JECT
  FROM
                  UN!f.:D STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                                    OOOR77101
Best r,.i .'/entic nal Pollutant  Control  Technology  (BCT)
Kulemakiug Package

Allen Leciuc,  Office of Analysis and  Evaluation
    TO
EPA
                           Librarians
              hncloseu is a co.iv of the RMP described above.   This package is  the
              result- of the 1977 Clean Water Act Amendments.   Included in the  package
              are the regulatory changes proposed as a result of the secondary industry
              review and the proposed test of "reasonableness" required to set BCT.

              Listed in Appendix A of Tab A are Cue documents used as data sources
              . a ti.o .-.econdary industry review.  Please have  these available for
              public .nspection.  If you receive a request for a document liJted which
              yju do r, it have, please request a copy from the Headquarters Horary
              or call me at 8-426-2617.

              Please have the RMP available for public inspection during your
              regular business 'lours.  Thank you.

              Enclosure^:  Tab A  Federal Register Notice

                           Tab B  Effluent Guidelines; Model
                                  Plant Analyses Summaries

                           Tao C  Cost Estimates for Municipal
                                  Treatment Systems.
                                             / C/
                                                   Environmental Protection Agency
                                                   Region Y,l.i'=-'^"y
                                                   Ŗ>„-•  '  -"• •;.„-•.. .yjin Cureet,
                                                   Chier^o, In-'iiois 60304:
EPA FORM J20-6 IREV  3-76)

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                   [40 CFR Parts 400-469]
                BEST CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT
                    CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
           Reasonableness of Existing Guidelines
AGENCY: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA).
ACTION: Proposed rules.
SUMMARY: EPA has reviewed certain existing effluent guideline
limitations for best available technology economically achievable
(BAT) which have been promulgated for conventional pollutants.
These guidelines have been reviewed to determine if they are not
only economically achievable, but are also reasonable. For those
guidelines which are reasonable, EPA is proposing that the BAT
control of conventional pollutants be redefined as best conventional
pollutant control technology (BCT). For those guidelines which
are unreasonable, EPA is proposing that the existing BAT controls
for conventional pollutants be withdrawn, leaving best practicable
control technology currently available (BPT) in place as the limitation'
of record until new BCT limitations are developed.
DATES:    Comments must be received on or before (60 days after-
          publication)
ADDRESS:  Send comments on this proposal to:  Mr. David Fege,
          Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Analysis
          and Evaluation (WH-586), 401 M St. SW, Washington,
          D.C. 20460
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:  Mr. David Fege, Water Economics

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Branch (WH-586), 401 f] St. SW, Washington, D.C. 20460

(Phone:202-426-2617)

                 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

                       Background

     Section 3C4(b)(4) of the Clean Water Act (the Act) establishes

'best conventional  pollutant control  technology1 (BCT) for existing

industrial point sources that discharge conventional pollutants.

ECT is not an additional limitation but replaces 'best available

technology economically achievable' (BAT) for the control  of

conventional pollutants. BAT will remain in force for all  non-

conventional and toxic pollutants. The purpose of BCT is to add an

additional test to the effluent limitation process. V/'hereas the

Act previously required that BAT limitations be economically

achievable, BCT also requires that the cost associated with the

limitations be reasonable in relation to the effluent reductions.

     In the determination of BCT for each point source subcategory

the Act states that EPA must consider the:

          reasonableness of the relationship between
          the costs of attaining a reduction in effluents
          and the effluent reduction benefits derived, and
          the comparison of the cost and level of reduction
          of such pollutants from the discharge of publically
          owned treatment works to the cost and level of
          reduction of such pollutants from a class or
          category of industrial sources,...

The Act also lists other considerations including, but not limited

to, aye of equipment, production processes,     energy requirements,

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and other appropriate factors. The legislative language clearly
indicates that final BCT effluent guidelines limitations, cannot
be more stringent than present JAT guidelines or less stringent
than "best practicable control technology currently available1
(BPT) guidelines.
     In addition, Section 73 of the Clean Water Act of 1977 directs
the Agency to review, immediately, all  existing final or interim
final BAT effluent guidelines for conventional pollutants in those
industries not covered in the Consent Agreement [rlRCC v. Train,
u ERG 2120 (O.D.C. 1976)]. -These industries are often referred to as
"secondary industries".  This review was to be completed within no
days of enactment of the Act (Nerdi 27, 1978).
               Industries Covered by this Review
     As directed by Congress, in this review EPA has evaluated all
3AT regulations for conventional  pollutants which apply to industries
not covered by the *!RDC Consent Agreement (those not listed
in Table 2 of Committee Print Numbered 95-30 of the Committee
on Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives).
Those 13 industries v/ith final or interim final BAT guidelines
which were studied are listed in Tables 1 and 2. However, complete
analysis has not been carried out on all of these industry sub-
categories. If BPT and BAT do not allow a discharge of process
wasta water, or BAT control is equivalent to BPT, no change  in
limitations is proposed. Since BPT is the minimum limitation

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allowed, no analysis is required because BAT represents no
further control  past P?PT. The suocategories wnich fell  into
this (jroup are listed in Taole 1. The ninety-three subcatenories
in Table 2 were studied further.
     Due to the large number of effluent guidelines under review,
and especially due to the Congressional  directives to perform a
brief review, the Agency restricted its  gathering of data for
this review to the development documents and the economic analyses
documents (see Appendix A) which were published in support of
the promulgation of the BAT guidelines for each industrial category,
               Pollutants Covered by the Review
     Section 304(a)(4) of the Act specifies that conventional
pollutants should include, but not be limited to, biological  oxygen
demanding pollutants (EODjj), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal
coliforn, and pH.  The Agency, in a separate action, is proposing
that chemical oxygen demanding pollutants (COD), oil  and grease,
and total phosphorus be added to the conventional pollutant
list.  This review of BAT effluent guidelines assunes the addition
of these pollutants to the conventional  pollutant list  and includes
than in the analysis of reasonableness where appropriate.  If,
at any time, pollutants are added or deleted from the conventional
pollutant list, the Agency will  reevaluate all  affluent guidelines
affected by such revisions.
           Ģ
     Hcv.'ever, in the case of both fecal  coliforn and pH, the  -AT

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regulations under reviev,' are always equivalent to BPT regulations.
Therefore, no further analysis has been performed on these
pollutants, and CCT controls of pi-! and ^ecal coliforn are being
proposed to be the sane as RPT. Consequently, the pollutants
considered in this review are EOD5, TSS, COD, oil and grease,
and total phosphorous.
     This review of BAT guidelines concentrates only on
discharges of process wastev/ater.  BAT guidelines which refer
to the control rainwater run-off  (e.g., sizing of a treatment system
to contain a 25-year storm or catastrophic event) are not included
in the reviev,' because the Agency  docs not believe that this
was the intent of Congress. The legislative history specifically
indicates that BCT applies to the control of process sastev/ater
as the area of concern. Also, run-off regulations are not amenable
to analysis using the UCT test called for in the legislation.
         I'ethQuolocy for "eternininc; P.Gasonablengss
                 of GAT Uegul ation?
     The objective of this reviev/ is to evaluate existing 3AT
regulations to determine whether  these regulations neet the
reasonableness criteria for BCT limitations.
     The Agency has developed a cost test which it believes is in
keeping with the Congressional mandate to establish PCT effluent
1 iirritations.  The Act states that the EPA shall consider the
"reasonableness of the relationship between the costs of attaining

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a reduction in effluents and the effluent reduction benefits
derived."  The legislative history indicates that the intent
of the Congress was to find" that point at which additional levels
of control resulted in greatly increased costs with only minor
additional reductions in effluents.  The history of the legislation
further states that one method of determining the reasonableness
of this relationship is the comparison of the cost and level of
reduction of conventional  pollutants from the discharge of publicly
owned treatment works (POT'/i) to the- cost and level of reduction
of the same pollutants by industrial sources. Although one may
interpret this to mean two cost tests, the legislative history
                                             •
supports the Agency's position that only one test is required.
The history establishes the concept of reasonableness as
a factor in the determination of HCT, and then states that a
POT'..' comparison is a proper nechanisn for determining reasonableness.
Therefore, the Agency has developed & POTV cost comparison as
a basis for determining the reasonableness of UCT limitations.
     In summary, the BCT test compares the additional cost
incurred by an industrial  point source to remove an additional
pound of conventional pollutants beyond BPT 1 imitations, to
the cost incurred by a PQTvJ of a similar flow to remove an
additional pound of conventional pollutants at a similar lev*l
of stringency.  If the industrial cost is lower, the control
of conventional pollutants for the BAT effluent guideline

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limitation is considered reasonable and the controls of
conventional  pollutants ara being proposed as i"CT limitations.
     A second test is applied in those instances './here trie
industrial cost is higher than the cost to a PUP.-' of comparable
flow.  II'.a final industrial effluent concentration of conventional
pollutants is compared to the final effluent concentration of
conventional  pollutants in POTWs with secondary treatment.  If
the concentration of conventional pollutants is significantly
higher for the industrial point source, the BAT effluent
guidelines are considered reasonable, because the performance
of the industrial plant should approach the technological
performance of the POP--..  If the industrial concentrations are
not significantly higher, then the regulation is unreasonable
because not only are the costs Migher, but the performance is
similar to that of a POT,.',  fore explicitly, the evaluation \;as
conducted in the following steps.
     1.  Calculation of Industrial Costs:  The incremental annual
costs are calculated by determining the difference bet'.,3en the
annual costs for a model plant representing an industrial
subcate
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incremental renewal of conventional pollutants is calculated
by detenr.i-iin'j the difference between the annual  removal of
conventional pollutants after compl iancf with BPT and the annual
removal of conventional pollutants after compliance with HAT. EPA
has grouped conventional pollutants into three categories:
nutrients  (phosphorous), suspended solids (TSS) and oxygen
demanding substances (EOD5, COD and oil and grease). (For those
industries under review, no regulation required increased controls
of pH  and fecal coliform, and therefore these pollutants were
not considered in the review.) For the industrial subcateyory,
the incremental costs of removal attained from BPT to BAT are
calculated using one pollutant from each group. If a group is not
represented, then it is not included in the evaluation. Table 3
details which pollutants are used in the calculation depending
on which are regulated.
     3.  Calculation of the Industrial P.atio:  The ratio of
incremental annual costs to incremental conventional pollutant
removal is then calculated.  That is:
         	BAT Annual Costs - c-PT Annual Costs	
      1SAT pounds of conventional  -  ŖPT pounds of conventional
        pollutants removed               pollutants removed
This ratio represents the average annual incremental cost tc
remove a pound of conventional pollutants in terms of dollars
per pound.  It provides an idea of the "ccst-effectivencss" of

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conventional pollutant removal beyond DPT.
     4.  Calculation uf POT';.' Cost-Effectiveness Ratio:   A  ratio
similar to the industrial ratio is calculated to datennvia the
average incrsi.iental annual cost to remove conventional  pollutants
froi;: PGT'.'s.  (POT.i costs have been updated to 1975 dollars).
The incremental cost of rei;icvin
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     5.  Comparison of Industrial and PQTV ratios:  In order to
eater-nine v/hether or not the industrial  regulation under review
neets BCT requirements for reasonableness, the ratio for the
industrial  subcatagory is compared to the POP! ratio for a POT;:
of the sane flow. In this review, if the industrial ratio is
less than the PCTV1 ratio, then the BCT regulation is equated
to BAT, and no further analysis is done.
     G.  Concentration of Conventional Pollutants:  For those BAT
regulations which have higher costs than PCTJs, a second test is
applied to assure that the final effluent concentrations of
conventional pollutants are not significantly higher than those
found in POT.-.'s with norr/.al secondary treatment.  If the
concentration of conventional pollutants is significantly
larger, then this reviev; is proposing that BCT be equivalent
to existing EAT (i.e. the limitation is considered reasonable
even though the costs are higher).  The concentration test
is used as a final check to insure that the industrial
subcategory is not discharging at significantly higher
concentration levels than a POT'.-!, and also to give the Agency
some guidance when the results of the cost test are close. It
is not designed to be a rigid test, but rather, to be a flexible
tool for those cases where the cost test does not give clear
guidance on whether the regulation meets the :KT requirement.
                 Summary of Oetenninations
     Table 4 summarizes the results of the review.
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     Cased on tins review the Agency has determined that the PAT
control of conventional pollutants for 50 subcategories ara
reasonable and is proposing that BCT for these 50 subcategori -s
ba equal  to the current CAT guidelines.  ; ost of the reasonable
regulations are ccrrprised of subcategories from the following
industries:  dairy products, fruit and vegetable processing,
seafood processing, and grain nil!ing industries.
     Sixteen of the subcategory regulations are unreasonable, and
consequently, the Agency is proposing to withdraw the BAT
effluent guidelines for conventional pollutants until  such
tine that proper levels of control can be determined.  Regulations
that are unreasonable are found in the glass manufacturing
industry, the fruit and vegetable processing industry, the grain
milling industry, the ferroalloy manufacturing industry, and
the cement industry. In the case of one subcategory in the fruit
and vegetable^industry (apple products), the I'AT control is
reasonable for the large Model plant and unreasonable  for the
small model plant.  Therefore the Agency is proposing  to withdraw
the regulations for all plants smaller than a 100 tons per day
plant.  Sinilarly, for the crystalline cane sugar refining
subcategory, the BAT control is reasonable for the large node!
plant and unreasonable for the snail model  plant.  Therefore
the Agency is proposing to v/ithdraw the regulations for all
plants producing less than 210P tons per day of ,-vjit.  The Arency
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requests consents en this proposed split of these subcategories.
     Fur fourteen subcatecories In the seafood processing industry
the Agency has determined that it does not have sufficient data
to properly assess the BAT guidelines and is proposing to withdraw
the BAT control of conventional pollutants until further analysis
can be performed.
     For four meat processing subcatecories, part of the RAT
guidelines have been remanded by the courts.  The Ayency ',.'111
evaluate the control of conventional pollutants when the analysis
required by  the remand is complete. In the. interim, the Agency
is proposing to suspend BAT control of conventional  pollutants
(except pH and fecal coliforn which were not remanded) in these
regulations.
     Seven subcategories in the asbestos manufacturing industry
were determined net to be part of this review, since the SAT
control of zero discharge is designed to rerrcve toxic pollutants.
     For all other subcategories (see Table 2), including these
sub-categories where pH or fecal coliforu are controlled, the
BAT control of conventional pollutants is equal to the S?T control
of conventional pollutants. Sinca the legislative history clearly
indicates that ECT cannot be more stringent than CAT nor less
stringent than EPT, further analysis is not required.  Therefore,
the Agency is proposing that the ECT control  of conventional

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pollutants for these subcate^ories be equal tc  the  present  :'AT
control.
      .'lore detailed discussion of the proposed  deter.linations
for each industrial subcategory is presented  in Appendix  0.
           Issues Regarding 3CT Evaluation
     1.  iiature of the POTVJ Test:   A najor focus of concern  is
the BCT test itself.  There are many types and  variations of
tests v/hich can be defensible employed. A methodology is  being '
proposed here which is relatively sinple and  easy to apply,
and which seems-to result in sensible daterrr.inations.
     The test compares the incremental costs  per pound of
pollutant removed between 3PT and bAT to an incremental cost
for PQT/,'s at similar levels of stringency.  This approach
determines the cost to remove the last few pounds of pollutants
at either the POTV! or industrial subcategory  undar consideration.
The alternative approach viould be tc conpara  average costs per pound
of pollutant removed from no control to BCT lavels, or in the case
of the POTl;s, froi.i no control  to secondary treatment. This nay
result in more stringent BCT limitations. Trie primary reason
that the incremental  approach has been selected over the comparison
of average costs is that the focus of 3CT control  should be to
determine the appropriate amount of additional control  beyond
BPT. In fact, Congressional intent is that there should not
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be a ree/aliiation of 3PT or the costs associated with it since
Congress specified that ECT should be more than or equal to BPT.
     An additional issue involves the size of the POTW with which
the model  plant is being compared. The test proposed here compares
the costs of an industrial plant with the costs for a POTW of the
same flow.  This approach determines whether the cost of industrial
treatment compares favorably with the costs of a POTW treatment
system of similar flow.  An alternative approach is to compare the
industrial costs to a single cost figure for a POTW of a "typical"
size. The Agency has evaluated three potential typical sizes:
              1. a small POTW (20,000 gallons per day)
              2. a median size POTW (150,000 gallons
                 per day)
              3. an average size POTW (6 million
                 gallons per day)
If a small POTW is used as the typical size, the POTW value to
which all  industrial model plants would be compared, is $1.72
per pound of pollutant removed.   This criteria would result in
a more stringent BCT test with fewer unreasonable BAT regulations.
Under this circumstance, BAT regulations for 11 complete subcategories
would not meet the BCT test.  These 11 subcategories also fail the
BCT test using the proposed methodology.  Parts of four other
subcategories also would not pass the test.  (For these 4 subcategories,
some of the model plants in the specific subcatecory pass while
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ethers fail, thus causing a 'split' for that subcategory.)
     If the median size POTW is used as the typical size, the  POTW
value v;ould be *1.20 per pound, causing 13 subcategories  to fail
the test. A total of 8 subcategories would be split.
     An average size PCTlv cost is $.82 per pound and DAT  for 21
subcategories would be unreasonable; the 16 subcategories that are
unreasonable using the present methodology are included in this
total.  Eight subcategories would be split.
     The Agency has not used the 'typical1 PGP.-.' approach  for two
reasons.  F'irst, the selection of a 'typical' size POTV is difficult.
As can be seen from the examples above, there are several logical
choices, each leading to different conclusions.  Second,  the
comparison of code! plants to POP.-.'s of similar flows entails a
comparison involving similar technical  factors; however,  it also
compares the cost of the private sector to the cost that  society
is willing to pay to clean the same volume of effluent in municipal
plants.  The Agency believes that this comparison is in keeping
with the intent of the Act.
     2. Calculation of Pollutant Removal:   When more than one
pollutant from the same class (i.e. oxygen demanding,  solids,
or nutrients) are regulated in an industrial suhcategory, the
methodology considers at post one pollutant from each  class.
Thus, if FQD5_ and COD were controlled,  only the 2QD_5 would be
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used in the CCT test because if the pounds of BG!j_5_ an-i COO  rer-ioved
•-•ere totaled, significant aou^le-countiM'j would occur, and  the
cost per pound for the subcateyory would be levered. This would
result in more strinuent BCT regulations than proposed.  (See
Appendix 3.)
     3.  Ability of methodology to handle future additions  to the
conventional pollutant list:  A concern is whether the proposed
BCT tests will be applicable for additions to the conventional
pollutants list.  Because it is impossible to predict which
pollutants will be added in the future, and consequently, difficult
to assess the suitability of the methodology, applicability of
the test for additions to the list will be considered at the
tirr.e that the pollutants are added.   It is believed that the
proposed f.iethodolo
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an exception to the BCT test, and evaluate v.'hether or not the BAT
technology is required to control toxic and/or non-conventional
pollutants, regardless of coincident control of conventional
pollutants. In these cases, the costs to control conventional
pollutants can only be estimated. Comment is requested on this
approach.
                    Economic Impact Analysis
     Executive Order 12044, Improving Government Regulations, does
not apply to this proposed action because this proceeding was  ^
pending at the time the order was issued.  However, as called
for in the Executive Order, the Agency has examined a number
of different alternatives to the proposed CCT test, and these
are discussed in Appendix E.
     Because the proposed BAT guidelines will, in no instance,
be more stringent than the previous BAT guidelines, no additional
economic impact will occur.  The economic impacts of the BAT
regulations were already considered in the development of
those regulations and were judged to be acceptable.  Although
v/aivers may not be obtained for 8CT limits, all economic analysis
of BAT limitations was performed under the assumption that no
waivers would be granted. In those cases v;here BAT regulations
are determined to be unreasonable, new BCT will be less stringent
than the original BAT regulations, and thus will require less
investment expenditures than were originally required. Until
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nev; ?CT limitations are developed, hcv/ever, investment savings
will he unknov.'n.
                     Comments Invited
     The Agency urges interested individuals to submit comments on
the methodological approach that was used to determine reasonableness
and to define BCT.  It must be emphasized that the methodology
establishes the definition of reasonableness, and thus comments
should    focus on the appropriateness of the proposed methodology
or alternative methodologies. All comments received by (60 days
after publication) will be considered in the promulgation of
BCT effluent limitation guidelines.
                    Information Available
     Copies of this FederalRegister notice can be obtained,
v/ithout charge, by contacting:  Anne Andrews, Environmental
Protection Agency, 401 M St. SW (WH-586),  Washington, D.C.
20460 (202-426-2617).
     The costs and pollutant removal data used in this review
are taken from the development documents and economic analyses that
were published in the development of BAT guidelines.  These
documents are available for public inspection at all EPA
regional libraries and the EPA headquarters library in Washington,
D.C.  Also, a 200 page summary of cost and removal data is open
to public inspection at the above libraries.  Location of the
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regional ana headquarters  libraries are includec  in  Appendix F.



    In consideration  of  the foreyoiruj, effected 4C CFP,  Parts



if.(jOĢĢ;G'J are hereby  proposed to be arrencad as set  fortn  belo\..
  Dated:	      . 11373
                                       Administrator

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                          TABLE 1

Industries and Subcatecories Which Did Not Require Further Analysis

Grain Mills (4):
  Norrral Wheat Flour Milling
  Normal Rice Milling

Cenent Manufacturing (2):

  Non-Leaching


Feedlots (1):

  All Subcategories Except Ducks

Fertilizer (4):

  Phosphate
  Ammonia


Phosphate Manufacturing (2):

  Deflourinated Phosphate
    Rock

Ferroalloys Manufacturing (1):

.  Other Calcium Carbide
    Furnaces

Glass Manufacturing (2):

  Sheet Glass Manufacturing

Asbestos Manufacturing (4):

  Asbestos Millboard
  Coating or Finishing of
    Asbestos Textiles
Animal Feed
Hot Cereal
Materials Storage Piles
       m Sulfate Production
Mixed and Blend Fertilizer
  Production
Deflourinated Phosphoric
  Acid
Rolled Glass Manufacturing
Solvent Recovery
Vapor Absorption
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                            TABLE 2
         Industries and Subcategorles Which v.-er'e Studied
Dairy Products Processing (12):
  Receiving Stations
  Fluid Products
  Cultured Products
  Butter
  Cottage Cheese and
    Cultured Cream Cheese
  Natural and Processed Cheese
Grain Mills  (6):
  Corn Wet Mill ing
  Corn Dry Kill ing
  Rulgur Wheat Flour Milling
Fluid Mix for Ice Cream
  and other Frozen  Desserts
Ice Crean, Frozen Desserts
  Novelties and other Dairy
  Desserts
Dry Milk
Condensed Whey
Dry l-.'hey
Condensed Milk
Parboiled Rice Processing
Ready-to eat Cereal
Wheat Starch and Gluten
Canned and Preserved Fruits and Vegetables Processing (8):
  Apple Juice
  Apple Products
  Citrus Prodic ts
  Frozen Potato Products
  Farm Raised Catfish
  Conventional Blue Crab
  Mechanized Blue Crab
  Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat
  Remote Alaskan Crab Meat
  Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab
    and Crab Section
  Non-Alaskan Scallop Processing
  Remote Alaskan Whole Crab
    and Crab Section
  Dungeness and Tanner Crab
    Processing in the Contiguous States
  Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp
  Remote Alaskan Shrimp
Dehydrated Potato Products
Canned and Preserved Fruits
Canned and Preserved Vegetables
Canned and Miscellaneous
  Specialities
Canned and Preserved Seafood Processing  (28):
Tuna Processi ng
Fish Meal Processi ng
West Coast Hand Butchered
  Salmon Processing
West Coast Mechanized
  Salmon Processing
Non-Alaskan Conventional
  Bottom Fish
Non-Alaskan Mechanized
  Bottom Fish Processing
Hand-Shucked Clam Processing
  Mechanized Clam Processing
Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked
  Oyster Processing
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  Northern Shrimp Processing in the
    Contiguous States
  Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp
    Processing in the Contiguous States

  Non-Alaskan Whole Crab and
    and Crab Section Processing
  Breaded Shrimp Processing in
    the Contiguous States

Sugar Processing (3):

  Beet Sugar Processing
  Crystalline Cane Sugar
    Refining

Cement Manufacturing (1):

  Leaching

Feedlots (1):

  Ducks

Phosphate Manufacturing (1):

  Sodium Phosphates

Ferroalloys Manufacturing (6):

  Open Electric Furnaces with Wet
    Air Pollution Control Devices
  Covered Electric Furnaces and other
    Smelting Operations with Wet Air
    Pollution Control Devices
Glass Manufacturing (10):
  Insulation Fiberglass
  Plate Glass Manufacturing
  Float Glass Manufacturing
  Automotive Glass Tempering
  Automotive Glass Laminating
  Glass Container Manufacturing
Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-
  Shucked Oyster Processing
Steamed and Canned Oyster
  Processing

Sardine Processing
Non-Alaskan Herring Fillet
  Processing
Aba!one Processing
Liquid Cane Sugar
  Refining
Slag Processing
Covered Calcium Carbide
  with Wet Air Pollution
  Contro-1  Devices
Electrolytic Manganese
  Products
Electrolytic Chromium
Glass Tubing (Danner)
  Manufacturing
Television Picture Tube
  Envelope Manufacturing
Incandescent Lamp Envelope
  Manufacturing
Hand Pressed and Blown
  Glass Manufacturing
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Asbestos Manufacturing (7):

  Asbestos-Cerrent Pipe                     Asbestos Roofing
  Asbestos-Cement Sheet;                    Asbestos Floor Tile
  Asbestos Papar (Starch Binder)           Wet Dust Collection
  Asbestos Paper (Elastiomeric Binder)

Meat Products (10):

  Simple Slaughterhouse^                    Meat Cutter
  Complex Slaughterhou$e                   Sausage and Luncheon
  Low Processing Packinghouse                Meats Processor
  High Processing Packinghouse             Ham Processor
  Small Processor                          Canned Meats Processor
                                           Renrierer
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                    TAB Li
Pollutants RaculatGd
BOC5. and TSS
B(Jij5, Oil anri Grease
TSS
TSS, Oil and Grease
rocs, con, TSS
con
Gil and Grease
Pollutants Considered
     in Calculation
    3(in5 and TSS
    TSS
    TSS, Oil and Grease
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40 CFR Subchapter N Part 405  for  the  Dairy  Products
Processing  Industry  Point Source Category is proposed
to be amended as follows:

1.(a)   The sections listed below  are  redesignated  as
     follows  and the original section numbers reserved
     for future use.

                            Original          Revised
                            Section           Section
Subcateqory               Designation       Designation

Receiving Stations       40 CFR 405.13     40 CFR 405.17
Fluid Products                  405.23            405.27
Cultured Products               405.33            405.37
Butter                          405.43            405.47
Cottage, Cream cheese           405.53            405.57
Natural, Processed Cheese       405.63            405.67
Fluid Mix Ice Cream             405.73            405.77
Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts,     405.83            405.87
 Novelties and other Dairy
 Desserts
Condensed Milk                  405.93            405.97
Dry Mi Lie                        405.103           405.107
Condensed Whey                  405.113           405.117
Dry Whey                        405.123           405.127

  (b)   The title and first paragraph  of  the  sections
redesignated above are amended to read as follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of  this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
40  CFR Subchapter N Part 406 for the Grain Mills Point
Source Category is proposed to be amended as follows:

1.(a)   The sections listed below  are  redesignated  as
     follows  and the original section numbers reserved
     for future use.

-------
                            Original          Revised
                            Section           Section
Subcategory               Designation       Designation

Corn Wet Milling         40 CFR 406.13     40 CFR 406.17
Corn Dry Milling                406.23            406.27
Parboiled Rice Processing       406.63            406.67
Ready to Eat Cereal             406. S3            406.97
Wheat Starch and Gluten         406.103          '406.107

   (b)  The title and first paragraph  of  the  sections
redesignated above are amended to read as follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The following, limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
2.   The. new  sections  listed  below  are  added   as
     follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
     degree of effluent  reduction  attainable  by  the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality  of  pollutants  or pollutant properties, which
may be discharged by a  point  source  subject  to  the
provisions  of  this  subpart  after application of the
best conventional pollutant control  technology:  There
shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants
to navigable waters.

Subcategory                          section Designation

  Normal Wheat Flour Milling         40 CFR 406.37
  Normal Rice Milling                       406.57
  Animal Feed                               406.77
  Hot Cereal                                406.87

3.   The following section is withdrawn and the
                           36

-------
     section number reserved for future use.

  Bulgar Wheat Flour Milling
                                              40 CFR 406.43
4.   A new section 406.47 for the  Bulgar  Wheat
     Milling Subcategory is added as follows:
                                                  Flour
  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
     degree of effluent  reduction  attainable  by  the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
Effluent
characteristic

pH
                      Effluent limitations
                   Within the range 6.0 to 9.0.
40  CFR  Subchapter  N  Part  407  for  the  Canned and
Preserved Fruits and Vegetables Processing Point Source
Category is proposed to be amended as follows:
1 .   The sections listed below are  withdrawn
     section numbers reserved for future use.
                                               and  the
Subcategory

  Apple Products
  Canned & Preserved Fruits
  Canned & Preserved Vegetables
  Canned & Miscellaneous Specialties
                                     Section Designation

                                              40 CFR 407.23
                                                     407.63
                                                     407.73
                                                     407.83
2. (a)  The sections listed below  are  redesignated  as
     follows  and the original section numbers reserved
     for future use.
Subcateqory

Apple Juice  .
Citrus Products
Frozen Potato Products
                            Original
                            Section
                          Designation
40 CFR
                                407.13
                                407.33
                                407.43
                                              Revised
                                              Section
                                            Designation

                                           40 CFR 407.17
                                                  407.37
                                                  407.47

-------

-------
Dehydrated Potato Products      407.53            407.57

  (b)   The title and first paragraph  of  the  sections
redesignated above are amended to read as follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
3.   A  new  section  407.27  is  added  to  the  Apple
     Products Subcategory and reads as follows:

8 407.27  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  (a)  The  following  limitations  apply   to   plants
producing  more  than 100 tons per day of final product
and establish the quantity or quality of pollutants  or
pollutant  properties,  which  may  be  discharged by a
point source subject to the provisions of this  subpart
after  application  of  the best conventional pollutant
control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                      Metric units (kilograms per 1,000
                         kg of raw material)

BOE6                           0.20              0.10
TSS                             .20               .10
pH                    Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
                      English units (pounds per 1,000
                           38

-------
                         Ih of raw material)
BOD5.                           0.-20              0.10
TSS                             .20               .10
pH                    Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
   (b)  Reserved

4.   A new section 407.67 is added to  the  Canned  and
     Preserved Fruits Subcategory and reads as follows:

8 407.67  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

   (a)  The following limitations establish the quantity
of BQD5_  control!ed  by  this  section,  which  may  be
discharged  by  an existing point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart  after  application  of  the
best  conventional*  pollutant  control technology.  Any
fruit   processing   plant   which   continuously    or
intermittently  discharges  process  waste water during
the processing season shall meet  the  annual  average,
maximum  thirty  day  average,  and  maximum  day  BOD5
limitations.  Fruit processing  plants  employing  long
term waste stabilization, where all or a portion of the
process  waste water discharge is stored for the entire
processing season and released  at  a  controlled  rate
with state approval, shall meet only the annual average
BODS limitations.
           (Metric units, kg/kkg of raw material;
        English units, lb/1,000 Ib of raw material)
             	BOD5 effluent limitations	

                            Average
                            of daily
                            values for 30  Annual
                Maximum     consecutive    average
Commodity       for any     days 'shall     shall not
(fruits)        1 day       not exceed	  exceed

Tomatoes:
 Medium         0.524       0.378          0.173
 Large          0.524       0.378          0.173
                           39

-------
  (b)  The following limitations establish the quantity
of  TSS  controlled  by  this  section,  which  may  be
discharged  by  an existing point source.subject to the
provisions of this subpart  after  application  of  the
best  conventional  pollutant  control technology.  Any
fruit   processing   plant   which   continuously    or
intermittently  discharges  process  waste water during
the processing season shall meet  the  annual  average,
maximum   thirty  day  average,  and  maximum  day  TSS
limitations.  Fruit processing  plants  employing  long
term waste stabilization, where all or a portion of the
process  waste water discharge is stored for the entire
processing season and released  at  a  controlled  rate
with state approval, shall meet only the annual average
TSS limitations.
           (Metric units, kg/kkg of raw material;
        English units, lb/1,000 Ib of, raw material)
                    TSS effluent limitations

Commodity
(fruits)
Tomatoes:
Medium
Large

Maximum
for any
1 day

0.933
0.524
Average
of daily
values for 30
consecutive
days shall
not exceed

0.495
0.378
Annual
average
shall not
exceed

0.349
0.173
  (c)  The following limitations establish the  quality
of   pH  controlled  by  this  section,  which  may  be
discharged by a  "medium"  or  "large"  existing  point
source  subject to the provisions of this subpart after
application of the best conventional pollutant  control
technology.

Effluent
characteristic        Effluent limitations

pH              At all times within the range 6.0 to 9.5.

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5.   A new section 407.77 is added to  the  Canned  and
     Preserved  vegetables  Subcategory  and  reads  as
     follows:

a 407.77  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  (a)  The following effluent limitations establish the
quantity of BOD5 controlled by this section, which  may
be  discharged  by  an existing point source subject to
the provisions of this subpart after application of the
best conventional pollutant  control  technology.   Any
vegetable   processing   plant  which  continuously  or
intermittently discharges process  waste  water  during
the  processing  season  shall meet the annual average,
maximum  thirty  day  average,  and  maximum  day  BOD5.
limitations.   Vegetable  processing  plants  employing
long term waste stabilization, where all or  a  portion
of  the.process waste water discharge is stored for the
entire process ding season and released at  a  controlled
rate  with  state  approval, shall meet only the annual
average BOD5 limitations.  The effluent limitations  do
not  apply "to single-commodity 100 percent canned corn
processing plants of all sizes, and multi-commodity 100
percent frozen vegetable processing plants  with  total
annual  raw  material  production  less  than 7,264 Jclcg
(8,000 tons) per year.
           (Metric units, kg/kJcg of raw material;
        English units, lb/1,000 Ib of raw material)
             	BODS effluent limitations	

                            Average
                            of daily
                            values for 30  Annual
                Maximum     consecutive    average
Commodity       for any     days shall     shall not
(vegetables)    1 day       not exceed     exceed
Mushrooms:
Medium
Large

1. 188
1.188

0.862
0.362

0.406
0.406
  (b)   The following limitations establish the quantity
of  TSS  controlled  by  this  section,  which  may  be

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discharged  by any existing point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart  after  application  of  the
best  conventional  pollutant  control technology.  Any
vegetable  processing  plant  which   continuously   or
intermittently  discharges  process  waste water during
the processing season shall meet  the  annual  average,
maximum   thirty  day  average,  and  maximum  day  TSS
limitations.   Vegetable  processing  plants  employing
long  term  waste stabilization, where all or a portion
of the process waste water discharge is stored for  the
entire  processing  season and released at a controlled
rate with state approval, shall meet  only  the  annual
average  TSS  limitations.  The effluent limitations do
not apply to single-commodity 100 percent  canned  corn
processing plants of all sizes, and multi-commodity 100
percent  frozen  vegetable processing plants with total
annual raw  material  production  less  than  7,264 kkg
(8,000 tons) per year.
           (Metric units, kg/kkg of raw material;
        English units, lb/1,000 Ib of raw material)
                    TSS effluent limitations
Commodity
(vegetables)
Mushrooms :
Medium
Large
Maximum
for any
1 day
2.122
1.188
Average
of daily
values for 30
consecutive
days shall
not exceed
1. 146
0.862
Annual
average
shall not
exceed
0.820
0.406
   (c)  The following limitations establish the  quality
of   pH  controlled  by  this  section,  which  may  be
discharged by a  "medium"  or  "large11  existing  point
source  subject to the provisions of this subpart after
application of the best conventional pollutant  control
technology.   The  effluent limitations do not apply to
single-commodity 100  percent  canned  corn  processing
plants  of  all  sizes, and multi-commodity 100 percent
frozen vegetable processing plants  with  total  annual
raw    material    production   less   than   7,264 kkg
(8,000 tons) per year.

Effluent

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characteristic        Effluent limitations

pH              At all times within the range 6.0 to 9.5,

6.   A new section 407.87 is added to  the  Canned  and
     Miscellaneous Specialties Subcategory and reads as
     follows

B 407.87 (a)  Effluent      limitations       guidelines
     representing  the  degree  of  effluent  reduction
     attainable  by  the  application   of   the   best
     conventional pollutant control technology.
  (b)   Reserved
  (c)   the following limitations establish the  quality
of   pH  controlled  by  this  section,  which  may  be
discharged by a  "medium"  or  "large"  existing  point
source subject to the provisions of this subpart.
Effluent
characteristic        Effluent limitations

pH              At all times within the range 6.0 to 9.5.
40  CFR  Subchapter  N  Part  408  for  the  Canned and
Preserved Seafood Processing Point Source  Category  is
proposed to be amended as follows;

1.   The sections listed below are withdrawn,  and  the
     section numbers reserved for future use.

Subcategory                          Section Designation

  Farm Raised Catfish Processing              40 CFR 408.13
  Conventional Blue Crab Processing                  408.23
  Mechanized Blue Crab Processing                    408.33
  Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing            408.43
  Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing                408.53
  Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab
     Section Processing                              408,63
  Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab
     Section Processing                              408.73
  Dungeness and Tanner Crab Processing in
     the Contiguous states                           408.83
  Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing               408. 93
  Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing                   408.103
  Northern Shrimp Processing in the
     Contiguous States                               408.113
  Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in
     the Contiguous States                           408.123

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Breaded Shrimp Processing in the
   Contiguous States
Tuna Processing
2.    The  new  sections
     follows:
                       listed  below  are  added
                                                     408.133
                                                     408.143

                                                     as
  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology .

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
Effluent
characteristic

pH
                    Effluent limitations

                 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0.
Subcateqory
                                   Section Designation
  Farm Raised Catfish Processing        408.17
  Conventional Blue Crab Processing     408.27
  Mechanized Blue Crab Processing       408.37
  Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat
     Processing                         408.47
  Remote Alaskan Crab Meat
     Processing                         408.57
  Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and
     Crab Section Processing            408.67
  Remote Alaskan whole CraŖ> and
     Crab Section Processing            408.77
  Dungeness and Tanner Crab
     Processing in the Contiguous
     States                             408.87
  Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing  408.97
  Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing      408.107
  Northern Shrimp Processing in the
     Contiguous States                  408.117
  Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp
     Processing in the Contiguous
     States                             408.127
  Breaded Shrimp Processing in the
     Contiguous States                  408.137

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  Tuna Processing
                                        408.147
  (a)   The sections listed below  are  redesignated  as
     follows  and the original section numbers reserved
     for future use.
Subcategory
                            Original
                            Section
                          Desiq nation
                         40 CFR
Fish Meal Processing
West Coast Hand-
 Butchered Salmon Processing
West Coast Mechanized
 Salmon. Processing
Non-Alaskan Conventional
 Bottom Fish Processing
Non-Alaskan Mechanized
 Bottom Fish Processing
Hand-Shucked clams Processing
Mechanized Clain Processing
Pacific Coast Hand-
 Shucked Oyster Processing
Atlantic & Gulf Hand-
 Shucked Oyster Processing
Steamed and Canned Oyster
 Processing
Sardine Processing
Non-Alaskan Scallop
 Processing
Non-Alaskan Herring
 Fillet Processing
Abalone Processing
408.153
408.183

408.193

408.213

408.223

408.233
408.243
408.253

408.263

408.273

408.283
408.303

408.323

408.333
   Revised
   Section
 Designation

40 CFR 408.157
       408.187

       408.197

       408.217

       408.227

       408.237
       408.247
       408.257

       408.267

       408.277

       408.287
       408.307

       408.327

       408.337
  (b)   The title and first paragraph  of  the  sections
redesignated above are amended to read as follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.

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40  CFR  Subchapter N Part 409 for the.Sugar Processing
Point. Source Category is  proposed  to  be  amended  as
follows:

1.(a)  Section 409.23 of  the  Crystalline  Cane  Sugar
     Refining  Subcategory is withdrawn and the section
     number is reserved for future use.

   (b)  A. new section 409.27 is added to the Crystalline
     Cane  Sugar  Refining  Subcategory  and  reads  as
     follows:

e 409.27  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations apply only to those  plants
processing  2100  tons  per  day  of  melt  or over and
establish the quantity  or  quality  of   pollutants  or
pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which
may  be  discharged  by  a  point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart  after  application  of  the
best conventional pollutant control technology.
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                      Metric units (kilograms per 1,000
                                  kg of melt)
BOD5.                           0.18              0.09
TSS                             .11               .035
pH                          Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0.
                English units  (pounds per ton of melt)
BODS.                           0.36              0.18
TSS                             .21               .07
pH                          Within the.range of 6.0 to 9.0,

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2.(a)   The sections listed below  are  redesignated  as
     follows  and the original section numbers reserved
     for future use.

                            Original          Revised
                            Section           Section
Subcategory               Designation       Designation

Liquid Cane Sugar Refining      409.33            409.37

  (b)   The title and first paragraph  of  the  sections
redesignated above are amended to read as follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
3. (a)  The following section 409.13 of the  Beet  Sugar
     Processing  Subcategory  is  amended  to  read  as
     follows:

  (a)  *   *   *   *

  (1)  The following limitations establish the  maximum
permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants
when  the  process  waste  water discharge results from
barometric condensing operations only.
Effluent                          Effluent
characteristics                   limitations

Temperature     Temperature not to exceed the temperature
                of cooled water acceptable for return to
                the heat producing process and in no event
                greater than 32°C (90°P).
  (2) The following limitations  establish  the  maximum
permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants
when  the  process  waste  water  discharge results, in

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whole or in part, from barometric condensing operations
and any other beet sugar processing operation.
Effluent                          Effluent
characteristics                   limitations

Temperature     Not to exceed 32°C (90°F) .
4.   A new section'409.17 is added to  the  Beet  Sugar
     Processing Subcategory and reads as follows:

S 409.17  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  (a)  The following limitations establish the quantity
or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties  which
may  be  discharged  by  a point source where the sugar
beet processing capacity of the point source  does  not
exceed  1r090 kkg  (2,300 tons) per day of beets sliced
or where the soil filtration rate, whether  natural  or
by  deliberate  design,  within  the  boundaries of all
waste   water   treatment   or   retention   facilities
associated  with the point source is less than or equal
to 0.159 cm (1/16 in.) per day; provided, however, that
a discharge by a point source may be made in accordance
with the limitations  set  forth  in  either  paragraph
(a) (1)  exclusively, or paragraph  (a) (2)  of this section
exclusively.
  (1)  The following limitations establish the  maximum
permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants
when  the  process  waste  water discharge results from
barometric condensing operations only.
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                      Metric units (kg/JOcg of product)
BOD5.                           2.0               1.3
pH                          Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0.

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                English units  (Ib/1,000 Ib of product)
BODS                           2.0               1.3
pH ~"                        Within the range of 6.0 to  9.0,
  (2)  The following limitations establish the  maximum
permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants
when  the  process  waste  water  discharge results, in
whole or in part, from barometric condensing operations
and any other beet sugar processing operation.
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of  daily
                            any 1 day      values for  30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                      Metric units (kg/kkg of product)
BODS                           2.0               1.3
TSS~                           2.0               1.3
pH                          Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0.
Fecal coliform              Not to exceed MPN of 400/100 ml
                               at any time.
                English units  (Ib/1,000 Ib of product)
BOD5_                           2.0               1.3
TSS                            2.0               1.3
pH                          Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0.
Fecal coliform              Not to exceed MPN of UOO/100 ml
                            at any time  (not typically
                            expressed in English units).
  (b)  The following limitations establish the quantity
or  quality  of  pollutants  or  pollutant  properties,
controlled  by this regulation, which may be discharged
by a point source in all instances not specified  under
the  provisions of paragraph (a) of this section: There
shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants
to navigable waters.

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40  CPR  Subchapter  N  Part   411   for   the   cement
Manufacturing  Point  Source Category is proposed to be
amended as follows:

1.   Section 411.13 of the Nonleaching subcategory  and
     Section  411.23  of  the  Leaching Subcategory are
     amended to read as follows:

     Effluent limitations guidelines  representing  the
     degree  of  effluent  reduction  attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  available   technology
     economically achievable.

  The  following  limitations establish the quantity or
quality  of   pollutants   or   pollutant   properties,
controlled  by this section, which may be discharged by
a point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of  this
subpart   after   application  of  the.  best  available
technology economically achievable.
  Effluent                     Effluent limitations
  characteristics              (maximum for any 1 day)
Temperature (heat)           Not to exceed 3°C rise above
                            inlet temperature.


2.   A new section 411.17 is added for the  Nonleaching
     Subcategory and reads as follows:

a 411.17  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
Effluent                       Effluent limitations
characteristics                {Maximum for any 1 day)

                         Metric units (kq/kkq of product)

TSS                                     0.005
                          50

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pH                       Within the range 6.0 to 9.0,
                   English units (lb/1,000 Ibs of product)

TSS                                     0.005
pH                       Within the range 6.0 to 9.0.
3.   A new section 411.27 for the Leaching  Subcategory
     is added as follows:

S 411.27  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.

Effluent
characteristic        Effluent limitations

pH                 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0.
4.(a)  The section  listed  below  is  redesignated  as
     follows  and  the original section number reserved
     for future use.

                            Original          Revised
                            Section           Section
Subcat egory               Designation       Designation

Materials Storage Piles      411.33            411.37
 Runoff

  (b)  The title and first paragraph  of  the  sections
redesignated above are amended to read as follows;

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   fay   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties.

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controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
40  CFR  Subchapter  N  Part 412 for the Feedlots Point
Source Category is proposed to be amended as follows:

1.   The sections  listed  below  are  added  as  reads
     below.

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  (a)   Subject to the provisions of  paragraph  (b)   of
this  section,  the following limitations establish the
quantity  or  quality  of   pollutants   or   pollutant
properties,  controlled  by  this section, which may be
discharged by a point source subject to the  provisions
of   this   subpart   after  application  of  the  best
conventional pollutant control technology.  There shall
be no discharge of process waste  water  pollutants  to
navigable waters.
  (b)   Process waste pollutants in the overflow may  be
discharged   to   navigable  waters  whenever  rainfall
events,  either  chronic  or  catastrophic,  cause   an
overflow   of  process  waste  water  from  a  facility
designed,  constructed  and  operated  to  contain  all,
process  generated  waste waters plus the runoff from a
25 year, 24 hour rainfall event for the location of the
point source.

Subcategory                          Section Designation

  All Subcategories
     Except DucJcs                                   412.17
  Ducks                                             412.27

40  CFR  Subchapter  N  Part  418  for  the  Fertilizer
Manufacturing  Point  Source Category is proposed to be
amended as follows:

1.   Section 418.13 of  the  Phosphate  Subcategory  is
     proposed to be amended as -follows:

3 418.13  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the

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     application   of  the  best,  available  tecimology
     economically achievable.
  (c)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
process  wastewater  pursuant  to  the  limitations  of
paragraph  (b) of this  section  shall  not  exceed  the
values listed in the following table:
                               Effluent limitations (mq/1)
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	     shall not exceed
Fluoride                          75                25
The total suspended solid limitations set forth in this
paragraph shall be waived for process wastewater from a
calcium  sulfate storage pile runoff facility, operated
separately or in combination with a water recirculation
system, which is chemically treated and then  clarified
or  settled to meet the other pollutant limitations set
forth in this paragraph.
  (d)   The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
contaminated  non-process  wastewater  shall not exceed
the values listed in the following table:
                               Effluent limitations (mq/1)
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics                          .  shall not exceed
Fluoride                          75                25
2.   A new section 418.17 for the Phosphate Subcategory
     is added as follows:

B 418.17  Effluent    limitations    and     guidelines
     representing  the  degree  of  effluent  reduction
                          53

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     attained  by   the   application   of   the   best
     conventional pollutant control technology.

  The  following  limitations establish the quantity or
quality of pollutants or pollutant properties which may
be  discharged  by  a  point  source  subject  to   the
provisions  of  this  subpart  after application of the
best conventional pollutant control technology:
  (a)   Subject to the provision of paragraphs   (b)   and
(c)    of   this   section,  the  following  limitations
establish the quantity  or  quality  of  pollutants  or
pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which
may  be  discharged  by  a  point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart  after  application  of  the
best  conventional  pollutant control technology: There
shall be no discharge of process wastewater  pollutants
to navigable waters.
  (b)   Process wastewater  pollutants  from  a  calcium
sulfate   storage   pile   runoff   facility   operated
separately or in combination with a water recirculation
system designed, constructed and operated to maintain a
surge capacity equal to the runoff  from  the  25-year,
24-hour   rainfall   event  may  be  discharged,  after
treatment to the standards set forth in  paragraph  (c)
of  this  section,  whenever  chronic  or  catastrophic
precipitation events cause the water level to rise into
the surge capacity.  Process wastewater must be treated
and discharged  whenever  the  water  level  equals  or
exceeds the midpoint of the surge capacity.
  (c)   The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
process  wastewater  pursuant  to  the  limitations  of
paragraph (b) of this  section  shall  not  exceed  the
values listed in the following table:
                               Effluent limitations _.(mq/1)
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics               	        shall not exceed
Total phosphorus  (as P)           105               35
TSS                               150               50
The total suspended solid limitations set forth in this
paragraph shall be waived for process wastewater from a
calcium  sulfate storage pile runoff facility, operated
separately or in combination with a water recirculation

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system, which is chemically treated and then  clarified
or  settled to meet the other pollutant limitations set
forth in this paragraph.
   (d)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
contaminated  non-process  wastewater  shall not exceed
the values listed in the following table:
                               Effluent limitations (mq/1)
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics                 .	     shall not exceed
Total phosphorus  (as P)           105               35
3.   A new section 418.27 for the  Ammonia  Subcategory
     is added as follows:

8 418.27  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following lijnitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
Effluent
characteristic        Effluent limitations

pH                 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0.


4.   The sections listed below are added as follows:

  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  representing   the
     degree  of  effluent  reduction  attainable by the
     application of  the  best  conventional  pollutant
     control technology.

  The  following  limitations establish the quantity or
quality of pollutants or  pollutant  properties,  which
may  be  discharged  by  a  point source subject to the
                          55

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provisions of this subpart  after  application  of  the
best  conventional  pollutant control technology: There
shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants
to navigable waters.

Subcategory                         . Section Designation

  Ammonium Sulfate                                  418.67
     Production
  Mixed and Blend                                   418.77
     Fertilizer Production

40  CFR  Subchapter  N  Part  422  for  the   Phosphate
Manufacturing  Point  Source Category is proposed to be
amended as follows:

1.   section 422.43 of the Defluorinated Phosphate Rock
     Subcategory is proposed to be amended as follows:

8 422.43  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.
   (c)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
process  waste  water  pursuant  to  the limitations of
paragraph  (b) of this  section  shall  not  exceed  the
values listed in the following table:
                      (Milligrams per liter)
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristies             	    shall not exceed

Fluoride  (as F)                75                25
   (d)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
contaminated  non-process  wastewater  shall not exceed
the values listed in the following table:
                               Effluent limitations (mq/1)
                          56

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                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	     shall not exceed
Fluoride                          75                25


2,   A  new  section  422.47  for   the   Defluorinated
     Phosphate Rock Subcategory is added as follows:

a 422.47  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality  of  pollutants  or pollutant properties, which
may be discharged by a  point  source  subject  to  the
provisions ~of  this  subpart  after application of the
best conventional pollutant control technology:
  (a)  Subject to the provisions of paragraphs (b) , (c)
and  (d)  of  this  section,  the  following  limitations
establish  the  quantity  or  quaiity  of pollutants or
pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which
may be discharged by a  point  source  subject  to  the
provisions  of  this  subpart  after application of the
best conventional pollutant control  technology:   There
shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants
to navigable waters.
  (b)  Process waste water pollutants  from  a  cooling
water  recirculation  system  designed, constructed and
operated to maintain a  surge  capacity  equal  to  the
runoff  from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event may be
discharged, after treatment to the standards set  forth
in  paragraph   (c) of this section, whenever chronic or
catastrophic precipitation events cause the water level
in the pond to rise into the surge  capacity.   Process
waste water must be treated and discharged whenever the
water  level  equals  or  exceeds  the mid-point of the
surge capacity.
  (c)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
process  waste  water  pursuant  to  the limitations of
paragraph (b)  of this  section  shall  not  exceed  the
values listed in the following table:
                      (Milligrams per liter)
                          51

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                               Effluent limitations	
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

Total phosphorus               105               35
  (as P)
TSS                            150   .            50
pH                          Within the range 6.0 to 9.5.
The  total suspended solid limitation set forth in this
paragraph shall be waived for process waste water  from
a   calcium   sulfate  storage  pile  runoff  facility,
operated separately or  in  combination  with  a  water
recirculation  system,  which is chemically treated and
then clarified or settled to meet the  other  pollutant
limitations set forth in this paragraph.
   (d)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
contaminated  non-process  waste water shall not exceed
the values listed in the following table: .
                       (Milligrams per liter)
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

Total phosphorus               105               35
  (as P)
pH                          Within the range 6.0 to 9.5.
3.   Section 422.53  of  the  Defluorinated  Phosphoric
     Acid  sutcategory  is  proposed  to  be amended as
     follows:

B 422.53  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.
  (c)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
process  waste  water  pursuant  to  the limitations of

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paragraph  (b) of this  section  shall  not  exceed  the
values listed in the following table:
                       (Milligrams per liter)
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
character!stics             	    shall not exceed

Fluoride  (as F)                 75               25
   (d)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
contaminated  non-process  wastewater  shall not exceed
the values listed in the following table:
                       (Milligrams per liter)
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
character!stics             	    shall not exceed

Fluoride  (as F)                 75               25
4.   A  new  section  422.57  for   the   Defluorinated
     Phosphoric Acid Subcategory is added as follows:

B 422.57  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  
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may be discharged by a  point,  source  subject  to  the
provisions  of  this  subpart  after application of the
best conventional pollutant control  technology:  There
shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants
to navigable waters.
   (b)  Process waste water pollutants  from  a  cooling
water  recirculation  system  designed, constructed and
operated to maintain a  surge  capacity  equal  to  the
runoff  from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event may be
discharged, after treatment to the standards set  forth
in  paragraph   (c)  of this sectiont whenever chronic or
catastrophic precipitation events cause the water level
in the pond to rise into the surge  capacity.   Process
waste water must be treated and discharged whenever the
water  level  equals  or  exceeds  the mid-point of the
surge capacity.
   (c)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
process  waste  water  pursuant  to  the limitations of
paragraph  (b)  of this  section  shall  not  exceed  the
values listed in the following table:
                       (Milligrams per liter)
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

Total phosphorus               105               35
  (as P)
TSS                            150               50
pH                          Within the range 6.0 to 9.5.
The  total suspended solid limitation set forth in this
paragraph shall be waived for process waste water  from
a   calcium   sulfate  storage  pile  runoff  facility,
operated separately or  in  combination  with  a  water
recirculation  system,  which is chemically treated and
then clarified or settled to meet the  other  pollutant
limitations set forth in this paragraph.
  (d)  The concentration of  pollutants  discharged  in
contaminated  non-process  waste water shall not exceed
the values listed in the following table:
                      (Milligrams per liter)
                           60

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                               Effluent limitations	
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                    *              consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

Total phosphorus               105               35
  (as P)
pH                          Within the range 6.0 to 9.5.


5.   Section 422.63 of the Sodium Phosphate Subcategory
     is proposed to be amended as follows:

S 422.63  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
             Metric units, kg/kkg of product:
           English units, lb/1,000 Ib of product
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

Fluoride  (as F)                0.21           0.11

6.   A new Section  422.67  for  the  Sodium  Phosphate
     Subcategory is added as follows:

8 422.67  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations -establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this

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subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                (Metric units kg/kkg of finished product:
                  English units, lb/1,000 Ib of product)
TSS
Total phosphorus
pH
0.35
(as P) 0.56
within the range
0.18
0.28
6.0 to 9.5
40  CFR  Subchapter  N  Part  424  for  the  Ferroalloy
Manufacturing Point Source Category is proposed  to  be
amended as follows:

1.   Section 424.13 of the Open Electric Furnaces  with
     Wet  Air  Pollution Control Devices Subcategory is
     proposed to be amended as follows:

Q 424.13  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the.   best   available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                               Metric units kg/Mwh	
Chromium total                 .0008             .0004
Chromium VI                    .00008            .00004
Manganese total                .008              .0039
                           62

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2.   A  new  section  424.17  for  the  Open   Electric
     Furnaces  with  Wet  Air Pollution Control Devices
     Subcategory is added as follows:

8 424.17  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
Effluent
characteristics
TSS
pH
TSS
pH
                            Maximum for
                            any 1 day
                  Average of daily
                  values for 30
                  consecutive days
                  shall not exceed
                            Metric units kq/Mwh
      0.024             0.012
Within the range 6.0 to 9.0

   English units Ib/Mwh	

      0.052             0.026
Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
3.   Section 424.23 of the  Covered  Electric  Furnaces
     and   Other   Smelting  Operations  with  Wet  Air
     Pollution Control Devices Subcategory is  proposed
     to be amended as follows:

8 424.23  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
                           63

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technology           economically           achievable:
                               Effluent linu.tat.ions
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                               Metric units kg/Mwh	
Chromium total                 .001              .0005
Chromium VI                    .0001             .00005
Manganese total                .011              .005
Cyanide total                  .0005             .0003
Phenols                        .0004             .0002

                               English units Ib/Mwh	
Chromium total                 .002              .0012
Chromium VI                    .0002             .0001
Manganese total                .023              .012
Cyanide total                  .001              .0006
Phenols                        .0009             .0005
  Provided,  however,  that  for  nonelectric   furnace
smelting  processes,  the units of effluent limitations
set forth in this section shall be read as  "kg/kkg  of
product"  rather  than  "kg/Mwh,"  and  the limitations
(except for pH) shall be 3.3 times those listed in  the
table  in  this section (or, for English units, "Ib/ton
of product" rather than "Ib/Mwh," and  the  limitations
(except  for  pH)  shall be three times those listed in
the table).

4.   A. new Section  424.27  for  the  Covered  Electric
     Furnaces  and  Other  Smelting Operations with Wet
     Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory is added
     as follows:

B 424,27  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the.degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this

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subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                            Metric units kg/Mwh	
TSS                            0.032             0.016
pH                       Within the range 6.0 to 9.0

                            English units Ib/Mwfa	
TSS                            0.071             0.035
pH                       Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
  Provided,   however,  that  for  nonelectric  furnace
smelting processes, the units of  effluent  limitations
set  forth  in this section shall be read as "kg/kJcg of
product" rather  than  Mkg/Mwh,"  and  the  limitations
(except  for pH) shall be 3.3 times those listed in the
table in this section (or, for English  units,  "Ib/ton
of  product"  rather than "Ib/Mwh," and the limitations
(except for pH) shall be three times  those  listed  in
the table).

5.   Section 424.33 of the Slag Processing  Subcategory
     is proposed to be amended as follows:

3 424.33  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days

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characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                                  Metric units
                                jcg/kkg processed	
Chromium total                 .0054             .0027
Manganese total                .054              .027

                                  English units Ib/ton
                            	of raw material
Chromium total                 .011              .0054
Manganese total                ,108              .054
6.   A new  Section  424.37  for  the  Slag  Processing
     Subcategory is added as follows:

S 424.37  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
char act er i st i c s             	    shall not exceed

                            Metric units
TSS                            0.271             0.136
pH                       Within the range 6.0 to 9.0

                            English units Ib/Mwh	
TSS                            0.542             0.271
pH                       Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
7.   Section 424,43  of  the  Covered  Calcium  Carbide
 ģ   Furnaces  with  Wet  Air Pollution Control Devices
     Subcategory is proposed to be amended as follows:
                           66

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S 424.43  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                (Metric units)  kg/kkg of product
Total Cyanide                  0.0056            0.0028
              (English units)  lb/1000 Ib of product
Total Cyanide                  0.0056            0.0028
8.   A new Section 424.57 for the Other Calcium Carbide
     Furnaces Subcategory is added as follows:

e 424.57  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the.  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality  of  pollutants  or pollutant properties, which
may be discharged by a  point  source  subject  to  the
provisions  of  this  subpart  after application of the
best conventional pollutant control  technology:  There
shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants
to navigable waters.

9.   section  424.63  of  the  Electrolytic  Manganese
     Products  Subcategory is proposed to be amended as
     follows:

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8 424.63  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  (a)   The following limitations establish the quantity
or  quality  of  pollutants  or  pollutant  properties,
controlled  by this section, which may be discharged by
a point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of  this
subpart    producing   electrolytic   manganese   after
application   of   the   best   available    technology
economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                       (Metric units)  Jcg/Jckg of product
Manganese                      0.678             0.339
Ammonia-N                      6.778             3.389
                    (English units) lb/1000 Ib of product
Manganese                      0.678             0.339
Ammonia-N                      6.778             3.389
   (b)  The following limitations establish the quantity
or  quality  of  pollutants  or  pollutant  properties,
controlled  by this section, which may be discharged by
a point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of  this
subpart  producing electrolytic manganese dioxide after
application   of   the   best   available    technology
economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                      (Metric units)  kg/kkg of product
                           68

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Manganese                      0.176             0.088
Anunonia-N                      1.762             0.881
                    (English units) lb/1000 Ib of product
Manganese                      0.176             0.088
Ammonia-N                      1.762             0.881
10.  Section  424.73  of  the   Electrolytic   Chromium
     Subcategory is proposed to be amended as follows:

8 424.73  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                       (Metric units)  kg/klcg of product
Manganese                      0.530             0.265
Chrominum                      0.053             0.027
Ammonia-N                      5.297             2.649
                    (English units) lb/1000 Ib of product
Manganese                      0.530             0.265
Chrominum                      0.053             0.027
Ammonia-N                      5.297             2.649
11.  The  new  sections  listed  below  are  added   as
     follows:

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  Effluent.   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart. after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
Effluent
characteristic        Effluent limitations

pH                 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
Subcategory                          Section Designation
  Covered Calcium Carbide
     Furnaces with Wet Air
     Pollution Control Devices
  Electrolytic Manganese Products          424.67
  Electrolytic Chromium                    424.77

40   CFR   Subchap-ter   N   Part.   426  for  the  Glass
Manufacturing Point Source Category is proposed  to  be
amended as follows :

1.   The sections listed below are added as follows:

  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  representing   the
degree   of   effluent   reduction  attainable  by  the
application of the best conventional pollutant  control
technology.

  The  following  limitations establish the quantity or
quality of pollutants or  pollutant  properties,  which
may  be  discharged  by  a  point source subject to the
provisions of this subpart  after  application  of  the
best  conventional  pollutant control technology: There
shall be no discharge of process waste -water pollutants
to navigable waters.

     Subcategory                           Section Designation

  Insulation Fiberglass              40 CFR 426.17
  Sheet Glass                               426.27
  Rolled Glass Manufacturing                426.37
                           70

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2.(a)   section 426.43 of the Plate Glass  Manufacturing
     Subcategory  is redesignated as Section 426.47 and
     the original section number  reserved  for  future
     use.

  (b)   The title and first  paragraph  of  the  section
redesignated above is amended to read as follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The.following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
3.   The regulations listed below are withdrawn and the
     section numbers reserved for future use.

     Subcateqorv                           Section Designation

  Float Glass Manufacturing                   40 CFR 426.53
  Automotive Glass Tempering                         426.63
  Automotive Glass Laminating     .                   426.73
  Glass Container Manufacturing                      426.83
  Glass Tubing (Banner)  Manufacturing                426.103

4.   The regulations listed below are added as follows:

  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  representing   the
degree   of   effluent   reduction  attainable  by  the
application of the best conventional pollutant  control
technology.

  The  following  limitations establish the quantity or
quality  of   pollutants   or   pollutant   properties,
controlled  by this section, which may be discharged by
a point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of  this
subpart  after  application  of  the  best conventional
pollutant control technology.

  Effluent                        Effluent
  Characteristic                  Limitation

     pH               Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
                            71

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     Subcategory                           Sec-tlon Designation

  Float Glass Manufacturing                   40 CFR 426.57
  Automotive Glass Tempering                         426.67
  Automotive Glass Laminating                        426.77
  Glass container Manufacturing                      426.87
  Glass Tuiiing  (Danner) Manufacturing                426.107
  Television Picture Tube                            426.117
   Envelope Manufacturing
  Incandescent Lamp                                  426.127
   Envelope Manufacturing
  Hand Pressed and Blown                             426.137
   Glass Manufacturing

5.   Section 426.113 of  the  Television  Picture  Tube
     Envelope  Manufacturing Subcategory is proposed to
     be amended as follows:

a 426.113 Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology  economically achievable.  These limitations
are applicable  to  the  abrasive  polishing  and  acid
polishing waste water streams.


                               Effluent limitations	___
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	'      shall not exceed

                       (Metric units)  g/kkg of furnace pull
Fluoride
Lead
120.0
0.9
60.0
0.45
              (English units)  lb/1000 Ib of furnace pull
Fluoride                       0.12              0.06
Lead                           0.0009            0.00045
                              72

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6.   Section 426.123 of the Incandescent Lamp  Envelope
     Manufacturing   Subcategory   is  proposed  to  be
     amended as follows:

8 426.123 Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
  (a)   Any    manufacturing    plant    which    frosts
incandescent  lamp  envelopes  shall meet the following
limitations with regard to the finishing operations.
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

              (Metric units)  g/kkg of product frosted
Fluoride                       104.0             52.0
Ammonia                        240.0            120.0
           (English units) lb/1000 Ib of product frosted
Fluoride                       0.104             0.052
Ammonia                        0.24              0.12
7.   Section 426.133 of  the  Hand  Pressed  and  Blown
     Glass  Manufacturing Subcategory is proposed to be
     amended as follows:

8 426.133 Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.
                          73

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  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
  (a)  Any plant which melts  raw  materials,  produces
hand  pressed  or  blown  leaded  glassware, discharges
greater than 50 gallons per day of process waste water,
and  employs  hydrofluoric  acid  finishing  techniques
shall meet the following limitations.
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characters sties             	    shall not exceed

                               mg/1
Lead
Fluoride
0.2
26.0
0.1
13.0
  (b)  Any plant which melts  raw  materials,  produces
non-leaded  hand pressed or blown glassware, discharges
greater than 50 gallons per day of process waste water,
and  employs  hydrofluoric  acid  finishing  techniques
shall meet the following limitations.
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                               mg/1

Fluoride26.013.0
40   CFR   Subchapter  N  Part  427  for  the  Asbestos
Manufacturing Point Source Category is proposed  to  be
amended as follows:

1.   Section 427.93 of the Solvent Recovery Subcategory
     is amended to read as follows:

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8 427.93  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The.following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties/
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable.
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

        (Metric units) kg/kkg of finished asbestos products
COD                            0.30                 0.15
TSS                            0.18                 0.09
  (English units) lb/1,000 Ib of finished asbestos products

COD                            0.30                 0"7T5
TSS                            0.18                 0.09
2.   A new section  427.97  is  added  to  the  solvent
     Recovery Subcategory as reads below:

B 427.97  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
Effluent
characteristic        Effluent limitations
                          75

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pH                 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0.


10  CFR  subchapter ' N  Part  432 for the Meat Products
Point Source Category is  proposed  to  be  amended  as
follows:

1.   The sections listed below are suspended.

     Subcategory                        Section Designation

  Simple Slaughterhouse                    40 CFR 432.13
  Complex Slaughterhouse                         . 432.23
  Low Processing Packinghouse                     432.33
  High Processing Packinghouse                    432.43

2.   The  new  sections  listed  below  are  added^   as
     follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  (a)  The following limitations establish the quantity
or  quality  of  pollutants  or  pollutant  properties,
controlled  by this section and attributable to on-site
slaughter or  subsequent  meat,  meat  product  or  by-
product  processing of carcasses of animals slaughtered
on-site, which may be  discharged  by  a  point  source
subject   to  the  provisions  of  this  subpart  after
application of the best conventional pollutant  control
technology.
Effluent
characteristic           Effluent limitations

Fecal coliform        Maximum at any time 400 mpn/100 ml.
pH                    Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0.
     Subcateqory               Section Designation

  Simple Slaughterhouse                 432.17
  Complex Slaughterhouse                432.27
  Low Processing Packinghouse           432.37
  High Processing Packinghouse          432.47

3. (a)  Section   432.53   of   the   Small    Processor
     Subcategory  is redesignated as Section 432.57 and

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     the original section numbers reserved  for  future
     use.

  (b)   The title and first  paragraph  of  the  section
redesignated above is amended to read as follows:

  Effluent   limitations  guidelines  representing  the
degree  of  effluent  reduction   attainable   by   the
application  of the best conventional pollutant control
technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or  . pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology.
4.   Section 432.63 of the Meat Cutter  Subcategory  is
     proposed to be amended as follows:

S 432.63  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics               _.	    shall not exceed

	Milligrams per liter—effluent	

Ammonia                  8.0 mg/1                   4.0
5.   A  new  Section  432.67  for   the   Meat   Cutter
     Subcategory is added as follows:
                           77

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8 432.67  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
Effluent
characteristics
                            Maximum for
                            any 1 day
                  Average of daily
                  values for 30
                  consecutive days
                  shall not exceed
                (Metric units) kg/kkg of finished product
BOD5
TSS
Oil & grease
0.018
0.024
0.012
0.009
0.012
0.006
           (English units) lb/1,000 Ib of finished product
BODS
TSS
Oil & grease
0.018
0.024
0.012
0.009
0.012
0.006
pH
Fecal coliforms
Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
Maximum at any time 400 mpn/100 ml.
6.   Section 432.73 of the sausage and  Luncheon  Meats
     Processor Subcategory is proposed to be amended as
     follows:

S 432.73  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
                           78

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a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

	Milligrams per liter—effluent	

Ammonia                  8.0 mg/1                   4.0
7.   A new Section 432.77 for the Sausage and  Luncheon
     Meats Processor Subcategory is added as follows:

8 432.77  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the. degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values.for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

                (Metric units)  kg/kkg of finished product
BODS
TSS
Oil & grease
0.28
0.38
0.20
0.14
0.19
0.10
           (English units)  lb/1,000 Ib of finished product

__                           Q.28              0.14
TSS                            0.38              0.19
Oil & grease                   0.20              0.10
                           79

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pH                       Within the range 6,0 to 9.0
Fecal coliforms          Maximum at any time 400 mpn/100 ml.
8.   Section 432.83 of the Ham Processor Subcategory is
     proposed to be amended as follows:

8 432.83  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the   best   available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                            any 1 day      values for 30
Effluent                                   consecutive days
characteristics             	    shall not exceed

	Milligrams jper liter—effluent	

Ammonia                  8.0 mg/1                   4.0
9.   A  new  Section  432.87  for  the  Ham   Processor
     Subcategory is added as follows:

S 432.87  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
                            Maximum for    Average of daily
                           80

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Effluent
characteristics
                            any 1 day
                  values for 30
                  consecutive days
                  shall not exceed
                (Metric units)  kg/kkg of finished product
BODS
TSS
Oil & grease
0.32
0.42
0.22
0.16
0.21
0.11
           (English units) lb/1,000 Ib of finished product
BOD5
TSS
Oil & grease
      0.32
      0.42
      0.22
0.16
0.21
0.11
PH
Fecal coliforms
WithLn the range 6.0 to 9.0
Maximum at any time 400 mpn/100 ml.
10.  Section  432.93  of  the  Canned  Meats  Processor
     Subcategory is proposed to be amended as follows:

S 432.93  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the.degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application   of  the  best  available  technology
     economically achievable.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart  after  application  of  the.   best   available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
Effluent
characteristics
                            Maximum for
                            any 1 day
                  Average of daily
                  values for 30
                  consecutive days
                  shall not exceed
                      Milligrams per liter—effluent
Ammonia
8.0 mg/1
   4.0
                          81

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11.  A  new  Section  432.97  for  the   Canned
     Processor Subcategory is added as follows:
                         Meats
B 432.97  Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  The following limitations establish the  quantity  or
quality   of   pollutants   or   pollutant  properties,
controlled by this section, which may be discharged  by
a  point  source  subject  to  the  provisions  of this
subpart after  application  of  the  best  conventional
pollutant control technology:
                               Effluent limitations
Effluent
characteristics
                            Maximum for
                            any 1 day
                  Average of daily
                  values for 30
                  consecutive days,
                  shall not exceed
                 (Metric units)  kg/kkg of finished product
BODS
TSS
Oil & grease
0.34
0.44
0.26
0.17
0.22
0.13
          (English units)  lb/1,000 Ib of finished product
BOD5
TSS~
Oil 5 grease
      0.34
      0.44
      0.26
0.13
0.22
0.13
pH
Fecal coliforms
Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
Maximum at any time 400 mpn/100 ml.
12.  Section 432.103 of  the  Renderer
     proposed to be amended as follows:
               Subcategory  is
8 432.103 Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the  degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  available   technology
     economically achievable.
                           82

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  (a)  Subject to the provisions of  paragraph  (b)  of
this  section,  the following limitations establish the
quantity  or  quality  of   pollutants   or   pollutant
properties,  controlled  by  this section, which may be
discharged by a point source subject to the  provisions
of this subpart after application of the best available
technology economically achievable:
                               Effluent limitations
Effluent
characteristics
                            Maximum for
                            any 1 day
                  Average of daily
                  values for 30
                  consecutive days
                  shall not exceed
                 (Metric units) kq/kqq of raw material
Ammonia
0.04 mg/1
   0.02
                                  English units lb/1,000 Ib
                                     of raw material
Ammonia
      0.04
0.02
13.  A new Section 432.107 for the Renderer Subcategory
     is added as follows:

8 432.107 Effluent limitations guidelines  representing
     the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the
     application  of  the  best  conventional pollutant
     control technology.

  (a)  Subject to the provisions of  paragraph  (b)  of
this  section,  the following limitations establish the
quantity  or  quality  of   pollutants   or   pollutant
properties,  controlled  by  this section, which may be
discharged by a point source subject to the  provisions
of   this   subpart   after  application  of  the  best
conventional  pollutant control technology:        '      -; :
                               Effluent limitations
Effluent
character!sties
                            Maximum for
                            any 1 day
                  Average of daily
                  values for 30
                  consecutive days
                  shall not exceed
                 (Metric units) kg/kkg of finished product
                           83

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BOD5_
TSS
Oil & grease
PH
Fecal conforms
      0.14              0.07
      0.20              0,10
      0.10              0.05
Within -the range 6.0 to 9.0
Maximum at any time 400 mpn/100 ml.
           (English units) lb/1,000 Ib of finished product
BODS
TSS"
Oil & grease
PH
Fecal coliforms
      0.14              0.07
      0.20              0.10
      0.10              0.05
Within the range 6.0 to 9.0
Maximum at any time 400 mpn/100 ml.
   (b)  The limitations given in paragraph  (a)  of  this
section  for  BOD5  and  TSS are derived for a renderer
which does no cattle hide curing as part of  the  plant
activities.   If  a  renderer does conduct hide curing,
the following empirical  formulas  should  be  used  to
derive   an   additive   adjustment   to  the  effluent
limitations for BOD_5 and TSS.

BOD5 Adjustment (kg/kkg RM) = 3.6 x (number of hides)
   ~"                           kg of raw material
           (lb/1,000 Ib RM)  = 7.9 x  (number of hides)
TSS Adjustment  (kg/kkg RM)
      Ibs of raw material

     6.2 x (number of hides)
      kg of raw material
           (lb/1,000 Ib RM)  =
     13.6x (number of hides)
      Ibs of raw material

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                          APPENDIX  A
                OCCUf'EKTS USED  II1 THE  ANALYSIS
The data for each of the  industry categories  '..ere  taken  fron the
documents listed below.

1.  Dairy Products
    Dairy Products Processing    EPA   44C/l-74-C21-a

2.  Grain Mills
    Grain Processing              EPA  440/1 -74- 028 -a
    Animal Feed, Breakfast Cereal
       and Wheat Starch           EPA   440/1-74/032-a
    Corn V.'et .-lilling              EPA  440/l-78/02H-b
                                   Supplement

3.  Fruits and Vegetables  •
    Apple, Citrus' and Potato Products   EPA 440/1-74-027-a
    Economic Analysis of the Fruits
       and Vegetables Cateyory  (Phase II)  EPA  230/1-75-036
                                   Supplement  II
                                   .-larch,  1977

4.  Seafood
    Fish Meal , Salmon, Sot ton Fish
       Clam, Oyster, Sardine, Scallop,
       Herring, and Abalone        EPA 44Q/l-75/041-a

5.  Sugar Processjng
    Beet Sugar Processing     .    EPA 
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10.  Glass Manufacturing

     Pressed and Blov/n Glass
     Flat Glass
     Insulation Fiberglass

11.  Meat Products

     Red Meat Processing
     Processor
     Independent Rendering
EPA 440/1-75-034-a
EPA 440/1-74-OQl-c
EPA 440/1-74-001-b
EPA 440/1-74-012-a
EPA 440/1-74/031
EPA 440/1-77/031-e
  Supplement
                            86

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                        APPENDIX B
                        '.ETKODCLOGY

     One of the require!,tents that must be net in issuing a 3CT
effluent regulation is that it must meet the test of reasonaoleness.
The Agency is proposing to judge reasonableness by the following
Methodology.  The test has two basic elements:
(1)  Compare the incremental costs of removal of conventional
     pollutants for an industrial discharger with removal costs
     at a model POTV.'; and if industrial costs are less than
     those at a POT1--;, the regulation is judged reasonable.
(2)  inhere the incremental costs for the industrial discharger exceed
     those at the model PQTV;', the concentrations of the conventional
     pollutant(s) are compared to concentration levels required
     of POT.j's and if the industrial concentrations significantly
     exceed the POTVJ concentrations the requlation is judged
     reasonable.
The major concern is how the costs of POTV-'s and industrial
subcategories are developed.  A methodology is developed belo1.:
that allows the Agency to make an appropriate comparison of
these costs.
     Incremental Costs:  Economic theory supports the comparison
of marginal costs to obtain an optimal utilization of resources.
Society, if in economic equilibrium, will have best allocated
                           37

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its resources to obtain some level of pollution control where
the marginal cost of removing a specified pollutant is the same
wherever it is being removed.  Based on the premise set forth
by Congress that the current level of pollutant removal by POTWs
is reasonable, the marginal cost of removal is reasonable.
Thus, it is the marginal costs of industrial and municipal treatment
that are compared, i.e., at the. margin what is the cost to remove
an additional pound of pollutant to meet secondary POTW or BCT
requirements? Obtaining accurate estimates of marginal costs
can be difficult and is usually approximated by the use of increments.

     Estimation of the incremental costs for industry is relatively
straightforward, since the increment between BPT and BAT (and
in the future, BCT) is well-defined. The incremental cost of
conventional pollutant removal by industry is calculated by
dividing the additional total annual expense incurred to increase
treatment from BPT to BAT/BCT by the additional mass of conventional
pollutants removed.
     Determination of the incremental cost for POTWs is more difficult,
although the concept is similar.  For larger POTK's (1 mgd and
over), the additional cost to upgrade an activated sludge
system that just meets secondary treatment requirements to an
activated sludge system that has slightly longer retention time
and can exceed secondary requirements is divided by the additional
quantity of conventional pollutants removed.  This represents

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as accurate a marginal cost as can be calculated with publicly
available data. For other POTVls (less than 1 mgd) the incremental
cost is calculated for upgrading a facultative lagoon to a package
treatment system. These two systems are more commonly used for small
POTWs and represent normal costs for those sizes.
     Handling Various Combinations of Conventional Pollutants:
The methodology for judging reasonableness compares the incremental
cost of removal of conventional pollutants by an industrial source
to the incremental cost of removal of conventional pollutants
by a POTVI of similar flow. The" conventional pollutants listed
in the Act are suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, pH,
and fecal coliform, with the addition to the list of oil and grease,
chemical oxygen demand, and total phosphorus imminent. These
pollutants (except pH and coliform) fall into three sometimes
overlapping categories, namely, solids, oxygen demanding substances,
or nutrients, normal  secondary municipal treatment is designed
to remove oxygen demand and solids.  Oil and grease and chemical
oxygen demand measure a pollutant problem somewhat different
than biological oxygen demand, but in essence their removal
still has the same effect on the nation's waterways, that is,
to lessen oxygen demanding substances.
     Based on this rationale, the comparison of incremental indus-
trial costs of removal with incremental POTVI costs of removal only
considers biological  oxygen demand and suspended solids.  Adding
BCD and TSS together is based on the premise that 300 and TSS
                           89

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are reinoved jointly in a POT.-J.  3y weighting BOD and TSS equally



means that the cost of municipal treatment is being allocated



equally to each pound of 300 or TSS being removed by the POTW.



If BOO is not regulated in a particular industry either COD



or oil and grease, if regulated, will be used to represent the



oxygen demanding characteristics of the industrial wastestream.



The removal of phosphorus from a wastestream can be handled



in a somewhat different manner, since its removal at a POTW



is primarily performed by a treatment technology separate from



normal secondary treatment.  Thus, phosphorus removal at a model



POTW can be estimated independently of the other pollutants.
                                                                  •


     The POTW comparison number is calculated by dividing the



additional cost of upgrading a POT'/J by the additional removal of



conventional pollutants, where the sum of the pounds of BOD and



TSS removed is used to represent the removal of conventional



pollutants.  By considering an activated sludge POTW and another



somewhat better (longer retention time) activated sludge POTW, the



difference in cost and removal of pollutants can be estimated.



     The incremental cost of conventional pollutant removal by in-



dustry is calculated by dividing the additional total annual expense



incurred when going to BAT/3CT froi.i BPT by the additional pounds



of BOD and TSS removed.  This yields an incremental cost that



is directly comparable to the incremental cost number developed



for PQTVi's.  A problem arises in the industrial calculation when



sither 300 or TSS is not regulated (and therefore no acceptable
                           90

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calculation for its removal is possible).   In these cases the



concept of conventional pollutants is used, since solids



and oxyjen denami aro of primary interest.  If uOH is not



re
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technology for total phosphorus removal can oe  isolated fron
the other costs. Tr,2 industrial incremental cost of total phosphorus
removal is then compared to the cost of rer.icval by a P°T.;.  If
tl'.e cost of removal by industry is the sare or  lov;er than at
a model POT'.j, the regulation control! irvj total  phosphorus is juiced
to be reasonable. In those instances for which  the cost of  total
phosphorus removal can not be  isolated from the other treatment
costs incurred by industry, all costs of treatment are allocated
to the other conventional pollutants and no specific comparison
of total phospiiorus removal costs is made.
     It is clear that the approach for testing  the reasonableness
of the total phosphorus-.regulations is somevhat different than
for the other conventional pollutants.  The reasonableness
test for total phosphorus requires costs for an identifiable
treatment for total phosphorus to be isolated from the treatment
costs for other pollutants.  For POTV.'s alum addition is considered
to treat specifically for phosphorus and thus,  all the additional
costs for alum addition beyond normal secondary treatment can be
allocated to total phosphorus  removal.  For industrial dischargers
it is often much more difficult to allocate the costs of their more
complex treatment systems, making cost comparisons difficult.  Due
to these particular problems,  the Agency solicits your connents
on the methodology for testinu the reasonableness 'of total  phos-
phorus regulations.  If your comments include alternative method -
olo-jies be sure to include any documentation, data usad, and

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sample calculations.



     The remaining two conventional pollutants, pi!  and  fecal  coli-



forri are not being considered -in the reasonaoleness test.  For



industries uncier review pf-i and fecal colifom  regulations  H.o  not



change from i3?T to F.CT/SAT.



    Flow Basis for Comparison: The incremental cost of  pollutant  re-



moval by industrial dischargers is estimated based on model plants



that were used in the devclopnent of the regulations. These node!



plants v/ere often based on various production  levels and flows



in order to represent a range of plants affected by the regulations.



The incremental cost estimated for each of the models varies



significantly depending on the flow. Since various flo>.- size



models are used for the estimation of the industrial cost



of removal, it is necessary to consider POTVIs  of various flows



in order to ensure comparability of the. incremental costs.



Thus, this methodology compares the costs of removal based



on industrial  systems and PfJP.'s of the sane flow size.



     Concentration Test:  In those cases in v.'hich a regulation  is



judged unreasonable based on the POP.-- comparison test, a second



test compares the concentration of COD and TSS in the effluent



of a POT:) at secondary treatment with the concentration of conven-



tional pollutants fron an industrial source after RAT/BCT  is  in place.



This concentration test is a i,eans to check the absolute level  of



performance of an industrial system with that  of a municipal  system.



If the industry pollutant concentrations exceed those at a POP..',
                            93

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the Agency weighs this higher concentration against the magnitude
by which the PUTVJ cost criteria was surpassed.   If the concentration
is significantly higher than at a PQTV! and the PGTVJ cost test was
not failed by a great margin, the Agency judges the regulation
reasonable.

-------
         Conventional Pollutants  to  be  Include'} in the
          Industrial Cost of  Pollutant  Ranoval
Pollutants bairvj          Pollutants to be Included*
requl atari	       SOD        T3?CT       COD
300                     x
TSS                                x
U&G                                         x
CGC                                                   x
IJOD, TSS                x          x
30Q, ()ŖC
•P.OU-, CGO                x
TSS, can                           x         x
TSS, COO   '                        x                   x
car,, COD                                              x
C03, TSS, 0:.G           x          x
BOG, TSS, COD           x          x
OCu, QiG, CdC           x
TSS, OAG, CC?.                      x                   x
BOO, TSS, Otn, COD      x          x
* Total phosphorus is beimj analyzed separately.
                           95

-------
                       APPEiiDIX  C
  T:IE COST OF POLLUTANT RE: OVAL  BY  PUBLICLY  O'-TEO TREAT :E;:T '-.'

     Background: As part of determining the  reasonableness  of
regulations for conventional  pollutants,  Congress suggested
that the Agency conpare the cost to  remove pollutants  by
publicly owned treatment v;orks  (POTVs) with  the  cost  of
removing pollutants by industrial dischargers.  The follo1,;-
in-j material presents estimates  of  these  costs  for various
types of POTvJs. The PQTU reasonableness criteria is baser!
on the incremental cost of removal  of conventional pollutants.
In order to estimate these incremental removal costs,
the total  annual cost and the total pollutant  removal
of POTWs must be estimated. Trie  incremental  costs are  then
calculated by considering tv/o different types of treatment
systems that achieve a slightly  different removal  of
pollutants.  The PQTV.! incremental costs ars  developed
bslcw in three steps. First the  annual costs for municipal
systems are astinated, and second the pollutant  removal
of the systems is calculated. The third step combines
the cost and removal estimates to develop the incremental
costs of pollutant removal.
    Total Annual POT..' Costs:  The cost estimates are  based
primarily on public documents issued by the  Agency.
All cost estimates i.itiy be adjusted  by use of the sewage
treatment plant construction  cost index as present?d  below.
                           96

-------
Date
"3776
6/76
9/76
12/76
1976
3/77
7/77
9/77
Cost Index
256.7
259.6
262.5
270.3
262.2
270.9
273.8
281.0
     The capital costs for a POTW are annualized by the appli-
cation of a capital recovery factor. The capital costs arc
annualized on the basis of 30 years at 10 percent interest
(divide by 9.427) for activated sludge systems, 50 years at
10 percent interest (divide by 9.915) for lagoons, -and 9 years
at 10 percent interest (divide by 5.759) for contact stabilization
package plants. Three primary sources of information were used
in developing the POTW costs. Each one of the reference sources
uses slightly different techniques and assumptions to obtain
the final cost, so each reference is discussed below.  In each
case, however, whenever cost estimates are made for an activated
sludge system a custom engineered and fabricated unit is being
considered and whenever cost estimates are made for a contact
stabilization system a package unit is being considered.
     The "Areawide Assessment Procedures Manual, Appendix H, Point
Source Control Alternatives" is compiled by the EPA Laboratory
in Cincinnati,Ohio. The cost curves used from this reference
include the equipment, labor, and miscellaneous structures needed
to build the treatment system. For facultative lagoons though,
the additional cost of the necessary miscellaneous structures
must be added to the equipment costs. The cost of miscellaneous
                           97

-------
structures for facultative lagoons are estimated to be 50°'. of

those presented in this reference, since smaller treatment

systems cio not require a full cor:pler,:ant of Miscellaneous

structures.  To these construction costs nust be added the cost

of site preparation, piping, electrical work, engineering

supervision, and contingency costs which adds an additional

36.4 percent to the equipment costs. The operating and maintenance

costs were taken directly froi;: the operating and maintenance

cost tables provided for each type of treatment systen. The

costs in this reference are in September 1976 dollars and are

presented in Table Cl and C2.

                       TABLE Cl

             COSTS OF MUNICIPAL TREATMENT
         (Based on Areawide Assessment Manual)
              In Millions of 9/76 dollars
Treat-
nent
Systen

activated
sludije

1
20
activated
sludge
plus
phosphorus 1
renoval 20
Contact
Stabil-
ization
(package
system)
Fl ow
rcgd


.10
.25
.50
.00
.00
.10
.25
.50
.00
.00
.1
.15
.25
. 50
1 .0"
, Equip-
nent
Cost

.'i?o
.700
.240
1.250
o .000
.530
.780
1.050
1.50C
1G.OOO
1 on
. 4. i.' '
.150
.ICO
.250
.320
Other
Construc-
tion
Cost
.178
.255
*? 1 O
• w*r4_
.455
3.276 1
.193
.284
.382
.546
3.640 1
.Odd
.055
.055
.001
.lib-
Total
Capitol
Cost

• 66S
ncr;
. ./ -j j
1.2P.2
1.705
2.275
.723
1.064
1.432
2.0'! 6
3.640
.164
.205
.246
.3^1
.436
Annual-
ized
Capital
Cost
.071
.101
• I _*C
.131
1.302
.077
.113
.152
.217
1.^47
rģio
• 1-u'J
.036
nj ?
• . *
^Ģn
1"76
o^;-;



.060
.073
.092
i -?n
. i ^ *• '
'•>Tn
.U/ u
.062
.07f!
.105
.150
1.20C
01 i
• • •' — i
.IT Ģ
. o i -J
fl^l
*L' L. J.
f\~ 1
.'1^-
'• in
Total
Annual
Cost

.131
.174
ion
• Ŗ.Ŗ.'ģĢ
.311
2.172
.139
.191
.257
.3G7
2.647
.042
.052
.004
.002
.125

-------
                           T i> o i
                           I Mu
                COST !)F  FACULTATIVE LAGOO.'IS
           (based on .;'rea',:ide  Assessment i-anual)
                In ml lions  of ')/7fi dollars
Flow,
.10
.15
.25
.50
1 .00
Equip-
nent
Cost
.078
.110
.150
.250
.410
Msc.
Struc-
ures
Cost
.014
.015
.019
.025
.035
Other
Construc-
tion
Cost
.033
.046
.062
.100
.152
Total
Capital
Cost
.125
.172
• t. -J 1
.375
.607
Annual -
ized
Capital
Cost
.013
.017
.023
.C30
.061
Total
Cost
.012
.013
.014
.017
.021
Total
Annual
Cost
..°25
.030
.037
.055
.032
     The "Technical Policy  and  Procedures 1973 Survey of ?'ceds for

Publicly Owned l.'astewater Facilities" is another source from  which
                                                           \
                                                           •
cost estimates are obtained.  The  cost curves in this reference in-

clude all the capital costs related to construction.  The operating

and maintenance costs are estimated as 10 percent of the capital

cost and are added to the annualized capital  costs to obtain

the total annual cost.   Tie costs  in this reference are in

January l'}7" dollars.   Tine  cost estimates obtained by usiriM this

reference are presented  in  Taole C3.

                          TAwLE C3
                fO^TS DF  'T'iTfTPAl  TT^T' P'T
                uv.wiw w r  'viiivnirf'i^  11 \ Lģ j v i • c •>
                (based on  the  Survey of deeds)
                In millions of  1/73 dollars
            Total
Annualized   Total
Treatment
System
activated
Flow,
.05
.1C
Capital
Cost
.175
Capital
Ccst
!(:io
.035
Operating
"ain,tenar,ce
S
Annual
Cost
!o37
• i Ov >
                          99

-------

-------
                           1  "?7fl          1 o.
                           I ģ J / U         •I'T
                1  M'l        o ^r~'l          *^7O          O *~ ~           C ^ C
                I ,\-0        u.OC'J         .Ŗ/<)         .iOS          ,b<_ ;


     "An Analysis  of  Construction Cost Experience for 'vaste'-vater
Treati sent Plant" dated  February 1^77 is printed by the  •"•ii

Construction Division at  EPA.   Tne cost curves are used  to

estimate the capital cost of a POT.!.  The operating and  maintenance

costs are estinated as  10 percent of the capital cost and arc.1

added to the annual i zed capital costs to obtain the total annual

cost.  Tne cost estii-iates presented in this reference are in

September 1376 dollars  basĢd on the suv;aue treatment plant  index

of 262.  Tne cost estimates  obtained by using tin's reference are

presented in Table  C4.



                           TAGLE C4

                    COSTS  OF  !.Uiv:iCIPAL TFiEATXEilT
          (based on an  Analysis of Construction Cost Experience:)
                    in Millions of 9/76 dollars
Treatnent
System
activated
sludye





activated
sludge
Flow,
.01
,10
.15
.25
1.00
2.00
3. no
13.00
.01
'.10
Total
Capital
Cost
.'ģ..' D 1
.330
.450
.700
2.150
3.750
5.2CO
22.750
.OG1
.3nO
Annual ized
Capital
Cost
.005
.035
.049
.074
.220
.390
.552
2. '113
.006
.041
Oi" * '
Cost
.f'OS
.003
.046
.070
.215
.375
.523
9 1JC.
_ .<_/ J
.(.'Ofi
.039
Total
Annual
Cost
.010
.033
.095
.1 '14
.443
.773
1 .072
4.5G8
.012
.020
                            100

-------
with .15 .550 .058
additional .25 .320 .087
retention 1.00 2.500 .265
2.00 4.425 .469
3.00 6.200 .658
18.00 27.250 2.391
Pollution Removal by POTWs: The
. .055
.082
.250
.443
.620
2.725
conventional
.113
.169
.515
.912
1.278
5.516
pollut
under consideration are biological oxygen demand, suspended
solids, pH, fecal coliform, chemical oxygen demand, oil and
grease, and total phosphorus.  ivost municipal  treatment systems
remove or can be designed to remove these pollutants. Of these
pollutants the removal of biological oxygen demand, suspended
solids, and total phosphorus have been estimated, since the
remaining conventional pollutants are not being directly
considered in the POTW reasonableness criteria.  The removal
rate of a pollutant equals the flow of the POTVj times the
change in concentration of the pollutant as it passes through
the system.  For the calculations presented here the influent
concentration is 210 mg/1 for biological oxygen demand, 230
mg/1 for suspended solids, and 11 ng/1  for total  phosphorus
all based on the "Areawide Assessment Manual."  Thus for a 1 ngd
POTVi that treats biological oxygen demand to 25 mg/1 and suspended
solids to 25 mg/1 the calculation for removal  is: Flow X change
in concentration = (1 million gallons/day) X ((210 + 230) -
25 +25)) mg/1 =  (1 million gallons/day) X (390 mg/1) = (1
million gallons/day) X (390 ng/1) X (365 days/ year X 3.785
I/gallon X pounri/454,000 mg) = 1 mgd X 390 ng/1 X .00304 = 1.136
                           101

-------
nil lion pounds of BCD and TSS removed per y.ear.



     Removal of BOD and TSS is presented in Table C5 for several



different levels of treatment.



                             TABLE C5



                 REMOVAL OF BOD AND TSS BY POTWS
Effluent
Concen-
tration
mg/1 of
300 Plus TSS
90 (lagoon)





50 (activated
sludge or
contact
stabilization)




24 (activated
sludge with
additional
retention)



Influent
Concen-
tration
mg/1 of
BOD Plus TSS
440





440







440






Change in
Concen-
tration
mg/1 of
BOD Plus TSS
350

, -



390







416






Flow
mgd



.01
.10
as
.25
.50
1.00
.01
.10
.15
.25
1.00
2.00
3.00
18.00
.01
.10
.15
.25
1.00
2.00
3.00
Removal ,
nil lion
pounds
BOD Plus
TSS
.01064
.1064
.1596
.2660
.5320
1.064
.01186
.1186
.1778
.2964
1.186
2.371
3.557
21.35
.01265
.1265
.1897
.3162
1.265
2.529
3.794
                                                 13.00  22.77





  Removal of total phosphorus is estimated in the same manner as



  for COD and TSS and is presented in Table C6. The removal rates



  are based on the "Areawide Assessment Procedures Manual."
                           H.Q2

-------
                    TAf.LE CG



      P.EI OVAL OF TOTAL PHUSPHCU'JS  -v  PCTl.'S


Treatment
System

activated
slutKje



activated
slud'je
plus alui;:


Effluent
Concen-
tration
nn/1 of P

7



i
c.



Influent
Concen-
tration
mn/l of P

11



11



Chance
in
Concen-
tration

4



9





Fl ow
fTigJ
.10
.25
.50
l.oo
20.cn
1 f*
• i .
.2s
.50
1.00
20.00
removal ,
ini 11 ion
pounds
of P


.001216
.H03040
.OOCOGO
.0121G
.2432
.C02735
.nPGC4f!
.01368 -
.02736
.5472
     Incremental Cost of Renoval:  The comparison  of  r-.unicipal



and industrial costs of pollutant  removal  ars  being  made



on an incremental basis in an attempt to  approximate the manjinal



cost of rci.ioval. Graphically this  is 'Jone ')y plotting the total



cost curve for a POT./ of a given flow versus the  quantity of



pollutant removed, then neasuri.-vj  the slope of the curve for



the quantity of pollutant reroved  that corresponds to secondary



treatment.  To approximate this  n-ar']inal  cost  a snail  incremental



change is used.  The costs are in  September 1175  dollars to



ensure comparability to the industrial costs.



     The primary criteria for selecting the two treatment systems



on '..hich to base an incremental  cost are  that  the tvo systems



provide a srrall difference in removal rates (so it is an approximation



cf a marginal cost), that the tv;o  systems are  similar to
                         103

-------
those used for sewage treatment by municipalities, that both
systems have cost curves in one public reference source (so
that the difference in cost is due to the differences in the
systems, not in variations in cost estimating procedures),
and that the systems are not specifically designed to
remove pollutants other than BOO and TSS (so the additional
costs can accurately be applied to the removal of BOD and
TSS).  Using these four criteria has led to choosing two
different activated sludge treatment systems for flows
of 1 mgd and greater, and choosing a facultative lagoon
and a contact stabilization package system as the treatment
systems providing a basis for an incremental cost of removal
for flows of 1 mgd and less.  The first activated sludge
system achieves an average effluent concentration of 25
mg/1 each for both SOD and TSS, with the second system achieving
an average effluent concentration of 12 mg/1 each for BOD
and TSS through the use of greater retention time.  These
systems are from "An Analysis of Construction Cost Experience
for Wastewater Treatment Plants."  For cities under 10,000
population the Agency makes an additional effort in finding
cost effective methods of treating municipal v/astes.  Often
for these smaller cities the permit requirements are loosened
to allow the city to achieve compliance with the permit
through the use of facultative lagoons. Thus, to approximate
a marginal cost at lower flows the incremental cost of pollutant

-------

-------
 removal  is estimated by going from a facultative lagoon

 achieving a BOD concentration of 30 rng/1  and a TSS

 concentration of 60 ng/1  to a package treatment system

 achieving a BOD and TSS concentration of 25 ng/1 each. These

 systems  are from the "Areawide Assessment Procedures "anual."

 A city of 10,000 population corresponds to a flow of about

 1  million gallons per day, so all  marginal costs for under

 1  niQd presented in Table C7 are based on facultative lagoons

 and package treatment systems. The incremental cost of removal

 for flows of .0.1 ragd to .10 tngd has been estimated by a

linear extrapolation of the cost estimates developed for

 .10 ragd  and .15 r.igd POTWs. This extrapolation was necessary,

 since not all references used included cost estimates for

 .01 rngd  systems. The results are presented in Table C7.

                         TABLE C7

     INCREMENTAL REMOVAL COSTS OF BOD AHD TSS BY POTWS

             Change     Change in
             in Cost,   Removal,
Flow
ngd
.01
.10
.15
.25
.50
1.00
1.00
2.00
3. 00
18.00
mini on
dol lars
._..
.017
.022
.027
.037
.044
.072
.139
.206
.928
million Ibs.
per year
....
.0122
.0182
.0304
.0608
.1220
.079
.158
.237
1.42
Incremental
cost, S/lb.
1.72
1.39
1.21
.89
.61
.36
.91
.83
.87
.65
                          105

-------
     The results of Table  07 <.:ere  plotted on a >j.rapn and connected

by straight lines.  It was then  possi'jl? to find the incremental

removal cost of 300 and TSS by a POT.I  of any flow size.  For

convenience, the incremental costs  for various flows ars presented

in tabular forn in Table C8.


                           TABLE  C3

               INCREMENTAL COST  OF  RE;'.OVI?'fi
                  300 AND  TSS M PUTV.'s
                  (in 9/75 dollars)
Flov;,
in-jd


.01
.02
.03
.04
.05
.21
.22
.23
.24
.25
.41
• TC.
.43
.44
.45
.61
.62
.63
.54
.55
.in
.32
.83
..'H
Incre-
mental
Cost,
5/lb.
1.72
1.68
1.64
1.60
1.53
1.01
.98
.94
no
• -' t.
.89
.70
.69
.60
.57
.66
.56
.55
.54
.54
.53
.45
.45
.44
.44
Flov.1,
;ryjd


.06
.07
.08
.09
.10
.25
.27
.28
.29
.30
.46
.47
.Ģ1P>
.49
.50
.66
.67
.60
.69
.70
.36
*.27
. ,',r,
.39
Incre-
mental
Cost,
3/1 b.
1.54
1.51
1.47
1.43
1.33
on
.00
07
.0 /
.36
.34
.i")2
.65
.64
.63
.62
.61
.53
.53
.52
.52
.51
.43
.4?
.-2
.41
Flov;,
i.'/jd


.11
.12
.13
.14
.15
.31
.32
.3?
.34
.35
.51
.52
.53
.54
.55
.71
.72
.73
,7'-i
.75
.91
. Jc
.93
.9d
Incre-
mental
Cost,
S/lb.
1.35
1.32
1 00
1 • t-C)
1.25
1.20
•31
oO
'.79
.73
.77
.60
.60
.60
.59
.59
.51
.50
.49
•1 -j
.40
.<10
.40
.3°
.39
Flow,
ngd


.16
.17
.13
.19
.20
.36
.37
.3P.
.39
.40
.56
.57
.53
.59
.60
.76
.77
.70
.79
ģw J
.95
1'J7
• — ' j
.'J'J
Incre-
inental
Cost,
3/1 b.
1.17
1.14
1.12
1.03
1.0^
.75
.74
.73
.72
.71
.SB
.58
.57
.57
.56
.^7
.47
.46
A r:
. ~°o
.46
.3'J
.37
.37
•?r
  .85      .4?     ."0     .Ŗ1       ,(15
                            106

-------
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.*
1.5
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
.90
.90
.9C
.90
.Qn
.37
.OR
.86
.86
.86
.3''-
.34
.83
o-?
• u J
o -5
.00
.31
.81
.30
on
.30
.73
.73
.73
.77
.77
l.'i
1.7
l.C
1.9
2.0
3.6
3.7
3.3
3.9
. 4.0
5.6
5.7
r o
J.O
50
• -
6.0
7.5
7.7
7.3
7.9
3.0
9.b
9.7
o Q
^ . o
n Q
in"
.39
.3?
no
• ' .' )
to
*uo
nn
.36
.36
.35
.35
.35
.83
n ~t
.>°3
.33
.32
.30
on
.ou
.30
.30
.3(1
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
5.5
3.1
O • t.
n *j
' ") • w
3.4
3 '.5
n
12
13
14
15
op
. i.O
(111
.Uvj
.87
.37
.37
.35
.35
.35
.35
.35
.32
• o t.
.32
00
• oc.
.32
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.75
.74
.72
.71
.69
L. . J
2.7
? .3
2 '.9
-? n
^< • '^
4.5
4.7
4.3
4.9
5.0
6.6
6.7
6.3
•3.9
7.0
G.6
3.7
C.o
8.9
9.0
16
17
13


.87
.37
.r-;7
.37
.37
.84
n *
• O't
JM
.34
.34
.32
.31
.31
.31
.Cl
.79
.79
.73
.73
.78
.53
.67
.65


     To d2ter?,ine the incremental  rsr.oval  cost  of total  phosphorus,
'lata fron the "Areav/ide Assessi,;ent Procedures "anual" --/as used.
"Pae activated sludge systen achieves  an  effluent concentration
of 7 i;;g/l total phosphorus, whereas,  an  activated sludqe system
with the addition of alun achieves an  effluent  concentration
of 2 r,i'j/l total phosphorus. Usimj  the  change in costs and
pollutant removal between these t'..o systems  allows the calciilation
of the increnental costs of renoval as presented in Taole CO.
                         107

-------
                         TABLE C9
      INCREMENTAL REMOVAL COST OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS RY POTWS
Fl ow ,
mgd

.10
.25
.50
1.00
20.00
Change
in cost,
iim ion
dollars per
year
.008
.017
.029
.056
.475
Change in
Removal ,
I'll lion Ibs.
per year

.00152
.00330
.00760
.0152
.3040
Incremental
Cost,
rvib.

5.25
4.47
3.82
3.63
1.56
     Limitations of the Estimates: The primary limitation

in the costs and removals estimated are that they are

just that—estimates. The actual costs and removals actually

experienced by any specific POTV,1 may differ from the estimates.

One of the references used was, however, an empirical study

of bids submitted to build POTWs.  The cost estimates do

not include the cost of land or the cost of severs, however, these

have very little if any effect on incremental  costs. POTW

costs are not estimated for flows of less than .01 mgd,  since

data is generally not available for flows smaller than this.

However, there are not a large number of POTWs smaller than

.01 mgd.

     One of the primary concerns with the estimation of the

incremental costs has been to achieve a good approximation

of marginal costs. Two factors that may have a substantial

effect on the estimate are the size of the increment considered

and the 'location' of the increment (below secondary treatment,

stradling secondary treatment, or beyond secondary treatment).


                            108

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For flows of under 1 mgd the increment ranges from less stringent
than secondary treatment to about secondary treatment.  For flows
greater than 1 ngd the increment ranges from about secondary
treatment to beyond required secondary treatment.  Since neither
of these increments exactly stradles secondary treatment, the
incremental costs of pollutant removal will be affected.  The
Agency believes that the slight shifting of the increments away
from stradling secondary requirements for the over 1 mgd systems
                                                                 \
does not materially affect the incremental cost estimates.  In
addition the Agency believes that utilizing smaller sized
increments would have little effect on the incremental cost of
removal estimates.  Any comments concerning the size of the in-
crements used or the 'location' of the increments should be sub-
mitted to the Agency with supporting documentation, data, and
calculations.
     Another related issue regards the types of systems on which
the incremental costs are based.  For example, the incremental
cost of pollutant removal for a 2 rngd POTVI could be based on a
lagoon that achieves secondary requirements and a lagoon that
exceeds secondary requirements, rather than on activated sludge
systems.  In other words, the treatment systems that are the basis
for the total cost curves affect the slope of the total cost
curves, and thus must affect the estimate of marginal  costs (or
in this case the estimated incremental costs).  The analysis
has been performed based on treatment systems that are most
representative of those actually used for each particular flow,
                           109

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however, coi.inents regarding the applicability of the systems
are solicited.  Along with your comments send any documentation,
data, or calculations that support the comment.
                           no

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                        APPC'i.'IX u

                 Industrial Category 'discussion
                     -^ur.'Mry TaLle of 'Mta

     Following is a cate-jory - by - cate
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BAT levels, and the costs to achieve those -levels. In all of the
subcategories, there are different 1 imitations.for small and large
plants. The limitations for the small plants are less stringent than
those for the large plants in the subcategory. Each set of model
plants was constructed so as to test the two sets of limitations in
each subcategory.  The small plant was assumed to receive one-half
the level of milk equivalent specified in each subcategory regulation,
while the large plant was assumed to receive twice the level of milk
equivalent specified in each subcategory regulation. For example,
if the size cutoff specified between the different regulations in
a subcategory was 100,000 pounds per day of milk equivalent, it
was assumed that the small plant received 50,000 pounds per day
and the large plant received 200,000 pounds per day.
     Results:  Controls of pH were reasonable because BAT guidelines
do not require stricter control than what was required under BPT,
therefore the pH level  at BCT is being proposed equal to BPT control.
     For all subcategories, controls of 80D5_ and TSS are reasonable
because the model plants exhibit lower costs than POTWs to remove
a pound of BOD5_ and TSS.  Therefore, all twelve BAT regulations for the
dairy products processing industry  are being withdrawn and indenti-
 cal BCT limitations are being proposed.
     For two subcategories, condensed milk (Subpart I) and condensed
whey (Subpart K), discharges of barometric condenser water for small
plants were allowed for BPT, while no discharge of barometric
condenser water was assumed for BAT.  For these subcateoories the
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Agency  does  not  have  any cost data  for  recycle  of barometric

condenser water  although the mass removal  of  BOD5 and  TSS  is  known.

The  Agency believes that if the  costs of  recycling  or  treating

barometric condenser  water were  available, the  cost  per  pound

would not be more than  for POTWs of the sane  flow.  Therefore  the

BAT  regulations-for these subcategories were  determined  to be

reasonable.

                   Grain Mills  (40  CFR  406)

      Pollutants Controlled:  In all subcategories,  the  only

conventional pollutants controlled  are  RODS,  TSS, and  pH.

-[-ion-conventional and  toxic pollutants are  not controlled.

     Methodology:  Data for all  sizes of  model  plants  used are

taken from the  development documents for  the  industry. This data

includes plant  costs  to achieve  those levels  of control. The  data

are  based on production, waste v/ater flow, waste loading and  waste

load reduction  at the BPT and BAT levels  of control  and  the costs

to achieve those levels of control. In those  instances where  more

than one model  plant  has been developed to represent the subcategory,
                             /
cost tests are  applied for all model plants.

      Results:   Controls of pH are  reasonable because  BAT  guidelines

do not  require  stricter control  than what was required under  BPT.

Consequently,     pH  for all subcategories is being  proposed  equal

to the  pH control at  BAT.

     Four of the subcategories  (normal wheat  flour milling, normal

rice milling, animal  feed, and hot  cereal) are  subject to  a BPT

and  BAT regulation of zero discharge and  therefore do  not  require

any  further  analysis.  BCT will  call for  a zero discharge  limitation



                         113

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for these four subcatscories.  f;AT is reing kept in force because
the zero discharge limitations applies to all  pollutants, not
conventional pollutants.
     Of the six remaining subcatago-ries in this category, only
one (bulgur wheat flour mil ling) is determined to be unreasonable.
The cost per pound of 13QDj5 and TSS removed exceeds the costs of
a POTW of the sane size while the final effluent concentrations
are significantly lower.  .The BAT control of TOD^ and TSS
for this subcateyory is being withdrawn while the CCT control
of pH is proposed equal to 3AT control of pH.
     The remaining five subcategories have reasonable RAT limitations
for conventional pollutants.  Therefore, the Agency is proposing
that the BCT effluent guidelines limitations for the regaining
five subcategories (corn wet milling, corn dry Milling, parboiled
rice processing, ready-to-eat cereal  and wheat starch and gluten)
be equal to the existing BAT effluent limitations guidelines for
conventional pollutants.
  Canned and Preserved Fruits and Vegetables Processing (40 CFR 407)
     Pollutants Controlled:   In all subcateoories, COD_5, TSS, and pH
are controlled.  In one subcategory (canned and Miscellaneous
specialities) oil and grease are also controlled.  Toxic and non-
conventional pollutants are not controlled in any of the subcategories.
     Methodology:  Rata for model plants in all of the subcategories
is taken from the development document and economic analysis for
the industry.  This data includes information on production, waste

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water flow, pollutant load concentration, pollutant load reduction
at the EPT and BAT levels of control, and costs to achieve those
levels of control.
     Results: (1) apple juice, citrus products, frozen potato
products, dehydrated potato products: The limitation of pH is
reasonable because it is the sane at both EPT and SAT. Therefore,
the BCT pH limitation is being proposed as equal to 8PT. The BAT
guidelines for all four of these subcategories for TSS and SQD5
are determined to be reasonable, although in one subcateyury (citrus
products) the small model plant-exhibits a slightly higher cost
then a comparable POTW.  However, because the costs are so close,
and because the large node! plant costs are clearly reasonable,
the BAT guidelines are judged to be reasonable.
              (2) apple products:  Two model plants were tested in
this subcategory. For the large model plant (100 tons per day)  the
costs per pound of conventional pollutant removed are 2.18 per
pound as compared to to 3.90 per pound for a POP..' of a similar flow.
However, for the small Model plant (10 tons per day) the POT\' cost
is less. It was determined that the SAT effluent guideline for
the large plant is reasonable, while the BAT effluent guideline
for the small plant is unreasonable. However, since there are
a number of industrial dischargers which have flows that range
between the tv.-o sizes considered, the Agency feels uncertain about
the proper size categorization. The Agency is proposing that,
for all  plants that have a production of at least ion tons per
aay of raw Material processed, the i'CT limitation be equal to the
                         115

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existing BAT 1 irritation. Additionally, the Agency is withdrawing
the limitation for plants processing less than 100 tons per day of
raw material. Comment is invited on the appropriate size cut-off.
              (3) canned and preserved fruits, canned and preserved
vegetables, canned and miscellaneous specialties: The BAT
1 irritations for these subcategories are on a product by product
basis.  The model plants  that were considered in these three
subcategories are multi-product plants which the Agency determined,
in its analysis pursuant to the promulgation of SAT guidelines,
to be the most common types of plants. Therefore, the limitations
were not evaluated on a product-by-product basis. Products produced
by model plants are believed to be representative of every product
regulated in the guidelines, and the Agency believes that the
model plants exhibit typical costs and removals experienced by
plants in the industry.  Because some of the nodel plants exhibit
reasonable costs while, other multi-product plants exhibit unreason-
able costs, it is not clear which product limitations are unreasonable
and which product limitations are reasonable. Therefore, the Agency
is withdrawing the RAT regulations for these three subcategories.
     However, the evaluation of these subcategories determined
that the tomato product limitations in canned and preserved fruits
subcategory and the rashrocm product limitations in the canned and
preserved vegetables subcategory are reasonable. These products
are often processed as the only product in one plant.   Therefore,
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the PCT limitations for nushroous and tomatoes are proposed equal
to BAT.
     The pH limitation is being retained at BCT for all subcategories.
                   Sugar Processing (40 CFR 409)
     Pollutants C cntrolled:  In all subcategories BOD5_, TSS and pH
are controlled.  In the beet processing subcategory fecal
coliform is also controlled.  No non-conventional or toxic pollutants
are controlled.
     Methodology:   Data for model plants in all of the subcategories
are taken from the development documents published pursuant
to the promulgation of BAT guidelines.  This data includes informa-
tion on production, waste water flow, pollutant load concentrations,
pollutant load reduction at the BPT and BAT levels of control
and the costs to achieve those levels of control.
     The BAT effluent guideline limitation for the beet sugar
processing subcategory requires a limitation of zero discharge
for large plants.  However, for large plants whose soil filtration
rate is less than 1/16 inch per day, and for all srall plants,
a discharge was allov/ed. The zero discharge limitation was tested
and found reasonable. It is assumed that for plants which have
an allowable discharge the costs are less, and therefore, reasonable.
     For the licuid and crystalline cane sugar refining subcategories,
the original analysis assumes a reduced flow to rceet SAT.  The
plant flow, considered in comparison to the PCTW of a similar
flow, is the flow after the plant has complied with BPT limitations.
                           Ill

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     Results:  Three subcategories are considered in this review:
beet sugar processing, crystalline cane sugar refining, and liquid
cane sugar refining.  The Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of
Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory, the Louisiana raw
cane sugar processing subcategory, and the Puerto Rican raw cane
sugar processing subcategory do not have any PAT regulations in
effect. The Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory
and the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory have a
8PT effluent limitation of zero discharge, consequently, no test
of reasonableness is required.
     For the three subcategories tested, controls of pH and fecal
coliform are reasonable because the BAT guidelines do not require
any additional control beyond RPT.
     For tv/o of the suhcategnries, beet sugar and liquid cane sugar
refining, the EAT controls were found to be reasonable because the
the model plants exhibited lower costs than POP-.'s with similar
flows.  Therefore, for these subcategories, the Agency is proposing
that the BCT limitations guidelines be equal to the RAT limitations
guidelines.
     The analysis of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory
showed that the small model plant (600 tons per day of melt) has
unreasonable costs while the large model plant (2100 tons per day
of melt) has reasonable costs.  Therefore, the Agency is proposing
BCT limitations equal to BAT for those plants processing 2100 tens
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per day of trelt or more and withdrawing the controls for plants
processing less than 2100 tons per day of melt   Comments are
invited on this size cutoff.
         Canned and Preserved Seafoods ' 40 CFR Part 408)
     Pollutants Contrbll^ech Total suspended solids and pH are
controlled in all of the subcategories being tested. N'ost of the
subcategories also have BAT controls in effect for BQB_5, and oil
and grease.  There are.no non-conventional or toxic pollutant
controls.
     Methodology: For each of the subcategories being tested, the
data for small, large and, in some cases, medium size model plants
is taken from the development document for that subcategory.
This data includes information on production, waste water flow,
pollutant concentration, pollutant removals at both BPT and P.AT
levels of control, and the costs to achieve those levels of control,
     Five subcategories are excluded from the analysis because they
do not havs F:AT limitations in effect. Those subcategories are
Alaskan hand-butchered salmon processing, Alaskan irechanized salmon
processing, Alaskan bottom fish processing, Alaskan scallop
processing, and Alaskan herring fillet processing.
     Fourteen subcategories (A through M) are excluded from the
analysis due to the fact that there is not enough data to perform
the analysis.  The regulations for these subcategories will be
suspended until sufficient data is available tc perform the
                           119

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reasonableness test.
     Results:  The limitations for pH are reasonable for all
subcategories because they are equal at the EPT and BAT levels.
All of the subcategories tested v-.-ere found tc have reasonable BAT
1 irritations for conventional pollutants. In the analysis of
Subcate^ories 0 and AB, fish meal processing and sardine processing,
the results show a split within the subcategories. In the sardine
processing subcategory, one type of plant, using a dry transportation
system from the sardine storage area in the plant to the processing
area, has a stricter 8PT limitation than those plants having a
flume to transport the sardines.  The BAT limitations for each
type of plant are the sane. As a result, the incremental
pounds of pollutants removed fron RPT levels to BAT levels v/ere
much lover for those plants v/ith the dry transport system. Those
plants v/ith dry transport systems have a cost of removal which
indicates that the conventional pollutant limitations are unreasonable
for that process. The model plant cost for those plants i.'ith flume
transport systems indicate that the conventional pollutant regulations
are reasonable.
     In the fish meal processing subcategory, those plants using
a solubles plant to process bail and stick water can meet both
8PT and SAT limitations through better housekeeping measures which
involved minimal costs. Those plants without a solubles plant,
hcv;ever, are required to make a substantial investment to attain the

                           120

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BAT level of control through installation of a solubles plant.
However, in both subcategories (fish meal processing and sardine
processing) the conventional levels of TSS at the BAT levels
for both plant types are far above those levels allowed a comparable
POTW.  Because these concentrations at the BAT level of control
are still very high, the regulations are reasonable.
             Cement Manufacturing (40 CFR PART 411)
     Pol 1 utantsControl1ed:  In all subcategcries the conventional
pollutants  controlled are total suspended solids and pH. The non-
leaching and leaching subcategories also have a-temperature
limitation.
     Methodology: The data for the sufacategory model plant is taken
from the development document. The data includes information on
production, waste water flow, pollutant loads and concentrations,
pollutant load reduction at the BPT and BAT levels, and the
costs to achieve those treatment levels.
     Results: The leaching subcategory is the only subcategory which
was tested  and was found to have unreasonable limitations for TSS at
the BAT level.  The Agency is suspending the EAT control
of TSS for  this subcategory, but is retaining the control for pH,
redesignating that control  as BCT.
     The subcategories non-leaching and materials storage piles
runoff were not tested because both are under a BPT and EAT
limitation  of zero discharge.  The Agency is proposing that the BCT

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limitation be zero discharge; the "AT zero discharge control is
also being retained because it controls toxic and non-conventional
pollutants.
                  Feedlots (40 CFR PART 412)
     Pollutants Controlled: The pollutants BOD5 and fecal coliform
are controlled under BPT in the ducks subcategory, although  the
BAT limitation is no discharge of process wastewater.  In the
other subcategory (all subcategories except ducks) the BPT and
RAT limitations v/ere zero discharge.  There are no non-conventional
or toxic pollutant controls.
     ^•ethodology: The only subcategory which had a stricter
limitation at BPT than at BAT (ducks) is not amenable to the tests
that are applied to other subcategories in this reviev/. Although
a discharge of conventional pollutants was allowed at BPT, the
recommended technology to meet the zero discharge limit at RAT,
is to install a confinement facility with a dry litter floor cover.
Because the means to achieve the BAT limit of zero discharge is
not the installation of a treatment technology, but a different
method of raising ducks, a comparison to POTW costs and removals
is not applicable. Because all other feedlots v/ere required to
achieve a zero discharge limit at BPT, the Agency has determined
that this regulation is reasonable.
     Results: Subcategory A (all subcategories except ducks) is
excluded from the analysis because it is under a BPT and BAT
                            122

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limitation of zero discharge of process wastewater. This limitation
v/ill also be used as the BCT regulation.
     The ducks subcategory was the only subcategory tested.   It  is
found to have reasonable BAT limitations for process wastev/ater
discharge.  Therefore the Agency is proposing that the CCT
limitation be equal to the existing BAT limitation. The other
subcategory in this industry (all feedlots except ducks)  already
has a zero discharge limitation for PPT.
     Both subcategories have limits on overflow during rainfall
events. The Agency believes that Congress did not intend overflew
limitations to be considered as part of this review and therefore
             ģ
reasonableness tests are not applied.
                Fertilizer Manufacturing (40 CFR 418)
     The phosphate subcategory has zero discharge limitations at
both PPT and PAT.  The effluent resulting from storm runoff also
must be treated to certain levels cf concentration.  These
concentration limits are equal at 3PT and PAT.  Therefore, the
BCT limitation is being proposed equal to PAT.
     The ammonium sulfate production and mixed and blend fertilizer
production subcategories have zero discharge limitations at CPT and
BAT.  This sane limitation is being proposed for PCT.
     The urea and ammonium nitrate subcategories have been analyzed
before this study and the RCT limits have been proposed.  The only
conventional pollutant regulated at BAT was pfl which had the same

                           123

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control as BPT, and is therefore proposed as ECT.
     The nitric acid subcategory has no conventional pollutant
limitations in effect.  Therefore, no ECT limitation is being
proposed at this time.
              Phosphate Manufacturing (40 CFR 422)
     Pollutants Controlled: Total suspended solids, total phosphorous,
and pH are the controlled conventional pollutants in this point
source category.  Flouride, a non-conventional pollutant is also
controlled.
     Methodology: Model plant data for the sodium phosphates
subcategory (the only subcategory tested) is taken from the development
document. The data included information on production, waste water
flow, pollutant loading, pollutant load reduction at the BPT and
EAT -levels, and the costs associated with achieving those levels
of control.
     Results: The sodium phosphates subcategory is found to have
reasonable BAT 1 irritations for conventional pollutants. Although
the incremental costs to meat 3AT are net specified, the costs
are estimated to be less than 57. of the costs to comply with GPT.
Based on this estimate the cost per pound of TSS removed,
if all costs were applied to the removal  of TSS, is less than
the cost of removal for a comparable PQTW. Phosphorus is also
controlled.  A sim^ar estimate for phosphorus indicates that
if all costs were allocated to the removal of phosphorus

                           12k

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the  cost  of  control would  be  less  than  a PQTWTat comparable flow.



Therefore the BCT control  of TSS,  phosphorus,  and  pH  is being



proposed  to  be  equated to  BAT control.



     The  deflourinated phosphate rock and deflcurinated phosphoric



acid subcategories  have BAT limitations  which  are  equal to  their



BPT  limitations.  The Agency is proposing that the BCT limitations



be equal  to  the BAT limitations for  conventional  pollutants. No



other  subcategories have   regulations which are  in effect.



             Ferroalloy Manufacturing (40 CFR  Part 424)
                                                                  \


     Pollutants Controlled: In all subcategories tested, the controlled



conventional pollutants are total  suspended solids and pH.  Toxic



pollutants,  including chromium, manganese, cyanide and phenols are



also controlled, in most subcategories.



     Methodology: The data for a model  plant for each subcategory



is from the  development documents.   All  data on  model plant



production,  waste water flow,      pollutant loading,  and pollutant



control levels  is taken from those development documents.



     Results: Of the six subcategories  analyzed  as to the reasonable-



ness of their respective conventional pollutant  BAT limitations,



three  are reasonable and three unreasonable.   The  three reasonable



subcategories are:  Subpart A, open electric furnaces  and otha*



smelting  operations with wet air pollution control devices; Subpart



B, covered electric furnaces and other  smelting  operations with



wet  air pollution control  devices; and  Subpart C,  slag processing.






                           125

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 The three unreasonable subcategories are:  Subpart D,covered calcium


 carbide furnaces with v/et air pollution control  devices;  Subpart


 F, electrolytic manganese products;  and Subpart  G, electrolytic


 chromium. Subpart E,  other calcium carbide furnaces, has  a EPT


 and PAT limitation of zero discharge and is,  therefore, net included


 in the analysis. The  RCT limitation  is being  proposed  as  zero


 discharge for this subcategory.


      In subcategory B, covered electric furnaces and other smelting


 operations with wet air pollution control  devices, the initial  results
                                                                  \

 show the conventional pollutant  regulations to be unreasonable ty a


 small amount assuming all costs  are  allocated to conventional


 pollutants. However,  further investigation shows a significant


 amount of the cost of the BAT limitations  to  be  for the control


of toxic pollutants (chromium, manganese, cyanide and phenols).


 Allocating the total  cost of control to conventional pollutants


 in this case is not realistic.  The  Agency believes that  a


 reasonable allocation of costs between toxic  and conventional


 pollutants would indicate that the resulting  cost per  pound of


 conventional pollutant removed would be reasonable. Therefore,


 the Agency is proposing that the BCT limitations for this subcategory


 be equal to the BAT limitations  for  conventional pollutants.  The


 allocation of costs in subcategories D, F  and G  is not possible


 with any confidence.  Because of  this, the  regulations  for conventional


 pollutants are declared unreasonable.
                            126

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     The EPA suspects that suspended solids, in this industry may
be an indicator of toxic pollutants.  Because of this, a review of
the suspended solids limitations may take place to determine if
there is sufficient data for control of toxic pollutants, possibly
using solids as an indicator.
              Glass Manufacturing (40 CFR PART 426)
     Pollutants Controlled: Total suspended solids and pH are
controlled in all subcategories.  Three subcategories have increased
controls for oil, v/hile one subcategory has increased controls of
phosphorus.  Additionally, three subcategories control other pollutants
such as flouride and lead.
     Methodology: Data for a model plant for each suhcategory tested
is from the industry development documents. This data includes
information on production, waste water flov.1, pollutant concentrations,
treatment costs to achieve the BPT and BAT limitations as well
as the pollutant load reductions for each level of control.
     Results: The EPT limitation for insulation fiberglass is
zero discharge.  However, a discharge is allowed for air pollution
control devices where there are limitations for conventional
pollutants and phenol (a toxic pollutant)     in effect. The BAT
limitation is zero discharge. Because toxics are controlled and
the limitation is zero discharge, BCT is being proposed equal
to BAT.
                           127

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   The sheet glass and relied class suhcategories are not analyzed
because the RPT limitation is zero discharge.  RCT is being
proposed as zero discharge for these subcategcries.
     The plate glass subcategory is the only subcategory of these
tested to be found reasonable.  The Agency is proposing that the
BCT control of conventional pollutants be equal to the BAT control
of conventional pollutants.
     All other subcategories (float glass manufacturing, automotive
glass tempering, automotive glass laminating, glass container
manufacturing, television picture tube envelope manufacturing,
incandescent lanp envelope manufacturing, and hand pressed and blown
glass manufacturing) v/ere found to be unreasonable and it is being
proposed that the BAT control of conventional pollutants be
withdrawn. In the hand pressed and blov/n glass subcategory no cost
information was available for the analysis. However, the technology
and pollutant loads are similar to the rest of the unreasonable
subcategories. On that basis, it is assumed that costs would be
similar, and unreasonable.
                Meat Products (40 CFR PART 432)
     Pollutants Controlled: In all  subcategories tested the
conventional pollutants controlled are TSS, BCD5_, oil and grease
and pH.  Ammonia, a non-conventional  pollutant, is also controlled
in all subcategories.  However, the anrconia limitation has been
remanded in the sinple slaughterhouse, complex slaughterhouse, low

                           128

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 processing packinghouse and  high  processing packinghouse subcategories.
      Methodology:  The  data for model  plants for each subcategory
 is  from the development documents for the regulations.  The
 data includes  information on production,  waste water flow, pollutant
 concentrations,  pollutant reductions  at the BCT and BAT levels
 of  control, and  the costs to achieve  those levels of control  for
 each model plant.  To properly determine the reasonableness of these
 regulations, the entire list of BAT limitations, and the necessary
 technologies and costs associated with them, must be taken into account
'as  a whole. For Subpar.ts A  through D, part of the regulation (the
 limitations for  ammonia)  has been remanded to the agency for further
 study pursuant to  the  U.S. Court  of Appeals for the 7th Circuit
 decision in American Keat Institute v. EPA (526 F 2d 422).
 In  these subcategories the Agency cannot  properly determine the
 reasonableness of  the  regulations. Therefore, the Agency is proposing
 to  suspend the conventional  pollutant limitations at BAT.   The
 reasonableness of  these regulations will  be determined  in  the
 work performed pursuant to the rerand of  the ammonia limitations.
 At  the tire of proposal of   new ammonia 1 imitations, the findings
 on  the reasonableness  of the conventional pollutant limitations
 will be presented.
      Results:  In the six subcategories tested, all  were found to
 have reasonable  conventional  pollutant limitations at the  BAT
 level of control.  In subcategories E  through J, which are  examined
                            129

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as to reasonableness, the costs of BAT controls are totally
attributable to the removal of ammonia, a non-conventional pollutant.
Since the removal of ammonia requires that BOD5_ and TSS also be
reduced, there is no cost attributable to the removal of conventional
pollutants.  Therefore, the cost of conventional pollutant removal
is zero and the limitations are reasonable.  The Agency is proposing
that the BCT limitations for subcategories E through J be equal
to the BAT limitations.
     Five additional subcategories have no regulations in effect and
have been excluded from the analysis. They are the chicken, turkey,
fov/1, duck, and further processing subcategories.
                      Other Industries
     There are industrial categories and subcategories, other
than those listed previously, that are not tested for
reasonableness. These categories v/ere excluded from the analysis
because they do not have any regulations in effect, or have only
BPT regulations in effect.
     The industrial categories which have no regulations in effect
are: Water Supply; Miscellaneous Foods and Beverages; Transportation;
Fish Hatcheries and Farms; Steam Supply; Clay, Gypsum, Refractory,
and Ceramic Production; Concrete Products; and Shore Receptors
and Bulk Terminals.
     Three additional industrial categories have in effect only the
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BPT 1 irritations. These are Offshore Gil and Gas Extraction,
Hospitals, and ?ģ'ineral Mining and Processing. The Mineral Mining
and Processing category also has some subcatecories v/hich have  no
limitations in effect.
     The Asbestos industrial category has a BAT limitation of zero
discharge in seven subcategories. These subcateg-ories are not
analyzer! because the zero discharge limit is for the control of
toxic pollutants and is not subject to review.
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144

-------
     The /V.ency considered other alternatives  for  deter~ining'
reasonableness of f"\T effluent linitation  guidelines.
The foil ovine; is a discussion of these alternatives:

Average Annual Pollution Control Cost per  Pound  of
Pollutant ?en.oved (f/lb.)
     Tin's alternative is identical to the  one  that was  chosen
except that an averaoe cost to rest BAT  is used.   Instead
of determining the cost of removal of the  increment froir, CPT
to TAT, the average cost of treatment from rsv,- \;aste
load to ~-<"\T is deten.iincid.  The effect of  this alternative
is that in almost all cases the averaye  cost would be
less than the increnental cost because the cost  of removing
the last  'expensive' pounds would be averaged  with the  cost of
removing the first  'cheap' pounds.   In  all other  respects this
approach is no different from the approach, proposed.  Therefore
more subcateyories '.;ould he determined reasonable.
     This alternative v-as rejected because the legislative his-
tory indicates the Act's intent was not  to review  the reasonableness
of 3PT controls. The concept of reasonableness is  limited  to
the incremental costs anc reduction to achieve CAT. This is
reinforced by the legislative history v;hich specifies that under
no circumstances should i'.CT -je less stringent  than HPT.
Incremental .••-r.nual Pollution Cost per Volume 'Jn'it  of L'isci'.ar'.ie
                       145

-------
     Tsils criterion was considered because It avoids the  pollution
cost allocation prcDlc-r: as discussed in the preai.ole.   P.ecause
it Measures volune rather than waste load, it is  independent  of  the
number of types of v;astes present in the cischanje.
     Although, pollution investment costs are driven by discharge
volui::e and this criterion links these two variables, the  im-
portant measure of pollution reduction is not the volume  of  dis-
charge treated but the amount (i.e. pounds) of waste abated.
Clearly, incremental annual cost per volune unit of v.'ater treated
does nut provide this measure. For this reason,  this criterion
was rejectee.

i.easure of the Plant Pollutant Incremental Reduction Efficiency (!'.)
     Pollutant reduction efficiency is a measure of the amount  of
pollutant renewed frou the waste.  The increment in this  criterion
is fror, bPT to CAT.  This criterion is a relative Measure of
pollution reduction and it is not dependent on fir::, size.
     However, this criterion lias one i;;ajor drawback: it does not
measure the actual amount of  pollutant reduction, and tnerefore
can lead to vrong conclusions.  While the increment in percentage
pollution removal may be very lanje to meet TAT  regulations  for
a plant, the actual anourit of pollution removal  r.ay be small.   The
an-.ount of reduction depends en the amount of waste in the discharge,
because this criterion noes not r.masure the absolute amount  of  pol-
lution, it v-,as rejectee; as a criterion for reasonableness.
                         146

-------
Pollution Control Investment to 3ook^.'a'iue Ratio  (r-/!-'•)
     This criterion is formed froi,: the ratio  of pollutant  invest-
..ent costs to boor, value of tl.c plant  (Sook  value is  the  cost  cf
all existing investment less total depreciation). This criterion,
in Q general way, measures the likelihood that the pollution  control
equipment can be financed.  In this respect  then, it  is another
measure of the "economic achievability"  of the regulation.  This
was already considered in the initial  development and  promulgation
of th.e HAT regulation.  For this  reason, this alternative  was
rejected.                                       •    -

Plant Closures
     Plant closures are not considered to be a reliable measure
cf all  financial inpacts of pollution  control.  Plants stay
open until profitability is low enou
-------
nim'm'zeti.  v:any times less costly regulations '-ere promulgated due

to the number of estimated plant closures projected as a result of

the use of a higher cost technology. For these reasons, this

alternative v;as rejectee! as a factor in determining reasonableness.

After Tax Return On Investment (ROI); Change in ROI;
Percent Change in HOI.

     Return on investment is the plant's profit or (net income)

on each dollar of investment.  Investment in water pollution control

equipment generally reduces the firm's ' HOI because there is no mon-

etary 'return' to the firm on this investment, although society as

a whole receives a return which is manifested by clean water.  ROI

is reduced first by imposition of i'PT, and again by the addi-

tional imposition of BAT controls.  Therefore, 201 measures the

chance in the plant's profitability and is an indicator of the

plant's financial ability to comply with pollution control

regulations. Unlike the closure criterion, it is a continuous

function of financial impact.  A unit change in RQI indicates

a definite change in the financial position of the firm.

     Most economic impact criteria are in sor;o manner reflections

of changes in ROI.  For example, only if ROI is severely impacted

v/ill plants be forced to close.

     Although absolute changes in ROI indicate that the plant is

being impacted, they do not measure the size of the impact on the

plant.  T'.vo plants may experience a five percent decrease in ROI,

but one plant nay have initial ROI of 20 percent while the second
                         148

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i.,ay have an initial "ul of 10 percent.  Tne first fin.: suffers
relatively less chanr.e in profitability tnan the second.
     In audition, looking unly at RCI does not reflect the tradeoff
bevween pollution reduction and economic impacts.  Only if pollution
reauction measures  (s.fj. changes in concentration) are simultaneously
considered vill the economic ir.ipact (change in ROI) be compared
to the benefits (changes in concentration) derived.
     This alternative was considered, but v/as rejected for a number
of reasons.  The quality of data required to perforn this analysis
is nut available or, in Many cases, does not exist.  Also, this
test of reasonableness is a complex economic definition, and thus
difficult to explain and apply.  Additionally, there is no benchmark
of reasonableness.  Although other criteria exhibited this sane
characteristic, it  can be solved by comparisons to PCTWs.  In
additionj for this  criterion, PQTV.'s do not have an analagous
return on investment.  Lastly, economic impacts were already
considered in the development of oAT guidelines.

Estimated Price Increase "seded to Recover Annual Pollution
Investment Costs
     This alternative v:as examined, but ultimately rejected.
Price increases were considered in the development of HAT
guidelines, they are a measure of consumer  impact, not firm
impact, and in many cases the stated price  increases were
tri vi al or zero.
                         149

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POT'.; Comparisons



     One of the criteria for determining reasonableness specific-



ally suggested by Congress was the comparison of costs of pollutant



removal by industry with costs of pollutant removal by municipal



treatment systems.  "Pie underlying premise for an approach of this



type is that municipal treatment systems being Duilt with public



funds remove conventional  pollutants at a reasonable cost. If



an industry removes pollutants at a similar or lower cost, then



the pollutant removal  required of industry '.-/ill also be reasonable.



The concept is straijhtforv.'ard enough, but the manner in which'  .



the industrial and r.unicipal costs are developed and compared can



vary significantly depending on the approach us^d.



     One of the major factors affecting a comparison of industrial



treatment costs with those of a POT'.-.' is the type of cost that is



compared.  The most fundamental cost that mi'jht be compared is the



average cost of removing pollutants.  This cost is relatively



simple to estimate by dividing the total annual cost of pol-



lutant removal by the mass of pollutants removed. Although



there is good data for these types of calculations and comparisons,



there is little economic theory supporting fjecisions based on this



type of comparison.  Using average costs tends to cause more



regulations to remain reasonable as compared to the incre-



mental approach discussed below.  Economic theory does, however,



support the use of comparing marginal costs.  Society, if in



equilibrium, will  have best allocated its resources to obtain
                        150

-------
           seme Isvel of  pollution  control  where the  marginal  cost of
           removing a specified  pollutant  is  the same \;herever it is
           beiruj  removed.   Laseu on our precise t'lat  the cost  of pol-
           lutant removal  by  ?OT'.,"s is  reasonaole,  the marginal  cost
           of renoval is  also reasonable.   Thus, it is t!ie marginal  cost
           of removal in  both the industrial  treatnent systems  and  the
           PQT/.'s  that should  be  compared.   Obtaining  accurate  estimates
           of marginal costs  can ue difficult and are usually  approximated
           by the use of  increr;ents.   This is, in fact, what has been done in
           this review.   The  expected  incremental costs of removal by industry
           are compered to the incremental cost of removal by  PCTV.'s. '
                Another important factor affacting  a  comparison  of industrial
           and POT'/.' pollutant removal  costs is the type of PCTV.'  on which the
           costs  are based.   The incremental  costs  of pollutant  removal
           generally decrease as the size  of  the PQTV; increases  due to
           economics of scale, so that  the selection  of the size is  very
           critical in developing a criterion by which to judge  reasonableness.
           One approach would be to estimate  incremental  costs of removal
           baser:  on a POT',' treating the mean  flow of  all  POTV.'s.   This approach
           yields an average  marginal  cost of pollutant renoval  from all
           sewage.  Our original premise that PCTV's generally  remove pollutants
           at a reasonable cost  would  indicate, however,  that  many smaller
           PCT..'s  are removing pollutants at reasonable, though hijher,
i,        costs.  Thus,  a POP,.'  of  average f 1 ow does  not'provide a criterion
           for judging reasonableness.   The same argument holds  for PCT-S
                                    151

-------

-------
of i.ieuian f-lcv: size. The alternative that has  been  chosen  is
to develop the PC?.; incremental cost based  on  a  PCT(,.'  of  the
sa;;;e flow as the industrial flov,.  This ensures  a degree of
co;>:;:arabil ity in the incremental costs.
     The third Major factor in developing a  POTl.' cost  coinparison
to test for rsasonaDleness is tne degree of  aggregation  for which
industrial increnental costs are developed.  One extrene would
be to estimate the increnental cost of pollutant renoval for  each
plant covered by each regulation and compare that cost to  the cost
of pollutant removal at PQT.'s.  The other end  of the  spectrur is
to detenrnne one increnental cost for all industries  covered  by
this secondary industry reviev; and compare'that  cost  to  the cost of
pollutant removal by POT/is review.  The problei?.  with  both  of
these levels of aggregation is that the costs  would not  correspond
to any specific regulations under review.  The level  of  aggregation
that the Agency has chosen is to consider the  incremental  cost for
the group of pollutants covered by model plants  that  were  originally
developed to evaluate the economic effects of  the BAT regulations.
                         152

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            APPEIIDIX F

EPA Regional  and Headquarters-Libraries

      Region I Library
      Room 2211 - B, JFK Federal Hdg.
      Boston MA 02203

      Region II Library
      26 Federal Plaza
      New York MY 10007

      Region III Library
      Curtis Bldg., 6th & Hal nut Streets
      Philadelphia PA 19106

      Region IV Library
      345 Courtland Street M.E.
      Atlanta GA'30303

      Region V Library
      230 Dearborn Street Roor,; 1417
      Chicago IL 60604

      Region VI Library
      1201 Elm Street, First International Bldg.
      Dallas TX 75270

      Region VII Library
      1735 Baltimore Avenue Roon 249
      Kansas City f-iO 64108

      Region VIII Library, 8F.-ASL
      1860 Lincoln Street
      Denver CO 80295

      Region IX Library
      215 Fremont Street
      San Francisco CA 94105

      Region X Library
      1200 Sixth Avenue
      Seattle I/A 98101

      Headquarters Library, Roor, 240^ PM-213
      401 M Street, SW
      Washington DC 20460
            153

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                            TAB "

                      Effluent r-uidelinss
                 .ode! Plant Analyses Summaries
     The effluent guidelines for eacli of the subcategories are
presented as shown in Ŗ0 CFR Subchapter :'!.  They are arranged in
order of 40 CFR Part number and labeled as to their applicability
by industry and subcategory.

     Presented vn'th the guidelines is information on the raw waste
load of the subcategory, in pounds of pollutant per unit of pro-
duction and as rng/1  concentration.  Also included is the percentage
removal of each pollutant from the raw waste load level at both
the BPT and HAT levels of technology.

     In addition to each subcategory's guidelines, a summary of the
data used in the model plant analysis for that subcategory
is presented in the following fcrrn.

     Column 1 - i.ociel Plant Flo1.; of wastawater in millions of
                gallons per day.

     Columns  - The annual  costs, in millions of 1?76 dollars, of
     2, 5, 8    the technology used to meet the effluent guidelines
                for the model plant.  These costs include operation
                and maintenance, capital  costs and depreciation.
                Column 2 contains the annual costs for HPT.  Column
                5 the incremental  costs above BPT costs to achieve
                BAT and Column C gives trie total  of 'joth F'PT and BAT
                costs.

     Columns  - The millions of pounds of suspended solids and oxygen
     3, 6,      demanding pollutants removed annually as a result of
     ana [)      controls.  In most cases, 300 and TSS removals wero
                added together to arrive  at an annual  measure of con-
                ventional pollutant removal.  There are cases, flow-
                ever, in which one, or both, of these pollutant  mea-
                sures is not a control parameter for a subcategory.
                In these cases, the annual  pounds of removal  of  con-
                ventional pollutants is measured  by using substitute
                parameters.  Where TSS is not controlled, there  is
                no suspended solid component suitable for substitution.
                Therefore,  the TSS component of the removals  is
                assumed to  be zero,  '.,'here C'JC is not  controlled,
                there are two substitute  measures of oxygen demanding
                conventional  pollutants which can be used as  substitute
                Chemical  Oxygen Cemanc removal  or oil  and crease re-
                moval, in that order of preference.   In no case  shall
                the  measures  be combined.   ,',ny combining of the  B'JD,

-------
                u!D or oil  and  jrease neasures v>oul .1 result in d.oul-le-
                countiii'j of oxygen  da!.'an:iiruj substances and lead to an
                artificially  hi jh  renewal  neasure.  Tin's would drive
                the cost per  pound  to an artificially Toy/ level.

     Col Linns  - Tie cost per  pound  of pollutant renewal.  This is de-
     4, 7,      rived usinu the  costs of technology levels and lividing
     and 10     those costs by  the  annual  pounds of renoval for
                these levels  of  technology.  The costs listed nay not
                i-iatch those calculated using thp figures in the
                table due  to  rounding.
The data for each of the  industry  categories v.ere taken fron the
documents listed below.

1.  Dairy Products
    Dairy Products Processing     EPA  440/1-74-021-a

2.  Grain :;:ills
    Grain Processing              EPA 440/l-7-1r-P20-a
    Anirial Feed, Breakfast  Cereal
       and '..'heat Starch           EPA  440/1-74/030-3
    Corn Uet Milling              EPA 440/1-73/028-b
                                   Supplenent

3.  Fruits and Vegotables
    Apple, Citrus and'Potato  Products   EPA 44^/1-74-027-a
    Economic Analysis of the  Fruits
       and Veyetafoles Category  (Phase II)   EPA 230/1-75-03G
                                   Supple:,icnt II
                                   >;arch, 1577

•T.  Seafood
    Fish i'leal, Salr.on, fiottoir, Fish
       Clam, Oyster, Sardine, Scallop,
       Herriny, and Abalone       EPA 44n/l-75/°^-l-a

5.  Sugar Processing
    Beet Sugar Processiny          EPA 440/1-7^-002-c
    Cane Sugar Processing          EPA 440/1-74-002-c

G.  Cen:ent iianufacturin'j
    C&,.ent ranufacturiny           EPA 4'iG/l-74-CP5-a

7.  Feed lots
    Feedlots                       EPA 440/1-7 ;/C04-a

6.  Phosphate ''.anufacturin']
    li't'ier !:on-HGrti lizer           ZPA 4.-1ro/l-75/!1^3-a
       Phosjiiate Chern'cals
                          -2-

-------
 9.  Ferroalloys
     Snelting and Slag Processing  EPA 440/1-74/008-a
     Calciun Carbide               EPA 440/1-75/033
10.  Glass :-'anufacturinn

     Pressed and PI own Hass       CPA 440/1-75-034-3
     Flat Glass                    EPA 440/1-74-001-c
     Insulation Fiberglass         EPA 440/1-74-Oni-b

11.  .'teat Products
     Red ;teat Processing           EPA 440/1-74-012-a
     Processor                     EPA 440/1-74/031
     Independent tendering         EPA 440/1-77/031-e
                                     Supplei,:ent
                               -3-

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< +
ro
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       -53-

-------
          INDUSTRY:  Canned  &  Preserved  Fruits  & Vegetables

          SUBPART  F:  Canned & Preserved Fruits
407.62
  (a) The following limitations estab-
lish the quantity of BOD5 controlled by
this section, which may be discharged by
a -medium" or  Targe"  existing point
source subject  to the provisions of  this
subpart  after  application  of  the  best
practicable control technology currently
available. Any fruit  processing  plant
which ytfyHfvufmgiy  gp  intermittently
discharges process waste water (taring
    processing season ^pn meet the an*
                                                  [Uette tmlts, fcs/k*c Ģ< nvosucial;
                                                  attfih soil*, Ib/LjXQ Ib of aw mtMiaQ
                                                              TBS •fflowt Umitatto
                                                 (ftttU)
                                                            Mas*
nual average. fro^Ti*1"* thirty day aver-
age, frt  ģ*i<"ffonT"ģ day BODS  limita-
tions. Fruit processing plants employing
long term waste stabilization, where all
or a portion of the process waste water
discharge is stored for the entire proc-
essing season PTK! r-frlf-fyi at a controlled
rate with state approval, shall meet only
the Ģ'"y>"a3 average BODS limitations.
      [MĢode units, lotflctoc ot nw aatoial:
     Enjilsti mats, ItyLOOO tt d t*w saudal]
               -  BODitfltaentUmlttUoni
     (traits)
                M*d-   o*< _.    	
                anna  TmluĢ*tor30  avĢnc*
                far lay  eenaacatlv*  tbaUnot
                iEUE3ZQ>1]]ZL ĢiQl]^C7 dE*7 Sfl^**
     term waste stabilization, where ail
or a portion of the process waste water
discharge is stored for the entire proc-
essing season and released  at a  con-
trolled rate with  state approval, ahan
meet only the annual average TSS limi-
tations.
                                                           tartar  eoaMcnttT*  tbailnot
                                                            I day   days shall
                                                                  not*
                                                                        J.74
                                                                        0.9S

                                                                        S.3S
                                                                        130
                                                                        L4ģ
                                                                        2.14
                                                                        o.a
                                                                        a. ģ
                                                                        1.9S
                                                                        1.M
                                                                        1.91
                                                                        a 25
                                                                        Z79
                                                                        a 87
                                                                        0.57
                                                                        2.20
                                                                        1.43
                                                                                O.M

                                                                                xss
                                                                                Li3
                                                                                0.93
                                                                                LM
                                                                                Ltf

                                                                                O.S6
                                                                                0.1S
                                                                                4.44
                                                                                1.25
                                                                                1.53
                                                                                1.2S
                                                                                0.1S
                                                                                1.31
                                                                                0.5*
                                                                                0.33
                                                                                :.ss
                                                                                a so
                             (c) The following M^ltBtlo'na establish
                           the quality of PH controlled by this sec-
                           tion,  which  may  be  discharged by a
                           "medium"  or  "large"  existing  point
                           source subject to the provisions  of this
                           subpart after application of the best
                           practicable control technology currently
                           available.
                                               Effluent
                                            pS
                                            fffl-uent limitation*
                                           At an ttmM TrttWa *&•
                                              nag* 6jQ to 9 J.
                          § 407.63  F,fl*m^|t limitation*
                                           the degree of ĢHuenl
                                                tioa of thĢ belt craSable teetmoloc?
                                             (*) ThT following limitations establish
                                           the quaatttr-of BODS controUed by this
                                           section, which may be ^gf>*fgģĢ^ by an
                                           existing r'tfnfr source subject to the pro*
                                           visions of **ģ<Ģ subpart after application
                                           of fo*  beat available technology eco^
                                           ^CTnl^y^y achievable, ^'"y fruit process*-
                                           inz nlaUw ^ThiMMX ^on ^^fl^o^s^^y *OT izxter**
                                           mittantly discharges process waste water
                                           during the processing season ahafl meet
                                           the annual average, mar1rmi.ni thirftr day
                                           average, and smxtoiunt day BODS limi-
                                           tations. Fruit processing plants employ-
                                           Ing long term waste *j*'Bhfll7gt7l"Tv where
                                           an or a portion, of the process waste water
                                           discharge is stored for the entire process-
                                           ing season and released at_a_controfled_
                                           rate with state approval, gģģ*" meet only
                                                     IsverageBODS;	
                                                                                                            rr.y.
                                                                                                            CTT;;^
                                                                                                            (...::

                                                                                                            t~-:;
                                                                                                            r.-."::
                                                                                                            i.::::.
                                                                                                            * •-
                                                                                                            jrv

-------
      [MeOto

                                                                             ib of raw material]
   Conusodlty
     (IraiU)
                 Mail-
                         o*d*Uy
                toriny
                 I day
           Amraal a
 	aranct  '1
eooaacntiTa  tballnot
 day* stall  anaad—
not
                                                            (train)
 XfĢĢUtttii_
                                                                               A-vanga
                                                                               of daily
                                                                              TiioMlorM   ģTcnĢa
                                                                       tor SOT  emmictttlTa  thaU not
                                                                       X day   dan abaft
Caoebattleat
Charria*:
  Brtned:
  Sean"
       Inrn
   X^rca.
  Swwc
1.201

0.182
a DO
                 ares
                 0.7O

                 uaz
                 L103
a SB
aaa

am
0.134
            aaa
            aaa

            a 839
                                      0.4B
                                                                         2.278
                                                        Mģdlnia
                                     a 087
                                     a 087
                                      a 43
                                      a4ģ
CrmbsRicK
Dried TratC
    ifn
                  a 833
                  0.820
                  a;a
            aģ
            a 237

            a4ts
            a4U

            a&*
            ass*
                              a, as
        a 43

        am
        an
        axs
                                      am
                                      an
  Pnssinc*
         n
   Lana.
OBrts:
                 area

                 0.111
                 0.111

                 2.2SS
                              aau
                              LOO*
                     act

                     aw
                     a oo

                     an*
                . a?M
                . 0.784

                -- asss
                _ asss
 PleBec
                   Q.S39
                   0.5J9

                   0.4S2
                   O.BS2
   Stic scatlosxi
                   Ģ-=*ģ
       0.583

       a 884
       O.SM
                              a4a
                              a4a

                              o.ai-
                              aju

                              0.071
                              aoa-

                              Lin
                              Llll

                              0.204
                              O.JO*

                             ' aiet
                                       ant
                                                       QimaB
                                                        Btiatd:
                                                                        a S3
                                                                        0.133
                                       aw
                     am
                     0.113^

                     0.3O
                     O.JU

                     0.054
                     a 064
                                      aaa*
                                      aotf

                                      aiĢ,
                                      aia,1
                                                              L209
                                                              0.931

                                                              a 184
                                                              am
                                                                                     LOI2
                                                                                    1.23
                                                                                    a 339

                                                                                    0.479
                                                                                    O.B7

                                                                                    aeeo
                                                                                    0.46S

                                                                                    1.300
                                                                                    0.849
                                                                                    O.SBS

                                                                                    0.13
                                                                                    O.OSS
                                                                                            0.988
                                                                                            0.48S

                                                                                            a ur
                                                                                            0.007
                                                                      0.873
                                                                      0.43

                                                                      asa
                                                                      0.432

                                                                      O.M8
                                                                      aui

                                                                      0.505
                                                                      0.24S

                                                                      8.827
                                                                      O.J08
                                                                      0.6M
                                                                      O.S28

                                                                      arvr
                                                                      0.047
                                                                                     L80Ģ
                                                                                             0.798

                                                                                             0.880
                                                                                     LOB
                                                                                     O.BM
                                                                                    0.808
                                                                                    aĢa

                                                                                    0.7M
                                                                                            0.377



                                                                                            0.429
                                                                                     0,123
                                                                                     a 072
                                                                                     LIU
                                                                      O.OO
                                                                      Q.J13

                                                                      0.113
                                                                      a. CM

                                                                      1.220
  TiBsataac
                   a rcieaaed at
  ģ co&troUed rate  -with ctate approval.
                                                                          controlled by
                                                       tion.  wMda may be discharged  by a
                                                       "medium," or Targe" ?^ĢHny polot worca
                                                       subject to the provisions of this sobpart
                                                       a_-ttf*r  grip{}c*ff^iyg  gf H^  best  available
                                                       technology  ĢģģjsqrifTi<ĢģĢny  achievable.
                                                        ehatmetMrtstla      zyiuent Umttettoiu
                                                                        At Ģa tuna*  witam  ta*
                                                                                                                         _..

                                                                                                                        •S. '.
                                                                                                                        F-

-------
          INDUSRTY:  Canned  &  Preserved Fruits  4 Vegetables

          SUBPART G:  Canned & Preserved  Vegetables
                                                                                                            .....

                                                                                                            p
                                                                                                            cv
 407.72
   (a) The following limitations establish
I the quantity of BOOS controlled by this
'section, which may be  Discharged by a
 •medium'*   or "large"  existing  point
 source subject to the provisions of this
 subpart  after application  of  the best
 Practicable control technology currently
 available. Any vegetable proceBtag plant
 which
                            I where
charges process waste water during the
Processing season shall meet the animal
average, rn""hTWm  thirty day  average.
and TTHf^ftnTTm day BODS
Vegetable  procgivrtng plants
long term waste
or a portion of the  process waste water
discharge is stored lor the entire process-
big season and released at a controlled
rate with state approval, shall meet only
the annual  average BODS  limitations.
The effluent Bmitations_do not.apply to;
                   100 percent ratini'd,
com processing plants of aH sizfii, and

vegetable procr^vrtng plants with total
annual raw material production ]
 7,284 kkg (8^)00 tons) per year.
       (Metric
                      of ni
     Commodltr
                      vmbMtoV
                tortof  onnm nMiģ
                Iday   dsniian
                                 tb*li not
BĢĢftt__
BneeaU.
 Com
 rĢn
  Oaten (e
  BMMricrwtt:
Sptnadi
Scums.
                 L01
                 S.S
                 L7S

                 am
                 1.4S

                 IIS

                 Z88
                 2.M
                 ia
                 2.U
                 10B
                 2.42
                   aa
                   j.a
                   137
                   0.90
                   aso
                             an
                             O.M

                             1.M

                             1.T8'
                             •LSI
                             IIS
                             !.ģ
                             1.S
                           aģ
                           a os
                           a 37
                                    O.S7
                                    L47
                                    ao

                                    a a
                                    La
                                    1.07
                                    L51
                                    1.3
                                    a. 2
                                    0.04
                                    aa
                                    an
    (1>) *^"ģ following T^r^<^ģ*<"nff establish
  the quantity of TSS c'rotroth^i by  the
  g^ģMnr^ whlcJi- "'oy be dlĢ**Mmtftl by a
  "medlQm**   or  "Targe*  <^g^t|ntc  point
  source) sabject to *t?ģ |m'juigjģm!t of this
  subpart  sftg application of the  best
                    6852310*0^2^'
  available.
 which  contlnuoosiy  or  intermittently
 discharges process waste water during
    I pppccSBBiUr SCtfLSC^X S22&U IBlBC* *u^8 H^i1* ;
       ftTBS&CEBw SXmQZ&tZZQ Ģu2?t7 Q&^F AV*
 fiCeUCi^b ^^D^L Tsm^itriinrtt Q&T '.vs!?*^? M^^oircsb1** i
 ^""^^•*^ *^^^^ •^••^^^•^•^^^^ ^^^*r ^    ^^^^^^^  ^
                            plĢT^*y  ejaģ t
         Vegetable  yi
  ploying  IT t*vm wacta
                                                    where all or a  portion of  the process
                                                    waste water discharge is stored for the
                                                    entire processing season and released at
                                                    a controlled  rate  with  state approval.
                                                          meet only the annual average TS3
                                                                     *fflTtgnt limitations do
                                                    not apply tO s*nj1iģwģntTyfrnviffey 100
                                                    cent wny* corn processing plants of aE
                                                    f^yy^, Ģ.nr| multi-commodity 100 percent
                                                    frozen vegetable processing plants with
                                                    total annual raw matfrlffl  production
                                                         than 7.264. Meg (8.000 tona) per year.

                                                                         of itnr rsaterlil,-
                                                                        TSS •ffisc&t ItTnifittftrn
                                                                      Mill.
                                                                   JOT any  eataceatiri
                                                                    1 dģy   days dull
                                                                                      titkll not
                                                      BtTjecoll..__
                                                      Cwrats. ..
                                                      Com:
                                                     POUUMS.
                                                                                4.57
                                                                                2.30

                                                                                LOO
                                                                                130

                                                                                101

                                                                                155
                                                                                3.13
                                                                                4.33
                                                                                1ĢS '
                                                                                178
                                                                                3.U

                                                                                as
                                                                                D.U
                                                                                L30
                                                                                2.81
                                                                                1.3
                                                                                L37
                                                                                         us
                                                                                         2.&S
                                                                                        an
                                                                                        Li7,

                                                                                        L7B
                                                                                         LS7
                                                                                         ITS-'
                                                                                         2.22 I
                                                                                         2.3
                                                                                        mo'
                                                                                        a as i
                                                                                        1.04 i
                                                                                        LM I
                                                                                        a 37 ;
                                                                                        L09
                                                      (c) 11i8 f oHowinz limitations establish
                                                    the quality of pH controlled by this sec-
                                                    tion, which eay be discharged by a "me-
                                                    dium" or "large" existing point  source
                                                    subject to the provisions of this subpart
                                                    after application of the best practicable
                                                    control technology currently  available.
                                                    The efituent limitations do sot apply to
                                                    smzje-ccxamodlty 100  percent canned
                                                    corn processing plants of all sizes, and
                                                    multi-commodity  loo   percent  frozen
                                                    vegetable processing plants with total
                                                    annual raw material production less than ;
                                                    7,264 kfcg (3,000 tons) per year.         |
                                                                         SUlufnt U-mttstiatut
                                                   aliaraetfrtrOa
                                                   JģK
                                                   §407.73
                                                        n [intf iltiin tiĢ degree of  Ģfflnent
                                                        reduction •ttaiiuubla by tiia xppiien-
                                                        tion of thĢ 2>eM xrwluile teckooia1
                                                     (a) The foQowtng effiuent limltadons
                                                   establish  the gaantity  of BOGS con-
                                                   trolled by this section, which may be dis-
                                                   charged by an existing point source sub-
                                                   ject  to  the provisions  of this subpart
                                                   after application of  the best available
                                                                    ir^n-^ achievable.
                                                                                                             t;:-.-..
                                                                                                              :-:

                                                                                                             r.'.Tr

-------

-------
         , where au or a portion ot uie
process waste water discharge Is stored
for the entire processing season and re-
leased, at a controlled rate witia state
             a.n meet  only the  a*wĢa.i
         TSS  limitations.  The  effluent
*Ģģ.n3  do not apply to stogie-com-
modity 100  percent canned corn process-
tog plants  of all sizes, and multi-com-
modity  100  percent  frozen  vegetable
         19  plants with total ftTmnnl raw
    	, production less than 7,284 Beg
(SH)00 tons) per year.

       [Metric unit*, kg/kkc ot oar matelal;
      Tinglhh
                    XSS Ģffinant
     Commodity
     (TtflUblca)
                  Mail-
                                  Aannml
        of daily
 Ģ.Ģ_  nlaaaiorSO
tor any  oomocoilT*  ibatt not
 I dģy  days ģhĢll   ----
 BMtK
  _ (c) The following Itenttations estahlhhi
   the ciuality at pH conteoHed by &tf* sec-'
   tioQ, which "^"y be discharzed by a "me-
   dium" or "larse" existing point source
   subject to the pitwiginn* QJ thiĢ subpart
  •|ttcr application of the  best available'
  IK>ntrol technology aconoxnically achiev-
   able. The effluent limitations do not apply:
   to single-commodity 100 percent canned
   wi'n processing  plants of an T*?*^I *ĢLnd
   multi-commodity  100  percent   frozen
   vegetable processing plants with total
   annual raw material production less than
   7.284 kkg (8,000 tons)  per year.  .   -
tuiQOUSjjr  OT
process waste water during the process^
Ing season shun meet the Ģr>rmĢi average,
TruMrfrmym thirty day average, **"* rn1i'rt*
™Ģm day BODS  limitations. Vegetable
processing plants employing Ions  tern
waste stabilization, where  ail or a por-
tion  of the process  waste  water  dis-
charge is stored for the entire processing
season and released at a controlled rate
with state approval, shall meet ģ"iy  the
*"T"aV average 3OD5 limitations.  The
efluent limitations do not apply to single-
commodity  100.  percent  canned  corn
processing plants  of aH sizes, and multi-
commodity 100 percent frozen vegetable
processing plants  with total armm^ raw-
material production less than 7,264 jdcg
(8,000  tons)  per year.

       [Matttcnniti. kg/kky of t*w material;
      English aaia, lb/1,000 Ib ot ģw
                                                                              3OD4 effluent UaJtssians
                                                                                    ct dilly
                                                                           _       TatiMa tor W
                                                                            tor any  ooaseentiTa  sbail not
                                                                             1 day    dayi shall  Ģzceed—
                                                                                   not'
                                                            BMtr.
                                                             Mcdlo
                                                            Broccoli:
                                                            0.382
                                                                        K548
                                                                        0. ail
                                                            CandtK
                                                             Medlom.
                                                             L*rrĢ_-
                                                            Com:
                                                                             1.2M
                                                                             1.394
                                                               MedlnnL.
                                                             Tratan:
                                                               Uadlc
                                                            0.9M
                                                            Q.44A

                                                            0.987
                                                            0.887
                                                                        L337

                                                                        0.73
                                                                        0.73
                                                                        as*)
                                                                        aau
                                      a 381
                                      a 381

                                      O.SS7
                                      0.557

                                      0.337
                                      0.397
                                                                                                                      V-. V
                                           ft:
                                           ą~.
                                                                                                 0.2*0
                .. 1.1S8
                _. 1.159
                                                               TtgatabtaK
  LifK.
 Dry baant!
                  1.781
 Ontooa (eanmd?:
 PeaK
  U*fiknK-
  LĢa

  L7S3
  1.7S3

  1.188
  1.1S8

  1.TI9
  1.71S
                                                            SaaBanoB
                                                                                         0.778
                                                                                         O.S37
                                                                                         0.337
                                                                                         1.2H
                                                                                         1.38

                                                                                         1.021
                                                                                         i.ca

                                                                                         1.SS8
                                                                                         1.2SS

                                                                                         O.S52
                                                                                         asa

                                                                                         1.305
                                                                                         Laos

                                                                                         a 738
                                                                                         0.738
                                                                                         0.134
                                                                                Q.JS7
                                                                                0.387
                                                                                aas
                                                                                as*

                                                                                0.438
                                                                                0.484

                                                                                O.M8 <
                                                                                0.409

                                                                                a 724
                                                                                0.73

                                                                                0.427
                   1.048
                   L34Ģ

                   1.178
                                                                                         e.aa
                                                                                         0.03

                                                                                         0.717
                                                                                         0.747

                                                                                         O.SJO
                                                                                a 100
                                                                                a 100

                                                                                O.OZ7
                                                                                0.027
                                                                                ara
                                                                                ant
                                           Sonaiii:
                                               tJ^XI
                                            poutoao:
_  a2ģ

_  ai73
..  0.572
                              0.29
                              0.20

                              0.479
                              0.47S
                      0.114
                      a 114
                                                                                0.342
                                              (b) Tt7Ģģ following limitations establish I
                                            the cniantit? of TSS controlled  by this
                                            section, which may be discharged by any
                                            Ti'rt-fr'r point .source subject to the pro-
                                            visions of t*iĢ* subpart after application
                                            of the  best available .technology  eco-
                                            nomically  achievable.   Any -vegetable
                               -57-
  Intermittently discharges process waste
  water duztng <;h* processing season

-------

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-------
         INDUSTRY:  Canned  &  Preserved  Fruits  & Vegetables

         SUBPART H:  Canned & Miscellaneous  Specialties
                        .tions establish
r407.82
   (a)  The following
 the quantity of BODS controlled by this
 section, which may be discharged by a
^•medium"  or  "large*  gristing  point
Isource subject to the provisions of this
 subpart after application  of the  best
 practicable control technology currently
 available. Any food specialty plant which
 continuously or intermittently discharges
 process waste water during the process-
 ing season -"hy-ft meet the fr*"!*!*!  aver—
 age, T"Ģ^ytĢm  thirty day average, and
 TtunHTmmt (jay  SOD5 limitations. Food
 specialty  plants  employing long  term
 waste stabilization, where an or a portion
 of the process waste water discharge is
[Metrioanli
. of final product?
Jb of final ptoductl
                       o( daily
                mom  -aims tat 30       .
               far toy outaKUttfi ibaUnot
                ldģT
AddĢdlBĢiģdlĢnti__.
Babytood.	
CMpe
 Con.
           ass
           L3
 Potato
ass
0.71

LM
                           1U
                           aat

                           434
               0.41

               an
                             0.96
                             0.19 I

                             ar? i
                             1.9B i
                                   an
stored for the entire processing season,
Ģpd release at a controlled rate with state*
approval,  shall meet only the  annual i
average BOD5 -HTn^+ttttrm*  ESuent limi—'
tations  for the  soups subcategory are1
based upon pounds Ob)  or kilograms
(kg)  of pollutant per 1000 pounds  Ub)
or fr^figyg-TrK (iig) of raw fo^ iĢ ^T^tgt
   (b) The following Hmfl meet only the an-1
 n&stl average TSS
           ior the soups subcategory are
 based upon pounds 3b)  or Idlograins
 (kg)  of pollutant per 1000 pounds  (XbJ
 or kflograaa (Ickg) of raw ingredients.  •
                                                         [Metric onto, kc/kkĢ at bad prodncs
                                                         ^^n.n rmģ,L ibfijpfl j]) at <^Ģi product)

                                                                   jnnm  Tainca lor 30  *renca
                                                                  for koy  eonaaeadT*  iluU not
                                                                          days staall
                                                  •Baby
                                                   CUpK
                                                    Co
                                                    Potato.
                                                    Torflfla,
                                                   Zttouietoodl,
                                                              8.3
                                                              4.M
                                                              4.3
                                                                    asr
                                                                    7.28
                                                    an
                                                    LSS

                                                    ilT
                                                    4.4ģ
                                                    XU
                                                    2.n
                                                    444

                                                    a 43
                                                    5.C8
                                                                   a oo
                                                                   aat!

                                                                   ta
                                                                   Ŗ97
                                                                   2.M
                                                                   L73
                                                                   Q.M
                                                     aumtd tptdai-
                                                      (c) The following limitations estab-
                                                          fi quality of pH controlled by **ģ*Ģ
                                                    section, which ^nay be discharged by a
                                                    "axedlnm" or  "large"  iqritM-ig  point
                                                    source subject to the pjovlsinns of this
                                                    subpart after application of  tfr* best
                                                    practicable control technology currently
                                                    available.          •  •
                                                       Sfllvent               .             \
                                                     oluraetertitta.    Ejlitent limitation*    I
                                                    OU.a4gn.M~ Sb*a not ĢzeoĢl 20m-/0.
                                                    pB  —_~_ At  .U  ttrna*  within ttģ
                                                                     raaga Ģ-0 to 3J.
                                            §407.23  Efllnmt luniUitioiui
                                                FTpr*"*"-^***!  the de*7ee of effluent
                                                redaction Attainable by &a *pplica-
                                                txm of the bĢal -wiUble terhnoloty
                                                ecoaomieaJl7 ĢeaierablĢ.
                                              (a)  The  following limitations estab-
                                            lish the quantity of BCD5 controlled by
                                            this section, which ra*? be discharged by
                                            an existing- point source subject to the
                                            provisions of this subpart after applica-
                                            tion of the best available technology eco-
                                            nomically a^hl"^"^^*!  *"y food special-
                                            ty plant  which continuously  or inter-
                                            mittently discharges process waste water
                                            during the  processing season shall meet
                                                an-nmtl  average,
                                            day average.
                                                  day BODS
                      limitations. Pood specialty plants  em-
                      ploying long  term  waste stabilization,
                      where all  or  a portion of ?ha  process
                      waste water discharge is stored  for' the
                      entire processing season and released at
                                                                                                            L'.--.
                                                                                                       —
                                                                                                       . ,"-•
                                                                                                             .
                                      -61-

-------
                        Arena*
                        of daily   Annual
                      Tftlnaifortt  ivtno
                (Or anr  eanaewtlYa  iball not
                1 dģy   dmyt tbaU
                      DOt
Added tasndtaotc
                            0.550
                            O.SSO

                            am
                            0.811
                             0.898

                             L344
                             1.3M

                             L.SJ
                             1.23

                             1.10
                             L10

                             a 142
                             a 142
                             0.1O
                             4161

                             iOOO
                             1000
                             8.706
                             0.7W
a 230
a so

0.290
a 280
assr
aisz

aĢa
0.828

a 879
aan

a 530
 O.OSO
 0.080
 0.097
 0.087

 0.93  1
 0.829  |
                                   aau i
                                   0.3J0 ;
  Lam.
a controlled rate  with state approval,
shall meet  only  the "rn^ai  average
BODS limitations. Effluent  limitations!
for the soups subcategory are based upon
	~*~i Qb)  or kilograms Qcg) of pollut- •
  aats per 1000 pounds  Ob) of kflograms
  (kJtg) of raw ingredients.
     (b) Tt.e foUowtos limitations  estab-
  lish the quantity of TSS controlled  by;
  this section, which may be discharged by
  • an adstmg point source subject to the
  provisions of this subpart after applica- \
  tton of the best available technology *eo-1
  TicimlmTly achievable. Any food specialty |
  plant which Ģ"
-------
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                         TAB c

       COST ESTIMATES FOR MUNICIPAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS

The cost estimates and pollutant removal rates for determining the
incremental cost of removal at a POTW are primarily drawn from three
EPA references.  These references generally present cost curves
from which total annual costs can be estimated and tables indicating
effluent concentrations achievable from various treatment systems.
The purpose of this TAB is to present the tables and graphs from
which the incremental costs of removal are estimated.  The methodology
and calculations by which the estimates are made are included
in the Federal Register notice. The following figures are presented:

   •      "Areawide Assessment Procedures Manual, Appendix H," Office
          of Research and Development, EPA:

          Figure 1 - Development of Capital Costs:  This figure
                     indicates the cost components that must be added
                     to the quantities obtained from the cost curves.

          Figure 2 - Treatment System Performance Matrix:
                     This figure presents  the effluent concentrations
                     achievable by various treatment systems.

          Figure 3 - Treatment System 5 - Activated Sludge:  This  "
                     figure presents the equipment and operating and
                     maintenance costs for an activated sludge
                     system.

          Figure 4 - Treatment System 6 - Activated Sludge
                     with Metal Salt Addition:  This figure presents
                     the equipment and operating and maintenance
                     costs'for a system designed to remove total
                     phosphorus.

          Figure 5 - Treatment System 13 - Small Flow Treatment
                     Systems:  This figure presents the equipment
                     and operating and maintenance costs for package
                     treatment systems.

          Figure 6 - Facultative Lagoon (warm climate): This figure
                     presents the equipment and operating and
                     maintenance costs for facultative lagoons.

          Figure 7 - Miscellaneous Structures:  This figure presents
                     the construction cost and operating and maintenance
                     cost for miscellaneous structures.  Not all of
                     the costs are applicable to small flow systems,
                     so 50% of the costs were allocated for systems
                     under 1 million gallons per day.

-------
"Technical Policy and Procedures 1978 Survey of Needs
for Publicly Owned Wastewater Facilities," EPA:

Figure 8 - Wastewater Treatment Costs: This figure presents
           the capital costs for several treatment systems.

"An Analysis of Construction Cost Experience for Wastewater
Treatment Plants,"  Municipal Construction Division, EPA:

Figure 9 - Treatment Plant Construction Cost Curves
           - Smaller Flows:  This figure presents the
           capital costs for several treatment systems.

Figure 10- Treatment Plant Construction Cost Curves
           - Larger Flows:  This figure presents the
           capital costs for several treatment systems.

-------
                              TABLE H-2

                     DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITAL COSTS
Comoonent Installed Construction Costs
     CUnit processes specific to
     each Cost Estimate)                     $_

     Misc. Structures (Figure H-29)*         $_

Subtotal 1

                         Avg.    Range**
     Piping              W"    8-15%       $
     Electrical           8%     5-12%       $"
     Instrumentation      5%     3-10%       $"
     Site Preparation     5%     1-10%       $"

Subtotal 2

     Engineering and Construction
       -Supervision 6 15%     ***            $_

     Contingencies § 15%      ***            $_

TOTAL CAPITAL COST
  *Not to be included when municipal wastewater treatment system or wet
   weather treatment process curves are used.  These include miscellaneous
   structures in their construction costs.

 **Range due to level of complexity, degree of instrumentation, subsoil
   conditions, configuration of site, etc. .

 ***Percentage of Subtotal 2.

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