REPORT OK
              HYDROGRAPHIC STUDIES
                     OF THE
       MISSISSIPPI, MINNESOTA, & ST. CROEC
                     RIVERS
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
 FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
   TWIN CiriES-lJPFER MISSISSIPPI RIVER PROJECT
                 DECEMBER, 1965

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                     TITLE VI CIVIL RIGHTS STATEMENT
DISCRIMINATION PROHIBITEDTitle VI of the Civil Rights Act of 196**
states:  "No person in the United States shall, on the ground of
race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in,
be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any
program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."  There-
fore, the Federal Water Pollution Control Program, like every program
or activity receiving financial assistance from the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, must be operated in compliance with
this law.

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                     REPORT ON
               HYDROGRAPHIC STUDIES
                      OF THE
        MISSISSIPPI, MINNESOTA, & ST.  CROIX
                      RIVERS
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
  FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
    TWIN CITIES-UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER PROJECT
                  DECEMBER, 1965

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           INTRODUCTION
This document represents an accumu-
lation of individual reports prepared
on the hjrdrographic aspects of the
rivers within the Project's study
area for utilization with data char-
acterizing the quality of these waters.
The individual reports have "been re-
designated herein as chapters and
have been numbered sequentially for
the readers benefit.

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                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter                                                         Page No._
   I     Ify-drographs
              Introduction                                         1
              Object                                               1
              General Information                                  1
              Stations Selected                                    2
                   St. Francis - Figure 1-1                        3
                   Lock & Dam #1 - Figure 1-2                      3
                   Mankato - figure 1-3                            U
                   Carver - Figure 1-^                             5
                   St. Paul - Figure 1-7                           5
                   St. Croix Falls - Figure 1-8                    6
                   Stillwater - Figure 1-9                         7
                   Lock & Dam #3 - Figure 1-10                     7

  II     Mean Stream Depths
              Introduction                                         9
              Object                                               9
              General Information                                  9
              Method of Computation                               10

 III     Range of Mean Monthly Discharges
              Introduction                                        13
              Object                                              13
              General Information                                 13

  IV     Mean Flow Velocities
              Introduction                                        15
              Object                                              15
              General Information                                 15

   V     Range of Daily Discharges
              Introduction                                        20
              Object                                              20
              General Information                                 20

  VI     Low Flow Frequency
              Introduction                                        22
              Object                                              22
              General Information                                 22
              Method of Computation                               2^

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                             LIST OF FIGURES

                                                                Follows
Ho..
1-1    Daily Hydrograph for Period of Water Quality Study          8
       April 196U - September 1965
       (Rum River near St. Francis, Minnesota)

1-2    Daily Hydrograph for Period of Water Quality Study          8
       April 196^ - September 1965
       (Mississippi River - Lock and Dam No. l)

1-3    Daily Hydrograph for Period of Water Quality Study          8
       April 196^ - September 1965
       (Minnesota River at Mankato, Minnesota)

I-k    Daily Hydrograph for Period of Water Quality Study          8
       April 196^ - September 1965
       (Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota)

1-5    Lower Minnesota Flow Correction                             8

1-6    Minnesota River - Mankato to Carver Prorated Flows          8

1-7    Daily Hydrograph for Period of Water Quality Study          8
       April 1964 - September 1965
       (Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minnesota)

1-8    Daily Hydrograph for Period of Water Quality Study          8
       April 196^ - September 1965
       (St. Croix River - St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls,
        Wisconsin)

1-9    Daily Hydrograph for Period of Water Quality Study          8
       April 196U - September 1965
       (St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota)

I- 10   Daily Hydrograph for Period of Water Quality Study          8
       April 1964 - September 1965
       (Mississippi River - Lock and Dam Wo. 3)

II-l   Discharge - Depth Relationships                            12
       Mississippi River (River Mile 871.0 - SjU.l)

II-2   Discharge - Depth Relationships                            12
       Mississippi River (River Mile 853.2 - 8^8.5)

II-3   Discharge - Depth Relationships                            12
       Mississippi River (River Mile 81*8.5 - 81*3.0)

II-U   Discharge - Depth Relationships                            12
       Mississippi River (River Mile 81*3.0 - 836.5)
                                    ii

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LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
Ho.
II-5
II-6
II-7
II-8
II- 9
11-10
11-11
11-12
11-13
III-l
III-2
III-3
III-U
III- 5
17-1
IV-2
Follows
Page
Discharge - Depth Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 836.5 - 823.5)
Discharge - Depth Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 823-5 - 815.75)
Discharge - Depth Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 815.75 - 8H.U)
Discharge - Depth Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 8ll.U - 801.5)
Discharge - Depth Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 801.5 - 788.0)
Discharge - Depth Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 788.0 - 781.0)
Discharge - Depth Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 781.0 - 76^.9)
Discharge - Depth Relationships
Minnesota River (River Mile 109.3 - O.l)
Discharge - Depth Relationships
St. Croix River (River Mile U8.0 - 0.8)
Range of Mean Monthly Discharges - Water Years 1^0-1964
(Mississippi River - Lock and Dam No. l)
Range of Mean Monthly Discharges - Water Years 19kO-lS6k
(Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota)
Range of Mean Monthly Discharges - Water Years 19UO-196U
(Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minnesota)
Range of Mean Monthly Discharges - Water Years 19^0-196*1
(St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota)
Range of Mean Monthly Discharges - Water Years 1914-0-196U
(Mississippi River - Lock and Dam No. 3)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 871.0 - 8^7.6)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
Ik
Ik
Ik
Ik
Ik
19
19
          iii

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                LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
No.
IV-3
IV- U
IV- 5
17-6
IV- 7
IV-8
17-9
17-10
17-11
IV-12
V-l
7-2
7-3
71-1
VI- 2
VI- 3

Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 8^3.0 - 836.5)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 836.5 - 823.5)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 823.5 - 815.75)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 815.75 - 811.U)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 811.1* - 801.5)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 801.5 - 786.0)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 786.0 - 781. 0)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Mississippi River (River Mile 781.0 - 76^.9)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
Minnesota River (River Mile 109-3 - O.l)
Discharge - Velocity Relationships
St. Croix River (River Mile 1*8.0 - 0.8)
Range of Daily Discharges for Period of Water Quality
Survey (Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota)
Range of Daily Discharges for Period of Water Quality
Survey (Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minnesota)
Range of Daily Discharges for Period of Water Quality
Survey (St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin)
Low Flow Frequency - December, January, February
(Mississippi River at Lock and Dain No. l)
Low Flow Frequency - July, August, September
(Mississippi River at Lock and Dam No. l)
Low Flow Frequency - December, January, February
Follows
Page
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
21
21
21
25
25
25
(Minnesota River near Carver,  Minnesota)
                            iv

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                        LIST OF FIGURES  (Continued)
No.
Follows
  Page
VI-U    Low Flow Frequency - July, August, September
        (Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota)

VI-5    Low Flow Frequency - December, January, February
        (Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minnesota)

VJ-*>    Low Flow Frequency - July, August, September
        (Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minnesota)

VI-7    Low Flow Frequency - December, January, February
        (St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota)

VI-8    Low Flow Frequency - July, August, September
        (St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota)

VT-9    Low Flow Frequency - December, January, February
        (Mississippi River at Lock and Dam No. 3)

VI-10   Low Flow Frequency - July, August, September
        (Mississippi River at Lock and Dam No. 3)
  25


  25


  25


  25


  25


  25


  25
                              LIST OF TABLES
                                                                Follows
                                                                Figure
V-l     Summarization of Discharges on the Mississippi
        River at St. Paul, Minnesota River near Carver,
        Minnesota and the St. Croix River at St. Croix
        Falls, Wisconsin prior to W.Y. 1951
 V-3
                              APPENDIX TABLES
III-A   Mean Monthly Discharges
         (Mississippi River - Lock & Dam $
         (Mississippi River at  St. Paul)
         (Mississippi River - Lock & Dam #3)
         (Minnesota River near  Carver, Minnesota)
         (St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota,  St.  Croix
         River at St.  Croix Falls plus Apple River  near
         Somerset)
VI-10
                                    v

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 CHAPTER I






HYDROGRAPHY

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                             INTRODUCTION






      Hydrographs  of the  average daily discharge at various gaging stations



 on  the Mississippi,  Minnesota and St. Croix Rivers within the Project study



 area  are presented  in this  chapter.  Eight stations have been selected such



 that  the flow occurring  in  any segment of any of the streams under study



 may be determined.   The  average daily discharges are presented for the period




 of  the Project's  routine and intensive surveys from April 20, 19^^, through




 September 30, 1965.






                                OBJECT






      These hydrographs are presented in order that instantaneous pollution




 loadings and assimilative capacities of the rivers may be determined, and



 so  that the general  conditions of flow occurring during the period of




 survey may be compared vith predicted conditions of average and drought



 flow.






                          GENERAL DEFORMATION






      In selecting appropriate gaging stations to adequately represent the



 numerous segments of stream under study, several factors were considered and



 some  simplifying assumptions were required.  Only dams, lock & dam



 combinations and gaging  stations where consistent, daily records are



maintained were considered.  Their location relative to reaches of stream




 of particular interest to the Project and their location relative to




 significant tributaries were also important considerations.   The avail-




 ability of particular records at an early date was a factor  in selecting
                                   -1-

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the stations as well as in selecting the source of the data.  For example,




two agencies often keep records for the same gaging station, but the data




were obtained from the agency which was able to provide the information




at the earliest time.






                           STATIONS SELECTED






     Hydrographs are presented for the selected gaging stations by the




following Figures:




     1-1.  Rum River near St. Francis, Minnesota




     1-2.  Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #1




     1-3.  Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota




     1-5.  Minnesota River at Mankato, Minnesota




     1-7.  Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minnesota




     1-8.  St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin




     1-9.  St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota




    I-10.  Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #3




     The exact location of the gaging station, the method of measurement,




the data source, its reliability and the segments of stream to which it may




be applied are discussed below.  When applying a point discharge to several




miles of stream it is recognized that runoff and groundwater contributions,




usually occur along that stream segment.  Unless specially noted these




contributions are considered negligible as a percent increase of the main




stream flow.  Where a significant change does occur, provisions for




adjustment are provided.  Such is the case on the Minnesota River.




     In describing the accuracy of the stream flow data, "excellent"




indicates that, in general, the error in the daily records is believed




to be less than 5 percent; "good", less than 10 percent; and "fair",




                                   -2-

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less than 15 percent.

     Unpublished records provided by the U. S. Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.)

are provided to the Project on a provisional basis but are rated for

accuracy herein in accordance with the history of the record.

St. Francis - Figure 1-1

     Records for the Rum River near St. Francis are provided by the U. S.

Geological Survey in a provisional basis for water years 196^ and 1965.

The site is located on the right* bank at the upstream side of a highway

bridge, h miles south of St. Francis, Minnesota and 15 3A miles upstream

from the mouth.  The gage is a water stage recorder, and the records are

good except for periods of ice effect during which they are fair.  These

flows may be applied to the Rum River from its mouth upstream to the

gage.  It may also be subtracted from the flow at Lock & Dam #1 to obtain

the Mississippi River flow above the confluence of the Rum River.  In

making such a subtraction, the Rum River flow for the day in question

may be subtracted from the Lock & Dam #1 flow for the same day.

Lock & Dam #1 - Figure 1-2

     The flow record of the Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #1 is provided

by the U. S. Corps of Engineers (U.S.C.E.) for the period of the Project

survey.  Lock & Dam #1 is located at Mississippi River mile UM 8^7.6

(DM 0.0 is at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers).  The

Ford Motor Company operates a hydroelectric plant at this site; and flow is

determined by them by means of headwater and generator ratings and  supplied
  In keeping with the U.S.D.H.E.W., F.W.P.C.A.  STORET System,  right  and
  left are determined by facing upstream.
                                   -3-

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 to the U.S.C.E.  several times  a day.   The  record  is  excellent.  These flows




 may be applied to  the  Mississippi  River  from  just above the mouth  of the




 Minnesota River  (UM 8hh.O)  upstream to just below the mouth of the Rum




 River (UM 8?!.^).   Lock & Dam  #1 flows normally agree closely with flows




 recorded at  the  Coon Rapids Dam (UM 866.2).




 Mankato - Figure 1-3




      Records for the Minnesota River  at  Mankato,  Minnesota are provided




 to the Project by  the  U.S.G.S.  on  a provisional basis for water years




 196i)- & 1965.  The  gage site is  located on  the right  bank at the downstream




 side of the  Main Street Bridge  in  Mankato, 1.8  miles downstream from the




 Blue Earth River at  MN 106.1*.   The gage  is a  water stage recorder  and




 the records  are  good except for periods  of ice  effect during which they




 are fair.  There is  some diurnal fluctuation  at low  and medium stages




 caused by power  plants  on the Blue Earth River.   These flows are used in




 conjunction  with the record of  the Carver  gage  to determine Minnesota




 River  flows  between  MN 106.U and MN 36.0 and may  be  applied directly to




 the Minnesota River  from MN 106.U  upstream to the mouth of the Blue Earth



 River  (MN 109.3).




     In order to best  define the flow  occurring at any point between the




Mankato and  Carver gages, a graphical method  is provided in Figure 1-6 by




which  the  two flows may be prorated.   Again a linear increase in flow




may be  assumed between the two  stations  (MN 1.06.k to MN 36.0) because of




numerous small streams and springs located along this stream segment.   No




single  source is significant in itself.  To determine the flow at any




point between the two stations  for a particular day the  flows at Mankato




and Carver are used for the same day.   It is recognized  that  since the two

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stations are 70 miles apart, the degree of accuracy may be reduced because




changes in flow do not take place simultaneously at the two gaging stations.




The effect, however, would be slight except midway between the stations




when the flow regime is greatly altered within one or two days.  Even




under these circumstances the degree of accuracy would not be less than




that of either of the two gaging stations.




Carver - Figure I-k




     Records for the Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota are provided by




the U.S.G-.S. on a provisional basis for water years 196U and 1965-  The




site is located on the right bank 2 1/2 miles south of Carver at Minnesota




River mile MN 36.0 (MN 0.0 is at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mis-




sissippi Rivers).  The gage is a water stage recorder, and the records are




good except for periods of ice effect, which are fair.  These flows may be




applied to the Minnesota River from its mouth upstream to the gage (MN 36.0),




     If a more accurate description of the flow condition is desired for




stations below MN 36.0, the flow may be increased linearly such that from




MN 36.0 to MN 0.0 the total added flow is 5 percent of the flow at MN 36.0




(Carver gage).  This rule of thumb is utilized by engineers of the U.S.G-.S.




and U.S.C.E. and has been found to be the most generally applicable correc-




tion factor.  It represents the total additions of groundwater and runoff,




and may be applied linearly because of the numerous springs and streams




located along the lower reaches of the Minnesota River.  Figure 1-5 provides




a simple method of prorating this 5 percent correction over the 36 miles of




river segment to determine the flow at any point from the flow at the Carver



gage.




St. Paul - Figure 1-7




     Records for the  Mississippi River at St.  Paul,  Minnesota are provided






                                   -5-

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to the Project by the U.S.G.S. on a provisional basis for water years




196U  and 1965.  The  site is located at UM 839.3 on the left bank in



St. Paul, 300 feet upstream from the Robert Street Bridge.  The gage is



a water stage recorder, and the records are good.  There is slight regulation,




except during extreme floods, by reservoirs on headwaters and by power



plants.  Beginning June 20, 1938, sewage from Minneapolis and St. Paul,



which formerly entered above the station, was diverted to the Minneapolis-



St. Paul Sanitary District sewage treatment plant, thence to the river




below the station.  Figures of daily discharge do not include this




diversion.  These flows may be applied to the Mississippi River from



just  above the mouth of the St. Croix River (UM 811.3) upstream to just



below the mouth of the Minnesota River (UM 8V*. 0).



      If a more accurate description of the flow condition is desired



below the outlet of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District (MSSD)



sewage treatment plant, the plant discharge may be added to the flow




recorded at St. Paul and applied to the Mississippi River from UM 836.3



to UM 811.3.



St. Croix Falls - Figure 1-8



      Records for the St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin are



provided by the Northern States Power Company (iJSP), which operates a



hydroelectric plant there at St. Croix River mile SC 52.5 (SC 0.0 is



at the confluence of the St.  Croix and Mississippi Rivers).   Plow is




computed on the basis of gate openings, head, and plant efficiency, and




the records are good.  The flow is regulated by another power plant, farther




upstream.   However,  fluctuations are moderate and of a short duration,



thereby not significantly altering the average daily flow.
                                   -6-

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     Flows at St. Croix Falls may be applied to the St. Croix River from


SC kk.Q upstream to the falls (SC 52.5).


Stillwater - Figure 1-9


     Records for the St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota SC 23.3


are derived from the addition of the St. Croix River flow at St. Croix


Falls, Wisconsin and the Apple River flow near Somerset, Wisconsin.  The


Apple River flow is measured at the HSP power plant 3-5 miles downstream


from Somerset.  Headwater and tailwater gages are read hourly and flow is


computed on the basis of gate openings, head, and plant efficiency.  Records


are good except those below 100 cubic feet per second, which are fair.


The flow is regulated by another power plant upstream.  Both plants are


classed as run of the river plants.


     When adding these St. Croix and Apple River flows, they may not be


added directly day by day.  The St. Croix Falls flow recorded one day


does not combine with the Apple River flow recorded near Somerset until


the following day.  The Somerset flow reached the St. Croix River the


same day.  Consequently, in combining these records, a one-day shift must


be applied prior to addition.  The resulting flow shortly reaches Still-


water (SC 23.3).  Therefore, the daily flow at Stillwater has been


recorded as the flow of the Apple -River ner-r Somerset for the sane cLciy.


plus the flow at St. Croix Falls for the previous day.


     This combined flow record may be applied to the St. Croix River from


its mouth upstream to the mouth of the Apple River (SC 31-0).
                                          4

Lock & Dam #3 - Figure 1-10


     The flow record of the Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #3 is provided


by the U.S.C.E. for the period of the Project survey.  Lock & Dam #3 is


located at UM 796.9.  The flow is determined from gate opening computations



                                   -7-

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during normal and low flows and from tailwater ratings during high flows.




The record is excellent and normally agrees closely with the U.S.G.S.




gage at Prescott, Wisconsin just below the mouth of the St.  Croix River.




These flows may be applied to the Mississippi River from just above the




mouth of the Chippewa River (UM 763.5) upstream to just below the mouth




of the St. Croix River (UM
                                   -8-

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3
         3
        S'f
        I!
            20  1   10  20
            APRILJ	 MAY -
1  10  20  1   10  20
   -JUNE	'	JULY-
                                                                   FIGURE I -
                                                                       RUM RIVER
                                                                   NEAR ST. FRANCIS, MINNESOTA
1  10
 - SEPTEMBER -
                                                                  FIGURE 1-2

                                                                   MISSISSIPPI RIVER
                                                                 LOCK AND DAM NUMBER I
                                                                       20
                                                                    AU6UST-
                                                                            - SEPTEMBER -
                                                     TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                                            RIVER PROJECT
                                                       DAILY HYDROGRAPH

                                                         FOR  PERIOD OF

                                                     WATER QUALITY STUDY

                                                   >RIL 1964  - SEPTEMBER  1965
                                                  LPrToPF HEAL. EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE
                                                  FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                               AOMIN.
                                                                             ULUHCXS

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3 -
4 '-
|Q2h |JMIMHLI|IILUI uliu	tli nm i MM I m LI mlmm mill.	111111 n 11 in 11 mil in 111 IJM i li i
1  20   1  10  20   1  10  20  1  10  20   1
   APRIL-1	 MAY-
                                                         FIGURE 1-3
                                                          MINNESOTA RIVER
                                                        AT MANKATO, MINNESOTA
                                                          - AUGUST-
                                                           FIGURE 1-4
                                                            MINNESOTA RIVER
                                                           NEAR CARVER, MINNESOTA
                                            TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                                   RIVER PROJECT
                                              DAILY  HYDROGRAPH
                                                FOR  PERIOD OF
                                            WATER QUALITY STUDY
                                         iPRIL  1964  - SEPTEMBER 1965
                                         FEDERAL
                                        IgGIOM V
^UUTON CONTROL

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   .050 piiiiifrin|iinpiirijr-ir~i|i i ir\
   1.040 -
o
  1.030-
  1.020-
o
   1.010
   1.000^
       GO
30     25     20     15      10
    Minnesota  River  Mile
   Flow  at  river mile N   *iow at  Carver  gage x  correction factor
   for river mi!e N
            SAMPLING STATION CORRECTION FACTORS
                Station
                MN  1.9
                MN  7.4
                MN 10.8
                MN 14.3
                MN 16.8
                MN 23.0
                MN 25.1
                MN 27.5
                MN 29.6
                          Correction
                            1.047
                            I.04O
                            1.035
                            I.03O
                            1.027
                            1.018
                            1.015
                            1.012
                            1.009
                                        TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                              RIVER PROJECT
                                          LOWER MINNESOTA
                                          FLOW  CORRECTION;
                                    DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION. 8 '..._.-
                                      FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CC .'/:.._
                                                  ADMIN.
                                                           FIGURE l.

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v
Z3
(Z)
U.

,
























































-------

-------
3
3
         3
        if
                                                                      FIGURE 1-7
                                                                         MISSISSIPPI RIVER
                                                                       AT ST. PAUL. MINNESOTA
            20   1  10  20
             APRIL-1	 MAY 
         1O  20
         - AUGUST	
                                                                                  ..I..	I  -I
 10  2O  JO
-SEPTEMBER-
        t 3
        i.
        II
           L20'	I	iii	
                                                                     FIGURE 1-8
                                                                      ST. CROIX RIVER
                                                              ST. CROIX RIVER AT ST. CROIX FAU.S, WISCONSIN
                                                    I- 10  2O
                                                     JUNE-
'"'	mini. n null	ml	,il.i..
 10  2O   1  1O 2O
 - JULY	'	AUGUST-
  10  20 30
 -SEPTEMBER1
                                                       TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                                              RIVER PROJECT
                                                         DAILY  HYDROGRAPH
                                                           FOR  PERIOD OF
                                                       WATER  QUALITY STUDY
                                                    >RILI964  -  SEPTEMBER  1965
                                                      rnH- EDUCATION, a WELFARE
                                                    FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                                 AOMIN.

-------

-------
 3
 3


 3


 3


 3


 3

3


3


3


3


3


3
X 4


 3


I a
                                                                        FIGURE 1-9

                                                                         ST CROIX RIVER
                                                                       AT STILLWATER, MINNESOTA
>*L^Lftm^r
                             10  z
                             JUNE
                                                      ii	....i..
                              """'"" ...... 1   '0 ...... 20   10  20   1  10  20      0  20
                              JULY - ' - AU6UST - > JUNE - < - JULY - ' - AUGUST
                                                                       FIGURE I - 10

                                                                        MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
                                                                      LOCK AND DAM NUMBER 3
                                      		,,M|,	I	Mil	I	I	ln.,.,,,.1	I,,, i., 1.1	11,.In	I	
                                      '  _2	' 10  20  1   10  20   1  10  20   t  10  20  3O
                                      - AUGUST	L__ Jl)NE	1	JOLY	,	AueuST	1	SEPTEMBER ->


                                                 TWIN  CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                             	RIVER  PROJECT	

                                                  DAILY HYDROGRAPH

                                                    FOR  PERIOD OF

                                                 WATER  QUALITY STUDY


                                             PRIL  I964  -  SEPTF.MBF.ff  1965;

-------

-------
    CHAPTER II .






MEAN STREAM DEPTHS

-------

-------
                              INTRODUCTION



     Mean  stream depths for a range 'of discharges are presented for the


Mississippi River from river miles IM 871.0 to TJM 764.T in Figures II-l


through 11-11, the Minnesota River from river miles MN 109.3 to MN O.I2


in Figure  11-12, and the St. Croix River from river miles SC k8.0 to

      3
SC 0.8-' in Figure 11-13.  Discharge-depth relationships have been estab-

lished for numerous segments of these rivers.  The segments were selected


on the basis of significant natural and man-made changes in the hydrologic


regime, the location of principle wastewater inputs, and to match the river


segments used in the discharge-velocity relationships presented in the


Chapter "Mean Flow Velocity".



                                 OBJECT



     Mean  stream depths have been determined for use in calculating the


reaeration constant (k2) for insertion into the oxygen sag equation.



                           GENERAL INFORMATION



     The mean stream depths for the numerous stream segments were cal-

culated for three conditions of stage and flow frcm cross sections de-

termined by the Project or obtained from other agencies.   Cross sections





1  UM 0.0 is at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.


2  MN 0.0 is at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers.


3  SC 0.0 is at the confluence of the St.  Croix and Mississippi. Rivers.
                                   -9-

-------
obtained from other agencies were for the Mississippi River from UM 859.0


to UM 797.0 and were taken at 1/U to 1/2 mile intervals.  This includes


the entire stretch of the Mississippi River from above Minneapolis to


Lock & Dam #3.  Time and budgetary considerations prevented the develop-


ment of cross sections at such close intervals on all other segments of


the 3 major streams studied by the Project.  However, these other segments


were cross sectioned by the Project at intervals which provided representa-


tion sufficient for the use of the data and in keeping with the Project's


needs.


     Water surface profiles were developed for three conditions of stage


and flow in order to prorate the cross sections.  Each flow condition


provided a mean stream depth and thus a coordinate for the discharge-depth


relationship.  Plotting the log of the three coordinates results in a


straight line for each segment of stream.



                          METHOD OF COMPUTATION



     The computations described were carried out using areas and widths de-


rived from the prorated cross sections.  The mean stream depth for the seg-


ment of stream between every adjacent pair of cross sections was calculated.


     Mean stream depth for any stream segment is defined as the volume of


that segment divided by its surface area.  From a pair of cross sections


the average volume is given by:


               A  +A
              	i  x L
                  2


the average surface area by:


               Wl + 2
              	  x L
                                   -10-

-------

-------
where:

     A-, & Ap = areas of the respective cross sections.

     W, & Wp = widths of the respective cross sections.

     L       = distance between the respective cross sections.

Combining these, the formula reduces to:


                          A1+A2
     Mean Stream Depth
                          wl + W2
     The mean stream depths for the larger stream segments presented in

the Figures are distance-weighted averages of the depths obtained from

the numerous smaller segments.

     The depth values derived are to be used in determining the stream's

reaeration capability.  Since a stream is not always totally effective from

bank to bank in reaerating a water mass moving downstream, the full cross

section of a stream was not always used in determining the mean depth.

Special judgments were made in areas of slack water, back channels, and

extensive submerged floodplains.  Slack water and nearly stagnant back

channels were not considered in calculating the mean stream depth.  The

region of submerged floodplains from UM 825.0 to UM 815.2 was the most

extensive segment of stream where the percent effectiveness was reduced.

In this region the areas of submerged floodplains outside the main channel

were considered to be 60 percent effective.  This percent effectiveness is

the same as that established by the MSSD investigation* in developing mean

flow velocities which were checked by tracer studies conducted by the Project.
5  "Pollution and Recovery Characteristics of the Mississippi River",  A
    Project sponsored by the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District,  1961,
    Volume One-Part Three.
                                   -11-

-------

-------
All special changes frcm 100 percent effective areas are noted in the



original calculations available in the Project's Hydrologic Studies-




Basic Data file.
                                   -12-

-------
  20
  15
  10
      UM 871.0 - UM 867.0
OJ
U.
a

-------
  20 r~


  15 
  10
       UM  853.2 - UM 852.5
                                              i
                                              u-
   S1

  20


  15
,  10
O.
o
O
E
o
o
0)
5 20
  15
  10
       UM  852.5 - UM 850.5
    i
    i
    i--
    -  UM  850.5 - UM 848.5
  51
                                                                       -
                                                                       H
              500      IOOO          3000   5000     IO,OOO
                         Discharge - Cubic  Feet Per Second
                         30.0OO
    NOTE;
             flashboards down at  Lock
             and  Dam Number I.
             Use  this for decreasing
             stages where flows have
             been In excess of IO,OOO
             cubic feet per second.
 TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
        RIVER  PROJECT
    DISCHARGE 'DEPTH
     RELATIONSHIPS
    MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
RIVER  MILE  853.2-848.5
                                       DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, a '.VEL5ARE
                                         FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                      ADMIN.
                                                                CHICAGO ILLINOIS
                                                               FIGURE  IT-2

-------
          I   5
  20r
  15
  10
    LU UM 848.5 - UM 847.6
cu

-------
                                                   T~r
  20



  IS





  10
   5


  2O



  15
  10
r.
4-
Q.
-  UM 841.5 - UM 839.2
       UM 839.2 - UM 836.5
                                      I
                                             I
  I
              50O
                       IOOO          3OOO   5OOO     IO.OOO
                        Discharge - Cubic Feet Per Second
30.OOO
                                           TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                 RIVER PROJECT
                                             DISCHARGE -DEPTH

                                              RELATIONSHIPS

                                             MISSISSIPPI  RiVER

                                          RIVER MILE 843.0 - 833.5
                                       DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 6 Y,'I_.-,-,.->
                                         FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CC.\7.%C_
                                                     ADMIN.
                                       REGION V
                                                                CHICAGO. ;'_.'NC.S
                                                              FIGURE  H-4

-------
                                              -iiir
  20 r
  15
  10
      UM 836.5 - UM 825.8
   51



  20 p-




  15
Q.

    - UM 825.8 - UM 824.5
c
o
 :20
  15
  10
      UM 824.5 - UM 823.5
  51
                        I
                      I
                                               j  j 1  |
              500
IOOO          3OOO   5OOO     IO.OOO

 Discharge - Cubic Feet Per Second
30,000
                                          TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                 RIVER PROJECT
                                             DISCHARGE - DEPTH

                                              RELATIONSHIPS

                                             MISSISSIPPI  RIVER

                                         RIVER  MILE  836.5- 823.5
                                      DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION. 8 WELFARE

                                        FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                     ADMIN.
                                                               CHICAGO. IULIMOIS

                                                             FIGURE H-5
                RECIOM V

-------
  20
  15
  IO
                 ~ir
                                              iiir
    -  UM 823.5- UM 820.5
   51


  20 r


  15
I
,  10
E
o
t>
-  UM 820.5 - UM 816.5
s
  15
  10
       UM 816.5 - UM 815.75
  51
                                     J_
                                                 I	i
                                                                     J
                                                                -j
                                                                 1
                                                                 H

                                                                 -i
              50O      1000          3000  5000     10,000
                        Discharge - Cubic  Feet  Per Second
                                                             30,000
                                          TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                                 RIVER PROJECT
                                             DISCHARGE 'DEPTH
                                              RELATIONSHIPS
                                             MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
                                         RIVER MILE  823.5-815.75
                                      DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION. 8 WELFARE
                                        FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

                                                    **"*
                                                              CHICAGO. ILLINOIS
                                                             FIGURE n-6

-------
20
15
10
5
20
15

a

o
a>
c 5
O

-------
                                              T	1TT
 20



  15




  10
    -  UM 811.4 - UM 809,5
   51


  2Or
SL
,  10
QL

-------
       II
20
15
10
 5




20





15
,  io

c

"5.
Ol
Q

e
D
01
     UM 801.5  - UM 797.0
     UM 796.5 -  UM 793.7
                                                                    i
15
10
  -  UM  793.7 - 788.0
                I	l  t I
            5OO
                       IOOO          3OOO   5OOO      IO,OOO

                        Discharge - Cubic  Feet Per Second
30,OOO
                                         TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                               RIVER PROJECT
                                            DISCHARGE -DEPTH


                                             RELATIONSHIPS


                                            MISSISSIPPI  RIVER


                                        RIVER M-L.E  801.5-788.0
                                     DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE

                                       FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

                                                   ADMIN.
                                     REGION V
                                                             CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                            FIGURE H-9

-------

-------
20
15

10
5
20
15
j

, 10
a.

-------

20
IS
10
5
40
30
O>
JC
Q.
O

o
01
05 10
o
01
520
15
10
5


i  i i

- UM 781.0 - UM 776.4
_
	 
,_ 
 
 
" UM 776.4 - UM 764.9

-
 . 
c~ ~2
  
_ _
-
. , . 1 , , , , 1 , 1 , 1 , , , , 1















500 IOOO 3OOO 5000 10,000 3O,OOO
Discharge - Cubic Feet Per Second


TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
RIVER PROJECT
DISCHARGE "DEPTH
RELATIONSHIPS
MISSISSIPPI RIVER

RIVER MILE 78I.O - 764.9
DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION. & WELFARE
FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
ADMIN.
REGION V CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
FIGURE TJ-ll

-------
  10
 2-5    MN  109.3  -. MN 49.4


  I2r

Q.
01
Q

E
o
o
k_

00

c
o
o
MN 49.4 - MN 20.0
  20
  15
  10
      MN  20.0 -  MN O.I
    l_
                 J_
I
              5OO
                1000          3OOO  50OO     IO.OOO
                  Discharge - Cubic Feet Per Second
                            30,000
                                           TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                 RIVER PROJECT
                                             DISCHARGE - DEPTH

                                              RELATIONSHIPS

                                             MINNESOTA RIVER

                                          RIVER M'LE  109.3  -  0.
                                       DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION. 8 WELFARE
                                        FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                     ADMIN.
                                       REGION V
                                                               CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                              FIGURE H-12

-------

-------
6
3

1.5
20
15
*-
O

, 10
.c
Q.

-------
           CHAPTER III






RANGE OF MEAN MONTHLY DISCHARGES

-------
                             INTRODUCTION






     Mean monthly discharges for various gaging stations on the Mississippi,



Minnesota and St. Croix Rivers within the Project study area are presented



in this chapter.  Five gaging stations were selected such that mean monthly




discharges may be determined for any segment of these three streams.  The



maximum, mean and minimum of the mean monthly discharges were derived from



the 25-year period of record from Water Year 19^0 through Water Year 1964.






                                OBJECT






     These monthly plots of average discharge provide a basis for compari-



son and discussion of general stream conditions and illustrate the direc-




tion and magnitude of seasonal variations.






                          GENERAL INFORMATION






     The range of mean monthly discharges for the selecting gaging stations



are given by the following Figures:



     III-l.  Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #1



     III-2.  Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota



     III-3.  Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minnesota



     III-4.  St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota



     III-5.  Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #3




     The chapter "Hydrographs" includes a discussion of each of these



stations as well as general comments concerning their selection.   The




segment of stream to which the flows may be applied as well as  the source



and reliability of the record are also provided.




     The 25-year period of record used in the determination of  the "Range






                                  -13-

-------
of Mean Monthly Discharges" was selected after scrutiny of each stream's




hydrologic history.  Most of the information was obtained through consulta-




tion with personnel of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, U. S. Geological




Survey, Minnesota Department of Conservation and the Northern States Power



Company.  The following general conditions applicable to the rivers under




study were most relevant in selecting water years 19^0 through 196^:




     1.  Major dam construction was completed about 1938.



     2.  There have been no significant changes in storage capacity during




this time.



     3.  Operating procedures for the numerous locks, dams, power plants




and reservoirs have remained relatively constant.



     Concerning the derivation of flow of the St. Croix River at Stillwater,




the mean monthly discharges of the St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls and



of the Apple River near Somerset were added directly with no regard being




given to the one day required for flows from St. Croix Falls to reach the




mouth of the Apple River.  No appreciable error can be noted in utilizing



this technique.




     The maximum, minimum and mean of the mean monthly discharges for each



station were derived from the compilation of mean monthly discharges pre-



sented in Appendix "III-A".  The mean discharge for a given month was listed



for the 25 consecutive water years, the highest and lowest selected, and



the average computed.  The same was done for each month thus defining the



three curves presented in Figure^ III-l through III-5.

-------
   Mississippi  ;
-------
   T
   6
   5
   4

   3

   2 -
  I04
   9
   8
   7
   6
   5
C
o
o
0)  4

o
la
3
O


   2
                                       ViNNESOTA Riven:
                                    NEAR  CARVER, MINNESOTA
                                                      MAXIMUM
                                                      MEAN
                                                      MINIMUM
               D
                           M    A
                           Month
M
A
NOTES
MAXIMUM - MAXIMUM OF MEAN
           MONTHLY .DISCHARGE
MEAN     - MEAN  OF MEAN
           MONTHLY DISCHARGE
M,"..,'.J:-i  - MINIMUM OF MEAN
           V10NTHLY DISCHARGE
                                      TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                             RIVER PROJECT
                                         RANGE OF MEAN
                                      MONTHLY  DISCHARGES
                                   WATER  YE^RS 1940 - 1964
                                  I DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE
                                  i  FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                  j              ADMIN.
                                  I REGION V  	 CHICAGO. ILLINOIS
                                                        FIGURE ILT-2

-------
I05c-
                                            MISSISSIPP:  RIVER
                                         AT ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA
                                                      MAXIMUM
                                                      MEAN
                                                      MINIMUM
               D
                         M   A
                        Month
                                    M
                                       TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                             RIVER PROJECT
NOTES
MAXIMUM - MAXIMUM OF MEAN
           MONTHLY DISCHARGE
           MEAN OF MEAN
            .OfVt'HLY DISCHARGE
           MINIMUM OF MEAN
           MONTHLY DISCHARGE
MEAN

MIIM 
                                       RANGE  OF  MEAN
                                   MONTHLY  DISCHARGES
                                 WATER  YE/RS  1940 -  1964
                                DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION, a WELFARE
                                  FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                             ADMIN.
                                REGION V  	CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                         FiGURE m-3

-------
                        ST. CROIX RIVER
                   AT  STILLWATER, MINNESOTA
                                                     MAXIMUM
                                                     MEAN
                                                     MINIMUM
               D
F   M   A
   Month
NOTE
MAXIMUM - MAXIMUM OF MEAN
           MONTHLY DISCHARGE
MEV       MEAN OFS MEAN
           MONTHLY  DISCHARGE
MiN -UN'' - MINIMUM OF MEAN
           MONTHLY DISCHARGE
                                      TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                            RIVER PROJECT
                  RANGE  OF  MEAN
               MONTHLY DISCHARGES
            WATER  Y  ARS  1940  -  1964
           DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE
             FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                         ADMIN.
                                  REGION V
                                                         CHiCAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                        FIGURE m-4

-------








o
c
o
0

-------

-------
     CHAPTER IV






MEAN FLOW VELOCITIES

-------
                              DCTBODUCTION



     Mean flow velocities for a range of discharges are presented for


the Mississippi River from river mile UM 8?1.0 to UM ?6U.9  in Figures IV-1

                                                                      p
through  IV-10, the Minnesota River from river miles MN 109.3 to MN 0.1  in


Figure IV-11,  and the St. Croix River from river miles SC M3.0 to SO 0.8^


in Figure IV-12.


     Discharge-velocity relationships have been established for numerous


segments of these rivers.  The segments were selected on the basis of


significant natural and man-made changes in the hydrologic regime, the


location of principle wastewater inputs, and to match the river segments


used in the discharge-depth relationships presented in the chapter,""Mean


Stream Depths".



                                 OBJECT



     Mean flow velocities have been determined for use in calculating the


reaeration constant (k.r>) for insertion into the oxygen sag equation and for


use in conjunction with the oxygen sag equation to establish the physical


downstream location of the sag and stages of recovery.



                           GENERAL INFORMATION



     The mean flow velocities for the numerous stream segments were deter-


mined by one of the following three methods and checked by one or both of


the other methods:
1  UM 0.0 is at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.


2  MN 0.0 is at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers,


3  SC 0.0 is at the confluence of the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers,


                                   -15-

-------

-------
     1.  Fluorometric tracer studies.

     2.  Values presented in "Pollution and Recovery Characteristics of
                                               4
the Mississippi River1, Volume One, Part Three.

     3.  Volume displacement calculations.

     Fluorometric tracer studies were conducted over all reaches of the

Mississippi., Minnesota and St. 'Croix Rivers under study by the Project,

with the exception of Lake St. Croix and lower Lake Pepin.  Tracer studies

were conducted using Rhodamine"B" dye as the fluorescing tracer and the

Turner Model 111 fluorometer for detection.  Three general methods of

detection were employed:  l) individual analysis of discrete stream samples,

2) continuous monitoring at a fixed point in a stream, and 3) continuous

monitoring while traveling by boat up or down the main channel of a stream.

The majority of the studies were conducted utilizing the third method for

which the details of planning and execution are presented in "Study Plan -

Time of Travel Determination Using Tracer Techniques".   The first and

second methods of detection were avoided as being time consuming and were

used only where circumstances prohibited the use of a boat.

     Fluorometric readings of relative concentration were converted to a

concentration vs. time plot either by Rustrak recorder where continuous

monitoring was employed or by plotting the analyses of discrete samples.

Where sampling was not conducted at a fixed point, time and river mile were

directly related.  From these plots the time and point of the tracer's

arrival were determined; a velocity was computed; and knowing discharge,

the coordinates of a point were provided for the discharge-velocity

relationship.
4  An investigation sponsored by the Minneapolis-St.  Paul Sanitary District.
   Hereafter referred to as the MSSD investigation.

5  Twin Cities-Upper Mississippi River Project.   "Study Plan - Time of Travel
   Determination Using Tracer Techniques."  1965.   (Mimeographed.)

                                   -16-

-------
      Three major tracer studies, covering 210 miles of the Mississippi,

 Minnesota, and St. Croix Rivers, were conducted at times of distinctly

 different conditions of flow.  Each provided a coordinate for the dis

 charge velocity relationship.  Plotting the log of these coordinates

 results in a straight line for each segment of stream.>7,&

      Values of time of travel for limited segments of the Mississippi River

 are presented in the MSSD investigation and are easily converted to mean

 flow velocity.  These values were treated in the same manner to establish

 the discharge-velocity relationships as were the results of the tracer

 studies.

      Volume displacement calculations were used to develop mean flow

 velocities for assumed discharges from the cross sections discussed in

 "Mean Stream Depths".  These calculations were carried out to check and

 compare with the results obtained by tracer study.  Where tracer studies

 were not economically feasible as in the case of Lake Pepin and Lake St.

 Croix, volume displacement calculations provided the basic data for the

 discharge-velocity relationships.

      The following outlines is a synopsis of the methods used for the

 various reaches of river to provide the basic data and check for the dis-

 charge-velocity relationships.
6   Worley,  John Larry,  "A System Analysis Method  for Water Quality Management
    by Flow Augmentation in a Complex River Basin,"  June,  1963, USPHS, DWS&PC,
    Region IX.

7   Velz,  C. J. ,  "Factors Influencing Self-Purification  and Their Relation to
    Pollution Abatement, Part II,  Sludge  Deposits  and Drought Probabilities,"
    Sewage and  Industrial Wastes  Journal, Vol.  21-3,  March,
8   O'Connor,  Donald J. ,  "The  Effect  of Stream Flow on Waste Assimulation
    Capacity," Proceedings  Seventeenth Purdue Industrial Waste Conference,
    May,  1962.
                                   -17-

-------
      I.  Mississippi River.

         A.  Anoka to  Lock & Dam #1  (UM 871  - UM 81*7-6).

             1.  Tracer  studies - basic data.
             2.  Volume  Displacement - check.

         B.  Lock  & Dam  #1 to Lock and Dam #3  (UM 81+7.0 - UM 797.0).

             1.  MSSD  investigation  - basic  data.
             2.  Tracer  studies - check.

         C.  Lock  & Dam  #3 through upper Lake Pepin  (UM 796-5  - UM 776.1*).

             1.  Volume  displacement - basic data,   (judgments were made
                 concerning the percent effectiveness of the stream cross
                 section.  See notes with Figures.)
             2.  Tracer  studies - check.

         D.  Lower Lake  Pepin (UM 776. U - UM 76^.9).

             1.  Volume  displacement - basic data.
             2.  Wo check was provided.  However, the judgments of percent
                 effectiveness in upper Lake Pepin correlated very well with
                 the tracer studies,  and the same reasoning was applied to
                 this portion of the Lake.   See notes with Figures.

    II.  Minnesota River.

         A.  Mankato to  the mouth (MET 109.3  - M O.l).

             1.  Tracer  studies - basic data.
             2.  Volume  displacement  - check.

   III.  St. Croix River.

         A.  Upper St. Croix River (SC 1*8.0  - SC 26.3).

             1.  Tracer  studies - basic data.
             2.  Volume  displacement  - check.

         B.  Lower  St. Croix River (SC 26.3  - SC 23.3) and Lake St.  Croix
             (SC 23.3 - SC 0.8).

             1.  Volume displacement  - basic data.
             2.  No check was provided.   However,  the percent effectiveness
                 was judged in the same manner as  in Lake Pepin where tracer
                 studies supported the assumptions.   See notes with Figures.

     The agreement between the basic  data and the  check was in most cases

excellent,  regardless of the combination of methods.   There were slight

variations  for two segments  of the Minnesota River,  one segment of the St.


                                  -18-

-------
Croix River and in the Spring Lake area of the Mississippi River.  In each



of these cases, however, the correlation was still very good.   The variation




usually occurred when the results of one tracer study did not  coincide with



the relationship established by the results of other tracer studies,  the




MSSD investigation, and the volume displacement calculations.   Such a



variation in one study could have been caused by rapidly fluctuating stage



or flow, special wind conditions, or a variety of special hydraulic cir-



cumstances.
                                  -19-

-------

-------
 10.0
  5.0
  2.0
  1.0
TJ
C
O
o
Cl
  0.5
Cl
0.
a>
o>
U.
G 0.2
5
o
  O.I
  .05
  .02
  .01s
   200
                                           UM  871.0 -  UM 847.6
                  i  I  I i  I
                                  I
                                      _L
                                              I  i  i  I I  I
IOOO           3OOO  5000     10,000
  Discharge - Cubic Feet  Per Second
30,000
                                            TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                  RIVER PROJECT
                                           DISCHARGE - VELOCITY

                                               RELATIONSHIPS

                                             MlSSISf:PPl  RIVER

                                          RIVER   M,_E 871.0-847.6
                                       DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, S WELFARE
                                         FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                      ADMIN.
                                       REGION V
                                                                CHICAGO. ILLINOIS
                                                               FIGURE

-------
 10.0
  5.0-
  2.0
  1.0
o
c
o
o
t>
U)
8.
  0.5
41
0
U-
>,
B 0.2
o
01

5
o
  0.1
  .05
  .02-
  .0 i "
   ZOO
                                            UM 847.0 -
                                            UM 844.0 -
                               UM 844.0
                               UM 843.0
                      I  i 1
                                              I   I  i  I I I
IOOO           3000   5000    10,000
  Discharge - Cubic Feet Per Second
                                                                   30,000
                                            TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                                   RIVER PROJECT
                                            DISCHARGE - VELOCITY
                                                RELATIONSHIPS

                                              MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
                                           RIVER  M,uE 847.0-843.0
                                        DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION. & WELFARE
                                          FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                       ADMIN.
                                        REGION V
                                                                 CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                                FIGURE EC-2

-------
 10.0
  5.0-
  2.0
  1.0
a
c
o
o
o
1/5
o
a.
o
if
  0.5
o 0.2
1
5
o
  0.
  .05
  .02
  .0!L
   200
                                          DM 843.0 - UM 839.2

                                          UM 839.2 - UM 836.5
                   J_
               _L
_L
J_
_LJ_
500
IOOO           3000   5000     10,000
  Discharge - Cubic Feet Per Second
                        30,000
                                            TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                  RIVER PROJECT
                                           DISCHARGE - VELOCITY

                                               RELATIONSHIPS

                                             MISSISSIPPI   RIVER

                                          RIVER  \ ;LE 843.0-836.5
                                        DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION. & WELFARE

                                         FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                      ADMIN.
                                        REGION V	 CHICAGO, ILLIMOIS
                                                               FIGURE JZ-3

-------
 10.0
  5.0
  2.0-
  LO-
TS
c
o
u
tl
&

o 0.2
36
iZ
c
o
  .05
  .02-
                                      UM 836.5 - UM 825.8
                                      UM 825.8 - UM 823.5
   20O
              5OO
IOOO          3000   SOOO    10,000
  Discharge - Cubic  Feet Per Second
30,000
                                           TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                                 RIVER PROJECT
                                          DISCHARGE -  VELOCITY
                                              RELATIONSHIPS
                                            MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
                                         RIVER   MiLE 836.5-823.5
                                       DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE
                                        FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                     ADMIN.
                                       REGION V
                                                               CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                              FIGURE IE-4

-------
 10.0
  5.0
  2.0
  1.0
o
c
o
o
t>
W)
41
Q.
  0.5-
o 0.2
o

I

5
o
u.
  0.1
  .05
  .02
  .0!
   200
                                         DM  823.5 - UM 820.5

                                         UM  82O.5 - UM 816.5
                                         UM  816.5 - UM 8I5.T5
                        _LL
                   J_
                                    .J I.. i i
                                                                      _L
SCO
IOOO           3000   5OOO     IO.OOO
  Discharge - Cubic  Fet Per Second
30,000
                                             TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                    RIVER  PROJECT
                                            DISCHARGE  -  VELOCITY

                                                 RELATIONSHIPS

                                           '-  MISSISSIPPI  RIVER

                                           RIVER  MILE 823.5-815.75
                                         DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION, & WELFARE
                                           FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                        ADMIN.
                                         REGION V	CHICAGO. ILLINOIS
                                                                 FIGURE 3E-5

-------
  I0.0r
  5.0
  2.0
   1.0
c
o
o

CO
  O.5
o 0.2
o

I


o
  O.I
  .05
  .02-
                            UM 815.75 - UM8,5.2

                            UM 815.0 - UM 813.5

                            UM 813.5 - UM8II.4
              5OO
                      1 1  I
                                              I  I  I  I
IOOO       .    3000  5000     10,000
  Discharge -  Cubic Feet  Per Second
                                                                  30,000
                                           TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                  RIVER PROJECT
                                           DISCHARGE -  VELOCITY

                                               RELATIONSHIPS

                                             MISSISSIPPI  RIVER

                                          RIVER   :ilLE 815.75-811.4
                                       DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE
                                         FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                      ADMIN.
                                       REGION V
                                                                CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                               FIGURE JSE-6

-------
 10,0
  5.0
  2.0
   1.0
o
c
o
  0.5
a.
*-
*>
  0.2
o
I
.s
o
   O.I
  .05
                                      UM 811.4 -  UM 809.5
                                      UM 809.5 -  UM 808.0
                                      UM 808.0-  UM 801.5
  .02-
  .Oi '-
   200
500
                                  JL
                                                  i  i I  I I
                                                                       _L
1000          3000   5000     10,000
  Discharge - Cubic  Feet Per Second
30,000
                                             TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                                    RIVER PROJECT
                                        I
                                             DISCHARGE  -  VELOCITY
                                                 RELATIONSHIPS
                                               MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
                                            RIVER  MILE 811.4-801.5
                                         DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION, a WELFARE
                                           FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                        ADMIN.
                                        REGION V
                                                                  CHICAGO. ILLINOIS
                                                                        W-7

-------

-------
 10.0
  5.0
  2.0
  1.0
xi
c
o
o
co
  0.5
5 0.2

V
  O.I
  .05
  .02
  0','
   200
                                          UM 801.5 - DM 797.0
                                          UM 797.0 - UM 786.0
                   _L
                               I   I
500
IOOO           3000  5000     10,000
  Discharge - Cubic Feet  Per Second
30,000
                                            TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                  RIVER PROJECT
                                           DISCHARGE - VELOCITY

                                               RELATIONSHIPS

                                             MISSISSIPPI   RIVER

                                          RIVER   IVrLE 801.5-786.0
                                       DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION. 8 WELFARE |
                                         FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  '.
                                                      ADMIN.               ':
                                       REGION V	   CHICAGO IL-' - S ,
                                                               FIGURE 3E-,

-------
 10.0
  5.0
  2.0
   1.0
o
c
o
  0.5
0)
Q.
o>
t>
u.
3 0.2
01

5
o
  O.i
  .05
  .02
                                             UM 786.0 - UM
                                             UM 783.0 - UM
                783.0
                781.0
                   X
                                        _L
                                             <   I  I  I  I  i I
ZOO
               600       IOOO           3000   5000     10,000
                          Discharge - Cubic  Feet Per Second
                           _L
                         30,000
     NOTE
     Calculations based on the assumption
     thar 20% of the area (or volume) is
     effective in transporting the water mass
     downstream.
  TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
        RIVER PROJECT
 DISCHARGE - VELOCITY
     RELATIONSHIPS
   MISSISSIPPI  RiVER
RIVER  MiLE 786.0-781.0
                                         DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE
                                           FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                        ADMIN.
                                         REGION V	CHICAGO. ILLINOIS
                                                                  FIGURE IZ-9

-------
 lO.Or
  5.0
                   Tr~
  2.O
   1.0
o
c
o
  0.5
S>
Q.
o
u.
o 0.2
o
o

5
o
  O.I
  .05
  .02
                   1  I i  I L
                                                     UM 781.0 -  UM 776.4
                                                     UM 776.4 -  UM 764.9
                                                   I  [  I .1 I
                         1000           300C   5000     10,000
                           Discharge -_Cubic Feet Per Second
                          30,000
    NOTE
    Caicu!tions based on the assumption
    thai  40%  of UM 781.0.- UM 776.4  and
    60% of UM 776,4- UM 764.9 areas
    (or volumes)  are effective in trans-
    porting the water mass downstreami
  TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
        RIVER PROJECT
 DISCHARGE  -  VELOCITY
     RELATIONSHIPS
   MISSISSIPPI  RIVER
RIVER  M.LE 781.0-764.9
                                          DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE
                                            FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                         ADMIN.
                                          REGION V
                                                                    CHICAGO, ILLINOIS !
                                                                   FIGURE JE-!0

-------
 lO.Or
  5.0
  2.0
  1.0
o
c
o
u
01
  0.5
4)
a.
11
5
o
  O.I
  .05
  .021-
  .OIL~
   2C"3
MN 109.3  - MN 49.4
MN  49.4  - MN 20.0
MN  20.0  - MN  O.I

                                           _L
                                               I
                                                 1  I  I I  I
500      IOOO          3000   5OOO     10,000
           Discharge -.Cubic  Feet Per Second
                  30,000
                                             TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                                   RIVER PROJECT
                                            DISCHARGE - VELOCITY
                                                RELATIONSHIPS
                                               MINNESOTA RIVER
                                           RIVER   IV! .  109.3  - 0.!
                                        DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 8 WELFARE
                                          FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                       ADMIN.
                                        _REGION V
                                                                 CHICAGO, ILL1SOIS
                                                                FIGURE

-------
  iO.Or
  5.0
  2.0
   1.0
  0.5
o
c
o
o
0)
10
0
a.
01
1>
u.
o 0.2
_0

4)



3
O
  0.1-
  .05-
  .02
  .or
   2<
                              SC 48.0  - SC 26.3

                              SC 26.3  - SC 23.3

                              SC 23.3  - SC  0.8
            Calculations  based on the assumption

            that 60% of the area (or volume) is

            effective in  transporting the  wafer mass

            downstream.
                     I  11 I
                                   I
                                         I
                                                   I  I I  I I
IOOO         v 3000   5000     10,000
  Discharge -  Cubic Feet Per Second
30,000
                                              TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                                     RIVER PROJECT
                                             DISCHARGE  -  VELOCITY
                                                 RELATIONSHIPS

                                                 ST.  Cr-OIX RiVER

                                            RIVER  .V -E  48.0  -  0.8
                                         DEPT. OF HEALTH. EDUCATION, & WELFARE I

                                           FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL   !

                                                         ADMIN.
                                          EGION V	       CHICAGO. ILLINOIS f
                                                                  FIGURE EL-12

-------

-------
        CHAPTER V






RANGE OF DAILY DISCHARGES

-------
                               INTRODUCTION






     The general conditions of flow occurring on the Mississippi, Minne-




 sota and St. Croix Rivers during the period of the Project's routine and




 intensive surveys are presented in this Chapter.  One gaging station on




 each of these three rivers has been selected to represent the condition




 of flow.  Daily discharges are categorized into low, medium and high




 ranges in keeping with the discharge history of the respective stations.






                                 OBJECT






     The range of daily discharges are provided in order that water




 quality data may be grouped according to the discharge range for general




 interpretation.






                            GENERAL INFORMATION






     The range of discharge conditions for the selected gaging stations




 are given by the following Figures:




     V-l.  Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota




     V-2.  Mississippi River at St. Paul, Minnesota




     V-3.  St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls,, Wisconsin




     A description of these stations and the daily discharge records from




which the ranges presented here are derived may be found in this Project's



report on Hydrographs.




     The Carver gage is located just above that stretch of the Minnesota




River which has been studied most carefully by this Project.  It therefore




provides the most single useful record on that stream and will reflect the
                                   -20-

-------
general stream flow conditions of the entire stretch under study.




     The St. Paul gage provides the most useful record of the Mississippi




River because of its location just above that stretch of stream into which




considerable waste is being discharged.  This record may be applied to the




entire stretch of the Mississippi River within the Project study area unless




Minnesota or St. Croix River flows are not within or very nearly within




the same relative range of flow.




     The St. Croix Falls gage is located at the upstream end of the Project




study area and reflects accurately the St. Croix River conditions.  The




Apple River, which flows into the St. Croix River 23 miles below St. Croix




Falls does not alter the flow regime of the St. Croix River and therefore




the range of flow derived from the St. Croix Falls record may be applied




below the confluence of the Apple River.




     The flows defining the low, medium and high ranges were selected by




examining the U. S. Geological Survey compilation of the discharge records




through 1950 (Water Supply Paper 1308) of the three stations used here.




Although these records do not correspond to those used by this project for




mean monthly and low flow analysis, they provide a simple and effective




means of selecting appropriate ranges of flow.  Low flows include the




highest minimum daily discharge and the lowest yearly mean discharge.




Medium flows include the mean discharge for the period of record but do




not include either the highest or lowest yearly mean discharges.  High




flows include the lowest maximum daily discharge and the highest yearly




mean discharge.




     Selection of representative discharges for the ranges of flow at the




three stations was based upon the mean and daily discharges presented in




Table V-l.




                                   -21-

-------
               MINNESOTA  RIVER
               BASED  ON DISCHARGE
                   GAGE NEAR
               CARVER  MINNESOTA
                       -nwm-
                        iHlHl
5000  Cubic Feet Per Second
      or  Greater
iOOO fc  4999 Cubic Feet  Per
      Second
  i"  "ubic Feet Per Second
      or  Less
                               TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                     RIVER PROJECT
      RANGE OF DAILY
DISCHARGES  FOR  PERIOD  OF
   WATER  DUALITY SURVEY
DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, 6 WELFARE
  FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
             ADMIN.
                           REGION V
                                                  CM'CASO, ILLINOIS
                                                 FIGURE ~SL-\

-------
                       2ASED  ON DISCHARGE
                             GAGE  AT
                       7. PAUL, MINNESOTA
                  I9o4
 DAYj A   M  J
       "RTF**
       i_ LLxx
S 0
N
0
J
F
M
1965
A M
J
J
A
S
                                l+t
\JLL .
                                         TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                               RIVER PROJECT
              :  Cubic Feet Per Second
                 or  Greater
              3  to 14,993 Cubic Fee.
                 Per Second
        1       RANGE OF DAILY
        !
        (DISCHARGE?  FOR  PERIOD  c.-
        I   WATER   UALiTY  SURVEY
                "ubic  rest
                 or  L
-------
                 bT".  CRO;X   A.  2R
                EASED ON DiSCHARGE
                      CAGE  AT
             ST.  C.^OIX FALLS,  WISCONSIN

                                  TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI
                                        RIVER PROJECT
c- -\ \}/*, ~  r>~~  r *. , Y
(\ M ! \! w L_  O .   L/A-,ii_J
               ER
       UAL:TY SURVEY
      or Greater
                             D:SCr,ARS-  FOR  =ER;OD  O
',. 70 1  to 5999 Cubic Fee?  PC,
                         "-  j uPT. Or rcAL.'H, i.C'JCAT!C.\, . ",/ZLFARE
                               FEDRA_ WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                            1    -<           ADMI.V      Ch,-,-.   -^,- .
                                __          FIGURE i-^

-------
                                TABLE V-l
Maximum - daily
discharges for the
period of record
prior to W.Y. 1951

Lowest maximum daily
discharge for a year
prior to W.Y. 1951

Highest Yearly Mean
prior to W.Y. 1951

Mean - Annual Dis-
charge for period
of record prior
to W.Y. 1951

Lowest Yearly Mean
prior to W.Y. 1951

Highest Minimum
Daily Discharge
for a year prior
to W.Y. 1951

Minimum Daily
Discharge for
period of record
prior to W.Y. 1951
MISSISSIPPI     MDE1ESOTA   ST. CROK RIVER
  RIVER           RIVER           AT
AT ST. PAUL    MAR CARVER  ST. CROIX FALLS

107,000 cfs    6)4,100 cfs   5^,900 cfs
  9,61*0 cfs     it,010 cfs    6,lUO cfs
 18}200 cfs     5,602 cfs    6,221 cfs
  9.MJ2 cfs     3,OMf cfs    3,838 cfs
  1,935 cfs

        cfs
    632 cfs
729 cfs    1,75^ cfs

650 cfs    1,350 cfs
 79 cfs
75 cfs

-------
    CHAPTER VI
LOW FLOW FREQUENCY

-------
                              INTRODUCTION






     Low flow frequency curves, based on average daily flows during wLibe



and summer months for the 25-year period of record from Water Year 19^0




through 1964, are presented.  A family of curves describing 1, 7, 15>  3n



and 60 consecutive day periods of low flow are provided for each of five



gaging stations.  These stations were selected to provide adequate repre-



sentation of the segments of the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Crolx




Rivers within the Project's study area.






                                 OBJECT






     These curves may be used to predict the minimum average flow for 1,




7, 155 30 or 60 consecutive days during either the winter or summer



months which is likely to occur in any given span of time up to 26 years.






                           GENERAL INFORMATION






     A family of low flow frequency curves for the winter months of



December, January and February and the summer months of July, August



and September for each of the selected gaging stations are presented in



the following Figures:



     VI-1.  Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #1 - winter months



     VI-2.  Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #1 - summer months



     VT-3.  Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota - winter months




     VT-4.  Minnesota River near Carver, Minnesota - summer months



     VI-5.  Mississippi River at St.  Paul,  Minnesota - winter months



     VI-6.  Mississippi River at St.  Paul,  Minnesota - summer months
                                   -22-

-------
     71-7  St. Croix River at Stillwater, Minnesota - winter months




     VI-8.  St. Croix River at Stillwater., Minnesota - summer months




     VI-9.  Mississippi River at Lock & Dam t/3 - winter months




     VI-10. Mississippi River at Lock & Dam #3 - summer months




     The chapter "Hydrographs" includes a discussion of each of these




stations as well as general comments concerning their selection.  The




segment of stream to which the flows may be applied as veil as the source




and reliability of the record are also provided.




     The 25-year period of record, used in the computation of the average




low flow for the consecutive day periods> was selected after scrutiny of




each stream's hydrologic history.  The information was obtained largely




through consultation with personnel of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers,




U. S. Geological Survey, Minnesota Department of Conservation and the




Northern States Power Company.  The following general conditions applicable




to the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix Rivers were most relevant in




selecting Water Years 19^0 through 196H:




     1.  Major dam construction was completed about 1938.




     2.  There have been no significant changes in storage capacity




during that period.




     3.  Operating procedures for the numerous locks, dams, power plants




and reservoirs have remained relatively constant.




     The amount of storage capacity made possible by the erection of dams




and the operation of these dams is of particular importance where low f.low




frequency analyses are to be made.  With the possible exception of Lake




Pepin and Lake St. Croix, there is little storage capacity in the river




systems of the Project's study area.  Furthermore^ upstream reservoirs




arc not operated to their fullest potential to modify either high or low






                                   -23-

-------

-------
flows.  For various reasons upstream reservoir levels have been maintained


within certain limits.  On the St. Croix and Apple Rivers, the Northern


States Power Company operates hydroelectric plants under approximately


"run-of-the-river" conditions.


     The governing philosophies of the agencies that operate the locks,


dams, power plants and reservoir affecting the study area have remained


relatively unchanged since 1939-  The existence of these facilities and


their operation do alter the natural hydrology.  However, since neither


the facilities nor methods of operation changed during the period of record


and as long as these conditions do not change, the low flow frequency


curves derived from this period are certainly valid and can be used to


predict expected low flows for similar intervals in the future.



                           METHOD OF COMPUTATION



     All computations required to plot these frequency curves were performed


by a digital computer.  The program was written, checked and executed by


the Project's Data Processing Unit.


     The procedure described below was carried out for winter and summer


months at every gaging station.  The average daily discharges for every


year were arrayed, and the lowest average daily discharge was selected.


Every consecutive 7-day average was computed and the lowest selected.  The


minimum average flow for the 15, 30 and 60 consecutive day periods was


calculated in the same way.  The minimum average flows for the consecutive


day periods were then arrayed in ascending order and their recurrence inter-


val calculated from the formula:
                                       n + 1

-------

-------
where:

                     Tr = recurrance interval in years
                      n = number of years of record
                      m = rank of the event (m = 1 for the lowest flow
                          in the array)

After plotting flow vs. recurrance interval, the lines of best fit were

drawn.  This resulted in one family of curves for the winter months and

a similar set for the summer months at each of the selected gaging

stations.
                                   -25-

-------

-------
3 O -5 >
O CO O O
 O   O

fail
< in" ^ in

I N" 1 I
 * **
d i C- V~_
 Q Q 
S u. o 5
           O
           O
           O
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O
O
O
              puooa'j js
                                                            t_
                                                            o
                                                            c
                                                            O
                                                            O)
                                                            ce
                                    TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                          RIVER PROJECT
                                    LOW  FLOV7 FREQUENCY

                                DECEMBER, -JANUARY, FEBRUARY

                                   MISS1SS  ^P!  RiVER   AT

                                   LOCK A>. -  DAM  NUMBER i
                                DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, S WELFARE
                                  FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
                                              ADMIN.
                                REGION  V	  	   CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
                                                      F1GURE3ZT-!

-------
                                       1	r
3 O
 (

u.


 *
    O (O
    .2 
    u. ~~
    $> '
    0- O
    D &>
    Q ~
    .i O
3   o
F _" o>
._   in
c >- c
                 o
                 o
                 o
                 c\r
               puooag
                               o
                               o
                               o
                               CO
o
o
o
                        433d
                                                             CO
                                                                o
                                                                o
                                                                0)
                                                               01
                                                             co
                                       TWIN CITIES UPPER MISSISSIPPI

                                             RIVER PROJECT
                                 \
                                       LOW  FLOW  FREQUENCY

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