T 0

                            WATER   POLLUTION


                     ENVIRONMENTAL    STUDIES:

          For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $2.25

This guide was prepared by the Til ton Water Pollution Program, financed
by Grant No. 1TT1-WP-41-01 and supplemental grants from Training Grants
Branch, Office of Water Programs, Environmental Protection Agency and
by a grant from the Ford Foundation.  The work of editing and compiling
the guide was done by:
John T. Hershey
Head, Science Department
Germantown Academy
Fort Washington, Pennsylvania

Albert L. Powers
Head, Science Department
Brewster Academy
Wolfeboro, New Hampshire
Stephen P. McLoy
Teacher of Political Theory
Til ton School
Til ton, New Hampshire

Alan D. Sexton
Teacher of Science
George School
Newtown, Pennsylvania
 Information on revisions and additionally planned volumes of the guide
 may be obtained from:

                         Training Grants Branch
                         Office of Water Programs
                         U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                         Washington, D. C.  20460

           There  is  great desire  on  the  part  of  students  today  to  be directly
      involved  in their society and  its  problems.   This guide  is designed  to
      bring students and their educational  process  into direct  contact with
      their society  and their community.   This requires that learning occur in
      all  areas of the  society, not  just those special places  called classrooms.
      As  one student remarked, "You  actually  learn  by going out and doing  what
      you  are learning  in theory, which  is  something  I never did before."
      Stepping  outside  the classroom or  expanding  the classroom to encompass
      the  life  space of the student  is an important aspect of  this program.
      For  it is only there and then  that the  theory of disjointed, "irrelevant"
      facts begin to assume meaning.   For this reason, the guide is primarily

           The  activities contained  in this guide  utilize a process of inquiry
      which will  lead the student to acquire  knowledge and skills  needed to
      understand  and solve the problems  of  his environment.  The activities
 _    are  designed to arouse his  interest and curiosity through direct observa-
      tion and  investigation.   Since there is no  planned sequence or order,
 ^    each user of the  guide (student or teacher) will develop  his own path of
      inquiry.  The  activities themselves are only  meant  as a  starting point,
\\    a guide;  it is expected that in practice the  users  will  expand upon  them
_^     both in depth  and breadth.

^          Volumes I and II are concerned with only one aspect  of  the environ-
,,     mental  problem, water pollution.   However, the  investigation of water
o     pollution itself  is not limited to a  specific academic field of inquiry.
r     If water  pollution or any of our environmental  problems  are  to be solved
r*     they must be understood in  all  their  manifestations.  This means that any
f>     study of  the problems must  be  interdisciplinary in  nature and must take
^     into account the  social and political aspects as well.

           The  students and teachers  who developed  this program encountered
      numerous  frustrations and achieved many successes.  There were burned
      fingers and cut feet, leaky hip boots,  shivering bodies  and  colds, philo-
      sophic "differences," midnight arguments,  and some  pretty firm convictions.
      Pervading all  this, however, was the  shared  knowledge that something was
      happening.   People were involved - students  and teachers  together, develop-
      ing  relationships which created changes in attitude.  And those attitudes
      caused changes in behavior  which have persisted beyond expectation.

           Since  the initial  work in  the summer  of  1969,  teachers  and students
      have traveled  hundreds of miles to lead training conferences, workshops,
      and  at least nine more major training programs.  They have testified in
      Congress, conducted research work,  taught  classes,  and formed a national
      teacher-training  and curriculum development organization, The Institute
      for  Environmental Education, headquartered in Cleveland,  Ohio.  The  sequel

publications to these volumes, on the construction of equipment  described
in Volume II, land studies,  consumerism,  community health,  transportation,
a hand guide on introducing  environmental  studies  into the  school  and
other community organizations, etc.,  are  in  preparation now.   These  are
all results of teachers and  students  studying  and  working  together on
environmental community problems.

                                          Joseph  H.  Chadbourne, President
                                     Institute for Environmental Education

     There were many people who contributed to the completion of this
guide.  Special thanks go to Joseph Chadbourne, President of the Insti-
tute for Environmental Education, who conceived the original idea and
secured the backing of the Ford Foundation and of the Department of the
Interior, and to Alan McGowan, Scientific Administrator, Center for the
Biology of Natural Systems, Washington University, St.  Louis, Mo., who
directed the workshops funded by these grants during the summers of
1969 and 1970.

     We are grateful to Robert Snider, Director of Training Grants,
Office of Water Quality, Environmental Protection Agency, who identified
and encouraged the germination of this work at the University School,
Cleveland, 0., in 1967.  We also express our warm appreciation to
Bernard Lukco, Environmental Protection Agency, who continued the direc-
tion given by Mr. Snider and tirelessly aided the directors throughout
the 2-year effort.  We are also indebted to Dr. Herbert W. Jackson,
Chief Biologist, and F. J. Ludzack, Chemist, both of the Taft Center in
Cincinnati, 0., who provided checks on the technical accuracy of the
aquatic biology, chemistry and bacteriology sections of the guide.  E.
Girtsavage and D. Smith from the New England Basins Office of the Depart-
ment of the Interior made available to us a great deal  of information
from their training program.

     Many thanks are due to the Millipore Co., Bedford, Mass., and to
the LaMotte Chemical Co., Chestertown, Md., for their generosity in
supplying equipment to the workshops, films, and technical advice on
many occasions.

     This guide was organized and edited by the team of John Hershey,
Stephen McLoy, Albert Powers, and Alan Sexton.  They remained long into
the summer months of 1970 to compile the contributions  of numberous
writers:  Philip Murphy, Robert Touchette, and William Schlesinger for
the chapter on Hydrologic Cycle; Raymond Whitehouse on  Human Activities;
Alan Sexton and Robert Graham on Ecological Perspectives; John Hershey
for Social and Political Factors; and Albert Powers, Alan Sexton, Philip
Murphy, Richard Fabian, and Rodney Page for Appendix 1.  These men
assembled the written experiences of the 1969 and 1970  participants; they
then rewrote and produced this guide.  Those weeks were tolerable only
because of Susan Bayley's secretarial assistance and light heart.

     Preparation and correction of the camera copy was  done by Kay Bel a,
Training Grants Branch, Environmental Protection Agency.

     A final note of gratitude is extended to the members of the many
schools who are now using the activities and sending suggestions, correc-
tions and new activities to the Institute for Environmental Education.
     Good luck and have fun.
                                                         John T.  Hershey
                                                            Project KARE

                          PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS

                            1970 Participants
*Abington Friends
 Jenkintown, Pa. 19046
    Mrs. Maria Peters

*Academy Sacred Heart
 Sloomfield Hills, Mich. 48013
    Susan Tindall

*Academy Sacred Heart
 St. Charles, Mo. 63301
    Sister Dorothy Clark
    Margaret Schuler

 All Saints' Episcopal
 Vicksburg, Miss. 39180
    Mr. Richard Palermo
    Sydney Rabey

Assumption Preparatory
 Worcester, Mass. 01606
    Father Henry Roy
    Paul Del Signore

 Athol High
 Athol, Mass. 01331
    Mrs. Esther Shepardson
    Verne Goldsher

 Atlantic Junior High
 Quincy, Mass. 02171
    Mr. Brooks Mai oof
    Paul Levine

 Attleboro High
 Attleboro, Mass. 02703
    Mr. Matthew McConeghy
    Paul Johansen

 Belmont High
 Belmont, N. H. 03220
    Mrs. Suzanne S. Roberts
    Lance Trendell

 Brandon Hall
 Dunwoody, Ga. 30338
    Mr. George Hickman
    Jack Mount
  Brattleboro Union
  Brattleboro, Vt. 05301
     Mr. Charles Butterfield
     Mary Rivers

  Brewster Academy
  Wolfeboro, N. H. 03894
     Mr. Al Powers

**Buckley Country Day
  Roslyn, N. Y. 11576
     John Carey

**Burgundy Farm Country Day
  Alexandria, Va. 22303
     Adam Rosenthal

 *Cabin John J. H. S.
  Rockville, Md. 20835
     Mr. Ronald Smetanick
     Kim Coburn
     Tory Dunn
**Cohasset High
  Cohasset, Mass.
     Jon Sargent
 *Douglass High
  Baltimore, Md. 21217
     Miss Jessie Perkins
     Paula Partee

 *Duchesne Academy
  Omaha, Neb. 68131
     Sister Elaine Abels
     Mary Kelly

  Edwin 0. Smith
  Storrs, Conn. 06268
     Mr. Egbert Inman
     Barry Rosen

  Litchfield, Conn. 06759
     Mr. Robert
     Chris Colt

 ^Garrison Forest
  Garrison, Md. 21055
     Miss Winifred McDowell

  Newton, Pa. 18940
     Mr. Alan Sexton
     Tim Tanaka
     David Kriebel
     Jonathan Gormley

 *Germantown Academy
  Fort Washington, Pa.  19034
     Mr. John Hershey
     Ellen Harbison
     Anne Barrett

 *Glenelg Country Day
  Glenelg, Md. 21043
     Mr. Andy Hauck

  Greenfield Junior High
  Greenfield, Mass. 01301
     Mr. Courtney N. Woodcock
     Ron Korzon

  Grymes Memorial
  Orange, Va. 22960
     Mrs. Helene B. Lindblade
     J. H. Higginbotham

  Franklin, N. H. 03235
     Mr. William Cameron

  Hanover Jr.-Sr. High
  Hanover, N. H. 03755
     Mr. Ronald Bailey
     David Converse

  Kennedy Junior High
  Peabody, Mass. 01960
     Mrs. Lorraine Gauthier
     Steve Tessler

  Longmeadow High
  Longmeadow, Mass. 01106
     Mr. Wilfred Blanchard
     Deighton Emmons

  Greenway, Va. 22067
     Emily Carey
  Mascenic Regional
  New Ipswich, N. H. 03071
     Mr. Thomas J. Mclntyre
     Linda Rousseau

  Mohawk Trail Regional
  Shelburne Falls, Mass.  01370
     Mr. Nathan Hale
     Jeni New
     Beth Burrows

  Monadnock Regional
  Keene, N. H. 03431
     Mr. Douglas M. Leslie
     Dana Sparhawk

 *Mt. Hermon
  Mt. Hermon, Mass. 01354
     Mr. Richard Leavitt
     David Hawley

**Nashua High
  Nashua, N. H. 03060
     Robert Foudriat
  East Northfield, Mass,
     Miss Alice Kells
     Isabel Elmer
 *Nottingham Academy
  Buffalo, N. Y. 14216
     Sister Marjorie McGrath
     Melissa Weiksnar

**Parish Hill
  Chaplin, Conn. 06235
     Steve Curry

 *Quincy Central Jr. High
  Quincy, Mass.  02169
     Mr. Raymond Whitehouse
     Miss Marjorie Bollen
     Mr. William McWeeny
     Diane Dunn
     Paul Welch
     George Barbaro

  Quincy High
  Quincy, Mass.  02169
     Mrs. Jeannette Mohnkern

 T. L. Hanna High
 Anderson, S. C.  29621
    Mrs. Sara Huey
    Steve Thorne

 Til ton, N. H. 03276
    Mr. Steve McLoy
    William Lawrence
    Steve Reisberg
    William Keegan

*Vermont Academy
 Saxtons River, Vt. 05154
    Mr. Peter Sargent
    Gunther Mench
**Webster College
  St. Louis, Mo. 63119
     Benjamin Kohl

  West Jr. High
  Brockton, Mass. 02401
     Mr. Gerald Beals
     Jonathan Ehrmann

**Western Jr. High
  Bethesda, Md. 20016
     Nancy Wallace
        Original  Participants  Who Did Not Attend  1970  Sessions
 Belchertown Jr.-Sr.  High
 Belchertown, Mass.  01007
    Mrs. Claire Curry
    Andy LeDuc

*6urncoat Senior High
 Worcester, Mass.
    Mr. Albert J. Bouffard
    James Proia

 Crosby Jr. High
 Pittsfield, Mass.  01201
    Mr. Henry Barber
    David LaBrode

 Forest Park Jr. High
 Springfield, Mass.  01108
    Mr. Joseph S. Novicki
    John Salo
    Scott Berger
    Billy Santaniello

 Kiley Jr. High
 Springfield, Mass.  00128
    Mr. Martin Manoogian
    Randy Locklin
    Gerald Baird
  Manchester Jr.-Sr.  High
  Manchester, Mass.  01944
     Mr. Arthur Edwards
     Scott Whittemore

  Marlboro High
  Marlboro, Mass.  01752
     Mr. Edward J. Clancy
     Rebecca Morales

  Northampton High
  Northampton, Mass.  01060
     Mr. Walter Brown
     Mark Sullivan

  Pioneer Valley Regional
  Greenfield, Mass.  01301
     Mr. William Giles
     Rita Johnson

 *Providence Country Day
  Bristol, R. I. 02809
     Mr. Spofford Woodruff

  Somers High
  Somers, Conn. 06071
     Mr. Edward Hendry
     Russ Butkus

Tantasqua Regional                           West  Springfield
Sturbridge, Mass.  01566                     West  Springfield, Mass. 01089
   Mr. Paul O'Brien                            Mr.  Ronald  Czelusniak
   David Blake                                 John Swiencicki

Springfield Technical                        Westfield  Jr.  High
Longmeadow, Mass.  01106                     Westfield, Mass. 01085
   Mr. Robert Dooley                           Mr.  John  Romashko
   Gerard Deslauriers
                                            Weston  Sr. High
Ware High                                   Weston, Mass.  02193
Ware, Mass. 01082                               Mr.  Joseph  Jordan
   Mr. James Shea                               Charles Gillespie
   Mike McQuaid
 * 1969 Schools Under Ford Foundation  Grant
** Schools Not Covered By Grants

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


    I.  HYDROLOGIC CYCLE 	      5

        A.  Surface Runoff 	      9
        B.  Infiltration and Percolation 	     12
        C.  Transpiration	     16
        D.  Soil Evaporation and Transpiration	     21
        E.  Evapotranspiration 	     25
        F.  Infiltration:  Its Effect on Water Quality 	     27
        G.  Ground Water Seepage 	     30
        H.  Transpiration and Plant Uptake 	     32
        I.  Erosion:  The Effects of Water on Soil	     35
        0.  Diffusion:  Demonstration of Water's Solvent and
                 Diffusion Properties  	     38
        K.  Ground Water:  An Examination of the Source of
                 Water in Streams	     40
        L.  Precipitation:  Measurement and Evaluation 	     43
        M.  The Water Budget of a Small Watershed	     47


        A.  Farming and Water Quality	     52
        B.  Community Survey 	     58
        C.  Drinking Water	     66
        D.  Pollution and Recovery	     70
        E.  Destructive Effects of Water Pollution 	     74
        F.  Sewage Treatment 	     78
        G.  Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Sewage  	     83
        H.  Effect of Oil on Aquatic Life in Recreational Waters .  .     87
        I.  The Effects of Damming or Impounding Water	     90
        J.  Community Water Supplies .  	     94
        K.  Investigating Lead Concentrations in Automobile
                 Exhausts	     97


        A.  Aquatic System	    102
        B.  Stream Deterioration Due to Effluents  	    106
        C.  Stream Variation 	    110
        D.  Diurnal Study	    113

     E.   Population Diversity Index 	    121
     F.   Bioassay	    126
     G.   Plankton Growth in  Relation to Light 	    129
     H.   Water Quality Comparisons  by Diversity Index 	    133
     I.   Algal Blooms and C02	    137
     J.   Bottom Core Sampling	    140


     A.   How to Talk Back to Statistics	    146
     B.   State and Local Government Organizations  	    149
     C.   State Government Model  	    156
     D.   Anti-pollution Laws	    159
     E.   An Elementary Investigation of Local Water Anti-
              pollution Programs  by Interviewing Government
              Officials	    163
     F.   Publication of a Science Journal	    169
     G.   Orientation Program For  the Study of Water Pollution .  .    171
     H.   An Anti-pollution Club	    180
     I.   How to Win Friends  From  Sceptics, Critics, and
              Doubtful School Administrators  Without
              Really Trying  	    187
     J.   Moviemaking	    193
     K.   Making Film Loops	    198
     L.   Nonreturnable Containers 	    201
     M.   Anti-pollution Art	    204
     N.   Modelmaking	    207
     0.   Student Planning of a Pollution Assembly  	    210
     P.   Role Playing	    214


     In 1967, a small band of teachers and students began studying
one community's water problems and serving one public pollution
agency.  Now there are large bands of teachers and students, located
in many communities, studying many environmental problems and serving
many public agencies.  Over those years, a philosophy developed and
some of the studies were written into Volumes I and II of this guide.
This Introduction contains the essentials of that philosophy and a
brief "tour" through the two volumes.

     The philosophy is that students, teachers, and community
members can work together as co-learners as they investigate real
problems of the real world.  This necessitates a re-examination of
many traditions -- teacher role, textbook, classroom, student re-
sponsibility, Carnegie Unit, the school  day, the learning process,
curriculum, etc. -- and a subsequent development of more effective
educational processes.

     The following are the elements of our philosophy as they relate
to students, teachers and the educational institutions:

     1.  Students possess the ability to determine, in cooperation
         with each other and with teachers, their educational pro-
         gram and the particular means they will utilize in problem
         investigation.  An outgrowth of this process will  be
         continuing self-learning.

     2.  As the students progress they will develop a holistic
         approach, which will cause them to synthesize methods of
         problem investigation and to develop an awareness  of the
         interrelatedness of the various components of systems.

     3.  The perception of the need for acquired skills  will become
         evident to the students as they become more and more aware
         of the complexity of natural systems.

     4.  The responsive awareness will stimulate the students to
         recognize their responsibilities from a long range point
         of view.  The students will  perceive and assume a  significant
         role in society.

     5.  In particular, the students  develop a mature sense of inter-
         personal relationships which allows them to listen to others
         and to work effectively as members of teams.

     6.  Teachers will move from an authoritarian stance to a
         position where they are able to enjoy learning with
         students and where they will be able to offer advice
         and guidance when it is sought by the students.

     7.  Changes will take place in the present institutions and
         will be in response to the many positive outcomes
         generated by the implementation of the above.

     Environmental studies programs should be interdisciplinary and
should be planned by students, teachers and community members.  The
participants do not study about environmental quality:  they in-
vestigate real environmental situations.  Multiple references are
used rather than a single text.

     Participants in environmental studies programs examine their
life styles and the ways in which these influence environmental
quality.  They then work toward the improvement of poor quality
environmental factors and work for the maintenance of high quality

     In dealing with the manmade and natural environments the primary
goal is the development of attitudes and understandings rather than
strictly the exposure to information.  In formal and nonformal learning
situations those involved reach the stage where they are actively
seeking answers to questions which they have raised.  Constant evalu-
ation and feedback help to develop a process approach, which is not
working toward the development of a curriculum or a course of studies.
Persons of all age levels are potential participants.

     The guide is divided into two volumes:  Volume I provides process
education activities and Volume II provides seven technical and
operational back-up appendices for these activities.

     Three levels of activities are provided:  those which increase
awareness; those which allow students and teachers to take actions
related to particular concerns; and those which are on-going problem

     Awareness activities occur at the beginning of each chapter, and
they usually require little or no equipment.  Awareness activities
allow students and teachers to make observations and draw conclusions
about real things in their environment.  These activities are followed
by transitional activities which deal with individualized real concerns
that have grown out of awareness activities.  The transitional activities
prepare the students and teachers for problem investigation activities.
Transitional studies allow groups to focus on problems which are more
easily defined and which are successfully dealt with within the existing
school time structure.  This sort of preparation allows the teachers

and students to prepare for more complex problem investigations which
may not be fully resolved during a formal  course of study.  The success
of the investigation, of course, lies in the process pursued to success-
fully carry out the investigation and constructively inform the
community of the status of the problem.

     Volume II contains seven appendices which support the studies.  In
time, teachers and students should be able to generate activities in
their community using Volume I as a guide.  At this point, Volume I
could be placed in a reserve status.  On the other hand, Volume II has
a lasting value for several reasons.  Appendix 1 consolidates the
technical aspects of watpr quality.  As you leaf through Appendix 1 you
will find water chemistry, biological references, both flora and fauna,
computer programs, and equipment references.  Appendix 2, Implementation,
outlines techniques for dealing with problems of cost, scheduling, and
motivation.  Appendix 3, Limitations, deals with problems of time and
transportation, methods and equipment, and dealing with others.  Evalu-
ation is the subject of Appendix 4; behavioral objectives, both
affective and cognitive, are dealt with.  Several references are in-
cluded.  Appendix 5, contains a comprehensive annotated bibliography
which supplements the specific references  in each activity.  An asterisk
coding system indicates possible multi-copy acquisitions for a community
(school) reference center.  Delineations are made according to elementary
and secondary education emphasis.  The last two appendices provide a
comprehensive glossary and safety rules, respectively.  These may be
reproduced in quantity.

     Each of the activities is written according to a format which in-
cludes the seven parts.  The introduction, which briefly describes the
activity, suggests the age or grade range  for which the activity is
best suited.  Here you will also find any  special equipment or require-
ments necessary to complete the activity.

     The students and teachers are presented with questions which will
lead them into activities.  This approach  was chosen because it allows
students to respond as individuals; because it diminishes the authority-
figure role of the teacher; and because it implies that there are few-
if-any ultimates which can be applied to real world situations.  After
being led into the investigations the students and teachers will be
attempting to answer questions which relate to unsolved problems of
society at large.  The attempt has been made to develop an approach that
will help individuals to work together to  improve society.  Four
categories of questions are used to involve the co-learners in activities.

     The questions which lead to the activities are intended to direct
thinking toward a general area of investigation.  Those to initiate re-
quire action if they are to be investigated and help to get the action
started.  Questions to continue help to give the problem more definition
and to allow branching-off points.  Those  which are used to evaluate
help the co-learners to assess the successes and failures and to suggest
areas of further investigation.

     Sections III and IV of the activities deal  with equipment and
procedures respectively.  The equipment necessary to complete the
activity is listed as well as are outlines of events which will  pro-
bably take place.  If branch points are likely,  as is often the case,
they are indicated.  The teacher should try not  to steer the activity
in one set direction, but rather be ready and willing to allow students
to pursue these branch points even if it means that the goal of the
original activity is lost for the time being.

     The next section on past studies highlights results obtained by
using the activity.  The activities which have survived the test of
practical application should reinforce the teacher's efforts to use
them again.  Also helpful in this section are descriptions of how the
students were evaluated and what outgrowths stemmed from the activity.

     A section on limitations has been included  for the benefit of
the user.  Here, the various problems likely to  be encountered are
listed.  Limitations such as costs, extra preparation time, and trans-
portation should be well understood before the activity is used.  If
any of these limitations appear to create obstacles which in your
particular case might inhibit the implementations of the activity you
may find some helpful suggestions in Appendix 2.

     The last section of each activity contains  an annotated bibli-
ography of references which are especially helpful in that activity.
Organizations from which you may obtain continuing or new information
are also noted here.

Chapter 1      Hydrologic Cycle
     Water, one of man's most valuable resourses,  moves continually
through a cycle from the atmosphere to the earth,  over and through the
earth, and to the atmosphere.!  Water quality changes as water moves
through the cycle; therefore, an understanding of  the cycle enhances an
understanding of water pollution and its prevention.   Climatology, geol-
ogy, geography, and petrology, areas of study related to the hydro!ogic
cycle, also aid in this study.

     The hydrologic cycle, illustrated in Figure 1-1, shows many reposi-
tories for water and the processes which convey the water from one
point to another.
               Figure 1-1    Hydrologic Cycle Schematic
         (From Climate and Man 1941  Yearbook of Agriculture)
     The flow of water is made up of many smaller cycles.   Rain water
can run off into streams and rivers finding its way to the ocean or it
can infiltrate the soil or further downward to become ground water, or
part of the water table.  Water can find its way back to the surface in
many ways:  it can seep into lakes and streams which are deep enough to
extend into the water table; it can surface through springs or wells; it
can flow from faults where the underlying strata become exposed, or it
can be tapped by the roots of plants.
     ^Grover and Harrington, Stream Flow Measurements,  Records and Their
Uses (New York City:   Dover Publications, 1966),  p.l.

Hydro!ogic Cycle
     Transpiration, the giving up of water vapor to the atmosphere by
plants, and evaporation from land and water bodies also returns water
vapor to the atmosphere.  The cycle continues when pure water condenses
and becomes precipitation.

     The cycle is a global cycle, but it can be studied in small  regions
by measuring inputs and outputs of water from these areas.

     As water flows through the various pathways of the hydrologic cycle,
its quality is often affected.  It may pick up nutrients or pollutants
in the form of dissolved solids as it passes through the soil or under-
lying rocks of a region.  While it is in vapor form, water may become
contaminated with foreign materials.  Evaporation and transpiration are
purification processes which release water vapor back to the air.

     Man affects the hydrologic cycle at many points.  Man's pollution
of the air adds to the chemical composition of the rain water.  Runoff
from fields and gardens often carries nutrients and pollutants from fer-
tilizers, pesticides, and animal wastes.  Effluents which man adds to
rivers and other waterways have a direct effect on the hydrologic cycle.
When the flow of water through a system is studied it is also convenient
and necessary to study the flow of nutrients and pollutants which accom-
pany the water.

     In this section, the activities focus on parameters of the hydro-
logic cycle and lead to investigations which allow students to evaluate
the total system within a given region.  Such evaluations are referred
to as calculating a total budget for a locale.  Such activities show
that the inputs minus the outputs of water containing nutrients and
pollutants are equal to the change of storage within the system.

     Activities are designed on two levels.  The basic level is designed
to give the student an understanding of the water flow through an area
of the cycle.  The advanced level gives an understanding of the nutri-
ents and pollutant-flow which accompany the water.  Generally, sugges-
tions for maintaining and continuing activity are concerned with the
physical and biological characteristics within the system and lead to
man's effect on the system.

     Inherent in the following activities is the need for the delinea-
tion of a location for study.  Any study region is possible if its
boundaries are carefully defined.  Boundaries include the air above and
a specific depth in the ground below unless a smaller region is chosen.
A conceptual diagram of the hydrologic cycle of an area of study is
outlined in Figure 1-2.

Hydro!ogic Cycle
     I W POT    S OltFACE > WATltj
                       J  '
                                     -  ?
             Figure 1-2   Hydro!ogic Cycle of Study Area
     There are few limitations associated with the activities of this
section.  Most can be carried out by a teacher in any situation.  They
are capable of being performed on driveways, lawns, and football fields,
or in country watersheds.  The activities do not encompass all aspects
of the water cycle.

     The following skeleton questions serve to outline the scope of the

     1.  How much precipitation falls on a particular area?  Is it
         pure water?

     2.  What happens to the precipitation that falls on soil?
         Where does it go?  How does it change?

     3.  What role do plants have in the hydrologic cycle?

     4.  What is the source of water in streams?  Does this water
         naturally contain any nutrients?

     5.  What is the water and nutrient budget for your study area?

     The following resources will be found useful throughout the entire
section.  Resources of particular interest are listed at the close of
each activity.


     Bruce, J. P., and R. H.  Clark,  Introduction to Hydrometerolgy,
         Pergamon Press, New York City, 1966.

     Chorley, Richard J., (ed.),  Water. Earth  and Man, Methuen and Co.,
         Ltd., London, 1969.   This book is available in the United
         States from Barnes & Noble, Inc.

     Life Science Library,  Water, Time, Inc.,  New York City, 1966.

Hydrologic Cycle
     Thomas, H.  E.,  The  Yearbook of Agriculture, 1955:  Mater, U. S.
          Government Printing  Office, Washington, D. C., 1955.

     Ward, R.  C.,  Principles of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,
          New York City, 1967.

Hydro!ogic Cycle

A.  Surface Runoff
    I.  Introduction
        The purpose of this activity is to examine surface runoff and its
        relation to the hydro!ogic cycle.   The activity can be performed
        by a wide range of grade levels and in many types  of study sites.
   II.  Questions
        1.  To lead into the activity,  ask students:   What happens to the
            precipitation that falls onto  the ground?
        2.  To initiate the activity, ask  students:
            a.  Is it possible to collect  precipitation after it strikes
                the ground?
            b.  Will some of this precipitation be on the  surface?
            c.  What is the effect of various surface slopes?
        3.  To continue the activity, ask  students:
            a.  What is the chemical composition of surface runoff
            b.  What is the effect of intensity of precipitation?
            c.  What is the effect of soil moisture?
        4.  To evaluate the student, consider:
            a.  With the limitations involved, did the student's method
                eliminate as many external variables  as possible?
            b.  How accurate were the measuring techniques?
            c.  Did his simulated rain  approach a natural  condition?
            d.  Did the student relate  this exercise  to the hydrologic
                cycle and the water quality?
            e.  Did the student realize that runoff is only one "fate"
                of precipitated water which strikes the ground?

Hydro!ogic Cycle

  III.  Equipment
        1.  Shovel
        2.  Standard size watertight dustpan  or  some  similar water
            collecting device
        3.  Several  Number 10 cans  at least one  of which  is marked  off
            in liters and another with holes  in  the bottom for simulated
        4.  A 1000  ml. beaker
        5.  Meter stick or ruler
        6.  Brunton compass or clinometer (homemade device for measuring
            slope is also possible)
        7.  Funnel  and filter paper
        8.  Flask
   IV.  Procedure
        1.  basic Level
            a.  Select a site with  a variety  of  slopes.
            b.  Determine an area of 20 cm.2  and excavate a shallow
                trench on the downhill edge for  the runoff collecting
                device (dustpan, tray, etc.).
            c.  Measure angle of the slope with  the Brunton compass or
            d.  Pour one liter of water into  a Number 10  can with holes
                while holding can over the delineated area.
            e.  Filter surface runoff collected  and measure the  volume
                to get percent of runoff.
            f.  Wait 5 minutes and  repeat process to  get  the effect of
                increased soil moisture.
            g.  Select and delineate an adjacent area or  similar site
                with the same slope.  Repeat  the process  using a differ-
                ent intensity of simulated rainfall.

Hydrologic Cycle
            h.   Repeat the process in areas  of differing slopes.

            i.   If further studies are desired,  repeat the process
                using different soil  types  and vegetation.

        2.  Advanced Level

            a.   Collect (as before)  the runoff from various  sites
                showing differences  in ground cover,  slope,  etc.

            b.   Using a chemical testing kit, determine and  compare  the
                nutrient content of the runoff from these areas.

            c.   Correlate variable physical  and environmental  factors
                with changes in water quality of surface runoff.

    V.  Past Studies

        1.  Students have found that the moisture of the soil  from previous
            precipitation can have an effect on  the amount of runoff.

        2.  Students have conducted this activity on  driveways,  near farm
            fields, and in various other areas and  have seen the
            effects of automobile emissions, animal wastes,  and  fertir
            lizers on surface runoff composition.

   VI.  Limitations

        1.  Even distribution of simulated  rainfall may be difficult to

        2.  In  order to cover many variables, teachers may find  it
            convenient to break their class  down into small  groups,
            having each assigned an environmental or physical  variable
            to  examine, and to pool  data later.

  VII.  Bibliography

        Earth Science Curriculum Project, Investigating the  Earth,
           Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1967.(Chapter 9 contains  a
           discussion of the movement of surface and ground  water.)

        Ward, R.  C., Principles of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill  Publishing Co.,
           New  York City,  1967.   This  more advanced text  gives a stimu-
           lating and complete  discussion of surface  runoff and its
           relation to the hydrologic  cycle.

Hydro!ogic Cycle

B.  Infiltration and Percolation:   Concepts  and  Measurements  Involved

    I.  Introduction

        This activity acquaints  the student   with  the  action  of water
        absorption,  infiltration,  and percolation  in soil  and encourages
        him to relate these to the hydrologic cycle and water quality.
        The basic level  activity may be carried  out by 7th  graders  and
        above; the advanced level  may be carried out by students who
        have a little knowledge  of chemistry.  The activity will be
        carried out  in a field or  on a lawn  where  digging  temporary
        holes is permissible.

   II.  Questions

        !.  To lead  into the activity, as students:

            a.  What happens to  the precipitation  that falls  on soil?

            b.  Where does  the water in the  soil move  and  how does  it

            c.  What is  the action of water  that enters soil?

        2.  To initiate activity ask students:

            a.  How  would you determine water motion within  the soil?

            b.  What determines  the direction of water motion?  What
                effect does this movement have on  water quality?

        3.  To continue activity ask students:

            a.  Are  there any differences in the speed of  water motion?

            b.  Is there any upward or sideward  movement?

            c.  Does soil type affect the motion or effects  of water  in

        4.  To evaluate the student's performance, consider:

            a.  Has  he demonstrated soil water movement satisfactorily?

            b.  Was  he able to relate infiltration to  possible changes
                in water quality?

Hydro!ogic Cycle
            c.   Does  he explain  where  much  of  the water he  uses  goes?
            d.   Is  he concerned  as  to  the effects of  the  use  of  tracer
            e.   Does  he relate man's activities  to  a  possible  role  in
                the quality  of infiltrated  water?
  III.   Equipment
        1.   Basic Level
            a.   Digging  tools
            b.   Nontoxic dye  such  as  fluorescent  Pyla-Tel  tracer  dye
                (food coloring is  also  possible)
            c.   Several  10-qt. buckets  and  other  large  containers
            d.   Timing instruments
            e.   Meter Stick
            f.   Filter paper,  Kleenex,  paper towels,  or toilet  paper
            g.   Aluminum edging fence
            Advanced Level
            a.   Nonpoisonous  leaching chemical, such  as sodium  phosphate
            b.   Funnels
            c.   Sample bottles
            d.   Hach, Delta or LaMotte  kit  or suitable  qualitative  chem-
                istry testing  kit
            e.   Soil  collection bags
            f.   Beakers
            g.   Pipettes and  rubber tubing

Hydro!ogic Cycle

   IV.   Procedures

        1.  Basic Level
            a.   Have students  set up  a  30  cm.  diameter  circle of aluminum
                edging  fence.

            b.   Have students  calculate how  long  it  takes  for a given
                quantity of water to  penetrate the soil  after it is
                poured  into the enclosed area.

            c.   Have students  compare times  from  various  areas.

            d.   Have students  excavate  a 15  cm. diameter hole, which is
                30 cm.  or more deep.

            e.   Have students  excavate  smaller holes  around  the original
                hole at various distances  from it.

            f.   Have students  fill  the  original hole  with  the tracer dye

            g.   Have students  make  periodic  checks in the surrounding
                holes with absorbent  papers  to determine flow of water
                and dye.

        2.  Advanced Level

            a.   Have students  excavate  an  additional  experimental  hole
                and distribute a known  quantity of the  nontoxic soluble
                chemical at the base  of this hole.

            b.   Have students  add enough water to bring the  concentra-
                tion of the solute  to 0.1M in the hole.

            c.   Have students  excavate  test  holes around the original at
                various intervals,   (between 't cm. and  35 cm.)

            d.   After appropriate time  delay, have students  collect moist
                soil or accumulated water samples from  the surrounding
                holes.   These  can be  placed  in bags  and collection can
                be facilitated with tubing and pipettes.

            e.   Have students  test these samples  with chemical  testing
                kits, using the test  appropriate  for the test chemical
                used.  This can be  a  qualitative  or  quantitative consid-
                eration.  The  student should test control  samples  from
                the same area.

            f.   Have students  compare and  contrast their results.

Hydro!ogic Cycle
     V.   Past Studies

         Past studies show that the flow through  the  soil  test  holes will
         be enhanced if they are placed  on  an  incline.

    VI.   Limitations

         1.  This activity can be done almost  anywhere  with  simple  equip-
             ment depending on a teacher's  resources.

         2.  Surrounding holes can be made  with an  auger and be much
             smaller if time-saving is a factor.  Do  not place  the  sur-
             rounding holes too far from the original.  Please  be sure
             to get permission of property  owners before you go to  work.

   VII.   Bibliography

         Monkhouse, F.  J., A Dictionary  of  Geography, Arnold, London,
             1965.  This gives dictionary meanings  of leaching, infil-
             tration, etc., as they pertain to geography.

         Strahler, A.,  Physical Geography,  (2nd ed.), John Wiley &  Sons,
             New York City, 1960.  This  text contains good information
             on hydro!ogic cycle and infiltration,  with diagrams.

         U. S. Department of the Interior,  A Primer on  Water, U. S. Gov-
             ernment Printing Office, Washington, D.  C., 1960.  This
             gives very good information on runoff  and  infiltration under
             different  conditions.

Hydro!ogic Cycle

C.  Transpiration:   The Concepts  and Measurements  Involved
    I.  Introduction
        This activity enables  students  to acquire  an  understanding  of
        transpiration and its  relationship to the  hydrologic cycle.
        Seventh graders and above may complete this  activity on  the
        basic level.
   II.  Questions
        1.  To lead into activity ask students:  What is  transpiration
            and how does transpiration  relate to the  hydrologic  cycle?
        2.  To initiate activity  ask students:
            a.  Can a way be devised to measure the  rate  of transpiration
                and determine  the factors that limit  it?
            b.  How accurate is this method?
        3.  To continue activity  ask students:  How would the transpira-
            tion rate change in relation to changes  in physical  factors
            and man's activities  such as air pollution?
        4.  To evaluate the students' performance  consider:
            a.  Did the students  gain an understanding of the transpira-
                tion process?
            b.  Did the students  devise new tehcniques for demonstrating
            c.  Did the students  relate the process  to the hydrologic
  III.  Equipment
        1.  Basic Level
            a.  Small potted plant
            b.  Bell jar
            c.  Flat surface for bell jar such as  a glass plate
            d.  Plastic scalable bags

Hydro!ogic Cycle

            e.  Small  graduated cylinder
            f.  Sensitive balance or scale  (±0.1  g.)
            g.  Vaseline
        2.  Advanced Level
            a.  500 ml.  Erlenmyer flask
            b.  2-hole rubber stopper to fit flask
            c.  Glass  tubing
            d.  20 cm. of rubber tubing
            e.  Small  leafy plant
            f.  1-ml.  pipette
            g.  Burette  clamp
            h.  Ring stand
            i.  Timing device
   IV.  Procedures
        1.  Basic Level
            a.  Have students place  a potted plant under a  sealed bell
            b.  Have students make observations  for a short  period of time.
            c.  Have students alter some physical  factors and make new
            d.  Record and discuss all observations,
            a.  Have students find a tree with leaves  low enough to

Hydrologic Cycle
            b.   Have each  student enclose  a  leaf  in  a  plastic bag.

            c.   Have students  wait an  appreciable  amount  of  time and
                collect bags.

            d.   Have students  quantitatively  determine  the amount of
                water transpired.

            e.   Have students  record and compare  results.  Ask  them
                where the  water came from  and where  it goes.

        2.   Advanced Level

            a.   Have students  set up apparatus  as  outlined in Figure

            b.   Have students  fill  the system completely  with water
                and record the quantity of water  used  by  the plant at
                various intervals.

            c.   Have students  graph the data.

            d.   Have students  repeat the experiment  altering some
                physical factors.

            e.   Have students  outline  the  relationship  of physical
                factors to transpiration.

    V.  Past Studies

        1.   Students on the elementary and early  secondary levels
            marveled at the collection of water by enclosing a  leaf
            in  a plastic bag.

        2.   Students at the 10th grade level  were  excited to find
            that plants give  the atmosphere  such  a large  quantity of
            water.  One student devised a quantitative method to
            measure the amount of water a  tree transpired in 24 hours,

        3.   Students at the 10th grade level  were  able  to qualify
            the difference in  transpiration  between  shaded and  un-
            shaded leaves  and  leaves of different sizes.

   VI.  Limitations

        There are no limitations foreseen.  Teachers should  caution
        their students that procedures calling for sealed containers
        should be closely  followed.

Hydrologic Cycle
  VII.   Bibliography
        Biological  Sciences  Curriculum Study,  High  School  Biology,  Green
            Version,  (2nd  ed.),  Rand  McNally & Co. ,  Chicago,  1968T  This
            is  an easy reading  basic  biology test.   Transpiration  is
            treated on pages 447-449  and  includes detailed procedure  for
            a laboratory investigation of transpiration.

        De Wiest, R.  J.  M.,  Geohydrology,  John Wiley and Sons,  Inc.,  New
            York City, 1965. This  is  a highly technical treatment  of all
            aspects of the engineer's  concerns;  however, the  treatment of
            transpiration  is brief, simple and useful.   (See  pp. 47-49).

        Hill, J. B., and  others,  Botany, McGraw-Hill  Book Co., New  York
            City.  This  is a collegiate text but easy enough  for the  good
            high school  student.  There are references  to  the physiological
            aspects of transpiration.

        Leopold, Luna, and Walter Langbein, A  Primer on Water,  U.  S.  Govern-
            ment Printing  Office, Washington,  D. C., 1960.This is  a simple
            pamphlet  with  good  diagrams which  are well  worth  having  in the
            classroom.  It runs  the gamut  from the water cycle  to water
            purification systems, to  farm irrigation, and  to  legal  aspects.
            Water in  relation to  plants and soil is  treated on  pages  26-27.

        Morholt, Evelyn, Paul Brandwein,  and Alexander  Joseph,  A Sourcebook
            for the Biological  Sciences,  (2nd  ed.),  Harcourt, Brace  &
            World,  Inc., New York City, 1966.   This  is  a must for  every
            biology teacher. Use in  this  activity  for  directions  for demon-
            strating  transpiration  and plant physiology.

        U. S. Department of  Agriculture,  The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1955:
            Water,  U.  S.  Government Printing Office, Washington, 15".  C.,
            1955.  This  is an excellent reference for the  price ($2.00).
            It  deals  with  water  in  connection  with  agriculture, forestry,
            and wildlife.  It is  easy  reading  with  good diagrams and  lots
            of  statistics, although it is  a bit  old  now.

Hydro!ogic Cycle
Figure 1-3   Diagram for Advanced Procedure

hydro!ogic Cycle

U.  Soil Evaporation and Transpiration

    I.  Introduction

        The purpose of this  activity is  to  provide  the  student with  an
        understanding of transpiration  and  its  relationship  to soil
        moisture content.   It is  applicable to  a  wide  range  of grade
        levels and study areas.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead into the activity ask students:

            a.  What happens to  the  water taken up  by  plant  roots?

            b.  Where does  it come  from?

            c.  Where does  it go?

        2.  To initiate activity  ask students:

            a.  Does the use of  soil water  by  plants have  any effect
                which can be measured in terms  of a difference in soil
                moisture content  in  a vegetated or unvegetated area?

            b.  Does a covering  of  plants have  any  effect  on  the evapor-
                ation of moisture from soil?

        3.  To continue the  activity ask students:

            a.  How might man's  land-use activities  affect the hydrologic
                cycle through an  effect  on  plants and  their  transpiration?

            b.  Is transpiration  a  "good" or "bad"  thing in  relation to
                the role of  water in our lives?

        4.  To evaluate the  student's performance,  consider:

            a.  Does he weigh the idea  that vegetation  inhibits precipi-
                tation runoff with  the  idea that  vegetation  increases
                depletion  of soil moisture  by  transpiration?

            b.  Does he realize  the  multirole  of  plants  in the hydrologic

  III.  Equipment

        1.  A coleus or geranium  plant

        2.  Vaseline

Hydro!ogic Cycle

        3.  Soil auger
        4.  Plastic bags  (sandwich  bags  are  excellent)
        5.  Trowel  or small  shovel
        6.  Balance
        7.  Meter stick
        8.  Oven or drying device
        9.  Six tall juice cans
       10.  Masking tape
       11.  Seeds of a convenient plant
   IV.   Procedure
        1.  Have the students  pick  four  leaves  from the plants.
        2.  Have the students  coat  the top side of one  leaf,  the bottom
            of another and both  sides of a third with  vaseline.
        3.  Have students check  the leaves in 24 arid 48 hours.
        4.  Have students discuss the condition of the  leaves in rela-
            tion to the untreated leaf and relate this  to the biological
            role leaves play in  transpiration and the water cycle,
        1.  Have students clear the vegetation from a square of ground
            which is 30 cm.  per side.
        2.  Have students take soil samples at various depths.
        3.  Have students determine the moisture content of these samples
            by weighing, drying, and reweighing.
        4.  The next day, have students take 3 more samples from the
            denuded plot and 3 from a vegetated area nearby.
        5.  Have students determine moisture content of each.
        6.  Have students discuss the results in terms of the hydrologic
            cycle and transpiration,

Hydrologic Cycle
        1.   Have students place an equal  amount of soil  in  each  of  6  juice

        2.   Have students add an equal  amount of water to each and  plant
            seeds in 2 of them.

        3.   Have students cover all  the cans with plastic.

        4.   When the seeds begin to germinate have students uncover the
            cans with planted seeds and 2 of the other cans.

        5.   After 3 days of plant growth, remove the  plants and  take  an
            equal weight of soil from each of the cans and  determine  the
            moisture content.

        6.   Have students compare the moisture contents  of  each  and dis-
            cuss the mechanisms which cause different moisture amounts
            in each of the 3 types of "can" situations.

    V.  Past Studies

        1.   Students have been able to show graphically that soil loses
            more water when vegetated than it does in a  denuded  area
            where only evaporation takes place.

        2.   Students have often been stimulated to argue whether the  role
            of plants is important in the hydrologic  cycle.  Replacement
            of atmospheric moisture must be weighed with the importance
            of soil moisture to man.

   VI.  Limitations

        There are no foreseeable limitations in this  exercise although
        some parts extend over a lengthy time period.  A site location
        and materials collection should be no problem.

  VII.  Bibliography

        Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, High School Biology,  Green
            Version, Rand McNally & Co., Chicago, 1968.This text
            provides an explanation of transpiration  and ideas for
            developing other demonstration projects.

        Leopold, Luna, and Walter Langbein, A Primer  on  Water, U. S.
            Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.,  1960. An
            excellent pamphlet which deals specifically  with the relation
            of plants, transpiration, and soil moisture.

Hydrologic Cycle
        Morholt, Evelyn, Paul  Brandwein,  and  Alexander  Joseph, A_
            Sourcebook for the Biological  Sciences,  Harcourt, Brace  &
            World, Inc., New York City,  1966.   This  reference treats
            the physiology of transpiration.

        Ward, R. C., Principles of Hydrology,  McGraw-Hill  Publishing Co.,
            New York City, 1967.   This  advanced but  excellent text gives
            a complete and stimulating  coverage of transpiration and its
            relation to the hydrologic  cycle.

        Wilson, Carl, and Walter E. Loomis, Botany, Holt,  Rinehart and
            Winston, New York City, 1962.   A  standard reference  for
            botany, this text treats the biology of  transpiration.

Hydro!ogic Cycle

E.  Evapotranspiration

    I.  Introduction

        The purpose of this  activity  is  to  show  that on a small grassy
        area water leaves  the  grass and  enters the  atmosphere by the
        process  of evapotranspi ration.   It  is a  suitable activity for
        a beginning study  of the  hydrologic cycle.  Seventh graders can
        easily do this study and  young students  will enjoy it if the
        teacher helps  them with the water testing.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead into the activity ask students:

            a.  Have you ever noticed water collecting on the under-
                side  of a  waterproof  material after it has been on the

            b.  Where  did  this water  come from?

        2.  To initiate activity  ask  students:   Can you collect and/or
            measure the water from the underside of a waterproof material
            after letting  the  material lie  on a  grassy area in the sun?

        3.  To continue the  activity  ask students:

            a.  How does the process  of  transpiration fit into the hydro-
                logic  cycle?

            b.  Do you think transpired  water is  pure?

            c.  Is this important?

        4.  To evaluate the  students  performance consider:

            a.  Does  the student  seem to understand the concept of trans-
                piration and its  relation to the hydrologic cycle?

            b.  Did he develop additional approaches and techniques for
                demonstrating  and measuring transpiration?

  III.  Equipment

        1.  A plastic  sheet  (preferably  mounted  on  a stiff form, such as
            a form cut from  a  cardboard  box and  a clear sheet of plastic
            or cellophane  stapled to  its edges works well)

Hydro!ogic Cycle

        2.  A small  container  to  collect  water  from  the  plastic

        3.  Water testing  kit  for advanced  study

   IV.   Procedure

        1.  Place the collecting  equipment  on grass, preferably  in
            sunlight, and  leave it there  for 30 minutes  or more.

        2.  Collect  or observe droplets of  moisture  which have collected
            on the underside of the plastic.

        3.  If enough water is obtained,  chemical  testing procedures may
            be employed to determine such factors  as total dissolved

    V.   Past Studies

        Students in  many situations have  been able to appreciate  the
        demonstration of transpiration and  its  relationship  to the  water
        cycle by using this experiment.

   VI.   Limitations

        There are no limitations  in this  experiment.

  VII.   Bibliography

        Earth Science Curriculum Project, Investigating  the  Earth,
            Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1967.  This standard text
            gives a  short treatment of transpiration on  p. 215.

        Ward, R. C., Principles of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,
            New York City, 1967.   This excellent  text gives  a coverage of
            evapotranspiration and its relation to the hydrologic cycle.
            Many ideas for continuing study projects can be  found.

        Wilson, Carl, and Walter E. Loomis, Botany,  Holt, Rinehart and
            Winston, New York  City, 1962.  A standard botany text,  this
            source covers the  biology of  transpiration.

hydro!ogic Cycle

F.  Infiltration:   Its  Effect on  Water Quality

    I.  Introduction

        This activity demonstrates  the change  in  precipitation water
        quality as it passes  through  soil  using a lab  model.  This
        activity is applicable to a range  of grade levels.   Seventh
        graders can complete  this activity if  the teacher  assists with
        the dissolved solids  tests.  Students with some  chemistry back-
        ground can do the activities  themselves.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead to  the activity ask:

            a.  What happens  to rainwater  after it strikes  the soil?

            b.  Does some soak in?

            c.  Does this change  its  quality?

        2.  To initiate the activity  ask:

            a.  How any quality change that occurs during  infiltration
                may be  measured?

        3.  To continue the activity  ask:

            a.  What would the variance in change be  if  two samples of
                different soil composition were tested?

            b.  What would happen in  test  areas of different vegetation?

        4.  To evaluate the student's performance consider:

            a.  Was he  effective  in using  testing equipment and  becoming
                skilled in testing  techniques?

            b.  Was he  able to decide on  logical  choices for dissolved
                solids  tests  for  his  type  of soil?

            c.  Was he  eager to improve on the  experiment  and make  attempts
                to devise new experiments  for  testing  changes in precip-
                itated  water  quality?

            d.  Did he  check  the  distilled water to find the pH  and any
                minerals which were already present?

Hydro!ogic Cycle

  III.   Equipment
        1.  Chemical  testing  equipment
        2.  Sample box with screened  bottom
        3.  Shovel
        4.  Collecting pan
        5.  Rainwater or  distilled water
        6.  Number 10 can
        7.  Funnel (optional)
        8.  Ringstand (optional)
        9.  Funnel holder (optional)
       10.  Filter paper  (optional)
       11.  Beakers (optional)
       12.  Number 10 nail  or punch
   IV.   Procedures
        1.  Take a soil sample  from the  area  chosen  for  study.
            Soil samples  can  be up to one  cubic  foot (30 -  45  kilo-
            grams).  Bring  the  sample back to the  lab.
        2.  Spread the sample in  the  sample box  with the screened
        3.  Make a rain simulator by  taking a Number 10  can and  per-
            forating the  bottom with  a nail or punch.
        4.  Measure out one liter of  the test water.
        5.  Simulate rain on  the  soil sample  by  pouring  your liter
            of water into the perforated can  and collecting the
            seepage in a  collection pan  placed below the screened box.
        6.  Do appropriate  dissolved  solid tests on  the  seepage  col-

Hydrologic Cycle
    V.   Past Studies

        1.   Some students recorded high iron and copper content in  seep-
            age water until  they realized that their screening  was
            affecting their  results.

        2.   Students discovered that  filtering seepage resulted in
            facilitating colorimetric chemical testing.

        3.   Some students have used rainwater in conducting  the experi-
            ment.   By testing water quality of rainwater and seepage,  a
            more realistic presentation of the effect of infiltration  on
            water quality was found.

   VI.   Limitations

        1.   This exercise requires a  general knowledge in recognizing
            dissolved solids and testing for them.   Teachers should
            let their students decide on the appropriate dissolved  solids
            tests for the soil sample collected.

        2.   Careful rain simulation is necessary for realistic  and
            uniform distribution.

        3.   Sites should be  chosen that are representative and  easily

  VII.   Bibliography

        Leopold, Luna, and waiter Langbein, A Primer on water.  U.  S.
            Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1960.   This
            inexpensive pamphlet contains a good description of infil-
            tration in various conditions.

        Strahlet, A. N., Physical Geography,  John Wiley & Sons,  Inc.,
            New York City, i960.Fhis reference contains good  general
            information on the hydrologic cycle and infiltration  diagrams.

        Ward, R. C., Principles of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Book  Co., New
            York City, 1967.  An excellent general  source, this text
            contains a detailed and stimulating coverage of  infiltration
            and its  relationship to  water quality and the hydrologic

Hydro!ogic Cycle

G.  Ground Water Seepage
    I.  Introduction
        This activity demonstrates  that rock and soil  minerals  are  dis-
        solved in water as it moves from the surface  to ground  water
        and relates these nutrient  changes  to the water cycle.   Students
        in a range of grade levels  may complete  this  activity as  the
        extent of testing is adaptable to the ability  of the group.   Any
        area where ground water seeps  to the surface  or is  otherwise
        available for collection is a  possible study  site.
   II.  Questions
        1.  To lead into the activity  ask students:   Does water quality
            change when it soaks into  the ground?
        2.  To initiate the activity ask students:
            a.  Where can we collect ground water samples?
            b.  How can we determine the composition  of the water quality
        3.  To continue the activity ask students:
            a.  How does the change in water quality  take place?
            b.  If this type of solution continues, what will happen  to
                the soil and rocks  of the area?
        4.  To evaluate the student's  efforts consider:
            a.  Has the student demonstrated how and  why seepage water
                is of different composition than surface or rainwater?
            b.  Has the student made any reasonable  conclusions as  to
                where the dissolved materials in the  seepage water  will
                finally accumulate?
            c.  Does the student relate leaching to  a role  in  the changing
                water quality and nutrient composition in  the  hydrologic
            d.  Does the student realize that infiltration  can  also be
                a water purification mechanism?
            e.  Does the student relate man's activities and their  pos-
                sible effect on the quality of ground water?

Hydro!ogic Cycle

  III.  Equipment

        1.  5 to 10 collection bottles  (sterile)

        2.  Water chemistry testing  kit (qualitative  or  quantitative)

        3.  Water bacterial analysis materials

   IV.  Procedure

        1.  Select an area of rock or soil where  seepage of  ground water
            to the surface is evident.

        2.  Collect 5 to 10 bottles  of  water for  water chemistry and
            bacterial tests.

        3.  Test the water qualitatively  or  quantitatively as  time
            and resources permit.

    V.  Past Studies

        Students and teachers have found  that if  areas of ground water
        seepage are inaccessible, an examination  of well  or  spring
        water is feasible.

   VI.  Limitations

        The major limitation of this activity is  the  determination of a
        site with suitable flow for  study; however, such  seepage is found
        throughout the country.

  VII.  Bibliography and Resources

        Baldwin, Helene I., A Primer on Ground  Water, U.  S.  Government Print-
            ting Office, Washington, D.C., 1963.TnTs is an excellent pam-
            phlet for introductory treatment of ground water.

        Ward, R. C., Principles  of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,
            New York City, 1967.  This  somewhat advanced text  gives a
            complete coverage of ground water and contains ideas for
            stimulated students  to develop into projects.

        Teachers are also advised to contact their state  and local Federal
        agencies for information on  ground water  resources of  particular
        areas.   The Soil Conservation Service is  a particularly helpful

Hydrologic Cycle

H.  Transpiration and Plant Uptake
    I.   Introduction
        This activity is designed to help  students  realize  that water  is
        being taken in and given  off by  plants  as part  of the water  cycle.
        It can be carried out in  varying degrees beginning  at the  1st
        grade level.  Few time and travel  problems  occur because local
        weeds, shrubs and trees may easily be  found in  the  immediate area.
   II.   Questions
        1.  To lead into the activity ask:
            a.  What happens to a plant  if it  is not watered?
            b.  Why do plants have to be watered more than  once?
            c.  What is happening to the water?
        2.  To initiate the activity ask:
            a.  How is water released from the  plant and why don't we
                see it?
            b.  How can we show that water is  being given off?
            c.  How can we measure how much water is being  given off?
        3.  To continue the activity ask:
            a.  If a small plant  gives off a given  amount of water,  how
                much does an oak  tree give off?
            b.  How much would a  forest  give off in a certain time
            c.  Are the biological activities  of plants involved in  pollu-
            d.  Does a given plant give  off an equal amount of water from
                day to day or under variable physical conditions?
        4.  To evaluate the student's performance  consider:
            a.  Did the student devise methods for  measuring  the  uptake
                and release of water by  plants?
            b.  Were his techniques successful  in  visibly  demonstrating

Hydro!ogic Cycle
            c.   Did the student realize  the  role  of  plants  in the hydro-
                logic cycle  and possible  pollution from plants in a natural

  III.   Equipment

        1.   Plastic bags (one  per student)

        2.   Twist wires for  tightening bags  around plant stems

        3.   Bucket

        4.   Graduated cylinder or some equivalent means of  liquid

        5.   Spade

        6.   Aluminum foil

   IV.   Procedures

        1.   Transpiration  activity

            a.   Locate a place on your campus where  there are small plants
                with stems so  structured  that plastic bags  can be slipped
                over the end.   l-.'eeds  are  ideal  (e.g., milkweed).

            b.   Have each  student slip his bag  over  the end of a stem so
                that it will cover as many leaves as possible.  Use the
                twist wires  to tighten the open end  around  the stem securely.

            c.   have the students return  the next day and cut off the stem
                with the bag on it.   Bring it back to the classroom and
                measure the  amount of water  that  has collected in the bag.

        2.   Plant Uptake Activity

            a.   Have the students dig up  two or more plants, getting as much
                of the root  system as possible.   Remove all soil from the
                roots and  place each  in  a bucket  containing a measured
                amount of  water covering  the roots.

            b.   Have the students check  the  amount of water in the bucket
                at various later times.

    V.   Past Studies

        1.   Students have  found that  they can demonstrate transpiration
            using a plant  under a bell jar.

Hydro!ogic Cycle
        2.  Although students at a particular school  found that evapor-
            ation from all  the plant uptake buckets was  uniform,  they
            devised a method using aluminum foil  for  eliminating evapor-
            ation as a variable.

        3.  Other students  placed transparent plastic sheets  on their
            lawn and observed the transpired water collecting under them.

   VI.  Limitations

        1.  Teachers should try to prevent other  students  at  the school
            from disrupting the transpiration experiment.

        2.  Teachers can avoid problems  by locating suitable  plants  on
            their campus before the students begin work.

  VII.  Bibliography

        Biological  Sciences Curriculum Study, High School  Biology,
            Green Versjon,  Rand McNally  and Co.,  Chicago,  1968.   Writ-
            ten for the high school level, this text  contains a descrip-
            tion of transpiration and ideas for further  experiments.

        Ward,  R. C., Principles of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill  Publishing Co.,
            New York City,  1967.This  excellent, more  advanced refer-
            ence contains a stimulating  discussion of transpiration  and
            its relation to the water cycle.

        Wilson, Carl, and Walter E. Loomis, Botany, Holt,  Rinehart  and
            Winston, New York City, 1962.   A standard botany  text,  this
            reference contains information on the biology  of  transpira-

Hydro!ogic Cycle

I.  Erosion:   The Effects  of Water on  Soil
    I.  Introduction
        The purpose of this  activity is  to  demonstrate  the  erosion
        effects of water runoff on various  types  of soil  and  slopes.
        It is a possible "beginning" activity  for students  at any
        level of understanding and is  capable  of  being  performed on
        any nearby eroded  area.
   II.  Questions
        1.  To lead into the activity:
            a.  Are there  any hills or cliffs  in  your area  that are
                being eroded?
            b.  How does the runoff water affect  these  hillsides?
            c.  Does the type of soil  composition have  any  effect on
                the erosion  rate?
        2.  To initiate activity:
            a.  What soil  composition  do these hills  have?
            b.  What is the  slope of these  hills?
            c.  How can we measure the ability of water to  change
                the structure of different  soils  on a slope?
        3.  To continue activity:
            a.  What types of plant life, if any,  are found on  these
            b.  Are similar  types  of plants found in  all  soil  types?
            c.  How does plant growth  seem  to  affect erosion?
            d.  How can the  amount of rainfall be measured  on indi-
                vidual  hills?
            e.  How can erosion rates  be determined?
            f.  What are other physical  factors in erosion?
        4.  To evaluate the  students'  performances:
            a.  Were the students  able to identify various  soil types
                as to their  resistance to erosion?

Hydro!ogic Cycle
            b.  Were the students  able  to correlate  slope  to  erosion?
            c.  Did the students  recognize the  forces  other than water
                which act upon the soil?
  III.  Equipment
        1.   Rain gauge
        2.   Meter stick
        3.   Protractor or clinometer
        4.   Stakes
        5.   Hammer
   IV.  Procedures
        1.   Have students visit the erosion site and set up rainfall
        2.   Have students drive measured stakes into the ground  at  the
            top, middle, and bottom of  the area.
        3.   Have students measure  the slope of  the  area.
        4.   Have students describe the  soil of  the  site.
        5.   Have students examine  and describe  the  plant life of the
            area and the root structure of particularly  abundant species.
        6.   After the next rainfall, have students  visit the  site  and
            repeat the previous procedures.
        7.   Have students calculate the amount  of soil eroded off a
            specific area using the comparative before-and-after measure-
            ments from their stakes.
        8.   Have students correlate the amount  of rainfall, slope,  vege-
            tation, etc., with the amount of erosion.
    V.  Past Studies
        1.   Students have often been amazed at  the amount of  soil  which
            can erode off an unprotected hillside in a single rainstorm.
        2.   Some studies have included  graphs correlating slope  with amount
            of erosion.

Hydro!ogic Cycle
        3.   Students have often been impressed at the amount of solid
            material that may enter a stream from such a hillside.   The
            link between erosion and water pollution becomes visibly

    VI.  Limitations

        1.   Teachers may have difficulty finding a site suitable for
            study.   Housing developments and road construction  areas
            can suffice, though open mining pits and steep unprotected
            hillsides usually provide the best study sites.

        2.   There are few other limitations to the study although the
            time period should be noted as this is a continuing study.

   VII.  Bibliography

        Coleman, Edward A., Vegetation and Watershed Management, Ronald
            Press Co., New York City, 1953.

        Earth Science Curriculum Project, Investigating the Earth,
            Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1966.  This text contains  a
            description of water forces and their cause of erosion.

        Ward, R. C., Principles of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill  Book  Co.,
            New York City, 1967.  This rather advanced reference con-
            tains a readable and stimulating treatment of water runoff.

Hydro!ogic Cycle

J.  Diffusion:   Demonstration  of Water's  Solvent  and Diffusion Properties
    I.  Introduction
        The purpose of this  activity  is  to  demonstrate the diffusion of
        materials  in  water.   Being  a  lab  activity it is easily applicable
        to most teaching  situations and  a range of grade  levels.
   II.  Questions
        1.  To  lead into  the activity:
            a.   What  is water?
            b.   What  is a solvent?
            c.   What  is diffusion?
            d.   Is it possible to use elements, compounds, or both, to
                demonstrate  diffusion and the  rate of diffusion?
        2.  To  initiate activity:
            a.   How long  does  it take for differing chemicals to diffuse
                in water?
            b.   Is there  a difference in  their diffusion  rates?
        3.  To  continue activity:
            a.   Is there  a noticeable difference  in diffusion of organic
                and inorganic  chemicals  in  water?
            b.   How do effluent wastes  from man's activities diffuse?
        4.  To  evaluate the  student's performance consider:
            a.   Did the student relate  diffusion  to water pollution?
            b.   Did the student realize  the importance of water's solvent
                properties in  the hydrologic cycle and water pollution?
            c.   Did he demonstrate varying  differences in diffision rates
                of various test compounds he chose?
  III.  Equipment
        1.  Suitable  test chemicals  such as potassium permanganate
            copper sulfate (CuSfy),  iodine, and elemental iron
        2.  Beakers and flasks

Hydrologic Cycle
        3.   Effluent wastes from man's  activities  such  as  water  from
            washing or cooking vegetables,  sludge  from  a sewage  plant,
            factory effluents from local  industries,  animal  wastes
            from barns, detergents, etc.

        4.   Stopwatch

        5.   Bunsen burner,  ring stand,  asbestos  screen

        6.   Balance

        7.   Filter paper

   IV.  Procedures

        1.   Add crystals or drops of test chemicals  to  beakers of water.

        2.   Observe and time the rate of  diffusion throughout  the solvent.

        3.   Have the students do the same with the various test  effluents
            they have selected.

        4.   If students select a test material  which  does  not  completely
            dissolve, have  them separate  the  undissolved material;  dry
            and weigh  it to determine  the  percentage of their material
            which has diffused.

    V.  Past Studies

        Students have easily been able  to relate what they have  seen  in
        this activity in the laboratory to  what  they  see as effects of
        man on local rivers.

   VI.  Limitations

        Teachers should caution their students about  the dangers involved
        in  the use of sewage wastes.

  VII.  Bibliography

        Earth Science Curriculum Project, Investigating the Earth,
            Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1966.

        Leopold, Luna, and  Walter Langbein, Water, Time, Inc., New  York
            City, 1968.

        U.  S. Department of Agriculture,  The  Yearbook of Agriculture, 1955:
            Water, U. S. Government Printing  Office,  Washington, D. C. ,1955.

Hydrologic Cycle

K.  Ground Water:   An  Examination  of  the  Source of Water in Streams
    I.   Introduction
        The purpose of this  activity  is to examine ground water as
        the source of  water  in  streams.   This activity is recommended
        for the high school  level  where it can be conducted successfully
        after the  location of a small  stream which is convenient for
        study.   This activity requires more than an hour and one-half
        to complete.
   II.   Questions
        1.  To lead into the activity:
            a.   Where  does stream  water come from?
            b.   What is ground  water?
        2.  To initiate activity:
            a.   How can one  demonstrate ground water as the possible
                source of water in streams?
            b.   How does one collect  ground water?
            c.   What is contained  in  ground water?
        3.  To continue activity:
            a.   How does the ground water differ at various points
                along  the stream?
            b.   How does the terrain  affect the ground water?
            c.   What other factors might  affect the ground water?
        4.  To evaluate the  student's performance:
            a.  Does the student understand the relationship between
                ground water and stream water?
            b.   Does the student relate man's  activities to a  possible
                role in the  pollution of  ground water?
            c.   Has the student demonstrated  the source of water in
                the stream picked for study?

Hydro!ogic Cycle

  III.   Equipment

        1.  Core sampler

        2.  Sledgehammer

        3.  Shovel

        4.  The rmotne te r

        5.  Siphon  or ladle

        6.  Sample  bottles

        7.  Meter stick

        8.  Filtering equipment

        9.  Dissolved solids  water chemistry  testing  kit

   IV.   Procedure

        1.  Have the students excavate  test holes  in  the  land beside  a
            stream.   These  can be  placed at varying  distances away  from
            the stream.

        2.  Have the students measure the depth  to which  water  fills
            these holes.

        3.  Have the students take samples of the  water from various  test

        4.  Have the students test the  composition of the water from  their
            test holes.   Hint:   To use  colorimetric  testing procedures,
            filtering or centrifuging of the  samples  may  be necessary.

        5.  Have the students compare the composition of  the water  from
            their test holes  with  a sample taken from the stream itself.

    V.   Past Studies

        1.  Students often  have found that by placing their test holes too
            far from the  stream they were unable to  obtain any  water  samples.
            A graphic illustration of the concept  of  a water table  was thus

        2.  In some  situations students  were  able  to  see  that the water  depth
            in their test holes was very close to  that of the stream.

Hydrologic Cycle
        3.   Comparable water quality composition from the test holes and
            stream is often found,  indicating a  common source.  Students
            have extrapolated that  the water in  the stream is  most prob-
            ably from the water table they isolated in their test holes.

    VI.  Limitations

        1.   Teachers may have trouble finding a  stream convenient for
            this study.  However, any small  stream will  do.   Those with-
            out steep banks are particularly useful as the students will
            have a large area of lowland in  which to dig their holes
            with a probability of obtaining  water in them.

        2.   Filtering and centrifuging the water samples is  often neces-
            sary as the suspended solids content of the samples is often
            high.  This can be done with standard equipment.

        3.   Students should not be  discouraged if there is not immediate
            filling of their test holes.  The holes may not be deep

        4.   Core samplers have a habit of clogging.  Patience  is required.

   VII.  Bibliography

        Ward, R. C., Principles of  Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.,
            New York City, 1967. Stimulating ideas and explanations of
            ground water and stream source are found in this somewhat
            advanced but easily readable reference.

Hydro!ogic Cycle

L.  Precipitation:   Measurement and Evaluation
    I.   Introduction
        This activity introduces the student  to  precipitation  in  the
        hydrologic cycle as  the input of water and  input  vehicle  of
        nutrients to a study area.   It is a possible  study  for all
        grade levels and is  capable of being  performed  anywhere it
   II.   Questions
        1.  To  lead into the activity:
            a.   What is rain and how does it  form?
            b.   What does it contain or is it pure?
        2.  To  initiate activity:
            a.   How can we collect  and measure the  amount of pre-
                cipitation that falls on a particular area?
            b.   What is the  water quality of  the precipitation?
        3.  To  continue activity:
            a.   What role does  the  chemical and  nutrient  composition
                of precipitation play in the  system?
            b.   By what means  does  precipitation pick up  dissolved
                chemi cals?
            c.   Does the composition of snowfall  resemble the  compo-
                sition of rain?
            d.   What other means of nutrient  input  to study areas are
        4.  To  evaluate the  student's performance:
            a.   Did the student devise  a means of collecting pre-
                cipitation so  that  he could accurately  determine  the
                amount and quality  of the sample he obtained?
            b.   Did the student understand the role of  the nutrient
                input of precipitation  as far as the  system and its
                ecology is concerned?

Hydro!ogic Cycle

            c.   Did the student demonstrate  the  presence  of  dissolved
                solids  in  precipitation?
  III.   Equipment
        1.  Basic Level
            a.   Funnels
            b.   Collection  bottles
            c.   Evaporating dishes
            d.   Bunsen  burner
            e.   Large,  flat procelain  dishes  up  to  one  inch  deep
            f.   Rulers
        2.  Advanced Level
            a.   Demineralizing  water wash bottles
            b.   Chemical testing kit for water quality  determination
   IV.   Procedures
        1.  Basic Level
            a.   Have the student collect precipitation  in procelain
            b.   Have the student calculate how much has fallen  in
            c.   Have the student evaporate to dryness some of'the  col-
                lection and observe the residual solid  content.
        2.  Advanced Level
            a.   Have the student rinse all apparatus with distilled
                and then with demineralized  water.
            b.   Have the student collect precipitation  as above.
            c.   Have the student quantitatively  analyze the  nutrient
                content of his  collection.

Hydrologic Cycle
    V.   Past Studies

        1.  Students have been able to compare the  composition  of pre-
            cipitation from open areas, under trees,  near  factories,
            etc., and through discussion,  have been able to  realize the
            effects of these physical  and  biological  characteristics  on
            the system.

        2.  Students have often been able  to gain an  appreciation of
            nitrogen cycle by measuring nitrate input in precipitation.

        3.  Students have found nitrate, sulfate, chloride,  fluoride,
            pH, and total dissolved solids,  particularly useful  deter-
            minations in chemical  testing.

        4.  Students often have shown interest in developing new methods
            of precipitation collection.

   VI.   Limitations

        1.  There are few limitations in this study,  particularly since
            it is capable of being performed on two levels or more.

        2.  It can be completed almost anywhere.

        3.  Teachers should make sure that  all apparatus used in advanced
            study has been thoroughly rinsed and demineralized.   After
            such a process it should not be  touched as even  the dissolved
            solid content of sweat may affect results.

        4.  The nutrient content of rain is  often very low.

        5.  The precipitation should be transferred to collection bottles
            soon after its collection, as  evaporation from collection
            pans will concentrate nutrient  composition abnormally.

  VII.   Bibliography

        Borman, F. H., and G. E. Likens, "Nutrient  Cycling," Science, 27
            January 1967, 155:424-429.  This article  gives a scientific
            but easily readable treatment  of the role of precipitation
            in nutrient cycling.

        Fisher, D. W., e^t a^, "Atmospheric  Contributions to  Water Quality
            of Streams in Hubbard Brook Experimental  Forest, New
            Hampshire," Water Resources Research, October, 1968, 4:1115-

Hydro!ogic Cycle
        Likens, G.  E., et^ a_l_, "The Calcium,  Magnesium,  Potassium,  and
            Sodium Budgets for a Small  Forested Ecosystem,"  Ecology,
            Late Summer, 1967, 48:772-785.   This is  a scientific but
            stimulating review of precipitation collection procedures.

        Ward, R. C., Principles of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill  Book Co.,  New
            York City, 1967.

Hydrologic Cycle

M.  The Water Budget of a Small  Watershed
    I.  Introduction
        The purpose of this activity is  to  introduce  the  student  to the
        hydrologic and nutrient  cycle budgets  of  a  small  watershed.   It
        is an advanced-level  study and is best attempted  by  the student
        who has completed a number of the hydrologic  cycle activities.
   II.  Questions
        1.  To lead into activity:
            a.  If we outline any particular area of  land, what are the
                mechanisms by which water enters  that area?
            b.  What are the  mechanisms  by  which  it leaves the area?
            c.  What changes  are seen in the form of  water while  it is
                in the area?
        2.  To initiate the activity:
            a.  On a particular  area of land,  what  is the total yearly
                input of water?
            b.  What is the total yearly output of  water?
            c.  By what mechanisms does  water enter and leave the area?
        3.  To continue the activity:
            a.  Within the particular area,  what  nutrients enter  and
                leave using the  hydrologic  cycle  as a vehicle?
            b.  What physical and biological  characteristics of the
                system affect the amount of water and nutrients flowing
                through it?
            c.  Is it possible to calculate  a  nutrient and water  budget
                for the area  of  study?
        4.  To evaluate the student's performance consider:
            a.  Although it will be unusual  to have calculated a  bal-
                anced watershed  budget,  does  the  student  display  an
                understanding of such a  budget?

Hydro!ogic Cycle
            b.   Did the student realize  that the  input  minus  the  output
                equals the change in storage within  the system?

            c.   Were the techniques  and  references  used by  the student
                to calculate input and output reasonable and  success-

            d.   Did he realize that a long term study  is essential  for
                an accurate calculation  of a hydro!ogic or  nutrient

            e.   Was he aware of the discrepancies involved  in such  an
                activity and did he attempt to explain  them?

  III.  Equipment

        1.  References of climatological and hydro!ogical data for  the
            area of study

        2.  Equipment for measurement and testing of precipitation,
            transpiration, evaporation,  and flow  which  has  been  out-
            lined in previous activities and which  depends  on the number
            of  parameters the student chooses to  study  within the partic-
            ular area

        3.  Topographic maps and long-distance measuring devices

   IV.  Procedures

        1.  Have the student delineate an area for study.

        2.  Have the student calculate the area of his  system.

        3.  Have the student calculate the yearly precipitation  input.

        4.  Have the student identify and measure other system inputs.

        5.  have student identify and measure other system  outputs.

        6.  Using extrapolation techniques and his own  and  reference data,
            if available, have the student calculate the hydrologic
            budget for the area.

        7.  Have the student collect samples of water  from  various  in-
            puts (e.g., precipitation) and outputs (e.g., outflow).

        8.  Have students chemically analyze the water quality for  nu-

        9.  Using extrapolation techniques and his own and  reference  data,
            if available, have the student calculate the nutrient budget
            of the area.


Hydrologic Cycle
    V.  Past Studies

        1.  Students in one study were surprised to see  that the  sulfate
            input of their precipitation  was  nearly equal  to the  output
            in the outflow but that most  of the nitrate  input of  pre-
            cipitation remained within the system.

        2.  Calculated budgets have often been "unbalanced"  by as much
            as 50%,  but students have often been stimulated  by the ques-
            tions of what happened to all the precipitation  that  fell,
            and why is this stream still  running in such  a period of

   VI.  Limitations

        1.  The study will be much facilitated if the teacher encour-
            ages students to delineate small  natural  watersheds as
            their area of study.

        2.  Teachers may have trouble locating a watershed which  is  both
            small enough for feasible study and which has  a  flowing  stream
            in it.

        3.  This activity is most valuable as the culminating experience
            in an examination of hydrology.  Students are  able to put as
            many previously learned techniques and understanding  to  work
            as they can.

        4.  Teachers should not forget the importance of  continuing  data
            collection in the study of this type.  If this can be arranged,
            the activity becomes a continuing one and its  value will be
            greatly  enhanced.  If this cannot be arranged, an understanding
            of the concepts involved is very  possible, but the quality of
            the budget calculated will inherently be  low.

  VII.  Bibliography

        Borman, F. H., and G. E. Likens,  "Nutrient Cycling,"   Science,
            27 January 1967, 155:424-429.  This is  a  scientific but  read-
            able account of the concepts  and  work which has  been  done in
            this area at Hubbard Brook Experiment Forest  in  New Hampshire.
            The study is a continuous one and the motivated  student  will
            find further references in its bibliography and  in more  recent

        Ward,  R. C., Principles of Hydrology,  McGraw-Hill  Book Co.,  New York
            City, 1967.

Chapter 2    Human Activities
     Any human activity involving water, affects the hydrologic cycle.
Therefore, it is important to see how man's activities cause changes and
it is important to evaluate these changes.  In many cases there is a
pressing need to reverse damage now being done and to correct the errors
of the past.   These activities show how the individual, the family, and
the community affect our water resources.

     Today, individuals consume and discharge water in greater quantities
than ever before.  However, today most people obtain a quality of water
that is offered to them by a central supplier in the community.  In a
similar manner, their waste water is discharged into a community service
system.  In effect, the individual may control his supply and disposal  of
water only in an indirect manner.  He many not wish to pollute the near-
by lakes and streams but if his sewage is processed centrally he cannot
prevent the polluting unless he can exert enough political  or economic
force to redirect the efforts of his community.

     Industry has developed in the United States as an extension of the
concepts which operated during the great westward movement.  Pioneering
and carving out an existence by overcoming and utilizing the environment
are second nature to many Americans.  The concept that America's resources
are limitless and require no management is typified by the inaction of
industry and local governments to voluntarily correct present pollution

     If this attitude is to be corrected, it must be realized that any
decision which affects the natural environment, affects an essentially
fixed resource.  All of us must now accept the principle that we must
pay for what we use, whether we use up this fixed water resource in our
recreation, our sewage disposal, industrial production, or our consump-
tion of electricity.  That we use our environment is necessary and
acceptable.  However, the future must differ from the past in that we
can no longer only take from our environment but must perpetually renew
and reuse what we take rather than follow the old pattern of using and

     The activities in this chapter are classified under three major
areas of inquiry:  social configurations, economic endeavors, and
recreational  pursuits.  The economic endeavors of man are considered
on several levels according to the magnitude of the enterprise.  We
made the following distinctions:  proprietorships, small industry,
specialized industry, and conglomerates.  A series of activities is
also included to show the relationships between these areas of human
activitity and also relate them to other chapters in the guide.

Human Activities
    The following general  questions may serve to  focus  on  the  scope  of
inquiry in this chapter.   Let "X" equal the particular  human  activity
under investigation.

    1.  What is the influence of "X" on the nitrogen  cycle in  your area?

    2.  What is the influence of "X" on the hydrologic  cycle  in  your

    3.  How do the economic factors of "X"  influence  its  impact  on environ-
        mental quality?

    4.  What is the general  public's attitude toward  the  impact  "X"  has
        on the environment?

    5.  What is the legal  situation pertaining to "X"?  Are the  laws suf-
        ficient to preserve the environment?  Are the enforcement
        procedures adequate?

    6.  What are the roadblocks to the lessening  of "X's"  impact on  the

    The following resources will be found useful  throughout the  entire
section.  Resources of particular interest  are listed at  the  close of
each activity.

    Billings, W. D., Plants, Man and the Ecosystem, Wadsworth  Publishing
        Co., Belmont, California, 1970.

    Life Science Library,  Ecology, Time, Inc., New York City,  1969.

    McKee, J. E., and H.  W.  Wolf, Water Quality Criteria,  (2nd ed.),
        State Water Quality Control Board,  Sacramento,  California, 1963.

Human Activities

A.  Farming and Water Quality

    I.  Introduction

        1.  The purpose of this investigation is to involve students  in
            a study of how farming in general and on a given farm in
            particular, affect water quality.  In this case we are look-
            ing at the effects of agriculture on the water cycle.

        2.  Any secondary student who has knowledge of the nitrogen
            cycle should be able to succeed in at least the introductory
            level of this activity.

        3.  The activity would take at least 3 hours to complete,  and
            could be spread over a short field trip and several  class
            sessions.  The more advanced activities would  take a much
            longer period of time to complete.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead into the activity, ask students what the nitrate
            level is in the wells and surface waters on the farm.

        2.  To initiate the activity, ask students:

            a.  How are these data going to be obtained?

            b.  What sampling techniques are going to be used; and what
                are the effects of high nitrate?

        3.  To continue the activity, ask students:  What  are the factors
            in farming practices that might lead to nitrogen in farm

        4.  To evaluate the students' performance ask:

            a.  What were the nitrate levels on various areas of the

            b.  What factors caused these nitrate levels?

            c.  What are the effects of agriculture on the nitrogen cycle?

            d.  Can we "afford" to have these effects?

Human Activity

  III.  Equipment

        1.   Introductory Level

            a.  Hach or Delta kit to determine dissolved  solids  (can
                ascertain nitrate or nitrite levels)

            b.  Sample bottles

        2.   Advanced Level

            a.  Hach or Delta kit

            b.  Pipettes, burets (titration equipment to  do analytical

            c.  Millipore apparatus to do coliform and fecal  coliform

            d.  Plankton net and collection bottles

            e.  Soil test kit

   IV.  Procedures

        1.   Introductory Level

            a.  Use Hach or  Delta kit to determine nitrate and  nitrite
                levels in well  water, drinking water  (if  different)  and
                any surface  water (ponds or streams)  that are on  or  near
                farm property.

            b.  Find out by  asking the farmer what kind and generally
                how much fertilizer he has put on land.

            c.  Find out if  there are any feedlots or other collections
                of animal waste, and if so, how large they are, etc.

            d.  Determine amounts of nitrogen that are in the soil.

            e.  What is the  relationship between nitrogen content of  the
                soil and nitrogen content of water?

        2.   Advanced Level

            a.  Determine the nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia levels in
                wells  and surface waters near farm diurnally  and  season-

Human Activities
            b.   Determine variation of flow rate of streams,  etc.

            c.   Determine bacteriological  content of abovementioned
                waters and how they vary.

            d.   Determine algal  content of surface waters  near or  on

            e.   What is the effect of various  crops on  the nitrogen

            f.   Does the kind of livestock being raised on the land
                affect the nitrogen level  of the soil  and  watershed?

            g.   Is there a difference in nitrate level  between the
                runoff water and the soil?

            h.   Is there any correlation between fertilizer practice and
                nitrogen content?

            i.   Does it matter when the fertilizer is  applied?

            j.   Is there any correlation between high  bacteria counts
                and algae content?

            k.   Where  is the runoff from the feedlot (or manure pile)
                going?  What effect does this  have on  water quality?
                On the nitrogen cycle?

            1.   Be able to ask and answer more sophisticated  questions.

    V.  Past Studies (An Example of a Study)

        A study was performed on the Swain, Connely, and Hershey farms
        in June of 1970.  The study was performed to determine the
        effect of agriculture on the nitrogen  cycle.  The  amounts  and
        kinds of fertilizer added to the farms are listed  in  Table I.
Kind of Fertil izer
Manure &
Manure &
Manure &
600 Ibs
600 Ibs
600 Ibs
    *The amount of fertilizer added was the commercial  fertilizer added.
It was impossible to determine the manure added.   Mr.  Swain estimated
the amount of manure added was 20 tons/acre/year.


Human Activities
        The Swain farm had no surface or well  water.   All  of its water
        was piped in from Til ton.

        The Hershey and Connely farms obtained their  water from wells.
        Table II shows the results of tests run on the water and soil
        from these two farms.

        Table II             Hershey-Connely Farms

                           Nitrate	Nitrate Nitrogen
Surface water
Well water


.016 ppm
0 ppm

*2% Def
            dificiency as determined by the Sudbury soil  testing kit.

        It was extremely difficult to determine the effect of agricul-
        ture on the nitrogen cycles in the sites used.


            1.  Commercial  fertilizers had been used for  such a short
                period of time.

            2.  The total area fertilized was relatively  small.

        The amount of nitrogen in the water tested was  relatively high.

        Some problems exist in doing a study of this type on a farm with
        a small  operation.   The  amounts of fertilizers  being put down  are
        so relatively small, the effect on the enviornment would in turn
        be very small.

        If this same study  were  performed on a farm that  fertilized hund-
        reds of acres or had thousands of head of cattle, a greater
        effect on the environment could be ascertained.   If the study
        were performed on a farm that had been using inorganic fertilizers
        for a long period of time the results would be  different.

Human Activities
   VI.  Limitations

        A friendly and cooperative  fanner has  to  be  located.   Some-
        times it may be difficult for an  entire  class  to  invade  a  farm;
        one can probably send the class  in shifts.   Clothing  should  be
        rugged and the kind that can  get  dirty -- one  of  the  advantages
        in this kind of study is that the students  are  "messing" around.
        Parents should be aware that  this is  going  to  happen,  however, so
        they can clothe their children accordingly.

        The size of the farm will affect  the  kind of study  undertaken.
        A small farm would not have the  variations  of  practices  to answer
        some of the questions asked.   In  many  cases  the farms  of a given
        watershed or area would be  practicing  similar  farming  techniques
        so a total  picture could not  be undertaken.

        If a choice is available, a farm  that  is  large  enough  to have:
        a) different kinds of livestock,  b) different  kinds of crops  (corn,
        clover, hay, etc.), and c)  a  water supply that  drains  the  areas

  VII.  Bibliography

        1.  Parameters for Detecting  Pollutants with Respect  to  Farming

            a.  American Public Health Association,  Standard  Methods  for
                     the Examination  of Water and Wastewater,  American
                     Public Health "Association, The.',  New York City,  1971.

            b.  McKee, J. E., and H.  W.  Wolf,   Water Quality  Criteria,,
                     (2nd ed.), Water Quality  Control  Board,  Sacramento,
                     California, 1963.

        2.  The Hydrologic Cycle and  How  It May  Be  Affected by Farming

            a.  Bruce, J. P., and R.  H.  Clark, Introduction to Hydrometeor-
                     ology, Pergamon  Press, New  York City,  1966.

            b.  Thomas, H. E., The  Yearbook of Agriculture, 1955:  Water,
                     U. S. Government Printing Office,  Washington, D. C.,

            c.  Ward, R. C., Principles  of Hydrology,  McGraw-Hill  Book Co.,
                     New York City, 1967.

Human Activities
        3.   Advanced Readings
            a.   Journal,  Water Pollution  Control  Federation  (3900  Wiscon-
                    sin Ave.,  Washington, D.  C.  20016)
                (1)  Ames  etil, "Phosphorus  Removal,"   May 1970.
                (2)  Azad  and Borchardt,  "Algal Growths,"  November  1969.
                    Part  2.
                (3)  Nemerew, "Poultry Hastes," September  1969.

Human Activities

B.   Community Survey

    I.  Introduction

        This activity is intended to arouse the students'  interest in the
        effects of human activities on a body of water.   This  is  done by
        locating sites which might be sources of pollution;  collecting
        samples for the necessary tests; running the tests;  gathering the
        data; and making tentative conclusions.  Then,  by contacting
        persons associated with the community, help them to  understand
        what their water problems are.  Any level  high  school  student can
        complete this activity.

   II.  Questions

        1.  Lead to the activity by asking:

            a.  What are the possible sources of pollution in  a body of

            b.  What is the effect of a town's sewage and other effluents
                on adjacent bodies of water?

        2.  Initiate the activity by asking students:

            a.  What are the sources of sewage and other effluents and
                specifically where are they located?

            b.  What types of tests should be utilized?

            c.  What sites are to be used in the testing process  and are
                they representative?

        3.  Continue the activity with these questions:

            a.  Do we have enough data to reach a conclusion?

            b.  How will we use our data to arouse public interest?

            c.  Should letters be sent, people interviewed,  information
                be handed out, etc.?

        4.   Evaluate the activity by  considering:

             a.   Did  the students understand  the testing procedure and

Human Activities
            b.   Did the students eliminate variables  that could produce
                errors in the data?
            c.   Are the students aware of the implications brought about
                by improper sewage and other effluent disposal  practices?
            d.   Are the students cognizant of possible approaches  that can
                be used to initiate public concern?
  III.   Equipment
        1.   Sterile bacteria bottles (as  many as  needed)
        2.   Sterile Millipore System (media, petri  dishes, etc.)
        3.   Sterile bottles for making dilutions
        4.   DO  bottles for DO, IDOD, and  BOD
        5.   Thermometer
        6.   Tape recorder to record conversations of  interested people
   IV.   Procedure
        1.   Field work
            a.   Sites which could show the possible source of pollution
                should be chosen.
            b.   Bacteria samples are collected.
            c.   DO samples are collected  and fixed  immediately.
            d.   IDOD samples are collected and fixed  in 15 minutes.   This
                will give an indication of the immediate  dissolved oxygen
                demand that the micro-organisms exert on  the DO content
                of the water.
            e.   BOD samples are taken and placed  in darkness for 5 days.
                At that time they should  be fixed and titrated. This
                will show the total biochemical oxygen demand of the

Human Activities
        2.  Lab work

            a.   Prepare all  materials for bacteriology in advance.

            b.   Find the amount of both fecal  and coliform bacteria using
                the standard Mi Hi pore method.  Fecal  is done as well
                as total coliform because it is an indicator of sewage
                in the water.

            c.   Using the Winkler method, finish the DO and the IDOD
                tests.  Then, 5 days later, do the BOD test.

            d.   When all the tests have been completed, gather the  data
                and tabulate.

    V.  Previous Studies

        1.  A group of students studied 6 sites near Wolfeboro, New
            Hampshire.  Tests for total and coliform bacteria, DO,  IDOD,
            and BOD were performed.  The effects of the effluents on adjacent
            waters were studied.  Data from the above  studies were
            presented to a newsman and the influential persons in the

        2.  The article written by the newsman for the Granite State
            News follows :

                  Water Samples in Wolfeboro Prove
                  Town is Polluting its Waterways

    "Last Friday one group,  and again on Monday a second group from the
Tilton School Pollution Program were in the Wolfeboro  Area taking water
samples.  The two groups, participants in the nationwide program centered
at the school and financed by grants from the Ford Foundation and the
Department of the Interior,  were primarily interested  in the general
effect of human activities on a body of water.  They were attracted to
the Wolfeboro area by the abnormally high bacteria count in Wolfeboro
Bay.  In addition to this concern with water pollution, the program has
two additional  purposes.  By forcing students and teachers into a close
relationship outside the classroom, it is hoped that the program will
serve a teacher training function.  And, the program is also to prepare
a learning guide based on the activities of the groups for use in
studying pollution.

    "In investigating the effects of human activity on the water supply,
the groups took samples at five sites selected by Albert Powers, head of the
Science Department at Brewster.  The first site was on Smith River above

Human Activities
Wolfeboro Products, up stream from where Wolfeboro might have an effect
on the water supply.  The second site was by the dam at the excelsior
mill in Wolfeboro Falls, the third by the sewer outlet in Back Bay, the
fourth by the straw oil catch where the water from behind the shopping
center flows under the railroad tracks into Back Bay, the fifth, under
the bridge in the center of Wolfeboro.  The sites were chosen so as to
reveal any change in the condition of the water as it passed through
Wolfeboro and to identify where these changes took place.

                             SITES TESTED

    "At each site, tests were made to measure the oxygen dissolved in
the water and also to measure the presence of bacteria in the water.
Each group performed these tests at the sites with the Monday group
acting as a check on the Friday group.  The dissolved oxygen test
measures the amount of oxygen in the water at the time of the test.
From this, it is possible to determine what forms of life the water
will support.  Trout, for example, need a high amount of dissolved
oxygen in order to survive.

    "A second test, the immediate dissolved oxygen demand, measures
how much of the oxygen is being used.  If the amount being used is equal
to the amount in the water then problems result because there is none
left either for fish or organic breakdown.

    "A third test performed measures the biochemical oxygen demand or,
in other words, the amount of oxygen required by everything in the
water.  The absence of dissolved oxygen in addition to limiting the
forms of plant and animal life also gives rise to hydrogen sulfide and
methane gases.  A super-saturated dissolved oxygen reading in which
there is more oxygen in the water than can normally be dissolved at that
specific temperature is also harmful.  It appears to give rise to a
higher disease rate and gill damage among fish.  The tests revealed a
supersaturated condition at sites two, three, and possibly four.

                          BACTERIA MEASURED

    "Total coliform and fecal coliform counts were made to measure the
bacteria present.  The former indicates organic pollution such as sewage
and garbage.  The fecal coliform specifically measures the presence of
organic matter from the intestinal tract of men and animals.  Basing
their conclusions on the test results and on the Recommended Use Classifica-
tions and Water Quality Standards of the New Hampshire Water Supply and
Pollution Control Commission, they found that only site one was acceptable
for bathing.  The remaining sites would be placed in either Class C or D
due to the high bacteria count.  Class C is "acceptable for recreational

Human Activities
boating, fishing, and industrial water supply" while Class D is des-
cribed as "aesthetically acceptable" and "suitable for certain industrial
purposes."  Evidence of recent fecal pollution was found at all sites
except number one.  And, a significant increase in the coliform count was
found between sites one and two.  This would lower the quality of water
from Class B to Class C.  The groups found oil and grease along with other
floating solids at all sites except one.  Using the Commission's stan-
dards, the remaining sites would all be classified in Class C using this

    "While the two groups were quick to point out that the test results
were only obtained from two sets of data performed by nonprofessionals,
the similarities in the two did suggest the definite presence of a serious
pollution problem.  The results also gave a clear-cut, qualitative proof
of the effects of human activities on a body of water.  The groups noted
that the State empowers local governments to set up laws regarding pollu-
tion where state laws do not apply and that any local Board of Health or
any 10 or more citizens could petition the water supply and pollution
control commission if a public water is being contaminated."

                                            Roger Murray

   VI.  Limitations

        1.  Before starting, be sure that all health and safety precau-
            tions are taken.

        2.  Before undertaking field work, obtain permission to trespass
            on any private properties involved.

        3.  A boat or float should be used in any study involving obviously
            polluted waters.

        4.  Prepared Petri dishes must be kept cool until the time of
            inoculation to prevent the growth of any bacteria which might
            have been introduced.

        5.  The sample must be inoculated soon after the time of collection
            to prevent the growth of coliforms which miaht have been

        6.  Rigorous precautions must be taken to insure the growth of
            only those coliforms originating within the sanple.

        7.  Two samples should be taken from each site as a check on the
            validity of the results.

Human Activities
        8.   When counting colonies,  respect  the  potential  diseases within
            the Petri  dishes.

        9.   One method for testing  the  dissolved oxygen  should  be
            selected and  carried  throughout  the  entire study  to insure
            uniform results.

       10.   It should  be  kept  in  mind that the  Hach  kit  will  not measure
            fractional parts  of dissolved oxygen.

       11.   When on field studies testing for IDOD and BOD, a dark cool
            place should  be readily  accessible.

       12.   If there is a considerable  distance  between  the site and  the
            equipment, chemicals  to  the dissolved oxygen should be
            brought along to  prevent aeration (i.e., a steep  inclination
            of 10 feet).

  VII.   Bibliography

        1.   Parameters of Pollution  with Respect to  Human Activities

            a.  American  Public Health  Association,  Standard  Methods  for
                    the  Examination  of  Water and Wastewater,  American
                    PUblic Health Association,  Inc., New York City, 1971.
                    This  gives a  complete list  of reagents, procedures,
                    and  some  standards  for all  tests used.

            b.  McKee, J. E.,  and H. W. Wolf, Water  Quality Criteria,
                    (2nd  ed.), State Water Quality Control Board,
                    Sacramento, California,  1963.

            c.  Needham,  J. G., and  P.  R. Needham, A Guide to the Study of
                    Fresh Water Biology, (5th ed.) ,~Holden-Day, San Francisco,
                    1962.  This guide has an excellent Algal  and Macro-
                    invertebrate  Key.

            d.  Pelczar,  Michael  J., and Roger  D. Reid,  Microbiology,
                    McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York City, 1965.   Pages 500-
                    512  give  an excellent description of the  coliform
                    group of  bacteria as indicators  of possible fecal
                    contamination.   Page 513 gives a list of  the effects
                    of sewage  on  the environment.

            e.  Renn,  Charles, A  Study  of Water Quality, La Motte Chemical
                    Co.,  Chestertown, Md., 1968~An elementary study of
                    water and  how it can be  altered  by unnatural (i.e.,
                    "human activities") conditions.

Human Activities
            f.   Well, R.,  Design, Specifications Guide, Goodwin
                     Hydrodynamics, Inc., Weirs Beach, N.  H.   It
                     contains an elementary discussion of  BOD.

        2.  Advanced Readings

            a.   Journal,  Water Pollution Control Federation (3900
                Wisconsin  Ave., Washington, D. C. 20016.)

                     (1)   Albertson and Sherwood, "Phosphate  Extraction,"
                            August 1969, Part 1.

                     (2)   Azad and Borchardt,  "Algal  Growth,"  November
                            1969, Part 2.

                     (3)   Barth e_t_ aj_, "Phosphorus Removal,"  November
                            1969, Part 1.

                     (4)   Burkhead and McKinney, "Activated Sludge,"
                            April 1968.

                     (5)   Connell and Fetch, "Handling Gas Chlorine,"
                            August 1969, Part 1.

                     (6)   Hansen e_t aj_, "Idealized Sedimentation Theory,"
                            August 1969, Part 1 .

                     (7)   Hoover and Arnoldi, "River Pollution," February
                            1970, Part 2.

                     (8)   Lighthart and Oglesby, "Bacteriology of an
                            Activated Sludge," August 1969, Part 2.

                     (9)   Lutge, "Submerged Effluent Collections,"
                            August 1969, Part 1.

                    (10)   McDonnell and Hall,  "Benthal Oxygen Uptake,"
                            August 1969, Part 2.

                    (11)   Mercer e_t al_, "Ammonia Removal," February  1970,
                            Part 2.

                    (12)   Moore et^ a]_,  "Viruses  in Waste Water," February
                            1970,  Part  2.

                    (13)  Nebiker  et^ al_, "Sludge Dewatering Rates,"
                            August 1969, Part  2.

                    (14)  Tchebanoglous,  "Tertiary Treatment,"  April  1970.

                     (15)  Thomas and  Brown,  "Chlorination," April  1968.

Human Activities
                    (16)  Tenney et_ aj_, "Sludge Conditioning,"
                            February 1970, Part 2.

                     ALL of the above are very detailed, complete, bio-
                     chemical  studies.   Very specific, very informative.
                     The texts are for the average  student but are
                     advanced  for someone who is not science-oriented.

        b.   Sawyer, C.  N., and  P. L.  McCarthy, Chemistry for Sanitary
                     Engineers, (2nd ed.), McGraw-Hill Book Co.,  New
                     York City, 1967.  This is very complete  and  deals
                     with advanced applications for chemistry.

Human Activities

C.   Drinking Water

    I.  Introduction

        1.   This activity is primarily for urban schools  where field
            work is sometimes difficult.   This  activity can be done
            completely in the classroom and the time varies between
            3 and 10 class days depending on the depth of study desired.
            This is suitable for students on the junior or senior high
            school level.

        2.   This activity gives the students an appreciation of their
            drinking water supply.   This  is to  be done by having them
            discover the  source of  their  water  and how it is treated to
            make it pure.  In the end they should realize that the water
            they pollute  is going to be used by another community like
            theirs, which will  also have  to clean it.

   II.  Questions

        1.   To lead to activity ask:  Where does our drinking water
            come from?

        2.   To initiate the activity ask:

            a. How can we find  out  where  the water comes  from?

            b. Is there a difference between the water we drink and the
               water at the source?

            c. How can the difference be  accounted for?

        3.   To continue the activity ask:

            a. How is the water made fit  to drink?

            b. Is there a difference between distilled water and tap

            c. Is tap water the same all  over the city?

            d. How could  a difference be  accounted for?

            e. What is the cost of  cleaning the water?

        4.   To evaluate the student's performance ask:

            a. How is our water purified?

            b. Why is it cheaper and better not to pollute the source
               of our drinking water?

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            c.  Why  must some cities'  water supplies  be  so  far  from the
            d.  How do you think your water system can be improved?  Why
               hasn't it been imporved?
            e.  How do large rainfalls  affect your system?
            f.  How does drought affect your water system?
            g.  How does pollution  in your water supply affect you
               physically and economically?
  III.   Equipment
        1.   Introductory Level
            a.  Untreated samples of water from the city's drinking  source
            b.  Maps showing the city's intake water system
            c.  Books and movies on water purification if it is  not
               possible to visit a plant
            d.  Evaporating dishes
            e.  Hach or Delta kit,  if available
        2.   Advanced Level
            a.  Same as above
            b.  hi Hi pore equipment
            c.  Material for building a rudimentary model  purification
   IV.   Procedure
        1.   Introductory Level
            a.  Trace the city's intake pipe to its source.   Discuss
               the importance of the location.  Find  out if there are
               any industries at the source or if it  is  being used  as  a
               sewage dumping ground.
            b.  Compare  water from  the tao  and  from the source  (supplied
               by teacher).  Have  students note sensual differences be-
               tween the two.  Have  them feel, smell, and observe color
               differences.  Do Not Have Them Taste Water.

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            c.  Pour water samples into evaporating  dish  and  let  evap-
               orate.   Measure the difference  in  the  amount  of
               suspended solids.

            d.  Use Hach or Delta  to determine  chemical differences.
               Suggested tests:  pH, chlorine,  fluoride,  turbidity,  iron,
               and manganese.

            e.  Draw up summary of findings.  This should generate dis-
               cussion which leads into the  next  step.

            f.  Present information on  how your water  is  purified.

            g.  Figure  the cost per person for  cleaning water.

        2.   Advanced Level

            a.  Same as above but  in greater  detail, especially for  part

            b.  Run tests for bacteria.   Refer  to  the  bibliography.

            c.  Visit a filtration purification plant  if  possible.

            d.  Set up  your own model  purfication  plant.

            e.  Have speakers^

            f.  Discover the economic soundness of cleaning polluted
               water for drinking versus clean water.

    V.   Past Studies

        To  a certain extent some  of the parts  of  this activity are
        traditional experiments.   This activity was not  performed in  its
        entirety by the writers  of this publication.

   VI.   Limitations

        Even with very little it  should be possible to conduct this
        activity.  The water from the  supply can  be picked up by
        students from  different areas; several gallons will  be needed.
        flaps, free information,  and assistance can  be obtained from
        the local water board.

  VII.   Bibliography and Resources

        1.   Books

            a.  Fair, Gordon Gaskew, Water and  Wastewater Engineering,

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                     John  Wiley  and  Sons,  Inc., New York City, 1966.
                     This  book gives some  general description of water
                     systems  in  towns  and  cities, but  is mostly a guide
                     to  the engineering  of said systems.

            b.   Leopold, Luna, A Primer  on Hater, U. S. Department of the
                     Interior, Washington, D. C., 1966.  This book gives a
                     general  description of how and why town and city
                     water systems work.

            c.   Microbiological  Analysis of Water, Millipore Corp.,
                     Bedford, Mass,  (application report A. R. *81), 1969.

            d.   Millipore  Experiments  in Microbiology, Mi Hi pore Corp.,
                     Bedford, Mass., 1969.The above  two booklets describe
                     methods  of  testing water quality  and bacteriology
                     counts.  Millipore  equipment is used.

            e.  Renn,  Charles  E.,  A Study of Water Quality. LaMotte
                     Chemical Co., Chestertown, Md., 1968. This is a brief
                     booklet  discussing water quality  standards, water
                     purification, and waste water disposal.
        2.   Movies
            a.   Pure  Water  and  Public Health, Cast  Iron Pipe Research
                     Association.This  is a good description of the
                     purification  process but use only as a last resort.
                     It  is  largely selling cast iron pipes.  Write to
                     1168 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. 02134.

            b.   New Water For a Thirsty  World, Office of Chief Engineer,
                     Bureau  of  Reclamation, Code 841, Building 67, Federal
                     Court,  Denver, Col.  This is a good description of
                     the desalination process.

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D.  Pollution and Recovery

    I.  Introduction

        In this activity students will  become interested in seeing the
        effects of a town or city on a given waterway.  The fieldwork is
        uncomplicated, consisting of sampling the water above and below
        the community.  The most striking results will be obtained by test-
        ing above and below a town or city that has a substantial amount
        of industry with little, or no waste processing equipment.  Two
        questions should be answered in this survey:  what influence does
        industrial waste have on the over-all environment of a waterway
        and what is the recovery-rate of a stream as the distance from
        the effluent is increased?  A follow-up investigation should be
        undertaken to study the influence of the factors as they apply to
        recovery rate.

   II.  Questions

        1.  Lead the activity by asking:  What effect industrial waste
            has on the over-all quality of this water system?

        2.  Initiate the activity by asking:

            a.  Where should your water samples be taken in this stream?

            b.  Why did you choose these locations?  (This should lead to
                a discussion as to the desirability of collecting above,
                immediately below, and a considerable distance below the

            c.  Which chemical tests do you feel will prove most signifi-
                cant for this survey?

            d.  Which tests should be done at the site, and which may be
                brought back to the lab?

        3.  Continue the activity by asking:

            a.  Do you notice any prominant physical or biological changes
                in the immediate environment?

            b.  If we came back here tomorrow and collected samples, do
                you think there would be a considerable variance in data?

            c.  What tests, other than chemical, would prove helpful in
                an over-all evaluation of this stream?

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        4.   Questions  such  as  these  may  help  to  evaluate  the  efforts  of
            the students:

            a.   Did the investigation hold  the  interest of  the  majority
                of the students?

            b.   Did they seem  eager  to enlarge  on  the  subject;  as  to
                which  chemicals were doing  the  most  damage  to the  system,
                where  the most pollution was  coming  from, what  action
                should come next?

            c.   Did all, or most,  of the students  enter eagerly into  the
                task of testing the  samples from the three  sites?   (See
                II 2 b)

  III.   Equipment

        1.   Other than the  laboratory testing kits very little  is  needed
            to  carry out this  investigation.  The  students  should  be  en-
            couraged to plan most  of the procedures, and  collect the
            needed field-work  equipment.

        2.   Sample equipment might include:

            a.   Collection  bottles and fixing solutions for dissolved
                oxygen tests (Winkler Method)

            b.   Collection  bottles,  any  size, for  general samples

            c.   Collection  bottles for bacteria; so  labeled

            d.   Testing kits and equipment, (i.e., Hach,  Delta, or  LaMotte
                kits,  pH testing kit, pipettes  and chemicals  for Winkler
                tests  for dissolved  oxygen) DO  meter (for comparison  with
                winkler test)

   IV.   Procedure

        1.   Collect water samples  from 3 locations on  the river; above,
            immediately below, and a considerable  distance  below the
            industrial  waste.

        2.   Take a meter reading,  if possible,  for dissolved  Q£ at  each

        3.   Fix the oxygen  in  one  bottle from each location with solutions
            of  manganese sulfate,  and alkali-iodide-azide.  (For Winkler
            test—dissolved oxygen.)

        4.   Collect bacteria samples from each  location.

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        5.   Return to lab and make tests.

    V.  Previous Studies

        1.   Previous studies of this  investigation  have pointed  out to
            the students which dissolved solids  are most closely allied
            with industrial  waste.

        2.   Some students are surprised that a stream that shows a  high
            degree of pollution just  below an effluent shows  a remarkable
            degree of recovery over a comparatively short distance.

        3.   It has been noted that with most students there is a great
            desire to investigate the cause of each pollutant, and  to
            work toward finding ways  to eliminate the source.   This  in-
            vestigation stimulates interest in over-all  "ecotactics."

   VI.  Limitations

        Other than the bacteria cultures,  which  are demanding, very few
        factors can hinder significant results from this investigation.
        Extreme accuracy is  not important, as the comparison  between
        above and below samples is very conclusive.  Transportation to
        collection sites is  the only  real  concern.   Suitable  clothing
        should be worn.  Hands should be thoroughly cleaned after collect-
        ing heavily polluted water.

  VII.  Bibliography

        Klein, L., River Pollution 3  Control, Butterworth & Co., London,
            England*, 1966.  It gives  very complete coverage of total  river
            pollution problems and is an advanced text.

        Mackenthum, K. M., The Practice of Water Pollution Biology,  Depart-
            ment of the Interior, Washington, D. C., 1969.  This may be of
            some use for sampling techniques.  It has little  to offer over
            the testing kits.

        McKee, J. E., and H. W. Wolf, Water Quality Criteria, State Water
            Quality Control  Board, Sacramento, Calif., 1963.   This  is a
            very complete compilation of standards for all industrial and
            household uses of water.   Standards  for most stages are
            listed according to water usage.

        Ruttner, F., Fundamentals of Liminology, University of Toronto
            Press, Toronto,  Canada, 1969.   Pages 56 to 104 cover all  dis-
            solved solids found in fresh water but is quite involved for
            the beginning student.

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        U.  S.  Department of the Interior,  Pollution  Control  Adminis-
            tration, Biological Field Investigation  Data  for Water
            Pollution Surveys,  U.  S.  Government Printing  Office,
            Washington, D.  C.   This  is a very fine  booklet for general
            use on water pollution and costs  only seventy cents.   It
            has a very complete list  of ecologic terminology and  good
            chemical tables, especially on dilution.

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E.  Destructive Effects of Water Pollution

    I.  Introduction

        The activity, which has a field and lab procedure, shows the
        effects of water pollution on concrete or any other materials.
        Eighth-grade students and above can relate certain human activ-
        ities, causing water pollution, to the deterioration of
        materials stationed in the water.   If a situation cannot be
        found where pollution is causing deterioration, this may be
        simulated in the lab.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead to the activity determine if there is a body of water
            in your area affected by human activities, and then inquire:

            a.  Does the water have any effect on materials with which it
                comes in contact?

            b.  What are some of the human activities in the area that
                would cause pollution?

        2.  Initiate the activity by asking:

            a.  How would you determine the cause of the problem?

            b.  How could you find results and interpret them?

        3.  Continue the activity with:

            a.  Can you fit the interpretations into legislative action?

            b.  How can you set up a controlled laboratory experiment to
                simulate the problem?  (bioassay)

        4.  Evaluate the activity by determining:

            a.  Did the students use a systematic approach to find and
                solve the problem?

            b.  Did the students attempt to make any conclusions from
                the tests run?

            c.  Can the student verify his observations?

  III.  Equipment

        1.  Field equipment  (depends on the size of the body of water
            and whether it is a lake, stream, or river)

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            a.   Dissolved solids  testing  equipment

            b.   Collecting 3-6  bottles  of 1  liter capacity

            c.   Water gear (boots,  boats, work clothes,  bug spray)

            d.   Photographic equipment (optional)

            e.   Flow equipment (stop watch, orange, meter stick,  25  meter
                measuring tape)

            f.   Maps, data sheets

        2.   Bioassay materials

            a.   Samples of materials (cement,  wood, aluminum  boats,  iron,

            b.   Chemicals affecting materials  (sulfurous acids,  alkali,
                oils, synergism  of  chemicals)

            c.   Distilled water

   IV.   Procedure

        1.   Field procedure

            a.   Find a material  that is being  affected  by water  problems.

            b.   Determine factors that cause material deterioration.   A
                few of these are:  natural  erosion; corrosion,  industrial
                wastes and algae  (see bibliography).

            c.   Collect equipment.

            d.   Take water samples  at representative sites.

            e.   Test samples to  see if factors determined in  procedure
                "b" are present.

            f.   If possible, study  the human activities  along the stream
                to gain knowledge of effluents added to  the water.

        2.   Lab procedure (if stream and  pollution problem is not

            a.   Determine factors that cause materials  to deteriorate.

            b.   Set up controlled experiments  to show how the factors
                affect the materials.

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            c.  Draw conclusions.

    V.  Limitations

        1.  Field procedure requires affected area for study.

        2.  Much time and transportation is needed for testing and

        3.  Lab experiments could  also take much time.  Note:   The more
            concentrated the chemicals the quicker the results.

        4.  Test knowledge of the  dissolved solids.

   VI.  Past Studies

        Participants in a Water Pollution study course at Tilton School,
        July  1970, made a study of the Daniel Webster Memorial  Bridge
        in Franklin, N.H., which was affected by cement corrosion.  They
        also hoped to make an accurate report to the Franklin city offi-
        cials.  The corrosion could have been blamed on many factors.
        It could be natural; it may have been caused by chemicals dumped
        from industries on the side of the river; it may have been
        caused by dumping of snow (plus salt and sand) over the bridge
        onto the cement foundation, during the winter.  The tests con-
        sisted of DO hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, pH, alkalinity,
        sulfates, copper, nitrates and phosphates.  They were taken at
        areas that would show if any chemicals were added to the river;
        such as above and below the entrance of possible effluents.
        After gathering results, interpretations were made.  Research of
        chemicals that corrode concrete was made and compared to results.
        The chemicals and their effects are outlined below:

        1.  Corrosive factors that affect concrete:

            a.  Water mixed to make concrete should be suitable to drink
                (free from acids, alkalies, and oils).

            b.  Rate of flow of stream affects corrosion; density of
                cement is a factor in corrosion.

            c.  Other factors of corrosion:

                (1)  Creosote, cresol, phenol, and many vegetable and
                     animal oils.

                (2)  Sulfates.

                     a.  Sodium.

                     b.  Magnesium.


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                (3)  Sulfurous acids  ($02)  over  25 ppm.
                (4)  C02 greater than 20 ppm.
                (5)  Water with greater than 100 ppm of carbonate  hardness
                     if water has low temperature and is constantly
                (6)  Sewage in waters of low pH  and high temperature
                     favors high ^S  which  oxidizes into sulfates.
                     Synergism between C02  and sulfates.
        2.   By-products of copper electrolite  industry:
            a.  Copper smelting,
            b.  Waste heat through cooling  waters,
            c.  Waters with added sulfates  and sulfuric acids.
        3.   Electroplating:
            a.  Use of alkaline solutions and  acids,
            b.  Use of demineralized  water  for rinsing.
        4.   Tanning:
            a.  Needs low concentrations of free C02>
            b.  Needs low concentration of  bicarbonate.
  VII.  Bibliography
        McKee, J.  E., and H. W. Wolf, Water Quality Criteria,  State Water
            Quality Control Board, Sacramento, Calif.,  1963.   "Quality
            Criteria for the Major Beneficial  Uses of Water,"  pages 8°
            to 96, discuss concrete corrosion.  Also in this  same  chapter,
            there are explanations of industries that could dump
            effluents that are destructive:  page 98 for the  copper in-
            dustry; page 99 for electroplating and metal finishing; and
            page 106 for the tanning  industry.

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F.  Sewage Treatment

    I.  Introduction

        In this activity students learn about sewage and waste treatment.
        The students learn how sewage is processed in their town and in
        neighboring communities.   New laboratory techniques and equipment
        will be introduced which  will enable students to determine the
        efficiency of various sewage treatment procedures and to appreci-
        ate, in a more precise way, the problems involved in an important
        but often neglected or unnoticed part of everyone's life.   The
        time required may vary from two to four periods or longer depend-
        ing on the difficulty of  selective procedure, student interest,
        and time and equipment available.   The activity is designed for
        students from 7th grade and up.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead the activity  ask:  What happens to the sewage and
            waste waters in your  community after leaving their point of

        2.  To initiate the activity ask:

            a.  What type (primary, secondary, tertiary) or waste treat-
                ment facilities does your  community have?  (Consult local
                authorities, i.e., local health departments and sanitary

            b.  Are all types of  wastes (sewage, runoff) treated in the
                same way?

            c.  How effective is  this treatment?

            d.  Could it be improved?  How?

        3.  To continue the activity ask:

            a.  Are the methods of elimination of pollutants which you
                have encountered  the most effective methods possible?

            b.  If not, why not?

            c.  What tests can be performed to determine the effective-
                ness of treatment plants?

        4.  To evaluate the student's performance ask:

            a.  Do you consider the sewage treatment in your community

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            b.   What can we as individuals or members of groups do to
                help improve sewage treatment methods?

  III.  Equipment

        1.   Introductory Level

            a.   Sample bottles

            b.   Microscope

            c.   Hach or Delta kit

            d.   Aquatic identification books for identifying micro-

        2.   Advanced Level

            a.   Same as above

            b.   Mi Hi pore equipment or standard bacteriological materials

            c.   Titration equipment for Winkler, BOD

            d.   Materials for constructing a model  treatment system

   IV.  Procedures

        1.   Introductory level

            a.   Using microscopes and identification books identify the
                organisms found in samples.

            b.   Using the Hach or Delta kit determine the level of
                nitrates in the water.  Determine why this level is so

            c.   Draw diagrams of the local treatment plant.

            d.   Determine pH.  Why is it important in processing sewage?

        2.   Advanced Level

            a.   Same as above

            b.   Using the Hach and Delta,  determine the levels  for dis-
                solved solids you feel are important in sewage  treatment
                based on what you have learned, in preparing for this
                activity and your study of the treatment plant.

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            c.  Using Millipore filter technique,  or other methods,  de-
                termine the level  of bacteria before and after treatment.
                Also determine why this level is  important.

            d.  Determine how bacteria are used in sewage treatment.

            e.  Determine the level  of DO, IDOD,  BOD in water before and
                after treatment, and in the body  of water into which the
                treated sewage is  dumped.   Discuss the significance  of
                the results  (refer to Standard Methods for technique).

            f.  Build a model sewage treatment plant.

    V.  Past Studies

        1.  A group of students from Quincy, Mass., found their bay  to be
            suffering from rapid biological aging  (eutrophication).   Also,
            it was being polluted by "storm" drains from a combination
            storm-sewage system.  They studied the advantages and disad-
            vantages of secondary treatment, the  dangers of daily
            chlorination, and the problems of algae.

        2.  Another group of students from Quincy  made a study of the
            effects of sludge being pumped into the bay at a rate of 2
            million gallons a day.  They concern  themselves with BOD,
            eutrophication and floating solids.

   VI.  Limitations

        If there is no treatment plant in your area it will  be necessary
        to take field trips.  Movies and books may have to replace the
        primary learning and experience of visiting the plant.  Supple-
        mental equipment may consist of:  paper chromatography; standard
        analytic procedures, quantitative and qualitative analyses,  etc.

  VII.  Bibliography

        1.  Introduction to Sewage Treatment.

            a.  Pelczar, Michael J., and Roger D.  Reid, Microbiology,
                     McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York City, 196b.This is
                     an excellent source for an outline of sewage treat-
                     ment.  Pages 511-522 discuss  the biological and
                     chemical characteristics of  sewage and outline
                     Primary and Secondary Treatment.

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            b.   Renn, Charles,  A Study of Water  Quality,  LaMotte
                     Chemicals  Co., Chestertown, Md.,  1968.  An elemen-
                     tary discussion of water quality  and how  it  can  be
                     altered by unnatural  conditions.   It is presented
                     along with good background  materials and  good

            c.   U.  S. Department of Health,  Education, and Welfare,
                     "Municipal  Sewage Treatment Process," No. 002599.
                     This is a  good film for teacher and  student,  lead-
                     ing into and initiating the activity; it  is  black
                     and white  and slightly  outdated.

        2.  Parameters of Sewage

            a.   American Public Health Association,  Standard Methods  for
                     the Examination of Water and Wastewater,  American
                     Public Health Association,  Inc.,  New York City,  1971.
                     This is a  complete set  of directions, from making
                     reagents to performing  tests.   It is a good  refer-
                     ence but is quite complicated.

            b.   Pelczar, Michael J. and Roger D. Reid, Microbiology,
                     McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York  City, 1965.   Pages
                     500-504 contain an excellent discussion of the coli-
                     form group as indicators of pollution.  It is very
                     complete and can be understood  by the "average"
                     junior high student.  Page  513  gives a list  of the
                     effects of sewage on the environment.

            c.   "A  New Prospect," Environment, Vol.  12, No. 2, March   1970.
                     This is a  study of the  parameters of sewage  and  prob-
                     lems of sewage on the environment.  It is a  good
                     study of the effects of sewage  on the environment.

        3.  Advanced Readings

            a.   Journal, Water  Pollution Control Federation (3900 Wiscon-
                     sin Avenue, Washington, D.  C. 20016)

                (1)   Albertson  and Sherwood, "Phosphate Extraction,"
                     August 1969, Part 1.

                (2)   Azad and Borchardt, "Algal  Growth,"  November 1969,
                     Part 2.

                (3)   Barth et^ al, "Phosphorus Removal," November  1969,
                     Part 1.

                (4)   Burkhead and McKinney,  "Activated Sludge," April

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                 (5)   Connell and Fetch, "Handling Gas Chlorine,"
                       August 1969, Part 1.

                 (6)   Hansen et^ a]_, "Idealized Sedimentation Theory,"
                       August 1969, Part 1.

                 (7)   Hoover and Arnoldi, "River Pollution," February
                       1970, Part 2.

                 (8)   Lighthart and Oglesby, "Bacteriology of an Acti-
                       vated Sludge," August 1969, Part 2.

                 (9)   Lutge, "Submerged Effluent Collections," August
                       1969, Part 1.

                (10)   McDonnell and Hall, "Benthal Oxygen Uptake,"
                       August 1969, Part 2.

                (11)   Mercer et al_, "Ammonia Removal," February 1970,
                       Part 2.

                (12)   Moore et^ al_, "Viruses in Wastewater," February
                       1970, Part 2.

                (13)   Nebiker et_ a]_, "Sludge Dewatering Rates," August
                       1969, Part 2.

                (14)   Tchebanoglous, "Tertiary Treatment," April 1970.

                (15)   Thomas and Brown, "Chiorination," April 1968.

                (16)   Tenney et^ al_, "Sludge Conditioning," February 1970,
                       Part 2.

                (17)   Zablatsky and Petterson, "Anaerobic Digestion
                       Failures,"  April 1968.

                       All are very detailed, complete, biochemical
                       studies, not for the average student or someone
                       who is not science-oriented.

            b.  Sawyer, C. N., and P. L. McCarthy, Chemistry for Sanitary
                       Engineers, (2nd ed.)s McGraw-Hill, New York City,

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G.  Biochemical  Oxygen Demand In Sewage

    I.  Introduction

        The BOD test, Biochemical  Oxygen Demand, is designed to determine
        the amount of oxygen bacteria required to break down sewage.
        There are  3 factors in the breakdown of sewage which require
        oxygen:   (a) carbonaceous  organic material usable as a food by
        aerobic organisms; (b) oxidizable nitrogen and organic nitrogen
        compounds which serve as food for specific bacteria, and (c)
        certain chemical reducing  compounds which will react with molec-
        ularly dissolved oxygen.  There is an incubation period of 5  days
        in which the 3 factors above are given time to use oxygen.  There-
        fore, for one to incorporate this activity into the classroom,
        one must make time for collection of samples, seeding, and after
        incubation, the BOD test.   The activity may be designed to fit
        almost any age group.  It  is a good activity with which to teach
        lab techniques for 10th graders and older students.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead to the activity ask:

            a.  What causes the breakdown of wastes?

            b.  What must be present for this breakdown to occur?

            c.  Would it be possible that there may not be enough of this
                substance to complete this breakdown of the waste?

        2.  To initiate the activity ask:  How shall we test for this
            substance and find out if a BOD exists?

        3.  To continue the activity tell the students the procedure  for
            the BOD test and let them continue with testing of sites  of
            their own choice.  Because of the complexity of this proce-
            dure, the teacher must answer the students' questions directly.

        4.  To evaluate the students' actions observe who participates,
            how much work each individual does, and how well they do the
            work.  Also watch the  organization the students build up  on
            their own.

  III.  Equipment

        1.  500 ml. sample bottles

        2.  300 ml. sample bottles

        3.  Some standard method of determining DO

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        4.   Pipettes

        5.   Graduated cylinders

        6.   Beakers

        7,   Heavy brown paper

        8.   Tape and marking pencil

   IV.  Procedure

        The procedure given here is  very sketchy.   For more  detail,  refer
        to  Standard Methods.

        1.   Prepare organic-free dilution water.   Distilled  water may be

        2.   Determine the DO content of the dilution water.

        3.   Determine the DO content of the waste  water to be tested.

        4.   Make several  dilutions of the prepared sample so as  to obtain
            the required depletions.  The following dilutions are sug-
            gested:  99.9 to 99.0% for strong trade wastes,  99 to 95% for
            raw and settled sewage,  75 to 95% for  oxidized effluents, and
            75% to no dilution for polluted river  waters. The dilution
            of the samples is called seeding.  For example,  a 95% dilu-
            tion indicates 5 ml. of sample plus 95% sterilized distilled

        5.   Put an airtight seal on  the bottles and store in a dark place
            for 5 days at a temperature of 68 degrees F (20  degrees C).

        6.   During the incubation period, calculate the initial  DO con-
            tent of the incubated sample.  Below is the equation for
            calculating the initial  DO, (d) content of the incubated

                }—\X(d) = ppm     DO contributed by waste water

                 x is the amount of the sample used to make  up the
                     incubated sample.

                 y is the total  volume of the incubated sample.

                 d is the DO content of the waste  water.

Human Activities
                   - PPm    DO contributed by dilution  water
            y)     ~ ppm    DO Total  DO initially

            z is the amount of dilution water used in the incubated

            D is the DO content of the dilution water.

        7.  After 5 days, determine the DO content of the waste water-
            dilution mixture.

        8.  On the basis of oxygen depletion and the relative proportions
            of waste water and dilution water, calculate the oxygen de-
            mand of the organic material in the waste water.
                  - H) = ppm of oxygen demand or BOD

            I is the total  DO initially.

            H is the DO of the sample after incubation.

    V.  Limitations

        The greatest limitation of the BOD test for classroom applica-
        tion, is the fact that the procedure runs into much technicality.
        However, with some modification,  the test may be fitted to
        younger age groups.  It would be  wise to be well-informed before
        proceeding.  One must also have fairly reliable equipment in
        order to procure accurate data.  At least a half a day should be
        allotted for completing the sample collecting and preliminary
        testing before incubation.

   VI.  Past Studies

        1.  A group of students concerned themselves with setting para-
            meters of sewage influent-effluent flow, concentrating on
            the ability of secondary treatment to remove oxygen-demanding
            materials from sludge.

        2.  A team of students attempted  to isolate the three classes
            (Standard Methods) of oxygen-demanding materials.

  VII.  Bibliography

        1.  Introductory Literature

            a.  Pelczar, Michael J., and  Roger D. Reid,  Microbiology,
                     McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York City, 1965.   It gives
                     an excellent operational  definition of BOD on page


Human Activities
            b.  Wells, R.,  Design,  Specifications  Guide,  Goodwin  Hydro-
                     dynamics, Weirs Beach,  N.  H.   This  is  a  good
                     elementary procedure for preparing  and performing

        2.  Advanced Reading

            American Public Health  Association, Standard Methods  for the
                     Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public
                     Health Association, Inc.,  New York  City, 1971.   This
                     gives  complete information on seed  dilution  factors,
                     etc.   This is  not a good reference  for the average

Human Activities

H.  Effect of Oil  on Aquatic Life in Recreational  Waters

    I.  Introduction

        The Water  Quality Act of 1965 states the following:   "Standards
        of quality	shall be such as to protect the public  health or
        welfare, enhance the quality of water and serve the  purpose of
        this act."  Included among substances banned from recreational
        waters are floating debris, oil, scum, and other matter.   This
        study regards fuel oil  discharged by small craft  on  recreational
        waters as  hazardous.  Concentrations higher than  50  gal.  per mi.
        may coat the bodies of  bathers causing skin irritation.   This oil
        sometimes  blocks sunlight, thus preventing photosynthesis in
        aquatic plants at the bottom of the body of water.   It can also
        stick to the gills of fish and interfere with their  respiration.
        It may also coat the bottom of the body of water, endangering
        spawning areas.   9th graders and above may do this activity.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead to the activity ask:

            a.  How does oil on the surface of recreational  waters affect
                aquatic  life?

            b.  How could a student test the effect of fuel  oil  on a
                certain  type of aquatic life?

            c.  In testing to find this effect, which would  be more
                advisable to use, plants or animals?

            d.  How would you collect the living specimens that you
                would like to use?

            e.  What do  you think that you would need to  perform this

        2.  To determine the quantitative relationship of oil  concentra-
            tion to the  surface color, ask:

            a.  What is  an oil  slick?

            b.  At what  concentration of oil does the slick  become

            c.  At what  concentration is an oil slick seen as  a silvery
                sheen on the surface of the water?

            d.  At what  concentration of oil are bright bands  of color

Human Activities

        3.  To evaluate this experiment ask:
            a.  Why did you use a control  during the experiment?
            b.  Was timing accurate during this work?
            c.  Were all of the organisms  used during this project of the
                same species, size, etc.,  and do you think that any vari-
                ations in these could have changed  the effects  of this
  III.  Equipment
        1.  Net
        2.  Container in which to place organisms that are caught
        3.  Tank in lab to keep organisms  in  water from natural habitat
        4.  Beakers
        5.  Graduated cylinders
        6.  Pipettes
        7.  Watch with a good second hand
        8.  Oil (inexpensive)
   IV.  Procedure
        1.  Make field trips to observe oil on lakes and streams.
        2.  Complete the following to see  the effect on fish.
            a.  Add 10 ml. water to beaker #1, 50 ml. to #2, 100  ml. to
                #3, 150 ml. to #4, and 150 ml. to #5 (control).
            b.  Add 3 ml. of fuel oil to each beaker except control.
            c.  Note time of addition of oil  and time of death  of fish.
            d.  Record data carefully.
    V.  Previous Studies
        1.  Chipman and Galtsoff (1949) showed that low concentrations
            of oil are toxic to fresh-water fish.
        2.  Pickering and Henderson  (1956) made toxicity studies  of oil
            on minnows.

Human Activities
   VI.   Limitations

        1.   Be sure to have a small  fish net  because  it  is  difficult  to
            remove a small  fish from the tank.

        2.   Make sure that  the smallest  amount  of water  (in this  case,
            10 ml.) is enough to support the  size fish you  are  using.

  VII.   Bibliography

        1.   FWPCA, Report of the Committee on Water Quality Criteria,
                1). S. Department of  the  Interior, April  1,  1968.   We"
                found references to  previous  studies  made on this topic.

        2.   FWPCA, Water Quality Studies:   Clean  Water,  Training  Manual,
                U. S. Department of  the  Interior, October   1969.   It
                contains good references to the effect of oil on  the
                surface of  water.

        3.   McKee, Jack E., and Howard W.  Wolf  (eds.), Water Quality
                Criteria, State Water Quality Control Board, Calif.,  1963.
                This book contains good  references to fuel  oil.

Human Activities

I.  The Effects of Damming or Impounding Water

    I.  Introduction

        This investigation was devised to determine the long-range effects
        a dam has on river and the difference in the present-day condi-
        tion of the river above and below the dam.   8th graders and older
        students with a background in the various water pollution tests
        may complete this activity.

   II.  Questions

        1.  Lead to the activity by asking:

            a.   What biotic and abiotic factors are involved in a stream's

            b.   How would a dam interfere with these factors?  Specific-
                ally, which factors would be altered?

        2.  Initiate the activity with:

            a.   How would you measure the changes caused by the dam?

            b.   What tests might be performed to measure such changes?

        3.  Continue the activity with:

            a.   What are the interrelationships between abiotic and
                biotic factors?

            b.   How would different dams effect different purposes, for
                example, a recreation dam as opposed to one used for
                flood control?  Would a dam used to generate electricity
                by hydroelectric power produce problems different from
                those created by a steam-generating plant located at the

        4.  To evaluate the activity:

            a.   How did the student solve problems which arose from the
                physical characteristics of the site (depth of stream
                too great to be measured without a raft, the problems of
                gaining access to a dam, etc.)?

            b.   What have the students found to be the advantages and
                disadvantages of impounding water?

            c.   Has the student gained an understanding of the term
                "watershed"?  Can he outline the watershed of this river?
                Can he predict the effects of an unusual condition which
                might occur upstream?


Human Activities
            d.   Can the student offer explanations  for  differences  he
                noted up and down stream from the  dam?

            e.   Does the student feel  he has  gained an  understanding
                of the problems involved in  the  planning  and maintenance
                of such a body of water?

 III.   Equipment

       1.    Hach kit, Delta-50 kit or LaMotte kit
       2.    Dissolved oxygen meter
       3.    Secchi disk for measurement  of  turbidity
       4.    Meter stick
       5.    Rope or chain
       6.    Styrofoam ball  or orange
       7.    Watch with second hand or stop  watch
       8.    Thermometer
       9.    Life raft perhaps
      10.    Core sampler
      11.    Kemmerer sampler for collection  of water at great depths

  IV.   Procedure

       1.    Selection of a  site

            The site should be employed  only  after  some investigation.
            One must determine whether or not access to the  dam can
            be  gained.  The best way of  locating a  site may  be to
            check the map,  and then to be in  touch  with the  personnel
            at  the dam so that selection of  site will be  made easy.

       2.    Short range versus long range procedures

            Rather than simply performing the tests once, one might
            perform them over a succession  of days  or months.  In
            addition one might find statistics from previous studies
            of  the area and compare these to  the data one has

       3.    Actual testing

            Turbidity, dissolved oxygen, carbon  dioxide,  pH, and
            temperature may be determined above  and below the dam.

Human Activities
            Tests for rate of flow might be performed.   Additional
            studies of settling rates of suspended  particles,  the
            contents of a core sample, and various  tests of  deep
            water samples may be carried out.

        4.   Correlation

            Comparison graphs of biotic and abiotic factors  might  be
            made from these conclusions on the  dam's  effect  on the
            abiotic and biotic factors.  It is  wise to  be in touch
            with the State Health Department, for it is from them  that
            previous data may be obtained.

    V.   Previous Studies

        1.   A group of students studied a dam and the river  at sites
            above and below the dam.   They were amazed  at the  effect
            of impounding the water on the surrounding  community.

        2.   Another group studied a flood-control dam which  was also
            used for recreation.  It was interesting  to determine
            whether both could be done simultaneously and still

        3.   A group was interested in the trees of  the  area  surrounding
            the dam and suggested further study.

        4.   Still another group in its study, attempted to determine
            whether siltation occurred and what its long range effects
            might be.

        5.   In one study, students discovered that  the  installation of
            a sewage treatment plant, several miles above the  dam
            site produced startling results in  the bacteria  dnd dis-
            solved oxygen counts.  (Further investigations as  an out-
            growth of this situation, in the classroom).

   VI.   Limitations

        1.   Short-range Study

            a.  Access to the desired site cannot be assured due to the
                abutments in the structure of a dam.  Thus,  the student
                must bring a long rope with which to suspend a bucket,
                thermometer, etc., to test the  water.  In such cases,
                the core and Kemmerer Samplers  are helpful.

            b.  The Kemmerer Sampler presents many problems.  A chain
                must be used to suspend the sampler.  One must make sure
                this chain is straight, in order that the "messenger"
                can slide freely down it.  In  hauling up or  letting down

Human Activities
                the chain,  the  hands may  be  hurt by friction caused.
                To prevent  this,  a  winch  or  rubber gloves  should be
                brought along.

            c.   Below the dam,  at your  site, make sure the water is not
                so turbulent as to  prevent access.

            d.   In getting  rate of  flow,  make  sure your  raft is far
                enough removed  from the generator's intake valves so
                that it is  not  affected by the undercurrent    (i.e.,
                sucked in)

            e.   Suggestion:   If your dam  is  used for  the production of
                electricity, take a tour  of  the plant if at all
                possible.  It is interesting.

        2.   Long-range Study

            a.   One note may be made here and  that is that water
                pollution surveys do not  date  back to before the 1940's
                in most cases.   Because of this, the  dam on which the
                study is performed  must be relatively young.

            b.   Suggestion:   If at  all  possible make  a comparison
                between the bottom  topography  of the  stream before
                and after the dam was built.

  VII.  Bibliography

        1.   Benton, A. H. and W.  E. Werner,  Jr., Field Biology and
                Ecology, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York  City,  1965.

        2.   Billings, W. D., Plants, Man  and the Ecosystem, Wadsworth
                Publishing  Co., Belmont,  Calif., 1970.

        3.   Kormondy, E. J., Concepts of  Ecology, Prentice Hall
                Biological  Series,  T. H., Inc., Englewood  Cliffs,
                N. J., 1969.

        4.   Life Science Library, Ecology, Time, Inc., New York City,

        5.   Odum, E.  P., Fundamentals of  Ecology, (2nd ed.), W. B.
                Saunders Co., Philadelphia,  Pa., 1971.

Human Activities

J.  Community Water Supplies

    I.  Introduction

        In this activity it is presumed that the  student  has  an  under-
        standing of the amount of water needed  or used  by urban  centers.
        From this point he will  proceed to discover  from  where this
        water comes and what steps are taken to protect the water  supply.
        Several other avenues are opened as possible future activities
        depending on the interest of the student.  This activity may  be
        carried out by 6th through 12th graders.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead to the activity ask:

            Where does your water come from?

        2.  To initiate the activity ask:

            What is the watershed of the water  supply?

        3.  To continue the activity  ask:

            (At this point several paths are opened  which might  be
            followed to advantage)

            a.  What are the controls on the human activities within
                the watershed?  What are the provisions of enforcement
                of these controls?

            b.  If an impoundment exists,  what  have  been  the  effects
                downstream from the dam?

            c.  Has the evaporation of impounded  water  caused detri-
                mental concentrations of dissolved solids? Are  any
                impounded supplies faced with this problem?

            d.  Evaluate the effectiveness of the controls placed  on
                the watershed by comparing the  water runoff with that
                of an equal-sized region which  is not controlled.

            e.  If supply is a flowing river, what controls are  placed
                upon the upstream facilities such as cities,  industries,
                etc.  What are state controls on  effluents?   If  the
                river is an interstate one, how do state  controls

            f.  How does the seasonal variation in the  river  flow affect
                the concentration of contaminants?

Human Activities
            g.   If the supply is  a  deep  well,  try  to  trace  the  under-
                ground flow by reference to  geologic  factors.   For
                instance,  much of the  deep water in midwestern  plains
                states originates in the Rocky Mountains.   How  does  this
                long path  affect  the water quality and  flow?

        4.   To  evaluate the student's  performance  have  him  describe  the
            water sources  of his  urban community and  give the factors
            which he feels are important to  its preservation.

  III.   Procedure

        1.   Contact should be made  with  the  public water supply depart-
            ment to obtain a map  showing the water supply or  supplies  of
            the urban center.  The  supplies  may be surface  entrapment,
            deep well, or  flowing river.

        2.   If  the supplies come  from  a  deep well  source, a geologic map
            showing underground structures and sand-bearing strata would
            be  needed.  If impounded,  a  topographic map would be needed
            and the region contributing  water to the  impoundment would
            be  outlined.   (This assumes  a knowledge of  map  reading.)

        3.   If  the source  is a flowing river,  a topographic map of large
            area coverage  would be  required  and the watershed outlined.
            The towns, cities, and  industries  in this watershed should
            be  designated.

   IV.   Equipment

        1.   Appropriate maps

        2.   Contacts with  state and city departments  responsible for
            public water supply

    V.   Past Studies

        To  date, no known  past studies on a  secondary level have
        included a thorough investigation of the sources and methods of
        protection for a municipal  water supply.

   VI.   Bibliography

        1.   McKee, J.  E.,  and H.  W. wolf, Water Quality Criteria,(2nd
                ed.),  State Water Quality Control  Board, Sacramento,
                Calif., 1963.  This is a good  reference on  the  major
                uses of water, including domestic  water supply.

Human Activities
        2.  U. S.  Department of the  Interior, A  Primer on Water,
                U.  S.  Government Printing  Office, Washington, D. C.,
                1960.   This  simplified  pamphlet  (good for 6th to
                12th grade use) explains hydrology  and water use,
                including city water systems.

Human Activities

K.  Investigating Lead Concentrations in Automobile  Exhausts

    I.  Introduction

        In this activity lead concentrations  of  car  exhausts  will  be
        investigated.   This project is an outgrowth  of  water  pollution
        investigations.  It was a natural development which takes
        advantage of procedures common to water  pollution  work.  One
        of the intentions of this activity was to  make  a  springboard
        from which other types of lead concentration-investigations could
        be devised.

   II.  Questions

        1.  which lead to the activity:

            a.  Why are large amounts of lead in the air  a problem?

            b.  Where does most of this lead  come  from?

            c.  What is lead used for in gasoline?

        2.  which initiate the activity:

            a.  Would different types of cars give off  differing
                amounts of lead?

            b.  Would the type of gasoline used  determine  in  any way
                the amount of lead given off?

            c.  What types of gasoline give off  the  most  lead?

        3.  which continue the activity:

            How do the lead concentrations given off by automobiles
            compare with the amounts given off by  other internal
            combustion powered machines (i. e.,  buses,  trucks, motor-
            cycles, 1awnmowers)?

        4.  which evaluate the activity:

            a.  How do the data collected in  this  activity compare
                with other studies in this area?

            b.  What interfering factors and  built-in errors  might
                there be in this method of testing?

  III.  Equipment

        1.  This activity uses a hydrid Hach-Millipore  procedure.
            Millipore air pollution equipment is used for  detecting


Human Activities
            the lead and then the Hach colorimeter  is  used  to  give
            quantitative results.  Standard  Millipore  air-testing
            equipment including filters,  number AAWG04700 and  pads
            number HAWG04750.

        2.  Tetrahydroxy - p-benziquinone (THQ)

        3.  Isopropanol

        4.  Acetone

   IV.  Procedure

        1.  Make up standard solutions of lead  nitrate to be used to
            calibrate the metering system.

        2.  Draw solutions through filters,  solubilize these in  25
            ml. of acetone and read on the colorimeter.

        3.  Make up indicator solution of tetrahydroxy quinone by
            dissolving an excess amount of tetrahydroxy - p-benziquinone
            in 10 ml. of isopropanol,  filter,  and then through this
            filter pour 10 ml. of distilled  water to produce the workable
            20 ml. solution.

        4.  Place 2 ml.  of this solution  on  a  pad in a Petri dish.

        5.  To collect sample place a  filter in the sterifill  system
            and place over the exhaust pipe.  A limiting orifice
            should be used in the connection to the vacuum  source.
            The sample should be collected for a standard amount of

        6.  Place the filter on the THQ-soaked  pad, face up, and allow
            30 seconds for the purplish color  to develop.

        7.  After 30 seconds place the filter  in a  colorimeter bottle
            containing 25 ml. of acetone and shake  vigorously  to dis-
            solve the pad.

        8.  Read the sample in the colorimeter on scale Number 2667
            using filter Number 2408.   The colorimeter should  be
            calibrated with colorimeter bottle of pure acetone.

        9.  Compare to standards to gat milligrams  of lead  per liter
            of exhaust.

Human Activities
    V.   Past Studies

        The author developed this  test from  Millipore's  qualitative
        procedure for determining  the  presence  of  lead.   Lead  nitrate
        solutions ranging from .01  to  .1  grams  of  lead nitrate were
        made up.   Because of a lack of time  not enough were made  up  to
        make as accurate a test as  would  be  desired.  Therefore,  it
        is hoped  that participants  will make their own scaling
        system.  To do this, many  standards  were made up and pulled
        through filters and then measured in the standard way.  The
        results were  then graphed  and  a formula was devised to give  a
        result.  This formula is:

            -0.004 x  meter reading  + 0.339 = lead  nitrate.

        However,  this only gives the number  of  equivalent grams of
        lead nitrate  in the whole  sample.  A workable number was
        desired.   Therefore, the number gotten  by  the formula  was
        multiplied by .6 which is  the  amount (by mass) of lead nitrate
        that is lead.  In this study,  a 14 liters-per-minute limiting
        orifice was used and samples were taken for one  minute.   The
        answer from above, then, would be the number of  grams  (or
        milligrams) of lead in 14  liters  of  exhaust.  The answer
        was then  standardized to one liter by dividing by 14.   To
        summarize, the method of obtaining a quantitative result  was to
        use this  formula:

            lead  nitrate x .6/14 =  mg.  of lead  per liter.

        The tetrahydroxy - p-benziquinone is quite expensive.
        It was found  that very little  was wasted if the  filtrate was
        reused.  No noticeable loss in accuracy was observed.   The
        indicator solution was found to go bad  quite quickly,  sometimes
        in as little  as a few hours.   This is the  reason for mixing  in
        such small quantities.   The color produced by the lead also
        fades quickly.

   VI.   Limitations

        The main  limitation of this test  is  the questionable accuracy
        thereof.   However, more work in this area  could  alleviate this
        problem.   Other limitations are:   the expense of the chemicals
        and equipment; the expediency  with which the test must be
        done to preserve accuracy,  and the safety  factor which must
        be kept in mind while working  near exhaust pipes.

Chapter 3     Ecological  Perspectives
     To understand  the  effects of  pollution, one should study organisms
and determine their relationship to the nonliving  part of the environ-
ment in which they  live.   An ecological perspective  results when  these
relationships are understood as  they affect the  quality  of the  abiotic
envi ronment.

     Previous studies'  indicate  that a single  group  of organisms  (with
the exception of coliform bacteria) is not reliable  as an indication  of
water quality.  Only a total biotic study reveals the  true quality of a
body of water.

     The activities presented in this section  employ techniques of bac-
teriology, aquatic  biology,  chemistry, geology,  physics,  and engineering
to delve into aquatic ecosystems.   The following fundamental questions
dealing with a given aquatic system outline the  scope of this chapter.

     1.  How many kinds of organisms are present?  What else is

     2.  What is the diversity index above and below an  effluent  on
         a given stream or around the shoreline  of a given lake?

     3.  What is the relationship between any  two  of the following
         to the diversity index  of a waterway:

         suspended  solids
         type of bottom
         dissolved  solids—phosphate, nitrate, sulfate,  chloride
         iron copper
         dissolved  gases—oxygen, carbon dioxide,  methane
         hydrogen sulfide

     4.  What is the effect of varying concentrations of dissolved
         materials  such as Cl or phosphate on  the  species population
         or diversity index of a microcosm?

     5.  Does the diversity index change as one  goes downstream?

     6.  What are the species populations of an  aquatic system?
         What is the biomass and/or energy flow  in a particular system?
    TU.S. Department of the Interior, Biological Field Investigative
Data for Water Pollution Surveys (Washington, D.C.:  U.S."Government
Printing Office), p.4.

Ecological  Perspectives
        7.   Do the  concentrations  of  dissolved  oxygen  and  carbon dioxide
            change  over a  24-hour  cycle?   Does  the  diversity  index of  an
            aquatic system change  over  a  12-month period?

            The following  resources will  be  found useful throughout the
        chapter.  A bibliography is listed at the close of each activity.

        American  Public Health  Association,  Standard Methods  for the Ex-
            amination  of Water  and Wastewater,  (13th ed.), American Public
            Health  Association, Inc., New York  City, 1971. This book  dis-
            cusses  biological collection  techniques, bioassays, and chemical
            analysis and contains  good  drawings  of  the organisms.  Every
            school  should  have  at  least one  of  these.

        Hedgepeth,  J.  W.,  Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleocology,
            Memois  67,  Geological  Society of America,  1963.This is a
            good  reference for  marine studies.   Chapter 4, "Obtaining
            Ecological  Data in  the Sea,"  is  particularly useful.

        Needham,  J. G., and P.  R.  Needham, A Guide  to  the  Study of Fresh
            Water Biology, Holden-Day,  Inc., San Francisco, Calif., 1962.
            This  guide  contains excellent drawings  of  organisms and is
            easily  carried into the field.

        Usinger,  R. L., Aquatic Insects of California, University of Cali-
            fornia  Press,  Berkeley, 1956.This  can be used for most
            locations  within the United States.

        Welch, P. S.,  Limnological Methods,  Blakiston  Co., Philadelphia, Pa.,
            1968.   This is highly  recommended.

        Wilhm, J. L.,  "Patterns of Numerical Abundance of  Populations,"
            The American Biology Teacher, March  1969,  pp.  147-150.  A
            diversity  index is  presented  as  well as other  means of
            statistically  analyzing biological  data.

Ecological Perspectives

A.  Aquatic System
    I.  Introduction
        The purpose of this investigation  is  to involve  students  in
        studying a total  aquatic system.   This  activity  would be  car-
        ried out to begin the study of Ecological  Perspectives.   Most
        of these activities would take place  at the  secondary level;
        however with proper teacher adaptation,  some could be used at
        elementary levels.   The basic and  advanced levels differ  mostly
        in the accuracy  and, therefore,  the expense  of the equipment
   II.  Questions
        1.  To lead to the  activity ask:
            How many kinds  of plants, animals,  and microbes  are present
            in this aquatic system?
        2.  Initiate the activity by posing:
            How are you  going to collect these?
        3.  Continue the activity with:
            What are the physical characteristics  of the system?
        4.  Evaluate the performance of the students by  considering
            questions such  as:
            a.  How many species were present in the student's samples?
            b.  How many did the students  find?
            c.  Were the samples representative?
            d.  What are the pertinent physical characteristics?
            e.  Did the  students study them?
            f.  How well did the students  work (as opposed  to hacking)?
            g.  What seemed to interest them most?
            h.  Were the students able to fit all  the parts  together
                and form an understanding of the whole  system?

Ecological  Perspectives

  III.   Equipment
        (The Equipment and Procedure  sections  are suggestions only.
        Teachers  should encourage  their students to  develop equip-
        ment and  procedures of their  own.)
        1.   Basic Level
            a.  Several  thicknesses of cloth  to  filer out microbes
            b.  Some screen to collect bottom dwelling organisms
            c.  Container for collected plants
            d.  A float for estimating stream flow
            e.  A can for collecting  bottom sediment or  gravel
            f.  A microscope
        2.   Advanced Level
            a.  A plankton net or  membrane filter apparatus
            b.  A Surber Sampler or Ekman  Dredge (you can make your own
               quantitative samplers)
            c.  Containers and keys for collected plants
            d.  A stream flow meter or a watch with  a second hand, a
               meter stick, and a float
            e.  Core sampler, Ekman Dredge, or Kemrnerer  Sampler
            f.  A microscope for counting  cells  such as  Sedgwick-Rafter,
               Palmer,  or haemocytometer
   IV.   Procedure
        1.   Basic Level
            a.  Pour sample water  through  cloth  and  study residue by
               making wet mounts  on  microscope  slides.
            b.  Place screen in rift,  then:
               (1)   disturb bottom by  moving  stones,
               (2)   remove organisms  from screen and place in container,
                (3)   sort out species.

Ecological  Perspectives
            c.   Pick representative  plants  from  various kinds present
                and place  them in  container.

            d.   Estimate the  time  it takes  for the  float to  go a given
                estimated  distance,  estimate width  and depth, and cal-
                culate  flow in cubic units  per time.

            e.   Get a bottom  sample  with  a  can,  determine  particle
                size with  screen,  and observe organic matter present.

        2.   Advanced Level

            a.   Run a known volume of water through  the net  or filter,
                then determine by  microscope the number of kinds pre-
                sent per volume of water.

            b.   Collect bottom sample with  Surber,  Ekman,  or improvised
                collector, then determine types  present per  unit area.

            c.   Collect representatives  of  all plant types using quadrat,
                if desired, then use keys to identify plants.

            d.   Calculate  the flow using  flow meter or watch, meter
                stick,  and float.

            e.   Get a bottom  sample  using core sampler, Kemmerer Sam-
                pler, or Ekman Dredge.

            f.   Determine  particle size  by  using differential settling
                or by using a series of different meshed screens.

            g.   Do a microscopic study of particle  size.

            h.   Determine  the percent of organic matter by massing,  fire
                treating,  and remassing.

    V.  Previous Studies

        1.   Some 6th graders  delighted in drawing what they  saw in  their
            microscopes.  They placed their drawings on the  bulletin board.

        2.   A 3rd grade class was  extremely interested in  picking macroin-
            vertebrates from  a bottom sample.

        3.   Second-year biology students  reacted strongly  to the lack of
            diversity in a polluted  bottom  sample.   They had thought that
            pollution just happened  to the  water.

        4.   A group of  freshman students  thought that their  flow data were
            wrong because  flow decreased as they went downstream.   They

Ecological  Perspectives
            investigated further and  found  out  that a water supply
            company was  taking water  from the stream.

        5.   A freshman  class  found  that  an  undiluted water sample had
            a zero coliform bacteria  count.  However, the 1:10 and
            1:100  dilutions had uncountable  numbers.  They were chal-
            lenged to find a  palatable solution.

   VI.   Limitations

        Travel  and clothing sometimes  present problems.  Keys are dif-
        ficult  to  use.   Teachers should  emphasize  general species char-
        acteristics and  support the efforts  of  students  to help them
        make particular  identifications.  Use pictorial  keys if possible.
        Keying  unknown  organisms down  to species often requires an ex-
        pert.  Don't require  too much  precision.

  VII.   Bibliography

        American Public  Health Association,  Standard Methods for the Ex-
            amination of Water and  Wastewater,  (12th ed.), American Public
            Health Association, Inc.,  1965,  pp. 634-690.  These pages
            provide detailed  descriptions of various collecting devices,
            counting cells, procedures,  etc.

        Edmonson,  W.  T.  (ed.),   Fresh  Water Biology, (2nded.), John Wiley
            and Sons, Inc., New York  City,  1959, pp. 1194-1197.  These
            pages  discuss the collection of plankton, vascular plants, and

        Mackenthum, K. M.,  The Practice  of  Water Pollution Biology, U. S.
            Department  of the Interior,  Washington, D. C., 1969, pp. 55-65.
            This is a very general  text  but covers simple techniques.

        Morgan,  A. H.,  Field  Book of  Ponds  and  Streams,  G. P. Putnam's
            Sons,  New York City, 1930.This book  contains very good
            general information on  collecting and  preserving.  It discusses
            growing organisms in the  laboratory.

        Pennak,  R. W. C.,  Fresh Waiter  Invertebrates of the United States,
            Ronald Press  Co., New^York City, 1953.Pages 727-735 give
            a brief description of  equipment and methods and mentions the
            kinds  of organisms which  can or cannot be collected.  Photo-
            graphs are  included.

        Smith,  Gilbert M.,  The Fresh  Water  Algae of the  United States,
            McGraw-Hill  Book  Co., New  York  City, 1950.   Pages 27-38
            provide information on  collection,  preservation, and methods
            for studying  fresh water  algae.

Ecological  Perspectives

B. Stream Deterioration  Due  to Effluents

   I.   Introduction

        The purpose of this  experiment  is  to  show  the  student  the effect
        of an effluent upon  the fauna of a specific  area within  an  aquatic
        system.   Because of  the nature  of  this  experiment  these  activities
        would take place at  a secondary level;  however, with minor  modi-
        fications  it could be used at an elementary  level.

  II.    Questions

        1.   To lead to the activity ask:

            What is an effluent?

        2.   Initiate the activity  by posing:

            a.  How could we determine  the effect  of an effluent?

            b.  How could you collect the  data?

            c.  How could you compile the  data?

            d.  What do  the  data show?

            NOTE:   After the students have discussed the ways  in
                   which the data  can be compiled, introduce
                   diversity index.

        3.   To continue  the  activity ask:

            Does the effluent affect the bottom dwelling organism in
            a stream?

        4.   To evaluate  the  activity ask:

            a.  Did the  population diversity  change:  How?

            b.  Could you observe  the changes that occur without a
                close examination?

 III.    Equipment

        (Teachers should encourage their students  to develop equipment
        whenever possible.  Bacteriological equipment  may  be used if
        students are interested in further study.)

        1.  A plankton net

        2.  A Surber Sampler or an Ekman  Dredge

Ecological  Perspectives
        3.   Containers  for  collected  plants  and  animals

        4.   Lab equipment - microscope, white  enamel  pans,  hand
              magnifying  glasses

   IV.   Procedure

        1.   Select a  stream containing at  least  one  effluent.

        2.   Pick sites  50 meters  above and below the  effluent which are
            suitable  for  your  equipment.   If the stream  is  wide,  take
            three  samples at each site, one  close to  each bank and one
            in the center.

        3.   Place  samples in separate containers, identify  by number,
            date,  and temperature of  water.

        4.   Make a map  to show where  the samples were collected.

        5.   If time permits, sample more than  one effluent  site.

        6.   During warm weather,  refrigerate samples  until  for study
            in laboratory.

        7.   Pour contents of each bottle into  separate white enamel
            observation pans.

        8.   Begin  separating,  counting, and  tabulating.

        9.   Compile data.

       10.   Plan your time. Class discussions are very  important.

    V.   Previous studies

        1.   Some 10th grade students  were  amazed at  the  number of
            species contained  in  one-square-foot samples.

        2.   One member  of the  team spent an  afternoon in working  a
            method for  feeding information into  the  computer to de-
            velop  our diversity index.

        3.   The team  selected  a stream named NeedleshopBrook.   Upon
            arrival at  the  stream, we searched for and found an efflu-
            ent entering  the stream.  Samples  were taken above and
            below  the effluent entrance.   Also,  samples  were taken
            200 yards  further downstream.   Indexing  indicated a  sharp
            reduction of  fauna directly below  the effluent  and a  70%
            restoration of  the fauna  further downstream.

Ecological  Perspectives
        4.   The data collected at sites  along  a  stream are  shown  in
            Figure B-l.   As  the stream had effluents  added  (increasing
            site numbers),  the population  diversity  changed.

    VI. Limitations

        The appropriate  stream may be difficult  to find  within a
        reasonable distance  from the school  and  in an accessible  area.
        Clothing and footwear sometimes  became a problem.
                               Figure B-l

Ecological  Perspectives
  VII.   Bibliography

        Coker,  N.  E.,  Streams,  Lakes,  &  Ponds,  Harper & Row, New York
            City,  1968.

        Edmondson,  W.  T.,  (ed.),  Fresh Water Biology, (2nd ed.), John Wiley
            & Sons,  Inc.,  New York  City,  1959.

        Morgan,  A.  H.,  Field Book of Ponds  & Streams, G. P. Putnam's
            Sons,  New  York City,  1930.~~

        Pennak,  R.  W.  C.,  Fresh Water  Invertebrates  of the United States,
            Ronald  Press  Co., New York City, 1953.

Ecological  Perspectives

C.  Stream Variation
    I.   Introduction
        This is an introductory  activity  for  3rd through 12th graders.
        The students  can easily  become  aware  of how to sample bottom
        organisms and how population  diversity varies with water qual-
        ity.  A short trip to two or  more sites is required, but no
        specialized equipment is  necessary.
   II.   Questions
        1.   Lead the  activity by asking:
            Does the  diversity index  change as one goes downstream?
        2.   Initiate  by  asking:
            How could we test for this  change?
        3.   Continue  by  asking:
            a.  Why does the  diversity  change?
            b.  Does  it  change drastically on the downstream side of
                an effluent?
            c.  If so, what is the source of  the effluent and can it be
        4.   Evaluate  by:
            a.  Listening to  the ideas  brought up in  class discussions.
            b.  Considering how  well  did  the  students work.
            c.  Reviewing what seemed to  interest them the most.
            d.  Checking follow-up on the experiment  (i.e., What is
                causing  the change and how could the  problem be best
  III.   Equipment
        1.   Surber sampler
        2.   Three or more one-gallon  or equivalent bottles for each
            sampling  site

Ecological  Perspectives

        3.   Preservative  for keeping  the  organisms

        4.   Suitable  clothing

            a.   Boots, sneakers,  etc.

            b.   Shorts

            c.   Rubber gloves (if working in  contaminated water)

   IV.   Procedure

        1.   Collect bottom  sample using the Surber sampler or another
            suitable  collecting device.

        2.   Determine the number  of species per  unit area and the
            diversity index.

        3.   Compare and plot data of  the  stream.

        4.   Report and discuss findings.

    V.   Past Studies

        A few students found that the stream  steadily became worse as
        they proceeded downstream.  Tney  noted with interest the ability
        of  the  stream to  cleanse  itself from  an  effluent if given time.

        Students in a freshman science course  linked the population
        diversity  with other factors  - bacteria  and chemical data - and
        found a relationship among the three.  They felt a great sense
        of  accomplishment in  the  study and thought that it was a worth-
        while project.

   VI.   Limitations

        Due to  the nature of the  experiment,  the whole class might not
        easily  do  one stream.  If there are too  many people, it might
        be  better  to  break  up the class into  small groups to survey other
        streams in order  to arrive at a better picture of the aquatic
        ecosystem  in  that area.   An alternative  is to choose many sites
        along a stream.

        Time is also  a factor; field  trips are generally very time-con-
        suming,  as is the counting of the organisms.  It is neither
        advisable, nor necessary  at this  stage,  to ask the students to
        identify down to  the  species  level.

Ecological  Perspectives
  VII.  Bibliography

        Morgan, A.  H., Field  Book of Ponds  and  Streams, G. P. Putnam's
            Sons, New York City,  1930,  pp.  26-45.This gives good
            general  information on collecting and  preserving and
            discusses bioassays.

        Pennak, R.  W. C., Fresh Water Invertebrate of  the United  States,
            Ronald  Press Co., New York  City,  1953, pp. 727-735.   This
            gives a  brief description of equipment and of methods and
            mentions the kinds of organisms which  can  or cannot be
            collected.  It is illustrated.

Ecological  Perspectives

D.  Diurnal  Study

    I.  Introduction

        This diurnal activity  deals  with  the  study  of  the  changes  in
        carbon dioxide and dissolved oxygen in water over  a  24-hour
        period by testing at regular intervals.   Since the study takes
        place over a long (24  hours) period of time, students must
        arrange for rest between measurements or teams must  be  used.
        The  investigation should convey both  the biotic processes  in-
        volved in the production of  carbon dioxide  and oxygen and  pro-
        vide a situation in which the student can independently perform
        a scientific experiment.  To accomplish  this,  the  following
        objectives should be kept in mind:

        1.   Promote creative thinking toward  the solution  of a  pro-
            posed problem.

        2.   Motivate the student into collecting data  to support his
            program for  solving the  problem.

        3.   Encourage the pursuit of the  biotic  processes  involved in
            production of the  dissolved gases and their interrelation-
            ship with each other and the  abiotic factors affecting them.

   II.  Questions

        1.  Lead to the activity by asking:

            a.  Is the concentration of dissolved gases in a body  of
                water always the same?

            b.  Are carbon dioxide and oxygen present  in the same  con-
                centrations in a given body of water?

            c.  Are the  concentrations of oxygen and carbon  dioxide
                constant in a  24-hour period  or  over a long  period
                of time?

        2.   Initiate the activity by asking how  you might  determine
            whether the  concentrations of these  gases  vary?

        3.   Continue the activity by asking:

            a.  What factors may affect the concentrations of the

            b.  What effects on organisms are seen?

            c.  How does the varying concentration  of  gases  available
                to organisms affect  the entire community?


Ecological Perspectives
        4.  Evaluate the performance of the  students by  considering
            questions such as:

            a.  Did the students  use more  than  one  method  for  the
                determination  of  concentrations  of  gases?

            b.  Could the student offer possible explanations,  reasons
                for his results?

            c.  Did students  pursue a study  of  the  physical  factors
                affecting concentrations?  How  did  they  consider?

            d.  Did the student consider the effects of  gases  on or-

            e.  Did he make a  study of these effects?

            f.  Did he consider the effects  on  a community of  or-

            g.  Did he consider the effect of oxygen on  food produc-
                tion or the revierse?

            h.  Did he pursue  these possibilities?

            i.  How well did the  students  work?

            j.  Were they able to relate data and for  an understanding
                of the whole system?

            k.  Did they go on to consider the  seasonal  effects on  gas
                concentration  and what the results  of  such changes  might

            1.  Does the student  consider  the possibility  of making a
                general statement about the  possibility  of oxygen  and
                carbon dioxide being limiting factors  in an aquatic
                envi ronment?

  III.  Equipment

        1.  General Equipment

            a.  Table for testing equipment

            b.  Chairs

            c.  Camping equipment, perhaps blankets,  sleeping  bags

Ecological  Perspectives

            d.   Large flashlights
            e.   Alarm clock
            f.   Food and drink
            g.   Pencils  and  paper  for  recording data
            h.   Insect repellent
            i.   First aid kit
            j.   Sponge and paper towels
            k.   Masking  tape for labelling
        2.   Equipment for dissolved  oxygen  determination
            a.   Dissolved oxygen meter
            b.   Winkler  method  equipment  (have instructions available)
                (1)   Manganous  sulfate
                (2)   Alkali-iodide-azide  solution
                (3)   Sulfuric acid
                (4)   Sodium  thiosulfate solution (.0375 N)
                (5)   Starch  solution
                (6)   Distilled  water
                (7)   Collection bottles with ground glass stoppers
                (8)   Graduated  cylinder
                (9)   Burettes and  stands
               (10)   Pipettes (2 ml. or 5 ml. calibrated in ml.)
               (11)   Beakers:  125 ml., 250 ml.
               (12)   Funnels for filling  burettes
            c.   Hach, Delta, or LaMotte kit

Ecological Perspectives

        3.  Equipment for carbon  dioxide  determination

            a.   Collection bottles

            b.   Hach, Delta,  or LaMotte  kits  or alternative  procedure

   IV.  Procedure

        1.  Oxygen Determination

            a.   Dissolved oxygen  meter

                (1)   Place probe  in  water by  casting without allowing
                     probe to hit the  bottom.

                (2)   Check battery,  calibrate  instrument,  and make
                     temperature  reading.

                (3)   After setting  temperature  gauge, make oxygen
                     reading  and  record  data.
            b.   Follow procedures  on  dissolved oxygen  procedure
                sheet (Appendix 1)  for Winkler test, keeping  the
                following  precautions  in  mind":     ~~

                (1)   Be careful  to  use the  proper pipettes  for dif-
                     ferent chemicals. Marking pipettes  in  order  to
                     distinguish them will  help.

                (2)   Use care  in labelling  so that chemicals  are  not

                (3)   Use extreme caution  in handling sulfuric acid  and
                     alkali-iodide-azide  solution.  Pipette with  CARE.
                     If either is  spilled,  flush  the area with water.

            Carbon Dioxide

            a.   A collection bottle should  be placed upstream in  the water,
                and  it should  be filled carefully with no splashing.  As
                in Winkler, capping of the  bottle should be done  under

            b.   Use  kit procedure  to  determine concentration.

Ecological  Perspectives
    V.   Past Studies
            Participants  in  the  Summer School  Project  at  University
            School  on  a 9th  and  8th  grade  level  did  a  24-hour study
            taking  tests  at  2-hour intervals  and established an  oxygen
            and carbon dioxide curve  corresponding to  the  cycle.

          Carbon Dioxide  -

          Dissolved Oxygen  -
        2.   Students  on  a  junior high  level  participated  in a 24-hour
            study taking the  carbon  dioxide  and  oxygen  counts every
            6 hours.   When they  found  a  sharp  drop  in the dissolved
            oxygen at 6  p.m.,  they explained it  by  noting the dense
            cloud cover  that  had formed  since  their last  reading.

        3.   Juniors in high school conducted a 24-hour  study during
            the fall  and after noticing  that the dissolved oxygen did
            not increase considerably  from night to mid-day, they con-
            cluded it was  due to the leaves  which had fallen and blocked
            the sun 's rays.

        4.   A group from a summer water  pollution program did a 24-hour
            study of a local  lake and  noted  that the carbon dioxide
            curve was highly  irregular.  They  later realized that the
            lighting affected the test results by giving  the samples a
            yellowish tint thus  making the color readings in the test

        5.   In 1961 at Webster Lake  near Tilton,  N.  H., a group of sum-
            mer trainees recorded the  following  study:

            a-   Selection  of  a site  was  made after  consideration of
                factors  including accessibility  of  the  site and problems
                concerned  with setting up and  use of the equipment.

            b-   The equipment was set  up inside  the  Webster Lodge.  At
                24-hour  intervals the  tests  for  carbon  dioxide and dis-
                solved oxygen  were conducted.  Two  water samples were

Ecological  Perspectives
                obtained by filling ground glass collection bottles with
                water from the site, taking care to fill  the dissolved
                oxygen bottle completely, thus preventing aeration from
                within the bottle.   At this time, the dissolved oxygen
                reading and temperature of the water were taken with the
                Dissolved Oxygen Meter.  The purpose of taking two dis-
                solved oxygen tests was to make a comparison between
                methods.  However,  the Winkler-Azide Method failed to
                give reasonable results probably due to a fault in the

            c.  Once inside the Lodge, the carbon dioxide test was run
                using the Hach Kit  Method.  After each test, the bottles
                were flushed with distilled water.  (Sterility is not
                required in testing for dissolved gasses.)

            d.  As part of the observations, general weather conditions
                are noted along with the data.
10:15 pm
, air temp. , wind
warm, and
Water disturbed
Dark, cold, and
due to

as 12:15 am

still, li-
as 4:15 am

due to


11:00 am     20      7.5       4          Water disturbed due to human
                                          Light, warm, still

 1:00 pm     21      6.5       4          Same as 11 am

 3:00 pm     21.5    7.5       4          Water disturbed due to human
                                          Light, hot, windy

 5:00 pm     23      6.5       4          Same as 3 pm

 7:00 pm     22      8         6          Water disturbed due to human
                                          Dark, still, warm


Ecological  Perspectives
             e.  Dissolved  oxygen  and  carbon  dioxide  concentration
                change  as  a  result of animal  and  plant  respiration
                and photosynthesis.   It may  be  that  the dissolved
                oxygen  was low during the  first testing time  be-
                cause the  day had been an  overcast one  and, perhaps,
                less dissolved oxygen had  been  formed by the  photo-
                synthesizing plants.

                Dissolved  oxygen  concentrations are  inversely pro-
                portional  to temperature change.  For example,  be-
                tween 5 p.m. and  7 p.m.  there was a  decrease  in
                temperature  accompanied by an increase  in dissolved

             f.  Dissolved  carbon  dioxide and  oxygen  vary in concen-
                tration within a  24-hour period due  to  a variety of
                physical characteristics which  change as the  day pro-
                gresses.   It would be interesting to determine  whether
                this fluctuation  in gas  concentrations  might  produce
                noticeable effects in the  biotic  community of the lake.

    VI.   Limitations

         1.   Make  sure  the equipment  is  complete  to  prevent the necessity
             of  returning  to the  lab.

         2.   Plan  your  equipment  with the  physical characteristics of your
             site  in mind  (i.e.,  mosquitoes).

         3.   Obtain some method of lighting  other than  lights that must  be
             held  (i.e., a lantern).

         4.   Location:

             a.  Have easy access to  your  site.   Problem locations
                would  be:

                (1)  forest with dense  undergrowth

                (2)  steep  banks

                (3)  water  which drops  off quickly  at  the banks

             b.  Locate your site and set  up  equipment  before dark.

         5.   Surviving  the night:

             a.  Proper clothing,  a change of clothes and a sleeping bag
                are  needed  to insure  the  semi comfort of the  participants.

Ecological  Perspectives

             b.   Quick energy  food  is needed.

             c.   In  most  cases,  insect repellent is a must.

 VII.    Bibliography

        Benton,  A.  H., Field Biology and  Ecology,  (2nd ed.), McGraw-Hill
            Book Co., New York City, 1965.

        Billings, W. D.,  Plant,  Man and the Ecosystem, (2nd ed.) Wadsworth
            Publishing Co., Belmont, Calif" 1970.

        Buchsbaum,  Ralph, Basic  Ecology,  Boxwood Press, Pittsburgh, Pa.,

        Kormondy, Edward  J., Concepts of  Ecology,  Prentice Hall Biological
            Series,  T. H. Inc.,  Englewood Cliffs,  N. J., 1969.

        Life Science Series, Ecology, Time, Inc.,  New York City, 1969.

        Odum, Eugene P.,  Fundamentals of  Ecology,  (2nd ed.), W. B.
            Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 1971.

Ecological Perspectives

E.  Population Diversity Index
    I.  Introduction
        This activity enables  the student to determine  the  species  popula-
        tion of macroinvertebrates in a stream.  The  student may  also  de-
        termine by investigation if the diversity index changes  as  one
        samples at random sites downstream.   The activity will acquaint
        students with macroscopic sampling techniques and will,  hopefully,
        provide them with results that will  initiate other  kinds  of water
        quality tests and activities.  Seventh  graders  and  above may  do
        this activity.
   II.  Questions
        1.  To lead to the activity:
            a.  How many kinds and numbers of macroinvertebrates  are  in
                the stream?
            b.  Do you think this diversity  index should change  as  you
                go downstream?
        2.  Initiate the activity with:   Where  are they found and how
            can they be collected?
        3.  Continue with: If there is a change  in the  diversity index,
            how can you account for it?
        4.  Evaluate the students by asking:
            a.  How many species were present in the students'samples?
            b.  Were the samples representative?
            c.  Given the change in the diversity index, did the students
                account for this change?
            d.  Were the students interested in  the  activity?
            e.  Did any of the students want to  pursue  the  activity
                to a greater depth?
  III.  Equipment
        1.  Basic Introductory Level
            a.  Hip boots, screen, (for bottom  dwelling organisms - close
                mesh), or cloth (i.e., nylon)

Ecological  Perspectives
            b.   Collecting  jars with  preservative, if it is being used;
                shallow pan;  and  forceps

            c.   Pan  with white background

        2.   More Advanced Level

            a.   Surber sampler (for other samplers see Standard Methods
                pp.  673-83)                            	

            b.   Can  to rinse  attached invertebrates to bottom of net;
                collecting  jars;  shallow pan;  forceps

            c.   Pan  with white background;  key to identify invertebrates

            d.   Dissecting  scope  to facilitate identification

   IV.   Procedure

        Choose  several sites  randomly spaced along the stream.  At each
        site take three samples such  that the  area is well covered.  Water
        should  not be  too deep or too shallow  and fast running.  Avoid
        large rocks; find gravelly bottom with hand-size stones or little
        larger.   Try to make  each sample site  the same type of bottom and
        same area.

        1.   For Basic  Level

            a.   Place  screen, so  that it will  trap macroinvertebrates that
                have been loosened from upstream, at the chosen sites.
                Disturb bottom by moving stones above screen.
                Note:   Area should be constant for all sampling done.
                It may be desirable for students to wear boots.

            b.   Remove organisms  from screen and place in a suitable

            c.   In the lab, place the specimens in pan with white back-
                ground; separate  them as to kinds and number.  (This will
                determine species population.)

            d.   Assign letters to the specimens, each specimen having a
                letter, with  specimens in each group having consecutive
                numbers. For example, if there are 37 worm-like spec-
                imens  with  black  heads, these  might be in Group A and
                have numbers  1 through 37;  14  snails of one type might
                be Group B  and have numbers 38 through 51, and so on.

            e.   Randomly select  (by putting numbers in a hat and pulling
                them out, for example) numbers 1 to 200 and list them.

Ecological  Perspectives
                Determine the  number of  "runs"  (the numbers of con-
                tinuous  series of  similar  organisms).   If the numbered
                specimen is  in the same  group as  the one immediately
                preceding,   it is  part of  the same run; if not, a new
                run  is  started (it does  not matter that the specimen
                is part  of a run three or  four  runs back; we are con-
                cerned  only  with the specimens  immediately following one
                another).  For example,  take the  following list, with
                groups  assigned.   Suppose, that the first number chosen
                is number 10.   Number 10 organism is from Group A.  This
                will  begin run number 1.  Organism number 3, chosen next
                is of the same Group A and is therefore also included in
                run  number 1.   However,  the next  organism, number 6, is
                of Group D.   Hence,  a new  run,  number 2, has begun.  The
                remainder of the runs are  formed  in a similar way.

                     Organism number    Group      Run

                          10              A         1

                          3              A

                          6              D         2

                          7              B         3

                          2              A         4

                          5              C         5

                          4              C

                          9              B         6
                           1               A         7

                These  are  a total  of  7  runs in  the  10 spcimens listed.

            g.   The  total  number runs  reported  both  as  total no./200
                specimens  and  as a Diversity  Index.
                                   number  of  runs
                       D.I.     = number of specimens

        2.   For Advanced Level

            a.   Place  Surber sampler  in water at chosen sampling site.
                Pick up stones  and remove  organisms  so  that they will

Ecological  Perspectives
                flow into the collecting  net.   Note:   Be sure  to  col-
                lect all  possible  organisms  in  the  square  foot area.

            b.   Remove sampler from water and  transfer organisms  to
                collecting bottles.   Note:   It  may  facilitate  trans-
                ferring organisms  if the  organisms  are first placed
                in a shallow pan  and then in the  collecting jars.

            c.   In the lab, place  the specimens in  pan with white back-
                ground; differentiate them as  to  kind  and  total numbers
                of each kind.

            d.   If the students are interested, they should identify the
                organisms they have collected with  the aid of  a dissect-
                ion scope and a key.  (This  would be for advanced stud-
                ents and would be  useful  to relate  organisms being found
                at different sites on the stream.)

            e.   To determine the  diversity,  one divides the number of
                types by the square root  of the total  numbers  of  indi-
                viduals for all samples  taken  at  each  site.
                            D =    S    (# of Species)
                                       (total  #  of  individuals)

                For further interpretation  of  data  consult  The  American
                Bjo1ogy Teacher,  "Patterns  of  Numerical  Abundance  of
                Animal  Population,"  by Jerry Wilhm,  Vol. 31,  No. 3,
                pp. 147-150,  March 1969.

    V.  Previous Studies

        1.  A freshman  class  sampled 22 different locations on  a water-
            shed, collected and massed the macroinvertebrates.

        2.  A 2nd-year biology class used this method to determine spe-
            cies diversity.

        3.  A field study of this type was  used by  sophomores,  to  il-
            lustrate the numerical abundance of a population  of grasses
            on a lawn.

   VI.  Limitations

        Ample time should be provided for collecting samples.   Sites
        should be well  planned before class activity. Since  this  activity
        will probably take longer than one setting,  specimens may  be  kept
        in preservatives until time allowed-, however, it is best  to work
        with live samples (they can be kept up to 4 days by refrigeration)

Ecological  Perspectives
        Time is  required in transferring  the  specimens  from  net  to  jar
        (they tend to cling to the  net).   Often  there  is  a feeling  of
        inadequacy and a consequential  fear to try  this activity.   If
        many samples  are obtained,  they should be clearly labeled to
        avoid mixing; keys  are often  difficult to apply.

  VII.   Bibliography

        American Public Health Association, Standard Methods  For the
            Examination of  Water and  Wastewater,  (12th  ed.).  New York
            City,  1965.This  gives a complete listing  of all  bottom
            fauna sampling  methods  and how to use them, pp.  673-682.

        Mackenthum,  K. M.,  The Practice of Water Pollution Biology,
            Department of the  Interior, Washington, U.  c.~,  iyb9.  it gives
            a semi-complete listing,  but  for  more information  on
            sampling  methods see Standard Methods.

        Morgan,  A. H., Field Book of  Ponds and Streams, G. P.  Putnam's
            Sons,   New York City, 1930.  Both of these  books  are good
            if you are looking up the genus species of your  specimens.

        Pennak,  R. W. C., Fresh Water Invertebrates of the United States,
            Ronald Press Co.,  New York City,  1953.

        The American  Biology Teacher,  Vol. 31, No.  3,  March  1969.

Ecological Perspectives

F.  Bioassay

    I.   Introduction

        In order to determine the  effect  of  harmful  dissolved solids
        on a microcosm,  the minimum lethal dosage must be  determined.
        This can be done by experimenting with  different concentrations
        of dissolved solids and noticing  the effect  over determined
        periods  of time.  Seventh  graders and up may  complete this ac-

   II.   Questions

        1.  Lead into the activity by  asking:

            a.   How could we test  the  stream's  fauna  in relationship
                to abiotic factors?

            b.   Are certain combinations  of  chemicals synergistic?   If
                so, how  could we test  for this?

        2.  Initiate the activity  with:

            a.   Where could the experiment be best controlled?

            b.   What type of test  organisms  would be  best  suited  for
                our study?

        3.  Continue with:

            a.   What do  the varying "kill" times indicate?

            b.   How could this (kill time) be  minimized?

        4.  Evaluate the students  by considering:

            a.   Do the students "stick with  it" when  the control  dies
                off first for some strange reason, yet still continue

            b.   Was time used wisely (as  opposed to  hacking)?

            c.   Did the  students try to do as quantitative a study
                as possible?

  III.   Equipment

        Like many other experiments in the ecological perspectives group,
        the following materials are fairly standard.  The  following  pieces
        are for a quantitative rather  than a qualitative study;

Ecological  Perspectives

        1.   Battery jars
        2.   Graduated cylinders
        3.   Aerators and  plastic tubing
        4.   Test chemical
        5.   Test animals  (fish,  macroinvertebrates,  plankton)
        6.   Nets
        7.   Labels  and markers
        8.   Sample  jars
        9.   Water from which  samples  are  taken
   IV.   Procedure
        1.   In the  lab, mark  all  battery  jars used.
        2.   Prepare each  jar  with the liquid  required.   REMEMBER
            the control!
        3.   Begin to aerate the  jars  30 minutes before you put in any
            of the  test animals.
        4.   Collect test  animals.   (Be sure they  are acclimatized to the
            For further precautions see the limitations  section.
        5.   After the test animals  are accustomed to the lab, transfer
            them to the test  jars.
        6.   Note the time.  Depending upon time limitations, you may
            want to check the jars  every  half hour or daily  (obviously
            the half hour is  more quantitative than  the  daily check).
        7.   Remove  all dead fish  from the jars.
        8.   For each jar, graph  fish  kill vs. time of individual deaths.
        9.   After 96 hours or 100%  fish kill, which ever comes first,
            end the test.

Ecological  Perspectives
    V.  Past Studies

        Using the procedure  above,  studies  have  been  done  as  to the
        effects  of an  endotoxin  produced  by the  dying of certain blue-
        green algae.   The algae  were  killed by copper sulfate at 4 ppm.
        The test animals  were  minnows.  The first  study did not succeed
        due to the use of distilled water instead  of  stream water.  A
        second study was  immediately  undertaken  using the  above procedure,

        Another group  of  students  ran a toxicity test on CuS04 and
        found that after  3 hours a  100% fish kill  occurred.

   VI.  Limitations

        1.   In doing bioassays,  keep  in mind some  of  the following

            a.  Temperature

            b.  Oxygen

            c.  Nutrients

        2.   As a safeguard against  possible killing of the fish in the
            lab, try to make the water in the battery jars the same
            temperature as was found  in the stream.   Even  more impor-
            tant is the oxygen.   Remember that the fish need  02; try
            to get them as quickly  as possible back to the lab to the
            aerators.   Stream water  is chosen in  lieu of  distilled
            for it was discovered  that the  fish  would die  fairly quickly
            without the necessary  nutrients, even  though the  02 and
            temperature were satisfactory.

        3.   As mentioned  before, time is  a  very  important  factor in
            that there is a  considerable  amount  of time taken up in
            catching the  test  organisms.

  VII.  Bibliography

        American Public Health Association,  Standard  Methods  for the Ex-
            amination  of  Water and  Wastewater. American Public Health
            Association,  Inc., New  York City, 1950.   This  gives the
            standard tests for CO  as  well as giving identification plates
            for some fresh water algae.

        Smith, Gilbert M., The Fresh  Water Algae of the United States,
            McGraw-Hill Book Co:,  New York  City, 1950.  This  is a general
            text on the identification and  classification  of  fresh water

Ecological  Perspectives

G.  Plankton Growth in  Relation  to Light

    I.  Introduction

        The purpose of  this  activity  is to  discover what  relationship,
        if any,  exists  between the presence of  light and  algae growth.
        Students make a  photometer,  then  use it to measure the extinc-
        tion of  light in a still  body of  water.   Data  from the light
        measurements are then  compared to data  on the  plankton popula-
        tion of  the water.   This  activity is most successfully performed
        by students in  grades  7  to 12, and  requires that  the students
        have a basic understanding of the process of photosynthesis.

   II.  Questions

        1.   Questions leading  into the activity:

            a.  What do  green  plants  need to grow?

            b.  If they  don't  net what they need what  happens to the

            c.  What happens if  a plant can get all the water and light
                it can  use?

            d.  What happens if  a plant can get all the light it needs
                but can't get  enough  water?

            e.  What happens if  a plant can get all the water it needs
                but can't get  enough  light?

            f.  Where is a place  where plants can get  all the light they
                need, but not  enough  water?

            g.  Where is a place  where plants can get  all the water they
                need, but no light?

        2.   Questions initiating  the  activity:

            a.  In a nearby  still body of water, as you go towards the
                bottom,  do you reach  a point at which  there is no light
                or less  light  than at the surface?

            b.  How many plants  would you expect to find  there (at the
                bottom)  as compared  to the  number you  would find at the

            c.   How  are  we going   to prove  that there is a  place  in  the
                water where there  is less  light?

            d.   How  are  we going   to prove  that in this  place  where  there
                is less   light,  that there  is also less  plant  life?

Ecological  Perspectives
        3.  Questions  which  continue  the  activity:

            a.   Does  anybody know  how to  snag  up a lot of plants from
                the water at a  particular depth?

            b.   Does  anybody know  any ways  to  measure how much light
                there  is  in  a given place?

            c.   If you had a camera light meter, how could you use it
                under water?

            d.   If you did not  have a camera light meter, could you
                make  a simple instrument  to measure light under water?

            e.   What  else can you  think of other than a  light meter that
                would be  sensitive to light?

            f.   How could you arrange to  have  a known amount of light
                at a  known depth so that  you could measure the light
                the plant took  in?

        4.  Evaluating the student's  efforts:

            a.   Does  the  student have a reasonable understanding of the
                way in which plant growth is dependent on light?

  III.  Equipment

        1.  Pond or other suitable body of water

        2.  A boat, pier, bridge,  or  bank which will allow students to
            lower samples to a  depth  which  will demonstrate a measurable
            attenuation of light

        3.  A light sensitive device  such as:

            a.   Camera light meter in plastic  bag or similar waterproof
                container and device  (such  as  diving mask) for reading
                light meter  under  water

            b.   Homemade  photometer:   an  instrument of this sort can
                readily be assembled  with a variable-register photocell
                and an ohmmeter from  the  school physics  lab.(The photo-
                cell  can  be  purchased for a dollar or less from a local
                electric  supply house.  It usually comes with two wires
                attached. If the  wires are clipped to the leads of the
                ohmmeter, light registers directly as (milli) ohms of
                resistance.   Plastic  bags or other waterproofing can be
                applied as necessary, a project which can be readily
                completed with  the assistance  of a senior physics stu-
                dent  or a general  science instructor.)


Ecological  Perspectives

        4.   Equipment for collecting  plankton:

            a.   Plankton  net

            b.   Homemade  device  such  as  cloth  bag or pillowcase on
                coat hanger frame  dragged  through water on a string

        5.   Microscope for observing  plankton

        6.   Measuring instrument for  determining depth

            a.   Meter stick

            b.   Knotted or marked  cord

        7.   Containers for samples

   IV.   Procedure

        1.   Select  a site.

        2.   Measure light at depth.   Readings  can be taken continuously
            or  at  intervals which  are convenient from the surface to
            the bottom or point  of light extinction.

        3.   Collect plankton at  depths corresponding to depths measured
            for light intensity.

        4.   Evaluate plankton population at each level.

        5.   Graph  and correlate  data  to  demonstrate relationship between
            ligh and plankton growth.

    V.   Previous Studies

        In  a study  done by students at Peasoup Pond in Franklin, N.H.,
        it  was  found that only 5%  of  the light striking the surface of
        the pond penetrated to a depth of  4 feet.  Near the surface of
        the pond several  types of  green  algae  were present in moderate
        concentration; no algae  was found  in samples at a depth of 4 feet

   VI.   Limitations

        The pond used for the study has  to demonstrate enough attenua-
        tion of light so  that there will be a  measurable difference
        in  plankton concentration  from the surface to the bottom.  If
        the water  is too  clear,  plankton will  avoid the very bright
        sunlight in the 1  to 2 feet of the pond, and figures could be
        produced that would show increasing plant growth with decrease
        of  light.   A very deep pond or lake which was stratified for
        temperature could show a difference in photosynthesis on oppo-
        site sides  of a thermocline.

Ecological  Perspectives
  VII.  Bibliography

        Benton,  A.  H.,  and W.  E.  Werner,  Field  Biology  and  Ecology,
            McGraw-Hill  Book Co., New  York  City,  1966.

        Ruttner, Franz,  Fundamentals of Limnology,  University  of Toronto
            Press,  Toronto, Canada,  1953.

        Smith,  Gilbert  M., Fresh  Water Algae  of the United  States,  (2nd ed.),
            McGraw-Hill  Book Co., New  York  City,  1950,  pp.  14-15.

Ecological Perspectives

H.  Water Quality Comparisons  by Diversity  Index

    I.  Introduction

        The purpose of this investigation  is  to compare  the  diversity
        index of two separate  waterways;  one  with  obvious  pollution,
        the other apparently clear.   Suitable locations  may  be  found
        through observation of the site,  comparing basic properties
        noticeable fish kills, sewer or pipe  drainage  entering  lake,
        noticeable algae blooms, and odor of  water and lake  shore.
        Young students could do a fair job  with sample collecting,
        but perhaps only high  school  students should attempt complica-
        ted type classification.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead to the activity,  ask  how  many  kinds  of plants and
            animals are present at this location.

        2.  Initiate the activity by posing,  how are you going  to col-
            lect these specimens?

        3.  Continue the activity with:

            a.  Does the water depth have  any effect on  the  numbers and
                kinds  of organisms present?

            b.  Does pollution affect the  total  number of  animal and
                plant samples  collected?

            c.  Are there any  specific plant  or animal groups that are
                affected more  than the others by pollution?   (This may
                be a benefit as well  as a  detriment.)

        4.  Evaluate the performance of the student by considering
            questions  such as:

            a.  Did the group  collect a representative sample of the

            b.  Did all students appear to  be working  willingly and to
                their capacity?

            c.  What part of the investigation seemed  to interest them

            d.  Were the students able to  draw adequate  conclusions to
                satisfy the problem?

Ecological  Perspectives
  III.  Equipment
        (Equipment can  easily  be  adapted  to  availability.  Even for
        advanced groups sophisticated  equipment  is not needed.)
        1.   Fine mesh  cloth  to filter  bottom samples  for microbes
        2.   Screening  to screen  out  larger invertebrates
        3.   Seines or  fish nets  to collect small  fish or aquatic
        4.   Containers  for holding plant  and animal specimens
        5.   A small rubber boat  or raft (any floating craft that will
            hold one person)
        6.   Meter stick for  measuring  depth  of water
        7.   Sounding line
        8.   Microscope
   IV.  Procedure
        1.   Collect all varieties of plants  present at a shallow depth.
        2.   Seine or net samples  of  small fish,  amphibians, water insects,
            or other forms of  animal life at shallow  depths (up to one
        3.   Screen out large invertebrates from  soil  samples  at shallow
            depths with coarse screening.
        4.   Examine the lake bottom  at shallow depths for  bottom dwellers
            (snails, clams,  mussels, etc.).
        5.   If the group is  mature enough, repeat procedures  (3 & 4)  listed
            above, at water  depths of  2 and  3 meters.
        6.   Bring material back  to laboratory, sort as to  like kinds,
            and classify all specimens where possible.
        7.   Compare collections  from each site and determine  the effect
            pollution  has on organism  diversity.
        8.   Within each waterway, determine  what effect water depth has
            on numbers of individual specimens.

Ecological  Perspectives
    V.   Previous Studies

        1.   A group of high school  students  was  surprised  to  find  that
            the number of mussels  per  square meter was  greater  in  a
            polluted lake than in  a nonpolluted  one.  This  led  to  spec-
            ulation as to how far  this pollution could  go  before the
            trend was reversed.

        2.   In comparing lake bottoms  from polluted and nonpolluted water
            systems, the students  noted that polluted sand  botti is were
            covered with a layer of silt or  mud; the clear  lakes had much
            less sediment.  They wondered whether the increased vegeta-
            tion could have anything to do with  this situation.

        3.   The presence of large  masses of  spirogyra in the  shallows of
            a still lake became a  signal to  a 6th grade class that the
            water was polluted.

   VI.   Limitations

        Class size may hinder effective control  and accomplishment of
        this investigation.  Transportation  is always a problem.   In
        studying water that shows  pollution  signs, care must  be taken to
        protect the student from contamination.   If adequate  protection
        is  not available, then the  site should be ignored.  Classifica-
        tion should be attempted according to the ability  and maturity
        level of the class.  Keying to class or  order is adequate  for
        younger groups.

  VII.   Bibliography

        Jacques, H. E., Plant Families--How  to Know Them,  Wm. C. Brown
            Co., Oubuque, la., 1941.  A general  key is  given  for all
            plant families.

        Morgan, K. M., Field Book  of Ponds and Streams, G.  P. Putnam's
            Sons, New York City, 1930.  It gives helpful information on
            collecting and classification, and it has some  helpful photo-

        Needharri, J. G., and P. R.  Needham, A Guide to the  Study of Fresh
            Water Biology, Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, Calif., 1969.

        Pennak, R. W., Fresh Water  Invertebrates in the United  States.
            The Ronalds Press Co.,  New York  City, 1955.  This is a good
            guide to fresh water forms most  often found in  common  water-
     ,       ways of New England.  Keys are quite easily followed by
            younger students.

Ecological  Perspectives
        Prescott, C.  W., How to Know the Fresh Water Algae,  Win.  C.  Brown
            Co., Dubuque, la., 1964.This contains a rather comprehen-
            sive and  difficult key to the algae of fresh  water.   The
            practiced student has little or no trouble finding most

        Smith, Gilbert M.,  Fresh Water Algae of the United States.
            McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York City, 1950.  It contains a
            complicated key to the algae which should not be used by
            the inexperienced student.

        U.S. Department of the Interior, Biolnoical Field Data, for Uater
            Pollution Surveys, U. S. Government Printing  Office,
            Washington, D.  C., 1966.  This is a good book for terminology
            and equipment description for water sampling  and could  be
            helpful for even the very young student.

Ecological  Perspectives

I.   Algal  Blooms and C02
    I.   Introduction
        The purpose of this investigation was  to determine the regularity
        properties of C02 in relationship with algal  blooms.   It might
        be best handled by students  that have  taken either biology or
        chemistry.  This could also  be handled, although  maybe at a less
        quantitative level, by those who have  not yet had such courses.
        The test is conducted by running C0£  and algae counts and plot-
        ting the resulting graph between the two.
   II.   Questions
        1.   Lead the activity by asking:
            a.   How do plants affect the life  in a given  body  of water?
            b.   What do the plants need for growth?
            c.   What gases do plants give off?
            d.   What gases are utilized by the plant in the photosynthesis
        2.   Initiate the activity with:
            a.   How could we test for these gases (i.e.,  why  test for
            b.   Would there be a relationship  between the amounts of cer-
                tain gases and the amount of algae?
        3.   Continue the activity with:
            a.   Could these gases be controlled?
            b.   Does an algal bloom  control the C0£ or the C02 control
                the bloom?
        4.   Evaluate the students by considering:
            a.   Do we have enough data to reach a valid conclusion?
            b.   Did the students understand the procedure?
            c.   Did they try to refine the procedure in its rough
            d.   Were they inspired to take on  new outgrowths?


Ecological  Perspectives

  III.   Equipment
        1.   Basic level
            a.   Method for testing C02  (Hach,  Delta,  LaMotte,  etc.)
            b.   Sample bottles
        2.   More advanced level
            a.   Same as above
            b.   Bioassay equipment using plankton as  organisms
   IV.   Procedure
        1.   Basic Level
            a.   Take C02 test.
            b.   Take water samples for plankton analysis.
            c.   Count the plankton.
            d.   Graph the results: number of plankton  vs.  corresponding
                C02 levels.
        2.   More advanced level
            a.   Follow the preceding procedure.
            b.   Run a bioassay using plankton as test organisms.
            c.   Purpose:  to create an algal bloom.
            d.   Introduce C02 into the system at different levels.
            e.   Keep close tabs  on the pH.
            f.   Test for C02 changes.
            g.   Discuss the importance of a rise or fall  of C02 in  the
            h.   Graph the resulting data.
    V.   Past Studies
        Some students while investigating the first question noticed
        in their study that certain data when plotted showed an inter-
        esting bell-like curve.   This curve indicated a high and/or low

Ecological  Perspectives
        range at which  algae might exist in  bloom  conditions.   Time
        ran out before  sufficient data had been  collected  in  order
        to answer the last question.

        Other students, for a recent  lab report  undertaken in  a 10th
        grade chemistry class,  studied this  area.   They  found  that
        there were certain limitations in running  a bioassay  in the
        lab using C02 as  a nutrient.   The lab  was  not  a  true  success
        in that the test organisms died because  of the increase of
        pH caused by the added C02.   This did, however,  force  them
        into the field  where they found varying  concentration  of
        C02 occurring,  naturally.  This made them  ask  themselves why
        the pH was higher in the ponds and lakes than  in their bio-
        assays.   Thus,  they were hot  on the  trail  of a possible
        natural-existing buffer in the water.

   VI.  Limitations

        The main limitation in the exercise  lies in the  advanced level
        of the experiment.  That is,  the C02 levels in the different
        jars were of such concentrations that  the  C02  in the water
        caused a significant drop in  the pH.  This is  because  carbonic
        acid is  formed  (when C02 changes to  carbonic acid.)   This  is
        why it is felt  that a suitable buffer  was  needed.

        Another important limitation  is that most  C02  tests are no more
        than a free acidity test in that phenolphthaleine  is  the indica-
        tor.  Therefore,  if the sample that  you  are working a  test for
        has a higher pH than 9, any C02 that is  present  will be masked
        by this  alkalinity.  Perhaps  a possible  outgrowth  of  this  could
        be a chemical that would neutralize  the  carbonic acid  in the
        water which then  could be measured.

  VII.  Bibliography

        American Public Health  Association,  Standard Methods  for the  Ex-
            amination of Water and Wastewate'r, American  Public Health
            Association,  Inc.,  New York City,  1965. Pages 78-85 and
            pages 739-744 give   the standard tests for C02 as  well as
            giving .identification plates of  some fresh-water algae.

        Smith, Gilbert  M., The  Fresh  Water Algae of the  United States,
            McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York City, 1950.This  is a  general
            text on the identification and classification  of  fresh water

Ecological  Perspectives

J.  Bottom Core Sampling

    I.  Introduction

        This activity is designed to acquaint high school  students  with  bottom
        sampling in general  and organic analysis  of bottom samples  in  par-
        ticular.  Approximately three 1-hour periods will  be  required.   The
        setting for the investigation should be one which  will  enable  the
        student to obtain a  core with relative ease as  well as  a  core  which
        will evidence clear  layering from season  to season.   Generally the
        best locations are around bodies of water which undergo regular
        flooding every spring and gradual emergence during the  summer  months.
        The dark layer which will be noted usually represents the rather fine
        organic material that is deposited in the shallow  and calm waters of
        the summer season while the alternating band of coarser and lighter
        colored gravelly material is representative of  sediment which  is laid
        down in the more turbulent waters of the  springtime.   It  is important
        that students practice taking cores beforehand  and develop skill in
        driving the core sampler and retrieving the samples.  See Figure 3J-1.
                                                        wood block
                                                        (softens hammer blows)
                                                       2-3 inch pipe

                                                       handle for retrieving
                                                       (% inch steel rod in-
                                                       serted through pipe )
                                                       filed cutting edge of
                              Figure 30-1

Ecological  Perspectives

   II.   Questions

        1.   Lead to the  activity  by asking:

            a.   Can you  think  of  any way  to obtain a record of some of
                the materials  which have  been suspended in our streams
                and lakes  and  deposited on the bottom over the past
                several  years?

            b.   Explain.

        2.   Initiate the activity with:

            a.   Do you feel  that  the amount of organic material being
                laid down  each year in a  specific body of water is re-
                lated, in  some way, to the amount of pollution that
                this area  has  experienced?

            b.   Explain.

        3.   Continue the activity with:

            a.   Can you  think  of  several  different ways to analyze chem-
                ical  variations and interpret the ecological history which
                is indicated in core samples?

            b.   Explain.

        4.   Evaluate the students' work by noting what significant dif-
            ferences  they  discovered in the different layers and by
            evaluating how they reconstructed the ecological history.

  III.   Equipment

        1.   Core sampler

        2.   Large  flat cake  pan or other  suitable pan for placing
            the  core to  be analyzed

        3.   Drying oven

        4.   Spatula

        5.   Cm.  scale

        6.   Merck  burner (Bunsen  burner may be used if a Merck is
            not  available)

        7.   Ring stand

Ecological  Perspectives
        8.   Triangle

        9.   Extra large  crucible,  size  3,  (an  evaporating  dish  may be
            used if a crucible  is  not available)

       10.   Cent-0-Gram  balance

   IV.   Procedure

        1.   The core may be  obtained  and  removed  immediately by gently
            sliding it out onto a  cake  pan.

        2.   After bringing the  sample to  the lab  select  the  areas  for
            analysis.  Cut sample  bands of desired width  (approx.  1  cm.)
            and place each band to be analyzed in a  previously  weighed

        3.   Dry sample at 70-80°C  in  an oven overnight to  remove moisture.
            (An alternate method of drying is  to  line  the  core  tube  with
            vaseline before  the sample  is  taken and  allow  the sample to
            dry in the tube  over the  weekend or for  2-3  days and then re-
            move.  The core  then has  less  tendency to  fall apart in  the
            removal process.  The  outer edge in contact with the vaseline
            must be shaved off  before analysis.)

        4.   Weigh each crucible and dried  sample.

        5.   Heat sample  for 45  minutes  to  burn off all organic  material.
            (If the art  department has  a  firing oven,  the  sample may be
            fired until  it conies to constant weight.)

        6,   Cool and weigh.

        7.   Heat again for 15 minutes,  cool, and  weigh.   If weights  agree
            within to.03 grams, the sample can be considered to be at con-
            stant weight.  If sample  is not at constant weight  heat, cool,
            and weigh unti1  i t  is.

        8.   Determine the weight of sample.

        9.   Determine percentage of organic material.

    V.   Past Studies

        A core sample was obtained for  the first  site  of  the Winnipesaukee
        River.  Although several cores  were obtained,  only one  was used
        for analysis due to limited time.   Choices of  where  to  take  samples
        from the core will vary from sample to sample  according to mud
        stratification.   In our sample, layers of similar given grain size

Ecological  Perspective
        (fineness)  were chosen.   We  used  Bunsen burners for heating and
        glowing embers  were  noted in  the  samples  up  to 30 minutes after
        heating began.   Our  samples were  left  for 2  hours and the second
        heating gave constant weights.  No effort was made to determine
        minimum heating time with Bunsen  burners.  Heating time would
        vary according  to  the percentage  of  organic  material present.  The
        following results  were obtained:

        Sample              Location  on Core        % Organic Material

          A                 1st cm.  from  top             4.9%

          B                 2nd cm.  from  top             2.2%

          C                 llth cm.  from top             1.5%

          D                 12th cm.  from top             3.1%

        From this one test no definite  interpretations can be made.  Since
        class investigations would be expected to produce more analyses,
        the significance of  any patterns  which might develop should be
        interpreted with respect to  the ecological history of the area.

   VI.   Limitations

        1.  Heating to  burn  organic  materials  may require much extra time
            depending on percentage  of  organic material present and how
            hot a flame is available.

        2.  If cores are obtained with  no stratification it is difficult
            to determine where to take  samples.

Chapter 4   Social and Political  Factors
     A constructive approach to pollution problems requires more than a
knowledge of pollution results; we also need to understand  the human
motives and actions that produce them, as well  as comprehend the polit-
ical process that we must initiate to change those results.  It is
difficult to define or limit the scope of the activities which appear
in this section, for in a general  way, virtually all  human  activity
is either social or political.

     There are several general  approaches that may be taken on this
subject.  One of the most direct approaches to social and political
factors, however, is to begin with the present, find  out how we got
here and where we should go from here.  To find out where man is, the
student must begin to relate the scientific aspects of pollution to the
social and political factors.  The question, "Where are we  now?", must
be answered as completely as possible.  Our political institutions must
be defined and evaluated to see what hope for solutions lies in them.
Existing laws must be examined as well as procedures  for enforcement.
In other words, the political structure at all  levels must  be examined
to determine what type of vehicles exist and what, in fact, is going on.
This in itself is not an easy task; some of the activities  which follow,
such as the construction of government models, clearly demonstrate the
overlaps in authority, and the ambiguous seats of responsibility which
now exist among government agencies.

     Next, to determine what factors allowed this situation to develop,
it is beneficial to study the history of our laws and those political
institutions relevant to water pollution, as well as  the feelings and
sense of responsibility of various individuals and companies.  The
history of the relevant laws can be determined through research.  Most
states have law libraries available to the public. Others  may be found
in a local courthouse, university,or even a local attorney's office.
Any of these is a good place to begin.

     Of particular value is the development of industrial polluters.
Each business can be analyzed from many points of view.  Its record of
water pollution violations, obtainable from the state pollution com-
mission or whatever body is charged with the regulation of water quality
in your state, is of particular interest.  A company's economic history
can be determined from past annual reports and corporate histories
available either from the company itself or through a local brokerage

     The state engineers associated with water quality can  be queried,
and corporate executives should be questioned.  They  are able to relate
past, present, and future policies of the corporation in terms of their
responsibility to stockholders, the community in which they operate, and
the natural resources they consume or destroy.  Very  often decisions made
by management concerning natural resources are made according to narrow,
inadequate economic criteria.  They are often not conscious that
decisions concerning the management of natural resources involves the
allocation of an essentially fixed resource.

Social  and Political  Factors
     Personal  interviews are very valuable in recognizing the difficulty
in reaching solutions when the problem involves particular people whose
rights, prejudices, and very often, simple lack of interest,  must be
considered.  Often games, particularly those which utilize role playing,
are also helpful in further illuminating these conflicts.

     In conducting these interviews, students may probe into  other com-
peting considerations for the use of our resources.

     This brings the students to the last phase of investigation:
"Where do we go from here?"  Do we have an obligation to future
generations to maintain the quality of our natural environment, and, if
so, how do we go about preserving it?  Model legislation activities,
as well as the formation of clubs and lobbies, are helpful in focusing
attention on specific problems.

     This section also involves communication.  Environmental problems
which already exist as well as those pending must be recognized and
widely discussed.

     Possible alternatives must be made known before any final decisions
concerning our natural resources are made.  If a lobby is to  be success-
ful , it must have wide support; if model legislation is to be enacted,
it, too, must have the support of citizens and legislators alike.  All
of this involves communication of one kind or another.  Students are more
than willing to undertake activities in this area and may utilize any
media from video tape to statistics.

Social and Political  Factors

A.  How to Talk Back to Statistics

    I.  Introduction

        This activity is designed to help students read articles  on
        water pollution critically; it should also help them increase
        their general awareness.   Select the articles according  to
        the groups'  reading ability and their scientific background.
        Do not underestimate the  students'  ability to follow news
        articles; they are very curious about news.

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead  to the activity, ask:

            Is the information you read in your article reliable?

        2.  To initiate the consideration of the statistics'reliability,

            a.  Who  says so (where did the data come from)?

            b.  How  does he know (qualify the source)?

        3.  To continue refining  the evaluation of the article,  ask:

            a.  What is missing?

            b.  Did  somebody change the subject?

            c.  Does it make sense?

        4.  To evaluate the students' success, check the following:

            a.  The  student should formulate an opinion on the article
                and  back up his views with several important factors.

            b.  The  student should be able to present the complete
                subject in an acceptable manner.

            c.  The  student should be able to demonstrate particular
                types of distortions or misusage of data by converting
                the data to a low quality advertisement or poster.

  III.  Equipment

        Materials for writing and illustrating should be available.
        Copies of the article must be made or bought.  If the students
        rework the data, serious consideration should be given to pub-
        lishing their work.

Social  and Political  Factors

   IV.   Procedure

        1.  Get an article,  make copies,  and  assign  the  reading.

        2.  Have a class discussion  where you introduce  the  questions.

        3.  Let the students do another version  or  let the students
            seek out  several views on the same subject and then  reapply
            the questions to be able to compare  the  articles.

    V.   Previous Studies

        Seniors were  required to subscribe to the New York Times and  to
        read front-page articles which dealt  with statistics or  data.
        They could be counted upon to read about drugs,  economics, and,
        in particular, water and air pollution.   After reading 3-5
        articles and  evaluating them, the critical  evaluation based on
        the five questions became automatic.   A  carryover into the
        evaluation of advertisements was notable.  When  students pre-
        sented data as a result of polls they had taken, usually they
        did not do a  superficial job.  This could carry  over into lab
        conclusions and evaluations.

   VI.   Limitations

        Reproduction  of articles for educational purposes is usually
        permissible.   Make it a policy to acknowledge sources and,
        when possible, tell  the author you used  the  material  for
        educational purposes.

  VII.   Bibliography

        1.  Freund, John E., Modern  Elementary Statistics, Prentice Hall,
                Inc., Englewood, N.  J., 1960.  This  text acquaints
                students with the theoretical aspects of statistics.
                This  is recommended  for high  school  students.

        2.  Huff, Darrell, How to Lie With Statistics, W. W.  Norton
                and Co., New York City, 1954.This  book is  a study
                of the use and misuse of statistics.  It is  written
                humorously and can be understood by junior high
                students.  It is recommended  for all  ,who undertake this
                activity.  This is available  in  paperback.

        3.  Johnson,  D. A.,  and W. H. Glenn,  The World of Statistics,
                Webster Publishing Co., Manchester,  Mo., 1961.   This  is
                a book on the basics of statistics  for junior high on

Social  and Political  Factors
        4.   Reichman,  W.  J.,  Use and Abuse of  Statistics,  Oxford
                University Press, New York City,  1962.   This  is a
                general  work  on statistics designed  for  the high
                school student which covers the calculation of
                statistics and their use and abuse.

Social  and Political  Factors

B.  State and Local  Government Organization
    I.   Introduction
        This activity is to introduce any junior or senior high  school
        student to state and local  governmental  structure.  As a
        result, the student should  know where to go in  his local  or
        state government to deal  with a water pollution problem.
        Students will probably develop a schematic  diagram to display
        the governmental breakdown.   This activity  may  be done by any
        student above the 7th grade.
   II.   Questions
        1.  After arriving at a site  of water pollution,  ask the
            following questions to  lead to the activity:
            a.  Do you see anything at this site which  is an indication
                of water pollution?
            b.  What  are some possible sources?
        2.  Initiate  the activity by  asking:
            a.  What  do you think we  as a group  can do  to stop this?
            b.  Do you know the legal restrictions  concerning water
            c.  Where would you find  them?
        3.  Continue  the activity with:
            a.  Are you able to correlate the information you have
            b.  How could you resolve the problem of organizing  the
            c.  Would a visual  aid  be more feasible for total group
        4.  Questions which help  the  teacher  evaluate the students'
            a.  What  initiative do  the students  show in responding?
            b.  How do they perform as a group and  as individuals?
            c.  Does  the schematic accomplish your  objective?

Social  and Political  Factors

  III.   Equipment

        1.  Use of school library

        2.  Pamphlets released by Legislative Services, Comptroller's
            Office, and Water Pollution Board

        3.  Poster board, pens, magic markers, and rulers

   IV.   Procedure

        1.  The students should be taken to one site and exposed to a
            particular pollution problem.  The local area should be scan-
            ned beforehand for various pollution offenders along bodies
            of water.  The school itself determines whether the students
            can find the necessary source material themselves or whether
            these need to be placed in the library prior to the time of
            the activity.  Such things as proximity to state agencies and
            class schedules will help in determining which course of
            action should be taken.

        2.  Either through use of the library or student investigation,
            the students will obtain information concerning state laws
            and state agencies.  Hopefully, their research will lead to
            questions dealing with the water pollution aspect.  They will
            discover the necessity of understanding a relationship between
            the various state agencies in order to deal with them more
            effectively.  At this point, the teacher may suggest a
            schematic diagram for student use.

        3.  Students may show interests in other aspects; this should be
            encouraged.  The following areas may be used for future ac-
            tivities or the students may wish to work in groups on some
            or al1 of them:

            a.  Relationship of federal and local agencies

            b.  Operative efficiency of state commissions

            c.  Reorganization plan development for a more efficient state

            d.  State, federal, and local laws dealing with pollution

            e.  Biological studies of pollution

            f.  Social aspects

Social  and Political  Factors
    V.   Past Studies

        Students and teachers at the Tilton School  Water Pollution Pro-
        gram made such a study during the summer of 1970.   They visited
        the state capitol  at Concord, N.  H., and obtained  information
        from the General Court Manual and from antiquated  schematic dia-
        grams.   After visiting many governmental departments,  they
        settled upon the basic agencies which could be helpful.

        The students conducted interviews with the  comptroller to find
        where the money came from and how it was spent on  the  state and
        local levels.  Then they made a schematic diagram  of the govern-
        ment organization and a second and more technical  one  of the
        water pollution department.

        Presented with a hypothetical problem that  involved working
        through the government, the students showed greater interest and
        ability to analyze because of their increased  grasp of the govern-
        mental  organization.  Figures 4B-1  through  4B-3 show the results
        of the  study by a 9th grader.

Social and Political  Factors
                               SWORE FISHERIES
                          Figure 4B-1


Social  and Political  Factors









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Social and Political Factors
    Cowwccrici/r Rivt
Social and Political  Factors
   VI.   Limitations

        This activity could vary from an hour to several  days,  according
        to the students'  desire to delve into such a  project.   If the
        instructor gathers certain information ahead  of time,  it  is
        possible to work  within normal  class  periods.   If the  state
        capitol  is far away transportation could be a  problem  for those
        wishing  to visit.

  VII.   Bibliography

        Pamphlets published by the state, or  local  governments  are useful
            New  Hampshire publishes through the Department of  State, A
            Manual for the General  Court.  Any reports by temporary ad-
            visory commissions are also valuable.

Social and Political  Factors

C.  State Government Model

    I.  Introduction

        This is an activity for the high school  level  which could follow
        one in which the state government structure in the area of water
        pollution has been studied (such as Activity B, in this chapter).
        It is assumed that the students have been impressed with the com-
        plexity of governmental operations; the  duplication of efforts;
        the inefficiencies of the various bureaus, commissions, boards,
        etc.   It is, therefore, anticipated that the  students might wish
        to develop their own organizational plan for water pollution con-
        trol.  The students may then wish to make suggestions to their
        legislators or to special appointed task forces so that the
        immediate serious problems might be solved by minimizing the
        usual red tape and delays.

   II.  Questions

        1.  Lead to the activity by asking:

            a.  Why does it take so long to get  things done?

            b.  Why is it so hard to get questions answered?

            c.  Are you surprised by the complexity of the structure of
                the state government?

            d.  Do you think the present one can operate efficiently and

            e.  Do you notice that various aspects of the water pollution
                program come under different agencies?

        2.  Initiate the activity with questions such as:

            a.  Can you name all the people and  organizations that might
                be concerned with water pollution?

            b.  Do you think that certain areas  are not covered?

            c.  Do you think that efforts are being duplicated?

            d.  Do you think that you can come up with a better type of

            e.  What are some desirable changes  that are in order?

            f.  How do you think that the changes can be brought about?

Social  and Political  Factors
        3.   Continue the activity by asking:

            a.  Now that you have developed a plan which you  think is
                more efficient and effective, do you  wish to  pass  this
                on to your legislators?

            b.  Can you name some other individuals and  organizations
                that might be interested in your plan?

            c.  If no party or parties show any interest in your plan,
                do you wish to revise or alter the plan?

        4.   Evaluate the students' efforts with questions such  as:

            a.  Did this activity interest the students?

            b.  Did they wish to extend the study?

            c.  Did they really feel that they were making a  contribution
                to the solution of the problem?

  III.  Equipment

        No  equipment is needed.  Various booklets on  the structure of
        state governments - from the state in which the  school  is  located
        or  (if a boarding school) from home states.   Typewriters,  dupli-
        cating, or copying machines are in order.

   IV.  Procedure

        1.   After students have expressed their dissatisfaction with the
            present system of water pollution control, suggest  (or have
            the students suggest) that they develop a better  system which
            would more efficiently coordinate all the agencies,
            commissions, etc.

        2.   Have the students block out a table of organization.

        3.   Compare the students' plan with the one proposed  by their

        4.   Suggest follow-up by writing letters and  enclosing  the plan
            to legislators and others who might be interested.

        5.   Students may be encouraged to make charts and posters  explain-
            ing what they hope to accomplish.

Social  and Political  Factors
    V.  Previous Studies

        1.  Studies of government structure in  other  courses  might  have
            given the students an idea of the complexity of government

        2.  Experiences in the past in seeking  out information,  such  as
            letter writing and interviewing,might give  clues  to  the
            problems involved.

        3.  Some students may have experienced  the feeling of powerless-
            ness, the credibility gap, and the  great  difficulty  in
            getting direct answers to questions.

        4.  The bibliography contains a list of documents acquired  in
            two days at Concord, N. H.  Three tries were required to
            obtain the table of organization and  it was three years old.

   VI.  Limitations

        The only limitation is time.  Depending on the  type of course
        that is being offered, this activity can  be as  short  or  as  long
        as desired, provided that the interest  is there.  It  is  possible
        to go on to another unit while replies  to letters or  any follow-
        up studies are underway.

  VII.  Bibliography

        State of New Hampshire Citizens' Task Force:   1. Over-all  Report;
            2.  Reports of the Consultant; and  3.  Reports  of the

        "State of New Hampshire Citizens' Task  Force  Chart  of the Reor-
            ganization of the Executive Department,"   Concord Daily
            Monitor, January 7, 1970.

        State of New Hampshire, "Table of Organization  of the State

        State of New Hampshire, "Table of Organization  of the Water
            Supply and Pollution Control Commission."

        Similar reports should be available from all  state  and regional

Social  and Political  Factors

D.  Anti-pollution Laws

    I.   Introduction

        This activity is designed to determine what circumstances  in  a
        given area allow cases of obvious  pollution to  continue.   While
        it is true that the time gap between creation and  enforcement of
        laws is one of the primary causes, this is  not  always  the  case.
        If anti-pollution laws do exist,  it may be  that a  gap  also exists
        between what  is considered to constitute pollution and what
        legally constitutes a case of pollution.  In other words,  both
        legal and illegal polluters have  been found to  exist.

        In order to make such determinations, the students are required
        to wade through many legal documents as well as carry  out  inter-
        views.   Therefore this activity is suggested for senior high
        school  students.

   II.   Questions

        1.  Lead to the activity by asking:

            a.   Why isn't something being  done about citing a  local

            b.   How can you determine the  legal status  of  an industry?

        2.  To  initiate the activity ask:

            a.   What  agencies (public and  private)  are  directly concerned
                with  industrial  pollution  in your river basin?

            b.   Which ones make the regulations?

            c.   What  are they?

            d.   What  people should be contacted for information?   Local?
                State?  Federal?

            e.   What  questions do you want answered? For  example, is
                there a water quality standard in your  state?

        3.  To  continue the activity ask:

            a.   What  types of testing have been done?

            b.   Should you make tests of your own?

            c.   Who interprets the results of the testing?

            d.   What  is the mechanism for  reporting violations?

Social and Political  Factors
            e.  How do you survey local  industry?

            f.  What steps are being taken toward  sewage abatement?

            g.  Who is responsible for enforcement of water pollution

        4.   To evaluate the student consider:

            a.  What types of background material  did the student

            b.  Were the questions formulated in advance of personal  con-
                tact with resource people?

            c.  Was the plan of attack well planned and viable?

            d.  Can the student differentiate between legal and illegal
                pollution practices?

            e.  Is the student aware of public recourse that can be
                brought against the illegal industrial polluter and the
                steps in this process?

  III.  Equipment

        No special equipment is required unless the students do testing in
        the field.

   IV.  Procedure

        1. Select a site of obvious water pollution.

        2.  Determine the industrial or private persons who are contri-
            buting to the pollution.

        3.  Investigate the local, state,and federal agencies concerned
            with pollution in your area and determine what laws are now
            in existence.

        4.  Select one specific industrial polluter and secure back-
            ground material on the corporation, i.e.,

            a.  How is it polluting and to what degree (may be necessary to
                perform tests)?

            b.  When did it begin?

            c.  How many people are employed?

            d.  What are its gross earnings?


Social  and Political  Factors
            e.   What responsibility does it feel  it has?

        5.   If a violation is occuring, discuss the courses of action
            regarding it.   You may want to do one of the following:

            a.   Go to the  corporation's management and ask about the
                responsibility to meet legal  standards, past actions,
                and projected activities.

            b.   Go to the  local  politicians about the specific corpora-

            c.   Go to the  relevant enforcement agencies with your data
                and attempt to find out what  they are doing.

   V.   Limitations

        You may have difficulty arranging  interviews.  Some people are
        reluctant to talk  freely about the situation.  This often includes
        politicians, factory managers, and heads  of agencies on all

        Conflicting evidence may occur in  the data collected by personal
        interviews.  Biases and backgrounds of the persons being inter-
        viewed  should be taken into account.

        Interpretations  of the law may be  a problem at times even for the

        If  violations are  found and reported, don't expect instant action!
        Legal  mechanisms often take a great deal  of time.

   VI.   Past Studies

        This activity was  carried out by a group  of Tilton School students,
        A small tannery  was discovered polluting  the Pemigewasset River in
        Franklin, N. H.  Tests above and below the tannery were made to
        determine the exact nature of the  pollution.  It was discovered
        that the tannery was polluting beyond the limits set by the
        State  Water Pollution Control Commission.  Although a violation
        was found to exist, the State allowed this until  completion  of
        sewage  abatement by the  tannery.

  VII.   Bibliography

        Camp, Dresser, and McGee, Report on Sewerage and  Sewage Treatment^
            City of Franklin, N.  H.,  January  1965.   This  is a consulting
            engineering  firm's report on the  treatment of this city's
            municipal  and  industrial  sewage.

Social  and Political  Factors
        State of New Hampshire, Laws Relating to the Water Supply and
            Pollution Control  Commission, January 1970.

        U. S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water  Control  Adminis-
            tration, Report on the Pollution of the Merrimack River and
            Certain Tributaries, Part 1.   It contains the summary, con-
            clusion, and recommendations  for the cleaning of these

Social and Political  Factors
E.   An Elementary Investigation of Local  Water Anti-pollution Programs
    by Interviewing Government Officials
    I.,  Introduction
        This activity could be used in classes for 6th through 12th
        grade students to,evaluate the evident effectiveness of the
        government to deal  with water pollution.   The students should
        become aware of and develop an interest in the local problems
        of their communities.
   II.  Questions
        1.  Lead to the activity by asking what are the water pollution
            problems in our community.
        2.  Stir interest by asking:
            a.  Who are the people responsible for controlling these
            b.  Do they use the authority given them effectively?
        3.  The teacher may evaluate  the  activity by considering:
            a.  What were the  students' results?
            b.  What reasons were there for these results?
            c.  Were the students' questions well prepared?
            d.  Was the students' back-up knowledge sufficient?
  III.  Equipment
        None is required.
   IV.  Procedure
        1.  Find out a few problems in your community by reading the news-
        2.  Determine which laws pertain  to these problems.
        3.  Make up an outline of questions.
        4.  Set up the interview.
        5.  Record the results and your reactions by writing articles or

Social and Political  Factors
    V.  Past Studies

        This outline was followed by 6th grade students for interviews
        regarding pollution problems in two communities.   Problems
        were encountered in dealing with community officials.   The
        following reaction was written as a result of a 3 day  trip to
        Washington to find out what was going on.   The article
        appeared on pages 75-77 of the March 1970  issue of the Academy
        Science Journal  published by Germantown Academy,  Ft. Washington,
        PeTThe authors were seniors in 1970.

                       Moving Around on Pollution

            "On March 4th, a Wednesday, four leaders of the Wissahickon
        Lobby met with Professor Zandi of the University  of Pennsylvania
        Ecology Department.  The professor is an authority in  matters
        of pollution and its treatments.  Another  meeting took place on
        March 6th with Samuel S. Baxter who is the Commissioner of
        Philadelphia's Water Department.  Both interviews were very
        educational and further indicated the number of highly paid
        pollution fighters who are sitting around  doing nothing.

            "Mr. Zandi was very impressed with the enthusiasm  of the
        Wissahickon Lobby; however, he seemed to be very  pessimistic as
        to any positive results.  Mr. Zandi suggested some kind of
        coordinator or advisor who could tie all the loose ends together.
        It is important to note that Mr. Zandi did not have all our
        material and therefore could not review the situation  to its
        furtherest point.  One must also take into consideration the
        role of the University which is purely educational.  You might
        call it a noninvolvement policy.  Mr. Zandi proposed that he
        would come to our school once a month and  check the project's
        progress and offer his advice.  There was  no settlement as to the
        future; however, Mr. Zandi said he would look into a student
        advisor on a weekly basis (senior doing graduate  work  in actual

            "Our interview with Commissioner Baxter dealt more with the
        legal aspects of pollution.  He is presently involved  with an
        article entitled, "Are Things As Bad As They Seem?"  Mr. Baxter
        felt there were many other problems that were more pressing than
        the problem of pollution.  He posed questions sucn as, "Many people
        want all the streams and waterways as clean as possible.  Can
        the 4 million people living in metropolitan Philadelphia expect
        to physically clean up the streams?"  Mr.  Baxter is in a bind as
        are all officials handling this problem; however, is this a
        valid excuse for the hoarding of enthusiasm!

            "The shortage of money was brought up by the Commissioner,  but
        how is it  that a newly-formed lobby such as ours  is capable of

Social  and Political  Factors
        raising money,  but not a large organization such  as  the Philadelphia
        Water Department?  It also seems  as  though  the  people themselves
        are aiding the  various extents of pollution by  rejecting any
        increase in taxes for the fight against pollution.   Many enjoy
        the reduction in taxes due to the amount paid by  the companies
        who must pay taxes because of the pollutants they feed into the
        air and the water.  It has even been mentioned  that  various people
        don't want anything done for that specific  reason.   I'd say that
        was a little selfish on the people's end of the pole.  Will it
        take a critical  situation to move people, or can  we  join in and
        work at it now?

            "Mr. Baxter's problem is much more complex  than  the one we
        have here at the Wissahickon and  this makes ours  much easier to
        clean up.  An example would be the storm sewerage problem in the
        city.  After it  rains much waste  and pollution  is carried into
        the sewers, however, it only amounts to 3%  of the Delaware
        River's pollution.  For the city  of  Philadelphia  to  clean that
        3% up, it would  cost approximately $3 billion.  In 3 years the
        Department has  spent $75 million  on  treatment plants.  This is
        all very impressive, but somehow  something  can  be done on the
        Wissahickon that is not going to  cost $75 million.   The
        Wissahickon is  no Delaware River; however,  if we  were situated
        on the Delaware, the impression that was made by  certain figures
        would have been  much less agreeable.

           "Our feeling  is one of optimism,  and the problems of the larger
        scale pollution  fighters do not necessarily involve  us.  With
        the number of students we have working on the Lobby  and the amount
        of information we have piled up,  one can't  help but  look at
        things in a bright light.  Things are moving, and the right
        people (industrial and sewage polluters) are now  beginning to
        worry, is there  .a better indication?"

                                            Bill McKay  '70
                                            Sal  Siciliano '70

        The following reaction was written as a result  of a  trip to the
        capitol of Pennsylvania.  It was  a research trip  for a student
        lobby.  This article appeared in  the December 1969 issue of the
        Academy Science  Journal, published by Germantown  Academy,
        Ft. Washington,  Pa.

                         Pollution and the Law

            "On November 26, 1969 I traveled to Harrisburg to interview
        a Mr. Smurda of  the Department of Health about  water quality.
        My reason was to gather legal data on the relation between
        water quality and the law.  My hope  was to  find out  the different

Social and Political  Factors
        legal  ways in which to help my school  in its  attempt to unpollute
        the Wissahickon Creek.  As my interview went  on I  was increasingly
        impressed that though there are laws,  there is  no  real  way to stop
        filth  from being poured into our streams unless the companies
        decide to do something on their own.

            "The first thing which I was shown, was a copy of the laws
        as they now stand.  I immediately turned to the page which told
        of the penalties for constant waste disposal  into  streams and
        found  the following:

                'Any person who shall continue to discharge sewage or
            permit the same flow into the waters of the Commonwealth,
            contrary to the preceeding provisions of  this  act,  or after
            the expiration of the time fixed in any notice from the
            board to discontinue an existing discharge  of  sewage into
            the waters of the Commonwealth shall, upon  conviction thereof
            in a summary proceeding, be sentenced to  pay a fine of not
            less than twenty-five dollars and  not exceeding one hundred
            dollars for each offence, and a further fine of ten dollars a
            day for each day the offense is maintained  and, in  default of
            the payment of such fines and costs, the  person or  the member
            or members of any association or co-partnership, or the
            officer or officers of :any corporation, responsible for vio-
            lation of this act, shall be imprisoned in  the county jail
            one day for each dollar of fine and costs unpaid.1

            "The part of this which is most distressing is the  fact that
        a simple appeal can delay indefinitely the payment of fines which
        might  even reach a meaningful size in  the area  of  $10,000 or more.

            "For the most part the rest of the articles which I was shown
        offered little that those people at my school did  not already
        know.   All the figures that I saw agreed with our  own and showed
        that many levels including the total  soluble  phosphate level is
        500% (approx.) higher than it should be.

            "The one thing that I think really struck me was that the
        State  knows who is polluting the creek and even goes to the
        trouble of listing who these people are.  This was the list as
        taken  from the implementation plan for interstate  waters
        Schuykill River basin.

            Industrial Wastes-Discharges -- Nicolet Industries, Certainteed,
            Lansdale Tube-PhiIco, Merck, Sharp & Dohme, Precision Tube,
            Leeds and  Northrup, Phil co-Ford TV, McNiel  Labs.
            Sewage --  Ambler MSS, Ambler South MS, North Wales MSS,
            Abington T. MSA, Gwynedd Jr. College, Silverstream Nursing
            Home, Delaware Valley Independent Sewage, Selas Corp.,
            Aidenn Lair, Upper Gwynedd T. MSA, Sheraton Motor  Inn.

Social  and Political  Factors
            "The most distressing thing is  that the State  knows  who is
        throwing things  into our creek, yet they can do very little.
        Something must be done within the near future,  and it must  be
        done by the people involved.   If reform cannot  come fast enough
        from the Government, cooperation must come from all  involved."

                                             Nick Backrack '70

        The following article appeared in the February  1970 issue of  the
        Academy Science  Journal, published  by Germantown Academy  Ft.
        Washington, Pa.The author was in  the class of 1970.

                          Washington  Excursion

            "This was the first trip  to Washington concerning Federal
        anti-pollution laws and programs.   We entered Washington with a
        naive attitude that people would be eager and willing to help
        us, but when we  left we realized the problems that confront an
        anti-pollution program.

            "The first obstacle to overcome is getting  an  appointment.
        Time can be lost if this is not done before arriving in  Washington.
        We lost one afternoon of work because we did not have a  definite
        appointment.  A  definite time and day will  resolve this  problem.

            "Another problem we incurred was that we can be given the
        run-around quite easily.   To  solve  this problem we need  somebody,
        inside Washington, or out, who is  able by his name to get us
        action.  At this point,  only  a few  people seem  interested in what
        we have to say.   The only two places were we found any interest
        were Mr. Cutler  of Senator Muskie's staff and Representative
        Cough!in's office.  In both these places, we found people willing
        to listen and talk with us.  Mr. Cutler was helpful  by naming
        other people we  could contact for help.  These  were Thomas
        Jarling, Minority Counselor Public  Works; James Smith, the  Con-
        servation Foundation, Washington;  the League of Women Voters;
        and the Administration.

            "We should not, however,  look to Washington as our sole means
        of help.  Although help from  Washington is nice, we must start
        looking around us for help because  this is  where we can  apply the
        most pressure.   We should look for  a group to help us.  If  there
        is none, we should form one.   This  can be done  in  several ways.
        One way, that Mr. Cutler agreed with, was an association.   This
        association would be made of  schools from throughout the Delaware
        Valley.  With business and community backing, we can use this
        group to get things done as well  as applying pressure.  We  can
        also join lobbies in both Harrisburg and Washington.   Being part
        of a lobby will  also open doors and bring us more  power.

Social and Political  Factors
            "Mr.  Cutler also stated that  unless  the  waters  we  are  inves-
        tigating  are interstate,  we must  work within State  and local
        laws.   If the waters are  interstate,  then  it comes  under
        Federal  jurisdiction.

            "Although the trip was  not a  complete  success,  we  did  learn
        something.   The next group  that goes  down  must be ready before-
        hand.   It must have specific questions to  ask and definite
        appointments.  Members must be ready  to  be given  some  run-around,
        but also  they should realize it and try  to stop it. We must
        also get  contacts in Washington who can  help us get appointments
        in Washington."

                                             Pieter Flatten '70

   VI.  Limitations

        In some large cities,  there might be  a problem in getting  an
        interview.   And, many times one official will refer you to
        another,  which makes things difficult for  reasons of transporta-
        tion and  time.

  VII.  Bibliography

        English teachers generally  can provide a bibliography  which gives
        references  on writing reaction papers.

Social  and Political  Factors

F.  Publication of a  Science Journal

    I.   Introduction

        This activity introduced the  student to  the  communications  aspect
        of pollution  studies --  a science journal  as one  key to  reaching
        other people  through students'  activities.   This  project would
        involve more  than science;  the  English,  history,  and art depart-
        ments are important contributors  to the  overall  results. The
        student is eager to share his enthusiasm and ideas  with  others;
        the result is a spreading involvement in pollution  activities.
        Grades 7 through 12 will  find this  a good  activity.   In  one
        case, a second grade remedial reading class  made  a  significant
        contribution  to one science journal.

   II.   Questions

        1.   Ask students if they feel a need exists  for  communication con-
            cerning pollution.

        2.   Initiate  the activity by  asking the  students  what method they
            consider  most appropriate for the establishment  of communica-
            tion and  whether or  not a science journal would  help in creat-
            ing an awareness of  the problem.

        3.   Continue  the activity by  asking to what  activities the  estab-
            lishment  of a journal  could lead.

        4.   Evaluate  the activity by  determining:

            a.  Are students interested in  participating  in  some way in the
                journal's production?

            b.  Are they concerned  about  communicating their ideas  with

  III.   Equipment

        Equipment requirements vary according to resources  available.
        Your journal  could be a  mimeographed series  of reports stapled
        together or a sophisticated,  printed manual.  You will need
        paper, typewriters, mimeograph, stamps,  and  envelopes for mail-
        ing, and people to work.

   IV.   Procedure

        Suggest to students that  they write up their various  activities and
        collate them  into a booklet.  Devise a method to  choose  8 or 9
        students who  will  be in  charge  of general production  such  as
        reader service, editing  and correcting articles,  and  collating
        material.   A  suggested mailing  list would  be the  area independent

Social and Political  Factors
        and public schools.   This  type of activity allows  students  of
        all age to participate.   Perhaps, if you have  the  time and  the
        materials, you can print copies for parents and alumni to
        generate interest.  Encourage every student to contribute,  not
        necessarily scientific articles, but ones dealing  with pollution
        in general.

    V.  Past Studies

        Germantown Academy,  Ft.  Washington, Pa., last  year started  pro-
        duction on the Academy Science Journal.   Nine  students from the
        Biology 2 section were in  charge of general production, and the
        first articles were  contributed by the biology, physics, and
        chemistry departments.  However, after a couple of issues,
        students nonscientifically oriented were contributing  write-ups
        on projects and activities, varying from the invention of a
        flow meter to 1st grade  essays on the meaning  of pollution.
        Artistic students contributed diagrams,  drawings,  and  cartoons.
        The Journal's content increased in size  slowly, but the variety
        of the content broadened considerably.  Eventually the journal
        was sold for 25$ each to members of the  local  Watershed Associa-
        tion to raise money  for  some projects.  The students in grades
        1  - 5 were so enthused that they made and sold a booklet of draw-
        ings and essays on pollution.  The money they  raised was used to
        buy a filter for the school incinerator.  The  Academy  Science^
        Journal is printed monthly and contains  80 typewritten pages.
        It is distributed free of charge to approximately  200  schools.
        The purpose of the Academy Science Journal as  stated on the
        title page is:

            "As faculty of the science department of Germantown
            Academy, we uphold the belief that many of our students
            are capable of making  significant scientific contribu-
            tions at the secondary level.  These students  possess the
            initiative and scientific curiosity  to determine problems,
            conduct research, and  translate the  information into
            meaningful conclusions.

            "We feel that their  investigations warrant publication
            in order that others may share in their activities."

  VII.  Bibliography

        Science journals on  any  level are the best bibliography.  Check
        with your school librarian.

Social and Political  Factors

G.  Orientation Program For the Study of Water Pollution

    I.  Introduction

        This activity is set  up as  a  discussion for a  group  orientation
        study of water pollution.   The group  can be a  traditional  class.
        It could also be a community  group  (e.g.,  students from  several
        high schools  that do  not offer a course in water  pollution).
        The questions should  stimulate the  group into  shaping  a  skeleton
        from which  the leader can plan a study agreeable  to  all.   It
        would be helpful to get through the whole  activity in  one  session,
        However, the  rate of  progression must be determined  by the group.
        Tape recording the discussion would have value; the  group  leader
        could use it  as a reference in the  future.  The questions  are
        set up under  the precept that the group will be situated by a
        polluted body of water.   Perhaps it will  be the one  the  group
        decides to  study.  This natural setting should act as  a  motiva-
        ting device,  as seeing the  problem  would increase awareness and
        hopefully concern among the group.

   II.  Questions

        These questions are to provide thought-provoking  topics  for
        discussion.  The first three  sections play a specific  role in
        the progression of the orientation.

        1.  To lead into the  activity - these questions are  to "set the
            stage," to lead the group to concentrate on water  pollution.
            They lead into the real investigation.

            a.  What  is pollution?

            b.  Can you identify by sight any pollution in this  water?

            c.  Are natural things  like leaves and twigs  pollution?

            d.  How is a scientific approach  to the problem  relevant?

            e.  What  can science tell us about the problem?

            f.  Can this information  help us  to solve  the problem?

            g.  How can data  and facts help us?

            h.  Why is a social  approach important?

            i.  How can a social approach help to  solve the  problem?

            j.  How can public relations help with a commercial  approach
                to  fighting pollution?

Social  and Political  Factors
            k.  On which commercial enterprises should attention  be
            1.  What type of public relations is important?
            m.  Reflecting recent months, pollution plays an important
                role in politics.  How can politics influence pollu-
            n.  How can his outlook on pollution affect the fate  of
                a politician?
        2.  To initiate the activity - the trend should be set in a
            meaningful direction at this point. Discussion now centers
            about the objectives of the group.  These shall be recog-
            nized by covering the points to each numbered theme question,
            a.  Should we study a specific body of water?
            b.  What would you like to find out about the pollution
                of this water?
                              -aquatic life
                              -public influence
            c.  Are we going to try to solve the pollution problem?
                              -(apply what was discussed in A)
            d.  How shall we divide the group, if at  all?

Social and Political  Factors
            e.  Whom shall  we involve in  fighting  this  pollution?
            f.  What type of information  shall  we  request,  and what
                commercial  enterprises shall  we contact?
                              -only water polluters
                              -any polluters
                              -research agencies
                              -small  enterprises
            g.  What information shall we seek?
                              -general information
                              -a role we  can  assume  now
            h.  What shall  our group  objective  be?
                              -(tie together  what  was discussed)
            To continue the activity  - now that the  atmosphere is  set  and
            the group objectives outlined, these questions  focus  on  plan-
            ning the group's activities.   The extent of the use of the
            questions will  vary, especially in  the case of  high school  stu-
            dents.   Many will have to have been answered  by other than the
            group in preparation of a type of contract, be  it a community
            a.  Where shall we begin?
                              -introduce  limitations set  by
                               authorities,  if  it  is necessary
                              -frequency  of group  sessions
                              -summarize  B and  make  it  concrete

Social and Political  Factors
                              -independent work



            To evaluate the students' performance  -  these  questions
            can be applied to  a  classroom situation  if  the need  for
            an evaluation persists.   If  it is  a  community  group,  this
            evaluation may be  unnecessary.   The  leader  will have  to
            evaluate a group of  high  school  students  if their schools
            request it.  Evaluation  may  also be  necessary  if credit
            is to be given for the study.

            a.  Did the group  member help set  a  meaningful trend  to
                the discussion?

            b.  Did he (she) make specific personal  objectives of
                the study?

            c.  Did he (she) help with  the setting of the  group

            d.  Did he (she) introduce  relevant  discussion matters
                not included in  the  outline?
  III.  Equipment
        The equipment used should be decided by  the  leader.   Some  may
        prefer to keep the whole orientation a  discussion.   Others  may
        find nonscientific aids  helpful.   Listed below  are  a few sug-

        1.  Should the students  desire to observe the water more closely,
            the following supplies may prove useful:



                              -hand lens

                              -old cloth  (as a  net)

                              -tin cans

                              -plastic bags

                              -jars or bottles

Social and Political  Factors
        2.  Current mass media about pollution  may prove  helpful  through
            the orientation.

   IV.  Procedure

            Begin the orientation with  questions.   Although  they  need  not
            be carried out exactly,  the questions  are  prepared  to facilitate
            discussion of relevant matter.   The leader must  "play it by ear"
            as each  group will  be directed differently.

    V.  Past Studies

        1.  A discussion held in  the natural  setting has  proved effective
            at Grymes Memorial  School,  Orange,  Va.

        2.  The role play technique  has been  used  with great success at
            Nottingham Academy  in Buffalo, N. Y.   Its  use fosters under-
            standing of various situations and  opinions among students.
            It is a technique especially good for  a student  who refuses
            to try to understand a situation.

        3.  It is important that the students have an  understanding of
            the pollution problem.  A raw scientific approach without
            any orientation is  more  apt to "fail"  than a  study  where the
            students actually understand the  significance of any  scien-
            tific methods before  they begin.

        4.  Notice the work "leader" is substituted for teacher.   A study
            of water pollution  is something  new and different to  most
            students.  It is  more important  to  learn about it than be
            taught about it.   However,  the need for an experienced moder-
            ator still exists.   This person  may or may not be a "teacher."
            Hopefully, the teamwork  that should result will  put all group
            members  on the same level,  regardless  of their age.

        5.  Role playing activities:

            a.  A constant consumer  of high  phosphate  detergents  argue
                about detergents.  (If others are  introduced, the argu-
                ment should become a discussion.)

                (1)   High-phosphate-detergent consumer

                     -if phosphates  are that  bad,  the  government  should
                      outlaw  their use

                     -the laundry must  be clean, and there are  no com-
                      parable substitutes

Social  and Politica Factors
                     -phosphates  tend to  make  the water  'wetter',
                      and this  especially is necessary in hard water

                     -I  have  to use  up the detergents I've already

                (2)   Anti-pollution-conscious  consumer

                     -phosphates  are a main contributor  to algae
                      growth  and increased bacteria  growth,  thus
                      causing eutrophication.

                     -it is  up  to each individual to fight pollution
                      to the  best of his  ability.

                     -which  do  you value  more  -  clean clothes or
                      clean water?

                     -if we  do  not purchase them, store  owners and
                      manufacturers  will  be forced to act quicker.

                (3)   Detergent  manufacturer

                     -research  has been going  on for many years.

                     -automatically  banning phosphate detergents
                      would  present serious problems.

                     -housewives like modern detergents  and  will
                      not settle for soap.

                     -if housewives  were  really  so antipollution,
                      why are they still  buying  high phosphate

                (4)   Grocery  store owner

                     -must stock all different products  so a con-
                      sumer  may purchase  according to individual

                     -obligation to provide an outlet for manufactured

                     -must not  let viewpoint overpower  the wants  of

Social  and Political  Factors
                     -competitive reasons  force me to stock  favor-
                      ite laundry aids.

            b.   A purchaser of brightly-colored tissue products  which
                contain nonbiodegradable dyes  is angry beceuse  the
                store she patronizes  stocks  only white tissue now.   This
                is a discussion among any  nimber of the four or more
                poss ib1e ro 1 e pi aye rs.

                (1)  Angry 2_u_rchjJSer_

                     -these products  brighten  UD the bathroom decor.

                     -if they are banned,  so should other luxury items
                      that po'l 1 ute worse .

                     -these products  are much  softer.

                     -somebody has  to buy  them.

                (2)  Anti-pollj-ition  crusader

                     -unnecessary pollution  created.

                     -white tissue  product?  do the job just  as  well.

                     -individuals should fight pollution  to  the best
                      of their ability.

                     -such products  are  a  waste of money.

                (3)  Manufacturer

                     -color is  a  vvay  of  brightening life.

                     -nobody  is obliged  to buy them,

                     -dye pollution  from fabric mills, etc.  is  worse.

                     -manufacturing  not  stopped for economic reasons.

                (4)  Store, owner

                     -color discretion   is not right.

                     -comparable  products  that pollute less  are  still

                     -unsightly dye  pollution  is created  in  manufac-
                      turing  -  let us stop as  much as we  can.

Social and Political  Factors
                     -convince manufacturers such products are un-
                      necessary luxuries.
            c.  A boatowner is upset with  the new law concerning water-
                craft sewage disposal.  He discusses it with a friend.
                (1)  The Law
                     -illegal  to discharge sewage from watercraft
                      into water.
                     -head may be  sealed permanently and still comply
                      with the law.
                     -all users of the state's waterways must comply.
                (2)  Boatowner
                     -silly law to bring sewage back to land where it
                      will receive inadequate or no treatment.
                     -pollution control device is too expensive for the
                      seldom-used head.
                     -out-of-state boaters are being cheated.
                (3)  Anti-pollution crusader
                     -better to have sewage concentrated than discharged
                      throughout the waterways.
                     -other states will be encouraged to form better
                     -obligation of all boaters to comply.
            d.  The role plays should then be analyzed:
                     -did the person play his role all the way through?
                     -could a concensus be attained?
                     -were any dependencies among various roles cited?
                     -were resolutions suggested; could they  be sug-

Social and Political  Factors
   VI.  Limitations

        1.  In a community group,  the problem might arise if partici-
            pants are not acquainted.   The  leader must be prepared
            to help resolve this problem,  as a study of water pollution
            requires real teamwork.   The discussion approach which  this
            particular paper deals with should help overcome this  ob-
            stacle a bit.

        2.  Students may have trouble understanding problems of fight-
            ing pollution.  It is  important  that they understand the
            viewpoints of those involved as  professionals.  This is an
            area where they assume the role  of a designated position.
            In a given situation they are  to work out a problem ver-
            bally, trying to adhere  to their role under group oberva-
            tion.  It is interesting and often advantageous to have
            the students exchange  roles about halfway through.  The
            examples below are representative of typical problems  en-
            countered in an effort to fight  pollution.   They are accom-
            panied by points that  often occur in the situation.   There
            are undoubtedly supplements.  The points given are not  par-

  VII.  Bibliography

        This paper was put together  by drawing  on experiences.   No
        specific references were consulted.   To initiate and sustain
        an activity such as this,  the best resources are current mass

Social and Political  Factors

H.  An Anti-pollution Club
    I.  Introduction
        This activity is  designed  for high  school students who are
        interested in starting  a club dealing with different facets of
   II.  Questions
        1.  Lead to the activity by  asking:
            a.   What  problems of pollution  in your area would you like
                to see remedied?
            b.   How could student  action  help resolve that solution?
        2.  Initiate  the  activity  with  questions such as:
            a.   What  specific aspect of possible action would students
                be most interested in?
            b.   What  type of student or school  organization would be
                most  effective  and useful to enable students with their
            c.   What  angle  of consideration of  this aspect would be most
                effective in dealing with the problem?
        3.  Continue  the  activity  with:
            a.   Could an  outside institution help the organization in any
            b.   Could increased publicity further spur or expand the
            c.   Have  all  of the facets  (i.e., side effects, sources, re-
                lationship  to the  total pollution scope, consequences,
                etc.) been  dealt with?
            d.   Are there any similar problems  in the area?
            e.   Are there any other schools or  organizations that might
                need help or could benefit  from your organization's
        4.  Consider evaluating students  with questions such as:
            a.   What did your group accomplish?

Social  and Political  Factors
            b.   How did the results,  conclusions,  or  experiences compare
                with those  anticipated?

            c.   How could the  plan  be improved?

  III.   Equipment

        The equipment required will  be determined  by  the  activities  of
        the club.

   IV.   Method

        The method for starting an  organization will  vary depending  on
        the school itself and  the  kind of  program  desired.  Students
        interested in the numerous  aspects  of  pollution (i.e., science,
        legislation, philosophy, etc.) should  be encouraged to partici-
        pate because differing skills are  needed in any project.   If
        the students show an interest in establishing a club or similar
        student organization,  help  them out by:

        1.   Finding out the procedures for establishing a club.

        2.   Defining the purpose of the club (write a charter).

        3.   Publicizing the club.

        In  defining purpose, the activities  that the  club hopes to carry
        out or  the possible lines  of action  should be considered.

        After the club has  been functioning  for a  length  of time,  it
        might be advisable  to  sit  down as  a  group  and list or outline
        the activities the  group has  engaged in.   This outline should
        include the failures as well  as the  successes.  From this  out-
        line, a short explanatory  program  of what  the club is doing
        could be evolved very  easily.

        The program could utilize  any posters  and/or  charts and anything
        else that the club  has produced to explain and exemplify pol-

        A 10 to 30-minute slide program with a narrator and sufficient
        subject matter can  be  very  effective.  It  could be presented
        to  students in other schools  to encourage  them to form their
        own club.

    V.   Club functions

        1.   Cleanup of polluted areas.

Social and Political  Factors
        Organize a basic plan for the cleanup  of community  rivers,
        streams, and highways.  Make use  of volunteer  community
        citizens.  Review the sites  to get an  idea of  how and what
        to clean up.  Needed materials could include trash  containers,
        vehicles for pick-up, and transportation.   It  is recommended
        that plastic or canvas bags  be used for waste  instead of  paper

        2.  Underground newspapers.

        Underground newspapers are effective tools for the  students to
        work with because they are not limited by the  censorship  of the
        administration.  Organizing  a paper that will  be published regu-
        larly is a Herculean task.  As the group starts work they have
        to raise money for supplies  and decide on the  purpose and format
        of the paper.  Usually money can  be obtained by soliciting stu-
        dents  and organizations.  Some problems are: interest has to  be
        maintained; the paper has to eventually pay for itself; and the
        staff should be organized and committed.

        3.  Distribution centers (books).

        As club activity, a booth can be  set up and operated by the
        students to sell or distribute material concerning  pollution.
        Buttons, posters, and stickers can be  made by  the students and
        sold for a profit.  A number of "important" students can  be se-
        lected to receive these materials  free, in order to stimulate inter-
        est.  Material which could be distributed could include pam-
        phlets on water and other kinds of pollution which  are  free
        upon request from the Federal government; the  Congressional
        Record which is informative; and school newspapers  concerned
        with pollution subjects.  This keeps a constantly   changing
        pile of materials at the booth.

        4.  Erosion.

        Find an erosion problem in your community that needs attention.
        Determine what would be involved to correct the problem.   If
        it is a major undertaking, seek the help of the community.  If
        it is a small project, gather the needed equipment  and  materials
        and set up a work day for the club and other  interested students.

        5.  Colleges and Elementary  Schools.

        Contact colleges in the area to see how a cooperative  (i.e.,
        sharing data equipment, ideas, personnel) can  evolve  in an
        academic area. Contact elementary school teachers  to see  how
        your club activities  can be  shared with the younger students.

Social and Political  Factors
        6.  Conrnuni cation.

        Communication has an  important  role  in  any  activity  as  it  is
        necessary to make information public  so that  it  can  be  an
        effective force in  the school and  community.   The methods  of
        communication available are  unlimited.   Inside the school,  use
        the school  newspaper  or the  distribution  of dittoed  sheets  at
        information  centers.   Outside of the  school the  students could
        set up an underground newspaper and  talk  to the  local radio
        stations  and newspapers about time and  space  to  discuss their

        7.  Poster and Art  Exhibits.

        For any art  exhibits,  proper  hanging space  must  be available.
        There  are several exhibits made-up for  exhibition in schools;
        one is available from Eastman Kodak  Company.   These  exhibits
        are of photographs  taken  by  students  and  judged  by profession-
        als,  and  rated 1st, 2nd,  or  3rd.   You can find out about these
        exhibits  by  asking  the local Kodak shop;  for  other exhibits ask
        a local museum.

        Poster contests  can be sponsored in your  school  by the  art  or
        the science  department.  All you need to  do is to arouse enough
        enthusiasm for the  project so that you  have enough contestants.
        One idea  for promoting the enthusiasm is  to make materials  avail-
        able  to the  students.   Often, when some kind  of  prize is offered,
        more  of the  older students will  participate.   Otherwise, your
        best  participants will  be the students  in the lower  grades.

        Having any  kind of  exhibit in the  halls of  a  school  building
        will  help in bringing the students together.   You will  find a
        contest motivates some students  who would not have been mo-
        tivated otherwise.

        8.  Field Trips.

        Field  trips  are  interesting and  useful  to a club.  But  trips
        should be to areas  of interest  and have relevancy such  as  areas
        of established pollution.  The  date,  time,  and methods  of  trans-
        portation should be set up before  the designated time.  It  is
        possible  to  get help  or maybe permission  from authorities  if
        you write ahead of  time or call  to ask.

        The purpose  of the  trip,  either  testing or  knowledge-seeking,
        can be discussed beforehand to  look  for key points during  the
        trip.   In the case  of testing water,  legal  complications should
        be taken  into consideration.

Social and Political  Factors
   VI,   Past Studies.

        L   A group of high school  students  in St.  Louis  (University  City
            high School)  set up a political  newspaper,  which  helped to
            initiate some changes within the school  structure.

            Limitation:   Initial  costs  and motivation  of  students  to
            'stick it out1.

        2.   Statf.;-»vide cleanup of streams, river,  and  highways  in  Vermont.

            All  communities west;  asked  to help.   General  agreement for
            future involvement evolved.   People  became  aware  of the
            pollution  problem and worked for a common  goal.

        3.   Paper drive-  by students of  the Vermont Academy which was  publi-
            cized beforehand for  people  to call  in  and  ask for  pick-ups.
            The paper was sold to a factory that reuses it.

        4.   In North I'uir.cy, Md-,5., students volunteered  to help beautify
            a mental retardation  center.  Donations  were  given  by  local
            florists and American Legion Post. Other students  from dif-
            ferent schools also helped.

            Limitations:   Follow  up is  necessary to care  for  plants
            (project was  stopped  by school closing).

        b.   At Germantown Acaoemy, a group of 40 to 50  students was formed
            to lobby the Pennsylvania State Legislature.   Students soon
            found out that they could not be effective  unless they had  the
            facts,  Several subcormii ttees were formed  to  look into the
            interaction  of Federal agencies, state agencies,  and local  au-
            thorities.  Further interest developed in  writing the  history
            (economic arid social) of each polluter in  the watershed.   For
            this activity small groups  of 2 and 3 investigated the corpora-
            tions by consulting the Sanitary Water Board's health  violation
            records, interviewing corporation executives  and  engineers,  and
            reading annual reports and other public relations material.  The
            resulting write-ups and block diagrams were circulated among
            all lobby members.  Letters were written to legislators and
            their reactions noted in the Academy Science  Journal.  As a by-
            product of the investigations and Tetters, tHe school  now re-
            ceives 2 copies of the Congressional Record,  White House press
            releases on ecology and "pollution, and Federal legislation
            documentation (public laws).  Many of the  students reacted by
            showing deep interest in working within the system to accom-
            plish anti-pollution programs.  The material  they had studied
            in history, they acknowledged, was an important part of their
            background which they had not realized before.

Social and Political  Factors
  VII.  Limitations

        Often financing a club is  difficult.   Selling  buttons  and  stickers
        is a good way to raise quick money;  but  some  pro.iects are ex-
        pensive and donations  must be sought from local  lumber companies,
        manufacturers, furniture companies,  florists,  chemical plants,
        scientific, electronic firms, and even the Army  Reserve.

        It is important to maintain the  program after  it is  once started.
        Make sure that you are not doing too many things at  once;  if some
        activities begin to fade due to  the  lack of manpower,  try  to in-
        terest the students in joining the more active project.  Change
        the pace occasionally  with non-related money-raising projects,
        such as a car wash. Be sure that your activities  are  varied.
        There should be at least one major action program in operation.
        Be sure to inject new  ideas as the old activities  are  resolved.

        Occasionally a school  administration does not  endorse  student
        programs which it feels are destructive to the normal  school
        routine.  You might overcome this if you can get the administra-
        tion not only to attend the meetings,  but also to  participate in
        the projects.  It will help build a  closer relationship.

        Sometimes transportation,  as well as  distance, is  a  factor.   Make
        sure vehicles are available, that time is available  to complete
        the project.

        If space is a limiting factor, make  use of homerooms,  study  halls,

 VIII.  Bibliography and References on Community Action  Groups

        Hall, D. M.,Dynamics of Group Action,  The Interstate Printers
            and Publishers, Inc.,  Danville,  111., 1964.   This  is a hand-
            book on group behavior.  If  you  are originating  a  club or
            group, you will be interested in the problems  of establish-
            ing goals and objectives.  It will help you  to understand the
            how, why, who, when, what, and where.  It  will give you  a
            background in both the theory and practice of group work.

        Mann, John, Changing Human Behavior,  Charles Scribner's Sons,
            New York City, 1965.  This book  illustrates  the  problems
            created by advance technology.  In order  to survive,  we
            must change.  The  author gives the reader  a  background in
            significant attempts to assess the effectiveness of cur-
            rently-used behavioral change procedures.  Chapter 7 is
            especially good in the following areas; the  effect of  group
            size, composition  of groups,  group power structure, the
            effects of group discussion,  the effects of  group  inter-
            action, the influence  of objective feedback, principles  of

Social and Political Factors
            behavior change in the small  group,  and group dynamics.
            Chapter 8 deals with effects  of mass media and the lab as
            opposed to the field setting.   Chapter 9 concerns atti-
            tude changes.  Intergroup contact and implications of
            social action are discussed in Chapter 10.

        Martyn, Henry, Roberts Rules of Order. Robert Scott and Fores-
            man, Chicago, 111., 1915.

Social  and Political  Factors
I.   How to Win Friends from Skeptics,  Critics,  and  Doubtful  School  Admin-
    istrators   Without Really Trying

    I.   Introduction

        This activity is  designed to get students  involved  in  a  campaign
        to elicit interest, help, and  support from  people  in a school
        system (chiefly administrators)  who may not be  in  sympathy  or
        agreement with the focus  on an environmental  approach  to education.
        These  activities  are intended  to demonstrate  that  the  cost  and
        public relations  aspect may serve to enhance  such  a  program
        rather than hinder its development.

   II.   Questions

        1.  Pose the following questions to the students to  initiate or
            lead into a discussion relating to  problems  in  those schools
            where a gulf  exists between  students,  teachers,  and  adminis-
            trators regarding the implementation of a viable environmental

            a.  How might a small group  of students communicate  effectively
                with their principal,  headmaster or similar  administrator?

            b.  What problems seem to  underlie  the  difficulty  (cost, public
                relations, scheduling)?

            c.  What angle of consideration of  this particular aspect
                cited would be most effective in dealing with  the specific

            d.  How do you think  that  student action  might  help  solve the
                problem and what  limitations do you anticipate?

  III.   Equipment

        Materials for writing and illustrating  should be available  to the
        student as well as certain statistical  data relevant to  environ-
        mental education, books,  and newsworthy articles which would assist
        the student in carrying out this type of activity.

   IV.   Procedure

        The method for seeking assistance and support from  school adminis-
        trators will vary depending upon the inherent problems of that
        institution and the type  of environmental  program desired by that
        school.  Those students interested in specific  aspects of pollution
        should be encouraged to take an  active  role in  this  activity.

Social and Political  Factors
        Several  procedural  approaches  are described below.   One  or more
        of them may be used as indicated by the problem in  the school,
        perhaps  combinations of two or more procedures  may  be used, or
        procedures not developed here  but devised  by the group to fit
        the particular situation.

        1.  Use  of existing clubs,  organizations,  or groups.

            Make a checklist of all the extracurricular clubs and organi-
            zations in your school  and select those groups  which would  be
            used to promote the cause  of environmental  education.  Here
            are  a few suggestions.

            a.   Art Clubs might be  asked to sponsor a photography contest
                on pollution or pollution sculpture display in the
                school library.  This  would bring  attention and  interest.

            b-   Science or Biology  Club might be asked  to form a splinter
                group called the Ecology Action Group which could actively
                campaign for the type  of school program desired.  They
                could distribute printed material  on the merits  of envir-
                onmental education, generating further  interest  by use
                of bulletin board displays, posters, or conducting an
                all school  assembly to "educate" all on the aims and
                goals of the specific  program wanted at their school.

            c.   Debating Clubs might devote an entire school  term to
                debating issues related to the pollution problem.  School
                Publications would  ideally serve as an  effective instrument
                to disseminate information and keep the community up to
                date on progress of the "campaign."  A  special column
                on Environment in the  newspaper, various pictures of
                worthwhile and pertinent activities accomplished by the
                school's participants  could add much to the overall
                support of such an  endeavor.

        2.  Large Group Activity.

            a.   There is no better  way to impress  people of the  significance
                of a particular need than the large group activity to
                improve or call attention to something.

            b.   Those students most interested or  skilled in matters of
                organization might  like to coordinate an all  campus or  all
                school cleanup.  This  would require committees to handle
                such areas as publicity, manpower, collection, sites, and

            c.   A clean-up activity might be followed in a  month or two  by
                a beautification project undertaken by  a smaller group  or

Social  and Political  Factors
                groups.   The local  newspaper  could  be  called  in  to  help
                the cause by a  well-placed  feature  article  employing
                several  pictures.

        3.   Improvisation of Equipment.

            Since  the  cost of any  program is  a  main obstacle  to  overcome
            in the eyes  of an administrator,  those  activities which show
            how experiments may be  done  at  minimal  expense  are important.
            Students who are familiar  with  certain  procedural techniques
            described  in the guide  should be  asked  to  demonstrate how
            alternate  methods may  be used.  Drawing from  examples in the
            Bacteriology of Water  section and the Hydrologic  Cycle  part,
            substitutions of more  sophisticated equipment may be shown.

        4.   Public Relations.

            a.   Many schools are concerned  about their public image.
                The probability of  conflicts  and the subsequent  loss of
                prestige make many  an  administrator hesitant  about  the
                school's direction  in  a  full-fledged program  of  environ-
                mental education.

            b.   Through  the use of  questionnaires,  students may  seek public
                information about  certain issues relating to  pollution.
                For example, sewage treatment in the school's area  may be
                the topic for one  questionnaire, or the district water
                supply may be another  timely  topic  for polled opinion.

            c.   Radio  programs  and  P.T.A. discussions  by  the  students might
                be effective for large-scale  communication.   Involvement
                of parents, such as a  car pool  for  necessary  transportation,
                would  bring in  a very  important interest  group and, at the
                same time, create  an awareness  of the  sincere effort by the
                students in achieving  their goals.

            d.   A  very successful method of arousing public interest is the
                local  newspaper.  Students  who  have had journalistic
                experience should be encouraged to  write  weekly  articles
                and to document their  news  items with  actual  accounts of
                student  activities  which are  concerned with the  environmental

    V.   Past Activities

        1.   Germantown Academy  in  Fort Washington,  Pa.

            Students at  this  school solicited certain  business concerns in
            their  community for help.  Financial donations and specific
            equipment  were given in many cases.  In others,a  cooperative

Social and Political  Factors
            arrangement was worked out whereby the industry provided some
            service for the school in return for student services.   For
            instance, potato sacks were given to students for use in
            erosion control.  Military surplus was solicited for possible
            useful  materials and equipment.

        2.   The George School  in Newtown,  Pa.

            Students at George School made a study of the Neshaminy Water-
            shed.   The results were of great public interest in the region
            and a  copy was sent to President Nixon.  Response to the
            study  from federal and state officials was great.  Such publicity
            would  give impetus to any school program.

        3.   Mount  Hermon and Northfield Schools in Massachusetts.

            Water  quality parameters on the  Connecticut River were  studied
            in depth by several classes at these schools.  Their work
            received attention from the Connecticut River Watershed Council ,
            and consequently,  they were asked to prepare a document for
            publication.  One  student working on an independent project
            made a  thorough study of effects of biodegradable detergents
            on fish and other  organisms.  This brought widespread response
            from many companies and governmental offices.  The value of
            these  student-oriented activities is obvious when you are
            seeking support from school administrators.

        4.   Quincy  High School in Quincy,  Mass.

            Innovating relevant curricula  into the school system takes
            time,  effort, and  special study.  However,at this public high
            school, teachers and students  worked together to design an
            anthropology course which would  include physical anthropology
            for half the course.  Later a  course on Environmental Studies
            was developed which was presented by the Social Science
            Department and the Science Department employing a team approach
            to the  teaching.

        5.   Douglas High School, Baltimore,  Md.

            When some opposition to the implementation of an environment
            program in this school appeared, the City Science Supervisor
            was invited to see the students  at work on their selected
            projects.  This approach has strong persuasive power in con-
            vincing school officials.

            A student-authored booklet, "A Study of the Gwynns Falls
            Stream" was distributed to interested area teachers and school

Social  and Political  Factors
   VI.  Limitations

        1.   Perhaps the greatest obstacle  to  be  encountered  in  attempting
            to implement an environmental  studies  program  is  that  of
            scheduling.  Many schools  are  so  regimented  that  it may be
            difficult for students  and teachers  to find  the  time needed  for
            these activities.  Since such  a diversity  of specific  problems
            may arise here, it would be beyond the scope of  this document
            to attempt a solution to all of them.

        2.   It may be possible to offer "time-trades"  with other teachers.
            They may, for example,  be  much more  willing  to give up some
            of their lab or classtime  in exchange  for  some of yours.   It
            may be possible to convince athletic departments  that  an  out-
            side activity such as an all-school  cleanup  may  be  a worthy
            substitute for gym classes one day.  Such  tactics as these
            are only beginnings, but as enthusiasm grows among  the students,
            faculty, and administration the possibilities  are endless until
            finally the whole school may choose  to revolve around  an  envir-
            onmental theme.

        3.   One must also consider  the possibility of  alienating the  local
            industrial  polluters.  This can be avoided by  taking a positive
            rather than a negative  approach to the pollution  problem.  It
            is better to ask, "How  can we_  work together  to alleviate  the
            problem?"  If tact is used, you may  find that  industry is as
            interested as you are in working  toward a  solution  and may
            even contribute in helping solve  problems.   A  strong word of
            caution might be given  to  those who  are impulsive and  impatient
            in their dealing with the  public  at  large.

            "Resolving in essence the  quest of human survival and  the
            quality of human life on a planet of fragile hospitality  -
            this is an issue which  must become of  immediate concern to
            all  segments of society."   Ecotactics, Part  VII.

  VII.  Bibliography and Resources

        Abelson, H.  I., Persuasion, Sprinaer  Publishing  Co.,  New York City,

        Hall,  D. M., Dynamics of Group Action, The Interstate Printers &
            Publishers, Inc., Danville, 111., 1964.

        Hi 11 court, William,  Field  Book of Nature  Activities  and Conserva-
            tion,  G.  F. Putnam's Sons, New York  City,  1961.

Social  and Political  Factors
        Hovland,  C.  I.,  A.  A.  Lumsdaine,  and  P.O.  Sheffield, Experiments
            on Mass  Communications,  Princeton University Press,  1949.

        Mann, John,  Changing  Human  Behavior  (Chanter 8, "Attitude Change
            Produced by  Interpersonal  Influence"),  Charles Scribner's Sons,
            New York City,  1965.

        Mitchell, John C.,  and C. L. Stallings (eds.), Sierra Club Handbook
            for Environment Activists:   Ecotactics, Pocket Books, New York
            City, 1965.

        Phillips, Edwin  A., Field Ecology, D.  C.  Heath & Co., Boston, 1965.
            This  is  a BSCS  Lab Block for  high school students.

        The Hampshire Environmental  Information Center (HEIC) in cooperation
            with  the Coalition for  Environmental  Quality (CEQ),  University
            of Massachusetts,  Amherst,  Mass.   This  Center is intended to
            provide  the  Northeast area  with  one centralized point for the
            collection and  dissemination  of  information related  to environ-
            mental matters.

Social  and Political  Factors

J.   Moviemaking

     I.  Introduction

         Movies are an innovative, motivational  teaching technique
         which stimulate student interest, learning, and creativity.
         A movie project provides students with  the opportunity to
         interact with peers and teachers to develop skills in the
         various areas involved in this type of  activity and to
         increase understanding of the subject being covered.   With
         adequate planning a moviemaking project can be introduced
         at any level, elementary through college.   The complexity of
         the project depends on the age group involved.

    II.  Questions

         1.  Elementary level - The moviemaking  project should be
             an integral part of a specified unit of study designed to
             make it more meaningful to the students.

             a.  How would you like to make a movie about 	?
             b.   What are some of the things we might have in our

             c.   What are some things our movie should tell  people?

             d.   What are some of the jobs we must do to make the

             It  might be feasible at this time to discuss the specific
             area or areas the film should include and a format of
             possible scenes.

             High school level - The questions and discussions will be
             at  a higher level of complexity.

             a.   What is the aim of the movie?

             b.   What effect is the movie trying to create?

             c.   What message  is to be made by the film?

             d.   What equipment will be needed for the project?

             e.   What time limitations are involved?

             f.   Should we film all the facts on the subject being

             g.   Who is going  to do the filming?


Social and Political Factors

             The moviemaking project at this level  provides an excellent
             opportunity for teamwork, because the  students can become
             involved in the more refined areas of  this type of activity.
   III.  Equipment
         1.   Movie camera
         2.   Film
         3.   Light meter
         4.   Tripod
         5.   Editing equipment
         6.   Projector and screen
         7.   Lighting equipment
         8.   Notebooks
    IV.  Procedure
         1.   Decide on suitable areas for filmmaking activities.
         2.   Plan an itinerary that will  provide as much sequence as
         3.   Break students into teams to work on various aspects of
             the movie.  Students should be working in their interest
             area.  Teams might be assigned to:
             a.  Care and cleaning of equipment.
             b.  Arrange for lighting.
             c.  Arrange for filming on private land (good public
                 relations experience).
             d.  Do the filming.
             e.  Arrange for or do film development.
             f.  Edit the film.
     V.  Previous Studies
         Several groups in the Water Pollution Program (WPP) at Tilton
         School were successful in making suitable movies on water
         pollution.  These can be obtained by contacting the program

Social  and Political  Factors
         coordinator.  The paragraph below was written after 2 days of
         filming.   A list of scenes filmed also appears.

             "The  purpose of this movie is to follow a river from its
         headwaters to the Atlantic Ocean, showing the effects of human
         activites on the river.   As we started to do this,  we noticed we
         could divide the river into three parts.   The first part is at
         the headwaters of the Fowler River which  flows from Mt.  Cardigan
         to Newfound Lake.  In this section there  are no  human activities
         to affect the river.   At Newfound Lake, the first influences  of
         human activities are noticed as the lake  is widely  used  for
         recreation.  At this point the second phase of the  movie starts.
         The outlet of Newfound Lake runs into the Pemigewaset River a
         few miles downstream.  The Pemigewaset, polluted at this point,
         runs through Bristol  to  Franklin, where it meets the Winnipe-
         saukee River and becomes the Merrimack River.  The  second phase
         ends up with the Merrimack flowing to Concord.  Along this phase
         we see the introduction  of human activities which will  later
         increase.  The third phase follows the Merrimack from Concord
         through all the towns along the river, until it  empties  into
         the Atlantic Ocean.  Along this part of the river we observe  the
         effects of heavy human activity upon the  river.   To give a
         better picture of what we wish to portray, we will  be using one
         movie and two slide projectors running at timed  intervals with
         the movie projector.

         "Slides:   the slides will be taken to show the area where
         the scene was shot.  They will be used as a transition  element,
         pulling some of the scenes together.

             "Scenes That Have Been Shot

             Scene 1.  Sunrise on Mt. Cardigan.
                Shot at two frames per second. The
                first 30 seconds will  be seen without
                slides as the sun jumps up.            Time:  90  seconds

             Scene 2.  Water dripping from a rock.
                This shows the water as it first
                seeps down the rocks.                  Time:  45  seconds

             Scene 3.  Water pool.
                Shot from just below scene 2.         Time:  15  seconds

             Scene 4.  Moss and Stream.
                The stream joins with  another.        Time:  26  seconds

             Scene 5.  Water bugs in pool.
                Used zoom to capture bugs.             Time:  20  seconds

             Scene 6.  Waterfall                        Time:  20  seconds

Social  and Political  Factors
             Scene 7.   Bullfrog and  bubbles.
                 Just  below falls.

             Scene 8.   Welton Falls  trail.
                 First shot on the  Fowler River.
                 This  stream is much larger than
                 those in the previous  scenes.  The
                 slides will serve  as a transition.

             Scene 9.   Small waterfalls along  Fowler.

             Scene 10. From bridge  to Fowler.
                 As in scene 8 there is a great jump
                 in the size of the  stream.  So
                 slides will be used as a transition.

             Scene 11.  From lichen  to  suds.
                 Focus through lichen to suds.

             Scene 12.  Spider web

        'The scenes listed above were shot for part 1.
         are for part  3.

             Scene 1.   Pan bridge to boats off pier.

             Scene 2.   Boats in bay off pier.

             Scene 3.   Shooting toward  Plum Island.

             Scene 4.   Below Rt. 495 bridge of river
                 and trees at Haverhill.

             Scene 5.   At Lawrence,  looking upstream
                 from  bridge on south side.

             Scene 6.   At Lawrence,  effluent and
                 steam pipes taken  from bridge.

             Scene 7.   At Lawrence,  effluent pipe
                 taken from bridge.

             Scene 8.   Looking upstream from bridge
                 on the north side.

             Scene 9.   At Lawrence, looking down-
                 stream from bridge on north side.
Time:  15 seconds
Time:  15 seconds

Time:  25 seconds

Time:  15 seconds

Time:  11 seconds

Time:  20 seconds

 Those that follow








20 seconds

15 seconds

15 seconds

15 seconds

15 seconds

15 seconds

15 seconds

15 seconds

15 seconds

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         "In a communications  class,  some  juniors  in  high  school  made
         movies as a substitute for term papers.   In  a  nigh  school  science
         class, students made  a documentary movie  on  pollution  and  the

         "We have found in  our experiences  that  one must focus  on a scene
         for at least  12 seconds, as  it takes a  viewer  that  long  to com-
         prehend and enjoy  the scene."

    VI.  Limitations

         In some schools the cost of  the equipment may  be  prohibitive.
         Thorough investigation of various sources indicates that some
         companies are quite willing  to donate necessary equipment.  The
         local camera  store might be  a  possible  source.

         Students using the equipment should be  carefully  versed  in its

   VII.  Bibliography

         Hughes, Robert, Film Book I, the  Audience and  the Filmmaker,
             Grove Press, Inc., New York City, 1959.This is a book for
             both teacher and  student.   It is "concerned with the
             situation of the  serious filmmaker  -  how he works  and  what
             he is up  against."  The  chapter which presents  an  interview
             with Fellini is most exciting.

         Monier, P., The Complete Techniques of  Making  a Film,  Amphoto,
             New York  City, 1960.  This is a book  for the  individual
             who has never  picked up  a  camera before.  It  can be  as a
             reference by junior high school students and  older.

         Peters, J. L. M.,  Teaching and the Film,  International
             Documents Service, UNESCO, New York City,  1966.   This  book
             on the techniques of filmmaking can be  used by  the high
             school student.

Social and Political  Factors

K.   Making Film Loops

    I.  Introduction

        The film loop is a good way to stimulate interest and  discussion
        on any topic; loops are 5 minutes long.   If the  student partici-
        pates in the  making of one of these on the  water pollution
        problem, he is able to transmit his feelings to  others by
        another communication media.                     j

   II.  Questions

        1.  To lead into the activity ask students:

            a.  Are the movies and other audiovisual aids that we have
                representative of this locality?

            b.  What  do you think would make a better presentation?

            c.  Where do you think we should go to  make  a film loop?

        2.  To initiate activity ask students:

            a.  Who would like to try to make a film loop?

            b.  What  do you think will make this an effective  film  loop?

        3.  To continue the activity ask students:

            a.  How could this benefit other persons in  our community?

            b.  What can we do to make this available to other people?

        4.  To evaluate the students'performance consider such questions

            a.  Did everyone contribute to this activity?

            b.  Is the loop representative of the community's  pollution

            c.  Is this loop representative of the  pupils' concept of
                the pollution problem?

  III.  Equipment

        1.  Super 8mm or 8 mm movie camera

        2.  Film

Social and Political  Factors

        3.  Light Meter

        4.  Tripod

        5.  Editing equipment

        6.  Film loop projector and screen

        7.  Flood lights (if necessary)

        Some companies will  donate equipment or money to schools that are
        planning to have the students make movies.

   IV.  Procedure

        1.  Make a survey of your community to find suitable areas.

        2.  Plan an itinerary that will  provide as  much sequence as

        3.  Make a definite plan and format for taking the film footage.

        4.  Edit your film.

        5.  Have a loop made of the edited film (send it out for loading).

        6.  Add sound track if desired.

    V.  Previous Studies

        At Germantown Academy Biology 1  and 2 students did loops to  dem-
        onstrate standard methods in biology laboratory techniques.
        These loops are now used by the  students to prepare for lab.

   VI.  Limitations

        1.  Photographic equipment of good quality  should be available.

        2.  The cost of needed materials may be prohibitive for some

        3.  Individuals undertaking this project should have an adequate
            knowledge of the problem areas in the community.

        4.  There should be a thorough understanding of the limitations
            of camera that is to be used for this project.

Social  and Political  Factors
  VII.   Bibliography

        Hughes, Robert, Film Book I,  the  Audience  and  the  Filmmaker,
            Grove Press, Inc.,  New York City,  1959.  This  is  a  book for
            both teacher and student.   It is  "concerned with  the  situa-
            tion of the serious filmmaker - how he works and  what he  is
            up against."  The chapter which presents an interview with
            Fellini is most exciting.

        Monier, P., The Complete Techniques of Making  a Film, Amphoto,
            New York City, 1960.  This is a book written for  the  individ-
            ual who has never picked  up a camera before.   This  book can
            be used by junior high school students and older.

        Peters, J. L. M., Teaching and the Film, International  Documents
            Service, UNESCO, New York City, 1966.  This is a  book on  the
            techniques of film making, which  can be used by high  school

Social and Political  Factors

L.   NonreturnabTe Containers
     I.   Introduction
         This activity allows students to identify and react
         effectively  to the problem of nonbiodegradable  containers.
         Basic questions are provided; however,  it is  projected that
         questions will be posed by students that will require
         considerable class discussion.   This activity may be carried
         out by junior and senior high students.
    II.   Questions
         1.   To lead  to the activity ask:
             a.  What varieties of nonreturnable  containers are produced?
             b.  What disposal  methods are used  by private and public
             c.  Does disposal  present a problem?  (If so, specify.)
         2.   Initiate the activity by asking:
             a.  How  can our concern for this problem  be channeled?
             b.  Is an advertising campaign the method to follow?
             c.  Can  our aid help mitigate the problem?
         3.   Continue the activity with:
             a.  What public agencies and companies should be contacted
                 for  information?
             b.  Is it plausible to appeal to the public through small
                 projects under the auspices of various organizations
                 such as the school?
             c.  In what manner can the  greatest  success be achieved?
         4.   Evaluate the students by considering:
             a.  Is success for this type of project possible on a
                 large scale?
             b.  Has  personal involvement increased?
             c.  Has  community  concern and cooperation increased at

Social and Political  Factors
   III.  Equipment

         1.  Trash cans filled with various types  of nonreturnable

         2.  Photos of dumps or other areas used for the deposit of
             these containers

         3.  Maps and data for recording survey

    IV.  Procedure

         1.  Large group opening of class-teacher  will  utilize the
             discussion from Part II and/or provide articles for the
             students to read and evaluate in small groups and report
             on to the large group.  (Articles identifying the problem
             posed with nonbiodegradeable containers.)

         2.  The teacher will invite the students  to form their own
             group to evaluate the problem of nonbiodegradeables in
             their community.  Areas for investigation  might include:
             pathways for container wastes; compilation of material
             examples of nonbiodegradeables (NBD); companies that make,
             sell, and service NBD containers for  our community; and
             an overview on the recycling of NBD materials.

         3.  Small group activity to plan approaches to the various
             offenders in order to communicate directly with them and
             discuss from the standpoint of either recycling or non-
             production ways to correct the problem.

     V.  Past Studies

         A group of students at Germantown Academy became aware of  the
         possibilities of recycling and started a  chain letter to others
         urging a boycott of nonreturnable beverage containers.  They
         also prepared a model legislative package for use on a state

    VI.  Limitations

         1.  The students must be encouraged continually to make their
             investigations seriously, particularly when approaching
             businessmen and manufacturers.

         2.  It is important for the student to value what he is
             investigating.  The investigation should be of the
             student's own volition, and the teacher must allow for
             individual differences in approach to the issue.

Social  and Political  Factors
         3.   The students must not be led  into thinking  change  will
             occur overnight;  however, they should,  on the  other hand
             be encouraged to  be persistent in their efforts  and
             thorough in their followup.

   VII.   Bibliography

         Periodicals nowadays  feature nonbiodegradeables frequently.   If
         a file is begun on the subject by clipping  newspapers  and weekly
         news journals,  a supply of information  will  develop  quite quickly.

Social and Political  Factors

M.   Anti-pollution Art

     I.  Introduction

         This activity gives students a chance to express their personal
         attitudes towards pollution through creative art forms.
         Students will become more aware of the environmental  crisis,
         and through their art, pass this awareness on to others.   This
         activity can be used with any age group and requires  no back-
         ground or artistic ability.

    II.  Questions

         1.  To lead into the activity ask some questions similar to the

             a.  How can we communicate our concern about the  pollution
                 problem to others?

             b.  Could posters, collages, and other art forms  be useful
                 in communicating this concern?

         2.  To actually start the activity ask:

             a.  What materials could be used in making this art?

             b.  Should we run an antipollution art contest?

         3.  To continue the activity, ask questions like:

             a.  Should we use slogans, humor, and cliches in  our

             b.  If we run a contest, who will be involved?  Just
                 the c,lass, one grade, the entire school, the  whole

             c.  Should there be a prize as an incentive for this

         4.  To evaluate the students' efforts:

             a.  Who is doing the activity, and with how much
                 interest and enthusiasm is he going about it?

             b.  How well has each student planned his project?

             c.  Are the participants working?

Social  and Political  Factors

   III.  Equipment

         1.  Litter (have the students collect this  themselves)

         2.  Glue

         3.  Magic markers

         4.  Poster paper

         5.  Paints and brushes (Note:  if posters are to be displayed
             outdoors, be sure to use weatherproof paint.)

         6.  Lots of enthusiasm and imagination

    IV.  Procedure

         1.  Be enthusiastic and interested about this project and your
             students will be too.   Start off by taking your class to
             the scene of actual pollution:  a nearby river, pond,
             beach, etc.

         2.  Have them observe the  pollution and react to it, then
             start collecting the trash, some of which may be used in
             the actual making of their art projects.

         3.  Plan the project and collect any additional materials to be
             used in individual projects.

         4.  Begin to create an expression of your attitudes about
             pollution, using unique materials and ideas.

     V.  Previous Studies

         1.  One school recently held an environmental art contest for
             Earth Day (1970) in which not only posters and collages
             were entered, but also an assortment of oddities ranging
             from mobiles to a piece of artwork made using an old
             toilet.   The contest was judged by certain faculty and
             student members of the environmental pollution class at
             the school, and prizes consisted of humorous, yet anti-
             pollution type gifts,  such as waste paper baskets and
             fly swatters (instead  of DDT).

         2.  The team from Beta Group, Tilton School in New Hampshire,
             decided that the items of metal trash were heavy enough to
             require welding.  "Some of the collection we had to work
             with resembled parts of animals and plants to us.  Pieces
             were spread out on the floor and arranged and rearranged
             by trial and error.  We adopted the theme that pollution

Social  and Political  Factors
             is killing our natural  flora  and  fauna,  so  in  the  future
             man might only be able  to enjoy synthetic plants and
             animals made from these pollutants.

             "We produced a crane or heron-type  bird, a  cattail,
             a turtle, and a skull,  and crossbones.   We  made a  sign  by
             bending wire to form the words:  pollution  era-flora  and
             fauna.   These we stapled to a plank with a  tacker
             stapler and balanced the sign on  another item  from the

    VI.  Limitations

         1.  Few posters will be produced  if students are not
             enthusiastic or if the  activity is  not  publicized  enough.

         2.  Posters placed outdoors become weather-beaten, colors
             may run.

         3.  If a contest is held, it could last too  long.

         4.  Students should be allowed ample  time to plan  and  work
             on their projects.

         5.  A contest with prizes would probably be  more suitable for
             younger students (up through  junior high) than for high
             school  and up.

         6.  Heavy metal items may require welding,  but  are worth
             examining for other methods of joining.  Welding could  be
             done in the school maintenance shop, the vocational
             education shop or any privately-owned shop  where the
             operator can be interested in helping the group with  the

         7.  Cast iron pieces are difficult and  costly to weld  to
             steel pieces.

   VII.  Bibliography

         Lynch, John, How to Make Collages, Viking Press, New York
             City, 1961.

         Rottger, Ernst, Creative Paper Design,  Reinhold Book Corp.,
             New York City, 1968.

         Schwartz, Therese, Plastic  Sculpture  and Collage,  Hearthside
             Press,  Great Neck, N. Y., 1969.

         Seyd, Mary, Designing with  String, Watson-Guptill,  Inc.,  New
             York City, 1967.


Social  and Political  Factors

N.   Modelmaking
     I.  Introduction
         This activity interests the students in  making  models  of
         buildings, plants, and equipment.   In this  project,  for all
         grades, it is intended that the students will do research  on
         models thus  learning about the control  of pollution.
    II.  Questions
         1.   Lead to  the activity by asking:   what buildings  or
             equipment can be found that help control  pollution?
         2.   Initiate the activity with:
             a.  How  could you build a  model  of this kind?
             b.  What materials could you use to  make  this?
             c.  Would you make an actual  working model  or a  cardboard
         3.   Continue the activity with:
             a.  How  would you make it  work if you make  a working
             b.  What would a model  like this show people who do not
                 know about sewage plants,  buildings,  and equipment?
         4.   To evaluate students, ask:
             a.  Is the model  well  constructed for the time allotted?
             b.  If it is a working model,  does  it work  correctly?
             c.  Does the student know  how  it works; could he explain
                 the  process?
             d.  Does the student feel  he  has gained an  understanding
                 of why we have such plants?
   III.  Equipment
         1.   Working  model
             a.  Cement mixture
             b.  Sand, rocks, etc.

Social  and Political  Factors

             c.  Motor to run mixing device
             d.  Aeration device
             e.  Settling tank
             f.  Glass tubing
             g.  Glue (waterproof)
             h.  Paint
             i.  Labels
         2.  Nonworking model
             a.  Cardboard and boxes
             b.  Paint
             c.  Glue
             d.  Glass tubing
             e.  Wood splints
             f.  Pins
             g.  Settling basin (small washing basin)
             h.  Sand and gravel
             i.  Labels
    IV.  Procedure
         1.  Make or get a blueprint of your idea.
         2.  Do research as to how it works and material needed for
         3.  Construct the model.
         4.  Paint parts as necessary.
         5.  Label parts.

Social  and Political  Factors
     V.   Previous Studies

         Models often serve as the best illustration  of  things  too
         large to see all at once.   At Germantown  Academy,  two
         topographical  maps (approximately 32  x  8  feet each)  are  under
         construction to show the entire Wissahickon  Valley watershed
         and the school  campus.   When  completed, the  model  will be
         mounted on the side walls of  the science  lecture  hall.
         Several overlays will be used to illustrate  biological,
         bacteriological, chemical, social, and  political  aspects of
         the watershed.

    VI.   Limitations

         1.   Materials  may be hard to  work with.

         2.   Glue may be hard to work  with (watery,  not  flowing,  etc.).

         3.   Time may be too short.

         4.   Small  models take a long  time to  filter  materials, thus
             patience is needed.

         5.   Projects may leak.

   VII.   Bibliography

         "Aquarius . .  . New Concept in Water  Treatment,"  Neptune
             Micro Floe, Inc., Neptune Meter Co.,  Oregon.

         Goodman, Brian, Package Plant Criteria  Development,  National
             Sanitation Foundation, Michigan,  1966.

         Municipal  Sewage Treatment Processes, U.  S.  Department of
             Health, Education,  and Welfare, Washington, D. C.

         Sewer and Sewage Treatment Plant Construction Cost Index,
             FWPCA Division of Construction Grants,  Washington, D.  C.

Social  and Political  Factors

0.   Student Planning of a Pollution Assembly

     I.  Introduction

         This activity is designed to motivate students to plan a slide
         show on their local pollution problems to be shown at a school
         assembly.  Such an assembly might act as a springboard to
         further activities on a larger scale if it is successful in
         bringing an  awareness of local conditions to the student body.
         An assembly  of this kind can be planned and produced by
         students at  any level.  Since it is possible to classify
         pollution into four categories:  air, water, sight, and
         sound.  With minor variations, this activity could be done
         with a tape  recorder concentrating on sound pollution.

    II.  Questions

         1.  Lead to  the activity by asking:

             a.  Is the student body as a whole aware of our local
                 pollution problems?

             b.  What might we do to make them aware?

             c.  Does merely telling them about pollution have as
                 great an effect as showing it to them?

             d.  Would a slide show, illustrating pollution in our city,
                 town, be interesting to the students?

         2.  Questions which initiate the activity:

             a.  Which sights in our area are particularly offensive?

             b.  What pictures would really have an effect on the
                 students in our school?

             c.  Have any areas become polluted recently so that they
                 might remember them as they were before?

             d.  Are there any areas of potential natural beauty which
                 have been spoiled by pollution?

         3.  Questions which continue the activity:

             a.  Should we focus it on one site, showing it from many
                 angles, times of the day, etc., or should we expand
                 to cover many sights in the area?

Social  and Political  Factors
             b.   Are there rivers  that become  more  polluted  as  you
                 pioneered downstream so that  you could  show a  progression
                 from beauty to pollution?

             c.   Should we have a  sound track  to accompany the  slides?

             d.   Should we break up into groups  in  order to  produce  the
                 show (i.e., editors, directors, photographers, sound
                 coordinators, projection men, tape or record technicians,

         4.   Questions which help  the teacher  evaluate the students'

             a.   Does the student  try to produce a  show  which will  have
                 an effect on others or is  he  merely doing what he
                 thinks is interesting?  (Of course, he  could be doing
                 both successfully.)

             b.   How did the students and teachers  in the audience  react?

             c.   Did any long-term projects result  from  the  assembly?

             d.   Were these or other students  motivated  to become
                 involved in further assembly  programs in the school?

   III.   Equipment

         1.   Cameras

         2.   Projector and screen

         3.   Tape recorder or record player (if a sound  track will
             accompany si ides)

    IV.   Procedure

         1.   The organization should be accomplished in  the  classroom.
             The activity can be accomplished  in two ways depending  on
             your circumstances.   A class field trip approach may be
             utilized to take the  pictures  or  students may be organized
             to  take the pictures  on their  own time after school.

         2.   The students should agree on the  total  impact they wish to
             create on the audience and conscientiously  strive  for  it.
             Most of this will occur during editing and  arranging of the
             slides and coordinating of sound.

         3.   Sufficient time must  be allowed for the slides  to  be
             developed and returned.

Social  and Political  Factors
         4.  A date must be arranged for the assembly so that the
             students have a goal  and real  purpose to work towards.

         5.  After slides are obtained, the real  work begins.   They  must
             be arranged and edited to create the desired effect.  It may
             sometimes even be necessary to cut out good slides if there
             is an overabundance;  one or two slides of certain scenes
             are sometimes more shocking than a dozen.  The level of
             sophistication in coordinating sound and slides will vary
             according to available equipment and the students'  talents;
             however, they should  be aware  that the two do interact with
             each other and if used carefully can become a real asset
             to the production.

         6.  There may or may not  be any introduction or narration,
             depending again on the total effect desired by the students.

     V.  Past Studies

         Young people seem to enjoy nothing more than working with cameras
         these days and the results of their efforts are often surprising.
         A group of students at Til ton School produced a film and slide
         show titled "The River" which they eventually showed to the
         participants of the water pollution program and which they
         plan to enter in an amateur film contest.

         These students took about a week to complete filming.  They
         began with a spring at the top of  Cardigan Mountain in New
         Hampshire and followed the path it took to reach the Atlantic
         Ocean.  The beginning slides included beautiful pastoral scenes,
         but these soon gave way to scenes  of extreme pollution.  As the
         spring became a stream and the stream a river, it passed the
         Franconia Paper Mill, which in 1954 contributed 96% of the
         pollution in the Pemigewasset River.   Moving through Franklin,
         N. H., the Pemigewasset becomes the Merrimack River, and the
         students continued taking scenes of pollution in Concord,
         Manchester, and on into Massachusetts.  After the picture
         taking was finished and the slides had been returned, we edited
         and added sound with a tape recorder.  (Later this became a multi-
         media show and the students added  a motion picture film in the
         center, showing their slides on both sides of it.)

    VI.  Limitations

         Most schools have slide projectors as well as tape recorders or
         record players.  Many suitable cameras are available or, if not,
         either the teacher, the students,  or their parents can usually
         make one or several available for  use.  The class may decide
         to share the cost of having the slides developed or the school
         may have money available  for this  purpose.  If none of the

Social and Political  Factors
         above is true, try asking the local  camera store to  lend  you  a
         camera and necessary equipment.   In  short, equipment is  not a
         limitation.  However, some problems  may be encountered  in travel
         if the sites chosen are not within walking distance.  The
         problems here depend on the size of  the class  of the group
         actually doing the photography.   Car pools might be  organized
         among the parents and the group  can  be broken  down  into  smaller
         units.  Perhaps each unit could  be in charge of photographing
         only one site thus reducing the  total number who must visit each
         s i te.

   VII.  Bibliography and Resources

         Blaker, Alfred A., Photography for Scientific  Publication,
             W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco,  Calif., 1965.
             This is especially good for  techniques on  small  objects,
             insects, etc.

         Boucher, Paul Edward, The Fundamentals of  Photography,
             (3rd ed.), Van Nostrand Publishers, New York City,  1955.
             This is a good book for the  fundamentals of working  a
             camera and is also available in  4th edition, 1963.

         There are many good books on the fundamentals  of photography  -
             your selection need only take into account the  level  of
             sophistication of your equipment.

Social  and Political  Factors

P.    Role Playing
     I.   Introduction
         This activity is designed to familiarize students  of 7th grade
         level and up with the function of local  government and how they
         can take part in a town's decision making process.  The setting
         is the local Town Hall  where a special  meeting  has been called
         to consider the proposal  that motor boating  be  banned on a
         nearby lake.
    II.   Questions
         1.  To lead into the activity, ask:
             What type of people would you expect to  find present at a
             local town meeting on this issue?
         2.  To initiate and continue the activity, ask:
             a.  Why would these people act and  think as  they do?
             b.  Where could you find information on  each character role?
             c.  Which character would you like  to be (followed by
                 character assignments)?
         3.  To continue the activity, ask the students:
             Why they are playing the roles the  way they are?
         4.  To evaluate the activity, ask the students  to  write a
             reaction paper.  Note whether they  really understand what
             was going on.  Recapitulate the activity with  the students
             to assure that they followed the development.
             If a tape recording has been made,  this  will be helpful.
             If more than one class has been recorded, play the tapes
             so that the classes may compare their activities.
   III.   Equipment
         A tape recorder
    IV.   Procedure
         1.  Students are asked to imagine what  various  special interest
             actions could be expected to be in  attendance  at the town
             meeting and what statistics and facts these people might
             use to  support their position.

Social  and Political  Factors
         2.   Students are encouraged to identify with  one  of these
             factions by imagining themselves in this  role for a  few days
             prior to the actual  meeting.   See past studies in Section  V.

         3.   Follow these tips on parliamentary procedure:

             a.   Always wait until the moderator has recognized you
                 before you begin to take  the floor.

             b.   Always stand when speaking.

             c.   Always be courteous as you present your argument.   Do
                 not state opinions without being able to  draw examples
                 and give proof.   Be accurate about dates  and statistics.

             d.   Do not ask a question directly to or  speak to other
                 members in the audience - always put  such matters through
                 the Chair.

             e.   If you propose an amendment to the article in question,
                 do not forget that the amendment must be  prepared as a
                 motion, seconded and then voted upon  separately  before
                 going to the original  question for ratification.

             f.   Address the moderator as  Mr.  Chairman or  Mr.  Moderator.

             g.   If there are many people  trying to be recognized at the
                 same time, you must stand and wait until  you have an
                 opportunity to speak.

             h.   You may through  the Choir ask for an  opinion from any  of
                 the local town officials  (i.  e., town counsel, local
                 board of health  official, local planning  board official,
                 town engineer).

     V.   Past Studies

         Procedures outlined in Section IV were carried out.   Discussion
         of  the  motor boating ban article  was  lively and enjoyable and
         lasted  for an hour and 15 minutes.   Suggested characters which
         were used in this particular role play were:

         1.   Chamber of Commerce  president or  member:   enthusiastic
             about the possibilities for making money  on tourist  trade
             in  the area.   Feels  that preventing people from using
             powered craft at the lake will  cause people who plan to
             develop property around this  region into  motels,  ice cream
             stands, hamburger stands,  and other franchises to lose  the
             money they invested.

Social  and Political  Factors
         2.  Members of a rapidly organized group who call  themselves
             "The Lake Boat Owners and Water Skiers Federation" (sports
             loving, "Pepsi-generation" types).

         3.  Local  members of real estate and brokerage firms feel  that
             both they and people from cities would be discriminated

         4.  A representative from your school (pick your own character).

         5.  A private lot and boat owner who has recently received
             permission through the planning board to build a cottage on
             the lake.  He feels that such a ruling would be unfair to him
             since he assumed that when he invested the majority of his
             life savings in this recreational area that there would be no
             restrictions on his recreational activities.

         6.  An old resident who is basically fed up with newcomers
             intruding more and more into what had been to him an  area
             of peace and tranquility for as long as he can remember.

         7.  A poorly-motivated individual who is a rather shady
             character and has a personal financial interest in selling
             a product which he claims will eliminate oil scum.

         8.  Local  representative of the John Birch Society who sees
             this bill as another example of unnecessary social control
             which is detrimental to the American traditional concept
             of personal freedom.

         9.  Representative of local Conservation Committee who
             wishes to preserve the natural beauty and environmental
             qua!ity of the area.

        10.  Moderator of the town meeting.

         Participants found useful in their role participation, the brief
         guide to parliamentary procedure which is included in the
         procedure section.

    VI.  Limitations

         1.  Students may have no experience  in role playing or
             parliamentary discussion.   It may be useful to spend 10
             minutes  in a dry run dealing with the suggested issue.

         2.  A student with a rather forceful personality is needed as
             the moderator.

Social  and Political Factors
          3.   Students must have  the  time to obtain a thorough  knowledge
              of their role and how it relates to the issue  in  order to
              guarantee enthusiastic  participation.

   VII.   Bibliography

          If  possible, select games the students are familiar with and use
          the rule books as a basis of discussion.






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