WASTE
 STABILIZATION
 LAGOONS
              Proceedings of a Symposium
               at Kansas City, Missouri
                  August 1-5, 1960
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
         Public Health Service

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WASTE
STABILIZATION
LAGOONS
                 A Review of Research and Experience

                 in Design, Construction, Operation

                 and Maintenance
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
               Public Health Service
       Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control
               Washington 25, D.C.

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The Symposium was arranged and conducted
by the Public Health Service at the
request of-
Missouri Basin Engineering Health Council
This publication of the symposium proceedings
was prepared by the staff of the Division of
Water Supply and Pollution Control, Region VI,
Public Health Service, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, Kansas City, Mo.
         Public Health Service Publication No. 872
                     August 1961
       For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
                 Washington 25, D. C.  Price $1.25

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                               This Symposium

                            was Sponsored by the


             MISSOURI BASIN ENGINEERING HEALTH COUNCIL

                      Albert W. Happy, Jr., Chairman
COLORADO
   William N. Gahr, Director
   Division of Sanitation
   State Department of Public
      Health

IOWA
   Paul J.  Houser, Director
   Division of Public Health
      Engineering
   State Department of Health

KANSAS
   Dwight F. Metzler, Director
   Division of Sanitation
   State Board of Health

MINNESOTA

   Frank L. Woodward,  Director
   Division of Environmental
      Sanitation
   State Department of Health

MISSOURI
   Albert W. Happy, Jr. , Director
   Section of Consultant Services
   Division of Health
MONTANA
   C.  W.  Brinck,  Director
   Division of Environmental
     Sanitation
   State Board of Health

NEBRASKA
   T.  A. Filipi, Director
   Division of Sanitation
   State Department of Health
NORTH DAKOTA

   W. Van Heuvelen
   Executive Officer
   State Department of Health

SOUTH DAKOTA

   Charles E. Carl, Director
   Division of Sanitary Engineering
   State Department of Health

WYOMING

   Arthur E.  Williamson, Director
   Division of Environmental
     Sanitation
   State Department of Public Health
                                      111

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                                   CONTENTS

                                                                              Page

MISSOURI BASIN ENGINEERING COUNCIL	    i11

FOREWORD	...oo	   vii

WELCOME .		...     1
            Lewis H. Hoyle, M. D.

HISTORY OF RAW SEWAGE LAGOONS IN THE  MIDWEST	     2
            Jerome H.  Svore

HISTORY OF OXIDATION PONDS IN THE  SOUTHWEST	„.........     7
            David F. Smallhorst

LAGOON RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE AT
    FAYETTE, MiSSOURI	    15
            Herbert C. Clare

RESEARCH AND INSTALLATION EXPERIENCES IN CALIFORNIA	    33
            William J.  Oswald

VIRGINIA'S EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATION	    41
            C. E. Cooley and R. R. Jennings

SEWAGE LAGOONS IN AUSTRALIA	    53
            C. D. Parker

ECONOMICS OF WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOONS IN REGION VI	 .    57
            Herbert C. Clare and Daniel J.  Weiner

USE OF STABILIZATION PONDS IN THE UNITED STATES	    68
            W.  W. Towne and  W.  B. Horning, III

MISSOURI BASIN CRITERIA		.		    75
            Glen J. Hopkins

LAGOON TREATMENT OF MEAT PACKING PLANT WASTES		    8Z
            F. W.  Sollo

LAGOON DEVELOPMENT AND ACCEPTANCE  IN MISSISSIPPI		    89
            J. E. Johnston

EXPERIENCES IN CANADA	    95
            H. L. Hogge

SEWAGE LAGOONS AND MOSQUITO PROBLEMS	  101
            Leslie D. Beadle

LAGOON DISPOSAL OF  LIVESTOCK WASTES	  105
            Ralph L. Ricketts

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OPERATING EXPERIENCES IN THE TEN MISSOURI BASIN STATES:

        North Dakota 	„..„„...	    109
            W.  Van Heuvelen

        Montana	„	. „	„	    112
            Claiborne W. Brinck

        Minnesota	„	    116
            Harvey  G.  Rogers

        South Dakota	„	    118
            Donald C.  Kalda

        Iowa	„	    133
            R.  J. Schliekelman

        Kansas	.	„...„	.	    136
            Russell Gulp

        Missouri. . . .	.	    140
            Jack K. Smith

        Nebraska	„	    144
            T.  A. Filipi

        Colorado	    147
            Ronald C.  McLaughlin

        Wyoming	
            David Green

ARCTIC SEWAGE LAGOONS		    155
            Charles F. Walters

IMPROMPTU REMARKS BY JOE WILLIAMSON,  JR.	    159

CRITIQUE  .			    161
            C.  H. Atkins

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF  WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOONS	    165

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                               FOREWORD

Use of waste stabilization lagoons for treating raw sewage and certain in-
dustrial wastes has become very popular in the Missouri Basin States.
Since early 1957, the Public Health Service, in cooperation with the City
of Fayette and the Division of Health of Missouri (and subsequently,  the
Missouri Water Pollution Board) has operated a research installation at
Fayette, Missouri.  In 1959, the Missouri Basin Engineering Health Coun-
cil,  (the Chief Sanitary Engineers of each of the 10 Missouri Basin States)
documented the design,  construction and operating practices generally
used for the several hundred installations then existing in the Missouri
Basin.

Recognizing the widespread and popular interest in this economical method
of waste disposal, the Missouri Basin  Engineering Health Council requested
that Public Health Service Region VI plan and conduct a symposium on waste
stabilization lagoons under sponsorship of the Council.

Capitalizing upon the central location of the lower Missouri River Basin, the
numerous  installations  in  the Kansas  City metropolitan area available for
inspection and observation, the Fayette research facility, and the full coop-
eration of the  official health and water  pollution control agencies  of the 10
Basin States,  the symposium was designed as an intensive review of re-
search and experiences  in the design,  construction, operation and mainte-
nance of waste stabilization lagoons.

Registration of 330 persons, from 32 States and 7 foreign countries, dem-
onstrates the widespread interest in this subject. It was indeed a pleasure
for Public Health Service Region VI to arrange and conduct the symposium,
and we gratefully acknowledge the full  cooperation of the Basin States and
the Robert A.  Taft Sanitary Engineering Center.  Appreciation is  also ex-
pressed to the  program participants, all serving without compensation of any
kind, who in the final analysis are truly responsible for the success of the
symposium.

It is hoped that the Proceedings of the  Symposium will be helpful to the many
persons interested in the application of waste stabilization lagoons for treat-
ment of sewage or industrial wastes.
                                           GLEN J. HOPKINS
                                           Regional Engineer
                                           Public Health Service Region VI
                                  vii

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                                      WELCOME

                                Lewis H. Hoyle,  M. D. *
  It is a real pleasure for me to welcome
you this morning and to  "kick off" the first
Symposium ever devoted to sewage  lagoons.
A pleasure for several reasons:

  First, this is a symposium sponsored by
the State Sanitary Engineers of the  10 States
of the Missouri River Basin and conducted
by the Public Health Service at the  request
of the 10 States.. This is a fine  example of a
close working relationship of the State and
Federal agencies.

  Secondly,  the current popularity and wide-
spread use of raw sewage lagoons had its
start in, and received its momentum from,
Public Health Service Region VI, and I am
pleased that  members of my own staff have
made important contributions to this move-
ment.

  This Regional Office first had opportunity
to observe raw sewage lagoons in the State
of North Dakota through the  early work and
interest of Jerry Svore and Willis Van Heu-
velen. While we now  know that  several in-
stallations preceded those in North  Dakota,
most, if not all ponds were used for  supple-
mental treatment; not raw sewage. Jerry and
Van, as a team,  were the first to develop
design standards and to actively promote
raw sewage lagoons,  with full and unquali-
fied endorsement of the State Health  Depart-
ment.

  Their  enthusiasm was soon absorbed by
Glen Hopkins,  who became the first cham-
pion of the cause among Public Health Serv-'
ice officers. His early endorsement of heav-
ier loadings  and lesser isolation than used
in the Dakotas,  to facilitate  use of lagoons
in more densely populated areas, caused
some concern among Public Health  Service
engineers and in some State Health  Depart-
ments. Dr. Neel's evaluations  of early in-
stallations in the Kansas City area gave im-
petus to the movement. The plea of Regional
Office for investigations, research and dem-
onstration projects by the Service seemed
to fall upon unsympathetic  ears.  Fortu-
nately,  however,  Wally Towne also became
convinced - and the Public Health Service
did undertake some modest projects: an
evaluation of certain installations in the
Dakotas; the Fayette project, for which you
will receive the first report today; and  some
similar work at a penitentiary in Ohio which
has not yet been reported.

  This seems a minor  effort, and it is  re-
greted that the Public Health Service could
not have undertaken these efforts earlier
and more extensively. Surely they would
have enhanced the promotional efforts that
have led to the hundreds of installations we
now have. When we consider that the inter-
est started about 1950,  the several hundred
existing  installations constitutes amazing
progress.

  We in  Region VI are confident that in the
future raw sewage lagoons will play an  even
greater role in lessening the costs of safe-
guarding the sanitary quality of our water
resources.  My staff have  convinced me that
lagoons have saved communities in Region
VI more than they have gained from Federal
Grants.  We hope to share our experiences
with other parts of the country. We hope this
symposium will spread to other areas of the
country the  enthusiasm you note here.  If it
does this, the symposium will indeed be
worthwhile.

  I am happy to see the  excellent turn out  -
I understand we have 318 people registered
representing 32 states,  all Regional Offices
of the Public Health Service, and 7 foreign
countries. What started as a Regional Sym-
posium has  turned out to be  an international
conference. Much of the experience and
competency in this field is represented  here
today.

  It is a real pleasure to welcome you here.
The agenda  indicates you will be quite busy
the next five days, but I'm confident it will
be a pleasant and profitable  experience  for
you.
  •Regional Medical Director, Public Health Service Region VI, Kansas City, Missouri.

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                         HISTORY OF RAW SEWAGE LAGOONS
                                   IN THE MIDWEST
                                  JEROME H.  SVORE*
  Before delving into the history of sewage
lagoons, it might be well to briefly define
what is meant by the term lagoon as used
in this discussion.  Various names have
been applied to an open pond which receives
sewage,  such as stabilization lagoons, sta-
bilization ponds, oxidation  ponds and la-
goons. In this instance,  we are discussing
a pond of engineering design which is  con-
structed for  the purpose of receiving raw
sewage.  It is further assumed that oxida-
tion ponds are considered  to be those
ponds that are designed for the purpose of
receiving,  at least, primarily settled sew-
age. This may be from an ordinary sewage
treatment plant, imhoff tank, septic tank
and the like. Sewage lagoons,  however,
receive raw  sewage from a municipality
including incidental industrial wastes.

  During the mid-twenties,  cities in  Cali-
fornia,  Texas, North Dakota and probably
other states, used  lagoons  as a means of
treating municipal  sewage,  however, in
each case it  seemed to be more by accident
than design.  It was during this  period that a
student at the University of Texas made a
survey for the State Department of Health
in order to ascertain why the sewage from
the  town of Palestine, which was discharg-
ing  into a small, swampy area,  was con-
verted to a fresh, sparkling stream  after a
few miles. Shortly after this survey was
made, Vic Ehlers, then State Sanitary En-
gineer for Texas, was held, so to speak,
in mild ridicule when he  suggested during  a
National engineering meeting that aquatic
plants probably played an important  part in
the  oxidation of this sewage. It was a short
while later that Mr. Ehlers recommended
to the city of Abilene that they pond their
sewage by the construction of a small dam
until  such time as a sewage treatment plant
could be built. This lagoon functioned suc-
cessfully for many years.  During the mid-
thirties, Texas A & M College became
interested in the  operations at Abilene and
constructed a 14-acre pond at the College
to carry on some limited investigations of
lagoon operation.

   In 1924, Santa Rosa, California, in an
attempt to escape the cost of a sewage
treatment plant,  uncovered gravel beds
which the city council thought  could be
used as natural filters prior to discharging
city sewage into  the then highly polluted
Santa Rosa Creek. Raw sewage was dis-
charged on to the exposed gravel which
shortly became sealed resulting in an im-
poundment of sewage to a depth of about
three feet. Fortunately for the city,  how-
ever, the experiment was not a failure and
the overflowing effluent from the pond re-
sembled an effluent from a trickling filter.
It had no odor and was easily disinfected.
Also in 1924, the town of Vacaville,  Cali-
fornia,  being faced with a sewage disposal
problem, used a dry gulley as  an impound-
ing reservoir for releases of sewage during
the winter months only. Here again it was
found that the impounded sewage  underwent
characteristic changes through BOD reduc-
tion with an increase  of dissolved oxygen
and in some cases nitrogen was found to be
present.

   The first lagoon of record in North Da-
kota was in the town of Fessenden and was
placed in operation during 1928.  This com-
munity had no nearby stream to handle the
effluent  from the new sewage system com-
pleted during that year so they decided to
empty their  sewage into a pothole about a
mile and a half from the town hoping that
the distance would be adequate to prevent
any odor or nuisance  problem. This na-
tural lagoon is still in operation  32  years
later and the city has experienced no odor
or nuisance problems. It was the success
of this enterprise that gave engineers some
degree of confidence that a raw sewage
  'Regional Program Director, Water Supply & Pollution Control, Public Health Service, Dallas, Texas (former North Dakota State
Sanitary Engineer).

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lagoon could be designed,  placed in opera-
tion and function successfully considerably
closer to  a city.

  Although there is much information in the
literature on various types and designs of
ponds used for sewage disposal here and
abroad, indications are that the modern-
day lagoon built on good,  sound engineering
principles under modern concepts of treat-
ing raw sewage was first placed in opera-
tion in 1948 in Maddock, North Dakota.
Prior to this time, there had been no real
recognition on the part of any official agen-
cy that a raw  sewage lagoon was an accept-
able, reputable method of handling sewage,
although oxidation ponds had been accepted
as a means  of  handling the effluent from a
primary plant. In fact, the State of Texas
had some  200 installations of this type,
but it seems that no engineer had purposely
proceeded to design a pond to handle raw
sewage on a permanent basis.

  Credit should be given at this point to
Mr. L. W.  Burdick of the engineering firm
of Lium and Burdick who is responsible for
this  initial design.

  Maddock is a town of approximately 1, 000
people and it was felt that a lagoon of 10
acres would be needed. This initial design,
with a maximum depth of five feet, proved
to be adequate from a treatment standpoint,
and a high degree of BOD reduction was
found at any point 50 feet or more from the
influent line which was located at the cen-
ter of the  pond. Because the lagoon is  in a
pothole  area,  however, it was found neces-
sary to expand its size as seepage and evap-
oration were  not  adequate to dispose  of
the entire sewage flow. A second and third
cell was added two years later.  Sewage now
flows in series through the three ponds
providing  adequate area for seepage and
evaporation to obviate the necessity of a
discharge to a water course.  The second
and third  ponds also provide additional
treatment but the basic treatment occurs
in the first cell.

   The  success of this installation brought
about considerable enthusiasm on the  part
of the North Dakota State  Health Depart-
ment engineers and they became active
promoters of this method of treatment
shortly thereafter. Several towns con-
structed lagoons during the following year,
including the towns of Portland,  Grenora,
Butte, Hope and New Town.  The rate of
construction increased considerably during
the following years and to date over  100
communities have raw sewage lagoons as
their means of treating municipal sewage.
This approximates two-thirds of the  sewered
municipalities  in the entire state.

  It is only fair to mention that during the
initial introduction of lagoons into the Da-
kotas, the  State Health Department  engi-
neers were subject to some  ridicule. One
enterprising city editor wrote an editorial
of some  literary accomplishment depicting
the youth of the community skating in the
moonlight on the beautiful lagoon with an
occasional individual falling through the ice
with somewhat disastrous results.

  A few  city councils throughout the state
enthusiastically supported the idea of a sew-
age lagoon almost from the beginning and
saw them as the economic solution to their
money problems.  In some instances, a com-
munity was able to construct a sewage sys-
tem where prior to this time it had  been
impossible because  of the high cost of a con-
ventional sewage treatment plant. Neverthe-
less, State Health Department engineers
felt that  universal support throughout the
state would never be fully recognized until
lagoons could be upgraded in the eyes of
competent  engineers and agencies outside
of the state.

   In 1951 Glen Hopkins, Engineer-In-Charge
of Public Health Service Water Pollution
activities in the Missouri Basin, was invited
to North Dakota to make  a personal inspec-
tion of lagoons then in operation. It should
be said that he was a "gone gooner"  from
the start and has been an enthusiastic sup-
porter ever since. It was still not enough,
of course,  that the Basin Office in Kansas
City favored this method of sewage  treat-
ment,  and it was felt that what was  really
needed was an extensive investigation of
the lagoons that were then in operation. Al-
though support for such a project was almost
immediate from Wally Towne, Engineer-In-
Charge of Field Investigations at the Sani-
tary Engineering Center in Cincinnati as
well as others, it was nearly three  years
before funds were made available to actu-
ally get the work under way.

  In the meantime, other  agencies of govern-
ment had become interested in lagoons. The

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Corps of Engineers,  building a 20 million
acre-foot reservoir on the main stem of
the Missouri River in North Dakota, had a
mammoth relocation job ahead of them.
Much of the land to be flooded was within
the Fort Berthhold Indian Reservation.
Schools had to be relocated as well as small
communities, and the construction of some
sewage disposal  facilities became the re-
sponsibility of the Corps. The District Of-
fice of the Corps of Engineers at Garrison
was enthusiastic about the State  Health De-
partment's  recommendations to build la-
goons at these relocated sites. Here again,
the Basin Engineer of the Public Health
Service in Kansas City was called upon to
obtain approval  at higher levels  within the
Corps.  Subsequently, this approval was
obtained and these federal installations
were numbered  amongst the first lagoons
to be built in the state. A few years later,
the combined influence of the State Health
Department, the Basin Office of the Public
Health Service,  and the Corps of Engineers
personnel at Garrison was again brought to
bear in connection with the  construction of
two Strategic  Air Command bases at Grand
Forks and Minot, North Dakota. This was
the first use of raw lagoons by the Air
Force and some of the top ranking engineers
at the Washington level took a rather dim
view of the Health Department's proposal.
Nevertheless, with the State  Health De-
partment being insistent on this  type of
construction and with the complete approval
of the Public  Health Service Basin Office,
the Air Force abandoned its original pro-
posal of activated sludge plants.

   The reason back of the State Health De-
partment attitude in this matter  may be of
interest. The average military installation,
such as one of the Strategic Air  Command
bases,  operates  on daily cycles  of high and
low water use. This  is not  conducive to
high efficiency of operation in the normal
type of sewage treatment plant.  On the
other hand,  "slugging" a raw sewage la-
goon with high volumes for a short period
of time, does not affect its operation. More
important than this,  however, was the fact
that both of these installations were to be
located in areas where only dry-run creeks
were available for final disposal of sewage.
A lagoon could be designed in such a way
that no final disposal was necessary over
and beyond  seepage and evaporation. Al-
though outlet  structures were provided, it
was not anticipated that they would be used.
On the other hand,  should they ever be used,
the lagoon size was  such,  and the treatment
of such adequacy, that an  intermittent^ef-
fluent would in no way cause an obnoxious
condition.

  South Dakota was  quick  to follow the foot-
steps of its sister state to the north and
even called on North Dakota to provide the
site on which to construct the lagoon serv-
ing one of its  communities.  Lemmon, South
Dakota purchased land across the state line
on which their lagoon was built.

  By the year 1955,  there was little, if any,
controversy in either of the  Dakotas in re-
gard to the  use of sewage  lagoons, except
in a few isolated cases. By that time, there
were nearly 100 lagoons in the Missouri
Basin States,  and they were already being
designed for use in the Pacific Northwest.

  The State of Missouri did not consider the
use of lagoons until after  one of their engi-
neers had visited North Dakota in the fall
of 1953 to observe installations then in oper-
ation.  The enthusiasm of this  engineer,
Jack Smith, upon his return to Missouri,
resulted in some of the consulting engineer-
ing firms starting work on them immedi-
ately.  Within a year several were under
construction in various parts of the state.
The Missouri State  Health Department,
along with the County and City Engineers,
recommended the use of lagoons  as interim
facilities for  subdivision development  pend-
ing the  installation of interceptor and trunk
sewers. Some of the first installations of
this type were made in late  1954  and 1955.
The local residents, however,  in many in-
stances, objected to having  a sewage
lagoon near their home, even on  a tempo-
rary basis, and consistently brought their
objections before the zoning boards. The
development of lagoons gave some of these
local interests new  grounds on which to op-
pose zoning.  They claimed the lagoons were
too new,  unproved,  experimental, open
ponds of sewage conducive to fly  and mos-
 quito breeding,  odor, etc.  Nevertheless,
the boards  continued to grant applications
and within a short time there were numer-
ous lagoons installed in the  subdivision
areas of Jackson County,  Missouri, which
is part of the Kansas City metropolitan
area.

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  Kansas accepted sewage lagoons at a
much later date. The first installations in
the Kansas portion of the Kansas City met-
ropolitan area was the Mission Township
installation.  The zoning hearing on this in-
stallation was during December 1955,  and
they requested testimony from  Mr. W.  Van
Heuvelen, Chief of the Water Pollution
Control Program in the  State of North Da-
kota. As usual, the opposition considered
lagoons to be untried and of an  experi-
mental nature, and, therefore, insisted
that the installation should not be made.
Nevertheless,  the lagoon was installed
on a temporary basis and operated suc-
cessfully. Within the last two or three
years, Kansas has openly accepted lagoons
for the treatment of raw sewage as a
proven installation and th«y no  longer re-
quire a minimum of primary treatment
ahead of the  lagoon.

  Although the Pacific Northwest can
hardly be considered to  have a  part in the
history of lagoons in the Midwest,  brief
mention of their spread  westward might be
in order. Vale, Oregon  was the first city
in that part of the country to inquire  of their
consulting engineers as  to the feasibility of
using a lagoon to treat sewage from their
community.  Fortunately they had employed
the firm of Clark and Groff of Salem, Ore-
gon, former  North Dakota engineers of the
pre-lagoon era who had  kept themselves
informed of progress being made in the use
of lagoons. As a result,  Vale became the
pioneering city in the Pacific Northwest
with the  first modern-day engineered la-
goon as their treatment  facility,

  Other  engineers of this area were  quick
to follow with their own  variations in de-
sign. It seemed to be very difficult for the
average  consultant to divorce his thinking
from the old  tried and true method of sew-
age treatment, namely,  first removing
settleable solids.  It seemed logical,  there-
fore, to  have a small primary pond to
catch the solids. Some were built this way,
which of course, resulted in an anaerobic
primary cell. Such a lagoon was built at
Long Beach,  Washington and provided ex-
cellent research facilities for the State
Health Department,  Pollution Control
Board,  and the Public Health Service Port-
land Office.  Despite the  under-design, the
anaerobic condition, an  effluent filter that
did not function, and a population that
varied from 700 in the winter to 7, 000 on a
summer weekend,  there were no complaints.

   It was quite  obvious after the first year's
operation, however, that a. single cell would
have performed better,  been simpler to con-
struct, and cost considerably less. A simi-
lar design in another location may not have
been as satisfactory. Although this was a
high-rainfall area  with little sunlight,  a
continual onshore breeze allowed homes to
be constructed 150 feet  to the west of the
lagoon.

   Another pioneering design that should be
mentioned in passing •was also for a Wash-
ington city,, The consulting engineer pro-
posed  a circular lagoon with dykes running
like spokes of  a wheel to a central lagoon.
Here again, was the old principle of pri-
mary settling. The writer recommended
removing all internal dykes and building the
lagoon as one large cell.

   During the latter part of 1954, the Public
Health Service had secured  adequate re-
search funds to start limited field investi-
gations in the Dakotas.  William Davis,  out
of Wally Towne's office at the Sanitary
Engineering Center in Cincinnati,  arrived
in Bismarck early in 1955,,  During the next
year and a half, he conducted an extensive
field investigation  of three lagoons in South
Dakota and three in North Dakota. A final
report published in 1957 indicated the suc-
cess of sewage lagoons  even though some of
those studied were not built in accordance
with accepted design.  The report,  never-
theless,  did bring about  a degree  of re-
spectability that this type of facility had not
previously enjoyed. It also substantiated the
fact that the basic criteria originally
adopted for design seemed to be quite well
justified.

   During this same period,  the Public
Health Service further backed their interest
in lagoon research by constructing a group
of ponds at Lebanon, Ohio near the Sanitary
Engineering Center, and established an ad-
ditional research project in connection with
an experimental lagoon  at Fayette,  Mis-
souri.  The results of this experimental
work had considerable influence on their
adoption in the Lower Missouri Basin.

   The  State Sanitary Engineers of the Mis-
souri Basin States continued their pioneering

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by promulgating the first set of design
standards to be adopted by more than one
state.  At this point, it seems, lagoons fi-
nally became of age and could be spoken of
with dignity  in proper circles.  It is inter-
esting  to note that these recommended de-
sign criteria in no way deviated from the
basic concept of design originally devel-
oped by Roy Burdick for the Maddock la-
goon back in 1948.

  Other states in the midwest were quick
to see  the advantage of raw sewage lagoons
although not  mentioned in this narration.
Montana had units in operation shortly af-
ter the first  North Dakota lagoons  were
built.  The Chief Engineer of the Provincial
Health Department of Sask, Canada was  an
early visitor to Dakota installations and
was one of the first to recommend the use
of this method of treatment for  Regina,
Sask. , a city of nearly 100, 000 population.
Oklahoma too, first took advantage of raw
lagoons during the early fifties  with the
State Health  Department engineers approv-
ing the first  set of plans submitted in con-
formance with modern design criteria.
Wyoming and Colorado, whose Chief Sani-
tary Engineers had first-hand experience
with early North Dakota lagoons,  carried
their enthusiasm with them when they took
over their present responsibilities.

  It is too much of a temptation in relating
the history of lagoons in the midwest, not
to tell  the story of sewage treatment facil-
ities in Minot, North Dakota. It is cer-
tainly  a commendation for raw sewage la-
goons. This city of nearly 30,000 population
completed a  modern treatment  plant, com-
plete with filters,  final clarification, recir-
culation and vacuum sludge drying during the
early fifties. In fact,  it was the last sew-
age treatment plant built in the  state. Be-
cause  of the  lack of funds, parallel units
were not constructed but in order to insure
construction within a five-year  period,
when anticipated expansion was thought to
be necessary, duplicate equipment was
purchased at the request of the  State Health
Department.  The  city postponed further ac-
action  even after the five-year period, try-
ing to  determine whether to expand the
present plant,  using equipment already
purchased,  or  to abandon this modern fa-
cility and start over  with a lagoon at a
new site.  The decision was made recently
in favor  of  the latter. The  long range
economics of the situation, taking into
consideration the cost of operation and
maintenance and the effect of the effluent
on the Mouse River weighed heavily in fa-
vor of a lagoon despite the abandonment of
a modern plant that cost the city over
$600, 000. Mr. Van Heuvelen's comment
on this was  that they got caught between
model changes. This frequently happens
also when you buy a new car.

  It would be difficult to determine accu-
rately the number of installations  now
operating in the United States that are de-
signed essentially along the lines of that
first installation in Maddock back in the
last forties. No doubt the number  built
during the last ten  years numbers in the
hundreds. There have been many and
varied designs where the consulting engi-
neer felt that he could improve on the basic
simplicity of the originally designed la-
goon at Maddock,  North Dakota. It is
questionable at this date, however, that
building a more complicated lagoon has in
any way improved its  effectiveness as a
sewage treatment facility.

  Maybe the honor of having the first sew-
age lagoon, or at least the first pond to
receive sewage should go to the city of San
Antonio, Texas, where sewage was ponded
at the turn of the century.  The city at that
time contracted with R. H. Russel, J.  A.
Simons and Associates "for the  construc-
tion of a ditch, dam, and reservoir on
Mitchell Lake  for the proper disposal of
sewage of the city  of San Antonio. " Most
early Texas installations utilized  sewage
holding ponds primarily for broad irriga-
tion but nevertheless,  this  was  pioneer-
ing and led  the way to later applications.
Certainly the consulting engineers, mu-
nicipal officials, and the State Health
Department engineers in North Dakota and
other midwestern states have their little
place in history for the  emphasis they gave
to this effective means of treating sewage.

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               THE HISTORY OF OXIDATION PONDS IN THE SOUTHWEST
                                 D. E. SMALLHORST*
  The title of this presentation is  such as
to invite considerable reference to the  State
of Texas; consequently, it is trusted the
following comments will be received in the
spirit of a historical review which may or
may not be firmly documented in the jour-
nals of  our profession and not as another
"Texas  brag". Truly, the evolution of
present day oxidation pond sewage treat-
ment devices  does have certain roots which
originated in Texas as far back as  the turn
of this century. A brief resume of this
background is submitted here to substan-
tiate this statement.

  Any claim to fame the State of Texas
might make for pioneering the use of oxi-
dation ponds in the field of sewage treat-
ment can probably be attributed to two ma-
jor  influences. The  principal influence is
undoubtedly the arid  nature of a large  por-
tion of the State,  which leads the citizens
of that area to have  a very high regard and
respect for water.  What is considered a
legitimate water  use in some sections of
the  nation is looked upon as  an illegitimate
water abuse in this area.  The average an-
nual rainfall across Texas varies  from
less than 10 inches at El Paso on the  West
to about 50 inches at Texarkana on the
East. It is hardly astonishing then, that
under these circumstances it becomes al-
most second nature  for Texans to  attempt
to make full use  of all available water sup-
plies. This tendency is reflected in history
wherein the sewage  from the City  of San
Antonio was utilized  on the City Hay Farm
as early as 1901. The second major influ-
ence  in Texas' early development  and use
of oxidation ponds is  undoubtedly the re-
sult of the visionary  genius and insatiable
inquisitiveness of one V. M.  Ehlers,  State
Sanitary Engineer of the Health Depart-
ment for some 44 years, from  1915 to
1959. The very nature  of this gentleman
was such as to instill in others the desire
to search for  answers of the  many un-
knowns  which would contribute  to  a more
healthful environment.Very important,
also, was his emphasis upon economy-
getting the cost down where it would be
within reach of individual  citizens of
smaller communities.  It was through his
efforts that many of the early oxidation
pond,  or pond-irrigation,  projects were
initiated.  Mr. Ehlers also sponsored
many of the early basic studies on oxida-
tion pond performance which served as a
starting point for the establishment of de-
sign criteria when the big boom in oxida-
tion pond construction started in the early
1940's (during World War II).

  The development of sewage  lagoons,  as
they were called in Texas during the early
days,  is primarily the result of the out-
growth of the practice of land  disposal of
sewage effluent in that vast area of defi-
cient rainfall for irrigation water. As pre-
viously inferred, the City of San Antonio
went into the sewage lagoon-irrigation
business in the first decade of this cen-
tury. The artificial impoundment  involved
in this operation became known as Mitchell
Lake,  which is still in use and is  com-
prised of  some 680 acres  of surface area
with a maximum depth of about 12 feet,
averaging,  however, 4 to  5 feet in depth.
Admittedly,  it was constructed as a hold-
ing pond in  order to permit more  efficient
use of water for  irrigation, but algae be-
gan oxidizing the sewage in the lake,  thus
constituting probably the first and cer-
tainly  the largest oxidation pond in this
country. During the third  decade,  in  1925
to be more  specific,  a lagoon-irrigation
arrangement was set up by the City of
Abilene which served the City until the  ad-
vent of Public Law 660 when more refine-
ments were added but land disposal is still
being utilized. A great deal of basic data
was obtained from  the experimental pond
built at Texas A  &  M College in 1929, while
in 193'6 the City  of Kingsville  installation
was constructed, receiving all of the  sew-
age from the City of Kingsville and serving
  *Director Water Pollution Control Division, Texas State Department of Health, Austin, Texas.

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as an irrigation water source for agricul-
tural experimentation on the famous King
Ranch.  Considerable research was con-
ducted on this pond by Texas A &; I College
of Kingsville.

  As we recall, it was the results of the
studies made on these early installations
that influenced Mr. Ehlers and his co-
workers to conclude that some type of pri-
mary treatment was highly desirable ahead
of impoundments in order to adequately
dispose of solids, floating material, con-
trol public health hazards,  and reduce
odors.  This policy is  still being continued
to date,  altho recent  developments and re-
search results appear to contradict their
original  conclusions. To learn more about
this aspect of pond operation is the main
reason for our attendance at this sym-
posium;  but to  return to our historical re-
view.

  In the  early stages of World War II, rapid
and unpredictable population increases at
military installations as well as at neigh-
boring municipalities brought about the
construction of numerous oxidation ponds
to cope with the resultant overloads  upon
existing  facilities. The fact that this type
of construction could be accomplished fast,
cheap, and with a minimum use  of critical
material made them especially attractive.
Consequently,  by the end of the war, Texas
had acquired quite a number of oxidation
pond installations which afforded an  excel-
lent opportunity for conducting performance
studies and planned observations. This  op-
portunity was further capitalized upon as
engineering and technical personnel  of the
Department returned from the Services
and the staff began to assume its peace-
time stature. A summary of these studies
is recorded in  Chapter XIII of the 2nd Edi-
tion of the "Manual for Sewage Plant Oper-
ators" written,  edited, published, and sold
by the Texas Water and Sewage Works As-
sociation. This publication came out late
in 1950 or early  in 1951 and coincidentally
other works  on oxidation ponds began to
appear in technical publications.  Duringthe
period from  1950 to about 1955, oxidation
ponds were  a very popular subject of dis-
cussion between  engineers and technicians
of neighboring  as well as more remote
States,  and during this time several States
in the Southwest  tried a few ponds "on for
size". At the present time according to
figures obtained in a very recent survey of
five States in Region VII there are a total
of 274 ponds in operation. Further refer-
ence will be made regarding this survey
later in this paper.  With regard to the State
of Texas  however,  from  1946 to date there
has been  a gradual and orderly formulation
of policies by the Texas Health Department
as to the  use and application of oxidation
ponds. There are now some 700 sewage
treatment plants in Texas and of these
about 200 have oxidation ponds or "la-
goons" in one form or another. Most of
these utilize the ponds as  a means of sec-
ondary treatment, with the ponds being the
flow-through type and the  effluent being
discharge to a water course or employed
for irrigation. In this predominately water
scarce area,  it is not exactly surprising,
therefore, that the  utilization of effluent on
land has resulted in several law suits by
downstream riparian landowners claiming
rights to the use of this water and insisting
it be placed in the stream.

  Although it is rather difficult to de-
scribe a "typical" oxidation pond installa-
tion,  most of the Texas  plants follow a >
rather routine pattern quite similar  to
those in other areas; however,  there are
four rather novel applications worthy of
mention for general interest. The City of
Austin has recently constructed ponds to
treat excess activated sludge and digester
overflow. Approximately  275, 000 gpd  of
waste activated sludge with a BOD of about
4, 500 ppm plus about 15, 000 gpd of di-
gester overflow with a BOD of about 300
ppm, are pumped into three ponds which
can be operated in  series or parallel.
These ponds are 85, 65,  and 41 acres in
size. River water is added at a rate vary-
ing from  2, 500 to 10, 000  gpm chiefly for
the purpose of maintaining a constant wa-
ter level  in the ponds. About 7 MGD of
effluent with a BOD of less than 20 ppm
is returned to the river.

  So much for the application of oxidation
ponds  to the treatment of  domestic sew-
age. The use of ponds in the treatment of
industrial waste is also  encouraging as
well as interesting. Of course, in Texas,
ponds  have  been applied rather extensively
to rural type  of slaughter houses, poultry
dressing  plants, milk processing plants,
and even  washateria wastes.  These are
usually preceded by septic tanks of one
sort or another. In  more  recent years the
adaptation of pond treatment to larger and
more complex industries  has been quite
gratifying.  Probably the  first large-scale
                                          8

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installation was at a cotton seed oil proc-
essing plant to treat the process waste by
the use of some 15 ponds constructed on
the contours of an 85 acre hillside. The
first pond served as a receiving pond and
from there the flow was split to 14 ponds
operating in series-parallel. The  raw
waste had a BOD  of about 3, 000 ppm
whereas the waste in the last pond had 100
ppm BOD or less. Because of evaporation
and seepage losses there is  ordinarily no
effluent, but in the event there were,  it
would probably be of satisfactory quality.
Odor problems were quite serious at this
installation for about the first 18 months
of operation, then apparently the proper
strain or organism  "took over" and no fur-
ther difficulties have been experienced.
The City of Weslaco operates  32 acres of
oxidation ponds  specifically  designed to
treat canning plant wastes ranging from
peas to pineapples.  The ponds are located
adjacent to the domestic sewage treatment
plant,  which is of the two stage high-rate
trickling filter variety.  Two ponds, six-
teen acres each, are designed to operate
in series, treating some 300, 000 gallons
of food processing wastes per day. Ini-
tially,  sodium nitrate was added to supply
nitrogen and reduce the  BOD loading,
which, dependent  upon operations  in the
collector system, varied greatly,  as re-
flected in discharges of  can  cooling water
with a BOD around 20 ppm while spillage
from can fillers or reamer operations
have a BOD of some 50,000 ppm. The
average  BOD of the mixture  was con-
sidered to be about 750  ppm.  The  initial
operation was not successful,  partly due
to abuse of the waste collection system  by
discharge of such materials as grapefruit
rinds,  whole carrots, whole tomatoes,
silt, etc. , and  even when this abuse was
abated, operation was  still  not entirely
successful. It was decided then to  add ef-
fluent  from the  domestic sewage plant to
the industrial waste ponds.  This was done
since the effluent was known to be rich  in
nitrogen and also  contained available dis-
solved oxygen which could be  utilized
directly. Possibly the most  valuable con-
tribution was biological  seed material of
an aerobic type.  Effluent is  now added at
a rate  of about 400 gpm  and the combined
discharge of domestic and industrial
wastes from the ponds has an  average
BOD of 8. 0 ppm and a dissolved oxygen
content of 2.0 ppm. The process has op-
erated in a satisfactory manner for five
yeais. A petrochemical plant in East
Texas has successfully applied pond ac-
tion to the treatment of its wastes. A
series of ponds totaling 62.6 acres is  uti-
lized. The raw waste is deficient in sev-
eral respects and consequently, nutrients,
such as nitrogen and phosphorous  are
added. Studies made by the company re-
vealed that the waste was  also deficient
in certain basic trace elements; conse-
quently,  these are also added and  an en-
vironment is created for desirable bio-
logical life. To our knowledge, this is one
of the first instances reporting the use of
trace elements for such purposes.  Very
rigid control is maintained over the pond
environment by unique instrumentation de-
veloped by the company.  A rapid photo-
electric  method determines the "algae
count" which,  correlated with the  results
of various chemical and biological tests
indicates the amount and variety of nu-
trients required to maintain satisfactory
biological conditions. It is interesting to
note that the performance of the ponds is
best in the summer when the receiving
stream has the least assimilative  capacity
and not as efficient as  in the winter when
the stream flow is greater and the  dis-
solved oxygen in the  stream is not critical.
The ponds treat approximately 2 million
gallons of wastes per day without any re-
ported nuisance and resulting in BOD's as
low as 20 ppm with a small amount of dis-
solved oxygen present  in the effluent.  Al-
though not directly related to  this  subject,
it may be of some interest that one plant
in Texas is disposing of around 500 gpm
of process water entirely by solar  evapo-
ration and have obtained evaporation rates
of from  3 to 7 gpm per acre of pond area
during the past 8 or 10 years.

  Admittedly,  all has not  been serene on
the oxidation pond front.  There have been
failures  and there have been intermittent
weaknesses. These occurrences, how-
ever, represent a very small  percentage
of the total installations. Nonetheless,
these should not be minimized at a dis-
cussion of this nature.

  One disappointment has  been the  attempt
to treat indigo dye wastes  from a textile
mill by ponds.  Here primary treatment is
provided for domestic sewage from a
town of about  15,000  population. This ef-
fluent is  mixed with the mill waste  and
discharged into a pond  system comprised
                                          9

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of two ponds operating in series totaling
about 57. 5 acres surface area. The in-
dustrial waste flow is about 250,000 gpd
whereas the domestic flow averages
about 1. 5 MGD. Odor has been a con-
stant source of complaints, but control
has been attained with the addition of an-
hydrous ammonia in dosages  up to lOppm.

   The general objections to the green color
of pond effluent is reflected in the  aban-
donment of a pond system serving  one  city
with the construction of  a conventional
complete treatment plant. The  effluent was
discharged into a stream which meandered
through a city park. Whereas the color
problem has been corrected to  the satis-
faction of everyone concerned,  there now
exists complaints of froth or  foam below a
small low water dam within the City.  In
some isolated and widely separated instal-
lations  reports of scum  forming and col-
lecting  in certain portions of  ponds which
under certain conditions gives off an odor
which we have classified as a "pig pen
odor".  Needless to say,  this  is indeed a
most repulsive odor. Other conditions re-
ported involve ponds turning from  green
to pink and in some instances almost red.
The  odor nuisance  here  seems erratic,
sometimes there is no odor and at other
times there is an odor but definitely not
the pig  pen odor. Perhaps the most
troublesome aspect of pond installations
confronting the Health Department is the
problem of mosquito  control. Encephalitis
is considered endemic in many areas of
Texas,  and it is known that several vec-
tors are attracted to the type of water  in
oxidation ponds. However, it is also rec-
ognized that the known endemic areas are
also areas of widespread irrigation prac-
tice  - some using ground water and some
using surface water; consequently,  the
mosquito problem is there without the  in-
troduction of oxidation ponds.  Nonethe-
less, it is  this  potential hazard that influe-
ences us to accept ponds on a temporary
or emergency basis.  Studies  have  shown
that  mosquito breeding is absent or negli-
gible in well engineered and well main-
tained ponds. The engineering can be con-
trolled, but it is an obligation of the mu-
nicipality to prove  that they accept the
responsibility for providing proper main-
tenance of the ponds before such installa-
tions can be accepted on an unqualified
basis.
  It has been interesting to observe how
the use of ponds has spread to other States
and numerous foreign countries during re-
cent years,  and it is  gratifying to feel that
perhaps in some small way our State  has
contributed to certain phases of this trend..
In any event, it definitely appears that
these ponds are with  us to stay as there is
far too much in their favor to cause belief
that they are merely  a passing fancy.
Therefore, we should be moved toward
the acquisition of more knowledge about
the performance of these ponds so their
application will be on as sound an engi-
neering basis as possible. At the present
time and with our present knowledge, can
the quality of oxidation pond effluent be
as confidently predetermined in the design
stage as can the effluent quality from
trickling filter or activated sludge plants ?
If not, then perhaps a second look is in
order.

  With regard to the  use of oxidation ponds
in the  Southwest, we  have just received the
reports of a survey being made of the poli-
cies, official and unofficial thinking of the
States in the Region VII area,  which in-
cludes Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico,
Louisiana, and Texas. The purpose of this
questionnaire was to  obtain as much infor-
mation as possible about the status of oxi-
dation ponds in this area,  to tabulate  this
information and to present a summary to
a Regional Conference which will be held
in Dallas in September with  representa-
tives of these five States.  In developingthe
questionnaire, we attempted to include as
many questions as possible so that  a good
cross-section picture could  be obtained as
to how close together the various States
might be in certain areas  of thinking as
well as determining those areas where the
States were pretty widely  separated.  For
this reason,  the questionnaire was  divided
into eight general divisions, with the first
one attempting to determine the preference
for nomenclature of ponds, the second to
determine the States  attitude towards ponds
as to approval of ponds as a recognized
method of sewage treatment. The third
area covers information on basic design
criteria used by the various States, and
the fourth is the section to determine the
type of requirements  as to the location of
ponds. The fifth is to determine if any ex-
periments had been conducted on stocking
ponds with fish,  and  the sixth is a deter-
                                          10

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mination of the attitude concerning utili-
zation of pond effluent for irrigation. The
seventh pertains to the disinfection of pond
effluent and the last section to general
comments.

  After the  questionnaire was developed,
Mr.  Carl Thompson of the Region VII
Office personally took the questionnaire to
the various  States and filled it out to the
best of his ability.  In this endeavor,  Mr.
Thompson reported that a number of the
States do not have written criteria or de-
sign standards on pond installations. Con-
sequently,  the comments included on the
questionnaire indicate more or less in-
dividual thinking rather than set established
regulations  or requirements of the States.
It should be mentioned here,  also, that in
some instances Mr. Thompson was not
able to contact the individual  in charge of
this  phase of work within the Health
Department and, consequently, some of
the recorded answers might not neces-
sarily reflect the thinking of that particular
individual. It was interesting, also,  to
learn that even within individual State Dept-
ments, that thinking in certain areas of
oxidation pond operation differed  between
individuals of the Department. This is true
of our State and it indicates the need for
something like this questionnaire to crys-
tallize our overall opinion so that we will
not be sodiversifiedeven among our selves .

  In summarizing the results of this first
go-around on the questionnaire, it is inter-
esting to note that three  of the States pre-
ferred the term "oxidation ponds" with two
favoring "stabilization po-nds".  One State
expressed a preference for the term  "la-
goon" where raw sewage was used.

  With regard to the attitude  of these States
concerning ponds, three of them would ac-
cept  ponds on an unqualified basis, four
accepted them as a permanent type of plant,
and all five  accepted them on an emergency
or temporary basis. Three States accept
ponds for the treatment of raw sewage
where an effluent is produced, whereas two
will  not.  Four States accept them as sec-
ondary treatment units with the production
of an effluent. All five States were appar-
ently satisfied with the ponds as they are
presently used.  These five States reported
a total of 274 ponds in operation and these
ponds  represent  from 9 to 27 percent ofthe
sewage treatment plants in individual
States.
  With regard to operational results, it is
interesting to note that four of the five
States report that they had received odor
complaints,  mosquito breeding had been
observed,  and excessive weed growth was
existing in ponds. It is reported that only one
State had received complaints about the
color of the pond effluent as being objec-
tionable.  Four States  reported they had
made studies on operating efficiency as
well as bacterial removal in ponds.  All
five states reported operational results
generally favorable.  The time pond opera-
tion had been under observation in these
States varied from 3  years to 25 years.

  With regard to design criteria, practic-
ally all of the States seem to base the load-
ing on pounds of BOD per acre  of surface
areas and the loading  figure is  surpris-
ingly close,  varying from a low of 30
pounds per acre to a  high of 50 pounds per
acre of surface area.  The five  States
seemed to be somewhat apart in their re-
quirements of  satisfying the organic load
in that two require the total load to be
satisfied in the first pond and three do not
have this  requirement. Four of the States,
however,  have a limitation on the size of
the first pond.  With regard to recircula-
tion,  none of the States require  recircula-
tion facilities,  but two States encouraged
the practice.


  With reference to inlet and outlet struc-
ture, all five States appear to concur that
the  inlet  structure should be  submerged
with the location varying from the center
to the side. Other requirements in this
area indicate the States to be somewhat
separated in their feelings  as indicated on
the  summary sheet. All States seemed to
be fairly close together in their require-
ments of maximum, minimum,  and aver-
age depth as well  as free-board. The States
were also in accord as to desired inside
and outside slopes of dikes.

  Four States have no requirements as  to
location of the  ponds  with reference  to
prevailing winds,  although  there are re-
quirements by  most of the States concern-
ing  the proximity to habitation.  Location
with regard to  proximity to surface and
ground water supplies is rather diversified.

  Evidently one State  encourages the stock-
ing  of these ponds with fish but  the practice
                                          11

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does not seem to have obtained much head-
way at this time.

  All five States were together in their at-
tude regarding the utilization of pond ef-
fluent on restricted crops.  The reports
from the States on their attitude about the
chlorination of pond effluent shows con-
siderable variation, from not requiring any
chlorination to the conventional attitude of
requiring it where it is deemed to protect
health and abate nuisance.

  The general  comments received from
the States on this subject are rather inter-
esting in that it is indicated that there is
still some reservations in the minds of
those questioned as to the application or
limitation of ponds in the field of sewage
treatment; however, these  limitations are
not specifically spelled out. The results of
this survey are submitted here on an un-
official and informal basis  and certainly do
not reflect the  official policies of these
States with regard to  this  Subject.  The
purpose of submitting this  summary to this
symposium is to acquaint the group with
an approach which has been taken in this
field and an attempt to evaluate on an area-
wide basis the  attitude of the various agen-
cies concerning ponds with the desire to
possibly unify some of the  design criteria
where ever possible.  This  survey report
will be resubmitted to the individual States
involved for possible revision of their re-
plies and then it will be  discussed in  con-
siderable detail at the regional technical
meeting in September. This is reviewed
here merely as a topic of possible interest
in the event some other  areas desire to
conduct a similar study.

  As one who was subjected to the Ehlers
modus  operand! for almost a quarter cen-
tury, it would be a gross dereliction of duty
if the potentialities of this  symposium were
not capitalized upon to the fullest.   We,
from Texas, welcome this  opportunity to
suggest to this  symposium  three  principal
objectives,  which in our  humble opinion, if
attained only in part,  would do much to-
ward contributing to a successful meeting.

   The first objective, we hope,  would be
for the proceedings of this symposium to
record on one  place a listing of reports of
research, studies, and observations on
oxidation pond performance. Undoubtedly
each State or Agency represented at this
symposium had conducted certain investi-
gations of varying magnitude on some
phase of pond operation.  Likewise, it is
safe to  presume that little, if any,  distri-
bution has  been given to these reports  out-
side the rather  limited confines of the  in-
dividual State circles.  If this meeting
serves  no other purpose than to gather to
gether sources  of such reports and list
them in the proceedings, it will be  well
worth-while.

  The second objective, we trust, would be
initiating of'discussions toward the unifi-
cation of pond design criteria.  Here, for
possibly the first time,  we have an assem-
bly of engineers and technicians from
many of the State utilizing ponds. The  high
calibre of technical know-how and the total
number of  years of  experience  with pond
installations represented here is most im-
pressive. Why not,  then, take advantage
of this opportunity to explore how close  to
agreement those in  attendance might reach
with regard to such as:
   1.  What should be the recommended
      and accepted nomenclature for engi-
      neered ponds? Waste  stabilization
      ponds, oxidation ponds, lagoons?

   2.  What about  raw sewage ponds? Should
      they be accepted without reservation
      on a nation-wide basis? What is the
      concensus of opinion about ponds for
      secondary treatment?

   3.  Is there any common limiting criteria
      as to location, application, or opera-
      tion of ponds ?

   4.  What about  agreement on basic load-
      ing criteria?  Can the  unit of  loading
      be unified,  i.e. BOD per acre, ft.,
      population per acre, detention time?

   5.  What  is the  general opinion about one
      pond to satisfy the loading, as against
      a series of  ponds totaling the recom-
      mended loading?

   6.  Is there any common area of think-
      ing about recirculation?

   7.  Is there any unified accepted policy
      or practice  towards restrictions on
      pond effluent being discharged close
      to raw water intakes ?
                                             12

-------
  These are merely starting points which
might prove akin to a new type of chain re-
action.  Suffice it is to say, however,  it
seems entirely appropriate and timely that
such a movement toward unification be ini-
tiated by this group.

  The third objective we would like to see
achieved concerns  research, pure and ap-
plied. Undoubtedly many,  and perhaps
most, of the answers to present problems
lay in this  area; hence a listing of these
problems should be indicative of research
fields. In a number of instances  perhaps
plant scale studies with certain controls
would be adequate. As far as our experi-
ence with  ponds in Texas is concerned,
we feel the need for more knowledge along
the following lines:


  1. How can a clear effluent be produced?
     As previously mentioned, the algae
     green color of pond effluent continues
     to be the major objection to some
     users.  The search for the answer to
     this question poses a whole gamut of
     propositions varying from plant de-
     sign to the introduction of other
     forms of life.

  2.  We need the establishment  of simple
     control tests on ponds to indicate
     pond conditions, especially when
     trouble might be imminent.

  3.  We need a test to determine the
     amount of nutrient which should  be
  5.
  6.
  7.
added to assure proper biological life.
About all that is available now is the
old rule of thumb that one pound of
nitrogen will satisfy five pounds of
BOD.

We need more studies to determine
the correlation between pond per-
formance and temperature (air and
water) sunshine with the possibility
of using this data in forecasting pond
disturbances.

Studies are indicated concerning car-
bon-nitrogen-phosphorous ratios as
related to pond action.

Investigations  are urgently needed to
determine the  sanitary quality of pond
effluents. Bacterial removal, sur-
vival of virus, etc.

What is the limiting factor which
should control the discharge  of algae
laden effluent into a water course?
  These are at best, only a few of the
many challenges by this field of sewage
treatment.

  We from Texas are indeed  grateful for
the opportunity to present these thoughts to
this symposium. It is our sincere hope this
will be the beginning of a coordinated effort
to advance our technical and practical
knowledge of pond performance and opera-
tion so as to assure utilization for the
benefit of all.
                                          13

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                        STUDIES OF RAW SEWAGE LAGOONS AT
                            FAYETTE, MISSOURI, 1958-59
                       WITH A RESUME OF 1957-58 OPERATIONS

                               By H. C.  Clare, Joe K. Neel,
                                 andC.  A. Monday, Jr.*
   This lagoon investigation project was
developed in 1956 when the Public Health
Service, the Missouri Division of Health,
and the City of Fayette, under took an investi-
gation of stabilization ponds to be fed Fayette
sewage. The Public HealthService and the
Division of Health subsidized cost of  the ex-
perimental  ponds;  and the Service directed
and conducted studies. Controlled operation
began in May 1957.
               DESCRIPTION

   Fayette is situated in Central Missouri
about midway between Kansas City and St.
Louis (lat.  39° 08', long. 92O 40').  Eleva-
tion is 640' above msl.  The 1950 popula-
tion was 3,  144 including approximately 400
resident students of Central College. The
sewered population has  been estimated at
2, 700 and some seasonal variation coin-
cides with college schedules.  Municipal
wastes include the normal small industries,
laundries,  slaughter houses and locker
plants,  etc.  Floor washings from a "pig
parlor" or automatic hog feeding pen were
discharged to the municipal system in 1957
and  1958.
         TREATMENT FACILITIES

  The lagoon or "pond" installation is
shown in Figure 1. Sanitary sewer lines
shown by manholes end at a wet well  from
whence sewage  is pumped up to the dis-
tributor shown in Figure 2.  A bypass line
extends from a  manhole to the  creek  as in-
dicated. The piping system allows  selec-
tive  division of  the sewage load among the
various units, series operation,  etc. Sew-
age is apportioned to various units as de-
sired by dividing flow off the conical  dis-
tributor apron with movable partitions.  It
was necessary to install an annular orifice
around the upper  part of the cone to secure
uniform distribution down the apron. Ex-
cess sewage passes through waste  holes to
the 15-acre lagoon.

  The five small  ponds  are each one acre
in area when filled to a  depth  of five feet,
and three-fourths acre each when liquid is
two and one-half feet deep. Two and one-
half feet is the minimum possible  overflow
level,  and the maximum operational depth
is about six feet.  The large pond is fifteen
acres  in area at its usual operating depth
of about three feet. It receives effluent
from the  small ponds,  and any raw sewage
not used in their controller! loadings.

  A report covering the first  13 months'
operation (l) has  been prepared and sub-
mitted for publication; however, for pur-
poses  of this symposium, it appears ap-
propriate to briefly review findings
reported therein before entering into de-
tails of subsequent investigations.
     SUMMARY 1957-58 OPERATIONS

  Operation during the first phase involved
sewage division,  retention,  etc.  shown
in Table 1.  Average  sewage  flow  was
0. 216 mgd and average B. O. D.  load was
457 pounds  per  day.
           LAGOON CONDITIONS

  Sewage was turned into the lagoons in
November 1956.  Algae quickly developed
in Cell 6, and in about one  month in other
units which at first received intermittent
discharge. Chlamydomonas and Euglena
  •Respectively, Regional Program Director and Regional Biologist, Water Supply and Pollution Control, Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Region VI,  Kansas City, Missouri, and Resident Biologist, Experimental Lagoon
Project, Fayette, Missouri.
                                           15

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                                       TABLE 1

                        AVERAGE DAILY RAW SEWAGE LOAD TO LAGOONS


Cell


1
2
3
4
5
6

Acre



0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
15.00

Depth
Feet


2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
Volume (GPD)

Pp-p
Cell

7000
14000
21000
28000
35000
111000

Per
Acre

9000
18000
28000
37000
47000
7000

Theoretical
Detention
Days

87
44
29
22
17
68
B.O.D. (Pounds)
Planned

Per
Cell
15
30
45
60
75
255
Per
Acre
20
40
60
80
100
16
Realized

Per
Cell
15.2
30.4
45.6
60.8
76.6
229.0
Per
Acre
20.3
40.5
60.8
81.1
101.3
15.3
were the first phytoplankters to appear.
Blue-green algal mats developed in ponds
with loadings less than 60 pounds  B.O.D./
acre/day in summer of 1957. They de-
veloped from detached patches of benthic
algae (Phormidiurn). Denser plankton
growths in cells with heavier loadings  ap-
parently kept light at the  bottom below the
intensity required for prolific benthic
growth. Ice cover was intermittent during
the winter  of 1957-58, but endured once
for 31  days. Blue-green algal mats gave
off pig pen odors, and cells  loaded in ex-
cess of 60  pounds B. O. D. /acre/day per-
meated the immediate surroundings with
sulfides for several days after disappear-
ance of ice cover in February 1958.
              PERFORMANCE

  Average values and percent removals
of major sewage components  at varied
loadings appear in Table 2. Table 3 shows
extent of coliform-type bacteria survival.

  Performance of the entire facility was
outstanding and quality of the final effluent
was maintained at a high level. Purifica-
tion achieved by individual small units was
very good on a monthly basis, but cells
with daily B.O.D. loadings of 60-100
pounds/acre had an oxygen demand that
could not be satisfied by rate  of photo-
synthesis possible under ice  cover.
         BIOLOGICAL FEATURES

  The following photosynthetic organisms
were observed in the plankton of the six
ponds:

Green Algae

  Volvocales
    Chlamydomonas spp. (3)
    Chlorogonium elongatum Dangeard
    Pascheriella tetras Korshikov
    Pandorina morum Bory
    Carteria sp.

  Chlorococcales
    Chlorella vulgaris  Beyerinck
    Golenkinia radiate  Chodate
    Micractinium pusillum Fresenius
    Ankistrodesmus f ale at us (Cor da) Ralfs
    Scenedesmus dimorphus (Tiirp.)
       Kiitz. - most common Scenedesmus
    Scenedesmus sp.
    Actinastrum hantzschii lagerheim
    Coelastrum cambric um Arch.
    Qocystis sp.
    Tetraedron sp.

  Euglenophyta
    Euglena proxima Dangeard
    Euglena proxima var.  amphoraeformis
       Szabados
    Euglena acutissima Lemmerman
    Phacus sp~.
                                          16

-------
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17

-------






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18

-------
FIGURE 2 - Sewage Distributor
              19

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                                       TABLE 3

                         SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM-TYPE BACTERIA
Loading

Pounds
B.O.D./A-day
20
40
60
80
100
Effluent Range

Min.
Value
430
3,600
430
2,400
2,400
Arith
Ave.
14,700
24,700
24,300
34,000
40,000
Max.
Value
43,000
93,000
93,000
93,000
93,000
Percent of Samples
Equal to or Greater tlian


43,000/100 ml
16
29.5
24.5
48
47

93,000/100 ml
0
7.9
8.9
18
19.2
  Diatoms

    Nitzschia sp.

  Blue-Green Algae

    Oscillatoria sp.
    Anabaena flos -aquea (Lyngb.)
       Brebisson

  Euglena proxima and its variety am-
phorae for mis showed a high degree of
adaptability to lagoon conditions.  They
were present at all seasons and were not
precluded by any rate of loading  or clima-
tological condition. Next in line of toler-
ance were Chlamydomonas,  Micractinium,
Ankistrodesmus, Scenedesmus,  Chlorella,
and Chlorogonium. Euglena and Chlamy-
domonas tended to dominate during cooler
weather and the various Chlorococcales
were usually the most numerous  organisms1
in summer  months.

  Phytoplankton  density varied  from
monthly averages of 347 to 34, 773 ppm by
volume and  from 24, 877 to 2, 860, 000 or-
ganisms per ml. Greatest production was
in cells with raw sewage loadings of 60
pounds B. O. D. /acre/day and above.
Growth seemingly increased with load up
to 60 pounds B. O. D. /acre/day and then
leveled off.  Samples were from effluents
which were  discharged  from very near the
surface. Uppermost water layers are  of-
ten avoided  by phytoplankters during sea-
sons of high light intensity,  and maximum
densities  during  summer months were
probably not represented by effluents.  Vol-
ume and number of phytoplankters often
exhibited varying trends as relatively small
numbers of larger organisms often pro-
duced the greatest mass. When qualita-
tively similar populations endured for any
period of time,  volume and number had
similar fluctuations.  Lowest densities were
recorded as units lost oxygen under ice
cover, and greatest development was  in
spring. Observed maximum showed no re-
lationship to loading, but no assurance ex-
ists that all or any  actual maxima were
represented in samples, certainly not dur-
ing summer months.

  Life processes of algae had a powerful
influence on pond chemistry and biology.
Photosynthesis was necessary for occur-
rence of detectable oxygen, as absorption
from the air could not alone satisfy imme-
diate oxygen demands.  This process also
utilized free and half bound CC>2 and re-
duced alkalinity and mineral content; it
elevated pH to very alkaline ranges during
daylight  hours,  provided for utilization of
nitrogen in the ammonia stage,  and so
eliminated oxygen demand inherent in
nitrification to nitrite and nitrate,  and was
primarily  involved in reduction of other
plant nutrients. Alternation of dominance
between  photosynthesis during the day and
aerobic decomposition-respiration at night
provided conservation of energy and kept
each process  near peak activity. Photo-
synthesis is supported  primarily by COz,
the waste product of aerobic decomposition
and respiration, and the latter processes
rely upon oxygen, the waste product of
photosynthesis.
                                          20

-------
        LOADING CONSIDERATIONS

  Solar radiation -was measured at the la-
goon site and its variation related to oxy-
gen production and other factors. It had
much control over  photosynthetic rate, but
this process was also stimulated or de-
pressed by fluctuations in  nutrient  supply.
Cell 6 developed maximum photosynthetic
intensity during seasons with lowest solar
radiation when nutrients increased in ef-
fluents from some  other cells after de-
clines in their  rate of photosynthesis. This
unit functioned largely as a second cell of
an in-series operation and restored ef-
fluent  quality after it had deteriorated in
cells with heaviest raw sewage  loads. Ap-
plications of 60 pounds B. O. D. /acre/day
or more seemingly maintained a nutrient
supply that would consistently support
photosynthesis up to the limitations im-
posed  by available light. However, loads
of this magnitude produced an oxygen de-
mand that could not be satisfied by reduced
rate of photosynthesis under ice cover and
they then lost all oxygen.  Heavier loadings
were considerably more efficient in open
water  seasons  as percent removal  of waste
components was  about the  same at  all load-
ings.  Lighter loadings did not impose an
oxygen demand that was beyond the capac-
ity of photosynthesis  under ice cover and
free oxygen was  maintained.

  The above details suggested that purifi-
cation processes would proceed to the best
effect  with high summer and low winter
loadings. A 2-cell in-series facility ap-
peared to be the most economical and least
troublesome approach to this end.

  The  importance of  photosynthesis in
maintenance of oxygen and influences  of
light thereupon led to  a search  for a
method of basing loading rate (pounds
B, O. D. /acre/day)  upon the annual solar
radiation minimum (average langleys/day/
month). Solar radiation can be no reliable
guide if ice  cover exists for any apprecia-
ble time, but in regions without ice cover
it appears that about  1. 5 langleys per day
are required to maintain oxygen with a
load of one pound of B. O. D./acre/day. To
allow a safety factor,  it appeared that pre-
liminary loading rate for an ice-free area
may be determined by dividing the mini-
mum monthly solar radiation value (aver-
age langleys per day) by 2. A table listing
minimum annual values at all accredited
North American and some insular radia-
tion stations was developed for  use in this
respect.
          1958-1959 OPERATIONS

  In June 1958, all sewage was tempo-
rarily turned into the 15-acre  unit and
operations changed as follows: Load was
increased to 120 pounds B. O. D. /acre/day
in Cell 1 and to 100 pounds/acre/day in
Cell 3, and decreased to 60 pounds/acre/
day in Cells  4 and 5; water depth was
raised to 5 feet in Cell 4; and Cell 2 was
placed in series operation, receiving  only
effluent from Cell 3.  These modifications
went into effect July 1, 1958, and con-
tinued through  April 1959. Raw sewage
load to Cell 6 was about 8  pounds  B. O. D. /
acre/day during this period.

  Average monthly climatological condi-
tions appear in Table 4. The pyrheliometer
was out of  service from  early July until
December,  and solar  radiation is not in-
cluded. Lagoons became ice-covered on
November 28, were open for three days  be-
ginning December 28,  and then covered
again until February 23 (Cells  1,  3, and 5)
and February 24) Cells 2,  4, and  6). Snow
cover was intermittent.

  Average sewage volume was as follows:
       July 1958
       August
       September
       October
       November
       December
       January 1959
       February
       March
       April
109,046 gpd
218,911
199,697
217,837
198,716
193,563
198,717
203,785
300,808
317,679
  The 10-month mean was 215,876 gpd, or
essentially the same as the 0.216 mgd re-
ported for the 13-month period ending May
30, 1958.

  Sewage and pond records will be con-
sidered together whenever possible in or-
der to expedite consideration of perform-
ance realized from varied loading rates
and series operation.  This section con-
siders only surface lagoon samples.
                                          21

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                                       TABLE 4

                                   CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA


1958
July
August
September
October
November
December
1959
January
February
March
April
TOTAL
Temperature °F
Average

74.4
75.4
67.7
57.2
47.3
29.1

23.1
31.7
43.4
53.5
	
Av. Max.

83.2
86.5
79.6
71.0
59.9
39.7

33.3
41.2
55.3
65.2
	
Av. MLn.

65.5
64.2
55.8
43.3
34.7
18.4

12.9
22.2
31.5
41.8
	
Precip.
Inches

12.88
.73
2.26
1.16
2.93
.55

1.37
2.03
3.39
3.23
30.53
Evaporation
Inches*

6.5
5.1
4.6
3.25
2.4
	

	
	
	
4.3
26.15
Air ifovement
MLles/Mo.

1749
1615
2300
2467
3173
3145

4098
3536
4538
3712
30333
    •x-From Ponds.
                              CHEMICAL FEATURES
                            Biochemical Oxygen Demand

                                      TABLE 5
                AVERAGE B.O.D.'s  (PPM) AND PERCENT REMOVAL IN  EACH CELL



1958
July
August
September
October
November
December
1959
January
February
March
April
10 Ifo. Ave.
% Reduction

Raw


253
255
285
285
289
286

267
272
243
247
268
	
Cell

1

23
39
51
61
51
58

69
77
55
47
53
80
2

27
21
18
21
22
25

25
40
?*>
30
26
90
3

42
38
39
43
46
51

55
67
66
49
50
81
4

22
26
38
33
37
43

48
52
51
52
40
85
5

35
37
44
36
35
38

51
54
56
52
44
84
6

—
27
25
33
30
34

24
29
34
33
30
89
  Series operation resulted in greatest
purification in this respect, and Cells  2
and 6 (purely secondary and nearly com-
plete  secondary cells, respectively) showed
almost identical performance, although
Cell 6 never quite reached the low or high
monthly extremes noted in Cell 2 (Table 5).
Of cells receiving only raw sewage,  per-
formance was best in Cells 4 and 5,  where
loading was kept at 60 pounds B. O. D./
acre/day.
                                          22

-------
               Phosphorus

  The story here (Table 6) is essentially
as told for B.O.D.:  Most reduction was
achieved through series or largely series
operation, and lighter raw sewage loadings
(60 pounds B. O. D. /acre/day) allowed
greater phosphorus  consumption  than
those in excess of 100 pounds B.O.D./
acre/day.

                 Nitrogen

  Here again (Table 7) series operation
resulted in greater consumption but indi-
vidual differences were not as striking as
those noted for B.O.D. and phosphorous.
Secondary and  partly secondary cells
showed to the greatest advantage in re-
moval of ammonia,  but they also  exceeded
other cells to a slight degree in removal of
organic N and to a marked extent  in use of
nitrate. Seemingly,  no nitrate was pro-
duced by bacterial actions in the ponds and
amounts  contributed in raw sewage were
largely or completely utilized at times in
all cells.  No nitrite  occurred.

           Specific  Conductance

  This test measures total electrolyte and
to a large degree serves as an index of
gross mineral  content. Percent removals
do not appear appropriate here  since raw
sewage records are  missing for four
months,  but average concentrations show
again the advantages of series operation.

                Alkalinity

  Greater removal •was accomplished by
series or partial series operation (Table 9)
but varied loading to the raw sewage cells
had insignificant effects upon alkalinity
loss.  Carbonate alkalinity occurred only
during those months with appreciable
photosynthesis  and disappeared in units
with raw sewage loadings in early Decem-
ber upon the appearance of ice cover
November 28.  In Cell 2, it was absent in
February only, but it was always  found in
Cell 6. Carbonate returned to all  units
when  photosynthesis increased in  April.
                  Oxygen

  Oxygen disappeared from Cell 1 Octo-
ber 3, returned on October 16,  and  re-
mained until December 16, and was then
absent until April 6.  Lagoons 3, 4,  and 5
maintained oxygen for 15-20 days after
surfaces became frozen November 28, and
were thereafter  oxygenless until early
and late April. Cell 2 lacked oxygen over
the period February 7 to March 1,  but
anaerobic  conditions were never dis-
covered in Cell 6. Monthly and over-all
averages (Table  10) illustrate major char-
acteristics of various units and show better
average conditions in secondary units, al-
though maximum production therein sel-
dom reached levels displayed by units
receiving raw sewage.
          BIOLOGICAL FEATURES

          Coliform-Type Bacteria

   Average densities (MPN) and percent
 reductions in these bacteria are shown in
 Table 11. Greatest purification occurred
 in the secondary cells (2 and 6) and
 poorest performance in this respect was
 with raw loadings in excess  of 100 pounds
 B.O. D. /acre/day.


              Phytoplankton

  Average monthly concentrations appear
in Table 12.  Sampling frequency varied
from 3 to 5 times per month and there can
be no assurance that monthly maximums
or minimums were included. With one ex-
ception,  greatest growth was in spring
and summer. All minimums were reached
in late winter under ice cover. Relation-
ships to oxygen production may be noted
by reference to Table  10. No definite re-
lationship existed between average oxygen
concentration and plankton mass in any
cell.  Free oxygen may increase with
greater production or lesser consumption.
During cold weather consumption decline
appeared more responsible for oxygen
levels noted  in Cell 6 as algal concentra-
tion was then in its lower ranges.

  Cell 4 realized only about  60 percent of
the plankton  production found in Cell 5.
This difference indicated another limita-
tion imposed by confinement of waste ma-
terials to  deeper levels by stratification.
Slightly higher B.O.D.  values in Cell 5
probably resulted from greater plankton
densities in its surface water.
                                          23

-------
TABLE 6
Average Phosphorus Concentrations (ppm)
and % Reductions Attained in Individual Cells
a,
rH
a
*>
o
EH
0
LO
•31
	
CO
CM
rH
&
(O
1 	
I
jin
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g|CO
,
1
l-
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icMcnTtoio o^cxirH
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OWtOOWCO rHr- t- ^-
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rH^OOCOin COrHCSM
I-l
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mNoooojTf t»cno'-D
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CM CM C! 05 CD to CO 00 TJI
en en en t- to o rH co o
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m to en TH *3< co t~ en IH
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IH^OIOO cOHin
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mcOt-to^'M oot^rt
f f to n> n  to f- -s o
COrHl-trHMrH M^CO
tMint-OOOCO OOCd
cofl'coin^j<'3< cnint^
r-l
NcnooOToocn coocn
CONNINCOIM COCOM
irHinoiOcj) ooto
( CO CVl CO CO CM (N CO CO
r-towcnin1^1 oor-tco
^^•^cocom irji^m
miNr~tOrHM NC~i*t<-0< 1
t^oo^r-icMai inr»oo
oirf^in^urj m oo f-
t-mcotooito r-to«
COrHiHiHtHH INTfCO
«inr-c>jcoo r-imco
co^coto-^m o^mt^
^f
r-<-q> ^
•p B a a a it a
ui  .a g s to 3 -C ^H
oo>>3poiu(Ucn3hu-H
in^(aiap>oinfija^iH
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rn>-j<;woS!ia^i1iili
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-



to
CO

"3"


(Jl
t»
m
CM



ai
oc
i<
°J
m
CO
JO
•
-------
                          TABLE 8

      AVERAGE SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE (MICROMHOS PER CM)

July 1958
August
September
October
November
December
January 1959
February
March
April
R
675
—
	
—
	
925
1167
1100
1100
1083
1
4-20
508
500
600
613
563
600
870
913
900
2
400
395
407
393
314
353
450
589
700
567
3
480
488
510
600
619
513
617
833
881
850
4
400
368
433
467
595
444
617
742
875
908
5
450
455
450
556
588
463
600
767
850
917
6
•*«•»
438
400
430
395
380
400
467
575
517
                            TABLE 9

AVERAGE ALKALINITY CONCENTRATIONS (PPM) AND PERCENT REDUCTION
                       TOTAL ALKALINITY
       CO,,
HCO.,
TOTAL

July 1958
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan. 1959
Feb.
March
April
10 Mo. Av.
% Red

1
37
46
29
6
22
5
0
0
0
13
16


2
16
47
20
15
19
27
29
0
25
29
23


3
0
37
30
32
8
3
0
0
0
21
13


4
15
45
22
31
23
3
0
0
0
4
14


5
22
49
37
37
30
2
0
0
0
15
19


6
20
30
17
18
9
15
14
12
52
42
23


R
277
274
273
280
288
281
294
289
266
290
281


1
124
131
147
192
149
194
216
211
202
195
176


2
159
109
139
157
146
135
133
186
167
169
150


3
181
134
140
141
166
182
196
209
211
184
174


4
180
95
143
137
144
169
187
205
219
206
168


5
173
106
121
130
137
179
196
203
213
192
165


6
144
119
137
139
146
145
143
145
98
104
132


R
277
274
273
280
288
281
294
289
266
290
281


1.
161
177
176
198
171
199
216
211
202
208
192
^o
Jii
2
175
156
159
172
165
162
162
186
192
188
172
OQ

3
181
171
170
173
174
185
196
209
211
205
187
"V

4
195
140
165
178
167
172
187
205
219
210
184
or
JD
5
195
155
158
167
167
181
196
203
213
207
184
or
-55
6
164
149
154
157
155
160
157
157
150
146
155
J ^
4-9
                                25

-------
                            TABLE 10




              AVERAGE OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS (PPM)

July 1958
August
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
10 Mo. Av.
1
11.3
21.0
16.0
4.7
14.1
4.7
0
0
0
10.2
8.2
2
4.3
20.7
14.6
11.8
12.5
11.5
10.8
1.4
9.0
9.1
10.6
3
3.9
19.3
16.4
16.0
10.0
4.1
0
0
0
7.6
7.7
4
3.7
17.7
13.3
17.3
14.2
3.9
0
0
0
1.5
7.2
5
5.0
21.6
17.8
18.4
15.8
3.4
0
0
0
6.1
8.8
6
7.0
8.8
10.9
9.9
9.4
8.9
8.9
10.5
12.7
8.8
9.6
                              TABLE 11




AVERAGE COLIFORM (MPN/100 ml x 1CP) DENSITIES AND PERCENT REDUCTIONS


July 1958
August
September
October
November
December
January 1959
February
March
April
10 Mb. Av.
% Reduction
Cell
Raw
43,000
45,825
172,000
361,500
277,250
45,825
317,666
205,333
17,200
18,866
150,446

1
3.6
16.4
7.6
38.6
24.9
24.9
59.6
76.3
30.2
31.7
31.4
99.98
2
4.3
1.6
0.59
1.5
2.7
2.5
4.7
17.2
17.2
4.3
5.7
99.99
3
43.0
5.5
6.0
16.5
37.4
37.4
30.1
59.6
59.6
31.7
32.7
99.98
4
0.93
2.3
4.06
5.9
16.4
13.3
18.8
48.4
46.8
59.7
21.7
99.99
5
4.3
4.7
5.9
26.5
5.6
9.5
30.1
18.9
17.2
43.0
16.6
99.99
6
___
4.7
2.9
8.0
4.7
5.5
5.9
17.2
4.3
5.9
6.6
99.99
                              TABLE 12




           AVERAGE PHYTOPLANKTON DENSITY (PPM BY  VOLUME)

August 1958
September
October
November
December
January 1959
February
March
April
August-April
Cell 1
5,454
3,122
1,735
772
390
253
172
883
3,603
1,851
Cell 2
972
1,976
16,113
1,434
875
527
111
2,038
3,134
3,658
Cell 3
4,553
6,712
2,719
2,930
974
386
120
1,752
2,053
2,573
Cell 4
1,656
3,857
3,152
703
374
169
39
613
341
1,542
Cell 5
5,726
4,497
1,971
3,333
1,005
190
12
534
4,879
2,532
Cell 6
2,559
3,693
1,752
665
930
702
518
2,760
3,051
1,841
                                    26

-------
           PHYSICAL FEATURES

                Temperature

   Average monthly surface temperatures
 (Table 13) differed but little from cell to
 cell. Although it cannot be assumed that
 some variations  did not result from dif-
 ferences in time of measurement,  it ap-
 pears that raw sewage kept ponds slightly
 warmer in winter than did effluent from
 primary units. During other season, tem-
 perature was  more directly controlled by
 weather conditions.
    Vertical series of temperature readings
 were made  upon several dates to check
 upon extent of mixing within the ponds.
 Measurements were often taken at 6-inch
 intervals, and a difference of 1° C over
 this distance was assumed to indicate
 separate  water  layers.  This procedure
 appeared conservative in view of the char-
 acteristic decline of 1° C per meter in
 thermoclines  of lakes and reservoirs.
 Chemical features sometimes indicated
 that water layers were not as distinct  and
 separate  as suggested by temperature
 differences, but it soon became apparent
                                       TABLE 13

                             AVERAGE SURFACE TEMPERATURES °C

July 1958
August
September
October
November
December
January 1959
February
March
April
1
28
31
28
20
12
2
2
5
10
13
2
27
30
28
22
12
1
1
4
9
13
3
28
30
28
21
13
2
3
6
10
14
4
28
31
27
21
12
2
2
5
10
14
5
28
31
27
21
12
2
2
5
10
14
6
27
30
26
23
12
1
1
4
10
14
that photosynthesis was at times possible
for some distance down and its effects
upon water chemistry were similar in
various layers. Upon several occasions
chemical features indicated separate  wa-
ter strata. Chemical and thermal aspects
are related in the following section.

             STRATIFICATION
  Representative vertical measurements
made in Cells 4 and 5 in July,  August,
September,  October, and November 1958
appear in Table 14.  These two cells re-
ceived the same quantity of raw sewage
(28,000 gpd),  but Cell 4 was 5 feet deep
and Cell 5,  2  1/2 feet deep.  Development
of thermal layers and effects of photo-
synthesis or decomposition-respiration
within individual strata are illustrated.

  Layers in each lagoon varied from 6 to
18 inches in thickness. Alkalinity and pH
were most influenced by decomposition in
deeper layers and photosynthetic effects
were most pronounced  near the  surface.
Photosynthesis, when evident, was always
more intense at the 6-inch depth than at
the surface.  In Cell 4,  oxygen production
apparently did not occur below 18 inches,
but it was present in deeper layers in Sep-
tember,  October, and November. In Cell 5,
photosynthesis often occurred at 30 inches.
It is evident  from change in alkalinity con-
centration at the bottom that Cell 4 exper-
ienced a period of complete circulation in
early September,  and that Cell  5 was first
mixed sometime between August 4 and 11.
Stratification could  have been broken up at
other times between sampling dates. Com-
plete circulation evidently promoted better
light penetration in  Cell 5 and its entire
liquid depth was thereafter brought under
the influence of photosynthesis and aerobic
activities. In Cell 4, photosynthesis did not
extend as deeply and oxygen reached lower
                                          27

-------
TABLE lit



July 8
11:00 a.m.
Aug. 4
2:00 p.m.
Aug. 11
9:15 a.m.
Aug. 19
12:30 p.m.
Sept. 8
9:20 a.m.
Sept. 18
2:30 p.m.

Oct. 1
2:30 p.m.
Nov. 27
2:00 p.m.
Cell
Depth

0
6"
12"
18"
24"
0
6"
12"
18"
54"
0
6"
18"
36"
60"
0
6"
18"
36"
60"
0
18"
60"
0
6"
12"
18"
24"
36"
60"

0
24"
60"
0
18"
30"
60"
V
4
°C

28.5
28.5
27.0
27.0
25.5
31.0
31.0
28.0
27.0
25.0
30.0
30.0
29.0
28.0
26.0
33.0
33.0
27.0
26.0
25.0
28.5
25.0
22.0
28.0
28.0
27.5
26.0
25.0
25.0
23.0

24.0
21.0;
20.0
8.0
6.0
6.0
4.0
ertica
pH

7.6
7.7
7.4
7.3
7.2
9.8
10.1
8.0
7.2
7.1
9.0
9.0
8.7
7.6
7.1
9.1
9.3
*8.1
7.3
7.1
8.4
8.2
7.1
8.2
8.3
8.1
8.0
7.9
7.7
7.6

9.0
8.4
7.3
8.4
8.1
8.0
7.2
1 Mea
A
C03
0
0
0
0
0
84
94
0
0
0
38
42
28
0
0
46
56
4
0
0
16
4
0
8
10
4
Tr.
0
0
0

42
14
0
14
2
0
0
sureme
Ik.
HC03
220
224
226
232
235
49
38
145
188
192
101
96
110
191
206
95
84
145
201
212
135
148
196
171
170
176
178
183
183
189

123
153
193
156
170
178
196
nts in
02

1.7
3.2
Tr.
0
0
17.8
19.0
7.6
X
18.7 f
19.7
14.6
0
0
20.8
23.6
6.4
0
0
13.2
9.3
0
8.9
8.9
8.5
8.1
6.9
5.4
4.6

19.6
11.3
1.9
10.8
8.7
7.1
1.2
Cells 4 and


July 8
11:00 a.m.
Aug. 4
2:00 p.m.
j
Aug. 11
9:15 a.m.
i
f
"Aug. 19
12:30 p.m.
i
i
f
j
Sept. 18
2:10 p.m.
Sept. 23
10:10 a.m.


5, 195
Cell
Depth

0
6"
12"
18"
24"
0
6"
12"
18"
30"
0
6"
18"
30"
0
6"
18"
30"

0
6"
12"
18"
24"
0
6"
18"
30"


8
5
°C

28.5
28.5
27.0
27.0
25.5
35.0
32.0
30.0
27.0
27.0
31.0
31.0
31.0
28.0
31.0
31.0
29.0
27.5

27.5
27.0
27.0
26.0
25.0
27.0
27.0
26.0
25.0



pH

7.1
7.1
7.1
7.0
6.8
9.6
9.8
9.3
7.1
7.1
9.0
9.1
9.0
8.6
9.2
9.3
9.0
8.7

9.0
9.1
8.9
8.4
8.1
8.9
8.9
8.8
8.1



All
C03
0
0
0
0
0
78
96
52
0
0
42
42
40
24
50
56
42
26

40
42
36
16
Tr.
36
38
30
4



k.
HC03
226
234
234
237
246
74
54
103
212
224
111
111
114
131
105
99
115
132

110
107
115
134
154
120
118
126
153



°V

0
0
0
0
0
27.4
35.6
17.5
0.6
0
19.0
20.1
19.7
12.4
28.9
29.6
27.2
18.7

18.3
19.6
17.5
10.8
9.3
18.2
18.5
16.3
11.1


     28

-------
layers only through mixing of water strata.
Periods of complete circulation did not
coincide with any series of depth measure-
ments but they undoubtedly occurred.

  It seems reasonable to assume that com-
plete  mixing of a stratified pond will lower
oxygen concentration in  surface waters
after  anaerobic products are brought up
from  near the bottom. No observations
were  made during a time of full circulation
in 1958, but some 1959 records clearly
demonstrated loss  of oxygen following com-
plete  circulation in Cell 4 in August  and
September (Table  15). Cell 5 maintained
more complete circulation in August 1959
and did not lose oxygen until the advent of
ice cover. More detailed reports on 1959
studies will appear later.

   Examination of Tables 14 and 15 should
indicate upward travel of waste products
in stratified ponds with progressive puri-
fication.  Upper layers mask the oxygen-
less condition of the depths, and stratifica-
tion imposes an anaerobic-aerobic series
operation. However,  reference to Tables
5, 6, 7, 8, and 11 will indicate no in-
crease in efficiency through this type of
operation, and it involves a constant haz-
ard of odor production with each period of
complete circulation. Greater accumula-
tion of  anaerobic products  delayed oxygen
recovery after ice melt.
                                       TABLE 15

            DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLETE CIRCULATION AND RETURN OF STRATIFICATION
                         IN CELL 4, 1959 (TEMPERATURE AND 02)
D
e
P
t
h
0"
6"
12"
18"
24"
30"
36"
42"
48"
54"
60"
8/26 8/27 8/28 8/29 8/30 8/31 9/3


°C

31.0
31.0
29.5
28.5
27.5
27.0
26.5
26.0
26.0
—
24.5

°2

13.6
—
__
—
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

°c

27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.0
26.5
26.0
25.5
25.0
25.0

°2

0.2
0.5
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

°C

28.0
28.0
27.5
27.5
25.5
27.0
27.0
26.5
26.0
25.5
24.5

°2

3.9
2.9
0.3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

°C

29.5
28.5
27.0
26.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.0
—

02

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

°c

28.0
27.5
27.0
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.0
—

°2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

°c

27.5
27.5
27.0
26.5
26.5
26.0
26.0
26.0
25.5
—
—

°2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

°c

30.5
30.0
29.0
27.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
25.5
—
25.0

°2

9.4
7.2
0.4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
                  ODORS

  Sulfides rose from ponds when oxygen-
less conditions persisted after disappear-
ance of ice cover. Cell 2 returned to an
aerobic state four days after its surface
became open; Cells  1, 3, and 5 required
40 to 41 days; and Cell 4 remained oxygen-
less for 61 days after its ice melted. For
a time in late February  and early March,
determination of units with greatest pun-
gency was not possible,  as sulfides were
detactable for 550 feet from the general
lagoon area and emanations from  all cells
were intermingled.  By March  10, a no-
ticeable decline in odor intensity was ap-
parent and it was  possible to follow the
strongest sulfide trails to Cell 4. Release
of malodorous gases gradually declined
and Cell 4 had barely detectable odor for
a few days prior to recurrence  of oxygen
therein on April 27.  Decline in  sulfides
with prolonged oxygenless conditions has
been assumed due to a  low rate of photo-
synthesis that provides oxygen but in quan-
tities unequal to demands. Oxygen ab-
sorbed from the atmosphere may also react
with sulfide.
   Odors did not extend to habitations or
work areas.
                                           29

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           BOTTOM DEPOSITS

  Twenty-seven core samples,  nine along
each of three north-south transects at the
1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 points of the  east-west
width,  were collected in each one-acre
lagoon in May 1959. Terminal samples in
       each line were 10 feet from margins and
       others were at 20-feet intervals. Cores
       and supernatant water (2")  were dried in
       sampler tubes for 12 hours at 100° C and
       stored in aluminum  foil wrappings prior to
       measurement and study.
  Each core (Figure 3) extended about two
inches down into the original compacted
clay bottom. The clay was covered with a
layer of granular silt, and this stratum
       was topped by a thin, dark green coating
       of algae and organic matter.  Details for
       each cell  follow:
Cell
1
2
3
4
5
Loading ( Lbs .
BOD/Acre/Day)
1957-58
20
40
60
80
100
1958-59
120
*
100
60**
60
Thickness (inches)
Organic Layer
Max
0.125
0.03
0.05
0.02
0.06
MLn.
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
Ave.
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.02
Silt Layer
Max.
2.25
2.30
2.30
2.40
2.25
MLn.
0.5
0.25
0.75
0.25
0.4
Ave.
0.8
0.9
1.1
0.7
1.1
   ^Received effluent  from Cell 3.
**5'  deep.
  Average thickness for the five lagoons
was: organic layer 0.02 inch,  silt layer
0. 9 inch. Gray discoloration of lagoon
water was common after heavy rains  and
it appears that infiltration into sewers was
mainly  responsible  for the silt deposit,
although dike erosion contributed some
sediment before development of vegetative
cover. Intermittent  silting  trapped some
organic matter, and these inclusions  are
considered responsible for the granular
       nature of this bottom layer. The organic
       layers largely resulted from algal growth,
       in contact with the bottom and suspended
       in the lower two inches of water. It was
       deemed advisable to include suspended
       matter extending up this  distance as it
       was impossible to  distinguish between
       suspended and deposited  particles.  Floe-
       culent matter often rose  in large clouds
       when the  bottom was disturbed.  However,
       it dried to thin layers.
                                          30

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  Cores were not assumed diagnostic of
all events that had affected the bottoms.
Yet, when Cell 1 was pumped down in Oc-
tober 1959,  it was apparent that the core
sampling pattern had given an accurate
picture of the general sedimentation  rate.
It missed the small mound  of silt  at the
orifice and the  ridge  along the inlet pipe
(Figure 4),  but these small areas were the
only noted divergences  from the general
pattern.  Broader  inequalities in the bottom
were left after  final grading.  Watered
areas remaining in Cell 1  after pumping
occupied essentially the same regions in
which water first  accumulated at the start
of filling.
  Loss of capacity occasioned by sedimen-
tation of organic matter appears incapable
of producing a criterical condition for a
hundred years or more. Silting is a more
serious matter and will probably result in
a loss  of one acre foot per  surface acre in
about 25 years.
  Marginal  and emergent vegetation,  when
allowed to remain a few weeks, added to
organic bottom deposits in  local areas;
and mowers often allowed grass clippings
to settle to the bottom over an area extend-
ing 2 to 4 feet from the waterline. These
contributions were  not included in core
samples,  as their presence was assumed
unlikely with proper maintenance.
                    FIGURE 4   -  Bottom of Cell  1,  October 1959
          Note mound of silt  at end and silt ridge along  inlet pipe.
                                         31

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               SUMMARY

  This article briefly reviews highlights
of the 1957-58 investigation and presents
1958-59 findings.  Operation was changed
in Jane  1958 as follows: Load was in-
creased to 100 and 120 pounds B. O. D. /
acre/day in Cells  3 and 1, respectively;
load to units 4 and 5 was decreased to 60
pounds B. O. D./acre/day; and Cell  2  re-
ceived only effluent from Cell 3. Depth
was  increased to 5 feet in Cell 4. Raw
sewage load to Cell 6 fell to 8 pounds
B. O. C. /acre/day, and it continued to re-
ceive effluent from other cells.

  Operations in 1958-59 substantiated ear-
lier data in indicating desirability of in-
series operation for realization  of highest
quality effluent and greatest assurance of
oxygen production under ice and snow
cover. Efficiencies in removal ot various
sewage components remained high.

  Depth increase to 5 feet induced more
prolonged thermal stratification  and de-
velopment  of thicker anaerobic layers.
The  latter  increased the likelihood of  odor
development as they could promote  surface
concentrations or  sulfides when mixing
developed with full circulation. Greater
production of anaerobic compounds also
delayed return of oxygen  in the spring.
Upward progression of wastes purification
during periods of stratification,  and aero-
bic cover then developed, would provide
a simple in-series anaerobic-aerobic
operation. However,  a maintenance of this
condition would require protection from
wind with a transparent cover,  and it ap-
pears to be slightly less  efficient in
B.O. D.  and coliform  removal then opera-
tion with more constant circulation and
greater aerobic volume.

   Bottom studies indicated inconsequential
capacity loss to organic sedimentation.
However, silting orginating in sewer infil-
tration will occasion  a loss of one foot in
each cell in 25 years.
               REFERENCE

1.   Neel,  Joe K. ,  McDermott,  J. H. ,  and
     Monday,  C. A. ,  Jr. "Experimental
     Lagooning of Raw Sewage.  Fayette
     Missouri, Experimental Stabilization
     Ponds. 1957-58." (To appear in Jour-
     nal, Water Pollution Control Federa-
     tion. )
                                            32

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      STABILIZATION POND RESEARCH AND INSTALLATION EXPERIENCES IN
                                   CALIFORNIA*

                                          by
                                 William J.  Oswald**
              INTRODUCTION
   It is the purpose of this article to cover
the status of stabilization pond utility and
design in California and on the basis of cur-
rent research to attempt to predict the
trend that future pond development will
take. Before  entering a discussion of  Cali-
fornia ponds it is well to review certain
factors which are  common  to  all ponds,
namely the physical and biological  reac-
tions which occur in them, their perform-
ance or waste treatment capability and their
classification. This brief review is drawn,
in part,  from a more extensive discussion
of pond design fundamentals  presented
elsewhere (6).

Physical  and  Biological Reactions. A list
of evident physical and biological reactions
in ponds must include with respect to the
liquid, such properties  as inflow, evapora-
tion, percolation,  overflow,  thermal ef-
fects and gas exchanges, and with respect
to organic matter; sedimentation, flotation
biological oxidation, anaerobic acid decom-
position,  methane  fermentation and photo-
synthesis.

   The hydraulic properties  of a pond are
important because a hydromass of some
magnitude is  essential to sustain and pro-
tect the pond microorganisms from rapid
changes in pH, temperature, gaseous ten-
sion and nutrient concentrations. Creation
of a hydromass,  therefore,  is a prerequi-
site to establishment of a stable biological
community. Not infrequently in newly acti-
vated ponds the volume  of evaporation and
percolation may approach that of the  inflow
and the pond contains so little water that
marshy conditions  sometimes prevail. Un-
der these conditions opportunist algae such
as Chlamydomonas undergo massive and
useless proliferation, accumulate on the
surface, and some die to become vilely
odorous and to form a breeding place for
gnats and flies. If the volume of inflow suf-
ficiently exceeds  evaporation and percola-
tion the pond gains depth and ultimately
comes to equilibrium or overflows. The
quality of this overflow  then becomes sig-
nificant from a biological,  bacteriological
and public health  standpoint. Inasmuch as
both evaporation and percolation are ex-
pressed in inches per day, the hydraulic
load on a pond is  conveniently similarly
measured.  For  example pond 48 inches
deep,  operating at a detention period of 12
days,  receives an inflow of 48/12  or  4
inches per day.  If evaporation  and  percola-
tion total 1  inch per day, outflow will be 3
inches per day.

  The allowable organic load on a pond is
a function of the rate  at which the various
biological processes dispose of the load
without nuisance and hence its  magnitude is
the sum of all such biological removal
processes.  The initial biological process,
acting upon organic matter entering a pond,
is usually biological oxidation. Biological
oxidation is dependent upon the presence of
suitable organisms,  and sustained  contin-
uity of optimum pH (7 - 9),  temperature
15°  - 25° C, sufficient time  to develop a
stable population,  the presence of oxygen
2-10 ppm.  and the availability of  organic
matter.  Of major concern is the availabil-
ity of oxygen for which two sources need
be considered--atmospheric reaeration and
photosynthesis. Without special mixing of
a pond by artificial or natural means at-
mospheric reaeration will introduce less
than 40 Ibs.  of oxygen per  acre per day
even under anaerobic conditions. A pond
  •This research was supported in part by research grant 2601 from the National Institutes of Health, United States Public Health
Service.
 "Associate Professor of Sanitary Engineering and Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California
                                          33

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which operates  without  nuisance is  of
course  aerobic  and therefore absorbs less
oxygen. Thus atmospheric reaeration con-
tributes very slowly to the oxygen re-
sources of unmixed ponds. In fact, atmos-
pheric oxygen is often excluded by super-
saturation conditions which accompany
vigorous photosynthesis.

  It has been shown that under satisfactory
conditions of illumination, temperature
and nutrition, photosynthesis may give rise
to 200 Ibs. of oxygen per acre per day.
Assuming 3.68  calories per mg.  of oxygen
and a light conversion efficiency of 5 per-
cent (7) the light energy requirement is
15, 000  calories per liter per day, and in-
tensity attainable in ponds 14 inches  deep
in summer and  4 inches deep in winter.
Under present operational conditions these
depths  are impractical for many reasons.
For example, under the conditions of oxy-
gen production cited, a pH of 11 may be
reached under which conditions, bacterial
growth and oxygen utilization halt entirely,
and coagulation and precipitation of the en-
tire biomass may follow. A  pond 4 feet
deep receiving light equivalent to the
15,000  calories per liter per day cited
above  will produce about 50 Ibs. of oxy-
gen  per acre per day with  an increase
in pH to  9.5. Thus successful pond de-
signs are currently  limited to load rates
of 40 to  50  Ibs.  of BOD per acre  per
day.  Extensive  mixing  facilities would  be
required  to  utilize the  maximum photo-
synthetic  oxygenation rate  of 100 or 200
Ibs. per  acre per day  because sedimen-
tation maintains the biologically available
organic matter at the pond bottom.

   Biological flocculation accompanying
biological oxidation brings  about accumu-
lation and sedimentation of most of the
dissolved organic matter introduced into
a  pond within 24 hours. Studies have
shown  that the  mass of this material may
equal,  or exceed, the  applied BOD load.
Thus,  a  pond loaded at 40  Ibs.  of  5-day
BOD per acre  per day will also have
about  40  Ibs. of volatile  solids  deposited
at the  bottom each day. Because of its
concentration and position  this material
is no  longer subject  to aerobic  oxidation.
The fate  of this  organic matter at the
pond bottom is  then a  function of the con-
ditions existing at the  pond bottom when
it arrives.

   Four major possibilities  exist.  First,
the  temperature  is near 4° C,  or  if the
pH is  below 5. 5,  decomposition of the
organic matter is very slow  and heavy
accumulations  of organic matter become
stored at the pond bottom. Second,  if
bottom temperature is high,  acid  decom-
position occurs,  and particularly  in high
sulfate  waters sulfate reduction may oc-
cur  with  attendant  hydrogen sulfide  nui-
sance.  The third possibility is methane
fermentation which may be highly desir-
able for BOD  removal.  Ideally, methane
fermentation requires a pH of  6.8 to 7.2,
an absence of  oxygen, relatively high
temperature,  available volatile acids, the
essential  organisms, and  sufficient  time
for the process  to become established.
Under ideal  conditions several hundred
Ibs.  of organic matter per acre per day
may be converted to methane.  Methane
fermentation is evidenced by widespread
easily visible  bubbles of gas  rising to the
quiescent pond surface.  The  normal ratio
is believed to  be  10  cubic feet of gas per
pound  of  BOD  destroyed.  Acid conditions
and  low temperatures may delay or en-
tirely  inhibit the  onset of methane fer-
mentation, but if fermentation is inprogress,
acid conditions are less likely to occur be-
cause the products of acid decomposition
are rapidly converted to methane. It is be-
lieved that methane fermentation blocks the
occurrence of sulfate reduction, primarily
because it controls the build-up of organic
matter; one essential for sulfate reduction.
Methane fermentation is a desirable proc-
ess  for decomposition of settled pond bot-
tom  deposits  and,  once  the process is
established,  leads  to a stable, low  nui-
sance  pond operation. There  is little  in-
formation on the rate of  accumulation of
stable sludge solids in ponds undergoing
fermentation. At the Concord,  California,
ponds sludge accumulation amounted to about
1 or 2 cubic feet per annum per capita.  Most
of this deposition was within 200 feet of the
pondinlet, a factwhich demonstrates the
rapid rate of sludge deposition in an active
pond.  The fourth possible fate of organic
matter is to bring  about its resuspension
by physical means, accompanied by proc-
esses which furnish sufficient oxygen to
permit aerobic decomposition.

Pond Classification.  Based upon a rec-
ognition of the importance of  several
biological processes  it has been pro-
posed  that from the treatment  standpoint
three major classes  of ponds  could be
defined--an-aerobic,  facultative,  and
aerobic (6).
                                          34

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  Anaerobic ponds were defined as those
in which  the major fraction  of  the applied
BOD  is decomposed through me thane fer-
mentation.  Designed to establish  condi-
tions  which encourage  methane  fermenta-
tion,  these ponds may be  as much as  10
feet deep, have  a  small surface area  to
volume ratio and may be loaded in ex-
cess  of 400  Ibs. per acre per  day.  An-
aerobic ponds  may be extremely  odorous
and,  therefore,  must be carefully located
with respect to populated areas.  Efflu-
ents from anaerobic ponds usually have a
BOD  in excess of  200 ppm.  and hence
require further treatment before discharge
into a water  course.  Photosynthetic bac-
teria  have been  observed to  become es-
tablished  in  anaerobic ponds. These or-
ganisms convert hydrogen  sulfide to ele-
mental sulfur and hence aid in the control
of odors.  If active sulfide reduction oc-
curs,  ponds may be without  odor.

  The term  facultative was  proposed for
stabilization ponds most commonly de-
scribed in the literature.  Ideally,  BOD
removal occurs  as a result  of  both aer-
obic processes occurring in the superna-
tant and anaerobic processes occurring in
the bottom  sludge  layers.  Loadings  are
ordinarily confined to  50 Ibs.  BOD per
acre  and  effluents  rarely have  BOD's  in
excess of 30  ppm.

  In aerobic ponds organic matter is de-
composed solely through the mechanism
of aerobic oxidation.  The  ponds are de-
signed with a  large  surface  area  to  vol-
ume ratio and oxygen  is introduced  by
mechanical aeration or photosynthetic oxy-
genation.  In the  former  case,  provision
is required for sludge removal and  in the
latter  case,  large  quantities of algae are
grown and may be removed  through  sep-
aration as a valuable by-product.  If con-
tinuous mechanical movement of the liq-
uid is employed  BOD loadings in  excess
of 500 Ibs. per  acre are possible.  If
photosynthetic  oxygenation  is employed
BOD loadings  are  100 to 200 Ibs.  per
acre per  day.  In either case,  effluent
BOD  levels of 20 to 30 ppm. are  obtained.
If algae are separated by flocculation  an
effluent BOD  of  less than  10 ppm. may
be  obtained. The amount of  algae  pro-
duced may be 20  to 30 tons per acre per
year.
      CALIFORNIA INSTALLATIONS

History.  It is uncertain when and where
ponds were first used in California. With
regard to industrial wastes,  the  beet
sugar industry which entered the state
near  the  turn of the century  brought with
it the practice of impounding wash and
processing waste waters. Impounding of
sanitary wastes occurred coincidentally.  A
small ponding installation at Bitterwater,
San Benito County, California, was con-
structed about 1916 to receive oil pumping
station wastes, waste boiler feed water,
and domestic  sewage. Preceded by a  sep-
tic tank this pond operated successfullyfor
25 years without nuisance.  According to
Gillespie (2) the first municipal  disposal
plant utilizing ponds  resulted from clogging
of seepage beds at Santa Rosa, California
in 1924.  Gillespie's interest greatly accel-
erated the use and acceptance  of ponds in
California and throughout the West.
Distribution and Application. Ponds are
now used throughout California and are dis-
tributed more or less uniformly in the in-
termediate  population density areas of the
state.  There are about 125 (1) municipal
stabilization ponds, perhaps three times as
many industrial waste ponds, and numerous
small pond  installations in connection with
niki bases,  communication centers,  iso-
lated restaurants,  motels, and so  on.


   Installations now exist which process raw
sewage or wastes, screened and commi-
nuted sewage or wastes,  primary effluent,
trickling filter effluent, activated sludge
effluent, effluents from prolonged  aeration
tanks,  imhoff tank effluent and  septic tank
effluent.

   The ponds receive domestic sewage,  beet
sugar waste, fiberboard and plywood manu-
facturing wastes,  miscellaneous fruit and
vegetable wastes,  vegetable dehydrating or
freezing plant wastes, nut processing
wastes,  animal  holding pen and feeding pen
wastes; slaughter  house,  packing house,
poultry processing and reduction plant
wastes; and refinery wastes. As far as is
known milk  processing wastes  and  winery
wastes are not processed in ponds  in Cali-
fornia.
                                          35

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Pond Systems.  There is endless variation
in the type of pond systems employed in the
numerous  installations and  communities.
Numbers of ponds in a given system vary
from single ponds to some with a total  of
10 ponds.  The flow-through patterns for
multiple ponds include series, parallel
and combinations  of the two.  Many of the
systems can be  varied from series  to par-
allel. Many systems have anaerobic and
facultative ponds in  series.

Types of Ponds.  Many California ponds
fall into the general class defined above as
facultative. Other ponds are so shallow or
lightly loaded that they remain aerobic
through most of their depth. Several ponds
are intentionally designed to operate in an
anaerobic  condition. A system of 4,  2-acre
facultative ponds, operated in parallel, is
to be found in the  8-acre experimental  di-
version system at Woodland,  California.
Loaded with  raw,  comminuted sewage at
the rate of about 50  Ibs.  of 5-day BOD  per
acre  per day, the ponds are anaerobic with
methane production  in the bottom deposits
and aerobic with algal growth in the super-
natant.  Observed  to be entirely nuisance -
free, the ponds  discharge no  effluent and
have  attained an equilibrium depth of about
5 feet under  a hydraulic load of 1. 5 inches
per day.  Two recurring  transcient phe-
nomena periodically modify activity in these
ponds. A periodic lightening from their
characteristic green color usually follows
a period of vigorous algal growth.  This
lightening  is partially  attributed to floccu-
lation of algae accompanying  precipitation
of magnesium hydroxide and other  salts
under conditions of high pH and warm tem-
peratures  which typify periods of vigorous
algal growth. Following precipitation a
sharp decrease  in dissolved oxygen is ob-
served accenting the importance of photo-
synthetic oxygenation in such ponds. A
second phenomena is recurrent infestation
with "shrimps"  and  rotifers which also
bring about precipitation of the algae and a
lowering of the dissolved oxygen. Accord-
ing to Hiatt (3) dosage of the pond-s with 1  -
2 ppm.  of  "Dibrom 8" (Ortho) has proved
effective in controlling Daphnia at Wood-
land.

   An interesting anaerobic stabilization
pond is located at the Marks Reduction
Plant, Woodland,  California. Reported
previously (6) this pond receives a summer
BOD load of  about 700 Ibs.  per  acre per
day and a hydraulic  load of 2 inches per
day. The effluent is discharged into a sec-
ondary pond where it leaches into the  soil.
The primary pond receives combined  re-
duction plant waste and condenser water
having a BOD of  1, 000 to 1, 600 ppm.  The
primary pond effluent has  a BOD of about
200 ppm. The supernatant BOD in the sec-
ondary pond is about 50 ppm. Wastes  in the
primary pond undergo heavy methane  fer-
mentation. The pond's surface is deep pink
with Thiopedia. The secondary pond is
aerobic at its surface and  deep green  in
color with Euglena.  BOD removal in each
pond is about 75 to 80 percent and over-all
BOD removal is in excess  of 90 per cent.
Odors from the primary pond are largely
controlled by the Thiopedia which utilize
hydrosulfide.  The secondary pond is odor-
less.

  No prototype aerobic (high rate)  ponds
are to be found in California. Small scale
pilot plant units,  0.01 acres, have been in
operation at the University of California
Field Station for  a number of years and are
believed to have amply demonstrated the
utility of this  process.  These units receive
3 to 6 inches of hydraulic  load and 100 to
200 Ibs.  of BOD load per acre per  day.

BOD Loadings.  Most California ponds are
designed for  BOD loads of 40 to 50 Ibs. per
acre per day but  many exceptions exist.
The lightest pond loading thus far encount-
ered is at the U.  S.  Army  Communications
Center,  Davis, California. About 3 feet
deep in adobe soil, the pond has a detention
period in excess  of 60 days and a BOD
loading of about 10 to 15 Ibs.  per acre per
day. The pond is preceded by a conven-
tional septic  tank and is followed by a sec-
ondary pond which is fenced separately
from the primary pond and serves  as  a
watering place for several dozen sheep used
to control vegetation among the radio  an-
tenna masts.

   The most heavily loaded industrial  waste
pond is that described above  at the Marks
Reduction Plant. The most heavily loaded
domestic waste pond in California is  the
primary pond at Concord. This primary
pond has a flow-through channel about 1
mile long constructed of redwood baffles
and has  aggregate area of 14 acres. Its
loading is about 250 Ibs. per acre per day.
Although able to sustain this load and  re-
main odor-free in summer the pond "fails"
and becomes  odorous in winter. "Failure",
however, merely means that hydrogen-
                                           36

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sulfide odors are excessive at a nearby
shopping center. Even during "failure" the
pond discharges an effluent to the secondary
pond with a BOD less  than 70 ppm.  The
secondary pond has an area of about 15
acres  and also is arranged by means of
baffles for flow-through. This pond dis-
charges an effluent BOD of about 30 ppm.
to Walnut Creek. Recirculation from sec-
ondary to primary ponds is not possible
under  current design,  but  new construction
will provide  this feature which is strongly
indicated under these  circumstances.

Pond Sizes.  In physical size the vegetable
processing waste lagoons are largest.
Examples are the Spreckles  sugar waste
lagoons, Woodland,  400 acres in several
ponds; municipal and cannery waste facul-
tative  lagoon, Stockton,  200  acres in a
single  pond;  and the municipal and cannery
waste  lagoons, Davis, about 100 acres in
10 ponds. Of the municipal waste ponds one
of the  largest is that at Chico in which,
since no effluent is permitted in the re-
ceiving stream, evaporation and percola-
tion must consume the entire sewage flow.
The Chico  ponds have  an aggregate area  of
103 acres, serving a population of 15,000.
Following primary treatment,  BOD loading
on these ponds is about 1,200 Ibs.  per  day.
About  one -third of the pond area is farmed
each year, the farmed acreas being ro-
tated; a feature  which  greatly improves
percolation.  Levees on a gentle alope of  8
or 10 to 1 permit cultivation of the entire
pond area.

  Another large municipal pond system is
located at El Centre,  California. Consist-
ing of  three ponds this system has an ag-
gregate area of 50 acres,  serving a popu-
lation  of 18,000. Following primary treat-
ment,  the BOD  load is reported to be about
50 Ibs. per acre per day (5).  Relatively
shallow depths,  combined  with large sized
ponds,  have  lead to heavy  algal growths
which  accumulate on the surface and de-
compose. An urgent problem with hydrogen
sulfide odors in this pond's system was
greatly improved as a result of a special
study by Maloney ei al.  (4).  By excluding
milk waste,  hydrogen  sulfide odors were
minimized but entirely satisfactory opera-
tion has not been attained to date. In cur-
rent studies  the ponds will be operated at
a depth of 6 feet in an  effort to overcome
excessive algal  growth and perhaps permit
establishment of methane fermentation in
bottom deposits.
  The smallest pond installations are those
to be found at road-house inns and individ-
ual homes in remote locations of California.
The disposal system usually consists of a
grease trap, a septic tank,  and a pond
sometimes hastily scooped out to replace a
clogged leaching field.  Although poorly
maintained, one finds these simple little
ponds  green and odor-free.

Pond Depths and Bottom Shape. Excessive
algal growth which leads to formation of
mats,  sometimes loosely termed "blue
green  algae" is an objectionable condition
which  may be prevented by using greater
depth. The current trend in California is
away from shallow depths for facultative
ponds. High rate ponds, which are entirely
dependent upon aerobic decomposition for
waste  disposal, must be shallow to permit
photosynthetic oxygenation. Facultative
ponds, however, which are dependent on
both aerobic and anaerobic  processes,
should be designed to permit the occurrence
of bottom conditions  favorable to methane
fermentation.  Thus depths  of 5 to 6 feet are
implied. Anaerobic lagoons which  depend
almost entirely upon digestion for  disposal
have been designed with depths  of  10 or 12
feet.

  In a trend away from uniform depths sev-
eral recently  designed California ponds,
such as those at Vacaville,  are constructed
with a gentle bottom  slope leading  to a
drain. Stone (8) has recently described a
pond with a center  well which gives the
pond a small collective area for low flow
conditions.

Levee  Slopes and Protection.  A great vari-
ety  of levee cross sections  are to be found.
The flattest levees known to the author are
those at Chico,  noted previously, with side
slopes of about 10 to 1. No  unusual opera-
tional problems have resulted from this ex-
tremely stable cross section. At the other
extreme  the City of Concord,  pressed for
area, has shavedits wellcompactedperiph-
eral levees to slopes of less than 2 to 1
and abandoned internal  levees entirely in
favor of redwood fences,  or baffles, used
as flow guides.  Experience has shown that
care must be  exercised to maintain approx-
imately equal depths on either side of these
fences to  prevent failure.

  A greater degree of levee protection
from wave erosion is afforded by maintain-
ing  gentle levee slopes  than by heavy com-
                                          37

-------
paction.  Rigid compaction specifications
add greatly to the cost of pond construction.
//ind damage  is decreased by decreasing
pond size but  even 1 or 2-acre ponds will
suffer erosion of steep,  carelessly com-
pacted banks during strong winds.  Linings
have been used to protect steep levees.

  Special bank protection installations are
to be  found at a number  of places.  Stockton
has placed a coat  of 6 inches to 8 inches
riprap on its inner levee face. At El Centre
all levees are lined with one-half inch
prefabricated asphalt panels. Davis has
complete asphalt caps on some  levees with
gunite side slopes. Both the riprap and
asphalt panels cost about 30 cents  per
square foot in place . Cost data is not avail-
able on the concrete liners. At  Lakeport,
California,  Trotter controlled excessive
seepage  with local clay spread and com-
pacted over the entire pond bottom (9).  The
University of  California's pilot stabiliza-
tion pond at Concord was partially lined
with 6 mil polyethylene. There  are no  re-
ported cases of ponds completely lined
with more expensive materials.

Inlet and Outlet Structure. Inlet structures
have mainly consisted of simple risers lo-
cated along one side, or in the  center,  of
the pond. Several consulting engineers have
installed inlets designed to discharge a
horizontal tangential jet of sewage which
appears  to give rise to gentle sustained
currents in the ponds. No special  benefits
have been observed to result from either
jet type  or riser  type influent structures.
Limited  comparable experience has shown
that the  Woodland ponds, with submerged
vertical  central inlets,  developed  methane
fermentation more quickly than  did the
Concord ponds which are equipped with
tangential jet  inlets. However,  unknown
factors other  than inlet  design could have
produced this result.

  Outlet structures are  frequently simple
wooden boxes, or corrugated metal cul-
verts, placed in the levee at an  invert
height, corresponding to a selected depth.
Vertical risers,  built of metal  or  concrete
and having flash boards  with which to con-
trol depth,  are commonly used. A modifi-
cation of this  type of outlet is a  series of
rings stacked in a ring guide.  This latter
device has the advantage of allowing 360°
skimming and has been  used on recircula-
tion lines at Concord.
Types  of Algae.  Observation of algal type
in many California ponds shows that the
major  algae are nearly always Chlorella,
Scenedesmus,  Euglena or Chlamydomonas.
Ankistrodesmus and various blue-greens
are frequently found but usually do not
dominate.  With regard to the four most
common algae, Chlamydomonas is the least
desirable,  for although it can grow with ex-
plosive speed it spreads  over pond sur-
faces,  shuts out light, and accumulates in
corners where it decomposes with vile
odors.  In Richmond,  Euglena viridis has
also been observed to form surface scums.
      FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN
           CALIFORNIA PONDS


  Currently the use of facultative ponds is
increasing in  California. As conventional
municipal pond installations become more
heavily loaded there will be a tendency in
land short  areas  to undertake processes
which will make more efficient us"e of avail-
able land.  Under these conditions the facul-
tative pond may not survive. It seems
doubtful, however, that there will be  a
complete return to trickling filters  and ac-
tivated  sludge plants since  these processes,
although they  meet current state standards,
produce, rather than remove,  fertility
elements.  Regardless of their low BOD and
bacteriological purity, effluents from ac-
tivated  sludge and trickling filter plants are
understood to inevitably produce nuisance
algal blooms of uncontrolled and ever-
increasing magnitude  in inland  receiving
waters. It  is therefore expected that addi-
tional state standards for water pollution
control will be forthcoming and that efflu-
ents which contain fertility elements willbe
judiciously excluded from receiving waters
which have no discharge to the  sea. Thus
new processes must be  developed which
will not only remove BOD and decrease
bacterial content, but also strip away am-
monia,  carbonate, phosphate, and other
fertility compounds.

  California's new inland reservoirs  such
as  Turlock, Berryessa  or  Nacimiento are
undergoing explosive development of  popu-
lation and  recreational facilities. Sewage
effluents,  seepage pit effluents, and efflu-
ents from  leaching fields,  will inevitably
carry fertility elements into these reser-
voirs in increasing  amounts. Successive
                                          38

-------
crops of algae will integrate these nutrients
and bring about accelerated eutrophication.
A large measure of the enormous recrea-
tional value of these reservoirs will even-
tually be lost,  due to excessive algal
growth. A sewage disposal process is re-
quired which will prevent this. The only
process which appears economical for this
purpose today  is the high rate photosyn-
thetic oxygenation pond.

  Research is  now underway to develop
small pond installations for isolated areas
which will remove fertility elements and
dissipate or reclaim them. The best hope
seems to be lined,  series operated ponds,
from which the tertiary effluents may be
used for  spray irrigation of harvested
crops, for fish ponds, or for beautification
ponds and fountains.
cause of their convenience as well as low
construction and maintenance costs.

  It is hoped that eventually inland Califor-
nia communities will undertake to utilize
aerobic high rate algae ponds for all agri-
cultural and domestic wastes, moving
eventually into production and sale of algae
and reclaimed water.  Under these condi-
tions we may look for algae to become a
basic raw material, comparable to lumber
or corn; a source of industrial and agricul-
tural chemicals and foods of many kinds.

                SUMMARY

  This article reviews the history, distri-
bution and current application of stabiliza-
tion ponds in California with emphasis on
special design characteristics in specific
installations.
   In the industrial and agricultural waste
field,  California is continuing a vigorous
research program for  reclamation of an
ever larger fraction of these wastes for
useful purposes. But before this goal is
achieved,  it is probable that'anaerobic
ponds  will be used to a greater extent be-
  Fundamental reactions occurring in
ponds, pond classifications and pond per-
formances are described and discussed.

  Current research and development and
prospects for future pond applications in
California are outlined.
                                   REFERENCES

 1.  Cornish, A., and Ward, Paul, California State Health Department, Berkeley.  Pri-
       vate Communication (I960).

 2.  Gillespie, C. G.  "Oxidation Ponds in California, " Sewage Works Journal,  16,  740,
       (1944).

 3.  Hiatt, A. L. ,  City Engineer, City of Woodland,  Private Communication (I960).

 4.  Maloney, T.  E., Bartsch,  A.  F. , et al. "Study of Experimental Sewage Stabilization
       Ponds at El Centre, California, " U. S. Department of Health, Education, and
       Welfare, Public Health Service, Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center,
       Cincinnati,  Ohio,  (1959).

 5.  McKlintock, Len C. ,  City Manager,  City of El Centro, Private Communication,
       (I960).

 6.  Oswald, W.  J.  "Fundamental Factors in Stabilization Pond Design," No. 44, Confer-
       ence on Biological Waste Treatment,  Manhattan College, New York (I960).

 7.  Oswald, W.  J.  "Light Conversion Efficiency of Algae Grown in Sewage, " Journal of
       the Sanitary Engineering Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil
       Engineers,  86, SA4,  1,  71-95.  (I960).

 8.  Stone,  Ralph,  "Waste Stabilization Basins for a  District Sewage  Treatment Plant, "
       Civil Engineering,  30,  3,  158-159, (i960).

 9.  Trotter,  Roy M. , and Associates,  Consulting Engineers, Berkeley,  Private Com-
       munication (I960).
                                          39

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         STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCE OF A SEWAGE STABILIZATION POND
                              AT FARMVILLE, VIRGINIA

                                          By

                           C. E. Cooley,  and  R.  R.  Jennings*
             INTRODUCTION

  Stream pollution control in Virginia
dates from July 1, 1946, when the State
Water Control Law became effective. Soon
afterward a small but determined staff be-
gan work on this very complex problem.
The first job was to notify all  communities
that discharged raw sewage into State
waters that they should formulate pollution
abatement  programs in accordance  with the
Law.

  The Town of Farmville is one of the
communities that was so notified. It has  a
population  of about 5, 000 and lies in an
agricultural belt in south central Virginia.
There is little industry in the  area, but a
college with a student population of  approx-
imately 1,200 contributes to the Town's
economy.

  The Town had retained a  consultant who
estimated the cost of constructing a sewage
collection system and a  "conventional"
primary treatment plant to  be  something
over  1/2 million dollars. This was  not
considered economically feasible by the
Town fathers.  Starting in 1947 they were
requested periodically to appear before the
State  Water Control Board, which adminis-
ters the Law, to explain why the Board's
requirements had not been met.  The case
continued to drag until finally, in the latter
part of 1956, the Town advanced the pro-
posal to use lagoons, or stabilization
ponds, to treat the sewage.

  It was  finally agreed,  after  conferences
and meetings between representatives of
the Town, the State Health Department,
and members of the Board's staff,  that the
Town would use a lagoon to treat the sew-
age from a portion of the town.
  Lagoons had been used in Virginia for a
number of years successfully to treat in-
dustrial wastes from textile plants, can-
neries, and slaughter houses. They had not
been used for treating sewage,  however,
this being the first such installation pro-
posed.

  The  Town therefore agreed to construct
the proposed lagoon in such a way that the
Board  could most expeditiously observe
and study its performance. After many de-
lays, final plans were drawn and construc-
tion was  completed. Finally,  on November
21, 1958, raw sewage was  pumped to the
lagoons for the first time.

         SCOPE OF THE STUDY

  While planning and construction was
underway, the staff was in  the process  of
determining the scope of its proposed
study.  Considerable data was available re-
garding physical design of ponds, so the
principal  objective was to determine the
maximum possible B.O.D. loading  which
could be  used in this  climate. However, we
decided that we would collect as much data
relating to their performance as possible,
within  the limitations of personnel,  equip-
ment,  time and money available. In this
connection, we are especially grateful to
personnel of the U.S.P.H. S. ,  who gave us
much advice and encouragement in getting
our study program set up and moving.
Their help, stemming from experience,
saved us a great many headaches, but  not
all of them.

  Automatic equipment was installed to
collect all samples, both of raw sewage
and effluents,  for chemical analyses. Man-
ually collected samples were  used for
bacteriological and biological analyses.
  Engineer and Biologist respectively of State Water Control Board, Richmond, Va.
                                         41

-------
  From previous studies  by the
U.S.P.H.S. and other states it was appar-
ent that physical features such as sunlight,
rain, wind, and other natural conditions
play an important role in the successful
operation of sewage lagoons. Therefore,
automatic recording equipment was set up
at the ponds to obtain data regarding solar
radiation (sunlight), barometric pressure,
relative humidity,  air temperature, and
precipitation. Apparatus was set up to
measure the rate of evaporation. Although
there was no recording equipment for wind
velocity and direction,  frequent visual ob-
servations of indicating meters are made.
We had intended to install  Canwisher elec-
trodes in the ponds to measure and record
dissolved oxygen,  but we were unable to
get the  necessary equipment set up in time.

      DESCRIPTION AND LOADING

   The Town agreed to construct the lagoon
with three cells  of identical size. In the
remainder  of this paper they will be re-
ferred to as ponds A, B, and C, as shown
in Figure 3. Statistics on the ponds are
given in Table 16. Depthhas beenmaintained
at 3 feet, although the outlet structures

                TABLE  16

        Size and  Volume  of Ponds
Size of each pond,  acres
Size of each pond,  square  feet
Depth, feet
Capacity, cubic feet
Capacity, gallons
   60,984
        3
  182,952
1,372,140
               are designed so the depth may be varied
               between 3 and 5 feet.

                 The 1/6, 1/3, and 1/2  volume split was
               in effect from November  1958, when the
               ponds started operating,  until September
               5,  1959. On the latter date  1/4 of the
               volume was put into Ponds A and B in
               series, and 3/4 to C.  On December 15,
               1959,  all flow was diverted to Pond A, in
               series with B and C.

                 The sewage splitter compartment*,  for
               the first 7 months of this study,  was so
               arranged that ponds A, B, and C received
               1/6,  1/3,  and 1/2 of the raw sewage flow,
               respectively, for anticipated B. O. D, load-
               ings of 20, 40,  and 60 Ib. per acre per
               day,  or a  population equivalent of  120,
               240,  and 360 persons per day, respec-
               tively.  However, the volume of the raw
               sewage did not come up to that expected
               from preliminary studies, averaging only
               62, 660 gpd to the ponds,  about half that
               originally expected. While B. O.  D.  con-
               centration was  in the expected range, the
               total load  averaged only 90  Ib. per  day,
               also about half  that expected. Table 17
               shows the  various expected  and  actual
               load arrangements.

                 Table 18 shows the actual  B.O.D. load
               in pounds per acre per day and in terms of
               equivalent population.
  •The splitter compartment consists of a cylindrical com-
partment 6 ft. in diameter and 1 1/2 ft. high. The incoming
sewer line rises 1 1/4 ft. vertically into the center of the
compartment.  Three (or more) gates  may be dropped into the
annular space between the riser and the outer wall of the com-
partment to proportion the flow to the three ponds.
                                           42

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                                       TABLE 18

                                     B.O.D. Load

Pond A ( 1/6 load ) 	
B ( 1/3 load ) 	
C (1/2 load) 	
Pond A ( 1/4 load ) 	
B (series with A)
C (3/4 load) 	
Pond A (Total load) . ...

B.O.D., Lb. per Acre
per Day
11
21
32
16
48
64

Equivalent Population
per Acre per Day
67
126
193
96
290
386

  CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL
              EXAMINATION

Sampling

For chemical analyses,  samples of the in-
fluent and final effluents  from the ponds
•were  taken with automatic samplers.
During the first six  months  of this study
(February to August, 1959) composite sam-
ples were taken every 12 hours, around the
clock, of  the raw sewage and of the final
effluent from each pond. From August
through October 1959 samples from the
same sources  were composited every 24
hours.

Samples were analyzed in a Water Control
Board trailer laboratory stationed at Farm-
ville. This trailer was equipped to make all
necessary chemical and biological analysis.
Chemical  analyses made were pH,  alka-
linity, B.O.D., settleable solids total
solids,  total  solids,  suspended solids,
ammonia,  nitrite,  mitrate, sulfate, phos-
phate and  chloride.
Results of Chemical Analyses

B.O.D. B.O.D. of the raw waste to the
        three ponds fluctuated  a great
        deal. We believe that part of the
variation  is due to the fact that a hospital
which is connected to this system period-
ically discharges some type of toxic waste.
We have not made a study to identify this
waste, but we hope to do so.
 There was no great degree of difference in
 the amount of B.O.D. reduction in each of
 the ponds. Changing the flow arrangement
 on September 5, 1959 so that pond C re-
 ceived what could be considered a shock
 load by increasing it by 1/4, apparently
 did not affect the degree of B.O.D. re-
 duction.

 On the basis of the results of the above
 loading it was  decided, on December  15,
 1959, to give pond A, which received 1/4
 the total flow at that time, a severe shock
 load by increasing it by 3/4, that is, to
 receive all of the raw sewage flow. There
 was no apparent adverse effect, as shown
 by a number of surveys made since that
 time.

The overall average B. O.D.  reduction for
the period from March 1959 through October
 1959 was  80%  in each pond. This same
degree of treatment is now being accom-
plished by Pond A with a population equivalent
of almost 400 persons per acre per day.
There is little additional B.O.D.  reduction
in Ponds B and C, in series with A.

 Percentages of B.O.D.  reduction cited
 above are based on the  concentration of
 B.O.D. in ppm. When considered on  the
 basis of a pounds per day  B.O.D. load in
the raw sewage and in the final  effluents
leaving the ponds,  the indications are that
the efficiency will be higher.  This is prob-
ably due to seepage and other losses within
the system making the amount of liquid
being discharged from the ponds less than
the amount which they receive.
                                         45

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Ammonia The overall average ammonia
          reduction in the 3 ponds for the
          entire period has been 80%. As
in the case of the B.O. D. , ammonia in the
raw sewage had a fairly wide range of con-
centration, while concentration in the final
effluents from  the 3 ponds was, for all
practical purposes, the  same.

There was considerable variation between
the 3 ponds in percentage reduction of
ammonia during the early period of opera-
tion, but during the late spring and early
summer the  same pattern of concentration
is shown in the final effluents from the 3
ponds. However, since the flow arrange-
ment was changed on December 15,  1959,
for Pond A to receive the total load, we are
experiencing an average reduction of only
about 65%. Pond B, in series with A, adds
22 days retention time,  and gives an addi-
tional 30% removal for a total reduction  of
95%.  Pond C adds another 22 days reten-
tion time but apparently accomplishes no
further reduction of the  ammonia.

Nitrates There was very little nitrification
         in the ponds .

Sulfates  The sulfate concentration,  as can
         be seen in Figure 5,  is highly var-
         iable and does not show any signi-
ficant increase or reduction.  Analysis of
the treated drinking water at Farmville
also indicates  a variable sulfate concentra-
tion and does not follow any definite pattern
of concentration.

Orthophosphates Orthophosphates show an
                 apparent reduction within
                 the ponds; the greater re-
duction occurring with the least load.

Chlorides Although the data is not  shown,
          we have found that there  is no
          significant increase or decrease
of chloride concentration within the ponds.

P.O.  and pH P.O.  and pH analyses were
             made on samples  of the final
             effluents during a number of
24-hour  surveys. These samples were col-
lected every hour during any  given 24-hour
survey.  In general, the results tend to fol-
low the typical diurnal variation of both
D.O.  and pH within the ponds.  However,
some results do not show the typical vari-
ation. For example,  we have experienced
a high D.O.  at night when we would expect
it to be very low,  or at least on a decrease.
There is no apparent explanation at this
time for this non-typical variation.

We have made a few preliminary studies on
the D.O. concentrations in the ponds prop-
er. Our results,  to date show that there is
a difference  in concentration at the various
sampling stations established for this pur-
pose. We hope to make further  studies along
this line.

Results of  Bacteriological Analyses

Coliform reduction was  99% for at least
50% of the  time and 90% or more for 99% of
the time. MPN of coliform organisms  in
the raw sewage ranged from 4,  000, 000 to
110,000,000 plus.

        BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION

Introduction

  This biological work covers  only the
microscopic  phytoplankton and the aquatic
insects which inhabit the Farmville stabili-
zation ponds. To avoid confusion regarding
which organisms comprise the phytoplank-
ton and which comprise the zooplankton,  all
those planktonic forms of life which are
autotrophic are considered as belonging to
the group of  organisms known as Algae.

   Also to further simplify the  classification
of the Algae, the organisms as herein re-
ported are broken  down into three major
groups, as follows:

   Green Algae - Bear chromatophores,
usually store their food in the  form of
starch,  usually possess pyrenoids, and do
not possess  flagella in the adult stage. The
diatoms are included  within this group,
although they do  not store starch.

   Bluegreen Algae - Do not bear chroma-
tophores,  the pigment being distributed
throughout the cytoplasm; do not store their
food in the form of starch; pyrenoids are
lacking; and do not possess flagella.

   The Flagellates  - Possess flagella during
the adult stage of their life cycle.

Technical  Methods

Sampling From May 1959 through July 1959
         all samples collected for biolog-
          ical determinations •were made on
                                          46

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the final effluents of the three ponds.  This
was done on the assumption that an equal
distribution of organisms existed.  Early in
the study only one final effluent sample per
pond was collected for  any particular  24-
hour period,  but in some cases the time of
collection differed.

To  ascertain if we were obtaining a repre-
sentative phytoplanktonic flora, samples
were collected of the final effluents at dawn,
midday,  dusk, and midnight.  The results
indicated that not only were different genera
discharged during the periods in question
but also that  their concentrations varied.
Sampling stations were then selected  in the
ponds proper. Results  showed an unequal
distribution of genera and numbers within
genera. Therefore,  from August 1959
through December 1959,  samples were col-
lected in each pond proper, using a Foerst
stream  sampler. The samples thus col-
lected,  contained organisms from  the sur-
face down to  a depth of  18". Four  stations
were selected in each pond. The above
method,  we believe,  has given us a more
representative picture of the flora in ques-
tion.

The genera and the number of  genera as
herein reported are the total different gen-
era as found at the four stations.  The num-
ber of organisms, as reported, are the av-
erages as found at the selected locations.

Enumeration The Palmer Cell, developed
             by Dr. C. M. Palmer,  was
             used in counting the organ-
isms.  We believe that the method as put
forth by Dr. Palmer is the most accurate
devised to date.

Correlation of Biological and Chemical
Results

  The main purpose of the biological study
was to determine  if a correlation existed
between the biological and chemical  data.

  Tables  19 through 22 set forth the  re-
sults of the various possible relationships
that were studied.
                                       TABLE 19

            Effect of B.O.D. Loading Upon the Number of Genera and the  Total
                                 Number of Organisms
Date
Sept. 4, 1959...
Aug. 28, 1959...
Sept. 18, 1959..
Sept. 4, 1959...
Aug. 28, 1959...
Sept. 4, 1959...
Aug. 28, 1959...
Sept. 18, 1959..
Sept. 11, 1959..
Dec. 14, 1959...
Oct. 20, 1959...
B.O.D. Loading (ibs)
17
17
22
33
34
50
51
65
68
72
73
No. of Genera
25
22
16
18
28
16
12
15
21
12
16
No. of Organisms/ML
do6)
.75
1.09
1.41
0.13
0.28
0.29
1.52
1.37
1.67
6.53
2.66
  On the basis of the data we have obtained,
we  have not been able to demonstrate a cor-
relation between the number of genera pres-
ent, the total number of organisms and
B.O.D. loading.
                                         47

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                                       TABLE 20

                Effect of  B.O.D. Loading on the Predominant Genus Present
Date
Sept. 4, 1959 	
Aug. 28, 1959 	
Sept. 18, 1959 	
Sept. 4, 1959 	
Aug. 28, 1959 	
Sept. 4 1959 	
Aug. 28, 1959 	
Sept. 18, 1959 	
Sept. 11, 1959 	
Dec. 14, 1959 	
Oct. 20, 1959 	

B.O.D. Loading (its)
17
17
22
33
34
50
51
65
68
72
73

Predominant Genus












  There appears to be no correlation be-
tween the loading in terms of B.O.D. and
the predominant genus. It might be noted
that Ankistrodesmus,  when not the predom-
inant genus  contributed greatly to the total
number of organisms.
                                       TABLE 21

              Percent Reduction in B.O.D.  Compared to the Predominant Genus
                                 at Different  Loadings
Date
Sept. 4, 1959
Aug. 28, 1959
Sept. 18, 1959
Sept. 4, 1959
Aug. 28, 1959
Sept. 4, 1959
Aug. 28, 1959
Sept. 18, 1959
Sept. 11, 1959
Dec. 19, 1959
Oct. 20, 1959
Predominant Genus
Synectocystis
Synectocystis
Ankistrodesmus
Synectocystis
Synectocystis
Synectocystis
Synectocystis
Synectocystis
Merismopedia
Ankistrodesmus
Ankistrodesmus
B.O.D. (Ibs) Load
17
17
22
33
34
50
51
65
68
72
73
Percent Reduction
80
79
79
80
78
79
16
78
79
84
49
  As in the two previous  cases,  there  ap-
pears to be no correlation between the per-
cent reduction and any particular predom-
inant genus.
                                          48

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                                         TABLE 22
         Percent Reduction in B.O.D. Compared to the Number of Genera and the Total
                         No. of Organisms At Different  Load Levels
Date
Sept. 4, 1959
Aug. 28, 1959
Sept. 18, 1959
Sept. 4, 1959
Aug. 28, 1959
Sept. 4, 1959
Aug. 28, 1959
Sept. 18, 1959
Sept. 11, 1959
Dec. 14, 1959
Oct. 20, 1959
B.O.D. (Its)
17
17
22
33
34
50
51
65
68
72
73
No. of
Genera
25
22
16
18
29
16
12
15
21
16
12
No. of
Organ! sms/ML
do6)
0.75
1.09
1.41
0.13
0.28
0.29
1.52
1.37
1.67
2.66
6.53
Percent
Reduction
80
79
79
80
78
79
16
78
79
84
49
   Again, as far as we can determine at
this time, there appears to be no correla-
         tion of biological and chemical results.
 Typical Genera

   Below are listed some typical genera found in the Farmville ponds.

           GREENS                   BLUEGREENS            FLAGELLATES
          Ankistrodesmus
          Chlorella
          Chlorocooccum
          Closterioposis
          Coelastrum
          Cruglgenia
          Golenkinia
          Kirchneriella
          Micractinium
          Mavicular
          Nitzschia
          Oocystis
          Phytoconis
          Scenedesmus
          Schroderia
          Ulothrix
Anabaena
Anacystis
Merismopedia
Oscillatoria
Synectocystis
C hlamydomonas
Chlorogonium
Chrornulina
Cryptomonus
Eudorina
Euglena
Glenodinium
Gonlum
Gyrodinium
Massertia
Pandorina
Phagus
Trachelomonas
Aquatic Insects

  The field work incidental to this phase of
the study was conducted by Mr.  Jack Lamb,
         Entomologist, Virginia State Department
         of Health. The data is limited,  since the
         main objective was to determine the prin-
         cipal aquatic insects inhabiting the ponds.
                                          49

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Listed below are the groups found:
                       Coleoptera
                       Cyrindae (Whirligig bettles)
                       Dytscidae (Preddceous Diving Beetles)
                       Hydrophildae (Water Scavenger Beetles)

                       Hemiptera
                       Notonectidae (Back swimmers)

                       Diptera
                       Tendlpedidae (Midges)
                       Cullcidae
                           Chaoboninae (Phontom Midge)
                           Cullcinae (True Mosquitoes)
                                Culex Piplens
                                Culex Salinarius
  Culex Piplens and Culex Salinarius were
not found in the  ponds proper, but were
found both in the overflow line and in the
bottom of one of the overflow boxes, when
the discharge ceased due to evaporation.
These creatures were also found inhabiting
the effluent  channel and the swampy area
which receives some of the treated waste.
Excluding the mosquitoes, the  rest of the
aquatic insects listed above were found in
all three ponds at various concentrations,
some in the effluent ditch, and some in the
swampy area.
        GENERAL, OBSERVATIONS
Odor
Since the possibility of odors occurring is
frequently thought of in connection with this
type of treatment, we  have paid special
attentionto this aspect of the sewage lagoons .
Daily observations  from February through
September 1959,  and frequent observations
since September revealed no noticeable
odors at a distance of  more than 20 feet
away from the ponds,  except for one  day,
which was exceptionally hot and humid with
negligible air movement,  when odors  were
noticeable about 250 feet away.

Ice Cover

We have not experienced any difficulties in
the ponds,  either in the way of odors or
treatment, due to icing.

During the two winters (1 958-59 and 1959-60)
that the ponds have been in operation, the
ice cover has existed for only a few con-
secutive days at a time.  Since  there were
so few days of continuous ice cover,  we
have not considered this condition a signif-
icant factor in our studies at Farmville.
The 1958-59 winter was a particularly se-
vere one.

Weather

Although we have voluminous data concern-
ing the various aspects of climatology we
have not yet had the time to correlate it
with treatment within the ponds. We  can,
however, confirm the  correlation that oth-
ers have reported to exist between the solar
intensity and dissolved oxygen within the
ponds, that is, the greater the solar radi-
ation, the greater is the concentration of
dissolved oxygen that may be expected.

 It is not apparent from our D. O. and pH
 studies that wind action adds any appre-
 ciable amount of oxygen to the ponds them-
 selves.  During  our 24-hour surveys when
 there was sufficient wind Lo cause waves on
 the ponds, there did not seem to be  any
 noticeable increase in dissolved oxygen.
 This may be due to the fact  that the waves
 rolled rather than, broke.

              CONCLUSIONS

   From the results of our studies the State
 Department of Health and the staff of the
 State Water Control Board have agreed that
 sewage lagoons with loadings of 200 per-
 sons (33 Ibs. B.O.D.) per acre per day
 will be approved. This compares with an
 interim figure of 150,  based on recommen-
 dations by the USPHS and various  other
 agencies. Any further upward revision will
 depend on the evaluation of the data  now
                                          50

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being obtained in the current arrangement
of the ponds.

  Also, on the basis of these results, the
interim requirement that ponds be located
1/2 mile from municipal limits and 1/4
mile from the nearest residence and habi-
tation have been eliminated, and criteria
used in setting distance  requirements for
conventional sewage plants will apply.

  Though the coliform organism reduction
was 90 to 99%, this  still represents a high
number of organisms being discharged to
the receiving body of water. Chlorination,
and perhaps also means for removing
algae, must be provided where demanded
by the uses of receiving stream.

  Up to this point in our study we have not
been able to correlate our biological data
with the  chemical analyses.  In the future,
after more data has been collected and
compiled, we will again attempt to deter-
mine if a correlation exists between the
biological and chemical aspects  of the
study.

  Based on our  study of the performance
of Farmville, Virginia,  sewage stabilization
pond and our previous experiences with
ponds treating industrial wastes, we be-
lieve that this method provides  an entirely
satisfactory and economical means for
waste treatment, under conditions where it
may be employed.

  We have not had the time to tabulate and
process much of the data that was collec-
ted. When this is done,  additional conclu-
sions and observations  will undoubtedly be
possible.
                                          51

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                         SEWAGE LAGOONS IN AUSTRALIA
                                  by C. D. Parker*
1.0 Introduction.
    Study of the possibilities of treatment
of sewage in lagoons in Australia by the
Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works
goes back over 20 years and large scale ap-
plication of this form of treatment has been
in use there  almost fifteen years.

    With the amount of study that has been
made of this form of treatment at Melbourne
over the years  it  is not surprising that Mel-
bourne offers the most extensive develop-
ment  of lagoons in Australia.

    It is only over the last 5 - 10 years that
there has been any other developments in
Australia of lagoon treatment but now as  in
America, interest in the use of lagoon treat-
ment  is widespread,  a  number of installa-
tions  have been built and some of the other
larger authorities are now contemplating
this form of treatment for  sewage purifi-
cation.

2. 0 Australian installations.

    2. 1 Melbourne.

        The use of sewage lagoons in Mel-
bourne goes backtwenty four years to 1936
when  alarge area of 570 acres was convert-
ed to  a huge pond to give finalizing treat-
ment  to effluents from grass areas.

        To  under stand the way in which de-
velopment of sewage lagoons has occurred
in Melbourne,  it is  desirable to briefly out-
line the methods  of purification that have
been used.

        The Melbburne sewage system was
constructed in  1893 on the separate princi-
ple and all flow gravitates to Spotswood
Pumping Station 5 miles from the center
of the city where it is at present lifted
through rising mains 2 miles to the head of
an 11" diameter gravity sewer which con-
veys the 110 m.g.d.  (U.S.) to the Metro-
politan  Farm at Werribee.

        The Farm is 27, 000 acres in area
and here the sewage  is treated on 12,000
acres of pasture 2, 100 acres of grass fil-
tration area (used in winter) and 1, 100
acres of lagoons.

        Prior to the development of la-
goons, sewage was purified in summer by
irrigation over prepared pastures irrigated
one day every 18-21 days and grazed by
some 15, 000 head of cattle and in winter by
continuous surface application to grass
areas, the effluent being taken into shallow
collecting drains at the end of each bay.

        Both processes are liable to dis-
turbance by sudden increases in flow.

        This is a daily problem with the
natural fluctuation in flow over the 24
hours of the day. It is accentuated by the
fact that the daily  peak flows arrive at Wer-
ribee between midnight and 6 a.m. when
distribution has to be made under night
shift conditions.

        The problem is further accentuated
by storm flows when the daily flow arriving
at Werribee is increased from 110 to 170
m.g.d. When these flows occur in summer
and the pastures are sodden,  it is a prob-
lem to dispose of the water.

        In 1939 research into the possibil-
ities of lagoon treatment was initiated using
the installation described in our paper of
1950 (Parker et al S.W.J. 1950). This con-
'Chief Chemist and Bacteriologist, Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works, Aust.
                                          53

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sisted of a number of ponds with a total
area of some 5 acres. The most important
finding of these earlier investigations was
the greatly increased efficiency achieved by
using a two stage process, the first stage
functioning as an anaerobic lagoon and the
second stage the normal aerobic algal type
lagoon. Other important operational factors
were also established.

        The large  570 acre lagoon already
existing was adapted in 1947 to treat settled
sewage in excess of the average daily rate
of flow, over the  daily night peak periods
already mentioned. This development was
based on the experimental work published
in 1950. At first a 30 acre semi-landlocked
section served as  an anaerobic lagoon but
subsequently the overall capacity was in-
creased by the provision of 50 and then a
further 50 acres of prepared anaerobic la-
goon, in conjunction with the 570 acre aero-
bic area.  In 1951, the 115E lagoon of 60
acres,  15 acres anaerobic and 45 acres
aerobic lagoon was built as a prototype ana-
erobic-aerobic installation also to treat
these daily night peak flows. With increas-
ing dkily dry weather flow these units have
increasingly been used  for dry weather
flows throughout the day. At present a third
(35-40 m.g.d.) of the total flow is treated
through these lagoons.

        With present conditions it is possi-
ble to handle most of the extra storm flows
through these lagoons by loading them below
their maximum capacity under dry weather
conditions and then increasing the flow of
weak sew/age. Thus the Murtcaim lagoon
normally can handle 30 m.g.d.  in summer
and this can be increased to 50 m. g. d. for
periods of two to three  days.

        A number of smaller areas amount-
ing to 200 acres in all have been converted
from fairly useless land areas to lagoons.

        In Melbourne we are faced with an
unusual situation in the next twelve months.
The existing Spotswood pumping  station is
currently being replaced by a new station
at Brooklyn situated at  the head of the  ex-
isting  gravity sewer toWerribee. The sew-
age will be carried on from Spotswood to
Brooklyn by deep tunnel gravity sewer and
then lifted vertically into the gravity sewer.
The new station will have a capacity  of 300
m.g.d. compared with  the present capacity
of 170 m.g.d. Consequently as soon  as the
new station operates it  will, under flood
flow, pump 300m. g. d.  to Werribee instead
of the present  170 m.g.d. This sudden in-
crease  in flow to be handled represents a
considerable problem.

         To cope with it an area of holding
lagoons of over 400 acres (capacity 500 m.
g. ) has already been prepared and this can
be increased if necessary.

         Flood flows will then be  run into
these units and held until purified. They
also provide some  additional capacity for
treating normal daily flows.

         At Braeside Treatment Works
lagoons are used in a different way. In
building the original plant to serve an
area at the southeast of  the city,  lagoons
were provided following the trickling fil-
ters and humus tank. These consisted of
two in series of about 1  acre  in area,  fol-
lowed by a larger pond of 15 acres. The
description of this  installation was given
in our paper (Parker et  al, S.I. W. Jour-
nal 1959).  With increasing flows these
lagoons have successfully treated effluent
from filters loaded at 1500 galls/c.yd./d
(effluent B.O.D.  70 - 80 p. p. m. ).

         When the plant  was enlarged to
cope with the present contributory popula-
tion of 27, 000 the same  principle  was
adopted. The new filters are  now  loaded
at 850 galls/yd/d. the humus tank effluent
has a B.O.D. 25 - 30 p.p.m. and this
passes through two new  lagoons of 3 acres
each before discharging  to the original 15
acre pond. In this way B.O.D. is brought
down to 5 - 10 p.p.m. and the algal con-
tent is quite low, the suspended solids
content remaining well below 30 p.p.m.
at all times.

    2.2 Kerang.

        The lagoon  installation here was
built to  meet a rather unusual condition
and to treat sewage  of unusual constitu-
tion. Kerang is a Victorian country town
with population of 4  - 5,000. It is an irri-
gation area with a ground water level near
the surface. As a result the sewer pipes
are constantly immersed in ground water
and subject to considerable infiltration.
The ground water is extremely saline
containing  some 60, 000 p. p.m.  total min-
eral solids. The  sewage is consequently
highly mineralized and low in B.O.D.
                                          54

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         The wooden rising main which
conveyed the sewage to the treatment
plant had become so filled with slime
growth that it was only possible to pump
the flow  part way to the treatment plant
and release it into a swamp.  Through lack
of use the treatment plant had fallen into
disrepair and when the main was  cleared
by lime  and chlorine treatment, it was
decided  rather than repair the old plant to
treat the sewage in lagoons. During the
time when the sewage was discharged to
the swamp a considerable odour nuisance
existed and this was a further reason for
taking remedial measures.

         The lagoon was  constructed as
two anaerobic ponds in parallel followed by
a larger  aerobic unit.  The daily flow was
500, 000  galls/day, the two anaerobic units
were  0.2 acres  each and  the aerobic unit
2.0 acres. The  detention time allowed was
only 16 hours in the anaerobic unit. Oper-
ation  of this installation has shown some
rather unexpected results. Presumably
because  of the Ligh mineral content, growth
of sulphate reducing vibrios in  the anaero-
bic unit has been extraordinarily prolific
in the  16 hours detention  there  is an in-
crease to 20 - 30 p.p.m. sulphide in the
effluent.  This in turn imposes an additional
oxygen demand on the aerobic unit and it is
remarkable that in the 30 hours detention
in the aerobic unit this  sulphide is wholly
destroyed and the B.O.D. is  reduced to
25 - 30 p.p.m.  a. slightly longer detention
in the arm of the swamp to which the ef-
fluent discharges brings the B.O.D. well
below 20 p.p.m. The microbiology of this
installation offers a fascinating field for
study but owing  to the distance from Mel-
bourne it has not been possible to do much
about it.  Certainly the algal development
in this highly saline lagoon is very differ-
ent from the normal growth.

    Probably the most effective way of
dealing with this type of sewage is a single
large aerobic lagoon with recirculation of
effluent to the influent to  prevent the devel-
opment of anaerobic conditions.

    2. 3  Wangaratta.

          Here  the domestic  sewage from
a town of 5  - 6,  000 together with woollen
mill and rayon weaving mill wastes are
treated in an anaerobic unit of 3 acres with
7 days detention and an aerobic unit of 20
acres with 22 days detention.
           The aerobic lagoon is a typical
 single unit pond with profuse growth of
 Euglena and Trachelomonas, the filtered
 B.O.D.  is 10-15 p.p.m. It is at present
 proposed to  subdivide the 20 acre  aerobic
 pond into a series of small units to be
 operated in series to reduce the algal  con-
 tent of the final effluent.

     2. 4 Castlemaine.

         Here lagoons are provided after
 trickling filters, there is ample detention
 and a sparkling clear algal-free effluent
 is obtained.

     2. 5  Commonwealth Department of
         Works.

         Has a four lagoon installation, as
tertiary  treatment for overloaded filter
plants.

     2.6  Others.

         A few other country sewage treat-
ment plants have lagoons after secondary
treatment.

3. 0  Operational factors important under
     Australian conditions (Melbourne).

         Use of sewage lagoons in Australia
falls into three categories.

     (a)  Anaerobic -  aerobic two stage
units for the continuous treatment of dry
weather  flow raw sewage.

     (b)  Holding ponds  for intermittent
treatment of storm flows.

     (c)  Aerobic units for tertiary treatment
after high rate trickling filters.

3.11 Anaerobic units - continuous
     treatment.

         (a) There is  no exact quantitative
data as to whether they should be designed
on an area or volume basis. Probably  for
the same volumetric  content a shallower
unit would be more effective than a deeper
one.

         (b) There is  no optimum size as
wave action is  unimportant.

         (c) With multiple cells these are
more efficient if arranged in parallel.
                                          55

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         (d) Their microbiological function
 is to perform a methane fermentation; pho-
 tosynthetic purple  sulphur bacteria are
 sometimes present but not algae.  Sulphides
 are formed from  sulphate but also de-
 stroyed,  concentrations  are often less in
 the effluent than the influent. There should
 be a  rise of about 0. 5 pH unit through the
 ponds.

         (e) There  is less odour than from
 a corresponding area of raw sewage.

         (f) With high solids loading there
 is some carry-over to aerobic  units but no
 evidence of failure of anaerobic units due
 to solids  accumulation.  Arrangement of
 anaerobic cells in  series will minimize this
 carry-over. Possibly a sedimentation unit
 between anaerobic  and aerobic  units would
 be desirable.

        (g) B.O.D. removals found are
 summer (70° F)  1200 Ibs/ac/d, winter
 (48° F) 350 Ibs/ac/d. Suspended solids are
 reduced from 450 p.p.m. to 75 p.p.m.

 3. 12  Aerobic units  - continuous treat-
      ment.

        (a) It is desirable to limit the  size
 of each cell to  10 acres.

        (b) Optimum depth is 2 -  3 feet.

        (c) Pond Layout  influences micro-
 biological character of final effluent.

        (d) B.O.D. removals are similar
 to elsewhere, 60 -  100 Ibs/ac/d.

        (e) Optimum ratio between area
 of anaerobic and aerobic units is  1 to 5.

        (f) Wall construction may be 1 1/2
 to 1 protected by concrete or 5  to  1 grassed
 or metalled.

 3. 2 Holding ponds  for storm flow treatment
    int e r mitt e ntly.

    (a) B.O.D. removal is at same rate as
 aerobic ponds operated continuously.

    (b) Method of operation is dependent on
hydraulic considerations, e.g.  whether
 ponds should be held full, empty or half-full
 between uses.

     (c) Where ponds are to be used infre-
 quently deeper  ponds are preferable  to
 shallower units.

 3. 3 Aerobic ponds after high rate trickling
     filters.

     (a) These may be used where complete
 odour elimination is necessary to relieve
 an overloaded filter plant or deliberately as
 a form of economic'high rate treatment.

     (b) B.O.D. removals are higher than
 for aerobic units  treating raw sewage or
 anaerobic effluents

     (c) The algal content of the effluent is
 low.

     (d) High  coliform removals  are
 achieved.

 4. 0 Research.

        Research in Australia on lagoon
 treatment is centred at the Melbourne and
 Metropolitan  Board of Works.

        The current program of research
 on  lagoon treatment in Melbourne includes
 the following topics.

     (a) The study of the effect of lagoon
 layout in  relation to hydraulic character-
 istics  of installations used for intermittent
 treatment of weak storm flows.

     (b) Effect of various lagoon layouts on
 the chemical and microbiological charac-
 teristics  of aerobic lagoon effluents loaded
 at the  same over-all rate.

     (c) Study  of the most effective distri-
 bution of loading between high rate filters
 and lagoons when used in conjunction, par-
 ticularly with regard to the chemical and
 microbiological characteristics of the final
 effluent.

     (d) A comparative study of the micro-
biology of sewage lagoons operated in var-
 ious ways.
                                          56

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           ECONOMICS OF WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOONS IN REGION VI

                       By Herbert C.  Clare and Daniel J.  Weiner*
INTRODUCTION

   The wider acceptance of the waste stabi-
lization lagoon in the past decade reflects
satisfaction of a demand by municipalities
for a treatment facility which fulfills low
cost as well as  effective treatment re-
quirements. In this period, an increased
use of the lagoon for treatment of raw sew-
age has served to provide sufficient data
to enable water pollution agencies, other
interested agencies and individuals to pro-
vide more realistic fiscal data whenever
the familiar question "How much is  it going
to cost?" arises.

   Both raw sewage lagoons and conven-
tional treatment plants have their places in
the waste treatment field,   and frequently
conventional plants and waste stabilization
lagoons have been utilized  in combination
to maintain the  quality of water in a re-
ceiving stream.

   The collection of extensive data for this
report has been made possible  by the pas-
sage  of the Federal Water  Pollution Con-
trolAct, P. L. 660, 84thCongress, wherein
the U. S.  Congress authorized grant funds
for the construction of sewage treatment
works as an integral part of Federal finan-
cial assistance for the prevention and con-
trol of water pollution. The intent of the
Act is to  "accelerate local  programs of
treatment works construction by providing
an incentive to take action, now to clean up
the waters of the country".

STUDY METHOD

  (a)  Sampling

      The acceleration of community pro-
grams to construct treatment works for the
abatement and control of water pollution is
reflected in some 452 projects, which have
been  completed or are  in the construction
or final planning phases, in Region VI,
consisting of the states of Iowa, Kansas,
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota and South Dakota.  Cost data have
been assembled, and include either the fi-
nal construction costs or the actual con-
tract prices, depending upon the status of
the project. The project design population
equivalents range from 150 to 48, 000.

   For this presentation there have been
gathered cost data from the files of 262
engineered treatment plants, which include:
13 primary plants, 81  secondary plants,  8
oxidation ponds (conventional treatment
plants followed by lagoons), and 160 waste
stabilization lagoons otherwise known as
raw sewage lagoons. In Region VI there
has been considerable  activity in waste
stabilization lagoon construction,  indicated
in Table No. 23.

  Resonably accurate cost data are desir-
able,  so that they can be used by water
pollution control agencies, consulting engi-
neers, municipal officials,  and other agen-
cies and individuals interested in water pol-
lution control as a yardstick to gauge a
municipality's  ability to afford a waste
treatment facility. Further,  they help  pro-
vide guidance in the selection of a particular
type of works tailored to meet specific treat-
ment  requirements.

  No attempt was made to evaluate differ-
ences in costs  due to variations in design
criteria  for conventional treatment plants
throughout Region VI. Similarly, there was
no differentiation between lagoon loading
and sizing; single or multiple cells;  earth-
work and land  costs.

  (b)  Study Basis

      This study was based on a comparison
of hydraulic and organic loading and proj-
ect cost. The loadings were those stated
•Respectively, Regional Program Director and Construction Program Director, Water Supply and Pollution Control Program,
 PHS, Region VI, Kansas City,  Mo.
                                           57

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                                       TABLE 23

                               Sewage Treatment Facilities
State








Total 	

Primaiy
Plants
9
2
1
1
6

1

13

Secondary
Plants
21
24
19
7
10



81

Oxidation
Ponds

8






8

Waste
Stabilization
Lagoons
3
11
3
44
21
52
26

160

by the consulting engineers. Included were
the 20-year design factors, such as popu-
lation and industrial growth. Estimates of
future industrial wastes as presented in
engineering reports were included in the
design population equivalent.

  (c) Statistical Method

      To present the data statistically in
linear form, the least squares method was
utilized. This method is based upon the law
of chance of random sampling and is de-
signed to make the sum of the squares of
the differences, or residuals, between ob-
served and  calculated values a minimum.

  The least squares line for a given  series
may be obtained through use of a given set
of "normal" equations. The "normal" equa-
tions for a linear equation, y = a + bx, are
as follows:
  (1) a + b(Ex) - Ey = 0
          ~nTT"

  (2) a(Ex)  + b(Ex2) - (Exy) = 0
  The range of data led to a use of the log-
arithmic scales, and "normal" equations
for the linear form of the equation y = axD
were as follows:
  (1) a + b(E log x) - E(log y) = 0
  (2) a(E log x) + b(E log2 x)
          n            n
              - (E log x log y) = 0
Where Ex = sum of population equivalent
            (PE)
          = sum of 1000 gpd design flow

       Ey = sum of cost of treatment in
            $/PE
          = sum of hydraulic loading treat-
            ed in $1000/mgd
          = sum of squares log population
            equivalent
          = sum of squares log design hy-
            draulic loading
E(logx) (log y) = sum of products of the log-
                arithms of "x" and "y"

a = constant
b = constant

  Data are expressed in current dollar val-
ues for cost of treatment in $/PE and in
$1000/mgd to provide realistic data based
upon current dollar values for use of con-
sulting engineers,  municipal officials and
others interested in treatment costs.  Com-
parisons with other known methods and in-
dices were considered.

TREATMENT COSTS

  Total costs,  including land costs, based
upon the total population equivalent to be
treated and the total design flow,  are  in-
cluded in Table No. 24.

  Primary treatment  installations would
serve a population  equivalent of 186, 760
with a flow of 19.31 mgd,  at a cost of
$3,530,830.88.
                                          58

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                                       TABLE 24

                           Total Design Loadings and Costs
Conventional
plants




Lagoons excluding interceptors 	

Design
population
equivalent
14,366
41.4,4.66
4,800
291,570
291,570

Design flow
1000 gpd
19,313
36,550
491
28,049
28,049

Total cost
(dollars)
3,530,344.88
14,300,972.01
308,550.32
8,044,830.34
4,919,294.77

  Secondary treatment plants cost $14,300,
972.01 and were designed to treat wastes
amounting to 414,466 population equiva-
lents and a flow of 36.55  mgd.

  The oxidation pond units were designed
to treat a waste equivalent to 4, 800 per-
sons with a  sewage discharge of 0.49 mgd
at a cost of  $308,550.32.

  The lagoons included in this study have
been designed to serve a  population equiv-
alent of  291,570 with a waste discharge of
28.05 mgd.  Cost, including intercepting
structures,  amounted to $8,044,830.34;
cost without these structures was $4, 919,
295.77.

Population Equivalent- A  population equiv-
alent (P.E.) is used to express industrial
wastes and is based upon  0. 167 pounds per
day of 5 day, 20°C. Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (B.O.D.) per person. Inthis man-
ner the organic component of industrial
and domestic -wastes may be expressed in
a common denominator.

  Region VI costs are presented in Figures
4, 5, 6,  and 7. Figures 4 and 5 show the
total cost for each type of treatment proc-
ess. These  are presented on the basis of
design population equivalent and flow.  De-
sign flows are expressed  in 1,000 gallons
per day to facilitate computation of the
line of best  fit. Figures 6 and 7 indicate
the  cost in dollars per population equiva-
lent and cost in thousands of dollars per
million gallons of wastes  treated daily.

  The largest and smallest plant sizes for
each type of treatment facility are indica-
ted  by hash  marks on the  curves.
  Tables Nos.  25 and 26 provide additional
cost data and present a comparison of
costs. The  upper range in population
equivalent and million gallons per day to
be treated is based upon an extrapolation
of the cost curves. The equation for each
curve is presented in Appendix No.  1 of
this  paper.

  The tabulations indicate that primary
treatment plants for design population
equivalents  of 100, 1,000 and 10,000 may
be population equivalent: $77.91, $40.05
and $20.58; per population equivalent for
secondary treatment works, $127. 30,
$64.83 and $33.02; for oxidation ponds,
$105.20, $53.34 and $27.04; for waste
stabilization lagoons,  including interceptor
or outfall structures,  $69.90, $34.79 and
$17.32; and for  waste stabilization lagoons
without interceptor or outfall structures,
$29.36, $18. 52  and $11. 69,  respectively,
All costs include land.

Land Costs

  Land costs have been included for all
treatment plant  types, to obtain a complete
and equitable comparison.

  Land costs for 213 primary, secondary,
raw sewage stabilization lagoon and oxi-
dation pond  projects were studied.  Data
for 10 primary facilities,  68 secondary
plants,  127  raw sewage lagoons, and 8
oxidationpond installations were reviewed,
and average land costs for each group
were computed in $/PE. The results are
presented in Table No. 27.

  Included in this  study is  a comparison of
conventional treatment plant costs includ-
                                         59

-------
TOTAL COST, $1, 000
         *      \


   \   \\  \

     \    Xx   \
      \    \\   >
       60

-------
 10
             TOTAL COST, $1,000
     ^r^r~
                      _J_  I I 1
 JJKL
      \
       \
        \

          \
           \ \
            \ \
             ^  s
               V^
              \\
               \\
O .
5!
•^
  I.QQO


                 \
                  \
  10.000
       o
       G

       W
       Ul
                          CO

                          O

                          2
                          d
                        >-< 1-3
                        2 •
              61

-------
COST, $/PE
     62

-------
COST, $1.000/MGD
       63

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                                      REGION VI

                                       TABLE 25

             Treatment Plant  Costs Based Upon Design Population Equivalents
Population
Equivalent
100 	
1,000 	
10,000 	
100,000 	

Primary
77.91
4-0.05
20.58
10.58

Secondary
1?7 30
6-4.83
33 02
16 82

Oxidation
Ponds
105 ?0
53 34
?7 04
13 71

Lagoons
w/int .
69 90
34 79
17 3?
8 62

Lagoons
w/o int.
pq 36
18 5?
11 69
7 37

                                       TABLE 26

                     Treatment Plant Costs Based Upon Design Flows
1,000
gpd
10 	
100 	
1,000 	
10,000 	

Primary
689.30
384.10
214.00
119.20

Secondary
1,468.00
719.00
352.20
172.50

Oxidation
Ponds
1,927.00
458.00
18.90
25.88

Lagoons
w/int .
736.50
355.00
171.90
83.02

Lagoons
w/o int.
296.00
185.00
115.70
72.33

                TABLE 27

       Land Costs for Treatment Works
Type of plant





Cost
in $/PE
1.25
1.20
3.10
2.30

ing land with waste stabilization lagoon,
construction,  land,  and interceptor (out-
fall) costs.  These costs are actual con-
struction or contract costs and land prices.
Where a lift station and force main is part
of the interceptor (outfall) sewer, this has
been included in the cost of the lagoon
treatment facility.

  Another study compares cost of the con-
ventional treatment plant including land
with costs of the lagoon and land,  but with-
out the interceptor or outfall structure.

  Fees for administrative, legal, engineer-
ing and technical services were not in-
cluded in these costs.

DISCUSSION

  One special characteristic of Region VI
is the number of small communities. Cog-
nizance must be taken of the fact that with-
out a reasonable first cost for  a treatment
facility and for the operation and mainte-
nance which follows its installation, waste
treatment would be out of financial reach
of a large number of these small commu-
nities.

  It is apparent frorrfthe curves in Fig-
ures 4, 5, 6 atid 7 that waste stabilization
lagoons, with or without  intercepting or
outfall structures, generally cost  less than
primary or secondary treatment facilities.
In Figures 5 and 7 the curves intersect for
plants designed to treat wastes from small
                                          64

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 communities amounting to-30, 000 gallons
 per day. However, the curve for primary
 plants is based upon a study of only 13
 projects. If the primary curve were based
 upon more extensive data, the two curves
 might not intersect. Cost curves in Fig-
 ures 4 and 6 show that the waste stabiliza-
 tion lagoons require a lower initial capital
 investment. In these figures, none of the
 curves intersect. The change in slope of
 the primary plant curve caused by the use
 of gauged flows instead of arbitrary flows
 for design purposes accounts for the fact
 that the curves intersect in Figures 5 and
 7 and not in Figures 4 and 6.

  The use of lagoons depends largely upon
 the feasibility of using available land. De-
 velopment of waste stabilization lagoons
 as a treatment device may have had an in-
 itial setback because of the belief that la-
 goon land costs could exceed other financial
 benefits,  such as low annual operation and
 maintenance costs and the initial capital
 investment of the structure when com-
 pared with other  treatment methods.

  Experience  data have  shown that in many
 cases the price of land may be fifty per-
 cent of the cost of the completed waste
 stabilization lagoon, yet the total cost has
 been equal to or less than the cost of  a
 completed secondary treatment works. In
 numerous instances land costs  could be
 double or triple the completed lagoon con-
 struction costs before equaling the conven-
tional plant cost.

  However, experience has shown that in
 addition to providing decided advantages  of
 a high degree  of treatment, low initial cap-
 ital investment, and low operation and
 maintenance costs, the raw sewage lagoon
possesses a flexible feature,  particularly
 in areas  which are subject to rapid popula-
tion growth. In  such cases it has  been found
that lagoons may be resited and constructed
downstream and the lagoon land which may
 have appreciated in value can then be re-
 claimed for housing or industrial site de-
velopment.

  In addition to its use as a device for
treating raw sewage, the attractive fea-
tures indicated above lead to consideration
of lagoons to provide a polishing of con-
ventional, pri.mary or secondary treatment
plant effluents.
   In some instances it may not be possible
 to procure an adequate area for the lagoon
 at the plant site, but may be possible to use
 a lagoon located at some distance from the
 conventional plant.  When topography will
 not permit use of gravity piping between
 the conventional plant and the lagoon (oxi-
 dation pond),  pumping will be necessary,
 and a feasibility cost study will be required.

   The study showed that land costs vary
 widely and that variations depend largely
 upon the location and numerous land uses
 as well as intangible human factors.

   The data in Tables Nos. 25 and 26 can be
 used to compare the approximate cost of
 each type of treatment facility. The  study
 emphasizes the need for compiling more
 complete project data. Cost information
 resulting from an evaluation of these data
 will aid inpreliminary engineering phases.

  Adequate records of operation and main-
tenance costs  have not been gathered for
waste  stabilization lagoons. A limited
amount of data has been  assembled for
conventional treatment plants. On the ba-
sis of information supplied in the project
engineering reports  of consulting engi-
neers, a wide range exists in the esti-
mates  of these expenditures for all types
of waste  treatment facilities.
  These latitudes in costs are dependent
upon the price in individual local areas for:
Labor,  fuel and power,  size of plant, the
amount of built-in mechanization,  as well
as expenditures for replacement of equip-
ment.  The simplicity of lagoon design ob-
viates most of these costs.
  Lagoon maintenance seldom requires
more than two cuttings of the dike  slope
grass per year. The removal of scum,
grease and floating algae is  not generally
a problem.  Therefore,  this  operation does
not require  the attention associated with
removal of the same material in conven-
tional treatment plant operation. Seasonal
operation of valves may be required for
multiple cell installations  for operation in
parallel  or series or where  flexible depth
control  is exercised for  optimum effi-
ciency.  Removal of emergent vegetation
may be  required periodically and may be
                                          65

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minimized by providing the required liq-
uid depth. Duties at an average conven-
tional plant require similar, but more
concentrated, effort and vigilance. The
average conventional plant with a greater
number of details  requires more  extensive
attention of a skilled operator.

  Estimated operation and maintenance for
waste stabilization lagoons range from
$0. 20 to $1. 00 annually per population
equivalent,  and from $1.00 to $4.00 per
population equivalent year for conventional
waste treatment plants.

  Additional data are needed for lagoons
serving population  equivalents and design
flows in the upper ranges of the graphs.
When obtained, this will enable investiga-
tors to arrive at more reasonable conclu-
sions.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  Data presented represent a large number
of sewage treatment facility cost  data in
Region VI.  Cost data of the varying treat-
ment processes have been.analyzed and the
evaluation of plants  cost summarized.  The
results should provide a reasonable assist-
ance to water pollution control agencies,
municipalities, consulting engineers and
others interested in water pollution abate-
ment measures.

  Waste stabilization lagoons cost less to
construct than other types of waste treat-
ment facilities.  Land costs are slightly
higher, but are offset by the lower initial
capitol cost and difference in annual oper-
ating and maintenance cost.  In addition,
lagoons provide greater ease of relocation,
possibly with financial benefits due to in-
creased land values.

  Lagoons may be used in combination with
conventional treatment works to provide
additional treatment capacity at a lower
cost.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

  Acknowledgment is made of the partici-
pation of Thurman B.  Sauls, Assistant
Sanitary Engineer (R),  in the preparation
of this paper.
                                          66

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                                    APPENDIX 1
                              Cost Curve Equations for
                      Studied Treatment Facilities in Region VI
                          .70/(P.E.)°-293
                                          0.707
Secondary    $/PE  =  490.
             $l,000/mgd  = 2,997. 00/( 1,000 gpd)
             Total Cost
             Total Cost
Primary     $/PE  =  294
             $l,000/mgd
             Total Cost
             Total Cost
                                                0.310
                          = 490.70 (P.E.)
                          = 2,997.00 (1,000 gpd)
                          .90/(P.E.)0'289
                          =  1, 237. 00/( 1,000 gpd)
                          =  294.90 (P.E.) °-711
0.690
 0.245
                          =   1,237.00 (1,000 gpd)
                                                 0.746
Lagoons w/interceptor
                                                  0. 303
                                   EQUATIONS
                           $/PE   =   282.80/(P.E.)
                           $l,000/mgd  =  1,525.00/(1, 000 gpd)
                           Total Cost    =  282. 80 (P.E.) °'69?
                          Total Cost
                                                               0.316
                                                               0.684
Lagoons w/o interceptor   $/PE   =   73.73/(P.E.)
                                        =  1,525.00 (1,000 gpd)
                                                  0.200
                                                              0.204
                          $l,000/mgd  =  473.40/( 1,000 gpd)
                          Total Cost    =  73.73 (P.E.) °-8°°
                          Total Cost    =  473.40 (1,000 gpd)0>°796
Oxidation Ponds
                           $/PE  =  409.30/(P.E.) °'295
                           $l,000/mgd  =  8, 108.00/(1,000 gpd)
                           Total Cost    =  409.30 (P. E.) °'7°5
                                                               0.624
                          Total Cost    =  8, 108.00 (1,000 gpd) °'376
Bibliography
Fair, Gordon Maskew, and Geyer, John Charles
Water Supply and Waste Water Disposal.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,  New York,  (1956)
Howells, D. H. ,  and Dubois, D. P.
Design Practices and Costs for Small Secondary Sewage Treatment Plants in the Upper
Midwest.
Sewage  and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 30, No. 11, November, 1958.
                                         67

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           SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE GROWTH, APPLICATION, AND
               OPERATION OF RAW SEWAGE STABILIZATION PONDS

                            W. W. Towne and W.  B.  Horning*
              INTRODUCTION

  To avoid unnecessary repetition of mate-
rial already covered we will present some
general comments relating to the growth,
application, and operation of this method of
sewage treatment.  Therefore, we will
briefly discuss: (1) the factors influencing
the growth and use of raw sewage stabili-
zation ponds in the United States; (Z) the
conditions affecting  the applicability of this
type of sewage treatment; and (3) some  of
the operating  problems that have come to
our attention both within the United States
and in foreign countries. In closing we
would like to present some general conclu-
sions that have developed as a result of our
association with the problem over the past
several years and to point  out some of the
questions yet  to be answered.

  It is realized that the stabilization ponds,
oxidation ponds,  lagoons, or whatever you
prefer to call them, have been in use in
this country for many years. In  fact, they
are probably one of the oldest man-made
sewage treatment devices.  Previous to
1948, however, when the first ponds were
constructed at Mattock, North Dakota, the
process had been looked upon as an adjunct
or supplementary treatment process rather
than a complete method of  sewage treat-
ment. It is only within the past few years
that ponds have been used extensively in
this capacity. This  early phase of the de-
velopment in the Dakotas has been well
documented here by Mr. Svore.  Without
question many communities are  now enjoy-
ing a higher standard of living and health
protection because of the foresight of these
early investigators.  This early apprehen-
sion was  extensive and many could not vis-
ualize the application of stabilization ponds
as a complete method of sewage treatment
even in those  areas where  the facilities had
been  used as secondary or tertiary treat-
ment devices and  where they  had demon-
strated their ability to stabilize  organic
matter.

             EARLY GROWTH

   During the early 1950's then, the process
entered a trial period and those that had
observed the results became more and
more convinced that this system of sewage
treatment definitely did have an area of
application.  It was also recognized that
additional scientific information was essen-
tial concerning the factors  involved in the
stabilization of organic matter, if rational
design criteria were to be  developed.  Fur-
ther evidence of this spreading interest
was the resolution adopted  by the State and
Territorial Health Officers Conference in
1954 asking the Public Health Service to
investigate this method of treating raw
sewage and to determine the various  design
factors, their effectiveness and details of
operation. The Regional Office, here at
Kansas City, had also  been following early
developments in the Missouri Basin and in
1954 representatives of that office, the
Robert A.  Taft Sanitary Engineering  Cen-
ter, and the States of North and South Da-
kota developed plans for a  cooperative
study to obtain  seasonal operating data
at five  different installations in the two
States.

   Concurrent with this work other investiga-
tors were conducting research relating to the
performance of oxidation ponds and the fac-
tors affecting the algal-bacterial relation-
ships involved in the stabilization processes.
The University of California has long been the
focal point for this type of research; Gotaas,
Ludwig, Oswald, and associates have
all made outstanding contributions to a bet-
ter understanding of the phenomena in-
   'Chief, Field Operations Section, and Biologist, Field Operations Section, respectively, Technical Services Branch, Robert A.
Taft Sanitary Engineering Center,  Cincinnati, Ohio.
                                          68

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volved. Herman and Gloyna, at the Univer-
sity of Texas,  also were actively engaged
in research on the subject, as were many
others.

  While the Public Health Service fully
recognized the importance of this basic re-
search and, in fact, contributed to its  sup-
port through research grants,  the need to
evaluate the field  application of the re-
search findings in many sections of the
country was recognized.  The Public Health
Service was zilso interested in developing
an adequate low-cost method of sewage
treatment requiring a minimum  of techni-
cal supervision and maintenance. To this
end the major effort of the Public Health
Service has been directed to field observa-
tions and studies.

  While these early studies did not develop
mathematical design formula they did point
out general design factors that required
consideration and demonstrated that prop-
erly designed and operated stabilization
ponds would provide a degree of purifica-
tion comparable to that obtained by conven-
tional complete treatment processes and
that the effluent might be discharged in a
similar manner. At  the  same time it was
fully recognized that like any other sewage
treatment process, stabilization ponds had
advantages and disadvantages and they
should not be considered as a panacea  for
all sewage treatment needs,  but that their
use deserved to be considered in the eco-
nomic and engineering evaluation of waste
treatment methods.  This type of field
evaluation was no doubt instrumental in ob-
taining general acceptance by many regula-
tory agencies.

  Another important benefit of these field
evaluations was related to the Construction
Grants Program of the Federal Water  Pol-
lution Control Act which got under way late
in 1956. Because  our observations and in-
vestigations clearly  supported the  efficacy
of this type of treatment, the Service felt
justified in approving this method of sew-
age treatment as being eligible for con-
struction grants.  During the first two years
of the Construction Grants Program 254
projects in 29 states in which stabilization
ponds was a method  of treatment were
approved for Construction Grants. Fifteen
months later, namely as of March 31,
I960, Grant offers had been made  on 443
projects in 3,2 states.  Some of these were
for stabilization ponds operating either as
secondary or tertiary treatment units.
However, as of May 31 of this year 418
raw sewage stabilization pond projects have
been approved  for construction in 27 states.
In addition to these Federal aid projects,
many projects  have been constructed with-
out such aid and this type of treatment is
now being used in at least 39  states either
for complete or partial treatment of do-
mestic sewage. This process is also being
used by an increasing number of industries.

  Judged by our experience these facilities
have functioned with a minimum of diffi-
culty and complaint other than the usual
problems often associated with placing any
new sewage treatment plant in operation.
Thus, it would appear that the use of stabi-
lization ponds for treating raw municipal
sewage  is now  beyond the trial period and
we  are now approaching the time when our
efforts should probably be directed at re-
fining design criteria so that their applica-
tion can be  extended into other areas and
their cost may be further reduced.
    APPLICATION OF THE PROCESS

  As previously stated, this process is not
a panacea for all sewage treatment prob-
lems but certain features make it espe-
cially applicable under a wide variety of
conditions.  All of us recognize that be-
cause of the relatively large land area re-
quired, the greatest application will no
doubt be small communities, where land is
readily available but where the per capita
costs for conventional treatment plants are
high and the revenues correspondingly low.
Without question this practical minimum
cost method of sewage treatment has made
it possible for many communities to afford
a community water-carried sewerage sys-
tem with its related conveniences andbene-
fits that would otherwise have been impos-
sible.

  However,  the facility is not limited in its
application to small communities alone.  It
has been demonstrated to have a very real
place in meeting  the  needs of our ex-
panding metropolitan  areas.  The problems
associated with the  sanitary aspects of
suburban housing are known to all of us.
We all realize the limitation of individual
waste disposal systems and the desirabil-
ity of community  systems for metropolitan
                                          69

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areas. In the initial developments  stages,
however, the high capital investment and
the initial limited tax base often make it
impossible to construct both the necessary
system of sewers and conventional treat-
ment works. This frequently results in  the
construction of individual disposal systems
in areas  not  suitable for their use which at
the best  may prove to  be only a costly
stop-gap solution to the problem.  These
difficulties can be materially reduced if
sewage treatment processes with  low first
cost, minimum operating costs, and ca-
pacity for easy expansion, can be provided.
In many  instances,  such treatment devices
may be needed only as an interim facility
until the  time that several developments
can merge into a combined collection and
treatment works. In such cases, salvage
value of  the initial  sewage treatment in-
stallation is also important.

  It is in this field that the stabilization
pond has found real application. The rea-
sons are quite apparent. First, in the ini-
tial stages of the development a greater or
lesser amount of land  is available and part
of this can often be set aside for a stabili-
zation pond including a buffer strip sur-
rounding it. Secondly, the system of ponds
necessary to serve the ultimate develop-
ment can often be built in stages as the
population load builds  up.  Thirdly, the
pond area can be very economically re-
claimed  for future housing developments if
and •when subdivision can join a combined
sewer district, thereby realizing  an al-
most 100 percent salvage value. In fact,
the reclaimed area may have a  consider-
ably greater  value than the raw land did
when the development was started. A
fourth and very important  advantage is that
the cost  of sewer construction is much less
on raw land than when the  development is
complete and individual treatment plants
have to be replaced by a community sys-
tem.  Many areas have used the stabiliza-
tion ponds most effectively for this use,
the most extensive  of which has been right
here in the Kansas  City area.

  Other  areas that have taken advantage of
this method are  the Metropolitan Sanitary
District  of Greater Chicago, Pittsburgh,
Denver,  Seattle,  and several areas in Mis-
sissippi. There  may be others. The Chi-
cago situation offers what  appears to be an
ideal situation. Within the past few years
the Sanitary District has taken in  a consid-
erable area north and west of the old Dis-
trict boundaries for which it is responsible
for collecting and treating the waste. It
will take considerable time to provide inter-
cepting sewers to serve all this area and
the District has effectively utilized stabil-
ization ponds to serve these communities
and newly developed housing areas until
such a time as the sewer collection system
is extended.

  Other  areas in which stabilization ponds
have been effectively used include national
parks, Indian reservations,  tourist courts,
boarding schools, and isolated military in-
stallations.  Many of our national parks
operate on a seasonal basis and have an
extremely fluctuating load.  Stabilization
ponds have many advantages for such con-
ditions.  First, the period of operation dur-
ing the summer season is that period when
the maximum biological activity exists and
when the maximum loading  can be applied.
Secondly, the stabilization pond requires
no extensive breakin period such as  an ac-
tivated sludge plant  or trickling filter.
Stabilization ponds have no  discharge until
they have filled to an operating level at
which time the processes of purification
are fully established.  Thirdly,  the sim-
plicity of operation has many advantages
where technical supervision is  usually lim-
ited.

  The Bureau of Indian Affairs has  used
this method of treatment quite extensively
on many reservations and boarding
schools. Here again the simplicity of op-
eration and maintenance are of particular
importance.  Probably one of the most in-
teresting applications of this method of
treatment exists  in Alaska where a  stabili-
zation pond was constructed to  serve a
school at Fort Yukon some  eight miles
north of the Arctic Circle.  This is in the
permafrost area where any conventional
type of water-carried sewerage presents
many costly and difficult operation and
maintenance problems. In an effort to de-
velop improved methods of sanitary  sew-
age disposal the Arctic Health Research
Center of the Public Health Service, at An-
chorage, working with the Bureau of Indian
Affairs and the Alaskan Health  Department
developed a design for a stabilization pond
to serve the public school at Fort Yukon.
This facility has  operated satisfactorily
through two winters and is providing a
simple and economical method  of waste
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treatment and disposal for this area.  This
likewise is a seasonal operation but in this
case the off season is summer. Anderegg
and his associates have reported on this
and other installations  in Alaska. (1)

  As the use of stabilization ponds has ex-
panded in the municipal field many indus-
tries have likewise shown an interest in
the application of this type of treatment for
various types of industrial wastes. The use
of ponds or lagoons as  an adjunct to indus-
trial waste treatment and disposal is not
new. In fact, such use  can be traced back
for several decades and it is likely that
they existed prior to  the time that their use
was recorded in the literature. Usually,
however, stabilization  of the waste was not
the primary objective.  They were usually
used as seepage pits, settling  basins, or
for holding industrial wastes until greater
dilution was available in the receiving
streams.

  The  lagooning of vegetable canning
wastes has been practiced for  many years
but the organic  loadings were invariably of
such magnitude that anaerobic decomposi-
tion always resulted, often accompanied by
offensive odors requiring the application of
sodium nitrate for odor control. More re-
cently, however,  several industries are
installing stabilization  ponds as a complete
treatment unit.  A preliminary review of
this application summarized some  40  or 50
installations serving  at least 10 different
types of industry. (2) These installations
varied widely in loadings and types of
waste being created,  as well as in design
features such as depth, size of installation,
and methods of  operation. As would be ex-
pected organic wastes that have been suc-
cessfully treated by conventional biological
processes have also been amenable to
treatment in stabilization ponds. Similarily,
those wastes that require addition of cer-
tain nutrients to support biological life in
conventional treatment may also require
the addition of nutrients to provide effec-
tive pond treatment.

  In general, it may  be stated that there is
less uniformity in the design criteria being
applied to the design  of industrial waste in-
stallations just as there is less uniformity
in the character of the  wastes.

  The  many applications  of this treatment
have not been limited to the United States.
Concurrent with the publication of re-
search results and reports on the success-
ful use of the aerobic type of stabilization
process  in this  country, many inquiries
were received by the Public Health Service
from numerous  foreign countries.  A large
number of foreign visitors pass through the
Sanitary Engineering Center annually.
Probably no other subject is of more  uni-
versal interest  to  these  people,  and
ponds have been constructed  in many
foreign countries following the  general
design criteria  developed in this  coun-
try. Through an exchange of correspond-
ence and reports concerning operating
data, experiences,  and problems,  there
has been much mutual benefit. The Public
Health Service is deeply indebted for this
continued interest and assistance.

       OBSERVATIONS ON DESIGN
             AND OPERATION

   Probably one  of the most common ques-
tions in the minds of many of our visitors
is how do design criteria which may be
suitable  for cold climates apply to their
country. If there has been any one thing
that may have contributed to the  lack  of un-
derstanding and confusion concerning  de-
sign criteria, it has been this  failure  to
recognize two extremes in climatic condi-
tions that may require entirely different
approaches in design, i.e. ,  ice cover vs.
open water.  Naturally, in those climatic
regions where long periods of ice cover
prevail it is impossible to maintain aerobic
conditions  even with the lowest possible
loading.  Consequently,  factors governing
the maintenance of an aerobic  environment
under open water conditions no longer ap-
ply. During such periods anaerobiasis is a
certainty and the pond temperatures are
only slightly above  freezing. This  results
in a very much slowed up biological activ-
ity with the resultant accumulation of
sludge deposits  which are not dispersed
because of almost complete quiescence.
These solids remain in a refrigerated
condition until spring when increased  tem-
peratures speed up biological action,  and
the winter's accumulation of fresh sludge
begins to digest anaerobically  at such a
rate that so-called  "acid digestion" pre-
vails, with a lowering of pH and the poten-
tial production of hydrogen sulfide  gases.
Many of us who have lived in these colder
climates remember similar periods of
spring time complaints with Imhoff tanks.
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  It is fully recognized that during the
summer months loadings considerably
higher than those commonly advocatedhere
in the Plains States can easily be handled.
However, unless there is adequate isola-
tion to minimize the effect of  odors that
may prevail during the spring break-up
period it has been the  policy to reduce
loadings so that the time required for tran-
sition from anaerobic  to aerobic conditions
will be minimized. In  those climates where
ice  coverage does not  prevail, it has been
demonstrated that much higher loadings
than those  common in  our northern States
are practical. This has been borne out by
actual experience both in this country and
abroad. The Public Health Service experi-
mental ponds  at both Fayette, Missouri
and Lebanon,  Ohio, have operated with a
minimum of odor at loadings  approaching
100 Ibs.  of 5-day BOD per acre per day,
even though there have been moderate pe-
riods of ice cover and resulting anaerobi-
asis.


  Personal communications from two for-
eign sources may also be of interest. Mr.
H. D.  Hodgson, Government  Health In-
spector in South Rhodesia,  South Africa,
reports that loadings of slightly over 800
population per acre per day had been han-
dled satisfactorily. Mr. Harold A. Taylor,
Chief Health Inspector, Ministry of Local
Government Health Housing,  Nairobi, in
commenting upon the operation of pilot
sewage lagoons  in Kenya Colony, East
Africa, states that aerobic  conditions were
maintained with loadings in slightly-excess
of 200 Ibs. of 5-day BOD per  acre  per  day.
However, when  this load increased to ap-
proximately 300 Ibs. per acre per  day, the
pond lost its green color and  anaerobic
conditions  accompanied with typical septic
odors developed. In these warmer  climates
it would also seem reasonable to expect
that anaerobic action would be less likely
to produce objectionable odors.  Under  such
conditions once  alkaline digestion is  estab-
lished the  resulting gases of  decomposition
should be essentially the same as those
from normal  functioning, unheated,  sludge
digester and should be no more objection-
able. Therefore, in such areas, it may not
be necessary to design to satisfy the accu-
mulative effects resulting from a sludge
build-up under long periods of ice  cover-
age.
  While the studies in this country have
been primarily related to the phenomena
taking place in aerobic environments the
above discussion logically leads to the
question of what would happen should we
utilize anaerobic lagoons.  All of us have
read with much interest  the pioneering
work that has been done  in this field by
Mr.  Parker and his associates in Mel-
bourne, Australia and we are indeed fortu-
nate in having him present here at this
conference. He should know,  however,
that the results of his  work have preceded
him to this country and we already have in
operation at least two  ponds employing the
anaerobic-aerobic principle following his
general design criteria.


  These two  installations are located at
Long Beach and Redmond, Washington.
The first installation was studied by the
Public Health Service  and was reported on
at the most recent Industrial Wastes Con-
ference at Purdue in May of this year. (3)
This resort community on the Pacific
Ocean near the mouth  of the Columbia
River has high summer and low winter
populations resulting in extreme variations
in loading. The observed loadings ranged
from 185-450 Ibs. of 5-day BOD per acre
per day on the primary ponds, with reduc-
tion ranging from 40-70  percent,  the ma-
jority approximating 60 percent. The
aerobic pond loadings  varied from 13-40
Ibs.  of 5-day BOD per acre per day re-
sulting in reductions varying from 50-85
percent. The over-all BOD removal at this
installation ranges from 74-96 percent. It
may be of interest to report that during the
study period algal growths were frequently
evident at the surface  of the anaerobic
ponds while anaerobic digestion of sewage
solids was taking place at the bottom. In
general, the operation of this facility  has
been extremely satisfactory. Some septic
sewage odors were noticed during the
summer months in the late evening hours
but the operator reports that these were
quite effectively controlled by recirculat-
ing from the aerobic pond to the anaerobic
ponds for a period of approximately two
hours during the  afternoons when the  dis-
solved oxygen content  in the former ponds
was at a maximum.

  The other installation at Redmond,
Washington serves a residential develop-
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 merit adjacent to Seattle.  The Washington
 State Health Department and the State Wa-
 ter Pollution Control Commission approved
 this as an experimental treatment plant to
 be abandoned when interceptor  sewers
 were provided by the municipality of Met-
 ropolitan Seattle. A study of this installa-
 tion was conducted during the period
 October 1958 to September 1959 by  Mr.
 Walter L. Berschauer a graduate student
 at the University of Washington, now with
 the Washington Health Department.  The
 authors are deeply indebted to Mr.  Ber-
 schauer for a copy of his thesis "Research
 and Investigation on a Multiple  Cell Sewage
 Stabilization Pond" and his permission to
 use some of the data.

   A series of analyses extending from
 March 19 to  June 25,  1959 gave the follow-
 ing results:

   The anaerobic pond was loaded at a rate
 of 463 Ibs. of 5-day BOD per acre per day
 while the entire aerobic section was loaded
 at a 20-lb. rate. However, since the aero-
 bic section consisted of three ponds in se-
 ries the load on the first pond was approx-
 imately 75 Ibs. per acre per day. The two
 remaining ponds resulted in relatively
 little additional BOD removal but did serve
 to reduce the number of algae in the final
 effluent. The removals average 61 percent
 for the anaerobic pond with an over-all re-
 duction of 91 percent. Berschauer reports
 that during winter operation little or no
 odors were detected in the anaerobic sec-
 tion.  Odors were noticeable in the early
 spring from this section, at which time
 rapid gas production was apparent and this
 carried solids to the surface. Such  odors
 as appeared on the aerobic ponds were of
 a fishy nature and were attributed prima-
 rily to algae.

  As a result of his studies Berschauer
 concluded that BOD loadings as high as 78
 Ibs.  per acre per day could be applied on
the aerobic ponds and loadings in excess  of
555 Ibs. per acre per day  could be applied
to the anaerobic ponds without difficulty.

              CONCLUSIONS

  In concluding this rather rambling dis-
cussion of where we started, where we
are, and where are we going, I think we
can point out some well substantiated ac-
 complishments.
1.  Research and field studies carried
    out in this country during the past
    ten or so years have definitely
    proved the efficacy of raw sewage
    stabilization ponds as a practical
    minimum-cost method of sewage
    treatment having wide application
    throughout the world.

2.  Properly designed and operated sta-
    bilization ponds  may be expected to
    provide a degree of purification
    comparable  to that obtained by con-
    ventional complete treatment proc-
    esses and the effluent may be
    discharged in a similar manner.
    Like any other sewage treatment de-
    vice  stabilization ponds have both
    advantages and disadvantages.  They
    should not be looked upon as a pana-
    cea for all sewage treatment needs
    but may be considered in the eco-
    nomic and engineering evaluation of
    waste treatment methods.

3.  Although stabilization ponds appear
    to  be simple in their design and op-
    eration, it is essential that they be
    designed by  people having a thorough
    knowledge of the factors contributing
    to  their success  and/or failure. The
    design criteria may vary radically
    between different climatic and geo-
    graphic areas and for these reasons
    the designing engineer should not
    attempt to blindly apply such cri-
    teria without considering the local
    factors involved.

4.  On the basis of operating experience
    in  this country and abroad, organic
    loadings of at least 100  Ibs. of 5-day
    BOD per acre per  day are no doubt
    feasible for  ice-free climates  or
    where potential odors at ice break
    up are not a controlling factor.

5.  The factors  to be considered in loca-
    tion and site selection for these fa-
    cilities are essentially the same as
    for other more conventional types of
    sewage treatment plants.

6.  While there  is no epidemiological
    evidence indicating that stabilization
    ponds constitute  a  serious public
    health hazard, the potential for the
    propagation  of insects and other pos-
    sible disease vectors is no doubt
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      greater in ponds than at conventional
      treatment works and requires con-
      sideration by the designer.

  Although our knowledge of this method of
waste treatment has increased greatly dur-
ing the last  10 or 15 years this has also
made us  cognizant of the  need for even
more knowledge on the subject. The fol-
lowing comments point out several areas
in which our knowledge is lacking.

  1.  Naturally, we need much more funda-
      mental information on the whys  and
      wherefores of algal-bacterial rela-
      tionships and the factors affecting
      them.  One prominent researcher in
      the field recently told me that he felt
      much more confident of his under-
      standing of the basic factors after
      one or two years of working with the
      problem than he does now after  sev-
      eral years of effort. Without doubt,
      much, much more basic research is
      needed together with the related field
      studies and observations necessary
      to  fully evaluate the applicability of
      these scientific findings. On the other
      hand, I seriously question that we
      will ever be able to develop  design
      formula that will adequately consider
      the variability of all factors affecting
      the functioning of the processes. At
      least we cannot wait for that time to
      experiment with new ideas and apply
      the available knowledge toward  pro-
      viding better and lower cost sewage
      treatment.
  2.  The viability of pathogens and virus
      and possible bactericidal action of
      algae  require additional study.
   3.  More  knowledge concerning effective
      insect  control measures is highly de-
      sirable. Although we have experienced
      very little difficulty from this prob-
      lem in this country, we have re-
      ceived reports where it has become
      a serious problem  elsewhere. Also,
      if these facilities are going to have
      world wide application we need to
      give consideration to possible con-
      trol methods for other types of  dis-
      ease vectors.  One of these that
      comes readily to mind is the possible
      significance of stabilization ponds as
      a link in the chain of transmission of
      schistosomiasis where that disease
      is  prevalent.
   4.  Greater effort should be devoted to
      the evaluation of this method of waste
      treatment for wider  application in the
      industrial field.
  5.  The application of anaerobic-aerobic
      processes deserves  consideration.
      This would appear to have application
      in warmer  climates where cyclic
      sludge problems are less likely.
  6.  Consideration should be given to in-
      corporating various  adjuncts or ad-
      ditional types of equipment in the
      design of these facilities in order  to
      improve their efficiency.  For in-
      stance,  the reported beneficial
      effects of recirculation during lim-
      ited critical periods warrants further
      evaluation. We should not lose sight
      of the fact, however, that the addi-
      tion of mechanical equipment with its
      attendant demands for  maintenance
      tends to nullify one of the principal
      advantages of this method of treat-
      ment, namely,  simplicity. On the
      other hand,  the area requirements
      and short-time critical seasonal
      problems may well warrant the  in-
      clusion  of mechanical devices purely
      from an economical  standpoint.
  These are just a few of the areas in
which I believe we need to direct our future
efforts. I am  sure that before this sympo-
sium is finished, many other areas of in-
vestigation will become apparent.

  In closing I would like to say that I  think
that it is very appropriate that  this sympo-
sium is taking place  here in the general
area where raw sewage stabilization ponds
got their start and I wish to  commend the
Missouri Basin Engineering Health Council
for initiating  this meeting.

              REFERENCES

1.  Anderegg, J. A., Walters, C. F. ,
      Milliard, D. , and Meyers, H. F. ,
      " 'Eskimo' Algae Make Lagoons Work
      at the Arctic Circle. "  Wastes Engi-
      neering, 31, No. 6,  June I960.
2.  Towne, W. W.,  and Pahren, H. R. ,
      "Use of Stabilization Ponds in Treat-
      ing Sewage and Industrial Wastes. "
      Proc. 8th Southern Municipal and  In-
      dustrial Wastes Conference,  Chapel
      Hill, North Carolina, April 1959.
3.  Wilson, J. N. , McDermott, J. H. ,
      and Livingston, A. ,  III. ,  "Perform-
      ance of  a Sewage Stabilization Pond
      in a Maritime Climate:  1957-1958."
      Proc. 15th Purdue Industrial Wastes
      Conference, May I960,  (in Press)
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                         WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOONS
                DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,  AND OPERATION PRACTICES
                          AMONG MISSOURI BASIN STATES

                                    Glen J. Hopkins*
  Before  1950, use of lagoons as sole and
permanent sewage treatment facilities gen-
erally were discouraged. About 1952, great
upsurge of interest in their use at many
localities throughout  the country empha-
sized the  desirability of documenting the
design,  construction, and operating prac-
tices generally used. At its  1958 meeting
at Deadwood,  South Dakota,  the  Missouri
Basin Engineering Health Council, in rec-
ognition of this need, appointed a Commit-
tee to accomplish this objective.  The Com-
mittee report, approved by the Basin Coun-
cil on January 21,  I960,  serves as the
basis of my presentation today,  and copies
of that report are available today, for any-
one interested.

  The Committee soon realized  that waste
stabilization lagoons  have been adapted for
successful use under highly varying con-
ditions. Like  other methods of sewage
treatment, they can be designed to provide
intermediate,  secondary, or higher levels
of removal. Variations in water quality,
rain fall,  evaporation,  water use per
capita, soil conditions, nature of receiving
watercourses, dilution water available,
uses  of the receiving waters,  and similar
factors permit design to vary  widely.

  The many installations demonstrating
satisfactory performance with highly di-
vergent design criteria, impressed the
Committee that it was not desirable to out-
line  firm  design  criteria. Its members
elected to outline range of design practices
satisfactorily employed in the Basin, leav-
ing each individual State wide  latitude as
to specific practices  to be recommended
for that State.

   The Committee report was based on the
best information now available,  heavily in-
fluenced by experience in those States hav-
ing a large number of installations, and
the premise that waste stabilization lagoons
 are  a proven and demonstrated method of
 satisfactory waste disposal to be consid-
 ered,  along with other methods of treat-
 ment,  in the engineering and economic
 analyses leading to final selection of a
 sewage treatment facility.

  The  terms "recommended" and  "should"
 are use to denote widely used practices,
 and  do not imply a mandatory requirement
 fbr any specific State  or  installation.

   At its 1956 meeting at Helena,  Montana,
 the Missouri Basin States adopted the ter-
 minology of "waste stabilization lagoons".
 Similar action was taken by the Great
 Lakes-Upper Mississippi River Board of
 State Sanitary Engineers at the  March 1959
 meeting at Chicago, Illinois.  In this dis-
 cussion, the  terms "waste  stabilization la-
 goons",  "stabilization lagoons" and "la-
 goons" are used interchangeably. The  term
 "ponds" is still used by some of the Basin
States.

 PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING REPORT
  As for  other sewage treatment works, a
 preliminary  engineering  report on the  pro-
 posed facility should be prepared and sub-
 mitted to the appropriate State agency for
 review prior to development of final plans
 and  specifications. This  report should indi-
 cate the location and topography of the pro-
 posed site, volume and characteristics of
 sewage flow, industrial wastes,  size and
 shape of units, surface and subsurface soil
 conditions, nature of receiving watercourses,
downstream water  uses,  dilution water
 available, and  geographical location with
 respect to residences,  commercial devel-
 opment,  water supplies and other topo-
 graphic features.

  Preliminary reports should be  reviewed
and evaluated on an individual basis, with
local conditions receiving appropriate con-
 sideration.
   *U. S. Public Health Service Region VI, Kansas City, Missouri.
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               LOCATION

  Stabilization lagoons,  like other sewage
treatment facilities,  should be located as
far away from  existing and future residen-
tial and commercial developments as is
reasonably practicable and economically
feasible. Like  other sewage  treatment fa-
cilities,  location of a waste stabilization
lagoon depends upon many factors and each
installation merits individual considera-
tion.  If not unduly influenced by cost, con-
sideration should be given to the probable
course of possible  expansion and  the direc-
tion of prevailing winds. Other factors per-
mitting,  preference should be given sites
that permit unobstructed wind action on
water surface.

  Early installations had the benefit of
considerable separation from residences,
and the impression developed that substan-
tially greater remoteness  is required for
lagoons than for other sewage treatment
devices.  Experience  has demonstrated that
lagoons usually can be located as close to
habitation and other developments as can
other sewage treatment processes. Gener-
ally,  it is recommended that isolation re-
quirements for lagoons be identical with
and determined by the same  factors that
are associated with other sewage treatment
plants. As with other plants,  provision for
probable future expansion, including land
availability,  may well be considered.

  While no evidence of underground pollu-
tion affecting water supplies has been at-
tributed to existing installations,  the sig-
nificance of pollution of underground waters
is so  great that this aspect of location
merits very  serious consideration. Except
for fissured  rock or coarse gravel for-
mations, travel of bacteriological pollution
through significant horizontal soil distances
is not considered probable. Chemical pol-
lution, including detergents, may travel
much further than bacteriological pollution
in normal soil formations.
          AREA AND LOADING

  Early stabilization lagoons in North
Dakota were located in areas of inexpen-
sive,  relatively level land, and were bas-
ically designed for one acre of water surface
per 100 population, or population equiva-
lents, of organic wastes expressed in terms
of 5-day 20° C B.O.D. This basis of de-
sign was predominantly one of economics
and experience, since cost was well within
the financial capabilities of North Dakota
communities and the installations per-
formed quite satisfactorily.  Later experi-
ence in North Dakota revealed that sub-
stantially heavier loadings,  arranged
primarily to insure  water  level mainte-
nance, did not mitigate against successful
performance. Similar experiences have
been observed in Missouri,  Kansas, Ne-
braska and Wyoming.

  Five day 20°  C B.O.D  still is used as
one factor of design in most States of the
Missouri Basin. Total first  stage B.O.D.,
has on occasion been used, particularly
where significant industrial  wastes  are in-
volved.

  Loadings,  and subsequently the lagoon
area,  are influenced by many factors, in-
cluding,  but  not necessarily limited to:
water  use per capita, evaporation,  rainfall,
seepage, the degree of treatment desired,
growth prospects, and the basic plan  of
operating the facility. Optimum loading and
area should reflect  appropriate considera-
tion to all pertinent  factors.

  In cold climates,  where substantial ice
cover  may be expected for an extended
period, it may be desirable  to operate the
facility to retain all wintertime flows. In
other climates, lagoons may be operated
on a "flow-through" principle, with continu-
ous  overflow. In some instances, essen-
tially complete  retention may serve as a
basis of design rather than B.O.D. load-
ings.

   "Flow-through" lagoons receiving raw
sewage normally employ a minimum  of 60
days retention, with 90 to  120 days fre-
quently specified. A high degree of coli-
form removal is assured even with 30 day
retention.  Installations receiving partially
treated sewage may provide lesser reten-
tion, usually in relation to the degree of
reduction accomplished by prior treatment.

  Lagoon loadings of from 10 to 34 pounds
of 5-day 20° C B.O.D. per  acre per  day
have demonstrated  satisfactory service
throughout wide areas of the Missouri
Basin. The lower range permits longer
retention and greater flexibility for handling
future increases in  waste  loadings from
population growth or industrial increases.
However, the lower loading generally re-
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suits in a lesser volume of sewage per  unit
of area,  and enhances the possibility of
operational difficulties brought on by in-
ability to maintain satisfactory liquid depth,
particularly in areas of low per capita water
use, low rainfall, high evaporation,  or  sig-
nificant seepage.  While primary considera-
tion is given to organic loading, in many
instances the area finally decided  upon  is
based upon both the organic loading and the
hydraulic loading.

   Lagoons have clearly demonstrated ability
to handle satisfactorily substantially higher
loading during summer periods, making
them particularly appropriate for  resort
areas and  similar instances where heavy
summer population is anticipated.

   B.O.D.  loadings up to 68 pounds of 5-day
B.O.D.  per acre have been employed in
Missouri,  particularly in sub-divisions
where land costs  are high and the  lagoon is
planned as an interim installation, to be
replaced in reasonable time by trunk sewers
leading to  a more permanent installation.
These higher loadings are permitted only
for installations  viewed as "temporary",
and must include  provision for dosage of
sodium nitrate as needed.

   For lagoon units operated in series,
design should recognize that the entire  or-
ganic load will be applied to the primary
unit.

   Lagoons should be of such shape that
there are no narrow or elongated portions.
Round,  square, or rectangular units with
length not exceeding three times the width,
are considered most desirable.  Dikes
should be rounded at corners to minimize
accumulation of floating materials.
   MULTIPLE UNIT INSTALLATIONS

  Many Missouri Basin installations em-
ploy multiple units, some operating in
parallel, others  in series. Series opera-
tion  is beneficial where a high level of
B.O.D. or coliform removal is important.
The  effluent  from secondary units in series
operation has much lower algae concentra-
tions, with resultant decreases in color and
turbidity. However, some multiple unit in-
series operating  installations have been
designed to provide virtually complete re-
tention of wastes.
  Many installations provide flexibility so
that units may be operated either in series
or in parallel. Except for small installa-
tions,  this has considerable advantage.
This may also be important in areas of low
water usage,  high evaporation, or consid-
erable seepage. For small installations (6
to 8 acres) a  single unit seems conducive
to better circulation, but reasons other
than circulation make two units preferable
even for small installations.

  The  additional cost of equipping units for
both series and parallel operation is usually
quite nominal. In some instances, actual
savings can be demonstrated because of the
lesser volume of earthworkpossible through
better  adaptation of two or more smaller
units to over-all topography. The flexibility
may have substantial advantage, particu-
larly as volume and loading are increased
through population growth or other  causes.
Except for small installations (6 to 8 acres
or less) it is  recommended that units be
designed to permit both series and parallel
operation as desired.

  For  larger communities, two or  more
units have advantage over a single unit.
Wave action is more intense  on larger
bodies of water, and prevailing topography
often permits lesser construction costs
through multiple units. While circulation is
influenced by area,  there  appears to be
little advantage in this  respect to installa-
tions in excess of 40 acres.
           SURFACE RUNOFF

  Lagoons should not receive  significant
amounts of surface runoff. If necessary,
provision should be made  for diverting
surface water around the ponds. For new
installations,  and for installations where
maintenance of satisfactory water depth
may be a problem, the diversion structure
may permit entrance of the  surface water
into the lagoon when  desired,  yet preclude
it at all other times.  Silt that  would be car-
ried into the installation by  runoff must be
considered.
                 DIKES

  Dikes should be so constructed as to
prevent excessive seepage through the dikes
or between the embankment  and the natural
                                           77

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ground. Compaction afforded by the use of
conventional construction equipment is
usually adequate.  Prior to starting the em-
bankment,  vegetation should be removed,
and the area upon which the embankment
is to be placed should be scarified. While
experience demonstrates that it is generally
unnecessary to key the  dikes into impervi-
ous subsoil,  this precaution may be advis-
able for sandy top soils or for dikes repos-
ing on shale or similar formations.

  The dikes should be of sufficient width to
accommodate mowing machines  and other
maintenance equipment. A width of 8 feet
is generally considered  adequate, and lesser
width may  be  approved  for small installa-
tions.

  Dike  slopes may be influenced by the
nature of the soil and the size  of the instal-
lation.  For outer slopes, 3 horizontal and
1 vertical is conducive  to satisfactory
maintenance,  although  economical use  of
excavation material may warrant flatter
slopes. Inner slopes are generally designed
from 3 or 4 horizontal to 1 vertical, although
slopes exceeding 5 to 1 are sometimes
specified for larger installations,  and
slopes steeper than 3 to  1 may be warranted
for small installations.  Flat inner slopes
have the distinct disadvantage  of added
shallow areas conducive to emergent vege-
tation.  Wave action is more severe for
larger installations, warranting considera-
tion of flatter inner slopes. However, ob-
servation reveals that a given installation
will develop a particular slope at the water
line rather independent of  the  slope origi-
nally provided,  the constructed slope being
adjusted by wave action to give a "dished"
effect near the water line.

  The freeboard to be  specified is to some
extent influenced by the size and shape of
the installation, as wave action is more
pronounced on larger bodies of water.
Freeboard should be sufficient to facilitate
necessary  maintenance operations without
accident hazard  Three feet above maxi-
mum liquid level is usually specified as
minimum freeboard. However, 2 feet is
considered adequate by some States, par-
ticularly for installations of 6  acres or
less not exposed to severe winds.

             LIQUID DEPTH

  Optimum liquid depth is influenced to
some extent by lagoon area. Relation of
depth to size should be such as to facilitate
circulation within the  body of water, and
larger installations may allow greater
liquid depth than would be considered for a
smaller facility. The  basic plan of opera-
tion may also influence depth. Lesser
depths are conducive to emergent vegeta-
tion and enhanced mosquito breeding. Ex-
perience in the Kansas City area has
demonstrated 2 to  3 feet as the most de-
sirable operating depth during the pro-
longed periods of cool, cloudy weather,
occasionally encountered in early spring
or late fall.  These installations serve sub-
divisions,  are heavily loaded, and are less
than 10 acres in area.  Experience has
demonstrated however, that greater depths
are desirable during the summer to dis-
courage emergent  vegetation.

  Experience has conclusively demonstrated
the advantage of facilities which permit
operation at selected depths up to 5 feet,
and provision for additional depth may be
desirable for large installations. Facilities
for adjusting water levels can be provided
at little increase in cost,  and permit opera-
tional flexibility of considerable advantage.
For example, where winter retention is
visualized,  the operating level can  be
lowered as desired before ice formation
and gradually increased by the retention of
winter sewage flow. In the spring,  the level
can then be lowered to any desired  depth at
the time surface runoff and dilution water
are generally at a  maximum. Shallow opera-
tion can be maintained during the spring,
increasing the depth as necessary to dis-
courage emergent  vegetation. In early fall,
the levels can be lowered before cloudy
periods are encountered and  again be ready
for retention of winter sewage.  In areas of
high evaporation, as Western Kansas, a
full lagoon in late spring may well be an
operating objective.

   Facilities to permit operation at  selected
depths are desirable for any  installation,
and can be provided at very little increase
in cost. For lagoons of considerable size,
provision for periodic operation at  depth
greater than 5 feet may be advantageous.
            LAGOON BOTTOM

   The lagoon bottom should be made as
level as possible with conventional dirt
moving equipment and operations, and the
finished elevation should not vary more than
                                           78

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plus or minus 6 inches from the average
elevation of the bottom.

  The lagoon area should be cleared of
excessive vegetation and debris.  This
material  should not be included in the
waterside two-thirds of the embankment,
but may be used if judiciously placed in the
outer third of the  embankment. Rock or
other porous material may also be placed
in the outer one-third of the embankment,
but should be  covered with earth to facili-
tate maintenance.

  The bottom should be well compacted and
relatively tight to avoid excessive seepage.
Removal  of porous top soil and compaction
of subsoil improve the water holding  char-
acteristics of the  bottom, and adequate
compaction may be as important in this
regard  as soil characteristics. Proper
compaction can usually be accomplished
through judicious  use of conventional earth
moving equipment, although additional
treatment, as sheep-foot rolling, may be
justified.

  The ability  to maintain a satisfactory
water level in the lagoon is one of the most
important aspect  of design; one for which
the consulting engineer must assume re-
sponsibility. Where excessive percolation
is a problem, increased hydraulic loading
or partial sealing may merit consideration.
Porous areas, as gravel pockets,  should
receive particular attention.  Removal of
gravel  or sandy pockets and replacement
with well compacted clay or other suitable
material  may be indicated. Limiting  values
of acceptable  percolation may be  merited
in some areas,  as a measure againstwhich
sealing of porous  bottoms will be required.

  Influent pipes discharging vertically up-
ward  have been successfully used,  but ap-
pear to demonstrate no advantage.  Some
States discourage a vertical discharge be-
cause of possible  accumulation of grit in the
lime. For horizontal discharge, a suitable
concrete  splash plate should be constructed
around  the point of discharge to minimize
erosion in the vicinity of the terminal
structure.
        OVERFLOW STRUCTURES

  Overflow structures should be designed
to permit operation of the lagoon at selected
water depths. The  outlet structure should
permit lowering  the water level at a rate of
at least 1 foot per week while  the facility
receiving its normal load.  It should be of
adequate size and suitable construction to
permit easy access and normal mainte-
nance operation. It is desirable that pro-
vision be made for complete draining of the
lagoon.

   During ice-free periods, discharge should
be taken near, but below, the water surface.
This releases effluent of the highest quality,
and insures retention of floating solids. For
operation during periods of ice cover and
ice formation, the  discharge is usually
from a point substantially farther below
the surface. However, some States  have
successfully used surface overflow pipes
during prolonged freezing. Overflow struc-
tures generally comparable to a sewer
manhole are most  frequently employed,
with selective level discharge facilitated
through valved piping or other adjustable
overflow devices.  Stop planks of creosoted
lumber have been successfully used in some
cases.

  Overflow lines should be vented if the
design would otherwise permit siphoning.
The overflow and outlet structure should be
designed to meet the needs of  the individual
installation, with due  consideration to  the
plan of operation. For "flow-through"  la-
goons the maximum rate of effluent dis-
charge is considerably less than the rate of
peak sewage flow,  because of  lagoon losses
and the  leveling out of peak flows.
        INTERCONNECTING PIPING

  Interconnecting piping for multiple unit
installations should be of suitable materials
and properly located so as  to facilitate
maximum retention in the facility. In some
States,  cast iron is specified for intercon-
necting piping. Valving or other arrange-
ment to regulate flow between structures
is recommended.  It is desirable that each
unit  of a multiple  unit installation be
equipped for flexible depth control.  The
influent pipe to the secondary unit should
discharge horizontally at or near the la-
goon bottom so as to minimize  need  for
erosion control measures.  The inlet to
secondary units can be located as near the
dike  as construction permits.  If operation
in parallel is  to be considered, inlets
should be designed as though each unit
were to be operated as a primary unit.
                                           79

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          INDUSTRIAL WASTE

  Lagoons may be used for treating indus-
trial wastes that are amenable to biological
treatment, or a mixture of organic indus-
trial wastes and domestic sewage.  Instal-
lations are now successfully serving oil
refineries, slaughter houses, dairy and
creamery establishments, poultry proces-
sing plants, and rendering plants. Special
study should be given the industrial wastes
whenever they constitute a significant por-
tion of the total load. Recommendations
for loading and area, included in the pre-
ceding paragraphs,  may be used to guide
loading and area of facilities receiving
industrial wastes. Possible toxic effects
of industrial  wastes should not be over-
looked  Toxic materials in concentration
that would interfere with other biological
sewage treatment processes should be han-
dled in lagoons only after thorough  study
and evaluation.

  Relatively little experience is available
in the sealing of lagoons where  high seep-
age rates are expected. Some  clogging of
permeable soil results from sewage solids,
even though the sludge  layer is  extremely
thin. Some lagoons have been built  with
multiple  units to facilitate heavy original
loadings. The entire sewage load is dis-
charged  to the smaller area,  and when
water holding capabilities are obtained, the
flow is diverted to another unit.

  Some use has been made of bentonite,
asphaltic coating, clay blanket,  and other
sealing materials. Sealing by these methods
can best be considered as a special prob-
lem for individual installations,  with the
consulting engineer  basically responsible
for adequate  sealing  to permit maintenance
of satisfactory water levels.
            INFLUENT LINES

  The influent line to primary units should
discharge far enough from any bank to in-
sure minimum interference with normal
circulation. For small installations, the
discharge should be at the approximate
center of the lagoon. For medium sized
installations,  there appears to be little
advantage in locating the inlet more than
200 feet from the  nearest bank, with 400
feet desirable  for lagoons of 40 acres or
more in area.  Multiple  inlets  appear to
have some advantage in dispersing  solids
uniformly throughout the lagoon,  particu-
larly in large installations.

  Gravity inlets to primary units should
slope on a uniform grade from the manhole
at the terminus of the outfall sewer to a
point approximately one pipe diameter
below the toe of the inner or waterside
slope of  the dike.  From this point the pipe
is usually laid on a zero grade to the point
of discharge, with the top of the pipe being
slightly below the  average elevation of the
lagoon floor.  Placing the bottom of the pipe
on the lagoon floor, the use of earthen
dikes, piling or other pipe  supports,  or the
use of shallow dike formed areas around
the inlet are not recommended,  as there
is some  evidence that this may interfere
with normal circulation.

  Gravity lines and inverted syphons have
been successfully used in many installations
to discharge untreated sewage to primary
units. Submerged portions  of the influent
line should  be considered as under slight
pressure, with appropriate  materials and
methods of  construction. The  size of the
line should  not be  reduced along the sub-
merged portion. Materials generally ac-
cepted for underground use  may warrant
consideration for use as gravity influent
lines. Consideration should be given to the
possibility of septicity,  soft foundations,
ice cover, and other loading problems.

  The influent line may advantageously
discharge horizontally,  into a shallow,
saucer shaped depression.  This depres-
sion should have a minimum depth equiva-
lent to the outer diameter of the pipe and a
maximum depth of the pipe diameter  plus
one foot, with'a radius varying from 25-100
feet depending on the size of the unit. The
depression,  intended only to facilitate sub-
mergence of sewage solids while the lagoon
area is  becoming saturated and covered
with liquid,  is particularly important for
installations serving new sewer systems.
            MISCELLANEOUS

  Embankments should be seeded along the
outer slope,  the top, and along the inner
slope to  the normal water line. This mini-
mizes erosion,  facilitates weed control,
and permits  the maintenance necessary for
good appearance.  Alfalfa and similar long
rooted crops should not be used. The County
                                           80

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Agricultural Extension Agent can usually
advise of a hardy,  locally suited permanent
grass which  will not interfere with the
water holding capacity of the dike.

  Riprap or  other protection is warranted
only under unusual conditions, such as pro-
tection of dikes from erosion due to severe
flooding  of the adjacent watercourse, or
extremely severe wave action. Possibility
of floods should be considered as lagoon
dikes,  like other earthen embankments,
would be subject to flood damage.

  The lagoon area should be enclosed with
a suitable fence to preclude entrance of
livestock and to discourage trespassing.
Fences consisting of 3 or 4 strands of tightly
stretched barbed wire have been found to
facilitate mowing and other maintenance
operations,  and otherwise to be completely
satisfactory  unless swine or poultry have
access to the area. For lagoons  serving
schools,  resorts, or similar facilities,
chain link or other special fencing may
merit consideration.

  At least one vehicle access gate should
be provided.

  The nature of the facility should be
clearly designated  through appropriate
signs properly located  at suitable intervals
along the fence. The signs need only desig-
nate that the facility is a sewage treatment
device and advise against trespassing.

  For lagoons serving combined sewer
systems,  suitable grit removal facilities
may be appropriate. Excessive grit may
result in interference  with  circulation or
discharge, through  excessive  accumulation
of heavy material at the point  of inlet dis-
charge.

  Study and evaluation of lagoons may be
greatly expedited by providing a flow
measuring device for  influent  and effluent.
These devices need not provide continuous
measurement, and may be  quite inexpen-
sive. For example,  a manhole on the in-
conning sewer and one in the lagoon over-
flow line may be equipped so that a weir
plate can be easily slipped  into place dur-
ing  periods of flow measurement.  A uni-
form receptacle for the weir plate will
permit the State Agency to  provide standard
weir plates to expedite special studies.
Flow measuring units  should be located  as
close to the lagoon facility  as  feasible and
practicable,  but should not be  located in
submerged portions of a sewer.

  Soil sterilization  along the shallow water
portion of the dikes  has been found to be
effective in controlling weeds  in Kansas.
The sterilizer,  to be effective, should be
resistant to leaching and toxic to weeds
but not to algae. Application is made by
power spray prior to filling of the  lagoon.
                                         81

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                                POND TREATMENT OF
                           MEAT PACKING PLANT WASTES
                                      F. W.  Sollo*
  Oxidation ponds have become a very
common method of sewage treatment for
small communities. Little has been re-
ported, however,  on the use of these de-
vices for the somewhat stronger wastes of
the  meat packing industry. Over a period
of ten years, we  have gained some  experi-
ence with the use of ponds for this applica-
tion, and feel that they have certain advan-
tages where sufficient space is available
and where the climate is suitable.

  In 1951, a problem confronted Swift &
Company at its plant near Moultrie, Geor-
gia.  The waste from this plant was dis-
charged to a small stream which was es-
sentially dry for  several months of each
year. A chemical treatment plant had been
provided but did not produce the required
degree  of treatment. Unsatisfactory con-
ditions  prevailed throughout the dry sum-
mer months.

  At that time, the use of oxidation ponds
had been reported for a number  of munici-
palities and army installations (1,2, 3). It
appeared that this method of treatment of-
fered the  advantages of a low investment or
construction cost,  simplicity of  operation,
and production of an effluent which  was
stable  even with no dilution. On the other
hand, the reported loadings,  in the range
of 50 Ibs. of BOD per acre per day, indi-
cated that large areas of level land would
be required. In addition, there was no re-
ported experience with this method for
meat packing wastes.  To evaluate the
method, it was decided to construct a pilot
scale pond in connection with our plant at
Moultrie.

  In the course of preliminary laboratory
tests,  it was found that ponds could be op-
erated anaerobically without producing ob-
jectionable odors.  The potential loading and
BOD reduction per unit area in anaerobic
ponds appeared to be considerably higher
than that possible for oxidation ponds. This
greater efficiency was expected, and a sim-
ilar  finding had been reported in the lit-
erature. (3) The  absence of odor,  at least
of an offensive character, had not been an-
ticipated. In view of  the favorable labora-
tory experience,  an anaerobic pond  was
also constructed  for  test purposes at
Moultrie.
PILOT SCALE TEST

  The first anaerobic pond had a capacity
of 8,000 gallons and was approximately 5ft.
deep. The waste was added near the bottom
at one end of the pond, and the effluent was
taken off about a foot below the surface,
near the opposite  end.  Digested sludge
from  a municipal  treatment plant was added
initially to obtain  the desired fermentation.

  A number of operating difficulties were
encountered, due  to the small size of the
pond and the small waste flow required.
Sedimentation with a very short detention
period,  and grease removal, were applied
to the influent, but occasionally solids of
sufficient size  to interfere with the pumps
or measuring devices would pass the pre-
treatment facilities.  These were the only
problems which arose,  and there appeared
to be  no  objectionable odor.

   Over a period of three months, this pond
produced an average BOD reduction of
78.6%,  with an influent BOD of  1680 mg.
per liter,  pond temperature of 72° F. , and
a detention period of 4.4 days.

   The oxidation pond had an area of 0. 53
acres and was approximately  3  feet deep.
A recirculation system was provided which
sprayed a mixture of the raw  waste and  the
pond  contents through a number of nozzles.
Recirculation was maintained at 100 gallons
per minute continuously. This served to
distribute the load over the  pond surface
and provided some degree of aeration. A
   •Sanitary Engineer, Swift & Co., Chicago, Illinois. Also presented at the 15th Annual Purdue Industrial Waste Conference,
 May 3. 4, and 5, 1960.
                                           82

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heavy BOD load was maintained with the
object of determining the maximum possi-
ble loading.

  Over a three month period this pond pro-
duced a 90% BOD reduction with an influent
BOD of 1450 mg. per liter, detention pe-
riod of 50 days, and a BOD loading of 243
Ibs. per acre per day.  The effluent was
green and rather turbid,  due to the unicell-
ular algae produced. Oxygen concentrations
far above saturation were observed near
the pond surface during daylight hours,
although none was found below a depth of
18 to 24 inches even in daylight, and that
in the surface layer was dissipated rapidly
as light intensity decreased.

  From these tests it appeared that the ox-
idation pond could handle loadings some-
what higher than were generally being used,
and would produce a stable effluent. On the
other hand,  the anaerobic pond did not pro-
duce a stable effluent but was far more ef-
ficient in BOD reduction per unit area.
Thus a combination of these ponds, operat-
ing in series, was an obvious choice. To be
certain that the effluent from an anaerobic
pond could be handled with no special prob-
lems in the  oxidation pond, our facilities
were modified to permit a test with series
operation.

  A portion of the previous oxidation  pond
was dammed off for use as an anaerobic
                    pond.  (Fig 8) This section was approxi-
                    mately 50 feet square and had a capacity
                    of 100,000 gallons. The oxidation pond was
                    reduced to 0.40 acres by this change. Re-
                    circulation was continued and in the oxida-
                    tion pond but the spray nozzles were elim-
                    inated. Thus distribution of the load was
                    maintained,  but the aeration formerly pro-
                    vided  was eliminated. An appreciable
                    power saving appeared possible by this
                    change.

                      The ponds were operated in this manner
                    for a  period of 11 months.  Typical operat-
                    ing data are given in Table 28.

                      The BOD of the final effluent in these
                    tests varied from 35 to 270 mg. per liter.
                    With other methods of treatment this efflu-
                    ent would be considered unsatisfactory for
                    discharge to a dry stream  bed. It appeared
                    unlikely, however,  that any nuisance would
                    be caused in a stream by this effluent as
                    long as the pond itself remained stable.
                    Dilution in the stream,  if any were  avail-
                    able,  and reaeration, should improve con-
                    ditions over those prevailing in the  pond.
                    For these reasons, it was  thought that this
                    effluent  should be satisfactory.

                      BOD data  may be misleading on such an
                    effluent,  since the algae will consume oxy-
                    gen in darkness as in the normal BOD test,
                    but will  produce oxygen with sufficient
                    light.  Our data were also affected by the
                                       TABLE 28

                                    PONDS IN SERIES

                            Average Data,  6/1/62 to 3/28/53
            Anaerobic Pond
Detention	
BOD Loading	
Influent BOD—
Effluent BOD	
BOD reduction	65.4$
                                           4.6 days
                                           11.2 Ibs. per 1000 cu.ft. per day
                                           820 mg. per liter
                                               mg. per liter
            Oxidation Pond
                         Detention	18.4 days
                         BOD Loading	130 Ibs. per acre per day

                         Influent BOD	  284 mg. per liter
                         Effluent BOD	116 mg. per liter
                         BOD reduction	59.2*
                                           83

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fact that the samples were frozen for pres-
ervation, killing most of the algae. Unfro-
zen samples,  diluted as in the BOD test,
but incubated  in daylight, produced oxygen
rather than exerting a demand. The same
samples, with normal incubation,  exerted
a normal oxygen demand.
FULL SCALE INSTALLATION

  With the data obtained in these  tests, it
was decided to proceed with installation of
a pond system  of treatment for our Moul-
trie plant. This was completed in 1955,
operation starting in November.

  The existing chemical treatment plant
was left intact,  but chemical addition was
stopped. Thus  these facilities  served for
primary sedimentation and grease recov-
ery.

  The anaerobic pond,  shown in Figure 9,
is 192 ft.  x 320 ft.  at the surface, and has
a 14 ft.  water depth. The banks are of
earth construction and have  a slope of 1 to
3. The approximate volume  of this pond is
4. 2 million gallons. A concrete pad was
provided at the water line to prevent ero-
sion and weed growth.

  As  in the pilot scale ponds,  the waste is
introduced near the  bottom at one end and
the effluent removed at the other  end.  Un-
derflow baffles were profided at the efflu-
ent weirs to prevent loss of floating solids.
Sludge is  recirculated from the pond bot-
tom and mixed with the influent waste to
obtain maximum possible contact.
                              No heating facilities were provided due
                            to the mild climate,  and four years of suc-
                            cessful operation indicates that heat is not
                            required.  However,  occasional extended
                            cold weather has  resulted in somewhat re-
                            duced efficiency.  The effect on efficiency
                            is noted when the pond temperature re-
                            mains below 75  F. for a prolonged period.

                              The oxidation pond,  shown in Figure 10,
                            is irregularly  shaped and has  a total sur-
                            face area of 19.2 acres and a  depth of 3
                            feet.  Here again, the banks are protected
                            at the water level with a concrete pad.  The
                            waste entering this pond consists  of the ef-
                            fluent from the anaerobic pond, condenser
                            water, and storm water.

                              The waste is mixed with the  recirculated
                            flow of pond contents and distributed along
                            the west bank by a flume and series of
                            twelve weirs.  Effluent is removed through
                            four overflow channels in the east bank and
                            the recirculated flow is drawn  from the
                            southeast corner  through a channel along
                            the south edge to  the pumping  station at the
                            southwest corner. A pumping  capacity  of
                            4500  gallons per minute  was provided  for
                            recirculation,  (three  1500 gallon per min-
                            ute pumps) but only one of the three pumps
                            is operated under normal conditions.

                              In Table 29, we have listed the  BOD
                            values for the  first four  years  of operation
                            averaged over each period of six months.

                               The table shows an obvious improvement
                            in results, especially in the anaerobic
                            pond, through the  first eighteen months.
                            This  trend actually extended through Octo-
                                       TABLE 29

                                  AVERAGE BOD VALUES
            Jan.-
            Jul.-
            Jan.-
            Jul.-
            Jan.-
            Jul.-
            Jan.-
            July-
June,
Dec.,
June,
Dec.,
•June,
Dec.,
June,
Dec.,
1956
1956
1957
1957
1958
1958
1959
1959
Raw Waste

   1005
   1390
   1110
   1068
   1052
   1010
    879
   1250
Anaerobic
Effluent

   454
   109
    55
   105
   141
    83
    96
   230
Oxidation
  Pond
Influent

   345
   103
    95
   124
   130
    63
    66
   137
  Final
Effluent

   127
    40
    46
    51
    92
    61
    43
    73
                                            84

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her, 19570 During November and Decem-
ber, unusually cold weather prevailed and
the efficiency of the process deteriorated
to some extent.

  Stream conditions have been entirely sat-
isfactory below our outfall since installa-
tion of these ponds.  During periods of low
flow,  the stream has a distinct green color
for the first mile or two but no odors have
ever been noted and the color disappears
in a short distance.

  Operation is very simple. The  only labor
required is  the occasional maintenance and
greasing of  pumps, cleaning bar screens,
and caring for the grounds. This,  of course,
is exclusive of labor for operation of the
primary facilities. Routine analyses have
been continued as  a precaution against un-
foreseen difficulties.
pond, but no heat was provided in the oxi-
dation pond.

  Excellent results were obtained and for
a small packing operation the  method
should be satisfactory. For a  large oper-
ation the cost of  heating the pond would
probably make other methods  more attrac-
tive.

  The anaerobic pond has also been applied
at another of our packing plants, located
in North Carolina,  as a pretreatment de-
vice. The  pond reduces the  BOD of the
waste to approximately 100  mg. per liter
before it is discharged to the municipal
plant where it  is given final treatment on
trickling filters. In this case also, there
was a gradual  improvement in  results dur-
ing the first year of operation. Steam  is in-
jected as  required  to maintain  a minimum
of 75° F.
SLUDGE ACCUMULATION

  The pilot plant experience did not pro-
vide any reliable information as to sludge
accumulation. It was anticipated that sludge
would have to be removed from the anaer-
obic pond upon occasion but not from the
oxidation pond.

  After 2 1/2 years, itwas foundnecessary
to remove sludge from the anaerobic pond.
The top level of the  sludge layer was about
4 ft. below the surface,  and sludge carry-
over appeared certain in a short time. The
surplus sludge was pumped to a nearby
field where it dried  without nuisance.
OTHER APPLICATIONS

  In further tests,  carried out in Iowa,  it
was found that the method could be applied
in a fairly severe climate.  An underwater
burner was provided to heat the anaerobic
SUMMARY

  A two-stage system of ponds has been
applied to the treatment of meat packing
plant wastes. Advantages are low invest-
ment cost, simplicity of operation and pro-
duction of an effluent that is stable without
dilution. The system has been applied in
areas with a mild climate, and its great-
est advantage is for this  application,  but
it has also been found applicable in rela-
tively severe climates.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.   Caldwell, D.  H. , Sewage Works Jour.,
     18, 443-58 (1946)

2.   Committee on Sanitary Engineering,
     N. R. C., Sewage  Works  Jour.,  18,
      1023-6 (1946)

3.  Parker, C. D. , Jones, H. L. ,  and
     Taylor, W.S., Sewage and Ind.
     Wastes  22,  760-75(1950)
                                           85

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               Effluent
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ANAEROBIC    POND

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               87

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                               Over Flow
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                                    Recirculation  channel
Pumping  station
                         FIGURE 10

-------
          DEVELOPMENT AND ACCEPTANCE OF LAGOONS IN MISSISSIPPI

                                    J.  E.  Johnston*
  From skepticism to enthusiasm  --
those four words  summarize the sewage
lagoon story in Mississippi.  The state
health officer was skeptical when the la-
goon idea -was  first presented to him;  pro-
fessional engineers in the state were dubi-
ous; municipal  officials were likewise
skeptical;  and  the public in some cases
was almost hostile.

  But somehow the lagoon idea as  a solu-
tion to the sewage problems in our small
towns had  taken hold of us in the Division
of Sanitary Engineering  --  things  we'd
heard about it  and read about it would not
leave us in peace. Like the  evangel stirred
by a spirit outside himself,  we  could not
rest.  And  I'm  here to share our story with
you -- because in introducing the lagoon in
new areas some of you will  perhaps en-
counter this same attitude of skepticism
that we had to  combat. But my advice to
you is  simply this: "Don't give up.  " It
won't be easy to hold  out, but on your side
will be  two unshakable allies:  first, the
engineering and chemical principles in-
volved; and second, the proven experience
of the workability and practicality  of the
lagoons. First  of  all you will need  a well-
grounded belief in the idea.  I warn you,
however, conviction alone will not  be
enough; coupled with it, you'll need tenac-
ity  also.

  As you know, Mississippi has been  an
agricultural state with most of the  popula-
tion living on farms and a comparatively
few people living  in the approximately 270
towns.  With the economy  of the state
geared  to agriculture  as it had long been,
there had been  little need for larger cen-
ters of  population. But with the develop-
ment of the industrial programs of the
state and the mechanization of farm oper-
ations  in the last  two decades,  our small
towns began to  attract more people.
Accordingly, as the towns began to grow,
there was  an increased need for sewage
facilities.
   In 1955 in Mississippi, there were only
some 24 municipalities with conventional
sewage treatment plants. To make  matters
worse, most of these were not operated
efficiently. A number of towns had  sewage
collecting systems,  but discharged raw
sewage or septic tank effluent into  streams-
some of which did not have sufficient
flow for adequate dilution.  This was the
condition that confronted us when I  became
Director of Sanitary Engineering  of the
State Board  of Health.

   For a number of years we had been
aware of the  use  of lagoons, but gave them
little consideration until the Dakotas  began
to use them  so effectively.  We learned of
the good results of the Dakotas' lagoons
when we began to search for an answer to
the ever-increasing  problem  of sewage
treatment  for small  municipalities. As we
discussed  their use in  Mississippi,  first  in
an almost  joking  manner,  our interests
grew.  After  it became evident that  lagoons
might  be the  answer to our problems, we
began to seriously study all available in-
formation  -  and then to seriously talk la-
goons.  In professional engineering  circles,
instead of  encouraging us, practicing engi-
neers tried to throw cold water on us.
Some even went so far as to come to  me,
or send my friends to me, with the warning,
"You're going to  get in trouble. "

   However,  obsessed with the idea  that the
lagoon held the  answer to many of our
acute sewage problems  and our responsi-
bility in doing something  about it, we re-
quested the Public Health Service to send
to Mississippi someone -who was thoroughly
familiar with the  stabilization ponds to dis-
cuss them with  us. Two  specialists came
to our  state on January  25,  1956 --  W.  W.
Towne, Chief of Water Pollution Control
of the Robert A.  Taft Sanitary Engineering
Center (whom you heard yesterday), and
L. A.  Young, Associate Regional Engineer
of Public Health Service,  Atlanta. After
the assurance of these  two experts that the
  "Director, Sanitary Engineering, Mississippi State Board of Health, Jackson, Mississippi.
                                          89

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ponds  would probably work better in Mis-
sissippi than in the mid-western states
where they freeze  over in winter, our en-
thusiasm rose. But even these specialists
could not completely dispel the skepticism
of the  state health  officer.  When he was
told that a hurried call had been  issued for
professional engineers in our capital city
and vicinity to come to hear the story the
Public Health Service  specialists had to
tell, he said: "I hope you don't get the
BoarcLolJHealth in trouble. "
  Thirteen engineers and chemists an-
swered the call;  and to a man they became
not only interested, but most of them en-
thusiastic about the possibilities of the la-
goon in our state. At the close of the meet-
ing, they suggested that I go to Missouri
and see the lagoons in operation. Even
though the  state health officer did not ap-
prove my going,  not to be deterred, early
in March after the ice had melted,  I went
to Missouri sub rosa. I never shall forget
the courtesies of Albert Happy and his
staff, Glen Hopkins, and Joe Neel. Every-
thing I saw in Montgomery City,  Paris,
Perry and the  Kansas City area exceeded
my expectation.  Convinced that the State
Board of Health should recommend the la-
goon, I turned homeward with my mind
made up and a jug of lagoon water in my
car! That jug of water was more convinc-
ing than words.
  Recommendation of the lagoon by the
State Board of Health was forthcoming. The
design criteria developed in the mid-west
were adopted by  our agency,  with the ex-
ception of the loading factor which was set
at 35 pounds of BOD per acre.  All engi-
neers concerned with this type of work
were contacted and our design  criteria
discussed with them.
  Our first target was Prentiss, a fast-
developing town in South Mississippi.  The
main part of that  town was served by an
Imhoff tank, which was over-loaded and
very poorly maintained. The western sec-
tion was developing and needed  service,
but a pumping station would be required.
Then it was that the consulting engineer,
in cooperation with the State Board of
Health, in conference  with the city officials
convinced them that the lagoon could best
solve their  sewage oroblem.
  The Prentiss lagoon was put in operation
on October  1,  1956.  Never shall I forget
the day I took the state health officer down
to see this "curiosity. " On the trip was
also the assistant health officer, who is
now state health officer and supporting the
program with a great deal of enthusiasm.
We had hardly gotten outside the city limits
of our 60-mile trip when they began to  rib
me, saying they could  already smell the la-
goon.  I took the ribbing of my two superi-
ors as long as I could and said, "All right,
gentlemen,  just let up  until we get there.
If there's any sewage odor at  all from the
lagoon, the drinks are on me. " When we
got to the site,  I took a bucket and caught
it about half full of the effluent from the la-
goon  and handed it to the state health offi-
cer.  He sloshed the  -water around,  stuck
his nose in  the bucket, sniffed and sniffed
again. "I'll buy the drinks, "  he said, the
last vestige  of skepticism gone !

  Continuously for almost four years now
this lagoon  has been  in operation. What has
been  its operational  history?  How has it
been  accepted by the people?  To get the
answer let me quote  from a recent report
to us by the  mayor of the  town:

  "I am happy to inform you  that it is doing
a perfect job.  It has  been in operation near-
ly four years and has done better this year
that it did the first year,  even tho it has
had a small increase in load.  I can safely
say that for  a small  town  where land is
reasonable,  that this is the best solution,
as the cost  of construction is  very reason-
able.

  "We have  approximately 400 people per
acre  and it  is doing perfectly,  other than
just a little floating matter on top of the
water.  You can hardly recognize it as being
anything but a fish pond since it doesn't
have  any odor at all  - in fact, there are
millions of  small fish in it. "

  But back  to the development of the lagoon
in Mississippi. From near and far came
consulting engineers, city officials, devel-
opers, and  university professors to see
the Prentiss lagoon  - the  first sewage la-
goon to be constructed in the  southeast.
They came  from Florida, Georgia,  Ala-
bama, South Carolina,  Tennessee, Louisi-
ana,  Arkansas,  and  Virginia.  Requests be-
gan to come from city officials and civic
clubs for us to talk to them about lagoons.
                                           90

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   Even though the State Board of Health
 has promoted the lagoons by all mass
 media available - the press, television,
 exhibits, and state-level meetings, from
 the very beginning the decision was made
 to let the promotion program on the local
 level be through the practicing consulting
 engineer.  We declined to accept invitations
 to discuss lagoons with any local group un-
 less the invitation came through an engi-
 neer.  This decision,  wise as it was, had a
 two-fold basis:  first, we wanted to keep the
 program in the  hands of the engineers; and
 second,  our staff was too limited to spend
 time providing programs  for some civic
 club. If the municipality was interested
 enough to employ an engineer, we felt that
 it meant business and we  went early and
 late from one side of the state to the other
 to talk lagoons.  The wisdom of our deci-
 sion to work through the  practicing engi-
 neers has  time  and again  been demon-
 strated; it is  also substantiated by  a letter
 that came  to our office recently from
 Eugene Thomas,  President of the  Mis-
 sissippi Society  of Professional Engineers:

   "It has been my privilege since  1956 to
 follow the  development of sewage lagoons
 in Mississippi,  and since I believe this
 development has made a  real contribution
 toward the general improvement of sani-
 tary conditions  in the smaller communities,
 I would like to congratulate  you on the man-
 ner in which your office has handled this
 relatively  new idea ir our State.

  "Your splendid cooperation with the prac-
ticing engineers  of Mississippi is something
that every  member of the profession appre-
 ciates, and I feel that the contribution made
by your office in improving conditions
throughout the State is worthy of continued
confidence. I  know for a fact that you have
 in all cases worked through the engineering
profession in  this matter rather than
through other local officials.

   "This  is an approach which I feel is
 fitting and  proper and which not only pro-
 vides an opportunity for engineers to partic-
 ipate in these developments, but also con-
 tributes  greatly to an orderly method of
 community improvement.

   "If there is anything the Society can do to
 assist you in  the important work handled by
 your office,  I am sure we will be most
 happy to oblige. "
   In less than a year after the first lagoon
began operation,  five other towns had con-
structed them;  and today there are over 60
lagoons in operation and 25 under construc-
tion or being planned by muncipalities and
institutions.

   A year after  the first sewage lagoon was
constructed the lagoon program was "on
the road. "  Skepticism was giving way to
enthusiasm. Private developers  and
schools wanted to use them.  But ever
cautious, the State Board of Health with-
held approval in such places because we
did not want the program 'to get out of hand
and have  some  installations that  might pos-
sibly give the program  a "black eye. "

   However, after a demanding letter from
the State  Superintendent of Education to
permit the  use  of lagoons in rural  schools
and a promise from  him that his staff
would give  full  cooperation in maintaining
them,  especially  by  maintaining  a  satisfac-
tory water  level during the summer months,
public health approval was given. Ten
schools are now using sewage lagoons.

   Two years ago  we  began approving them
for private  developments, such as  subdivi-
sions. We now  have  twelve such  develop-
ments using them.

   The developers of  Skyway Hills,  across
the river from  Mississippi's capitol city,
says that their  entire staff takes  pride  in
being the first in  the state to provide a la-
goon. From the builder's viewpoint they
cite the following advantages of the lagoon:

   "The fact that our  subdivision  has this
type of sewage  system has been the main
feature of our sales  campaign and our sales
campaign has been most effective.  "

   The developers of  McLaurin Heights, a
subdivision in Rankin County,  wrote  us on
recent date:

   "We wish to express our complete satis-
faction in regard to the  lagoon system of
sanitary sewerage disposal. Before a
sewerage system  was installed in McLaurin
Heights Subdivision,  Rankin County,  Mis-
sissippi,  approximately 50% (in numbers)
and 75% (in cost) of our warranty com-
plaints were due to septic tanks.  Although
we exhausted every known means of trying
to remedy septic tank malfunctions before
                                          91

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the end of the one year warranty period,
still there  were several septic tank systems
that were not properly functioning, which of
course left dissatisfaction in those house
purchasers.

  "We have found, although the lagoon
type sewerage system takes a great deal
larger initial investment,  that by the  time
a subdivision is 'built out, ' the average
cost per house is  less than the original in-
stallation cost of a septic tank system.

  "We appreciate the  assistance given to
us by the Health Department and the for-
ward looking approach of the trial of these
lagoon systems which will greatly aid
developers,  builders and home owners in
outlying areas. "

  Mr. J. W.  Underwood of Jackson states:
"The lagoon  is a  most satisfactory sewer-
are treatment method. ...  In the instance
of our 700  home Canton Avenue Estates,
we  abandoned a conventional mechanical
treatment plant that was only about 5  years
old and installed  lagoons to treat the  sewer-
age for the then existing houses  as well as
future ones.  It has definitely been more
economical for us to do this. "

  I would not mislead you into believing
that the acceptance of the lagoon in Mis-
sissippi came "over night." Acceptability
of the lagoon has been a developing attitude
that has increased steadily through the last
five years. Consulting engineers,  equip-
ment manufacturers,  city officials,
financial institutions,  and finally the  gen-
eral public,  although doubtful  at first, have
come to accept lagoons with enthusiasm.

  To illustrate this general acceptance,  I
would like  to  read some statements taken
from letters  we have received in our  off ice:

  W. E. Johnson, Consulting Engineer,
Jackson, Mississippi,  wrote:  "Without any
reservation,   I endorse and recommend the
lagoon treatment where possible."

  James F.  Smith,  Mayor,  Wiggins,
Mississippi,  said in part: "The lakes are
placid and pleasing to the  eye; they are
habitats for water fowl.. . .  The  people of
the Town are pleased with them. "

  H.  M. Ludlow, Manufacturer's Repre-
sentative,  Jackson, Mississippi,  says
business has increased, "a good percentage
of which can be directly attributed to sales
created by the installation of the  many
Oxidation Ponds in areas  and communities
who otherwise were financially unable to
purchase other types,  or  mechanically
operated Treatment Plants. "

  From the Rankin County Bank,  Presi-
dent J. C.  Murray,  -who financed some of
the developers in this county using lagoons,
wrote of the successful operation of  sev-
eral lagoons in the county, and said: "We
much prefer to make loans on property
having a sewer system than on property
with septic tanks. . . .  We believe  that a
sewer system  with a lagoon or lagoons  is
as good as one with a treating plant, and
we do not hesitate to  recommend this type
of sewer system. "

  From  the Town ot  .Bay Springs, after
over three years of experience with a la-
goon,  Mayor S.  F. Thigpen, Jr.  wrote:
"The operation is still perfect and the
cost has not exceeded $60 a year. . .  . This
is the only thing public or personal that I
have ever had  anything to do with that has
so greatly exceeded what  was expected of
it."

  From  the Hinds County Water Com-
pany,  which first entered the sewage busi-
ness three years ago,  President  Garner
M.  Lester wrote: "We now operate three
lagoons. . . .  Since this was our first ven-
ture into the use o£ sewage disposal units
of this kind,  we  have watched the opera-
tion very carefully.  Few of our customers
and  friends had ever heard of,  let alone
seen,  a lagoon and naturally they were
skeptical.  They  have operated so success-
fully that now  uncertainty has turned into
confidence. . . . We thought you would be
interested in our operations since you
worked so closely with us in the begin-
ning. ..."

  From  the Town of  Crenshaw,  three
weeks after hook-ups were made to  the
lagoon, Mayor C. B.  Goodwin, reported
to us:  "As  you know, our  Town being in
the Mississippi Delta is very flat, and
those homes which have been connected
for only  a short  time have eliminated the
water soaked conditions of their yards
and  water filled  ditches of the foul polluted
excess water from the old septic tanks.
We wish to thank you at this time for your
                                           92

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aid in helping the Town of Crenshaw com-
plete such a needed and  valuable project
for the community. "

  From  the Town of Fayette  after two
years' use of  the lagoon, R.  J. Allen,
Mayor, and B. J. Scarborough, Sanitation
Committee  Chairman, wrote: "We have
encountered no defects in or  dissatisfac-
tion with the lagoon system and .... re-
commend this type system without reser-
vations. "

  From  J.  B. Bell, the Mayor of Her-
nando, where a lagoon was constructed in
1957 to replace  an outdated and inadequate
Imhoff tank: "The governing authorities and
the residents  of Hernando have been very
pleased with the  operation of their treat-
ment lagoon,  and the Town has on the
drawing  boards  new plans for three addi-
tional sewage treatment lagoons. . . . The
lagoon in operation has been  perfectly sat-
isfactory in all respects. ...  The Town's
maintenance has been at  a minimum con-
sisting so far  only of keeping the  grass
cut. . .. We had  a good crop  of fish coming
on in the lagoon, but a cotton dusting
plane got loose over it and we lost our
crop of fish. "

  From  Houston where a 15-acre lagoon
has been in operation  since August,  1957,
Mayor J. H.  Miller wrote: "It has proven
very satisfactory since the first day of
operation, and looks more like a  recrea-
tional place than a disposal unit. "

  From  the City of Starkville, the home of
Mississippi State University,  Mayor Hay-
den H. Reynolds stated:  "We  put two
twenty-five (25) acre cells into service in
September 1959 and they have given  us
satisfaction far  beyond expectation.  We
seem to  be  getting 100% treatment from
them and are  highly pleased with their
operation. . ..  The general public who  have
visited the project have accepted them very
enthusiastically and feel they are a credit
to our  city. College boys from Mississippi
State University  say it is a hunter's para-
dise	"

  From  the Town of Poplarville,  Mayor
Pat Hyde reported: "We  have had our
sewer lagoon  in operationfor approximately
eighteen months  and have found it to be the
answer to the sewage problem in the smaller
cities and towns. . . .  When we first talked
to our people about a lagoon, they were
a little skeptical as it was something that
they weren't familiar  with. I was about as
skeptical as  anyone in town. ..."

  From  the City of Aberdeen, one week
after two lagoons were put in operation,
Mayor George W. Howell, Jr. ,  wrote us:
"The City of Aberdeen has been dumping
its sewage into the Tombigbee River for
sixty years or more; and, this practice was
stopped for the first time  when the lagoons
were put into use.  This  fact alone made
the  lagoons popular from the very start
with the  general  public.  Property owners
have cooperated, and  we had no difficulty
in securing land  for the  lagoons  where we
wanted them located and for very reason-
able prices.


  "Since  we quit dumping sewage in the
river, a group of sports enthusiasts here
have built a boat landing on the river just
off East Commerce Street and have gone
in for boating. ..."

  In speaking  of the development of la-
goons in our state, we must not fail to
point out that two experimental sewage la-
goons were put into operation on the cam-
pus  at Mississippi State University on
August  15,  1958, in cooperation with the
State Board of Health. Experiments,  in
the main, have  sought  the answers to
three problems:  (1) How to control  blue-
green algae; (2)  What is the optimum depth;
(3) What is the optimum surface loading.
While a great deal of data have been col-
lected,  no definite conclusions have been
reached.  The micro-biology department
has  also been interested in these experi-
mental lagoons and has demonstrated that
organisms of the genus Salmonella  can
survive passage  through the lagoon.

  The  only trouble that we have encountered
in lagoon operational experience  in our
state has been the development of blue-
green algae in extremely hot weather. As
you know, dead blue-green algae give off a
distinct pigpen odor.  The  first complaint
of odor to reach us came in July 1958 from
a two-year old lagoon. The Public Health
Service office  in Cincinnati answered bur
emergency call by sending in a specialist
the  next day by plane, who identified the
mass of dead blue-green algae as the mis-
chief maker.  However,  it soon disappeared
and there was  no further trouble that sea-
son.
                                          93

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  The  following summer,  under the heat
of July's sun, the same  lagoon developed
the  same pigpen odor, as well as two other
lagoons in different parts of the  state. The
first complaint came from the mayor  of a
nearby town, and  it was suggested to  him
over the telephone that he  have  the scum
broken up with long poles or boards and
that it  might settle out.  When I  left the
office that afternoon, I drove to  the town to
see if beating up  the scum was getting re-
sults.  I soon saw  that this method was too
slow to be successful. I had an  inspiration:
Why not put a boat with outboard motor  on
the  lagoon to beat up  the mass?  This  we
did, and in a very short time the lagoon
surface was clear and the pigpen odor disap-
peared. During this summer several lagoons
have developed the pigpen  odor;  and in
each case a boat  and  outboard motor have
soon had the condition under  control.

  The  question of mosquito  breeding  kept
cropping up as we talked with people  about
lagoons. But apparently Mississippi la-
goons  are not a very suitable place for
mosquitoes to  breed. In July and in Sep-
tember of 1958 Leslie D.  Beadle, Chief
Biologist,  Water  Resources Activities,
Public Health Service,  (who will be heard
later),  made a mosquito survey of nine of
our lagoons that  had  been  in operation for
the second summer.  Mosquito breeding
was detected only in  the Prentiss lagoon.
This lagoon showed moderate breeding  in
July and light breeding in September,
while the swampy area near the lagoon
showed very heavy breeding. To date we
have not had a single complaint  about mos-
quito breeding in  lagoons.
  What,  you might ask, has been the total
effect of the development and acceptance
of lagoons to date in Mississippi? And
•what is the future challenge to us ?

  These questions might best be  answered
by a letter that came to our state health
officer a few weeks ago. It was from a
man many of you know - Sam A.  Thompson,
Chairman of the Board of Water Commis-
sioners of the State of Mississippi. He
explained that he had just seen  a  newspap-
er clipping showing a picture of one of the
state's latest sewage lagoons and was
prompted to write a letter to the  State
Board of Health, which said in  part:

  "Mississippians have just cause to be
proud of the leadership  role that  your
agency has assumed in the  program that is
doing so much to upgrade the quality of the
surface waters of our State.

  "Since your Division of Sanitary Engi-
neering introduced the  sewage lagoons to
Mississippi, the many towns that have tak-
en advantage of the program have practi-
cally eliminated the once serious pollution
problem in their vicinities.

  "If you can keep up this good work for a
few more years, our State will be able to
make the  maximum use of its water re-
sources. "

  Our agency is resolute. In the  days
ahead with the  special assistance of Public
Health Service and through the  stimulation
from the pooling of ideas and experiences
in groups such as this,  -we  shall go forward.
                                          94

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                   USE OF SEWAGE PONDS IN ALBERTA, CANADA
                                           By

                                H. L. Hogge and, S. L. Dobko*
   The number of sewage ponds in use in
Alberta has grown from one in 1947 to 114
in I960.  This extensive use is attributed to
three main factors, viz.  low construction
and operating costs,  effective treatment of
sewage and the  storage capacity which per-
mits the effluent to be released at an ap-
propriate time.

   The design and use of ponds in Alberta is
influenced to some extent by the climatic
conditions experienced. Alberta is the most
westerly of the  three "prairie" provinces
of Canada. The north and south boundaries
are the 60th and 49th parallels of latitude
respectively;  the east boundary is the 110th
meridian and  the western one is the 120th
meridian and  in the south part the "Conti-
nental Divide" in the  Rocky Mountains. The
mountains to the west result in a  relatively
dry climate with the average  annual pre-
cipitation ranging from 10 to 20 inches for
most areas.  The northerly position of the
province means that winter temperatures
are cold.  The January average is 0 to 5
degrees Fahrenheit for all but extreme
northern areas  where it is 0 to minus 15
degrees.  This results in a thick ice cover
on sewage ponds during the winter and this,
together with  snow, excludes the  sunlight
necessary for oxygen production by the
algae.  Summer  temperatures are moderate
with the July average ranging from 55 to 65
degrees F.  Winds are of a relatively uni-
form annual velocity  of about 10 m. p. h. ,
although the stronger winds are from the
south west in  southern areas  and  northwest
to north in the northerly areas. Soil condi-
tions are  quite varied ranging from heavy
clays to sandy and  sandy silt.  Percolation
from the ponds is appreciable in only a few
locations.
  The  population of Alberta was 1, 220, 611
in 1959 with 66% of the  people residing in
incorporated urban centres and 34% in
rural areas. Some 96% of the urban popu-
lation have public sewerage systems avail-
able through 187 systems.  As mentioned
above 114 of the sewerage  systems use
sewage ponds for their sewage disposal
facilities. These are relatively recent in-
stallations, all within the past 15 years,
and have  been  a factor in making sewerage
systems possible,  particularly for those
communities not located near a river  or
lake.

   The design and use  of the ponds has
undergone a number of changes which may
be of interest to others.

   The first ones were built mainly for
storage purposes and  were designed to
store the sewage for one year. They were
preceded by either a Septic tank or an Im-
hoff tank  to remove solids  and the accumu-
lated effluent was released in the spring
•with the annual run-off. At this time of
year there was a maximum amount of dilu-
tion to carry away the effluent and also it
is before the farmers are working the
fields crossed  by the small drainage
courses.

  A second phase was the use of open pits,
having a detention time of one to two weeks
to take the place of the primary sewage
treatment plants both in preceding the stor-
age ponds and also as the only treatment
where primary treatment was all that was
necessary.

  A third phase in the use of sewage ponds
was the elimination of pretreatment units
preceding the storage  ponds and using only
the storage ponds both for treatment and
storage. These were mainly  constructed in
single units even as large as  thirty and fifty
acres.
  'Respectively Director Division of Sanitary Engineering and Engineer, Sewage Pond Study Project Division of Sanitary Engineer,
Alberta Department of Public Health.
                                            95

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   The fourth phase that we are now start-
 ing in Alberta,  and which we believe will
 be of most interest, places emphasis on
 the treatment efficiency of the short deten-
 tion ponds and the  added advantages of hav-
 ing the long  detention ponds  constructed in
 units arranged for series  flow of the sew-
 age.  Very briefly,  we are recommending
 the following type of pond  system where
 complete sewage treatment and also inter-
 mittent release of  the effluent is necessary:

 1.  Short Detention Ponds -  Four ponds
    with a detention time of two to five days
    in each.
 2.  Long  Detention Ponds  - Two ponds with
    a detention time of three  or six months
    in each.

   This latest type  of ponding system has
 been  adopted this year on  the basis of a two
 year  study of the operations of different
 types of ponds.  The study was undertaken
 as a research project financed by the Gov-
 ernment of Canada, Department of  Public
 Health in co-operation with the  Department
 of Lands  and Forests and  the University of
 Alberta.  A chemical engineer of the De-
 partment of Health made the field observa-
 tions,  collected all samples  and analyzed
 the samples  for physical,  chemical and
 B. O. D. characteristics. The analyses were
 made in the Department of Health's Pollu-
 tion Control  Laboratory. Methods of analy-
 sis were those outlined in  the 10th Edition
 of "Standard Methods  for the  Analysis of
 Water, Sewage and  Industrial  Wastes. "A
 master's  student in microbiology at the
 university under the direction of the Bac-
 teriology Department made analysis for
 total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and
 also for coliforms  and algae. At this time,
 the master's thesis and the analysis of the
 data are incomplete.

  The ponds selected for detailed study
 were  those within 100 miles  of Edmonton to
 enable sampling and analysis to be  carried
 out in the same  day. Also  these ponds were
 representative of a variety of loading and
 design features. Five ponds  were sampled
 approximately once a  month  for a 12 month
period, a 24 hour composite of  raw sewage
 made flow rates measured, and the chemical
 analysis of the community water supply ob-
tained.

  The statistics respecting loading  and  re-
moval of B. O. D. and  ammonia are  quite
interesting and are noted below in Table 30.
  The long detention ponds of Holden and
Lacombe, which are constructed in a single
unit, gave removals of slightly better than
80% of the B. O. D. and 90% of the ammonia
during the summer. In winter time the
treatment starts to deteriorate  soon after
the ice cover forms, and remains at  a
lower level  until spring.  These two ponds
are quite similar. However, the  B. O. D.
reductions in the winter were consistently
different during both winters. The B. O. D.
loading for Lacombe is slightly higher but
would not be expected to be significant.

  The Bruderheim pond operated poorly
during the period of study and appeared to
be affected by the wastes from the local
cheese factory. The  observed B. O. D. of
the raw sewage was 394.  However the
summer B. O. D. of  the pond average 465
and in the winter was 880 p. p. m. A Com-
putation  of the  B. O. D. in the cheese  wash-
ings for  the plant indicated the average
B. O. D.  of the  towns sewage would be in-
creased  632  p. p. m.  which would explain,
at least to some  extent, the high  B. O. D. 's
observed in the pond and most likely  the
poor functioning  of the pond.

  The ponds at Drayton Valley are con-
structed in three units and worked very
efficiently during the summer. In addition
to the B. O. D.  and ammonia reductions the
removal of coliforms was very good and the
effluent in the third  pond was clear.  The
treatment deteriorated during the winter
season and remained at the lower level
until spring.

  The Short  Detention Pond studied in de-
tail was  at Stony Plain. This system worked
at about  the same level throughout the year.
The B.O. D.  reduction of 70% particularly
during the winter time is quite good and  the
installation  is very inexpensive.   This sys-
tem was expanded to include a storage pond
in 1959 and this appeared to work very well
but sufficient tests were not carried out  to
determine it's  efficiency.

  The "Short Detention Ponds" were  of
particular interest to us because of their
efficiency during the winter and  we made
surveys  of five other  installations.  The
statistics on these are included in 30A.
  These ponds were all of the single  unit
type and are therefore not directly  compa-
rable to  the Stony Plain installation, except
to the first of the three units at Stony Plain.
                                            96

-------
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Daysland
                                                                               97

-------
   Our tests showed a B. O.D. removal of
 33% in the first of the three units here and
 a reduction over the second-two units at
 54%, giving the overall reduction of 70%.
 Tests were not made across the second or
 third units separately, however if one as-
 sumed the same reduction of B. O. D.
 across each one, the individual B. O. D. re-
 ductions would be 32%. This suggests a
 B. O. D.  reduction of 30 to 35%  for each of
 the one day detention units  operated in
 series and for purposes of  comparing the
 Stony Plain ponds to those listed in Table
 30A, the B.O.D. reduction  would be 33%.

   There appears to be a definite relation-
 ship between the detention time  in days and
 the percentage of B. O. D. removals in
 these Short Detention Ponds, with the ex-
 ception of the Two Hills  installation. This
 exception is attributed to the unusual depth
 of the pond which was 18 feet compared to
 depths of 4 to 6 feet in the others.  The
 other installations would indicate an op-
 timum detention time of about five days, at
 which a B.O.D. reduction of some fifty
 percent might be expected.   The  B.O.D.
 loading  on this basis would  be 990  Ibs/
 acre/day or 198 Ibs/acre ft./day for a
 sewage  flow of 100,000  gallons  per day at a
 B.O.D.  of 350 p. p.m.  The  upper limit for
 B.O.D.  loading is considerably higher than
 this as the first Stony Plain pond was oper-
 ating quite satisfactorily at  a loading of
 4920  Ibs/acre/day or 984 Ibs/acre ft./day.
 Also, the biological processes involved
 here  are basically anaerobic and therefore,
 the operation might  be  compared to that in
 a sludge digestion tank. The B.O.D. load-
 ing on the digestion tank, assuming 30% of
 0. 26  Ibs B. O. D. per person per day, a
 tank capacity of 3 cu.  ft. per person and a
 holding time of six months,   would be 5, 900
 Ibs/acre foot/day or six times that in the
 Stony Plain first pond.  Practical consider-
 ations would seem to rule out loadings of
 greater than about 5, 000 Ibs. B. O. D. /
 acre/day as the build up of  sludge -would be
 such that cleaning would be  required more
than once a year to avoid serious flow
 channelling and exposed sludge  solids.

  With respect to other aspects  of the oper-
 ation of the short detention  ponds,  the fol-
 lowing observations were made:

  (a) Odor Nuisance: odors  were very light
      and not  noticeable more than  a
      hundred feet away when the pond was
      working properly as at Stony Plain.
      Some odor problem existed at three
      ponds and this was attributed to a
      different reason in each  case.  One
      had a detention time of 1 1 days, which
      is considered too long, another re-
      ceived  some cheese plant waste and
      the third was treating sewage with a
      sulfate content  of 700 p. p. m.

  (b) Ammonia Reduction: no significant
      change from that of the raw sewage.

  (c) Phosphate Reduction: very little.

  (d) Coliform Bacteria Removal: Some,
      but not of practical significance.

  The Long Detention Ponds which were
studied all received raw sewage and had
Detention Times in the range of 100 to 300
days. In operation they were all similar
during the summer time  and the following
general observations were found to be in-
dicative of good operation:

  (a) pH - in the range of 8 to  10.

  (b) Color  - Green - due to algae content.

  (c) Odor -  no detectable odor in the area
      surrounding the ponds.

  The treatment efficiency of  the ponds
was  gauged mainly by the reduction of
B.O.D.,  ammonia and of coliforms.  The
single cell ponds gave B. O. D,  reductions
of about 80%,  and reduction of coliforms
and ammonia of about 90%.  The Drayton
Valley pond is  operated as a series of three
units and  gave  B. O. D.  reduction of about
90%,  ammonia reduction of some 90% and
almost complete removal of the coliform
bacteria.  In addition  the effluent from the
third pond was very clear and  had a low
phosphate and detergent content.

  The B.O.D.  loading  of the two  single unit
ponds was about 20 Ibs/acre/day  while in
the first unit of the three unit pond it was
about 80 Ibs/acre/day. While this higher
loading did not seem  to upset the  operation
unduly, it was  noted that the B.O.D. reduc-
tion  was only 73%.  This and the possible
adverse effect  of slightly higher than
normal amounts of industrial wastes in
some communities,  indicated to us that a
                                          98

-------
maximum design loading of 60 Ibs of BOD/
acre/day was desirable.

  Winter time operation of the Long De-
tention Ponds is markedly inferior to that
realized in the summer.  The reduced tem-
peratures of the liquid,  32 deg.  F. ,  as
compared to summer temperatures of 50
to 70 degrees, no doubt has  some effect
but this may not be significant in view of
the long  detention times involved.  The
most important factor is felt to be the
presence of the ice cover and a light insu-
lating layer of snow - which reduces the
oxygen producing capabilities of the algae
to the point where there is a  deficiency of
oxygen, in the pond liquid. Subsequently
anaerobic decomposition processes start
to predominate and in a manner  which
generates odorous materials. Our obser-
vations of the sulfate content of the liquid
during the winter showed a definite reduc-
tion in only  two of the four studied and an
odor  of hydrogen sulfide was  noted only in
those two.  These odors are not noticed in
the  surrounding areas until the ice starts
to melt in the spring,  however they con-
tinue for a period of from 2 to 6  weeks
each  spring and this makes it desirable to
locate the ponds at least a half mile from
urban areas  and one quarter  of a mile  from
individual residences.

  There has been no particular effort made
by any municipality to minimize  the spring
time  odors by chemical treatment up to
this time, possibly because there have been
few complaints due to the pond locations.
The Department of Health has done some
limited tests on one quart samples in the
lab  and also  placed in the berms of the
pond but  the  results  were not conclusive.
The use of the short detention ponds pre-
ceding the long detention ponds may give an
improvement by reducing the carbonaceous
organic loading of the ponds.  At  this time
there is only one pond system of this type
in operation and the  limited observations
indicate that there is an appreciable im-
provement but some odors are generated
in the latter part of the winter. Similarly
it was noted at Drayton Valley that the
odors disappeared from the third unit in a
2 week period while  it took four weeks  for
 the  odors to disappear from the first
 unit.

   The cost of constructing sewage ponds in
 Alberta generally range from $800. 00 to
 $1200.00 per acre, exclusive of land costs.
 Agricultural land for the ponds ranges
 from $150. to $300.  per acre for the small
 to medium sized communities; for cities
 of 50, 000 population and higher,  the land
 costs would be up to $1, 000. per acre.
 The contract for a new pond system for a
 community of 2, 000  people was awarded
 this spring at a price of $30, 800.00. The
 size of this pond was 31 acres including a
 strip of 100 feet outside the toe of the
 berms.  This is a cost of $994. 00 per acre
 and it is  estimated that the land cost would
 be $200. 00 per acre giving a total cost of
 $1200.00 per acre or a sum total cost of
 $37, 200.00 to the town. The per  capita
 cost for the present  2, 000 population is
 $18. 60 and for the design population of
 3, 000 it is $12.40 per capita. Some of the
 design data for this pond are as follows:

 Present Sewage Flow - 50 g.pc.d.  for
                       2000 - 100,000
                       g.p.d.

 Short Detention Ponds- 4 @ 4. 5 days deten-
                       tion each.
                     - depth - 10 ft.
                     - inside berm slope
                       3:1
                     - outside  "    "
                       2:1
                     - Connecting piping
                       will permit use of
                       4 or 3 of the units
                       in series,

Long Detention Ponds - 2  - 1 @ 33 days
                       detention with an
                       operating depth of
                       6 feet.
                     - 1 @ 296 days deten-
                       tion with an operat-
                       ing depth of 7. 5
                       feet.
                     - Berm slopes of 4:1
                      and 3:1 inside and
                       outside respec-
                      tively.
                                          99

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               SUMMARY

  Sewage ponds are used extensively in
Alberta and are effective in the treatment
of sewage and also as storage facilities to
enable controlled release of the sewage.
Short Detention ponds with a detention time
of one to five days are effective in so far
as B. O. D. removal is concerned  and oper-
ate efficiently in both winter and summer
seasons. These are increasingly effective
when used as three or four separate units
operating in series.

  Long Detention ponds having a B. O. D.
loading of not more than 60 Ibs. of B. O. D. /
acre/day are effective during the  summer
season particularly if constructed to oper-
ate in a series  of two or more units. There
would appear to be very definite advantages
in having the short Detention Ponds precede
the Long Detention Ponds. With where  Long
Detention Ponds in series, or two Long
Detention Ponds in series, preceded by the
Short Detention Ponds almost 100% treat-
ment of the  sewage would be expected dur-
ing the summer season.

  Winter time  operation of the Long Deten-
tion Ponds is not as effective  and  some
odors are experienced in the spring for 2
to 6 weeks after the ice starts to melt.
These odors make it desirable to  locate
the ponds one half mile from urban areas
and one quarter mile from individual resi-
dences but has  not been a serious problem.
  It is expected that sewage ponds will
continue to be widely used by Alberta
communities, particularly those with popu-
lations of less than 10, 000 to 20, 000 people.
The Short Detention Ponds may prove to be
useful and economic for even the larger
cities.

  Local  health hazards have not been noted.
The growth  of flies or mosquitoes  has not
been a problem  and special control meas-
ures have not been necessary except to con-
struct in a manner which avoids shallow
areas and to keep grass and weeds under
control  during operation.

  The use of sewage pond water for irriga-
tion or other purposes has been very limited
to this time. One community of 3, 000
people which is  disposing of the accumu-
lated  water  by irrigating alfalfa fields  is
the  only one making definite use of the
water.
         ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

   The kind permission of the Honorable J.
Donovan Ross, M.  D. , Minister of Health,
Government of Alberta, to prepare and
present this paper  is gratefully acknowl-
edged. The financial assistance of the  Gov-
ernment of Canada, Department of National
Health and Welfare, for the  research study
of the Sewage Ponds is also  gratefully  ac-
knowledged.
                                          100

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                   SEWAGE LAGOONS AND MOSQUITO PROBLEMS
                                          by
                         Leslie D. Beadle and John A.  Rowe*
   The question of the mosquito breeding
propensities of sewage lagoons has been
raised frequently.  In at least 10 States,
either State or Federal personnel have
made observations on this problem.

   Interest in these installations has been
motivated by the mosquito annoyance prob-
lem and the generalized encephalitis threat
in the western half of the country.  It is well
established that mosquito vectors of St.
Louis encephalitis  and western encephalitis
are produced in large numbers in almost
any accumulation of water, but especially
in waters with high organic content. Sewage
lagoons are of particular concern since
they are usually  located within  mosquito
flight range of a  town.

   The purpose of this  paper is  to bring to-
gether a summary of existing data on mos-
quito production  in sewage lagoons. Our
definition of a sewage lagoon is a man-
made structure of controlled size and shape
that is designed to  receive raw or  settled
domestic  sewage.

   There have been no extensive investiga-
tions on this problem.  Specific observa-
tions have been published from Texas --
Eads (1);  Eads and Menzies  (Z); Harmston
ejt al. (3); the Dakotas -- Beadle and Harms -
ton (4); and Nebraska -- Rapp  (5). Unpub-
lished data are available from Arizona,
Georgia,  Mississippi,  Missouri, Okla-
homa, and Tennessee.  Experiences per-
taining to mosquito control on an oxidation
pond in California have been described by
Sampson (6).

   Table 31 summarizes entomological data
for sewage lagoons in  10 States located in
3 geographical regions. The predominant
species found in  the lagoons were Culex
tarsalis in the Midwest and C.  tarsalis and
Culex pipiens (quinquefasciatus) in the
Southwest. Up to the present,  only light
production of mosquitoes has been observed
in southeastern installations.

  Additional species of mosquitoes taken
in sparse numbers from the sewage lagoons
include the following:  Aedes campestris
(North Dakota), Aedes dorsalis (North Da-
kota and South Dakota), Aedes vexans (Ari-
zona and Nebraska),  Anopheles quadrima-
culatus (Missouri and Tennessee), Culex
erraticus (Mississippi and Tennessee),
Culex restuans (Nebraska and North Da-
kota),  Culex salinarius (Georgia andTexas)
Culex thriambus (Texas),  Culiseta inornata
(Nebraska and Oklahoma), and Psorophora
confinnis  (Arizona).

  The  intensity of mosquito production in
the lagoons  surveyed has varied directly
with the amount of weed growth. Those
shallow ponds that have contained abundant
emergent vegetation invariably produce
tremendous numbers. Other ponds where
such vegetation is marginal may produce
large numbers along the peripheral area.
Conversely,  ponds free from vegetation
have presented no mosquito problem. There
does not appear to be a correlation between
the oxidizing efficiency of the pond and
mosquito production.

   The "weedy" condition in sewage ponds
may be related to several factors, one of
the most important being faulty filling of
the pond. It has been observed in a number
of instances that filling difficulties and the
concomitant shallow weedy conditions are
related to the porous  nature of the soil and
the lack of attention to sealing of the  pond.
It also has been observed that many •weedy
situations are due to over design. In many
of these cases, ineffective attempts  have
been made to establish a functioning pond
by building cells in the bottom. We have the
feeling that many of the earlier ponds were
 'Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Atlanta, Georgia.
                                          101

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                                        TABLE 31

            SUMMARY OF ENTOMOLOGICAL INSPECTIONS AT SEWAGE LAGOONS  IN 10 STATES
   State
No. of Ponds
   Sampled
                                 Ponds Producing Mosquitoes
                                              Ponds Producing
                                    Number
                               Percent
                       Culex
                       tarsalis
                      Culex
                      pipiens*
   Midwest

    Missouri
    Nebraska
    North Dakota
    South Dakota

   Southwest

    Arizona
    Oklahoma
    Texas

   Southeast
      9
     30
     12
     15
     18
     35
     37
 4
15
 9
10
10
 6
23
44
50
75
67
56
17
62
 3
10
 9
10
 7
 2
14
 3
 2
 0
 0
 8(C.£.)
 5(0. a.)
17(C.£.)
Georgia
Mississippi
Tennessee
3
9
3
1
1
2
33
11
67
0
0
1
0
0
0
   *The Culex pipiens  complex includes Culex quinquefasciatus (£.£.)•
too large for the communities that they
served.

  In certain communities, it has beennoted
that weed problems in the lagoons  have
been minimized because the ponds were
filled with water immediately following
construction; whereas in other communi-
ties that have not utilized the water filling
method but have  utilized only sewage flows,
the time required to fill the  lagoons  has
been much longer and weed growth has been
a problem.

  Another problem related to weed control
and to the  proper management of the pond
is the  lack of outlet structures that permit
complete water level control.

  Inadequate lagoon maintenance --  such
as lack of  care by  the operator of  the
lagoon -- is a  frequent cause of weed prob-
lems  in the lagoon proper or on the  banks.
                              Suggestions for Minimizing Mosquito
                                  Breeding in Sewage Lagoons

                           Design and construction features

                           1.   The proper size of the lagoon should be
                               determined carefully. It should not be
                               too large for the population served.
                               Provision for multiple lagoons is an
                               excellent means of allowing for expan-
                               sion.

                           2.   The lagoon should be constructed so as
                               to hold water. Artificial sealing with
                               chemicals, clay, bentonite,  or plastic
                               or asphalt membranes should be used
                               if necessary.

                           3.   Complete water level control and
                               drainage structures should be built into
                               the pond. Such structures facilitate the
                               control of marginal vegetation by the
                               use of water  level management (draw-
                                          102

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    down) coupled with soil sterilants.
    Lowering the water level temporarily
    also may be used to control mosquito
    larvae.

4.   The dikes should be of sufficient width
    (generally 8 feet) to permit access of
    maintenance machinery such  as seed
    drills, mowers,  and larviciding or
    herbiciding equipment.

5.   The inner bankment slopes should be
    relatively steep -- e. g. , 3 or 4 feet
    horizontal to 1 vertical.

6.   The depth should be as great  as possi-
    ble for maximum waste  treatment.
    Depths of over 25 inches will discour-
    age the development of cattail and
    other emergent plants (7).

7.   The lagoon  bottom  should be cleared of
    vegetation prior to filling,  and it
    should be as level as possible.

8.   The lagoon shouldhave a uniform shape
    with the  inlet near  the center of the
    pond.

9.   The lagoon  should be readily  acces-
    sible.  A roadway to the  lagoon will en-
    courage  frequent inspection and facili-
    tate movement of maintenance equip-
    ment.

10. The lagoon embankments should be
    planted with a suitable species of
    grass, such as brome. Care  shouldbe
    taken, however,  to avoid species such
    as  reed  canary grass, which  may in-
    vade water. Fertilization of the dikes
    will aid  in the development of grasses.

Operational and maintenance features

1.   If water  is available,  immediate filling
    of the lagoon to operational level will
    discourage the growth of vegetation.

2.  All lagoons should receive regular and
    frequent observation and maintenance.
    Control of vegetation and mosquitoes
    should be a regular part of lagoon
    maintenance.

3.  Undesirable vegetative growth in the
    lagoon proper or on the dikes should
    be eliminated periodically by mowing
    or by use of suitable herbicides. If the
    weeds  are mowed, care should be
     taken to see that the cut-off plants do
     not float in the lagoon and provide har-
     borage for mosquitoes. The planting of
     water-loving plants such  as willows or
     poplars should be  discouraged.

 4.   Larvicidal measures should be used in
     the event that significant  mosquito
     production takes place in the lagoon.
     The following materials have been
     used effectively: diesel oil (thinlayer):
     1 or  2% oil solution of DDT;  BHC dust
     (3% gamma isomer); or 2% malathion
     emulsion.
        jSummary and Conclusions

   Present evidence indicates that many
sewage lagoons in the Midwest and South-
west are producing mosquitoes.  In many of
these, the numbers of mosquitoes produced
are of real significance.  In general, mos-
quito production is directly proportional to
the extent  of vegetation (weed growth) in
the lagoons.

   Because of the usual proximity of lagoons
to small communities and to  residential
areas in metropolitan centers, mosquitoes
produced cause considerable  annoyance.
More important than their annoyance is the
fact that the major species found -- Culex
tarsalis and the Culex pipiens complex --
are primary vectors of encephalitis. In
order to protect the public health,  large
populations of these species  should not be
permitted to occur in areas close to popu-
lated areas.

   Certain design and operating features of
lagoons are important to mosquito preven-
tion. Basically, they are features designed
to prevent  or  minimize weed  growth.

   There  can be no doubt that  sewage la -
goons are gaining in popularity throughout
the country,  and they should continue to be
developed. It  is hoped that health agencies
and other groups concerned with the con-
struction and  use of these ponds  and par-
ticularly those groups who are charged with
their care  will proceed with the develop-
ment and use  of ponds in such a manner
that production of mosquito vectors of en-
cephalitis will be minimized.

  We would urge health agencies in various
geographical areas to continue making ob-
servations on lagoons and to report the in-
                                         103

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formation so that everyone will benefit by
the findings.

             Acknowledgment

   The writers are grateful to the following
persons who provided us with unpublished
data from their  respective States:  G. Allen
Mail and George R.  Hayes,  Jr. (Arizona);
Clyde  F. Fehn (Georgia): LeRoy K.
Rachels and Reuel H.  Waldrop (Oklahoma):
James L. Church,  Jr. (Tennessee): and
William F.  Rapp,  Jr. (Nebraska).
1.
2.
            References

Eads,  R. B. : Vectors of encephalitis,
Texas  Health Bull. 9:16-17,  June
1956.
Eads, R.  B.,  and Menzies, G.  C. :
Texas mosquito problems from a
species standpoint. Mosquito News
188-189, September 1956.
                                       16:
Harmston, F. C.,  Shultz, G. R. ,
Eads, R.  B. ,  and Menzies, G.  C. :
Mosquitoes and encephalitis in the ir-
rigated High Plains of Texas. Public
Health Rep. 71:759-766, August 1956.

Beadle,  L. D. , and Harmston,  F.  C.
Mosquitoes in sewage stabilization
ponds in the Dakotas. Mosquito News
18:293-296, December  1958.

Rapp, W.  F. , Jr. : Sewage lagoon
maintenance. Water Pollution J. 32:
660-662,  June I960.

Sampson,  E. O. :  A double duty oxida-
tion pond. Sewage & Industr. Wastes
27:1414,  December 1955.

Steenis, J. H. , Smith,  L. S.,  and
Gofer, H. P. : Studies on cattail man-
agement in the Northeast.  Trans. NE
Wildlife Conf. 1:149-155,  1958(1959).
                                         104

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                        LAGOONS FOR HOG FEEDING FLOORS

                                   Ralph L.  Ricketts*
  Confinement feeding of hogs in Missouri
is gaining in popularity. Probably the big-
gest single job connected with this feeding
is disposal of manure. Our hog feeders are
searching for an answer to this problem.
One solution that offers definite possibili-
ties is the use of lagoons.

  A survey made in Missouri indicates that
about 50 lagoons were in use in 1959. One
hundred more are planned for I960. The
size of those constructed range from less
than 10 square feet to 30 square feet per
hog capacity of the feed floor. The  average
size is  about 15 square feet per head.  Most
of the farmers contacted were satisfied
with the performance of the lagoons. Thir-
teen said they were highly pleased and only
two said they were not satisfied with the
units.  About one-half were built adjacent
to the feed floor and  the remainder at a
distance from the floor with a tile used to
carry the liquid and manure to the lagoon.
About one-third have been in use  more than
a year and the remainder in use less than
one year.

  A study of the results of this survey plus
conversation with various farmers  using
lagoons allows us to  develop  some tenative
suggestions. We are  not, however, either
encouraging or discouraging  them at this
time. These suggestions  are made  to give
assistance to those giving thought to the
installation of one. It is emphasized that
lagoons are experimental and that further
study and research is needed concerning
their design and use.

  SIZE:  - Minimum of 15 square  feet sur-
face area per head capacity of feeding floor.
This will be almost as large  as the feed
floor.

  DEPTH:  - Minimum of 3 feet.

  LOCATION: - Most convenient  from
standpoint of use is to place adjacent to
the feed floor as  shown in Sketch  1.  Floor
can be easily cleaned by hosing or scrap-
ing directly into lagoon. Where conditions
are such that adjacent location is not pos-
sible,  lagoon may be placed at a distance
from the feed floor and the manure carried
to it by a tile as shown in Sketch 2. How-
ever, more trouble is experienced getting
manure to  the lagoon when the tile is used.
Usual way  is to build a gutter along the
south side  of the  feed floor, sloping it to
the center  where the tile is located. This
tile carries the manure to the lagoon. Con-
siderable water is necessary to avoid tile
stoppage. Some feeders plug the tile open-
ing until considerable  solids and liquids
have accumulated in the gutter. The solids
seem to move through the  line better in
larger quantities. The  outlet of the tile
should be about 24" above  the liquid surface
in the lagoon and about in  the center of it.
Tile slop should be about 1/4" per foot and
minimum diameter 6". Eight inch diameter
would be more desirable.

   CLEANOUT: - Apparently lagoons do not
have to be  cleaned often.  Some  have been
in use  more  than a year and have never
been cleaned. Cleaning can probably best
be done by use of liquid manure pump.
Another method is to drain lagoon, then
remove solids  with scraper after they have
dried.

   WATER: - Lagoons should be kept filled
with water. Where  soil conditions are
right,  water from the feed floor plus rain
water falling on the feed floor and into the
lagoon is sufficient to keep them filled. No
surface water should be allowed to enter
them except  perhaps during the initial fill-
ing period.

   ODORS:  - Some odors should be expected.
While these are called lagoons, they prob-
ably function more  nearly like large open
topped septic tanks. More  study is needed
on this  point, but if the water basin inwhich
hog wastes are placed operated as a true
lagoon, only oxygen would be released and
  •Extension Agricultural Engineer, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.
                                          105

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there would be no odor.  However,  if we
use the same  standards  for designing la-
goons for hog wastes as for sewage from
tourist courts, trailer courts, schools,
etc. ,  a lagoon 1 to 2 acres in size would
be required for 100 hogs.  This size would
be impractical in most instances.  There
are odors from the feed floor and some ad-
ditional from  the lagoon are  not objectional
provided they do not become excessive.
Lagoons and hog feeding floors should be
500 feet from the dwelling and preferably
in a direction other than the  prevailing
winds.

  The  hog feeding arrangement shown in
the photograph is one of the best planned
units in Missouri.  It is on the Bob Tackett
farm near Warrensburg, Missouri.

  The  building is 30 feet wide, A 10-foot
wide alley is provided along  the north side
of the building interior for access.  Size of
the feeding floor is 30 feet by 110 feet.
Twenty feet of the feed floor is under roof
and the remaining  10-foot width is sun pens
along the  south side of the building. The
inexpensive shelter gives protection from
wind and snow during the winter  months
and provides effective shade during summer
months.  Fog spray nozzles are also used
for summer time cooling. Automatic wa-
terers are provided in e?ch pen. Floor
slopes to the front or to the south 1/2" per
foot except in the bedding area along the
back or north side of the pens where the
slope is  reduced to 1/8" per foot.

  The lagoon is 21  feet by  110 feet.  Usu-
ally,  manure is pushed into it with a snow
shovel. Sometimes the floor is cleaned by
hosing.

  Advantages of the unit may be  pointed
out as follows:

     1. Original cost is  kept low.

    2. Labor problem of feeding and care
        of hogs is kept to minimum.

    3. Fly problem is reduced.

    4. There is no mosquito problem.

  About  the only disadvantage is that odors
are excessive at times during days  of high
relative  humidity.
                                          106

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                   «>. E
                   - 59
                   $H
                                                               I
                          107

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4
                                    N
108

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      REPORT ON NORTH DAKOTA USE OF SEWAGE STABILIZATION LAGOONS*

                                          by

                                   W. VanHeuvelen*
  This year completes a ten-year period
in which lagoons have been used in North
Dakota at an ever-increasing rate and ex-
tensively adopted as the method of munic-
ipal sewage treatment. On  July 1,  1950,
there were three sewage lagoons operating
in our state, while this year on July 1,
I960, we find 113 such installations. As a
point of interest, on July 1, 1950, there
were  76  primary sewage treatment plants --
principally imhoff tanks--while today in
North Dakota you will find 37, a decrease
of 39. Lagoons have replaced 50% of the
primary treatment plants in our state.  The
same thing is  true  of secondary plants.  In
1950  there were  12 secondary treatment
plants, while today there are 7, with 5 of
these being replaced  by lagoons.  I960 will
see the replacement of another  secondary
plant, which has been used only ten years,
by a lagoon.

  Lagoons have encouraged the develop-
ment of a large  number of new sewage col-
lection systems in  our state. In 1950, there
were  a total of 107 sewage  collection sys-
tems  in  North Dakota. In I960, there are
173 sewage systems,  65% using lagoons.
All 66 of the new systems were developed
with this type of treatment. Lagoons have
not  only  been used  by  the small communi-
ties in North Dakota,  but have become the
type of treatment used by our major cities.
Of the twelve major cities in the state, six
are presently using sewage lagoons. These
include Williston, Dickinson, Devils Lake,
Grafton,  Jamestown,  and Wahpeton. These
communities range in population from 5 to
12 thousand. Of the other six major com-
munities, Minot (30, 277),  Grand Forks
(34, 256), and Valley  City (7, 758)  will start
lagoon construction sometime during the
present calendar year. Lagoons are being
planned for the cities  of Mandan and Bis-
marck.  This leaves one major community,
Fargo, which is presently expanding their
secondary treatment plant.  We except in
the very near future to find eleven of the
twelve major communities in North Dakota
using lagoons as a treatment method.

   The basic design of lagoons now being
built in North Dakota is about the same as
that used for the installation built at Mad-
dock in 1949. Design loading is generally
20 pounds of B.O.D. per acre per day with
a maximum limit of 40 pounds B.O.D. per
acre per day. Due to wide variations in
rainfall and climatic conditions across our
state,  there is some difference in design
between the eastern and western portions.
In the western part of our state, rainfall is
less and the soil is generally lighter.
Therefore,  to secure proper hydraulic
loading,  the B.O.D.  loading will often be
in the neighborhood of thirty to thirty-five
pounds per  acre per day.  We are actively
encouraging the development of two units,
which can be operated in either parallel or
series.

   We are still recommending location of
units as far away from existing and future
residential  and commercial developments
as is reasonable and feasible. This dis-
tance will vary with local conditions. La-
goons should be located adjacent to a water
course. Recommended dikes  are con-
structed much the  same as ten years ago
with an 8  foot height, 3 feet of free board,
well compacted,  and a width of 8 to 10 feet.
Dike structures vary in width and slope
with the size of  the installation. North Da-
kota still  recommends a 5 foot liquid depth
with a control structure for lagoon opera-
tion at any selected depth. The  lagoon bot-
tom should be made as level as possible.
Influent lines are placed near the  center of
the lagoon or in large installations far
enough from any bank to insure circulation.
Interconnecting piping or structures  vary
widely but all should offer flexible depth
control.  Do not build in complicated  fea-
tures -- stick to design features.
   'Executive Officer, State Department of Health.
                                         109

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  One of the major advantages of lagoons in
North Dakota is the fact that they can be so
designed as to  discharge effluents during
periods when the re is sufficient stream flow
to provide dilution water. Most North Da-
kota streams are intermittent with high flows
in early spring, low summer flows,  and
often zero flows during the winter months.
Our lagoons are designed to provide winter
storage of about 120 days.  Winter is a cri-
tical period for streams  in our state and if
all sewage can be  held within the lagoon,
real water pollution abatement is being
achieved. We are  encouraging operational
practices, which include partial draining
of the lagoon prior to winter freeze-up to
make room for winter sewage flows. The
effluent in the fall months is highly stabil-
ized and adds a minimum of waste load to
the water course.  We also  encourage a
discharge from the lagoon during the early
spring months  when there is adequate di-
lution water in the receiving stream. If the
level of the lagoon can be lowered during
the spring break-up period, the  transition
period is  more rapid.

  Lagoons in North Dakota operate,  gener-
ally,  with no problems during the  summer,
fall, and winter months.  There is a  spring
transition period when odors may develop
for a period, depending  upon several fac-
tors. The length of this  transition period
is dependent upon depth  of sewage in the
stabilization lagoon, the  organic load,  the
period of time  between freezing  and  above -
freezing temperatures,  the amount of sun-
shine, the type of industrial wastes that the
lagoon receives, the quality of the munici-
pal water supply and perhaps some unknown
factors. The duration of the transition
period in a lagoon may vary from  a few
days to an extended period.  During the past
ten years we have observed that lagoons
which have been loaded to design standards
present minor  transition problems.

  Where there  have been transition prob-
lems, we have  felt that these problems
would have existed during most of the year
were this particular  waste  being treated in
a conventional  type of sewage treatment
plant with the average type of operation
which is found  in our state. Also,  I might
point out that a lagoon is always subjected
to an FBI type  of investigation in regards
to odor,  while  those  visiting conventional
plants know that there will  be odor before
they reach the  plant; therefore,  they do not
make nearly as intense observations of
these odor problems.

   We are having some excellent results with
the treatment of industrial wastes in stabili-
zation lagoons and also some problems. A
majority of our lagoons treat domestic
sewage combined with a small industrial
load. One of our earliest problem lagoons
developed severe odors during an extended
transition period due to the fact that large
quantities of milk waste, buttermilk, and
slaughter plant wastes  were being dis-
charged to the lagoon. The strength of these
wastes was about four times that of the
domestic sewage received by this treat-
ment device.  With eliminationof the butter-
milk and some in-plant separations of
slaughter plant wastes  and decrease waste
loads,  this  problem has been considerably
alleviated,  so that the transition period on
this installation  is now very short. One of
our outstanding industrial installations  is
located at Mandan, North Dakota,  at the
Standard Oil Refinery.  This nine-acre la-
goon services a  50, 000 barrel a day refin-
ery.  The wastes  are first treated in an API
separator and then discharged to the la-
goon.  The Standard Oil Company has taken
a  real interest in the operation of this la-
goon and has  carried on a considerable
amount of experimental work. Water tem-
peratures are controlled,  aeration is pro-
vided through the use of Kesserling Brushes,
and a floating skimmer removes any oil
separated in the  lagoon before it is dis-
charged to the stream. This lagoonprovides
the refinery with considerable oil and
phenol  removal and permits the refinery
to discharge the  well-treated effluent which
creates no problem in a stream with an
average summer and winter flow of about
6  CFS.

   During the last two years, we have had
a rapidly growing potato products proces-
sing industry  developing in North Dakota.
This includes  a potato starch plant and
several potato flake plants. The wastes
from these potato processing plants have
varied from 860  to 3, 000 mg per liter,  5
day B.O.D. Suspended  solids have varied
from 1, 400  mg per liter to 4, 000 mg per
liter. The flake plants have developed a
waste strength which amounts  to about 350
population equivalents per ton of potatoes
processed,  with  these plants varying in
size from about 50 to 100 tons per day.  In
all cases where these plants have  discharged
                                         110

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their effluent to a lagoon,  the major portion
of the waste strength of the lagoon came
from the potato processing plant. Our de-
partment has required preliminary treat-
ment of these wastes before discharge to
a lagoon and found that by two hours'
settling, about 50% of the waste  strength
can be removed. These rapidly developing
industries  have loaded some lagoons as high
as 150 pounds of B.O.D. per acre per day
during the  last year. Operation has been
satisfactory during the summer,  fall,  and
winter months.  However,  very serious
odor problems did develop this last spring
and persisted for several months. Grafton,
North Dakota,  a community of a little over
5, 000, has  a potato flake plant processing
72 tons of potatoes a day and a potato starch
plant processing about 360 tons per day.
The loading on this lagoon was in the neigh-
borhood of  150 pounds of B.O.D. per acre
per day. During  the past two months of
open weather with  considerable sunshine,
we have found a decrease in the  B.O.D.
strength of  the lagoon contents,  a film of
algae developing, and the treatment proc-
ess taking place. We trust that if proper
pre-treatment of waste is  accomplished
that a properly loaded and designed lagoon
will treat these potato effluents.

  We also  find the  transition period is ex-
tended considerably if the  lagoon is served
by a municipal water supply which contains
a large amount of sulfates. At the city of
Devils Lake, which has a 95 acre lagoon,
the municipal water supply has 1, 100 parts
per million sulfate. A mild odor was re-
ported at this installation in the latter part
of June this year. This community is soon
changing their water supply, and  therefore
will eliminate this problem, but certainly
the amount of sulfates in the municipal
water supply should be considered in the
development of a stabilization  lagoon. I
should not intimate that overloading  is the
only problem. Both organic and hydraulic
underloading can also produce undesirable
operations. If soil conditions are not ade-
quate or lagoon area is too large, proper
liquid depths will  not be maintained and
poor operation conditions will  develop.

  May I sum up this report from  North
Dakota  in saying  that after ten years of ex-
perience and 113 stabilization  lagoons, we
are sure that this is now the accepted
method of  sewage treatment in our state.
There have been problems, and there will
continue to be some problems  --  mostly
related to  the overloading or underloading
of the installation, thereby developing odor
problems during  the spring transition
period. If  a lagoon is properly designed
and properly operated, it will  provide a
community with a trouble-free, economical,
and satisfactory treatment installation.
                                          Ill

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                       RAW SEWAGE LAGOONS IN MONTANA
                                  by C. W.  Brinck *
  Raw sewage lagoons have revolutionized
sewage treatment in Montana,  In 1952,
upon the urging of the U.  S. Public Health
Service, Missouri Basin Office and the kind
invitation of the State of North Dakota,
Montana was included with other Missouri
Basin States in a trip to study lagoon in-
stallations throughout North Dakota.  As a
result of this beginning, Montana had 44
standard sewage  lagoons in operation and
11 under construction,  as of July 1,  I960.
We also have a lagoon that was built in
1911, but not recognized as a lagoon. This
lagoon provides sewage treatment for a
community of 2, 730 people and consists of
four ponds,  three of which are in operation
and a fourth one which is  drying  and await-
ing being cleaned. The  ponds are operated
in series. Each year,  the pond which has
received the primary sewage is taken out
of service after being in use for  a full year
and the sludge is permitted to dry and is
bull-dozed from the pond.  The following
year, this pond becomes the third in series,
the third pond becomes the second pond in
the series and the second pond becomes the
first in the series. This facility has per-
formed satisfactorily without odors for
forty-nine years.  The sewage is very weak
because of large  quantities of infiltration
water.  This weak sewage was long believed
by State Board of Health representatives to
be the reason for no odors being created at
this sewage pond.

  Lagoons have been very successful in
Montana since the first one designed as a
sewage lagoon was constructed and placed
in operation in 1953. Typical  comments
concerning sewage lagoons are along this
line:  "Most logical and economical way to
meet our sewage disposal problem. "
"Everything about it is  excellent and main-
tenance problems are practically zero. "
"We recommend it for  any town or city. "
"No upkeep or maintenance problems since
construction other than riprapping banks."
"Very well pleased with operation  and
costs - No operational  problems so far. "
"Very cheap. " "It is very satisfactory. "
  These few comments represent the feel-
ing of many of our communities in the State
that have sewage lagoons.  There are still
some communities that do not have lagoons
and look upon the sewage lagoon with some
skepticism.  The costs shown in the ac-
companying table reflect land and lagoon
costs only.  These costs vary with the cost
of the land. Also,  the contractors costs
vary for dirt moving, the type  of soil and
the way the earth must  be moved to provide
a relatively level bottom for the pond.

  Seventeen of the 44 lagoons in Montana
are of the two-cell type. Recommendations
are for  two-cell structures because of the
greater flexibility that is provided when the
two lagoons are so designed that they can
be operated either in parallel or in series,
depending upon the load. We particularly
recommend the  two-cell lagoon for a com-
munity that is just being sewered for the
first time since it frequently requires con-
siderable time to get all of the dwellings in
the community to connect to the sewer.
This is  particularly true these days because
the communities that had sewers a number
of years ago usually were the communities
where a septic tank would not operate sat-
isfactorily due to the tight soil and those
that have remained unsewered have been
able to make septic tanks and cesspools
operate because of the fairly coarse gravelly
soil.

  Many of the lagoons in Montana are pro-
vided with a sewage  line which discharges
above the water surface. In only one  in-
stance has it been reported that the pilings
were  raised by ice in the winter.  Many
Montana lagoons will have as much as two
feet of ice a short distance away from the
point where the  liquid enters the lagoon.
This point is open because  of the heat in the
sewage. Many persons  have expressed
concern because of the  conditions developed
by the cold weather.  Some  of our lagoons
are located in areas where the thermom-
eter •will drop to a temperature of minus
50 degrees  F. ,  almost every winter.  Yet
  •Director,  Division of Environmental Sanitation, Montana State Board of Health
                                        112

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 the lagoons operate satisfactorily. Because
 of ice conditions, Montana feels that  it is
 absolutely necessary to design a lagoon to
 provide a five feet liquid depth. This  may
 be reduced to three feet in the summer,
 but with two feet of ice to contend with in
 some localities, it is necessary to have
 some place for  the liquid under the  ice.
 Therefore, practically all lagoons that are
 going in are five feet deep.
   One lagoon in Montana was established to
 handle the wastes from a 23, 000 barrelper
 day oil refinery. This  oil refinery produces
 a waste which contains large quantities of
 phenol. The refinery instituted a program
 whereby as much water as possible was
 conserved and reused,  discharging only
 that water which had a relatively high dis-
 solved solids concentration. After passing
 through the oil separator,  the waste water
 contains both oil and phenols,  together with
 boiler blow-down wastes,  it is  discharged
 to a two-cell lagoon, operating in series.
 In this lagoon, biological activity reduces
 the phenol content to a point from approxi-
 mately 100 pounds  per day to less than 0. 1
 pounds  per day.  Needless to say, manage-
 ment, the down-stream users,  and the
 State Board of Health are  pleased with
 these results.

   Two packing plants use lagoons for their
waste disposal. The tendency here is for
the plants to overload the lagoons, to per-
mit too much blood and other material to
escape in the waste water,  thus overloading
the lagoons and creating an odor condition.
In one plant this is  quite serious since
there are neighbors nearby and there is no
place for them to discharge their wastes.
The plant was built in an area -where there
were  no persons  residing a few years ago.
The area has now been subdivided and is
heavily built up.
   Lagoons have been considered for sewage
treatment for some of the larger communi-
ties (up to 55, 000 population) but,  due to
the excessive pumping costs or the exces-
sive cost for available land, the general
decision has been to use the mechanical
type of treatment for these communites.
We would not hesitate to approve the use of
a sewage lagoon for these larger communi-
ties if the engineers decided that it was the
answer to the problem in Montana.

   Lagoons are inexpensive to construct, as
compared with a mechanical plant; for
operation, costs are practically nil as com-
pared with a mechanical plant,  and the de-
gree of treatment is much higher than is
ordinarily obtained with the customary
mechanical primary or secondary plant.
Therefore,  on this basis,  we have nothesi-
tated to recommend sewage lagoons to our
municipalities in Montana. We now find
that many municipalities are convincing
other municipalities on the suitability of
this method of sewage treatment. That, to-
gether with the material that appears in the
literature information from consulting en-
gineers, the State Board of Health,  and in
the Readers  Digest has been most helpful
in changing a situation in Montana from one
where,  about eight years ago,  we hadabout
20 acceptable sewage treatment plants in
Montana, and today, we have 85 that are
acceptable and have 9 communities  with
money that are proceeding with planning for
construction. These are both mechanical
and lagoons. We hope that within the next
year we will have the sewage from the re-
maining 33 municipalities  treated. Twenty-
four have plants needing some improvement,
3 are of uncertain status,  but the remaining
6 are making plans and several have al-
ready purchased land for lagoons. Montana,
we hope, will within the next year,  be  in a
state that will have no raw sewage being
discharged into  its streams.
                                          113

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               TABLE 32




    RA« SEWAGE LAGOONS IN MONTANA




DIVISION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION




     MONTANA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
Municipality
1950 Census
Population
Ho. Sewer
Connections
Year
Placed in
Operation
Lift
Station
Cost
Number
Lagoons
Total Lagoon
Surface Area
Acres
Acre
Land
Pur-
chased
Land
Cost
Con-
struc-
tion
Cost
Cost/Capita
for Lagoon
Distance between
Lagoon & Bldgr, .
Odors
Baker
Big Sandy
Big Timber
Boulder (State)
Br-.dy
Brockton
Busby
Charlo
Chester
Choteau
Circle
Conrad
Culbertson
Cut Bank
Dent on
Dillon
Dodson
East Helena
Fairfield
Forsyth
Geraldine
Harlowton
Hingham
Hobson
Jordan
Lame Deer
Lodge Grass
Malta
Melstone
Opheim
Plenty, ood
Plevna
Riehey
Roundup
Rudyard
St . Ignatius
Sheridan
Stevens vllle
Towns end
Valier
West Glendive
White Sulphur
Springs
Wolf Point
Worden
1,772
743
1,6,9
900
240
350
200
310
733
1,618
856
1,865
779
3,721
435
3,268
330
1,216
693
1,906
374
1,733
214
205
677
350
536
2,095
195
383
1,862
247
595
2,856
550
781
572
772
1,316
710
1,000
1,025
2,551
225




125
40
23


400


289

169


450
288

145
600
63
80

30
140
735

110
750
59
133


70





250

110
1956 2
1955 1
1959 1
1959 2
1955 1
1955 1
1957 2
1954 1
1954 1
1955 1
1955 8,510 2
1957 2
1958 12,400 2
1959 22,000 2
1955 1
1955 1
1958 8,700 1
1955 2
1955 1
1959 2
1955 1
1959 1
1956 1
1958 2
1954 1
1957 2
1957 1
1958 17,525 2
1957 1
1955 1
1953 2
1959 2
1957 2
1958 7,575 1
2
1956 1
1960 1
1960 1
1959 1
1960 1
1958 7,800 1
1959 2
1959 35,000 1
1956 1
14
9
18
12
3
2
3
3
9
30
15
20
15
43
5
40
5
14
10
8
5
21
3
1
4
2
2
19
2.5
6
30
2
6
26
2
5
6
10
17
11
10
19
48
4

1,200
90 22,500

400
5 250



80 4,000
3,000

40 1,600
185 42,160
11.5 1,805
80 11,500
6 1,000




25 1,815
150/Ae.
350


2,000
47 7,700


80 7,737
18 1,400



800/Ac .
10.6 1,600
16 1,500
20 3,000
13 2,200
20 6,000
40 800
90 3,150
1,200

13,306
22,957
59,290
5,000
6,400



24,457
13,980

14,452
74,405
8,140
23,775
6,883
62,650
29,647
11,000
7,700
25,970
7,895
9,000



34,260

20,488
24,680
7,375
15,952
18,925

19,000
23,740
14,827
18,103
28,255
14,420
37,492
20,382
3,200

19
2''
66
22
19



It
16

19
20
19
7
21
52
43
6
21
15
39
46



16

53
13
30
27
6

29
42
19
14
40
14
37
8
20

1/4 mile

3/4 Mile Yes
1,370 Ft. Yes
2,000 Ft. No
1,200 Ft. No

Yes
2,500 Ft. Yes
Yes

1/2 Mile No

1,200 Ft. No


2,500 Ft. No
2 Miles No

Ho
1/2 Mile No
1/4 Mile Yes
700 Ft. No
Yes
1,000 Ft. No
200 Ft. Yes
1,000 Ft. Yes

1,200 Ft. No
1/2 Mile Yes
150 Ft. No
2,500 Ft. Yes


2,000 Ft. No





1,500 Ft. No

1/4 Mile Yes

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              TABLE 32




   HAW SEWAGE LAGOONS IN MONTANA




DIVISION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION




    MONTANA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
Municipality
Season when
odors noted
Recurrent
Odors
Odor
Intensity
Time odors
Noted
Description
of odors
Cora-
plaints
Cold Weather
Problem
Overflow
Effluent
used
Days
Maintenance
per year
Sulfates
mg/1
Baker
Big Sandy
Big Timber
Boulder (State)
Brady
Brockton
Busby
Charlo
Chester
Choteau
Circle
Conrad
Culbertson
Cut Bank
Dent on
Dillon
Dodson
East Helena
Fairfield
Forsyth
Geraldme
Harlowton
Hingham
Hobs on
Jordan
Lame Deer
Lodge Grass
Malta
Me1 stone
Opheim
Plentywood
Plevna
Richey
Roundup
Rudyard
St. Ignatius
Sheridan
Stevensville
Towns end
Valier
West Glendive
White Sulphur
Springs
Wolf Point
Worden



Spring Mild Few days sewage No No Yes No None
Spring Yes Strong 14 days Sewage Yes No Yes Irrigation 10 days
No No Yes No 1 day
No No No No 4 days

Spring 10-14 days H2S Few
Spring Yes Slight 1- 2 days Stagnant No No No 2-5 days
Spring 10-14 days Sewage Fe*

None None None 1/2 Hr/day

No No No 20 days


No No Yes Irrigation None
No No Yes No 30 days

No No Yes No 3 days
No No No No Very Little
Spring Yes Light 14-21 days No Yes No No
No No Yes No
Sewage
No No 10 days
Fall No Mild Evenings One No Yes No 5 days
Early Spring 1st year Strong 14 days Sewage Yes Yes Not Yet 5 days

None 1st Year No Practically None
Spring Yes Not too bad 14 days Not serious Few No Yes No 20 days
No No No No 5 days
Spring Yes Mild 10-14 days One pi^F^eae" N° H° 2 dayS


No Very Little Mo 1 day





No Ice raises yes No 2 days
Di^char^e Pipe '
Spring Yes Strong 2 weeks Sulfur Gas No None No VPTV FPW
1000
30-1300
27
35
555
1267

3
600-900
50
805-1050
32
185
53
49
6
267
19
22
200
162
255-530
4

770

500
380
834

886
189
0-914
382
7
7
23
7
65
250

8
300
i *•«
               115

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                   SEWAGE STABILIZATION PONDS IN MINNESOTA

                                  Harvey G.  Rogers*
  Sewage stabilization ponds have been
used for the treatment of raw sewage and
industrial waste from municipalities in
Minnesota since 1955. As of May, I960,
there are twenty-one municipal projects
for treatment of raw sewage and industrial
wastes which  have  been  completed or are
under construction. These ponds  are not to
be confused with the lagoons used for the
disposal of industrial wastes in the state
for many years. These industrial waste
ponds or lagoons have served as a place
for storage of processing wastes  from
vegetable canneries, beet sugar plants,
etc. ,  until the period of the year  when the
stream flows  are high and wastes can be
discharged safely at a controlled  rate into
the stream.

  The total water  surface area of the
twenty-one pond projects is about 1, 300
acres, or an average of about 62  acres per
installation.  Plans for other projects,  but
not yet under  construction, will have a  total
water area of about 300  acres.  The sizes
of the ponds range  from about 5 acres  to
335 acres. The area of each installation
also includes  allowance  for  wastes from
industries in the municipality which, in
some cases, is several  times the waste
from only the domestic sources.

  Stabilization ponds have not been used for
treatment of raw sewage from small in-
stallations such as schools, resorts, sub-
divisions,  etc., although effluent stabiliza-
tion ponds following secondary treatment
have been used where a  stable effluent has
been required.

  A general practice is  to locate  the ponds
at least one-half mile from a municipality
and at least one-fourth mile from the near-
est dwelling,  although several installations
are located at distances slightly less than
this. All ponds have been designed to pro-
vide for an overflow or  discharge into a
lake, stream or drainage ditch.
  In all installations at least two ponds,
designed to operate in  series, have been
provided. The primary pond is sized ac-
cording to a design five-day BOD loading of
fifteen to  twenty pounds per acre of water
surface. A  secondary pond is usually one-
fourth to one-half the size of the primary
pond. In cases where the area of the pri-
mary pond is large,  (more than sixty acres)
it is recommended that the area be divided
into two primary cells  designed to operate
in  series  or parallel with each  other and
in  series  with the secondary pond. The
dikes are from  six to eight feet in height
above the pond bottom to provide at least
three feet of freeboard at maximum liquid
level.  Provision is made for six months
storage of designed winter  sewage flows by
lowering the level  of the ponds  during the
fall. A minimum depth of one foot of liquid
is  normally retained in the primary pond.
This volume is  not considered available as
storage capacity.  The dikes and bottom of
the ponds are constructed of relatively  im-
pervious soil or sealed to prevent excess
percolation of liquid into the soil.  The
dikes are constructed with an inner slope of
at  least four to  one and an outer slope of
at  least three to one.

  In only  four cases  out of the twenty-six
designs, has  it been feasible to use grav-
ity flow to the primary pond. Others re-
quire a pumping station and force main.

  Construction  costs vary widely depending
upon their location, soil characteristics,
topography,  etc. Availability of a satisfac-
tory site at reasonable cost has frequently
been a controlling  factor in the feasibility
of using ponds . Of sixteen projects for which
construction cost figures are available at
this time, the average  cost of the ponds,
including  earth  moving, overflow struc-
tures, fencing,  sealing, seeding and ac-
cess road, was about $940 per acre of
$9.40 per design  unit of population equiva-
lent,  with a range  of costs  from about $600
  "Chief, Section of Water Pollution Control, Division of Environmental Sanitation, Minnesota State Department of Health,  Min-
neapolis, Minnesota.
                                          116

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to $4300 per acre. The total costs of these
projects including interceptor and outfall
sewers,  pumping stations, land and ease-
ments,  engineering, fiscal, legal,  etc.,
came to an average of about $3400 per acre
or $34 per design population equivalent.
Land costs also vary widely and will range
up to $500 per acre with an average of
about $200 per acre.
  Operation experience has been generally
satisfactory, although some problems have
been experienced with erosion of the dike
at the water line,  seepage of liquid through
the dikes,  and excessive growth of emer-
gent aquatic weeds.  Odors have not been a
problem except for a few days following the
break-up of ice in the spring. This gen-
erally occurs in the first two weeks in
April. Permanent ice cover will begin to
form on the ponds during the early part of
November,  and ice and snow cover is vir-
tually complete until the spring break-up.
Ice thickness of up to eighteen inches has
been observed on primary ponds.

   Excess loss of liquid due to percolation
has not been a problem after the initial
filling of the ponds. Also loss by evapora-
tion is not a problem since, on the aver-
age,  evaporation ranges from ten inches
more to ten inches less  than precipitation
during the period of a year.
                                         117

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                  WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

                                           By

                           Charles E. Carl and Don C. Kalda*
             INTRODUCTION

  The terminology applied to the treat-
ment devices under consideration varies
with individuals and different areas of the
country. The broad term of waste  stabili-
zation pond has received rather general ac-
ceptance in South Dakota as being most
accurately descriptive of the physical and
functional mechanisms of such installa-
tions.  A more specific term often  applied
to municipal installations is  sewage stabil-
ization pond.  The term  stabilization pond
is considered to be synonymous with oxi-
dation pond and stabilization lagoon when
defined as "those ponds of regular  and
controlled shape, depth, and marginal
area,  specifically designed and constructed
as a waste treatment  device".

  The first stabilization pond installation
serving a South Dakota community  was
placed into  operation  at Lemmon in 1951.
Prior  to that time, the State of North Da-
kota had several satisfactorily operating
installations. The success of these early
installations attracted much attention in the
neighboring  states, and their  use  spread
rapidly throughout the midwest area.  This
method of waste treatment is becoming in-
creasingly popular in South Dakota, and
there are now  seventy-seven installations
treating domestic and organic  industrial
wastes.  Acceptance of this method of waste
treatment is demonstrated by the fact that
no conventional treatment plants have been
built in any municipality in South Dakota
under  5, 000 population during  the last five
years.

  Rapid acceptance of stabilization ponds
in South Dakota can be attributed to a num-
ber of important advantages  of this treat-
ment method over the conventional proc-
esses.  A majority of our municipalities
have a population of less than 2, 500, which
size range is particularly adaptable,  from
an economic and operational standpoint, to
the use of stabilization ponds.  Significantly
reduced costs for  sewage treatment has
made it possible to finance construction of
collection systems in practically all of the
smaller municipalities in South Dakota.  In
addition to reduced costs of construction,
operation and maintenance  of the treatment
facilities, a major advantage of  particular
importance to pollution control agencies is
that the degree of  treatment remains  at a
high level even if the pond is neglected
from an operational standpoint.  Widespread
use of stabilization ponds has unquestion-
ably been a significant factor in  accelerat-
ing the water pollution abatement program
in South Dakota.

   Many areas  of investigation and develop-
ment remain to be studied to derive the
full advantages of  the pond method of  waste
treatment. Such deficiencies in available
data and experience are certainly recog-
nized in our area as new and unexplained
conditions develop.

    APPLICATION IN SOUTH DAKOTA

   All of the stabilization ponds in South
Dakota have been installed as permanent
waste treatment facilities,  and a majority
serve as  a complete treatment unit. Stabil-
ization pond installations have demon-
strated an ability to effectively treat raw
sewage under proper loading conditions
with no adverse  effects.  The treatment
provided  by an installation meeting recom-
mended standards  of design is  considered
to be equivalent  to, or better than,  that of
most conventional  secondary treatment
plants.

   The  demonstrated capacity of  stabiliza-
tion ponds to treat raw sewage has  resulted
in construction of  an increased number of
  'Director, and Assistant Director, Division of Sanitary Engineering, South Dakota Department of Health, Pierre,
South Dakota
                                          118

-------
such installations in South Dakota. With
few  exceptions, it is more economical for
the smaller municipality to provide addi-
tional pond area rather than primary treat-
ment.  Many Imhoff tanks have been by-
passed when a stabilization pond was con-
structed in order to eliminate the odors
generally associated with such units and
also to decrease operational requirements.
The ability of stabilization ponds to effec-
tively treat raw sewage has been the signif-
icant factor in reducing costs of the small-
er installations far below that of conven-
tional plants providing a comparable de-
gree of treatment.

  Stabilization  ponds are  operating in all
sections of South Dakota ranging from the
sparsely populated western area to the
more densely populated agricultural east-
ern  area.  The use of stabilization ponds  in
South Dakota is not considered limited to
sparsely populated areas  where low value
land is available. For the  smaller installa-
tions,  the  aggregate cost  of construction
and  operation of stabilization ponds in high
value land areas has generally been found
to be significantly less than that of conven-
tional treatment methods.  The final choice
of treatment method should necessarily be
reached by a thorough study of local condi-
tions and  economic  considerations.

   A total of seventy-seven stabilization
ponds  having a design population of 88,413
persons are presently in operation in South
Dakota. The water  surface area repre-
sented by these installations is 801 acres.
Of the total number  of stabilization ponds
in operation,  sixty-one serve municipal-
ities,  one serves a State institution,  ten
serve  Federal installations, three serve
private installations, and two treat organic
industrial wastes. Significant dairy plant
wastes are treated  in conjunction with
domestic wastes in seven of the municipal
installations.

   Dairy wastes are  being treated effective-
ly in conjunction •with domestic wastes by
stabilization ponds.  Organic loadings have
been maintained at  a level comparable to
that recommended for normal  municipal
installations. A summary  of the basis of
design  for these installations  is shown in
Table  33.
                                        TABLE 33
                                    BASIS OF DESIGN
                      DAIRY & MUNICIPAL WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS

City
Castlewood
Freeman
Humboldt
Parkston
Redfield
Scotland
Volga
Design B.O.D. (Pounds/Day)
Domestic
85
150
92
220
450
220
144
Dairy
100
120
112
130
100
4B
360
Total
185
210 (1)
204
350
550
268
390 (2)

Area of Pond
(Acres)
16.0
8.3
12.3
15.5
30.2
13.1
21.0

B.O.D. Loading
( Pounds/Acre )
11
25
17
22
18
20
19
      (1)  Existing conventional plant removes  sixty pounds B.O.D./Day.
      (2)  Existing conventional plant removes  114 pounds B.O.D./Day.
  Design loadings for all these installations
except Castlewood are in the range of
twenty pounds B.  O.  D. per surface acre
per day. A more conservative design was
used for the  Castlewood pond since it was
the first application of a stabilization pond
for treatment of combined domestic and
dairy wastes in South Dakota. Loadings in
the magnitude indicated have resulted in
no serious odor problems except in those
installations where abusive wastes such as
whey and buttermilk have been discharged
to the system. The gross organic load
from such discharges together with a high
                                          119

-------
sulfate  concentration in the water  supply
created serious odor problems at  a number
of the installations. Diligent operation of
the dairy plant and control by  municipal
ordinance to prevent such discharges is as
necessary for satisfactory stabilization
pond operation as it is for a conventional
plant.

   The discharge of such strong wastes
actually creates  a  lesser problem with a
stabilization pond than a conventional plant
even though the odor problem  may make
the situation appear more serious. Reason-
ably high removals of B. O. D.  are  accom-
plished by stabilization ponds  even under
such adverse conditions and the recovery
period to normal operation is  generally
short. Some problems have  been experi-
enced with filling and maintaining  an ade-
quate liquid level in the stabilization pond;
however, such difficulties have generally
been attributed to unsatisfactory soil con-
ditions.

   Meat processing wastes from two plants
are being treated effectively and econom-
ically by stabilization ponds.  A  loading
of fifty ponds B. O. D.  per surface acre
was used as  the basis of design for these
installations. A loading of this magnitude
is significantly higher  than that recom-
mended for treatment of dairy and munici-
pal wastes. Experience has  shown that a
stabilization pond treating only meat proc-
essing  plant wastes  will operate  satisfac-
torily and provide  a high degree of treat-
ment  at a loading of fifty pounds B. O.  D
per surface acre per day. Meat wastes
appear  to be characteristically well  suited
for treatment by stabilization  ponds.  The
sulfate  concentration of the water  supply
has also been found to  be an important
consideration in  the design of  stabilization
ponds particularly -when the  higher organic
loadings are to be  applied.

  Field and laboratory studies of  one of
the installations  treating -wastes from a
small packing house showed that the stabil-
ization  pond was operating at a loading of
ninety-five pounds  B. O. D.  and 11. 6 pounds
total nitrogen per acre per day without
creating nuisance conditions.  At this load-
ing, the  B. O. D.  reduction under summer
conditions was seventy-two per cent result-
ing in an  average effluent B. O.  D. of 150
parts  per million.  Additional pond area
has since been provided for this installa-
tion.
  A complete listing of the stabilization
pond installations in South Dakota is pro-
vided in Appendix I.

OPERATIONAL FEATURES
   AND PERFORMANCE
  The mechanism of waste treatment in
stabilization ponds has been described
many times in the literature.  The basic
process depends largely on the interactions
of bacteria and algae.  Bacteria convert the
decomposable  organic  matter to more
stable products and in  so doing liberate
nutrient elements necessary for algal
growth.  The algae utilize  these abundant
nutrient materials and through photosynthe-
sis produce the surplus oxygen required
for aerobic bacterial action.

  During the extended  periods of ice  and
snow cover in  the northern areas, the
aerobic processes are  replaced by anaero-
bic action.  A complete ice cover prevents
the escape of odors associated with the
anaerobic processes. The transitional
period from ice to open water is the most
critical time of the year for release of
odors.

  The  degree of treatment obtained in sta-
bilization ponds is  considered to be equiv-
alent to that obtained from most conven-
tional secondary treatment plants.  From
the  standpoint  of the pollutional load dis-
charged to a watercourse, it is  significant
to calculate organic reductions in  pounds
rather than in  concentration. Losses  in
liquid volume through seepage and evap-
oration significantly  reduce  the organic
load discharged. Studies in North and South
Dakota showed that the average minimum
reduction in B. O. D.  concentration was 70
per cent which occurred during  ice cover.
Maximum reductions in B. O. D.  concen-
tration approached 99 per  cent.  Reductions
in coliform density were found to be 99
per cent or over more  than 50 per cent of
the  time and, with few exceptions,  were
95 per cent or more  at all times.

            DESIGN CRITERIA

  Minimum design criteria for stabiliza-
tion ponds were first developed in South
Dakota in 1953. On the basis of experience
and additional  data on performance, sev-
eral revisions have been made to the  orig-
inal standards. A copy of  the South Dakota
Department of Health Design Criteria for
Waste Stabilization Ponds  is  provided in
Appendix II.
                                          120

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   The basic consideration in the design of
stabilization ponds is the organic loading
that can be applied to satisfy all conditions.
Such conditions are considered  to encom-
pass two main objectives in South Dakota;
that is,  (1) to provide an adequate degree
of waste treatment,  and  (2) to provide such
treatment without creating nuisance condi-
tions.

   Experience with the early installations
in our State has indicated that providing
one  surface acre per 100 population equiv-
alent (fifteen to twenty pounds B.  O.  D. )
will satisfy both of the above conditions.
The surface loading  is based on a liquid
depth of three  to five feet. Such a recom-
mended loading is considerably more  con-
servative than that suggested by some of
the other states. Loadings have been held
low  not particularly  for  increasing treat-
ment efficiency but to prevent occurrence
of nuisance conditions.  The lack of odors
has  become an important factor in the rap-
idly increasing use  of stabilization ponds
in South Dakota.

   Climatic conditions are necessarily an
important consideration  in design in our
area. Ice cover normally exists from De-
cember  1 to March  15. With the loadings
recommended,  recovery is rapid following
ice breakup resulting in  only brief periods
  hen odors might occur.  The  more heavily
  aded ponds require increasingly longer
periods to revert to  the aerobic state.

  Experience in South Dakota indicates
that  the sulfate content of the water supply
should be taken into  consideration in deter-
mining  the organic loading of stabilization
ponds.  A high  sulfate content is definitely
conducive to more  serious odors, and this
effect would necessarily  be more pro-
nounced in the  heavily loaded ponds.  There
is also  some evidence indicating that high
sulfate  concentrations have a deleterious
effect on the efficiency of the stabilization
process.  Further investigation  of this
effect on over-all pond operation is re-
quired to develop design  recommendations;
however, observations and experiences to
date indicate that sulfate concentrations in
the range of 500 parts per  million do  not
cause serious problems.  Many of the mu-
nicipalities in South Dakota served by  sta-
bilization ponds use water  with sulfate con-
centrations in excess of  1000 parts per
million.  Operational problems have oc-
curred at sometime in almost all instances
where the sulfate content was at this level.
Such problems were not nexessarily limited
to those installations having loadings high-
er than recommended or those treating in-
dustrial wastes.

   The choice between use of a single cell
or multiple cells  depends on local condi-
tions, downstream water uses,  size of the
installations, and other general considera-
tions. Should it be considered necessary to
provide one or more  cells in series with
the primary cell, it  is recommended that
the loading of the primary cell not exceed
the recommended value of fifteen to twenty
pounds B. O. D.  per surface acre.

  Loading based on surface area with con-
trolled depth is considered to be the signif-
icant basis for design. Should it be  desir-
able to reduce the size of the primary unit,
smaller cells operating in parallel are rec-
ommended.  Multiple cell design has dis-
tinct advantages  in many instances. A num-
ber  of stabilization ponds have been built
using a two-level bottom. Approximately
half the pond is designed for a  liquid depth
of three feet and the  remainder for  a depth
of.five feet.  Such a design has  the advan-
tage of alleviating filling problems without
increased expenditures  for dividing dikes
and  additional appurtenances.
  Location of stabilization ponds with re-
spect to habitation and the municipality  is
often a subject of discussion.  The revised
design criteria presently used  in South
Dakota specifies no minimum distance that
a pond should be located away from built-
up areas.  A study and evaluation of local
conditions similar to that necessary to lo-
cate a waste treatment plant of any type is
considered to be the  most practical ap-
proach.  The results  of a 1956 court action
in South Dakota regarding the location of a
proposed stabilization pond  installation
may be of interest.  The nearest  contents
of the ponds was proposed to be within  ap-
proximately 500  feet of  a residence, and
the owner brought suit to prevent construc-
tion of the installation. After hearing testi-
mony for two days,  the  court ruled against
the property owner.  The installation •was
placed into operation in early 1957 and no
further legal action has been initiated.

                  COSTS

  Cost data for a majority of the installa-
tions in South Dakota is provided in Appen-
dix III.  The average  construction cost
                                          121

-------
based on sixty-two installations with a to-
tal design population of 83,811 and varying
in design population from 200 to 10, 600 is
$11. 00 per capita.  The range of such costs
is from  a minimum of $3. 27 per  capita to
$37. 94 per capita. The construction  cost
in terms of water surface averaged"
$1185. 00 per acre with a range from
$634. 00  to $3690. 00 per acre.  Land  costs
are extremely variable and dependant on
local conditions.  The  data shows an aver-
age land cost of $2. 58 per capita based on
land purchases by forty-six municipalities
with a total design population of 63, 582
persons. The total approximate average
cost of providing sewage stabilization ponds
in South Dakota is indicated to  be $13. 58
per capita.

   The equivalent of complete treatment
was therefore provided at approximately
the same or at a lesser cost than that of
conventional primary  treatment.  When
operation  and maintenance costs over an
extended period are also considered, the
savings in cost through use  of stabilization
ponds becomes even more pronounced.

       OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS

  Odor problems  have occurred in a  num-
ber of the  installations in South Dakota.  A
serious odor problem  developed in one of
the earliest installations in the State  serv-
ing the City of Kadoka.  The most serious
conditions prevailed during the summer
season when it would be expected that sta-
bilization ponds would perform at peak
efficiency and be capable of assimilating
heavy loads. Studies indicated that the
loading was in the order of twenty pounds
B. O. D.  per  surface acre per day.  Sulfides
continued to be produced through the  open
•water seasons indicating that anaerobic
decomposition was taking place. The mu-
nicipal water supply has a sulfate concen-
tration of  1038 parts per million and  total
dissolved solids of 1841 parts per million.
Investigations resulted in no  specific con-
clusions  on the cause  of the unsatisfactory
conditions. A second cell was constructed
in early  1956 to provide a loading of ap-
pj-oximately twelve pounds,  B.  O. D.  per
surface acre. The installation has func-
tioned without serious nuisance conditions
since that time although some odor prob-
lems  have been reported.

  Problems with odors  have  also been ex-
perienced particularly during the spring
transition period from ice to open water in
a number of other installations. Particular
difficulties  have been experienced with
those installations treating dairy wastes in
conjunction with domestic sewage.  Investi-
gation of these problems has shown that
abusive wastes  such as buttermilk  or whey
have been discharged to the system. Ex-
perience has shown that stabilization ponds
can effectively treat dairy wastes under
proper loading conditions.  It is also sig-
nificant that the most serious problems
occurred where the municipal water supply
contained sulfates in the order of 1000
parts per million.

  No use has been made of nitrate  com-
pounds for control of odors.  Very limited
use has been made of odor  masking com-
pounds. Observations made at one  installa-
tion  using such  a compound indicated that
the material was ineffective at the  dosage
being applied.

  Control of weeds  during the initial filling
period often causes operational problems.
Proper design and construction can alle-
viate this problem to a  large extent. Some
success has been  demonstrated in con-
trolling aquatic  vegetation by applying some
of the  newer types of herbicides.

  Sealing of the bottom and embankments
is essential when ponds are constructed of
pervious soil. Heavy growths of vegetation
have developed in some installations con-
structed in porous  soils resulting in great-
ly increased maintenance requirements.
Limited use has been made of bentonite and
asphaltic sealants in South  Dakota.  The one
experience with bentonite for sealing the
bottom of a pond constructed in extremely
sandy  soil was not satisfactory. An asphal-
tic compound was  used to seal  one  cell of
another installation and the facility has not
been in use  for a sufficient period of time
to properly evaluate its effectiveness.

  Operational problems have been  limited
to a  small number  of the total installations
in operation. Some  odors are experienced
during the transition period from ice to
open water in almost all installations.  The
recovery period is necessarily of longer
duration for the more heavily loaded ponds.
Alternate freezing and thawing further  ag-
gravates the recovery process. Ponds have
been placed into operation in early winter
with no difficulties experienced.  Insect
breeding in properly constructed and main-
                                          122

-------
tained ponds has presented no serious prob-
lems.  There was one instance of a high
mosquito population at a pond that develop-
ed a dense cover of vegetation before  ac-
quiring an optimum depth of water.  Since
an adequate water level has  been  main-
tained and vegetation brought under control,
the problem no longer exists.

              CONCLUSION

  Waste stabilization ponds  have  become
an answer to the rising costs of sewage
treatment for a great percentage  of the
municipalities  in South Dakota. Further
application of stabilization ponds  as a com-
plete treatment device for many organic  in-
dustrial wastes will bring about further ad-
vances  in water pollution control  in our
State.  Stabilization ponds have fulfilled a
long recognized need for  effective treat-
ment at reasonable cost for  the smaller
municipalities  and  industries.


             REFERENCES

1.   "Sewage Stabilization  Ponds in South
      Dakota -  1960. " A bulletin of the
      South Dakota State Department of
      Health; Pierre, South Dakota.
2.  "Sewage Stabilization Ponds in the
      Dakotas - 1957. " A Joint Report by
      the Public Health Service,  North
      Dakota Department of Health and
      South Dakota Department of Health;
      Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering
      Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

3.  "Waste Stabilisation LagoOris - Design,
      Construction, and Operation Prac-
      tices Among  Missouri Basin States -
      1959. " A Committee Report of the
      Missouri Basin Engineering Health
      Council.

4.  "Sewage Stabilization Ponds - 1959."
      An unpublished paper by Charles  E.
      Carl presented to School of Public
      Health  Seminar; University of Minne-
      sota; Minneapolis, Minnesota.

5.  "Waste Stabilization Ponds in South
      Dakota - 1957. " An unpublished
      paper by Don C. Kalda  presented at
      Texas Water and Sewage Works Short
      Course; College Station, Texas.

6.  Official Files of the Division of Sani-
      tary Engineering;  South Dakota De-
      partment of Health; Pierre, South
      Dakota.
                                          123

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                                     APPENDIX II
                     SOUTH DAKOTA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

              DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE STABILIZATION PONDS
                                          1960
A.  General
    1.  A preliminary report for proposed
       sewage stabilization pond installa-
       tions should be submitted for re-
       view prior to preparation of final
       plans. This report shall include the
       shape of the cell(s)  (B-4), a de-
       scription of soil  characteristics as
       revealed by test  borings (E-3),
       size, location, and  other such pro-
       posed design features.

    2.  The review of proposed stabiliza-
       tion pond installations will be
       carried out on an individual  basis
       with local conditions taken into con-
       sideration.
    3.  All plans and specifications  shall
       be submitted at least 30 days prior
       to date  upon which action by the
       approving authority is desired.

B.  Design

    1.  Original construction should pro-
       vide at  least one surface acre per
       one-hundred (100) population plus
       the industrial waste  population
       equivalent,  if significant. In terms
       of B. O. D. , a loading of 20 pounds
       per  surface acre should not be ex-
       ceeded.  Due consideration should
       be given possible future municipal
       expansion and/or additional sources
       of wastes when the original  land
       acquisition  is made.

    2.  The choice  between the  use  of
       single cell and multiple cell ponds
       will be  dictated on the basis of
       local conditions  and  downstream
       water use.  Where a  greater degree
       of treatment is necessary or desir-
       able, one or more cells in series
       may be added to  the  primary cell;
       provided, however,  that the pri-
       mary cell should have a surface
       area equal to that set forth in B-l.
    3.  Where ponds of one or more cells
       follow some type  of conventional
       treatment device,  the requirements
       in B-l may be reduced to compen-
       sate for the B. O. D.  reduction in
       the pre-treatment unit(s).

    4.  The shape of all cells should be
       such that a uniform perimeter re-
       sults.  No islands or peninsulas
       •will be permitted.

C.  Location
    1.  Ponds  should be located at a prac-
       tical distance away from built-up
       areas with due respect given to
       possible future expansion of the
       city.

    2.  Locating ponds in watersheds re-
       ceiving significant amounts of run-
       off water is discouraged unless
       adequate provisions are made for
       storm  water to by-pass the ponds.

    3.  In locating ponds, preference
       should be given sites which will
       permit an unobstructed wind sweep
       across the ponds,  especially in the
       direction of the local prevailing
       winds.

    4.  Proximity of ponds  to water sup-
       plies and other facilities subject to
       contamination  should be critically
       evaluated to avoid creation of health
       hazards  or other  undesirable con-
       ditions.

D.  Embankments and Dikes

    1.  Compacted embankments of im-
       pervious materials should be con-
       structed.

    2.  Minimum embankment top  width
       should be 8 feet.  Lesser top width
       will be considered for very small
       installations.
                                          127

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    3.   Maximum embankment slopes
        should not be steeper than:

        a.  Inner -  3 horizontal to 1  verti-
           cal (preferably 4 or 5 or 1).

        b.  Outer - 3 horizontal to 1 verti-
           cal.

    4.   Minimum embankment  slopes
        should not be flatter than:

        a.  Inner -  6 horizontal to 1  verti-
           cal.

        b.  Outer - not applicable, except
           that  significant volumes of sur-
           face water should not  enter the
           ponds.

    5.   Minimum freeboard should be 3
        feet plus frost heave.

    6.   Minimum normal  liquid depth
        should be 3  feet.

    7.   Maximum normal  liquid depth
        should be not more than 5 feet. For
       ponds with surface areas  of more
        than 10 acres, special considera-
        tion will be given to maximum liq-
        uid depths greater than 5  feet pro-
        vided such depths  are minimal in
        area.

    8.  Embankments  should be seeded,
        except below the water  line.  Aflalfa
        should not be included  in seed mix-
        tures since the long roots of this
       plant are apt to impair  the water-
        holding efficiency  of the dikes.
       Additional protection for embank-
        ments (rip-rap)  may be necessary
        as soil conditions  and pond size
        warrant.

E.  Pond Bottom

    1.   The pond bottom should be as level
        as possible at  all points.  Shallow
        or feathering fringe areas usually
        result in locally unsatisfactory con-
        ditions.

    2.   The bottom should be cleared of
        vegetation and debris.  Organic
        material thus removed  should not
        be used in embankment construction.
    3.  Soil formations should be relatively
       tight to avoid undue liquid losses
       through percolation of seepage.
       Soil borings to determine soil char-
       acteristics shall  be made a part of
       preliminary surveys to select pond
       sites.

F.  Influent Lines

    1.  Any generally accepted material
       for pond piping will be given con-
       sideration but the material selected
       should be adapted to local condi-
       tions. Special consideration should
       be given to the character of the
       wastes, possibilities of  septicity,
       exceptionally heavy external load-
       ings, abrasion, the necessity  of
       reducing the number of joints, soft
       foundations, and  similar problems.

    2.  The influent line  into single-celled
       ponds should be essentially center-
       discharging.  Influent lines into the
       primary section of multiple-celled
       ponds should be essentially center-
       discharging,  but  this does not apply
       to those cells  following the primary
       cell in  series  operation.

    3.  Gravity inlet lines should be de-
       signed to discharge horizontally.
       Pressure inlet lines may discharge
       vertically,  however,  the end  of  the
       pipe  should be located approximate-
       ly one foot above  the bottom of the
       pond and should not extend to an
       elevation such that ice will damage
       the terminal structure during  win-
       ter operations.


    4.  The end of the discharge line should
       rest  on a suitable concrete apron
       with  a minimum size of  two feet
       square. Larger aprons and influ-
       ent piping supports are suggested
       in cases where the soil is unstable.
       Flow splitters or  dispersing de-
       vices are  also desirable where a
       horizontal type of influent line ter-
       minal structure is utilized.
    5.  Influent and effluent piping should
       be located to minimize short cir-
       cuiting within the pond.
                                           128

-------
    6.  Manholes or clean-outs are recom-
       mended where pipes pass through
       the embankment.

    7.  Influent lines should be placed in or
       near the bottom.  The use of ex-
       posed  dikes carrying influent  lines
       to the  center of the pond will not be
       approved.

G.  Interconnecting Piping and Overflows

    1.  Interconnectingpiping and overflows
       should be of suitable material of
       ample size.  The use of frost proof
       overflow manholes or  valve boxes
       for controlling liquid levels in the
       pond is recommended. Multiple in-
       fluent  lines to  such structures
       should be provided and arranged so
       that overflows will ordinarily come
       from,  at, or near the  surface of
       the pond.  The  lowest of the multiple
       influent lines to such manholes or
       structures should  be at least twelve
       inches off the bottom to control
       eroding velocities and  to avoid pick-
       up of bottom deposits.  Means for
       draining the pond are recommended
       particularly  for the larger installa-
       tions.
    2.  Overflow lines should discharge on-
        to anchored concrete slabs.  These
        lines should be vented if siphoning
        may be developed.
H.  Miscellaneous

    1.   The pond area should be adequately
        fenced with a stock-tight fence.

    2.   Appropriate signs should be pro-
        vided  to designate the nature of the
        facility.

    3.   Provisions for flow measurement
        should be provided. Facilities for
        installation of a weir would be ade-
        quate  for most installations.
I.  Industrial Wastes

   1.   Ponds for  industrial waste require
       special planning and study,  and
       these suggested minimum standards
       may not apply.  The South Dakota
       Department of Health should be
       consulted on such problems before
       the design phase is completed.
                                          129

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                      LAGOON OPERATING EXPERIENCE IN IOWA
                                  R.  J. Schliekelman*
  In Iowa, the use of waste stabilization
ponds for treating raw sewage has become
quite popular among the smaller  commu-
nities  where the  provision of conventional
sewage treatment sometimes is a great
financial burden.  This mode of treatment
was not definitely encouraged as  was done
in the early  50's in the Dakotas.  It was felt
that a number of factors were not as favor-
able for Iowa conditions as compared with
the Dakotas which had the greatest exper-
ience with the method. Soil characteristics
sometimes were not as favorable due to the
glacial sand  and gravel deposits prevalent
in the northern areas  of Iowa. Heavier
farm density has  made the selection of
sites with  suitable isolation from habitation
more difficult.  Finally, higher land  costs,
commonly in the $300-$500 per acre range,
serve to decrease somewhat the cost ad-
vantage of the lagoon method  of treatment.

  One  temporary  lagoon serving  a 60-home
housing development was constructed in
1954, but the first municipal lagoon  was
not constructed until 1956. Since  that time,
the waste stabilization lagoon has been
growing in popularity  and  as of June 30,
I960, a total of 36 lagoons were in opera-
tion or under construction. Of this total,
22 lagoons are serving municipalities with
the remainder of  14 serving miscellaneous
installations, such as  housing  develop-
ments,  mobile home parks,  camps,  and
others. In addition, another 42 lagoon in-
stallations are in  the planning  stage  with
plans approved or preliminary engineering
reports submitted. At the  present time,
the 22  municipal installations are only a
small percentage  of the 346 municipalities
with sewage  treatment.

  It is of interest to note that 1 5  of the 22
municipal installations are serving com-
munities with new sanitary sewer systems.
We feel that the public health and other
benefits accruing from a sanitary sewer
system would not have been possible in
many of these communities without the rel-
atively lower  cost of the lagoon method of
treatment.

  While the experience of Iowa with the la-
goon is not as extensive as the  other states
with more installations, a brief summary
of experiences and design and operation
practices may be helpful.  However, only
factors which are deemed particularly
significant will be discussed.

  Our state has benefitted from the exper-
ience of the other states in the  Missouri
River  Basin and as a result all of our  com-
pleted installations have operated quite suc-
cessfully.  The South Dakota Department of
Health Design Criteria for Sewage Stabili-
zation Ponds was first used as  a guide for
general design features.  Tentative  stand-
ards based on a draft of the lagoon section
of the GL-UMR "Standards for Sewage
Works" were drawn up in 1958.

Area Loadings
  Surface area is one of the basic consid-
erations  in the design of waste  stabiliza-
tion lagoons.  Population loadings of 100
persons per acre,  or 20 Ibs. of BOD  per
acre,  have  been used for design in  Iowa.
As  in the  Dakotas,  the critical  period  for
aerobic conditions  occurs during the tran-
sition  from ice cover to open -water. To
prevent,  or minimize,  possible odor  com-
plaints, these aerobic conditions must be
established as rapidly as possible.  Dakota
experience  indicated a minimum recovery
period with the 20 Ibs.  of BOD  loading,
and this figure has also been adopted by
Iowa.
   'Public Health Engineer, Iowa Department of Public Health.
                                          133

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  Undoubtedly,  this loading is conservative
but will be used in the majority of installa-
tions until experience indicates that heavier
loadings will produce satisfactory results
under winter operation or spring ice break-
up conditions. Observations of a limited
number of lagoons during the transition pe-
riod in the spring have indicated little or
no odcjrs or complaints.

  Design loadings of school lagoon instal-
lations have been based on  the principle  of
complete retention of all flows during the
school year with some allowance  for  seep-
age and evaporation losses. An area  re-
quirement of 0.  1 acre per  100 pupils  with
a water usage of 10  gallons per capita was
calculated and other water  usage  figures
are in direct ratio.  Available  BOD figures
for schools indicate this approach would
give the  proper  BOD loading.
Overflow Structures

  For maximum flexibility in operation,
the overflow structure should provide for
varying the pond operating levels. The
most common structure is a  manhole di-
vided by a wall containing stop planks. An
influent line at the Z'-3" depth and a lagoon
drain line  leading to  this manhole provides
a means of regulating the depth between
maximum  depth and complete drainage.

  In northern climates, the overflow struc -
ture must  be so designed that ice formation
will neither stop the  overflow or  damage
the structure.
Multiple Cells

  Visits to other states indicated consid-
erable difficulty in maintaining a satisfac-
tory liquid depth in single cell installations,
with resultant odors and excessive weed
growths.  Benefitting from this experience,
our State  has  required two cells in most
large installations  and that they be capable
of being operated either in series or in
parallel.  With ponds designed to operate in
parallel it is possible to divert all flow to
one pond where  the community is installing
a new sewer system or the water usage is
low.

  For lagoons operated in series the en-
tire  organic load will  be applied to the pri-
mary unit. However,  we have not required
an increase in total area since we visual-
ize series operation for better B. O. D. and
coliform  reduction and a lower  algal con-
tent in the effluent during summer months
when higher loadings on the primary unit
can be tolerated.  On the  other hand  paral-
lel  operation during the winter months
would produce the lightest loading in each
pond  and facilitate aerobic recovery dur-
ing the  spring  transition period.
Soil Permeability

   The absence of a method for determin-
ing the expected permeability of the soil in
the bottom and embankments of waste sta-
bilization ponds is becoming more  signifi-
cant with the increasing use of this method
of treatment.  Fortunately, all of our in-
stallations have been relatively imper-
meable and satisfactory water levels have
been maintained.  Soil borings have been
required and planning for sealing with clay
has been facilitated by this means.  Pos-
sibly,  adequate compaction  has been a
factor, since  all specifications have called
for sheep-foot rolling.
Construction Costs

  Comparison of stabilization lagoon con-
struction costs with conventional treatment
costs show a markedly lower per capita
cost for the lagoons. Cost data, however,
has not been thoroughly analyzed to include
consideration of relative land  costs and
operation and maintenance  requirements.

  Per capita lagoon construction costs
have varied from a low  of $7 to $38 with
earth moving costs varying from 1 8£ to
39£ per cubic yard. Land costs  have ranged
from $250 to over $700  per acre.
Industrial Application

  Industrial applications have been rather
limited except for the treatment of domes-
tic sewage from the plants.  Creameries
contribute  up  to about one-third of the BOD
loading of a number of municipal lagoon
installations without adverse effects. Con-
struction is nearing completion on a large
milk plant  which will employ a high rate
trickling filter followed by a waste stabil-
ization lagoon. Treatment results will be
followed closely.
                                          134

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  During a two-year period ending in April     In conclusion, we feel that the efficacy
1956, pilot plant studies were  carried out    of the waste stabilization lagoon has been
by an Iowa meat packing plant  on combined   demonstrated by wide experience. On the
anaerobic-aerobic treatment.  Excellent      basis of raw sewage loadings established
results were obtained and the process will   in the Dakotas,  the required land area may
be discussed by Mr. F.  W. Sollo  of Swift    preclude use of these  facilities in some lo-
and company in a paper on Wednesday. Re-   calities. Unless heavier loadings can be
ductioninland requirements possible  with    demonstrated as practical for climates, it
the anaerobic process may stimulate  its      is expected that the statilization lagoon
development for use with other wastes.       will find its greatest use in the smaller
                                            community.
                                         135

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                      WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS IN KANSAS
                                          by

                                    Russell L.  Gulp*
Introduction
  In relating the Kansas experience with
waste stabilization ponds, an attempt will
be made to avoid repetition of other mate-
rial presented here,  and emphasis will be
placed on conditions  and practices which
may differ from those in other areas.

  The first waste stabilization pond in Kan-
sas for the treatment of raw municipal
sewage was built at Frankfort in  1956.
Prior to that time oxidation ponds had been
incorporated as a part  of sewage  treatment
works in 24 Kansas communities, the first
of these being  constructed at Mt.  Hope in
1937. All of these early oxidation ponds
received treated or partially treated mu-
nicipal  wastes, and all of them functioned
very well with little operating attention. At
present there are 53 waste stabilization
ponds in the state which are designed as the
sole method of sewage  treatment. They
have had an appeal to the small community
because of their low initial cost where land
is cheap,  their ease  of operation, and their
low maintenance costs.  Waste stabilization
ponds have filled a special need in fringe
areas for temporary treatment works.
They have often been used to serve the ini-
tial development in an area until  property
values reached a level  which would support
a large sewer  district with the necessary
trunk sewers  and conventional treatment
facilities.

Uses

  Ponds can be utilized to serve  a variety
of purposes in the treatment  of waste
waters:

   1.  The principal  use of waste  stabiliza-
      tion ponds is for  the complete treat-
      ment of sewage within the pond cells.
 2.  Oxidation ponds may be used for ter-
    tiary treatment following trickling
    filters and final settling basins. In
    Kansas the BOD load on oxidation
    ponds used for tertiary treatment is
    calculated by use  of the N. R. C. for-
    mula,  but for this purpose the maxi-
    mum allowable pretreatment effi-
    ciency is taken as 80 percent.

3.  Oxidation ponds  have been used for
    secondary treatment in special situa-
    tions, but these  are  exceptions to the
    general practice of following conven-
    tional primary facilities with conven-
    tional secondary units.
4.  Oxidation ponds  have been used inlieu
    of final  settling basins in two in-
    stances, but  again this  is uncommon,
    and conventional final tanks apparently
    are preferred because they are better
    adapted to recirculation and  control
    of the hydraulic  loading applied to
    trickling filters.

5.  At one conventional sewage treatment
    plant a waste stabilization pond is
    used to receive storm water  over-
    flows, thus avoiding  the by-pass ing of
    untreated storm flows to the  receiving
    watercourse.

6.  During the course  of housing develop-
    ment in some areas, waste stabiliza-
    tion ponds have served  dual purposes.
    After initial temporary use as the
    only means of sewage treatment, la-
    goons have subsequently been con-
    verted to use as oxidation ponds for
    tertiary treatment following  a con-
    ventional plant.

7.  Waste stabilization ponds have been
    used to a limited extent for treating
    creamery wastes along  with about
    equal volumes of domestic wastes.
   •Chief, Water Supply Section, Division of Sanitation, State Board of Health
                                          136

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  8. Oxidation ponds have been widely used
     in Kansas as one process in the treat-
     ment of oil  refinery wastes.

Design Considerations

  In designing waste stabilization ponds,
site selection is a critical feature. The
distance to houses should be the  same as
for other types of sewage treatment facili-
ties even though the process appears to
have less nuisance potential.  The direction
of prevailing winds is another factor in
pond location. Finding sufficient areas of
suitable  terrain which are free from flood-
ing has  presented a special problem at
some Kansas sites, but for permanent fa-
cilities,  this type of site is required.  For
temporary ponds  some flooding risk can be
taken.

   The extreme variability of rainfall and
evaporation in Kansas is  a  significant fac-
tor in the planning  of waste stabilization
ponds.  Consideration must be given to the
maintenance of minimum water depths of 2
to 3 feet over an  area large enough to per-
mit aerobic treatment of the wastes. Dur-
ing an average year the net water loss
(evaporation minus rainfall) from a water
surface amounts  to 5 inches at the eastern
Kansas  border and to about 50 inches  in the
southwestern corner of the  state. Years of
maximum evaporation and minimum rain-
fall often coincide and the net water loss can
be as much as 30 inches in the eastern
Kansas  and 82 inches in the southwestern
part of the state. Another critical factor
in maintaining water levels is the necessity
to limit seepage from the ponds to 1/4 inch
per day.

   To give some insight into the mainte-
nance of adequate water levels,  calcula-
tions have been made of the minimum
quantity of sewage discharge required to
ponds in terms of,gallons per capita per
day. This was done on the basis  of an ac-
tual connected load of 160 persons per acre
of pond  and seepage of 1/4" per day. In an
average  year the total requirements vary
from 45  to 75 gallons per capita  per day,
east to west across the state. In the driest
years,  sewage flows of 60 to 90 gallons per
capita per day are needed.  This  means
that single cell ponds can be used only in
the eastern  1/4 of Kansas,  and that 2 or 3
cells must be used in other parts of the
state. The importance of controlling seep-
age  is  emphasized by the  fact that 42 1/2
gallons per capital per day of these total
inflow requirements are needed to compen-
sate for the 1/4 inch per day of seepage.

  To control seepage, three types  of pond
seals have been successfully used: com-
pacted select clays and bentonite and poly-
phosphate admixtures.  When bentonites
are used, they are applied to the scarified
bottom  of the pond at the rate of 5 to 11
tons per acre,  then wetted and compacted.
The  usual cost of  sealing with bentonite is
about 1.5 to 3.0 cents per  square foot.

  In Kansas the maximum recommended
loading for  permanent waste stabilization
ponds receiving domestic sewage is 27
pounds  of 5-day BOD per acre  per  day. For
interim ponds the  upper limit is 51 pounds.
Actual loadings in Kansas vary from 16 to
51 pounds for waste stabilization ponds,
although a few oxidation ponds  receive
heavier loadings.  The actual loading on the
oxidation pond at Lincoln is 135 pounds.
Nearly 20 years' experience with this pond
indicates that it remains aerobic through-
out the  year. Although some states give no
credit for secondary ponds  when the ponds
are operated in series,  Kansas does.  It
has been found that the series arrangement
is beneficial along streams needing high
removal of algae,  BOD, or coliforms.
Also multiple cells are advantageous when
the loading  is seasonal or light, when evap-
oration or  seepage  losses  are high,   or
when a new sewer system is being served.
All waste stabilization ponds in Kansas,
except those considered temporary, are
designed with three  cell practice.

  Kansas experience has demonstrated the
necessity of soil sterilization to control
weeds -where the -water is less  than two
feet deep.  An effective sterilant should be
resistant to leaching and toxic  to weeds,
but not to algae.

  DuPont weed killers sold under the  trade
names of "Televar" and "Karmex" have
been used extensively with good results.

  In designing outlet structures for ponds,
provision should be  made for varying  the
water depth, since experience  has  shown
that reducing the depth to less  than two
feet will speed the recovery of an over-
loaded anaerobic pond. In the absence of
such an arrangement,  sodium nitrate  has
been used successfully to reduce odors
during upsets.
                                          137

-------
  Some pond effluents have been observed
to have a fairly high BOD due to the high
algal population,  and while there has been
no trouble  to date with the oxygen balance
in receiving streams some thought has
been given to the possible  use  of the Brit-
ish  microstrainer for the removal of algae
from pond  effluents before  discharge to the
watercourse in the event that such diffi-
culty should arise.


Creamery  Wastes
  Kansas has had limited experience in the
treatment of creamery wastes along with
domestic sewage in stabilization ponds. At
Valley Falls, milk and meat packing
wastes  contribute  about 50% of the total
load,  and the ponds were  designed for
18 pounds of 5-day BOD per acre  per
day.  The light loading was used because
of the industrial  tendency to relase slugs
of strong organic  wastes  and because of
the rapid oxygen usage of the milk wastes
Some odors  have been  reported from
this  installation  during spring thaws, but
there have been no serious  problems
because  of the isolated pond location.

  At  Erie,  a pond is under construction
for treating  combined municipal and
creamery wastes, with the  creamery
wastes  comprising 60 percent of the  total
BOD. The loading  again is 18 pounds  of
5-day BOD per acre per day.
  At Council Grove the creamery wastes
amount to about 25 percent of the total BOD
load. The ponds are sized on the basis of
18 pounds for the  creamery load plus an
equivalent domestic load,  with additional
pond capacity for  the remaining  domestic
BOD based on 27 pounds of 5-day BOD per
acre per day. This is a new pond and no
operating data are available.

  None of these three cities permits the
discharge of whey into the city sewers or
lagoons, and the creameries dispose ofthe
whey separately.

Oil Refinery Wastes

  Seven oil refineries in the state have oxi-
dation ponds in use, under construction, or
planned. In all cases small concentrated
waste  streams are stripped of sulfides,
ammonia,  or phenols before entrance to the
plant sewers in order to limit the concen-
trations of these substances in the main
waste stream to 15 ppm sulfides, 15 ppm
ammonia,  and  7 ppm phenols. All of the
refineries  provide oil separation as a first
step in pretreatment.  Beyond  this stage,
the pretreatment processes vary. In four
of the refineries the oil separator effluent
flows directly to oxidation ponds. The first
pond cell is a small one,  which is usually
called a skimming pond since  additional oil
is removed from the water surface  in this
unit. The total detention time  in the oxida-
tion ponds  is about 120 days,  because of
the substantial time required for oxidation
of ammonia and lowering of the BOD in re-
finery wastes.

   Three of the refineries  employ more ex-
tensive pretreatment in order to reduce  the
size of the ponds required. One  refinery
plans to use a trickling filter followed by
41 days in oxidation ponds. Another plans
to install about 45 minutes of preaeration,
chemical precipitation, settling,  and to
provide 60 days retention  in ponds.  The
third plans  to use 5  days  of preaeration and
oxidation ponds with 60 days retention.

   The principal advantages of oxidation
ponds over  other biological processes  for
the treatment of refinery wastes appear  to
be:  their great capacity to handle shock
loads or slugs,  simple maintenance, and
the relative ease with which extra storage
can  be built in  for retaining the treated
wastes during flows in the  receiving stream
which are less than  the minimum required
for dilution of the effluent. One refinery
provides sufficient pond area to contain all
wastes without discharge of effluent at any
time.

Maintenance
  The need for daily maintenance of la-
goons  and oxidation ponds is not as urgent
as for conventional types of treatment, but
planned maintenance at regular intervals
is essential in order to protect the  dikes,
keep weeds from growing in the shallow
water, and to avoid the breeding of mos-
quitoes or  other pests. Weeds and willows
will grow in shallow  water areas unless
controlled by  soil sterilization initially,
and then by mowing.  Broad leafs and wil-
lows can be controlled by spraying  with
herbicides if necessary.  Dikes and struc-
tures should be inspected regularly for
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erosion from wind and rain or for burrow-
ing by rodents.

Health Considerations

  Waste stabilization ponds offer substan-
tial protection to the public health andcom-
pare very favorably with conventional
methods of sewage treatmentin this respect.

   They provide prolonged storage of the
wastes,  usually for 20 to 90 days, a safe-
guard not commonly found in other types of
sewage treatment. Extensive experience
with storage of raw water in water works
practice demonstrates that 30 to 90 days
storage will reduce coliform organisms by
98 per cent or more.  Similar  reductions
have been observed on a more limited scale
in the  operation of waste stabilization ponds
in Kansas.  Pathogenic bacteria  are partic-
ularly susceptible to destruction by storage.

  Conventional  treatment processes  ordi-
narily handle the sewage at full  strength
except for  the limited dilution afforded  by
recirculation when practiced.  Stabilization
ponds  provide immediate dilution of  the
wastes; the daily dilution being in the order
of 20:1 to 90:1.  The over-all effect of this
great reduction in strength of the waste is
beneficial. It avoids the exposure of full
strength raw sewage to the atmosphere and
reduces the opportunities for contact of
pathogens by insects and rodents. Addi-
tional  protection is afforded since settled
sludge is covered by water rather than  be-
ing exposed as in  sludge drying beds.

  Less handling of equipment contaminated
by sewage  is necessary for operators of
waste  stabilization ponds, thus reducing
their exposure.
Summary

   To summarize the Kansas experience
with waste stabilization ponds, they have
been successfully applied to the treatment
of domestic and certain industrial wastes.
They are especially suited to handling  the
wastes from small communities. Mainte-
nance is minimal but essential. Waste
stabilization ponds provide as much public
health protection as  conventional treatment
methods. No more nuisance, and perhaps
less, occurs with this type of treatment
than with convention methods.  The cost of
ponds for cities smaller than 3,000 in pop-
ulation is less than the cost of conventional
treatment. However, the difference is  not
sufficiently great to  preclude the use of
conventional facilities on a cost basis under
many conditions,  and both types should be
considered in solving the treatment prob-
lems of small communities.
  The design of waste stabilization ponds is
dependent on characteristics of the sewage
flow,  rainfall, evaporation, seepage, topog-
raphy,  and  soil  conditions.  While the
structural design is not complicated, a
basic understanding of the biological and
chemical processes is essential to a suc-
cessful design.
  As more operating experience is gained,
as new knowledge is produced by research,
and as information is exchanged at forums
such as this,  it should become possible to
delineate more precisely the design crite-
ria for waste  stabilization ponds and to
understand more  fully the fundamental
processes  involved.
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                    WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOONS IN MISSOURI

                                         by

                                   Jack K.  Smith*
  Probably the first sewage lagoon in Mis-
souri was constructed at Potosi about 18 or
19 years ago. This lagoon was preceded by
a septic tank. The septic tank was not prop-
erly maintained and removed only a portion
of the objectionable material in the city
sewage.

  The lagoon which was constructed about
1500 feet below the septic tank served to
reduce the pollutional load to the  stream.
By modern standards the lagoon was not
properly constructed, but it did reduce the
organic load of the partially treated sew-
age. Mr. A. R. Baron,  Division  of  Health
District Public Health Engineer,  noted the
effectiveness of the treatment works and
suggested that  properly designed  and con-
structed lagoons might afford adequate
treatment.

  In 1952,  a large open septic  tank 65 feet
wide by 150 feet long and 5  feet deep was
placed in operation at Ruskin Heights, Jack-
son County,  to serve as a temporary sew-
age treatment device until a modern trick-
ling-filter type plant could be completed.
The open septic tank operated as  a lagoon,
producing a stable effluent without objec-
tionable odors.

  At Warsaw, a natural lagoon was created
when the water level in the Lake of the Ozarks
dropped. The original lagoon was very shal-
low, less than  two feet deep. However,
homes in the immediate vicinity reported
no odors.

  For the period of  1953  to June 30, I960,
247 lagoons serving municipalities,  re-
sorts, motels, schools, subdivisions,
slaughter houses, poultry processing plants,
milk plants and automatic laundries have
been constructed and placed in operation in
Missouri.  There are numerous other  in-
stallations throughout the state including
those at private residences that we do not
have data on.  The 247 lagoons presently in
operation are designed totreat wastes from
301,228 persons.

   In 1958 we made a study of the costs  of
municipal lagoons and  included a land cost
of $300 per acre with a lagoon site requiring
at least 11/2 times the water surface area.
We arrived at a. per capita cost of $9.84.
At the same time we computed the average
per  capita  cost of mechanical plants  and
found that to be  $41. 58. The difference in
per capita cost  is $31.74. This difference
times  the population equivalent served by
the lagoons represents a savings in first
cost of $9, 560, 977. We estimate that the
annual operating cost of lagoons is less
than one  tenth  the operational cost of me-
chanical plants.

   Lagoon sizes  vary from the individual
size of 800 square feet water surface area
to municipal installations with a water sur-
face area of 50  acres.  The largest waste
stabilization lagoon system is  now under
construction at Poplar  Bluff,  Missouri,
with a design population of  29, 200 and a
total lagoon water surface are of 146 acres.

  As of July 1,  I960, the municipal lagoon
census in Missouri was as follows:
    Cities Using Waste Stabilization      45
    Lagoons for Sewage Treatment
    Cities Where Waste Stabilization     18
    Lagoons Are Under Construction
    Cities Where Waste Stabilization     46
    Lagoons Are Proposed
  Municipal lagoons are designed on the
basis of 34 pounds B.O.D.  per acre.
   •Executive Secretary, Missouri Water Pollution Board
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  The various uses for waste stabilization
lagoons in Missouri are as follows:

  In the metropolitan areas of Kansas City,
Missouri,  St. Louis, Columbia and Mexico,
waste  stabilization lagoons have been used
for interim treatment pending  completion
of trunk sewers and permanent treatment
works. The design loadings are 400 per-
sons per acre.

  Some odor problems  have developed  in
the winter months. These odor problems
can be adequately handled by the addition
of sodium  nitrate applied in the inlet pipe
or around  the edges of the lagoon at the
rate of one pound of sodium nitrate per
pound  of B.O.D.


  Near Wright City,  Missouri, the Wright
City Meat Company in 1956 constructed a
waste stabilization lagoon for the treatment
of the wastes arising from slaughtering and
meat processing of hogs and beef.  The  av-
erage kill of hogs is 8 to  20 per week.  The
average kill of beef is 4 to 8 per week.  The
slaughter house is served by a private well
that is metered; the average weekly water
pumpage for all purposes is approximately
4, 000 gallons. The lagoon has a water sur-
face area of 100 feet by 250 feet at the 3-foot
depth;  to date there has been no overflow.
The water  level has been stabilized at ap-
proximately 2 1/2 feet. Based on present
design criteria for slaughtering and proc-
essing establishments of  400 population
equivalent  per acre of water surface area,
this lagoon is approximately twice the area
deemed necessary. It should be pointed out
that the Wright City Meat Company does not
save the blood. The lagoon is located within
150 feet of the slaughtering and processing
establishment; there have been no odor prob-
lems or nuisance conditions to our knowl-
edge. The  Wright City Meat Company is a
drive-in retail establishment and odors and
nuisance conditions would, of course, be
very detrimental.

  Waste  stabilization lagoons  have been
used for  treating the wastes from poultry
processing plants. At Cabool,  Missouri, a
waste  stabilization lagoon with a water sur-
face area of 7 1/2 acres was placed in  op-
eration inNovember, 1958. The design  ba-
sis was 34 pounds B.O.D.  per acre. In
July of this year the plant was  processing
10, 000 chickens per day and the water usage
was 260, 000 gallons over a 12-hour period.
In the des ign of the waste stabilization lagoon
the consulting engineers designated a sew-
age flow of 150,000 gallons per day.  The
waste stabilization lagoon  is constructed
near the municipal sewage treatment plant.
It was proposed to pump the supernatant
from the digesters to the lagoon; however,
until recently the city  was pumping all of
the raw sludge  from their  treatment plant
to the lagoon. The  sewage treatment plant
is designed to serve 1,750  persons.

  AtNoel, Missouri, a chicken processing
plant is  served by  a 20.2-acre waste sta-
bilization lagoon. The design basis is  34
pounds B.O.D.  per acre.  This lagoon  was
placed in operation in January of this year.
It is anticipated that the plant will process
44,000 chickens per  an 8-hour day. Pres-
ent production at the plant is in the 30, 000
to 40,000 chickens per eight hours.

  At Purdy, Missouri, a waste stabilization
lagoon with a  water surface area of 8, 000
square feet at the 3-foot depth was placed
in operation inNovember, 1959. This lagoon
is designed to treat the wastes from  an
automatic laundry with ten machines and
one toilet. The  anticipated  sewage flow is
2, 020  gallons per day.  To date this lagoon
has operated  quite satisfactorily. A pre-
vious lagoon installation serving a coin-op-
erated laundry at Eldon, Missouri,  which
was in operation for a period of about three
years  has now  been abandoned.  This op-
eration was considered satisfactory.

  Several  public schools constructed
through the reorganizational program for
rural schools have built waste stabilization
lagoons. These  lagoons are designed on
the basis of 800 persons per acre.  Where
ground garbage  is discharged into the sew-
er system the lagoon area is increased
30%. Actual sewage flow data is not avail-
able for these school installations. We have
observed that there is very little, if any,
overflow from these lagoons. During the
last three  to  four years rainfall has been
near normal and evaporation has not been
excessive. During the summer months when
schools are not in  use  the water level  in
the lagoons is lowered six to eight inches.


  Organizational camps such as the Wind-
emere Baptist Assembly, Roach, Missouri,
Camden County, utilizes a  waste stabili-
zation lagoon  for sewage treatment. The
camp is  used only during the summer
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months.  The lagoon design basis is 200
persons per acre. This installation has
been entirely satisfactory.

  Lagoons are in use at Aurora, Missouri,
following primary sedimentation, trickling
filter and sludge filter installations.  Two
lagoons are provided, one with a water sur-
face area of 3. 3 acres and the other with a
water surface area of 4.6 acres.  Each la-
goon is designed on the basis of 67 pounds
B.O.D. per acre. Actual operating results
are not available but visual inspection re-
veals a satisfactory effluent.

  At Monett,  Missouri,  a 4. 59-acre waste
stabilization lagoon has been constructed
following a standard  rate trickling filter
plant with  final settling. The design load
on this lagoon is 31 pounds  B.O.D. per
acre. Laboratory results are not available
but visual  inspection  reveals satisfactory
stream conditions.

  Waste stabilization lagoons have been
used satisfactorily for treating the wastes
from a creamery at Emma, Missouri.
This creamery constructed three lagoons
with a total water surface area of 2. 95
acres and  a water depth of five feet in 1955
to treat milk waste. The  following results
have been  recorded:
    1.  Date October 18,
    Total Flow,  Inlet
    B.O.D. -Raw Waste
    B.O.D. -Raw Waste
    B.O.D. -applied

    B.O.D. of effluent
    Reduction of B.O.D.
    2.  July 19,  1956
    Total Flow,  Inlet
    Total Flow,  Outlet
    B.O.D. -Raw Waste =
    B.O.D. -Raw Waste =
    B.O.D. -applied     =

    B.O.D. of effluent   =
1955
= 11, 700 gallons
=   1192 ppm
=    116 pounds
=   39.3 pounds
         per acre
=    112 ppm.
 = 90.5% assuming
         outflow
         equals
         the inflow

= 14, 550 gallons
=  8, 500 gallons
=  2, 700 ppm.
=  327.2 pounds
=  110.9 pounds
         per acre
      54 ppm.  or
         3.8
         pounds
    98.8%
    Reduction of B.O.D. =
   In the spring of 1956, septic conditions
 accompanied by odors developed. At this
 time the milk plant was receiving over twice
the average volume of milk and cream. One
hundred pounds of sodium nitrate per day
was added until the lagoons were again
aerobic, a period of about one week.  Since
that time  400-500 pounds of sodium nitrate
per week  have been added.

   Recently, the Adams Dairy near Blue
Springs,  Missouri, constructed two  waste
stabilization lagoons, one  with a water
surface area of 5.25 acres and the other
with a water surface area of 5.28 acres;
the total water surface area being 10. 53
acres.  The design basis for the lagoon was
45 pounds B.O.D. per acre. A composite
sample of the raw wastes collected on
April 27,  I960,  showed  that the B. O. D.
was 1130  ppm. ,  and the total sewage flow
was 60, 000 gallons for the  24-hour period.
The total  pounds of B. O. D. to the lagoon
amounted to 568 or 53. 7  pounds of B. O. D.
per acre. The lagoon was placed in opera-
tion in March, I960. The operation of this
installation is considered to be satisfac-
tory.


   One of  the first municipal lagoons   in
Missouri was in Montgomery City. Several
surveys have been made of this lagoon and
the following information obtained:

   Dissolved oxygen in the Montgomery City
lagoon varies from 4 to  17. 6 ppm. B.O.D.
of effluent = 17 ppm. M.P.N.  of effluent =
460 per ml.  This lagoon has  a water surface
area of 12. 4 acres, a depth  of four feet and
treats the waste from about 1500 persons. A
recirculation pump (85 gpm. ) is provided
which returns to the inlet pipe a volume
approximately equal to the total average
daily sewage flow. The pump is designed
to take suction from any  depth in the lagoon.
It would appear  that the pump is responsi-
ble for a  greater  variety of plankton  and
possibly a higher dissolved oxygen content
in the lagoon. Insufficient data  have  been
collected  to determine the advantage of  re-
circulation.

   Operational problems with waste stabili-
zation lagoons in Missouri  have been mift-
imum. Some municipal lagoons have  ex-
perienced odor difficulties  in the spring
following  a severe winter. These odor com-
plaints can be satisfactorily handled by  the
addition of  sodium nitrate applied at  the
rate of one pound of sodium nitrate per
pound of B.O.D.  Therehave also been some
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problems with blue-green algae in the sum-
mer months.  It is our opinion that the blue-
green algae problem can be satisfactorily
handled by the addition of Phygon applied
at the rate of 1 ppm. in the lagoon influent
and around the water edges. We also be-
lieve that breaking up the algal mats by the
use of an outboard motor or pumping equip-
ment will satisfactorily handle the blue-
green algae problem.

  Cattails have posed a problem in some
municipal lagoons. The best solution to
this problem is actual removal of the
plants. At Perry, Missouri, there was a
small growth of cattails in the city's la-
goon; however, muskrats solved the prob-
lem by harvesting all of the cattails. The
city then requested the Conservation Com-
mission agent to  trap the muskrats.
   The proper maintenance of the turf is a
problem; however, the city of Hornersville,
Missouri,  has a unique solution to this
problem. Hornersville,  a city of 875 (1950
population), in southeast Missouri has a
waste stabilization lagoon with a water sur-
face area of 7. 5 acres'. The turfed dike
area is approximately six acres.  The dikes
were seeded with Burmuda grass.  In addi-
tion to the lagoon site, the city owns an ad-
ditional fourteen-acre tract adjoining the
lagoon. The maintenance of the turf is pro-
vided by eight cows and a bull.  In extreme
dry weather the 14 acres are used to pas-
ture the cattle. The cattle drink the lagoon
water. The city reports  that the first
year's calves  paid  for the cows. The mayor
also reports that the lagoon is stocked with
several species of  fish.  Soon after the la-
goon was completed in 1956 the dikes were
topped ;by an unusual flood.  The city offi-
cials state this flood  was responsible  for
stocking the lagoon with fish.
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         OBSERVATIONS OF WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOONS IN NEBRASKA
                                          by

                                     T. A. Filipi*
  In. observing the operation of the 41 la-
goons in Nebraska they would all be per-
fect if it were not for:

  Inadequate preliminary study,
  Inadequate and improper design,
  Faulty construction,  and
  Lack  of operation.

  The waste stabilization lagoon  in my
opinion  has  been one  of the greatest con-
tributions to sewage disposal that has come
forth  within the last several  years.  I re-
gret very much that we did not boast of the
operation of the Alliance, Nebraska lagoon
which has been in operation for over 30
years. When representatives of the Air
Force observed the operation of this lagoon
during the war they could not understand
how the lagoon could  take the overload with
no undesirable effects. Consequently, a
team  of scientists was assigned to study
the operation, and all  of the claims that
were  made for the lagoon were justified.
We, however, failed  to make this operation
known.  Consequently, other  states are now
boasting of the age of their lagoon opera-
tions, but I  go on record that our  lagoons
have operated successfully long before the
lagoon was  even considered.

  In the main the results of operations of
our sewage  stabilization lagoons are satis-
factory,  and there are no complaints from
persons living in the  vicinity of the lagoons

  The lagoon has been responsible for the
construction of sewage disposal systems
in many a Nebraska municipality because
it permitted the entire construction to be
made  at a cost which the community could
assume. In  most cases the cost of the dis-
posal of wastes by the lagoon method is
approximately 1/3 to 1/2 that  of the con-
ventional plant.  Furthermore, there are
many communities in our State which have
no stream for dilution and dependence has
to be made upon soil absorption and upon
evaporation. In checking over the possible
sewer  systems for Nebraska it appears
that from now on all sewers that are con-
structed are in a class and in a location
where  the lagoon should be seriously con-
sidered as a means of disposal.

   Due to one sided publicity,  engineers
and municipal officials are assuming  that
the lagoon is a panacea for all waste  dis-
posal. Therefore, sufficient study is  not
being given to the overall  problem at  hand
and frequently no thought is given to other
means of treatment.  In the general sanita-
tion program it is our opinion that there is
still a large field for  construction of con-
ventional plants and that a conclusion that
the lagoon will be used before any study is
made is erroneous. For some reason or
other the lagoon has received such public-
ity that frequently when conferring with a
Board of Trustees or attending town meeting
for the promotion of a sewer  system the
entire discussion centers  around a lagoon.
The sewerage system decision rests upon
ability to use a lagoon. From the  stand-
point of a Department of Health we are
most interested in overall sanitation and do
not desire that the lagoon should be of prime
discussion when sewerage is  discussed.
Let us give more consideration to the pub-
licity that is promulgated  on this subject.

   Inasmuch as a lagoon appears to be a very
simple structure  in most cases engineers
working in Nebraska do not give sufficient
attention to preliminary studies.  Entirely
too many assumptions are being made as to
the quantity of sewage, the strength of sew-
age, it characteristics, chemical analysis
of the waters and other details.  There are
four lagoons in Nebraska that at the pres-
ent time are so dry that a person can walk
across the entire structure. Our Depart -
   *Director Division of Sanitation Department of Health Lincoln, Nebraska.
                                         144

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ment has not determined whether it is the
lack of sewage or the improper soil prep-
aration of the floor of the lagoon that is the
culprit. However, more preliminary stud-
ies would have corrected the situation. It
is regreted that in the course of sanitary
engineering given in schools and colleges
30 years ago the design criteria of lagoons
was not offered.  Therefore, there is much
to be desired  in the design of the lagoon in
all of its details, the inlet,  the splash plate,
the location of the inlet,  the number  of
cells, control structure, overflow struc-
tures,  soil mechanics of the lagoon floor
and the dikes  of the units when finished.
Undoubtedly, the engineers of Nebraska are
quite frustrated because of  the amount of
literature that is being sent to  them on the
subject from the Health Department much
of which is in contradiction with a previous
directive. Yet, there is  no  new principle
in the lagoon that is  not enveloped in some
of the basic courses taken by an engineer
either in college or could be read through
current literature. However,  I  believe that
the design of lagoons is sadly overlooked
because of erroneous ideas.

   In the area  of design we cannot over em-
phasize the need of more study being given
to the soil. We are now convinced that a
complete soil survey should be made of the
lagoon site, samples taken, analyzed by a
reputable laboratory and formulation for
the various areas made up  to insure the
specific quality of soil needed for the spe-
cific purpose. This then will insure proper
water holding characteristics,  prevention
of soil bank erosion, and proper seeding
of desired areas. The mere compaction to
90% Proctor density is not sufficient to give
the desired results.  Futhermore, tests
should be made on the finished  structure
and adjustment's made if necessary. Spec-
ifications will have to be altered to permit
the performance test to be the  governing
characteristics  rather than the mere mat-
ter of construction.

   Due to the fact that the lagoon is so sim-
ple a structure, has no pumpg,  motors,
air compressers, aerators, and other
equipment the municipal officials are prone
to neglect hiring of proper persqnnel and
giving them sufficient time to  properly
maintain a lagoon. At the present time in
discussing the lagoon withpersons intending
to install one we state that a lagoon operator
should be as qualified an individual as one
operating a conventional plant.  In a con-
ventional plant the operator can control his
environment. That is,  he can increase the
speed of the air  compressors, he  can
change the flow from tank to tank,  he can
increase or decrease his suspended  solids,
can vary the alkalinity,  or acidity  of any
process and in short control the various
phases in the plant. In a lagoon  the oper-
ator must obey  nature and first  learn na-
ture's laws and then co-operate. It is very
much similar to the operating of a sailboat
versus a power boat. In general the design
and construction criteria could be overcome
if good operation was insured. Here again,
a plea is made to  the engineers and possibly
the publicity and promotional people of pop-
ular magazines to stress the need  of oper-
ation rather than stress the simplicity re-
quiring no attention. Furthermore, stress
should be given to preventive maintenance.
At the present time we have several la-
goons  in Nebraska  where  erosion has  cut
the banks to forming ravines 30 inches
deep.  If the operator was interested in his
assignment and would have visited this la-
goon daily as is our instruction this  ravine
could have been corrected with perhaps one
or two shovels of  dirt and a hand full of
seed by avoiding the terrific job rebuilding
the entire dike. If the operator would have
pulled out the willow on the bank of the la-
goon while a  sapling it would have avoided
cutting down a tree with a power saw. If
weeds that are emerging just off the shore
line were pulled it would have prevented
their  spreading into the lagoon and making
necessary removal by means of  a barge or
boat.  We cannot emphasize too greatly the
need of simple daily consistent maintenance
and operation.

  We are insisting that lagoons be  placed
one half mile from  town and a quarter of a
mile from the closest inhabitant.  Therefore,
even though our personnel have found la-
goons that are infested with mosquitoes,
have  an odor,  have eroded dikes, have
a growth of trees along the shore line and
many other items which are against general
lagoon operating principles we still do not
have a growth of trees along the shore line and
therefore, take  the stand that the lagoon
will be placed far  enough away from town
and be left to deteriorate as is possible and
not worry the municipal officials and es-
pecially the operator of proper maintenance.

  Jealously we have been endeavoring to
have lagoon maintenance of such type so
that when municipal officials of communi-
                                         145

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ties planning lagoons would visit them they
would go away enthusiastic about the struc-
ture.  I regret that time did. not permit to
show photographs of some of the lagoons
that we have which will I am sure unsell
any prospect. Yet, when these people dis-
cuss the lagoon with municipal officials
they are assured that in spite of the mos-
quitoes,  the weeds,  the trees, the erosion
and odor that the lagoon is far enough from
town that no one seems to  complain.

  Another  observation that appears to be
common with all  lagoons is that of esti-
mating future growth. It is our opinion that
a lagoon should be constructed for the im-
mediate load and that only. We are finding
that lagoons that  are constructed and  not
used, deteriorate to such degree that if
they ever will have to be used the entire
structure will have to be rebuilt. We would,
therefore,  suggest to municipal officials
that a lagoon is a cheap means of disposing
of sewage and that they construct that  facil-
ity that they need at the present time  with
the understanding that when the original
structure is overloaded that another cell
will be constructed. Working with mu-
nicipal officials in this matter, is of course,
difficult  because  by the time the first unit
is loaded another  Council is in power and
just cannot see why at the end of 5 to 6
years the facility  is over loaded and needs
expansion. They completely forget about
the arrangements  and agreements that
were made even though in writing.
  The lagoon in our opinion is serving a
useful purpose in disposing of domestic and
industrial wastes and has been responsible
for much sewerage installation and for
much abatement of pollution of our streams.
However, it is our opinion that the lagoon
at the present time is on too low a level of
engineering status and perhaps too low on
the operational  level of municipal utilities.
Consequently,  it is not receiving the seri-
ous attention in the design, construction
and operation. If we  can elevate the status
of lagoons to that of a trickling filter plant,
an activated sludge plant,  or perhaps  chem-
ical recipitation giving it serious consider-
ation in all details I am sure  that more la-
goons will be constructed and the operation
phases of all details  will be satisfactory to
not only the stream pollution  control author-
ities, but to the Health Department officials
and to the persons in close proximity of
these lagoons.
                                          146

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        SUMMARY OF THE OPERATIONAL HISTORY OF RAW SEWAGE LAGOONS
                             IN THE STATE OF COLORADO

                               by Ronald C. McLaughlin*
  One approach to one establishment of de-
sign criteria for the construction of new
sewage stabilization ponds, is to evaluate
the operation of existing functioning ponds.
In attempting this, we relied mostly on the
opinion of the Department's District Engi-
neers who service the particular areas and
have the closest personal contact with the
individual facilities. Using the interpreta-
tion of several engineers naturally may
lead to variation of results, but this was
minimized by defining the physical charac-
teristics as closely as possible and by  re-
viewing individual attitudes.
  Many variables other than loading e.g.
pond shape, operational  control, climato-
logical differences (considerable due to the
altitude changes in Colorado),  waste char-
acteristics, etc., undoubtedly have effected
the comparative operation of these lagoons.
It was hoped that a study of the histories  of
a sufficient number of ponds would show a
pattern even though large data variances
were present.
  A list of communities with individual fig-
ures used is shown in Table 34.  Operational
information only, on 25 ponds in the State
of Colorado was used in the analysis. Our
Design Standards call for a water  depth of
between 3 and 5 feet and all of these ponds
are so designed.
  A plot of loading versus operation history
classification is shown on Graph A.
  Interpretations made from Graph A must
be thought of as approximate and consid-
ered only as observations of limited data.
The following observations were made:

  1. 60% of the ponds in Colorado  are op-
     erating in a loading range of  100-200
     persons per acre.

  2. Of the ponds thatare operating at 100 or
     less persons per acre, loading  100%
     (4 out of 4) were classified as good or
     excellent.

  3. Of the ponds operating at a loading
     from 101 through 200 persons per
     acre,  86% (12 of 14) were classified
     as good or excellent. 14% (2  of 14)
     were  classified as fair or worse.

   4.  Of the ponds operating at a loading
      above 200 persons per acre, 29%  (2
      of 7) were classified as good or ex-
      cellent.  71% (5 of 7) were classified
      as fair or worse.

   5.  Without having made a specific study
      of a conventional type plant,  it is
      known that ponds as a method of
      treatment would have a much better
      average  operational history classifi-
      cation than the conventional plant  fa-
      cilities in Colorado.

See following page for:
  (Table 34, SUMMARY OF  THE OPERA-
  TIONAL HISTORY OF RAW ^EWAGE
  LAGOONS IN THE STATE OF COLO-
  RADO)
  •Division of Sanitation, State Department of Public Health.
                                         147

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                                       TABLE 34

               Summary of the Operational History of Raw Sewage Lagoons
                               in the State of Colorado
COMMUNITY



Burlington Sanitation




Colo. Training School
for Girls -Morrison. •


Frie 	 	 	
Erie Series Oper-


Frederick (Tri-Area). • •






Wrav. 	 	



Est . Tributary
Population Equiv.
5 400
3 500*
700
400
250
350
450
430
150
4 500
1 200
1 300
780
780
1 200
1 200
1,200
325
800
10 000
3 600
400
500
100
2 400
1,800
42 935

Area
Acres
47
20
4.2
p.O
2.5
1.35
3.0'
1.92
0.5
27
14.3
6 1
3.4
1.75
3.1
6
8.3
4.5
6
96.6
38.9
or
27.1
2.0
1.0
5
ip 3
9.0
325.97

Loading
Pop/Acre
115
175*
165
pnn
100
260
1 <5Q
2?5
300
165
85
013
220
450
390
200
145
75
133
103
110
200
500
20
-105
200
AYC •
= 132
General
Classification
of Operation*
Good
Poor
Good

Good- (2-2 1/2 acre
ponds ) 1-pond in
operation 1/2 of
town is hooked on.
Fair
flood
Good
Poor
Fair
Excellent
Good
?
Poor
Poor to fair
Good (except when
slaughterhouse was
connected)
Good -exc e llent
Good
Good
Exo*3 1 1 f^Tit
Good
Excellent
Fair— expansion
in 1960
flonrl
Good
Ave .
= Good
*Pond Operation Classifications
                                          148

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            Choose the classification most nearly describing the ponds.

FAIR -      Almost continuously anaerobic v.ith odor nuisance and/or health hazard.
            No D.O. in effluent.
            Effluent not complying with state standards - BOD greater than 50 ppm.

POOR -      Frequently anaerobic with odor nuisance and/or health hazard.
            Effluent does not comply with 30 ppm.
            BOD concentration standard.

FAIR -      Anaerobic occasionally (more than 1 or 2 weeks per year) with some odor com-
            plaints .
            Effluent normally expected to meet standards with exception of coliform MPN.

GOOD -      Only anaerobic for short period in Spring.
            Effluent expected to meet state standards.
            Evidence of good biological growth continually.

EXCELLENT - No record of odor complaints (aerobic operation).
            Effluent, if any, meets state standards.
            Always good biological growth in ponds.
                                           149

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o
H «H
CO O
M
  -p
  CO
PH -H

O
                                                                                        M

                                                                                        S3
                                                                                        o
                                                                                        CO
                                                                                        a
                                   aad suosaaj  -
                                     150

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          EXPERIENCE IN WYOMING WITH WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOONS
                                          by

                                   David P. Green*
  The waste stabilization lagoon is an ac-
cepted method in Wyoming, for the treat-
ment of both industrial and domestic
wastes. These units are considered to pro-
duce a degree of treatment equivalent to
the conventionally accepted methods of
secondary treatment.

  The following discussion will treat the
subject first in terms  of factors required
by climate,  terrain and other natural con-
ditions; secondly will deal with a few rec-
ommended design considerations which
experience has indicated to be desirable;
and thirdly, by a brief  discussion of ex-
perience, both favorable and unfavorable,
with such lagoons in Wyoming  in the re-
cent past.

  Wyoming,  for the most part, is  an arid
state, having extremes in temperature.
Freezing  conditions and snow may be ex-
pected from  October to late April,  al-
though long  periods of intense  sunshine are
common and mitigate the often  severe win-
ter conditions. As  might be expected, the
low humidity and intense sunlight,  coupled
with relatively high wind velocities, re-
sult in high  rates of evaporation.

  Both industry and municipalities  are,
for the most part,  concentrated in the
river valleys, such as  those of the North
Platte,  Green and Big Horn Rivers. The
river valleys are generally narrow and
boarded by desert; or at least near desert
country. It will be  realized that this type
of topography, together with the sparse
population,  has made the waste stabiliza-
tion lagoon a preferential method of treat-
ment. This  is shown by the pollution
abatement program which has  resulted in
the construction of 46  municipal lagoons
since 1955,  while only  4 conventional
plants have  been  built during the same
period.  Acceptance of the waste stabiliza-
 tion lagoon has been even more marked
 with industry private corporation.

   The Wyoming design criteria for lagoons
 generally follow those suggested by the
 Missouri Basin Engineering Health Coun-
 cil. Allowable BOD loadings for raw  sew-
 age lagoons are shown as a population
 equivalent of  200  persons per acre (35  Ibs.
 per acre).  Thus far, theoretical consid-
 eration has shown no necessity for the
 development of specific criteria for reten-
 tion or hydraulic  loading for conventional
 organic wastes where the stabilization  of
 the oxygen  demand and reduction of bac-
 terial population are desired.

  Design practice calls for operation at
two depths, 3 feet during the summer and
5 feet during the winter months. These  are
primarily an empirical pair of values.  The
lesser depth is based partially on experi-
ence  in preventing the growth of rooted
aquatics providing circulation and  partially
on some studies conducted several years
ago concerning light transmission  thru  al-
gae bearing waters. The  winter depth is
almost solely empirical and represents an
attempt to compromise the recognized ef-
fect of temperature on the reaction velocity
constant for "anaerobic"  or heterogeneous
conditions brought about by the "Blackout"
of solar energy due to ice and  snow cover,
as against the increased cost of construc-
tion if a specific high degree of treatment
were to H= mandatory.

  Several very limited investigations have
been made of the location of inlets and outlets
There seems to be  a definate indication that,
at least in small units, i. e. under lOacres,
an effect is exerted by prevailing high winds
causing some short circuiting.  The data are
insufficient for conclusion to be drawn, but it
is suggested that considerationmight be given
to these factors of wind direction and velocity.
  •State Department of Public Health Sanitary Engineer.
                                        151

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  The location of population centers in
river valleys has  led  to the problem of
sealing lagoon bottoms in  many cases.
Originally a literature  search was made,
however, it was  felt that'the majority of
the work,  having been done on irrigation
canals, was not applicable to lagoons since
velocity conditions, etc.  are not  encoun-
tered.

  Several methods of sealing have been
used in Wyoming, and all are apparently
equally sucessful, the  choice  being eco-
nomic. These are the installation of a 4 -inch
true clay blanket, the use of a seal coat of
crude bentonite worked into the surface of
the bottom, and by asphaltic soil stabiliza-
tion.  In the last  case,  an MC-oil or RC-oil
has been applied by distributor for a  total
application of 0.  5 to 0. 7 gallons per square
yard. Interior banks are treated  either by
hand hose or an adapted spray bar.

  Since the pollution of shallow ground
water does not constitute a problem,  in
Wyoming, it is our opinion that the seal
must be effective for a period of  6 to 12
months, after which we believe that accumu-
lated algae and sewage solids will effec-
tively plug the soil interstices forming the
equivalent of an  impermeable membrane.

  The great majority of lagoons in Wyo-
ming  are of the multi-cell flow thru type
with piping arrangements for either series
or parallel operation.  Although a few com-
plete  retention lagoons have been designed
for areas where  either no defined drainage
exists or for specific industrial problems
where a discharge could not be tolerated.
Despite calculation these units may have
to be  enlarged as experience dictates.

  More recently variations have  come into
limited use, as for example at the Jeffrey
City Townsite of the Western Nuclear Com-
pany. In this case the units are slightly
modified and field irrigation effectively
supplements the  lagoons.

  Recently it came to our attention that
operating difficulties were being  experi-
enced in multi-cell units. Our investiga-
tions  indicated that these units were not
being loaded on the basis of surface area.
Therefore we now require that all multi-
cell units be provided with some  type of
flow measuring device  on the inlet. Flow
measuring devices on outlets might also be
considered where such information might
be of value in material balances. I would
like  to add that, in my opinion, series op-
eration during our long cold weather pe-
riod, would tend to increase benthal loads
unduly in the spring.

  Another item which is too frequently
overlooked is that of composition of the
wastes.  A simple example of this  is the use
of lagoons for secondary or tertiary treat-
ment after some type of pretreatment.  We
have found,  for example, that small lagoons
are  valuable following septic  tanks at
trailer courts, or  after sedimentation in
several  small towns.  In these cases it must
be realized  that the  criteria should reflect
the removal of the nonsoluable BOD,  and
therefore that the units can logically be
smaller.

  Many industrial wastes will require some
type of pre-treatment, although lagoons
can  and do adapt to a surprising degree.
Studies must be made of the composition
of the waste,  the  sources  for specific  com-
ponents, the effect and reliability  of the
methods of pre-treatment, the effect or
normal and  possible  shock loads on the la-
goon and finally the  compatibility of the
waste to the  lagoon method of treatment
and  the degree of  stabilization expected
under varying conditions.  A few examples
of pre-treatment  are as follows:

  1.  Packing House Wastes: All possible
      blood,  paunch manure and solids
      must be retained in the plant. This
      is  not a new waste and recognized
      methods have  been developed for
      proper in plant housekeeping. Fail-
      ure to  carry out such a program
      would not only  require an inordinately
      large lagoon system, but would re-
      sult in the formation of floating scum
      mats and possible effective blackout
      of the pond due to coloration. These,
      of course, create nuisance conditions
      as well as generally result in an un-
      stabilized effluent.

  2.  Petroleum Wastes: Toxic substances
      and oil must be reduced to the prac-
      tical minimum prior to discharge to
      a lagoon.  Where  possible total reten-
      tion systems or adaptations  of those
      systems  should be used.

  3.   Wool Scouring Wastes: Recently the
      Wyoming Department of Public Health
                                          152

-------
      was required to evaluate waste sta-
      bilization lagoons as a possible
      method of treating this type of waste.
      A literature search and chemical
      analysis  determined that this  waste,
      had an extremely high BOD,  oil and
      grease,  and solids content. The prob-
      lem was further complicated by  the
      use of a very high concentration  of an
      industrial non-ionic detergent. Con-
      sideration of all possible  methods of
      pre-treatment did not indicate that
      the waste load,  particularly the de-
      tergent, component, could be treated
      by the lagoon method, to say nothing
      of  providing a satisfactory effluent.

  It is believed that the remainder of this
discussion could best  be devoted to a dis-
cussion of specific problems encountered
within the last three years. I would like to
point  out that the laboratory facilities of the
Wyoming Department  of Public  Health  is
extremely limited and that only a bare  min-
imum  of the data considered desirable  has
been obtained.

   Various difficulties have been experi-
enced with  municipal  waste systems. Il-
lustrating examples are as follow:

   1.   In the first case: This particular unit
       had been designed as a one cell flow
       thru unit based  on 1 7 Ibs.  of BOD per
       acre, and operable at both 3 and 5
       foot water depth. The unit had a rec-
       ord of completely satisfactory oper-
       ation  for two years. The  lagoon
       failed going into anerobic condition
       suddenly. Insofar as  was known, no
       industrial wastes had been recently
       accepted into the system,  nor had
       there been any great increase in pop-
       ulation served.  A small amount  of
       oil was  noted on the leeward end of
       the unit, but the Town had an en-
       forced regulation against discharge
       of waste oil to the sewers.

       Eventually a leak was discovered in
       a short  section  of crude oil pipeline
       passing near the lagoon.

       Sufficient oil had been discharged to
       the unit to create a toxic  condition,
       without  causing large areas of oil on
       the surface.  Practice now requires
       that such lines are relocated.
  2.  The 2nd case: It concerned a one cell
     flow thru unit designed on the basis
     of 35 Ibs. of BOD per acre and capa-
     ble of operation at 3 and  5 foot water
     depth. During the late summer of
     1958  an inspection found  that the  la-
     goon  had failed.  The lagoon water
     was found to be a deep red and ap-
     proximately 1/8 of the surface was
     covered by  a floating scum mat.  As
     previously,  the northern series  pair
     showed aerobic or probably truly
     facultive conditions with  the degree
     of treatment increasing from interior
     to exterior  cells. An overall BOD
     reduction of 82% was achieved by
     aerobic conditions under an average
     of 50% ice cover at water tempera-
     tures just above freezing.

     The Southern pair was found to be
     "Anaerobic" -  or at least lacking in
     dissolved oxygen as determined by
     standard analysis. Algae were pres-
     ent, however,  in lesser numbers than
     in the other pair, but in sufficient
     quantity to indicate a heterogeneous
     type of  stabilization.  t^S generation
     was marked. Although the overall
     BOD  removal was 78% with this  pair,
     the degree of removal lessened as
     flow progressed from interior to ex-
     terior cells. It  had been  found in the
     study that sewage flow was split to
     the lagoons  on  some basis other than
     loading  per  surface acre. Apparently
     this incorrect distribution over a pe-
     riod of time among the cells produced
     sufficient benthal decomposition due
     to temperature effects  on the rate
     constants to cause  this situation to
     occur.

  On the whole,  few difficulties  have  been
experienced with industrial waste stabili-
zation  lagoons. I belive that others have
have discussed a majority of industrial
waste problems,  therefore only  two ex-
amples are presented.

  1. Standard Oil Company,  Casper:  This
     is a large full line refinery. All
     wastes after oil reclamation and
     housekeeping procedures are dis-
     charged to  a large retention area.
     Phenols seem to be almost totally
     removed and treatment appears  to be
     excellent. No ground water problems
                                          153

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    are encountered and no return water
    is discharged to the North Platte
    River,  but is disposed of byevapora-
    tion and percolation.

2.   Western Nuclear Corporation,  Jef-
    frey City: This plant processes ura-
    nium ore under AEC license. A total
    retention lagoon has been constructed
    for mill wastes which would other-
    wise be discharged to the Sweetwater
    River, causing radio-nucleide chem-
    ical and physical pollution.

    Investigation found that a packing
    house had been given sewerage serv-
    ice several days previously and that
    no pretreatment had been required.
    Although the packing house was
    small,  the discharge of raw waste
    had raised the influent BOD loading
    on the lagoon to nearly 100 Ibs.  per
    acre. This of course was corrected
    by pre-treatment,  but  it is interest-
    ing to note that the lagoon was anaer-
    obic only at night;  the aerobic-anaer-
    obic cycle lagging  the day-night cycle
    by approximately 2 hours.

3.   The 3rd example concerns  a 4 cell
    unit serving  approximately 18,000
    people and designed on the  basis of
    30 Ibs. of BOD per acre. The flow
    arrangement in this  particular unit
    is unusual.  Raw sewage is  loaded  in-
    to all cells.  Two interior cells then
    over flow into the remaining two ex-
      terior cells. The only unusual indus-
      trial waste is a small wool scouring
      pilot plant operated on an extremely
      limited basis  for 2 months during the
      summer. This system has been found
      to have anaerobic conditions in 1
      series pair  and aerobic conditions in
      the other in the spring of 1959. Al-
      though surface effluent discharge  is
      provided, this could not  account for
      variations within the  unit.

      Since this is the largest  unit in the
      state and good laboratory and tech-
      nical facilities are readily available
      a study was planned for 1960.  The
      study would include BOD, DO,  Nitro-
      gen series,  phosphate, oil and grease,
      detergent analysis and biological and
      bacteriological work.  The first sam-
      pling series was  planned for the
      spring ice-break-up in I960.

      The unit is radiologically monitored
      and is well below the  accepted ex-
      posure values. No significant change
      is found in  radioactivity  or in ni-
      trates in the ground water.

  In summary I wish to present  the under-
lying ideas of the  proceedings: that a ra-
tionale  should be developed for the use in
the design of waste  stabilization lagoons
for specific situations and furthermore that
the lagoons are merely another type of
treatment which may be preferable in a
specific situation.
                                        154

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                              ARCTIC SEWAGE LAGOONS
                                          by

                                 Charles  F.  Walters*
  The Arctic Health Research Center has
been observing two experimental sewage
lagoons in Alaska for the past three years.
Design recommendations of the Center
engineering staff were  followed by consult-
ing engineers in the preparation of plans
for both installations. Under AHRC sponsor-
ship the Alaska Department of Health ap-
proved the lagoons on an experimental
basis to permit observation of the effects
of extreme climatic conditions,  including
long periods of thick ice  cover.

  One of the lagoons,  located at Sutton,
Alaska (60 miles from  .Anchorage), was
designed for a population of 50 persons from
a roadhouse and adjacent trailer court.
The area of the unit, based on a loading of
200 people/acre, is 1/4 acre. The normal
summer operating depth is 3 feet, however,
provisions was made for a winter storage
to a depth  of 5 feet.

  The lagoon did not hold liquid  during the
first two years of operation despite several
attempts to seal the bottom.  Silt from a
nearby stream was diverted to the lagoon
but subsequent retentions lasted for only a
month, after which time  the lagoon would
again empty. Although  there was an ac-
cumulation of sludge around the  center in-
let, no odors were detected.

  The other experimental lagoon, located
at Ft.  Yukon, Alaska (150 miles north of
Fairbanks) was designed for  an elementary
school serving 200 non-boarding children
and 8 adult teachers.

  A 1, 100 foot, 6  inch,  wood stave pipe
carried the sewage from a sump in the
schoolhouse to the inlet structure in the
middle of the 125 foot square area. Although
an overflow was provided at the 5 foot level,
no effluent has been discharged since  sew-
age first began entering the lagoon in 1957.
   Based on a population of 200,  the loading
for this lagoon is 425 people/acre. Obser-
vations on the number of sump pump dis-
charges indicate a daily discharge of 2, 200
gpd.  The  detention period at the 5 foot level
is one year. Percolation and evaporation
maintain  the level at approximately 2. 5
feet.

   Severe  winter temperatures of -60°F
have  not affected the flow of liquid in the
sewer line. The reason for this  is twofold:
initial pumping  temperature and intermit-
tent pumping. The sewage  has an initial
temperature of  60oF when it leaves the
sump in the school house and is  pumped
intermittently to the lagoon.

  During  the winter 1957-1958, ice thick-
ness varied according to  the distance from
the center inlet.  Directly above the inlet
there  was no ice, whereas  near the shore,
the lagoon was frozen solid. The following
spring as  the  ice melted and began to rise,
it carried with it the horizontal inlet pipe
and broke off  a section near the shore.
Consequently, the lagoon froze solid the
following  winter  except for an area 25 feet
in radius  around the  shore  inlet.

  During  the spring transitional period of
1959,  samples obtained for plankton iden-
tification  indicated that the sewage organic
matter in the  top 9 inches of the  lagoonwas
stabilized in one month after the ice left the
pond (l). An analyses of dissolved oxygen
content in tne  spring of I960 tended to sub-
stantiate this  belief.  Hourly samples  col-
lected over a  24-hour period showed the
lagoon in  a continuous state of dissolved
oxygen saturation. Figure  11 is a compari-
son of these results with the diurual fluc-
tuations reported by  Towne etal (2) in  their
North Dakota  studies. Since an abundance
of oxygen is available consistently instead
of intermittently, it would be expected that
 •Sr. Asst. Sanitary Engineer, Arctic Health Research Center, Public Health Service, Anchorage. Alaska.
                                         155

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 40-
O
CO

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an arctic lagoon could support a larger
bacterial population, resulting in a shorter
period of stabilization for any given amount
of B.O.D.

  The stabilization lagoon at  Ft. Yukon is
unique in that it is loaded only during the
winter months, at which time an adequate
ice cover prevents the spreading of obnox-
ious odors. Following the disappearance of
ice in the spring,  it appears that complete
stabilization is attained within one month.
The biological mechanisms responsible for
such an accelerated reduction of wastes is
contingent  upon the long daylight hours
which provide the  necessary solar radia-
tion for photosynthetic activity in the algae.

  Because  of the vast land area in arctic
and subarctic regions, the use of lagoons
in Alaska presents an inexpensive means
for treating domestic  sewage. It has been
shown that successful lagoon operations
can be maintained even in such adverse
climatic conditions as might be found in
Ft. Yukon, Alaska.
              REFERENCES

(1)  Anderegg,  J. A.,  Walters, C.F.
      Milliard, D.,  Meyers,  H.F.,
      "Eskimo Algae Make Lagoons  Work
      at the Arctic Circle", Wastes  Engi-
      neering, 31,6, 324 (June I960).

(2)  Towne,  W.W., Bartsch,  A.F.,  Davis,
      W.  H.,  "Raw  Stabilization Ponds in
      the Dakotas",  Sewage and Industrial
      Wastes,  29,4, 377 (April 1957).
                                         157

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                             IMPROMPTU REMARKS MADE
                                           by

                                   Joe Williamson, Jr.
   This meeting has resulted in being the
most important three day session I have
ever attended in my 31  years in sanitary
engineering. To you who are present I say
you are lucky, because you are seeing his-
tory made here.

   In school I studied Babbitt, edition of
1928.  It takes a good three years to com-
pile the data,  write, edit, print and mar-
ket a textbook on such technical subjects .
as""Sewerage and Sewage Treatment". It
might be said, therefore, that Babbitt,
edition of 1928, truly presented practices
in the field in the mid-twenties. It has
often occurred to me that, in basic I960
sewage treatment plant design I could refer
to said edition of Babbitt and design a mod-
ern plant.  In that book were described
trickling filters with rotary distributors;
activated  sludge; chemical precipitation;
separate,  covered,  mechanized digesters
with gas collection for heating; centrifuges
for drying sludge (now experiencing, at
long last, a new awakening); acidulation or
acidification of  sludge;  sludge  vacuum fil-
ters;  acid precipitation; electrolysis;  dis-
infection; etc.,  etc.

   May I digress to say that in 1925 trick-
ling filters were new and sanitary  engi-
neers  were not quite "sure".  In the begin-
ning many engineers were violently opposed
to filters.  To  quote Babbitt: "In the sum-
mer the filters  sometimes give off offen-
sive odors that  can be noticed  at a distance
of half a mile,  and flying insects may
breed  in the filter in sufficient quantities
to become  a nuisance if preventive steps
are not taken".  Even today  it must be ad-
mitted that the "hands and knees" method
detecting odors  from conventional plants is
far from being necessary, but always is
with well designed and well maintained ox-
idation ponds.

   The point I am making  is that, for the
best part of 35  years, there has been no
major "break through" or real, practical
revolutionary advancement in the art of
sewage treatment as has been the case in
practically every other field of modern en-
deavor.  Would you not split your sides
laughing at the sight of a 35 year old auto-
mobile creeping  down the street? Yet, we
are designing economically prohibitive
treatment plants the basic ideas for  which
were all in practical application thirty-five
or more years ago. This is a horrible con-
demnation of our profession.

  At this meeting I do believe we are tak-
ing a good look at the first real "break
through"  unless one other very recent ad-
vancement  could fall in that category. I
refer to vacuum  filtration of all raw
sludges,  primary and secondary, to elim-
inate the  major headaches and the major
operation expense in any plant; ie, conven-
tional sludge digesters and sludge drying.

  In the past I have heard many discus-
sions on the subject "why has the art of
sewage treatment been so retarded"? I
have even myself been a party to the
thought that most of the lack of progress
may be due to some public health officials
insisting  on seeing anything tried in  some
other state fifteen years prior to approval
in their states. After this meeting I will
never  again subscribe to  such thoughts. I
say this because consulting engineers,
writers of our textbooks and our long-
haired professional aristocracy who influ-
ence our  thinking have all been asleep on
the subject of oxidation ponds for stabili-
zation of  sewage. It has consistently been
the  public health officials in this country
(down  at the grass-roots  level, where they
know the  importance of "cost") who have
carried the torch in insisting  on recogni-
tion and acceptance of waste stabilization
lagoons.

  Back in 1942, and I repeat,  in 1942,
(eighteen years ago) one public health offi-
cial had then been crying from the house
tops for some years and no one listened.  In
                                         159

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1942 C. G.  Gillespie, Chief,  Bureau of
Sanitary Engineering, California State
Dept. of Public Health made the following
statements to the Arizona Water and Sew-
age Association:

   "That oxidation ponds are not more used
can be explained  by their crudity com-
pared to neat engineering  structures,  the
unattractive  green coloration of the efflu-
ent and perhaps by the fact that too few en-
gineers are aware of the potentialities of
oxidation of organic matter. Properly laid
out for size and embodying a. few simple
details, oxidation ponds absorb and  de-
stroy the odors of sewage, leaving nothing
worse than the smell of a  swamp. The ef-
fluents are permanently stable, with BOD
values as good or better than those of
trickling filter effluents. As a destroyer of
sewage bacteria, they possess  almost un-
believable efficacy.  Final overflow from
ponds designed for 15-day detention will
show  5-50 B coli. per cc compared to
something like 100,000 per cc in the orig-
inal sewage. Such results continue day
after  day and therefore will rank with, or
outrank, results from chlorination in reli-
ability. "

   Obviously,  prior to World War II,  some
few of us had considerable knowledge of
the application and efficiency of oxidation
ponds. Even so,  we went right  ahead de-
signing temporary,  emergency, conven-
tional activated sludge and trickling filter
plants for hundreds of Army and Navy can-
tonments utilizing tons of steel and other
critical materials that should have gone
into battleships.  In a communistic state
such neglect and lack of vision, especially
in war-time, would have resulted in many
of us being lined up against a wall and shot.

  This meeting we are attending here is
the sole result of the blood,  sweat and
tears of a few dedicated public health offi-
cials, such as  Gillespie of California;
Svore and Van  Heuvelen of North Dakota;
Hopkins of the  P.H.S. ; Ehlers of Texas;
and, more recently,  Brinckof Montana, our
own Jack Smith of Missouri, Carl of South
Dakota, Filipi  of Nebraska,  and Johnson of
Mississippi. Out of dire necessity these
men and a  very few other public health of-
ficials have been forced to take over the
leadership of our heretofore leaderless
profession. How much longer are such men
to be castigated by our reactionaries who
believe no  process has any merit unless  it
involves a  three story masonry structure
of huge cost upon which  can be mounted a
bronze plaque in their memory?

  Admittedly, this is a terrible condemna-
tion of our profession. Even so, I believe
that too many of us have been keeping our
mouths shut too long for the  best interest
of the American taxpayer. A rude awaken-
ing is in order.
                                           160

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                                       CRITIQUE

                                   By C. H.  Atkins*
  Although the title of this portion of the
program is "Critique, " the following is not
intended to be so complete and thorough as
to warrant such a title.  Neither will it be a
summary. In fact it will consist of some
conclusions your speaker  has  drawn from
the information presented at this  Sympo-
sium.

   The Missouri Basin Engineering Health
Council has demonstrated real leadership
in sponsoring this Symposium. The attend-
ance of more than 300 persons concerned
with water quality management from 32
States and 8 foreign countries indicates the
tremendous interest in lagoons.  This Sym-
posium has afforded an  excellent  opportu-
nity for the interchange of information on
this relatively new concept in  sewage treat-
ment.

  During this Symposium  there have been
various reports as to the time and place of
the early pioneering work on the use of la-
goons for sewage treatment.  Much of this
work was directed toward the  use of la-
goons in connection with conventional treat-
ment processes. The use  of lagoons for
treatment of raw sewage began to get un-
derway in this country about 1950.

   This method of raw sewage  treatment
has been accepted by each of the 10 State
Health and Water Pollution Control Agen-
cies of the Missouri River Basin,  the same
agencies in other States, and by the  U.  S.
Public Health Service. Under  Public Law
660, construction grants have been made
since early 1957 for 443 projects in  32
States for waste stabilization lagoon proj-
ects.  Of these 432  were for raw sewage
lagoons. The rate of growth in the utiliza-
tion of this method of sewage treatmenthas
been great and is accelerating.

  One of the factors favoring waste stabili-
zation lagoons is lower  capital and operat-
ing costs.  The information presented dur-
ing this Symposium indicates that the
capital cost ranges from 40 to 60 percent of
the cost of conventional secondary treat-
ment facilities. Population served, land
costs,  and many other factors affect this
ratio. The operational costs are substan-
tially less  than for other types of treatment.
These costs, however, are not zero.  The
lagoons must be given proper maintenance
as is required of other treatment processes.

   Reports  from several State Health De-
partment representatives indicate that the
use of lower cost waste stabilization la-
goons has accelerated the construction of
sewer systems as well as treatment facili-
ties.  This  is very significant from the pub-
lic health standpoint.  The elimination of
insanitary  conditions in communities and
the improvement of water quality are high
priority items  in environmental health
programs.

   While this Symposium has been directed
primarily to the use of lagoons for the
treatment of raw sewage, there has been
some discussion of other uses of lagoons.
These include  "polishing" of the effluent
following conventional primary or second-
ary treatment. Another use is anaerobic
lagoons for very high  B. O. D.  wastes such
as that from meat packing plants followed
by aerobic lagoons for final treatment.

   Encouraging reports were made on re-
search by industry, universities, State and
Federal agencies.  The results  of this work
thus far, however, are meager in terms of
needs. Research, evaluations and demon-
strations are essential in the further de-
velopment  and  use  of waste stabilization
lagoons to  enable realization of their full
potential. High priority should be given by
each of us  in the support of more research
by industry,  universities, State and Fed-
eral Water Pollution Control Agencies and
   •Regional Engineer, U. S. Public Health Service, Region III, Charlottesville, Virginia.
                                          161

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others. Pending the results of this re-
search, we already have studies and oper-
ational experience necessary to enable a
rational approach in the design and opera-
tion of lagoons for sewage treatment. The
States of the Missouri River Basin have
developed criteria on this basis.  These
criteria, which were presented at this Sym-
posium,  represent a major step in the es-
tablishment of design standards and opera-
tional practices.  Variable climatic  and
other conditions make it necessary  to pro-
vide considerable latitude in such criteria.
One State indicated that rainfall and evap-
oration were so  different within the State
as to require variations in design depending
upon the location within the State.

  Special studies and operational  experi-
ence  indicate that the efficiency of lagoons
is comparable to secondary treatment in
terms of B. O. D.  reduction and that the re-
duction in coliforms and nutrients is
greater than for conventional secondary
treatment. In many instances, lagoons are
used for  complete retention of effluent for
periods when receiving stream is critical.
Holding periods up to 120 days are pro-
vided in some States during ice coverage of
the  streams  and resultant low oxygen con-
tent.  In some instances  lagoons are appli-
cable for complete containment of the sew-
age.  They have shown unusual capability to
absorb shock loads and to handle widely
fluctuating waste  discharges.

  An example of complete containment of
sewage effluent through  the use of lagoons
is the  interim treatment works under de-
sign for the Dulles International Airport
near Washington,  D. C. This airport is
located in the Potomac  River  Basin up-
stream from the Washington water works
intakes.  Public Health,  aesthetic, and other
considerations made it desirable to have no
discharge of sewage effluent from the air-
port above the •water intakes on the Potomac.
A large interceptor is to be constructed
along  the river to carry sewage from
the  airport and other upstream areas to the
Washington sewage treatment plant.  Pend-
ing  the completion of this interceptor,  the
airport sewage will be treated in lagoons.
It is anticipated that there will be no over-
flow from the lagoons for one to two years
after they are placed in operation. Subse-
quently,  the lagoon effluent will be dis-
charged onto the land on airport property by
spray irrigation.

  Satisfactory results have been reported
for waste stabilization, lagoons used for
communities up to 15,000 population. Some
are now under construction or being planned
for towns of 30, 000 to 40, 000 population
plus the industrial wastes discharged to
these municipal sewer systems. Likewise,
this method of treatment has been demon-
strated as suitable for small communities,
schools, motels,  resorts, slaughter houses,
rendering plants,  creameries,  laundries
and oil  refineries.

  The waste stabilization lagoons are not a
panacea for all sewage treatment problems.
The availability of land required for la-
goons to serve large cities may be a limit-
ing factor. Mosquito breeding may occur
unless the lagoons are properly constructed
and maintained, but no significant breeding
was reported in lagoons  properly designed
and operated.  Odors appear under certain
conditions most of which may be due to
improper design or operation. Certain
types of industrial wastes interfere with the
biological process in a manner  similar to
other biological treatment processes.  Land
values,  topography, permeability of soil,
high ground water table,  climate and other
factors  should be  considered in the selec-
tion and design of this type of facility.

  Our explosive population and  industrial
growths have placed unprecedenteddemands
on our water supply resource. Forecasts
indicate that these will continue at an ac-
celerated pace. These are factors under-
lying  the growing  public  support for water
pollution control.  There is considerable
competition for funds, and adequate treat-
ment facilities are expensive for any com-
munity.  It is a great challenge to meet
these demands and needs. Waste stabiliza-
tion lagoons have  demonstrated successful
use from the southern to the most northern
boundary of the United States.  From the in-
formation presented at this Symposium, it
is concluded that this treatment process,
when properly designed and operated, will
work satisfactorily in any of our soil and
climatic conditions  for any size community.
The determining factor,  therefore, is  the
relative cost of construction and operation.
Consequently,  this method of sewage treat-
                                          162

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ment should be considered along with other      The Missouri Basin Engineering Health
proven processes in making the engineering   Council has rendered a valuable public
and economic analyses which  should govern   service in providing extensive information
the selection of the most suitable type of      on waste  stabilization lagoons through the
treatment facility.                            mechanism of this Symposium.
                                          163

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                              SELECTED REFERENCES ON
                            WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS*

                        William Marcus Ingram,  W. W. Towne, and
                                William Bliss Horning  II**

  The references cited here are pertinent in their relationship to the successful devel-
opment of functional waste stabilization ponds or  lagoons which treat domestic sewage in
the United States. Readers of this bibliography should  turn to additional references in the
publications cited here for further information; obviously it is not possible to include all
papers which can be related to the treatment of decomposable  organic wastes, as domes-
tic  sewage, in a bibliography of this nature.

Allen, M. B.
       1955.  General Features of Algal Growth in Sewage Oxidation Ponds.
              Publ. No.  13,  Calif. State Water Pollution Control Board, pp. 1-47.

Allum, M.  O.
       1955.  Lagoon Purification Performance in South Dakota. American City,
              Vol.  70, No. 3, pp.  128-1Z9.

Anderegg, J. A., Walters, C.  F., Hilliard, D. , and  Meyers, H.  F.
       I960.  "Eskimo" Algae Make Lagoons Work at  the Arctic Circle.  Wastes Engi-
              neering,
              Vol.  31, No. 6, pp.  324-326.
Anon.
       1946.   Sewage Treatment at Military Installations.
               Kept. Sub-committee on Sanitary Engineering, National Research Council,
               Div.  Medical Sciences,  Washington, D.  C. ,
               Chapter 10 - Oxidation Ponds,  pp.  1023-1026.
Anon.
       1957.
Anon.
       1960.
Sewage Stabilization Ponds in the Dakotas.
Vols. I-II (Joint Rept. , Depts.  of Health of North Dakota,  South Dakota
and The U. S. Public Health Service)
Printed: Robt. A.  Taft Sanitary Engineering Center,  Cincinnati, Ohio.


Waste Stabilization Lagoons: Design, Construction, and Operation Prac-
tices Among Missouri Basin States.  (Reproduced by Dept. of Health,  Edu-
cation,  and Welfare,  U.S. Public Health Service, Region VI, Water Supply
and Pollution Control Activities, 2200 Federal Office Bldg. ,  911 Walnut
Street,  Kansas City 6, Mo.)
Committee Report Approved by the Missouri Basin Engineering Health
Council on January 1,  I960, pp. 1-12.
  "To be associated with paper, " Some Observations on the Growth, Application, and Operation of Raw Sewage Stabilization
Ponds, " (See page 68).
  ••Biologist, Chief, and Biologist respectively of Field Operations Section, Technical Services Branch, Division of Water Supply
and Pollution Control, Public Health Service, Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
                                           165

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Bartsch, A. F.  and Allum, M. O.
       1957.   Biological Factors in Treatment of Raw Sewage in Artificial Ponds.
              Limnology and Oceanography,
              Vol. 2,  No.  2, pp.  77-84.

Beadle, L. D. and Harmston, F.  C.
       1958.   Mosquitoes in Sewage Stabilization Ponds in the Dakotas.
              Mosquito News,
              Vol. 18, No. 4,  pp.  293-296.

Caldwell, D. H.
       1946.   Sewage  Oxidation Ponds - Performance, Operation, and Design.
              Sewage  Works Journal,
              Vol. 18, No. 3,  pp.  433-458.

Davis, W.  H.
       1955.   Sewage  Lagoons  in the Dakotas.
              Off.  Bull. N. D. Water and Sewage Wks.  Conf. ,
              Vol. 23, pp.  5-6.

Ehlers, V. M.
       1954.   Oxidation Ponds  - Their Application and Potentials.
              Off.  Bull. N. D. Water and Sewage Wks.  Conf. ,
              Vol. 22, pp.  3-14.

Ellison, R. P. and Smith,  R.  L.
       1954.   Evaluating the Use of Sewage Lagoons.
              Public Works,
              Vol. 85, No. 3,  pp.  89 and 142.

Fitzgerald, G. P. and Rohlich,  G. A.
       1958.   An Evaluation of Stabilization Pond Literature.
              Sewage  and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  30, No. 10,  pp.  1213-1224.

Gidley, H.  K.
       1956.   Treating Septic Tank  Effluent by an Oxidation Pond.
              Public Works,
              Vol. 87, No. 1,  pp.  81-82.

Gloyna, E. F. and Hermann, E. R.
       1956.   Some Design Considerations for Oxidation Ponds.
              Proc. American Society of Civil Engineers,
              Vol. 82, Paper 1047.

Gloyna, E. F. and Hermann, E. R.
       1957.   Discussion:  (Algae in Waste Treatment by Oswald,  Gotaas, Golueke and
              Kellen).
              Sewage  and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 29, No. 4,  pp.  455-457.

Gotaas, H. B.,  Oswald, W. J. and  Ludwig, H.  F.
       1954.   Photo synthetic Reclamation of Organic Wastes.
              Scientific Monthly,
              Vol. 79, No. 12,  pp.  368-378.
                                         166

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Gotaas, H. B. , Oswald,  W. J.,  and Golueke, C. G.
       1954.   Algal-Bacterial Symbiosis in Sewage Oxidation Ponds - 5th Progress
              Report.
              Institute of Engineering Research,  Univ.  of Calif. ,
              Bull.  Ser.  44,  No.  5, pp.  1-88.

Hermann,  E.  R.  and Gloyna,  E. F.
       1958.   Waste Stabilization Ponds - I Experimental Investigations.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 511-538.

Hermann,  E.  R. , and Gloyna, E. F.
       1958.   Waste Stabilization Ponds - II Field Practices.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 646-651.

Hermann,  E.  R.  and Gloyna,  E. F.
       1958.   Waste Stabilization Ponds - III Formulation of Design Equations.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 30, No. 8, pp. 963-975.

Hopkins, G. J.
       1956.   Raw Sewage Lagoons.
              Water and Sewage Works,
              Vol. 103,  No. 8, pp. 566-570.

Howells, D. H. ,  and Dubois,  D. P.
       1959.   The Design and Cost of Stabilization Ponds in the Midwest.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 31, No. 7, pp. 811-818.

Kabler, P. W.
       1959.   Removal of Pathogenic Microorganisms by Sewage Treatment Processes.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 1373-1382.

Ludwig, H. F. and Oswald, W. J. , et al.
       1951.   Algae Symbiosis in Oxidation Ponds - I. Growth Characteristics of
              Euglena gracilis Cultured in Sewage.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 1337-1355.

Ludwig, H. F. and Oswald, W. J.
       1952.   Role of Algae in Sewage Oxidation Ponds.
              (Symposium on the Role of Ecology in Water Pollution Control), Scientific
              Monthly,
              Vol. 74, No. 1,  pp. 3-5.

Merz,  R.  C. , Merrell, J. C. , and Stone, R.
       1957.   Investigation of Primary Lagoon Treatment at Mojave, Calif.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 29, No. 2,  pp. 115-123.

Neel, J. K.
       1955.   Biological Aspects of Three North Dakota Sewage Lagoons.
              Off. Bull.  N. D. Water and Sewage Wks.  Conf. ,
              Vol. 23, pp.  13-15; 22.
                                         167

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Neel, J.  K. ,  and Hopkins, G. J.
       1956.   Experimental Lagooning of Raw Sewage.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  28,  No.  11,  pp.  1326-1356.

O'Connor,  D.  J., and Eckenfelder,  W. W.,  Jr.
       I960.   Treatment of Organic Wastes in Aerated Lagoons.
              Journal Water Pollution Control Federation,
              Vol.  32,  No.  4, pp. 365-382.

Oswald,  W. J. ,  Gotaas, H. B., et al.
       1953.   Algae Symbiosis in Oxidation Ponds - II Growth Characteristics of
              Cholorella pyrenoidosa Cultured in Sewage.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  25,  No.  1, pp. 26-37.

Oswald,  W. J. ,  Gotaas, H. B., Ludwig, H. F. , and Lynch,  V.
       1953.   Algae Symbiosis in Oxidation Ponds - III Photosynthetic Oxygenation.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  25,  No.  6, pp. 692-705.

Oswald,  W. J. ,  and Gotaas,  H.  B.
       1955.   Photosynthesis in Sewage  Treatment.
              Proc. Amer. Soc. Civil Engr. ,
              Vol.  81,  Separate No. 686,  pp. 1-27.

Oswald,  W. J. ,  Gotaas, H. B., Golueke,  C. G., and Kellen,  W. R.
       1957.   Algae in Waste Treatment.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  29,  No.  4, pp. 437-455.

Parker,  C. D. ,-  Jones,  H. L. , and  Taylor, W.  S.
       1950.   Purification of Sewage in Lagoons.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  22,  No.  6, pp. 760-775.

Parker,  C. D. ,  Jones,  H. L. , and  Greene,  N.  C.
       1959.   Performance of Large Sewage Lagoons at Melbourne Australia.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  31,  No.  2, pp.  133-152.

Pearse,  L. ,  et al.
       1948.   Oxidation Ponds.
              Report of the Committee on Sewage Disposal Engineering
              Section, Amer. Pub.  Health Assoc. ,
              Sewage Works Journal,
              Vol.  20,  No.  6, pp.  1021-1031.

Peterson,  N.  L.
       1955.   Sewage Treatment by Lagooning.
              Off.  Bull. N.  D.  Water  and Sewage Wks.  Conf. ,
              Vol.  23, pp. 21-22.

Sampson, E.  O.
       1955.   A Double Duty Oxidation Pond.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  27,  No.  12,  pp.  1410-1415.
                                          168

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Silva,  P.  C.  and Papenfuss, G. F.
       1953.   A Systematic Study of Sewage Oxidation Ponds.
              Calif. State Water Pollution Control Board,
              Publ. No. 7, pp. 1-35.

Smallhorst, D. F. ,  Walton,  B. N. , and Meyers,  J.
       1953.   Design and Operation of Oxidation Ponds.
              Public Works,
              Vol. 84,  No. 12, pp.  89-90;  111-114.

Smallhorst, D. F. ,  Walton,  B. N. , and Meyers,  J.
       1954.   Oxidation Ponds.
              Texas Water and Sewage Wks. Assoc. ,  Manual for Sewage Plant
              Operators, (2nd Ed.),
              Chapter 13.

Steel,  E.  W. , and Gloyna, E.  F.
       1955.   Concentration of Radioactivity in Oxidation Ponds.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol. 27,  No. 8,  pp.  941-956.

Towne, W. W.
       1957.   Sewage Stabilization Ponds for Suburban Housing Developments.
              Journal National Home Builders Assoc. ,
              August, pp. 85-88.

Towne, W. W. and Davis, W.  H.
       1957.   Sewage Treatment by Raw Sewage Stabilization Ponds.
              Journal Sanitary Engineering Division,
              Proc. Amer. Soc. Civil Engr. ,
              Paper 1337, SA-4: 1337, pp.  1-17.

Towne, W. W. , Bartsch, A. F. ,  and Davis, W. H.
       1957.   Raw Sewage Stabilization Ponds  in the Dakotas.
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Towne, W. W. and Pahren, H. R.
       1959.   Use of Stabilization Ponds in  Treating Sewage and Industrial Wastes.
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              Chapel Hill, N.  C. , April 1959.

Tsivoglou, E. C. , Pecsox, D.  A. and Valentine,  R. F.
       1956.   Field Use of Radiotracer in a Sewage Oxidation Pond Flow Study.
              Sewage and Industrial Wastes,
              Vol.  28,  No. 10, pp.  1211-1218.

Van Heuvelen, W.
       1952.   Sewage Disposal by the Lagoon Method.
              Off. Bull. N. D. Water and Sewage Wks.  Conf. ,
              Vol.  22,  No.  4,  pp. 24-26.

Van Heuvelen, W. , and Svore,  J.  H.
       1954.   Sewage Lagoons  in North Dakota.
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              Vol.  26,  No.  6,  pp. 771-776.
                                         169

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Wennstrom,  M.
       1949.   Biological Purification of Settled Sewage in Shallow Ponds.
              Proc. United National Scientific Conf. on Conservation and Utilization of
              Resources,  Aug. 17-Sept. 6,  1949,
              Lake Success, N.  Y. , pp. 124-127.

Wilson, J. N. , McDermott,  J. H. , and Livingston, A. ,  III
       I960.   Performance of a Sewage Stabilization Pond in a Maritime Climate:
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              May I960, (In Press).
                                         170
                                                    -6U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE . 1962 O - 6Z4Z36

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