ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL

            OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SLUDGE

                         Interim Report
This report (SW-547c) was prepared for the Office of Solid Waste
  by DR. RONALD LOFY AND STAFF under Contract No. 68-01-3108.
   Direction was provided by Dale C. Mosher and Jon R. Perry
                 of the Systems Management Division.
              U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                              1977

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     This report was prepared by SCS Engineers, Long Beach, California,
under Contract No. 68-01-3108.

     An environmental protection publication (SW-547c) in the solid
waste management series.  Mention of commercial products does not
constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government.

     Single copies of this publication are available from Solid Waste
Information, U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio
45268.

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                           Foreword







     A major concern in any solid waste management system is



the disposal of wastewater treatment sludge.  The quantities



of sludge to be disposed are increasing and will continue to



increase with the implementation of more strigent Federal



water quality standards and best practicable treatment



technology requirements.  Currently 5.5 million dry tons of



wastewater sludge are generated annually, and this quantity



is expected to more than double by 1983.



     Approximately 50 percent of the land disposal sites



accepting residential and commercial wastes in this country



also accept wastewater treatment plant sludge.  An additional,



but unknown, number of land disposal sites are specifically



designed for wastewater treatment sludge only.



     In order to assess the environmental effect of these



sludge landfilling practices, especially on groundwater



quality, the Office of Solid Waste awarded a contract to SCS



Engineers.  The study was designed to detect the presence or



absence of leachate-contaminated groundwater in the immediate



vicinity of the disposal sites.  The results of the first 12



months of the study are presented in this interim report.

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     The study was not designed to evaluate whether such



contamination represented a significant threat to local



groundwater supplies or how far such contamination moved



from the disposal site.  This study was designed only to



detect the presence or absence of groundwater contamination



within several hundred feet of the site.



     The effort to determine the areal extent of contamination



and degree of attenuation is currently being evaluated under



the second phase of this contract.  When completed, this



study will provide a more comprehensive understanding of the



effects of sludge landfilling on groundwater quantity.

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                           CONTENTS
Foreword

    I.   Introduction                                         1

             Description of the Problem                      1
             Project Description                             2
             Trends Observed                                 5

   II.   Site Selection Procedures                            8

             Site Selection Criteria                         8
             Approach to Site Selection                     10
             Results of Site Investigations                 11

  III.   Description of Case Study Sites                     14

             Location                                       14
             Climate                                        14
             Ownership and Operation                        14
             Sludge Description                             21
             Groundwater Depth                              21
             Surface and Subsurface Soils                   25

   IV.   Leachate and Gas Monitoring and Analysis            27

             Monitoring Objectives and Scope                27
             Monitoring Wells                               27
             Monitoring Program                             30

    V.   Data Evaluation                                     31

Bibliography                                                78
Appendices

   A.   Gas Probe and Monitoring Well Placement
       Procedure                                            84
   B.   Field Sampling Instruction Manual                    89
   C.   Methods for Sample Preparation and
       Analysis                                            104
   D.   Proposed National Interim Primary Drinking
       Water Standards                                     108

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                            TABLES
Number                                                     Page
  1      Off-Site Shallow Groundwater Constituents
        above Drinking Water Standards                       5
  2      Off-Site Deep Groundwater Constituents
        above Drinking Water Standards                       6
  3      Comparative Weather Data                            15
  4      Selected Descriptive Information on Case
        Study Sites                                         17
  5      Variation in Waste Composition                      22
  6      Depths to Groundwater                               24
  7      Soils and Geology                                   26
  8      Soil  Texture and Permeability Coefficients
        of Cover Soils at Study Sites                       32
  9      Analytical  Results for Site 1                       33
 10      Analytical  Results for Site 2                       35
 11      Analytical  Results for Site 3                       38
 12      Analytical  Results for Site 4                       41
 13      Analytical  Results for Site 5                       44
 14      Analytical  Results for Site 6                       46
 15      Analytical  Results for Site 7                       49
 16      Analytical  Results for Site 8                       53
 17      In-Refuse Gas Composition at Two Depths             57
 18      Summary of Shallow Off-Site Groundwater
        Well  Analytical Results                             75
 19     Summary of Deep Off-Site Groundwater
        Well  Analytical Results                             76
                              VI

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                           FIGURES

Number                                                    Page
  1      Typical  Sampling Well  Details
        (In-Refuse Well)                                   28
  2      Typical  Sampling Well  Details
        (Downstream Plume Wells)                           29
  3      pH                                                 59
  4      Total  Solids                                       60
  5      Ammonium (NH4-N)                                   61
  6      Nitrate  (N03-N)                                    62
  7      Total  Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)                      63
  8      Chloride (Cl)                                      64
  9      Sulfate  (S04)                                      65
 10      Total  Organic Carbon (TOC)                         66
 11      Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)                       67
 12      Calcium  (Ca)                                       68
 13      Cadmium  (Cd)                                       69
 14      Chromium (Cr)                                      70
 15      Copper (Cu)                                        71
 16      Iron (Fe)                                           72
 17      Mercury  (Hg)                                       73
 18      Lead (Pb)                                           74
                             VI 1

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                       I.   INTRODUCTION
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM

     The disposal  of municipal  wastewater treatment plant sludge
is a growing problem in the United States.   Communities through-
out the country are experimenting with various procedures for
the disposal of sludge in an attempt to evolve a method best
suited to their requirements.

     The prohibition of further discharges  of municipal waste-
water treatment sludge to the  ocean has created predictable
and staggering problems in several coastal  areas of the country.
Large quantities of sludge have been accumulated at treatment
plants in several  east coast locations.  Compelled to stop
disposal of municipal  wastewater treatment  sludge in the oceans,
some communities have taken the most convenient and expeditious
alternative, not necessarily conductive to  protecting the
environment.

     Communities presently incinerating their sludge are find-
ing this method to be increasingly costly because of energy
cost escalations and more stringent air emission regulations.
Whereas sludge incineration appeared quite  attractive when
capital costs were financed with federal  and state funds,
operating expenses are now a burden for the local taxpayer.
Several such communities are seriously contemplating incinerator
closure and implementation of  another disposal procedure.
Communities such as these are  in need of advice and guidance as
to the best alternative procedures to replace their present
sludge disposal practices.  Other past and  present practices for
the disposal of municipal wastewater treatment sludge have
included:

        Various land burial procedures,
        Direct discharge to rivers and lakes,
        Placement  in evaporative- or percolation-type
        1agoons and ponds ,
        Agricultural utilization,
        Spray irrigation,
        Land and/or forest application.

     Regulatory agencies overseeing wastewater treatment and
solid waste disposal in 48 states were contacted for information
concerning wastewater treatment sludge disposal facilities
in their respective states.  Leads and recommendations from

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these agencies,  as  well  as  other sources,  led to  a preliminary
investigation of over 300 such facilities  in  the  United States.
Information provided by  the regulatory agencies,  as well  as
in-depth interviews and  site visitations  revealed a confusing
picture of state and local  regulatory agency  requirements
governing the handling and  disposal  of wastewater treatment
sludge.  Completely dichotomous disposal  philosophies  and
regulations were apparent from state to state.   The contradic-
tory and seemingly  arbitrary regulation of sludge disposal  has
spawned a patchwork of conflicting practices.  In some instances,
it has helped foster environmentally-unacceptable overt and
covert practices.

     Discussions with over  100 municipal  officials revealed a
general lack of knowledge on the method and location of sludge
disposal in their respective communities.   Oftentimes, officials
had little knowledge or  understanding of  the  attendant problems.
The impression that remained was that water and wastewater  were
adequately regulated, but that wastewater  treatment sludge
disposal came under some ambiguous wastewater regulation.  In
addition, many state solid  waste regulations  arbitrarily
excluded municipal  wastewater treatment sludge  or were vague
concerning handling and  disposal.   Only a  few states evidenced
a comprehensive knowledge of the wastewater treatment  sludge
disposal practices  in their state or had  realistic and practical
regulations governing the disposal of such material.

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

     An organized program has been developed  by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Solid Waste,
to assess costs and the  environmental impacts of different
methods of sludge utilization and/or disposal.   Disposal and
utilization practices are to be carefully  documented,  costs
established, and the associated environmental impacts  evaluated
through site investigations and monitoring work.   From projects
included in the overall  program, guidelines will  be developed
to aid communities  in selecting a cost-effective and environ-
mentally acceptable sludge  disposal  method.

     SCS Engineers  was awarded EPA Contract No. 68-01-3108  in
 December   1974 to conduct an initial assessment of the environ-
mental impact of wastewater treatment sludge  burial practices.
Other  features to be assessed included the economics,  operations,
and aesthetics of such practices.  To accomplish this  overall
objective, a series of tasks was delineated and performed.
These  included:

     •   Identification and selection of nine  case study
         sites encompassing a representative range of
         sizes, soil characteristics, climatological

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        conditions, operating techniques, sludge
        quantities and characteristics, and environ-
        mental impacts (actual  and potential) for
        detailed field study.

     •  Conduct of field studies at each location to
        obtain site data; historical  operating and
        cost information; aesthetic and environmental
        problems encountered and approaches to problem
        solution; sludge quantities and physical,
        chemical, and biological characteristics; and
        disposal site operating techniques.

     t  Location and installation of monitoring wells
        at each site to assess  the physical and
        chemical characteristics of leachate and ground-
        waters, and composition of decomposition gases
        generated within the landfill.

     The data obtained under this contract determined  only the
presence or absence of groundwater contamination.  No  effort
was made to provide information on the  level and areal  extent
of groundwater contamination at these sites.  Another  deficiency
included the lack of truly representative background ground-
water samples with which to compare down-gradient groundwater
and to identify contamination.   Further, this initial  effort
encompassed less than four data points, and further analyses
were required to statistical confidence.

     Accordingly, a second project was  conceived and awarded to
SCS Engineers under EPA Contract No.  68-01-4166 in August 1976
and scheduled for completion in early 1978.  The latter project
is intended to provide additional data  on leachate and ground-
water quality at eight of the case study sites of the  initial
project.  Tasks delineated under the second project include:

     •  Monitoring leachate and groundwater quality at
        case study sites for a  specified list of
        contaminants at two month intervals over a
        12-month period.

     •  Measuring and evaluating changes in ground-
        water quality down-gradient from two disposal
        sites as a function of  distance and hydrogeo-
        logical parameters.

     •  Predicting possible future damage to the ground-
        water aquifer in the area of all sites, based
        on field information obtained.

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     a  Preparing detailed case study reports  for each
        of the eight sites.

     •  Correlating observed differences  in  concentra-
        tions and area!  extent of pollutant  contamina-
        tion among the eight sites with  the  following
        parameters:

           Types and quantities of wastes buried.

           Climate.

           Geology.

        -  Hydrology.

     a  Assessing, where possible, the mechanism(s) of
        concentration  or attenuation as  the  leachate
        passes from the waste/soil interface to
        groundwaters.

     The initial study (Contract No. 68-01-3108)  was conducted
from December 1974 through January 1976.   This current report
discusses the project  execution and data  trends of the initial
study and has been organized into the following topic areas:

     •  Identification of site selection  criteria.

     •  Discussion of  case study site selection process
        employed.

     •  Brief description of the individual  case  study
        sites highlighting climatological, geological,
        and topographical features; operating practices;
        description of refuse and/or sludge  quantities,
        characteristics, and contributing sources of
        sludge; and other notable events  which may impact
        on the environment.

     t  Discussion of  scope and results  of leachate,
        groundwater, soil, sludge, and gas monitoring at
        the case study sites.

     •  Data evaluation and discussion of trends  and
        relationships  observed.

     t  Description of sampling procedures.

     t  Delineation of laboratory analytical procedures.

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 TRENDS  AND  OBSERVATIONS

      The  following  trends  were  derived  from  the  analytical  data
 and  field survey  work  completed  during  the project.   These
 trends  rely heavily on experience,  judgement,  and  inference;
 are  derived from  a  limited data  base  consisting  of  only  one,
 two,  and  sometimes  three data points; and are  subject  to
 testing and confirmation.

      1.   Discernible groundwater contamination was  detected
          within a distance ranging  up to 300 ft  (91 m)
          beyond the limits of the disposal area  at  all eight
          study sites.  Lead, mercury, and iron were the
          principal  heavy metal  contaminants.

      2.   EPA Drinking  Water Standards were equaled  or
          exceeded in the shallow off-site groundwater
          monitoring wells  indicated by  X's in  Table 1.


      TABLE  1.  OFF-SITE SHALLOW  GROUNDWATER  CONSTITUENTS
	ABOVE  DRINKING  WATER  STANDARDS	

                                Constituent
Site S04 Cd
1 X
2 X
3
4 X
5
6
7
8 X
Cu Fe
X
X
X

X
X
X
X X
Hg

X
X
X
X
X


Pb
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
         Deep off-site groundwater sample concentrations
         equaled or exceeded EPA Drinking Water Standards
         at sites indicated by X's on Table 2.

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     TABLE  2.   OFF-SITE  DEEP  GROUNDWATER  CONSTITUENTS
	ABOVE  DRINKING  HATER  STANDARDS	

	Constituent	
Site	CJ	Cd	Fe	H_g	Pb
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
No
X X
No
No
No



deep

deep
deep
deep



wel

wel
wel
wel



1
X
1
1
1
X
X
X
i

i
i
i



ns

n
n
n




s
s
s



tal

tal
tal
tal



1

1
1
1



ed
X
ed
ed
ed
X



X



X
X
X
   4.   A  detailed  comparison  of  sites  was  of  limited
       value  since contaminant concentrations  at  the
       monitoring  well  locations  are  believed  to  be
       a  function  of  distance from  the leachate source,
       groundwater movement  and  direction,  elevation  of
       the  groundwater  table, waste composition,  site
       age,  climate factors,  and  soil  types,  all  of
       which  varied between  study sites.

   5.   Sludge-only disposal  sites have a  potential
       for  greater adverse environmental  impact because
       of the  high contaminant concentrations  contained
       in the  sludges,  and the greater degree  of  contami-
       nant  mobility  resulting from a  higher  moisture
       content.   However, there  was little  discernible
       difference  in  off-site groundwater  quality between
       sites  receiving  sludge only  and those  sites mix-
       ing  sludge  and refuse, except  for  somewhat higher
       lead  concentrations at the sludge-only  sites.

   6.   Methane concentrations in  decomposition gases
       were  higher at the sludge-only  disposal sites.

   7.   None  of the eight  case study sites  reported any
       discernible increase  in the  frequency  of illness,
       accidents,  injuries,  or other  health problems  by
       site  employees,  site  users,  or  the  community  as a
       'result  of the  wastewater  treatment  sludge  disposal
       operations.

   8.   From a  visual  and  aesthetic  viewpoint,  certain
       disposal  practices appeared  more acceptable than
       others.  However,  the  analytical  results obtained
       from this limited  study did  not show that  these

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     operational  practices mitigated adverse impacts
     on local  groundwaters.

 9.   The major aesthetic problems reported were odors
     and unattractive piles  of exposed sludge.

10.   Operational  problems arose primarily from the
     difficulty experienced  by equipment operators in
     handling  the sludge piles.  The high moisture
     content of the sludge caused wheels and tracks
     to spin and  caused sludge to accumulate on equip-
     ment components.  Soft  spots occurred in the land-
     fill where large quantities of sludge had been
     buried, resulting in depressions that trapp&d
     drainage  or  bogged down equipment.

11.   The indicated cost of wastewater treatment ranged
     from $9.10 to $22.35 per dry ton ($10.03 to $24.63
     per metric ton) at the  sludge-only  disposal faci-
     lities, and  $2.80 to $41.85 per ton ($3.08 to
     $46.12 per metric ton)  at the mixed refuse and
     sludge burial facilities.  Costs reflect an actual
     or calculated "gate fee" at each disposal  site
     and do not necessarily  indicate the actual cost
     incurred  for sludge disposal.

12.   The proper handling and land disposal of septic
     tank pumpings was cited as a difficult problem
     by many site operators.  The number and degree of
     problems  encountered appear to increase with the
     proportion of septic tank pumpings  received,
     primarily because the material is liquid,  obnox-
     ious, and often unstable.

13.   A confusing  picture of  state and local regulatory
     agency requirements governing the handling and
     disposal  of  wastewater  treatment sludge exists
     in the United States.  Completely dichotomous
     disposal  philosophies and regulations are  appar-
     ent from  state to state.  This seemingly incon-
     sistent regulation of wastewater treatment sludge
     disposal  has spawned a  patchwork of conflicting
     practices.  In some instances, it has helped to
     foster environmentally-unacceptable overt  and
     covert sludge disposal  practices.

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                II.   SITE SELECTION PROCEDURES
SITE SELECTION CRITERIA

     Criteria used in the initial  screening and selection of
prospective case study sites  were  prepared at the onset, of
the project.   Several mandatory criteria were stipulated in
the contract, and other desirable  criteria were identified to
aid in ensuring a successful  project.   The mandatory criteria
follow:

     •  Subsurface placement  of wastewater treatment
        sludge needed to be practiced  at the site for
        at least one year, and no  site could have been
        closed for more than  three years prior to the
        start of the survey.

     •  Three of the sites selected disposed of waste-
        water treatment sludge only, while the remainder
        disposed of wastewater treatment sludge together
        with  municipal refuse.

     •  For those sites which disposed of both municipal
        refuse and wastewater treatment sludge, the sludge
        comprised at least 10 percent  of the combined total
        quantity by weight.

     •  The disposal method used was either sanitary land-
        fill  or pit and trench method.  (Liquid wastewater
        treatment sludge injection methods were specifi-
        cally excluded. )

     t  The sludges were municipal wastewater treatment
        sludges and/or septic tank pumpings, or any:
        combination of these  wastes with municipal refuse.
        (Industrial sludges had been excluded.)

     •  As a group, the sites were selected to cover a
        representative range  of sizes, soil characteristics,
        climatological conditions, operating techniques,
        sludge quantities and characteristics, and actual
        or potential environmental impacts.

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     •  The entity responsible for the site agreed to
        cooperate during the monitoring program.  (Such
        cooperation was essential  if the contractor's
        personnel were to obtain samples from the site
        and additional information on site operations,
        handling procedures, and other pertinent infor-
        mation necessary to the goals of the project.)

The desirable criteria included the following:

     t  Good operational records existed for the disposal
        site.  (Especially helpful in this regard were
        historical records of quantities and types of
        waste received, chemical and physical character-
        istics of the waste, the sources of sludge
        material, and the areas in the landfill where
        sludge was placed.)

     •  Data existed on area groundwater quality prior
        to start-up of the operation as well as clima-
        tological data from a nearby weather station.

     t  Sites which had previously been researched by
        university groups, and state or local regulatory
        agencies yielded useful background data for
        comparative purposes.

     a  Existing groundwater/leachate monitoring and/or
        gas sampling systems had been installed.  (Such
        sites provided a longer-term historical data
        record to supplement and complement the infor-
        mation obtained during this study's short-term
        monitoring program.)

     t  Sites which had maintained current topographic
        maps of the site since the initiation of filling
        operations, as well as geological and/or engineering
        reports pertaining to the  site and its developments
        were beneficial.

     •  The selection of exemplary sites was not considered
        essential.  The selection  of average or perhaps
        below-average operations provided a better indication
        of the possible severity of environmental contamina-
        tion resulting from wastewater treatment sludge
        disposal.  The selection of exemplary sites was not
        considered essential.

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APPROACH TO SITE SELECTION

     Several approaches were employed to locate prospective
sites for possible inclusion in the study.   These are capsulated
below:

     •  A search of the literature was made for refer-
        ences to locations where various aspects of
        sludge disposal to landfills had been or were
        being investigated.

     0  A review was completed of U.S. Public Health
        Service Bulletin No. 1866, entitled "1968
        National Survey of Community Solid  Waste
        Practices."

     •  Letters of inquiry were sent to all State Solid
        Waste Management and Wastewater Quality Control
        Agencies to enlist assistance in locating pros-
        pective sites meeting the mandatory criteria
        stipulated above.   Similar inquiries were made to
        all EPA Regional Offices.

     •  Wastewater treatment plants and/or  public works
        departments in the largest 150 cities in the U.S.
        were contacted by telephone to ascertain how
        wastewater treatment sludge was being disposed in
        the respective communities.

     The PHS Bulletin reports on field investigations of more
than 6,000 land disposal sites in the U.S., and basic data
pertaining to each site are tabulated, including the volume
of wastewater treatment sludge disposed with other municipal
solid wastes.  A review of Volumes 1 and 2  (volumes for the
central and western parts of the United Stated have not been
published at the time of initial report presentation) was made
to provide a quick initial screening of potential candidate
sites along the east coast.  Unfortunately, the document proved
of less value than originally anticipated due to closure of
many sites and changes in disposal practices over the interim
seven-year period.  Most of the data was found to be obsolete
and no longer useful for the purposes of the project.

     The letters of inquiry were followed up by telephone calls
to any agency which had not responded or which indicated that
additional sites could be identified.  An initial list of
approximately 200 prospective sites was generated from these
telephone contacts as well as from completed letters of inquiry
and literature and personal contacts.  Telephone inquiries
were then made for each of these sites.  The contributing waste-
water treatment plant was initially contacted.  This source
                              10

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provided pertinent information on sludge types and quantities
generated and on treatment plant operation.   Later, the land-
fill  operator was contacted.   This source provided pertinent
information on sludge types and quantities received, refuse
types and quantities received, disposal  site operation, and
relevant historical  data.   Telephone contacts with more than
one individual were  useful in that they  provided a cross-check
on the validity of information obtained.

     Unfortunately,  upon further investigation, only a very few
sites actually met all  of the mandatory  selection criteria.
The major causes for site rejection in descending order of
occurrence and importance follow:

     •  The relative weight or percentage of wastewater
        treatment sludge landfilled commonly was less
        than one or  two percent of the total instead of
        the desired  10  percent or more.

     •  The disposal of wastewater treatment sludge at
        the site:

           Had been  conducted for less than  one year,
           thus presenting little probability of any
           measurable environmental impacts,

           Had been  discontinued after a short time
           because of unspecified operating  difficulties,

           Had been  sporadic in occurrence and thus
           deposited in unidentifiable locations in the
           landfill ,

           Had stopped  more than three years ago, and/or

           Had been  used with soil cover and not buried.

     •  Inadequate records had been kept on  the quantities
        of material  deposited and other  data considered
        useful in assessing and correlating  the monitoring
        results.

     •  Many of the  sites which accepted large quantities
        of wastewater treatment sludge also  accepted
        industrial wastes, including industrial wastewater
        treatment sludges.

RESULTS OF SITE INVESTIGATIONS

     Following a careful review of site  data and selection
criteria, the list of prospective sites  totaled some 40 sites.
                              11

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A total of 31 sites were subsequently field visited in an
attempt to identify sites meeting the mandatory and desired
criteria to the maximum possible degree.

     The field visit encompassed a full  man-day effort to
assemble pertinent information with regard to the site.  This
covered two or three distinct areas as summarized below:

Wastewater Treatment Plant

     At the treatment plant, the following information was
solicited:

     •  Year plant started,

     •  Treatment or stabilization method for waste-
        water and sludge,

     •  Wastewater treatment sludge disposal  practices
        since the plant became operational,

     •  Availability of quantity records  for the years
        of operation,

     t  Chemical  and physical characterization data
        on sludge, and

     •  Methods and frequency of sludge  transport.

Disposal Site

     The disposal site was visited and the site owner or
operator queried as to the following information:

     •  Year site first operated,

     •  Year sludge first received and where
        disposed,

     •  Site plan and delineation of where sludge
        had been buried,

     •  Operational methods of handling  and burial
        of refuse and/or sludge,

     •  Operational problems related to  sludge
        handling,

     •  Current  and past environmental monitoring
        programs, if any,
                              12

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     •  Availability of hydrogeologic information, and

     t  Regulatory agency requirements with regard to
        landfill operations and/or sludge burial.

Other Information Sources

     If a local or state regulatory agency had been active in
establishing operating requirements or monitoring at the land-
fill site, the following information was solicited:

     •  Monitoring results with regard to environmental
        and health implications of the sludge-burial
        operati on,

     t  Water quality data as well as geologic profiles
        for the area of the landfill, and

     t  Surface soil data from the Soil  Conservation Service
        of the U.S.  Department of Agriculture.

     Information obtained from the site  visit was evaluated
nd compared with telephone-derived data, and recommendations
for site inclusion or exclusion were derived.  Nine case study
sites* were ultimately selected.
* Monitoring wells at one location were inadvertently
  destroyed; thus only eight locations are discussed in
  the report.
                             13

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             III.   DESCRIPTION OF CASE STUDY SITES


     Selected comparative information  is  presented in  this
section to characterize and identify the  range of conditions
found at the case  study site locations.

LOCATION

     The eight case study sites were located in the midwest
and northeastern sectors of the country.   Three sites  were
located in Nebraska, two in New York State,  and one each in
the states of New  Jersey, Arkansas,  and  Virginia.

CLIMATE

     Selected climate characteristics  of  the eight sites are
presented in Table 3 and were representative of the midwestern
and eastern seaboard areas.

     Normal precipitation of the four  midwestern locations
ranged from 23.4 to 42.4 in (59.4 to 108  cm) annually.   Annual
precipitation at the four eastern locations  ranged from 32.5
to 45.4 in (82.6 to 115 cm).  Site 1 in  the  midwest received
the least annual precipitation, 23.4 in  (59.4 cm) of the eight
sites, while Site  6 on the eastern seaboard  with 45.4  in (115 cm)
had the highest average annual precipitation.  All locations  were
subject to snow and ice in the winter  months.

     Maximum average daily temperatures  of the four midwestern
sites ranged from  62 to 70°F (16.7 to  El.ioc).  Minimum average
daily temperatures ranged from 38 to 47°F (3.3 to 8.3°C).
Corresponding average daily maximum and  minimum temperatures
for the four sites located in the east ranged from 54  to 64°F
(12.2 to 17.8°C),  and 34 to 43°F (1.1  to  6.1°C) minimum,
respectively.

     Site 4 in the south-midwest had consistently higher average
dally maximum and  minimum temperatures,  while Site 8 in the
northeast experienced the lowest average  dally maximum and
minimum temperatures.

OWNERSHIP AND OPERATION

     Table 4 compares ownership and operating information at
each of the eight  locations.  Two locations, Sites 5 and 7,
had formerly operated as open dumps with  intermittent  burning.
Each has since been converted to sanitary landfill procedures.
                              14

-------
            TABLE 3.  COMPARATIVE WEATHER DATA
Precipi tati on ( In.)




Site
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8





Normal
23.4
26.7
30.2
42.4
40.1
45.5
33.4
32.5
Wate
Equi val


Max .
Monthly
14.0
7.5
13.7
14.2
18.2
13.1
9.0
11 .5
r
ent


Max .
24 Hrs.
5.4
2.7
6.5
9.6
11 .9
6.5
4.5
3.6
Sn
Ice


Max.
Monthly
26.0
19.8
27.2
13.5
24.2
35.2
57.5
56.7
*
ow ,
Pellets


Max.
24 Hrs
12.0
10.4
18.3

15.4
14.4
21 .9
16.5

Mean No.
of Days
P re ci pi tat ion
0.01 in.
or More
88
96
99

111
112
135
152
Source:   U.S.  Department of Commerce







*  Multiply tabulated values by 2.54 to obtain centimeters.
                             15

-------
TABLE 3.  (continued)
Temperature F
Normal
Site
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Daily
Max.
62.1
62.2
62.8
70.0
64.7
63.6
58.1
54.2
Daily
Win.
38.1
39.7
40.2
47.0
42.7
43.8
37.1
34.5
Monthly
50.1
51.0
51 .5
58.5
53.7
53.7
47.6
44.4
Mean Number of Days
Maximum
90°F &
Above
40
37
34
48
25
17
8
4
32°F &
Bel ow
45
40
40
7
13
15
48
76
Minimum
32°F &
Below
149
141
137
91
116
110
156
165
0°F &
Below
16
18
12
1
2
1
17
28
                            16

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Only one site was owned and operated by a private firm.   Of the
remaining seven locations, all  were municipally owned and
operated except Site 1; here a  private contractor operated the
municipally-owned site.

     Three of the eight sites accepted only sludge while the
remaining five sites accepted both sludge and mixed refuse.
The respective costs for sludge burial were calculated on the
basis of gate fees, lump sum payments to contractors, or annual
operating budgets.  Cost per ton of dry sludge solids ranged
from $2.80 at Site 1 to $41.85  at Site 5.  (Cost data were
unavailable at Site 6.)

     Personnel employed at the  sites generally ranged from one
to three with the largest site  operated by a staff of 35.

     Wastes were delivered by open-top truck to all of the sites
Haul distances ranged up to 12  miles, one way.

SLUDGE DESCRIPTION

     Table 5 provides comparative information on sludge type,
sludge solids content, and estimated quantities of sludge and
other wastes (if any) delivered to the case study sites.

     Sludge received at six of  the sites was described as
dewatered raw primary and waste activated sludge.  Site 6
received anaerobically digested sludge and large quantities of
septic tank pumpings.  Site 5 received a mixture of raw and
digested primary and waste activated sludge along with minor
quantities of incinerated sludge residue.

     Solids content of the sludge as received for disposal
ranged from about three percent at Site 6 to 40 percent at
Sites 3 and 7.  Site 3 receives relatively dry paunch manure
while Site 7 receives Zimpro-processed sludge.

     The relative proportion of sludge to all wastes received
ranged from a low of 5.9 percent (volume basis) at Site 2 to
20.6 percent (volume basis) at  Site 7.

GROUNDWATER DEPTH

     The depths to groundwater  at the monitoring well locations
for each case study site are shown in Table 6.  Calculated
depths to groundwater below the bottom of the landfill are
also presented.
                              21

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              TABLE 6.   DEPTHS TO GROUNDWATER
            Depth from Surface (ft)
         	   Depth from Bottom
Site     Refuse Well     Off-Site Wells     of Landfill  (ft)
  1           35               18                11
  2           27           7.5 to 13.5           -3
  3           29.5             22                 8.5
  4       Drilling stopped upon reaching bedrock.   Nearby
         potable water obtained from 150 - 200 ft depth.
  5           32                9.5               8
  6           25                6                 6
  7           39            14 to 20              15
  8           10                3.5               2
                             24

-------
     Only Site 2 had sludge deposited within the first 3 ft
(0.9 m) of the seasonally-fluctuating groundwater table.
The other locations ranged from 2 ft (0.6 m) above the ground-
water table at Site 8 to an estimated 15 ft (4.6 m) above the
groundwater at Site 7.

SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE SOILS

     A general categorization of soil types found at each of
the sites to bedrock or parent material is described in
Table 7.  Soil conditions were not homogeneous at any of the
sites and exhibited considerable variation with depth.
                              25

-------
                 TABLE 7.   SOILS  AND GEOLOGY
           SITE 1

          Al1uvium
       Sand and gravel
   Coarse sand and gravel
           Bedrock

           SITE 3

     Sandy silt and clay
         Silty clay
Coarse unconsolidated alluvium
          Limestone

           SITE 5

  Unconsolidated sediments
     (fine sands,  silts,
     clays j and gravel)
Metamorphic and igneous  rocks
          Granites

           SITE 7

Glacial  and alluvial  deposits
            Shale
            SITE 2

             Silt
          Clayey silt
    Sand and sandy gravels
           Sandstone

            SITE 4

             Loams
           Limestone
Shale and calcareous sandstone
           Limestone

            SITE 6

    Gravel ,  sand , and clay
   Gray clay and fine gravel
             Sand
            SITE 8

        Gravelly sands
             Silt
                             26

-------
         IV.   LEACHATE AND GAS MONITORING AND ANALYSIS
MONITORING OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE

     Monitoring was performed at all  eight case study sites
to assist in completing an assessment of the environmental
effects of wastewater treatment sludge disposal to landfills.
The scope of the monitoring program was limited to a four-to-
six month period during which measurements were made of
decomposition gas composition, leachate quality immediately
below the disposal  site, and groundwater quality at two depths
in the presumed downstream direction  from the disposal  site.

MONITORING WELLS

     At each case study site, three monitoring wells were
drilled to the groundwater table.   One well was situated with-
in the landfill area to facilitate sampling of leachate gener-
ated within the well proximity.  Gas  probes were placed at
two different depths within the landfill at this same well
location.  Figure 1 illustrates the construction details for
the in-refuse monitoring well

     Two additional wells were to  be  located approximately
100 ft outside the  limits of the disposal area in the presumed
direction of groundwater migration.  These wells were to inter-
cept any leachate emanating from the  landfill.  One off-site
well would intercept the groundwater  in the first several feet
of the groundwater  aquifer.  The second off-site well would
penetrate a deeper  stratum approximately 20 ft below the inter-
ception point of the first well, the  purpose being to detect
differences in groundwater quality with depth.  Because of
bedrock, caving sand, or other impediments, deep wells  were not
installed at four of the sites.  Figure 2 illustrates construction
details on the off-site wells.

     Figures 1 and  2 also illustrate  the locations of in-situ
samples of waste material and soil taken, and the methods and
materials used for  backfilling and sealing the well.

     During installation of the in-refuse monitoring well,  the
following soil and  refuse samples  were obtained:

     t  Cover soil  for the determination of soil
        permeabi1ity,
                              27

-------
                GAS
               SAMPLE
SOIL
COVER
      SHALLOW
     GAS PROBE
  APPROX. 3-5 FT
(0.9 TO 1.5M) BELOW
      SURFACE	
   6 IN  (15  CM)
     NOMINAL     /
  DIA. BORE  HOLE
  DEEP GAS PROBE
  APPROX.  3-5 FT
  (0.9 TO  1,5M)
  BOTTOM OF REFUSE'

               2  FT
              (0.6M)
 MINIMUM OF 2 FT
  OF CONCRETE 	
 BACKFILL WITH
 SOIL OR CONCRETE-
                  u
                  ft
                       SOIL
                     BACKFILL
            I
                      GRAVEL
                      BACKFILL
	CAP

LEACHATE SAMPLE
v      SURFACE  OF  LANDFILL
                                     CONCRETE SEAL
                         •4 IN (10 CM)
                          PVC PIPE TO EXTEND
                          MINIMUM OF 2 FT  (0.6M)
                          ABOVE SURFACE
                        .^LANDFILLED REFUSE  J
                        (    AND/OR SLUDGE 	

      CLAY OR
      CONCRETE
        PLUG
                      WELL
                     SCREEN
                     SECTION
                        *
                                  LEGEND
                          SOIL CORE SAMPLE

                          REFUSE/SLUDGE
                          MOISTURE SAMPLE

                          SOIL COVER
                          PERMEABILITY SAMPLE
                                    	7	
 NOT TO SCALE
                                   GROUNDWATER
                            FIGURE 1
                 TYPICAL SAMPLING WELL DETAILS
                        (IN-REFUSE WELL)
                            28

-------
20 FT
(6.1M)
         I
       2  FT
      (0.6M)
                              CAP.
                        GROUND  SURFACE
                           CONCRETE
                             SEAL
                        4 IN (10 CM)
                     PVC PIPE, TO EXTEND
                     MINIMUM OF 2 FT (0.6M)
                        ABOVE SURFACE
                           C
                             SOIL
                      •GRAVEL/NATIVE
                       MATERIAL BACKFILL-


                          GROUNDWATER
	
E -,
END
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WELL
SCREEN
SECTION
                                           SHALLOW WELL
                                   NOT TO SCALE
WELL
SCREEN
SECTION
          DEEP  WELL
                            FIGURE 2
                 TYPICAL SAMPLING WELL DETAILS
                   (DOWNSTREAM  PLUME  WELLS)
                              29

-------
     t  Refuse for determination of moisture content, and

     t  Core samples of soil  at the landfill bottom, at
        a point halfway between the landfill bottom and
        the groundwater table, and at the soi1-groundwater
        interface.

     Detailed procedures for  the installation  of the monitoring
wells were prepared.  These procedures are included as
Appendix A of this report.

MONITORING PROGRAM

     The monitoring wells were to be sampled a  total of three
times over a period of from four to six months.   At the time
of the visit, samples of the  following were obtained:

     •  Leachate from the in-refuse well,

     •  Groundwater from each of the downstream
        wel1s , and

     •  Gas samples from each of the two gas probes.

     Detailed procedures for  the field sampling activity and
the preservation and shipping of samples were  prepared.  These
procedures are described in Appendix B of this  report.

     All of the leachate and  groundwater samples were analyzed
for the same constituents.   These constituents  were:

        PH
        Total Solids
        Ammonia-Nitrogen (Nh^-N)
        Nitrate-Nitrogen (N03-N)
        Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)
        Chloride (Cl )
        Sulfate ($04)
        Total Organic Carbon  (TOC)
        Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
        Calcium (Ca)
        Cadmium (Cd)
        Chromium (Cr)
        Copper (Cu)
        Iron (Fe)
        Mercury (Hg)
        Lead (Pb)

     Gas samples taken at two different depths  in the refuse
and/or sludge disposal area were analyzed for methane, carbon
dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen content.

     Appendix C contains a detailed description of sample pre-
paration and analysis methods utilized during the project.


                              30

-------
                      V.  DATA EVALUATION
     The results of physical  measurements and laboratory
analyses obtained from the monitoring program at each of the
eight case study disposal  sites are summarized in Tables 8 to
16.  Table 8 summarizes soil  textures and horizontal  and
vertical permeability coefficients for the landfill  cover soils
found in the vicinity of the  in-refuse monitoring wells.  Soil
cover permeabilities are expressed as a vertical and  a horizon-
tal factor for each soil sample tested.  Two or more  cover soil
samples were tested for permeability at several sites.

     The first page of each of Tables 9 to 16 presents analyti-
cal results for representative samples of background  ground-
water and wastewater treatment sludge.  The sludge samples
were obtained from the wastewater treatment plant with the
exception of Site 2.  At this location, the sample was obtained
from material excavated during placement of the in-refuse
monitoring we!1.

     On the second and subsequent pages of each table, analytical
results from leachate and groundwater sampling of the in-refuse
well, the shallow off-site groundwater well, and the  deep off-
site groundwater well are presented.  Results reflect four
separate sampling dates encompassing a one-year monitoring
period.  Reasons for omissions are cited where appropriate on
the respective tables.

     Samples of gas were taken at times of leachate  and ground-
water monitoring from an upper and lower level gas probe (see
Figure 1).  Gas composition as percent methane, carbon dioxide,
oxygen, and nitrogen by volume for the respective sampling dates
at all eight study sites is presented in Table 17.

     One or two grab samples  of the background groundwater were
taken at each site to provide a reference datum for  comparison
of water quality below the disposal site and with the off-site
shallow and groundwater monitoring wells located in  the presumed
direction of groundwater movement.

     The in-refuse monitoring well, as well as the shallow and
deep off-site groundwater monitoring wells, were sampled on
four separate occasions.  On  several occasions, there were
insufficient samples to analyze.

     Two wastewater treatment sludge samples, representative of
those normally delivered to the disposal site, were  also obtained
                             31

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at almost one-year intervals for analysis  and comparison purposes.
A synopsis of indicated groundwater quality before and after the
impact of refuse and/or wastewater treatment sludge disposal at
the case study locations is depicted in Figures 3 to 18.

     Each figure depicts a specific chemical constituent.
Results are grouped by sites.   The one or  two horizontal lines
for each site depict background groundwater quality for that
particular constituent.  The vertical  bar  graphs from left to
right are:  (1) sludge as shipped to landfill, (2) in-refuse
leachate, (3) off-site shallow groundwater, and (4) off-site
deep groundwater.   Sites 1, 3, 4, and  5 do not have a deep
off-site well.  The top and bottom of  a bar represent maximum
and minimum observed concentration values.  Additional results
are shown as points within the bar.  Where only a single value
was available, it is shown as  a point  in the column space  where
a bar would have been.

     Where an EPA Drinking Water Standard  (see Appendix D) or
an AWWA Potable Water Standard has been established, the
respective value has been superimposed on  the appropriate
figure to provide a basis for  evaluating the relative quality
of the waters sampled.  In addition, where sample concentrations
were below the present state-of-the-art analytical detection
levels, they are presented below the figure ordinate.

     In addition to these graphical representations, the
monitoring results have been further summarized in Tables  18
and 19.  These tabulations identify the number of samples  in
which a specific constituent was above the EPA or AWWA Drinking
Water Standard, the number of  samples  below present state-of-the-
art detection levels, and the  number of samples falling within
incremental order of magnitude concentration ranges.

     The constituent concentrations observed within the fill
were high and determined to a  large degree by the type and
quantity of material disposed.  However, the concentrations
within the fill are immaterial to an assessment of the off-
site environmental impact.  For the purpose of the environmental
assessment and evaluation, the analysis centered around the off-
site groundwater quality in the direction  of presumed ground-
water movement.

     With regard to the shallow off-site monitoring well results,
all of the sites except Site 4 exceeded established drinking
water standards for iron, and  all the  sites except Site 7
exceeded the allowable maximum lead concentration.  Sites  2,
3, 4, and 6 exceeded the allowable mercury standard, while
Sites 1 and 4 exceeded the sulfate standard.  Sites 2 and  8
exceeded the allowable cadmium standard.  Only Site 8 exceeded
the allowable copper standard.   In summary, all locations
exceeded one or more of the allowable  drinking water standards
in the shallow off-site well.


                              58

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     A lesser number of infractions occurred in the deep off-
site groundwater wells.  Four of the eight sites exceeded
allowable levels on at least two constituents.   Samples
obtained at Site 2 exceeded five water quality  tolerances
(chloride, cadmium, iron, mercury, and lead).   Site 6 exceeded
the iron, mercury, and lead standards.  Sites  7 and 8 both
exceeded the iron and lead standard.

     Iron appeared the most times in concentrations in excess
of EPA Drinking Water Standards.  Twenty-four  of 30 shallow
and 11 of 16 deep off-site groundwater sample  results exceeded the
the iron standard.

     Lead emerged as the second most prevalent  constituent
monitored for which EPA Drinking Water Standards had been
exceeded.  Fourteen out of 30 shallow groundwater samples and
eight of 16 deep off-site groundwater sample results violated
maximum acceptable standards for lead.

     Mercury in excess of EPA standards appeared four times
in the shallow off-site groundwater and three  times in the
deep off-site groundwater.

     In the shallow off-site groundwater, cadmium appeared
twice, copper once, and sulfate six times above accepted
limits.  In the deep off-site groundwater, cadmium appeared
once and chloride four times.

     Using the EPA Drinking Water Standards as  a measure of
degradation of off-site groundwaters, it must  be concluded
that in the eight sites surveyed, there had been appreciable
groundwater quality degradation beyond the limits of the
immediate disposal area.  Subsequent studies will be necessary
to determine the area! extent of contamination  which has
occurred and to estimate the potential for future contamination.

     Testing of statistical significance of data was not
attempted because of the limited data, masking  by seasonal
variation, and limited degree to which one case study site
could be reasonably compared to another.
                              77

-------
                       BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Ground and Surface Water:  A Review of Their Occurrence and
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of Illionis, 1971 .

Allen, M.J. and S.M.  Morrison.   Bacterial Movement through
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Baars, J.K.  Travel  of Pollution and Purification En Route,
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-------
Mailman, W.L. and W. Litsky.  Survival of Selected Enteric
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-------
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Pratt, P.F., W.W. Jones, and V.E. Hunsaker.  Nitrate  in
Deep  Soil Profiles  in  Relation to Fertilizer Rates  and
Leaching Volume.  Journal Evni ronmental Quality,  1_:97-102,
1972.

Reichman, G.A., D.L. Grunes, and  F.G. Viets,  Effect  of
Soil  Moisture on Ammonification and  Nitrification  in  Two
Northern Plains States.  Soil Science Society of  America
Proceedings,  .30:363-366, 1966.

Sepp,  E.  Nitrogen  Cycle in  Groundwater.  Bureau  of Sani-
tary  Engineering, California State  Department of  Public
Health, Berkeley, California, 1970.

Viets, F.G., Jr., and  R.H.  Hageman.    Factors Affecting the
Accumulation of Nitrate in Soils, Water, and Plants.
Agriculture Handbook No. 413,  ARS, U.S.D.A. , Washington,
D.C.    1971.

Mathur, R.P., and N.S.   Grewal.   Underground Travel  of
Pollutants.   In:  Advances in Water Pollution Research.
New York, Pergamon  Press, June 1972.  pp 159-166.

Wischmeier, W.H. and J.V. Mannering.  Effects of Organic
Matter Content of the  Soil  on Infiltration.   Journal  Soil
Water  Conservation,  2£:150-152,  1965.
                                    »
Molina, A.J.E., et_ a_l_.   Division S-3-Soil Microbiology and
Bio-chemistry-Aeration-Induced Changes in Liquid Digested
Sewage Sludge.   Soil Science Society of America Proceedings,
.35:60-63 , 1971 .

Aylmore, L.A.G., Mesbahul Karim, and J.P. Quirk.  Adsorption
and Desorption of Sulfate Ions by Soil Constituents.
Soil  Science, 103(1 ) : 10-15 ,  1967.
                             81

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Barrow, N.J.  Comparison of the Adsorption of Molybdate,
Sulfate, and Phosphate by Soils.  Soil Science ,  109:282-
288, 1970.

Barrow, N.J.  Studies on the Adsorption of Sulfate by Soils.
Soil Science   l_04:342-349,  1967.

Bornemisza, E.  and R. Llanos.   Sulfate Movement, Adsorption,
and Desorption  in Three Costa  Rican Soils.  Proceedings of
the Soil Science Society of America, 3Jj356-360, 1967.

Chao, Tsun  Tien, M.E. Harward, and S.C. Fang.  Adsorption
and Desorption  Phenomena of Sulfate Ions  in Soils.  Proceed-
ings of the Soil Science Society of America, £6^:234-237, 1962

Chao, Tsun  Tien, M.E. Harward, and S.C. Fang.  Cationic
Effects on  Sulfate Adsorption  by Soils.  Proceedings of the
Soil Science Society of America, 27_:35-38, 1963,

deVilliers, J.M.  and M.L. Jackson.  Cation Exchange  Capa-
city Variations with pH in Soil Clays.  Proceedings of the
Soil Science Society of America, 3J_:473-476, 1967.

Eriksson, E.  Cation-Exchange  Equilibria  on Clay Minerals.
Soil Science,  7^:103-113, 152.

Gieseking,  J.E. and Hans Jenny.  Behavior of Polyvalent
Cations in  Base Exchange.  Soil Science,  42^:273-280, 1936.

Krishnamoorthy, C. and R. Overstreet.  An Experimental
Evaluation  of Ion-Exchange Relationships.  Soil Science,
69>:41-53, 1950.

Anderson, M.S.   Comparative Analyses of Sewage Sludge.
Sewage  And  Industrial Wastes,  2^8:132-135, 1956.

Parizek, R.R. and D. Langmuir.  Management of Leachates
from Sanitary Landfills.  Pennsylvania Geology Survey
Bulletin, 1971.

Sludge  Handling and Disposal;   Phase I:  State of the  Arts.
Metro Sewer  Board of Twin Cities Area, November 15, 1972.
                             82

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APPENDIX A

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      GAS  PROBE  AND MONITORING  WELL  PLACEMENT  PROCEDURE

I.   In-Refuse  Well

    A.   The monitoring  well  in  the  landfill  will  be  drilled
        to the groundwater  table.   Figure  1  shows  a  typical
        installation.   The  following samples will  be  taken  at
        the time of drilling this well:

        1.  Core sample of  soil  cover material  for  permea-
            bility  determination.

        2.  Two  (2) samples  of  landfill  material  for  deter-
            mination of moisture content.

        3.  Three (3)  soil  cores spaced  over the  distance
            between the landfill bottom  and  the groundwater
            table for  determination  of leachate attenuation
            by soi1.

        A  core auger or bucket  rig  is most desirable  for
        drilling holes  in  refuse.   An air  rotary  drill may
        be used  but is  subject  to fouling  in refuse.

        Experience  has  indicated that for  our  typical  4-
        in diameter monitoring  well, the well  bore  diameter
        should be a minimum  of  6 in  and  preferably  8  in  or
        greater.  During the drilling, refuse  is  pulled  loose
        and protrudes  into  the  hole.  This leads  to  diffi-
        culties  during  the  placement of  the  gas probes attached
        to the outside  of  the well  casing  and  in  backfilling.

        Carefully construct  a soil  boring  log  of  the  mater-
        ial brought to  the  surface  during  the  well  drilling
        operati on.

    B.   Core Sample of  Cover Soil.   After  the  location
        of the well has been determined  on the site  and
        preferably  before  the well  driller arrives,  take a
        core sample of  the  cover soil material  for deter-
        mination of permeability.   Refer to  Field Sampling
        Instruction Manual  for  detailed  instructions
        orT obt a i ni n g the samp 1 e .

    C.   Moisture Content Samples of  Refuse.  Two  refuse
        samples  will be taken for determination of moisture
        content  from each  hole  at the one-third and  two-
        third  overall  landfill  depth, respectively.
        Approximately  one  shovelful  of refuse  and/or
        sludge material will be placed in  a  plastic  bag
                              84

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                 GAS
                SAMPLE
SOIL
COVER
      SHALLOW
     GAS  PROBE
  APPROX.  3-5 FT
(0.9 TO 1.5M) BELOW
      SURFACE	
   6  IN (15 CM)
      NOMINAL      /
  DIA.  BORE HOLE
  DEEP GAS PROBE
  APPROX. 3-5  FT
  (0.9 TO 1.5M)
  BOTTOM OF REFUSE-

               2 FT
              (0.6M)
MINIMUM OF 2 FT
BACKFILL WITH
SOIL OR CONCRETE-
                  IT
                        SOIL
                      BACKFILL
                       GRAVEL
                       BACKFILL
   	CAP

LEACHATE SAMPLE
      SURFACE OF LANDFILL
                          ..
                     ftr* -.-X -y* *t. vv-'s
                                      CONCRETE SEAL
                          •4 IN  (10  CM)
                           PVC PIPE  TO EXTEND
                           MINIMUM OF  2  FT (0.6M)
                           ABOVE SURFACE
                           C1 *>NDFILLED REFUSE J
                             AND/OR SLUDGE —^
                           CLAY OR
                           CONCRETE
                             PLUG
                         r
                       WELL
                      SCREEN
                      SECTION
                                    LEGEND
NOT  TO SCALE
                        § SOIL  CORE SAMPLE

                        At REFUSE/SLUDGE
                          MOISTURE SAMPLE

                        | SOIL  COVER
                          PERMEABILITY SAMPLE
                        	5?	
                        GROUNDWATER
                             FIGURE 1
                 TYPICAL  SAMPLING WELL  DETAILS
                        (IN-REFUSE WELL)
                               85

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        and sealed.   The  bag  containing  the  sample  will  be
        placed  in  a  second  plastic  bag and  again  sealed.
        This double  bagging is  to    minimize  moisture
        loss .

    D.   Soil Below Landfill.   Upon  reaching  the  bottom
        of the  landfill  (when  the auger  brings  up mostly
        soil),  take  a soil  or  core  sample  (approximately
        a shovelful)  and  place  in a sterile  plastic speci-
        men bag.   Label  and place in a second bag.

        Two additional  samples  will be taken  following  the
        same procedure,  one halfway between  the  landfill
        bottom  and the  groundwater, and  the  other at
        groundwater level.   Since the exact  distance to
        groundwater may  not be  known, several  samples  around
        the presumed  mid-depth  may  need  to  be obtained  and
        retained  until  the  midpoint location  is  established.

II.   Plume Wells

     Two wells  will  be  placed  in  the presumed groundwater down-
     gradient  direction  from  the  in-refuse  well  described
     above.  These wells  should not penetrate any refuse,
     and should be approximately  100 ft  from  the  in-refuse
     wel1 i f practical.

     One well  will penetrate  the  groundwater  table  elevation
     to a depth of 2  ft.   This  well will  be  termed  the
     shallow well.  The  second  well will  penetrate  the
     groundwater  table  elevation  to a depth  of about 20  ft
     (site conditions permitting).   This  well  will  be  termed
     the deep  well.   Figure 2  illustrates  typical  construc-
     tion details  for each  well.
                              86

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20 FT
(6.1M)
       2  FT
      (0.6M )
        J_
                               CAP.
                         GROUND SURFACE
                            CONCRETE
                              SEAL -""
                        4  IN  (10  CM)
                     PVC PIPE,  TO EXTEND
                     MINIMUM  OF 2 FT
                        ABOVE SURFACE
                             .-SOIL
                       -GRAVEL/NATIVE
                       MATERIAL  BACKFILL
                           GROUNDWATER
__ 	 	 — —
E j.
END
0.6M)

*2TT
(0. 6M)
t
-*-r
f£f



ss
i!
it
II
i
5-S51
AJ*

K,
? /W
WELL
SCREEN
SECTION
                                            SHALLOW WELL
                                    NOT TO SCALE
WELL
SCREEN
SECTION
           DEEP  WELL
                            FIGURE  2
                 TYPICAL  SAMPLING WELL DETAILS
                    (DOWNSTREAM PLUME WELLS)
                               87

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APPENDIX B

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              FIELD SAMPLING INSTRUCTION MANUAL

The objective of field sampling is  to obtain representative
leachate, groundwater, gas, sludge,  and mixed refuse-sludge
samples from each of the case  study sites.   The accuracy
and care taken during sampling cannot be overemphasized.
An accurate analysis is directly dependent  upon the care
taken by field personnel in drawing and shipping the requi-
site samples.

This manual is intended to provide  field personnel  with a
guide to the precise procedures to  be employed  as  well  as
alternative procedures, where  applicable,  for coping with
anticipated problems.

I.  S a m p 1 i ng Code Con v e n t i p n

    A.  Labeling

        The following information should appear on  each
        sample container.  (See Figures 1  and 2.)

        1.   Date:  Month and day only, use  number  for
            months .

        2.   Sample sequence number:  Each  sample will be
            given a sequence number starting with  1 for
            the first sample.   Consecutive  numbers  will
            be assigned for additional samples  taken from
            each site.  For example, the second leachate
            sample taken will  be assigned  the number "2."

        3.   Project code:  This five-digit  code uniquely
            identifies this specific project, i.e.,
            SCS-34.

        4.   Location code:  Sample  site location codes
            are taken from the commercial  airport  nearest
            to the case study site.

         5.   Sample hole designation  (for gas sampling):
            Each gas  probe hole will  be assigned a reference
            number.

         6.   Probe Depth  (for gas sampling):
            A =  shallow  probe
            B =  deep  probe

         7.   Sample  hole  designation  (for groundwater sampling)
             A  =  shallow  we!1
             B  =  deep  well
                              90

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    SAMPLE
      DATE
    SAMPLE-
   SEQUENCE
    NUMBER


   PROJECT
    CODE

  LOCATION
    CODE
OFF-SITE WELL
 DESIGNATION
                         FIGURE  1

                     LEACHATE  SAMPLE
                   CONTAINER  LABELING
                              91

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 SAMPLE
  DATE
 SAMPLE
SEQUENCE
 NUMBER

 PROJECT
  CODE

 LOCATION
  CODE
  HOLE
  DEPTH

  HOLE
LOCATION
           FIGURE  2

   SAMPLE CONTAINER  LABELING
    FOR GAS SAMPLE BOTTLES
                  92

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B.   Leachate and Groundwater

    Both sides of the sample bottles should be labeled
    with a waterproof marking pen.   Mark each container
    in LARGE NEAT BLOCK LETTERS as  in Figure 1.   Use
    dashes (not slashes) to separate items.  On  ground-
    water sample containers for off-site wells,  be sure
    to designate which well is being sampled (A  for
    deep, B for shallow).

C.   Gas Bottle Marking

    Carefully place two strips of masking tape on the
    gas sample bottle as shown in Figure 2.  Label the
    tape as per the above-mentioned procedure.  Do not
    use waterproof pens directly on glass because the
    markings are almost Impossible  to remove.

D.   Soil and refuse samples will be placed in polyeth-
    elene bags.  Prior to  sampling, the bag should be
    marked (with waterproof pens) with appropriate
    sample codes.  All samples are  to be double  bagged
    and sealed to prevent  moisture  loss.
                         93

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11.   Leachate and Groundwater Sampling  Procedure

     A leachate sample  will  be obtained from the  in-refuse
     well  at each site.  A groundwater  sample will  be
     obtained from each off-site  well  at each site.

     A.   Materials Required

         1.   One copy Field  Sampling  Instr u c t ion  Manual

         2.   Styrofoam-lined corrugated shipping  cartons

         3.   Adequate supply of plastic 2-liter bottles  and
             lids*

         4.   Sampling unit with two  sample bottles  (Figure
             3)

         5.   One thermometer with a  range of 0 to 150°C

         6.   Corning Model 3 pH meter  (portable)

         7.   One plastic funnel

         8.   Black waterproof marking  pens

         9.   Four packs minimum of "blue ice" for shipping.
             (The "blue ice" should  be  frozen prior to
             obtaining  the leachate  samples.  Use motel
             ice machine or restaurant  freezer).

        10.   Several rolls of fiber  packing  tape  or duck
             tape

        11.   Notebook for field notes

        12.   Master list of sample sequence  numbers  and
             sampling dates  by site
  * These containers are prepared for field use as  follows:
The polyethylene containers are first washed with hot tap
water, cooled and rinsed with AA grade 1:1  Nitric and Hydro-
chloric Acid.  Cold tap water is used to flush the  acid re-
mains from the bottles and finally,  each bottle is  rinsed
several times with double-distilled  deionized water.   Caps
are treated in a similar fashion.  The bottles are  then
capped tightly and prepared for shipment to the field.
                             94

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                                 WELL
                                WEIGHTED
                                 BOTTLE
                                 SAMPLE
                                 BOTTLE
                      USE NEW SAMPLE BOTTLE
                         AT EACH WELL
            FIGURE 3
SAMPLING UNIT FOR LIQUID SAMPLES
              95

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   13.  One styrofoam ice  chest

B.  Field Sampling

    Leachate and groundwater samples  will  be  obtained
    using careful  grab sample techniques  to  insure
    representative sampling.  The  sample  sequence
    shall be as  follows:   deep off-site well,  shallow
    off-site well, and in-refuse well.

    1.  Carefully  label  the  outside  of  2-liter bottles
        with the appropriate identifying  codes,  dates,
        etc., using a black  waterproof  marking pen  (see
        Fi gure 1 ).

    2.  Place sampling bottle firmly  attached  to
        weighted bottle  (see Figure  3)  in  well casing
        and lower  to water level of  well  and  submerse
        both bottles.  When  the  sample  container is
        filled,  pull the  container back to the surface
        and transfer sample  to appropriate 2-liter
        bottle.   Repeat  procedure  until the  bottle  is
        90 percent filled.  Record water  temperature  and
        pH and cap the sample bottle  tightly.

    3.  After capping, place the 2-liter  bottle  in  an
        ice water  bath.   Allow the sample  temperature
        to equilibrate at  3-4°C  (usually  2 to  3  hours).

    4.  Repeat the above  procedure at the  remaining
        two wells  after  replacing  the sample  bottle
        on the sampling  unit.
C.  Shipment of  Leachate  and Groundwater  Samples
    All samples  are to be  sent to  the SCS  -  Long Beach
    Office by air  freight  as soon  as  practical after
    field sampling has been  completed.  All  project
    samples must be shipped  in sturdy styrofoam-
    lined insulated corrugated cartons.   All  samples
    are to be wrapped in  at  least  two layers  of paper
    to prevent container  damage  and  to  prevent the
    sample codes from rubbing off.

    "Blue ice" is  to be  packed with  the samples
    to keep them at the  proper temperature.   If the
    transition time between  the  field and  the  SCS  -
    Long Beach lab is expected to  be more  than three
    days, sufficient "blue ice"  should  be  used to  keep
    the samples  adequately chilled.   Dry  ice  should
    not be used  for shipping purposes.
                         96

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III.   Soil  and Refuse  Sampling  Procedure
      Soil  and refuse  samples will  be  obtained  from  well  lo-
      cations  during  drilling and  placement  of  the  in-refuse
      wel 1 .
      A.   Materials  Required
          1 .   One  copy Field Sampling  Instruction Manual
          2.   Styrofoam-1ined corrugated  shipping cartons
          3.   Adequate supply of comercially-availab!e
              polyethylene  bags
          4.   Several  black waterproof marking  pens
          5.   Sufficient "blue  ice"  for shipping
          6.   Several  roles of  fiber-packing  or duck tape
          7.   Notebook
          8.   Master  list  of sample  sequence  numbers and
              sampling dates by site
          9.   One  4  Ib hammer
         10.   One  shovel
         11.   Core sampling device
         12.   One  tarp 8'  x 8'
      B.   Soil  Permeability Sampling
          Locate  an  area of the site where soil  cover has
          been  placed  over  refuse  for  some time.  With  a
          shovel  excavate  the first  inch  or  so  of soil  to
          remove  grass,  weeds,  and  organic material
          until  the  soil appears uniform  in  texture.  Drive
          the  sample  device (with  hammer)  to  a  depth of
          about 12 in.   Carefully  excavate around the sampler
          and  remove  it, seal both  ends and  place in a  dou-
         •ble  plastic  bag.  Seal bag and  label  with  site
          desi gnat ion.
      C.   Refuse  Sampling  from  In-Refuse
          Refuse  samples will be taken  from  the  bore hole at
                             97

-------
          approximately  one-third  and  two-thirds  depths  of
          the  landfill,  respectively.   Place  approximately
          one  shovelful  of  refuse  and/or  sludge material
          in  a double  plastic  bag,  seal and  label  properly.

      D.   Soil Sampling  from  In-Refuse  Well

          Three soil  core samples  will  be  taken from  each
          site.  The  first  sample  will  be  obtained from  the
          bottom of the  bore  hole  at  the  refuse/soil  inter-
          face.  The  second and  third  samples will  be  taken
          half the  distance to groundwater and at  the  soil/
          groundwater  interface,  respectively.  A  split-tube
          or  Shelby tube sampler will  be  used depending  on
          local well  driller  equipment  capabilities.   Place
          about 1/3 Ib of soil sample  in  a double  plastic
          bag, seal and  label  the  bag  properly.

      E.   Shipment  of  Soil  and Refuse  Samples

          Soil and  refuse samples  will  be  shipped  similarly
          to  liquids  as  delineated in  II(C).

VI.   Background Groundwater Sampling  Procedures

     Sampling  procedures for  background groundwater are
     site specific.  Whether  samples  are  drawn from test
     facilities or  domestic outlets,  they  should  be taken
     in a method which will minimize  any  possible  contam-
     ination  of the samples.   Example,  if  sampling from  a
     tap, turn tap  on  and let  run  for  five minutes before
     sampling  to insure  that  the  piping system has been
     thoroughly flushed. Again,  sampling  will be  site-
     specific  and procedures  should be  discussed  with  the
     Project  Manager to  determine  the  best method  for each
     case study site.

     A.  Materials  Required

         1.  Two plastic 2-liter  bottles  and  lids

         2.  Shipping  materials  if sampling  performed at a
             different time than  site  well sampling

     B.  Shipment of Samples

         Refer to Shipment  of Leachate and Groundwater
         Samples, II(C).

V.  Gas Probe  Sampling Procedure
                              98

-------
    Gas samples will  be obtained from probes  placed  in  the
    in-refuse well  hole.   Each probe is  situated at  a dif-
    ferent depth within the hole.

    A.  Materials Required

        1.  1/4" I.D.  rubber hose  (surgical  tubing  is ade-
            quate), 2  - 6-in lengths

        2.  Sample  bottle(s) - 250 ml.  (Corning  #9500)*

        3.  Masking tape

        4.  Rubber  suction bulb, aspirator type

        5.  One copy  SCS  Field Sampling  Instructions

        6.  Styrofoam-1ined corrugated  shipping  cartons

        7.  Several rolls of fiber-packing tape  or  duck tape

        8.  Notebook  for  field notes

        9.  Master  list of sample  sequence numbers  and
            sampling  dates by site

    B.  Gas Sampling  (refer to Figure 4  while reading
        instructions)

        1.  Mark sample bottles as shown in  Figure  2

        2.  Remove  rubber stopper  from  the exposed  end  of
            one gas probe

        3.  Slip the  end  of one of the  6"  pieces of  rubber
            hose over the probe end
  *  Gas burettes are to be immersed in a solution of deter-
gent and water to remove residue soils or other foreign
material.  Insolubles will  be removed by immersing burette
in acetone.  Residues that  might have remained will  be re-
moved by soaking burettes in aqua regia.  The burettes are
then rinsed in distilled h^O and dried in the oven at 103°C
for 30 minutes.  The burettes are removed and placed in  the
desiccators for 30 minutes.  Upon cooling, the stopcocks  are
greased with Apiezon N grease to insure a tight seal.  The
burettes are then evacuated with a vacuum pump just prior
to shipment to the field.
                              99

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            RUBBER HOSE
     PLASTIC TUBE
        -NATURAL
         GROUND
BACKFILL-

                                        SAMPLE
                                       'BOTTLE
                                                       RUBBER HOSE
                                                          RUBBER BULB
                         FIGURE 4

                   GAS  SAMPLING PROCEDURE
                               100

-------
 4.   Slip the other end of the  same  rubber hose
     over one end of the sample bottle.

 5.   Slip one end of the second piece  of rubber
     hose over the other end of the  sample bottle.

 6.   Slip the other end of the  rubber  hose onto
     the rubber bulb.

 7.   Open the sample bottle stopcock nearest  the
     gas probe.  Note:   The sample  bottle has  been
     evacuated to remove any contaminants from the
     bottle.   Thus, when the stopcock  is opened,  a
     brief hissing noise will  be heard.   This  is
     the sound of the  vacuum being  filled.  If
     the hissing sound  is not heard, one of the  stop-
     cocks may have been opened during transport  or
     at some  other time prior to sample  taking.
     Make a note of this fact and continue the pre-
     scribed  sampling  procedure.

 8.   Open the second stopcock.

 9.   Begin aspirating  the rubber bulb  to draw  in
     gases within the  probe's area  of  influence.
     The number of squeezes necessary  varies with
     the probe depth.   A rule of thumb:   one
     squeeze  is required for each two  feet of  probe
     depth.

10.   When the appropriate number of squeezes  have
     been taken, close  the stopcock  nearest the
     rubber bulb.

11.   Close the other stopcock.

12.   Remove the sampling apparatus  from  the gas
     probe and replace  the rubber stopper (cap)  on
     the gas  probe end.

13.   Follow steps numbers 1-11  until a sample  is
     obtained from each of the  gas  probes.

 Shipment of  Gas Samples

 All  samples  must be sent to SCS -  Long  Beach
 immediately  after collection and packing for  shipment
 (see Figure  5) .

 The  gas sample bottles must be wrapped  with multi-
 layers of paper or in  packing  sleeves to prevent
                      101

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                                              fe.
102

-------
        breakage  and shipped in  styrofoam-1ined  corrugated
        containers.

VI.   Quality Control  Procedures  for the  Arrival  of  Field
     Samples

     All  leachate,  groundwater,  and soil  samples  will  be
     transferred  from shipping  containers  to  refrigeration
     immediately  upon receipt.   This  interim  storage  before
     analysis  insures temperature  control  of  3  to 4°C.
     Sample temperatures  will  be recorded  for all arriving
     water and leachate.   Analytical  procedures  are  to
     start as  soon  as practical  after receipt of  samples.

     All  incoming samples will  be  assigned SCS  lab  sequence
     numbers.   The  numbers will  be recorded  in  a  log  along
     with the  date  of receipt,  sample identifier, descrip-
     tion of sample,  disposition of the  sample,  and  the
     SCS  project  number.

     Gas  samples  are  analyzed  upon receipt by gas chromato-
     graphy.

     This record  is  a necessary  part  of  the  SCS  quality
     assurance program in which  positive  disposition
     of samples,  sample destinations, and  analytical  results
     are  effected.
                             103

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APPENDIX C

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                         METHODS  FOR
               SAMPLE  PREPARATION  AND  ANALYSIS

The following procedures  were  standardized  for  the  prepara-
tion and analysis  of sewage  sludge, soil,  leachate,  and
groundwater samples  received from  the  case  study  sites.

                     Sample  Preparation

I.   Soils and Sludges

    A.   Sample preparation  for water extraction  of  pH,
        Total Solids,  COD,  Ammonia Nitrogen,  Nitrate  Nitrogen,
        Organic Nitrogen,  Chloride, Sulfate,  TOC, Moisture,
        Heavy Metals and  Bacteriological  Tests.

        1.   A representative sample of 75  grams  of  soil
            or sludge  was  placed  in a  previously-sterilized
            mason  glass  jar.

        2.   750 ml.  of sterilized  deionized water were added.

        3.   The contents  of  the jars were  stirred for one-
            half hour  with  mixer.   (The  chrome  plated mixer
            blades  are flamed  for  sterilization.)

        4.   The slurry was  allowed to  settle.

        5.   The liquid portion was decanted through  a
            fluted  filter  using paper  equivalent  to  What-
            man No.  l.or  Whatman  No. 42.

        6.   A liquid sample  of the supernatant  was  pip-
            etted  into prepared microbiological  tubes for
            determination  of fecal coliform and  fecal
            streptococcus.

        7.   A portion  of  the supernatant was  preserved with
            several  mis.  of  concentrated hydrochloric
            HC1) acid  as  a  preservative  prior to  analysis
            for total  organic  carbon  (TOC).

        8.   An aliquot for  the COD determination  was  removed.

        9.   The supernatant  was again  used  for  total  kjeldahl
            nitrogen,  ammonia  and  nitrate  nitrogens,  chlor-
            ides and sulfates.

       10.   An aliquot of the  supernatant  was  concentrated
            and analyzed  for heavy metals  (calcium,  copper,
                             106

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            chromium,  lead,  iron,  mercury,  cadmium)  by
            atomic  absorption.

        Sample  preparation  for  acid  extraction  of  soils
        and  sludges  for  heavy metals  (calcium,  copper,
        chromium,  lead,  iron, mercury,  cadmium)  by atomic
        absorption.

        1.   An  equal  volume  of  nitric  acid  (HNOg)  was added
            to  the  soil  or  sludge  residue  volume remaining
            in  the  jar (following  water extraction).

        2.   A  teflon-coated  stirring  bar was  placed  in  an
            agitating  mixer  on  a  hot  plate  and  stirred
            for approximately 90  minutes (without  boiling).

        3.   Sufficient water was  added  to  the contents  to
            make  up  to 750  ml.   (Double distilled  deionized
            water  was  used  in all  determinations.)   Appro-
            priate  blanks were  prepared for each group  of
            determi nations.

        4.   Mercury  was  determined by  a separate procedure
            taking  50  ml. of the  supernatant  solution and
            50  ml.  of  the solid residue, acidifying  each
            and then  run with flameless atomic  absorption.
II.   Leachate
     A.   Aliquots  of  well-shaken  leachate  were  drawn  for
         pH  and  total  solids  determination.

     B.   A  liquid  sample  of  the  leachate was  pipetted  into
         prepared  microbiological  tubes for determination
         of  fecal  coliform and  fecal  streptococcus.

     C.   A  portion of the  leachate was  preserved with  sever-
         al  mis. of hydrochloric  acid  and  analyzed  for
         total organic carbon.

     D.   An  aliquot of leachate  was  drawn  for analysis  of
         kjeldahl  nitrogen,  ammonia  nitrogen, nitrate
         nitrogen, chlorides, and  sulfates.

     E.   An  aliquot of leachate  was  digested  in nitric  acid
         by  gently refluxing.   This  process was repeated
         several times until  the  formation of a light-
         colored liquid residue.   The  residue was evaporated
         gently  to dryness,  taken  up with  1:1 hydrochloric
         acid, the solution  then  heated, filtered and
                             107

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         diluted with doubly distilled deionized water to
         a known volume.   The  solution was  analyzed by
         atomic absorption spectroscopy for heavy metals.

                    Analytical  Procedures
pJH
All pH measurements were performed using an Orion Model  701
pH Meter with glass electrode in combination with a satur-
ated reference calomel  electrode.   The pH meter was stan-
dardized periodically under conditions of temperature and
concentration which were as close  as  possible to those of
the sample, using various standard pH buffer solutions
(pH 4, 7, and 10) .

Total  Solids

The procedure used  to determine percent solids was evapora-
tion at 180°C in an air convection oven.  Standard Methods
(13th  Edition, Section  USA, p. 288-289).

Chemical Oxygen Demand

Chemical oxygen demand  was determined using the dichromate
reflux method.  Standard Methods (13th Edition, Section  220,
p. 495).

Ammonia Nitrogen

Ammonia nitrogen was analyzed by distilling procedure.
Standard Methods (13th  Edition, Section 132, p. 222).

Nitrate Nitrogen

Nitrate nitrogen was determined by the brucine sulfate
procedure.  Standard Methods (13th Edition, Section 213C,
p. 461).

Kjeldahl Nitrogen

Organic nitrogen was determined by the classic kjeldahl
procedures.  Standard Methods (13th Edition, Section 216,
p. 469).

Chloride

Chlorides were determined via the  mercuric nitrate procedure.
Standard Methods (13th  Edition, section 112B, p. 97).
                              108

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APPENDIX D

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                 PROPOSED NATIONAL  INTERIM PRIMARY
                     DRINKING WATER  STANDARDS
 Maximum  Contaminant  Levels for  Inorganic Chemicals

      Contaminant      Level  (mg/1)     Contaminant     Level  (mg/1)

      Arsenic           0.05            Lead            0.05
      Barium            1.             Mercury         0.002
      Cadmium           0.010          Nitrate        10.
      Chromium          0.05            Selenium        0.01
      Cyanide           0.2            Silver          0.05


F1uorides  -  When the  annual average of the maximum daily  air
temperatures  for the  location in  which the public water  system
is  situated  is the  following, the corresponding  concentration
of  fluoride  shall not  be exceeded:

      Temperature (in
       degrees F)             (degrees C)        Level (mg/1)

      50.0-53.7                10.0-12.0           2.4
      53.8-58.3                12.1-14.6           2.2
      58.4-63.8                14.7-17.6           2.0
      63.9-70.6                17.7-21.4           1.8
      70.7-79.2                21.5-26.2           1.6
      79.3-90.5                26.3-32.5           1.4


 Maximum  Contaminant  Levels for  Organic Chemicals

 The maximum  contaminant level for  the total  concentration of
 organic  chemicals  is  0.7  mg/1.

 Maximum  Contaminant  Levels for  Pesticides

      Chlorinated Hydrocarbons                  Level (mg/1)

      Chlordane                                 0.003
      Endrin                                    0.0002
      Heptachlor                                0.0001
      Heptachlor Epoxide                         0.0001
      Lindane                                   0.004
      Methoxychlor                              0.1
      Toxaphene                                 0.005
                                    110

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     Chlorophenoxys                           Level (mg/1)

     2,4-D                                   0.1
     2,4,5-TP Silvex                           0.01


Maximum Microbiological Contaminant Levels

Two methods may be used:

(1)  When membrane filter technique is used, coliform densities
shall not exceed one per 100 milliliters as arithmetic mean
of all samples examined per month and either

     (i)  Four per 100 milliliters in more than one standard
          sample when less than 20 are examined per month; or

    (ii)  Four per 100 milliliters in more than five percent
          of the standard samples when 20 or more are examined
          per month.

(2)(a)  When fermentation tube method is used and 10 milliliter
standard portions, coliforms shall not be present in more than
10 percent of the portions in any month; and either

     (i)  Three or more portions in one sample when less than
          20 samples are examined per month; or

    (ii)  Three or more portions in more than five percent of
          the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per
          month.

   (b)  When fermentation tube method is used and 100 milliliter
standard portions, coliforms shall not be present in more than
60 percent of the portions in any month; and either

     (i)  Five or more portions in more than one sample when
          less than five samples are examined; or

    (ii)  Five or more portions in more than 20 percent of
          samples when five samples or more are examined.

Supplier of water shall provide water in which there shall be
no greater than 500 organisms per one milliliter as determined
by the standard bacterial  plate county.

Maximum Contaminant Level  of Turbidity

The level at representative entry point(s) to the distribution
system is one turbidity unit (TU) except that five or fewer
                                111

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turbidity units may  be allowed if supplier  can  demonstrate
to State that  higher turbidity does not:
     (a)  Interfere  with disinfection;
     (b)  Prevent  maintenance of an effective  disinfectant
          agent through the distribution  system;  and
     (c)  Interfere  with microbiological  determinations.
                                                      W01575
                                                      SW-5U7c
                                     4 U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1977 720-116/5723
                                  112

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