United States
     Environmental Protection
                     QUARTERLY  PROGRESS REPORT
                             APRIL-JUNE, 1989
                          Research Laboratory
                          Duluth, Minnesota 55804

                                    U.S.  Environmental Prct
                                       Table of Contents

 Hater Quality


   Environmental Effects of Global  Climate Change
   Aquatic Life Sediment Criteria Development
   Aquatic Life Sediment Criteria Evaluation
   WQ Toxicity-Based NPDES Permits  Methods
   Whole Effluent Toxicity Methods
   WQ Assessment Techniques
   Aquatic Resource Characterization  in a BMP Watershed
   Ecol. Research with the People's Republic of China
   Aquatic life WQ Criteria Development/Modifications
   Criteria Document Testing  &  Test Endpoint Eval.
   Physical and Chemical Factors  Affecting Toxics
   Wetlands Research on Mitig.  &  Cumu. Effects of  Loss


   Water Quality Criteria Evaluation

   Grosse lie

   Assessment & Remedial Strategies for Contain.  Sediment
   Mass Balance Models for Toxics in Freshwater Systems
   Tech Assistance for GLNPO, CW, LJC, State & Local  Govt.
   Great Lakes Confined Disp. Facilities:  Effects/Mitig.
   Great Lakes Support for Superfund

Hazardous  Waste

   Leachate Toxicity Profiles for HW  Characterization
   Predicting Aquatic Tox. of HW  Constituents & Exposures


   Field Validation for Hazard  Assessment  Techniques
   Develop Guideline Protocols  &  Test for BCA Effects
   Develop Methods for Predicting Susceptible Populations
                                         Project Officer     Page
Chemical Testing &
   Small Fish to Assess Tox.  Prop,  of Chemicals
   Dose Determination in Fish for use in Risk Assessment
   Structure-Act,  relationships & Estimation  Techniques
   Exp.  System to Predict Metabolism  of Toxicants
   QSAR Models for Chemical Reactivity
   Predicting Susceptible Populations &  Communities

Multi Media  Energy

   Watershed  Manipulation Project
                                          J.  Eaton
                                          A.  Carlson
                                          A.  Carlson
                                          T.  Norberg-King
                                          T.  Norberg-King
                                          J.  Arthur
                                          J.  Arthur
                                          N.  Thomas
                                          A.  Carlson
                                          R.  Spehar
                                          J.  Eaton
                                          W.  Sanville
                                          S.  Hedtke
                                          R.  Kreis
                                          W.  Richardson
                                          W.  Richardson
                                          R.  Kreis
                                          W.  Richardson
                                          D.  Kuehl
                                          R,  Erickson
                                          R.  Siefert
                                          R.  Anderson
                                          F.  Stay
                                          R. Johnson
                                          S. Bradbury
                                          S. Broderius
                                          S. Bradbury
                                          G. Veith
                                          S. Broderius
                                          J. Eaton

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            51
TITLE:             Ecological Effects of Global Climate Change
FHONE:             780-5557


           GOAL: Explore means of using an existing data base on temperature requirements
           for freshwater fish, in conjunction with available data on surface water
           temperatures and fish distributions,  to forecast the impact of global wanning
           on the distribution of fisheries resources of the U.S.

           RATIONALE: No information is available on the probable impact of global warming
           on economically important fishery resources of the U.S.

           APPROACH:  Complete analysis of the temperature requirements of freshwater fish
           from a lab and field data base developed at ERL-D. Verify the ability to
           predict fishery resources on the basis of water temperature using ERL-D STORET
           and perhaps U.S. FWS surface water temperature and fish survey data.  Estimate
           the current range of cold-, cool- and warmwater fishes by mapping the
           distribution of the required surface water temperatures. Based on regional
           weather change scenarios predicted from GCM models, estimate changes in surface
           water characteristics of the U.S. Project changes in fish distribution (thermal
           guilds) corresponding to the changed surface water conditions. Subsequent work
           will involve a more comprehensive estimation of impacts, considering effects on
           other aquatic organisms, trophic relationships, bioenergetics, functional
           attributes, water quality conditions, etc.


           A workplan which summarizes our plans to measure the effects of global climate
           change on fisheries resources of the United States has been developed and is in
           inhouse review. A manuscript has been prepared for the American Fisheries
           Society editorial staff entitled "Temperatures supporting stream fish
           populations in field and laboratory:  Implications for regulatory criteria and
           climate change." The AScI Corporation staff is responsible for data management
           and has been editing and resurrecting a 15-year-old fisheries temperature
           database in support of this activity; they have also begun a literature search
           on lethal temperature data for freshwater fishes to use in global climate
           change assessments. A cooperative agreement proposal to model changes in
           surface water temperature has been submitted to Headquarters and is now
           receiving external reviews. Long-term planning activities continue toward site
           selection for the cooperative agreement and securing databases for the
           corresponding fisheries assessment.

     Hydrological data sources relevant to the distribution of aquatic organisms are
     being identified and a work plan is being written.  FY90 funding levels are
     uncertain at present, limiting our ability to plan the program.
7932  DUE: 07/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            35
TITLE:             Aquatic Life Sediment Criteria Development
PROJECT OFFICER:   Anthony R. Carlson
PHONE:             780-5523


           GOAL:  Develop sediment quality criteria protocols for use in protecting
           aquatic life.

           RATIONALE: Generally particulate bound chemicals from anthropogenic sources
           remain in aquatic systems for long periods of time.  Suspended particulates
           regulate toxic chemical dispersal, sedimentation and ecological effects.
           Bioaccumulation extends the exposure to such chemicals through food webs to
           fish, wildlife, and humans. The release of toxic chemicals from different
           sediment types to water or organisms varies with sediment types and physical and
           chemical characteristics of the overlying water. Thus, techniques are needed
           for use in deriving numerical sediment criteria for the protection of aquatic
           life that account for the effect of environmental variables on the tdxicity
           and/or bioavailability of chemicals of interest.

           APPROACH: Relationships between tissue residue and just-barely-safe toxic
           endpoints for sediment associated organisms chronically exposed to specific
           non-polar organic chemicals and metals of high environmental concern will be
           determined. Criteria will be based on just-barely-safe residue concentrations
           for sensitive organisms. Data base needs and protocols(s) to field evaluate and
           implement the approach will be identified and generated.


           Data has been compiled from the literature and used to determine the relative
           sensitivity of benthic and non-benthic organisms to specific chemicals.
           Cultures of five benthic invertebrates have been established for use in
           long-term or chronic exposures to chemicals via sediment. The laboratory is set
           up and running. The test apparatus has been constructed so that multi-species
           testing is possible. Two diluters are up and running. One diluter is capable of
           quadruplicate testing in the multi-species mode. The other diluter is capable
           of multi-species testing with duplicates of each of 6 test concentrations.
           Cadmium toxicity tests were completed on 6 different species in water. The
           species and their respective LC50 in ug/liter for cadmium are as follows:

           1.   Lumbriculus (worm) = 96h=158.2  240h=134.7
           2.   Helisoma  (snail) = 96h=163.4 240h=160.8
           3    Planaria  (flatworm) =96h>760.9  240h>760.9
           4.   Daphnia magna (waterflea) = 48h=14.7
           5.   Ceriodaphnia (waterflea) = 48h=17.7
           6.   Hyalella  (amphipod) = 240h<2.80

     A 10-day, 4-test series was conducted to test the hypothesis that cadmium is
     bound to the sediment on a mole-per-mole basis with acid-volatile sulfide (AUS)
     and is biologically unavailable. Three diverse, uncontaminated sediments with
     different AUS concentrations were chosen for testing. Each sediment was spiked
     with cadmium at 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10 times the AUS concentration for each
     sediment. Additionally a water-only test was conducted with cadmium chloride to
     determine the 96- and 240-hr I£50s for the two tested species, aquatic
     earthworm, Lumbricus variegatus and snail, Helisoma sp. Presently the fate and
     concentrations of cadmium chloride in the different sediment conpartments, as
     well as body burdens in the animals, are being determined.


7896  DUE: 08/31/89  REVISED: 08/31/90  COMPLETED:

7969  DUE: 05/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on minimum tox. data set for Sed.Qual.Criteria based on relative
      sensitivity of benthic and non-benthic organisms.

7971  DUE: 05/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on Biological Assessment  of Known Sediment-Activity of Metal Ions
      in Pore Water and Its Activity

8205  DUE: 09/30/92  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Guidelines for the Development of Sediment Criteria

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            45
TITLE:             Aquatic Life Sediment Criteria Development
PROJECT OFFICER:    Anthony R. Carlson
PHONE:             780-5523

           GOAL:   Ecological assessment of predictive cause and effective methods for
           determining sediment quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and
           its vises.

           RATIONALE:  There are currently no EPA approved protocols  for determining
           sediment quality.  Several methods have been proposed,  or are in use across the
           U.S.A., but none have been evaluated and/or validated as a cost-effective
           regulatory tool.  Research is needed to determine whether selected criteria
           approaches being pursued by the OW and ORD are protective,  but 'not overly
           protective of aquatic life.

           APPROACH:  Specific toxic and/or bioaccumulative components of sediments from
           impacted ecosystems will be identified and quantified.  Based on laboratory
           derived water and sediment quality criteria, predicted  safe and unsafe
           conditions for aquatic  life will be  evaluated. Safe and unsafe conditions will
           be determined using ambient toxicity testing, bicaccumulation and ecological
           survey data.


           Sediment samples for 13 Fox River/Green Bay systems of  Lake Michigan have been
           collected, homogenized  and stored for later analysis. Macroinvertebrate samples
           for analyses of chemical body burdens have been collected,  sorted and frozen
           for later analysis.   Macroinvertebrate communities at each site have been
           sampled, sorted and identified to subfamily and/or genus.  The chironomids
           predominantly consist of the subfamilies  Tanypodinae and Chironominae.

           Third quarter objectives accomplished include the completion of a 30-day worm
           bioassay,  completion of a fish 10-day bioassay and completion of a 10-day
           insect bioassay. A 30-day fish bioassay and a 10-day amphipod bioassay are
           underway.  Preliminary Ames mutagenicity assays have been completed and data are
           being analyzed.  Ames testing will be completed in the fourth quarter.
           Studies concerning the  toxicity of interstitial (pore)  water prepared from
           sediments from 13 sites in the lower Fox  River/Green Bay to Photobacterium
           phosphoreum (Microtox R), Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas and
           Selenastrum capricornutum have been  completed.  Pore water from 10 of the 13
           sites was acutely toxic to C. dubia  and P. promelas, and all 13 sites exhibited
           some degree of chronic  (reproductive)  toxicity to C. dubia.  Approximtely one
           half of the sites exhibited toxicity in the 14-day S. capricornutum bioassay.
           None of the sites significantly inhibited light production in the P.
           phosphoreum bioassay.

Toxicity identification work indicated that toxicity of the pore water was
reduced by lowering pH, and also could be reduced by passing the samples over a
zeolite resin, indicating the presence of ammonia. Measurement of ammonia
indicated sufficient concentrations to have resulted in a significant degree of
the observed toxicity.

Subsequent TIE work indicated that most, if not all, of the acute toxicity of
the pore water samples to fathead minnows and C. dubia was due to ammonia. A
final report for the project has been completed and accepted for publication in
a peer-reviewed journal.


                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            05
TITLE:             Effluent Toxicity Identification
PROJECT OFFICER:   Teresa Norberg-King
PHONE:             780-5529


           GOAL:  Develop a scientific basis to identify the cause of toxicity in
           industrial and municipal effluents.

           RATIONALE: Many NPDES permits contain toxicity limits as part of the Water
           Quality Based Approach (WQBA) to control toxics. The WQBA should identify the
           cause of toxicity and predict impact of the chemicals. Interpretation of toxic
           or bioaccumulative chemicals in wastewater has relied on water quality criteria
           standards or chemical analysis and toxicity testing of specific chemicals.
           These methods are limited by the need for large data bases. EPA needs to provide
           the states with cost effective methods to identify toxicity in discharges.

           APPROACH: Before effluent toxicity can be reduced or eliminated, primary
           toxicants need to be identified. Techniques characterizing effluents have been
           developed to rely on the use of aquatic organisms to detect toxicity, and
           chemical fractionation to follow the changes in toxicity. Once narrowed down to
           probable toxicant(s), chemical analyses are used to determine the quantity of
           toxicant (s). Additional methods for toxicity identification evaluations are
           under development, and further work relies on simultaneous biological and
           chemical efforts to confirm the cause(s) of toxicity.


           Emphasis is being placed on toxicity testing to aid in toxicity reduction
           evaluations, and ERL-D is combining toxicity testing with chemical
           fractionation, called toxicity identification evaluations  (TTEs). This permits
           more positive coupling of chemical identification with toxicity. Acute toxicity
           tests with Ceriodaphnia, Daphnia magna, medaka and fathead minnows are used to
           assess toxicity of the whole effluent and concentrated fractions of the
           effluent. Three documents describing the TIE process are now complete; Phase I,
           Phase II and Phase III and all have been distributed to each region.

           A total of 64 sites have been evaluated at least once for a TEE, with 31
           industrial discharges, 27 municipal discharges and 6 from other sources (such
           as ambient waters, elutriates or hazardous wastes). Of the 64 sites, only 6
           lacked enough acute toxicity to proceed. In some instances, only Phase I
           (chemical/physical characterization) was done to identify the characteristic
           toxicant(s); and for 39 of the 40 Phase I's the chemical/physical
           characteristics were identified. Questions such as "Is the toxicity due to
           ammonia or total dissolved solids?" were posed for some of the samples that did
           not require toxicant identification. In those cases, Phase I was successful in
           all 18 requests. The results of Phase I tests have shown toxicity to be pH
           dependent  (n=3), due to inorganics (n=15), due to oxidants (n=9), due to

     non-polar organics (n=25),  and due to volatiles (n=l).  Where further toxicity
     identification was needed (Phase II and/or III) /  16 out of 18 times they were
     successful. In the instances where they were not completely identified, it was
     because only one sample was evaluated. With the industrial effluents, several
     compounds have been identified: zinc and non-polar organics, salinity  (TDS),
     ammonia and nickel. Compounds identified for the municipal effluents were zinc
     and non-polar organics; ammonia, diazinon and malathion; nickel; diazinon and
     chlorfenvinphos; diazinon and dichlorovos; ammonia and non-polar organics;
     diazinon and non-polar organics; and diazinon. In the other samples, additional
     toxicants such as carbofuran and methyl parathion and diazinon have been
     identified, as well as ammonia.

     A TIE workshop was held in Region III and there currently are two more planned
     for this fiscal year.  These workshops are given to permit writers, contractors
     and dischargers.

     Results of the diazinon survey have been summarized and indicate that the
     presence of diazinon occurs more frequently in the southern United States. This
     report is in the draft stage and will be available by early summer. Additional
     method development for TIEs on chronically toxic effluents are being initiated.
     Further techniques for acute TTEs and chemical separations are also being


7823  DUE: 09/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Protocol for an Abbreviated NPDES Permit Toxicity Testing Methods

7824  DUE: 09/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:

8206  DUE: 09/30/91  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Protocol for the Use of Toxicity Testing in the Water Quality Based Approach
      for the Control of Toxics

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            44
TITLE:             Whole Effluent Toxicity Methods
PROJECT OFFICER:    Teresa Norberg-King
PHONE:             780-5529


           GOAL:   Develop toxicity test methods to incorporate effluent toxicity limits
           in the next round of NPDES permits.

           RATIONALE: Discharge of toxics in effluents must be controlled whether or not
           specific single chemical criteria are available and/or the specific toxicant(s)
           is known.  Toxicity test methods for effluents that reflect effects on the
           aquatic system are needed.

           APPROACH:  Short-term chronic toxicity tests have been, and continue to be
           developed to test municipal and industrial wastewaters and receiving waters. A
           series of field studies has been used to positively evaluate their ability to
           predict ecosystem impact.  As validation is established, issues relating to
           persistence, bioaccumulation, additivity of multiple discharges under an
           integrated approach will be the focus of research.  A battery of toxicity tests
           is required to assess a broad range of species sensitivity. A protocol to
           assess bioaccumulation is being developed and will be field tested.


           Evaluations and site reports are complete on the 7-day chronic Ceriodaphnia and
           fathead minnow toxicity tests to predict instream impact at nine sites. An
           update of a new method to analyze the combined effects of mortality and
           production of young-per-female for the Ceriodaphnia and weight for the fathead
           minnows was sent to biologists in all ten regions.  A report addressing the
           persistence of toxicity was completed and is available. Feeding and water type
           generation studies are being summarized into manuscripts. The duckweed method
           was sent to a journal. A paper on comparative sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia,
           Daphnia magna and fathead minnows was presented at the April ASTM symposium.
           Technical assistance on methods continues; Ceriodaphnia cultures are being
           sent to state, EPA regions, contract laboratories,  universities and industry.
           Cooperative agreements continue to develop and evaluate 4-d vs. 7-d
           Ceriodaphnia tests, and to develop techniques to generate ephippial egg
           production and hatching.

           A chemical analysis procedure is being developed and tested to identify
           bioconcentratable materials in effluents. A contract to collect effluents and
           place clams in streams to evaluate the bioaccumulation potential of an effluent
           is complete, and samples have been extracted and analyzed. A draft guideline on
           this approach is available, and will be sent to all regions for comment next

     The emphasis of CETTS has shifted from data entry and checking to programming
     to insure that others can enter new data.  A PC version and user's manual has
     been developed. The new system has built-in QA to enhance error checking. Work
     is proceeding on file transfer protocols to transmit data to the National
     Computing Center (NCC).  Uploads of Region V files to NCC were completed.


7163  DUE: 04/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:  04/30/89

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            01
TITLE:             Integrated Watershed Assessment Techniques
PROJECT OFFICER:    John W. Arthur
PHONE:             780-5565


           GOAL:   Provide methods to characterize biotic resources at risk in large
           regional watersheds.

           RATIONALE:  Acceptable integrated protocols are needed to perform watershed
           inventories,  toxicity relationships and provide tiered measures of biotic
           impact. The procedures will link water quality standards and designate uses
           into definable measures.

           APPROACH:  Conventional tiered procedures will be applied to furnish an
           integrated assessment on the status of aquatic resources within watersheds.
           Laboratory toxicity tests will be performed to measure ambient toxicities and
           relative sensitivities of test species, in situ techniques used for comparison
           with laboratory results and instream biological assessments of indigenous
           biota.  The comparative data base will be gathered in two or three large
           watersheds impacted by common pollutant categories to evaluate the
           applicability of the tiered protocols.  The comparative assessments will be
           performed over a period of two to three years and will encompass all four
           seasons of the year.


           In the last quarter a manuscript was submitted to "Environmental Toxicology and
           Chemistry" describing results of sediment pore water toxicity tests from the
           lower Fox River/Green Bay, WE. This manuscript has now been accepted for

           An additional study was begun in the upper Illinois River basin to further
           describe toxicity profiles encountered with the ambient surface water samples.
           Last May sediments were collected in the river basin from eight waterways and
           pore water was prepared by centrifugation. Chronic toxicity tests were then
           conducted with Ceriodaphnia and Selenastrum. To achieve a "no effect" level,  it
           was necessary to dilute the samples from the Calumet/Cal Sag Channel (at
           Halsted St.)  to between three to six percent. It was not necessary to dilute
           the samples from the Fox and Kankakee Rivers. An additional evaluation is
           scheduled for later this summer.

7830  DUE: 10/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:

8207  DUE: 06/30/93  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Integrated Water Quality Approach for the Control of Toxics

8245  DUE: 03/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:  03/30/89
      Interim Report on Ambient Toxicity in Upper Illinois River Basin

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            36
TITLE:             Aquatic Resource Characterization in a BMP Demo Watershed
PHONE:             780-5565


           GOAL:  Determine meaningful relationships among Best Management Practices
           (BMP's) , water quality designed uses and impacted biotic resources.

           RATIONALE:  The relationship between the effectiveness of BMP's in watersheds
           and the goal of meeting intended water quality standards and uses (fishable,
           swimmable) is unclear.  Meaningful bioligical trend assessments are required
           both before and after  BMP applications to demonstrate their utility.

           APPROACH:  This will be a long-term pilot study representative of a watershed
           impacted by agricultural practices.  Anticipated NFS pollutants are total
           suspended solids, nutrients and toxics (i.e., herbicides).  The comprehensive
           study will  include defining land use and runoff measurements of instream
           toxicity, biotic impacts and mass balance relationships.  An interagency agency
           will be undertaken.  An appropiate state environmental agency will select and
           inplement BMP practices in the watershed.  A multidisciplinary group, USEPA and
           USGS, will perform the physical (hydrology, land use) chemical (contaminant
           mass balance)  and biological assessments.  The role of the USEPA will center on
           characterizing the aquatic resource impacts.


           A work plan has been prepared for characterizing aquatic resource impacts in
           the Minnesota River. Coordination for the biology/toxics portion of this work
           is being done by ERL-Duluth and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
           (Ecological Services Division) . Several principal investigators have been
           identified representing the following institutions: Minnesota Pollution
           Control Agency, Mankato State University and St. Olaf College. The work plan
           must be reviewed and approved by a steering committee spearheading the project
           prior to release of state funds. The study is scheduled to start in mid July,

      8151  DUE: 10/31/92  REVISED:           CCMPLETED:
            Report on Indicators of Surface Water Ecological Impairment

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            02
TITLE:             Ecological Research with the People's Republic of China
PROJECT OFFICER:   Nelson A. Thomas
PHONE:             780-5702


           GOAL:  To participate jointly with the People's Republic of China (PRC)  in
           mutually beneficial studies through a cooperative research program.   Scientists
           from both countries will participate in research and exchange scientific
           information on the environmental processes and effects of pollution on
           freshwater organisms.

           RATIONALE:  In support of the United States'  policy to provide scientific and
           technological cooperation with China,  the USEPA and PRC in 1980 entered into an
           agreement known as the US-PRC Environmental Protection Protocol.  This agreement
           provides for establishment of a cooperative research program.

           APPROACH:  Participating scientists from both countries will discuss and
           identify the specific projects that will be conducted in the research program.
           Projects (subject to modification and approval)  include emphasis on toxicity
           tests methods, effect of environmental variables on toxicity and toxicity
           mixtures.   Scientists from PRC will study at ERL-D to develop an understanding
           of the testing of single chemicals and complex effluents.


           Joint research is currently being conducted on the detection of teratogenic and
           carcinogenic effects of fish in areas containing contaminated sediments. Two
           field collections are complete on the Fox River. Black bullheads were collected
           for histopathological analyses. All fish have been sectioned and slides
           prepared.  Slide analysis of the first collection indicates that none of the fish
           had carcinogenic livers. Examination of bullhead livers from the second
           sampling site in Green Bay in September 1988 is complete. There was evidence of
           parasitic infestation in many of the livers sampled, but no preneoplastic or
           neoplastic lesions were found in fish sampled from the second cruise.

           After 12 months of cooperative research on the Fish Tumor Study, Zhang Fuying
           has returned to Wuhan.  A joint study of fish tumor associated with
           contaminated sediments in the People's Republic of China is being planned.



                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            03
TITLE:             Aquatic Life WQ Criteria Development Modifications
PROJECT OFFICER:    Anthony R. Carlson
PHONE:             780-5523


           GOAL:  (1)  Formulate guidelines for the development of aquatic life water
           quality criteria and advisories. (2)  Prepare criteria and advisories. (3)
           Evaluate criteria under site-specific conditions as to aquatic life protection
           afforded.  (4)  Assist in transferring criteria into state standards.

           RATIONALE: The Office of Water, Criteria and Standards Division periodically
           needs updated guidelines for developing water quality criteria reflective of
           the state-of-the-art in ecotoxicology. Criteria must reflect (1) identifiable
           effects on the health and welfare of aquatic life,  (2) dispersal of pollutants
           through biological, chemical and physical processes and (3)  effects of
           pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity and stability.

           APPROACH:  Laboratory and field studies will be undertaken to evaluate and
           validate the guidelines and criteria. The expression of concentration, duration
           and frequency in the new aquatic life criteria requires the development of
           methodologies to classify and assess impact on ecosystem as well as to predict


           Criteria documents for several chemicals are in various stages of development
           for submission to Criteria and Standards Division (CSD) of the Office of Water.
           Thallium,  and methyl parathion have been reviewed by ERLD and ERLN and are
           being revised to incorporate the comments. The test for a freshwater acrolein
           document was completed and is being reviewed by the laboratories. Seven
           documents including (diazinon, phenol, 1,2,4-TCB and acenaphthene are scheduled
           for submission to CSD by fall of 1989. Test needs for 1990 criteria chemicals
           (malathion, dichlorvos, propoxur, atrazine and carbaryl) have been delineated.
           Work on these documents has already begun for their submission in 1990. A work
           plan on three projects involving low log P (<5) chemicals (whose mode of action
           is narcosis) has been completed for research work needed to revise current
           advisory guidelines. Work is expected to begin as soon as this work plan is
           reviewed by ERL-D.

           Work to update and customize the AQUIRE data base is continuing. Work completed
           this quarter included several programming efforts to make AQUIRE more user
           friendly.  Bioconcentration data was separated into its own sections for output
           and streamlined to improve the quality of BCF data in AQUIRE. AQUIRE files were


     formatted, taped and sent to NTIS for distribution to the University of Utrect,
     Netherlands. AQUIRE was demonstrated at Headquarters 6th Annual OIRM/WIC Open
     House. Currently AQUIRE contains 104,507 data entries for 5,238 chemicals and
     2,410 species from 6,010 publications.

     The database management system for the Aquatic Toxicity Test Analysis System
     (ATTAS) was completed.  Ongoing work includes the addition of a statistical
     analysis section.  An ATTAS user guide is scheduled for completion this fall.

     A series of 30-day early life stage toxicity tests on the effect of fluctuating
     concentrations of copper sulfate on fathead minnows is complete. These tests
     strongly indicate that most of the copper effect on the test organism can be
     elicited using intermittent exposures with concentrations only slightly to
     moderately higher than steady concentrations producing the same effect and that
     periods of non-exposure do not result in protection proportionate to their
     length, relative to the exposure periods. Applying steady concentration
     toxicity tests to situations with fluctuating concentrations can therefore
     result in underprotection unless averaging periods are suitably restricted or
     appropriate mathematical models are used to account for fluctuations. Effects
     could not be modeled based on the total accumulation of copper by the fish.
     Ninty-six hour and 30-day tests are being initiated for selected organic
     chemicals. Laboratory and dosing apparatus modifications to accommodate
     pentachloroethane were made. Testing and analytical procedures have been
     developed. Initial acute and chronic exposures have been completed and
     additional exposures are in progress. An extensive uptake and depuration rate
     exposure has been conducted to support toxicokinetic calculations.
     Papers from the Recovery Workshop were received and revised in accord with the
     reviewers' comments. A revision of Appendix D (Duration and Frequency) of the
     Technical Support Document (TSD) for Water Quality Based Toxics Control (6964A)
     has been drafted and internally reviewed. It was submitted to the Water Quality
     Analysis Branch (OW) for incorporation into the overall revision of the TSD. A
     final report, "Clark Fork River Nuisance Algae Study" was reviewed for the
     Region 8, Montana Office.
6964  DUE: 11/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:

7170  DUE: 09/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:

7171  DUE: 12/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on Field Validation of Methods for Predicting and
      Assessing Fluctuating Exposure Effects

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            41
TITLE:             Criteria Document Testing and Test Endpoint Evaluation
PROJECT OFFICER:   Robert L. Spehar
PHONE:             780-5564


           GOAL: To provide the Office of Water with aquatic toxicity test data for
           deriving water quality criteria documents and to define new toxicity test
           endpoints to more accurately predict environmental hazards.

           RATIONALE: Aquatic toxicity tests are conducted to fulfill data requirements
           for deriving water quality criteria and advisory documents for chemicals of
           priority to the Office of Water. At the same time,  current EPA test procedures
           may underestimate the toxicity of specific classes of toxic pollutants in the
           environment. Research is needed to develop new cost effective methods to obtain
           chronic test endpoints to more accurately predict long-term adverse effects of
           toxics in aquatic systems.

           APPROACH: Acute and chronic toxicity tests with several species of aquatic
           organisms and chemicals from a variety of classes will be conducted.
           Concurrently, new toxicity test end points will be studied to predict adverse
           chemical effects on long-term biological processes. The data obtained from this
           research will be used to develop a chemical toxicity profile which can be used
           by several program offices and will be aligned with current research to
           validate predictive extrapolation models.


           A 90-day early life stage test and a 96-hr flow-through acute test with rainbow
           trout and phenol were completed to fill data gaps needed for deriving a phenol
           criteria document for the Office of Water. Results indicated that the chronic
           value and 96 LC50 values were 157 and 6,082 ug/1 respectively. These data
           provided definitive endpoints for the development of the phenol criteria and
           will be used to lower the previous phenol criteria to specifically protect this
           important species.

           Research to validate the medaka assay is continuing. Exploratory tests with
           cyclophos-phamide (a human carcinogen) and 2-imidazolidinethione were
           completed. Both biological range finding tests and extensive chemistry analysis
           techniques for measuring these chemicals in water were needed in this exercise.
           Results from these studies will be used to conduct 28-day exposures as part of
           the validation and screening process for the medaka assay.
           Culture work has continued to provide test organisms for various laboratory
           projects. The fathead culture unit has supplied 6 lots of embryos, 50 lots of
           larvae and 24 lots of juveniles for testing at ERL-D, and has provided outside


groups with organisms for culture 24 times. The medaka culture unit has
supplied 1 lot of embryos, 11 lots of larvae and 10 lots of adults for tests
with single chemicals, sediments, liver enzyme work and for the medaka assay
development program. A protocol for culture of the Japanese medaka is scheduled
to be completed this fall. In addition, several other species are now being
considered for inhouse projects as a needed response to the program offices.

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            42
TITLE:             Water Quality Criteria Evaluation in Controlled Ecosystems
PROJECT OFFICER:    Steven F. Hedtke
PHONE:             777-2491


           GOAL:   To evaluate the level of protection provided by water quality criteria
           to aquatic life,  wildlife and wetlands.   To investigate the relationship
           between water quality criteria and sediment contamination.

           RATIONALE: Water quality criteria are derived primarily from laboratory
           toxicity data. We need to know the degree of protection criteria provide to
           aquatic ecosystems under field conditions for regulatory activities. Criteria
           are needed for the protection of wildlife and wetlands. The ability to adapt
           current criteria to wildlife and wetlands would be both cost- and

           APPROACH: Data on toxicological effects can be developed in the laboratory, the
           degree of protection provided by criteria can only be determined in the field.
           The experimental ecosystems at the Monticello Ecological Research Station can
           simultaneously test criteria for aquatic life, wildlife and wetlands.
           Controlled inputs of chemicals into the streams and the subsequent effects on
           stream and wetland structure and function will be evaluated. The relationship
           between water concentrations and sediment concentrations can be evaluated under
           stream and wetland conditions.


           Previous research results in the Monticello outdoor experimental streams show
           that exposure to 30 ug/1 selenium (IV) caused complete mortality to adult
           bulegills over a 356-day period. In addition, exposure to 10 ug/1 resulted in
           bluegill larvae  which were unable to survive past 5-7 days. These impacts were
           not predicted by standard laboratory tests. This difference between lab and
           field data was due to selenium having accumulated in fish food organisms and
           served as a major route of exposure to fish that was unaccounted for in lab

           To further test  the application of the current water quality criterion for
           selenium (5 ug/1), exposure of two streams was initiated at 2.5 ug/1 in October
           1988.  The two stream studies in which bluegill are exposed to 10 ug/1 selenium
           are being continued to verify the effects observed at this concentration. In
           addition, the 30 ug/1 dose studies were terminated. These streams are being
           studied to determine whether selenium persists in the ecosystem and therefore
           influences recovery rates.


     As of June 1989, the sediments in the recovery streams show selenium
     concentrations similar to levels that existed during dosing. Because sediments
     may be a source of selenium for fish food organisms,  the potential for effects
     on fish still exists. No effects on adult survival or grwoth have been detected
     in these streams or in those being dosed at 2.5 and 10 ug/1. However, due to
     the low concentrations of selenium, any effects are expected to involve larval
     survival. Bluegills in all streams are just beginning to enter the spawning
     period. Therefore, any effects will not be detectable until later in the
7827  DUE: 04/30/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on Validation of Water Quality Criteria for Selenium

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            43
TITLE:             Studies on Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting Toxicity
PHONE:             780-5557


           GOAL:  To determine the tcxicity of low pH and aluminum in very soft,  (low Ca)
           water for several species of North American warmwater fishes.  To relate the
           toxicity of combinations of these laboratory variables to responses of fish
           populations exposed to them in a whole lake acid manipulation experiment.

           RATIONALE: Adverse effects of Al on aquatic ecosystems are often a consequence
           of acidification of surface waters, which sometimes produces inorganic
           monomeric Al concentrations which are toxic. The low Ca concentrations usually
           found in poorly buffered surface waters exacerbate pH and Al tojdcity. Little
           information is available for warmwater fish and invertebrates. Previous work at
           this laboratory has demonstrated that early life stages are the most  sensitive '
           to direct effects.

           APPROACH:  Conduct laboratory bioassays to determine the toxicity of
           combinations of low pH and Ca and elevated Al which could occur under adverse
           field circumstances.  Concentrate on tests with early life stages of  sensitive
           species and fish occurring in experimentally acidified Little Rock Lake (LRL).
           Conduct in situ exposures of species tested in the lab and that occur in LRL in
           order to more precisely relate lab and field conditions.


           A journal article on the life-cycle chronic toxicity of fathead minnows exposed
           to Hf ions, low Ca and elevated Al has been accepted for publication.
           laboratory exposures of embryos and larvae of yellow perch,  largemouth bass and
           rock bass have been completed and are described in a submitted journal article.
           Additional lab tests and in-situ field exposures of rock bass, yellow perch,
           largemouth bass and black crappies have been completed and are being  summarized
           prior to manuscript preparation. Observations from the Little Rock Lake field
           project indicate that the added stresses of low pH and elevated aluminum might
           reduce over^winter survival of young-of-the-year (YOY)  largemouth bass. To test
           this hypothesis, YOY bass have been exposed to a series of aluminum concentra-
           tios and low pHs at winter temperatures by the Duluth Environmental Research
            Laboratory. Results concur with field observations that  low pH and 25 ug/1
            inorganic monomeric Al drastically reduces  survival during winter conditions.
            Data  reduction and  analysis are underway.



                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            39
TITLE:             Wetlands Research on Mitigation & Cumulative Effects of loss
PROJECT OFFICER:   William D. Sanville
PHONE:             780-5723


           GOAL: Develop procedures which enable Regional Wetland Coordinators to forecast
           wetland water quality enhancement and life support functional losses following
           wetland hydrological, physical or biological modifications.

           RATIONALE: Important wetland functions include water quality enhancement and
           life support. We need to understand these functions quantitatively to predict
           the effect on them of wetland alterations. The effect of the alteration must be
           understood from the single,  isolated wetland to the landscape perspective
           encompassing- the entire aquatic resource. In addition, it is necessary to
           develop criteria to establish maximum tolerable wetland loading rates for a
           variety of substances. lacking these, the wetland functional values will be
           altered and their importance to ecosystem integrity will be lost.

           APPROACH: A literature survey, water quality workshop and meetings with
           regional EPA wetland staff will be the basis for the development of a five-year
           work plan. General program structure will include the following: 1) general
           models of water quality functions and their quantification,  2) how changes in
           number or extent of wetlands affects higher level landscape processes and 3)
           criteria for establishing permissible wetland loading rates.


           The RFP entitled "Experimental Determination of Factors Affecting Assimilative
           Capacity of Freshwater Wetlands" was advertised in the Commerce Business Daily
           as scheduled. We received 21 preproposals in response and these were
           distributed to 12 reviewers.  The 21 will be ranked and 4 institutions will be
           requested to submit expanded proposals. We have requested that we receive final
           proposals by mid-July to enable us to fund the project in this fiscal year.
           Richard Horner, University of Washington, will serve as the reviewer for the
           WET 2.0 (Wetland Evaluation Technique) authored by Paul Adamus and now being
           evaluated for the Corp of Army Engineers and EPA's Office of Wetlands
           Protection.  NRRI Cooperative Agreement status: The project is continuing on
           schedule. The early spring water quality sample collection (including routine, snow
           melt and event-based samples) was successfully completed. Sediment cores to be used
           for calibrating the Pb dating technique were obtained from two wetlands for which
           previous loading data were available. These are currently being analyzed. Late
           spring sampling and water quality analyses are now underway. CIS mapping of
           site watersheds continues. The early summer sampling period will begin on July
           15 and continue until mid-August.

8154  DUE: 08/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on water quality functions of wetlands

8234  DUE: 10/31/89  REVISED: 01/31/90  COMPLETED:
      Report on the Applicability of Current Aquatic Life Water Quality to

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            29
TITLE:             Assessment & Remedial Strategies for Contaminated Sediment
PROJECT OFFICER:   Russell G. Kreis
FHONE:             313/675-7706
           GOAL: Develop methods to measure and predict effects of inplace pollutants,
           identify/prioritize sites for remedial action,  determine the optimal combination
           of mitigative strategies, and simulate the results/consequences of actions.

           RATIONALE: Contaminated sediment impacts both  freshwater and marine ecosystems;
           inplace pollutants is a priority research topic in the Great Lakes. The problem
           is long-term even if zero discharge is assumed. Regulatory offices require
           guidance to establish a cost-effective mitigation policy.

           APPROACH: An interdisciplinary approach will be used to develop and verify
           methods to measure and predict the effects of inplace pollutants and identify
           and prioritize remedial strategies. Research consists of: 1) field collection
           2) field and laboratory experimentation, 3)  data base development, 4) model
           development and 5) remedial action guidance. The test sites include impacted
           "Areas of Concern": Detroit River (1985-1988) ,  lower Fox River - inner Green
           Bay complex (1987-1992) , and Lake Ontario (1990-1995) . Methods and strategies
           developed can be used in any "Area of Concern"  or other national waterways and
           may relate to sediment criteria development, implementation of the Clean Water
           Act, and the US/Canada agreements. Methods will be applied to other areas as
           resources allow.


           Sediment studies are continuing in the Detroit River, lower Fox River, Lake
           Ontario and for the Clean Water Act demonstration sites (ARCS)  program. The
           In-Place Pollutants Project (IPP) , conducted in the the Detroit River, has
           produced two Agency deliverables, ("Integrated study of exposure and biological
           effects of inplace sediment pollutants in the Detroit River, Michigan: An upper
           Great Lakes connecting channel" and "Development, verification and application
           of interconnecting channel models") , five reports to the Upper Great Lakes
           Connecting Channels Study, ten journal publications and numerous task reports
           and oral presentations. Results from the Detroit River indicate that sediments
           were contaminated, toxic, mutagenic and resuspendable. In addition, the water
           column was temporarily toxic and point sources contribute large fluxes of
           contaminants to the water column. These factors suggest that continued
           regulation and control of point and non-point sources are required prior to
           sediment remediation. Other aspects concerning vertical toxicity and
           contamination of Detroit River sediments,  cause-effect relationships, and
           application of a numerical ranking system for contaminated sediments will be

     examined during FY90, along with formulating new initiatives with the Michigan
     Department of Natural Resources. The primary emphasis of Project 29 during FY89
     has been the lower Fox River study. The lower Fox River study is composed of
     numerous tasks and has been coordinated to meet the needs of three sediment
     initiatives: (1) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments, (2)
     Sediment Quality Criteria and (3) the Green Bay/Fox River Mass Balance Study.
     Intensive field studies were conducted in FY88 and limited follow-up studies
     are underway in FY89. Numerous contaminant analyses and bioassays are complete
     and indicate that sediments are toxic and ammonia toxicity is a major component
     in these sediments; a manuscript has been submitted for journal publication
     regarding this topic. Fish tumor surveillance in the lower Fox River indicated
     that there was no evidence of neoplasia in livers from bottom-dwelling
     bullheads. A Fox River coordination meeting is planned for early FY90 to
     discuss the data and to compile the data for synthesis reports. Reports on
     dioxins and furans in Lake Ontario sediments are nearing completion. The ARCS
     Program for the Clean Water Act is in the planning stage and ERL-D personnel
     are represented on all ARCS work groups. Numerous meetings have been held and
     work plans have been prepared and reviewed for management committee approval.
     Six proposals have been prepared for ERL-D concerning sediment sampling,
     sediment characterization, toxicity identification evaluation, hazardous
     sediment ranking, database management and CIS graphical data management.
     Meetings will continue and field work may commence in Indiana Harbor early in
     the next quarter.
7204  DUE: 12/31/88  REVISED:           CCMPLETED: 12/31/88
      Models for Predicting the Probability of Exposure to Toxic Substances from
      Contaminated Sediments in Great Lakes Areas of Concern

7205  DUE: 12/31/88  REVISED:           CCMPLETED: 12/31/88
       Report on Methods for Predicting Biological Impacts of In-place
       Pollutants in the Upper G.L. Connecting Channels.

7877  DUE: 06/30/91  REVISED:           CCMPLETED:
      Report on Numerical Ranking of Hazardous Sediment in the Lower Fox River

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            33
TITLE:             Mass Balance Models for Toxics in Freshwater Systems
PROJECT OFFICER:    William Richardson
PHONE:             313/675-7704


           GOAL:   Conduct mass balance research to link identified ecosystem effects with
           their causes,  ensuring that results are related to possible remedial actions.

           RATIONALE: Over 800 chemical compounds have been identified in Great lakes
           ecosystems and biological effects continue to be documented. Fish contamination
           in many areas has resulted in health advisories and shutdown of commercial
           fishing. Site specific mass balance research is required to quantitate the
           processes and flux of contaminants to predict consequences of remedial actions.

           APPROACH:  Mathematical models for toxic substances based on mass balances,
           including transport, fate and bioaccumulation processes will be developed,
           calibrated and verified for important freshwater systems.  The research
           includes:   1)  development and application of sampling and analytical chemistry
           methods appropriate for low level contaminants,  2)  development and maintenance
           of data bases, 3)  development and application of mathematical models and other
           computational techniques.   Application will be made in important areas of the
           Great Lakes.   Models will be used in other freshwater systems as requested and
           as resources allow.


           The primary accomplishment during the third quarter of FY89 has been the
           development of the initial Green Bay/Fox River models and associated computer
           programs and historical bases. Simplified transport and toxics (WASP4)  models
           have been implemented. Hydrodynamic models have been initiated and initial
           computations completed for the Fox River and Green Bay with partial success in
           comparing model  results to historical data.  Food chain and ecosystem models are
           under development and the initial model framework completed. A number of the
           Green Bay principal investigators presented papers at the International
           Association for Great Lakes Research Conference in Madison, WI. In addition to
           the modeling activities, the first two Green Bay cruises have been completed by
           GLNPO and samples have been returned to LLRS for analysis.


      7876  DUE:  12/31/90  REVISED: 11/30/91  COMPLETED:
            Feasibility of  Using Mass Balance and Food Chain Models for the Management
            of Toxic Substances in Green Bay

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS

                                        PROTECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            34
TITLE:             Technology Transfer to GLNPO, OW, IJC, Regions, State & local
PROJECT OFFICER:    William Richardson
PHONE:             313/675-7704


           GOAL:   To assure that Great Lakes research is applied to the regulatory process
           and to the needs of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.

           RATIONALE:  EPA has a primary role in fulfilling the requirements of the 1978
           and 1987 Water Quality Agreements with Canada.  The ORD Great Lakes Program at
           the Large Lakes Research Station is the primary focus for EPA's response.
           ORD/LLRS staff and on-site contractors have the experience and knowledge to
           efficiently fulfill technical assistance requests from GLNPO, IJC, Regions,
           Office of Water, and State and local agencies.

           APPROACH: Technical transfer will be accomplished through interaction with EPA
           Program Offices, IJC, Regions, States, and local governments. Specific areas of
           support will include: 1) maintenance,  documentation, application and training
           for mathematical models, 2)  computer service support for water quality and
           point source data bases, 3)  participation on IJC committees and boards, state
           and local government committees, and 4) technology transfer to the regulatory
           community including consultants working for government agencies.


           During the third quarter of FY89, major strides were made to implement the Great
           Lakes Geographical Information System (CIS)  at LLRS. A CIS framework and work
           plan has been completed in cooperation with the Great Lakes National Program
           Office. Work has begun to access various databases, particularly those from the
           Michigan Department of Natural Resources' GIS and their files for the Detroit
           River basin. Organizing an October, 1989 Great Lakes GIS conference was
           completed. Work continued on organizing and managing the Great Lakes point
           source file database in cooperation with the GLNPO and the IJC.



                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS KEEGKT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            48
TITLE:             Great Lakes Confined Disposal Facilities:  Effects/Mitigation
PROJECT OFFICER:   Russell G. Kreis
PHONE:             313/675-7706


           GOAL: Develop and field-test methods and strategies to evaluate confined
           disposal facility (CDF)  performance.  Determine if biota receive significant
           contaminant exposure through dike walls of disposal facilities. Develop a CDF
           biomonitoring protocol to address contaminant transport through dike walls.
           Results could impact future regulatory policy concerning CDF construction and
           use practices.

           RATIONALE: The Great Lakes have 40 CDFs to dispose of dredged materials from
           navigation channel maintenance. Contaminants in CDFs have been associated with
           high body burden concentrations and reproductive disorders in resident biota.
           The primary concern is CDF performance and whether biota in the surrounding
           environment are  impacted by contaminant transport through dike walls.

           APPROACH:  A combined biomonitoring and congener-specific PCB approach will be
           used to assess CDF performance. Each aspect will be individually evaluated for
           effectiveness.  Caged and resident biota will be used for biomonitoring at
           several sites. Congener-specific PCB analyses will be conducted on all biota to
           determine whether congeneric patterns discriminate between contaminant sources.
           The sample design developed is amenable to nonparametric and parametric
           statistical techniques.


           Results of the 1987 pilot CDF biomonitoring study indicated that PCB transport
           through Saginaw  CDF dike walls was not demonstrated using a biomonitoring
           approach.  Modeling similations indicated that very low concentrations of PCBs
           would be expected to be tranported through dike walls and was consistent with
           the biomonitoring study results. Upon completion of an "A" deliverable, "Pilot
           confined disposal facility biomonitoring study: Channel/Shelter Island diked
           facility,  Saginaw Bay, Bay City, Michigan, 1987" and several other reports for
           studies conducted during 1987, primary effort for Project 48 is being devoted
           to the 1988 Biomonitoring Study, a more intensive field study than that
           conducted in 1987. Field work is complete and samples are being analyzed. Water
           sample analyses  for PCB concentrations (particulate and dissolved)  are
           complete;  total  suspended solids samples have been completed. A review of
           sample priorities was provided by the ERL-D Research Council and a response
           will be provided in the next quarter. The primary suggestion was that fish
           tissue, rather than clam tissue, be analyzed as well as a greater number of
           statistical methods inspected. Because of the limited number of fish available

     per sample, due to the difficulty in field recovery,  clam tissue must remain
     the primary biological tissue used in the study.  Clam tissue has been prepared,
     extracted and is currently being analyzed. Limited samples of fish tissue will
     also be analyzed in the future. Sample analyses of biological specimen will
     continue through the next several quarters. A Wide array of parametric and
     non-parametric statistical analyses are planned when sample analysis is
     complete. Ihree presentations concerning the 1987 CDF studies were given at the
     Great Lakes Conference, May 1989, Madison, WI. One is scheduled for the SEIAC
     meeting (October, 1989, Toronto, Ontario, Canada).


8085  DUE: 12/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 12/31/88

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROTECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            37
TITLE:             Leachage Toxicity Profiles for Hazardous Waste Characterization
PROJECT OFFICER:    Douglas W. Kuehl
PHONE:             780-5511

           GOAL:  To develop test protocols to assess the hazard of leachates to aquatic
           lifeforms and the effects of transport on hazard.

           RATIONALE: Current methods allow the measurement of hazardous waste leachate
           toxicity to a variety of aquatic life.  There is no acceptable protocol to apply
           such data to assess aquatic impacts or to adjust for modification of toxicity
           during environmental transport. This project will  define a test "profile" for
           leachates which will characterize their hazard to  aquatic life  and the effect
           of fate processes on toxicity.

           APPROACH: A cost-effective profile of leachate toxicity tests will be developed
           that includes enough diversity of organisms and toxic responses so that an
           assessment of aquatic life impact can be made.   This profile will include
           evaluation of the distribution of toxicity among chemical fractions of the
           leachate.  These fractions will be related to properties affecting fate,  e.g.,
           retardation or susceptibility to hydrolysis reactions,  so that  the leachate
           profile can be linked with OSW assessment methodologies in order to predict
           toxicity modifications/attenuation factors during  transport.

           Methods for the characterization of the physical chemical nature of components
           in aqueous samples have been developed and published (EPA/600/3-88-034,
           September 1988) . The methodology involves manipulation of the sample and
           comparison of the toxicity of the altered sample to the initial sample using
           aquatic species. Using this methodology, toxicity characteristics of synthetic
           leachates of creosote and latex paint will be determined. Initial studies will
           focus on creosote.

           Synthetic creosote aqueous leachates were found to be acutely toxic to C.  dubia
           at 48 hours (LC50=2.21%) Adjustment of pH and filtration partially removed
           toxicity suggesting that some precipitation of toxic components may have
           occurred. C18 solid phase extraction removed all the toxicity. Subsequent HPLC
           fractionation of the extracts indicated that multiple toxicants were present.
           Work continues to further isolate toxicants and identify them.
      8092  DUE:  04/30/89  REVISED:  11/30/89  COMPLETED:


                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            38
TITLE:             Predicting Aquatic Toxicity of HW Constituents and Exposures
PROJECT OFFICER:    Russell J. Erickson
PHONE:             780-5534

           GOAL:  To develop toxic effects models,  suitable for assessing aquatic impact of
           hazardous waste constituents under diverse conditions.

           RATIONALE: Standard aquatic toxicology data relate toxicity to a steady water
           exposure for a fixed duration. Risk assessments are uncertain due to inadequate
           ability to extrapolate such information to different organisms,  chemicals,
           routes of exposure,  durations and environmental conditions.   By developing
           toxic effects models which include accumulation kinetics,  link response to
           accumulation, and adjust for organism,  chemical and environmental properties,
           such extrapolations will be improved.

           APPROACH:  The relationship of toxic response to accumulation of toxicant and
           to chemical and organism properties will be evaluated.   Kinetic models will be
           developed which will account for different routes of uptake and elimination,
           metabolic transformations and internal distribution. The role of accumulation
           kinetics in governing response to fluctuating concentrations will be tested.
           Generalized computer-based models will be developed for assessing toxicity of
           hazardous waste mixtures under diverse conditions.


           A physiologically based gill model has been refined to accommodate exchange of
           organic electrolytes and has been tested with some success against additional
           data sets. Experimental protocols have been developed and tested to allow more
           complete evaluation of relationships among cardiac output, gill ventilation,
           oxygen consumption and chemical exchange. Experiments are underway to establish
           rates of elimination of a set of chlorinated alkanes via various routes in
           rainbow trout and to support development of better toxicokinetic models. The
           relationship of chemical accumulation to effects is being reviewed and studies
           on the utility of kinetic-based effects models for predicting effects of
           fluctuating concentrations are in progress in cooperation with other projects.

      8091  DUE:  08/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROTECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            19
TITLE:             Field Validation for Hazard Assessment Techniques
PROJECT OFFICER:   Richard E. Siefert
PHONE:             780-5552


           GOAL: Design approaches to validate current methodologies to measure pesticide
           irrpact on non-target organisms in natural aquatic systems. Data generated will
           be used to design more appropriate tests for hazard assessments.

           RATIONALE: Accurate hazard assessments  are needed to effectively regulate
           pesticides. This field research will be vised to validate existing freshwater
           test methods as well as to develop improved field protocols.

           APPROACH:  Conduct natural pond and lake studies using littoral enclosures to
           determine the ecological effects of pesticides on the aquatic system.
           Primary and secondary (ecological) effects will be studied on microbes, algae,
           microinvertebrates, macroinvertebrates and fish.  Environmental chemistry
           studies will include both water and sediment.  Biota recovery studies will be
           conducted after pesticide application.  Results will be combined with
           information obtained from the literature to improve the accuracy and
           predictability of pesticide effects by freshwater laboratory methodology, and
           will provide field testing protocols for use in the pesticide registration


           The first two seasons of field work to develop a field testing protocol using
           enclosures built in a natural pond were successfully completed. A testing
           protocol entitled "A Research Design for Littoral Enclosure Studies" has been
           completed and peer reviewed,  and has been accepted by OPP for use as a guidance
           document for field testing of pesticides. The final report "Field Validation
           Enclosure Studies on Effects of Pesticides in A Natural Pond" has been
           completed and sent to OEPER and the Office of Pesticide Programs. Field work
           and analysis of chemical and biological samples for the littoral enclosure
           study with the synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, fenvalerate, has been completed
           and the write-up of the final report is underway. The additional six-enclosure
           study on the reproductive success of bluegills was successful.

           A quantitative ranking scheme has been developed to determine the potential for
           ecological concern of inert chemicals to freshwater aquatic organisms. The
           inert chemicals are ranked based on a summation of scores assigned to each of
           five categories of effect data. Scoring is based upon data in the literature
           using computer data bases such as the Aquatic Information Retrieval Data Base
           (AQUTRE). If no literature data are available, values are predicted using

     quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARS) . The five categories of
     effect data are: (1) acute toxicity, (2) chronic toxicity, (3)
     bioacxxraiulation/biocxjncentration, (4) environmental persistence and  (5)
     environmental partitioning. An inhouse work plan has been completed  for this
     project. A computer program is being written to facilitate the retrieval of
     toxicity data from the AQUIRE data base. SMILES notations (Simplified Molecular
     Identification and Line Entry System) are being written for the inert chemicals
     to allow storage, retrieval and modeling of their chemical structures and
     chemical information in QSAR.
7592  DUE: 06/30/89  REVISED: 09/30/89  COMPLETED:

8122  DUE: 02/25/90  REVISED: 09/30/90  COMPLETED:
      Fish Reproductive Success Studies for Littoral Enclosures

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            06
TITLE:             Develop Guideline Protocols, and Test for BCA Effects
PROJECT OFFICER:    Richard L. Anderson
JHONE:             780-5565

           GOAL:   Develop or improve methods that determine the relationships of
           biological control agents (BCA)  to the health of freshwater ecosystems.

           RATIONALE: Ecological risk assessment for a BCA requires information on host
           range,  environmental survival and distribution of the agent, and an estimate of
           kinds and functions of the populations that may be exposed.  This information
           can be supplied by laboratory, microcosm and field testing.  However,
           well-studied test guidelines and protocols are not available to the people who
           must produce the data.

           APPROACH:  BCA are registered through a tiered system of increasing test
           complexity.  Test protocols are  needed in all tiers.  Our goal is to develop
           acute and chronic laboratory tests for target and non-target invertebrates and
           fish and to establish a laboratory microcosm test system that will accurately
           portray events in outdoor, natural systems.  The microcosm data is audited with
           data from outdoor exposures with the same or surrogate microbes.  The acute and
           chronic test systems extend beyond simple laboratory tests and lethal endpoints
           and will include techniques necessary to assure that sublethal expressions of
           BCA and host interactions are measured.


           Our immediate goal is to develop acute and chronic laboratory tests that expose
           target and non-target invertebrates and fish to microbes and to establish a
           microcosm test system that will  accurately portray microbe activities in
           outdoor, natural systems. Our extended goal is to evaluate the predictive
           capacity of laboratory data in situations where microorganisms are applied.

           During the last quarter, activities included research and administration. The
           administrative activities included completion of the processing of a microcosm
           cooperative agreement with the University of Minnesota. Hiring and data
           generation has begun. Research activities included completion of a report for a
           microbial methods manual that describes the use of the mixed flask culture
           microcosm in evaluating effects, distribution and survival of biological
           control agents and several laboratory experiments.

           Experiments aimed toward developing testing guidelines for acute and chronic
           testing of fungi have shown that measuring the "exposure concentration" for
           non-target animals is complex. Our research is using the entomopathogenic

     fungus, Lagenidium. The infective stage is an actively swimming zoospore whose
     life-span can be affected by many physical and biological factors.
     Understanding the factors that influence the life-span of the zoospore is
     important because infection is time- and concentration-dependent. Developing a
     maximum challenge procedure for non-target animals requires an understanding of
     the time/survival relationships of the infecting organism. We have continued
     our research to describe how animals affect the survival and distribution of
     microorganisms added to water. We have recently shown that Daphnia rapidly
     accumulate bacterial spores from water and when placed in spore-free water they
     will lose the accumulated load. We are determining whether the formulation of
     the spore affects uptake. We are also evaluating a published report which
     states that acetate will inhibit the growth of Bacillus thuringiensis but not
     other spores. The report centered on soil bacillus and we are examining its use
     in water and sediments.


7675  DUE: 10/30/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 10/30/88

7894  DUE: 10/31/88  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 10/31/88

7895  DUE: 11/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:

8126  DUE: 08/25/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report:  Protocols for exposing freshwater fish and invertebrates to a
      fungal pest control agent.

8236  DUE: 12/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      laboratory methods for appraising the safety of a microbial pest control
      agent in freshwater systems

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS

NUMBER:            32
TITLE:             Testing Predictive Models in Laboratory Techniques
PHONE:             780-5542
           GOAL:   Develop protocols to define the uncertainty in ecological risk
           prediction by testing ecosystem effects models and predictive laboratory
           techniques, and provide information to improve their efficacy.

           RATIONALE:  Risk assessment models and laboratory tests are the basis for
           registration of pesticides and for predicting effects of toxic substances in
           natural ecosystems.   Testing these models with data from field studies will
           improve their predictive efficacy and reduce uncertainty associated with their
           use.  ERL-D is currently studying effects of pesticides and toxic substances in
           lakes, ponds, streams, and littoral enclosures.  Data from these field studies/
           which measure the parameters most likely to show effects, can be used to test
           predictive models and laboratory methods.

           APPROACH:  Evaluate data from littoral enclosure and ORNL pond studies for
           testing CASH, other effects models, and predictive laboratory methods
           (microcosms) .  Then select data from these and other field studies to test
           effects Models.  These findings will be used to modify data requirements of the
           models and to improve assessment quality of field studies.  The database
           developed for these tests will be used to evaluate other effects models when
           they are developed.


           Manuscripts presented at the Lotic Ecosystem Recovery Workshop have all been
           reviewed by the editors (Drs. Yount and Niemi) . All manuscripts have been
           revised and are now being prepared for submission to Environmental Management
           for peer review and publication. Samples from the ORNL pond experiments
           continue to be processed and entered into the pond database. Patterns of
           effects on trophic interactions are emerging from the data analysis. The ORNL
           model programs are now ready for use and modeling efforts will increase as the
           ORNL database nears completion. The principal investigator, Dr. Bartell,
           continued to provide technical assistance to the UWS and ERL-D staff on
           preparations for testing of the CASM model and the littoral enclosure model
           (CASM with input data specific to the littoral enclosures) with the
           chlorpyrifos database. Initial runs of the CASM model were conducted to insure
           that the model is functioning properly. Environmental characteristsic of the
           littoral enclosure and a 96-hr, average ASANA exposure period were used as
           inputs to the standard model. These runs suggest that the initial biomass
           values in the model may be too high for northern dimictic lakes with nutrient

     regimens similar to littoral enclosures. A third irdcrocosm experiment was
     started to test the effects of ASANA. Although the zooplankton structure in the
     first two experiments were different, the results suggest that the IDEL and
     sensitive community components were similar for both experiments.

         OF DRT.TVERABTI;y;;
7781  DUE: 04/30/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Final Report on Resistance and Resilience of Pond Ecosystems to Toxicant

8128  DUE: 07/31/90  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report:  The relationship between microcosm and field studies.

8214  DUE: 07/31/92  REVISED:           CCMPLETED:
      Report on the relationship between microcosm and field studies

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROTECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            40
TITLE:             Small Fish to Assess Toxicological Properties of Qiemicals
PROJECT OFFICER:   Rodney D. Johnson
PHONE:             780-5731

           GOAL:  To develop and validate methods for using small aquarium fish to assess
           the toxicological properties of chemicals.

           RATIONALE:  Validated assays developed on sound toxicological principles which
           simultaneously provide data on several different endpoints are needed for
           cost-effective chemical hazard evaluations.

           APPROACH: Many in vivo assays used to ascertain the carcinogenic,  teratogenic,
           and reproductive toxicology of synthetic chemicals are very costly. Relatively
           less expensive assays using small fish have shown promise for establishing
           carcinogenic endpoints as well as other endpoints associated with reproductive
           toxicity and teratogenicity. Appropriate exposure techniques and endpoint
           analysis designed on sound toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic principles will
           provide useful data about several endpoints. These data can be extrapolated to
           predict endpoints in other species as well as provide a data base for SAR


           Medaka exposures are continuing and our progress to date includes 24 exposures.
           Of those 24, 4 are in final pathology analysis, 14 are in histological
           processing, 4 are in the growout unit and 2 are currently in exposure.
           Preparation of exposed fish for pathology analysis is also proceeding on
           schedule.  Microscopic slides from fish from several assays are currently being
           studied. Assay responses will be reported as they are completed.

           Research to quantify the peroxisome proliferation response in medaka due to
           DEHP exposure is on track. Fish have been sacrificed for the histochemical
           procedure.  Computer methods for analyzing the slides are also progressing in a
           timely fashion.

           Deliverable #8094A entitled "The medaka carcinogenesis model: February 1989
           progress report" has been submitted.


      8094  DUE:  03/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 03/31/89

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            47
TITLE:             Dose Determination in Small Fish for use in Risk Assessment
PROJECT OFFICER:   Steven P. Bradbury
PHONE:             780-5527

           GOAL:  To provide a reliable approach to determine an organism-based dose for
           small aquarium fish used in bioassays to assess toxioological properties of

           RATIONALE: The use of small aquarium fish in low-cost bioassays is being
           developed and validated to provide data regarding a number of endpoints. To
           provide a toxicologically-sound basis from which to extrapolate results to
           other species and to perform meaningful environmental and health assessments,
           the ability to accurately determine an organism dose and to quantify
           bioactivation capabilities must be developed.

           APPROACH: Current bioassays provide little information to permit an evaluation
           of the dose absorbed by a fish, nor the degree of metabolic activation
           achieved. Quantification of these factors is crucial to assess responses in
           carcinogenicity, reproductive and teratogenicity assays. Empirical information
           will be collected to provide a systematic database of organism dose and
           metabolic capabilities that directly support bioassay results. These data will
           be used to validate and perfect predictive toxicokinetic and metabolism models
           that will provide the required data faster and more cost-effectively.


           Initially, aromatic amine and nitro compounds were selected as compounds for
           testing because those materials are being screened for carcinogenic activity in
           medaka and because of their interest to OTS. Preliininary method development has
           been initiated with aniline and 4-chloroaniline to assess uptake and
           elimination constants. Results from these studies are being compared to
           physiologically based gill uptake models. Preliminary results indicate that the
           model predictions are in reasonable agreement with independently determined
           empirical values. In vitro methodology for studying the metabolic activation of
           primary aromatic amines has also been initiated. Methods have been developed
           for analyzing the N-hydroxylamine products directly by HPLC and LSC, which
           provides a means for accurate quantification of this metabolic activation step.
           Basic methods development for performing microsomal metabolism experiments in
           medaka and trout is progressing. Optimal conditions (e.g., time, substrate
           concentration, pH) for studying the N-oxidation of these substrates in both
           trout and medaka are nearing completion. Additional efforts have also been
           initiated to study the activation of acetylenic alcohols to better explain and
           predict their acute toxicity in fish.


8134  DUE: 09/30/90  REVISED:           CEMPLEIED:
      Progress report on determining dose for small aquarium fish used in chronic

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            13
TITIE:             Structure-Activity Relationships and Estimation Techniques
PROJECT OFFICER:    Steven J. Broderius
PHONE:             780-5574

           GOAL: To develop comprehensive SAR models for the aquatic toxicology of acute
           and chronic effects of industrial chemicals.  The SAR models address specific
           and non-specific toxicity mechanisms for new and existing chemicals.

           RATIONALE: Less than one percent of the TSCA inventory chemicals are tested and
           for many of the PMN chemicals no test data exist.  To screen for potential
           effects rapidly,  structure-activity methods have been the only technically
           sound approach.  The TSCA inventory is generically categorized and  systematic
           test sets are generated for each important endpoint such as LC50 and growth
           inhibition. Molecular descriptors are generated for each chemical  and mechanism
           specific structure-activity relationships are derived. The relationships are
           validated by independent testing and provided to OTS with full documentation.

           APPROACH:  A  systematic reference database for acute and chronic effects of
           chemicals is being developed for industrial chemicals. This data set is used to
           develop mechanism-specific SAR models. Representative chemicals -for each
           mechanism are being selected to develop a high quality acute and chronic
           effects data base which will validate SAR models for survival, growth and
           reproduction effects in aquatic organisms. QSAR models will be used to  help
           assess the hazard of SARA Title III Section 313 chemicals to aquatic organisms.


           The theoretical research on predictive toxicology has been delayed while the
           critical short-term objectives are being addressed. Different computerized
           modules to be used in the QSAR hazard evaluation of chemicals have been
           developed and delivered to OTS. The fathead minnow 96-hr acute and 32-day
           sublethal toxicity data bases currently contain test results on approximately
           700 and 100 individual industrial chemicals,  respectively. Our in-house
           research to develop QSAR methods for acute and chronic toxicity of chemicals
           with specific modes of action is progressing on schedule.  The toxic action of
           chemicals is being defined from physiological type response fish acute  toxicity
           syndromes  (FATS),  joint toxic action experiments and general toxic symptomatic
           signs and endpoints. It is assumed that chemicals acting by a common primary
           mode of action are concentration additive in their joint toxicity.   To  date we
           have identified seven different mode-of-action groups.  Results from a
           knowledge acquisition exercise held during a workshop jointly sponsored by
           GTS/HERD and ERL-D are also being analyzed. We hope to formalize rules  for
           assigning toxic mechanisms to chemical structures and develop a predictive
           computer-based system to interface with the existing QSAR system to improve
           estimates for toxic endpoints.


     To aid in the analysis of our systematic toxicity test data and in model
     development, we have built a database containing physical/chemical, lipophilic,
     electronic, polar, steric, and reactivity properties for approximately 700
     chemicals. Regression analysis techniques will be applied to the data to
     develop structure-activity relationships for toxicants acting by different

     A computer program has been developed that allows us to interface the QSAR
     system with the AQUIRE database. By using this system we are able to develop
     ecotox profiles for organic chemicals from their CAS number or SMIIES notation.

          F nRT.TVERARTES;
8142  DUE: 05/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report:  Mechanism-specific QSAR Models for Fathead Minnow acute and
      chronic toxicity.

8143  DUE: 04/29/89  REVISED: 11/30/89  COMPLETED:
      Progress Report - Methods to predict toxic mechanisms from chemical

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            46
TITLE:             Expert System to Predict the Metabolism of Toxicants
PROJECT OFFICER:   Steven P. Bradbury
PHONE:             780-5527

           GOAL:  To develop an expert system that quantitatively predicts
           species-specific metabolism of xenobiotics for use in the assessment of
           environmental and health hazards.

           RATIONALE:  Predictive systems are currently available that have the capacity
           to quantify the adverse impact of chemicals.   Many times these models grossly
           underestimate the toxic effects of specific classes of compounds because they
           fail to recognize that adverse responses may be elicited by activated
           metabolites.  Failure to properly evaluate the metabolism of chemicals of
           regulatory concern leads to uncertainties in risk assessment that are
           unacceptably large.  This project provides OPP/OTS with an expert system,
           compatible with current computer-based models, for the consistent,  accurate,
           and rapid prediction of species-specific metabolites for use in subsequent
           hazard assessment.

           APPROACH:  An automated program for predicting metabolism will be founded on a
           knowledge base derived from the literature and experts in the field.   Using the
           database, algorithms will be established to assess the "correctness" of
           predictions.  Development of the model will be a micro-computer environment to
           enhance the adaptability and accessibility of the system for regulatory use.


           The current system, developed in a micro-computer environment,  contains a
           database of approximately 190 substructures,  with supporting documentation,
           that incorporates the metabolism of about 30 common functional groups. Results
           of the model; i.e. , predicted metabolites, can be linked to other QSAR models
           currently in use at OTS/HERD. A preliminary model was delivered to OTS/HERD in
           May, 1989 for evaluation and expansion of the knowledge base. This activity
           will permit the model's knowledge base to be expanded and verified faster
           because of its day-to-day use by program office staff.

               OF nRT.TVRRARTF
                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS

                                        PROTECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            49
TITLE:             QSAR Models for Chemical Reactivity
PROJECT OFFICER:   Oilman D. Veith
PHONE:             780-5550

           GOAL:  To develop methods to predict the reactivity of toxic industrial
           chemicals to proteins and DNA.

           RATIONALE: Structure-toxicity models adequately predict the toxicity of
           non-reactive chemicals and those which are not metabolicly activated to
           reactive chemicals, current techniques are inadequate because models to
           quantify reactivity are lacking. This project will provide kinetic-based
           molecular descriptors for chemical reactivity.

           APPROACH: Both classical quantum chemistry and new chemometric techniques will
           be evaluated for their ability to accurately identify reactive centers in toxic
           chemicals. Rate constants for electrophilic/nucleophilic reactions will be used
           to select the appropriate parameters. Ultimately toxicity databases will be
           used to evaluate the predictive power of this approach.


           The program, CONCORD, has gone through three modifications, each broadening the
           capabilities to handle difficult structures. This program is the technology
           breakthrough EPA needed to study chemical reactivity. It has been released to
           industry under University of Texas-Austin copywrite.  Extensive evaluations
           showed that the software computes accurate 3-dimensional structures in
           comparison to x-ray data. Moreover, the computation of charge density on all
           atoms in the structure can be done in seconds rather than hours. These advances
           open new possibilities for modeling hydrogen bonding which controls the
           toxicity of more than 20 percent of the industrial chemicals.

           This project has developed a multi^wavelength, high pressure liquid
           chromatographic technique to identify the electrophile/nucleophile reaction
           products. This technique has proven extremely powerful in discriminating among
           the reactivity mechanisms which result in increased toxicity of electrophiles
           and pro-electrophiles. Moreover, ample evidence now exists to demonstrate that
           conventional wisdom for modeling electrophiles is incorrect, particularly with
           respect to building empirical reference sets for reactivity parameters. This
           project has initiated work on a new approach which models reactivity as
           concurrent, competing reaction rates with model nucleophiles.


      7915  DUE:  10/31/89  REVISED:           CCMPLETED:

8243  DUE: 07/31/89  REVISED:           OCMPIETED:
      Unit led QSAR Strategy for Predictive Ecotoxicology and Initial Environmental
      Risk Assessments

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            31
TITLE:             Methods to Predict Susceptible Populations and Communities
PROJECT OFFICER:    Steven J. Broderius
PHONE:             780-5574


           GOAL:  Use information from laboratory studies to develop methods to predict
           susceptible aquatic populations, use microcosm and natural systems to test
           predictions, integrate these models into existing ecosystem effects models, and
           test these effects models using a database of field studies.

           RATIONALE:  Ecorisk assess, models require effect inputs  that are generally not
           available at the present time. In addition,  uncertainties associated w/risk
           assessment approaches have not been estimated. Predictive models that specify
           susceptible populations must be developed to provide the initial effect inputs.
           Population susceptibility models, & risk assess, approaches in general, must be
           validated against empirical field data to quantify uncertainty.

           APPROACH:  Initial efforts will include reviews of  lab methods  and data to predict
           susceptible populations & available field studies to test models. Methods for
           studying comparative bioenergetics (to predict toxicant uptake) , xenobiotic
           metabolism, & toxic mechanisms are being developed to fill data gaps. These data wil
           be used to evaluate methods to cluster susceptibility parameters & to computerize a
           species & connnunity toxicant-specific ranking system for risk assessment. A
           field study database will be established to test model predictions.


           Computerized databases have been developed for organism parameters related to
           toxicological response, including respiration, cardiovascular function and
           metabolism. Application and analyses of these databases to predict
           susceptibility and identification of additional parameters useful for
           predicting susceptibility are in progress.

           laboratory-based methods are being applied to empirically develop a toxic mode
           of action database. Using joint toxicity theory for chemical mixtures and an
           assessment of fish acute toxicity syndromes, chemicals that are associated with
           nonpolar narcosis, polar narcosis, oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling,
           respiratory membrane irritation  (reactive-toxicity) and acetylcholinesterase
           inhibition are being defined. Efforts are continuing to differentiate
           additional modes of action with insecticides and industrial chemicals.

      7470  DOE: 07/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
            Report on Biological Data Base for Risk Assessment

8145  DUE: 01/31/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:  01/31/89
      Report:  Comparison of laboratory microcosms and natural pond responses to

8215  DUE: 07/31/91  REVISED:           CCMPIETED:
      Report on the biological data base for supporting freshwater risk assessment

                                   3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                        PROJECT SYNOPSIS
NUMBER:            25
TITLE:             Watershed Manipulation Project
PHONE:             780-5557


           GOAL:   Determine the early indicator, as well as later,  more dramatic chemical
           and biological responses of a warmwater bass lake to acid additions causing 0.5
           pH unit reductions (from 6.0 to 4.5)  every other year; evaluate the current
           state of the art of predicting acid effects; use results to substantiate
           assessments of impacts inferred from lab or survey data; obtain mechanistic
           data needed for acid effects modeling; evaluate the vise of lab data for
           predicting acid effects on fish populations in the field.

           RATIONALE:  Experimental studies on whole ecosystems are a powerful technique
           for determining acid effects; very few such studies have been conducted;
           chemical and biological results will be relatable to conditions in lakes
           elsewhere in the U.S. and Canada; mechanistic data result in stronger models
           than correlative data; no lab data validation studies have been conducted for
           low pH.

           APPROACH:   Acidify one-half  of a clear,  warmwater,  low  alkalinity lake
           in northern Wisconsin after dividing it with a removable plastic barrier;
           reduce the pH over 6 years after a 2-year baseline study; compare extensive
           preacidification effect predictions with observed results; conduct lab
           bioassays to help elucidate organism- and population-level acid effects, and to
           explore organism-level sublethal response indicators.


           The first summer of acidification to pH 4.5, the lowest pH planned during the
           project, began with H2SO4 addition to the treatment basin immediately after
           ice-out. The intensity and breadth of effects on all trophic levels seen at pH
           5.1 over the previous two years is expected to increase. Functional or process
           level effects, which have been minimal so far, are expected to become more
           evident. Reports of biological and chemical changes at pH 5.1 were submitted as
           scheduled in fulfillment of milestone 8225A, "Report on two years of Little
           Rock Lake acidification at pH 5.1." Presentation and publication of findings
           continues; these data will be used in the 1990 assessment.

      8225  DUE: 04/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED: 04/30/89
            Report on two years of Little Rock Lake acidification at pH 5.1

      8226  DUE: 05/31/91  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
            Little Rock Lake Acidification Project Final Report

                             3RD QUARTER STATUS REPORT

                                  PROTECT SYNOPSIS
             Great Lakes Support for Superfund
             William Richardson
     GOAL:  Develop methods to predict the impact of hazardous waste sites on the
     water quality and ecosystem of the Great Lakes.  Determine allowable discharges
     from sites based on acceptable risk.

     RATIONALE:  Hazardous waste disposal  sites within the Great Takes Basin are
     suspected of contributing significant mass loadings of toxics to the Lakes.
     Because of long detention times and bioaccumulation, impacts on the ecosystem
     are greater than might be expected in other systems.  Superfund programs
     require guidance to establish acceptable discharge levels for specific sites.

     APPROACH:  An interdisciplinary approach will be used to develop, apply, and
     verify models to simulate and predict the longevity and biological impact of
     toxic substances leaking from waste sites.
     The final report was submitted to OEPER and to Region II in May. Presentation
     of the project was made at the 1989 International Association for Great Lakes
     Research Conference in Madison, WI on May 31,  1989.


8246  DUE: 06/30/89  REVISED:           COMPLETED:
      Report on Model of TCDD for Lake Ontario

U.S. Environmental Proter!/.•:••:<  y
 Great Lakes National Pro-gran Ui'
            GLNPO Library