United States
                                  Environmental Protection
                                  Industrial Environmental Research
                                  Research Triangle Park NC 27711
                                  Research and Devejppment
                                  EPA-600/S2-81-053  July 1981
Project  Summary
                                  Treatment  of  Coke
                                  Plant  Wastewater

                                  Richard Osantowski, Anthony Geinopolos, and Gary Rollinger
                                    The full report documents a pilot-
                                  plant study of the use of advanced
                                  waste treatment methods in upgrading
                                  metallurgical cokemaking wastewaters
                                  to Best Available Technology (BAT)
                                  levels.  Mobile treatment units, oper-
                                  able at a flow rate of 19 l/min, were
                                  used. Two physical/chemical treat-
                                  ment trains were studied: (a) alkaline-
                                  bon, and (b) alkaline-chlorination/
                                  tration. For each treatment studied,
                                  samples (including toxic pollutants)
                                  and operational data were obtained
                                  for later use in assessing and com-
                                  paring treatment adequacy. Chlorina-
                                  tion was effective in consistently
                                  reducing pollutant concentrations to
                                  below  BAT levels, except for total
                                  cyanide. Filtration was essential as an
                                  adjunct to alkaline chlorination for
                                  post-treatment suspended solids re-
                                  moval. Activated carbon and sodium
                                  bisulfite were efficient in removing
                                  excess chlorine resulting from treat-
                                  ment by alkaline chlorination, although
                                  carbon was more effective in removing
                                  organic priority pollutants.

                                    This Project Summary was devel-
                                  oped by EPA's Industrial Environmen-
                                  tal Research Laboratory, Research
                                  Triangle Park. NC,  to announce  key
                                  findings of the research project that is
                                  fully documented in a separate report
                                  of the same title (see Project Report
                                  ordering information at back).
                                    The purpose of this project was to
                                  investigate the effectiveness of selected
                                  advanced waste treatment technologies
                                  for treating By-Product Cokemaking
                                  Subcategory wastewater to Best Avail-
                                  able Technology (BAT) Economically
                                  Achievable levels. The wastewaters
                                  generated from the by-product recovery
                                  process include excess ammonia liquors,
                                  benzol plant wastes, final cooler waste-
                                  waters, desulfunzer wastes, scrubber
                                  blowdown, and tar decanter waste-
                                  waters. Pollutants contained  in these
                                  wastewaters typically include suspended
                                  solids, ammonia, phenolic compounds,
                                  cyanide, sulfide, oil and greases, and
                                  many toxic pollutants.
                                   The investigation  was conducted
                                  using the U S  Environmental Protec-
                                  tion Agency's (EPA's) mobile physical/
                                  chemical treatment system. This pilot
                                  plant is housed in two semi-trailer vans
                                  and includes four chamber rapid mix
                                  tanks (alkaline chlorination) with a
                                  chemical feed  system,  a  dual  media
                                  filter skid, and activated carbon columns.
                                   The advanced waste treatment trams
                                  that were investigated on a pilot scale
                                   1. ACL + FIL + AC
                                   2. ACL + SBD + FIL

                                  AC: activated carbon
                                  ACLj alkaline chlorination
                                  FIL dual media filtration
                                  SBD: sodium bisulfite dechlorination

  In the first pilot treatment train, the
coke plant pre-treated wastewater was
passed through a two-stage alkaline
chlormation process for cyanide, phenol,
sulfide, thiocyanate and ammonia re-
moval. The wastewater was then filtered
for  suspended solids removal and  de-
chlorinated on activated carbon. The
second treatment train again consisted
of alkaline chlorination which was
followed by sodium bisulfite dechlori-
nation and  dual media filtration.
  Prior to conducting the pilot studies,
in-depth bench tests were performed to
obtain preliminary information on treat-
ment feasibility, expected magnitude of
treatment efficiency and optimum treat-
ment train  process element arrange-
  During the pilot study, samples were
collected for both conventional and toxic
pollutants.  Operational data were also
recorded on a daily basis to evaluate the
effectiveness of the respective treat-
ment trains. The pilot study results were
evaluated using the three primary criteria
listed below:
  1. process and/or treatment tram
  2. capital and annualized costs
  3. space requirements

  The advanced wastewater treatment
technologies evaluated would normally
be ipplied to an effluent stream that met
the   1977  Best Practicable (Control)
Technology (BPT) requirements. How-
ever, during the study, pollutant levels
were consistently higher  than   BPT
levels because of pretreatment  equip-
ment problems

 Summary and Conclusions
   Two physical/chemical treatment
 trains were investigated. Train 1  con-
 sisted of alkaline chlorination, filtration,
 and activated carbon. Train 2 consisted
 of alkaline chlorination, filtration, and
 sodium bisulfite dechlormation.
    1. The  results of the pilot program
      indicated that alkaline chlorination
      was  effective in reducing influent
      concentrations of ammonia, oil
      and  grease, phenol, sulfide, sus-
      pended solids, and thiocyanate to
      below future BAT levels. The pres-
      ence of complexing  agents  in the
      coke plant effluent prevented com-
      plete oxidation of the cyanide by
      chlorine; as a result, BATcyamde-T
      values could not be met  consist-
      ently. An estimated capital cost of
      $711,000 and annualized cost of
      $17.47/3,785 liters ($1 7.477
   1,000 gal.) would be realized for a
   1,022 mVday (0.27 mgd) treat-
   ment facility, assuming current
   wastewater pollutant concentra-
   tions. If the proposed BAT system
   were applied  to  a  waste stream
   that met BPT pollutant parameters,
   the  annualized cost could  be re-
   duced to $9.26/3,785 liters ($9.26/
   1,000 gal.).
2.  Filtration provided effective pol-
   ishirig of  the  alkaline chlorinated
   coke plant wastewater, removing
   71  percent of the influent sus-
   pended solids. Suspended solids
   removal could be increased to 93
   percent with the addition of 3 mg/l
   polymer.  A 1,022  mVday (0.27
   mgd) filtration system without
   polymer addition would have an
   estimated capital cost of $218,000,
   with an annualized cost of $0.48/
   3,785 liters ($0.48/1,000 gal.) A
   similar  system with polymer addi-
   tion would have a  capital cost of
   $243,000 and an  estimated  an-
   nualized cost of $0.58/3,785 liters
   ($0.58/1,000 gal.).
3  Activated carbon and  sodium bi-
   sulfite  were investigated as  de-
   chlormatmg  agents.  Activated
   carbon  was found to consistently
   remove 95 percent of the incoming
   total chlorine. The treatment cost
   for  a 1,022  mVday (0.27 mgd)
   activated  carbon  dechlormatio
   system was estimated at $ 1,122,00
   capital outlay with  an annualize
   cost of $5.47/3,785 liters ($5.47
   1,000 gal.). Sodium bisulfite pro
   vided 100 percent chlorine remove
   at a bisulfite:chlorine ratio of 2.1
   A 1,022 mVday (0.27 mgd)sodiur
   bisulfite dechlorination syster
   has an estimated  capital treat
   ment equipment cost of $174,001
   with an annualized  cost of $0 98,
   3,785 liters ($0.98/1,000 gal.).

4. During the pilot study, 63 sample
   were analyzed for  priority pollu
   tants. The results concluded tha
   the physical/chemical treatmen
   trains investigated created severe
   volatile organic priority pollutants
   Tram 1  technologies removed 73
   percent  of the volatile organic
   priority pollutants to  non-detect-
   able  limits, Tram 2 technologies
   were effective in treating only 1"
   percent of incoming  volatile organii
   toxics to non-detectable levels
   Semivolatile organics were al
   effectively reduced for Tram 1
   Train 2 also reduced all semivola
   tile organics to less than 100/jg/
   except for naphthalene. The  phys
   ical/chemical treatment trains
   removed only negligible concen-
   trations of metals.
 Richard Osantowski, Anthony Gemopolos, and Gary Rollmgerare with Rexnord,
   inc., Milwaukee, Wl 53214.
 Robert V. Hendriks is the EPA Project Officer (see below)
 The complete report,  entitled "Physical/Chemical  Treatment of Coke Plant
   Wastewater," (Order No  PB 81-206 021; Cost: $17 00, subject to change)
   will be  available only from
        National Technical Information Service
        5285 Port Royal Road
        Springfield, VA 22161
        Telephone. 703-487-4650
 The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at.
        Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
        U.S Environmental Protection Agency
        Research Triangle  Park, NC 27711
                                                                           •fr  US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1981 --757-01? 7255

United States
Environmental Protection
          Center for Environmental Research
          Cincinnati OH 45268
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