FINAL DRAFT
United States
Environmental Protection
                                          _ AM^X^ A X"N/^IKI^^ AAO
                                          500ECAOCING002
vEPA      Research and
             Development
             HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT
             FOR SELECTED CHLORINATED TOLUENES
             Prepared for
             OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE AND
             EMERGENCY RESPONSE
             Prepared by
             Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office
             Office of Health and Environmental  Assessment
             U.S. Environmental Protection /Agency
             Cincinnati,  OH  45268
                         DRAFT: DO NOT CITE OR QUOTrc^0

                                               ' """-'- 6060J'
                                NOTICE

          This document 1s a preliminary draft.  It has not been formally released
       by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and should not at this stage be
       construed to represent Agency policy.  It Is being circulated for comments
       on Its technical accuracy and policy Implications.

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                                  DISCLAIMER

    This report  Is  an external draft  for review purposes only  and  does not
constitute  Agency  policy.   Mention of  trade  names  or  commercial  products
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                                      11

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                                    PREFACE


    Health and  Environmental  Effects Documents (HEEOs) are  prepared  for the
Office of Solid  Waste and Emergency Response  (OSVIER).  This document series
Is Intended to  support  listings  under  the  Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act  (RCRA)  as  well as  to provide health-related  limits and goals  for emer-
gency  and  remedial actions  under the Comprehensive  Environmental  Response,
Compensation  and  liability  Act  (CERCU).   Both  published literature  and
Information obtained  from Agency Program Office files are evaluated  as  they
pertain to potential  human health,  aquatic  life and environmental  effects of
hazardous waste  constituents.   The  literature  searched for  In  this document
and  the  dates  searched  are  Included In  "Appendix:  Literature  Searched."
Literature search  material  Is current up  to 8 months previous  to  the final
draft  date  listed  on the front  cover.   Final  draft document  dates  (front
cover) reflect the date the document Is sent to the Program Officer (OSWR).

    Several quantitative  estimates  are  presented provided  sufficient  data
are available.   For systemic  toxicants,  these Include Reference doses (RfOs)
for  chronic  and  subchronlc  exposures  for  both  the Inhalation  and  oral
exposures.  The  subchronlc or  partial  lifetime  RfD, Is  an estimate of  an
exposure  level   that  would not  be  expected  to  cause adverse  effects  when
exposure occurs  during  a  limited time  Interval,   for  example,  one  that  does
not constitute a significant portion of  the  Hfespan.  This  type of exposure
estimate has  not been  extensively  used, or  rigorously  defined as previous
risk   assessment   efforts  have  focused  primarily   on   lifetime  exposure
scenarios.   Animal data  used  for  subchronlc  estimates  generally  reflect
exposure durations  of  30-90  days.   The  general   methodology  for  estimating
subchronlc RfOs  Is  the  same as  traditionally  employed for  chronic  estimates,
except that subchronlc data are utilized  when available.

    In  the  case  of   suspected   carcinogens,   RfDs  are  not  estimated.   A
carcinogenic potency  factor,  or q-\* (U.S.  EPA, 1980), Is provided Instead.
These  potency  estimates are  derived for  both oral and  Inhalation  exposures
where  possible.  In addition, unit  risk  estimates  for  air  and drinking water
are presented based on Inhalation and oral  data, respectively.

    Reportable quantities  (RQs)  based  on both  chronic toxlclty and cardno-
genlclty are derived.   The RQ 1s used to determine  the quantity of a hazar-
dous substance  for  which  notification  1s required  1n  the  event of  a release
as specified under  the CERCLA.   These  two  RQs (chronic toxlclty and cardno-
genlclty) represent two of six  scores  developed  (the  remaining four  reflect
1gn1tab1l1ty,   reactivity,  aquatic  toxlclty,  and   acute mammalian  toxlclty).
Chemical-specific RQs  reflect the lowest of  these  six  primary criteria.   The
methodology for  chronic  toxlclty and  cancer-based RQs are  defined  In  U.S.
EPA, 1984 and 1986a, respectively.
                                      111

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                               EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    The  M  selected thlurtrtoluenes can te classified  1n  two general  cate-
gories:   1)  ring-chlorinated   and  2) ring- plus  a-chlor1nated   toluenes.
The   ring-chlorinated  chlarotoluene?   are   colorless^   stable   compounds
(Gelfand,  1979a).   The  chlorotoluenes   are  either   sparingly   soluble  or
Insoluble 1n  water.   Three  U.S. manufacturers have been cited for  recent or
current  production  of  two of the selected chlorotoluenes  (USITC, 1386;  SRI,
19flt>);  other  chlorotoluenes  are  produced as  an  on-site Intermediate  for
further  chemical  synthesis  (such  as  p,a,
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partially  transport  from  the  troposphere to  stratosphere.   In  the  aquatic
environment,  the  ring-chlorinated  toluenes  may   not   be   susceptible  to
hydrolysis  Uaber  el al..  1984; Lyman  et al..  1984),  oxidation  (Jaber  et
a!.,   1984)   or  direct   photolysis.    The   a-subst1tuted   chlorotoluenes,
however, are  susceptible  to hydrolysis.   Based  on measured  hydrolysis  rate
data  {Hyne et  a"L,  1962-,  Tomulla,  19tfc;  fuchs  and Carlton,  19&3K  the
hydrolytlc  half-lives   of  a,p-d1ch1orotoluene,   a,m-d1chlorotoluene   and
a,3,4-tr1chlorotoluene at  25C  range  from -57-250  hours.    The  volatiliza-
tion  half-life  of all  the  selected  chlorotoluenes from a  river  1 M  deep,
flowing at  a  speed  of  1  m/sec with  a wind  velocity of 3  m/sec has  been
estimated to  be ~5  hours;  however,  adsorption to  sediment may  significantly
reduce  the  relative  Importance of volatilization as an environmental  trans-
port process.   Adsorption to sediment 1s expected  to be significant based on
estimated  K    values and  sediment  monitoring  data from  the Niagara  River
and Lake  Ontario  (Jaffe  and H1tes,  1984).   Experimental  (Oliver  and  N11m1,
1984,   1985)   and  estimated  BCF  values  for   the  ring-chlorinated  toluenes
Indicate  that  bloaccumulatlon   In  aquatic  organisms  will  be  significant.
Limited blodegradatlon data  (Wellens,  1984;  Vandenbergh et al.,  1981;  OmoH
and Alexander,  1978)  suggest that the  chlorotoluenes  may be susceptible  to
blodegradatlon,  but  the  data are  Insufficient to predict their  blodegrada-
tlon  fate.  The  detection  of dlchlorotoluenes,  tMchlorotoluenes  and  tetra-
chlorotoluene  1n  the two  bottom sediment cores  (22.5 and 30.5  cm) of  the
Niagara  River (Jaffe and  H1tes,  1984) suggests  that blodegradatlon  under
anaerobic  conditions  Is   very  slow.    In   soil,  estimated   K    values
(890-35,000)  Indicate  that  little  or  no  leaching will  occur  In  most  soil
types;  however,  chlorotoluenes  have  been  observed  to leach  from hazardous
waste   disposal  sites In Niagara Falls, NY  (Elder et al.,  1981).  In  this

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case,  leaching probably occurred  because  of  the effects  of other solvents 1n
enhancing  the Teachability  of  cnlorotoluenes and  the  saturation of  soil
attetJTptltm  *1tes  by  ottwr  pollutants.   Tht  a-sutsfltuted  tnlwtjtoluenes
are expected  to  be  susceptible  to hydrolysis 1n moist  soils.  B1odegradat1on
way  tee  t*  only  degradatVre  process   tn  soil  for  the  ring-chlorinated
toluenes.   Therefore,  the  ring-chlorinated  toluenes   are  expected  to  be
persistent 1n all three environmental media.
    Various  specified and  unspecified  Isoroers of  the  chlorotolaenes  have
been detected  1n the surface water, fish and  sediments  of the Niagara River
and Lake  Ontario (Elder  et al.,  1981; Oliver  and  Nlcol, 1984; Oliver, 1984;
Great  Lakes  Water  Quality Board, 1983;  Jaffe  and H1tes, 1984;  Kamlnsky et
al.,  1983;  Yuravecz,  1979).  The presence  of  chlorinated organic  compounds
(Including  the  chlorotoluenes)  1n the Niagara  River/Lake  Ontario region has
been  attributed   to  effluents  and  leachates from Industrial  chemical waste
dump  sites  (Elder  et al.,  1981; Oliver  and  Nlcol, 1984).   Chlorotoluenes
have  also been  detected  1n  the  ambient air  of the  Niagara  Falls  region
(Pelllzzan,  1982;  Pelllzzarl  et al.,  1979; Mauser  and Bromberg,  1982) and
In the air  of  source-dominated  areas  In  Deepwater, NJ  (Brodzlnsky and Singh,
1982).  Adequate monitoring  data  are not available  for  estimating  the dally
human  exposure  to  chlorotoluenes,  because drinking water  and  foods  are
Ingested or Inhaled.
    The data  concerning  toxlclty  of chlorotoluenes to  aquatic organisms were
limited.   The lowest  reported toxic  concentration was  0.148  mg/j,   3,4-dl-
chlorotoluene, which reduced growth  and survival of  fathead minnows  In an
early  life  stage test (Call  et al.,  1985).   These authors also calculated a
MATC of 0.107 mg/l.
                                      v1

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    The  1 sower  for  which  the  most  complete  pharmacoklnetlc  profile  was
available   was  p,a,a,o-ttraehlorotoluene.    This   compound  was   readily
absorbed  by  the  gastrointestinal  tract of  rats  {Qulstad  et  al.,  1985).
p.a.a.a-Tetrachlorotoluene   1s   not    selectively    distributed    to   any
particular  tissue, but after an artificially  high  dose was given,  the parent
compound  and   the  metabolite,  .1,4,4'-tetrachlorost1lbene   accumulated
1n  the  abdominal  fat  of rats  {Qulstad  et al.,  1985).  This result  agrees
with the  findings  of Le Bel  and  Williams  (1986). who Identified  2,4,5-trl-
chlorotoluene   1n  human  adipose  tissue.   The  metabolites   of  p,a,a,a-
tetraclilorotalaetie were  excreted primarily  in  the urine  (87%),  but  fetal
excretion occurred as well.   Qulstad  et  al.  (1985)   found  that  the  major
urinary   metabolite   of   p,a,o,a-tetrachlorotoluene   was   4-chloroh1ppur1c
add, which accounted  for  78%  of   the  dose.  Many  fecal metabolites  were
unextractable,   but   4-chlorobenzo1c    add   and    a,a' ,4,4'-tetrachloro-
stllbene  were  Identified  1n  the   extractable  portion.   Little  p,a,a,a-
tetrachlorotoluene was  excreted unchanged In the rat.
    Few data  were available  upon which  to  base  an  adequate  toxlcologlcal
profile.  A Russian  study reported  that  rats chronically exposed to  0.0013
mg/l  dlchlorotoluene  (not  otherwise  specified)   by   Inhalation   exhibited
only slight deviations  from controls  (Stankevlch  and   Osetrov,  1963).   Rats
given  dietary  2,3,6-  or  
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2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene   In   mice   (NIOSH,   1986);   700   and  1350   mg/kg
pa,a.-tetracftlorotoluene  In  rats  and   mice,   respectively  (Khalepo  et
al.,  1964];  awl   820  flg/*g   p,,,-tetr3chlrotoltiene  1ti  rats  (Hooker
Chemical  Co.,  1980).   Signs and  symptoms   of  acute toxldty  Included  motor
activity, tremors,  diarrhea, plloerectlon  and  chromodacryorrhea  and gastric
Irritation  (Hooker  Chemical Co.,  1980).   An  Inhalation threshold  and  JLCg-
of  22.4 and  123 g/*,  respectively.,   for unspecified  durations  for  both
rats awl  mice was  reported by Khalepo  et  al. (1984).   Hooker  Chemical Co.
O380)   reported   a    dermal   U)j   >2   g/kg   for   p,.*^-i,eiTatfc"Joro-
toluene.   a,o-D1chlorotoluene   was  positive  In  skin  sens1t1zat1on  tests
(Cohen et al., 1967).
    No  data were  available  to assess  the  carcinogenic  potential of  the
chlorinated  toluenes  from  Inhalation.   Fukuda et  al.  (1979)  gave mice  0,
0.05,   0.13,   0.32,   0.8  and   2   yl   of   p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene  by
gavage  for  17.5  weeks.   Tumors  1n  the. stomach,  lung,  skin  and  lymphatic
organs  were  observed  18 months later.   Tumors 1n  the  digestive  system were
also  noted   after   dermal   application   of   p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene  to
mice (Fukuda et  al.,  1979).  No data concerning  the  mutagenlc effect  of the
chlorinated toluenes were located.
    The  only  study available  concerning  the  teratogenlclty of  the chlori-
nated toluenes  was  by  Ruddlck et  al.  (1982),  who gave  pregnant  rats  0-400
mg/kg/day 2,3,6- or  o,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene by  the oral  route.   Hlstopatho-
loglc lesions In  the  thyroid,  bone  marrow,  kidney and liver occurred In dams
at  unspecified  doses.  Reduced fetal body weight  and liver  damage of  pups
occurred  at  all  doses  of  2,3,6- and a,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene, but  were  most
severe  at  400   mg/kg/day   2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene.   No  data were  available
concerning the other reproductive effects of the chlorinated toluenes.

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    Based QO  the  positive carcinogenicUy studies by  fukuda et al.  (1979),
1ti   which    p,a,a,*-tetrachlorotoluene    was   administered   orally    and
dermally  to  mice,  and  on  the  structural   similarity  of  p,a,a,a-tetra-
chlorotoluene  to  benzotMchloMde,  an EPA 82 chemical carcinogen, there  Is
sufficient   evidence   that   p,*.*,a-tetrachlorotoluene   (benzotrlchlorlde)
is  carcinogenic  to  animals.   In  the absence  of data  for  humans.  1t  was
classified as  an  EPA B2  chemical,  that  Is,  a probable human  carcinogen.   A
q,*  of  20  {mg/kg/day)~a  for  oral exposure was  derived based on  the  dose-
response data  for  luag adenocardnoraas In the oral  study  in  female nice  by
f\rtctwft  et  al.  t"W9).   "The  concentrations  1n  water  associated  with  an
Increased  lifetime  risk  of   cancer  at   risk   levels  of  10~5,   10~*  and
NT7   are   2xlO~5,    2x10"*   and    2xlO~7   mg/l,   respectively.    An   F
factor  of  136  (mg/kg/day)""1 was also  calculated  based on  the Fukuda et  al.
(1979)   oral   data.    Thus    p.a.a.a-tetrachlorotoluene    Is  a   Potency
Group 1 and  EPA  B2 chemical with a  HIGH  hazard  ranking under CERCLA and  an
RQ of 1 based on cardnogenldty.
    Subchronlc  oral   RfOs  of   0.00005   mg/kg/day   for   both   2,3,6- and
a,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene  were  derived  based on LOAELs  of  0.05 mg/kg/day  for
both Isomers In the  28-day study by Chu et al. (1984),  using  an uncertainty
factor  of  1000.   Effects  at  the LOAEL Included  mild  lesions of  the  liver,
kidney  and  thyroid.   Low confidence was  placed  1n the subchronlc oral  RfD,
which was considered  Inadequate for  extrapolation  to  a  chronic  oral RfO.
    RQs  of  100  based  on chronic   toxldty  were  also  derived   for   both
2,3,6- and  0,2,6-trlchlorotoluene  based  on   the  Chu  et  al.  (1984)  study.
Data were  Insufficient  to  derive q,*s,  RfDs or  RQs  for  any of  the  other
chlorinated toluenes.
                                      1x

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                              TABLE  OF  CONTENTS
1.  IHTSOOUCTION
    1.1.   STRUCTURE AND CAS REGISTRY NUMBER .............    1
    1.2.   PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES .............    1
    1,3,   PRODUCTION DATA. , . . . .................    1
    1.4.   USE DATA .........................   12
    1.5.   SUMMARY ..........................   12

2.  ENVIRONMENTAL fATf AiU) TRANSPORT ........... . ......   14

    2.1.   AIR ............................   14

           2.1.1.   Reaction with Hydrosyl Radicals .........   14
           2.1,2,   Direct Photolysis ....... , ........   14

    2.2.   WATER ...........................   14

           2.2.1.   Hydrolysis ....................   14
           2.2.2.   Oxidation ....................   16
           2.2.3.   Photolysis ....................   17
           2.2.4.   Mlcroblal Degradation  ..............   17
           2.2.5.   Volatilization ..................   18
           2.2.6.   Adsorption ....................   18
           2.2.7.   B1oconcentrat1on ..................   19

    2.3.   SOIL  .... .......................   19

           2.3.1.   Mlcroblal and Chemical Degradation   .......   19
           2.3.2.   Adsorption/Leaching  ...............   19

    2.4.   SUMMARY ..........................   22

3.  EXPOSURE .............................   24

    3.1.   WATER ...........................   24
    3.2.   FOOD  ...........................   25
    3.3.   INHALATION  ........................   25
    3.4.   DERMAL ..........................   26
    3.5.   SUMMARY ..........................   26

4.  AQUATIC  TOXICITY .........................   28

    4.1.   ACUTE TOXICITY  ......................   28
    4.2.   CHRONIC EFFECTS ......................   28
    4.3.   PLANT EFFECTS .......................   28
    4.4.   SUMMARY ..........................   30

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                          TABLE OF  CONTENTS  (cont.)

                                                                       Page

5.  WAWWCOKlttTCS	    31

    5.1.   ABSORPTION	    31
    5.2.   DISTRIBUTION	    31
    5.3.   METABOLISM	    32
    5.4.   mania*!,	    32
    5.5.   SUHMARY	    33

6.  EFFECTS	    34

    6.1.   SYSTEMIC TOXICITY	    34

           6.1.1.   Inhalation Exposures	    34
           6.1.2.   Oral Exposures.	    34
           6.1.3.   Other Relevant Information	    35

    6.2.   CARCINOGENICITY	    36

           6.2.1.   Inhalation	    36
           6.2.2.   Oral	    36
           6.2.3.   Other Relevant Information	    36

    6.3.   MUTAGENICITY	    39
    6.4.   TERATOGENICITY	    39
    6.5.   OTHER REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS 	  	    39
    6.6.   SUMMARY	    41

7.  EXISTING GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS 	    43

    7.1.   HUMAN	    43
    7.2.   AQUATIC	    43

8.  RISK ASSESSMENT	    44

    8.1.   CARCINOGENICITY	    44

           8.1.1.   Inhalation	    44
           8.1.2.   Oral	    44
           8.1.3.   Other Routes	    44
           8.1.4.   Weight of Evidence	    44
           8.1.5.   Quantitative  Risk Estimates  	    45

    8.2.   SYSTEMIC TOXICITY	    46

           8.2.1.   Inhalation Exposure 	    46
           8.2.2.   Oral Exposure	    47
                                     x1

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                           TABLE  OF  CONTENTS (cont.)
     PflSTA8L SUAJfTITIfS ......................   48
     9.1.   BASED ON SYSTEMIC TOXICITY ....... . ..... ...   48
     9.2.   BASED ON CARCINOGENICITY .................   53

10.  RETIRENCES ................... , ........   55

APPENDIX A: LITERATURE SEARCHED ....................   66
APPENDIX 8: CAWCER DATA SWEET FOR OERIVATNW OF q-|* ..........   69
APPENDIX C: SUHMASY TABL .......................   70

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                               LIST OF TABUS

No.                               Title                                Page
1-1     Synonyms, CAS numbers, Empirical Formulas and Structures
        of Selected Chlorotoluenes	    2

1-2     Physical Properties of Selected Chlorotoluenes	    7

1-3     177 Protection 0ata for the Ciilorotolwnes	    9

2-1     Vapor-Phase Reaction Half-lives for Selected Chlorotoluenes .   15

2-2     Estimated BCF Values for Selected Chlorotoluenes	   20

2-3     Estimated Koc Values for Selected Chlorotoluenes	   21

4-1     Acute ToxIcUy of Chlorinated Toluenes to Aquatic
        Organisms 	  .....   29

6-1     Tumor Incidence 1n Female ICR-SLC Mice Given p,a,a,a,-
        Tetrachlorotoluene of Unspecified Purity 1n Sesame 011
        Twice Weekly by Gavage for 17.5 Weeks, Followed by a
        54.5-Week Observation 	   37

6-2     Incidence of Tumors In Mice Treated Dermally with 5 pi
        p,a,a,a-Tetrachlorotoluene Twice Weekly for 30 Weeks
        Followed by a 7-Week Observation Period 	   40

9-1     Oral Tox1c1ty Summary for 2,3,6- and 
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                             LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

VCf                     Bloconcentratlon
CAS                     Chemical Atrstratrt "Services
CS                      Composite score
EC5Q                    Concentration effective to 50% of recipients
                        Soil sorptlon coefficient
                        Octant)l-ater partition coefficient
                        Concentration lethal to SOX of recipients
1050                    Dose lethal to 50% of recipients
JJDAEL                   Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
LOEC                    Lowest-observed-effect concentration
MATC                    Maximum acceptable threshold concentration
MED                     Minimum effective dose
MTD                     Maximum tolerated dose
NOAEL                   No-observed-a"dverse-effect level
NOEC                    No-observed-effect concentration
ppb                     Parts per billion
ppm                     Parts per million
ppt                     Parts per trillion
RQ                      Reportable  quantity
RV,j                     Dose-rating value
RVe                     Effect-rating value
UV                      Ultraviolet
                                      x1v

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                               1.   INTRODUCTION
1.1.   STRUCTURE AND'CAS REGISTRY MUMBfi
    The synonyms, CAS Registry  numbers,  empirical  Formulas  and structures of
the  selected chlorotoluenes  are  listed  1n  Table  1-1.    The selection  of
cblorloaied  toluenes MAS  oade  on  the  basis  of  coomerlcal   Importance  and
excluded some compounds for which a Health and  Environmental  Effects Profile
exists.
1.2.   PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
    Available physical  properties  of  the en1orotoluenes are  listed  In Table
1-2.   The  selected  chlorotoluenes  can  be classified  In  two  general  cate-
gories:  1) ring-chlorinated and 2) ring- plus a-chlorlnated toluenes.
    The  ring-chlorinated  chlorotoluenes  are  colorless,   stable  compounds
(Gelfand,  1979a).   The  a-substHuted  chlorotoluenes  are  susceptible  to
hydrolysis at the a-chlorlne group (Section 2.2.1.).
1.3.   PRODUCTION DATA
    The  most recent  chlorotoluene production  data  available are  from  the
public  portion  of  the  U.S.  EPA TSCA  Production  File  (Table 1-3).   World
production of polychlorotoluenes  (ring-chlorinated)  has been  estimated to be
0.2-2.0 million pounds annually (Gelfand. 1979a).
    Tenneco Chemical produced a number  of chlorotoluenes 1n  1977  (see Table
1-3);  however, Tenneco  ceased  production of chlorotoluenes In  1978  and sold
Its  product  line  to   American Hoechst  Corp.,  which  now  produces  those
chemicals  overseas  (U.S.   EPA,  1983).   USITC  (1986) reported  that  Stauffer
Agricultural   Chemical    produced   a,2   (or    3),   4-trlchlorotoluene   and
Occidental  Chemical  a,p-d1chlorotoluene  In   the  United   States  In  1985.
Occidental Chemical  acquired  Hooker  Chemical  (Niagara Falls,  NY), which  was
listed as  a  major manufacturer of  chlorotoluenes  In 1977  (see Table 1-3).


0030d                               -1-                              08/26/87

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-------
                                   TABLE 1-3
                 1977 Production Data for the Chiorotoluenes2
Chlorotoluene
2,3-D1chloro-
toluene
2,4-01chloro-
toluene
2,5-D1chloro-
toluene
2,6-D1chloro-
toluene
3,4-Qlchloro-
toluene
a,m-D1chloro-
toluene
a,o-D1chloro-
toluene
a,p-D1chloro-
toluene
Tetrachloro-
toluene
Company/Location
American Hoechst
Coventry, RI
Tenneco Chera.
Fords, NJ
Montco Research
Hoi lister, FL
Hooker Chem.
Niagara Falls, NY
Hooker Chem.
Niagara Falls. NY
American Hoechst
Coventry, RI
DuPont
Deepwater, NJ
Tenneco Chera.
Fords, NJ
Hooker Chem.
Niagara Falls, NY
none
Columbia Organlcs
Columbia, SC
Tenneco Chem.
Fords, NJ
confidential
Stauffer Chem.
Edison. NJ
Tenneco Chem.
Fords, NJ
American Hoechst
BMdgewater, NJ
none
Manufacturer/
Importer
manufacturer
manufacturer
manufacturer
manufacturer
manufacturer
Importer
manufacturer
manufacturer
manufacturer
none
manufacturer
manufacturer
manufacturer
manufacturer
manufacturer
Importer
none
Yearly Volume
(pounds)
noneb
none
1-10 thousand
0.1-1 million
0.1-1 million
confidential
10-100 thousand
' 
none
0.1-1 million
none
<1000
none
10-100 thousand
confidential
10-100 thousand
confidential
none
0030d
-9-
05/19/87

-------
                              TABLE  1-3  (cont.)
                                           Manufacturer/
                                             Importer
                                             Yearly Volume
                                               (pounds)
cii lor o toluene
2.3,4-Trl-
cnlorotoluene

2.3,5~Tr1-
tfclorotoluene

2,3,6-Tr1-
cnlorotoluene
2,4,5-TM-
chlorotoluene

2,4,6-TM-
chlorotoluene

3,4,5-Trl-
chlorotoluene

Trlchloro-
toluene
(mixture)


-------
SRI  (1986)   lists  Montco  Research  Products  (Hamster,  FL)  as  a  current
roantifattwer of  tt.2.4-tMth1oTott>1ueive.  Other  selected chlorotoluenes  may
currently be manufactured  1n  the United States but are  net  Isolated or sold
as  end-products.    For  example,   p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene   1s   manufac-
tured  for captive  use  as an  on-slte  Intermediate  for  the production  of
p-chlorobenzotrlFluoride at the Hooker Chemical facility {U.S. EPA,  1983).
    According  to  CMR  (1986),   the   following  selected  chlorotoluenes  are
available for  commercial sale:  2,4,6-trlchlorotoluene;  2,3,6-tMchlorotolu-
ene;    a,m-d1ch]orotoluene;     a,o-d1chlorotoluene;     a,p-d1chlorotoluene;
2,4-dlchlorotoluene;  2,5-
-------
1.4.   USE DATA
    2,4-Qlchltjrotoluene  and  2,6-dlchlorotoluene  are  used  as  Intermediates
for  the  production  of  herbicides,  dyestuffs  and  dlchlorobenzoyl  chloride
(Gelfand,  1979a).   2,3,6-TMchlorotoluene 1s used  1n  small quantities as  a
herbicide  Intermediate,  while the  other  polyrlntj-chloMnated toluenes have
United  Industrial  use  (Gelfand,  1979a).   Ring-chlorinated toluene  Isoroer
mixtures  and mixtures high  In o-monochlorotoluene content have been  used  In
solvent  applications  such as  reaction solvents,  dye  carrier  formulations,
sludge  solvent,  and  paint  and  rubber   stripping  formulations  (Gelfand,
1979a).  2,W)1ch"loroto1uene 1s also used  as  a solvent  (Chemical  Week, 1976).
    The    a,o- and   
-------
be  formed  as by-products during  toluene  chlorlnatlon processes.  Twelve  of
tne  selected chlorotoluenes  have  been  listed  as  currently  available  for
cofflmerclal  sale  (CNR, 1986).   2,W)1chlorotoluen,  2,6-dlchlorotoluene  and
2,3,6-tMchlorotoluene can  be used  as Intermediates  for  the production  of
n*rtlt1d*s, dystuffs awl trtfcer ctrewltals  (Selfand* 1S7Sa).   ltq-cnlortatd
toluene Isoraer mixtures  and  2,4-d1chlorotoluene  can  be used 1n  a  variety  of
solvent applications  (Selfand, 1979a; Chemical  Week,  1976).  The ^substi-
tuted chlorotoluenes  are  used  as  Intermediates for the production of  herbi-
cides, Pharmaceuticals, dyes  and  organic chemicals  (Gelfand,  1979b;  Hawley,
1981; U.S. EPA,  1983).
0030d                               -13-                             08/26/87

-------
                     2.  ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND TRANSPORT
2.1,   AIR
2.1.1.   Jteacilou  *3iJ> Hydraxyl  Badll$.   Th* calcalatsa1  half-Uv*5  for
the  vapor  phase  reaction  of  the  selected chlorotoluenes  with  photochemically
produced  hydroxyl  radicals  In a  typical ambient  atmosphere  are  given  In
Table  2-1  t\).S.  EPA,  1987).   It  1s   apparent  that  the r1ng-chlw1nated
toluenes are more 3ial toward this reaction than the -chlorotoluenes.
2.1.2.   Direct  Photolysis.    Utf  spectra  of  the  ring-chlorinated  toluenes
(2,4-d1ct)lorotolune,   2,5~dUhlorotolune.    2,6-dlchlorotoluene,    3,4-d1-
chlorotoluene,   2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene,   2,4,5-trlchlorotoluene)   show  very
little,  1f any,  absorption  In the  environmentally  Important  regions  of  the
spectrum   (Sadtler,  1961,  1966a,b,  1975,  1976, 1977).   Therefore,  direct
photolysis  of  these  compounds 1s  not  expected to occur  In the troposphere.
With  sufficiently  long atmospheric residence  times,  some  diffusion  Into  the
stratosphere may occur.
    UV  spectra  of  the -subst1tuted   chlorotoluenes  (290  nm)  (Sadtler,  1960,  1966c,d,
1974,  1980).   This  Indicates  that  some  direct  photolysis may be  possible;
however,  kinetic data were  not  available to  predict the relative  signifi-
cance of direct  photolysis.
2.2.   WATER
2.2.1.   Hydrolysis.   Ring-chlorinated   aromatic   compounds   are  generally
resistant  to  environmental  hydrolysis  (Lyman et al.,  1982).  Jaber  et  al.
(1984)  listed  2,4-d1chlorotoluene  and  2,4,6-dlchlorotoluene  as  Inert  to
neutral  and alkaline  hydrolysis.   Therefore, the  selected  ring-chlorinated
toluenes are not expected  to hydrolyze significantly  In the environment.

0030d                               -14-                             05/19/87

-------
                                   TABLE  2-1

         Vapor-Phase Reaction Half-Lives for Selected Chlorotoluenes3
Chlwotoltiene
Ring-chlorinated d1 Chlorotoluenes
Ring-chlorinated trlchlorotoluenes
Ring-chlorinated tetrachlorotoluene
o,.m-, a,o- and a,p-01chlorotoluene
a, 2, 4- and a,3,4-Tr1chlorotoluene
p,a,a,a,p-Tetraciilorotoluene
Half-L1feb
18.36 days
1 .45 months
2.48 months
5.77 days
14.64 days
6.68 days
Rate Constant
(cm3 'molecule-sec)
5.46 xlO~13
2.3013x10'"
1.3501x10-"
1.737. X.10'"
6.848 x!0~"
1.401 x!0~"
aSource: U.S. EPA, 1987

^Estimated  using  respective  rate  constants  and  assuming  an  average  atmo-
 spheric hydroxyl radical concentration of 8xlOs molecules/cm3.
OOSOd                               -15-                             05/19/87

-------
    The ^-substituted  chlorotoluenes are  susceptible  to  hydrolysis at  the
*-ch1or1ne;  the  kinetics  of   the   reaction  has  been  studied  by  various
Investigators.   Hyne et  al.  09*12)  measured  the   rate  constant  for  the
hydrolysis   of   a,p-d1chlorotoluene   1n   100%  water   at  42.86C   to   be
5.69xlQ~s  sec"1,  which   corresponds  to  a  half-life  of  3.4  hours.   Con-
parlson with hydrolysis  rate  data  for  a-roonochlorotoluene  over  a  tempera-
ture  range  of   25-60'C  {Uyi*  et  al.,  1962}  indicates   that  a.p-dichloro-
toluene win  have a half-life  of  -155 hours at  25*C.   In a  dilute aqueous
solution  of  dimethyl  sulfoxlde  (700  rai/l  of  water;  22.4  wt  %  dimethyl
sulfoxlde)   at    25C,   Tommlla   (1966)   measured   an   a,p-d1chlorotoluene
first-order  hydrolysis  rate  constant  of  3.4xlO~6  sec"1; this  corresponds
to  a  half-life   of  57  hours,  which  1s  reasonably  close  to the  previous
estimate.   Similarly, Tommlla  (1966)  measured a  first-order  rate  constant of
0.913x10"'  sec"1  for  a,m-d1chlorotoluene  at  25C  (in  500  mg/l  water;
53.6 wt % dimethyl sulfoxlde),  which corresponds to a half-life of 211 hours.
    Fuchs  and  Carlton  (1963)  measured  hydrolysis   rates of  a,p-d1chloro-
toluene,   a,m-d1chlorotoluene,   and   a,3,4-trichlorotoluene   1n   a   50%
aqueous  ethanol   solution  at  60C.   The  rate constant  for  a,3,4-trichloro-
toluene   (0.427xlO~5  sec"1)   was   -25%   slower   than   for   a.m-dichloro-
toluene  and  -4  times slower  than  for  
-------
2.2*3.   Photolysis.   The  ring-chlorinated  toluenes  (2,4-d1chlorotoluene,
2.5-d1ch1ort>toluene, 34-d1chlorotoluene,  2,3,&-tr1ch1ort>toluene,  2.4,5-tr1-
ctrtorotoluene)  show very  little  or no  absorption  In  the  environmentally
Important region of the UV  spectrum  1n  a  methanol  solvent (Sadtler, 1966a,b,
1975.  197$.  1977).  This  suggests  tnat   direct  photolysis  1n the  aquatic
environment will not be significant.
    The    a-substltuted    chlorotoluenes    (a,o-d1chlorotoluene,    ct,m-d1-
chlorotoluene,   a,2,4-tr1ch"lorotoluene,    a,3,4-tr1chlorotoluene),    1n   a
methanol  solvent,   show some  minor  absorption in  the  UV  region  >290  nro
{Sadtler,  1966c,d,  1974,   1980);   therefore,   some  direct   photolysis  Is
possible.  Kinetic photolysis data are  not  available to predict the relative
significance  of direct  photolysis.    It   1s  not  expected,  however,  to  be
Important 1n relation to hydrolysis or volatilization.
2.2.4.   M1crob1al   Degradation.   Only  limited  blodegradatlon   data   are
available  for   the  selected chlorotoluenes.   Wellens  (1984)  used a  static
blodegradabHUy test  (OECD) and  determined that  an unspecified  Isomer  of
the  a-substltuted  dlchlorotoluenes   required  a  5- to  10-day  acclimation
period  before  Initiation   of   blodegradatlon.   Vandenbergh  et  al.  (1981)
Isolated bacteria  from a soil  at  a  landfill site  used for  the disposal  of
chlorinated  organic  wastes  and found  that the  bacteria were  able  to  use
2,6-d1chlorotoluene  and  3,4-d1chlorotoluene   as   sole  carbon  and   energy
sources for  growth.  Omorl  and  Alexander  (1978) also  used  bacteria obtained
by  soil  enrichment cultures to  demonstrate metabolism of  the  a-subst1tuted
dlchlorotoluenes;  the  products  of metabolism were  found to  Include  chloro-
benzyl alcohol and  chlorobenzolc add.
    The  relatively  constant concentrations  of  dlchlorotoluenes,  trlchloro-
toluenes and  tetrachlorotoluene  1n the two  bottom  sediment cores  (22.5  and


0030d                               -17-                             06/04/87

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30,5  cm)  of  the  Niagara River  (Jaffe  and Hltes,  1984)  suggest  that  these
compounds are not readily biodegradable under  anaerobic conditions.
2.2-5.   Volatilization.  OHyer  (1385)  measured a Henry's  Law constant  of
1.5xlO~3   atm-m3/mo1   for   2,4,5-tMchlorotoluene   and   2,3,6-tMchloro-
toluene  at  20C,  which  Indicates  that  volatilization  from  environmental
waters  may be rapid (Lyman et  al., 1982).   Using  the  method outlined  1n
iyman -et  al.  (1982).  tJ  volatilization  half-life  from a  river  1 H  deep.
flowing at  a  speed of 1 m/sec, with a wind velocity  of  3 m/sec 1s estimated
to be -5 hours.
    fjilaatloa  of  Henry's  law  constant  using  the  method  of  Mine  and
Mookerjee   (1975)   for   the   ring-chlorinated   toluenes   (dlchlorotoluenes,
trlchlorotoluenes,  tetrachlorotoluene)   and  for  the a-subst1tuted  chloro-
toluenes   (dlchlorotoluenes,   trlchlorotoluenes)  yields   values  reasonably
similar to the experimental value  for  2,4,5-trlchlorotoluene and 2,3,6-trl-
chlorotoluene  cited  above.   Therefore,   volatilization from  the water  column
may be  rapid  for  all of the selected chlorotoluenes; however,  adsorption to
sediment  and   suspended  matter 1n  natural  water may  significantly decrease
the  relative  Importance of   volatilization  as  an  environmental  transport
process.
2.2.6.   Adsorption.  The   K    values  estimated  1n  Section 2.3.2.  suggest
that  adsorption  to  sediment may be an  Important  transport  process  for the
selected   chlorotoluenes.   The  detection  of  dlchlorotoluenes,  trlchloro-
toluenes  and  tetrachlorotoluene  1n  sediment  and  sediment  cores  from the
Niagara  River  and  Lake Ontario   (Section  3.1.)  support   this   suggestion.
Since  the  a-subst1tuted chlorotoluenes  will  undergo hydrolysis,  however,
adsorption may not be a significant process for these compounds.
0030d                               -18-                             05/19/87

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2.2.7.   B1oconcentrat1on.  Oliver  and N11fl1 {1984,  1985)  measured  the  BCF
of 2.4,5-trlchlorotoluene 1n  rainbow  trout  using a steady-state approach and
determined BC?  values of 4800-8500.   These values  Indicate  that bloconcen-
tratlon Is significant.
    The  8CF   of an  vrganlc  chemical  can  b  estimated by  t!w
equation  (Lyman  et al., 1982):   log BCF .  0.76  log K    -  0.23.   Estimated
                                                       ow
BCF values  using the log K   values  from Table 1-2 are given  5n  Table 2-2.
With  the  exception  of  the  <*-subst1tuted  dlchlorotoluenes and  trlchloro-
toluenes. bloconcentratlon  of the selected chlorotoluenes 1s expected to be
significant.
2.3.   SOIL
2.3.1.   M1crob1al  and  Chemical  Degradation.  Based  on  the  discussion  In
Section  2.2.4.,  the  chlorotoluenes  may  be susceptible  to blodegradatlon In
soil; however, 1n  the absence of sufficient  experimental  data, the relative
                                                 
significance  or   the  kinetics  of  such  blodegradatlon  processes   cannot  be
predicted.   In the case of the  ring-chlorinated  toluenes, chemical degrada-
tion  processes   such  as hydrolysis  are  not  expected  to  be significant  1n
soil;  therefore,  blodegradatlon  Is  probably the  only degradatlve  process
that 1s relevant  with such chemicals.
    As  presented  In  Section 2.2.1.,  the  -subst1tuted  chlorotoluenes  are
susceptible  to   significant   hydrolysis.   Therefore,  they  are expected  to
hydrolyze 1n moist soil.
2.3.2.   Adsorption/Leaching.   Relevant  experimental  studies  pertaining  to
the  adsorption   of  the  chlorotoluenes  were  not  located.  The  K    can  be
estimated  from  the  following regression  equation  (KaMckhoff, 1985):   log
KQC  =  0.72  log  KQW  +  0.49.   Estimated  KQC  values using   the  log  KQW
values from  Table 1-2 are  given  In Table  2-3.   Log K    values between  500
0030d                               -19-                             06/04/87

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                                  TABLE 2-2
               Estimated BCF  Values  for  Selected  Diloroioluaws
                     ttolorotoluene
                     8tf  Value
          Ring-chlorinated dlchlorotoluenes
          Ring-chlorinated trlchlorotoluenes
          Ring-chlorinated tetrachlorotoluenes
          a,2,4-Tr1chlorotoluene
          a-D1chlorotoluenes
          p,a,a,a-Tetrachlorotoluene
                       1,000
                       3,300
                      11,300
                         470
                         230
                       2,800
0030d
-20-
05/19/87

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                                  TABU  2-3
               Estimated Koc Values  for Selected Chlorotoluenes
                     Chlorotoluene                      K   Values
          RIng-sufastHuted dlchlorotoluenes                3,500
          Ring-substituted trlchlorotoluenes              11.000
          Ring-substituted Tetrachlorotoluene             35,000
          
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and  2000  Indicate  low   soil  mobility,  while  K    values  >2000  Indicate
slight  or  no mobility  (Swann et  al.,  T983).   Therefore,  results  Indicate
thai the chlorotoluenes, In general, are -not expected ia leach  slgnlfJcantly
In  roost soils;  however,  chlorotoluenes  have  been  observed to  leach  from
hazardous waste  disposal  sites 1n  Niagara  Falls, KY  (Elder et al.,  1961),
In  this case, leaching can  be attributed  to  effects of  other solvents  In
enhancing  the leachatoHlty and  the  saturation  of  soil  sorptlon  sites  by
other pollutants.
2,4.   SUHMARY
    The  ring-chlorinated  toluenes  are  more  stable than  the  a-subst1tuted
chlorotoluenes and are therefore more persistent In  the environment.   In the
atmosphere,  the   chlorotoluenes  will  react  with  photochemlcally  produced
hydroxyl radicals.  The calculated half-life for this reaction  1s  18.36  days
to 2.48 months for the ring-chlorinated toluenes and 5.77-14.64 days  for the
a-substHuted  chlorotoluenes   (U.S.   EPA,   1987).   In  the  absence  of   any
other  known  environmental   reactions,   the  ring-chlorinated  toluenes   may
partially  transport  from the  troposphere  to  stratosphere.   In the  aquatic
environment,  the  ring-chlorinated   toluenes  may   not  be  susceptible  to
hydrolysis  (Jaber  et al.,  1984;  Lyman  et  al.,  1984),  oxidation  (Jaber  et
al.,   1984)   or    direct  photolysis.    The  
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reduce  the  relative Importance of volatilization as an  environmental  trans-
port process.  Adsorption to sediment  1s expected  to be  significant based on
estimated K   values  and  sediment monitoring  data from  the Niagara  IMver
and  Lake  Ontario (Jaffe and H1tes,  1984).   Experimental  (Oliver  and  N11m1,
1984,  1385)  and  estimated BCF   values  for  the  rlngchlorlnated  toluenes
Indicate  that  bloaccumulatlon 1n  aquatic  organisms  will  be  significant.
Halted blodegradatlon  data (Weilens,  1984; Vandenbergh et  a!..  1981;  OmoM
and  Alexander,  1978)  suggest  that the chlorotoluenes  may be  susceptible to
blodegradatlon,  but  the data  are  Insufficient  to predict  their  blodegrada-
tlon  fate.  The  detection  of dlchlorotoluenes,  tMchlorotoluenes  and  tetra-
chlorotoluene  1n the  two  bottom  sediment  cores  (22.5 and  30.5  cm) of  the
Niagara  River  (Jaffe  and   HHes,  1984) suggests  that blodegradatlon  under
anaerobic   conditions   1s   very   slow.    In  soil,   estimated   K    values
(890-35,000)  Indicate  that  Uttle  or   no  leaching will  occur 1n  most  soil
types;  however,  chlorotoluenes have  been  observed  to leach  from hazardous
waste  disposal  sites  1n  Niagara  Falls, NY (Elder et a!..  1981).  In  this
case,  leaching  was  attributed  to  the effects of other solvents  1n enhancing
the  Teachability of  chlorotoluenes  and  the saturation  of soil  adsorption
sites  by  other  pollutants.   The   -subst1tuted  chlorotoluenes are  expected
to  be  susceptible  to hydrolysis  1n  moist  soils.   Blodegradatlon  may be  the
only degradatlve process  In soil  for  the ring-chlorinated toluenes.  There-
fore,  the  ring-chlorinated  toluenes  are expected  to  be  persistent 1n  all
three environmental media.
0030d                               -23-                             06/04/87

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                                 3.  EXPOSURE
3.1.   WAT!*
    ,2,4-TTlcn1rott>laene  and  ,3,4-tr1cfl1orotolan*  have  bn   tenta-
tively  Identified  1n  drinking water concentrates taken  from  Cincinnati,  OH,
In  October*  1976,  and  ojB-dlchlorotoluene  was tentatively  Identified  1n
drinking  water  concentrates  taken  from New  Orleans,  LA,  1n January,  197*
{Ujcas,  1984}.    2,4-01chlrotoluene,  2* 6-d1-chloro toluene,  2.3,6-trVchlofo-
toluene,  2,4,6-tMthlorotoluene, 2,3,5,6-tetratrhlorotolwne,  and  unspecified
Homers  of  dlchlorotoluenes,  trldilorotoluenes and  tetrathlorotoluenes  tiave
been  qualitatively  detected  In  the western  basin   of  Lake Ontario  and  the
Niagara River (Great Lakes Water Quality Board, 1983).
    Elder et al.  (1981) collected water  and  sediment samples  from areas  near
hazardous waste disposal   sites  1n Niagara  Falls,   NY,  and found  levels  of
20-90  ppm  unspecified  dlchlorotoluenes, 50-100  ppm unspecified  trlchloro-
toluenes  and   10-40  ppm  unspecified  tetrachlorotoluenes;  the   authors
suggested  that   leachates  from  these   hazardous  waste  disposal  sites  were
contaminating  the  Niagara River.   Oliver  and  Nlcol  (1984)  monitored  the
Niagara  River (at N1agara-on-the-Lake)  over  a  2-year period (September,  1981
to  September,   1983)  and   found  mean  concentrations of  1.3  ppt  2,4,5-trl-
chlorotoluene and  0.84  ppt 2,3,6-tMchlorotoluene.    Oliver and Nlcol (1984)
estimated that  20-200 kg/year of 2,4,5-tMchlorotoluene and 2,3,6-trlchloro-
toluene  are transported  by   the Niagara River  to  Lake Ontario.    Jaffe  and
Hltes  (1984) detected  unspecified Isomers  of  dlchlorotoluenes,  tMchloro-
toluenes  and tetrachlorotoluenes  1n   sediment  core  samples  taken from  the
Niagara  River  at  Niagara Falls,  NY,   at  depths ranging  from 1.0-30.5  cm;
concentrations  ranged from   0.003-220  ppm.    Kamlnsky  et  al.  (1983)  found
unspecified  tHchlorotoluenes at levels  of  a trace to 1.5 ppb  1n sediment


0030d                               -24-                             05/19/87

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samples  from  the western  portion  of Lake  Ontario.   Oliver  (1984)  detected
2,4,5-trlchlorotoluene  and 23,6-tr1cn1oroto1uene at  levels of 1.8-46  ng/g
1fl  5d1nieivt  samples frt>m  tlw western,  central awl  eastern t>as1t vf  tafc
Ontario.   Hauser  and Bromberg  (1982)  reported the qualitative  detection of
2,4-dlchlorotoluene  In  sedlnent/soH/water  samples froa tt Love  Canal  near
Niagara Fall*, NY.
    Kauss and Hamdy  (1985) used blomonltors (clams)  to  confirm  the presence
of  2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene  In  waters of the St. Clalr-DetroU  River corridor
between  Lake  Erie and  Lake Huron  during  1382 and 1383.   Concentrations of
0.37  ppb  dlchlorotoluene  and  0.02-0.03  ppb  trlchlorotoluene  have  been
detected  1n  the  Rhine   River  In  Germany   (Sonthelmer,  1980;  StleglHz  and
Roth, 1976).
    The  presence of  chlorinated  organic  compounds  (Including  the  chloro-
toluenes)  1n  the Niagara  River/Lake  Ontario  region  has been attributed to
effluents  from   chemical  manufacturtng plants and  leachates  from  chemical
waste dump sites (Elder  et al.t 1981; Oliver and Nlcol, 1984).
3.2.   FOOD
    Yurawecz   (1979)  detected  2,6-d1chlorotoluene  and 2,4,5-trlchlorotoluene
In  the  edible   portion  of  fish  (bass)   taken  from  the  Niagara  River  In
January,  1976;  the  level  of  2,4,5-trlchlorotoluene  found  1n  the bass  was
0.31 ppm.
3.3.   INHALATION
    PelUzzar!  (1982)  detected an  unspecified dlchlorotoluene  at  0.04-0.45
        (0.006-0.07   ppb)   and  an  unspecified   trlchlorotoluene    at  0.57
       (0.09  ppb) In  the  ambient  air of  Niagara Falls,  NY,  downwind  from
the  Industrial  area;  the  substances  were  not  detected  In  upwind  samples.
0030d                               -25-                             05/19/87

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Levels  of  dlchlorotoluenes,  trlchlorotoluenes and  tetrachlorotoluenes  fouad
1n  the air  of  basements  1n  houses  1n  the  Love  Canal  area  varied  from
0.13-370,  0.11-120  and  0.06-0.17  vg/m3  {0.02-5*1,  0.02-18.2,   0.009-0.03
ppb),  respectively  (PelUzzarl,   1982).    PelUzzarl   et  al.   (1979)   also
reported dlchlorotoluene Isower concentrations  of a trace to 648 ng/m*  and
trlchlorotoluene  Isomer  concentrations  of  a  trace  to  568  ng/m3  In  the
ambient  air  of  Niagara  falls,   ttaaser  and  Sromberg  (1982)  found  2,4-d1-
chlorotoluene In the ambient  air  of Love  Canal.
    Brodzlnsky and  Singh  (1982)  reported  a mean dlchlorotoluene ambient  air
concentration of 9.7 ppt  from four source-dominated areas In Oeepwater,  NJ.
The presence of  chlorotoluenes  In the ambient air  Is  most likely  the result
of emissions from chemical  manufacturing  and waste disposal sites.
3.4.   DERMAL
    Pertinent data  regarding  dermal  monitoring for  the chlorotoluenes  could
not be located 1n the available literature  as cited 1n  Appendix  A.
3.5.   SUMMARY
    Various  specified  and  unspecified Isomers  of  the  chlorotoluenes  have
been detected  1n  the surface  water,  fish and sediments of the  Niagara  River
and Lake Ontario  (Elder  et  al.,  1981; Oliver and  N1col, 1984;  Oliver,  1984;
Great  Lakes  Water  Quality Board,  1983;  Jaffe  and HHes,  1984; Kamlnsky  et
al., 1983;  Yurawecz, 1979).  The  presence  of chlorinated organic  compounds
(Including the  chlorotoluenes)  1n the Niagara River/Lake Ontario  region  has
been attributed  to  effluents  and leachates  from Industrial chemical  waste
dump sites  (Elder  et  al.,  1981;  Oliver  and  N1col,  1984).    Chlorotoluenes
have also  been  detected 1n  the  ambient  air  of  the  Niagara  Falls  region
(PelUzzaM, 1982;  PelUzzarl  et  al., 1979;  Hauser  and Bromberg, 1982)  and
0030d                               -26-                             06/04/87

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1n the air of  source-dominated  areas  1n Oeepwater,  NJ (Brodzlnsky and Singh,
1932).  Adequate monitoring  data  are not available  for  estimating the dally
human  exposure  to  cnlorotoluenes  because  drinking water  and  foods  are
Ingested or Inhaled.
0030d                               -27-                             06/04/87

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                             4.   AQUATIC TOXICITY
4.1.   ACUTE TOXICTTT
    Data concerning  the aurte  toxlclty of  chlorl'natetl  toluenes to  aquatic
organisms  are  presented  1n  Table  4-1.  ToxIcHy  to a  particular  species
appears  to  Increase  with   Increasing  chlor1at1on.   The  lowest  reported
acutely  toxic   concentration  was   0.24   mg/i  a,2,4-tr1ch1orotoluene.   a
14-4ay ICcQ for gupples. Poecllja retlculata (Konaeraann,  1981).
4.2.   CHRONIC EFFECTS
    Only two  studies  concerning chronlc/sjubchronlc studies with chlorinated
toluenes  In aquatic  organisms  were  found.  Call  et al.  (1985)  conducted
early life  stage tests with  fathead minnows,  Plmephales  promelas.  exposed  to
3,4-d1chlorotoluene.   Embryos,   larvae  and  juveniles  were   continuously
exposed  under  flow-through  conditions  for  a   total  of  31-33  days.   The
authors  determined  a  LOEC  of  0.148  mg/i,  which  caused significant  reduc-
tions  1n  standard  length and  percent  survival  at  28 days post-hatch.   The
highest  NOEC  was 0.078  mg/l.   Using  these data,  the  authors  calculated  a
HATC (geometric mean of LOEC and NOEC) of 0.107  mg/J,.
    Hermens  et  al.   (1984)  conducted static-renewal  bloassays   with  Daphnla
magna  exposed  to  4-chlorotoluene for  16  days.   They  calculated a  16-day
LC5Q of 1.59 mg/8, and a 16-day EC5Q (reproduction) of  0.58 mg/l.
4.3.   PLANT EFFECTS
    LlHtle  Information was  available  concerning toxldty  of  chlorinated
toluenes  to aquatic  plants.   Frank  et  al.  (1961) reported  that  5  mg/l  of
unspecified  trlchlorotoluene damaged   or  killed  three   species of  aquatic
macrophytes  (Elodea  canadensls.  Potamoqeton nodosus.  Potamogeton pectlnatus)
exposed  for 4 weeks.  Kamlet et  al.  (1986) found that the EC5Q for  Inhibi-
tion  of  luminescence  1n  the bacterium, Photobacterlum phosphoreum.  was  1.4
mg/l In a Mlcrotox test.

0030d                               -28-                             06/04/87

-------


















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0030d
-29-
05/19/87

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4.4.   SUMMARY
    The data concerning toxlclty of chlorotoluenes to aquatic organisms were
Halted.   The  lowest  reported  toxic  caacefliraiton  *a$ O.T4B  ng/1 3,4-d1-
chlorotoluene, which  reduced  growth and  survival  of fathead  minnows  In an
early life stage  test  (Call et  al.. ISflS).  These authors also calculated a
MATC of 0.107 mg/i.
0030d                               -30-                             05/19/87

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                             5.  PHARMACOKJNETICS
5.1.   ABSORPTION
    Hats  were   given  a  single  oral   dose  of  1.3   rag/kg  1*C-p ,*,,-
tetrachlorotoluene  (uniformly  ring-labeled)   In  corn  oil  by  gavage.   Within
4-S  days,  87 and  9%  of  the  radioactivity  was recovered 1n tne  urine and
feces, respectively,  which  Indicates  substantial  absorption from the gastro-
intestinal tract (Qulstad et al.,  1985).   Le Bel  and  Williams (1986) Identi-
fied  2,4,5-tMchlorotoluene  1n  samples  of  human  adipose  tissue,  which
Indicates absorption  of the  compound;  however,  the  route of absorption Is
not  known.   The  observed  systemic  toxldty of 2,3,6-tMchlorotoluene follow-
ing  oral  exposure  (Chapter 6)  Indicates  that the  compound Is absorbed from
the  gastrointestinal  tract.   Barkley  et al.  (1980)  Identified unspecified
Isomers  of  the  dlchlorotoluenes  In  the  breath  of  one resident of  the Love
Canal area 1n New  York but not  In samples of the blood  and urine.   Exposure
was  primarily from  Inhalation.   These findings suggest  that  either  the com-
pound was not readily  absorbed  by  respiratory surfaces,  that  H  was absorbed
and  excreted rapidly  or that  the analytical  method  was not sensitive enough.
Pertinent data  regarding  the  absorption  of  the other  chlorinated  toluenes
could not be located 1n the available literature as dted  1n Appendix A.
5.2.   DISTRIBUTION
    Qulstad  et  al.  (1985)  sacrificed  experimental rats  4-6  days  after the
oral  dose   of  p,a,o,a-tetrachlorotoluene   was   given  (see   Section  5.1.)
and  ~4%  of  this  dose  had been  retained  1n the carcass.   Except for  one rat
given  an   artificially   high  dose   of   p,a,a,
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1n  the  abdominal  fat.   As Indicated In Section  5.1.,  2,4,5-trlchlorotoluene
was  Identified  1n  samples  of  human adipose  tissue   (LeBel  and  Williams,
1986).  Pertlwnt  
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5.5.   SUMMARY
    The  Isomer  For  which  the  most  complete  pharmacofclnetlc profile  was
available  was  p,,a,-tetrachlorotoluene.   This   compound   was   readily
absorbed  by   the  gastrointestinal  tract  of   rats  (Qulstad  et al.,  1985).
p,,,t*~Tetrachlorotolttef  does   not  appear   to   selectively  distributed
to any particular tissue, but  after  an artificially  high dose was given, the
parent  compound  and  the  metabolite,  <*,<*' ,4,4'-tetrachlorost1lbene  accu-
mulated  1n  the abdominal  fat  of rats  {Qulstad  et al-,  1985).   This result
agrees  with   the  findings  of  le  Bel  and Williams  (1386), who  Identified
2,4,5-tMchlorotoluene 1n human adipose tissue.   Qulstad et al. (1985) found
that   the  major  urinary   metabolite  of   p.a.a.a-tetrachlorotoluene   was
4-chloroh1ppur1c  acid,  which  accounted for  78%  of  the  dose.  Many  fecal
metabolites  were  unextractable,   but  4-chlorobenzo1c   add and  a,a',4,4'-
tetrachlorostllbene  were  Identified  In  the  extractable   portion.   Little
p.a.a.a-tetrachlorotoluene  was   excreted   unchanged   In   the  rat.    The
metabolites   of   p.a.a.a-tetrachlorotoluene   were   excreted   primarily   In
the urine (87%), but fecal excretion occurred as well.
OOSOd                               -33-                             08/26/87

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                                 6.   EFFECTS
6.1,   SYSTEMS TOXKITY
    6.1.1.1.   SUBCHRONIC  Pertinent   data   regarding    the    subchronlc
inhalation toxiclty  of tit* chlurlnatsd toluenes could not  be located In the
available literature as cited 1n Appendix A.
    6.1.1.2.   CHROMIC  In a chronic study,  Stankevlch and Osetrov  {1963}
exposed  rats  to  0.0013 mg/i  of dlchloroioluene  (not  otherwise  specified)
by  Inhalation,   Only  "slight  deviations from  control  rats"  were  reported.
Few  details  were provided  1n  this  brief  abstract,  and data  concerning the
chronic  Inhalation  toxldty  of  the  other  chlorinated toluenes  were  not
located.
6.1.2.   Oral Exposures.
    6.1.2.1.   SUBCHRONIC  Chu et al .  (1984)  gave  groups  of 10  female and
10  male Sprague-Dawley  rats  2,3,6-  or  a,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene  1n the  diet
at  concentrations  of 0,  0.5,  5, 50  or  500  ppm  for  28 days.   Endpolnts  of
toxldty examined  were  general  appearance,  body  weight,   food  consumption,
biochemical parameters  and  hematology; gross  and  histopathologlcal  examina-
tions  were also performed.   Growth, food consumption  and  mortality  were
unaffected by treatment.
    Absolute liver weights were  significantly  Increased  In  male  rats  given 5
and  500  ppm 2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene.   Increased sorbltol  dehydrogenase activ-
ities  were found  1n the 5  ppm 2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene  males.  Dose-related
Increased  Incidences and severity  of mild histopathologlcal  lesions  1n the
liver,  kidney  and thyroid were  observed  1n treated  rats,  presumably at all
doses.
0030d                               -34-                             05/19/87

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    Male  rats  fed 500  ppm ,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene  had  Increased  activities
of ttepatlc  mlcrosonal  amlno-pyrlne-N-deirethylase.  As with  3,'4,&-tr1ch1oro-
ioluene, 2  g/kg
for  p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene.     Stankevlch  and  Osetrov   (1963)   report-
ed that skin application of dlchlorotoluene  (Isomer not  specified)  resulted
In hyperemla,  erosion  (2  days),  fissures  and  hyperkeratosls   (3-5  days).

0030d                               -35-                              05/19/87

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   >-D1cJi lor o toluene  was  positive   In  skin  sensU1zatIon  tests  (Cohen  et
al.,  1967).    Intraperltiwieal  and  Intramuscular  injection  of  hepaMn  and
warfarin,  respectively,  decreased  the  Intensity  of  this  reaction.   This
Inhibition was  attributed  to  the  anticoagulant effect  of these  compounds.
Other relevant Information for  the  other  trhlorlnated toluenes  was not found.
6.2.   CARCIJWGfNICITY
6.2.1.   Inhalation,   Pertinent  data  regarding  the   Inhalation   cardno-
genlclty of  the  chlorinated toluenes could  not  be located In  the  available
literature as cited 1n Appendix A.
6.2.2.   Oral.   In  an  oral  carclnogenlcHy  study  by  Fukuda  et al.  (1979),
groups of 30  female  ICR-SLC  mice were given  0,  0.05,  0.13, 0.32, 0.8 and 2.0
lit   of   p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene  In   sesame   oil   by   gavage   twice
weekly   for    17.5   weeks.    Mice   were   necropsled   54.5   weeks   later.
p.a.a.a-Tetrachlorotoluene  produced  tumors   1n  the  stomach,   lungs,   skin
and  lymphatic organs  (Table 6-1).   Other  tumors  observed Included mammary
adenocarclnoma,  ear  canal  squamous cell  carcinoma,  salivary  gland  adeno
carcinoma  and  ovary  granulosa cell  tumor.  Tumor  development  and  death
occurred earlier  In  the  high-dose  group.   The  Incidence  of  adenocardnomas
of  the  lungs  In female mice was highly  significant In  the third and fourth
dose  groups;  also, a  dose-effect  relationship  was  observed  In total  tumor
Incidence.   Data  concerning the carclnogenlcHy  of  the  other  chlorinated
toluenes following oral dosing  could not be  located  1n the available litera-
ture as cited 1n Appendix A.
6.2.3.   Other  Relevant  Information.   Hooker  Chemical  Co.   (1980)   also
reported a dermal  carclnogenlclty  study  summarized briefly by  Fukuda et al.
(1979)   In   which  5   yl  of   p,a,o,a-tetrachlorotoluene  was  applied  to
the  skin of  two  groups of 21 or 22 mice twice  weekly  for  30  weeks,  followed


0030d                               -36-                             08/26/87

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                                   TABLE 6-1

     Timor Incidence In female ICR-SLC Mice Given p,a,a,a-Tetracnloroto1uene
         of Unspecified Purity 1n Sesame 011  Twice Weekly by Savage for
             17.5 Weeks, followed by a 54.5-Week Observation Period*
Dose
           Target Organ
            or System
 Tumor Type
Timor Incidence
0








0.05








0.13








0.32








lung

lung
stomach
stomach
stomach
tnymus
lymphatic
skin
lung

lung
stomach
stomach
stomach
thymus
lymphatic
skin
lung

lung
stomach
stomach
stomach
thymus
lymphatic
skin
lung

lung
stomach
stomach
stomach
thymus
lymphatic
skin
adenocarclnoma

multiple adenoma
squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma in. sUu
multiple papllloma
thywona
malignant lymphoma
NSC
adenocarclnoma

multiple adenoma
squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma in situ
..multiple paplHoma
thymoma
malignant lymphoma
NSC
adenocarclnoma

multiple adenoma
squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma In situ
multiple papllloma
thymoma
malignant lymphoma
NSC
adenocarclnoma

multiple adenoma
squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma in situ
multiple papllloma
thymoma
malignant lymphoma
spindle cell sarcoma
0/26 (0)
(p0. 00001 5 )b
1/26 (4)
0/26 (0)
0/26 (0)
0/26 
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                              TABLE 6-1 (cont.)
Dose
           Target Organ
            or System
            lung

            lung
            stomach
            stomach
            stomach
            thymus
            lymphatic
            skin
Tunwr Type
Tumor Incidence
      (X)
0.8 lung

lung
stomach
stomach
stomach
thymus
lymphatic
skin

adenocardnoma

multiple adenoma
squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma l situ
multiple papHloma
thymoma
malignant lymphoma
spindle cell sarcoma and
sebaceous gland carcinoma
15/29 (52)
(p=0. 0000065)
10/29 (34)
6/29 (21)
4/29 {14)
2/29 (7)
4/29 (14)
0/29 (0)
2/29 (7)

                              adenocardnoma

                              multiple adenoma
                              squamous cell carcinoma
                              carcinoma J[n_ situ
                              multiple papllloma
                              thymoma
                              malignant lymphoma
                              squamous cell carcinoma
                           2/29 (7)
                          (p.0.3)
                          17/29 (59)
                           7/29 (24)
                           3/29 (10)
                           1/29 (3)
                           8/29 (28)
                           5/29 (17)
                           6/29 (21)
Strengths of Study:



Weakness of Study:
                              QUALITY  OF  EVIDENCE

                     Several  dosage  levels were  administered  by a  relevant
                     route  to sufficient  numbers  of animals  with  a  suffi-
                     cient observation period for tumor development.

                     One  sex  of one  species  was tested  twice weekly  for  a
                     limited  period  of  time.  The  MTD was not  estimated by
                     pre-testlng.   The  nature  and  extent  of  hlstopatho-
                     loglcal  examination  were  not  reported.   Although  the
                     mice were  observed  for  a  sufficient  period  for  tumor
                     development,  they  were  treated  for  only  17  weeks.
                     Dosing schedule was 2 days/week.
Overall Adequacy:    Adequate
aSource: Fukuda et a!., 1979

bCochran-Arm1tage test performed excluding data from high-dose group

cF1sher Exact test performed at SRC

NS = Not specified
0030d
                                    -38-
                                 05/19/87

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by a 7-week observation period.  Tumors developed  primarily  In the digestive
system and  skin (Table 6-2),  Indicating  either systemic  uptake by  skin  or
Ingestlon, which  was  due  to grooming.   Relevant  Information  regarding  the
carc1nogen1c1ty of other chlorinated toluenes were  not located.
6.3.   HUTAfiEMICmf
    Pertinent  data  regarding the  mutagenlclty of  the chlorinated  toluenes
could not be located In the available literature as cited  1n Appendix A.
6.4.   TERATOGNICmr
    As reported in  abstract  form,  Ruddlck et al.  (1982) administered 2,3.6-
and  a,"2,6-tr1ctrtorotoluene by  gavag*  to  pregnant  rats  on   days  6-15  of
gestation at  doses  of 0,   100,  200 or 400 mg/kg/day.  Maternal  toxlclty  was
measured  by  weight  gain  changes,  organ  weight changes,  hematology,  micro-
scopic  examination  and  15  biochemical   parameters.   LHter  size,  fetal
weight, dedduoma,  skeletal and visceral  examination,  and microscopic exami-
nations were  used   to  evaluate  fetotoxldty and teratogen1c1ty.   2,3,6-TM-
chlorotoluene  treatment resulted   1n  reduced  fetal  weight  at  400  mg/kg/day.
Treatment  with a,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene  resulted   In  significantly  (p<0.05)
reduced maternal weight gain at 200  and 400  mg/kg/day.  H1stolog1cal  changes
were  observed  In   the thyroid,   bone  marrow,  kidney  and  liver  of  dams
presumably at  all   doses  of both  Isomers.   Pups  had liver  damage  and  the
liver  damage  was  most  severe at  400 mg/kg/day 2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene.   It
was  Inferred  that   liver damage  of pups  occurred  at  all  doses  of  2,3,6- or
a,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene.
6.5.   OTHER REPRODUCTIVE  EFFECTS
    Pertinent  data  regarding  the  other reproductive  effects of the  chlori-
nated toluenes  could  not be located 1n the  available  literature as  cited In
Appendix A.


0030d                               -39-                             08/26/87

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                                  TABLE 6-2

            Incidence of Tumors In Mice Treated Dermally with 5 p
             P,a,a*a-Tetrachloroto1uene Twice Weekly for 30 Weeks
                   followed .by a 7-Week Observation Period*
Incidence
Target Organ
Skin
Lung
Esophagus
Forestomach
Glandular stomach
Hematopo1et1c system
Thymus
Tumor Type
squamous cell carcinoma
sarcoma
papllloma
carcinoma
carcinoma
carcinoma
carcinoma
leukemia
thymoma
Group A
(n-22)
12/22
2/22
2/22
1/22
5/22
2/22
1/22
1/22
1/22
Group B
(n-21)
9/21
1/21
4/21
3/21 .
2/21
0/21
0/21
0/21
2/21
*Source: Fukuda et a!., 1979
0030d
-40-
05/19/87

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6,6.   SUMMARY
    Few  data  were  available  upon which  to base  an adequate  toxlcologlcal
pmfH.  A Russian study reported  that  rats  chronically exposed  to 0,0013
mg/a,  dlchlorotoluene  (not  otherwise  specified)   by  Inhalation  exhibited
only slight  deviations from controls  (Stankevlch  and Osetrov,  1963).   flats
given  dietary  2,3,6- or  a,2,6-tr1ch"lorotoluene  at  concentrations  of  0,
0.5. 5,  50  or 500  ppm for 28 days  exhibited  Increased liver  weight (5 and
500  ppra  2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene  males),   Increased  sorbltol  dehydrogenase
activity  (5  ppm  2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene  males),   Increased  activities  of
hepatic  mlcrosomal   enzymes   (500   ppm  o,2,6-tr1chloroto"luene  males}  and
dose-related  lesions  of  the  liver,  kidney  and thyroid  (all  treated  rats)
(Chu et  al.,   1984).   The  following oral LD50s were reported:   2000  mg/kg
2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene   1n  mice    (NIOSH,  1986);   700   and    1350  mg/kg
p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene  1n  rats   and mice,   respectively   (Khalepo  et
al., -7984);   and   820  mg/kg   p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene   1n  rats  (Hooker
Chemical Co.,  1980).   Signs and  symptoms of  acute  tox1c1ty Included  motor
activity, tremors,  diarrhea,  plloerectlon and  chromodacryorrhea  and gastric
Irritation  (Hooker  Chemical Co.,  1980).   An  Inhalation  threshold  and LC5Q
of  22.4  and  123 mg/ma,  respectively, for  unspecified  durations   for  both
rats and  mice was  reported  by Khalepo et  al.  (1984).   Hooker  Chemical  Co.
(1980)    reported   a  dermal   LD5Q   >2   g/kg   for   p,o,a,a-tetrachlorotolu-
ene.  a,o-D1chlorotoluene  was  positive  In  skin  sensltlzatlon   tests  (Cohen
et al.,  1967).
    No   data  were  available  to  assess  the  carcinogenic  potential  of  the
chlorinated  toluenes  from  Inhalation.   Fukuda et  al.  (1979)  gave  mice  0,
0.05,  0.13,   0.32,   0.8  and   2   yi   of   p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene   by
gavage  for  17.5  weeks.   Tumors  1n  the  stomach,   lung,  skin  and  lymphatic


0030d                               -41-                             05/19/87

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organs were  observed  18 months later.   Tumors  1n the digestive  system  were
also  noted   after   denaal   application  of  p,a,a.-tetrachlOToto1un   to
nice  Ifakute  si al.,  1979).   No data concerning  the muUgenlc effect  of  the
chlorinated toluenes were located.
    The  only  study available  concerning the teratogenlclty  of   the  chlori-
nated toluenes  was  by  Ruddlck  et  al.  (1982), who  gave  pregnant rats 0-400
mg/kg/day  2,3,6-  or  ,2t6-tr1chlorotoluen  by th  oral  route.   Hlstopatho-
loglc lesions In  the  thyroid, bone marrow, kidney and  liver  occurred  In  dams
at  unspecified  doses.  Reduced fetal  body  weight  and  liver damage  of  pups
occurred  at  all  doses  of 2,3,6- and  a.2v6-tr1th1orto"ltrene,  but were  most
severe  at  400  mg/kg/day  2,3,6-tMchlorotoluene.   No  data  were  available
concerning the other reproductive effects of  the  chlorinated  toluenes.
0030d                               -42-                             05/19/87

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                     7.   EXISTING GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS
7.1.   HUMAN
    Pertinent  guidelines  and standards. Including IPA ambient  water and air
quality  criteria,  drinking  water standards, FAO/HHO ADIs,  EPA  or FDA toler-
ances  for  raw agricultural  commodities or  foods,  and ACGJH,  NI0SH or  OSHA
occupational  exposure  limits could not  be located 1n the  available litera-
ture as cited  In Appendix A.
7.2.   AQUATIC
    Guidelines and standards  for  the  protection  of aquatic  organisms  from
the effects  of chlorinated  toluenes  could  not be located  In  the available
literature as  cited 1n Appendix A.
0030d                               -43-                             05/19/87

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                             8.  RISK ASSESSMENT
B.I,   CARciNOGmcmr
fl.1,1.   Inflation,  1to  data  were available  to  assess  tlw  carcinogenic
potential of the chlorinated toluenes from Inhalation.
8.1.2.   Oral,    One    study   by   ttw   oral   route   was   available  for
p,a,a,a-tetrachloroto1uene.    Fukuda  et  al.  (1979)  gave  mice   D,   0.05.
0.13,   0.32,   0.8   and  2   v*  of   p,a,a,*-tetracJilorotoluene   for   17.5
weeks;  18 months  later  cancer of  the  stomach,  lung,   skin  and  lymphatic
organs was observed (see Table 6-1).
8.1.3.   Other Routes.  Cancer  of  the  digestive  system was also noted  after
dermal   application   of  p,a,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene   to   mice  (Fukuda   et
al., 1979) (see Table 6-2).
8.1.4.   Weight  of  Evidence.   Pertinent  data  regarding  the  carcinogenic
effect  of the chlorinated  toluenes 1n humans  could not  be  located  1n  the
available  literature  as  cited 1n  Appendix A.   An  Increased Incidence  of
malignant  and benign  tumors  was  observed at  multiple  sites  after  oral
administration  of  p,a,o,a-tetrachlorotoluene   and  early  onset  of  tumors
was  noted In  the high-dose group  (Fukuda et  al., 1979).   This   study  had
several  limitations:    the  MTD was  not  estimated  by adequate  pre-testlng;
only  one  sex  of   one  species  was  tested;  dosing was  only twice a  week;  and
testing was for less  than lifetime.  Strengths of  the  study Included testing
of  adequate numbers  of  mice by a relevant  route at  several dose levels,  and
the  observation  period  was  sufficient  for  tumor development.   The  Increased
incidence of  adenocardnomas was dose-related and  significant.  The positive
dermal  carclnogenlclty  study  1n mice  by  Fukuda et al.   (1979)  supports  the
oral   study.    Furthermore,  
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animal evidence was considered sufficient, and  1n  the absence of human data,
assignment to EPA Group B2, a probable human carcinogen, Is Indicated.
8.1.5.   Quantitative Risk Estimates.
    8.1.5.1.   INHALATION  Inhalation  data  were  not available  to  calcu-
late a q,* for Inhalation exposure.
    8.1.5,2.   ORAL  The data  for  lung adenocardnoma  (see Table 6-1) In
the oral  study 5n mice  by  Fukuda et al.  (1979)  were used  to calculate the
q..*  because  the  highest tumor  Incidences were  noted for  this  tumor  type
and a dose-effect relationship was Indicated.   Benign tumors  were  not pooled
with  the  malignancies  and tumors  at  multiple sites  were  not pooled because
Individual pathology  data were  not   available.   Since the  data  for  adeno-
cardnomas  were  not   statistically  analyzed  In  the  original  report,  the
Fisher  Exact  and Cochran-ArmHage tests were  performed.   The  Fisher  Exact
test  showed  that, with  the  exception of  the high-dose group,  the observed
tumor  Incidences 1n   the  treated  groups  significantly   differed  from  the
controls.  A  high Incidence of  multiple  adenomas  was observed  1n the high-
dose  group,  which Indicated a  tumorlgenlc response,  If  not  a  carcinogenic
response.   The  lack   of malignancies  at  the  high  dose  Is  difficult  to
explain; however, mice 1n this  group  died  earlier and had a high Incidence
of  lung  adenomas.   When the high  dose  was Included  1n  the  Cochran-Armltage
test, a  significant dose-related trend  was not Indicated; however,  when the
high  dose  data were  excluded,   a  positive dose  relationship resulted.   To
calculate  the  q  *.  the  doses  given  In vi  In  the  original  report  were
converted  to   mg/kg/day  by  multiplying  by  the   density  of  p,a,a,a-tetra-
chlorotoluene  (1.485   mg/yl)  and  dividing  by  the  assumed   body  weight  of
mice  (0.03 kg).   The  doses were  expanded  over  7  days because the mice  were
treated by gavage only 2 days/week.   The  duration  of treatment was less  than
0030d                               -45-                             08/26/87

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the  duration  of the study;  therefore,  the dose was multiplied bythe ratio
of  the length  of  exposure  to  the  length of  the experiment  to yield  the
transformed   doses   tftppendlx   1)-   T1   unadjusted   q *  of   5.12xlO~a
(mg/kg/day)"1 was  calculated using  the  multistage model  of Howe  and  Crump
(1992).   The data  for the  highest dose  group were  excluded because  when
Included  the data did not  fit  the model.   The human  q *  of  20  {mgAg/
day)"1  was  obtained  by  multiplying the  unadjusted  q.*  by  the  cube  root
of tne  ratio of the  reference  human body weight  of  70 kg  to  the  reference
mouse body weight  of  0.03 kg and by multiplying by the cube of the ratio of
llfespan  to  the length of the  experiment  because the duration of  the  study
was less  than the Hfespan of the animal.
    The  concentration of  the  chemical  1n drinking  water associated with  a
risk  a  level  of  10~5  was  calculated  by dividing  the  risk  level  of  10~5
by  the  q,*,  multiplying  by  70  kg  and   dividing  by  2 I  to give  a  concen-
tration  of  2xlO~5 mg/a.    Concentrations  associated  with  risk  levels  of
10"*  and 10~7  are   2xlO~  and   2xlO~7  mg/l,  respectively.    Data   for
calculating  a  q,*  for  the  other chlorinated  toluenes could not be  located
1n the available literature as cited In Appendix A.
8.2.   SYSTEMIC TOXICITY
8.2.1.    Inhalation Exposure.
    8.2.1.1.    LESS  THAN   LIFETIME   EXPOSURES   (SUBCHRONIC)  -- No  data  were
available  to calculate a  subchronlc Inhalation  RfD  for  any of  the  chlori-
nated toluenes.
    8.2.1.2.    CHRONIC  EXPOSURES  A  Russian   study  reported  that   rats
chronically  exposed  to 0.0013  mg/8, dlchlorotoluene  by  Inhalation  exhibited
only  slight  deviations from controls  (Stankevlch and Osetrov,  1963).   The
abstract  of  this  study did not  provide  sufficient detail  to support a quan-
titative  risk assessment.
0030d                                -46-                             08/26/87

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.2.2.   Oral Exposure.
    8.2.2.1.   USS  THAU   LIFETIME  EXPOSURES   (SUBCHRONIC)  ~ Rats   given
dietary  2,3,6-  and  a,2,&-tr1chloroto1une  at  concentrations  of 0, 0.5,  5,
50  and  500 ppm for 28  days  exhibited  Increased liver weight  (5 and  500 ppm
2,3,fc-trlthlorotoltietYe wales)  Increased sorfcUtfl tJehydrogenase activity  {5
ppm  2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene  males).  Increased  activities   of   a  mlcrosomal
enzyme  (500 ppm  a,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene  males)  and  dose-related  lesions  of
the liver,  kidney and  thyroid  (all  treated rats) (Chu et  a!.,  1984).   This
study defined tOAELs of 0.5  ppm (0.05  mgAg/day average dose of both Isomers
estimated  by the  authors)  for  2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene and a,2,6-tr1chloro-
toluene to  the  liver,  kidney and  thyroid gland.  Dividing these LOAELs by an
uncertainty  factor of  1000 (10 for species  to species  extrapolation,  10 for
a  LOAEL  and 10  to  protect  sensitive  humans)  yields  subchronlc RfOs  of
0.00005 mg/kg/day  or  0.004  mg/day  for  a 70 kg human.   These RfOs are much
lower  than  the  levels  (>100  mg/kg/day)  of  2,3,6- and  o,2,6-tr1chloro-
toluene associated with maternal  and  fetoxlc  effects In  the oral  teratugen-
1c1ty study by  Ruddlck et  al.  (1982).  The confidence  level  1n  the  RfO  Is
low because  of  small  sample  size  and  the  short  duration of  the  Chu  et al.
(1984)  study.   Additionally,  a  NOAEL could  not  be  defined  and   supporting
data were  lacking.  Data  for deriving subchronlc  RfDs  for  the other  chlori-
nated toluenes were not located.
    8.2.2.2.   CHRONIC  EXPOSURES -- The   oral   subchronlc  RfD   (see Section
8.2.2.1.)  based  on   the   effects   of  liver,   kidney  and  thyroid  toxldty
reported by  Chu et al.  (1984)  could not  be used as a basis for a chronic RfD
because the  28-day exposure  period,  although  adequate for  a subchronlc RfD,
1s not adequately  long for a chronic  RfD,  even  1f the  dose 1s divided by  an
uncertainty  factor of 10 to  approximate  chronic exposure.   A 90-day study  Is
recommended before an  RfD  for chronic  oral exposure can  be calculated.

0030d                               -47-                              08/26/87

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                          9.  REPORTABU QUANTITIS
9.1.   8AS0 OH SYSTEHIC TOXJCITY
    Th  toxldty  and  teratogcnlclt?  tif  2,1,ft- and  a,2,ft-tr1chlorotoluene
were  discussed  In Chapter  6,  and the  dose-response data are  summarized  1n
TafcTe  9-1-   Cha  et  al.  (1984)  observed  ti1stopattu>1og1cal  lesions  of  the
liver,  kidney  and thyroid  1n  rats given oral  doses >0,05 mg/kg/day for  2B
days.   Although  the duration of  this  study was only  28 days, 1t  should  be
considered for RQ  determination because of  the nature  of  the effects at low
doses  and  because longer-term  studies  are  lacking.   Ruddle* et al,  {1982}
observed  liver  damage  In  the  offspring  of dams  given oral  doses of  >10Q
mg/kg/day  2,3,6-  or  a,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene  during  organogenesls.   The  most
severe  effect  observed was  fetotoxldty (liver  damage), which was given  an
RV   of 8  (Table  9-2).  The MED  was calculated  by  multiplying the  equiva-
lent  human  dose of  17 mg/kg/day  by  70 kg.   The  MED  of  1190  mg/day  corre-
sponds  to an  RV.  of  1.   A  CS  of  8  was obtained  for  this endpolnt  by
multiplying  the  RV,  by the RV .   Although fetoxldty  was  the most  severe
effect, H occurred  at a much  higher dose  than  the  toxlclty  observed  by Chu
et  al.  (1984).   Dividing the equivalent human dose  of  0.006  mg/kg/day  by an
uncertainty  factor  of  10 and  multiplying   by  70 kg yields  an MED of  0.042
mg/day, which  corresponds  to an  RV   of 7.6.  The  hlstopathologlcal  lesions
of  the liver,  kidney and  thyroid were assigned  an RV  of  3  because  they
were  described  as  mild.   Thus,  a CS  of  23  was  calculated  for the  liver,
kidney  and thyroid  toxIcHy  observed  by Chu et al.  (1984), which corresponds
to  an RQ of  100 pounds.   The  RQ 1s recommended  for  2,3,6-trlchlorotoluene
and  for a,2,6-tr1chlorotoluene  (Tables 9-3 and  9-4).    Data  suitable  for  RQ
derivation for the other chlorinated toluenes were not located.
0030d                               -48-                             08/26/87

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         -50-
                       08/26/87

-------
                                  TABLE 9-3
                            2,3,6-TMchlorotoluene
          Minimum Effective Dose  (MED) and Reportable Quantity (RQ)

Route:                  oral
Dose*:                  0.042  mg/day
Effect:                 mild  liver,  kidney and  thyroid  toxlclty
Reference:              Chu et al.,  1984
RVd:                    7.6
RVe:                    3
Composite Score:         23
RQ:                     TOO
'Equivalent human dose (MED)
0030d                               -51-                             08/26/87

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                                  TABLE 9-4

                            ,2,6-Tr1eft1orotoluene

          Minimum Effective Dose  (MED) and Reportable Quantity  (RQ)



Route:                  oral

Dose*:                  0.042 nig/day

Effect:                 mild liver,  kidney and thyroid lesions

Reference:              Chu et al.,  1984

RVd:                    7.6                    .

RVe:                    3
            *
Composite Score:        23

RQ:                     100
*Equ1valent human dose (MED)
0030d                               -52-                             08/26/87

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9.2.   BASED OM CARCINOGENICIPr
    One  Japanese  study  by  the  oral  route  was  available  for
tetrachlorotoluene.  Fukuda et al.  (1379) gave  mice 0,  0.05, 0.13, 0.32, 0.8
and   2  n*  of   p.o.o.o-tetrachlorotoluene   for  17.5  weeks.    Cancer  of
the stomacn,  lung, skin awl  lyapnatlt  organs was otiscrwi  54.5  weeks later
(see Table 6-1).   Cancer of  the  digestive  system was also noted after dermal
application   of   p,a,*,-tetrachlorotoluene    to   mice   (Fukuda  et   al.,
1979)  (see  Section  6.1.,  Table  6-1).   The  animal  evidence  was considered
sufficient, and  In the absence of human data,  assignment  to EPA  Group 82, a
probable  human carcinogen,  was   Indicated.   As  discussed  In  Chapter B,  a
q *  was   calculated  for   p,,a,a-tetrachlorotoluene  based   on  data  for
adenocarclnomas In mice (Fukuda  et  al.,  1979).   The same  data can be used to
calculate the  F  factor (Table 9-5).   The  transformed  doses  were calculated
as described. 1n  Chapter 8.   The unadjusted  1/ED10  was calculated using the
multistage model without the  data from the high-dose group  because the data
did not  fH  the model when  this group was Included.   The absence of tumors
1n the high-dose  group may be  attributable  to  early  deaths of  this  group
since  they  had a  high Incidence of adenomas,  which may  have  progressed to
carcinomas had the  rats  lived  longer.  The  unadjusted   I/ED,-  of  3.4  was
multiplied by  the cube root  of   the  ratio  of  the  human  body weight  to the
                                   l/T
mouse  body weight  [(70 kg/0.03  kg)   ] and by  the  cube of  the ratio of the
Hfespan  of   the  mouse  to   the   duration   of  the  study   [(104  weeks/72
weeks)3],  yielding  an  adjusted   1/ED1Q  of   136   (mg/kg/day)"1.   Because
the  F   Factor  Is  >100,  p,a,o,a-tetrachlorotoluene  was   placed   In  Potency
Group  1,  which  along with  an  EPA  grouping   of   B2  gives  p,a,a,a-tetra-
chlorotoluene a HIGH hazard ranking under CERCLA and an  RQ of 1.
0030d                               -53-                             08/26/87

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                                  TABLE 9-5
    Derivation of Potency Factor (F  Factor)  for p,a,,a-Tetrachlorotoluene
Reference:
Exposure route:
Species:
Strain:
Sex:
Vehicle or physical state:
Body weight:
Duration of treatment:
Duration of study:
Ufespan of animal:
Target organ:
Tumor type:
Experimental doses/exposures:
Transformed doses (mg/kg/day);
Tumor Incidence:
Unadjusted 1/ED10:
Adjusted l/ED-|o (F Factor):
Ftikuda et a!., 1979
oral
mouse
1CR-SLC
female
sesame oil
0.03 kg
17.5 weeks
72 weeks
104 weeks
lung
adenocardnoma
0, 0.05, 0.13, 0.32, 0.8 and 2.0 V9.,
2 days/week
0, 0.17, 0.45, 1.10, 2.75 and 6.88*
0/26, 3/22, 7/28, 10/22, 15/29, 2/29*
3.409 (mg/kg/day)~1
136  (mg/kg/day)'1
 "High dose data excluded from calculation (see text)
0030d
  -54-
08/26/87

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                                10.   REFERENCES

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0030d                               -55-                             08/26/87

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-------
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0030d                               -61-                             08/26/87

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Qulstad,  G.B.,  K.H.   Mulholland,   G.   Skllles   and  G.C.  Jaroleson.   1965.
ftetatooHsra  of  4-cJilorot>enzotr1cn1or1de  In  rats.   3.  Agrlc.  Food  there,
33(1 J: 95-98.
      c, D.A., D.C,  imiwwim,  V.  Secoras anti V.t.  ValH.   1982.  K trans-
placenta! and  teratologlcal  evaluation of  three trltnlorotoluene congeners
1n the rat.   Teratology.   25(2):  72A-73A,

Sadtler.  1960,  209 UV.   Sadtler Research laboratories, ?nnade!ph1a, PA.

Sadtler.  1961.  5404 UV.   Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia, PA.

Sadtler.  1966a.   211 UV.   Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia, PA.

Sadtler.  1966b.   210 UV.   Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia, PA.

Sadtler.  1966c.   206 UV.   Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia, PA.

Sadtler.  1966d.   203 UV.   Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia. PA.

Sadtler.  1974.  21,877 UV.  Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia, PA.

Sadtler.  1975.  22,985 UV.  Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia, PA.

Sadtler.  1976.  23,715 UV.  Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia, PA.

Sadtler.  1977.  24,689 UV.  Sadtler Research  Laboratories,  Philadelphia, PA.


0030d                               -62-                             08/26/87

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Sadtler.  1980.  29,636 UV.  Sadtler Research Laboratories,  Philadelphia* PA.

Shell 051 DJ.  1962.  7SCA S(dJ  Submission  878210113.   B1
-------
Toswila,  E.   1966.   Solvolysls  of  benzyl  chloride  In  dimethyl  sulfoxlde
water mixtures.  Arta. Chem. Scatid.  20(4): 923-936.

Ulanova,  I.P.,  P.M.  Dyachkov and  A.I.  Khalepo   1986.   Electronic structure,
toxltsmetry  paraweters  atwl  nyrjtenlc  regulations  of  Halfltjen thwlvatlves  of
toluene.  Gig. Tr. Prof. Zabol.  3: 6-11.  {CA 104(22):192160n)

U.S.  EPA.   1971.   Computer  print-out  of nonconfIdentlal  prwJtrctlon data from
TSCA  Inventory.  OPTS, CID, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC.

U.S.  EPA.   1980.   Guidelines  and Methodology  Used  In  the Preparation  of
Health  Effect  Assessment  Chapters  of  the Consent  Decree  Water  Quality
Criteria  Documents.  Federal Register.  45(231): 49347-49357.

U.S.  EPA.   1983.    Chemical  Hazard  Information  Profile:  p-Chlorobenzotr1-
chlo-lde.   Draft Report.   Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.  Office
of Toxic  Substances, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC.

U.S.  EPA.  1984.   Methodology and  Guidelines for  Reportable Quantity Deter-
minations Based on Chronic Toxldty Data.   Prepared  by  the Office of Health
and  Environmental  Assessment,  Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office,
Cincinnati,  OH  for  the  Office  of   Solid  Waste  and   Emergency  Response,
Washington,  DC.

U.S.  EPA.  1986a.   Methodology  for Evaluating  Carclnogenlclty  1n Support of
Reportable  Quantity  Adjustments  Pursuant to CERCLA Section 102.  Prepared by
the  Office  of Health  and  Environmental  Assessment,  Washington,  DC  for  the
Office  of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington,  DC.

0030d                              -64-                              08/26/87

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U.S.  EPA.   1986b.  Health  and Environmental  Effects  Profile for  BenzotM-
chlorlde.  Prepared  by the  Office of  Health  and Environmental  Assessment,
fn*5r0nfflental Criteria and  Assessment  Office.  Cincinnati. OH for  the  Office
of Solid Waste and Emergency Response,  Washington, DC.

U.S. IWL  1987.   Graphical Exposure Modeling System  (GfWS).  Octanol-Water
Partition  Coefficient  (CLOGP) and/or  Fate of  Atmospheric Pollutants  (FAP)
computer data systems.   U.S. EPA,  Research Triangle Park.  NC.

USITC  {U.S.  International Trade  Commission).   1984.   Imports  of  BenzeneId
Chemical and Products  1983.   USITC Publ. 1548,  Washington, DC.  p. 16.

USITC  (U.S.  International Trade  Commission).   1986.   United States  Produc-
tion and Sales,  1985.   USITC Publ. 1892, Washington,  DC.   p.  38.

Vandenbergh,   P.A.,  R.H.   Olsen  and J.F.  Colaruotolo.   1981.   Isolation  and
genetic characterization  of  bacteria  that degrade chloroaromatlc compounds.
Appl. Environ. H1crob1ol.   42: 737-739.

Weast,  R.C.,  Ed.   1985.   CRC Handbook  of Chemistry  and Physics, 66th  ed.
CRC Press,  Inc.,  Boca  Raton, FL.   p.  C-143, 148,  149,  519, 521, 522.

Wellens, H.  1984.  Determination  and  evaluation  of biological  degradabllUy.
Vom Wasser.  63:  191-198.

Yurawecz,  M.P.    1979.   Gas-I1qu1d chromatographlc  and  mass spectrometrlc
Identification of chlorinated  trlfluorotoluene  residues In  Niagara  River
fish.  J. Assoc.  Off.  Anal.  Chem.   62(1):  36-40.

0030d                               -65-                            08/26/87

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                                  APPENDIX A

                             LITERATUR SEAROO



    This  HEED  Is  based  on  data  Identified  by  computerized  literature

searches of the following:


         TSCATS
         CASR onllM {U.S.  EPA  Chemical  Activities  Status  Report)
         TOXLINE
         TOXBACK 76
         TOXBACK 65
         OHM TADS
         SRC Environmental Fate Data Bases
         SANSS
         AQUIRE
         TSCAPP
         NTIS
         Federal Register


These searches were conducted  In December,  1986.   In  addition,  hand searches

were made of  Chemical  Abstracts (Collective Indices  5-9), and  the  following

secondary sources should be reviewed:


    AC6IH (American  Conference of Governmental  Industrial  Hyglenlsts).
    1986.   Documentation  of the Threshold  Limit Values  and  Biological
    Exposure Indices, 5th ed.  Cincinnati, OH.

    ACGIH (American  Conference of Governmental  Industrial  Hyglenlsts).
    1986-1987.  TLVs: Threshold Limit  Values for  Chemical Substances In
    the  Work  Environment  adopted  by  ACGIH with  Intended Changes  for
    1986-1987.  Cincinnati, OH.  Ill p.

    Clayton,  G.D.   and   F.E.  Clayton,  Ed.   1981.    Patty's  Industrial
    Hygiene  and Toxicology,  3rd  rev.  ed., Vol.  2A.   John  Wiley  and
    Sons, NY.  2878 p.

    Clayton,  G.D.   and   F.E.  Clayton,  Ed.   1981.    Patty's  Industrial
    Hygiene  and Toxicology,  3rd  rev.  ed., Vol.  28.   John  VlHey  and
    Sons, NY.  p. 2879-3816.

    Clayton,  G.D.   and   F.E.  Clayton,  Ed.   1982.    Patty's  Industrial
    Hygiene  and Toxicology,  3rd  rev.  ed., Vol.  2C.   John  Wiley  and
    Sons, NY.  p. 3817-5112.
0030d                               -66-                             08/26/87

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    Grayson, M.  and D.  Eckroth,  Ed.  1978-1984.   K1rk-0thmer  Encyclo-
    pedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed.   John  Wiley  awl  Sons,  NY,  23
    Volumes.

    Hamilton, A. and H.L. Hardy.  1974.   Industrial  Toxicology,  3rd ed.
    Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., Littleton, MA,  575 p.

    IARC  (International  Agency  for Research  on  Cancer).  IARC  Mono-
    graphs  on  the  Evaluation  of  Carcinogenic  Risk   of  Chemicals  to
    Hwaans.  WHO, IARC, Lyons, frame.

    Oaber,  H.M.,  W.R.  Mabey,  A.T.   Lieu,  T.H.  Chou  and  H.L.  Johnson.
    1984.   Data  acquisition   for   environmental   transport  and  fate
    screening for compounds  of Interest  to  the  Office of Solid  Waste.
    SRI   International,  Menlo   Park,   CA.    EPA   600/6-84-010.    MTIS
    PB84-243906.

    NTP  {National Toxicology  Program).   1986.   Toxicology tesearth and
    Testing  Program.    Chemicals   on  Standard   Protocol.   Management
    Status.

    Ouellette,  R.P. and J.A.  King.   1977.  Chemical  Week  Pesticide
    Register.  McGraw-Hill  Book Co., NY.

    Sax,  I.N.   1984.   Dangerous  Properties  of  Industrial  Materials, 6th
    ed.  Van Nostrand Relnhold Co.,  NY.

    SRI  (Stanford .Research  Institute).   1986.   Directory  of  Chemical
    Producers.  Menlo Park,  CA.

    U.S.  EPA.   1986.  Report  on Status  Report  1n  the Special  Review
    Program,  Registration   Standards  Program  and  the  Data  Call  In
    Programs.   Registration  Standards  and  the  Data  Call  In  Programs.
    Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, DC.

    U.S.  EPA.   1985.   CSB Existing  Chemical  Assessment Tracking System.
    Name  and  CAS Number Ordered  Indexes.   Office of  Toxic  Substances,
    Washington,  DC.

    USITC  (U.S.  International  Trade   Commission).   1985.    Synthetic
    Organic  Chemicals.   U.S.  Production  and  Sales,  1984,  USITC  Publ.
    1422, Washington, DC.

    Verschueren, K.  1983.   Handbook of  Environmental Data  on  Organic
    Chemicals, 2nd ed.   Van  Nostrand Relnhold Co., NY.

    Wlndholz, M., Ed.  1983.  The Merck Index,  10th  ed.   Merck  and Co.,
    Inc., Rahway, NJ.

    Worthing, C.R.  and S.B. Walker, Ed.   1983.  The  Pesticide  Manual.
    British Crop Protection  Council.  695  p.
0030d                               -67-                             08/26/87

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    In  addition,  approximately 30  compendia of  aquatic  toxldty  data  were

reviewed, Including the following:


    Battelle's  Columbus  Laboratories.   1971.   Water  Quality  Criteria
    Data  Book.   Volume  3.  Effects  of  Chemicals  on  Aquatic  Life.
    Selected  Data  from the Literature  through  1968.  Prepared  for the
    U.S. EPA under Contract No. 68-01-0007.  Washington. OC.

    Johnson,  W.W.  and M.T. Flnley.   I960.  Handbook of Acute  Toxlclty
    of  Chemicals  to  F1sh and  Aquatic   Invertebrates.   Summaries  of
    Toxlclty  Tests  Conducted  at  Columbia  National Fisheries  Research
    Laboratory,   1965-1978.   U.S.  Dept.  Interior, Fish  and  Jldl1fe
    Serv. Res. Publ. 137,  Washington, OC.

    McKee. J.f.  and  H.W.  Wolf.  1963.  Water Quality Criteria,  2nd ed.
    Prepared  for  the  Resources   Agency  of  California,   State  Water
            Control Board.  Fubl.  No. 3- A.
    Plmental, D.  1971.  Ecological tffects  of  Pesticides  on Non-Target
    Species.  Prepared for  the U.S. EPA, Washington, DC.  PB-269605.

    Schneider, B.A.   1979.  Toxicology  Handbook.   Mammalian  and Aquatic
    Data.  Book 1: Toxicology  Data.   Office  of  Pesticide Programs, U.S.
    EPA, Washington,  DC.   EPA 540/9-79-003.  NTIS P8 80-196876.
                   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                   Region V, Library
                   230 South Dearborn  Street
                   Chicago, Illinois  60604.
OOSOd                               -68-                             08/26/87

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                                  APPENDIX B
                    Cancer  Data  Sheet  for  Derivation of q-j*
Compound:  p,a,a,a-tetrachloroto1uene
Reference:  Tukuda et a*L, 19T9
Specles/straln/sex:  mouse, ICR-SLC, female
Route/vehicle:  oral, sesame oil
Length of exposure (le) - 17.5 weeks
Length of experiment (Le) * 72 weeks
Llfespan of animal (L) = 104 weeks
Body weight = 0.03 kg (assumed)
Tumor site and type:  lung, adenocardnoma
Exposure
(vl, 2 days/week)
0
0.05
0.13
0.32
0.8
2
Transformed Dose
(mg/kg/day)
0
0.17
0.45
1.10
2.75
6.88
Incidence
No. Responding/No. Tested
0/26
3/22
7/28
10/22
15/29
2/29t
tData for the high-dose group were excluded from q-j* derivation because
 their Inclusion led to a poor fit.
Unadjusted q-j* = 5.12098X10"1 mg/kg/day)~l
Human q-j* = 20.47 (mg/kg/day)'1
0030d
-69-
08/26/87

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