APPENDIX 3.1
APPENDIX 3.2

APPENDIX 3.3

APPENDIX 3.4
APPENDIX 3.5
                                VOLUME 2

                               APPENDICES
LAGOON DESIGN AND GROUND-WATER PROTECTION PRACTICES
Table 3.1-1:   Wastewater Stabilization Lagoon Uses and
               Sizing
               State Requirements for Ground-water Protec-
               tion at Municipal Wastewater Lagoons
               Seepage Rates for Various Liner Materials
               Summary of State Ground-water Monitoring
               Requirements for Municipal Wastewater
               Lagoons
              Table  3.1-2:

              Table  3.1-3:
              Table  3.1-4:
LAGOON INVENTORY DATA

CONVERSION OF LAGOON FLOW RATES TO AREAS

WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS
Table 3.4-1:   Typical  Composition of Untreated Wastewater
Table 3.4-2:   EPA's Toxic (Priority) Pollutants
Table 3.4-3:   Common Consumer Products and Their House-
               hold Sources
Table 3.4-4:   Priority Pollutants in Household Wastes

LAGOON SAMPLING PROGRAM
Lagoon Sampling and Analytical Procedures
               Table 3.5-1:
               Table 3.5-2:
               Summary of Domestic Lagoon Sampling Results
               Pollutant Frequency of Occurrence:  Domes-
               tic Lagoons
               Lagoon  Sampling  Results:   Nine  Domestic  Lagoons

               Table 3.5-3:

               Table 3.5-4:
               Summary of Domestic/Industrial Lagoon
               Sampling Results
               Pollutant Frequency of Occurrence:
               Domestic/Industrial Lagoons
               Lagoon  Sampling  Results:   14  Domestic/Industrial  Lagoons

APPENDIX 3.6   APPENDIX 3 REFERENCES
HAZW 5:61

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APPENDIX 4.1  ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY

            4.1.1  Selection of Contaminants of Concern and Exposure
                   Point Threshold Concentrations
                   4.1.1.1  Domestic Lagoons
                   4.1.1.2  Domestic/Industrial Lagoons

                   Table 4.1-1:  Pollutants of Concern (Domestic
                                 Lagoons)
                   Table 4.1-2:  Pollutants of Concern (Domestic/
                                 Industrial Lagoons)
                   Table 4.1-3:  Pollutants Selected for Computer  Model-
                                 ling

            4.1.2  EPACMS Computer Model
                   4.1.2.1  Code Features and Applicability
                   4.1.2.2  Model Description
                   4.1.2.3  Model Assumptions

                   Figure 4.1-1: Schematic Description of Surface  Im-
                                 poundment and Hydrogeologic  Regime
                   Figure 4.1-2: Schematic of Layered Analytical  Solu-
                                 tion for Transport in the Unsaturated
                                 Zone
                   Figure 4.1-3: Schematic Description of Saturated  Zone
                                 Transport Model

            4.1.3  Determination of Model  Input Data
                   4.1.3.1  Hydrogeologic  Parameters
                   4.1.3.2  Lagoon Seepage Rates
                            4.1.3.2.1  Theoretical  Calculation  of  Seep-
                                       age Rates
                            4.1.3.2.2  Effects of the Sludge  Layer
                            4.1.3.2.3  Selection of Lagoon Seepage Rates
                                       for the National Assessment
                   4.1.3.3  Lagoon Area  and Exposure Distance
                   4.1.3.4  Chemical Constants

                   Table 4.1-4:  Summary of EPACMS  Input  Data (Saturated
                                 Zone)
                   Table 4.1-5:  DRASTIC Regions
                   Table 4.1-6:  Hydrogeologic Categories and Settings
                   Table 4.1-7:  Estimated Ground-water Velocity for the
                                 Nine Hydrogeologic Categories
                   Table 4.1-8:  Permeability  of  Various  Liners and
                                 Geologic  Materials
                   Table 4.1-9:  Summary of Measured  Seepage  Rates from
                                 Municipal Lagoon Systems
                   Table 4.1-10: Estimated Seepage  Rates  and  Hydraulic
                                 Balances  at  10  Lagoons  (9 Domestic  and
                                 I  Domestic/Industrial)
 HAZW 5:61

-------
                   Table 4.1-11: Summary of State Seepage and Permeabi-
                                 lity Limitations for Lagoon Systems
                   Table 4.1-12: Distance to Nearest Well
                   Table 4.1-13: Chemical Constants Used in EPACMS Runs
                   Table 4.1-14: Number of Lagoons per Hydrogeologic
                                 Category

                   Figure 4.1-4: Lagoon Population with DRASTIC Ground-
                                 water Regions
                   Figure 4.1-5: Schematic of Seepage Through a Lagoon
                                 Liner
                   Figure 4.1-6: Seepage as a Function of Water Depth
                                 and Liner Characteristics

            4.1.4  Selection of Generic Modelling Scenarios

APPENDIX 4.2  DETERMINATION OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR LAGOON AREA
              AND EXPOSURE DISTANCE

APPENDIX 4.3  SELECTION OF CHEMICAL CONSTANTS

APPENDIX 4.4  INPUT DATA FOR GENERIC RUNS

APPENDIX 4.5  RESULTS OF GENERIC RUNS:  DIMENSIONLESS CONCENTRATIONS

APPENDIX 4.6  RESULTS OF GENERIC RUNS:  TARGET LAGOON CONCENTRATIONS

APPENDIX 4.7  APPENDIX 4 REFERENCES


APPENDIX 5.1  MODEL LAGOON LEACHATE CONCENTRATIONS

APPENDIX 5.2  NINETIETH PERCENTILE HEALTH RISKS BY SETTING

APPENDIX 5.3  DESCRIPTION OF MAPPING SURVEY

APPENDIX 5.4  CALCULATION OF HEALTH RISKS FROM WELL CONCENTRATIONS

APPENDIX 5.5  DESCRIPTION OF COMPUTER RUNS

APPENDIX 5.6  DATA FROM MODEL OUTPUT


APPENDIX 6.1  LINER MATERIAL SELECTION AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

              Table 6.1-1:  General Characteristics of Selected Earthen,
                            Asphalt and Cement Liners
              Table 6.1-2:  General Characteristics of Selected Synthe-
                            tic and Rubber Liners
HAZW 5:61                          ill

-------
APPENDIX 6.2  LAGOON CONSTRUCTION

              6.2.1 Subgrade Preparation

              6.2.2 Liner  Installation

APPENDIX 6.3  COSTS

              Fact Sheets:  Aerated, Facultative and Anaerobic  Lagoons
              Table 6.3-1:  Development of Capital Costs
              Table 6.3.2:  Costs of Selected Flexible Membrane Liners
              Table 6.3-3:  Costs of Selected Earthen and Admixed  Liners
              Table 6.3.4:  Ground-water Monitoring Costs

APPENDIX 6.4  PRETREATMENT

              Table 6.4-1:  Established Pretreatment Processes

APPENDIX 6.5  LAGOON REMEDIATION

              Table 6.5-1:  General  Types  of  Response Alternatives
                            Applicable to  Municipal Lagoons
              Table 6.5-2:  Remedial Technologies
              Table 6.5-3:  Common  Ground-water Treatment Processes

APPENDIX 6.6  APPENDIX  6  REFERENCES
 HAZW 5:61                           IV

-------
                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


     This document was  prepared  under  the  guidance  of  Ms.  Connie Bosma and  Mr.

Lam Lim of EPA's Office of Municipal  Pollution Control  and Mr.  Walter  G.  Gilbert,

now of the Office of the Inspector General.   Contractors for  this  effort  included

Dr. Timothy  G.   Shea,  Mr.  John  W.   Kubarewicz,  and   Ms.  Susan  J.  Tiffany  of

Engineering-Science, Inc.  of Fairfax, Virginia,  and  Mr. Myron Tiemens.   Support-

ing work was  done  by  Brown and  Caldwell Consulting  Engineers  of Pleasant  Hill,

California.  Review of  the  Report to  Congress  was provided  by  the following

members of the RCRA Lagoon Study  Work  Group:


                      George Denning    WH-550
                      Tom  O'Farrell    WH-551
                      Ron  Hoffer        WH-550G
                      Dove Weitman      LE-132S
                      James Pittman    WH-565E
                      Jim  Basilico      RD-681
                      Ron  Benioff      PM-220
                      John Gerba         A-104
                      Doug Newman      WH-556
                      Jim  Patrick      Region IV
                      Chuck Pycha      Region V
                      Mike Turvey      Region VII
                      Jack Hofbunr      Region VIII


     Ms.  Georgette Boddie, Mr. Peter E. Shanaghan, and Mr.  Charles P. Vanderlyn

of EPA's Office of Municipal Pollution Control made  significant contributions  to

the preparation and submittal  of  this Report  to Congress.

-------
                   APPENDIX 3.1



LAGOON DESIGN AND GROUND-WATER PROTECTION PRACTICES

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-------
                                 APPENDIX 3.1

                                  TABLE 3.1-3

                  SEEPAGE RATES FOR VARIOUS LINER MATERIALS*
Material
                 Minimum Expected
              Seepage Rate Assuming a
Thickness      20-foot Water Column
(inches)      after 1 Year of Service
                    (inches/day)
Open sand and gravel
Loose earth ^
Loose earth plus chemical treatment
Loose earth plus bentonite
Earth in cut
Soil cement (continuously wetted)
Gunite
Asphalt concrete
Un-einforced concrete
Compacted earth
Exposed prefabricated asphalt panels
Exposed synthetic membranes
—
-
-
-
-
4
1.5
4
4
36
0.5
0.045
96
48
12
10
12
4
3
1.5
1.5
0.3
0.03
0.001
 The data are based on actual installation experience.  The chemical and
 bentonite treatments "(*)" depend on pretreatment seepage rates.   (Values are
 assumed for loose, uncompacted earth.)

 Source:  Reference 2.

-------



State
Arizona
California
Connecticut
Florida
Kansas
Maine
Michigan
Minnesota
APPENDIX 3.1
TABLE 3.1-4
SUMMARY OF STATE GROUND -WATER MONITORING
REQUIREMENTS FUR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER LAGOONS
Minimum Number of Wells Sampling Frequency
(times per year)
Up
-------
                                     APPENDIX 3.1

                                TABLE 3.1-4, Continued

                       SUMMARY OF STATE GROUND-WATER MONITORING
                               REQUIREMENTS FOR LAGOONS
State
Minimum Number of Wells

Upgradient  Downgradient
 Sampling Frequency
  (times per year)         Monitoring
First Year  Thereafter     Parameters
Pennsylvania

South Carolina
Virginia
.Site-specific.
 Depends on flow rate.
 Data not available.
                               12
                         NO?-N, NHL-N,
                         Total  P, pH, Cl,
                         Na, TDS, TOC,
                         fecal  coliform,
                         alkalinity

                         NO..-N, Cl , TOC,
                         pH? Total P,
                         hardness, alka-
                         linity, EC,
                         total  coliform,
                         others on a
                         case-by-case
                         basis
Washington 1
Wyoming 1
1
2
-u -u N03-N, total
cori form
1 1 NH.-N, NO.-N,
pH, Cl, TDS,
boron, selenium
 Source:  Reference 3.

-------
    APPENDIX 3.2



LAGOON INVENTORY DATA

-------



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-------
          APPENDIX 3.3



CONVERSION OF FLOW RATES TO AREAS

-------
                                 APPENDIX  3.3

                        CONVERSION OF  LAGOON FLOW RATES
                                   TO  AREAS


    For use in this study,  the  flow rate distribution  in Table 3-1 of the text
has been converted to an area distribution using the equation below:

    A ğ 3.U334 (t/d)(Q)

where 3.0334 is a factor for converting the units of the right hand side (mgd,
feet and days) into units of acres, and

    A = lagoon area (acres)
    t = hydraulic retention time  (days)
    d = layoon depth (feet)
    Q ~ design flow (mgd)

    Values for  hydraulic  retention  time and  depth were assumed based on
typical   ranges   for   facultative  lagoons   (25-180  days  and   4-8  feet,
respectively) obtained from the USEPA's Design Manual  for Municipal Wastewater
Stabilization  Ponds  (1).   For  median values  of  102.5  days and  6 feet,  the
above equation becomes:

    A = 51.82(Q)

-------
       APPENDIX 3.4



WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS

-------
                                 APPENDIX 3.4

                                  TABLE 3.4-1

             TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF UNTREATED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER
Pollutant or Pollutant
     Parameter
         Concentration (mg/1)
   Strong
Source: Reference 5.

aVa1ues for alkalinity and chlorides will
 the domestic water supply.
Medium
Weak
Solids, total :
Dissolved, total
Fixed
Volatile
Suspended, total
Fixed
Volatile
Settleable solids, mL/L
Biochemical oxygen demand,
5-day, 20°C (BOD|D,200C)
Total organic carbon (TOC)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Nitrogen (total as N):
Organic
Free ammonia
Nitrites
Nitrates
Phosphorus (total as P):
Organic
Inorganic
Chlorides
Alkalinity (as CaCo3)a
Grease
1,200
850
525
325
350
75
275
20

400
290
1,000
85
35
50
0
0
15
5
10
100
200
150
720
500
300
200
220
55
165
10

220
160
500
40
15
25
0
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8
3
5
50
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100
350
250
145
105
100
20
80
5

110
80
250
20
8
12
0
0
4
1
3
30
50
50
be increased by the amount found in

-------
                                 APPENDIX 3.4

                                  TABLE 3.4-2

                      EPA'S TOXIC (PRIORITY) POLLUTANTS3
Class/Pollutant
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

   Acrolein
   Acrylonitrile
   Benzene
   Toluene
   Ethyl benzene
   Carbon Tetrachloride
   Chlorobenzene
   1,2-Dichloroethane
    , 1,1-Tri chloroethane
    ,1-Dichloroethane
    ,1-Dichloroethylene
   1,1,2-Trichloroethane
   1,1,2,2-Tetrachl oroethane
   Chloroethane
   2-Chloroethyl Vinyl Ether
   Chloroform

ACIU EXTRACTABLE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
   Phenol
   2-Nitrophenol
   2,4-Dichl orophenol
   4-Nitrophenol
   2,4-Dimethyl phenol
   Pentachlorophenol
1,
1,
1,
1,2-Oi chl oropropane
1,3-Dichloropropene
Methylene Chloride
Methyl Chloride
Methyl Bromide
Bromoform
Dichlorobromomethane
Chlorodibromomethane
Tetrachloroethyl ene
Trichloroethylene
Vinyl Chloride
1,2-trans-Dichloroethylene
                                        p-Chloro-m-cresol
                                        2-Chlorophenol
                                        2,4-Dinitrophenol
                                        2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
                                        4,6-Di nitro-o-cresol
26 PESTICIDES/PCbS

   alpha-Endosulfan
   beta-Endosulfan
   Endosulfan Sulfate
   alpha-BHC
   beta-BHC
   yamma-BHC (Lindane)
   delta-BHC
   Aldrin
   Di el drid
   4,4'-DDE
   4,4'-DDD
   4,4'-DDT
   Endrin
   Endrin Aldehyde
                                        Heptachlor
                                        Heptachlor Epoxide
                                        Chlordane
                                        Toxaphene
                                        Aroclor 1016
                                        Aroclor 1221
                                        Aroclor 1232
                                        Aroclor 1242
                                        Aroclor 1248
                                        Aroclor 1254
                                        Aroclor 1260
                                        2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-
                                         p-dioxin (TCDD)

-------
                                  APPENDIX  3.4

                             TABLE 3.4-2, Continued
                       ERA'S TOXIC (PRIORITY) POLLUTANTS3
Class/Pollutant
BASE/NEUTRAL EXTRACTABLE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

   1,2-Ui chlorobenzene
   1,3-Dichlorobenzene
   1,4-Dichlorobenzene
   Hexachloroethane
   Hexachlorobutadiene
   Hexachlorobenzene
   1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
   bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane
   Naphthalene
   2-Chloronaphthalene
   Isophorone
   Nitrobenzene
   2,4~Dinitrotoluene
   2,6-Dinitrotoluene
   4-Bromophenyl Phenyl Ether
   bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate
   Di-n-octyl  Phthalate
   Dimethyl Phthalate
   Diethyl  Phthalate
   Di-n-butyl  Phthalate
   Aceriaphthylene
   Acenaphthene
   Butyl Benzyl Phthalate
Fluorene
Fluoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrene
Phenanthrene
Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Indeno(l,2,3-c,d)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Benzo(g,h,i jperylene
4-Chlorophenyl Phenyl Ether
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidi ne
Benzidine
bis(2-Chloroethyl)ether
1,2-Diphenylhydrazine
Hexachlorocyclopentadi ene
N-Nitrosodiphenylamine
N-Nitrosodimethylamine
N-Nitrosodi-n-propyl am'ine
bis(2-Chloroi spropyl)ether
Anthracene
 13 METALS

   Antimony
   Arsenic
   Beryll ium
   Cadmium
   Chromium
   Copper
   Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Thai 1ium
Zinc
OTHER

   Total Cyanides
Asbestos  (fibrous)
  Designated  pursuant  to  Section  307(a)(l)  of  the  Clean Water Act.

-------
                                 APPENDIX  3.4

                                  TABLE  3.4-3

             COMMUN CONSUMER PROUUCTS AND  THEIR  HOUSEHOLD  SOURCES
Household Source
     Consumer Product
Automatic Dishwasher Waste
Bath and Shower Waste
Bathroom Sink Waste
(iarbaye Disposal


Kitchen Sink
Laundry Waste
Toilet Flush Waste
Utility Sink Waste
Detergents
Silver polish

Soaps (perfumed)
Medicinal ointments
Shampoo
Disinfectants
Cosmetics (makeup, antiperspirant, hair dyes)

Medicine
Soaps
Disinfectants
Cosmetics
Shampoo
Cleaner

Pesticides (from washing produce)
Deoderizer

Hand soaps and cleaners
Polish
Pesticides
Cosmetics
Cleaners

Polish (laundered clothes soiled with polish)
Fabric adhesives
Dyes and textile coatings
Medicinal ointments
Laundry products
Pesticides and insecticides
Disinfectants
Bleach and starch

Medicinal ointments
Disinfectants
Deoderizer
Cleaner

Preservatives and dyes
Polish
Photographic products
Paint products
Pesticides
Cleaners
Bleach
Source: Reference 6

-------
                                 APPENDIX 3.4

                                  TABLE 3.4-4

                    PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN HOUSEHOLD WASTES
Household Source
Priority Pollutant
Automatic Dishwasher Waste
Bath and Shower Waste
Bathroom Sink Waste
Phenol*
Benzene*
Toluene*
2,4,6-Tri chlorophenol *
Silver*

Phenol*
Benzene*
Naphthalene*
1,2-Dichloroethylene
Diethylphthalate*
Dimethylphthalate*
Toluene*
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol*
2-Chlorophenol*
2,4-Dimethylphenol
Fluoroanthene
PAHs
2,4-Dichlorophenol
Antimony*
Cadmium*
Copper*
Lead*
Mercury*
Nickel*
Selenium
Silver*
Zinc*

Phenol*
Toluene*
Benzene*
2,4,6-Tri chlorophenol*
2-Chlorophenol*
p-Chloro-m-cresol
2,4-Dimethylphenol
Fluoranthene
Naphthalene*
PAHs
Diethylphthalate*
Dimethylphthalate*
Antimony*
Cadmium*
Copper*
Lead*
Mercury*
Silver*
Zinc*
Arsenic*

-------
                                 APPENDIX 3.4

                            TABLE 3.4-4, Continued

                    PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN HOUSEHOLD WASTES
Household Source
Priority Pollutant
Garbaye Uisposal Waste
Kitchen Sink Waste
Laundry Waste
1,4-Dichlorobenzene*
Aldrin*
Dieldrin*
Chlordane
Arsenic*
Cadmium*
Chromium*
Copper*
Lead*
Mercury*
Zinc*

Phenol*
Toluene*
1,2-Uichlorobenzene*
Tetrachloroethylene
1,2-Dichloroethylene
Diethy'lphthalate*- •
Dimethylphthalate*
1,2-Uichloroethane
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
1,2-Dichloropropane
1,2-Dichloropropylene
Isophorone
Trichloroethylene*
Carbon Tetrachloride
Arsenic*
Cadmium*
Chromium*
Copper*
Lead*
Mercury*
Zinc*
Antimony*
Nickel*
Silver*

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
1,2-Uichlorobenzene*
Benzene*
Phenol*
1,4-Dichlorobenzene*
2,4-Dimethylphenol
Naphthalene*
1,1,1-Trichloroethane*
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
1,3-Uichlorobenzene

-------
                                 APPENDIX 3.4

                            TABLE 3.4-4, Continued

                    PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IN HOUSEHOLD WASTES
Household Source
Priority Pollutant
Laundry Waste, Continued
Toilet Flush Waste
Utility Sink Waste
Nitrobenzene
Tetrachloroethy1ene*
Diethylphthalate*
Dimethylphthalate*
Chlorophenol*
Arsenic*
Cadmium*
Chromium*
Copper*
Lead*
Mercury*
Zinc*

Benzene*
Phenol*
2,4,6-TriChlorophenol*
2-Chlorophenol*
1,2-Dichlorobenzene*
l,3-l)i chl orobenzene
1,4-Dichlorobenzene*
1,1,1-Trichloroethane*
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
Naphthalene*
Trichloroethylene*
1,2-Uichloroethane
Antimony*
Copper*
Mercury*
Zinc*
Chromium*

1,1,1-Trichloroethane*
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
1,2-Di chlorobenzene*
2,4,6-TriChlorophenol*
Antimony*
Arsenic*
Cadmium*
Copper*
Lead*
Mercury*
Nickel*
Scandium*
Zinc*
Si 1ver*
Source: Reference 6
*Most commonly found  (14 organics, 9 metals).

-------
                                 APPENDIX 3.5



                            LAGOON SAMPLING PROGRAM
EPA 7:35

-------
                             ATTACHMENT B

              LAGOON SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES


    The  Publicly  Owned Treatment Works  (POTW)  Lagoon Study  sampling
program was conducted  at nine domestic lagoon and  12  municipal  lagoon
systems  as  identified  in  the  final   letter  report,3     Priority
pollutants   and  selected  nonconventional  water  quality  parameters
(total  organic  carbon,  ammonia  nitrogen,  oxidized  nitrogen,  total
solids  (sludges), and  chloride)  were  sampled   at  each  site.    U.S.
Environmental Protection  Agency  (EPA),  Brown and  Caldwell  (BC)  and
Robert  E.  Lee  and Associates,  Inc.  (RED  personnel  participated  in
the sampling program.   Analytical  work  was performed at EPA labora-
tories  in  Annapolis,   Maryland  (Central  Regional  Laboratory)   and
Athens, Georgia,  (Environmental Services  Division  Laboratory)  and  the
Robert  E.  Lee  and  Associates,  Inc.  Analytical Laboratory  in  Green
Bay, Wisconsin.   A site sampling and  analysis summary is  presented  in
Table 1.

Sampling Procedures

    Sampling of  the  21 facilities  was  performed during two  periods.
The  nine domestic  lagoon  systems  (plus  the Mandan,  ND  municipal/
industrial  lagoon system0)  were  sampled by  EPA  Regions III and  IV
between August and November,  1985.  The 11  other municipal/industrial
lagoons  were  sampled  by  EPA Region  IV,  REL  and  BC  during July  and
August, 1986.

    The domestic  sampling  program was developed  by  EPA Headquarters
in  Washington  and  concentrated  on  lagoon systems  with  monitoring
wells.    Based  on  information  gained  by  BC  from  observations  of
sampling  activities  performed   by  Region IV at  three Michigan  sites
typical  sampling  procedures  used for the  domestic lagoon  study  are
presented below.

    Influent automatic  composite  samplers  were  used   to  obtain 6  to
24 hour  composites   of all  contaminants  except  volatile  organics,
cyanide and  total  phenolics.   Grab samples were collected  for  these
contaminants.   Volatile organic  influent  samples  were  collected  in
triplicate.  Lagoon liquid, effluent, sludge and monitoring well grab
aln addition, data  from the Everett,  WA  and  Muskegon, MI municipal/
 industrial lagoon systems are used in the study.

 Except dioxin.

cThe Mandan, ND  lagoon  system  was  initially classified as a domestic
 lagoon.

-------
                                                                  B-2
samples were  also collected.   Typically,  one upgradient  and  three
down  gradient  monitoring wells  were  sampled.    Sampling  procedures
used  (e.g.,  minimizing  aeration  of volatile  orqanics  and  flushing
monitoring  wells  three  times   prior   to   sampling)  were  based  on
standard EPA sampling protocol.   If a monitoring well dried up during
baling operations the  well was  allowed to  recover overnight prior to
sampling.      Teflon   balers   were  used   for  baling   and   sample
collection.  Field and equipment blanks were collected at each site.

    For the  municipal/industrial  lagoon  sampling  program,  samples
obtained  by  REL and  BC at nine  sites were collected  in accordance
with  procedures specified  in  the  Quality Assurance   Project  Plan
submitted  to EPA as part of the Revised Work Plan for Work Assignment
2-7 dated  July 30,  1986.

    For   the   two  municipal/industrial   lagoons  sampled   by   EPA
Region IX, sampling activities  were  conducted  in accordance with the
Engineering Support Branch Standard  Operating  Procedures and Quality
Assurance   Manual,  U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency,  Region IV,
Environmental Services Division, dated April 1, 1986.

Analytical Procedures

    Analytical methods  and  quality assurance  procedures used during
the study are documented as follows:

    1.  EPA Central Regional  Laboratory—memo from Joseph L. Slayton,
        CRL  Chemist   to  Water  Gilbert,   EPA  Headquarters  dated
        January 28, 1986.

    2.  REL Analytical Laboratory—Quality Assurance Project Plan for
        Work Assignment  2-7  (submitted to  EPA  with Revised Work Plan
        dated July 30, 1986) .

    3.  EPA Environmental Services Division Laboratory—EPA Region IV
        Analytical  Support  Branch  Operations  and  Quality  Control
        Manual, dated June 1985.

    Table 2  summarizes analytical detection  limits for both liquid
and sludge  samples  from the  three  laboratories participating in the
sampling  program and  for the  independent  data collected  from the
Muskegon,   MI  and  Everett,  WA  facilities.   Detection  limit ranges
shown  in  Table 2 represent  both variances  in specific contaminants
within  the  identified  contaminant  category  and  variances  between
samples.   Typically, .for the  majority  of contaminants,  detection
limits  were  near the  lower  limit  of  the  range.   Table 3 identifies
detection  limits  for  each contaminant analyzed  by REL.   There was
greater variance in detection limits for individual compounds sampled
by  EPA.   The respective  EPA laboratories  supplied  detection limits
for  the  contaminants  as  part  of  raw data   sheets  for  each  site
transmitted to EPA headquarters.

-------
                                                                  B-3
                      1  1 T A
    Analytical methods '  '  '   were similar at all laboratories except
those  for  volatile  (purgeable)  and extractable  organics.    The  EPA
laboratories   used  gas   chromatograph/mass   spectrometer   (GC/MS)
methods, EPA  Method  624  for  volatile and  Method  625 for extractable
organics.    The  REL  laboratory  used  principally  GC  and  liquid
chromatography  (LC)  methods  with  specific  detectors  in  accordance
with EPA Methods 601, 602,  603, 604, 605, 606, 607, 609, 610, 611 and
612.

    Metals  concentrations   were  measured   with   element   specific
spectroscopic analytical  methods.  Cyanide was analyzed spectrophoto-
metrically, while  total phenols  were determined via distillation and
colorimetric methods.

    Quality control  and  assurance  procedures used  during  the  study
included  spike  samples,  duplicates  and  participation in  external
performance audit  sample surveys with EPA Cincinnati.   Summary data
used  in  the  study  were  corrected for  water  and  equipment  blank
contamination.


                              REFERENCES


    1.  "Standard  Methods  for  the  Examination  of  Water and  Waste-
        water," APHA-AWWA-WPCF, 16th Edition, 1985.

    2.  "Test  Methods  for  Evaluating  Solid  Waste—Physical/Chemical
        Methods,"  EPA/SW-846,  United  States  Environmental  Protection
        Agency, 2nd Edition,  revised 1985.

    3.  "Methods  for the  Chemical  Analysis of  Water  and  Wastes,"
        EPA-600/4-79-020,  United   States   Environmental  Protection
        Agency,  Environmental  Monitoring  and  Support  Laboratory,
        Cincinnati, Ohio, 1979.

    4.  "Methods  for  Organic  Chemical   Analysis  -of  tlunicipal  and
        Industrial   Wastewater,"   EPA-600/4-82-047,   United   States
        Environmental Protection Agency,  July 1982.

    5.  "Handbook  for Analytical  Quality  Control in Water  and Waste-
        water Laboratories,"  EPA-600/4-79-019, United States Environ-
        mental   Protection   Agency,  Environmental   Monitoring  and
        Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1979.

-------
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                   UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
       >ğ                                 REGION III
     *>..   ,,o*                       CENTRAl REGIONAL LABORATORY
      '**"•""                             83? BCSTGMT ROAD                          3C1-224-E740
                                    ANNAPOLIS. MARYLAND 2)401                       RS 322-3752


DATE   :   January 28, 1986

SUBJECT:   Central  Regional Laboratory Quality Assurance Procedures Employed During
          the Analysis of Construction Grants Samples

FROM  -.   Joseph L. Slayton  (3ES21)
          Chemist

TO     :   Walter Gilbert  (WH-595)



          The quality assurance procedures employed during the analysis of the
          Construction Grants samples have been summarized by parameter group.

          General
              The Central Regional Laboratory participates each year in four external
              performance audit sample surveys.  These include unknown audit samples
              for the SDWA; NPDES; Superfund and RCRA programs.  The laboratory has a
              full time quality assurance officer and technician.  Quarterly performance
              checks are routinely performed to assure adequate operational of balances;
              spectrophotometers; pH meters and other critical insturmentation.
          Phenol
              A duplicate (precision) and spike (accuracy) sample were analyzed every
              tenth sample.  A check standard was analyzed in the middle and end  of
              each set of samples analyzed.  An audit sample  (EPA-Cincinnati provided
              external standard) was analyzed at the beginning of each set of samples
              analyzed.  The calibration curve consisted of six standards.

          Cyanide

              A duplicate (precision) and spike (recovery) sample were analyzed after
              every tenth sample.  A check standard was analyzed after every three or
              four samples.  An audit (EPA-Cincinnati) was analyzed  at the beginning
              of each analysis set.  The calibration curve consisted of six standards
              and was prepared for each set of samples analyzed.

          Total Carbon

              A duplicate ('precision) and spike (recovery) sample were analyzed after
              every tenth sample.  A check standard was analyzed after every tenth
              sample.  An audit  (EPA-Cincinnati) sample was analyzed after every
              tenth sample.  The calibration curve consisted  of seven  standards.

-------
Nitrite, Nitrate, Ammonia
    A duplicate (precision)  and spike  (recovery)  sample  were  analyzed  after
    every tenth sample.  This  was  followed  directly by a check  standard.
    An audit sample (EPA-Cincinnati) was  analyzed at the beginning  of  each
    set of analysis.  The calibration  curve consisted of seven  standards.
Chloride
    A duplicate (precision) and spike (recovery) sample were analyzed after
    every tenth sample.  A check standard on audit sample (EPA-Cincinnati)
    was analyzed at the beginning of each analysis.  The calibration curve
    consisted of at least seven standards.
Mercury
    A duplicate (precision), a digestion duplicate, a check standard and a
    spiked sample (recovery) were analyzed after every tenth sample.  An
    audit sample  (EPA-Cincinnati) was analyzed at the beginning of each set
    of samples analyzed, for each type of matrix.  The calibration curve
    consisted of  at least six standards.

Metals

    A standard curve composed of five or six standards for each metal was
    analyzed to calibrate the instruments.  In addition, the instrument was
    previously autozeroed.  After the standardization, a performance audit
    sample (EPA provided external standard) was routinely analyzed to
    confirm the accuracy of the instrument  (+_ 10%  required audit performance),
    This  performance check was followed by the analysis of a reagent blank,
    a digestion blar.k  and corresponding field blanks.  Ten percent of the
    samples were  analyzed in duplicate.  Also a check standard was analyzed
    every ten  samples  with the required limits of  +_  10%.  For samples
    analyzed by the furance technique every sample was spiked at least
    once. If  this single spike result was  not found to give 85-115%
     recovery,  then the Method of Standard Additions was employed using  two
    additional spikes.

 Extractables Organic Compounds GC/MS

    Before acquisition of any samples the mass spectrometer was calibrated
    using FC43.   The calibration was  verified by  obtaining the  spectra  of  a
    known compound  (DFTPP).  All mass assignments  and  relative  abundances
    were  found to be in acceptable  ranges or  the  instrument was adjusted
     until suitable  spectra  of the  known were  obtained.   Immediately  before
     analysis  each sample was  spiked with  an internal  standards  mixture
     containing six  compounds  including  DIO-phenanthrene.   All  quantitation
     or  estimates  of'concentration  were  made in  comparison  to the  nearest
     internal  standards. Mixed  standards  of extractable  priority  pollutants
     and Hazardous Compound  List  Substances  (EPA-RTP  provided)  were analyzed
     at  multiple  concentration  levels before each group of  samples.  The
     relative  response  of each  compound  versus  the nearest  internal standard
     was determined for use  in  quantitation.  For each group of samples
     extracted (£2fl samples)  a  method blank  was  prepared  and examined for
     laboratory introduced  contamination.   In addition, field  blanks were

-------
Extractables Organics (GC/MS)   (Con't)

    analyzed and all  sample values were corrected for any blank  contamination.
    Each sample was spiked with a mixture of surrogate compounds (six)  prior
    to extraction and analysis.  The recovery for each was determined to
    check for matrix  effect.   For each  group of samples extracted (_<20),
    an aliquot of sample was  spiked with a priority pollutant cocktail
    containing twelve representative target compounds and carried through
    the extraction and GC/MS  analysis.   The recovery for each compound
    was determined to check for matrix  effect.

Pesticides

    The instruments are calibrated before each set of samples with varified
    standards (EPA-Cincinnati  or proven equivalent).  The samples are
    spiked with EPA reference PCB/chlordane mixtures).  A duplicate sample
    .is analyzed with  each set of samples.  A degradation check standard
    for Endrin and DDT was analyzed with each set of samples to assure
    satisfactory column performance.  Field and reagent blanks were analyzed
    to varify the absence of pesticide  contamination.

Volatile Organic Compounds GC/MS

    The QA procedures included on a daily basis an initial instrument blank
    followed by a method blank and standards  (EPA or EPA varified).

    Incorporated in the first method blank was the analysis of 4-Bromo-l-
    Fluorobenzene (BFB) as a Mass Spectral Criteria Compound.  If the
    spectra of BFB did not meet the criteria  specified in Method 624 the
    Mass Spectrometer would be recalibrated using Perfluorotributylamine
    (FC43) until the criteria was met.

    The analysis of field blanks and additional method blanks followed
    the analysis of standards.

    The following additional  QA procedures were employed:  At least one
    duplicate analysis was performed for each batch of samples.  At least
    one matrix spike was performed for each batch of samples.  In addition,
    samples that had high contamination were  followed by method blanks.

JLS:ad

-------
















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-------
79S.E S_! - LARASIE,
                              LB680N  SYSTEĞCOK7IHilI'm*TcS
LABOOK LA600N
LIBUID EFFtUEKT



1
2.5
1.2
2.1

1
:\i LA500N SLUKr
!\! net Heirnt
l\! basis, uc/o
:\:
;\!
i\!
!\!
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l\:
-' '"'I
6.3 !\|



83




8.7


7.8 5.8

3.9 3.5
46


61
23.7

26.4 8.6
91.6 87.3
8.75 8.77
1.77 2.29
1\|
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!\! 5.2
i\| 656

i\i 17.6
:\: 54
!\! 813
:\: 224
:\: 10
:\: 16.4
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;\: 8.3
! \ I
!\! **
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•v
l\i "
:\:
j\i
i\i
i\:
•ii "
     a — value  lay  be  high,  BLANK  (850809-01) concentration = 13 ug/1

     i — E5TWTE)  CCNCPITWTION,  detected  !  concentration belon accurate auantification.
     "- net analyzed
     NOTES:
         Trace concentrations (( 1  ug/1)  tet eaual  to  1  ug/1, blanx  indicates value belon detKtaole licit.

-------
TflKE 52-- LANK*  ,  WYOr-INS LAGOON SYSTEM CWTWINAST SlMSATf
                                                                      DATA COLLECTED flUEUST 1985
CONTAMINANT CBTESORY / contuinant
VOLflTILES - STANDARD EQUATABLE
cMorofon
tetrachloroethylenc
toluene
tricMoroetnylene

EtTMCTiB:.- oasfwics
ohenol
naaithalene
PCBs/ PESTICIDES, uj/1

none detected

KETALS
an ti tony
arsenic
bar ion
cadniui
chron uğ
cooper
lead
•ercury
nickel
seiemui
silver
thalhui
zinc

imCi) PRIORITY POUUTANTS

CYANIDE

Total pherohcs, ug/1
CONVEXTlONflL CONTAHNWiTS, ig/I
Total Organic Carbon
CHLORIDE

NH3 - N (auionia)
N02/N03 - N

uo/1
ug/1
ug/1
uj/1


uo/1
ug/1





ug/1
ug/1
ua/1
us/1
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1
uo/1
ug'/I
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1












SAMPLE LOCATION and CONCENTRATION
WNITORIH6 HELLS I
Up
Ml




1


4.5]








143








2.9









4.1



Down gradient
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4.8j 4.2]
2.8j







172 154 8.9
6.5


11 740


14

2.7 2.4 3.0
28





IS. 6

12.0
22.7 5.86 4.22

1.15 .042
.24a ,0561
•na i ciwi i tn
INFLUENT

12-15
47-50

1.7-6











85


27.5

.3


13
3.4
48





26.8

118
14.5

2.76
.639
TREATED IWSTEWflTSS !\;
*v
LA50CN LAGOON IV!
LIQUID EFFLUENT !V!
ivi
1 IV!
1.4 IV!
IV!
IV!
:V!
!V!
iv!
IV!
!\!
I V '
IVI
IV!
IV!
IV!
*\ 1
61 51 IV!
!\!
IV!
27 IV!
IV!
1 \;
IV!
5.2 l\!

!\ 1
26 IV!
IV!
IV!
IV!
IV!
IV!
48.5 |\!
IV!
18.8 19.4 i\i
16.1 15.7 !\!
IV!
7.52 7.63 !\!
.201 .113 !\!
LASOON Si.UB6E
net ğĞ:cnt
basis, ug/g



80 ug/1










2.8
4.7
1462
15.3
48.2
691
574
10.4
27.3
6.4
4.4

1185





"

-
_

-
-
     a — eouioĞent blank (  850609-14 )  contained 0.052 ig/1 N02/N03-n

    j — ESTIKPTED CONCEKTRflTION,  Cttected  t  concentration below accruate quantification.
     - not analyzed
    NOTES:
        Trace concentrations (( 1  ua/1)  set eaual to  1 ug/1, blank indicates  value oeloo  detectable  liiit.

-------
•H3-2 5 3 - BUr"flLO , UYOrTNG LPSOO1.



CWTflKINflM CflTEGORY / contaiinant


VOLATILE; - STAWARD EOUATABLE
chlorofon
toluene
1,1,1- trichloroethan*
•cthylene chloride
SVSTE* CONTAMINANT SUMW OflTP COLLECT







ug/1
un/1
ug/1
ug/1
EXTIWaftBLE ORSflNlCS, ug/1
PC3s/ PESTICIDES, ug/1
none detected
KETALS
intiiony
arsenic
banun
ber/lhua
cadiiun
chroiiui
coooer
lead
ğrcury
nickel
seleniua
sil.er
thalhuğ
zinc
ones PRIORITY POUUTHNTS
CYflNIDE

Total phenolies, ug/1
CONVENTIONflL COMTflllNfiNTS, ig/1
Total Organic Carbon
CHLORIDE
MH3 - N (amnia)
N02/N03 - N



ug/1
UJ/1
uo/1
un/1
uc/1
ug/1
u5/l
ug/1
uo/1
ug/1
ug/1
ua/1
uj/1
ug/1









SAttPt
KONITORIN6 HELLS

Up : OONR gradient
mi : HU2 KU3 ğğ4
I
:
:
i
.
i 8.1 8.0
J
i
:
:
s
|
J
163 : 68 88.5
6.3 i 7.3 13
i
J
: 8.64 6.2a
}
•
•
•
2.4 : 2.4 2.9 2.8
271 b : 202D 644b 1140
:
!
i

:
18.8 : • 13.1 78.4 43.5
7.06 ! 5.87 17.4 15.0
: .075 .81 .076
.072 : .078 .073
D AU&JST 1985
i LOCUTION and CONCENTRATION

LlflCTCUDTCD
HHa ! CNH 1 En
INFLUENT


8.0-20
4.1-5.1
1








118


173
13





150



128

71.7
34.2
7.61

TREflTED !\; LA600N SLUIBE
	 - _- i \ i rrwrrwroflT row
i \ i tATILCfl 1 HH \ lUn
LASOON !\! net Might
LIQUID !\! basis, ug/g
!\:
!\j
2.3 i\i
9.6 :\:
l\ J
l\:
!\i
l\:
;\;
i\i
:\;
:\i .a
! \I
39 :\; 748
!\! 6.4
:\: 9.3
67 i\! 6c7
;\; 216
i\! 4.3
,'\! 18.2
!\ !
:\: 9.2
i\j
59 !\: 5%
:\:
i\;
| \ J
!\!
;\;
58.4 j\j
33.9 |\i
7.63 j\i
i\!
 a — Kuiownt blank  ( 850809-27 I  contiinni 34 ug/1  lead
 b — equiorent blanks  ( 850309-27,-3! )  contained 45  uo/1 and 66 ug/1 zinc resoectively

 - not analyzed
MOTES:
    Trace concentrations  Ğ 1 uq/i)  set equal to 1 ug/1,  blank indicites value below detectable lint.

-------
TRBLE S * -- HONEY BROOK,  Pfl  LP6QDN SYSTEğ CQNTP.MINPNT SUM1R3Y      SAPPLES COLLECTED JULY 1985



CONTAMINANT CflTESORY / contaainant

VOLflTILES - STflNDPRD EQURTflBLE
chloroform ug/1
toluene ug/1
EXTRflCTPBLE OR6PNICS, ug/1
phenol
naohthalene
phenanthrene
1,2- dichloro benzene
1.4- dicnlorobenzene
diethyl-phthalate
PCBs/ PESTICIDES, ug/1
Prochlor 1254
HETPLS
antiBony ug/1
arsenic ug/1
bariun ug/1
cadntiun ug/1
chroriufl ug/1
copper ug/1
lead ug/1
•ercary ug/1
nickel ug/1
seleniui ug/1
silver ug/1
zinc ug/1
OTHER PRIORITY POLLUTflNTS
Cyanide, ug/1
Total phenol: cs, ug/1
CONVENTIONflL CONTflĞIWlNTS, pg/1
Total Orcanic Carbon
CaORIDE
NH2 - N (annonia)
N0a/N03 - N
SflM^-E LOCPTION *nd CONCENTRfiTION
MONITORING HELLS

Uo
gradient















87




2



18




1.1
14.7

6.3b
Down
gradient















£1




.2



S3





7.16

2.58

UQCTruflTTD
wH3 1 t**n 1 C"
INFLUENT

£.2-4.7
1

61j,a
58j,a



52 j, a





71


143
IB
.4



123


61.9

87.6
51
4.17
.043
TREPTED

LP600N
LIQUID
























24

43
13.1

29.4
53.7
5.23
1.07
LASOON SLUDGE
rnwrrwTQQTTrM
LUNLcnlKHI iUN
net weight
basis, ug/g





S.BJ
1.9j
0.4i
1.5}


.5

1.8
15.4
345
IB
48
944
166
9.2
39
1.3
1.2
10%

-
-

-
-
-
-
    a — actual detection  Imit - 100 ug/1 for this saiple
    b — value iay  be high,  UD gradient HU equipment blank  (850725-09) contained 2.1 Ğg/l N02/N03-N

    Field  blank  (850725-01)   contained 6.9j  ug/1  bis(2-Ğthylhexy)-phthalate and 4.4i ug/1 di-n-butyl-phthalate
    j — ESTIWED  CONCEVTRflTION, detected 9 concentration  below accurate quantification.
     - not  analyzed

    NOTES:
        Trace concentrations (t 1 ug/1) set equal to 1 un/1, blank indicates values belo* detectable limit.

-------
w£ S 6 --
                   LS333S SYStl C3NTR"'lNğfğ SUWiY
                                                            DflTR
                                                                         D S£?T£ğKR  1985


CONTAMINANT CATESGRY / contaiinant
VOLflTILES - STWDflra EBURTRBLE
1.1- dichloroettiane ug/1
cnlorofora us/1
broKdichloroHthane ug/1
dlbroiocMoroiethane ug/1
tetracnloroet.tylenc ug/1
toluene 115/1
1,1,1- trichloroethanc ug/1
trichloroetfivlerw un/1
•ethyleni chloride ug/1
EXTRACTORS ORSANICS, uc/1
butyl-benzyi-onttiaUte
di-rroctyl ohthalate
diethyl ohthalatc
bis(2-ethylhexy>
Dhthalate
1,4- dichlorobenzent
PCBs/ PESTICIDES, ug/1
none detected
' rSTBLS
antinny ao/1
arsenic u;/l
bariu* ug/1
oeryllim ug/1
cadnui ug/1
chroctun ug/1
copoer ug/1
lead ag/1
••rcury ugA
nickel uo/1
seleniui ug/1
silver ug/1
thalliui ug/1
Zinc ig/1
OT>£R PRIORITY POLLUTANTS
CYANIDE
Total pnenolics, ug/1
CONVENTIONAL CONTfll NIX. for this siiole

  j — ESTIMATED  CONCENTRATION, detected I concentration belM accurate quantification
   - not analyzed
  NOTES:
      Trace concentrations  ((  1 u;'i) set eoual to 1 ug/1,  blank indicates  value tie low detectable hint.

-------
TflB>.£ 5 7  —  KcVILLE, ND  LP600N SYSTEX COKTMINflNT SUWflRY
                                                                  DflTfl COLLECTED SEPTEMBER 1985
CGMTWINANT CATEGORY / nmtaeinant
VOLATILES - STANDARD EQURTABLE
1,1- dichloroethane
cnlorofon
ethyl benzene
toluene
trichloroethylene
EXTRflCTflBLE ORSANICS, ug/1
phenol
diethyl phthalate
1,4- dicfllorobeiuene
PCBs/ PESTICIDES, ug/1
none detected
KETflLS
antiicny
arsenic
barim
berylliui
cadaiui
chroiiuc
eoDDer
lead
•ercury
nickel
seleniui
sliver
thalhui
zinc
OTt£9 PRIORITY PQLLUTflMTS
CYANIDE
Total phenolics, ug/1
ONVEXTIONffl. OWTflKIMWS, io/l
Total Organic Carbon
CH.ORJDE
XH3 - N (anonia)
N02/N03 - N

ug/1
ug/1
uo/1
ug/1






ug/1
ug/1
uo/1
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1
ug/1
uo/1
ug/1
ug/1








SAMPLE LOCATION and CONCENTRATION
KNITODIN6 KLLS
Up : BOM gradient
wi i M2 na MM
i
j 1.4 I
!
• i













16





30


10.4

5.5
3.11

7.25


O.Sj




17 28


6.6

90 2E
16 88 14





47 27


16.6 10.4

13.8 8.7 4.8
229 212 220
IB. 28 26. Ib
.089 .081 .145


INFLUENT

1.1-2.7
S.6-11


10j,a


•







164
18
3.0




131


137

no
776
25.4

TREATED i\l LflSCCN SLUDSe
LAGOON !\! net Might
LIQUID i\i basis, ug/g
$
!\l
!\! .005
;\; .006
!\!
:\|
i\!
:\:
:\i
!\j
:\:
!\i 1.8
!\! 5.5
l\ I
!\!
i\: 5.7
:\: 3&
!V! 2100
12 :\: 223
:\; 29.6
:\i 23
;\: 22
:\; 95
;\; .
!\! 1340
|\|
:\j
1B.6 !\j
|\:
32.4 !\j
258 j\j
11.07 :\!
iji
     i -- actual detection hut  - lOxNffi.
     b - MuiMent alank I  850927-32 )  contained 26.8 i?/l NH3-H

     .1 -- EST!Ğ)TH) CONCENTR9TION,  detected  ğ  conceitrition belo* accurate Quantification
     - not analyzed
     NOTES:
        Trace concentrations It  1 ug/ll  set canal  to 1 u;/l, Diank indicates value oelon  detectible  hmt.

-------
TABi£ SB- BRITTON  VILLAK, ğ!  LflSOON SYSTE* CDNTBğ!MPMT Si*1ĞfiSY
ğTP COLLECTED NOVQBES 1985
CONTMINANT CATESORY / eontuinant
VOLATILE5 - STANDARD EBUATABLE
ehlorofon
toluene (see note a),

u'/l
EITSACTBBLE ORSflMCS, nil
phenol
bis(2-ethylheĞyl)
ohthalate ( see note c)
PCBs/ PESTICIDES, ug/1
none detected
ICTALS
antiiony
arsenic
ban uĞ
berylhui
cadntie
Chroilul
coaoer
lead
•rcury
nickel
seleniu*
silver
thaillua
zinc
OTtSR PRIORITY POUUTflNTS
CYANIDE
Total phenoliw, ug/1
CONVENTIONAL CONTfWIHIWTS, ig/1
Total Organic Carbon
CH.ORIDE
*a - H laMonia)
M02/WJ3 - N



ug/1
ug/1
u|/l
uq/1
BE/1
uo/1
ug/1
uo/1
M/1
ug/1






SAMPLE LOCATION and CONCEVTRiiTION
MNITORINS BELLS
Up i Down gradient
Ml t W2 m 1*4
1
1
I
i
1
:
t
i
S.S : 8.7 ll.S 6.5
t
74£e : 1040e 2230* 701|
1
1
1
I
12.3 : 7.8 16.2 6.6
15.9 ; 15.3 9.3 £3.0
.071 : .077
I
i
UflSTEWTER
JNFLUEHT

*
3.5j,b



135
89
11
.2
US

82.3

102
160
20.4
TREATED UASTEUP.TER '.\'. LAGOON SLUDGE
LASOON LAGOON l\i net Might
LIQLID EfTLUBT !\! basis, ug/n
S\i
!\:
IN!
:\:
!\!
:\:
11 :\! 6.8
:\! us
i\: .7
!\! 14.5
!\! 38.7
13 :\: 9.5
j\! 26
i\;
117 j\j 97
!\:
1 -
i\:
31.4 25.9 !\:
146 140 !\;
1.25 :\:
1.23 :\j
      a  —  blanks  (831120-20/21) contaiinated ğ/ )50 o?/l toluene,  no  valid results for this contannant
      b  —  actual  detection lint - IQp NOL for tins sanole

      c  —  blanks  (851120-20/51) contuinated •/ 31,3.0j  ug/1,  resoectively of this contiğin*nt
      e  —  value iav tie hi oh . blank (351120-20) contained *120 uo/1 zinc
      j  —  EST!fWTE3 CONCESTRflTION, detected t concentration beloi  accurate quantification
      -  not analyzed
     NOTES;
         Trace  concentrations  K 1 ug/1) itt equal to 1  ug/1,  blank indicates value belox detectable lint.

-------
TABLE s 9 — POTTCRV:LLE,  Ğ   LBGOON srs~n CONTW:NĞ.T suĞw
-------
TflB.E S 10 - STflND.'SH,  HI  LflWDN SYSTt* CON7WINWT SWSHY
MTfl COLLECTED NOVEME3 1985


COHTANIHAKT CATEGORY / contnintnt

VOLRTILES - STfWMRD OUftTflBLE, ug/l
( holding tiie ) 7 days )
cnlorofom
1,1,1- trichloroethine
benzene
toluene
tetrachloroethylene
EXTRflCTflflLE ORSflNICS. ug/1
PCBs/ PESTICIDES, ug/1
none detected
STftuS
antinny ug/1
arsenic ug/1
bariui ug/1
berylliui ug/1
cadniui ug/1
chrcxiu* ug/1
owner ug/1
lead ug/1
•ercury ug/1
nickel ug/1
seieniu* un/1
silver ug/1
thalhui ug/1
zinc ug/1
OTfSR PRIORITY POLLUT9WTS
CYflNIDE
Total phenol ics, ug/1
CONVENTIONAL CONTflMWKTS, 15/1
Total Organic Carbon
CHLORIDE
NH3 - N (anonia)
M02/N03 - N
SfldPLE LOCflTION and CONCiKTflflTION
nNiTORING VELLS
Do : Down gradient
Ml : W2 M3 . *4
i


























4.2
2,4
.203
















0.3U 7.2a










1.8 8.0 6.6
3.1 3.3 2.6
.27 .358 .26

unerrunrrn
•H3 I tMHICn
INFLUENT


a

i
2-3
1








28
9.3a





41


1B.S

40.9
68.4
3.76
.709
TREATED WSTcWATE!)
LAGOON LAGOON
LIQUID EFFLUENT


1
1























19.8 22,7
92.8 111
5.48 1.84
.207 .674

































     a — blank (851125-45) contaijnatu! •/ 19 ug/1 of lead, duplicate ( 851125-43) contained 31  ğc/l lead

     - not analyzed
        S:
        Trace conce-.triUons (( 1 u:/l) set enual to 1 uc/1, blank indicates  value belox detectable  lint.

-------
                     APPENDIX 3.5



                      TABLE 3.5-3



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC/INDUSTRIAL LAGOON SAMPLING RESULTS
Pollutant Category/
Pollutant
VOLATILES



















Acrolein
Acrylonitrile
Benzene
Ethyl benzene
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chloroform
Chlorobenzene
Chloroethane
Bromodi chl oromethane
Tetrachloroethylene
Toluene
Trans -1,2-dichloro-
ethylene
1,1-Oichloroethane
1, 1-Di chl oroethyl ene
1,2-Dichloroethane
1,2-Di chl crop ropane
1, 1, 1-Tri chl oroethane
1, 1,2-Trichl oroethane
Lagoon
Min

ug/1
T3T4
1
1
0
.7

.6
0.13
0
0
0
1
0
1

6
0
0
730
3
1
0
1,1, 2, 2-Tetrachl oroethane




E





Trichl oroethylene
Methyl Chloride
Methyl ene Chloride
Vinyl Chloride
XTRACTABLE ORGANICS
Acid
Phenol
2-Chlorophenol
2,4-Dichlorophenol
2,4-Uimethyl phenol
0
0
5
0
ug

1
2
2
0
4-Chloro-3-Methyl phenol 0







2-Methyl-4,6-l)ini-
trophenol
2-Nitrophenol
4-Nitrophenol
2,4-Uinitrophenol
Pentachl orophenol
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

5
3
4
7
0
0
.21
.66
.26

.71



.14
.99

.84
.06
.09
6.4
.73
.99
.2
.62
/I

.72


.6
.85

.2
.81
.91
.42
.99
.71
Influent
Max

ug/1
63.8
83.
153
17.
0.
747
61.
80.
2
361
1,964

6
3
0.
730
3.
93
99.
17
56.
0.
340
11.
8

8
13

8
3






99

84

2

7
99

6
ug/1

233
742
164
273
113

578
491
527
553
828
289













Lagoon
Min
ug/1
2.3
2.1
0.99
0.4
c
0.06
0.99
12.1
-
3
1

0.99
0.99
-
1.17
5.46
0.99
4.15
-
0.4
5
0.49
1.9
ug/1

0.71
0.99
0.41
0.98
0.36

-
0.8b
6.96
320
5.44
0.64
Effluent3
Max
ug/1
3.5
4.4
11
0.99
-
86
0.99
12.1
-
31
34

0.99
0.99
-
164
5.46
9
4.15
-
2
5
280
1.9
ug/1

44
90
10.6
35.3
40.4

-
96.9
824
320
416
47.8
Lagoon
Min

SI

ug/kg
58.2
86
99
4
-
2.
20.
0.
-
-
2.

80
-
-
0.
0.
0.
19.
-
-
-
0.
50




61
7
58


5




06
22
25
8



34






3



3













ug/kg

10
26.
123
128
26.

775
19
193
243
61
117


6


4








26
3
32
20
124

34
61
23
45
126
132
udge
Max
ug/kg
58.2
86.7
99
130
-
2.61
,700
3.59
-
-
,300

80
-
-
0.06
0.22
40
19.8
-
-
-
0.34
50
ug/kg

,500
,560
,500
,000
,000

,200
,500
,000
,300
,000
,000

-------
                     APPENDIX 3.5



                TABLE 3.5-3, Continued



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC/INDUSTRIAL LAGOON SAMPLING RESULTS
Pollutant Category/ Lagoon
Pollutant Min
EXTRACTABLE ORGANICS, continued
Base/Neutral ug/1
Acenaphthene 0.99
Acenaphthylene 0.99
Anthracene 0.91
Benzidine 1.11
Benzo (a) Anthracene 0.12
Benzo (a) Pyrene 0.05
Benzo (b) Fluoranthene 0.44
Benzo (ghi) Perylene 0.2
Benzo (k) Fluoranthene 0.32
Dibenzo (ağn) Anthracene 0.1
2-Chloronaphthalene 0.1
Chrysene 0.99
n-Nitrosodimethylamine 0.24
n-Nitrosodiphenylamine 0.28
n-Nitrosodi-n-propyl amine -
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine 0.69
Dimethyl Phthalate 0.94
Fluoranthene 0.8
Fluorene 0.99
Indeno (1,2,3-cd) Pyrene 0.05
Pyrene 0.54
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 0.99
Naphthalene 4
Phenanthrene 0.91
Di-n-butyl Phthalate -0.11
Butyl -benzyl -phthalate 0.75
Di-n-octyl Phthalate 0.14
Di ethyl Phthalate 0.99
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)
Phthalate 0.23
1,2-Uichlorobenzene 1.4
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1
1,3-Dichlorobenzene • 1.8
2,4-Dinitrotoluene 0.63
2,6-Dinitrotoluene 0.15
Isophorone 1.06
Influent
Max

ITO^
4.24
12
0.15
0.99
0.99
0.44
12.5
0.59
1.9
165
30.3
9.34
1.45
-
23
118
18
37.4
19.1
3.2
0.99
130
2.6
4.68
1
5.75
0.99

0.23
31.9
23.2
22.9
36.9
109
30.1
Lagoon
Min

^
2! 68
1.49
0.12
-
0.09
0.28
-
1.24
0.58
8.4
0.99
2.66
0.14
0.16
0.99
3.25
0.32
0.92
0.19
0.95
-
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.2
0.6
-

0.63
0.7
1.05
0.6
4.1
0.27
-
Effluent3
Max

ug/1
~TT72
2.68 6,
1.49
0.84
-
0.09
0.28
-
1.24
1
173
4.2
2.66
123
3.6
6 4,
78.7
0.99
1.1
0.19
1.61
-
0.99
0.99
5.17
22.93
0.6
-

80
6.2
8.7
27.6
42.6
32.8
-
Lagoon
Min

ug/kg
"2TT5
300
11.5
1.14
0.35
0.13
42.4
-
21.2
103
1.81
2.81
36.6
14.3
0.83
000
430
38.1
40
20.6
29
-
50
29.1
4.42
0
0.54
-

10.7
101
200
153
0.43
0.22
251
Sludgeb
Max

ug/kg
1,530
6,300
6,100
2.25
1,590
0.13
344
-
1,110
1,410
10,900
15,000
713
282
2,120
44,000
240,000
1,260
389
529
8,320
-
580
1,560
964
280
171
-

11,700
7,560
4,030
4,880
194,000
35,600
5,100

-------
                     APPENDIX 3.5



                TABLE 3.5-3, Continued



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC/INDUSTRIAL LAGOON SAMPLING RESULTS
Pollutant Category/
Pollutant
Base/Neutral, continued
Nitrobenzene
Bis (2-chloroethyl)
Ether
Bis (2-chloroethoxy)
Methane
Bis (2-chloroisopropyl,
Ether
4-Bromophenyl Phenyl
Ether
4-Chlorophenyl Phenyl
Ether
Hexachl orobenzene
Hexachl orobutadiene
Hexachl oroethane
PCBs/PESTICIDES
Lindane (gamma BHC)
Dieldri n
OTHER
Cyanide ,
Total Phenol ics
METALS
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryll ium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Si 1 ver
Thallium
Zinc
Lagoon
Min
^7

2.1

3.6

0.4

6.5

0.99
0.13
0.3
0.19
ug/1
"0.1
-
|J Q / 1
A
5.7
ug/1
"373
2.4
22.8
1.4
1
4.6
28.8
1.7
0.3
6.9
27.7
1.1
14
155
Influent
Max
ug/1
48.9

202

448

1,430

89.1

288
326
5.43
11.5
ug/1
0.1
-
ug/1
23
260
ug/1
77.7
58.2
15.2
2.7
78
330
200
0.7
45
118
10.9
17.7
4,670
Lagoon
Min
ug/1

1.3

4.7

2.5

0.25

1.4
0.15
0.2
0.2
ug/1
0.1
0.031
ug/1
0.1
1.4
H|^
o!5
12.55
0.7
0.3
2.2
5.6
1
0.4
3.8 5,
27.7
1
17.7
22
Effluent
Max
ug/1

3.9

15.7

60

9

32.9
32
0.2
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3.5
204
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88.4
47.1
7.4
7.4
35.2
55
16.7
0.4
103.6
208
4
17.7
535.5
3 Lagoon
Min
ug/kg
189

90.5

115

1.06

9.17

73
17.7
1.83
15.8
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-
-
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"9571
142
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^5709
0.55
0.66
0.17
0.009
4.79
4.87
7.6
0.01
3.5
0.36
0.04
0.04
0.36
Sludgeb
Max
ug/kg
189

4,420

8,560

9,140

13,200

42,500
58,000
274
36,100
ug/kg
-
-
ug/kg
9,000
20, 700
H2/£2
24*
240
20
37
208
1,034
999
11.4
221
9.6
81
0.18
1,176

-------
                                  APPENDIX 3.5

                             TABLE 3.5-3,  Continued

             SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC/INDUSTRIAL LAGOON SAMPLING RESULTS



Pollutant Category/      Lagoon  Influent     Lagoon Effluent3  Lagoon Sludge
Pollutant
NON -CONVENTIONAL
POLLUTANTS
Total Organic Carbon
Chloride0
NHo - N (ammonia)
N0:;/N03 - Na .
Total Solids, percent
Min

mg/1
66.1
21.1 1
6.7
0.105
—
Max

mg/1
I4B~
,200
28.05
11.5
™
Min

mg/1
TCT
17.6
0.44
0.1
—
Max

mg/1
T44~ 34,
630
73.2
7.32
™
Min

ug/g
000
1.53
110
-
4.8
Max

ug/g
90,000
720
3,480
-
37
^Includes lagoon wastewater samples
 Dry weight basis.
 ."-" indicates all values below detection limits.
 Not a priority pollutant.

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-------
    APPENDIX 3.6



APPENDIX 3 REFERENCES

-------
                                 APPENDIX 3.6

                             APPENDIX 3 REFERENCES


1.  U.S.  Environmental   Protection  Agency,  1983.    Design  Manual ,  Municipal
    Wastewater Stabilization Ponds.  EPA-625/l-83-01iT

2.  Middlebrooks and Associates, 1978.  Wastewater Stabilization Pond Linings.
    Prepared for the  U.S.  Army Cold Regions Research  and Engineering Labora-
    tory.  Reprinted by EPA.  MCD-54.  November 1978.

3.  ERM-Southeast, Inc., 1985.   Assessment  of  Groundwater Monitoring for Land
    Treatment and Lagoon Systems at EPA Construction Grants Project's'.

4.  USEPA. 1984 Needs Survey.

5.  Metcalf  &  Eddy,  Inc.  1979  Wastewater  Engineering;   Treatment/Disposal/
    Reuse, Second Edition.   McGraw-Hill, New York, New York.

6.  Hathaway S.W., 1980.  Sources of  Toxic  Compounds in Household Uastewater.
    USEPA, Office  of Research  and Development,  Municipal  Environmental  Re~^
    search Laboratory, Cincinnati,  Ohio.

-------
     APPENDIX 4.1



ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY

-------
                                 APPENDIX  4.1

                            ASSESSMENT  METHODOLOGY
4.1.1   SELECTION  OF POLLUTANTS OF  CONCERN  AND EXPOSURE  POINT  THRESHOLD
        CONCENTRATIONS

    The first step in the assessment process was the selection of  pollutants
of concern and determination of their human health-based thresholds (MCLs and
RSD/RfD-based concentrations,  as  described  in Chapter 2 of the text).  To this
end,  sampling data  from  the  domestic  and domestic/industrial  lagoons were
examined separately to identify  any  significant  differences  in  the types and
concentrations of  pollutants  detected.   Lagoon  wastewater  and  effluent data
were expected to most closely  approximate  concentrations  found  in the  lagoon
(see Chapter 3 in the text),  and  therefore  were used in this analysis.

    Those pollutants most  likely  to  be of concern  in ground water were identi-
fied by comparing maximum  lagoon  effluent concentrations to human health-based
threshold concentrations  based on RSD and  RfD  values.   (Because MCLs reflect
economic and  technological  feasibility,  they  were not used  for this initial
screening process.)  Although  use of  median effluent concentrations  would have
been more realistic than maximums, that approach was not possible because few
pollutants  had  median  concentrations above their  health  threshold  concen-
trations, (in some cases,  median  concentrations did not even exceed  analytical
detection limits).   Additionally, as  data  are  available  for only 23 of  5,476
lagoons, a median value  would  not be  statistically significant.

    The actual  selection  process was based primarily on the magnitude  of the
ratio  of  effluent  concentration  to   the human health-based threshold  for  a
given  pollutant.   Whenever this ratio was less than one (i.e., when the
maximum  effluent  concentration  was  less   than  the  corresponding  threshold
concentration),   that  pollutant was  considered unlikely to  cause  a  risk  to
human health via drinking  water and  was  eliminated from further  consideration.

4.1.1.1 Domestic Lagoons

    Only  three  of  the pollutants found in the  effluent  of domestic lagoons
exceeded their respective  health  thresholds (see  Table 4.1-1).   Therefore, all
three were  identified as  pollutants  of  concern for  this study.   It should be
noted that, although the maximum  effluent concentration for arsenic  is only 11
ug/1, the health threshold is  so  low  that it is exceeded by a factor of  4,721.

4.1.1.2 Domestic/Industrial  Layoons

    In  contrast to  domestic  lagoons, 21 compounds  found in  the  effluent  of
domestic/industrial lagoons exceeded  their respective  health thresholds (see
Table 4.1-2).  Because the number of  computer runs conducted had to  be kept to
a manageable  number,  this list of 21 chemicals  was  condensed.   The criteria
used in this selection process  were:

-------
                                       TABLE 4.1-1
                        POLLUTANTS OF CONCERN (DOMESTIC LAGOONS)
Pollutant
Maximum Effluent    Health  .
 Concentration     Threshold
    (ug/l)a         (ug/1)        Ratio0
                                      Frequency
                                          of
                         Mobility0    Detection6
Arsenic
      11
0.002336      4,721
          High
2/15
Chloroform
       2.3
0.430*
5.35      High
4/15
Tetrachloroethy1ene
       1.4
0.676s
2.07      High
2/15
dFrom Appendix 3.5 (Table 3.5-1).
bBased on RSD/RfD Values.
cMaximum Effluent Concentration: Health Threshold.
dOrganic carbon partition coefficient (K  ) less than 2,000 I/kg (Source:  Reference 1).
eFrom Appendix 3.5 (Table 3.5-2).  Includes layoon wastewater and effluent
 Risk specific dose (carcinogen).

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    o   Degree of threshold  exceedence  (high  ratio);
    o   Frequency of detection;
    o   Degree  of  mobility  (not  significant  for  steady-state  models,  but
        useful if transient  analyses  are  conducted); and
    o   Persistence in the  environment.

    The four pollutants selected on  the basis of these criteria  are  shown  in
Table 4.1-3, along with the  three domestic  lagoon  pollutants  (Table  4.1-1)  and
nitrates (included to illustrate the  effects  of  anaerobic  biodegradation).

4.1.2   EPACMS COMPUTER MODEL

    The procedure used  in  this study  for assessing  the  extent  of potential
ground-water contamination  necessarily  involves definition of a human  health-
based risk  threshold  concentration for  each  pollutant at  the exposure  point,
back-calculation along  the  migration pathway to  determine the corresponding
source concentration which yields the threshold concentration at  the  exposure
point, and comparison of the calculated  source concentration with  the  known  or
likely source concentration.  EPACMS  is  a two-dimensional  composite  numerical/
analytical  solution  model   designed  to  evaluate  the  migration  of dissolved
pollutants from  a  surface  impoundment  to points of interest in an  underlying
water-table  aquifer  (Figure  4.1-1).    The   cross-sectional  model  considers
spatial  variability of the flow  field induced by mounding  beneath the surface
impoundment  and  important  attenuation  mechanisms  such as  dispersion,  adsorp-
tion, first-order decay (including anaerobic, but  not  aerobic, biodegradation)
and dilution due to  recharge in  the  fully  saturated zone.   The  model  can also
assess adsorption  and  first-order  decay  in the  unsaturated zone, if  desired.
This option  was  not  selected  for the national  assessment, as the major decay
process  in  the unsaturated  zone would  be that of  biodegradation, for  which
rate constants were not generally available (see Section 4.1.3.4).

4.1.2.1 Code Features and Applicability

    EPACMS, a composite model,  comprises  four major  components  including:

    o   A  one-dimensional   finite-element  code  designed  to  simulate  steady-
        state moisture movement  through  the unsaturated zone;

    o   A  one-dimensional   analytical   solution for   advective  transport  of
        dissolved contaminants  through  the unsaturated zone;

    o   A one-dimensional cross-sectional analytical  solution  for  steady-state
        saturated  ground-water   flow  in  an   anisotropic  homogeneous   aquifer
        subject to leakage  from  above;  and

    o   A  one-dimensional  cross-sectional  analytical   solution  for  advective-
        dispersive transport in  an aquifer subject to  a variable flow  field.

    The  four  modules  are  designed  to  be utilized together  to  simulate  the
movement  of  pollutants from a  surface  impoundment (i.e.,   lagoon) through  the
unsaturated  zone  to the water  table and finally through  the saturated zone.
The modules  can also be used in  pairs to evaluate  either vertical  ground-water

-------
                                  TABLE 4.1-3

                  POLLUTANTS SELECTED FOR COMPUTER MODELLING
   Pollutant
                    Rationale
Arsenic
Benzene


Chloroform
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
Hexachlorobenzene
Nitrate


Tetrachloroethylene
o Highest ratio of lagoon effluent concentration
  to human health-based threshold concentration
  for both domestic and domestic/industrial
  lagoons
o Found in domestic lagoon monitoring wells with
  maximum ratio of 12,017 (ground-water concen-
  tration: threshold)
o Detected in 64% of domestic/industrial  lagoons
  sampled
o Persistent
o Highly mobile

o Retained for possible comparison with earlier,
  site-specific modelling (SWIFT Model)

o Organic with highest ratio for domestic
  lagoons (seventh for domestic/industrial
  lagoons)
o Detected in almost one-third of domestic
  lagoons sampled
o Relatively persistent
o Highly mobile

o High ratio for domestic/industrial  lagoons
o Persistent
o Highly mobile

o High ratio for domestic/industrial  lagoons
o Detected in over one-third of domestic/
  industrial lagoons sampled
o Persistent
o Highly immobile

o Anaerobic biodegradation coefficients are
  available for use in computer model

o Ratio exceeds 1.0 for domestic lagoons
o Moderately mobile

-------
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flow  and  contaminant  transport  in  the unsaturated  zone  or  cross-sectional
ground-water flow and contaminant transport  in  the  saturated  zone,  or  they  can
be used as individual components.

4.1.2.2 Model  Description

    The surface impoundment model is comprised  of  four modules  including:

    o   A one-dimensional unsaturated flow finite-element module;

    o   An analytical model for  advective transport of dissolved contaminants
        migrating from the surface impoundment  to  the  saturated zone;

    o   An  analytical  solution for  ground-water flow in  the  saturated  zone;
        and

    o   A semi-analytical model for transport of dissolved  contaminants  in  the
        saturated zone.

Each module can  be  used  as a stand-alone code  or the four modules can  be  run
sequentially to  evaluate the migration of  contaminants  from the  surface  im-
poundment and through  the  saturated zone.  In  addition, full  analysis  can be
performed for the unsaturated zone or the saturated  zone.

    When  EPACMS is  used  in the composite mode, the  evaluation  is initiated by
the simulation of moisture movement through  the unsaturated zone.   The simula-
tion  results in  a moisture profile which is used to  derive  the  seepage velo-
city  field in the  unsaturated  zone.   The seepage  velocity field  is then
utilized as input for an  analytical solution describing steady-state advective
transport through a  multilayered system (Figure  4.1-2).    For  the  unsaturated
zone  transport  simulation, the  variable  seepage  velocity  field derived from
the unsaturated  zone flow  simulation  is approximated by  taking the  average
saturation in a  series of  zones.   Vertical  transport  through  the  unsaturated
zone  is then simulated with  results  determined at the water  table.  The gene-
rated  value  of  concentration at the water  table  is  then  used as  a  boundary
condition for the saturated-zone advective-dispersi ve  transport solution.   The
derived concentration  is applied as a patch source of constant  concentration
boundary,  of  the top  of  the saturated  zone (Figure  4.1-3).   After  flow  and
transport are  evaluated  in the  unsaturated  zone,  a  similar analysis  is per-
formed for the saturated zone.   First,  the  ground-water velocity field  in  the
saturated zone,  which  is a product  of  the  regional  gradient  fluid flux from
the impoundment,  and any infiltration from  precipitation, is  generated  using
an analytical solution.  These velocities are  then  used as input to the satu-
rated  zone  transport module.  The transport module is then used  to  evaluate
advecti ve-dispersi ve  transport  of  dissolved  contaminants  in  the saturated
zone.  The final result- is a dimensionless concentration, CD, defined  as:



             Cwell
             source

-------
               FIGURE 4.1-2

SCHEMATIC OF LAYERED ANALYTICAL SOLUTION

 FOR TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE
    n
n
                        Land Disposal Area, A
                             c * c^

-------
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-------
where:

    CD        =  dimensionless  concentration
    C  ,,     =  concentration  at the exposure  point  (e.g., water supply well)
    C         =  concentration  at the source.

Therefore, for a given maximum  permissible  concentration at the exposure point
or well, the corresponding maximum allowable  lagoon seepage concentration is:


    c        =  -."111.
     source       r
                  °D
    For purposes of the national  assessment,  a  Monte  Carlo driver was added to
the process, enabling a wide variety of  input parameters to be taken into con-
sideration for a given hydrogeologic  region.   The resulting output, C^, is in
probabilistic form.  By assuming  a maximum  acceptable well concentration, this
output was transformed  (using  the above equation)  to reflect maximum permis-
sible source (i.e., lagoon seepage) concentrations.


4.1.2.3 Model Assumptions

    The major assumptions upon  which the flow module  is based include:

    o  Flow of  the fluid  phase is considered isothermal  and governed by
       Darcy's Law;

    o  The fluid considered is  slightly  compressible  and homogeneous;

    o  Hysteresis effects in the  constitutive relationships of relative perme-
       ability versus  water  saturation, and water saturation versus capillary
       pressure head, are assumed to be  negligible; and

    o  The simultaneous flow of a second phase  (i.e., air) can be disregarded.

The  simplifying  assumptions upon which  the  solutions for  advective solute
transport in a multilayered porous medium are based are as follows:

    o  The flow field is at steady state;

    o  The seepage velocity is  uniform in each  layer;

    o  The  rate of adsorption  by the solid matrix  is related to concentration
       levels in the ground water and matrix  by a linear isotherm;

    o  The  influence  of  longitudinal  and transverse  dispersion is  negligible;
       and

    o  The source is constant.

-------
    The saturated zone analytical  solution for ground-water  flow is  based  on  a
number  of  simplifying  assumptions  pertaining  to the  yeometry and material
properties of the saturated zone.   The key assumptions  are as  follows:

    o  The  saturated  thickness of  the aquifer  remains  constant despite  the
       fact that mounding occurs;

    o  The aquifer is  homogeneous;

    o  Ground-water flow is steady;

    o  Flow is isothermal and governed by  Darcy's Law;  and

    o  The fluid is slightly compressible  and homogeneous.

    The major simplifying assumptions upon which  the solutions  for  advective-
dispersive solute  transport used  in the  saturated  zone analysis  are based
include:

    o  The flow field  is at steady state;

    o  The seepage velocity is  uniform in  each set-up;

    o  The rate of adsorption  by  the solid matrix is related  to concentration
       levels in the ground-water  matrix by a linear  isotherm;

    o  The source is constant;

    o  Each strip is homogeneous and isotropic;

    o  Each strip is approximated  as  infinite  in  horizontal length  and  there-
       fore  the ratio  of  horizontal  dispersivity to  strip  width  for cases
       where horizontal  flow is dominant should be ğ1;  and

    o  For the  constant concentration boundary condition,  the  amount of  mass
       entering  the system via vertical  dispersion  is much  smaller than by
       advection.  (This assumption may be  invalid for cases where  the ratio
       of horizc/ntal to vertical velocity  is  large).

4.1.3   DETERMINATION  OF MODEL  INPUT DATA

    As  shown in  Figure 2-1 of the  text, the first step  in  the Monte Carlo
method  is generation of  a problem set,  or assembly of  a complete set of input
parameter  values.   Individual   values  are selected at  random based on their
frequency  distributions  and  interrelationships.   Table   4.1-4  lists   the
required input  parameters  and  their  distribution type,  as  selected for  this
study.   In  applying the EPACMS model  to  the municipal lagoon  study, certain
modifications to  the  general  input  structure  were  needed to  represent   the
nature  of  the data available  and  the problems and issues  specific  to  lagoon
systems.   The  approaches used  to identify  and  define  these  values are  dis-
cussed below.

-------
                                  TABLE 4.1-4

                         SUMMARY OF EPACMS INPUT DATA
                               (Saturated Zone)
    Parameter (units)
Symbol
Distribution Type
Mean particle diameter of the
 aquifer medium (cm)

Hydraulic gradient (%)

Thickness of the saturated zone (m)

Ground-water pH (standard units)

Ground-water temperature ( C)

Net infiltration (m/yr)

Lagoon seepage rate (m/yr)

Fractional organic carbon content
 of subsurface environment

Hydrolysis constants   ,   ,
  Acid-catalyzed (mole" hr  )
  Neutral (hr"1)       .   ,
  Base-catalyzed (mole  hr  )

Anaerobic biodegradation
 constant (second" )

Normalized distribution coeffi-
 cient for organic carbon (mg/1)
              p
Lagoon area  (m  )
Distance to exposure point,
 measured from downgradient edge
 of lagoon (m)

Longitudinal  dispersivity (m)
Vertical dispersivity (m)
   d        ^°9iQ unif°rm


   s        Exponential

   B        Exponential

   pH       Normal

   T        Normal

 FLUXI      Uniform

   q        Uniform

   f        "Johnson SB Distribution"
            Single value, chemical-specific
            Single value, chemical-specific
            Single value, chemical-specific

            Single value, chemical-specific
            Single value, chemical-specific
            Non-standard distribution
             (see Section 6.4.3)

            Non-standard distribution
             (see Section 6.4.3)
            Defined as a function of
             distance to the exposure
             point: 
-------
4.1.3.1 Hydrogeologic Parameters

    The  vulnerability  of  each hydrogeologic  setting  region and subregion  of
the DRASTIC System  (Chapter  2  of the text) to ground-water pollution  is
indexed by  key  factors  controlling  the migration of pollutants from the  land
surface to  the  ground-water table.   The  acronym DRASTIC was formed from  the
following key factors:

    D = Depth to water
    R = Recharge (net)
    A = Aquifer media
    S = Soil media
    T = Topography (slope)
    I = Impact of vadose zone
    C = Conductivity  (hydraulic)  to the aquifer

    Each  factor is weighted for  its relative  importance  with  respect to other
factors and  rated  by its likely  effect  on ground-water pollution  potential.
The product of the weight  and rating for  each  factor is then added  to generate
the DRASTIC index for a specific  setting.   Thus,  the higher  the  DRASTIC index,
the higher the ground-water pollution potential  (or the  increase in ease  with
which the pollutant on the  land  surface reaches  the  ground-water table).   The
DRASTIC index does not provide the  impact  of  ground-water pollution directly.
The impact  of  ground-water  pollution  could be indexed to key risk  factors  as
given by the acronym  IMPACT.

    I = Inclination of  the water  table (gradient)
    M = Measured horizontal  distance to the exposure point
    P = Population exposed
    A = Application rate of  pollutants
    C = Concentration of pollutants
    T = Toxicity of pollutants

    The  IMPACT  factors  are  site   and  facility-specific  and  therefore  are  not
provided in the DRASTIC system.  (See Reference 2 for a further  description  of
the DRASTIC system.)

    Although  the DRASTIC  system   does  not  provide sufficient information  for
the evaluation of  the potential  impact of  ground-water contamination in terms
of  human  health  risk,  selected  parameters  from  DRASTIC  (notably aquifer  and
hydraulic  conductivity),  combined  with  general  knowledge  of  topography  and
assumptions regarding regional  hydraulic  gradients  (which control the velocity
of  ground-water  flow),  can  be used  as  key inputs  for the  lagoon  study.   In
addition, the  DRASTIC  classification  of  the entire nation  into unique hydro-
geologic  settinys  can  be compared  with  the  actual  lagoon  population within
each setting,  leading  to  a  systematic  national  assessment  as  well as to  the
identification of potential  problematic situations.

    In  an  effort  to  concentrate the hydrogeologic  scope of this  project  on
those areas  with siynificant lagoon  populations, the  DRASTIC  map  was super-
imposed  on  a lagoon  distribution  map,  thus  identifying  the DRASTIC  regions
with high  lagoon populations  (see  Figure  4.1-4).    As  a result,  seven major

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DRASTIC regions with high lagoon concentrations were were selected  for  evalu-
ation.  These  major  DRASTIC  regions  are mainly in the central  United  States,
but several  regions extend to encompass areas of lower lagoon  density.  The  15
DRASTIC regions,  including  the seven  selected  regions,  are  listed in  Table
4.1-5.

    Each DRASTIC region is divided  into subregions  which  represent the  various
hydrogeologic  settings typically found in the  region.   For example,  DRASTIC
Region 5 consists  of  hydrogeologic  settings  5A (Ogallala), 5B  (Alluvium),  5C
(Sand Dunes), 50 (Playa Lakes),  and 5E  (Braided  River Deposits). These  hydro-
geologic settings  were individually analyzed  to  characterize  them by  their
hydraulic conductivity  range,  aquifer  media,  and  geomorphological   features.
Once  this  analysis was accomplished,  those  settings  with similar  character-
istics were regrouped into nine larger  categories containing  comparable  ranges
of hydrogeologic parameters.   Table  4.1-6 lists the new categories  and their
associ ated  setti ngs .

    Next, the hydrogeologic  data for each category were  compiled for input  to
EPACMS.  These parameters  include  (see  Table  4.1-4).

    o   mean particle diameter  of the aquifer medium
    o   hydraulic gradient (slope of  the water  table)
    o   thickness of the saturated  zone
    o   net infiltration (net precipitation recharge)

Estimated ground-water  velocities  for  the nine categories  are presented  in
Table 4.1-7.

    Other subsurface  parameters listed in Table 4.1-4 (e.g.,  ground-water  pH
and temperature, subsurface  fractional   organic  carbon content,  etc.) were the
same for all hydrogeologic categories.

    A third class of parameters, longitudinal  and vertical  dispersivities, was
originally defined  as  functions of distance  to the exposure point  (see Table
4.1-4).  For this  study,  the definition of the  two parameters  was modified  to
reflect more accurately realistic  situations.

    This  modification   involved   the   division  of  dispersivity   into  two
categories:  under  the source  (i.e.,  lagoon)  and  outside  the source  (i.e.,
downgradient  from  the lagoon).    To  ensure  a constant  rate   of mass  (i.e.,
pollutant)   entering  the aquifer from  the source  with  each Monte Carlo
iteration,  dispersivity  was  held  constant underneath  the  source.   This was
accomplished  by defining  longitudinal dispersivity  under  the source as   a
function of lagoon area:

                             <*L  = 0.5 (fA)

    The  definition of longitudinal dispersivity downgradient  from  the  source
was  left  unchanged,  except  for the specification  of  a maximum  value of  60
meters,  corresponding to  commonly  encountered  regional  values  (3).    As   a
result of these  modifications, the corresponding values  of  vertical  dispersi-
vities (ct ) changed, although the definition  ofcx.   remained  the same.

-------
                               TABLE 4.1-5
                             DRASTIC REGIONS
     Region Number
      Region Name
          1
          2*
          3
          4
          5*
          6*
          7*
          8*
          9*
         10*
         11
         12
         13
         14
         15
Western Mountain Ranges
Alluvial Basins
Columbia Lava Plateau
Colorado Plateau and Wyoming Basin
High Plains
Nonglaciated Central Region
Glaciated Central Region
Piedmont and Blue Ridge
Northeast and Superior Uplands
Atlantic and Gulf-Coastal Plain
Southeast Coastal Plain
Alluvial Valleys
Hawaiian Islands
Alaska
Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands
Source:  Reference 2

* Regions selected for the municipal lagoon study based on lagoon
  population.

-------
             TABLE 4.1-6



HYDKOGEOLOGIC CATEGORIES AND SETTINGS
Category
1









2






3
4














5





6



7
8
9
Setting
Number
2E
5A
5D
6B
7Ea
7Eb
9B
9F
lOAb
lOBa
2B
2C
20
5B
7C
8B
lOAa
5C
5E
6Fa
6Fb
6G
7Ab
7Ba
70
7H
8E
9Db
9E
9Ga
9Gb
lOBb
IOC
7Aa
7Bb
7F
7G
8C
9C
6A
6C
6Da
6Db
6H
7Ad
7Ae
Setting Name
Playa Lakes
Ogallala
Playa Lakes
Alluvial Mountain Valleys
River Alluvium with Overbank Deposit
River Alluvium without Overbank Deposit
Alluvial Mountain Valleys
Moraine
Shallow Surficial Aquifers
River Alluvium with Overbank Deposit
Alluvial Mountain Valleys
Alluvial Fans
Alluvial Basins (Internal Drainage)
Alluvium
Moraine
Alluvial Mountain Valleys
Confined Regional Aquifers
Sand Dunes
Braided River Deposits
River Alluvium with Overbank
River Alluvium without Overbank
Braided River Deposits
Glacial Till over Outwash
Outwash
Buried Valley
Beaches, Beach Ridges, and Sand Dunes
River Alluvium
Glacial Till over Outwash
Outwash
River Alluvium with Overbank
River Alluvium without Overbank
River Alluvium without Overbank Deposit
Swamp
Glacial Till over Bedded Sedimentary Rocks
Outwash over Bedded Sedimentary Rocks
Glacial Lake Deposits
Thin Till over Bedded Sedimentary Rocks
Mountain Flanks
Mountain Flanks
Mountain Slopes
Mountain Flanks
Alternating Sandstone, Limestone, and Shale-thin Soil
Alternating Sandstone, Limestone, and Shale-deep Regolith
Triassic Basins
Glacial Till over Sandstone
Glacial Ti 1 1 over Shale

-------
                                 TABLE 4.1-7

                     ESTIMATED GROUND-WATER VELOCITY FOR
                      THE NINE HYDROGEOLOGIC CATEGORIES
Category Estimated Ground-Water Velocity (m/yr)a
1 25
2 10
3 76
4 36
5 32
6 0.3
7 0.1
8 51
9 0.1
- 364
- 251
- 760
- 760
- 203
- 64
- 48
- 376
- 48
Estimated on the basis of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient.

-------
4.1.3.2 Lagoon Seepage Rates

    An assessment of potential  seepage rates from lagoon systems was made to
establish a range of hydraulic  loadings for  input  into the EPACMS model.  This
assessment focuses  on seepage  from lagoons  through permeable liners and
unlined lagoons.  The effects of accumulated sludge and self-sealing are also
addressed.  (Synthetic liners  are considered  to  be  essentially impermeable and
are therefore not included  in  this  analysis).


4.1.3.2.1  Theoretical Calculation  of  Seepage Rates.  The rate of seepage from
layoons  is  dependent on  the  water  depth,  liner  hydraulic  conductivity and
liner thickness and can be  calculated  from the  rate of flow in saturated media
using Uarcy's Law (4):

                               v    =    K (dh/dl)

where

    v       =  Darcy's velocity  (length/time)
    K       =  hydraulic conductivity  coefficient  (length/time)
    dh/dl   =  hydraulic gradient

Figure 4.1-5 presents a schematic of  a  lagoon system with water depth (D) and
a liner of known hydraulic  conductivity (K)  and  thickness (t).  Assuming:  (1)
the liner is completely saturated;  (2) the underlying aquifer has an hydraulic
conductivity greater  than  that  of the liner;   (3) the  ground-water  table is
below the liner; and  (4) accumulated  sludge does not affect seepage, then the
seepage equation developed  from  Darcy's law  is:

                                S  =    K(D+t)
                                          t

For  seepage, S,  in  inches per  day  (in/day),  K in centimeters per  second
(cm/sec), and D, t in feet  (ft),  the  seepage  equation becomes:

                  S   =   3.4  x 104 K   (D+t)
                                        t

    Figure  4.1-6 presents  a  summary  of seepage  rates for various water depths
and  liner  characteristics  based  on this seepage  equation.   To  illustrate,  a
lagoon having a 10-foot water  dep_th would seep  at  0.04 in/day through a 1-foot
thick  clay  liner having X  =  10"  cm/sec.   However,  for  a  3-foot  compacted
earth  liner  with  K = 10"  cm/sec, the  seepage  rate would  be  1.47  inches per
day at a  10-foot  water  depth.   If  the water table is  above the  bottom of the
liner, seepage  would  be  reduced  proportionally  to  the  change  in head between
the water table and water surface elevation  in  the  lagoon.  Therefore, for the
identified  liner  characteristics,  Figure  4.1-6  represents maximum  expected
seepage  rates   from  a lagoon  system.   Typical    permeabilities for  various
liners are presented in  Table  4.1-8 (b).

-------
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-------
                                  TABLE 4.1-8
             PERMEABILITY OF VARIOUS LINERS AND GEOLOGIC MATERIALS


        Material                                Permeability (cm/s)

Liner
    Soil cement                                         10"6
    Gunite                                              10"7
    Compacted clay                                 10"6 to 10"10
                                                      /*       Q
    Compacted bentonite plus earth                 10"  to 10"
    Asphalt concrete                                    10"
    Unreinforced concrete                               10"


Geologic Material
    Glacial till                            ' '      10"4 to 10"10
    Clay                                           10"6 to 10"10
    Silt, loose                                    10"3 to 10"7
    Silt sand                                      10"1 to 10"5
    Clean sand                                      1   to 10"4
    Gravel                                         102  to 10"1
Source: References 4 and 5.

-------
    Application  of  the permeabilities  in Table 4.1-8 to Figure 4.1-6 for the
range of water depths  typical  of lagoon systans  (4  to  20 ft)  indicates that
for readily available  liner materials (K  =  10"  to  10~  cm/sec), seepage rates
can vary from less  than  0.01  in/day to 1.4 in/day.  This represents a varia-
tion of over two  orders  of magnitude.   However, the maximum saepage rate can
be  reduced  to  less  than  0.1  in/day by  a  liner with  K  =  10   cm/sec  and  a
thickness of one  foot.   This  is representative of  a  typical  bentonite clay
liner design.

    For unlined  lagoons, seepage rates  are dependent on the hydraulic conduc-
tivity  of  the native  soil (excluding the  effects of  an  overlying  sludge
layer).  Freeze and Cherry (4)  have compiled ranges for various consolidated
geologic deposits (shown  in Table 4.1-8).   Assuming  that  a compacted native
earth liner decreases  the  hydraulic  conductivity  1 to 2 orders of magnitude,
seepage rates  determined from Figure 4.1.6 would be in excess of 2 in/day for
gravelly, sand  and silt aquifers (depending also on the depth of water in the
lagoon and  thickness of the compacted earth layer).

4.1.3.2.2   Effects  of the Sludge  Layer.  Table  4.1-9  presents  a summary of
measured seepage   rates from unlined municipal  lagoon  systems  which  are known
to have  a  sludge  layer.   These  data indicate the relative impact  of a sludge
layer on layoon seepage  caused  by  self-sealing  mechanisms,  such  as  physical,
chemical and biological clogging.   Seepage  rates  range from 0.04 to 1.3 inches
per day  (1,000  to  35,300 gallons per day per acre,  god/ac)  and  reflect
hydraulic characteristics of botn  the sludge  layer  and underlying soils.

    The thickness  of the sludge  layer,  sludge/soil  hydraulic conductivity, and
location of the  water  table were not  measured  for the  lagoon  systems refer-
enced in Table 4.1-y.  However,  the data in Table  4.1-9  indicate the presence
of a sludge layer  that  significantly reduces  the  expected rate of seepage.  In
four studies of  lagoon systans located  in sandy soils, expected seepage rates
greater than 2  in/day  were reduced to  values  of  0.35,  0.34,  0.18,  and 0.12
in/day, respectively,  presumably due to the effect  of a sludge layer.  In more
permeable silt,  sands,  and gravels,  seepage rates of  0.61 to 1.3 in/day occur-
red through the  sludge layer.   These  data suggest that the degree  of self-
sealing is  dependent on the underlying  geologic media.

    Intensive  studies  of  seepage  from  lagoons  in  Minnesota  suggest  that the
hydraulic conductivity of  permeable soils may  be decreased  one to two orders
of magnitude by  the accumulation of a  sludge layer.  However, fluctuations in
the water table  above  the bottom of  the lagoon  system may also be the cause of
the reduced seepage as noted  in these  studj,es  (6).  The measured soil/sludge
hydraulic conductivity  was approximately  10"  cm/sec.  Therefore, for a 1-foot
sludye/soil liner,  the seepage  rate would be  0.37  in/day  at  a 10-foot water
depth (see Figure  4.1-6)..

    The  rate  and extent  of sludge deposition  significantly  affects seepage
from unlined lagoon  systems.  For  at least  three  cases (multiple cell systems,
lagoons  receiving  primary  effluent,  and  intermittently  used lagoons)  the
degree  of  sealing  will  vary  widely.   Thus  there is  much  uncertainty in
applying seepage   rates  to the total area of a  lagoon system, or even a single
lagoon, as sludge may  settle out near the influent pipe.  Data on berm and/or

-------
                                  TABLE  4.1-9

                    SUMMARY  OF  MEASURED  SEEPAGE  RATES  FROM
                          MUNICIPAL  LAGOON  SYSTEMS
Water
depth
(feet)
5
6
5
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
5
5
-
Seepage Rate
Lagoon Type
Facultative
Facultative
Facultative
Facultative
Facultative
-
-
-
-
Maturation
Facultative
Facultative
Evaporation0
Facultative
Underlying Soil
Heavy silty clay
Light silty clay
Alkaline silt
Fine sand
Gravel and silt
Sandy soil
Sand and gravel
Sandy soil
Clay loam and shale
Mica and schist
Silt , sand , marl
Sand, silt , marl
Sand , sil t , marl
Sandy soil
in/day
0.3
0.29
0.65
1.2
1.3
0.35
0.61a
0.34
0.3
0.06-0.23
0.18
1.07
0.04-0.11
0.12
gpd/ac
8,200
7,900
17,700
32,600
35,300
9,500
16,600
9,300
8,200
1,700-6,300
5,000
29,000
1,000-3,000
3,400
Reference
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
10
10
Source: References 7, 8, 9, and 10.

^Includes net precipitation/evaporation,
 Used intermittently.
°Sealed with bentonite and soda ash.

-------
liner compaction  specifications  and actual  construction  practices collected
during  the  lagoon sampling  program were  very  limited.   In many  cases, it
appears   that  only berm  compaction (for  structural  stability)  was provided.
Compaction of  lagoon bottoms  to prevent  seepage  apparently was  not always
requi red.

4.1.3.2.3   Selection of  Lagoon Seepage  Rates  for the  National Assessment.  Of
the  23  municipal  lagoons investigated  as  part of  this  assignment,  8 had
liners,   2 had  compacted  native clay liners,  and 13 were unlined or consisted
of compacted native soils (see Tables 3-3  and 3-4  in  the text).  Table 4.1-10
presents an  hydraulic  balance for  each  of the  nine domestic lagoons sampled
(and Mandan, NO) based on hydrogeologic, liner, and flow information  obtained
during  the  field  investigation.   The  resulting seepage  rates  estimated for
these ten systems vary between 0.03 and  1.2  in/day  (excluding the percolation
beds at  the  Laramie,  WY  site), and represent 5 to 48 percent of the  influent
hydraulic load.   (Honeybrook,  PA experienced  an increase in discharge caused
by positive net precipitation, resulting in an effective seepage  rate  of  1% of
the influent loading.)

    Table  4.1-11   presents   a  summary   of  State   seepage   and  permeability
limitations  for lagoon  systems.   Thirty-four  States  have  limitations; 24
States  designate  allowable   seepage rates, 8 States  limit  maximum hydraulic
conductivities, and two States, Washington and Virginia,  regulate both seepage
and  liner permeability.  Eleven States  follow the "Ten  State  Standards"
seepage  rate of 500 gp1/ac (0.02  in/day),  based on  a  6-foot  water depth  (11).
Conversion of  these  conditions  to  a  20-foot water column  would  result  in a
seepage  rate  of 0.06 in/day.   Allowable seepage  rates  vary between  0.02 and
0.25  in/day  (1/64 to  1/4 in/dayl  or 500  _to 6,800  gpd/ac.   Allowable  linec
permeabilities  vary  between  10"   and   10"   cm/sec  (Alabama  requires   10"
cm/sec  for  synthetic  liners), with 7 States  requiring  10"   cm/sec.  Many of
these limitations  have  only  recently been enacted.   In 1978, only 16 States
limited  seepage from  lagoon  systems (5),  and the  Ten States Standard of 500
gpd/ac was just then implemented.

    Based on  the  assessment   of  potential  seepage  rates  from lagoon systems
(Tables  4.1-9  and  4.1-10), a range of  seepage rates, from 0.1 to 0.3 in/day,
uniformly distributed, was selected for use in computer modelling.  While the
low  end  of  state  seepage limitations,  0.02  in/day for  a 6-foot water column
(corresponding to 0.06 in/day for a 30-foot water  column),  is achievable with
standard materials and  construction practices currently available,  it is not
likely  that  a  high  proportion  of  existing  lagoons  conforms to this value.
Below these  values,  synthetic liners would  result in  virtual  impermeability
(less than 0.001 in/day).

    The  0.3  in/day value is at  the upper limit  of  State  limitations   (0.25
in/day)   and  represents' a reasonable sludge-layer  limiting  value for unlined
lagoons  under  many geologic  conditions.   For the majority of lagoon  systems,
values  greater  than  0.3 in/day  would result  in  the majority of the  influent
wastewater being  disposed  of  via  seepage.   Therefore, use of  seepage  rates
greater  than 0.3 in/day for  computer modelling would  simulate estimated  upper
bound  worst-case   conditions  for  domestic   and   domestic/industrial  lagoon
scenarios, beyond  the range  of reasonable values.

-------
             TABLE 4.1-10

ESTIMATED SEEPAGE RATES AND HYDRAULIC
        BALANCES AT 10 LAGOONS
 (9 Domestic, 1 Domestic/Industrial)
Influent
Flow, Q,
Site/Liner Type
Laramie, WY
Bentonite sealer
Percolation beds
Honeybrook, PA
Double bentonite
Potterville, MI
2 -ft clay seal
Standish, MI
Compacted clay soil
Britton Village, MI
Compacted clay soil
Buffalo, WY
Bentonite
Lander, WY
Bentonite
Mandan, NO
Compacted earth
Mi not, ND
Bentonite (assumed)
Me Ville, ND
Compacted earth
Unlined/sand
mgd
4.2
3.6
0.6
0.45
0.3
0.19
1.3
2.0
1.5
3.5
in/day
8.6
3.6
2.33
0.58
0.34
0.35
1.37
1.05
1.94
0.18
0.06 0.74
0.036 0.42
.Daily net Precipitation (+
Seepage Rate
in/day
1.2
3.6
0,024
0.027
0.125
0.17
0.032
0.034
0.37
0.03
0.3
>0.5
)/Evaporation (-)
gpd/acre
32,600
97,800
650
750
3,400
4,600
850
900
10,050
800
8,150
>13,600
based on
Net Effluent
P/Ea Flow, Q^
% Qi in/day % Q. ~
14
100
1
5
37
48
2
3
19
17
41
100
annual
-0.08
-0.08
+0.04
0
0
+0.01
-0.07
-0.06
-0.05
-0.05
-0.02
-0.02
average (P-E
85
0
101
95
63
54
93
91
78
55
57
0
).

-------
                                 TABLE 4.1-11

                   SUMMARY OF STATE SEEPAGE AND PERMEABILITY
                        LIMITATIONS FOR LAGOON SYSTEMS
State
Alabama
Arkansas
Colorado
Delaware
Georgia
Idaho
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Maine

Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Primary
Secondary
Nebraska
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carol ina
South Dakota
Primary
Secondary
Utah
Vi ryinia
Washington
Wisconsin

Wyoming
Permeability
K (cm/sec)
10"7 (Earthen liner)
10 * (Synthetic liner)




_7
10 '





iU








_7
10 '
/••
io-6c

^
lO'7
_7
10 '


.


10 7
10-7

in/day

0.02
0.03
0.02
0.12
0.25
t.
0.06°
0.25
0.02
0.02


0.12
0.02
0.02
0.25

0.02
0.04
0.25
0.02

0.02

0.12
0.02

0.25

0.02

0.06
0.12
0.25

0.25
10 (Soil and bentonite 0.04
liners)


0.12
Seepage
gpd/acre
a
500a
850a
500a
3,400
6,800

1,700
6,800
500a
500a


3,400
500a
500a
6,800

500a
1,200
6,800
500
a
500a

3,400
500a

6,800
a
500a

1,700
3,400
6,800

6,800
1,000

3,400
.Ten State Standard based on 6-foot water depth (11).
C8ased on 6-foot thickness.
 Minimum 1-foot thickness, compacted on-site soils.

-------
4.1.3.3 Lagoon Area and Exposure Distance

    In the  original  use of EPACMS and preceding models, both lagoon area  and
distance to  the nearest exposure  point  were entered as  single  values.   For
this project, a  Monte  Carlo  approach was  selected to reflect more  accurately
the realistic variation  of those two parameters.   To  this end,  data on both
lagoon area  and  exposure distance were obtained  from  sample populations  and
compiled  to yield  frequency  distributions,  which were then  subjected to
curve-fitting  procedures  to  determine the  most  representative probability
distributions.

    For lagoon  area,  data  were compiled  from Table  3-1  (in the  text)  for
domestic lagoons.  Data for domestic/industrial  lagoons  (Table 3-2,  text) were
not included as  they could  not  be readily  combined  with  domestic  lagoon  data.

    Data for  the  exposure  distance distribution were obtained by selecting a
sample lagoon  population of 220  lagoons  and  conducting  an  exposure mapping
exercise to  identify distributions  of downgradient  receptors.   This mapping
technique is discussed below.

    For each lagoon, the distance to the  closest downgradient well within 2000
meters was determined from USGS 7.5-minute maps.  In measuring the distance to
the closest  well, both  private residential  wells  and  public water  supplies
were considered, as was the potential for  ground-water  interception  by  surface
water.  Wells located  downgradient from a  stream that was  likely to intercept
the contaminant  plume from the lagoon were  not included.   However, in cases
where the stream might not intercept all  of the plume,  wells  beyond  the  stream
were included.   For  the  facilities  without a potentially  affected well  within
2,000  meters,  exposure was assumed  to occur in -;he 2,000 meters to  infinite
distance range.

    These data are summarized in Table 4.1-12,  which gives  the probability  and
cumulative probability distributions for  the distance  to the closest well  at
municipal   wastewater  treatment facilities,  based  on  survey data from  220
facilities.   The  distribution provides  probabilities  that a   well  will  be
located within one of eight exposure ranges.

    As both  lagoon area  and exposure distance data are  reported  in  incremental
terms, an equal probability of  occurence  must be assumed within  a given  range.
The distributions determined on the  basis of  this assumption  are:
                             2
 Lagoon Area  (square meters, m )

    P(X)  = 2.36 x  104  (X -2'103)

    10,522 <_ X _< 943,760

 Exposure  Distance  (meters, m)
     P(X)  =  6.4  x  10"13  (X3) - 2 x 10"9 (X2) + 1.22 x 10"6 (X) + 5.84 x 10~4

     35< X <20UU

-------
                                 TABLE 4.1-12



                           DISTANCE TO NEAREST WELL
Distance Ranje
Lower
0
36
131
301
501
801
1,251
2,001

, X (meters)
Upper
35
130
300
500
800
1,250
2,000
Infinite

Number of
Wells within
Distance Range
4
18
28
35
35
25
17
58
TOTAL: 220
Probability
of Exposure
0.0182
0.0818
0.1273
0.1591
0.1591
0.1136
0.0773
0.2636
1.0000
Cumulative
Probability
0.0182
0.1000
0.2273
0.3864
0.5455
0.6591
0.7364
1.0000

Source: ICF, Inc., 1987

-------
    These distributions represent the probability of lagoon  area  or  exposure
distance equaling a specific value within  the  defined  range.   Details of the
distribution derivation are  presented in Appendix 4.2.

4.1.3.4 Chemical  Constants

    The preliminary results of  a literature search for  values  of hydrolysis
and other  chemical  constants  required  as  input to  EPACMS are presented  as
Appendix 4.3.  (It  should be noted that these values are subject to change,  as
additional   experimental data  become available).   Because of  the large  and
sometimes diverse number of  values obtained for a particular  constant, it was
necessary to  formulate a  basis  for  the  selection  of  a  corresponding single
value.   In  general, values  of  dubious  validity (e.g.,  "estimated  from values
which  were  themselves  estimated")  were  discarded  and the  remaining  values
averaged.   This  process is outlined in  more detailed form  in  Appendix  4.3.
Table 4.1-13 presents  the final  values used  in  the EPACMS computer runs.

    Table 4.1-13 shows that none of the pollutants investigated in this study
had values  for  all  five constants.   In one  case,  arsenic,  no data  were
available.   Although  biodegradation  is  known to occur for some  of  the other
pollutants  (e.g.,  tetrachloroethylene),  reliable   rate   constants  were  not
identified  in time for  inclusion  in  the  Report to  Congress.   Where constants
were not available or  a reaction was considered  insignificant, a default value
was assumed,  indicating no  attenuation  due to  that particular  process.   The
net result  of this assumption  was  the underestimation  of retardation  or
degradation  for a particular pollutant.

4.1..4   SELECTION OF  GENERIC MODELLING SCENARIOS

    As  discussed  in   Sections  4.1.3   and  4.1.1   of  this   Appendix,  nine
hydrogeoloyic categories and seven pollutants  were  selected  for the  national
assessment.    If  all  combinations  were to  be   investigated using  the EPACMS
model, a total of 63  runs would be  required,  covering approximately 9Q% of the
nation's 5,476 lagoons, as  shown in Table  4.1-14.   The  remaining 10% of the
lagoons are  scattered throughout  the Northwest, the  Rocky  Mountains and
Florida (see Table 4.1-5 and Figure 4.1-4  of  this Appendix).

-------
                                    TABLE 4.1-13

                       CHEMICAL CONSTANTS USED IN EPACMS RUNS
Pollutant
Arsenic

Benzene
Beryllium
Chloroform
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
Hexachlorobenzene
Nitrate

Tetrachloroethylene
K
oc
(ml/g)
NAa

59
NA
31
76
1.5xl05
NA

209
Ka
(mole" hour" )
NA
K
w
NA
0
_b
_b
NA
k
u
Kn
(hr'1)
NA
h
U
NA
3xlO"9
_b
_b
NA
K
U
Kb
(mole" hour" )
NA
k
U
NA
0.23
_b
_b
NA
K
U
Anaerobic
Biodegradation
(sec"1)
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
3.2xlO"6

NA
Source:  Appendix 4.3

j*Not available.
 Hydrolysis not significant.

-------
                              TABLE  4.1-14

              NUMBER  OF LAGOONS PER  HYDROGEOLOGIC CATEGORY*


Category
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
TOTAL
% OF TOTAL
Number of
Small .
Lagoons
894
555
23
1,766
376
319
255
116
132
4,436
90.6
Number of
Large
Lagoons
123
99
1
149
25
26
21
7
8
459
9.4
Number of
Total
Lagoons
1,017
654
24
1,915
401
345
276
123
140
4,895

 Because only seven of the 15 DRASTIC regions were included in the
 study, not all  of the nation's 5,476 lagoons are represented in this
.table.
 Flow rates less than 0.5 mgd.
 Flow rates greater than or equal  to 0.5 mgd.

-------
               APPENDIX 4.3

DETERMINATION OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
   FOR LAGOON AREA AND EXPOSURE DISTANCE

-------
                                 APPENDIX 4.2
                         DETERMINATION OF PROBABILITY
                           DISTRIBUTIONS  FOR  LAGOON
                          AREA ANU EXPOSURE DISTANCE
A.  General  Procedure
    (1) Take  probability  of  being within a given  range  and divide it by the
        size  of the range itself.   For example, take exposure  distances
        between 0 and 35 meters:
        (a)   0 £ X £ 35; probability  = 0.0182
        (b)   (0.0182)/(35-0)  = 0.000520
    (2) Do this for all  intervals
    (3) Plot the resulting data as a  step function  (e.g.,  all  unit  values from
        1 to 35 are 0.000520)  of  probability versus distance
    (4) Fit  a curve to the endpoints  or midpoints of the  steps
        (a)   Use step endpoint for exposure distance,  as lagoons in the 0-35
             range  are  likely to  be  closer  to  35 (also,  since  there is  no
             upper limit  on distances  greater  than 2000m, it is not possible
             to define a discrete "step" and assign probabilities to each unit
             value as done in  Item (1) above).
        (b)   Use step midpoint for area, as  approximately  60% of the  lagoons
             are in the first  increment (0 to  5.2 acres)

B.  Lagoon Area
    (1) Form of equation:  P  = AX8
                                   P
    (2) Correlation coefficient:   R  = 0.97  (see  graph)
    (3) Limits are step midpoints:  10,522 £ X _<  943,760
    (4) Equation:  P = 2.36 x  104 (X~2<103)

C.  Exposure Distance
    (1) Form of equation:  P  = AX3 +  BX2 + CX  + D
                                   p
    (2) Correlation coefficient:   R  = 0.91  (see  graph)
    (3) Limits are step endpoints (the step  above  2000  has no endpoint):
        3b <_ X <_ 2UOO
    (4) Equation:
        P =  6.4 x 10"13(X3)  - 2 x 10'9(X2)  +  1.22  x 10"6(X) + 5.84 x  10"4

-------
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-------
CM
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-------
         APPENDIX 4.3



SELECTION OF CHEMICAL CONSTANTS

-------
                                   APPENDIX  4.3

                     SELECTION OF  CHEMICAL CONSTANTS  BASED  ON
                               DATA COMPILED BY OSW
                      CHEMICAL CONSTANTS  USED  IN EPACMS  RUNS
Pollutant
Arsenic
Benzene
Beryl 1 ium
Chloroform
2,4-Di ni trotol uene
Hexachl orobenzene
Nitrate
Tetrachloroet'iylene
K
oc
(ml/g)
NAa
b9
NA
31
76
1.5xl05
NA
209
Ka
(mole" hour" )
NA
_b
NA
0
_b
_b
NA
_b
Kn
(hr"1)
NA
_b
NA
3xlO"9
_b
_b
NA
_b
Kb
(mole" hour" )
NA
_b
NA
0.23
_b
_b
NA
_b
Anaerobic
Biodegradation
(sec"1)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA"
NA
3.2xlO"6
NA
Not available.
Hydrolysis not  significant.

-------
Note 1:   Benzene

    Organic Carbon Partition Coefficient, IC-

         Value                              Source
    (a)   93                          Estimated from measured data
    (b)   920                         Experimentally measured  for  aqueous  es-
                                       tuarine colloids
    (c)   27.8                        Unknown
    (d)   65                          Estimated from estimated data

    - Discard (b) as not relevant to subsurface regime
    - Could  select  (a) only, but it  is  the highest value  and  thus  the least
      conservative
    - Average (a), (c) and (d)
    - Result is 59

Note 2:   Chloroform

    Organic Carbon Partition Coefficient, KQC

                                            Source
                                     Estimated from measured data
                                     Estimated from measured data
                                     Estimated from estimated data

    - Discard (c)
    - Could average  (a) and  (B), but  (a)  is found in Superfund Public Health
      Evaluation  Manual  and  was  the only  value  originally  reported  for use
      in initial  runs
    - Therefore,  pick  31

-------
    Neutral  Hydrolysis Constant, k

         Value                              Source
                q
    (a)  3 x 10                      Experimentally measured
                 _Q
    (b)  2.5 x 10                    Estimated from measured data
                  q
    - Pick 3 x 10   as more reliable (also, only value reported for use in
      initial  runs)

Note 3:  2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    Organic  Carbon Partition Coefficient, KQ-

         Value                              Source
    (a)  4b                           Estimated from estimated values
    (b)  107.2                       Unknown

    - Average  (a) and (b)
    - Result is 76

Note 4:  Hexachlorobenzene

    Organic  Carbon Partition Coefficient, EUp

         Value                              Source
    (a)  3900                         Estimated from measured data
    (b)  10-10                      Estimated from measured data
    (c)  0.00175                     Unknown
    (d)  3.954 x 105                 Unknown
    (e)  1.2 x 10                    Estimated from estimated data

    - Discard  (c) as being suspect
    - Discard  (e), which is "estimated from estimated data"
    - Take median (5 x 10 ) of the range in (b)
    - Average  (a), (d) and 5 x 104
    - Result is 1.5 x 105

-------
Note 5:  Nitrate

    Anaerobic Blodegradation  Rate  Constant

    Given  the  variety  of  constants  compiled  (different  depths,  incubation
times,  and  initial concentrations),  it was  decided  to pick  a constant
corresponding to the  greatest depth and longest incubation time.   Three
values,  15.6 x  106,  4.5 x  10"6,  and 3.2 x 10~6 second ~l fit these criteria.
The  latter  value,  3.2  x  10" ,  was  selected  to  reflect a  more conservative
approach (All data were experimentally measured).

Note 6:   Tetrachloroethylene

    Organic Carbon Partition  Coefficient,  KQC

                                           Source
                                     Estimated from measured data
                                     Estimated from estimated data
                                     Estimated from estimated data
                  4
         3.5 x 10                    Estimated  from estimated  data expressed
                                       in  dimensionless units
     (e)   166                         Source unknown
     (f)   364                         Estimated from estimated data

     - Discard  (d) as being  noncomparable
     - Discard  (b),  (c) and  (f)  which are "estimated from  estimated  values"
     - Discard  (e) as being  unknown
     - Choose (a), 209 as being  "estimated  from measured data."   (This value is
      the second most conservative.)

-------
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-------
1.1       Viscosity  unit  is "mPa-s"

1.2       Value o-f   Koc was calculated -from the Kow value  using  the equation
          Koc=O.48Kow.

1.3       Value o-f Kow was  obtained by computer•calculation,   using FRAGMENT
          calculation procedure.

1.4       In hr-1.   Estimated for  pH7 and  25C -from   data (Radding,  et al . )
          extrapolated from 10O-150C.   Corresponds to  "a -first  order rate
          constant -for  hydrolysis o-f 6.9 x 1O-12 sec  -1".   The  "validity of
          the extrapolation method has not been established".   This value is
          "in  sharp contrast"  to  the  first-order  rate constant of 0.045
          month-1   (Dillinger,   et.al.)  reflecting    a  "primarily  ionic"
          mechanism.  Discrepancies exist for other halomethanes.

1.5       Diffusivity in  air in cm2 s-1

1.6       In M-l hr-1.

1.7       In hr-1: at 25C.

l.S       ka=0  "No  acid  catalyzed mechanism".

1.9       In hr-1.

1.10      Specific gravity; relative to water at 4X.

1.11      Calculated from vapor pressure and solubility at 20C.

1.12      NER = pK "not environmentally relevant".

1.13      PNER = "photolysis not  environmentally relevant".

1.14      Specific gravity.

1.15      Koc in ml/g.

1.16      Level or   confidence =   error= greater then  one  order  of  magnitude
          (Note:  this  reference  contains   many   values    for    He;  all
          approximately the same  value).

2.1       Observed Cfrom   A. Leo,  Hansch, and Elkins;  Chem  Rev  71,525(1971)
          and C. Hansch and  A. Leo  "Substituent Constants  for Correlation
          Analysis in Chemistry and Biology" John Wiley &  Sons,  N.Y.,  1979]

2.2       Log Kow calculated as function of solubility.

2.3       Experimentally   determined  from  Kinematic  viscosity  at  20C 99.7V.
          pure, v=0.73952mm2/s and desnity d=0.8791 g/cm3.

2.4       Experimental 1 y determined from Kinematic  viscosity at  20C,  997. pc
          v=0.73920mm2/s,  and d as in footnote 2.3.

-------
2.5       Expermental1y  determined  -from   kinematic   viscosity v=0.69068 at
          25C,  99.77. pure,  density d=O.8737.

2.6       Aqueous  solubility;  determined   on   est^vanne  colloids; organic
          carbon  =  42.0mg/l.

2.7       Associated with  value -for  Kp, correlated  experimentally with GLC
          retention time.

2.8       100"/.  degradation;  benzene at 5ug/L; third subculture; representing
          biota  o-f   domestic   sewer   sludge.       1st   subculture  49'/.
          biodegradation.

2.9       66'/. removal;  biological treatment  system; B.Sug/L  in-fluent level;
          by municipal  activated sludge.

2.10      92% removal:  7.7  ug/L in-fluent level;  municipal  activated sludge.

2.11      90-1007. removal;  industrial activated  sludge.

2.12      967. removal;  aerated lagoon; 6.53ug/L  in-fluent  level.

2.13      997.   removed;   160ug/L  in-fluent   level;   activated  sludge  with
          powdered  activated  carbon added.

2.14      >607.  removed; 10,250ug/L  in-fluent  level.     Industrial activated
          siudge.

2.15      >847.  removed;    46.9ug/L  in-fluent  level;   Industrial   activated
          siudge.

2.16      Kd=2.4, Hasting silty clay loam.

2.17      Kd=l.B  Overton  silty clay loam.

2.18      Kd=3.O9 Al-saturated montmori11inite.

2.19      Kd=4.4  Ca-saturated montmori11onite.

2.20      At  25C;   corresponds  with  vapor  pressure  value  o-f  95.l9mmHg.
          Concentrations   in   water  at  equilibrium   with threshold value  =
          O. 15mg/l_.

2.21      At  40C;    corresponds   with   vapor    pressure   o-f   182.B6mmHg.
          Concentration  in  water  at   equilibrium   with  threshold value  =
          0.08mg/L.

2.22      At 25C; see -footnote 2.20.

2.23      At 40C; see footnot 2.21.

2.24      Saturation vapor  pressure; determined  in conjunction  with Kd  (see
          •footnote  2. 25) .

-------
2.25       At   23. BC  Uptake  of   benzene   vapors by dry woodburn  0   relative
           humtdty soil: ^30mg/g  at  P/P  =1;  13mg/g at P/P  =0.85;  ^llmg/g at
           P/P  =O.B; ^7.5mg/g at  P/P   =0.35.
           At   2OC  uptake  at  5OV.   relative  humidity; ~8mg/g  at  P/P  =0.6;
           ~5mg/g at P/P  =0.4; (linear  relationship).

           At  907. relative humidity  ~4mg/g at P/P  =0.6; ^2mg/g  at  P/P  =0.5.

           P/P  =  relative  vapor   concentration;   P  =  equilibrium partial
           pressure; DO = saturation  vapor pressure.

2.26       At  25C [given as l,789gm-3]
           •from McAuliff C., J. Phys  Chem  70,  1267(1966)

2.27       From Zwolinski, Wilhoit,  "Handbook  o-f  Vapor pressures and  Heats o-f
           Vaopor i zati on o-f Hydrocarbons and   Related Compounds"  API,  44-TRC'
           Publ.  in Sci  and Eng.,   1971.

2.28       Calculated -from measured  values.

2.29       Experimentally determined.

2.3O       Diffusivity in air.

2.31       Hydrolysis not si gni -f i cant .

2.32       NHFG = "No hydrolyzable -functional  group".

2.33       Viscosity unit is "mPa-s"

2.34.      Value o-f  Koc was  calculated -from the Kow value   (135), using  the
           equation Koc=O.48Kow.  (See footnote 2.38.)

2.35       Specific gravity; relative to water at 4C.

2.36       Error  (level  of confidence) = *. 3O"/..

2.37       Calculated from vapor pressure  and  solubility at 25C.

2.3B       Calculated by computer  calculation  (FRAGMENT).

3.1        Value  of koc  was calculated from the kow value using  the  equation
           koc=O. 48kow.

3.2        Value  of  kow was obtained by computer calculation, using  FRAGMENT
           calculation procedure.

3.3        Diffusivity in air   calculated  using   F,S  and  G  method  (Lyman,
           1982) .

3.4        Photolysis  of  solid  hex achl orobenzene  on silica gel   "extremely
           slow":.   Sample irradiated for  4.5h in  sunlight  "extremely  small
           amounts of   photopr oduc t s" .  Crystalline hex achl or obenz ene exposed

-------
          5   months   to  "sun  lamp   or   laboratory  illumination"   had  no
          detectable photoproducts as  determined by (by GLC or HPLC).

3.5       A-fter   15  days  irradiation  in   sunlight;    38V.  recovered  from
          hexachl or o&enzene in m;
          Cs  =  concentration or vapor  density  o-f volatile  substance in air
          at  soil  sur-face (in mg/liter);
          C2  =  concentration in air at bottom o-f soil  layer (in  mg/liter);
          L   =  soil  depth  (in  cm),   Pa   =  soil  air-filled  porosity (in
          cm3/cm3); and Pt = total soil  porosity (in cm3/cm3).

3.17      Vapor pressure calculated -from log p=12.94-(5279/T).

3.18      Literature values "extrapolated  -from the  data  o-f Sears  and Hopke
           (1949).

-------
3.19      Experimentally determined;  calculated  -from  vapor  density (wt/vol>
          by  p  =  Cwt/vol) (RT/M).

3.20      From  unpublished data M. Yang and W.J.  Farmer.

3.21      At  in-finite dilution.
                                                    i
3.22      Solubility 2.22 ppb in creek water  (C.  Gn-f-fin  and Chou, 1980).

3.23      Henry's  law constant calculated -from  vapor pressure and solubility
          at  25C.

3.24      HNES  =  "Hydrolysis not significant".

4.1       N.A.D  "No   Appreciable  Degradation"   in   aerobic  or  anaerobic
          condition.

4.2       No  observable biodegration.

4.3       Photolysis in purified water.   The rate of substrate disappearance
          is  represented  by  the  linear  combination o-f  -four contributing
          processes;   purging,   photolysis   ozonization,    and  photolytic
          oxidation.   Data refers to photolysis process only.

4.4       In  lake  water.   See -footnote 4.3.

4.5       No  degradation observed in live or dead culture.

4.6       From  Chiou,  Peters, Freed; Science 1979,206,831.

4.7       From  log Koc = O.72 log Kow •*• O.49.

4.8       From  log  Koc = 1.00 log  Kow-0.21  (Kar i chkho-f -f,  Brown,  Scott,  Water
          Res 1979.13,241).

4.9       From  Chiou,  Schmeddling, Kohnert, Env.  Sci.  Tech.  1977,11,475.

4.10      From  average o-f six measurement b (extropol oted)  from measured.

4.11      Measured half-lives 
-------
           a  meas tl/2 7.0hr CC12=CC12=40ppm NO;  20ppm

           a  meas tl/2 3.Bhr CC12=CC12=10Oppm NO;  SOppm

4.12       Hydrolysis "not relevant"

4.13       Calculated from  Kow -MocMs)   Koc = Kp (s") x.bx (Kow) a in units  o-f  m3
           m3 g-1 QC  (not a dimensi on1 ess  ratio).

4.14       Calculated;  empirical relationship.

4.15       Calculated ratio o-f molecular di-ffusivity o-f  perchloroethylene  in
           aqueous  solution  to  di -f -f usi vi ty  o-f  oxygen in aqueous  solution.
           Di fnensi onl ess, individual di f -f usi vi ty terms in area   (m2>  per time
           
-------
          Predominant  species  in  reduced  conditions; unstable  in  oxidized
          conditions where eV=Q.

          Various   •formulas  exist  -for   the  acid  (which  is  hypothetical
          entity);  H3AsO3  or HAsO2.  Usually considered indential;  but  data
          exists di •ğ rerent i at i ng between  the two (see re-ference 46).

6.2       Water  solubiity o-f arsenious acid  is  not 'appl i cabl e,   since solid
          arsenious acid  does not exist  outside o-f solution.  Solubility  is
          de-fined  -for arsenite anions as  speci-fic salts.

6.3       Vapor  pressure  o-f  Arsenious   acid  not  applicable   since solid
          compound  does not exist in -free state.

6.4       Viscosity -for  this parameter   is  not applicable since  it  is not a
          fluid.

6.5       Density  - this parameter not applicable  to arsenious   acid;  since
          pure compound does not exist.   Paramter is relevant -for; compounds
          o-f  arsenious  acid   (ex:  salts),   and   solutions  o-f  orgenites
           (arsenous acid salts).

6.6       Values -for this parameter are applicable only to a stable  solution
          containing arsenite anion.  The solution species that   exists  is a
          •funciton  o-f pH and electrochemical  potential  H2As03- "-H+

6.9       For H2As03 --- >HAs03-2 t-H-f

6.10      For HAsQ32 --- >As03-3 +h+

6.11      For HAs02 — >As02- +H+

6.12      For H2As03 --- >HAsOss-
7.1       Arsenic  Acid.    Arsenic  acid exists  as H3AsO4  only in pure-solid
          phase.   Arsenic acid in natural  ground water  systems exists   as a
          solution that   is dissociated  to  an  extent contfoled  by  pH.   In
          solution H3AsQ4, H2AsQ4-2,  HAs04-3,  and  As04-3  occur.   H3AsQ4
          exists   as  main  species  in  acidic   environment (pH
-------
7.2        The  solubility  of   arsenates  is   controlled   by  the  metal  ions
            present.   Any  dissolved  arsenic acid species will   precipitate out
            of  solution  when dissolved metals  are present,  and arsenotes  will
            redissolve when the concentration of  metal cations in  the  aqueous
            en*, v ronmen t  is less than the concentration of metal cations in the
            solubility product constant (Ksp).


            Arsenic acid is formed •from  dissolved  As2O5   in   watar  or  As203
            (depending on  pH,  eV>.


            Arsenic  acid    (arsenate)   is  interconvertable  to  arsenite  by
            reduction.   Wide application  of  this  redox   (AsIII+2e—>AsV)  is
            employed  in  chemistry.    The lower  valence states of many  metals,
            inorganic anions,  etc.,  participate  in redox reaction^.;  i.e. Fe + 2;
            Cu+1;  Cr-ğ-3,   etc.


7.3        Arsenic  acid   is  subject   reduction   by biodegradation to arsine
            (AsH3), a volatile gas,  and to methyl  and dimethyl arsine.


7.4        Does  not  exist  in gaseous  state "2H3As04—>3H20  •*•  As205"

7.5        Not  applicable;  a solid.


7.6        Calucalted for  H3As04—>H2As04- +H+

7.7        For  H2As04—>HAs04-2fHğ


7.8        For  HAs04-2—>AsO4-3*H+


7.9        The  following   equations describe   the solubility   of arsenic  acid
            (arsenate) with  cations  in solution  (see footnote 6.9).  K ğ Ksp
            solubility is  a function of  pH.


                       AsSlrealgerl - SH.O = HAsO-- . SO;' - I le - I5H '      -83 13
                       As.S,(Orp.ment)l6H,Ots:HAiOj- ğ2SO;' ğ2:;ğ23H-  -lĞ0Ğ
                       M.S,(Ğ). 20H.Oc2HAO;- ğ3SOJ- *30eğ38H'      -219)4
                       AJAsO.(c) ğ H ' a A1 * ğ HAiOi'                -4.TO
                       Ca,(AsO.),(c) . 2H- e3Ci!' ğ JHAsOi'            -"l.9f
                       Cd,(\sO.r.rc| - :H- =3Cd=- .:H\sO--            -897
                       Cu,(AsO,)J(c) - 2H • =3Cu:- ğ 2HAsOj-            -1497
                       Fe-VsO,ld'- H ' = Ft1' - HAğOj"                -85'
                       Mn,(AsO4).(c) . :H - =3Mn;' . 2HAsOj-            -851
                       Nc,eAsO.):(c) - 2H-=:3Ni:- + 2HAsO;-             -2J1
                       Pb,(AsO4)5
-------
9.1    -   Nitrates  (ND3)   do not  exist as  stable  species per se, but as the
          anionic portion  of a  solid; crystalline   ionic species, occuring
          with  a  cation, forming  a neutral  molecule.   (The ionic character
          o-f these  crystals exists in degrees  depending  on  the metal.)   It
          is in the -form that nitrates enters  the  environment - as dissolved
          salts  (or less  -frequently, -from dissolved  nitrogen oxides).

          Nitrogen  oxides  dissolved in  water  form   nitric acid (nitrates),
          nitrous   acid  (nitrites,  etc.     The   many varieties of nitrogen
          oxides are in equilibrium with each  other  via  oxidation-reduction,
          photolysis,     evaporation,    dissolution    etc.,   in   complex
          interrelationships that also include  molecular nitrogen   (N2) and
          ammonia   (NH3) .    Nitrates  dissolved in  water in varying amounts
          depending on the cation-forming   "free"  nitrate  anions.   Nitric
          acid  is special case of nitrates  (hydrogen nitrate).

          Nitrates    and    other   species    of  nitrogen  are  involved  in"
          bi odegradati on/bi otr ansf or mat i on .

9.2       Overall   disappearance  of  nitrate   by  "bi odegradati on "  =  K  =
          deni tri f i cati on +  reduction to   ammonia.   K = KD •+• KA.  KA = rate
          constant  for nitrate reduction, approximated as  1st order.   KD =
          deni tri fi cation  =  1  x  10-6  s-1.     KA = 2 x 10-6 to 8 x 10-6;
          average 5 x  1O-6.

9.3       Mass   transfer   coefficient;    estimated    10-4cm2(s-l>   (from
          Vanderborght ) .

9.4       Diffusion coefficient  for nitrate   in pure water 1.8xlO-5cm2 s-1
           (Handbook Chemistry and Physics,  1969).

9.5       Nitrates   are  salts  of  nitric  acid;  HN03   Cstrong   acid],   ~
          completely disociated  "nitric acid"  would be  present in nitrate
          solutions from  many processes including:
                a)   Hydrolysis af water by cation Mm-t-H2Q   M (m-1 ) + (QH-)

                b)   photolysis of ND3 yeilding nitrite  and  perox yni tri te

                c)   oxidation-reduction of nitrate  and  derivatives of nitrate

                d>   solutions-gas phase equilition  of nitrogen  oxides  NO3-i-NO.  P=O.40 torr; 2'/. N02 in C02.  Wavelenghts 4131-53O9A

          Measured  from  slope of graph of values of photolysis of  2ml Molar
          N03-  at 254nm  alkaline (pH 12)   solution: for   reaction (N03-)* — >
          N02-+0   (presented   as  rate  of  formation  of  nitrate per time.)
          Yield vares linearly with  time.  8x ( 1O) 4x (N02-y i el d ) /mol e=25x 10-
          4time(sec):  reaction  inhibited by presence  of  added nitrate.  N02-

-------
          is not  an  inhibitor in alkaline photolysis,  but absorbs energy.

9.7       kp2 -for  C03-*N02   N03--t-C02  formation  of  nitrate same parameters
          as above.

          Reaction in  acidic solutions involves protonation  of (NO3-)*; arid
          sel-f  inhibated  reaction.

          In  acidic    solution;    254nm,   293K,   inadiated  3,6OOs;
          presence of  NaASO2  increases  quantum   yield  by  -factor  o-f  ^30,
          lessor  degrees   of increase  observed -for  reaction in presence of
          stand,  allyl  alchol, and sodium bromide.

9.8       kp3 -for N03-+H2D+CO2   N03—ğ-H20+C02 -formation o-f igomer o-f nitrate
          (probably  OQNO-)  from nitrate same paramters as above.

          Photolysis rate  constant -for crystalline NaN03 at 203+.5K P=3xlO-7-
          Pa   radiation 1254cv  (1.6OxlO-19 J=lev>

9.9       Photolysis rate constant -for  crystalline KN03.   See  -footnot 9.7
          •for values o-f parameters.

9.10      Photolysis o-f sodium nitrate solutions  (3.6.5 mole 1-1)  at pH12 by
          UV lignt at  25C.

9.11      Photolysis   rate  o-f  reaction   o-f  Ethanol    with  N03  radical.
          C2HsOH+N03     C2H30HfNO2+H20  rate  (-for  production of nitrite  from
          nitrate)   than  without ethanol ; at given pH value; "apparently due?
          to the   acceptor properties  of ehtanol   with respect  to the  ND3.
          (N03  o.21      3-lOcm  depth,  initial NO3-N   (Nitrate  nitrogen) 0.8mgl-l  (sampled

-------
           5/17/71)




9.22       as above; N03-N 4.8 mgl-1




9.23       3-10cm depth;  N03-N ).2mgl-l  <6/l/77)




9.24       as above; ND3-N 7.2 
-------
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-------
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-------
       APPENDIX 4.4



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    APPENDIX 4.7



APPENDIX 4 REFERENCES

-------
                                APPENDIX 4.7

                            APPENDIX 4 REFERENCES
 1.   U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency.   1986.   Liner  Location,  Risk and
     Cost  Analysis  Model.  Phase  II  Report  (Draft).USEPA,  Office  of Solid
     Waste.

 2.   National  Water  Well  Association (NWWA), 1985.  DRASTIC:   A Standardized
     System  for  Evaluating  Ground Water  Pollution  Potential  Using Hydrogeo-
     logic   Settings.EHA-600/2-85-018.NationalTechnicalInformation
     Service,  Springfield, VA.

 3.   Anderson,  M.P.,  1979.   "Using  Models  to Simulate the  Movement  of
     Contaminants through Ground  Water Flow  Systems".   Critical  Reviews  in
     Environmental Control.  9(2):97-156

 4.   Freeze,  R.A. and J.A. Cherry,  1979.   Groundwater, Prentice-Hall.

 5.   U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency.    Wastewater  Stabilization  Pond
     Linings.   MCD-b4,  November  1984.

 6.   Hannaman, M.C.,  E.J.  Johnson, and M.A. Zagar, 1978.   Effects of Waste-
     water Stabilization  Pond  Seepage on  Groundwater  Quality.Preparedby"
     Eugene  A. Hickok  and  Associates, Wayzata,  Minnesota for Minnesota Pollu-
     tion  Control  Agency, Roseville,  Minnesota.

 7.   Oswald,  W.J., 1983.  Unpublished Manuscript, Lecture Notes, University of
     California,  Berkeley.

 8.   Middlebrooks, E.J., C.H. Middlebrooks, J.H.  Reynolds, G.Z.  Waters,  S.C.
     Reed, and  D.B.  George, 1982.   Wastewater  Stabilization  Lagoon  Design,
     Performance, and Upgrading.   MacMillan  Publishing Company.

 9.   Letter  to R.C. Hampson,  Lahontan (CA)  Regional  Water  Quality  Control
     Board  from the City of  Ridgecrest, dated July 30, 1985.

ID.   Preul,  H.C., 1968.  "Contaminants  in  Groundwater Near  Waste Stabilization
     Ponds."   Journal of the Water  Pollution Control Federation, Volume 40, p.
     659.

11.   Great Lakes—Upper Mississippi  River  Board  of  State Sanitary Engineers.
     Recommended Standards for  Sewage Works.   Health Education Service,
     Albany,  New  York.

-------
            APPENDIX 5.1




MODEL LAGOON LEACHATE CONCENTRATIONS

-------
                           APPENDIX  5.1

               MODFL  LAHOON LEACHATE  CONCENTRATIONS

Metals, ua/1
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Tetrachl oroethvl ene
nraanics, hase-neutral, ua/1
2,4-Oinitrotoluene
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Concentration
Median Maximum

0.2a 88

0.005a 7.3

la 11
0.05a 86
0.01a 31

0.02a 43
1 32
a   Median calculated usina the analytical  detection  limit value  for
    non-detect values resulted in the detection limit being the median.
         See Apnendix 3.5

-------
                APPENDIX 5.2




NINETIETH PERCEMTILE HEALTH RISKS 3Y SETTING

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-------
         APPENDIX 5.3



DESCRIPTION OF MAPPING SURVEY

-------
             TABLE 5.3-1



TOTAL EXPOSED POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
Distance
Lower
0
35
130
300
500
800
1,250
to Well (m)
Upper
35
130
300
500
800
1,250
2,000
Population
Exposed
10
92.5
1,781.5
4,722
61,042.5
5,520
12,892

Probability
0.0001
0.0011
0.0207
0.0549
0.7093
0.0641
0.1498
Cumulative
Probability
0.0001
0.0012
0.0219
0.0768
0.7861
0.8502
1.0000

-------
             APPENDIX 5.4



CALCULATION OF HEALTH RISKS FROM WELL



            CONCENTRATIONS

-------
                                   APPENDIX  5.4

           CALCULATIOM  "F  HEALTH  RISKS FROM  WELL CONCENTRATIONS


     Post-processing software developed for EPACMS takes the dimensionless concen-
tration values produced by EPACMS and transforms these  values  into  risk or hazard
values.   Carcinogenic  and noncarcinogenic risks are calculated  separately based
upon carcinogenic potency  values  and noncarcinogenic  reference  values.   Cancer
and noncancer health effects are estimated with  the following  equations:

         Carcinogenic Risk:

         R = (C x F) x  P,  where:

         R = Risk (dimensionless)
         C = Ground-water contaminant concentration (mg/L)
         P = Potency factor (see Table 3-7)  (mg/kg/day)-l
         F =  0.029   (this   is  a   conversion  factor  to  account  for ingestion
             assumptions).

         Noncarcinogenic Hazard:

         H = (C x F)/RfP,  where:

         H = Noncarcinogenic hazard index (dimensionless)
         C = Ground-water contaminant concentration (mg/L)
         RfO = reference dose (see Table  3-7)  (mg/kg/day)-l
         F =  0.029   (this   is  a   conversion  factor  to  account  for ingestion
             assumptions).

-------
        APPENDIX 5.5




DESCRIPTION OF COMPUTER RUNS

-------
                             APPENDIX 5.5

                       DESCRIPTION OF COMPUTER RUNS


     One set of EPACMS  runs  was  done  to  estimate  the maximally exposed  individual
     ) risks.  This set of runs  examined seven  pollutants and nine hydrogeologic
settings resulting in  a  total of  sixty-three computer runs.  Each run  consisted
of 500  iterations  of  the Monte Carlo  simulator.   The  model  generates a  ratio
between an  estimated well  concentration and  the leachate concentration  (this
ratio is called a dimensionless concentration).  This  ratio is multiplied  by  the
leachate concentration  and  a   ingestion  conversion  factor.  For   carcinogenic
risk, the result is  multiplied  by a  risk potency  factor, P.  For  noncarcinogenic
hazard, the result is divided by a reference dose, RfD.

     A post-processing software package was  developed  to  allow  these  computer
runs to be examined  in several ways.   The computer runs describe  the  distribution
of risks to individuals  in  a  single  hydrogeologic setting  caused by exposure to
a single pollutant.  With the post-processing package,  analyzing  the total  risks
within each hydrogeologic  setting after  summing the  carcinogenic  risks can  be
done.  This allows relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic settings  to be identified.
The  cost-processing  package also enables aggregation  of risks across  all environ-
ments in order to  determine the overall magnitude of  the  risks  posed nationwide
by municipal lagoons.

Tables  of the  input  parameters  are presented in Appendix 4.4.

-------
     APPENDIX 5.6



DATA FROM MODEL OUTPUT

-------
                                   APPENDIX  5.6

                              DATA  FROM  MODEL  OUTPUT


     The attached tables present the  outputs  of the  EPACMS  model  and the  post-
orocessina software.   The  tables  present two  sets of  outputs  corresponding to
runs usinq  median well  concentrations  as  input  and  runs  using  maximum  well
concentrations as input.   Nine hydrogeolopic  settings  were examined  for  each
concentration input.
       Mote:  The data output contains a typographical  error.   Data  for
              tetrachlorethylene are incorrectly labeled as  "tetrachloroethane."

-------
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                  APPENDIX 6.1



LINER MATERIAL SELECTION AND DESIGN CONSIDERATION

-------
                                 APPENDIX 6.1

              LINER MATERIAL SELECTION AND DESIGN  CONSIDERATIONS

    Earthen,  asphalt and concrete  liners are some of  the  earliest  types of
lagoon sealers employed.  While  some of the  rigid linings in this group  have
not enjoyed good reputations as hydraulic linings, they have a definite place
in the technology.   The  structural  stability  of rigid linings complements the
flexible  systems  which   do  not  rate  well  in  this  respect.    However, rigid
systems cannot elongate  to  accomodate subgrade deformation  as  easily.  Under-
certain conditions,  some rigid  systems may serve  well  as protective  devices
over other, more  fragile, lining  systems; in  this application they have  been
most efficiently used.

    Disadvantages of this category include sensitivity to  low temperatures and
frost penetration.   Some admixed materials perform  best  when  applied during
periods of  moderate  temperatures,  while asphalt concrete liners degrade  when
exposed to excessive heating conditions.

    Soil-bentonite liners are  easiest  and  least  costly  to repair  when  the
breach  can  be  identified  and  is  relatively  small.    Because  bentonite  can
absorb 5 times its weight in water  and  swell  to  12-15 times  its dry volume at
maximum saturation,  it  is  often used  for filling voids in  soil or repairing
leaks.  Draining of the  liners  requires dry  conditions for proper adherence of
the repaired section; however, repair of  these materials  is  often more effec-
tive  than  repair  of  synthetic  liners.   Table 6.6-1 summarizes  some of the
basic characteristics of selected liners in  this  category  (1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7).


Use of synthetic  and rubber liners came  into practice  in the 1960s,  and  they
have  become  increasingly popular  in  applications requiring essentially  zero
permeability.   Table 6.1-2 lists some  of  the more common liners  in  this
category  together  with   their  general  characteristics.    These  materials are
economical, resistant to most chemicals  if  selected  and installed properly,
available  in  large  sheets  simplifying  installation, and essentially imper-
meable.   As discharge standards  continue to  become more  stringent, the appl-
ication of  plastic and   elastomeric  (the  general  name  given to butyl  rubber,
neoprene  and  EPDM) membranes as  lagoon  liners will  increase  because of the
need  to  guarantee  protection against  seepage.   This  is particularly  true in
the sealing of lagoons containing potentially  toxic wastewaters.

    Selection criteria for synthetic liners include the  following:

    o  Chemical  compatibility  with  lagoon  waters.   Wastewaters  that are
       treated in  municipal   lagoons  usually contain very  dilute quantities of
       substances which may degrade liner materials.   It  has been  found that,
       in  cases  where   industrial  wastes  are accepted  into an  impoundment,
       aggressive  chemicals  can  come  into  contact  with and adversely affect
       some liners.  Compatability testing of  expected wastewater  compositions
       and  proposed  liner  materials  must be  conducted to  ensure successful
       containment conditions.

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-------
o  Resistance  to  extreme  temperatures.    In  general,  flexible membrane
   liners  require  mild  temperatures for seaming,  and  some liners  (e.g.,
   polyvinyl  chloride  based  liners)  degrade when exposed  to excessive
   heatiny  conditions.    If  such  conditions  are  expected, consideration
   should  be  given to  selecting  another  liner  (e.g.,  Hypalon)  that  is
   better able to  withstand extreme  temperatures.

o  Resistance  to  ultraviolet  light.  Exposure of  some flexible membrane
   pond  linings to sunlight can cause  degradation due to the effects  of
   ultraviolet light.  Polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene and polypropylene
   based liners are among those  not  recommended f,or use when the liner may
   be  exposed  to  the weather  for  a long  period of time before filling.
   Dike slopes and other  exposed areas whould  be protected  by  a  soil cover
   to  reduce  the  effects of sunlight on ultraviolet-sensitive materials.
   Exposable materials  include  the  synthetic  rubbers  (butyl, EPDM, Hypalon
   and neoprene).

o  High tensile strength, flexibility, and  the ability  to  conform to minor
   subrade  deformations  without failure.While  flexible membrane  liners
   canoffersignificantadvantageswith   regard  to   flexibility  and
   relative  impermeability,  they  are  relatively fragile  when compared to
   the more rigid admixed materials.

o  Resistance  to abrasion,  puncture,  bacterial  and  fungal  attack.   The
   minimum recommended thickness is 20 mils.The materialshould exhibit
   good weatherability,  with a manufacturer's guarantee of long life  (20-
   30  years).   The life expectancy of  the  liner  system  of a surface im-
   poundment  is  extremely dependent on  design, construction quality and
   consistent maintenance.

o  Specific  gravity  greater than  1.0.   If a liner material does not  meet
   this  criterion,  it wi11  not be held  in  place  by  the  weight of lagoon
   1iquids.

o  Ease  of installation.  Liner installation  must be evaluated  on a case-
   by-case basis.The   relative ease of installation will depend on  such
   factors  as  design  (above-grade,  below-grade,  or  combination);  the
   availability  of usable  low-permeability  materials  for  the subgrade
   and/or liner;  seaming requirements;  and weather.

o  Ease of repair.   Flexible membrane  liners  are not as easily  repaired as
   soi 1 -bentonite liners.   At the very  least, the  pond will  require
   draining prior to effecting the repair and  may  require  replacement  of a
   panel  or the entire liner.

o  Relative cost  and  availability.   Transportation and delivery  costs  must
   be taken intoaccount in any comparison  of liner material,  particular-
   ly  when choosing  between  admixed and synthetic liners.   For example,
   clay  may  appear cheaper than a  given  synthetic  liner  on  the basis of
   material costs;  however,  transport  costs  for  the  former may  tip the
   balance in favor of the synthetic  liner.

-------
    In addition to use of  admixed  and  synthetic/rubber  liners, ponds can be
sealed, either  separately or  in  combination,  by natural  means  or by  chemical
treatment  (2).   Natural  sealing of ponds has  been  found  to occur from three
mechanisms:  (1)  physical  clogging  of soil  pores by settled solids;  (2)
chemical   clogging  of  soil  pores by  ionic  exchange; and  (3)   biological  and
organic clogging caused by microbial  growth at  the  pond lining.  The  dominant
mechanism of the three depends on the characteristics of the wastewater being
treated.    Chemical treatment  changes  the  nature of the bottom  soil to ensure
seal ing.

    Chemicals  have  also  been  used  for  some  time  as a means  of  stabilizing
soils.   Although  these techniques  are aimed at reducing porosity, their  pri-
mary  objective  has  been  to increase  soil  stability and/or bearing capacity.
Sealants   used  include: (1)  polymer-diesel mixtures;  (2) petroleum-based emul-
sions; (3) powdered polymers which  form  a  gel  after  application; and (4) mono-
valent cationic salts.  These agents  can  be water-borne, spray-applied, mixed
in  place,  or  injected  below  the  ground  surface  (1).    There is little
information in  the literature regarding the use of  chemicals for reduction of
seepage.    Among the  several  reasons  for the  lack  of  popularity  of  chemical
treatments  as  linings, three are  important:   (1)  they  are not  100 percent
effective  and  often  are  not  effective  at all; (2)  they are  complex  and not
well  understood; and  (3) usually they are expensive, although there are a few
exceptions (8).

    Each   lining material  discussea in this section  has certain  advantages and
disadvantages.  No single liner  has all the  attributes that would  make it the
ideal material.   The  concept  of combination liners makes  use of various  com-
binations that  would  place  each  component in  the location  where its desirable
properties could be used  most efficiently  (8).

    The  best example  of a combination liner that has been widely  used in the
past  is   that  of  a  continuous  impervious  lining  overlaid with  a concrete,
gunite,  or asphalt concrete  topping.    Although  this  liner  combination is
effective,  it  is  rather  costly, and  consequently  it has  given way in recent
years to  other  combinations.

    A  second  general  type  of combination system  that  has been  used in the
lining field  involves the use  of  a  combination of  flexible liner materials.
For example,  the  exposed  portion of a liner  (i.e.,  berms,  embankments) could
be  fabricated  of  a  highly  weather-resistant, and  possibly  less expensive,
material.

    Combination systems also have involved continuous membranes  in  combination
with  low  permeability clays.   In this application,  the lining  often  serves  a
dual  role of  seepage control and wave erosion control.

-------
   APPENDIX 6.2



LAGOON CONSTRUCTION

-------
                                 APPENDIX  6.2

                             LAGOON CONSTRUCTION
6.2.1   SUBGRADE PREPARATION

    The  compaction  of soil  is  an  essential  step  in  the  construction of  all
types of  liners  whether  it  is  soil  for a soil-clay  liner  or for a  subgrade
upon which admixed or flexible membrane liners will be  installed.  The equip-
ment, depth,  number  of  lifts, and  degree  of  compaction will be specified  by
engineering design.   The  soil  type and  moisture  content will  be  tested  to
determine the methods of  achieving  the  desired  permeability.   The installation
of both admixed and  synthetic liners can be quite  sensitive  to  small  deforma-
tions in  the  subgrade.   The liner should be emplaced before  the subgrade  can
be  damaged  by wind  or  rainfall, particularly  if  a  synthetic  liner  will  be
used.  In general, the smoother  the  surface of  the impoundment  prior  to  liner-
placement, the greater the potential for successful lagoon performance (1,  2,
4, 5, 6 and 7).

6.2.2   LINER INSTALLATION

    Installation  procedures   for   admixed   material   liners  are  site   and
material-specific.   In  general,  in-situ soils  are  mixed with the liner
material   and  applied to  the lagoon  surface  in a continuous or overlapping
manner.   Soil  cement and  asphalt cement may  be placed  by road paving equip-
ment; hot asphalt is spray-applied,  and concrete and  gunite are  placed using a
slip or  screen.   Bentonite is mixed with soil,  spread  and compacted.  Varia-
tions in  materials  and application  methods  are numerous  and  new technologies
are regularly being introduced (1,2,4,5 and  6).

    Synthetic liner panels are delivered to the lagoon site  either folded  or
in  rolls.   Depending on   the  specific  liner  material, seams  are sealed  using
adhesive(s) solvent(s),  bodied  solvents,  heat  guns,  and  other thermal  tech-
niques, cements, or  tape.   Quality  control  during seaming is  vital to ensure
adequate strength and permeability  of the  seal.   All  inlets,  outlets and  other
penetrations  must  be sealed  to  prevent leakage.   Past  experience indicates
that it  is  very difficult to  be sure that all  seams are sealed properly  to
assure long-term integrity of the liner system.

    Protective soil covers  are  provided  in  many cases  to anchor and protect
the synthetic liner  from  degration.  Ultraviolet light  and ozone are  damaging
to some liners (e.g., polyvinyl  chloride)  and  the effects  of  excessive heat or
cold can cause others to  become brittle or to  lose  their impermeability.   Soil
covers are  recommended for dike  slopes to aid  in  resisting  mechanical damage
and slippage.

    Proper  anchoring of  the liner around  the  impoundment  perimeter  as well  as
conscientious tailoring and sealing of the liner around  penetrating  structures
is  essential  to satisfactory  liner  performance.   The  most   common anchoring
method  for  the  perimeter is  "trench-and-backfi11 ."    A  trench is excavated
along  the  top of the dike or beam  and the  liner  edges  are  emplaced.   After
seaming  has  been completed and  the  panel  is  proper  spread  and  smoothed,  the
trench is then backfilled to secure the liner  (1,3 and 7).

-------
APPENDIX 6.3



    COSTS

-------
LAGOQHS,  AERATED                                                                 FACT SHEET 2.1.11
            -  Aerated  lagoons arc mediun-depth basins designed for the biological treatment of wastewater on a
 continuous basis.   In  contrast to stabilization ponds, which obtain oxygen from photosynthesis and surface re-
 aeration, they  employ  aeration devices which supply supplemental oxygen to the system.  The aeration devices may
 be  mechanical  (i.e., surface aerator), or diffused air systems.  Surface aerators are divided into two types:
 cage  aerators and  the  more comon turbine and vertical shaft aerators.  The many diffused air systems utilized in
 lagoons  consist of  plastic pipes supported near the bottom of the cells with regularly spaced sparger holes
 drilled  in the  tops of the pipes.  Because aerated lagoons are normally designed to achieve partial mixing only,
 aerotic-anaerobic  stratification will occur, and a large fraction of the incoming solids and a large fraction of
 the biological  solids  produced from waste conversion settle to the bottom of the lagoon cells.  As the solids
 begin to build  up,  a portion will undergo anaerobic decomposition.  Volatile toxics can potentially be removed by
 the aeration process,  and incidental removal of other toxics can be expected to be similar to an activated sludge
 system.  Several smaller aerated lagoon cells in series are more effective than one large cell.   Tapering aeration
 intensity downward  in  the direction of flow promotes settling out of solids in the last cell.  A non-aerated
 polishing cell  following the last aerated cell is an optional, but recommended , design technique  to enhance
 suspended solids removal prior to discharge.

 Common Modifications -  The lagoons may be lined with concrete or an impervious flexible lining,  depending on soil
 conditions and  environmental regulations.  Use of various types of aeration.  When high-intensity aeration pro-
 duces completely mixed (all aerobic) conditions, a final settling tanx is retired.  Solids are recycled to
 maintain about  800  mg/1 MLVSS an this mode.

 Technology Status - While not as widely uğed when compared with the large nuaber of stabilization ponds in coraion
 use throughout  the  U.  S. , it has been fully demonstrated, and used for years.

 Applications -  Used for domestic and industrial wastewater of low and medium strength.  Commonly used where land
 is  inexpensive  and  costs and operational control are to be minimized.  It is relatively simple to upgrade existing
 oxidation ponds, lagoons, and natural bodies of water to this type of treatment.  Aeration increases the oxidation
 capacity of the pond and is useful in overloaded ponds that generate odors.  Useful when supplemental oxygen
 requirements are high  or when the requirements are either ĞĞasonal or intermittent.
                •
 Limitations - In very  cold clinates aerated lagoons nay experience reduced biological activity and treatment
 efficiency, and the formation of ice.

 Typical  Equipment/No.  Kfrs. (23) - Lining Ğystens/6; Aerators/30) Hydraulic Controls/29

 Performance

                                                  _ Influent        % Remove i
                              BOD                   200 - 500 mg/1     60 - 90
                              COD                       -              70-90
                              TSS                   200 - 500 mg/1     70 - 90

Residuals - Settled solids on pond bottom nay require clean-out every 10 to 20 years, or possibly more often if a
polishing pond  is used behind the aerated pond.

Design Criteria (12, 67)

Operation:  One or more aerated cells,        Water Temperature range:  0 to 40°C
followed by a settling (unaerated) cell       Optimum Water Temperature:  20°C
Detention time:  3 to 10 days                  Oxygen requirement:  0.7 to 1.4 times the amount of BOD  removed
Depth, ft:  6 to 20                           Organic Loading:  10 to 300 Ib BOD /acre/d
pK:  6.5 to 8.0                                                                5

Energy requirements:
     For aeration:  6 to 10 hp/million gallons capacity
     To maintain all solids in suspension:  60 to 100 hp/million gallons capacity
     To maintain some solids in suspension:  30 to 40 hp/million gallons capacity

Process Reliability - The service life of a lagoon is estimated at 30 years or more.  The reliability of equipment
and the process is high.  Little operator expertise is required.

Environmental Impacts - There is opportunity for volatile organic material and pathogens in aerated lagoons to
enter the air as with any aerated wastewater treatment process.  This opportunity depends on air/water contact
afforded by the aeration system.  There is potential for seepage of wastewater into ground water unless a lagoon
is lined.  Compared to other secondary treatment processes, aerated lagoons generate less solid residue.

Toxics - Volatile toxics will be removed, and incidental removal of other toxics can be expected to be similar to
an activated sludge system.

References - 7, 12. 13, 18, 23, 67
Source:    Reference  12

-------
LAGOONS,  AERATED
                                                                                   FAC1 SHEET  2.LI]
 FLOW DIAJKAM -
                        Influent
                                         Aerated
                                         Lagoon(s)
                                                                    . Po 1 isli ing
                                                                      Pond
                                                                    10
ENERGY NOTES (4) -
Low speed mechanical surface aerators;  motor
efficiency Ğ 9Pğ;  aerator efficiency -1.8
Ib O2/hph (wire to water);  head loss negli-
gible.  Type of energy required:  electrical

For additional information on energy
requirements and transfer efficiency
of selected aeration devices, refer
to Table D-1.
                                                               I
                                                               IM

                                                               1
10
                                                                   10
                                                                   10
                                                                                  11
                                                                                       X
                                                                                  Trr—r
                                                                      i.o
                                                                                   10           100

                                                                                    AERATOR,  hp
COSTS (3)  -Assumptions:
1. Service life, 30 years;  ESR Index • 2475
2. Theoretical detention time  -  7  di  15-ft  water  depth; floating nachanical aerators;
3. Horsepower required - 36 hp/Mgal  of capacity;  power t S.02Awh;
4. Construction cost includes  excavation, embankment, and seeding of lagoon/slopes  (3 cells); service road and
fencing; riprap embankment  protection;  hydraulic  control works; aeration equipment and electrical equipment.
Wastewater Characteristics:                         In            Out
                                                   210           25
                                                   400           SO
          T£S, mg/1                                230           40
          Total-P,  mg/1                             11            8
          NH3-N, mg/1                               20         '  18

To adjust construction cost for  detention time other than aħ>ove, enter curve at effective flow  (Q )

     Q  - O_  _   X Nev Design Detention Time
                                                                                                            1,000
          BOD ,  mg/1
          COOT mg/1
       3 01
         001
                        CONSTRUCTION  COST '
                                    T
                                                            C O
                                                            n
           01            IO           IO           IOO

                    Wastewate' Flow MgĞl/d

REFERENCES -3,4

•To convert construction cost  to capital  cost  see Table A-2.
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Source:    Reference 12

-------
LAGOONS.,  FACULTATIVE                                                           -FACT  SHEET  2ll<13
    ription - Facultative lagoons are intermediate  depth (3  to 8  feet)  ponds  in which the wastewater  is  stratified
into three zones.  These zones consist of an anaerobic bottom layer,  an aerobic  surface  layer,  and  an  intermediate
:one.  Stratification is a result of solids settling and temperature-water  density  variations.   Oxygen in  the
surface stabilization zone is provided by reaeration and photosynthesis.  This as in  contrast  to aerated lagoons
in which nechanical aeration is used to create  aerobic surface  conditions.   In general,  the  aerobic surface  layer
serves to reduce odors while providing treatment of  soluble  organic  by-products  of  the anaerobic processes opera-
ting at the bottom.

Sludge at the bottom of facultative lagoons will undergo anaerobic digestion producing carbon  dioxide,  methane and
cells.  The photosynthetic activity at the lagoon surface produces oxygen diurnally,  increasing the dissolved
oxygen during daylight hours, while surface oxygen is depleted  at  night.

Facultative lagoons are often and for optimum performance should be  operated in  series.  When  three or more  cells
are linked, the effluent fron either the second or third cell nay  be  recirculated to  the first.   Recirculation
rates of 0.5 to 2.0 tines the plant flow have been used  to improve overall  performance.

Common Modifications * Facultative lagoons are  customarily contained within earthen dikes.   Depending  on soil
characteristics, lining with various ir.ptrvious materials  such as  rubber,  plastic  or  clay nay  be  necessary.  Use
of supplemental top layer aeration can improve overall treatment capacity,  particularly  in  northern climates where
icing over of facultative lagoons is coraon in the winter.

Technology Status -Fully demonstrated and in moderate  use  especially for treatment of relatively  weak  municipal
wastewater in areas where real estate costs are not a restricting  factor.

Applications - Used for treating raw, screened, or primary settled domestic wastewaters  and  weak biodegradable
industrial wastewaters.  Most applicable when land costs are  low and operation  and maintenance  costs  are  to  be
minimized.

Limitations - In very cold climates, facultative lagoons nay  experience reduced biological  activity and treatment
efficiency.  Ice formation can also hamper operations.   In overloading situations,  odors can be  a problem.

Typical Equipment/Tip, of f.lra. (23) - lining ğystens/6j  Hydraulic controls/29.
Perfomanee - BODtreductions of 75 to 95 percent have been reported.   Effluent suspended solids  concentrations  of
20 to ISC mg/1 can be expected, depending on the degree of algae separation achieved in the last cell.   Effi-
ciencies are strongly related to pond depth, detention time and temperature.

Chemicals Required - If wastevater is nutrient deficient/ a source of supplemental nitrogen or phosphorus may be
needed.  No other chemicals are required.

Residuals - Settled solids may require clean out and removal once every 10 to 20 years.
Design Criteria -
Operation: At least three cells in series.  Parallel trains of, cells may be used for larger systems.
Detention time: 20 to ISO days.
Depth, ft:  3 to 8, although a portion of the anaerobic zone of the first cell may be up to 12 ft deep to accom-
            modate large initial solids deposition.
pH:  b.5 to 9.0
Water temperature range:  35 to 90 F for municipal applications
Optimum water temperature:  68 F
Organic loading:  10 to 100 Ib BOD./acre/d

Process Reliability - The service life of the lagoon is estimated to be 50 years.  Little operator expertise is
required.  Overall, the system is highly reliable.

Environmental Impact - There is potential for seepage of wastewater into ground water unless lagoon is lined.
Compared to other secondary processes, relatively small quantities of sludge are produced.

References -  3, 7, 18, 23, 67, 109, 110
Source:    Reference  12

-------
LAGOONS,  FACULTATIVE
                                                                            FAG SHEET  2.1,13
 FLOW DIAGRAM -
                                                                    Effluent Discharge Sirop with
                                                                    Multiple Drawoff Level Discharge
                                                                    Capability {to minimize algae
                                                                    concentrations in discharge)
                •CZiil Intermediate  (Facultative) Zone
                                                                                   -j:-   Transfer Pipe  to
                                                                               I J=- TM~.	  Secondary Cell
            Inlet  (typically near 1/3 point)
                                                                            Liner  (if necessary)
                                                  Sludge Storage Zone  (for
                                                  primary cells only without
                                                  prior primary sedimentation)
NOTES - Facultative lagoons  are  operated by  gravity and therefore have no energy requirements other than
any pumping that may  bĞ  necessary  to  lift the influent uastewater into the lagoons.
COSTS -Assumptions:
1.   Warm climate - lagoon loading •  40  Ib BOD,/acre/d.
2.   Cool climate (northern U.S.)  - lagoon loaling • 20 Ib BOD^/acre/d.
3.   Water depth - 4  ft.
4.   Construction cost includes excavating,  grading, and other earthwork required for normal subgrade preparation
     and service roads.   Costs  do  not include land Ğ-nd punping.
5.   Process performance:                     Kastewater Characteristics
                                                                      In
                                                                      210
                                                                      400
                                   TSS,  mg/1                          230
                                   Total-P,  mg/1                       11
                                   NHj-N, mg/1                         20
                            BOD.,  mg/1
                            COD, mg/1
Out
 30
100
 60
  8
 15 (cool climate)
  1 (warm climate)
6.   No liner included in cost estimate.
7.   ENR Index • 2475
Adjustment Factor:  To adjust cost* for loadings  other  than  those above, enter curve at effective flow  (0 ).
     Warm Climates
             X- <0 lb BOD,/acTe/day
               New Design Loading
                       CONSTRUCTION COST
                                                            Cool Climates
                                                          0  ..—. * 20 Ib BOD,/acre/day
                                                           DESICN   New Design Loading
                                                                 i o
                                                                          OPERATION 4 MAINTENANCE COST
                                                                 01
                                                              o
                                                              O
                                                              "5  001
                                                                0001
                                                                                1 0            10
                                                                               Waslewaltr Flow Mgal/d
 •To convert construct Jon cor.t to capital cost see Table A-2.
 Source:   Reference  12

-------
LAGOONS,  ANAEROBIC                                                               FACT  SHEET  2.1.12
Description - Anaerobic lagoons are relatively deep (up to 20 ft)  ponds with steep  sidewalls  in  which  anaerobic
conditions are maintained by keeping loading so high that complete  deoxygenation  is  prevalent.   Although  some  oxy-
ger.ation is possible in a shallow surface zone, once greases  form an Impervious  surface  layer,  complete anaerobic
conditions, develop.  Treatment or stabilization results from  thermophilic anaerobic  digestion of organic  wastes.
The treatment process is analogous to that occurring in single  stage untreated anaerobic digestion  of  sludge  in
which acid forming bacteria break down organics.   The resultant acids are then converted to  carbon  dioxide,
methane, cells and other end products.

In the typical anaerobic lagoon, raw wastewater enters near the bottom of the  pond  (often at the center)  and  mixes
with the active microbial mass in the sludge blanket, which is  usually about 6 ft deep.   The discharge  is located
near one of the sides of the pond, submerged below the liquid surface.   Excess undigested grease floats to the
top, forming a heat retaining and relatively air tight cover.   Wastewater flow equalization  and heating are
generally not practiced.  Excess sludge is washed out with the  effluent.   Recirculation  of waste sludge is not
required.

Anaerobic lagoons are capable of providing treatment of high  strength wastewaters and  are resistant to  shock
loads.

Gormen Modifications- Anaerobic lagoons are customarily contained within earthen  dikes.   Depending  on  soil
characteristics, lining with various uapervious materials such as rubber,  plastic  or  clay may be  necessary.  Fond
geometry nay vary, but surface area to volume ratio* are  minimized to enhance  heat retention.

Technology Status - Although anaerobic processes are common  for sludge digestion,  anaerobic  lagoons  for wastewater
treatne.-.t have found only limited application.   ThĞ process is  well  demonstrated for  stabilization  of  highly  con-
centrated organic wastes.

Typical Ecuipnent/So.of Mfrs. (23)  -
Lining Pystems/6; Hydraulic controls/29

Applications - Typically used in series with aerobic or facultative  lagoons.   Anaerobic  lagoons  are  effective  as
roughing units prior to aerobic treatment of high strength  wastes.

Limitations - May generate odors.   Requires relatively large  land area.   For efficient  operation, water  tempera-
tures above 75 F should be maintained.
Perforranee -BOD^ removals of 50 to 70 percent are achievable depending on loading  and  temperature  conditions.
TSS concentrations may increase, especially if the influent BOD,  is  primarily  dissolved.  Generally  does  not
produce an effluent suitable for direct discharge to receiving waters.

Residuals Generated - In anaerobic lagoons excess sludge  is usually  washed out in  the  effluent.  Since anaerobic
lagoons are often used for preliminary treatment recirculation  or  removal  of  sludge  not  generally  required.

Chenicals Required - Nutrients as needed to make up deficiencies  in  raw wastewater.  No  other  chenicals  required.
Design Criteria -
Operation:     Parallel or series
Detention Time:     20 to 50 d
Depth, ft:     8 to 20
pH:  6.8 to 7.2
Water Temperature Range: 35 to 120°F
Optimjrn Water Temperature:    86 F
Organic loading: 200 to 2200 Ib BOD /acre/d

Unit Process Reliability - Generally resistant to upsets.   Highly reliable if  pH  in  the  relatively  narrow optimum
range is. maintained.

Environmental Impact - May create odors.  Have relatively high land requirements.  There  is potential  for  seepage
of wastewater into groundwater unless lagoon is lined.

Joint Treatment Potential - Valuable as a preliminary treatment process for combined  industrial  and municipal
wastes containing high concentrations of organic materials.   Can  be  used preceding most  standard  biological
treatment processes.

References - 7, 16, 18, 20, 23, 67, 107, 110
 Source:    Reference  12

-------
LAGOONS,  ANAEROBIC
    FACT  SHEET 2.1.12
FLOW DIAGKAW -
             inlet
                                                                                              ^Outlet
                                                                                     (if  necessary)
EKERCY NOTES - Anaerobic lagoons  are operated by gravity flow and therefor* have  no energy  requirements other than
any pumping that may be necessary to lift  the influent waitewater into the lagoons.

COSTS' - Assumptions: January 1979 dollars;  ENR Index  •  2872.
Service Life: 50 years
Average detention tine - 35 days; depth -  10 ft; BODj  loading -  466 Ib/acre/d.  Construction cost includes exca-
vating, grading and other earthwork and service roads.   Costs do not include land and praping.   Liner cost not
included in estimate.  Operation  and maintenance costs consist of labor and material.
Wastewater Characteristics
                                                  Influent, mg/1
                                                      600
Effluent,  mq/1
     240
To adjust costs for other BODj loadings  and/or  detention tines, enter curve at effective flow (O. ) :
                    1466 Ib/aere/di (New  detention  time)
          CDESIGN x  (New Design Loading)  (35  days)
        10
                     CONSTRUCTION COST
                                                                         OPERATION S. MAINTENANCE COST
       OOt

         01
                       10            10
                      WastcwAlef FMğ  Mgal a
                                                               0001
                                                                                      '  ; r i  I „
                                                                                      i  i i; i ij?
                                                                                                         100
REFERENCE - Curves derived from reference  3.
 To convert  construction cost to capital cost see Table A-2.
 Soruce:   Reference  12

-------
                                  TABLE 6.3-1

                         DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITAL COSTS
Category
Component Installed
Construction Costs
Subtotal 1
Non -Component
Construction Costs
Piping @ 10%
Electrical @ 8%
Instrumentation @ 5%
Site Preparation @ 5%
Subtotal 2
Non-Construction Costs
Engineering and Construction
Supervision @ 15%
Contingencies @ 15%
Subtotal 3
TOTAL CAPITAL COST
Cost3
Warm
Climate

$142,000
142,000


14,000
11,000
7,000
7,000
39,000


27,000
27,000
54,000
$235,000

Cool
Climate

$319,000
319,000


32,000
26,000
16,000
16,000
90,000


61,000
61,000
122,000
$531,000
SOURCE: After Reference 12
aJune 1987 dollars; ENR Index 4386.80
 Surface loading rate in warm climate is assumed to be 40 Ib BOD^/acre/day
 for facultative lagoons
 Surface loading rate in cool climate is assumed to be 20 Ib BOD,-/ac re/day
 for facultative lagoons

-------
                                  TABLE 6.3-2
                  COSTS OF SELECTED FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS
Material
Butyl Rubber
Chlorinated
Polyethylene (CPE)
Chlorosulfonated
Polyethylene (CSPE)
Elasticized Polyolefi
(ELPO)
Ethyl ene Propylene
Rubber
Neoprene
Hiyh Density
Polyethylene (HOPE)
Epichlorohydrin
Rubbers
Polyvinyl Chloride
(PVC)
Nominal
Thickness (mils)
30
30
30
ns 20
30
30
60
80
-
20
30
Price
Relative
Costb .
M
M
M
-
M
H
M-Hf
H
L
($/yd2)a
Installed
Cost
6.68-7.99d'e
7.31-12.60d'e
7.31-12.60d'e
3.52-3.83
6.68-7.99d'e
9.95-11.486
8.17d .
9.07-9.64°
8.48-12.72
2.45-3.37
3.06-4.17
Source:  References 1 and 13
aJune 1987 dollars; ENR Index of 4386.80
 L=low; M=moderate; H=high
 Installed cost is highly dependent on the area being lined.
 Includes subgrade preparation
o
 Includes fabric reinforcement
 Depends on thickness

-------
                                  TABLE 6.3-3

                 COSTS OF SELECTED EARTHEN AND ADMIXED LINERS
Material                                     Installed Cost ($/yd2)a'b'c
Soil and Bentonite                                  1.72-
 (9 Ib/ycT)

Bentonite                                           1.53 - 3.52

Soil Cement                                         2.97
  (6 inches plus
   2 coats sealer)

Gunite                                              6.12 - 22.95

Soil Asphalt                                        2.97
  (6 inches plus
   2 coats sealer)

Asphalt Panels                                      9.79 - 16.37

Hydraulic Asphalt                        .           7.15 - 10.02
  Concrete (hot mix,
   4 inches)
Source:  References 1 and 2
a
b
aJune 1987 dollars; ENR Index of 4386.80
 Does not include subgrade preparation
 Transportation costs will vary depending on distance of site from material
 source

-------
                                 APPENDIX 6.3

                                  TABLE 6.3-4

             COSTS FOR A FOUR-WELL GROUND-WATER MONITORING SYSTEM
                                            Cost Per          System
      Item                                    Well              Cost
INSTALLATION AND DEVELOPMENT
 COSTS (exclusive of supervisory
   personnel)

Mobilization/Demobilization                  $125.00          $500.00

Drill ing

 - 10-inch hollow stem auger
    @ $20.00/ft and 40 ft.                    800.00         3,200.00

 - Split-spoon sampling
    @ $75.00/sample and
    5-ft. intervals                           675.00         2,700.00

Well  Installation (4-inch
  Schedule 80 PVC pipe)

 - Well casing (blank)
    & $11.00/ft and 35 ft                     385.00         1,540.00
 - Well screen
    @ $20.00/ft and 10 ft                     200.00           800.00
 - Backfill (clean sand filter
    pack, bentonite seal ,
    grout and cement)
    (<> $14.00/ft                               560.00         2,240.00
 - Protective locking well cover              300.00         1,200.00
 - Equipment decontamination (one hour)       150.00           600.00

Well  Development
 <3$150.00/hr and 1 hr/well                    150.00           600.00
TOTAL                                      $3,345.00       $13,380.00

-------
                                 APPENDIX 6.3

                            TABLE 6.3-4 (Continued)

             COSTS FOR A FOUR-WELL GROUND-WATER MONITORING SYSTEM
                                            Cost  Per          System
      Item                                    Well              Cost
SUPERVISORY COSTS (during well  installation)

Supervisory Personnel
 - Geologist
    (3$40.00/hr and 8-12 hr/well                400.00         1,600.00
 - Rental Car
    (3$50.00/day                                50.00           200.00
 - Per diem
    (?$75.00/day                                75.00           300.00
TOTAL                                         525.00         2,100.00

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS COSTS

Sampling (2 people)
 - Pre-sample purge
    C<>$30.UO/manhour and 1-2 hrs/well           90.00           360.00

 - £ ampliny equipment,
    containers, protective
    clothing  (Level D),
    field instrument
    rental  , sample shipment
    costs                                      80.00           320.00

 - Rental car
    P$50.00/day                                50.00            50.00

 - Per diem
    @$75.00/manday                            150.00           150.00

Analysis

 - Priority pollutant scan
    0$2,000.00/sample                       2,000.00         8,000.00
 - QA/QC (field blank, wash blank)3         2,000.00         2,000.00
TOTAL   (per  sampling event)                54,370.00       $10,880.00
 aOne  QA/QC  sample per  sampling event, whether one or four wells.

-------
APPENDIX 6.4




PRETREATMENT

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-------
   APPENDIX  6.5



LAGOON REMEDIATION

-------
                               APPENDIX 6.5

                               TABLE 6.5-1

                 GENERAL TYPES OF RESPONSE ALTERNATIVES
                     APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL LAGOONS
                                  ACTION
No action (periodic monitoring)
Construction of alternate water supply (in response to a short-term
       health threat)
Source Control
    o  Retrofit/repair lagoon to eliminate pollutant source
    o  Clean closure (removal of waste)
    o  Closure with waste in place
Landfill of excavated material


Incineration of excavated material
Control  of contaminant plume
    o  Ground-water extraction and treatment
    o  Ground-water diversion
    o  In-situ treatment (innovative)
    o  Allow natural  attenuation through dilution, sorption and
       degradation

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                                     APPENDIX  6.5

                                     TABLE  6.5-3

                       COMMON GROUND-WATER  TREATMENT PROCESSES
Treatment Process
               Comments
Activated Carbon
Biological Treatment
 (suspended growth and
 fixed-film systems)
Filtration
Precipitation/Flocculation
Sedimentation
o  Well-suited for the removal of mixed organics,
   especially if they are hydrophobic and nonpolar.
   Can also remove some metal and inorganic species.
o  If fulvic or humic acids are present, they will
   preferentially adsorb and result in rapid carbon
   exhaustion.
o  Requires pretreatment for oil and grease and
   suspended solids.
o  Often used following air stripping.
o  Mobile systems are commercially available, easy to
   start up and shut down, and require minimal space.
o  Not affected by toxic compounds.
o  High capital  and operating costs can be reduced by
   pretreatment (e.g., sedimentation, biological
   treatment, and/or air stripping).

o  Degrades soluble organics more readily than
   insoluble organics.
o  Halogenated and nitro-substituted compounds are
   generally more refractory than other materials.
o  Bacteria can be inhibited by toxic compounds (e.g.,
   metals) and shock loadings.
o  Pretreatment (usually neutralization and/or
   sedimentation) is sometimes required.
o  Sludge must be properly disposed.

o  Good for removal of low levels of solids.
o  Equipment is readily available; easy to operate and
   control.
o  Process is easily integrated into overall treatment
   scheme.
o  Mobile systems are commercially available.
o  Backwash water will contain high concentrations of
   contaminants  and must be treated.

o  Removes metals and certain anionic species.
o  Can be used in situ in lagoon wastewater before it
   is removed.
o  Equipment is  readily available and easy to operate.
o  Process is easily integrated into overall treatment
   scheme.
o  Sludge must be properly disposed.

o  Used as pretreatment for activated carbon
   adsorption, ion exchange, air stripping, biological
   treatment, reverse osmosis and filtration.
o  Sludge must be properly disposed.

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                                     APPENDIX 6.b

                                     TABLE 6.5-3

                  COMMON GROUND-WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES, Continued
Treatment Process
              Comments
Ion Exchange
Neutralization
Air Stripping
Resin Adsorption
Chemical Oxidation
Chemical Reduction
o  Removes metals, inorganic anions, and ionized and
   organic acids.
o  Rapidly exhausted at high concentrations (2500-4000
   mg/1)
o  Suspended solids greater than 50 mg/1 can plug the
   resin.
o  Units  are commercially available and can be used in
   mobile treatment systems.
o  Regenerant solution must be properly disposed.

o  Often used to adjust pH prior to biological  and
   other treatment processes.
o  Relatively simple process.

o  Used to remove volatile compounds.
o  Less volatile compounds are not removed and must be
   subjected to other treatment such as carbon
   adsorption or biological degradation.
o  Often used upstream of carbon adsorption to reduce
   the frequency and expense of carbon regeneration.
o  High energy cost (air flow).

o  Very cost-effective for removal of low
   concentrations of volatile organics.
o  System is modular and easy to establish on site.
o  Off-gas may require collection and treatment.
o  Can remove a wide range of polar and nonpolar
   organics.
o  Can tolerate high levels of dissolved inorganics.
o  Spent regenerant must be properly disposed.

o  Can partially oxidize specific refractory and/or
   toxic wastes prior to biological treatment
   (cyanides, phenols, mercaptans and pesticides).
o  Equipment is readily available but application is
   complex.
o  Reagents are hazardous.

o  Used primarily for the reduction of hexavalent
   chromium, mercury and lead.
o  Equipment is readily available and process is easy
   to implement.
o  Capital and operating costs are low.

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                                                APPENDIX 6.5

                                                TABLE 6.5-3

                             COMMON GROUND-WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES,  Continued
           Treatment Process
              Comments
           In-Situ Treatment
            0  Bicreelamation
            o  Chemical  Treatment
            o  Physical  Treatment
o  Applicability must be detemined on site-specific
   basis using laboratory and pilot-scale testing.

o  Aerobic conditions are usually required (except for
   nalogenated lower molecular weight hydrocarbons).
o  More soluble compounds are more readily available
   for degradation.
o  Other conditions (pH, micronutrients, temperature,
   etc.) must be suitable.
o  Hydraulic conductivity must be adequate to maintain
   a supply of oxygen and nutrients throughout the
   treatment zone.
o  Can degrade organics that are sorbed to soils which
   can not be removed by groundwater extraction.

o  Still in developmental stage.
o  Groundwater to be treated and the injected reagents
   must be contained within the treatment zone.
o  Types of chemical treatment include immobilization,
   soil flushing, and detoxification.
o  Soil flushing with water surfactants appears to be
   relatively feasible and cost-effective for organics.
   Inorganics can be flushed with dilute acids or
   chelating agents.

o  Still in developmental stages.
o  Types of physical treatment include in-situ heating,
   vitrification and ground freezing to immobilize or
   detoxify contaminants.
           Source:  References  13,  14,  17,  18,  19  and  20.
t

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    APPENDIX 6.6



APPENDIX 6 REFERENCES
                                                 t

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                                APPENDIX 6.6

                            APPENDIX 6 REFERENCES
 1.   USEPA,  1983.  Lining  of Waste  Impoundment  and  Disposal  Facilities.
     USE PA,   Office  "of  Research  and  Development,  Municipal   Envi ronmentail
     Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio.

 2.   USEPA,  1983.   Design  Manual, Municipal Wastewater  Stabilization  Ponds.
     EPA/625/1-83/011TUSEPA, Office of Research and Development,  Cincinnati ,
     Ohio.

 3.   Schultz, D.W.,  1984.   Field  Studies  of  Liner  Installation  Methods  at
     Landfills and Surface  Impoundments.EPA/600/2-84/168.USEPA,  Office  of
     ResearchandDevelopment,Municipal  Environmental   Research  Laboratory,
     Cincinnati ,  Ohio.

 4.   USEPA,   1985.   Design,  Construction  and  Evaluation of  Clay  Liners  for
     Waste  Management Facilities^EPA/530/SW-86/007.USEPA,  Office  of
     Research and  Development, Washington, D.C.

 5.   American  Colloid   Company,    1986(?)      "Effective   Water   Stoppage"
     Manufacturer's  Brochure.

 6.   Federal  Bentonite, 1986(7).  Manufacturer's Brochure.

 7.   Bass,  J.M.,  1985.   Assessment of  Synthetic  Membrane Successes and
     Failures at  Waste  Storage  and  Disposal  Sites.   EPA/600/2-85/100.   [JsTFA~7
     Office  of Research and Development, Cincinnati, Ohio.

 8.   Kays,  William B.,  1977.   Construction of  Linings for  Reservoirs,  Tanks,
     and  Pollution Control Facilities.John Wiley and Sons.

 9.   Stewart,  Wilford  S.      State-of-the-Art   Study   of   Land   Impoundment
     Techniques.   EPA-600/2-78-T9T:December 1978.

10.   Middlebrooks, E.J.,  C.D.  Perman,  and  I.S.  Dunn,  1978.   Wastewater
     Stabilization Pond Linings.  USEPA, Office  of  Water Program  Operations,
     Washington,  D.C.

11.   Kumar,  J. and Jedlicka,  J.A.,  1973.   "Selecting and Installing  Synthetic
     Pond Liners."   Chemical Engineering.  80(3):67-70.

12.   USEPA,  1980.   Innovative and Alternative  Technology  Assessment  Manual.
     USEPA,  Office of Water Programs, Washington, D.C.

13.   USEPA,   1985.   Handbook   - Remedial Action at Waste Disposal Sites
     (Revised).   EPA/625/6-85/006.   USEPA,  Office of Emergency and  Remedial
     Response, Washington,  D.C. with  the  Office of  Research and  Development
     and  Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.

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         14.  Shuckrow,  A.J., A.P.,  Pajak,  and  C.J.  Touhill,  1982.   Management  of
             Hazardous  Waste Leachate.   USEPA,  Office of  Solid  Waste and  Emergency
             Response, Washington, Washington,  D.C.

         Ib.  Repa,   E.   and   C.   Kufs,   1985.      Leachate   Plume   Management.
             EPA-540/2-85/004.   USEPA, Office of  Solid Waste and  Emergency  Response
             and  Office  of  Emergency  and  Remedial  Response,  Washington, D.C.,  with
             Office of Research and Development,  Cincinnati, OH.

         16.  DeRenzo,  D.J.,  1978.    Unit  Operations  for  Treatment  of  Hazardous
             Industrial Waste.  Noyes Data Corporation.


         17.  USEPA,  1986.  Criteria for  Identifying Areas  of  Vulnerable  Hydrogeology
             under the Resource Conservation and  Recovery  Act.   Statutory  Interpretive
             Guidance  -  Manual  for Hazardous Waste  Land  Treatment,  Storage,  Disposal
             Facilities  - Interim Final.USEPA,  Office  of  Solid  Waste and  Emergency
             Response, Washington, D.C.

         18.  Wilson,   J.T.,   1987.     "Degradation  of  Halogenated   Hydrocarbons."
             Presented at BIOTEC 87, Dusseldorf,  W. Germany.

         19.  Wilson,  J.T., S. Fogel and P.V. Roberts,  1987.  "Biological  Treatment  of
             Trichloroethylene  In-Situ."   ASCE  Proceedings, Symposium on Groundwater
             Contamination, Atlantic City, N.J.

         2Q.  Wilson,  J.T.,  I.E.  Leach, M.  Henson, and  J.N.  Jones,  1986.   "In-Situ
             Restoration as a Groundwater Remediation Technique."   Groundwater
             Monitoring Review, Fall 1986.
t

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