 1984 RCRA  Amendments.
                                       HW-32

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-------
                                  HAZARDOUS WASTE


                                Financial Assistance


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $65,000,000 for 1986, an increase of $7,825,000
from 1985.  All  of the request will  be for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

Program Description                                                              '

     This program  provides  financial  assistance  to  State   governments  to develop
and implement hazardous waste management programs under  Subtitle  C of the Resource'
Conservation and Recovery Act.   States utilize these  resources  to develop,  imple-
ment, and  enforce  programs  that monitor and  control  hazardous waste  from "cradle
to grave",  including  generation,  transportation,  storage, treatment,  and disposal.

     One-time infusions of  funds  are  being provided to  accelerate  permitting and
enforcement activities  and  to  develop  or  implement  State  or  local   efforts  not
directly permit-related  such  as  siting,  waste exchange  and waste  reduction.   In
addition, this  program  provides   financial   assistance   to  State  governments  to
develop and  implement  underground storage  tank  programs under  Subtitle  I  of the
1984 RCRA Amendments.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO STATES

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $58,000,000 for this program, all  of which will
be for the Abatement, Control, and Compliance- appropriation.    This  represents an
increase of $11,000,000.  This level  reflects  an increase  in permitting and enforce-
ment workload to support  the  goals  of the National Permits  Strategy  as well  as to
implement new program development, permit, inspection, and enforcement requirements
specified by the 1984 RCRA Amendments.

     States that are awarded  Subtitle  C grants must  either  be  operating a program
under interim  authorization,  and  he  working  toward  full  authorization, or  they
must have  obtained full  authorization.   State  grant targets  are allocated  on  a
formula basis that accounts   for  a  States  population, number  of hazardous  waste
facilities, and amount  of hazardous  waste  generated.  The actual grant amount is
negotiated not only on  the results of  this  formula  but  also  on the needs and work-
load in each State.  States are required  to provide  a 25 percent match  in order to
receive these funds.

     States will use these funds  to  continue progress  towards  full  authorization.
States will submit  applications  for full authorization and work to ensure that their
programs are equivalent to the Federal  program.  Due to the 1984 Amendments,  States
must also revise their  programs to  maintain equivalence  with  the  Federal, program.
This will  be  a  major  activity  for the  States  in 1986.  The  Agency  has estimated
that by the end of 1986, 52  States will have received full authorization.

     States will also play a  strong  role  in  national  permitting efforts.  The 1984
Amendments mandate that  EPA  and  the  States process  permit  applications  for  land
disposal  and incineration  facilities within four  and  five years,  respectively.  As
in 1985, almost half of the State grant  resources  will be earmarked  for permitting
activities.  Under the  1984 Amendments,  authorized  States and EPA will  issue  per-
mits jointly through Cooperative  Arrangements  until  the  States  are  authorized for
the new provisions.   In order  to expedite the  processing   of  permits   for  new  or
expanding facilities, States  will  devote sufficient permitting resources to respond
to all  anticipated applications from these  facilities.   Of the permits  in process,
it is  expected that final  determinations will  occur for 412  permits.
                                       HW-34

-------
     The Agency will  provide  resources  to  the States to support the 1984 Amendments'
provisions for  small  quantity  generators, underground storage tanks,  double  liner
and leachate collection and ranoval system requirements at land disposal facilities,
fuel labeling,  and  corrective  action  for  prior  releases.   These  resources  will
increase inspections, record  reviews,  and  enforcement actions  for these provisions
which will  be  predominately  State-administered.  Requirements  for small  quantity
generators will be monitored by  the  States.   Inspection of  installation  of  double
liners and leachate  collection  systems  will  be  predominately  performed  by  State
inspectors.  A joint  partnership will  be  undertaken with the Regions  and  States  to
conduct a vigorous inspection  and  enforcement  program for prior  release  sites  and
to oversee subsequent corrective actions.

     The States,"in conjunction with the  Regions, will  continue  their  focus  on im-
proving compliance with the  interim status standards.   States will perform an  esti-
mated 9,662 compliance monitoring  inspections.  Emphasis will  remain  on evaluating
the adequacy of ground water  monitoring systems.  In  addition, the States  will  com-
plete technical reviews  of closure and post-closure  plans and financial  assurance
instruments for all  non-major interim status  facilities.

     The goal   of  the State  enforcement program will  continue to be  taking  timely
and appropriate enforcement  action.   States  will  issue,' as  necessary, administra-
tive enforcement actions, including  warning  letters   and administrative  orders,  in
response to significant violations.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency is  allocating  a  total  of  $47,000,000 for this  program, all
of which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     States are expected to  focus 50  percent  of  their  resources on permitting,  with
new and expanding facilities  and major  facilities  (i.e.,  incineration  and  land  dis-
posal  facilities)  as  priorities  for  processing.   States  under Cooperative Arrange-
ments are evaluating  permit  applications;  however,  EPA retains  responsibility  for
making the final permit  decision  of  issuance or  denial  and  for  approving the  per-
mit conditions.  Under the 1984  Amendments,  the joint issuance  of RCRA permits  in
authorized States must  be  accomplished through Cooperative  Arrangements  with  EPA
until  the States are authorized for the new provisions.  It is estimated that  final
determinations will  occur for Hfi permit  applications.

     In conjunction with EPA,  States are  concentrating their compliance monitoring
and enforcement efforts  on strengthening  the  enforcement presence in  the  regulated
community.  State compliance  monitoring activities are focusing  on compliance  with
the groundwater monitoring,  closure  and  post-closure, and financial  assurance re-
quirements.  The States are conducting intensive groundwater  monitoring inspections
which include   a detailed  technical   analysis   of groundwater  monitoring  systems
(i.e., placement and depth of  monitoring  wells).  States  are also completing  tech-
nical  reviews  of closure and  post-closure plans  and  financial assurance instruments
for all major  interim status  facilities.   Where  violations  are detected, States are
initiating and following up  on all  enforcement actions.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The net decrease of -$10,000,000 results from the following  actions:

     -Restructuring. (-"Si 0,000,000)  This restructuring  created  two   new  program
elements from   Congressional  Add-on funds  to  support  the  Hazardous Waste Management
Initiative Grants (S5.0M) and Hazardous Waste Management  Compliance Grants ($5.0M).
This restructuring  resulted  in  a  net decrease  of  -510,000,000 to the  Hazardous
Waste Financial Assistance program,  Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance  appropri-
ation.
                                        HW-35

-------
1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the Agency obligated  $46,885,200•for  this program,  all of which  was
from the Abatement,  Control,  and  Compliance appropriation.  The  grant  funds  sup-
ported continued  authorization  of  substantially  equivalent programs  for  interim
authorization, implementation  of those  authorized  programs, and implementation  of
the Federal   program  in  unauthorized   States   through   Cooperative   Arrangements.

     States  were  eligible  to  apply 'for  interim  authorization for Phase  I,  Phase  IIA
(permitting  of tanks, containers and piles), Phase I IB  (permitting of  incineration
facilities), and  Phase  11C (permitting  of land disposal  facilities).   By the  end
of 1984, 45 States  had  received interim  authorization  for  Phase  I.   Two  of  these
States had  interim  authorization for Phase  II A, eight  for  Phase  II  A/R  and  15  had
interim authorization for  Phase II  A/B/C.   Four  States  had  received full  authoriza-
tion.

     The National  Permits  Strategy  (NPS) was issued  to  improve  the  timing,  quality,
and management of the  permitting  of hazardous   waste  facilities.   Consistent  with
the intent  of the NPS,  the States  in  1984 called in permits for  332 land  disposal
facilities,  28 incineration facilities, and  296 storage and treatment facilities.
Final determinations  were  made on  54  land  disposal   facilities,  17  incineration
facilities,  and  297  storage and treatment  facilities.

     State  compliance monitoring and enforcement  activities concentrated  on  those
handlers which posed  the   greatest  potential for  environmental problems  such  as
groundwater monitoring facilities.   For major handlers  alone, the States  conducted
3,598 compliance  monitoring inspections,  and initiated  1,025  warning letters  and
364 administrative  orders.


HAZARDOUS HASTE  MANAGEMENT  COMPLIANCE GRANTS

1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency is allocating a  total   of $5,ODD,000  for  this  program,  all
of which is from the  Abatement, Control,  and Compliance appropriation.  These  re-
sources are being provided  to  State agencies to  increase permitting and enforcement
activities  in  support of the  National Permits Strategy  (NPS).

     States  are  using these  funds  to  demonstrate how to  accelerate  implementation
of the  NPS,  which  sets forth  an  ambitious  policy  for  the  expeditious request  and
processing  of RCRA  permit applications.  In 1986, these  resources are  provided  under
the Hazardous  Waste  Management  Financial  Assistance  to  States  Grant  Program.


19R5 Explanation  of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +$5,000,000 results  from the following  action:

     -Restructuri ng. ( + $5,000,000)   This  reprogramming   created  the Hazardous  Waste
Management  Compliance grant program element  from Congressional  Add-on  funds  to  the
Financial Assistance Hazardous Waste grant program.  This restructuring resulted in
a net increase of +$5,000,000  to  the  Hazardous  Waste Management Compliance  Grants
program.


HAZARDOUS HASTE  MANAGEMENT  INITIATIVE GRANTS

1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency is allocating a  total   of $5,175,000  for  this  program,  all
of which is from the  Abatement, Control,  and Compliance appropriation.  These  re-
sources are being used for  a  variety of activities  not  traditionally  funded by RCRA
hazardous waste  State grant funds.
                                        HW-36

-------
     These funds are being  awarded  to  States  for developing or  implementing'State
or local hazardous waste management  efforts  not  directly permit-related  but  focused
on innovative waste management  activities,  and  for  accelerating  permit  issuance  to
new or expanding hazardous  waste  management facilities which  provide  alternatives
to land disposal.  In  1986, these resources are  provided  under the  Hazardous  Waste
Management Financial  Assistance to States  Grant  Program.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

    _The net increase of +$5,175,000 results from the following actions:

     -Restructuring.   (+$5,000,000)   This  reprogramming created the  Hazardous  Waste
Management Initiative grant program element from  Congressional Add-on  funds to the
Financial  Assistance  Hazardous  Waste  Grants program.  This  restructuring  resulted
in a net increase of  +$5,000,000 to  this program.

     -Reprogramming.   (+$175,000)   A reprogramming was  made  to this  activity  which
was not reportable under the  Congressional  reprogramming  limitations.   This change
resulted in a net  increase  of  +$175,000  to the  Abatement,  Control   and  Compliance
grant appropriation.


UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS STATE GRANTS

1986 Program Request

     The Agency  requests a total  of $7,000,000 for this program, all of  which  will
be for the  Abatement,  Control, and  Compliance  appropriation.  This  represents  an
increase of $7,000,000.  This  level  reflects the  increase in State  workload neces-
sary to support  the   implementation  of  Subtitle  I  of the  1984 RCRA  Amendments.

     The Agency will  provide resources  to  the  States  to support the  1984 Amendments
for underground  storage tanks.  These  resources will  be used  for two major  activi-
ties: program  development  and  program implementation.   For  program  development,
States will begin to receive  tank notifications  and  analyze  this  data  for  develop-
ing implementation strategies.   States will also pursue  statutory   and  regulatory
initiatives and  establish the  necessary organizational  and  institutional  framework
for ultimately assuming responsibility  of  the  program.

     State program implementation  grant resources will  be  used  to assist  in  the
enforcement of the interim prohibition  on  "bare  steel" tanks;  develop and implement
surveillance, enforcement and  inspection  programs; further  refine and  validate the
data base  of  regulated entities; and  develop and  execute  public  information  and
regulatory education  programs to  ensure that tank notifications  are properly  filed
and that the regulated community is  aware  of its responsibilities.


1985 Program

     No resources were requested for this program in 1985.


1984 Accomplishments

     No resources were requested for this program in 1984.
                                        HW-37

-------
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                                                                     HW-39

-------
                                  HAZARDOUS WASTE


                     Waste Management Strategies Implementation
Budget Request
     The Agency requests at total of 524,888,600 supported by 502.7 total  workyears
for 1986, an  increase  of $1,521,300 and an  increase  of 16.6 total  workyears  from
1985.  Of the request, 517,902,600 will  he for the Salaries and Expenses appropri-
ation and 56,986,000  will  be  for the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance  appropria-
tion, an increase of $421,700 and $1,099,600, respectively.

Program Description

     Hazardous Waste Management Regulatory Strategies Implementation --  This  pro-
gram supports the regional  activities  necessary to provide  guidance  and  technical
assistance to authorized States  and  to  operate  the Federal  hazardous  waste program
in unauthorized  States.    Regions  assist  the   States  in developing  substantially
equivalent hazardous  waste management   programs to  qualify for  interim  authoriza-
tion and fully equivalent  programs  to  qualify   for  full  authorization  which  became
available in January 1983.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT  REGULATORY STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total of  $24,888,600 supported  by  502.7  total  workyears
for this program, of which  $17,902,600  will be   for the Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation and $6,986,000  will  be for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance  appro-
priation.  This represents   an  increase  of  $421,700 and  an  increase  of $1,099,600,
respectively, and an  increase  in  16.6  total  workyears.   These  increases  reflect
the growing permitting workload  facing  the Agency  as  permit  processing is  acceler-
ated and as the  new  requirements specified by  the 1984 Amendments are implemented.
In addition, this  increase supports Regional   efforts  to  enhance  State  technical
capabilities through training  and guidance.

     The Regions  highest pr.iority  activity  in   1986 will be State program  develop-
ment.  The statute  intends  for the  States to  have  full  responsibility  for  operating
a Federally equivalent  hazardous waste  management program.  If  a State  does  not
achieve full authorization   by  January  1986,  the Agency  will  assume  responsibility
for managing  the  State's  hazardous waste  program.  This  deadline, however,  does
not preclude. States  from continuing to develop their  own  programs and  attaining
full authorization   at  a  later  date.   As more  States  achieve  full  authorization,
Agency activities will move  over several  years to that of an  oversight and tech-
nical support function.

     Requirements imposed by the 1984 Amendments apply in authorized States.  There-
fore, State programs must be revised to incorporate the new requirements.   EPA  will
administer the new  requirements until each  State receives authorization to  adminis-
ter them  independently.   EPA  will   e-nter  into  Cooperative  Arrangements  with  the
States to  administer  and   enforce  requirements   not  yet  incorporated  into   the
States'  programs, including the issuance of joint  permits.

     This request will enable  the  Regions to assist  States in the development  of
both their authorization applications and  their program  capabilities.  The Regions
will review  full  authorization  applications  against   full  equivalence  criteria,
recommend approval   of applications, and  negotiate State  grants and  Cooperative
Arrangements.

     As a result  of  this  investment,  the  Agency  anticipates that by the end  of 1986,
52 States will  be fully authorized  with the base RCRA program.
                                         HW-40

-------
     The Regions'  second priority will  be the preparation and processing  of permits
in unauthorized States for existing land disposal  and  incineration  facilities.   The
1984 Amendments mandate  that EPA  and  the States  process permit  applications  for
land disposal  and  incineration facilities within four  and five years,  respectively.
The processing of  permits for  new facilities that provide  treatment  alternatives
to land disposal  will  also be  a top priority.  In 1986,  Regions  and States  will
modify their  permitting  programs  to implement  revisions  in  the  National  Permits
Strategy (NPS) due  to th'e 1984 Amendments.  The 1984 Amendments require that author-
ized States and EPA  jointly  issue permits until the  States   become authorized  for
the new provisions.  Of the permits in  process, it  is  expected that final  determin-
ations will occur  on 90 permit applications.   This  represents a reduction of 6  from
1985 and occurs because States will perform a larger proportion of  the workload due
to their  authorization as well  as the  incorporation into  the  permit process  of
additional  requirements resulting from  the 1984 RCRA Amendments.

     In authorized  States,  Regions will  review  State permit actions   on  major fa-
cilities to ensure  technical  adequacy,  enforceability,  and   national   consistency.
Regional review of the  initial  State-processed permits  (or portions of  permits)
will provide  increased technical  knowledge  and  understanding to  the States  and
will result in a stronger and more effective  State  permitting process.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the  Agency's  response  to  the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires decreases in the  following categories:  travel, motor vehicle, print-
ing, publication and  audio-visual,  and  consulting  services.   The   reduction  of
-$57,400 in the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation   represents  decreases to  all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating a  total  of 523,367,300 supported  by  486.1
total workyears for  this program,  of   which  517,480,900 is   for  the   Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and 55,886,400 is  for the Abatement,  Control and  Compliance
appropriation.

     The Regions  are  negotiating,  awarding,  and  administering grants  and  Coopera-
tive Arrangements  based on the  individual  State's  authorization  status and accept-
ance of delegable  activities.

     The Regions  are  focusing   on delegating  final   authorization.   Regions  are
assisting States  to  develop  application packages  and  to upgrade and  strengthen
their programs, reviewing  applications  for  full  authorization,  and  ensuring  that
the State programs  meet full  equivalence requirements.  Due to the  1984 Amendments,
authorized and unauthorized  States must plan to revise  their  programs to maintain
equivalence with  the  Federal  RCRA program.  The 1984  Amendments have  extended the
deadline for  expiration  of  interim authorization  until  January  1986.   By October
1985, 35 States will  achieve full authorization.

     The second critical  implementation task is completing the  processing of  per-
mits consistent with  the  revisions  in  the  National  Permits Strategy   (NPS)  due
to the  1984 Amendments.   It  is  estimated that  final  determinations will  occur  on
96 permit  applications  in  1985.  In addition,  the  Regions  are  reviewing  State
permit  actions on major facilities to ensure national  consistency.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase  of +$4,116,500 results from the. following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  (+$3,880,000)   This  reprogramming  reflects  a   shift  of
resources within the Agency to fund the expanded needs required by  the reauthorized
                                        HW-41

-------
Resource Conservation  and  Recovery Act.   This  change resulted  in  a  net  increase
of +5980,000 to  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and  a  net increase  of
+$2,900,000 to the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In particular, these  resources  support  the acceleration of  permit  processing
for land disposal  and  incinerator   facilities,_as well  as the  implementation  of
additional  requirements,  such  as  corrective  action for prior releases at  inactive
solid and hazardous waste facilities.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$236,500)  This  program  was increased  by +$236,500  reflecting
the amount  requested for  the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated  a  total of $16,169,600  supported  by 412.8 total
workyears for this program, of which  $13,926,700 was  for  the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $2,242,900  was  for the Abatement, Control  and  Compliance  appro-
priation.

     The Regions  focused on  assisting  States to  achieve various  phases of  authori-
zation:   Phase  I,  Phase  II A  (permitting  of  tanks, containers,  and  piles),  Phase
II B  (permitting  of incinerators),  and Phase  II  C  (permitting  of  land  disposal
facilities).  Ry the end  of  1984, 45  States had  received  interim  authorization  for
Phase I.  Two  of  these States had  received  interim authorization for Phase  II  A,
8 for Phase  II  A/B, and  15  for  Phase  II A/B/C.   Four  States  had  received  full
autho rization.

     The National  Permits Strategy  (NPS) was issued  in  1984 to  improve the timing,
quality, and management  of the permitting of hazardous  waste facilities.  Consis-
tent vnth the NPS,  the Agency called in permits for  271  land disposal  facilities,
23 incineration facilities, and 243 storage and  treatment  facilities.   Final  deter-
minations were made on  44 land  disposal,  14 incineration, and 243 storage  and  treat-
ment facilities.
                                       HW-42

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                         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986  Budget  Estimate

                                Table  of  Contents

                                                                            Paae
HAZARDOUS WASTE

    ENFORCEMENT
       Hazardous Waste Enforcement	  HW-44
                                      HW-43

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-------
                                  HAZARDOUS WASTE


                            Hazardous Waste Enforcement


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $17,631,400  supported  by  300.5  total  workyears
for 1936, an  increase  of $5,823,800 and an  increase  of 54.1 total  workyears  from
1985.  Of the  request, $11,381,400 will  be for the Salaries and Expenses appropri-
ation and $6,250,000 is  for  the Abatement,  Control,  and  Compliance appropriation,
an increase of $2,423,800 and $3,400,000, respectively.

Program Description

     Hazardous Uaste Enforcement -- This program serves to  ensure  national  compli-
ance with the Resource  Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the recently enacted
1984 Rf.RA Amendments.  The principle objectives  are to monitor  and  evaluate hazar-
dous waste  generator,  transporter,  and  facility compliance with the  statutory  and
regulatory requirements of  RCRA;  to  take  appropriate administrative, civil, and cri-
minal enforcement actions,  when  necessary; and to assist and evaluate program imple-
mentation in the States.  This  program supports  regional  activities to  operate and
enforce the Federal regulatory program in States which have not  received interim or
full authorization.  These activities include compliance monitoring  and  enforcement
actions at  interim status   facilities,  permitted  facilities,  and   hazardous  waste
generators.   The Agency  is  also responsible for providing technical assistance and
evaluating programs in  authorized  and Cooperative Arrangement States  to assess their
progress in conducting  hazardous waste conpliance monitoring and  enforcanent activi-
ties.  The regional  program  oversees  implementation  of RCRA in those States which
are authorized.  This  oversight  includes periodic review  of the State monitoring
and enforcement  accomplishments   and taking  appropriate  enforcement  actions  when
State programs are unable to act.


HAZARDOUS WASTE ENFORCEMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $17,631,400  supported  by  300.5  total  workyears
for this program, of which  $11,381,400  will  be for  the Salaries  and  Expenses appro-
priation, and $6,250,000 will be  for the Abatement, Control,  and  Compliance appro-
priation.  This represents  an increase  of $2,423,800  and an increase of  $3,400,000,
respectively, and  an  increase  of  54.1  total  workyears.   These increases  support
additional workload  requirements for  regional   compliance monitoring  inspections
and technical   enforcement  activities  in  response to  the 1984  RCRA  Amendments.

     Compliance with groundwater  protection  requirements  continues  as  a  high  RCRA
priority.  EPA  will  conduct  compliance  evaluation   inspections   for  groundwater
monitoring at permitted  facilities  and   at  interim status  facilities.   Facilities
subject to  groundwater  monitoring requirements  will  receive  a detailed  technical
evaluation to ensure that  monitoring equipment  are adequate,  that  wells  have  been
properly located and installed,  and  that sampling  and  analysis are conducted  ade-
quately.  The Agency  will  continue  to  perform thorough  inspections  at  all  State
and local government owned  or operated treatment,  storage, and  disposal facilities
(TSDFs).  All  Federal facilities  that have hazardous  waste  on-site  will be inspec-
ted.  EPA will  conduct  inspections  at  commercial  facilities to assure that these
facilities are environmentally acceptable to support  off-site management  of Super-
fund wastes.

     Concern that adequate  independent  sampling be  conducted to  evaluate the quali-
ty of ground  water  and  the  extent of contamination has led the Agency  to increase
the level of  effort  associated  with compliance sampling  inspections.   The Regions
will  also conduct  technical  evaluations  of  closure and  post-closure  plans  and
financial assurance  instruments  for  hazardous  waste  facilities   in  unauthorized
States and provide  support  for those evaluations in authorized  States.
                                       HW-45

-------
     The'Agency  plans  to  continue  its  expanded  enforcement  efforts  tied to  the
more stringent  requirements  of the  1984  RCRA  Amendments  and the  implementation
of the Enforcement Response  Policy.   It  is the goal  of  the  program to  foster  com-
pliance and lower  the  rate  of noncompliance.  Implementation  of the  Enforcement
Response and Civil  Penalty Policies,  along with the Interim National  Criteria,  will
lead to significant improvements  in  the  rate of compliance  with  the RCRA program.
To secure improved  compliance with RCRA standards,  the Regions will  conduct inspec-
tions and initiate  enforcement actions in unauthorized States and, where  necessary,
in those authorized States that have  not  as yet adopted the 1984  Amendments.   Where
appropriate, the Agency  will  take  enforcement for  corrective  action   at  interim
status facilities.   Enforcement  resources  will  be  provided  to   continue  regional
support of the  permitting program.   This  request  will support compliance  and  case
development inspections,   record   reviews  and  enforcement  actions  in  response  to
violations occurring  during the permit or closure  process.  The  Regions  will  also
continue their support  for civil  referrals and criminal  investigations.

     The Agency  will   continue State  program  evaluations  and   provide  technical
support.  The Regions  will conduct program reviews  of the compliance monitoring  and
enforcement programs in all participating States.  In  addition,  the Regions will  con-
duct oversight  inspections and  initiate'enforcement  actions  in States that fail  to
secure compliance,  or  in  response to a  State request  for  enforcement  assistance.
The Regions will continue to  promote  timely  and appropriate  enforcement  actions  by
the States and  will offer technical  assistance, sampling, and laboratory analysis
and other  technical expertise as  needed.   Regional   oversight of  the  underground
storage tank and small  quantity generator programs  by the States  will be  supported.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction reflects  the Agency's  response  to  the  Deficit Reduction  Act
which requires decreases  in  the following categories: travel, motor vehicle,  print-
ing, publication  and   audio-visual,  and   consulting   services.    The  reduction  of
-$8,700 in  the Salaries   and   Expenses  appropriation  represents  decreases to  all
of the  above  categories.   The decrease  of -$4,400  in  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation  reflects  reductions to consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the  Agency  is  allocating  a  total of  $11,807,600 supported  by  246.4
total workyears  for  this program,  of which $8,957,600  is   for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and 52,850,000 is  for the Abatement, Control, and  Compliance
appropriation.

     The hazardous waste  enforcement  program  expands  significantly  in 1985 to  sup-
port the implementation of the 1984  RCRA Amendments.  These  Amendments  have  major
workload requirements   in  the  following  areas:   compliance  with  double  liner,
leachate collection and  removal   system  requirements  at  land  disposal   units;  en-
forcement of  corrective  action at interim  status  facilities  where  prior releases
or off-site  contamination have  occurred;  mandatory  annual  inspections  of  State
and local  government  owned  or  operated  facilities;  and at  least  every  two  years,
inspections by  EPA (or authorized  States) at  privately  operated  TSDFs.   Interim
status facilities must also  certify  compliance to  groundwater monitoring require-
ments within one year  of  enactment or lose their interim status.

     The Regions are increasing their efforts in unauthorized  States to  focus  com-
pliance evaluation  inspections on  groundwater monitoring  at  interim  status facili-
ties.  The Regions continue  to conduct technical  reviews  of  closure and post-clo-
sure plans and  financial   assurance  instruments for all interim  status  facilities.
Where inspections  or report  reviews   reveal  violations, the  Regions  are  initiating
enforcement actions including  corrective  action orders,  when appropriate.  Inspec-
tion and enforcement resources are  being provided  to  continue regional  support  of
the permit program.  The  Regions are also assessing financial penalties  in conjunc-
tion with Administrative  Orders.
                                        HW-46

-------
     As part  of  the Agency's  effort  to  evaluate  State programs, the  Regions  are
conducting oversight inspections  with State  personnel  and  are reviewing  the  com-
pliance monitor!ng  and  enforcement   programs  in  all   authorized  and  Cooperative
Arrangement States.  In addition,  the  Agency  is supporting State enforcement actions
by providing technical   support,  such  as  expert  witnesses,  sampling  and laboratory
analysis, and other technical  expertise  not  generally  available  in  State agencies.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net increase of +52,841,200 results from the following actions:

     -RCRA Reprogramming.  ( + $2,721,300)   This  reprogramming  reflects  a  shift  of
resources within the Agency to fund the expanded  needs  required by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  This change resulted  in  a  net  increase  of
+$1,621,300 to  the Salaries  and  Expenses   appropriation  and  a  net  increase  of
+$1,100,000 to the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     In particular,  these  resources   support  compliance  monitoring  inspections
at State  and  local  government-owned  or  operated  hazardous  waste  facilities,
taking  enforcement  action   for   corrective action  at interim  status  facilities
with prior releases, and supporting the National  Permits Strategy.

     -Pay Raise.  (+$119,900)  This program  was  increased by  +$119,900 reflecting
the amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the  Agency  obligated $5,466,700 supported  by 166.9 total  workyears
for this program,  all  of which was  for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.

     The Agency made  progress  in  providing  a  visible  and  effective  enforcement
presence within the  regulated community.   The  Agency  conducted  compliance  moni-
toring inspections at 100 percent  of  the designated major  handlers,  25  percent  of
other interim status facilities, and  10  percent  of selected generators  and  trans-
porters.  To  return  violators  to  compliance, the  Agency  issued  324 RCRA  Section
3008 Warning  Letters,  and  355 RCRA  Section  3008  Administrative  Orders.   Civil
referrals and  criminal  investigations were  initiated  where  stronger  enforcement
actions were appropriate.

     In its State  oversight  role, the Agency conducted 819  oversight  inspections
to evaluate the quality  of State  facility  inspections as  well  as  to  train  State
inspectors.  In addition,  the Regions  provided  technical  support  and  assistance
to States conducting compliance monitoring and enforcement activities.
                                       HW-47

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                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page


PESTICIDES                                                                  P-l

    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Pesticides Research	 P-9
    ABATEMENT & CONTROL
       Registration, Special  Registration & Tolerances	 P-23
          Registration	".	 P-25
          Special  Regi strati on	 P-27
          Tolerances	 P-28
       Generic Chemical  Review	 P-30
          Generic  Chemical Revi ew	 P-32
          Special  Reviews -  EIS Preparation	 P-34
    ENFORCEMENT
       Pestidices Enforcement	 P-37
          Pesticides Enforcement	 P-39
          Pesticides Enforcement  Grants	 P-41
          Pesticides Certi fication & Tr-aining	 P-42
                                      P-l

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                                     PESTICIDES


OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     As a  class,  pesticides  are among  the  most  beneficial and the  most  hazardous
of substances.  The  Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide,  and Rodenticide  Act  (FIFRA),
as amended,  and  Sections 402,  406,  408, and  409  of  the  Federal  Food, Drug,  and
Cosmetic Act  (FFDCA)  invest  in the  Environmental  Protection Agency the  authority
to regulate the distribution  and use  of  pesticides  in  the  United  States.   An esti-
mated 2.7  billion pounds of pesticide  active  ingredients are used  annually in this
country, representing  over  50,000  products.   These products  provide  benefits  to
society by  contributing  to agricultural  productivity as well as controlling human
disease vectors such  as  mosquitoes.   At  the  same time, pesticides  are  inherently
hazardous  in that they are specifically formulated to be injurious  to living target
organisms  and  are  deliberately  introduced  into  the  environment for this  purpose.
The hazards  presented  by pesticides  are thus  intrinsic to their use.  While many
pesticides are  available for  use  only  by  trained  pest  control  operators  and
farmers, many  others  are used  by persons  who  have no  special  expertise  in  the
use of  these products.   Furthermore, many  pesticides  are  used on  food or  animal
feed crops.  As a result, human  dietary exposure  cannot be  avoided,  although it can
bp controlled by regulatory  measures.

     Under FIFRA and the FFDCA, the  Agency  is  responsible  for  ensuring that pesti-
cides perform  their  intended functions without  unreasonable  adverse effects  on
public health  and the   environment.   The  19R6  Pesticides  program  strategically
builds on  accomplishments achieved  by  EPA  in previous  years  and  reflects  a  con-
tinued commitment to fulfill  its  Congressional  mandates.  Achieving the  statutory
goal of  balancing health  and  environmental  protection  with  economic  stability
and growth requires regulatory  operations within  EPA that  are  flexible, efficient,
and effective.  It also  requires  ongoing,  close, and open dialogue  with  pesticide
users, public interest  groups,  and the regulated  industry.   In  addition, the Agency
intends to encourage increased involvement  by State  and  local  governments  in regu-
latory matters, especially  in  connection with  local  pest control needs  and  emergen-
cies, the  enforcement  of regulations,  and  the  education  and  training of  persons
such as applicators and  farmworkers  who are  particularly  likely  to be exposed  to
pesticides.

     The Agency's pesticide regulation  strategy focuses on four  broad  program areas:
1) review and reregistration  of  existing products;  2) registration  of new  products;
3) enforcement of pesticide use  rules;  and  4) research  and  development to  support
and improve  EPA's  ability  to evaluate  the  risks and  benefits  of pesticides.   In
addition,  a  shift in program emphasis from the review  of new pesticide products  to
reregistration of  existing  pesticides,  begun  in   1985,  will  continue  in  19&6.

Registration Activities

     FIFRA and FFDCA  authorize  EPA  to  set  the terms  and  conditions  of  pesticide
registration, marketing,  and use.  The  purpose of Federal registration of pesticides
by EPA  is  to  protect  public  health and  the  environment  from  unreasonable  risks
while allowing users  the benefits  of needed pesticides.   Under  the  Registration
program, new pesticide products  are registered  on  the  basis  of  data  reviewed  by
Agency scientists, and current  registrations  are  amended  to add  new uses  and/or
new formulations.

     The Special  Registration  program  will  continue  to perform an auxiliary func-
tion by permitting certain  unregistered pesticide  uses for experimental  purposes
and to  deal  with  emergency  pest  situations.   The program  provides  oversight  and
guidance to  State  Registration  and  Experimental  Use   Permit  programs.   The  Tol-
erance program  establishes  safe  and  enforceable   tolerance levels   (or  in  some
instances  exemptions  from tolerance  requirements) for  pesticide residues  in  or  on
raw agriculture commodities and  processed  foods.  Tolerances  (maximum permissible
residue levels) are set for both active and  inert  pesticide  ingredients.
                                       P-3

-------
     The Agency will continue a  program  of field and laboratory  studies  determin-
ing the efficacy of  current  protective  clothing technology  as a means of  reducing
exposure.   This  activity  will  build  upon  previous  investigations  of  protective
clothing,  developing  options for  a  regulatory  strategy   and  proposing  ways  to
increase th'e use of protective clothing.  This  is a critical area, since  requiring
protective clothing  is  a  key strategy to  reduce exposure  to an  acceptable  level.

Generic Chemical Review And  Reregistration

     The registrations  of the majority of existing pesticide chemicals  are support-
ed by  data  bases  which the  Agency  has  found   insufficient  to  support  statutory
determinations of  no unreasonable  adverse  effects.   The Generic  Chemical  Review
program is designed to remedy this  by  reviewing  current  knowledge  about each  chemi-
cal, requiring the upgrading  of  the  scientific  data  base supporting  registrations
and establishing scientifically  based regulatory standards  for the  reregistration
of existing  products  and  the   registration of  future  products.    Three   major
activities support  this program.

(1)  Registration  Standards,  which are  established  on the  basis of a  thorough
review of   available  information  on  existing pesticides and  explain   the  Agency's
regulatory position  on  the  use  of  active   ingredients  common  to  large numbers  of
pesticide  products.  Standards provide the  basis for the reregistration of existing
products and for the  registration  of  new products  containing  currently  registered
active ingredients.  Registration  Standards  will  also  be  developed  for some  new
active ingredients.

(2)  Data  Call-In,  which  requires  that registrants  supply data  to  fill  gaps  in the
current registration data base and  is  designed both to increase the likelihood that
critical data  will  he  available  in  time  for   standards  development  and  to  aid
the Agency  in  identifying   pesticides   posing   potentially  unreasonable  adverse
effects.

(3)  Special Review (formerly Rebuttable  Presumption Against Registration  or  RPAR),
which is  a  formal  process  by  which-  pesticides   suspected  of causing  unreasonablp
adverse effects  are  subject  to  intensive  risk/benefit analysis  and  appropriate
regulatory action  is taken  such  as restricting   or  prohibiting  specific uses  of a
pesticide.

Pesticides Enforcement

     States and Territories  act  as  thp primary operating arm of the Pesticides Com-
pliance Monitoring  program  and the Applicator  Certification  and  Training program.
Through cooperative  agreements with  EPA, the States  carry  out pesticides  use in-
spections, inspect  producer  establishments, and provide marketplace  surveillance.
The States  also  operate the  Pesticide  Applicator Certification  and  Training pro-
gram.  The Agency  will  continue  to emphasize  support, guidance, and management for
the operation of these Federal and  State cooperative efforts in 1986.

     The Agency conducts a Federal  Pesticides Compliance Monitoring program through
its Regional  Offices in  cases   where  States are  unable or unwilling to  support
comprehensive compliance  monitoring  programs of their   own.   The Federal  program
includes use investigations; import and export surveillance; initiation of enforce-
ment actions; technical  and  compliance  assistance to States,  regulated  community,
and public; and  operation of a  computer system  maintaining  data  on  pesticide pro-
duction and distribution, compliance, and  enforcement.   The  principal  new feature
of the 1986 Headquarters activities will be  the management of an expanded Laboratory
Data Integrity program.  Under this program, completed test  studies will be audited.
This is essential  to insure  the  integrity  of data upon which  EPA  bases  regulatory
decisions.
                                        P-4

-------
Research and Development

     EPA's pesticides research efforts  provide  the  scientific basis  for  pesticide
compliance and registration activities.  These  activities provide  an  understanding
of pesticide interactions with humans  and the environment  to  ensure maximum effect-
iveness of pest control measures with minimum adverse effects to human health and  the
environment.  The Research  program  provides  an integrated mix  of  health,  monitoring,
environmental  processes, engineering,  and risk assessment  activities to  improve  the
scientific basis  for pesticide abatement, control  and  compliance  efforts^

     In 1986,  the Research program will  devote  additional resources to  update risk
assessment methods for dermal  exposures and  ingestion  and  accelerate the testing of
protective clothing.  Additional  resources  for  environmental  processes  and effects
will be  used  to  validate  methodologies, predictive  techniques,  and  results  for
exposure, hazard, and risk  evaluation.
                                       P-5

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PESTICIDES
     Budget   Current            Increase (+)
Program Activities
Incremental Outputs
Special Review Decisions....
New Chemical and Biochemical/
Microhial Agent Reviews....
Old Chemical Reviews. 	
Amended Registration
Revi ews 	
New Use Reviews 	
Emergency Exemption
Revi ews 	
Experimental Use Permit
Revi ews 	 	
24(c) State Registration
Revi ews 	
Temporary Tolerance
Petition Reviews 	 ;.
Tolerance Petition
Revi ews 	
Inert Ingredient
Revi ews 	
Producer Establishment
Inspections a' 	
Use/Reentry and Experimental
Use Observations a/ 	
Marketplace
Investigations a' 	

State Applicator
License and Record
I nspecti ons . ....
State Dealer
Record Inspections 	
Federal Laboratory
Inspections 	
Test Study Audits 	
Notices of Violation a/ 	
Administrative Orders £/....
Civil Litigations a/ 	
Criminal Litigations a/ 	
Actual
1984

18
375
4,827
10,103
370
524
419
769
144
531
84
2,057
17,617
14,692
428
11 ,099
R,906
50

4,656
352
175
Estimate
1985

11
280
3,750
7,000
135
770
425
1,100
175
600
50
2,410
19,175
16,53C
703
16,304
12,355
40
b/
F/
b/
5/
E/
Estimate
1985

11
330
5,200
8,000
300
500
400
775
150
475
60
2,400
20,200
11,000
700
16,300
12,355
40

4,656
352
175
Estimate 1
1986 :

13
330
5,200
8,000
300
500
400
775
150
475
60
2,400
21 ,200
8,000
700
16,300
12,355
25
65
4,656
352
175
Decrease (-)
1986 vs. 1985

+ 2

	







+1000
-3000
- - -


-15
-1-65
	
	
	
    P-6

-------
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES (Cont.)

Cumulative Outputs

Registration Standard
 Guidance Packages
 Establ ished	,
CORT Data Call-in SJ
 Requirements (Chemicals).,
Incoming Data Call-In and
 Registration Standard
 Study Reviews	
Special Review Chemicals
  Reaching Final Decision.,
Actual
 1934
    90

   254




    68
 Budget
Estimate
  1985
   115

   311


   560

    b/
Current
Estimate
  1985
                Increase
       Estimate Decrease
         1986   1986 vs.
                                                                                (+)
                                                                                (-)
115

404


470

 71
             140




             940

              78
  +75

   c/


+ 470

+   7
*J Includes both Federal and State enforcement activities
J2/ New budget category for 1986
£/ (Chronic feeding, oncogenicity, reproduction, and teratogenicity) Program
   complete in 1985
                                        P-7

-------
                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               "1986 Budget Estimate

                                Table of Contents

                                                                            Page
PESTICIDES
    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
       Pesticides Research	 P-9
                                      P-8

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                                     PESTICIDES


                                Pesticides Research

                           Principal  Outputs by Objective


1986 PLANNED OUTPUTS


Objective 1:    Develop  Methodologies  to  Improve   Risk  Assessment   Under  FIFRA

0  Effects  of toxic  exposure  during  development  on  sexual  dimorphism  (Health)

Objective 2:  Develop and Validate Test Methods for  FIFRA Registrati on and  Enforce-
ment Programs

°  Report on integrated methods  for mutagenic  risk  of  pesticide  chemicals  (Health)
0  Test  methods   to  determine  the  neurotoxic  potential  of  pesticides  (Health)

Objective 3:   Define Environmental,  Health and Engineering Endpoints  -  Future Test
Methods

0  Users manuals  for selecting protective clothing (Env. Engineering)

Objective_4:___  Provide Quality-Assurance and  Repository Services  to  Regional/State
Laboratories

0  1985  Annual   Report  on  data  comparison  program   for  pesticides  (Monitoring)

Objective 5:    Develop^and  Validate  Exposure  Techniques for  FIFRA Registration and
Enfo r c em ent  Pro grams

0  Project report on the initial  evaluation of prototype risk  analysis model 'compo-
   nents (Env.  Processes)
°  Report on data assessment of the TEAM field study (Monitoring)

Obj_ect1ve 6:Conduct   and   Review Risk  Assessment s^j n Support of FIFRA Deci si on-
Making

0  Five Rebuttal  Analyses (Sci.  Assessment)
0  Five Risk Assessments (Sci, Assessment)
0  Ten Peer  Reviews (Sci.  Assessment)


1985 PLANNED OUTPUTS
Objective 1:   .   Develop  Methodologies  to  Improve  Risk   Assessment   Under   FIFRA

0  Journal  article on the assessment of percutaneous absorption of  selected  pesti-
   cides as a function of age (Health)

Objective 2:   Develop and Validate Test  Methods  for FIFRA  Regi strati on  and  Enforce-
ment Programs

0  Report on effects of Endrin on  water  fowl  and upland  game  birds  in  grain  fields
   (Env. Processes)
                                        P-12

-------
Objective 3:   Define Environmental,  Health,  and  Engineering Endpolnts  - Future Test
Methods

0  Data on reproductive hazard  of  pesticides (Health)

Objective 4:   Provide Quality Assurance  and  Repository   Services to  Regi onal/State
Laboratories

0  1984  Annual  Report  on  data  comparison  program  for  pesticides   (Monitoring)

Objective 5:    Develop and   Validate Exposure Techniques  for  FIFRA Registrati on and
Enforcement  Programs

°  Journal  Article - Factors affecting biodegradation of  Fenthion in salt-marsh en-
   vironments (Env.  Processes)
0  Quarterly  reports (Monitoring)

Objective 6:    Conduct  and   Review  Risk  Assessments in  Support of FIFRA  Decision-
Making

0  Card nogenicity Risk Assessment for Amitraz (Sci. Assessment)
0  Card nogenicity Risk Assessment for Metalaxyl  (Sci. Assessment)
0  Peer Review Reports for ten  OPP Risk  Assessments (Sci.  Assessment)
0  Four Rebuttal  Analyses  (Sci.  Assessment)


1984 ACTUAL  OUTPUTS

Objective 1:	Develop  Methodologies   to   Improve   Risk   Assessment  Under FIFRA

0  Report on age-related neurotoxic  effects  of  pesticides  (Health)

Qbjecti ye 2:   Develop ajd^VaJi date Test  Methods for FIFRA  Regi strati on  and  Enforce-
ment Programs

0  Report on  method  evaluation  for  predicting the effects  of  a pesticide on  non-
   target organisms in a freshwater  pond (Env.  Processes)
0  Report on behavioral  effects  in the rat  of  the  formamadi ne  pesticides  chlordime-
   forrn and  Amitraz (Health)

Qbjecti ve 3:   Defi_ne Envi ronmental,  Health  and  Engineering  Endpoints  -  Future  Test
Methods

°  Report  on  viral   effects  on  immune  responses  in  mammalian  cells  (Health)

Objective 4:    Provide  Quality  Assurance and  Repository Services  to  Regional/State
Laboratori es

0  1984  Annual   Report  on  data  comparison  program  for  pesticides  (Monitoring)

Objective 5:     Develop and  Validate Exposure  Techniques for FIFRA Registration  and
Enforcement  Programs

0  Manual on pesticide leaching  potential  using PRZM-1 (Env. Processes)

Objective 6:     Conduct  and   Review Risk Assessments  in Support of FIFRA Decision-
Maki ng

°  Card nogenicity Risk Assessment for Dicofol  (Sci.  Assessment)
0  EDB Risk  Assessment (Sci.  Assessment)
0  Linuron Risk Assessment (Sci.  Assessment)
                                        P-13

-------
                                     PESTICIDES


                                Pesticides  Research
Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $12,282,200 supported by  109.7 total workyears
for 1986, an  increase  of 52,057,300  and  an  increase of  2.3  total  workyears  from
1985.   Of the  request,  $5,334,100  will  be  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appro-
priation and $6,948,100  will  be  for  the  Research  and  Development  appropriation,
an increase of $166,400 and  $1,890,900,  respectively.

Program Description

     Research focuses on  increasing  our understanding  of  how pesticides  interact
with human  activities  and the environment, to assure that  their  use can  minimize
damage from pests,  while maximizing the protection of food, fiber  and the  environ-
ment from unreasonable  adverse effects.

     Objective 1.   -Develop  Methodologies to Improve Risk  Assessment UnderFIFRA.
This activity  develops  and   validates  new or  improved environmental  and  public
health risk assessment  methods.   The  risk  assessment methods  represent  an  improved
capability for the.Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) to analyze and  aggregate the
data submitted by  the  pesticide  industry  to  determine the  risks  and benefits re-
sulting from pesticide  usage.

     Object!ve 2.   Develop  and Validate  Test  Methods  for  FIFRA  Registration and En-
forcement Programs!This  research  effort will  supply  validated environmentaland
health assay methods  for use by industry.   Research under this objective is  needed
to develop valid  test protocols to  meet  pesticide  registration  requirements and en-
forcement responsibilities  under  Sections  3 and  26 of FIFRA.

     Objecti ve 3.	Define  the Environmental,  Health  and  Enoineering  Endpoints  -
Future Test  Methods.   This   work  identi fies the  toxi c  effect s of  pesticides  wi th
which  the Agency should  concern  itself.    Once the  appropriate effects  of  concern
are identified, research results  can be  utilized to determine  likely   candidates
for test method development.

     Objective 4.     Provide Quality  Assurance and Repository  Services to Regional/
State  Labor at orfes"!E"PA"mai ntai ns  a  repository  o? hi ghpuri ty  chemi cal s that
serve  as standards  for internal  quality control  to ensure that data in  support of
pesticides registration are  accurate, precise and reliable.   In addition,  the  pro-
gram provides quality assurance  support to OPP contract  laboratories in their  ana-
lytical  efforts.

     Objective 5.   Develop  and Validate Exposure  Techniques for FIFRA Registration
and Enforcement Programs"!   In  the health area, exposure  data  wi 11  be developed to
enable OPP to  set  re-entry  intervals to protect  susceptible  populations  from pe-
sticides on  treated fields.   In the  environmental  area,  research develops field va-
lidated  exposure assessment  models to  define the concentration  of pesticides for use
by OPP in anticipating  pesticide  impacts on populations.

      Objective 6.    Conduct  and Review   Risk Assessments in  Support of FIFRA De-
cision Making.ThTs  research prepares  human health-related  risk  assessments and
reviews  OPP-generated assessments for carcinogenic, mutagenic, and/or reproductive
effects  of candidate  pesticide products.
                                       P-14

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SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $794,600  supported  by 7.7 total  workyears for
this program, of which $419,900  will  be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
and $374,700 will be  for the  Research  and Development appropriation.   This  repre-
sents increases of $15,800  and $347,200,  respectively, which  will be used to  update
assessment methods  for  dermal  and ingestion  exposures  and  to develop  methods for
risk assessment at low doses.

     Conduct and Review Risk  Assessments  in  Support  of FIFRA  Decision-Making,   The
scientific assessment  program wi 11   conti nue  to  provide a~ndrevi ew  health risk
assessments and exposure assessments  on  the basis of which the Office  of Pesticide
Programs can make more  defensible regulatory decisions.   Additional resources will
be used to update cancer, mutagenicity  and  reproductive  effects  assessment methods
to reflect exposures  by dermal  and  ingestion  pathways as well  as  methods  for low
dose exposures.  Because the  Agency has  very limited information on health effects
other than cancer,  the  scientific assessment  program will  develop information on
widespread reproductive  dysfunction,   such  as   infertility,   birth  defects,  and
spontaneous abortion in the human population,  which may be  caused by  exposure to
chemi cal s.


1985 Rescission

     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response to   the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following  categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication  and  audio-visual,   and  consulting  services.   The reduction
of $1,100  in  the Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation   reflects decreases  to all
of the above categories.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the Agency is  allocating  a total  of $431,600 supported  by 7.7 total
workyears for  this  program,   of  which  $404,100  is  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $27,500 is  for the Research and Development  appropriation.  This
reflects an increase  of $30,900  total dollars  over 1984.  During  1985,  risk and
exposure assessment  methods  for pesticides are continuing to  be prepared, reviewed,
and upgraded.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the  Enacted

     The net increase of +$1,700 results  from  the following  actions:

     -RCRA Reprogrammi ng.   (-$1,200)   This reprogrammi ng  reflects  a shift  of re-
sour ceT~wTrhTn~TlTe~A^ency to  fund the  expanded  needs required by  the  reauthorized
Resource Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.   This  change  resulted  in a  net decrease
of -$1,200 to the Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$800)   Several  reprogrammi ngs   were  made  to  this   activ-
ity which  were not  reportable  under the Congressional   reprogramming  limitations.
These changes  resulted  in  a  -net  decrease of  -$800 to   the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropri ati on.

     -Pay Rai se.  (+$3,700)    This program was  increased  by  +$3,700 reflecting the
amount requested for the pay raise supplemental.
                                       P-15

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1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984, the Agency obligated a total  of  $400,700  supported  by  6.4 total work-
years for this program, of which $308,300 was  for the  Salaries and  Expenses  appro-
priation and  $92,400  was- for the  Research  and Development  appropriation.   During
1984, risk  assessments  were  prepared for OPP,  and  OPP-generated risk assessments
were reviewed for consistency with Agency assessment  policies.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $1,629,100  supported by  7.5  workyears  for this
program, of which $405,700 will be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation  and
$1,223,400 will be for the Research and Development  appropriation.   This  represents
an increase of $2,400  and a decrease of  $435,900, respectively,  and an increase of
0.4 total  workyear.  The decrease in Research and Development reflects the comple-
tion of the initial phase of  the TEAM study.

     Develop  and Validate  Exposure Techniques  for  FIFRA Registrati on and  Enforce-
ment Programs.  This effort  is  designed  to  provide  an  analysis  of data  obtained
from the Total Exposure  Assessment  Methodology  (TEAM)  study which  determines fre-
quency distributions of human exposure to pesticides.

     Provide Quality Assurance and  Repository  Services to  Regional/State Laborato-
ri es.~  This activity operates a repository  of  high  purity  pesticides, and distri-
butes check samples to  eligible  users.   These  samples  are used  to  assure  that  the
data which  support  pesticide  registration decisions are acceptable and  accurate.
In addition, ORD provides quality assurance support to OPP  laboratories  which per-
form selected epidemiology  studies and human  and environmental monitoring of  pesti-
cides.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following categories:   travel,  motor  vehicle,
printing, publication   and  audio-visual,  and   consulting  services.   The decrease
of $125,000 in  the Research  and Development  appropriation  reflects  reductions to
consulting services.


1985 Program

     In 1985,  the Agency is  allocating  a total  of $2,062,600  supported by 7.1 total
workyears for  this  program,  of  which  $403,300 is  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $1,659,300  is for the  Research  and  Development appropriation.
This reflects  an increase of  $1,306,000 total dollars over  1984.

     The major differences between the 1985 program and the 1984  program reflect
initiation of  a Total  Exposure Assessment  Methodology (TEAM)  field  study of pesti-
cides.   The study  is   determining  frequency distributions  of human  exposures to
household pesticides in  an   urban  area.   Additional  funds  are  being  expended to
revise  and publish quality assurance  manuals.
                                       P-16

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1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$27,100 results  from the  following actions:

     -RCRA Reproqramming.   (-$1,200)   This   reprogramming  reflects a shift of re-
sources within the Agency to  fund  the  expanded  needs required by the reauthorized
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act.   This change resulted in a net decrease of
-$1,200 to the Salaries and  Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$29,300)   Several reprogrammi ngs were made to this activ-
ity which were  not  reportable  under the  Congressional  reprogrammi ng limitations.
These changes resulted in a  net  decrease  of  -$29,300 to the  Salaries and Expenses
appropri ation.

     -Pay Rai se.    (+$3,400)    This program was  increased by +$3,400 reflecting the
amount requested for the pay  raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     In 1984,  the Agency obligated a total of $756,600  supported by 5.1 total work-
years for this program, of which $348,700 was for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and $407,900 was  for the Research and Development appropriation.

     The funds  were  used  to  support  the  Pesticide Repository  which distributes
analytical  reference  samples  to  the  Environmental  Protection  Agency   and  other
Federal laboratories, as well  as State,  local,  university,  and industrial labora-
tories.  In  addition,  i nterlaboratory  comparison  samples  were  prepared  and  dis-
tributed to OPP's contract  laboratories  for use  in  their analytical work.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1986 Pro gram R eg u es t

     The Agency requests a total  of $4,049,400  supported by  38.2 total   workyears'
for this program, of which $1,809,600 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
priation and  $2,239,800  will  be for  the  Research  and  Development   appropration.
This represents decreases  of  $92,500  and  $294,000,  respectively, and  an increase
of 1.0 total workyear.  The decrease in Salaries and Expenses reflects Government-
wide reductions to pay  and administrative services.   The  decrease in Research and
Development reflects  the  completion   of  several  pesticide  health   effects  test
methods.

     Develop Methodologies  to Improve Risk Assessment Under FIFRA.     Expanded re-
search in this area  will include the identification of aqe-related  development of
metabolic processes, and the  relationship of such  changes to  toxic agents.  Multi-
species, multidose teratology bioassay  tests  will be performed in order to provide
the necessary data base for  evaluation  of mathematical  models.   Such methods will
aid in providing  more  reliable data upon which  the Agency bases its health  risk
assessments.

     Develop and Validate Test Methods  for FIFRA Registrati on  and  Enforcement  Pro-
gramsT  These research  efforts  will develop  test  methods to  be incorporated into
testing guidelines  for  registrants of  pesticides  for reproduction/teratology bio-
assays, mutagenesis/carcinogenesis techniques,   neurotoxicology,  and  immunotoxico-
logy.  Data generated  from these studies  will  assist in developing  risk  estimates
for the  regulatory  decision-making  process.    Additionally,  in  vitro  teratology
tests will  be  developed  using developing  embryos from  one  species  with  the meta-
bolizing capabilities  of a  second  species.   This  system  will produce data on the
biological basis  for  quantitative  and  qualitative  interspecies  variability in re-
sponse to teratogenic exposure.
                                        P-17

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     Define Environmental,   Health  and  Engineering  Endpolnts - Future Test Methods.
Data will  be developed on the immunologic  effects of  biological pest control agents
on mammalian cells.   This information will  be  used  as  a prelude to  validate Subpart
M guidelines for the testing of biorational  pesticides under FIFRA.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following categories:   travel, motor   vehicle,
printing, publication and audio-visual,  and consulting services.  The reduction of
$4,700 in the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation represents  decreases  to all  of
the above categories.   The  decrease of  $219,100  in  the  Research and Development
appropriation reflects reductions to consulting  services.


1985 Program

     In 1985, the  Agency  is  allocating  a total  of  $4,435,900  supported  by  37.2
total workyears  for  this program,  of  which  $1,902,100  is  for the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $2,533,800 is for the  Research  and Development appro-
priation.  This  reflects   an   increase   of  $1,948,300  total  dollars  over   1984.

     The difference between the  1984 and  1985 program  reflects  an increase in bio-
logical pesticides  research.   This increase is supporting  research on bioengi neered
pesticides in support of FIFRA Subpart M  guidelines.


1985 Explanation of Changes  from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$167,600 results from  the following actions:

     -RCRA Repr o g_r ammi n 9.   (-$141,600)    This  reprogrammi ng  reflects   a   shift  of
resources wi thi'rf'tTteT Agency  to  fund the expanded needs  required  by  the  reautho-
rized Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.    This  change   resulted  in a  net
decrease of  -$141,600 to the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$44,100)  Several reprogrammings  were made to this activ-
ity which were  not reportable  under the Congressional reprogramming  limitations.
These changes resulted in a net  decrease of -$44,100 to the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropri ati on.

     -Pay Rai se.  (+$18,100)   This program was increased by +$18,100 reflecting the
amount requested for  the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accpmp1i shment s

     In 1984, the Agency  obligated  a total  of  $2,487,600  supported  by 26.2 total
workyears for this  program, of  which $1,438,300 was  for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $1,049,300  was for the  Research and Development  appropriation.

     A report on the  viral  effects  of pesticides  on  immune responses  in mammalian
cells was completed.   The data generated  in this report will used by  the Office of
Pesticide Programs  (OPP)  for inclusion in testing  guidance on microbial agents.  In
the area of  neurotoxicoloqy,  a report on  age-dependent  neurotoxic  effects of pesti-
cides was completed.   This research provides data  which are used  for extrapolation
purposes in  setting pesticide  re-entry standards.
                                       P-18

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1986 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total  of $985,000  supported  by  1.0  total  workyear  for
this program, of which $60,000 will be for the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and $925,000 will be  for  the Research  and Development appropriation.   This  repre-
sents increases of $11,000 and $406,800,  respectively, and no change in workyears.
The increases will  be used to accelerate  the  testing  of various  protective  garments
used by pesticide applicators and formulators.

     Define Environmental, Health and  Engineering  Endpoints  -   Future  Test  Meth-
ods.  Research is being expanded  to prepare an  interim guidance  document on the  se-
lection and use  of  agricultural  protective  clothing.  Research  activities in sup-
port of FIFRA will  provide  evaluation data on the permeation resistance of polymer
protective gloves to  concentrated  formulations of  highly  toxic pesticides.   Pro-
tective clothing, other than  gloves,  will undergo additional  evaluation including
exposure protection factors, comfort, durability, and JOD  compatibility.  Additional
studies will  establish the  effects of degradation and decontamination on pesticide
retention and apparel  protective  capability.


1985 Rescission
     This reduction  reflects  the Agency's  response  to the  Deficit  Reduction Act
which requires  decreases  in  the  following categories:   travel,  motor   vehicle,
printing, publication and audi o-vi sual , and  consulting  services.   The decrease  of
$20,000 in the  Research and  Development  appropriation  reflects  reductions to con-
sulti ng servi ces.


1985 Program

   ,  In 1985,  the Agency  is  allocating'a  total  of $567,200 supported by  1.0  total
workyear for this program, of which  $49,000  is  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses appro-
pration and $518-, 200 is  for the  Research  and Development  appropriation.   This
reflects the first year  of funding for this  program.

     Research  activities  are  being  initiated to provide data on the  effectiveness
of protective  clothing  for  reducing  pesticide  exposure  to  applicators  and  crop
harvesters.  Data will be provided to  the  Program Office for  regulatory development
and  implementation efforts and agricultural  worker  educational programs.


1985 Explanation of Changes from the Enacted

     The net decrease of -$14,100 results  from  the  following  actions:

     -Reprogrammi ngs.  (-$14,600)  Several  reprogrammings were  made to this activ-
ity  which  were  not  reportable  under  the  Congressional reprogramming limitations.
These changes  resulted  in a  net decrease  of  -$200  to the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and a net  decrease of  -$14,400 to the Research  and Development appro-
pri ation.

   .  -Pay Rai se.  ( + $500)   This  program was  increased by +$500 reflecting the amount
requested for the pay raise supplemental.


1984 Accomplishments

     This effort was not  part of the 1984  program.
                                       P-19

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ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFEC