United States
Environmental Protection
Municipal Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
 Research and Development
EPA-600/S2-84-059  Apr. 1984
Project  Summary
Cost  Equations for  Small
Drinking  Water  Systems
Richard G. Eilers
  This report presents capital  and
operation/maintenance cost equations
for the 33 drinking water treatment
processes listed in Table 1 as applied to
small flows (2,500 gpd to 1 mgd). The
equations are based on previous cost
data development  work performed
under contract to EPA. These equations
provide a hand calculation method that
can be easily used to compute prelim-
inary cost estimates for individual unit
processes orforan entire system within
the specified size range.
  This Project Summary was developed
by EPA's Municipal Environmental Re-
search Laboratory.  Cincinnati, OH, to
announce key findings of the research
project that is fully documented in a
separate report of the same  title (see
Project Report ordering information at

  The need to consider the cost of drinking
water production when regulations are
proposed was established by  the Safe
Drinking  Water Act  of 1974. To  help
measure the  economic  impact of the
regulation in advance, to provide a cost
analysis device for efficient unit process
design, and to estimate the cost effective-
ness of alternative  designs for  small
systems, the cost information in the report
being summarized here can be of value in
performing preliminary studies.

Results and Discussion
  The cost equations presented in this
report are based on the results of previous
EPA sponsored research work that devel-
oped a  large data base for construction
and operation/maintenance costs for unit
treatment processes associated  with
Table 1.   Drinking Water Treatment Unit
Package Complete Treatment
Package Gravity Filtration
Package Pressure Filtration
Filter Media - Rapid Sand
Filter Media - Dual Media
Filter Media - Mixed Media
Filter Media - Mixed Media/Supervised
Package Pressure Diatomite Filtration
Package Vacuum Diatomite Filtration
Package Ultrafiltrat/on Plants
Package Granular Activated Carbon Column
Potassium Permanganate Feed System
Polymer Feed Systems
Powdered Activated Carbon Feed System
Direct Feed Gas Chlorination
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution Feed System
Ozone Generation and Feed System
Ozone Contact Chamber
Chlorine Dioxide Generation and Feeri System
Ultraviolet Light Disinfection
Reverse Osmosis
Pressure Ion Exchange - Softening
Pressure Ion Exchange - Nitrate Removal
Activated Alumina - Fluoride Removal
Bone Char - Fluoride Removal
Package Raw Water Pumping
Package High Service Pumping
Steel Backwash/Clearwell Tanks
Liquid Sludge Hauling
Dewatered Sludge Hauling
Sludge Disposal - Sanitary Sewer
Sludge Dewatering Lagoons
Sand Drying Beds

drinking water  treatment systems. The
original cost data base was not simple to
use for determining the cost of specific
treatment systems. Calculating costs by
hand using the graphical or tabular data

   was  laborious and  prone to error; an
   associated computer program for access-
   ing the data base required a medium size
   computer system and some knowledge of
   computer  programming.  Therefore, an
   attempt was made to simplify the original
   cost  estimating technique through this
   project. To improve the usefulness of the
   originial cost data to a point where cost
   estimates could be made  quickly and
   accurately with the use of a  simple hand
   calculator, a series of analytic equations
   was developed.

     Preliminary design cost estimates can
   be used to compare the economics  of
   several treatment systems  with similar
   water treatment goals and to identify the
   most cost-effective alternative. A series
   of equations developed to estimate the
   capital and operation/maintenance costs
   of small systems in the range of 2500 gpd
   to 1  mgd can easily be used to make a
   quick cost analysis for a proposed design.
          The EPA author. Richard G. Eilers (also the EPA Project Officer, see below), is
            with Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental
            Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268.
          The complete report, entitled "Cost Equations for Small Drinking Water Systems,"
            (Order No. PB 84-161 793; Cost: $8.50. subject to change) will be available only
                 National Technical Information Service
                 5285 Port Royal Road
                 Springfield, VA 22161
                  Telephone: 703-487-4650
          The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
                 Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory
                  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                  Cincinnati, OH 45268
                                            •Cr U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1984 - 759-015/7661
United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300