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                O
                QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT
                    JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
                  Environmental
                  Research Laboratory
                  Duluth, Minnesota 55804

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         UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

               ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY - DULUTH
                       6201 CONGDON BOULEVARD
                       DULUTH, MINNESOTA 55804
December 6,  1988

MEMORANDUM
SUBJECT:


FROM:


TO:
Fourth Quarter FY88 Progress Report on Projects of the
Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth  (ERL-D)
Nelson A. Thomas, Chair
Strategic Communication Council, ERL-Duluth

Addressees
     Attached  is a copy of the  ERL-Duluth progress report on
research projects for the fourth  quarter.  The following are
highlights from various projects/activities:

          Emphasis is being  placed  on  toxicity testing by
          combining these tests with chemical  fractionation, to
          aid  in toxicity reduction evaluation (TIEs).  This
          permits more positive coupling  of chemical
          identifications with  toxicity.   Project 5,  page 3.

          Preliminary results consisting  of a  28-day  exposure
          period and a six-month  dupuration phase suggest that
          fish may be a sensitive screen  for detecting
          carcinogenic responses.   Project 3,  page 10.

          Field studies show concentrations of selenium in water
          are not directly responsible for impacts found on fish.
          The major route of exposure  is  thought  to be through
          the consumption of food that has accumulated selenium.
          Project 3, page 10.
          Studies on the uptakes of formulated Bacillus
          thuringiensis var israelensis  (Bti) continue.
          6, page 25.
                                               Project
          Computerized system for QSAR evaluation of chemicals
          delivered to OTS.  It contains a CLOGP program for
          state-of-the-art Log P calculation as well as  an  expert
          system for chemical evaluation.  Other accomplishments
          are highlighted.  Project 13, page 31.

          Final report entitled "Factors controlling the recovery
          of aquatic systems from disturbance" submitted this
          quarter.  Project 31, page 33.
Attachment

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                                 Table of Contents

HIGHLIGHTS

Water Quality
   Duluth

    Aquatic Life Sediment Criteria Development
    WQ Toxicity-Based NPDES Permits Methods
    WQ Assessment Techniques
    Ecological Research with the People's Republic of China
    Aquatic Life WQ Criteria Development/Modifications

   Grosse He

    Sources-Fate-Effects of Toxic Substances in Great Lakes
    Mass Balance Models for Toxics in Freshwater Systems
    Tech Assistance for GLNPO, CW, UC, State & Local Gov.

Hazardous Waste
    Leachate Toxicity Profiles for HW Characterization
    Predicting Aquatic Toxicity of HW Constituents & Exposures

Pesticides

    Field Validation for Hazard Assessment Techniques
    Develop Guideline Protocols & Test for BCA Effects
    Develop Methods for Predicting Susceptible Populations

Chemical Testing & Assessment

    Aquatic Toxicology
    Structure-Activity Relationships & Estimation Techniques
    Predicting Ecosystem Resilience

Multi Media Energy

    Watershed Manipulation Project
Project Officer  Page
A.
N.
A.
N.
A.
R.
W.
W.
G.
R.
R.
R.
F.
S.
G.
G.
Carlson
Thomas
Carlson
Thomas
Carlson
Kreis
Richardson
Richardson
Niemi
Erickson
Siefert
Anderson
Stay
Broderius
Veith
Niemi
1
3
6
8
10
13
15
17
18
20
22
24
28
28
30
32
   J.  Eaton
34

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE AA OW
PMS-060



             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
                      CODE  TITLF!

BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101  WATER QUALITY
              ISSUE:  A     WQBA/PERMnTING
            PPA (L):  09    Aquatic Life Sediment Criteria Development

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  35    Aquatic Life Sediment Criteria Development
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Anthony R. Carlson
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/87     PLANNED END: 12/31/99
******************************************


PROJECT DESCRIPTION:

     GOAL:  Develop sediment quality criteria protocols for use in protecting
     aquatic life.

     RATIONALE: Sediment quality criteria can be used to form the basis for state
     sediment quality standards, NPDES permits and assessment of in-place sediment
     contaminants.

     APPROACH: Determine relationships between tissue residue and just barely safe
     toxic endpoints for sediment- associated organisms chronically exposed to
     specific non-polar organic chemicals and metals.  Calculate criteria based on
     just barely safe residue concentrations.  Evaluate and validate under field
     conditions.

        STATUS AND
          Data has been compiled from the literature for use in determining the
     relative sensitivity of benthic and non-benthic organisms to specific
     chemicals. Cultures of five benthic invertebrates have been established for use
     in long-term or chronic exposure to chemicals via sediment.  Construction of
     test apparatus for chronic testing is nearing completion.

          Sediment samples for 13 Fox River/Green Bay systems of Lake Michigan have
     been collected and homogenized and stored at ERL-D for later use in bioassay
     and chemical characterization.  Macroinvertebrate samples for chemicals have
     been collected.  Macroinvertebrate communities at each site have been sampled
     and are being sorted.  Preliminary studies indicate that pore water for 5 of 10

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          of the sites are acutely toxic.
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       STATUS AND SCHFniTT.F. OF
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                                 .
     7896  DUE:  08/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
             REPORT ON DEVELOPMENT OF TEST METHODS WITH BENTHIC ORGANISMS TO DEFINE THE
 _          BIOAVAHABILITY AND/OR SEDIMENT-BOUND TOXICANTS.
     7969  DUE:  05/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
             Report on minimum tox. data set for Sed.Qual. Criteria based on relative
             sensitivity of benthic and non-benthic organisms.
       7971  DUE:  05/31/89  REVISED:            COMPLETED:
             Report on Biological Assessment of known sediment-activity of metal ions in
             Pore  water and its toxicity.
      7973  DUE: 05/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
            Report on Field Verification Studies of laboratory observations with field
            measurements using benthic data of metal.

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 PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE QWEP
          PMS-060



             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
 ******************************************
                      CODE  TITLE

 BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101  WATER QUALITY
              ISSUE:  A     WQBA/PERMTTTING
            PPA (L):  11    WQ TOXECITY-BASED NPDES PERMIT METHODS

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  05    WQ Toxicity-Based NPDES Permits Methods
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Nelson A. Thomas
 ******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/85     PLANNED END: 12/01/91
 ******************************************


 PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL: Develop the scientific basis for the incorporation of the toxicity
     approach into the control of toxics from effluents.
     RATIONALE: There is a need to control toxics in effluents when chemical
     specific criteria are not available and/or the toxicant is not known.  The
     major need is the new emphasis on the use of Water Quality Criteria in the next
     round of NPDES industrial permits.  There is a need to identify and
     evaluate the causes of toxicity in toxic effluents.
     APPROACH: Short-term chronic toxicity tests have been and will continue to be
     developed for testing municipal and industrial effluents and receiving waters.
     The tests have been positively evaluated as to their ability to predict
     ecosystem impact through a series of field studies. A protocol for conducting
     the effluent and ambient tests will be prepared and tested. As validation has
     been established,  issues related to persistence,  bioaccumulation,  additivity
     of multiple discharges,  fractionation/separation and permit development under an
     integrated approach will be the focus of the research. Increased emphasis will
     be placed on the evaluation and identification of a chemical causing the
     toxicity. A protocol for assessing bioaccumulation is being developed and will
     be field tested.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE;

          Evaluations are complete on the 7-day chronic Ceriodaphnia and fathead
     minnow toxicity tests to predict instream impact at nine sites.  Site reports
     are complete and the revised statistical methods to analyze the combined
     effects of mortality and production of young-per-female for the Ceriodaphnia
     and weight for the fathead minnows were developed.  An approach to determine the
     persistence of toxicity has been developed. A new statistical technique is

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 complete and a preview was sent to Regional  biologists. A workshop is planned
 for Region 9 in  December.  A methods data interpretation and site study results
 workshop was conducted in  Region  6 in July.  Results of the  feeding studies,
 water types in generation  studies will be presented at the  SETAC meeting.  The
 duckweed method  is ready for review.  Ceriodaphnia cultures  are being sent  to
 states,  EPA regions,  contract  laboratories,  universities  and industry.
 Cooperative agreements are in  place to evaluate 4-d vs. 7-d Ceriodaphnia tests,
 and to develop techniques  to generate ephippial egg production and hatching.
 Development of a bioconcentratable identification procedure in effluents is  in
 progress.

      A chemical  analysis procedure is being  developed and tested to identify
 bioconcentratable materials in effluents. A  contract to collect  effluents  and
 place clams in streams to  evaluate the bioaccumulation potential of an effluent
 is  complete.  Samples  are being extracted and analyzed. A  guideline on this
 approach is available.

      The emphasis of  CBTIS has shifted from  data entry and  checking to
 programming to insure that others can enter  new data. A PC  version in DBASE,
 including a users manual,  has  been developed.

      Emphasis is being placed  on  toxicity testing to aid  in toxicity reduction
 evaluations.  ERL-D is combining toxicity testing with chemical fractionation,
 called toxicity  identification evaluations (TTEs). This permits  more positive
 coupling of chemical  identifications  with toxicity. Acute toxicity tests with
 Ceriodaphnia,  Daphnia magna, medaka and  fathead minnows are used to assess
 toxicity of whole effluents and effluent fractions. A new document of the  Phase
 I TIE procedure  is available.  One TIE indicated that a treated effluent owed
 its toxicity to  mor6  than  600  ug/1 nickel, nearly 8 times the lethal limit for
 aquatic  organisms. At the  request of  Region  9, an extensive evaluation of  the
 Las Vegas POTW determined  that diazinon  and  dichlorvos were the  primary cause
 of  toxicity and  5 effluents have  been partially identified.  Overall 46
 effluents were evaluated at least once as potential candidates for the TIE
 work.  A  report on the TIE  completed on the Hollywood POTW was sent to Region 4.
 Toxicants responsible for  the  toxicity were  diazinon and  chlorfenvinphos.  In
 addition,  4 effluents are  being tested and characterized  for cause of toxicity.
 At  the request of Region 5, one effluent sample was sent  to Duluth to determine
 whether  something other  than ammonia  is  causing the toxicity.  This effluent was
 only  characterized, but  we determined that ammonia did not  cause the toxicity.

      The announcement of the National Effluent Toxicity Assessment Center
 (NETAC) was made in March  and  each region was requested to  submit one candidate
 effluent for a TIE evaluation.  Candidates must have acute toxicity.  At present
 9 of the  10 regions have formally submitted candidates and  4  effluents
were chosen. A workshop  on the TIE techniques was presented by Don Mount to
Region 4  contract labs.  Five more workshops are planned for the next fiscal
year.  An  extensive field project  involving ERL-D, ERL-N,  EPA-Newport working
with the  California Regional Water Quality Board to assess the toxicity and
 impact of selected discharges  into the San Francisco Bay was  conducted. The
effort consisted of TIE work and  a comparison of the fresh- and saltwater
methods. TIE and toxicity tests on site  in Casper,  WY were conducted to
demonstrate to Region 8  the feasibility of conducting the procedures and to

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     determine whether toxicity in the mining operations was due to more than salt
     generated during the mining process. Reports on both sites are now available.
     Based on the analysis of POTW's in our TIE work, diazinon has appeared in
     several effluents. A survey is in progress of 20-25 POTW plants in the 10 EPA
     regions to determine whether the occurrence of diazinon is widespread. Samples
     have all been tested and data are being summarized.


          The results of 3 effluents will be summarized and sent to the Regions.
     Several papers will be presented at the SETAC meeting in November.
     Participation in the Virginia Water Pollution Control Association Seminar and a
     November Aquatic Toxicity Workshop are planned.


STATUS AND SCHEDULE OF DELJVERABLES;


7163  DUE: 12/31/87  REVISED: 04/30/89  COMPLETED:
      MANUSCRIPT ON TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION IN EFFLUENTS.



7814  DUE: 06/30/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 06/30/88
      REPORT ON THE FIELD AND LABORATORY TESTING OF THE BICXXJNCENTRATICN
      FACTOR (BCF) PROTOCOL USING FRESHWATER ORGANISMS.


7815  DUE: 05/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      REPORT ON THE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION OF THE TOXIC COMPONENT(S) OF
      EFFLUENTS


7816  DUE: 06/30/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 05/31/88
      REVISED TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION PROTOCOL TO IDENTIFY THE CAUSES OF
      TOXICITY IN EFFLUENTS


7823  DUE: 09/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      PROTOCOL FOR A FOUR-DAY OERIODAPHNIA DUBIA TEST METHOD



7824  DUE: 09/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      REPORT ON THE COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF A FOUR-DAY TO SEVEN DAY
      CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA TEST TO SINGLE TOXICANTS

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE AA OW
PMS-060



             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************

                      CODE  TlT> &


BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101  WATER QUALITY
              ISSUE:  A     WQBA/PERMTTITNG
            PPA (L):  12    INTEGRATED WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES


                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  01    Water Quality Assessment Techniques
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Anthony R. Carlson
******************************************

             PLANNED START: 10/01/85     PLANNED END: 09/01/88
******************************************
     GOAL:  Develop, evaluate and/or demonstrate the validity of toxicological
     concepts for deriving numerical water quality criteria for use in protecting
     aquatic life from point and non-point pollutants.
     RATIONALE:  Scientifically defensible methodologies for use in protecting
     aquatic life and its uses are needed by program offices.
     APPROACH:  Evaluate water quality criteria protectiveness and new criteria
     derivation methodologies to assess their validity under semi-natural conditions
     of outdoor experimental streams located at the Monticello Ecological Research
     Station and in real world situations.  Apply water quality criteria,
     effluent toxicity and effluent toxicant identification methodologies
     to non-point source pollutant control.  Conceptualize and study fluctuating
     exposure-dose response relationships and apply results to water quality
     criteria derivation.  Develop concepts and guidelines for toxicity factors in
     criteria applications.  Develop a basic approach of coupling non-point pollution
     loadings and aquatic life impacts with the goals of identifying remedial
     benefits of BMP's.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE:

     Ambient toxicity results were completed on the spring and summer surface water
     samples collected from the Upper Illinois River basin. Biosurveys were also
     conducted at the same stations for roacroinvertebrates and fish by Region V
     E.S.D. personnel. Growth stimulation, inhibition and lethality were found at
     some of the stations. Preliminary analyses of the bioassay information
     indicate a less diverse community in the heavily urbanized areas. Further
     analysis will reveal the level of agreement in surface water degradation with

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     the laboratory toxicity, field bioassay and chemical results.

     Laboratory results were conducted on 13 sediments and overlying water
     samples from the Fox River/Green Bay watershed. The overlying water samples were
     not toxic, but 40% of the water associated with the sediment was toxic to
     Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows. Work will continue this fall to confirm the
     toxic locations and the causative agent(s) in the sediments.
7170  DUE: 09/30/87  REVISED: 09/30/89  COMPLETED:
      KEPT. OH THE FEAS. OF PRED. THE EFFECTS AND INCORP. FLUTUATTNG EXP. IN THE
      APPLICATION OF WQC AND EFFLEUENT TOXICS TESTS.


7187  DUE: 03/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 03/31/88
      Report on Impacts of Ammonia/Chlorine on Ecosystem Structure and
      Function in Experimental Streams


7827  DUE: 04/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      PROGRESS REPORT ON THE INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM IV ON BLUEGILL REPRODUCTION IN
      OUTDOOR EXPERIMENTAL STREAMS


7830  DUE: 10/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      REPORT ON APPLICABILITY OF WATER QUALITY CRITERIA AND ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS -
      GREEN BAY, WISCONSIN


7831  DUE: 10/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      REPORT ON FEASIBILITY OF MERGING OF USGS AND EPA DATA BASES FOR USE IN
      REGIONAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT.


8086  DUE: 12/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      PROGRESS REPORT ON NUTRIENT LOADS, ATTACHED ALGAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS
      IN CLARK FORK RIVER AND LAKE PEND OREILLE

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE AA OW
PMS-060



             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************

                      OQDE  TITLE


BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101  WATER QUALITY
              ISSUE:  A     WQBA/PERMTTTING
            PPA (L):  13    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH WITH THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA


                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  02    Ecological Research with the People's Republic of China
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Nelson A. Thomas
******************************************

             PLANNED START: 10/01/84     PLANNED END: 09/01/89
******************************************


PROJECT DESCRJ
     GOAL:  To participate jointly with the People's Republic of China (PRC) in
     mutually beneficial studies through a cooperative research program.  Scientists
     from both countries will participate in research and exchange scientific
     information on the environmental processes and effects of pollution on
     freshwater organisms.
     RATIONALE:  In support of the United States'  policy to provide scientific and
     technological cooperation with China, the USEPA and PRC in 1980 entered into an
     agreement known as the US-PRC Environmental Protection Protocol.  This agreement
     provides for establishment of a cooperative research program.
     APPROACH: Participating scientists from both  countries will discuss and
     identify the specific projects that will be conducted in the research program.
     Projects (subject to modification and approval)  include emphasis on toxicity
     tests methods, effect of environmental variables on toxicity and toxicity
     mixtures.  Scientists from PRC will study at  ERL-D to develop an understanding
     of the testing of single chemicals and complex effluents.
     The four visiting scientists completed their studies and returned to China.
     Wang Shida and Zhuang Dehui  studied fish and invertebrate test procedures while
     here and are transferring these procedures to the Wuhan Laboratory.  The second
     group is conducting tests with the mini diluter constructed at ERL-D. Field
     studies were undertaken in the U.S. and PRC to conduct toxicity tests on
     effluents and heavy metals.  Two experts from ERL-D traveled to Wuhan to begin
     the joint testing with Chinese species of aquatic life. Toxicity testing and
     culture procedures will be the focus of the exchanges in the PRC.  Field

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     evaluation of the Effluent Protocol was tested at a steel mill in Wuhan. Two
     toxicologists from ERL-D traveled to Wuhan to complete cooperative testing
     using cadmium and effluent samples. Reports are being prepared on heavy metal
     toxicity and effluent testing. Joint research is currently being conducted on
     the detection of teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of fish in areas
     containing contaminated sediments. Two field collections are complete on the
     Fox River. Black bullheads were collected for histopathological analyses.

STATUS AND SCHEDULE OF pFI,TVFRART,fy;:


7832  DUE: 04/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      REPORT OK THE APPLICATION OF U.S. TEST METHODS FOR WQC DEVELOPMENT,
      EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING, & AMBIENT TOXICITY ASSESSMENT IN THE PRC

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE AA OW
FMS-060


             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
                      CODE  TTTT'^

BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101  WATER QUALITY
              ISSUE:  A     WQBA/PERMITnNG
            PPA  (L):  14    AQUATIC LIFE WQ CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT/MXIFICATION

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  03    Aquatic Life WQ Criteria Development/Modifications
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Anthony R. Carlson
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/84     PLANNED END: 09/01/88
******************************************

PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL: Formulate guidelines for the development of aquatic life water quality
     criteria and advisories.  Prepare aquatic life water quality criteria and
     advisories.  Test criteria under site-specific conditions as to aquatic life
     protection afforded.
     RATIONALE:  Many states are using the site-specific modification protocol, thus
     requiring additional testing of its application.  With the need to develop
     additional water quality, testing of the minimum data set requirements is
     necessary.  Field validation of present and new criteria is required.
     APPROACH:  Laboratory and field studies will be undertaken for the development
     and validation of the guidelines and criteria.  Chronic testing and evaluation
     of more sensitive endpoints will be undertaken for compounds for which criteria
     are to be developed.  The protection of ecosystem functions will be determined.
     Issuing aquatic life advisories with minimum data sets will be assessed.  The
     expression of concentration, duration and frequency in the new aquatic life
     criteria requires the development of methodologies to classify and assess
     impact on ecosystem as well as predict recovery.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE:

          Drafts of eight criteria documents (acenaphthene, antimony III,
     2,4,5-trichlorophenol, DEHP, phenanthrene, hexachlorobenzene, silver and
     1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) were updated after Headquarters review and were
     resubmitted for the public comment process. Five criteria documents (phenol,
     thallium, 2,4-D, diazinon and methyl parathion) are in preparation.
          Work to expand and improve the quality of criteria documents is underway;
     several factors such as CAS numbers, molecular descriptors, partition
     coefficients,  chemical usage and more detailed descriptions of the data are now

                                                                     10

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 being included in criteria documents. Format changes are also being made to
 give a clearer explanation of the criteria and their implementation.

      The Aquatic Information Retrieval  (AQUIRE) toxicity data base is a major
 souce of literature data used for developing water quality criteria for toxic
 pollutants. Currently the AQUIRE data base has over 102,400  individual test
 results on computer file. These tests contain  information  for 5,200 chemicals
 and  2,400  organisms,  extracted from over 5,700 publications. Tbxicity test
 results for the effects of 650 organic  chemicals to the fathead minnow were
 appended from  an independent laboratory data file.  All entries have been
 subjected  to established quality assurance procedures.

      Acute and chronic tests to fill data gaps needed to derive water quality
 criteria for 2,4,-D were conducted. Acute values for rainbow trout and fathead
 minnows were approximately 1000 mg/1 whereas chronic values  determined from
 early-life stage tests with these species were slightly less than 50 mg/1.
 Chronic tests  with other species indicated that daphnids were more sensitive
 (factor of two) to 2,4-D than fish, but both fish species  were  about six times
 more sensitive to this chemical than plants (duckweed). New  chemicals are
 currently  being selected with the Office of Water for the  development of next
 year's criteria documents.

      Research  testing with several other chemicals and fish  was conducted to
 develop new test endpoints for determining long-term adverse effects on aquatic
 organisms. Preliminary results of 11 tests consisting of a 28-day exposure
 period and a six-month depuration phase have indicated that  fish may be a
 sensitive  screen for  discerning carcinogenic responses. Five of eleven tests
 were analyzed  and results showed that three chemicals were positive and
 resulted in fish tumors within seven months or less.

      The streams at Monticello were exposed to selenium since February 1987. Two
 streams were dosed at 30 ug/1, two at 10 ug/1, and two are control streams.
 Results of field studies have suggested that these concentrations of selenium
 in the water are not  directly responsible for  impacts found on  fish in aquatic
 systems. The major route of exposure is thought to be through the consumption
 of food that has accumulated selenium.

     After eight months of exposure and before spawning, a population count of
 bluegills  was made in the streams. Substantial mortality (>50%) had occurred in
 streams exposed to 30 ug/1. This was an unexpected result  since laboratory data
 predicted  that this would be a safe concentration. During  the summer of 1988
 the remaining fish at this concentration died. Fish exposed  in  streams dosed at
 10 ug/1 appeared healthy. However, edema caused very few of the newly hatched
 larvae in this stream to survive past 5-7 days. Edema has been associated with
 the death  of larvae from parents exposed to selenium in food.

     The effects of selenium in the streams on mallard duck reproduction and
 immuno-responses is being evaluated. Ducks were placed in the streams in late
April where they remained into August. Many pairs of ducks have active nests,
 but no obvious effects on reproduction were found. There is preliminary
 evidence that some immunosuppression may have resulted from the exposures.
     A journal article on the life-cycle chronic toxicity of fathead

                                                                11

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     minnows exposed to H+  ions, low Ca and elevated Al was submitted  for journal
     publication.  Initial exposures  of embryos and larvae of yellow perch,
     largemouth bass and rock bass are complete and described  in a  submitted
     journal article. Additional lab tests and in-situ field exposures of rock bass,
     yellow perch, largemouth bass and black crappies  have been completed and are
     being  summarized prior to manuscript preparation. Young-of-the-year  largemouth
     bass are being acclimated to laboratory conditions prior  to their use  in
     over-winter,  low-temperature survival testing.

          A review of the Appendix D of the Technical  Support  Document for  Water
     Quality Based Toxics Control was prepared as  scheduled, indicating the need for
     additional research and analysis of the research  literature to better
     understand the impact  of frequency and duration of exposure. Literature  review
     has resulted  in the compilation of over 100 case  studies  in which some aspect
     of recovery from disturbance was investigated. An in-house report and  potential
     journal article is being prepared. This report will relate case studies  to
     relevant ecological theory and  discuss needs  for  additional research.
STATUS
                    OF DFJ.TVRRART,Fy!:
6525  DUE: 09/30/85  REVISED: 09/30/88  COMPLETED:
        Report evaluating the need for revising national
        guidelines for deriving water quality criteria  (WQC)


6958  DUE: 06/30/85  REVISED: 09/30/88  COMPLETED:
        Report on the need and feasibility of revising the other
        aquatic life criteria.


6964  DUE: 09/30/87  REVISED: 11/30/89  COMPLETED:
      REPORT ON ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCY OF CRITERIA EXCEEDANCES AS RELATED TO
      AQUATIC COMMUNITY IMPACT


7088  DUE: 04/30/87  REVISED: 01/31/88  COMPLETED: 01/31/88
      Report on Toxicity of Metals and Hydrogen Ions in Low
      Alkalinity/Hardness Water


7171  DUE: 12/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on Field Validation of Methods for Predicting and
      Assessing Fluctuating Exposure Effects

7838  DUE: 09/30/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      FINAL AQUATIC LIFE CRITERIA DOCUMENTS FOR 11 COMPOUNDS
7843  DUE: 09/30/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      DRAFT AQUATIC LIFE CRITERIA DOCUMENTS FOR UP TO 10 COMPOUNDS TO BE
      SELECTED AND PREPARED JOINTLY WITH THE OFFICE OF WATER


7844  DUE: 09/30/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      DRAFT AQUATIC LIFE ADVISORIES FOR UP TO 45 COMPOUNDS TO BE SELECTED
      AND PREPARED JOINTLY WITH THE OFFICE OF WATER
                                                                      12

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PRINT DATE:  11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE _


PMS-060



             FOURTH  QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************

                      CODE  Tl'i'l F.


BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101  WATER QUALITY
              ISSUE:  A     WQBA/PERMTlTlNG
            PPA (L):  16    WETLANDS RES. ON WQ, MITIGATION & CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF LOSS


                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  39    Wetlands Research on Mitigation & Cumulative Effects of Loss
    PROJECT OFFICER:  William D. Sanville
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 01/01/00     PLANNED END: 01/01/00
******************************************


PROJECT DESCRIPTION;


     GOAL: Develop rapid assessment procedures which enable Section 404 permit
     reviewers to forecast the  loss of water quality and aquatic life support
     functions associated with  loss or contamination by pollutants.
     RATIONALE: Beneficial wetland f unctions in region watersheds include
     stabilization of erosion, uptake and/or transformation of inorganic and organic
     pollutants and maintenance of aquatic life support systems.  Adverse impacts on
     wetlands cause both discrete as well as cumulative impacts on watershed
     quality.  Current methods are inadequate to directly limit impacts on wetlands
     to adverse impacts on regional water quality.
     APPROACH:  This project will use a combination of literature review efforts on
     wetland assimilation models, basic research on critical wetland processes and
     comparative assessments over different wetland and watershed types to develop
     guidelines for estiinateing relationships between wetlands and watershed
     quality. Selection of sites currently undergoing transition and/or mitigation
     will be used to evaluate the guidelines.  Working with the Wetland Coordinator
     at ERL-Corvallis, the guidelines and toher assessment technologies will be
     transferred to Regional staff.


PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE;


     NO STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE AVAILABLE


STATUS AND SCHEDULE OF
     NO DELTVERABLES AVAILABLE


                                                                      13

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 PRINT DATE:  11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE GLNPO
 PMS-060


             FOURTH  QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
 ******************************************
                      CODE  TITLE

 BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101  WATER QUALITY
              ISSUE:  B     MARINE, ESTUARIES & LAKES
            PPA  (L):  26    SOURCES-FATE-EFFECTS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN GREAT LAKES

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  29    Sources-Fate-Effects of Toxic Substances in Great Lakes
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Russell G. Kreis
 ******************************************
             PLANNED START: 06/01/85     PLANNED END: 12/31/95
 ******************************************

 PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL: Develop methods to predict effects of inplace pollutants, identify and
     prioritize sites for remedial action, determine the optimal combination of
     mitigative strategies, and simulate the results/consequences of actions.
     RATIONALE: The contaminated sediment problem impacts both freshwater  and marine
     ecosystems; inplace pollutants is a priority research topic in the Great Lakes.
     The problem of inplace pollutants is long-term even if zero discharge is
     assumed. Regulatory offices require guidance to establish a cost-effective
     mitigation policy.
     APPROACH: An interdisciplinary approach will be used to develop and verify methods t
     identify and prioritize remedial strategies. Research consists of: 1) field
     collection, 2) field experimentation, 3) laboratory experimentation,  4) data
     base development, 5) model development and 6) remedial action guidance. The
     test sites include impacted "Areas of Concern": Detroit River (1985-1988),
     lower Fox River - inner Green Bay complex (1987-1992), and Lake Ontario
     (1990-1995). Methods and strategies developed can be used in any "Area of
     Concern" or other national waterways and may relate to sediment criteria
     development, implementation of the Clean Water Act and the US/Canada
     agreements. Methods will be applied to other areas as resources allow.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE:

     The In-Place Pollutants Project (IPP) is being conducted in the Trenton Channel
     of the Detroit River as a component of the Upper Great Lakes Connecting
     Channels Study (UGLCCS).  The project is multidisciplinary and encompasses

                                                                     14

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     toxicity tests, measurements of heavy metals and organic contaminants, sediment
     resuspension, transport and deposition dynamics, vertical toxicity and
     contamination of sediment, fish tumor surveillance and mathematical modeling.
     All field work amd analytical chemistry has been completed. A final UGLCCS
     report was submitted during the quarter. Statistical analyses are underway,
     journal articles have been submitted and all tasks for the Detroit River are
     nearing completion. Final project reports will be due during the next quarter.
     A research strategy for contaminated sediments has been developed for the lower
     Fox River to meet the requirements of three initiatives: 1) Assessment and
     Remedial Strategies for Contaminated Sediments, 2) Sediment Criteria, and 3)
     Green Bay-lower Fox River Mass Balance. Field studies for FY88 have been
     completed and analyses will continue through the next quarter. Project on
     target.
STATUS AND SCHKnHTfr OF nTT.TVRRART.RS;

7204  DUE: 05/31/88  REVISED: 12/31/88  OCMPLETED:
       Report on Methods for Predicting Probability Distribution of Exposure
       for Toxic Substances in Freshwater Ecosystems

7205  DUE: 09/30/88  REVISED: 12/31/88  CCMPLETED:
       Report on Methods for Predicting Biological Impacts of In-place
       Pollutants in the Upper G.L. Connecting Channels.

7877  DUE: 06/30/91  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on Impacts of resuspension and diffusion of contaminants in Green
      Bay/Fox River (Tentative) .
                                                                     15

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE
FWS-060
             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101  WATER QUALITY
              ISSUE:  B     MARINE, ESTUARIES & LAKES
            PEA (L):  26    SOURCES-FATE-EFFECTS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN GREAT LAKES


                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  33    Mass Balance Models for Toxics in Freshwater Systems
    PROJECT OFFICER:  William Richardson
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 06/01/85     PLANNED END: 09/30/95
******************************************
     GOAL:  Conduct mass balance research to link identified ecosystems effects with
     their causes,  assuring that results are related to possible remedial actions.
     RATIONALE:   Over 833 chemical compounds have been identified in Great Lakes
     ecosystems and biological effects continue to be documented.  Fish
     contamination  in many areas has resulted in health advisories and closing of
     commercial fishing.  Site specific mass balance research is required to
     quantitate the processes and flux of contaminants to predict consequences of
     remedial actions.
     APPROACH:  Mathematical models for toxic substances based on mass balances,
     including transport, fate and bioaccumulation processes will be developed,
     calibrated and verified for important freshwater systems.   The research
     includes:  1)  development and application of sampling and analytical chemistry
     methods appropriate for low level contaminants,  2) development and maintenance
     of data bases,  3) development and application of mathematical models and other
     computational  techniques.   Application will be made in important freshwater
     systems. Models will be used in other areas as  requested and as resources
     allow.

        STATUS AND ACCQMPLIS
    All Cooperative Agreements,  Interagency Agreements and Interlab Agreements are
    in place with FY88  funding completed. A meeting of the final Green Bay
    Committee was held  during the quarter to bring all investigators up  to date and
    to provide  feedback on the field/experimental  plan to  GLNPO. The first
    shakedown cruise took place  during the  week of September 1st.


                                                                     16

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       STATUS AND SGHEffTLK OF
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      7203  DUE: 12/31/87  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 12/31/87
I            REPORT DESCRIBING MASS BALANCES OF TOXICANTS OF CONCERN IN THE
            UPPER GREAT LAKES CONNECTING CHANNELS.
      7875  DUE: 03/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 03/31/88
          Report on Alternative Models and associated monitoring requirements for
          Green Bay Project Planning.
      7876  DUE: 12/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
            Report on Mass Balance and Food Chain Models for contaminants of concern
            in Green Bay.

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88
PMS-060
                                                      CLIENT OFFICE
             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  B101
              ISSUE:  B
            PPA (L) :  26
                            WATER QUALITY
                            MARINE, ESTUARIES & LAKES
                            SOURCES-FATE-EFFECTS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN GREAT LAKES
                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  34    Tech Assist, for GLNP, OW, IJC, Regions, States & Local Gov.
    PROJECT OFFICER:  William Richardson
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 01/01/71     PLANNED END: 01/01/99
******************************************


PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL:  To assure Great Lakes research is applied to the regulatory process and
     to the needs of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.
     RATIONALE:  EPA has a primary role in fulfilling the requirements of the 1978
     Water Quality Agreement with Canada.  The ORD Great Lakes Program at the Large
     Lakes Research Station is the primary focus for EPA's response. ORD/LLRS staff
     and on-site contractors have the experience and knowledge to efficiently
     fulfill technical assistance requests from GLNPO, IJC, Regions, Office of Water,
     and State and local governments.
     APPROACH:  Technical assistance will be provided on a priority basis to EPA
     Program Offices, IJC, Regions, States, and local governments.  Specific areas
     of support will include:  1) maintenance, documentation, application and
     training for mathematical models, 2) computer service support for water quality
     and point source data bases, 3) participation on IJC committees and boards,
     state and local government committees, and 4) providing information to the
     regulatory community including consultants working for government agencies.



     Documentation of the Point Source File System was completed and storage of
     Michigan, Ontario MOR's was begun. Conversion of Great Lakes eutrophication
     models was completed. Storage of Canadian phosphorus data was completed.

STATUS AND SGHTTfirJl OF
8085  DUE: 12/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      PHOT CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY BIOMONTTORING FIELD AND DATA REPORT
                                                                      18

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 PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE QSW
 PMS-060


             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
 ******************************************
                      CODE  TITLE

 BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  D109  HAZARDOUS WASTE
              ISSUE:  C     WASTE CHARACTERIZATION
            PPA  (L):  96    Waste Futures and Aquatic Impacts

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  37    Leachate Toxicity Profiles for Haz. Waste Characterization
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Gerald J. Niemi
 ******************************************
             PLANNED START: 01/31/88     PLANNED END: 09/30/95
 ******************************************

 PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL: To develop leachate toxicity profiles which accurately predict the
     hazards to aquatic lifeforms and alteration in subsurface transport.
     RATIONALE: Current technology permits the measurement of potency of
     constituents or whole leachates to a variety of lifeforms. There is no
     acceptable protocol to extrapolate these data to aquatic impacts and no methods
     to accurately forecast the modification of whole leachate toxicity due to the
     chromatographic effects of subsurface transport. This project will provide a
     new profile which expands current practices to fill these voids.
     APPROACH: The toxicity profile will be expanded to meet the minimum needs
     established by the National Water Quality Data Guidelines to protect aquatic
     lifeforms. New methods to cost effectively assess the broad spectrum of chronic
     effects will be assimilated. The profile will include the distribution of
     toxicity in existing waste fractionation methods and be aligned with existing
     subsurface transport models.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE;

     Protocols for fractionation, identification and evaluation of toxicity in
     hazardous leachate effluents are being submitted for publication.  These
     protocols have been successfully used to fractionate and identify components
     causing toxicity in a number of samples.  Components identified as causing
     toxicity in effluents includes chlorine,  ammonia,  chelatable metals and
     non-polar organics.  Research and development on methods for polar organics and
     nonchelatable metals continues.

     In addition, the possibilities of incorporating information on biomarkers in

                                                                     19

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     leachate toxicity profiles continues. An indicator of damage to mammalian
     DNA/RNA from toxic organic contaminants is the change in the profile of
     modified nucleosides released in blood plasma and urine relative to creatinine.
     A sensitive HPLC method has been developed to characterize these nucleosides in
     fish. Fish on one hundred and thirty samples from the Fox River, WI have been
     collected and are being analyzed to detect modified nucleosides in plasma.
     These results will be correlated to histopathological examination of fish liver
     for cancerous growths. Completion of nucleoside profiles is expected by June l,
     1989. Also, blood cells and portions of liver have been saved for the
     development of DNA-adduct methods as possible additional biomarkers for
     toxicity profiles.

STATUS AND SCHEDULE DF n
8090  DOE: 08/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      REPORT OK METHODS FOR LEACHATE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION
8092  DUE: 04/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      FEASIBILITY REPORT FOR THE USE OF TOXECITY PROFILES TO PREDICT AQUATIC
      IMPACTS OF WHOLE LEACHATE COMPONENTS
                                                                     20

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE QSW


             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
                      CODE  TITLE

BUDGET SUB-ACTTVnY:  D109  HAZARDOUS WASTE
              ISSUE:  C     WASTE O1ARACTERIZATION
            PEA (L):  96    Waste Futures and Aquatic Impacts

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  38    Predicting Aquatic Toxicity of HW Constituents and Exposures
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Russell J. Erickson
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 01/31/88     PLANNED END: 09/30/95
******************************************

PROJECT DESCRIPTION:

     GOAL: To develop toxic effects models, suitable for thousands of waste stream
     constituents, which enable aquatic impact assessment for diverse habitats and
     exposure conditions.
     RATIONALE: We have the capability to assess the toxic impact of organic
     chemicals and metals only under constant exposure. The uncertainties in risk
     assessment of this limited approach are unacceptably large. Current methods
     also grossly underestimate the toxicity of specific classes of waste
     constituents. This project provides OSW with the critical effects models to
     accurately assess the impact of waste stream constituents on aquatic systems.
     APPROACH:  Aquatic impacts will be estimated based on a model which integrates
     fluctuating exposures with the total dose and residue in representative aquatic
     lifeforms. The fate of constituents within organisms will be linked to specific
     toxicity effects models to determine dilution factors which minimize risk.



     A model which was developed to relate gill exchange of organic chemicals to
     cardiac and respiratory parameters,  has been demonstrated to provide useful
     results for large rainbow trout, and is being further refined. Experiments  are
     underway to compare uptake of organic chemicals by smaller fish to
     relationships already established for large rainbow trout and to consumption of
     oxygen.  Experiments are underway to establish rates of elimination of a set of
     chlorinated alkanes via various routes in rainbow trout and to support
     development of better toxicokinetic models.  The relationship of chemical
     accumulation to effects is being reviewed and studies on the utility of
     kinetic-based effects models for predicting effects of fluctuating
     concentrations are being initiated in cooperation with other projects.

                                                                     21

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STATUS AND SCHEDULE OF
       8091  DUE: 08/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
 m          REPORT ON AQUATIC EFFECTS MODEL FOR FLUCTUATING TRANSIENT EXPOSURES

       8093  DUE: 04/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
 _          REPORT ON EFFECTS MODEL FOR HE31LY HAZARDOUS WASTE CONSTITUENTS




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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE OPP
PMS-060


             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
                      POPE  TITLE

BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  E104  PESTICIDES
              ISSUE:  D     ECOLOGY: TRANSPORT/FATE/FIELD VALIDATION
            PPA  (L):  06    FIELD VALIDATION FOR HAZARD ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  19    Field Validation for Hazard Assessment Techniques
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Richard E. Siefert
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/83     PLANNED END: 09/30/90
******************************************

PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL:  Design an approach to validate current methodologies to measure
     pesticide impact on non-target organisms under natural pesticide use
     conditions.  Data generated will be used to design more appropriate tests for
     hazard assessments.
     RATIONALE:  Accurate hazard assessments are needed to effectively regulate
     pesticides.  This field research will assist in validation of existing
     freshwater test methods as well as develop improved field protocols.
     APPROACH:  Conduct natural pond studies using actual pesticide application
     procedures and determine the pesticide effects on non-target organisms.
     Primary and secondary (ecological) effects will be studied on microbes, algae,
     microinvertebrates, macroinvertebrates and fish.  Environmental chemistry
     studies will include both water and sediment.  Biota recovery studies will be
     conducted after pesticide applications.  Results will be combined with
     information obtained from the literature to improve the accuracy and
     predictability of pesticide effects by freshwater laboratory methodology, and
     will provide field testing protocols.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE:

     A national workshop entitled "Aquatic Field Testing: Experimental Mesocosms and
     Field Techniques" was hosted by ERL-D on September 14-17.  Attending were
     experts on aquatic field research from the pesticide industry, academia,
     private consulting firms and government agencies.

     Studies in 1985 and 1986 indicated that use of littoral enclosures in natural
     waters is feasible to improve hazard evaluation testing.  Field work using

                                                                     23

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     multiple enclosures built in a pond and treated with three concentrations of a
     high use pesticide (chlorpyrifos) was accomplished. Included in this mesocosm
     enclosure design are controls and replications for sound statistical analyses,
     precise environmental chemistry (both in application of the pesticide and
     analyses of the water and sediment) , and primary and secondary (ecological)
     effect measurements of microbes, algae, macrophytes, inicroinvertebrates,
     inacroinvertebrates , and fish. Analyses of chemical and biological samples,
     biota recovery studies, investigations on environmental chemistry (pesticide
     concentration profiles), fish reproduction studies and other work to refine
     protocol were completed. A final report describing this new field testing
     protocol and the results of testing chlorpyrifos has been submitted to the user
     groups.

     The littoral enclosure protocol is currently being validated. The SS isomer of
     fenvalerate (Asana) is the pyrethroid pesticide used in this year's study.
     Asana is the high priority pesticide recommended to be tested by the Ecological
     Effects Branch of OFF. Field work for this study has been completed and
     analyses on chemical and biological samples are underway.

     The project will result in a field testing guidance document for the Office of
     Pesticide Program for use in the registration of new pesticides, as well as
     provide ecological effects data on those pesticides tested in the littoral
     enclosures.

STATUS AND SCHEraiT.!? O
7368  DUE: 09/30/87  REVISED: 03/31/88  COMPLETED: 03/31/88
      FIELD VALIDATION ENCLOSURE STUDY ON EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN A NATURAL POND
7592  DUE: 09/30/88  REVISED: 03/31/89  COMPLETED:
      REPORT ON FIELD VALIDATION OF ENCLOSURE PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATING
      PESTICIDES ON NATURAL WATERS. (N)
                                                                     24

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PRINT  DATE:  12/05/88                                   CLIENT OFFICE OPP
PMS-060


             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
                      CODE  TITLE

BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  El04  PESTICIDES
              ISSUE:  H     BIOTECHNOLOGY/MICROBIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS
             PPA  (L):  12    DEVELOP GUIDELINE PROTOCOLS AND TEST FOR BCA EFFECTS

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
             PROJECT:  06    Develop Guideline Protocols and Test for BCA Effects
    PROJECT  OFFICER:  Richard L. Anderson
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/83     PLANNED END: 11/30/89
******************************************

PROJECT DESCRIPTION:

     GOAL:   Develop or improve methods that can determine the effects on freshwater
     ecosystems of microbial pest control agents (MPCA).

     RATIONALE:  Ecological risk assessment requires knowledge of an agents
     toxicity, concentration in the system and the populations that may be exposed
     after the agent enters the system.  For a MPCA, knowledge of the pathology of
     the agent is also essential for a risk assessment.

     APPROACH:  The pathology experiments are directed towards the organism and how
     it is affected by the MPCA.  The toxicity program is divided in two categories.
     One is to develop methods that determine direct acute and chronic toxicity to
     non-target animals and the second is to develop methods to measure direct acute
     or chronic effects on populations, cxsnmunities and ecosystems.  The ecological
     studies are to develop methods to measure the relationship of the MPCA to the
     ecosystem and how other populations, not directly affected respond to its
     introduction.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE:

     Our immediate goal is to develop acute and chronic laboratory tests for target
     and non-target invertebrates and fish and to establish a microcosm test system
     that will accurately portray events in outdoor, natural systems. Our extended
     goal is to evaluate the predictive capacity of laboratory data in situations
     where the agents are applied.

     During the last quarter,  activities were mainly confined to research.
     Administrative activities were limited to coordination of program activites
     with Gulf Breeeze,  Corvallis and Headquarters.  Efforts were also directed

                                                                     25

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     toward preparation of reports for the "all hands" meeting in Baltimore in
     October.
     The research activities centered on continuation of research projects. Data
     from a section that studied the uptake of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var
     israelensis (Bti) by fathead minnows and brook trout was recently compiled.
     Fish rapidly picked up suspended Bti and most appeared to be deposited in the
     gut. After transfer to Bti-free water, there was a rapid clearance from the
     gut. The fecal material was toxic to mosquitoes snowing that the toxicity was
     retained during the gut passage. These uptake and loss results show that fish
     could be an active factor in the distribution of an agent. Laboratory exposures
     of caddisflies were continued with an emphasis on short time exposures designed
     to simulate the short-exposure conditions associated with blackfly control
     activities. We were able to show that even in short (<30 min) exposures, Bti
     was accumulated and retained for several days.

STATUS AND SrHRnT7T.R OF nRT.TVRRART.Efi;

7254  DUE: 12/31/87  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 12/31/87
      REPORT ON THE MOVEMENT AND SURVIVAL OF A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
      AGENT IN TWO NATURAL SYSTEMS.

7674  DUE: 10/30/87  REVISED:           OOMPLETED: 10/30/87
      REPORT ON FRESHWATER TESTS OF SINGLE SPECIES EXPOSED TO PESTICIDAL
      AND NON-PESTICIDAL MICROBES. (N)

7675  DUE: 10/30/88  REVISED:           CCMPLETED:
      REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SINGLE SPECIES TEST PROTOCOLS
      FOR PESTICIDAL AND NON-PESTICIDAL MICROBES. (N)

7894  DUE: 10/31/88  REVISED:           CCMPLETED:
      REPORT ON ACUTE AND CHRONIC TEST PROTOCOLS FOR EXPOSING
      FRESHWATER FISH TO BCA'S.

7895  DUE: 11/30/89  REVISED:      .     COMPLETED:
      RPT. ON THE EFFECT OF TARGET & NON-TARGET INVERTEBRATES ON THE DISTRIBUTION,
      PERSISTENCE & VIRULENCE OF BCA IN FRESHWATER MICROCOSMS & NATURAL SYSTEMS.
                                                                     26

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE OPP       PMS-060



             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************

                      CODE  'iTJTiE
BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:
ISSUE:
PPA (L):
RC:
PROJECT:
PROJECT OFFICER:
PLANNED
***********
PROJECT DESCRIPTION:
E104
I
13
N
32
Frank
START:
* * *
PESTICIDES


ECOLOGY: ECOTOXICrrY AND RISK ASSESSMENT
DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT
ERL DLTH
Develop Methods of Predicting Susceptible
S. Stay
01/01/86 PLANNED END: 07/25/89



MODELS
Populations


     GOAL:  To integrate information from toxicology,  biochemistry and physiology
     with ecosystem models,  develop a method of predicting the roost susceptible
     population to a freshwater stressor, and develop a computerized ranking system
     for populations within  designated communities.
     RATIONAL:  The research  in this project will compile a biological data base for
     a test set of 2400 aquatic species covering major taxa.  The parameters will
     include information on  anatomy, life history, ecology, physiology,  and
     biochemistry for each organism.
     APPROACH:   Initial efforts include extensive literature  reviews of  methods.
     Methods for comparative bioenergetics,  metabolism,  and detoxification are being
     developed for generating missing data in the second and  third years.   Methods
     of clustering organisms with respect to susceptibility parameters instead of
     conventional taxonomy will be evaluated.   Finally a chemical-specific species
     ranking system will be  computerized to direct subsequent risk assessments.




     Computerized databases  have been developed for organism  parameters  related to
     toxicological response,  including respiration, cardiovascular function and
     metabolism.  Application and analyses of these databases  to predicting
     susceptibility and identification of additional  parameters useful for
     predicting susceptibility,  are in progress.

     Two microcosm experiments were conducted and preliminary analysis of  the
     sensitivity of the populations contained in these laboratory (Communities
     provided insights  which aided in the selection of ASANA  exposure concentrations
     used in the littoral enclosure experiment.  Future analyses and studies will
     develop information which can be used to  test the ranking of species  in more
     complex systems, to evaluate the accuracy of microcosms  through comparisons

                                                                     27

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     with littoral enclosures, and to describe the effect of ecosystem age on
     community sensitivity.

STATUS AND SCHFraiT;R OF DELIVERABLE^'

7470  DUE: 07/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on Biological Data Base for Risk Assessment



7781  DUE: 04/30/90  REVISED:           OCMPLETED:
      Final Report on Resistance and Resilience of Pond and Stream
      Ecosystems to Toxicant Stress


7985  DUE: 02/28/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 02/28/88
      THE IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF AQUATIC COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEM MODELS FOR
      USE IN ESTIMATING ECOLOGICAL RISK.
                                                                     28

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE QTS
FMS-060


             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
                      CODE  TITLE

BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  L104  TOXICS
              ISSUE:  A     TEST METHOD DEVELOPMENT
            PPA (L):  04    AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  17    Aquatic Toxicology
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Steven J. Broderius
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/80     PLANNED END: 10/01/88
******************************************

PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL: To develop and validate methods for using small aquarium fish to assess
     the toxicological properties of chemicals.
     RATIONALE: Low cost, validated assays developed on sound toxicological
     principles which provide data applicable for extrapolation to other species and
     with multiple endpoints are necessary for accurate environmental and health
     hazard assessments.
     APPROACH: Many of the in vivo assays being used to ascertain the carcinogenic
     potential of synthetic chemicals are very costly. Relatively less expensive
     assays using small fish have shown promise for establishing endpoints such as
     reproductive toxicity and teratogenicity. Appropriate exposure techniques and
     endpoint analysis designed on sound toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic principles
     will provide useful data on several endpoints which can be extrapolated to
     other species as well as provide a data base for SAR predictions.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACOCMPLISHMENTS TO DATE:

     The deliverable #8095A entitled "Validation of the medaka assay for chemical
     carcinogens:  A progress report" was completed and submitted to OEPER in August,
     1988. Summary results of the report state that 4-chloroaniline and aniline
     cause tumors in medaka while hexachlorobenzene does not.  DEHP might also be a
     carcinogen in medaka. Further work is being done to confirm this result.
     Research on characterization of peroxisome proliferation in medaka hepatocytes
     after DEHP exposure is progressing favorably.   Medaka from six other
     exposures are being prepared for pathology analysis. Additionally, fish from
     seven more exposures are in the "grow-out" phase of the assay. Exposures to
     other chemicals are being planned and will be initiated shortly.

                                                                     29

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STATUS AND SCHEDUT.K OF
7623  DUE: 06/30/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 06/30/88
      REPORT ON COMPARATIVE TOX. DATABASE FOR SPECIES/SPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS
      AMONG AQUATIC ORG. (N)


8094  DUE: 03/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      REPORT ON PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF USING MEDAKA FOR PREDICTING THE
      CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS


8095  DUE: 08/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      PROGRESS REPORT ON VALIDATION OF THE MEDAKA CARCINOGENESIS ASSAY
                                                                     30

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88
CLIENT OFFICE OTS
PMS-060
             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
                      CODE  TITLE

BUDGET SUB-ACl'lVl'lY:  L104  TOXICS
              ISSUE:  G     STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS
            PPA (L):  20    STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS AND ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  13    Structure-Activity Relationships and Estimation Techniques
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Oilman D. Veith
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/80     PLANNED END: 09/01/93
******************************************

PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL:  To develop comprehensive SAR models for the aquatic toxicology of
     chronic effects of industrial chemicals.  The SAR models address non-specific
     as well as specific toxicity mechanisms for new and existing chemicals.
     RATIONALE:  Fewer than one percent of chemicals on the TSCA inventory have been
     tested and many of the PMN chemicals have no test data.  To screen for
     potential effects rapidly, structure-activity methods have been the only
     technically sound approach.  The TSCA inventory is generically categorized and
     systematic test sets are generated for each important endpoint such as LC50.
     Molecular descriptors are generated for each chemical and structure-activity
     relationships derived.  The relationships are validated by independent testing
     and provided to OTS with full documentation.
     APPROACH:  A systematic reference data base for acute effects of chemicals was
     developed for industrial chemicals.  The reference data set is used to develop
     mechanism-specific SAR models.  Representative chemicals for each mechanism are
     being selected for the development of a high quality chronic effects data base
     which will validate SAR models for growth and reproduction effects in aquatic
     organisms.



     The theoretical research on predictive toxicology has been somewhat delayed
     while the critical short-term objectives are being addressed.  The in-house
     research is completing phase I.   QSAR methods for ecotoxicity, QSAR work on
     acute and chronic toxicity and specific modes of action is progressing on
     schedule, with extensive participation by OTS staff.
                                                                     31

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     Aoxmplishments 1. A computerized system for QSAR evaluation of chemicals was
     delivered to OTS. It contains a CLO3P program for state-of-the-art Log P
     calculation as well as an expert system for chemical evaluation. 2. A major
     report on electrophile-nucleophile profiles of industrial chemicals was
     completed. 3. A method to draw and analyze structures of reactive chemicals in
     three dimensions from SMILES was perfected for QSAR. 4. A file of natural
     substrates in living organisms has been compiled to define a natural products
     universe. 5. A QSAR model for polar narcotic chemicals has been defined. 6. We
     are continuing to define fish acute toxicity syndromes (FATS) and joint toxic
     action methodology that is used to help assign chemical structures to specific
     modes of toxic action. 7. Additional progress has been made in developing an
     expert system that will define metabolic pathways and rates of metabolism for
     industrial chemicals. 8. The first volume containing chronic data from 37 early
     life-history-stage tests with fathead minnows was completed. 9. A preliminary
     procedure for developing ecotoxicity profiles for SARA Title III chemicals has
     been developed through an interface of the ERL-D QSAR system and the AQUIRE
     data base. 10. Ecological hazard fact sheets have been prepared for SARA Title
     III Bco I chemicals. Similar work is progressing for Eco II and III chemicals.

STATUS AND SGHKHT.f: OF
7911  DUE: 05/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 05/31/88
      REPORT ON FATHEAD MINNOW CHRONIC TOXICITY DATA BASE FOR QSAR MODELS
      OF ECOTOXICTTY

7912  DUE: 07/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      PROGRESS REPORT ON SAR METHODS OF PREDICTING METABOLISM FROM
      CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

7913  DUE: 08/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      FINAL REPORT ON SAR METHODS OF PREDICTING METABOLISM FROM CHEMICAL
      STRUCTURE

7915  DUE: 10/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      REPORT ON METHODS TO COMPUTE REACTIVITY PARAMETERS FOR ELECTROPHILES
                                                                     32

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PRINT DATE: 11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE OTS           OTS
PMS-060


             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
******************************************
                      CODE  TIT' 'F

BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  KL04  TOXICS
              ISSUE:  I     ECOLOGY: ECTOXIdTY AND RISK ASSESSMENT
            PPA (L):  26    DEVELOP METHODOLOGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
            PROJECT:  31    Predicting Ecosystem Resiliency
    PROJECT OFFICER:  Steven F. Hedtke
******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/06     PLANNED END: 09/01/91
******************************************

PROJECT DESCRIPTION:

     GOAL: Develop risk assessment protocols for ecosystems through the study of
     the dynamic response of aquatic communities to various contaminants and
     perturbations.
     RATIONALE:  The base program addresses methods of assessing impacts of
     toxicants on aquatic ecosystems.  This initiative will also provide predictive
     and field assessment methods for judging recovery period in a given aquatic
     ecosystem.  ERL-D is currently studying aquatic ecosystem impacts in lakes,
     ponds, streams, mesocosms and microcosms.  Although current evidence suggests
     that contaminant effects can be predicted from laboratory data, many factors
     influencing responses in the field are absent from lab tests.
     APPROACH:  Studies in the systems mentioned above are evaluating the accuracy
     of predictions derived from lab tests, as well as looking for a limited number
     of additional indications of detrimental effects.  Two complementary studies
     have recently been initiated as part of the Ecological Risk Assessment
     Initiative:   1) a literature survey and data analysis of factors controlling
     recovery of ecosystems from damage; and 2) a field study intended to advance
     our understanding of important and sensitive community and ecosystem level
     properties that should be protected to maintain ecosystem health.

        STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS

     A project was initiated to create data bases on recovery processes in aquatic
     ecosystems.  Information from the published literature is being collected and
     compiled in such a manner as to facilitate retrieval and statistical analysis.  A
     generalized freshwater ecosystem data base is being developed using detailed
     data on systems which were extensively studied.  A second data base specifically

                                                                      33

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     related to systems where recovery was quantified is also being developed. These
     data bases will be used to identify factors controlling recovery, to evaluate
     the ability to extrapolate between systems, to develop a classification scheme
     based on recovery rates, and to determine minimum variables needed to predict
     recovery.

     The PARADOX data base management system has been used to enter and collate the
     physical, biological and chemical data gathered for aquatic systems across
     North America. Information has been obtained on more than 150 systems from
     approximately 120 publications which meet criteria for accurate interpretations
     of recovery time.

     A final report which satisfies deliverable 7465A entitled "Factors controlling
     the recovery of aquatic systems from disturbance" was submitted this quarter.
     The majority (75%) of aquatic systems studied for recovery are less than 4th
     order streams with most of the remaining consisting of small lentic systems.
     The most common impacts reviewed are acute toxic (e.g. , DDT and rotenone) and
     chronic physical (e.g. , logging and channelization) forms of stress.
     As part of this study, the major hypotheses proposed to explain recovery rates
     have been reviewed. Unfortunately there is generally insufficient data
     available to test many of them. The factors that did emerge as most important
     in the case studies are: (1) availability of refugia which enables populations
     to recolonize, (2) the high flushing rates for the small lotic systems, and
     (3) life history characteristics that allow fast population growth or
     recolonization rates.

     A workshop designed to bring together approximately 30 national experts to
     discuss the application of current ecosystem theory to predict recovery of
     stressed lotic ecosystems has been organized and will be held October 3-6.  The
     proceedings and recommendations will be published following the workshop.

     Response variables used in littoral enclosure experiments were reviewed and
     additional measurements were identified which would make the results of the
     littoral enclosure protocol more compatible for testing current ecosystem
     models.

STATUS AND SQffJTTnr.^ OF
7465  DUE: 08/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
       Report on Methods to Determine Ecosystem Recovery Periods
                                                                     34

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 PRINT DATE:  11/29/88                                  CLIENT OFFICE OAR OPD
 FMS-060


             FOURTH QUARTER STATUS REPORT ON FY'88 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS
               Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research
                          ERL DLTH: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1988
 ******************************************
                      CODE  TITLE

 BUDGET SUB-ACTIVITY:  N104  MULTmEDIA ENERGY
              ISSUE:  E     UNDERSTAND & QUANTIFY AQUATIC EFFECTS
             PPA  (L):  05    Watershed Manipulation Project

                 RC:  N     ERL DLTH
             PROJECT:  25    Watershed Manipulation Project
    PROJECT  OFFICER:  John G. Eaton
 ******************************************
             PLANNED START: 10/01/83     PLANNED END: 09/01/92
 ******************************************

 PROJECT DESCRIPTION;

     GOAL:   Determine the early indicator, as well as later, more dramatic chemical
     and biological responses of a warmwater bass lake to acid additions causing 0.5
     pH unit reductions (from 6.0 to 4.5) every other year; evaluate the current
     state of the art of predicting acid effects; use results to substantiate
     assessments of impacts inferred from lab or survey data; obtain mechanistic
     data needed for acid effects modeling; evaluate the use of lab data for
     predicting acid effects on fish populations in the field.
     RATIONALE:  Experimental studies on whole ecosystems are a powerful technique
     for determining acid effects; very few such studies have been conducted; chemi-
     cal and biological results will be relatable to conditions in lakes elsewhere
     in the U.S. and Canada; mechanistic data result in stronger models than corre-
     lative data; no lab data validation studies have been conducted for low pH.
     APPROACH:  Acidify one-half of a clear, warmwater, low alkalinity lake in
     northern Wisconsin after dividing it with a removable plastic barrier; reduce
     the pH over 6 years after a 2-year baseline study; compare extensive preacidi-
     fication effect predictions with observed results; conduct lab bioassays to
     help elucidate organism- and population-level acid effects, and to explore
     organism-level sublethal response indicators.

PROJECT STATUS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE:

     Nearly six years of this eight-year study have been completed and the ambient
     pH of 6.0 is being maintained at 5.1 for the second consecutive year.
     Responses have been observed by nearly all biological groups in the lake
     (microbes,  phytoplankton,  zooplankton, benthos and fish). Effect mechanisms are
     being explored for some of these organisms (zooplankton,  macroinvertebrates,

                                                                     35

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     fish) and results from these studies have been described in several recent
     technical journal publications. Indirect effects, mediated through food web or
     other organism interactions, have been implicated or demonstrated in several
     cases. Some consideration is being given to maintaining a pH of 5.1 for three
     years instead of two because of the subtlety of some responses, and acidifying
     the lake to a pH of 4.5 for only a single year. Cooperative agreements have
     been negotiated for the terminal phase of the study. A new sea-curtain was
     installed in July to insure continued separation of the acidified and reference
     basins of Little Rock Lake. All milestones have been met on schedule.

STATUS AND SCPFrtTT,E OF
7324  DUE: 03/31/88  REVISED:           CXUPLETED: 03/31/88
      Journal Article:  Fish Population Changes and Mechanisms Associated with
      Changes in Acidified Lake

7325  DUE: 03/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 03/31/88
      Journal Article on Response of Little Rock Lake to Artif . Acidif . Water
      Chemistry, Productivity, Nutrients, Hydrology
                                                                     36

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