v. 3
            /?   ' 
            July, 1965
     Public Health Service

Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control


                            I - INTRODUCTION
     Part I of the report covered the main body of Lake Erie, its
problems, their causes, and general remedial measures.  Part 2 dealt
with tributaries and subareas in Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio.

     Pollution problems in three areas tributary to Lake Erie within
Pennsylvania and New York, are discussed in this section of the

                            II - PENNSYLVANIA
Description of Area

     The Pennsylvania Basin of Lake Erie includes the area from
Twentymile Creek on the east to, "but not including, Conneaut Creek on
the west.  The area comprises 38^ square miles and is located within
Erie County, Pennsylvania and Chautauqua County, New York.  The basin
is k6 miles long and varies in width from 6 to 13 miles.  The land
rises from the Lake in a steep bluff ICO to 200 feet high.  This makes
it generally inaccessible and unusuable for recreation, with the notable
exception of Presque Isle State Park, a seven-mile long sand and gravel
peninsula at Erie.  This peninsula encloses Erie Harbor.

     The streams in this area have steep gradients as they descend from
the uplands.  Flow is considerably slower through the plains.  Several
streams drop over a steep bluff as they flow into Lake Erie.  Streams
of importance are Crooked, Elk, Mill, Sixteenmile, Twentymile, and
Walnut Creeks.  In Sixteenmile Creek, flow  has varied from 0.2 cfs (1951)
to 9,710 cfs (19*4-2).

     Erie, with a 1960 population of  138,000, is the third largest city
in Pennsylvania; the Erie Metropolitan complex is Pennsylvania's fifth
largest, with 219,000 people.

     There is a variety of industrial production in this area.  Over
200 manufacturers produce machinery, steel, paper, plastics, and other
products.  Erie's port facilities handle over six million tons of lake
shipping annually.  The lakefront, particularly Presque Isle State
Park, attracts people from as far as Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and Buffalo.

Water Uses

              Municipal and Industrial Water Supplies

     The principal source of water for both municipal and industrial
usage is Lake Erie, which supplies over 90 per cent of domestic water
supplies.  The other 10 per cent is supplied from reservoirs and
shallow wells,  Three major industries and a power plant maintain
their own supply systems from the Lake.  The City of North East has
developed Sixteenmile Creek and French Creek (in the Allegheny River
Watershed) for its water supply.  Only 7>000 people in urban areas use
ground water.


     Erie serves as the focal point of recreation for a broad area.
Swimming, boating, water skiing, and fishing and the esthetic enjoyment
                                  10 U

                           PENNSYLVANIA BASIN

of clean water are available throughout most of the basin.  Presque Isle
State Park is the major attraction.  Park attendance on a warm summer
weekend is over 100,000 people, and between three and four million visit
the Park annually.  The recent completion of new roadways and other facilities
will further stimulate this important water use.  The early development of
adjacent beach areas to the east and west is expected,
     Although there are only k,^00 boats registered in Erie County, the
area is used extensively for pleasure boating.  On a weekend in the
mid- summer of 1962 the Pennsylvania Department of Fish and Game counted
12,000 boats in the lakefront area.

                       Fish and Aquatic Life

     Excellent year-round fishing exists in many of the area's streams.
Twentymile Creek, Trout Run, and Godfrey's Run are good trout streams.
All other streams support fish life except Sixteenmile Creek from Route
89 to Route 5, Cascade Creek, Mill Creek below West Thirtieth Street,
and Garrison Run.  Many fish of various types are taken from Presque
Isle Harbor and all along the shore and into the Lake.

Sources of Wastes

     The principal sources of pollution in the basin are municipal
sewage from treatment plan effluents, combined sewer overflows, and
industrial wastes.  Other wastes, discharged intermittently, also have
severe, though temporary effects.  Among these are accidental spills
from vessels or industries, and wastes from lake vessels.

                          Municipal Wastes

     The major sources of municipal wastes are Erie, Girard, Lake City,
and North East.  All major treatment plants in this basin provide
secondary treatment and remove an average of 85 per cent of the BOD.
North East and Erie chlorinate their sewage treatment plant effluents.
Lake City and Girard are enlarging their treatment plants and plan to
include chlorination, as required by the State of Pennsylvania.

     Bacterial tests of Mill Creek and Garrison Run indicate that they
are receiving domestic wastes.  Samples collected in the harbor off
Mill Creek in 196"^ revealed high coliform bacterial counts.

                     Combined Sewer Overflows

     Lake City and North East have separate sewers- for domestic wastes
and stormwater runoff.  Girard has a combination of separate and combined

systems.  Erie is served by a combined system, mainly in the downtown

                           Industrial Wastes

    One industry, Hammermill Paper Company, contributes 90 per cent
of the total oxygen demand loading to this area's water.  This part of
Hammermill"s waste will soon be largely removed with the installation
of deep well disposal.  However, this will not alleviate the problem
caused by the discharge of tannins and lignins from spent pulping liquors,
These wastes cause the water to foam, turn brownish black in appearance,
and produce a strong odor.

    Other industries having discharges with a more localized effect
are Gunnison Brothers, Interlake Iron Corporation, General Electric, and
Parker-White Metal.  Noticeable quantities of oil and iron have been
observed on Fourmile Creek.

Effects of Wastes on Water Quality and Water Uses

    Various communities along the lakefront have individual pollution
problems.  Beaches to the west of Presque Isle have maintained good
quality, while those to the east, including Beach 11 on Presque Isle,
have at times been severely polluted.  The pollution problems at the
beaches have been both bacterial and esthetic.

    Fish kills have occurred sporadically in the history of the lakeshore
area and the various tributaries.  Many of the fish kills were
caused by industrial waste discharges.  A combined effort by State and
local officials, and wildlife organizations has helped to curb illegal
industrial discharges.

                                  Erie Harbor

    As Erie Harbor is enclosed by Presque Isle and has only a small
opening into Lake Erie, flow in and out is restricted.  Water color in
the harbor and along the east shore is a deep brownish-tan, caused by
pulp and paper wastes.  Turbidity is relatively low in the harbor.
Filamentous green algae (Cladophora) is present in most areas of the
harbor where the depth is less than six feet.  Bottom deposits in the
harbor are a brownish black combination of mud, silt, and detritus
(including wood fiber).

    The waters of Erie Harbor near downtown marina facilities and docks,
and off Mill Creek, had high coliform bacteria densities.  They ranged
from 1,000 to 500,000 organisms per 100 ml near Mill Creek and in the
ship channel.  The source of this pollution is probably Mill Creek,

where colifonn densities of over 1,000,000 organisms per 100 ml occurred
and from other local sources of pollution.  Enteric pathogens of the
Salmonella group were isolated from 80 per cent of the samples collected
in both Mill Creek and the Harbor.  This same organism was found in
Erie's sewage.

                        Lake Erie Shoreline

     The Hammermill Paper Company's waste outfall is located just east
of the mouth of Erie Harbor.  With the prevailing winds in the a,rea
from the west, Hammermill's effluent affects the water quality and esthetic
appearance of beaches and boating areas for 10 to 20 miles eastward.
This line of foam and foul smelling colored water is normally visible
at Sixteenmile and Twentymile Creeks, and hinders the development of
the eastern portion of the basin as a water supply source and as a
recreational area.  It also reduces the usefulness and value of lakefront
property,  when the wind is from the east, these wastes make parts or
all of the beaches on Presque Isle unusable for water contact sports.

     In addition to their adverse esthetic effects, these discharges
cause severe problems with tastes and odors in domestic water supplies
which require  costly additional treatment.  In the spring of 1.96k, for
a period of 5 "to 10 days, when the wind was from the east, the City of
Erie had high tannin concentrations in its water intakes.  Periodically,
Erie is forced to close its eastern intake to avoid such high tannin

     In the summer of 1.96k, the Erie County Health Department carried
out an intensive microbiological examination of the beaches at Presque
Isle State Park.  Presque Isle State Park officials, the U. S. Public
Health Service, the Pennsylvania Department of Health, and the City of
Erie cooperated in this study.  A summary of the data collected in the
summer of 16U from over ^,000 separate tests appears "below:
                            SUMMER 196U

                      Total Coliform Density*  Fecal Streptococcus
                                   % Greater        Density*
      Beach            Median      Than 1,000        Median

Presque Isle - 1         36             k
     The data in the above table indicate  that Beach 1 on the west end
of the park has a source of occasional pollution which diminishes as it
progresses along the beach, whereas Beach 11 on the eastern tip is
affected by larger and more consistent sources of pollution.

     Preliminary analyses indicate that,  except for short periods, all
of the beaches except Beach 11 are relatively free from pollution.
Beach 11 was closed as a precautionary measure several times this past
summer by Park, officials while all western beaches remained open at
all times.

Recommended Actions
     The recommendations for pollution abatement set forth in Chapter I,
Part 1 are to be adopted where applicable in the Pennsylvania Basin.   In
addition, it is recommended that the following specific actions be taken:

     1.  The Erie metropolitan area develop a plan which will outline
the steps to be taken to provide solutions to pollution created by
combined sewer overflows.

     2.  The following industrial plants take the necessary actions listed:

                   Industry                      Necessary Action

          Hammermill Paper Company   -   Reduction of Solids and Spent
                                         Cook Liquors

          Interlake Iron Company     -   Reduction of Phenols and Solids

Description of Area

     The western Kew York Basin (Figure IIT-l) extends from (but does
not include) Twenty-Mile Creek on the New York-Pennsylvania "boundary on
the west to the divide between the Silver Creek and Cattaraugus Creek
watersheds on the east.  This basin is located almost wholly within
Chautauqua County.  A small segment of the Silver Creek Basin is con-
tained in Cattaraugus County.

     The basin is approximately hO miles long, varies in width from
k to 13 miles, and contains 2kj square miles.  The land rises from the
lake in a steep bluff 50 to 100 feet high, which makes it inaccessible
and unusable for recreation.

     The three major streams are Chautauqua, Canadaway, and Silver Creeks.
Each drains between 36 and 52 square miles and is 15 to 20 miles long.
The streams have a fairly steep gradient with an average slope of over
50 feet per mile.  The lower reaches of the basins are relatively flat,
the majority of the fall taking place in the upper reaches.

     Outside of the urban areas of Dunkirk, Fredonia, Silver Creek,
and Westfield, this area is predominantly farmland and woodland.  The
I960 census lists 51*328 people within the basin.  The two largest
cities are Dunkirk (19,7^6) and Fredonia (8,^77).

     The cities of Silver Creek, Dunkirk, Fredonia, and Westfield have
industries centered around food and grape processing, metal fabricating,
and clothing production.  The chief farming activities are dairy farming,
truck farming, and vineyards.

Water Uses

     Water for both municipalities and industries is taken mainly from
Lake Erie and other surface water sources.  Excluding industrial cooling
water, about 53 per cent of the water is obtained from Lake Erie, U6
per cent from various creeks, and 1 per cent from wells.

                       Municipal Water Supply

     Dunkirk obtains a municipal water supply of U.O million gallons
per day (mgd) from Lake Erie.  Fredonia (1.2 mgd), Westfield (1.1 mgd),
Silver Creek (1.0 mgd), and Brocton (0.^5 mgd) obtain their water from
Canadaway, Chautauqua, Silver, and Slippery Rock Creeks respectively.


                      Industrial Water Supply

     The Niagara-Mohawk Power Corporation's Dunkirk Plant uses about
("OO mgd of Lake Erie water for cooling water.  This is the only major
industrial water use in this area.


     The City of Dunkirk's two municipal beaches are the center for
recreational activities of the area.  These beaches are heavily used
during the summer months by swimmers,  boaters,  water skiers,  and
fishermen.  There are no public bathing areas on the streams  covered
" n this study.

                       Fish and Aquatic Life

     A variety of fish are available from streams and the lake shoreline.
Chautauqua and Little Chautauqua Creeks are both trout streams, and are
used for spawning by rainbow trout from the lake.  Pollution  prevents
the full usage of Canadaway, Silver, and Walnut Creeks.

Principal Sources of Wastes

                          Municipal Wastes

     Excluding the summer population at two state parks, two  cities
provide secondary treatment for the wastes from 12,300 people.  There
are 20,500 people served by three primary treatment plants.  Eighteen
thousand people are not served by municipal sewerage systems.

                         Industrial Wastes

     Twelve industries discharge wastes to the area's waters.  Welch
Grape Juice Co., Inc., discharges pressing and process wastes and
storage tank wash waters at Brocton and Westfield.  Seneca Westfield
Maid, Inc. and Growers Cooperative Grape Juice Co. discharge  similar
wastes in Westfield.  In Dunkirk, Niagara-Mohawk Power Corporation
discharges heat and flyash; Twin Cities Asphalt Company discharges solids;
Great Lakes Color Printing Company discharges ink and cleaning solutions;
and City Laundry discharges fibrous material and laundry wastes.

Effects of Wastes on Water Quality and Water Uses


     Grape juice processing wastes discharged by four firms in Brocton
cause problems of appearance, odor, and oxygen depletion in their

receiving waters.  Brocton also discharges raw and partially treated
domestic sewage to Slippery Rock Creek.


    The main pollution problem at Dunkirk is that of flyash from the
Niagara-Mohawk power plant.  The flyash is dumped as land fill behind
the plant but is washed into the harbor during rains.  In sections of
the harbor, flyash deposits were as much as two feet deep.

    Dunkirk harbor has problems with algae, especially Cladophora.
Storms break them loose and they are washed onto the beaches of the
area where they decompose, producting a foul odor.  Dunkirk's harbor is
shallow and rooted aquatic weeds and algae grow abundantly, making
boating almost impossible.  Cladophora growths are heavy outside the

    A heavy black slick occurs below Great Lakes Color Printing Company.
Brown Discoloration and suspended solids are found near the Twin Cities
Asphalt Company discharge.  Fiber deposits on the stream bank and a
slight discoloration of the stream can be observed from City Laundry.

    In the summer of 1964, the City of Dunkirk conducted an extensive
study of its two major bathing areas.  Total coliform densities ranged
from 8 to 500,000 organisms per 100 ml.  The mean coliform density
exceeded the recreational objectives of 1,000 organisms per 100 ml for
34 per cent (Point Gratiot) and 49 per cent (Wright Park) of the time
sampled.  The beaches are now closed for one to ten days after rainfall
or strong winds.

                               Silver Creek

    Walnut Creek and Silver Creek are polluted by raw sewage discharged
from Forestville and Silver Creek and by wastes discharged by the Silver
Creek Preserving Company.  This pollution renders the area unsuitable
for any water contact sports.

Recommended Actions

    The recommendations for pollution abatement set forth in Chapter I,
Part 1 are to be adopted where applicable in the Western New York Basin.
In addition, it is recommended that the following specific actions be

    1.  The following industrial plants take the necessary actions listed:

      Industry                        Necessary Action

Niagara Mohawk Power Company          Keep flyash out of Lake

Silver Creek Preserving Company       BOD reduction

Welch Grape Juice Company, Inc.       BOD reduction

Seneca Westfield Maid, Inc.           BOD reduction

Growers Cooperative Grape Juice Co.   BOD reduction

                                IV - ERIE-NIAGARA
Description of Area

    The portion of the Erie-Niagara Basin that drains to Lake Erie
(Figure IV-L) extends from the head of the Niagara River on the east
through the Cattaraugus Creek watershed on the west.

                              Cities and Industries

    The Erie-Niagara Basin is one of the top 14 manufacturing centers in
the United States.  An abundant water supply, low cost power, excellent
transportation, a pool of skilled labor, and an advantageous location
have been the main factors in the area's economic development.  Primary
metals, chemicals, transportation equipment, and grain products comprise
the principal products.  Although the area is noted for its heavy
industry, agriculture is also an important part of the economy.  Dairy
products, fruit, and truck farming are the principal farm products.
Buffalo is the second largest city in New York, with a population of
over 500,000.  The Buffalo complex is the center of industry and
business for the Basin.


    The major streams in the Basin rise in the Appalachian uplands and
flow down through the lowlands to Lake Erie.  These streams and their
larger tributaries are potential sources of water supply, particularly
those in the upland valleys.  The average flow varies from 125 cfs
on Cayuga Creek to 717 cfs on Cattaraugus Creek.  The smaller streams
and tributaries, especially those of the lowlands, go dry or are reduced
to a very low flow in the summer.

Water Uses

    Lake Erie and the Niagara River are the major sources for all
domestic and industrial water supplies for this Basin.  Just under 1,000
million gallons per day (mgd) of water are used, of which 25 to 30 per cent
is used for domestic consumption, and 70 to 75 per cent by industry for
cooling and process water.

                             Municipal Water Supply

    Over 260 mgd of water, on an average, is supplied to more than a
million domestic users.  Wells, springs, and several creeks provide less
than 2 per cent of the water, while approximately 36 per cent is taken
from the Niagara River and 62 per cent from Lake Erie.  The majority of
all domestic water is distributed by the Erie and Niagara County Water
Districts, and the municipal systems of Buffalo, Lockport, and the Tonawandas.
Regions which in the past have had to depend on

                                ERIE-NIAGARA  BASIN
                                             FIGURE UZ -I

poor-quality, low-yield well supplies now have en adequate water supply
of good quality.

                       Industrial Water Supply

     Industries in the Erie-Niagara B~s~;n use an estimated TOO ingd of
water, primarily for cooling.  Five industries along the Buffalo River
that now di-aw their cooling water from the Buffalo are installing an
intake in Buffalo Harbor to obtain higher quality (lower temperature)
water.  This cooling water, when it is discharged to the Buffalo, will
act as a dilutant to this heavily polluted river.

                        Waterborne Commerce

     The Port of Buffalo, as a link in an extensive water transportation
system and as a major Lake Erie port, is important to the local economy.
The Port of Buffalo is comprised of two "basic sections.  The Buffalo
River has a 125 - 150 foot wide, six-mile-long navigation channel with
a minimum depth of 21 feet.  Buffalo Harbor, 'i-l/2 miles long and 1,T>00
feet wide, is formed by a breakwater system and has 56 terminals.  The
chief cargoes handled are iron ore, coal, grain, limestone, sand and
gravels, steel products, scrap, flour, petroleum products, automobiles,
and sulfur.


     The Erie-Niagara Basin has an extensive recreation system.  The
crown of this system is world-famous Niagara Falls.  Over three million
visitors a year come to view the falls, and provide a large tourist
income to surrounding communities in the United States and Canada.

     Water-oriented recreational opportunities extend from Niagara Falls
to the wilds of the upper Zoar Valley.  Recreation is in fact one of
the most important uses of the waters of the Basin.  Fishing, swimming,
boating, water ski Ing, and the esthetic enjoyment of clean water are
available in many areas of the Basin.

     The demand for lakefront parks and boating facilities is high.
From Beaver Island State Park on the north to Evangola State Park on
the south, a number of beaches are available for public use.  Beaver
Island and Evangola State Parks are operated by the Niagara Frontier
State Park Commission and have maximum attendance of U0,000 and 25,000
respectively on a summer weekend.  Beaver Island has replaced the
Buffalo waterfront as a recreation center owing to the latter's heavy
industrial polluti on.

                       Fish and Aquatic Life

     Excellent fishing exists in many of the area's streams.  Warm
water fish such as bass, pike, perch, bullheads, and catfish are available
in the main streams and lower tributaries.  Trout can be taken in the
upper tributaries.  The following waters support some type of fish life:
Lake Erie, eastern end; Buffalo Creek system, upper reaches; Smokes
Creek, upper reaches; Eighteenmile Creek; and Cattaraugus Creek,  upper
reaches.  However, industrial and domestic pollution have made heavy
inroads on waters of the basin.  Big Sister Creek was once a useful
trout stream.  Bass and other fish could once be taken from the portion
of Cattaraugus Creek below Gowanda.  Fish in the lower Buffalo Creek
system and Smokes Creek have vanished.


     The polluted waters in many areas of the basin detract from the
beauty and limit recreational use.  The Buffalo River and the Erie-
Niagara shorefront are examples.  Gowanda, on Cattaraugus Creek,  presents
another esthetic eyesore.  The value of property adjacent to polluted
water is significantly decreased.

Principal Sources of Wastes

     Raw or inadequately treated wastes discharged by industries and
municipalities are the principal sources of pollution in this area.
Other wastes, which have serious effects, are accidental spills from
vessels or industries, land runoff, and wastes from lake vessels.

                          Municipal Wastes

     The estimated total discharge for the Erie-Niagara basin is between
900,000 and 1,000,000 population equivalent (PE).  This represents a
net reduction in BOD by treatment of only 37 per cent.  Individual cities
vary from Attica (90$), Arcade (90$), and Orchard Park (87$) to Buffalo
(22$), and Tonawanda Twp. (12$) removal.  Improved treatment and collection
facilities are needed in many areas.

                     Combined Sewer Overflows

     Cities in the Erie-Niagara Basin have relatively long histories.
Many cities were founded in the early 1800's, and have inherited the
antiquated combined sewer systems of early days.  Quantities of sewage
and industrial wastes are discharged to the waterways whenever excess
storm runoff occurs.  There are over 30 overflows on the Buffalo River
alone.  There are areas such as Gowanda and others which continually
discharge untreated sewage.  Corrective action is needed to remove
these sources of pollution.

                               Industrial Wastes

    There are two significant sources of industrial pollution in the
Cattaraugus Creek drainage basin.  These industries are the Peter Cooper
Corporation and the Moench Tanning Company.  Each discharges wastes
having a high oxygen demand and considerable quantities of suspended
solids.  The industrial waste data (1960) for these industries are
summarized below:

             Cattaraugus Creek - Industrial Waste Data

52 400
ispended Solids
Peter Cooper Corp.

Moench Tanning Co.

    Total               5.26        34,530       207,400       17,180
The estimated population in the Cattaraugus Creek drainage basin is
36,000 people; these two industries discharge wastes equivalent in
oxygen demand to more than five times this number.

    Smokes Creek flows through the City of Lackawanna and the Bethlehem
Steel Company property before it empties into the Lake.  An indeterminate
but large amount of industrial waste is discharged to the Creek by
Bethlehem before it enters the Lake.  Bethlehem Steel Company also
dishcarges wastes to the Lakeshore and the harbor areas.  Bethlehem Steel
is one of the major sources of pollution in the Smokes Creek area, but
detailed data concerning its discharges have not been made available by
the State.

    There are five major industries on the Buffalo River.  They use
the Buffalo River as a source of water supply and also for waste transport.
The section of the river where these industries are located is grossly
polluted.  The type of wastes discharged by each industry is tabulated
be low:

               Buffalo River - Industrial Waste Discharges

     Industry                       Type

National Aniline                    Synthetic Dyes
Socony Vacuum Oil Co.               Oil, phenolics, cyanides
Donner-Hanna Coke Co.               Phenolics, cyanide, Ammonium, oil,
                                    Solids, and BOD
Republic Steel Corp.                Phenolics, cyanide, oil, and solids
General Chemical                    Inorganic

    Details of quantity and types of waste discharged by each firm
have not been made available. These five industries have jointly
formed a corporation  with the specific purpose of obtaining a suitable
water supply.  A multi-million dollar project is presently under con-
struction to obtain a water supply from Lake Erie.  The project will
have a capacity of about 200 mgd and will be used primarily to furnish
cooling water.  The industries propose to use this water on a once through
basis, returning it directly to the River.  This increased flow will
flush wastes from the Buffalo River into Lake Erie, but it will not in
itself reduce the input of wastes to the Lake.

    Sedimentation is a problem in several areas in the Basin.  High
sediment loads are related to heavy rainfalls or snow melts, and last
for only short periods of time.  The average annual sediment load for
all areas except the upper Buffalo and Tonawanda areas ranges from 100
to 1,500 tons per year per square mile.

    Over 100,000 tons of sediment must be dredged from the Buffalo
River yearly to keep its navigation channel open.  Data indicate that
some of this sediment originates from industrial wastes discharged in
the river.

Effects of Wastes on Water Quality and Water Uses

    Waste discharges in the Erie-Niagara Basin affect the immediate
receiving stream, the shoreline, and the eastern side of the Niagara

                      Shoreline and Recreation Areas

    In the summer of 1964, an extensive microbiological study of the
major public beaches was conducted by the Erie County Department of
Health.  Beaches were examined from Evangola State Park on the west to
Beaver Island State Park on the east.  It was found that in most cases
there was a direct correlation between rainfall, and high or gusty winds
and co1iform densities.  Several of these beaches are now automatically
closed to the public after rainfall and/or high winds, for one to three
days.  The beaches were affected by nearby streams carrying wastes, by
sewage treatment plant discharges, and by combined sewer system overflows.

                              Cattaraugus Creek

    Raw domestic sewage, toxic wastes, oil, organic loadings are
poured into Cattaraugus Creek in the vicinity of Gowanada by Peter
Cooper Corp., Moench Tanning Co., and the Village of Gowanda.  Dumps

are located along the creek banks.  Above these outfalls the stream is
clear; below them the stream becomes a virtual cesspool during low
flow months.  Damage to fish and wildlife and recreation by pollution
occurs in that part of the basin below the outfalls.

                           Eighteenmile Creek

    Eighteenmile Creek is relatively free from pollution except in
the vicinity of Hamburg, while Big Sister Creek has been grossly
polluted and was only 30 per cent sewered.  With the recent construc-
tion of two new sewage treatment plants in the area, water  quality in
Big Sister Creek should improve.  Both of these streams have a potential
as fish and recreation areas.

                          Buffalo River System

    The Buffalo River Basin is composed of the Buffalo River and its
tributaries of Cazenovia Creek, Cuyuga Creek, and Buffalo Creek.

    Under prevalent conditions of sluggish flow, the lower Buffalo
River resembles a vast septic tank, with no dissolved oxygen and high
biochemical oxygen demand during critical periods, and with oil, color
and exotic waste materials.  Following heavy rainfall combined sewer
overflows and bottom scourings threaten the quality of the water supplies
of the City of Buffalo and other municipalities.  The Buffalo River is
too grossly polluted to support fish, bottom dwelling animals, or
attached algae.

    Except for high coliform densities, the water in Cayuga Creek
above Lancaster and Depew is good in quality.  At low flow, Cayuga Creek
becomes septic below the Depew Sewage Treatment Plant.  Oil discharges
have been noted in the lower seven miles of the Creek.

    The West Branch of Cazenovia Creek is of good sanitary quality; so
is the East Branch except for its last two miles which have a high BOD
loading from the East Aurora Sewage Treatment Plant.  Cazenovia Creek's
water quality remains relatively high until the stream reaches West
Seneca.  The stream supports a well-balanced population of bottom
dwelling animals which include many pollution-sensitive forms.

    Pollution from sewer discharges in the lower six miles of the stream
degrade the water quality until, near the mouth, the DO at tiaes becomes

Recommended Actions

     The recommendations for pollution abatement set forth in Chapter I,
Part 1 are to be adopted where applicable in the Erie-Niagara Basin.  In
addition, it is recommended that the following specific actions be taken:

     1.  The Buffalo metropolitan area develop a plan which will outline
the steps to be taken to provide solutions to water pollution created by
combined sewer overflows.

     2.  Necessary action be taken to eliminate oil and debris in the Lake,
tributaries, and harbor waters.

     3.  The following industries provide waste treatment or reduction of
waste at its source to eliminate water pollution:  Allied Chemical and Dye
Corporation, General Chemical Division; Allied Chemical & Dye Corp.,
National Aniline Division; Bethlehem Steel Co.; Donner-Hanna Coke Corporation;
Electric Materials Co.; Erie Brewing Co.; Erie Reduction Co.; Hanna Furnace
Corporation; Kaiser Aluminum Co.; Moench Tanning Co.; Perm-Dixie Cement Co.;
Peter Cooper Corp.; Socony-Vacuum Oil Company; Union Plating Works.
                                            <- U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 19650-782-555