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                         CONTENTS
                         Introduction                                                   1
                                Overview of EPA's Role                                 1
                                Facts and Figures                                        2

                         Pesticide Registration                                           3
                                How EPA Regulates New Pesticides                      3
 v,                               Reregistration of Existing Pesticides                       4
 S                               Evaluating Scientific Studies                              6
" <                               Special Review,  Cancellations, and Suspensions            6
C-
(\                        Food Safety                                                   7
                                Setting Pesticide Tolerances                              7
                                Monitoring Residues                                     8
c
                         Other Pesticide Programs                                        10
                                Farmworker Safety                                      10
                                Home, Lawn, and  Garden Pesticides                      10
                                Pesticide Storage and Disposal                            11
                                Certification and Training                                12
                                State Enforcement                                      13
                                Pesticides in Ground Water                              13
                                Endangered Species                                     15
                                Biological Pesticides                                     16
                                Inert Ingredients                                        17
                                Preventing Pollution                                     17

                         A Closing Word                                                19

                         Appendices:                                                   20

                                Glossary                                                20
                                For  Further Information                                 21
                                EPA Pesticide Contacts                                  22
                                State Agency Contacts                                   23
                  Photo on p. 11 courtesy of S.C. Delaney/EPA; p. 15: Fish and Wildlife Service;
                  p. 18: Gene Alexander, USDA/SCS.

                                         U.S. ir.r.<./::o;-r.'>Tl^1  Prov?':t!on Agency
                                         Region , ;..;:./ .f':.-':2j)
                                         77 Weil JdCYio", Sodovar.d, 12th Floor
                                         Chicago, IL  60604-3590

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Introduction

Few chemicals have had as much
impact or been the subject of as
much controversy in recent
decades as pesticides.  Introduced
on a massive scale following the
Second World War, pesticides
have become an integral part of
American agricultural production,
making possible the most plentiful
and safest food supply in human
history. Over time, however,
public concerns have mounted
about the toxic effects of chemical
pesticides.  Pesticide residues in
food, farmworker exposure to
pesticides, and pesticide
contamination of ground water
have all contributed to a growing
unease over the widespread use
of pesticides.

Some of these concerns have had
beneficial results.  Consumers are
using more caution in handling
pesticides and in limiting their
exposures to pesticides in food.
In the agricultural community,
many growers are using fewer
chemical pesticides  and adopting  a
more integrated approach to
managing pests.  And new
pesticides coming on the market
tend to be less toxic than the
chemicals they replace.  While all
of these are encouraging signs,
pesticides nevertheless remain a
fact of our daily lives.  Managing
pesticides to minimize their risks
and maximize their  benefits is the
task we face.
The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) has
been charged by Congress with
the job of regulating the use of
pesticides and balancing the risks
and benefits posed by pesticide
use.

To carry out this task,  EPA has
developed a variety of regulatory
and educational programs to
protect human health and the
environment from the harmful
effects of pesticides. These
include registering pesticides for
specific uses, setting tolerances for
pesticide residues on food, setting
standards to protect workers who
are exposed to pesticides,
certifying and  training pesticide
applicators, and educating
consumers about  pesticide use and
exposure.

This booklet is intended to
introduce readers to EPA's
pesticide programs.  Pesticide
registration and food safety  are
discussed first, followed by
descriptions of other pesticide
programs. The appendices at the
back of the booklet contain a
glossary of technical terms, a list
of materials  for further reading
and reference, and the addresses
and telephone numbers of
pesticide program contacts in
EPA headquarters and 10 regional
offices and in  all 50 states.
Overview of EPA's Role

EPA regulates the use of
pesticides in the United States
under the authority of two laws
 the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
(FIFRA) and  the Federal Food,
Drug and Cosmetic Act. No
pesticide may  legally be sold or
used in the United States unless it
bears an EPA registration
number. It is a violation of the
law for  any person to use a
pesticide in a  manner inconsistent
with its label.

EPA's  pesticide regulations cover:

  Some 30 major pesticide
   producers plus another  100
   smaller producers
  3,300 formulators
  29.000 distributors and other
   establishments
  40,000 commercial pest control
   firms
  About 1 million farms
  Several million industry and
   government users
  About 90  million households.

FIFRA gives  EPA the authority
and responsibility for registering
pesticides for  specified uses,
provided that  such uses do not
pose an unreasonable risk to
human health  or to the
environment.   EPA also has the
authority to suspend or cancel  the
registration of a pesticide if
subsequent information indicates
that  use of the pesticide would
pose unreasonable risks.

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Facts and Figures

Broadly defined, a pesticide is any agent used to kill
or control undesired insects, weeds, rodents, fungi,
bacteria, or other organisms.  Thus, the term
"pesticides" includes insecticides, herbicides,
rodenticides, fungicides, nematicides, and acaracides, as
well as disinfectants, fumigants, and plant growth
regulators.

At present, approximately 25,000 formulated pesticide
products are registered for marketing and use in the
United States.  EPA regulates these products primarily
on the basis of their pesticidal active  ingredients, the
component of a pesticide product that acts  on the
pest.   There are fewer than 750 active ingredients
currently  in production, with 200 leading active
ingredients.

Total U.S. annual pesticide consumption is  estimated
at 2.7  billion pounds of active ingredients.  Of this
amount, 1.6 billion pounds represents wood
preservatives, disinfectants, and sulfur (a fungicide).
The remaining  1.1 billion pounds of "conventional
pesticides" (herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides)
were sold to users at a cost of $7.4 billion  in 1988.

In the conventional pesticide market  (see Figure 1),
agriculture accounts for over two-thirds of pesticide
user expenditures and about three-quarters  of the
volume used annually; the remainder  of the market
comprises industry, government, and home  and  garden
        -i millions Ibs a i
                                      660
  Herbicides
  Insecticides
D Fungicides
           Agriculture   Ind/Com/Govl Home & Garden    Total
    Fig 1-VolumeotConventionalPestiadeActivelngretiientsUsedinUS., 1988
                                       uses.  Herbicides are the leading type of conventional
                                       pesticide, with over 50 percent of both domestic sales
                                       and volume used.  EPA estimates that total U.S. farm
                                       expenditures on pesticides, $5.1 billion in  1988,
                                       represents less than 4 percent of total farm production
                                       expenditures ($132 billion in 1989).
                                                                             Alachlor

                                                                             Atrazine
                                                       Tniluralin
                                                   Cyanazine

                                                   Carbaryl
                                                  Malathion

                                                 Metribuzin
                                           Fig. 2 - Annual Usage of the Largest Agricultural Pesticides in the U S.

                                       The 10 largest-use agricultural  pesticides are shown in
                                       Figure  2, along with estimates of their annual usage
                                       for all  agricultural and non-agricultural uses. Alachlor
                                       and atrazine are the two most widely used pesticides
                                       by volume.  Eight of the 10 pesticides shown are
                                       herbicides (carbaryl and malathion are insecticides.)
1200-

1000-

 800-

 600-

 400

 200
                                                million Ibs. a.i.
                                                                                Total
                                                                                                   Agricultural
                                                                       64 66 68 70 72 74 76  78 80 82 84 86 88
                                                 Fig. 3 - trends in US Pesticide Usage, 1964-1986

                                       After increasing steadily throughout the 1960's and
                                       1970's, pesticide usage reached its all-time high in the
                                       early 1980's; since then, it appears to be holding
                                       steady at just slightly lower levels  (see Figure 3)  and
                                       may decline in coming years.  More efficient use of
                                       pesticides, the availability of even  more  effective
                                       pesticides, and an increased interest in sustainable
                                       agriculture contribute to this trend.

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Pesticide  Registration

How EPA Regulates New
Pesticides
Basic Data Requirements for a New Food-Use Pesticide

At the present time, data from the following tests must be submitted
to EPA by  a manufacturer  prior to registration:
EPA is responsible under FIFRA
for registering new pesticides to
ensure that, when used according
to label directions, they will not
pose unreasonable risks to human
health or the environment.
FIFRA requires EPA to balance
the risks of pesticide exposure to
human health and the environ-
ment  against the benefits of
pesticide use to society and the
economy.

Pesticide registration decisions are
based primarily on EPA's
evaluation of the test data
provided by applicants.
Depending on the type of
pesticide, EPA can require up to
70 different kinds of specific tests
(see box).  For a major food-use
pesticide, testing can cost the
manufacturer up to  $10 million.

Testing is needed to determine
whether a pesticide  has the
potential to cause adverse effects
on humans, wildlife, fish,  and
plants, including endangered
species.  Potential human risks,
which are identified by using the
results of laboratory tests, include
acute toxic reactions, such as
poisoning and skin  and eye
irritation, as well as possible long-
term effects like  cancer, birth
defects, and reproductive system
disorders.  Data on  "environ-
mental fate" (how a pesticide
Chemistry:
Environmental Fate:
Toxicology:
Ecological Effects:
                               list of ingredients
                               description of manufacturing process
                               discussion of formation of impurities
                               physico-chemical properties
                               residue studies
                               metabolic studies
                               analytical methods
                               results of analytical procedures
                               hydrolysis
                               leaching
                               terrestrial dissipation
                               photodegradation
                               soil metabolism
                               rotational crop study
                               acute oral
                               acute dermal
                               acute respiratory
                               eye irritation
                               chronic toxicity
                               subchronic oral toxicity
                               reproduction and fertility
                               metabolism
                               mutagenicity
                               birth defects
                               carcinogenicity
                               aquatic, acute toxicity
                               avian, dietary & acute oral

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behaves in the environment) also
are required so that EPA can
determine, among other things,
whether a pesticide poses a threat
to ground or surface water.  The
list of tests required is currently
undergoing review; revisions are
expected to be proposed in 1991.
Certain additions to the list, such
as neurotoxicity, applicator
exposure,  ground and surface
water contamination, and
residential exposure tests, will
strengthen the data requirements.

EPA may classify a product for
restricted use  if it warrants  special
handling due to its toxicity.
Restricted use pesticides may be
used only  by or under the
supervision of certified  applicators
trained to handle toxic  chemicals
and this classification must be
shown on  product labels. During
registration review, the  Agency
may also require  changes in
proposed labeling, use locations,
and application methods. If the
pesticide is being considered for
use on a food or feed crop, the
applicant must petition  EPA for
establishment  of a tolerance (see
the section on Food Safety
below).

A brand-new active ingredient
may need  six to nine years  to
move from development in  the
laboratory, through full
completion of EPA registration
requirements,  to retail shelves.
This time-frame includes at  least
two or three years to obtain
registration from  EPA   A
diagram of the process  is shown
in Figure 4 on the next page.
Since 1978, when EPA began
requiring more extensive data on
pesticides than in the past, over
130 brand-new chemical active
ingredients have been registered;
between 10 and 15 new pesticide
active ingredients are registered
each year.

Reregistration of Existing
Pesticides

EPA is  required by law to
reregister existing pesticides that
were originally registered  before
current  scientific and regulatory
standards were formally
established. The reregistration
process  ensures that:

(1) Up-to-date data bases are
developed  for each of these
chemicals (or  their registrations
will be suspended or cancelled)

(2) Modifications are made to
registrations, labels, and tolerances
as necessary to protect  human
health and the environment

(3) Special review or other
regulatory  actions are initiated to
deal with any unreasonable risks.

Reregistration has proved to be a
massive undertaking and has
proceeded  slowly.  To date, EPA
has issued  194 "registration
standards."  A registration
standard includes a comprehensive
review of all the available data on
an existing chemical, a list of
additional data needed for full
reregistration, and the Agency's
current regulatory position on the
pesticide. The 194 registration
standards already issued represent
about 350 individual active
ingredients that account for 85 to
90 percent of the total volume of
pesticides used in the  United
States.

Under the 1988 FIFRA
amendments, EPA has been
directed to accelerate  the progress
of reregistration so that the entire
process is completed by 1997.
FIFRA '88 sets out a  five-phase
schedule to accomplish this task
with deadlines  applying to both
pesticide registrants and EPA.   It
was originally estimated that
EPA's reregistration activities
would cost in excess of $250
million over a nine year period,
with almost half the amount
coming from EPA's current
budget for reregistration and the
remainder coming from
reregistration fees assessed on the
pesticide industry. These cost
estimates are being revised
upwards to reflect actual costs
incurred in the accelerated
program.

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                      Product Development:
               Product discovery
               Laboratory & greenhouse testing
               Experimental use permit obtained from EPA
               Large-scale field testing
                            Application:
                 Registrant submits test data, application
               to register product, draft labeling, & tolerance
                     petition (for food-use pesticide)
                       Registration Review:
          Review of Data:
              - toxicology            - ecological effects
              - residue analysis        - exposure assessment
          Are data valid?
          When used according to label directions, does the pesticide
          pose unreasonable risks of adverse effects to human health
          and the environment?
        Approval:
  EPA establishes tolerance
    for food use pesticide,
approves registration, publishes
  notice in Federal Register
                    Returned:
           EPA returns application, noting:
             need for more or better data
             need for labeling modifications
             need for use restrictions
 Producer markets product for
    use according to label
1
  Figure 4 - Pesticide Registration Process for New Chemical

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Evaluating Scientific
Studies

Because virtually all of EPA's
decisions relating to the
registration of pesticides depend
on the Agency's evaluation of
scientific studies, EPA has
developed a standardized review
process and established
procedures and testing guidelines
to ensure the quality and
consistency of toxicity studies.

How much data to require in the
first place and how much should
be generated again in the
reregistration process  are
important issues. For example,
long-term animal studies usually
require two or more years to
complete,  at a significant cost to
the registrant, and using
significant numbers of animals.
Thus, it is not a trivial matter to
require additional studies to be
performed.  At the same time,  it
is crucial that registration
decisions be based on conclusive
scientific information and that all
products be evaluated consistently.

In light of these considerations,
EPA has set forth four types of
documents governing the
generation and review of data.
These  are:

(1) Data requirements  what
data must be generated to support
registration and  reregistration;
(3)  Standard evaluation
procedures  guidelines for
Agency reviewers on what to look
for in the data and how to reach
consistent conclusions; and

(4)  Good Laboratory Practices -
regulations that specify how
studies must  be conducted to
assure the quality and  integrity of
data submitted to support
pesticide registration and
reregistration.  EPA's laboratory
audit program also  serves as a
further check on the quality of
pesticide safety data.

Nevertheless, there still may arise
differences in professional
judgment about whether a
particular study satisfies a data
requirement or whether data can
be used from multiple studies to
fill data requirements.  Therefore,
major evaluations made by EPA's
staff may be  submitted for review
to an independent panel of
experts, known as the  Scientific
Advisory Panel. In addition, the
bases for EPA's regulatory
decisions  are subject to public
review so that everyone has an
opportunity to  look at the science
supporting the Agency's decisions.
Special  Review,
Cancellations,  and
Suspensions

New data on registered products
sometimes reveal the existence of
a problem or a potential for
hazard that was not known  at the
time of registration. Congress
and EPA have developed various
mechanisms to reach sound
scientific decisions in these
situations.

Special Review:  Under the  law, if
EPA seeks to revoke the
registration of a pesticide, the
Agency must first  announce its
reasons and offer  the registrant a
formal hearing to  present
opposing evidence.  Because the
cancellation process can be  very
time- and resource-consuming,
EPA often will employ a more
informal and often more
productive process known as
Special Review.

Special Review is  an intensive and
systematic examination process
that offers opportunities for
interested parties on all sides to
comment  and present evidence on
the risks and benefits of a
pesticide.  In many cases, the
Special Review results in an
agreement to modify the
registration to sufficiently reduce
risk so that a formal hearing is no
longer necessary.
(2) Data guidelines  protocols
for how to conduct the studies;

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Cancellation:  If the Special
Review process fails to resolve
the issues, however, or if EPA
decides that the problem is severe
enough to warrant cancellation,
EPA may issue a proposed notice
of intent to cancel without
holding a Special Review.  The
Agency also is required by FIFRA
to send the  proposed notice to
the Scientific Advisory Panel and
the U.S. Department of
Agriculture  (USDA), and must
evaluate their comments before
proceeding with a final Notice of
Intent  to Cancel Registration.

If no hearing is requested within
30 days of the notice,  the
pesticide's registration is cancelled
immediately. If a hearing is
requested, it is conducted in a
trial-like administrative proceeding
before an EPA Administrative
Law Judge,  who issues a
recommended decision to the
EPA Administrator. At the end
of the  cancellation process, which
may take two years or more, the
decision may still be challenged  in
a federal court of appeals.  If
there is no appeal to a decision
to cancel, all pertinent
registrations of the  pesticide are
automatically cancelled, and the
products may no  longer be sold
or distributed in the United
States.

Suspension:  During the entire
cancellation process, the pesticide
remains on the market and no
regulatory restrictions are imposed
on the pesticide or  its use.  In
some cases EPA may believe that
allowing the pesticide to stay on
the market  during a Special
Review and/or a cancellation
hearing  would pose  an
unacceptably high risk.  In such
cases, EPA may issue a
suspension order that bans sale or
use of the pesticide while the
ultimate decision on the
pesticide's status is under review.

In order to issue a suspension
order,  EPA must find that use of
the pesticide poses an  imminent
hazard. In most cases, EPA must
first offer the registrant an
expedited hearing on the
suspension issues.  However, if
EPA finds that an emergency
exists (i.e., that even during the
time needed  for a  suspension
hearing, use of the pesticide
would  pose unreasonable adverse
effects), the Agency  can ban the
sale and use  of a pesticide
effective immediately.

Under current law, even in  an
emergency suspension,  EPA must
assess the benefits of the pesticide
as well. This provision makes
emergency suspension difficult to
use, and EPA has  been able to
make these findings only three
times for major pesticides 
ethylene dibromide (EDB);
2,4,5-T/Silvex; and  dinoseb.
Proposals have been made that
would  streamline the existing
cancellation process and make the
suspension process more flexible.
Food Safety
The food supply of the U.S. is
among the safest in the world.
Although many of the foods we
consume may contain low levels
of pesticide residues as a result of
the legal use of these products,
numerous safeguards are built into
EPA's pesticide regulatory  process
to ensure that the public
(including infants and children)
are protected from unreasonable
risks posed by eating pesticide-
treated foods.

EPA regulates the safety of the
food supply by setting tolerance
levels,  or maximum legal limits,
for pesticide residues on food
commodities and  animal feed
available for sale in the United
States.  The purpose of the
tolerance program is to ensure
that U.S. consumers are not
exposed to unsafe levels of
pesticide residues in food.

Pesticides can be registered under
FIFRA for use on a food or feed
crop only if a tolerance (or
exemption from tolerance)  is first
granted, under authority of
sections 408 and/or 409 of  the
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic
Act. EPA has approved about
300 pesticides for food uses;
about 200 of them are in common
use in  the U.S.

Setting Pesticide Tolerances

Pesticide tolerances are being
reassessed as part of EPA's
reregistration process.  Since

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residue chemistry and toxicology
are far more advanced now than
when pesticides were first
registered in this country, EPA is
upgrading its traditional tolerance
system.

To evaluate the risks posed by
pesticides in the diet, EPA follows
Agency risk assessment guidelines.
For non-cancer effects, when
using the results of animal tests,
EPA determines the highest level
of exposure to a pesticide  at
which there are no observed
adverse effects in animals.  An
"uncertainty factor" is applied to
that level (most often, by dividing
by 100) in order to estimate a
level  of daily exposure to the
pesticide acceptable for humans.
This level is called  the Reference
Dose (once known as the
Acceptable Daily Intake).

EPA also estimates the levels of
people's exposure to pesticide
residues  in food, based on
pesticide residue studies as well as
studies of how much food  people
consume. Using data on both
toxicity and exposure, the Agency
sets tolerances at levels that will
not pose significant dietary risks
to the consumer.  EPA usually
will deny a registration if the
anticipated exposure from  a
proposed new food use of a
pesticide, when added to
estimated exposure from other
food uses of that pesticide,
significantly exceeds the pesticide's
Reference Dose.

In cases where a food-use
pesticide is  a carcinogen (cancer-
causing agent), EPA uses a
second approach in addition to
that discussed above.  EPA
assesses the cancer risk specifically
associated with exposure to the
pesticide in food over the course
of a lifetime.  EPA then
determines whether that cancer
risk can be considered "negligible."
In general, EPA will  grant a
tolerance and register any
pesticide that poses a negligible or
no-cancer risk.

The concept of a negligible risk is
the attempt to set a standard
below which the cancer risk is so
small that there is no cause for
worry from a regulatory or public
health  perspective.  EPA's
pesticide program defines a risk as
negligible if a person has a one-
in-a-million or less chance of
getting cancer  as a direct result of
a lifetime of exposure to a
particular substance.  (By contrast,
the overall risk to the U.S. public
of getting cancer, from all factors,
is on the order of one in four or
one in five.)

For pesticides that pose  a  cancer
risk that is greater than negligible,
there are two different policies,
depending on the situation.  For
pesticides that require only a
section 408 tolerance (i.e.,
residues in raw agricultural
commodities), EPA will register
the pesticide if its benefits
outweigh the risks posed by its
use. If, however, a pesticide also
requires clearance under the food
additive provisions of FFDCA
(section 409), then EPA cannot
by law grant a tolerance or
  /  am  encouraged  by the
  increased    interest    and
  participation of the public in
  the issues of food safety. .  .
  Informing   the   public
  accurately   and  truthfully
  about risks  is in itself an
  essential part  of protecting
  the public interest.

  - Linda Fisher, EPA Assistant
      Administrator, Pesticides
      and Toxic Substances
register the pesticide if it poses a
greater-than-negligible risk, no
matter how significant the
benefits.

Monitoring Residues

The pesticide tolerances set by
EPA are enforced by the Food
and  Drug Administration, which
monitors all domestically produced
and  imported foods  traveling in
interstate commerce except meat,
poultry, and some egg products.
FDA conducts a Total Diet Study,
also known as a  Market Basket
Study, which measures the
American consumer's daily  intake
of pesticide residues  from foods
that are bought in typical
supermarkets  and grocery stores,
and  prepared or cooked as they
would be in a household setting.
The findings of the  ongoing Total
Diet Study  show that dietary
levels of most pesticides are less
than one  percent of the
Reference Dose.
8

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Imported foods receive special
attention in FDA's monitoring
program. Above-tolerance
residues in 1987 and 1988 were
found in less  than one percent of
import samples.  Even so, FDA
has tightened its import policy in
the last  few years: if a single
shipment from a given source is
found to violate U.S. tolerance
regulations, all shipments  from the
same source are subject to
automatic detention.

Monitoring of meat and poultry
products is conducted by USDA's
Food Safety and Inspection
Service (FSIS).  Each year,  FSIS
conducts 10,000 to 20,000
pesticide residue analyses.
Currently, fewer than one percent
of these tests show illegal
residues, and  the violation rate
has been declining steadily over
the last  two decades.  State
regulatory agencies are also
involved in monitoring the safety
of the food supply; some  states
have  their own pesticide residue
regulations for food produced and
sold within state boundaries.

In summary, EPA believes that
foods containing legal levels of
pesticides are safe, that continued
regulatory review and action are
serving to reduce and eliminate
unnecessary risks, and that the
overall risks from pesticides in the
diet are  small compared to the
benefits  of the plentiful,
nutritious, and affordable  food
supply that we enjoy in the
United States.
EPA's tolerance-setting system is designed to protect the average person against
both short-term and any long-term harmful effects of exposure to pesticides in
food.

However,  some  people,  especially  infants  and  children,  tend to  receive
significantly higher than average exposures, at least for some portion of their
lives.  Children and infants typically eat  more food in relation to their body
weight and more of certain types of food (such as milk) than the average adult.
In setting  tolerances, therefore, EPA takes into account the  potential risks to
children and infants, as well as to over 20 other subgroups in the population.

Although  EPA believes that its  approach to  setting tolerances adequately
protects the young, the Agency has contracted with the National Academy of
Sciences to  study  this issue  and report on any recommended changes in
approach.  This study is due in the spring of 1991.

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Other Pesticide

Programs


Farmworker Safety

EPA is making a concerted effort
to safeguard farmworkers' health
through a combination of
regulatory, educational,  and
research programs.  Despite
regulations issued in 1974,
significant numbers  of pesticide
poisonings among agricultural
workers continue to occur every
year.  In 1988, EPA proposed
new Worker Protection Standards
to strengthen the earlier worker
protection provisions, reduce risks
of exposure to pesticides, and
extend coverage to  include
persons who engage in hand labor
tasks or handle pesticides on
farms, or in forests, nurseries, and
greenhouses.  Final new
regulations will be issued in 1991.

The proposed new standards will
reduce the risk of exposure to
pesticides by:

  Requiring that general
   pesticide safety rules be
   posted in a prominent location
   and that workers be  notified
   of all pesticide applications.

  Requiring training for
   pesticide handlers and use of
   appropriate personal
   protective equipment during
   handling activities.
   Prohibiting workers (other
    than handlers) from being
    present in a pesticide-treated
    area during application.

   Imposing interim reentry
    intervals for the most acutely
    toxic chemicals until these
    chemicals can be evaluated in
    the reregistration process.

    Requiring that potable water,
    soap, and disposable towels be
    made available to pesticide
    handlers and workers in
    treated areas  for washing off
    pesticide  residues.

EPA also  is undertaking a variety
of outreach activities, including
preparing  a user's guide to the
regulations, poster materials, and
slide and tape programs in
English  and Spanish  that will help
communicate these safety
measures to farm workers and
farm owners.
  Information  on  the health
  effects   of  pesticides   and
  pesticide   poisonings   is
  available 24 hours a day from
  operators at  the EPA funded
  National  Pesticide   Tele-
  communications   Network
  operating  out  of the Texas
  Tech  University  School of
  Medicine.

         Call  toll-free:
        1-800-858-7378
Home, Lawn, and  Garden
Pesticides

A wide variety of pesticides used
in homes and on lawns  and pets
are readily available to consumers
in retail stores.  No special
training is required to use these
products; consumers are expected
to follow the instructions on the
pesticide label.  However, many of
these products can  be hazardous
if improperly stored, handled, or
applied.

Household pesticides are coming
under a systematic review as part
of the Agency's  reregistration
process.  EPA also is studying
whether household pesticide labels
are adequate to  fully inform the
user of potential health or
environmental hazards.

Indoor Air

An emerging concern is the level
of pesticide residues in  indoor air.
EPA recently conducted a limited
monitoring study, the Non-
Occupational Pesticide Exposure
Study (NOPES), which  measured
exposures in  some 250 households
in Florida and Massachusetts.  Of
the 32 pesticides monitored, all
were detected at least once in an
air sample, but the levels found
were minute  and were determined
to present  little  or  no concern for
adverse health effects.   This study
was  too limited  to draw any broad
conclusions about residential air
quality, but it will help set the
Agency's course for future
research.
10

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Lawn Cam

As part of the reregistration
process, EPA is reviewing
individually the 35 major lawn
pesticides.  In addition, EPA is
reviewing the current set of data
requirements for lawn care
products in order to determine if
additional potential hazard
information should be generated.

EPA believes that homeowners
and residents are unlikely to
receive long-term or chronic
exposure to lawn care pesticides.
Even intensively managed lawns
generally receive a maximum of
five pesticide applications a year.
Furthermore, highly toxic
pesticides are not registered for
home use.

Nevertheless, EPA encourages
homeowners and the pest control
industry to  follow integrated pest
management (IPM) practices that
reduce reliance on pesticides
while still allowing healthy,
attractive lawns to be maintained.
For example, in properly
maintained lawns, the thick
healthy turf will crowd out many
weed species; if grass is cut at the
proper height, watered, aerated,
and fertilized properly, the
incidence of fungus disease will be
lessened.  A number of pest-
resistant grass varieties and low-
maintenance ground cover plants
are available commercially.

EPA is working with state and
local governments to develop IPM
plans, guidance documents, and
research papers on IPM
technology for home lawns and
golf courses. (See the appendix
for recent IPM publications and
fact sheets on home gardening
and lawn care.)
                                                    Even tftougft
                                                    pesticides are
                                                    familiar and
                                                    frequently used items
                                                    in a household,
                                                    reading the label is
                                                    ALWAYS necessary.

                                                    For tips on the safe
                                                    use of pesticides,
                                                    write for the free
                                                    brochure, "A
                                                    Citizen's Guide to
                                                    Pesticides," U.S.
                                                    EPA, Public
                                                    Information Center,
                                                    401 M Street SW,
                                                    Washington, DC
                                                    20460.
 Pesticide Storage and
 Disposal

 Pesticide wastes result from the
 use of pesticides in agriculture,
 industry, households, and various
 other pest control  operations.
 Pesticide wastes appear in a
 variety of forms: empty containers,
 left-over pesticides, and excess
 dilute pesticide solutions resulting
 from left-over  tank mixes, spray
 equipment rinsate,  and rinsing of
 empty containers.

 FIFRA '88 significantly expanded
 EPA's authority and responsibility
 to regulate the packaging, storage,
 transportation, and disposal of
 pesticides.  EPA may now require
 pesticide producers to submit data
 on storage and disposal methods;
 EPA may also establish labeling
 requirements for transportation,
 storage, and disposal of pesticides
 and their containers. The new
 law also  strengthens EPA's  ability
 to take direct enforcement action
 against violations of storage,
 disposal,  and transportation
 requirements.   Under FIFRA '88,
 registrants  will have significant
 new responsibilities in assuring
 that pesticide wastes are
 minimized  and that any eventual
 disposal is  carried out in an
 environmentally sound manner.

 If a pesticide is suspended and
 cancelled, EPA now has  the
 authority to order the recall  of
the product and its eventual
disposal at the producer's expense.
The recall  of products by
manufacturers is the most efficient
                                                                                                            11

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and environmentally sound
method of consolidating stocks of
cancelled and suspended products.

EPA also will be studying the
problems associated with pesticide
container disposal,  and examining
options to encourage or require:

  The return, refill, and reuse of
   pesticide containers

  The development and use of
   pesticide formulations that
   facilitate the removal of
   pesticide residues from
   containers

  The use of refillable
   containers  to reduce the
   number of pesticide containers
   requiring disposal.

This study was due to be
submitted to Congress  by
December 1990, with regulations
on the design of pesticide
containers to  follow in 1991.  The
regulations  are intended to
facilitate the safe use, disposal,
and refill and reuse of pesticide
containers.  FIFRA '88 also
authorizes EPA to establish
procedures  for storage, transport,
and disposal of containers,
rinsates,  or other materials used
to contain or  collect excess or
spilled pesticides.
 Recycling Pesticide Containers in Mississippi

 In a pilot project begun in May 1989 in Washington  County, Mississippi,
 pesticide users were asked to rinse, collect, and recycle their empty pesticide
 containers. Metal containers were hauled to a metalwork plant in Greenville,
 Mississippi, where they were  melted at a high temperature, destroying all
 remaining residues.  Plastic containers were crushed and baled in an old cotton
 gin, then shipped to Ohio and pulverized into flakes and pellets for recycling.
Certification and Training

Pesticides with a restricted use
classification can be applied only
by a certified applicator or under
a certified applicator's direct
supervision.  There are currently
over 100 federally registered
restricted use pesticides and some
1.25 million applicators holding
valid certification.  Applicators
include both "private" applicators
(mostly farmers) and "commercial"
applicators.
Because FIFRA gives the states
the opportunity to administer
their own certification program,
certification requirements vary
from state to  state. All states,
however, must meet the  minimum
federal requirements established
by EPA

Certification programs currently
are conducted by all states except
Colorado (where EPA administers
the program for private
applicators) and Nebraska (where
EPA administers the program for
all applicators).
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The law does not require
pesticide applicators to be trained;
however, the law does require
certified applicators to
demonstrate competency with
respect to the use and handling of
pesticides.  EPA has issued
standards for determining the
competency of commercial and
private applicators for certification
purposes.

Both EPA and USDA fund,
develop, and distribute training
materials for certified applicators.
Under an interagency agreement
between EPA and USDA, EPA
funds are passed through USDA
to state extension service training
programs.  Each state has at least
one extension specialist on
pesticide use and safety.  Efforts
are underway to strengthen state
training programs, particularly  in
relation to ground-water
contamination and endangered
species protection.

State Enforcement
FTFRA includes provisions for
monitoring the distribution and
use of pesticides, and imposing
civil as well as criminal penalties
for violations.  For example, it is
unlawful  under FTFRA to use a
registered pesticide product in a
manner inconsistent with its label,
to alter the label, or to distribute
in commerce any adulterated or
misbranded product.  FIFRA also
authorizes "cooperative
enforcement agreements" between
EPA and the states.
Since 1978, the states have been
given primary enforcement
responsibility for pesticide use
violations, subject to oversight by
EPA.  Through cooperative
enforcement  agreements, all states
except Nebraska and Wyoming
have now assumed primary
enforcement  responsibility. EPA
sets FIFRA enforcement policy
and conducts compliance
monitoring and enforcement
programs in these two states.

On an annual basis, EPA issues
national Consolidated Pesticide
Cooperative Agreement Guidance,
which outlines the national
enforcement  priorities  and
activities that every state, tribe,
and territory  must address under
its enforcement cooperative
agreement. EPA also  issues
national compliance monitoring
strategies in follow-up  to every
major pesticide regulatory action
to help ensure consistency in
enforcement  activities across the
country.

Cases of pesticide misuse or
accidents should be reported to
the state agency with
responsibility  for pesticides 
generally the  state department of
agriculture (see appendix at the
back of this booklet).  Such cases
also may be reported to  an EPA
regional office (see  appendix).
Pesticides  in Ground
Water

Ground water is the vast
underground accumulation of
reservoirs that supplies wells and
springs.  Nearly half of all
Americans get their drinking
water from private  or community
wells that tap ground water.  Our
dependence on ground water to
meet drinking water needs is
growing.   In some rural areas,
ground water accounts for up to
95 percent of the water used for
domestic purposes.

Pesticides can enter ground water
in a variety of ways  through
pesticide spills,  improper storage,
or even as a  result  of normal
application of pesticides in the
field.  The extent to which
ground-water contamination can
occur depends on a variety of
factors: the chemical/physical
properties of the pesticide, the
frequency and quantity of
pesticide applied, the
characteristics of the soil,  and the
geology of the area. These
factors, working singly or in
combination,  influence the
movement of a pesticide through
the soil and whether or not it will
leach  into ground water.

When pesticides do enter ground
water, there may be a potential
risk to the health of those who
drink  and use the water.   In 1988,
the Agency's  Pesticides in Ground
Water Data Base showed that 46
pesticides had been found  in
                                                                                                            13

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ground water in 26 states as a
result of normal agricultural use.

In response to these findings,
EPA has  undertaken a number of
activities.   In  1989 EPA published
Health Advisories for 55
pesticides to assist federal, state,
and  local  officials in responding to
the contamination  of drinking
water.   The Health Advisories
contain information about the
pesticides and their uses, the
health risks associated with
drinking water containing
particular concentrations of
pesticides, and testing and
treatment methods for removing
the pesticides from the water.
Summaries of the Health
Advisories can be obtained by the
public  through EPA's Safe
Drinking  Water Hotline (1-800-
426-4791).

Recently, EPA set standards that
regulate 17 pesticides in drinking
water,  setting Maximum
Contaminant Levels for the
pesticide contaminants in
community water system wells and
establishing monitoring and
reporting  requirements.

In addition, in a major effort to
determine the extent of the
problem of pesticides  in drinking
water wells, EPA has  undertaken
a National Pesticide Survey of
drinking water wells (see box).

EPA also is preparing  to publish
a final Pesticides in Ground-
Water Strategy based  on extensive
analysis and consultation with
farmers, other business
organizations, environmentalists,
and government officials at all
levels.  The strategy will define
the Agency's goal of preventing
adverse effects on current and
potential sources of drinking
water.  States play a key role in
achieving this goal by developing
and implementing state
management plans to identify
areas most vulnerable to
contamination and by tailoring
appropriate prevention and
management measures to local
conditions.  EPA will issue
guidance for the management
plans that will specify the
necessary components of an
acceptable plan.
  National Pesticide Survey

  The   National   Pesticide
  Survey was the first study of
  its kind to be conducted on
  a national scale.  Between
  1988  and   1990,   EPA
  sampled 1,350 wells located
  in all  50 states  for the
  presence  of  over   100
  pesticides and for nitrates.

  Preliminary results indicate
  that  10  percent  of the
  nation's community drinking
  water wells and about four
  percent  of rural domestic
  drinking water wells  have
  detectable residues of at least one pesticide.  However, fewer than one percent
  of all wells have concentrations  of pesticides above levels of health concern.
  (Of the wells with detectable levels of one or more pesticides, EPA estimates
  that  10 percent of community wells  and 20 percent of rural domestic wells
  exceed health advisory or maximum contaminant levels.) The most frequently
  detected pesticides were dacthal metabolites and atrazine. More than half the
  nation's   wells  contain  nitrates, but   fewer  than  three  percent  have
  concentrations above  the level of health  concern.

  A final report on the survey will be  available in 1991. Detailed information
  collected in the survey  on hydrogeological conditions, patterns of pesticide
  use,  and well characteristics   will  help EPA regulate pesticides  that can
  contaminate well water.
14

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Endangered Species

              Each species plays
              an interdependent
              role in the dynamic
              functioning of a
              healthy and stable
              environment,
storing a wealth of genetic
information that has taken
millions of years to  develop and
perfect. Despite increased
concern over the need to protect
endangered and threatened
species, the world continues to
lose entire species at an alarming
rate.  Over 500 plants, animals,
fish, and birds currently are listed
as endangered or threatened in
the United States; some of these
species may be harmed directly or
indirectly by exposure to
pesticides.

Under  the Endangered Species
Act, federal agencies must ensure
that any action they carry out or
authorize  is not likely to
jeopardize the continued existence
of any listed species, or to destroy
or adversely modify  its critical
habitat. EPA's registration of
pesticides  is considered to be
"authorization" under the
Endangered Species Act.
Therefore, EPA is required  to
ensure  that the registration of
pesticides  and their  use are  not
likely to jeopardize endangered
species.

In July 1989, EPA proposed an
Endangered Species Protection
      A steady  rise in bald  eagle  populations has occurred since  EPA
      cancelled the registrations of DDT for most uses in the early 1970's.
      Absorption of these pesticides through the food chain had brought the
      birds to the brink of extinction. From estimates as low as 400 nesting
      pairs in the early 1960's, their numbers improved to over 2,660 nesting
      pairs in the lower 48 states in 1989.  On the basis of this recovery, the
      Fish and Wildlife Service is considering whether or not to reclassify the
      bald eagle as threatened rather than endangered.
Program aimed at protecting listed
species from harmful exposure to
pesticides, while avoiding placing
any unnecessary limitations on
pesticide use.

EPA's new  program evaluates
potential pesticide impacts by
focusing first on listed species
whose status is most fragile.  In
cooperation with USDA and the
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS),
EPA will  gather information on
the habitats and locations of these
species, and determine whether
the species may be affected by
pesticides to which they are likely
to be exposed.  If so, as required
by the law, EPA will formally
consult with FWS to determine if
these pesticides will jeopardize the
continued existence of the species.
In cases where FWS finds that
EPA actions are required to
protect the species, EPA will
institute use limitations on the
pesticides.
                                                                                                               15

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The Endangered Species
Protection Program will be
implemented through product
labeling and county bulletins.
The pesticide labels will instruct
users that use of the  product
within each county must comply
with the limitations set forth in
the bulletin for that county.  The
label will also list a toll-free
phone number that pesticide users
can call to find out whether or
not their county is affected by the
program.  Bulletins will be made
widely available  through a variety
of outlets.

EPA is encouraging states to
recommend protective measures
tailored to the listed species
located within each state. Until  a
final program is  developed and
pesticide registrants are required
to modify their labels, EPA will
be relying on a voluntary interim
program to help protect
endangered species.
Biological Pesticides

Natural and Genetically
Engineered Microbials

Certain microorganisms, including
bacteria, fungi, viruses, and
protozoa, have been found
effective as pesticidal active
ingredients.  EPA has registered
over 20 naturally occurring
microbial pesticides, which are
currently  used in over 100
products in agriculture, forestry,
mosquito  control, and home and
garden applications.
As a class, natural microbial
pesticides usually exhibit several
desirable characteristics  they
tend to be effective in controlling
the target organisms without
adversely affecting other
organisms;  they usually do not
have toxic effects on animals and
people; and they do not leave
toxic or persistent chemical
residues  in the environment.
Because of this "safe" use history,
natural microbial pesticides are
not subject to the same stringent
registration requirements as
chemical pesticides.  However,
manufacturers are still required to
register them as pesticides if they
are intended for commercial use,
and the microbials must still
undergo certain  testing
requirements.

With recent advances in
biotechnology, there has been
considerable interest in genetic
engineering of microorganisms to
produce pesticides that are as
effective and less toxic than
chemical pesticides.  At the same
time, there has been concern that
the experimental applications of
genetically altered microbes could
result in unforeseen risks to  the
environment.  Such microbes, for
example, may not be subject to
natural biological or environ-
mental control mechanisms when
introduced into the environment.

As a result of this concern,  EPA
evaluates certain genetically
engineered microbial pesticides
before they are  applied in the
environment.  Manufacturers are
always required  to obtain
experimental use permits (EUPs)
for any large-scale field study of a
pesticide. In addition, in 1984,
EPA published a notice requiring
the Agency to be notified at least
90 days prior to small-scale field
testing of genetically engineered
pesticides.  Regulations specifying
the notification and information
requirements for small-scale field
tests of genetically engineered
pesticides are being prepared.

Biochemicals

Biochemicals are chemicals that
are either naturally occurring or
identical to  naturally occurring
substances.  Examples include
hormones, pheromones, and
enzymes.  Biochemicals function
as pesticides through non-toxic,
non-lethal modes of action, such
as disrupting the mating patterns
of insects, regulating growth, or
acting  as repellents. Like many
microbials, biochemicals tend to
be more environmentally
compatible and are thus important
to integrated pest management
programs.  They  tend  not to
disrupt beneficial organisms and
do not  generally  pose risks of
mammalian  toxicity or human
health effects.

Over 30 biochemical pesticides
have been registered by EPA
Although these substances must
still go through the registration
process, EPA allows for reduced
testing  requirements for
biochemicals in order  to promote
their use.
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Inert Ingredients

In addition to containing active
ingredients, virtually all pesticide
products contain one or more
inert ingredients.  Typical inerts
are solvents (water, petroleum
distillates, or alcohols),  carriers
(talc, sand, or corn meal) and
surfactants (soaps or detergents).
By definition, inert ingredients are
not "active" in attacking a
particular pest. However, some
inert ingredients are chemically or
biologically active and may cause
health and environmental
problems. Prior to 1987, the
majority of inert ingredients  had
received EPA clearance but  had
been subject  to relatively little
scientific scrutiny.

In 1987, EPA published an Inerts
Strategy which calls for the use of
the least toxic inert ingredients
available.  For new inerts,
clearance  requests must include a
minimum  "base set" of data that
allows  EPA to determine whether
or not exposure to the  inert  will
result in unreasonable adverse
effects. Existing inerts  have  been
placed in  groups based  on their
known toxicity and the  need  for
additional toxicity testing.

EPA is concentrating its attention
on the higher priority inerts.   Of
some 50 substances identified by
EPA as presenting potential
lexicological concern, all but  a
few have now been eliminated by
registrants from their products; in
the interim, manufacturers must
relabel products to  identify the
presence of these toxic inerts.  A
second group of about 65 inerts
has been identified as
representing potential toxic
concern and a high priority for
testing.  EPA is evaluating these
chemicals as additional
information becomes  available to
determine the risks of their
continued use.
Preventing Pollution

In line with an Agency-wide
priority on preventing pollution,
EPA is promoting the
development, and expediting the
registration, of safer alternatives
in pest control.  EPA is also
looking to build into  the review
process for existing pesticides an
increased emphasis on non-
chemical alternatives  to problem
pesticide uses.  Other specific
initiatives are being developed in
integrated pest management and
in sustainable agriculture.

Integrated Pest Management

For the urban environment, EPA
has been  developing an integrated
pest management (IPM) strategy.
Elements of that strategy over the
next few years will likely include:

   Support for research to
    develop biological and  cultural
    alternatives to traditional
    pesticides
  An emphasis on the
   development of integrated
   systems to forestall the build-
   up of resistance to any single
   control measure

  Building strong public/private
   partnerships involving
   government, industry, users,
   universities, and private
   organizations to promote rapid
   transfer of new pest
   management and crop
   production technologies to
   growers and other users.

EPA is participating in the
International Pest Resistance
Management Congress, to be held
late  in 1991, which will bring
together representatives from both
industrialized and  developing
countries.  The Congress will
establish a global communication
network and data  base on
pesticide resistance and successful
management strategies.

Sustainable Agriculture

Pesticide use in agriculture is
increasingly coming under  scrutiny
in the context of preventing
pollution and achieving a
sustainable agricultural system.

Several features of the  current
system of American agriculture
detract from its "sustainability"
over the long term.  These
include a  heavy reliance on fossil
fuels; cropping systems  that
degrade soils and water;
chronically low economic returns
that  continue to force some
                                                                                                             17

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farmers, particularly family
farmers, out of business; and
environmentally damaging use of
synthetic pesticides and inorganic
fertilizers.

The long-term solutions to
agricultural pollution, like the
sources themselves,  are highly
diverse.  But certain methods hold
considerable promise.  They
include:  rotating crops, scouting
fields to determine actual pest
populations, the  use  of pest
resistant crop varieties, recycling
animal manures,  and the use of
biologically based methods of pest
control.  The intent is to minimize
the need for pesticides, conserve
soil or enhance soil productivity,
and make  farming systems  more
sustainable.

To support USDA in fostering
sustainable agriculture, EPA is
generating and distributing
information that will assist in a
voluntary shift in agricultural
practices over  the long term.
Particularly important are
demonstration and education
projects emphasizing more
environmentally benign production
practices which also sustain yield
and net  farm income.  EPA is
working with USDA officials to
increase their emphasis on these
programs and to use their  field
presence to educate  farmers on
pollution prevention and
sustainable agriculture.
A Sustainable Agriculture Initiative

A joint project was initiated in March 1991 to allow farmers, extension agents,
and crop consultants to use a computer model in their weed management
decisions.  Participating in the project are EPA Regions 7 and 8, EPA's Office
of Pesticide Programs,  the U.S. Department of Agriculture,  and agriculture
experiment stations and universities in Minnesota, Illinois, and Colorado.

The computer model to be distributed is an expert system containing ten years
of research data with over 150 herbicide/cultural options for corn  and corn
rotations,  plus their projected  yields  and costs.   Growers can  use this
information to reduce their reliance on chemical herbicides.  The benefits of
reducing herbicide usage in corn production include cost savings  to farmers;
reduced exposure to herbicides during mixing, loading, application, and cleanup;
and a reduced risk  of ground-water  contamination  associated with corn
production in the Central Great Plains and Midwestern Corn  Belt.
18

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A Closing Word
The next few years will require an
enormous level of effort by EPA
and our state partners to develop
a more comprehensive system to
implement the provisions of the
FIFRA '88 amendments.  The
effort calls for equally active roles
by a wide variety of individuals
and groups affected by pesticides.

State agencies play a critical role
in ensuring compliance with
regulations, as well as in providing
guidance to users and educating
the public concerning pesticide
issues.  In the next several years,
states will have a new and critical
role in ground-water protection,
endangered-species protection,
and farmworker safety.  In all
areas of pesticide regulation, EPA
hopes to build on existing
EPA/state partnerships.

Environmental and public interest
groups are encouraged to monitor
the progress  of particular
pesticides through the
reregistration process and to
provide input in the development
of EPA's forthcoming regulations
on storage, transport, and disposal
of pesticides  and containers.

EPA also encourages environ-
mental and public interest groups
to work  closely with the  public
and with pesticide users to
promote better understanding of
pesticide usage and to encourage
more integrated pest management.
Pesticide registrants will be
required to play a much more
active role in the regulatory
process than in the past,
particularly in reregistration.
They are being asked to make
financial commitments in  the  form
of fees and testing costs,  and  to
meet statutory deadlines for
submitting as complete and
accurate data as possible.
Registrants will need to keep lines
of communication open with
growers about the pesticide
industry's intentions  for
reregistering old products and for
registering new products.

Pesticide users will benefit from
the increased protection that
reregistration will offer, but they
may experience temporary
disruptions in the availability of
familiar products.  Grower groups
have a role to play in:

   Providing information to EPA
    early on about critical
    pesticide uses

   Assisting in conducting more
    residue studies in the
    marketplace so that exposure
    data  are more realistic

   In some cases, supporting the
    development of data for
    "minor uses" of a pesticide for
    which the basic registrant  does
    not intend to seek
    reregistration
   Actively supporting and trying
   IPM and other techniques of
   sustainable agriculture to
   reduce the overall burden to
   the environment.

 The food industry should note that
 EPA's accelerated review of older
 pesticides may uncover risk
 concerns in some cases. Food
 industry representatives are urged
 to be as responsive as possible to
 consumer inquiries and to help  in
 educating consumers on pesticide
 issues.  The food industry may
 also be asked to assist in
 improving exposure data through
 increased residue studies.

 Finally, individual members of the
public will have the opportunity to
 contribute information to the
 decisions on pesticides made by
 EPA.  Ultimately the public will
 benefit from greater  confidence in
 our national pesticide regulatory
 process and the enhanced safety
 of our food supply that will result
 from the implementation of
 FIFRA'88.
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Appendices
Glossary


Active Ingredient: In any pesticide
product, the component which kills,
or otherwise controls, target pests.
Pesticides are regulated primarily on
the basis of their active ingredients.

Acute Toxitity:  The capacity  of a
substance to cause a poisonous effect
(such as skin or eye irritation or
damage to an organ) or death as a
result of a single or short-term
exposure.

Cancellation: The Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) section
6(b) authorizes cancellation of
registration if, when used according
to widespread and commonly
recognized practice, the pesticide
generally causes unreasonable adverse
effects on the environment, or if its
labeling or other material required to
be submitted does not comply with
FIFRA provisions.

Cholinesterase:  An enzyme that
helps regulate nerve impulses.
Cholinesterase inhibition is
associated with a variety of acute
symptoms such as nausea, vomiting,
blurred vision, stomach cramps, and
rapid heart rate, and can lead to
death in severe cases.

Chronic Toxicity:  The capacity of a
substance to cause harmful health
effects after long-term exposure.

Endangered Species:  Animals, birds,
fish, plants, or other living organisms
threatened with extinction by  man-
made or natural changes in their
environment.  Requirements for
declaring a species endangered are
contained in the Endangered Species
Act.

Experimental Use Permit:  Pesticide
manufacturers are required to obtain
experimental use permits for testing
new pesticides or new uses of
pesticides whenever they conduct
experimental field studies to support
registration  of the pesticide on 10
acres or more of land or one acre or
more of water.

Inert Ingredient:  A component of a
pesticide such as  a solvent or carrier
that is not active against target pests.

Microbial Pesticide:  A
microorganism that is used to control
a pest. Microorganisms are living
organisms so small that individually
they usually can be seen only
through a microscope.

Pest:  An insect,  rodent, nematode,
fungus, weed, or other form of
terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal
life or  virus, bacteria, or
microorganism considered to be an
annoyance and which may be
injurious to health or the
environment.

Pesticide: Substance  or mixture of
substances intended for preventing,
destroying, repelling,  or mitigating
any pest.  Also, any substance or
mixture of substances intended for
use as  a plant regulator, defoliant, or
desiccant.

Reentry Interval: The period of time
immediately following the application
of a pesticide to an area during
which unprotected workers should
not enter the area.
Registrant:  Any manufacturer or
formulator who obtains registration
for a pesticide  active ingredient or
product.

Registration: Under the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide,  and
Rodenticide Act (as amended), the
formal listing with EPA of a new
pesticidal active ingredient prior to
its marketing or distribution in intra-
or inter-state commerce.

Registration Standards: Published
documents which include summary
reviews of all the data available on a
pesticide active ingredient, data gaps
identified, and  the Agency's existing
regulatory position on the pesticide.

Reregistralion:  The reevaluation and
relicensing of existing pesticidal
active ingredients originally
registered prior to current scientific
and regulatory  standards.

Residues:  The pesticide remaining
after natural or technological
processes have  taken place.

Restricted Use:  When a pesticide is
registered, some or all of its uses
may be classified under FIFRA for
restricted use if the pesticide requires
special handling because of its
toxicity.  Restricted-use pesticides
may be applied only by trained,
certified  applicators or those under
their direct supervision.

Suspension: EPA's act of prohibiting
the 1l$ of a pesticide in order to
prevent an imminent hazard resulting
from continued use of the pesticide.
An emergency  suspension takes effect
immediately; under an ordinary
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An emergency suspension takes effect
immediately; under an ordinary
suspension, a registrant can request a
hearing before the suspension goes
into effect.

Tolerance:  The maximum amount of
pesticide residue allowed by law to
remain in or on a harvested crop.
EPA sets these levels so that the
chemicals do not pose an
unreasonable risk to consumers.

Toxic:  Harmful to living organisms.

Toricity:  The inherent capability of
a substance to cause adverse effects
in human, animal, or plant life.

Unreasonable Risk: Under FIFRA,
"unreasonable adverse effects on the
environment" means any
unreasonable risk to man or the
environment, taking into account the
economic, social, and environmental
costs and benefits of the use of any
pesticide.
For Further Information:
Brochures

"Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide
for Commercial Applicators," and
"Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide
for Private Applicators." U.S.
Department of Agriculture and U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.
Government Printing Office, 1975.

"Chemical Risk: A Primer."
Information Pamphlet.  American
Chemical Society Department of
Government Relations and Science
Policy, 1155 16th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20036.  1984.

"Citizen's Guide to Pesticides"
(1990), " A Consumer's Guide to
Safer Pesticide Use" (1987), "Lawn
Care for Your Home," and
"Pesticides in Drinking Water"
(1989).  U.S. EPA, Office of
Pesticide Programs (H7501C), 401 M
Street SW, Washington, DC 20460.

"Farm Chemical Safety is in Your
Hands." National Agricultural
Chemicals Association, 1155  15th St.
NW, Washington, D.C. 20005.

"Integrated Pest Management for
Turfgrass and Ornamentals." U.S.
EPA, 1989 (NTIS PB90-204587).

"The Least Toxic Pest Management
Catalog." Bio Integral Resource
Center,  P.O. Box 7414, Berkeley,  CA
94707.

"Pesticides: A Community Action
Guide."  Concern, Inc., 1794
Columbia  Rd. NW, Washington, DC
20009. 1987.

"Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers,"
(1985), and "Pesticide Safety for
Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and
Applicators" (English and Spanish,
1986).  U.S. EPA, Office of Pesticide
Programs.  401 M Street SW,
Washington, DC 20460.

"Preventing Pests in Your Home";
"Lawn Care"; "Home Gardening";
"Home Garden Companion Planting";
"Pesticide Labels"; "Endangered
Species"; "EPA's  Endangered Species
Protection Program." Environmental
Fact Sheets.  U.S. EPA, Office of
Pesticide Programs (H7501C), 401 M
Street SW, Washington, DC 20460.
April 1990.
Reports

Agricultural Chemicals in Ground
Water: Proposed Pesticide Strategy.
U.S. EPA, Office of Pesticides and
Toxic Substances. December 1987.

Alternative Agriculture.  National
Research Council.  National
Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
1989.

Pest Management for Local
Governments. MIS Report, Vol. 21,
No. 8, International City
Management Association.

Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage.
1988 Market Estimates.  U.S. EPA.
Office of Pesticides and Toxic
Substances, 401 M St. SW,
Washington, DC 20460. February
1990.

Pesticides in Ground Water:
Background Document.  U.S. EPA.
401 M St. SW, Washington, DC
20460. 1986.

Regulating Pesticides in Food:  The
Delaney Paradox. National Academy
of Sciences.  National Academy Press,
Washington, D.C. 1987.
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Federal Register Notices
EPA Pesticide Contacts
U.S. EPA, Endangered Species
Protection Program; Notice of
Proposed Program.  54 FR 27984
(July 3, 1989).

U.S. EPA, FIFRA Amendments of
1988; Schedule of Implementation.
54 FR  18078 (April 26, 1989).

U.S. EPA Inert Ingredients in
Pesticide Products; Policy Statement.
52 FR  13305 (April 22, 1987).

U.S. EPA, Worker Protection
Standards for Agricultural Pesticides;
Public Meetings and Proposed Rule.
53 FR  25970 (July 8, 1988).
EPA Headquarters
Office of Pesticide Programs
401 M Street SW
Washington, D.C. 20460
(703) 557-7102

Region 1
Chief, Pesticides and Toxic
  Substances Branch
JFK Federal Building
Boston, MA 02203
(617) 565-3932

Region 2
Chief, Pesticides and Toxic
  Substances Branch
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
(201) 321-6765

Region 3
Chief, Pesticides and Toxic
  Substances Branch
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia,  PA 19107
(215) 597-8598

Region 4
Chief, Pesticides and Toxic
  Substances Branch
345 Courtland Street NE
Atlanta, GA 30365
(404) 347-5201

Region 5
Chief, Pesticides and Toxic
  Substances Branch
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago,  IL 60604
(312) 886-6006
Region 6
Chief, Pesticides and Toxic
  Substances Branch
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, TX 75202
(214) 655-7235

Region 7
Chief, Pesticides and Toxics
  Branch
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101
(913) 551-7400

Region 8
Director, Air and Toxics
  Division
999 18th Street, Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202-2405
(303) 293-1438

Region 9
Chief, Pesticides and Toxics
  Branch
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415) 744-1090

Region 10
Chief, Pesticides and Toxics
  Substances Branch
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
(206) 442-1198
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State Agency Contacts
Region 1

Connecticut
Director,
Waste Engineering and Enforcement
  Division
Bureau of Waste Management
State Office Building
165 Capitol Avenue
Hartford, CT 06115
(203) 566-5148

Maine
Director, Pesticides Control Board
State House, Station 28
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 289-2731

Massachusetts
Chief, Pesticides Bureau
Dept. of Food and Agriculture
100 Cambridge Street, 21st Floor
Boston,  MA 02202
(617) 727-7712

New Hampshire
Supervisor, Pesticides Control
  Division
Dept. of Agriculture
10 Ferry Street
Collerbox 2042
Concord, NH 03302-2042
(603) 271-3550

Rhode Island
Chief, Division of Agriculture
Dept. of Environmental Management
22 Hayes Street
Providence, RI  02908
(401) 277-2782

Vermont
Director, Agriculture Foods and
  Markets
120 State Street
State Office Building
Montpelier, VT 05620
(802) 828-2431
Region 2

New Jersey
Director, Pesticide Control Program
New Jersey Dept. of Environmental
  Protection
380 Scotch Road, CN 411
Trenton, NJ  08625
(609) 530-4123

New York
Director, Bureau of Pesticides
Dept. of Environmental Conservation
Room 404, 50 Wolf Road
Albany, NY  12233
(518) 474-2121

Puerto Rico
Director, Analysis and Registration
  of Agricultural Materials
Puerto Rico Dept. of Agriculture
Post Office Box 10163
Santurce, PR 00908
(809) 796-1710

Virgin Islands
Director, Pesticide Programs
Division  of Environmental Protection
Dept. of Planning and Natural
  Resources
14 F Building, 111 Watergut Homes
Christiansted, St. Croix
U.S.  Virgin Islands  00820
(809) 773-0565

Region 3

Delaware
Delaware Dept. of Agriculture
2320 South Dupont  Highway
Dover, DE 19901
(302) 739-4815

District of Columbia
Dept. of Consumer and Regulatory
  Affairs
Housing and Environmental
  Regulations Administration
Environmental Control Division
2100 Martin Luther  King Jr. Ave. SE
  Room 203
Washington, D.C. 20020
(202) 404-1167
Maryland
Chief, Pesticide Regulation Section
Maryland Dept. of Agriculture
50 Harry S. Truman Parkway
Annapolis, MD  21401
(301) 841-5710

Pennsylvania
Chief, Agronomic Services
Bureau of Plant  Industry
Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture
2301 N. Cameron Street
Harrisburg, PA  17110
(717) 787-4843

Virginia
Program  Manager, Virginia Dept. of
  Agriculture and Consumer Services
Post Office Box  1163, Room 403
Richmond, VA  23209
(804) 786-3523

West Virginia
Director, Pesticides Division
West Virginia Dept. of Agriculture
Charleston, WV  25305
(304) 348-2212

Region 4

Alabama
Director, Agriculture,
Chemistry/Plant Industry Division
Dept. of  Agriculture and Industry
Post Office Box 3336
Montgomery, AL 36193
(205) 242-2656

Florida
Administrator, Dept. of Agriculture
  and Consumer  Services
3125 Conner Blvd., MD2
Tallahassee, FL  32399-1650
(904) 487-2130

Georgia
Assistant Commissioner
Georgia Department of Agriculture
Entomology and Pesticide Division
Capital Square, Room 550
Atlanta, GA  30334
(404) 656-4958
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 Kentucky
 Director, Division of Pesticides
 Kentucky Dept. of Agriculture
 500 Mero Street, 7th Floor
 Frankfort, KY 40601
 (502) 564-7274

 Mississippi
 Director, Division of Plant Industry
 Dept. of Agriculture and Commerce
 Post Office  Box 5207
 Mississippi State, MS  39762
 (601) 325-3390

 North Carolina
 Pesticide Administrator
 Pesticide Section
 North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture
 Post Office  Box 27647
 Raleigh, NC  27611
 (919) 733-3556

 South Carolina
 Department Head, Dept. of Fertilizer
  and Pesticide Control
 257 Poole Agricultural Center
 Clemson University
 Clemson, SC  29634-0394
 (803) 656-3005

 Tennessee
 Director, Plant Industries Division
 Department of Agriculture
 P.O. Box 40627, Melrose Station
 Nashville, TN  37204
 (615) 360-0117

 Region 5

 Illinois
 Chief, Bureau of Plant and Apiary
  Protection
 Department of Agriculture
 State Fairgrounds, P.O. Box 19281
 Springfield,  IL 62794-9281
 (217) 785-2427

 Indiana
 Pesticide Administrator
 Office of the State Chemist
 Department of Biochemistry
 Purdue University
 West Lafayette, IN  47907
 (317) 494-1587
Michigan
Director, Pesticide and Plant Pest
  Management Division
611 W. Ottawa Street
4th Floor, North Ottawa Tower
Lansing, MI  48933
(517) 373-1087

Minnesota
Director, Division of Agronomy
  Services
Department of Agriculture
90 West Plato Blvd.
St. Paul, MN  55107
(612) 297-2261

Ohio
Specialist in Charge of Pesticides
Pesticide Regulation Division
Department of Agriculture
8995 East Main Street
Reynoldsburg, OH  43068
(614) 866-6361

Wisconsin
Executive Assistant
Department of Agriculture,
  Trade, and Consumer Protection
Post Office Box 8911
Madison, WI  53708
(608) 267-3304

Region 6

Arkansas
Director, Division of Feed,
  Fertilizer,  and Pesticides
Arkansas State Plant Board
1 Natural Resources Rd.
Little Rock, AR  72205
(501) 225-1598

Louisiana
Office of Agricultural and
  Environmental Sciences
Louisiana Dept. of Agriculture
  and Forestry
Post Office Box 35%
Baton Rouge, LA  70821-3596
(504) 925-3763
New Mexico
Chief, Division of Agricultural and
  Environmental Services
New Mexico State Dept. of
  Agriculture
Post Office Box 3150
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, NM  88003
(505) 646-2133

Oklahoma
Supervisor, Pest Management Section
Plant Industry Division
Oklahoma State Dept. of Agriculture
2800 N. Lincoln Blvd.
Oklahoma City, OK 73105
(405) 521-3864

Texas
Director, Division of Agricultural
  and Environmental Sciences
Texas Dept. of Agriculture
Post Office Box 12847
Austin, TX  78711
(512) 463-7624

Region 7

Iowa
Supervisor, Pesticide Control
  Section
Iowa Dept. of Agriculture and Land
  Stewardship
Henry A.  Wallace Building
E. 9th Street and Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA  50319
(515) 281-8590

Kansas
Director, Plant Health Division
Kansas State Board of Agriculture
901 South Kansas, 7th Flor
Topeka, KS  66612-1281
(913) 296-2263

Missouri
Supervisor, Bureau  of Pesticide
  Control
Department of Agriculture
Post Office Box 630
Jefferson City, MO   65102
(314) 751-2462
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Nebraska
Director, Bureau of Plant Industry
Nebraska Department of Agriculture
301 Centennial Mall South
Lincoln, NE  68509
(402) 471-2341

Region 8

Colorado
Supervisor, Pesticide Section
Division of Plant Industry
Colorado Dept. of Agriculture
700 Kipling Street, Suite 4000
Lakewood, CO 80215-5894
(303) 239-4140

Montana
Administrator, Montana Dept. of
  Agriculture
Environmental Management Division
Agriculture-Livestock Building
Room 317, Capitol Station
Helena, MT  59620-0205
(406) 444-2944

North Dakota
Director, Pesticides and Noxious
  Weed Division
Department of Agriculture
600 East Blvd.
Bismarck,  ND 58505-0020
(701) 224-2231

South Dakota
Director, Division of Regulatory
  Services
South Dakota Dept. of Agriculture
Anderson  Building
445 East Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501-3188
(605) 773-3375

Utah
Director, Division of Plant
  Industries
Department of Agriculture
350 North Redwood Road
Salt Lake  City, UT  84116
(801) 538-7100
Wyoming
Manager, Technical Services
Wyoming Dept. of Agriculture
2219 Carey Ave.
Cheyenne, WY 82002
(307) 777-7324

Region 9

Arizona
Associate Director, Division of
  Agricultural  Chemicals and
  Environmental Services
Arizona Dept. of Agriculture
1688 West Adams Street
Phoenix,  AZ 85007
(602) 542-3579

California
Assistant Director, Division of
  Pest Management, Environmental
  Protection, and Worker Safety
California Dept. of Food and
  Agriculture
1220 N Street, Room A414
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 322-6315

Hawaii
Head, Division of Plant Industry
Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture
Post Office Box 22159
Honolulu, HI  96823-2159
(808) 548-7124

Nevada
Administrator, Division of Plant
  Industry
Nevada Dept. of Agriculture
Post Office Box 11100
Reno, NV  89510
(702) 789-0180

Guam
Director, Air and Land Programs
  Division, Guam Environmental
  Protection Agency
Post Office Box 2999
Agana, GU  96910

American Samoa
Director, Dept. of Agriculture
Post Office Box 366
Pago Pago, American Samoa  96799
Trust Territory of the Pacific
  Islands
Executive Officer, Trust Territory
Environmental Protection Board
Office of the High Commissioner
Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950

Commonwealth of Northern Mariana
  Islands
Environmental Engineer, Division
  of Environmental Quality
Dr. Torres Hospital
Saipan, Mariana Island  96950

Region 10

Alaska
Alaska Dept. of Environmental
  Conservation
Post Office Box 1088
Palmer, AK  99645
(907) 745-3236

Idaho
Agrichemical Standards Bureau Chief
Division of Agricultural Technology
Idaho Dept. of Agriculture
Post Office Box 790
Boise, ID 83701
(208) 334-3240

Oregon
Assistant Administrator, Plant
  Division
Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
635 Capitol Street, NE
Salem, OR  97310-0110
(503) 378-3777

Washington
Pesticide Specialist
Washington Dept. of Agriculture
406 General Administration
  Building
Olympia, WA 98504
(206) 735-5064
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US EPA Region 5 Library
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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