/'A I /I T\

                  WETLANDS Reading list
               pre-kindergarten through grade 12
           U.  S.  Environmental Protection Agency
                         Region 4
                345 Courtland Street N.  E.
               Atlanta, Georgia 30365-2401
                         U. S.  A.

             WETLANDS HOTLINE:   800  832-7828
 WETLANDS HOTLINE e-mail: Wetlands-Hotline@epamail.epa.gov
WEB site:  http://www.epa.gov/docs/Region4Wet/wetlands.html
              (404) 347-3555 ext.  6515   voice
             (404)  347-3830            TTY/TDD
              (404) 347-3064              fax

Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  Region 5, Library (PL-12J)

  77 West Jackson Boufevaik 12tn floor
 Chicago, IL  60604-3590

"Marshes comprise their own form of wilderness.  They have
 their own life-rich genuineness and reflect forces that are
 much older,  much more permanent^ and much mightier
 than man."

                        Paul L. Errington, 1957

                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS
The following books are listed and described in sections according to reading level:   Primary,
Elementary, Intermediate, and Secondary. Following each section, additional books are listed with the
section describing the book in parenthesis.



PRIMARY LEVEL (Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 2)   	    3

Box Turtle at Long Pond, William T. George	    3
Come Out, Muskrats, Jim Arnosky	    3
Common Frog, Oxford Scientific Films  	    3
Dragonflies, Cynthia Overbeck	    4
Fish Eyes, Lois Ehleert	    4
If You Were a WUdDuck Where Would You Go?, George Mendoza	;	    4
Let's Find Out About Frogs, Corrine J. Naden	    5
IMy Pad Pond, Bianca Lavies  	    5
The Lorax, Dr. Seuss	    5
Make Way for Ducklings, Robert McCloskey	."	    6
The Noisy Counting Book, Susan Schade and Jon Butler	    6
Old Mother West Wind, Thornton W. Burgess	    7
Puddles and Ponds, Rose Wyler	    7
Rain Drop Splash, Alvin Tresselt	    8
A River Dream, Allen Say  	    8
River Parade, Alexandria Day	    8
The Seminole, Emilie U. Lepthier	    9
Spring Peepers, Judy Hawes	,	    9
The Ugly Duckling, Hans Christian Anderson	    9
Willa in Wetlands, Peyton Lewis and Rory Chalcraft	   10

List of Additional Books for Primary Students  	   10

ELEMENTARY LEVEL (Grades 3 through 5)	   11

Animals and Plants That Trap, Philip Goldstein	   11
Animals of the Ponds and Streams, Julie Becker	   11
Beaver Valley, Walter D. Edmonds	   11
Dragonflies, Hilda Simon	   12
Explore a Spooky Swamp, Wendy W. Cortesi  	   12
Frogs, Toads, Lizards and Salamanders, Nancy Winslow Parker and Joan Richards Wright  ....   12
From Pond to Prairie, Laurence Pringle	   12
Green Darner, Robert M. McClung  	   13
In the Middle of the Puddle, Mike Thaler	   13

                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Island of the Loons, Dayton O. Hyde	   14
Marshes and Swamps, Linda M. Stone	   14
The Mystery of the Great Swamp, Marjorie A. Sapf	   14
Pond and River, Steve Parker	   15
The Pond Book, Albro Gaal	   15
Scoots the Bog Turtle, Judy Cutchins and Ginny Johnston	;	   15
The Seminole, Martin Lee	   15
Small Water Mammals, Maxwell Knight	   16
Snails of Land and Sea, Hilda Smith	   16
Swan Lake, Mark Helprin	   36
Water Insects, Sylvia A. Johnson	   17
Wetlands, Linda M. Stone	   17
Wetlands:  Bogs, Marshes and Swamps, Lewis Buck	   17
Wonders of the Fields and Ponds at Night, Jacquellyn Berrill	   18
The World of Fishes, Thomas D. Fagely	   18

List of Additional Books for Elementary Students	   18
INTERMEDIATE LEVEL (Grades 6 through 8) .	   19

Estuaries, Where Rivers Meet the Sea, Laurence Pringle	   19
Everglades Country, Patricia Lauber	   19
Exploring the Great Swamp, George Laycock   	   19
Look What I Found, Marshal T.  Case   	   20
Misty of Chincoteague, Marguerite Henry	   20
The Mystery of the Bog Forest, Lorus J. Milne and Margery Milne	   20
A Naturalist's Sketchbook, Claire Walker Leslie	   21
Of Men and Marshes, Paul L. Errington	   21
Pitcher Plants:  The Elegant Insect Traps, Carol Lerner	   22
Pond Life, George K. Reid	   22
The Snow Goose, Paul Gallico	   23
Wild and Scenic Rivers, National Geographic Society	   23
The Wind in the Willows, Kenneth Grahame  	   24
The Yearling, Marjorie Rinnan Rawlings  	   24

List of Additional Books for Intermediate Students  	   25
SECONDARY LEVEL (Grades 9 through 12)	   26

Adopting a Stream: A Northwest Handbook, Steve Yates  	   26
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain	   26
Amazon: The Flooded Forest, Michael Goulding  	   26


                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                   Page #

Beautiful Swimmers, William W. Warner  	  27
The Birder's Handbook: A Field Guide to the Natural History of North American
  Birds, Paul R. Erlich, David S. Dobkin, and Dairyl Wheye	  27
Caesars of the Wilderness, Peter C. Newman	. . :	 .  27
Chesapeake, James A. Michener	  28
Company of Adventures - The Story of the Hudson's Bay Company, Peter C. Newman  .......  28
The Everglades: River of Grass, Marjory Stoneman Douglas . .	  29
Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists, Paul Russell Cartrtght	  29
Life and Death of the Salt Marsh, John and Mildred Teal	 . . .  30
The New Book of Oxford Canadian Verse, compiled by Margaret Atwood	  30
Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, Annie Dfllard . .	  31
The Pond, Robert Murphy	  31
The Portable Thoreau, revised edition by Carl Bode  	  31
Runes of the North, Sigurd F. Olson	  32
A Sand County Almanac, Aldo Leopold  	  32
Swamp Fox, Robert Duncan Bass	  33
This Incomparable Lande, Thomas J. Lyon	  33
Through the Eyes of a Young Naturalist, William A. Sipple	  34
Walking the Wetlands, Janet Lyons and Sandra Jordan ..."	  34
Wandering Through Winter,  Edwin Way Teale	  35
The Water is Wide, Pat Conroy  	  35
Water Pollution, Kathlyn Gay  .	  36
Wetlands, William Niering	  36
Wetlands, Max Firlaison and Michael Moser	  36

List of Additional Books for Secondary Students	  37


                                  WETLANDS READING LIST

        The Wetlands Reading List is an annotated list of printed material that will supplement lesson
plans and provide students with suggestions for independent reading on wetlands.  The goal of the list
is to encourage students to explore and develop a respect, understanding and appreciation for wetlands.
This is an attempt to foster our appreciation of our nation's remaining wetlands.

        The intention is to reach the whole student, to transcend her/his intellectual understanding and
to instill an arts and humanity awareness of a valuable natural resource.  It is hoped mat reading the
books will motivate students to pursue further reading about the wetlands resource and encourage them
to learn about wetlands through the arts and sciences and through applied hands-on experiences.

        Books contained in the Wetlands Reading List  include different types of literature.  Factual,
nonfiction, picture books and fiction titles are provided.  Entries are listed alphabetically by grade level
in the Wetlands Reading List:  primary (pre-kindergarten to grade  2), elementary (grades 3 to 5),
intermediate (grades 6 to 8) and secondary (grades 9 to 12). Grade level refers to reading level and not
the level for being read to, except for some books described at the primary level which may be better
read to the child.  They are listed here because their large and abundant pictures and easy to follow story
make them suitable for the primary grade level.

        The target age of many books extends beyond the one grade level in which they have been placed.
It is recommended the educator does not limit her/himself -to the grade she/he teaches  but to consider
books in  adjacent grade categories.  A list of these books and the grade level under  which they are
discussed is located at the end  of each section.  The number of entries under each section varies, as does
the information for each listing.  Each title cites the author, publisher, date published, page length and
grade range, and is classified by a special code as indicated below:

        E = Easy Reader (picture books)
        F = Fiction
        NF = Nonfiction
        SC = Story Collection, Anthologies

        Following the citation  is a summary and comment.  The summary, written in phrases, sentences
or sentence fragments, is intended to capture the essence of the book, be it plot or factual material.  The
comment provides more in-depth background information on the book and its significance in respect to
the wetlands resource. Quotes are often included with an entry.

        Most important is where one might find the books listed in  the Wetlands Reading List.  An
asterisk (*) after a title indicates a book is in print and available through a book shop.  If it is not on the
shelf, many bookstores will special order a book.  Many of the books may be obtained at a children's
library, local public library, a school library, county or city  park or  environmental education center,
children's book store or nature section in a book shop.  Some are available through organizations such
as the Sierra Club or the National Geographic Society.

       The Wetlands Reading List is not intended to be inclusive of every book ever written on wetlands
or to endorse the books listed here. There are many other excellent publications for children on wetlands.
For example, the Wetlands Reading List does not begin to list every book—and there are many good
publications—written on dragonflies.  Titles serve as suggestions for starting points for the inquiring
student and teacher seeking information on wetlands. Students and teachers are encouraged to expand
their horizons beyond the list, to refer to other books by the same and other authors and to search out
books covering similar subjects as those contained herein.  A list of suggested topics and key words is
provided in the back.

                                 PRIMARY LEVEL
                              (Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 2)
BOX TURTLE AT LONG POND*. William T. George.  GreenwillowBooks, New York; 1989; 30 p.;
pre-kindergarten to grade 2; E

Summary:     Compelling paintings of pond and surrounding community will captivate and appeal to
              children as favorite place to visit. Begins with box turtle emerging from its home in log
              to spend busy day in pond community looking for food, avoiding being eaten and finding
              shelter during rain.

Comment:     Many ponds, including their shallow vegetated edges, are wetlands.  Like many wetland
              environments, there are numerous animals and plants that  are residents of the pond
              community.  It is important to note that similar to other wetlands, many of the paintings
              in Box Turtle at Long Pond do not show water.  Many wetlands like the bottomland
              community along the pond are wet only part of the year. They are considered wetlands
              because they are wet during the growing season long enough to support plants that occur
              in other wetlands.
COME OUT. MUSKRATS*. Jim Arnosky.  Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Books,  New York;  1989;
28 p.; pre-kindergarten to grade 2; NF

Summary:     Colorful, realistic, pastel illustrations of wetlands.  In late afternoon, muskrats come out
              of houses to swim in shallow wetlands and eat green water weeds, swim between water
              lilies and race among cattails until dawn.

Comment:     Award winning artist, writer and naturalist presents the picture story, Come Out Muskrats
              in his  typical, accurate style.   The muskrats are depicted as part of the wetland
              community  with  other wildlife naturally found  in wetlands,  such as  the  Common
              Yellowthroat (a warbler), Wood Ducks and sunfish, as well as other animals such as deer
              and a fox, that frequent wetlands during the day to feed or drink.  Muskrats commonly
              inhabit wetlands, including fresh, brackish, or saltwater marshes, ponds, lakes and rivers.

COMMON  FROG.  Oxford  Scientific Films.   G.P.  Putnam's Sons,  New York;  1971; 24 p.;
kindergarten to grade 4; NF

Summary:     Superb breathtaking close-up photographs with simple, one sentence captions presenting
              life cycle of the common frog. A kindergartner could follow the story which is preceded
              by a more detailed introduction describing  the  physical  habits, characteristics and
              environment of this species of frog occurring in Europe and United States.

Comment:     Common Frog was prepared by a British team of renowned zoologists and photographers.
              Frogs and other amphibians, such as toads and newts, live on land  and  in water, and
* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

              often occur in wetlands.  Readers are encouraged to seek out other books on frogs and
              amphibians in general.  The illustrated portion of the book begins with a scene of a
              wetland and a caption that common frogs live in damp areas, which is typical wetland
DRAGQNFLIES. Cynthia Overbedc. Lerner Publications, Minneapolis; 1982; 48 p.; grades 1 to 3;
glossary and index; NF

Summary:     Attractive and informative.  Provides easy to understand information on dragonflies,
              common members of wetlands  communities.   Explains the  three stage process  of
              development these insects undergo /beginning in wetlands and other water bodies.
              Emphasizes the value of dragonflies and that they are not harmful.

Comment:     Children are naturally curious about insects and dragonflies are no exception.  It is
              important to remind children dragonflies are not harmful but rather very helpful as they
              feed on mosquitos. Dragonflies are found in many wetlands; some are indicators of good
              water quality.  They are part of the food chain.
FISH EYES*. Lois Ehleert. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York; 1990; 34 p.; pre-kindergarten to
grade 1; E

Summary:     Simple, easy to understand and written for the very young reader as she or he learns to
              count the brilliantly colored fish swimming through the pages.  Actively involves the
              student in the lives of fishes while teaching the child to count the many fish as they begin
              then- life cycle in wetlands.  Invites reader to put on a suit of scales, fins and tail, then
              swim downriver (from where she or he is born into as a fish, perhaps in wetland adjacent
              to a river).

Comment:     Wetlands serve as nurseries for many fish. Fishes are important members of the animal
              kingdom.  They are also important to the food chain and the fishing industry.  In Fish
              Eyes, Lois Ehleert introduces the student to the world of fishes.
IF YOU WERE A WILD DUCK WHERE WOULD YOU GO?*. George Mendoza.  Stewart, Tabori
& Chang, Inc.,  New York; 1990; 32 p.; pre-kindergarten to grade 2; E

Summary:     A sophisticated picture with superb drawings and good text.  A wild duck narrator looks
              at the past when the environment was bountiful and searches today through the polluted
              environment for a home.

Comment:     With our wetlands rapidly disappearing, a wild duck  has fewer  and  fewer places to
              choose for its home.  Many that remain are polluted. If You Were a Wild Duck Where
              Would  You Go? will encourage  readers to place value in saving and  restoring  our
              wetlands for the future.
* Available through book shops -

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction;  NF=Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

LET'S FIND OUT ABOUT FROGS. Corrine J. Naden. Franklin Watts, Inc., New York; 1972; 44 p;
grades 1 to 3;  NF

Summary:      Nice illustrations of frogs in wetlands habitats.  Contains factual material about frogs in
               easy reading format suitable for children in the latter months of grade one to grade three,
               with information on:  differences between frogs and toads, growth stages from egg to
               tadpole to adult frog and the community in which they live.

Comment:      Let's Find Out About Frogs is one of many books on frogs, animals that—like other
               amphibians—live part of their life on land and part on water. All frogs must return to
               water to breed. They are commonly found in wetlands, making wetlands important to
               the life cycle of frogs.  Other related book topics to look for are tadpoles, amphibians,
               salamanders, and toads.
LILY PAD POND*. Bianca Lavies. Dulton; 1989; 30 p.; kindergarten to grade 2; E

Summary:     Colorful, eye-catching book with excellent pictures.  Contains good ratio of pictures to
              white space and text— an important feature in captivating the very young reader.  Has
              nothing specific about mammal and little on plant life. Introduces concept of food chain
              at an easy to understand level.

Comment:     Organisms are correctly named.  In Lily Pad Pond, the colorful scenes of ponds and
              other wetlands are entertaining and depicted by easy to understand captions.
THELORAX*. Dr. Seuss.  Random House, New York; 1971; 68 p.; pre-kindergarten to grade 3; E

Summary:     A Dr. Seuss book— this one on the impact of environmental pollution. In the days when
              the grass is still green and the pond still wet, Once-ler comes to the glorious place and
              sees the glorious Truffula Trees growing mile after mile with their bright-colored tufts.
              In his beloved style, Dr.  Seuss writes about the pond—

                    "From  the rippulous pond  came  the  comfortable  sound  of the
                     Humming-Fish humming while splashing around."

              The Once-ler  chops down the trees for their tufts, despite the warning of the Lorax, "a
              sort of man ... shortish ... oldish ... mossy ..."  Then, the Once-ler builds a factory and
              cuts down more tufts, selling more and more tufts  he makes into the ever-popular
              "Thneed." Unfortunately,  his factory polluted the lands, even the pond:

                    "You're glumping the pond where the Humming-Fish hummed. No more
                     they hum, for their gills are gummed. So, I'm sending them off.  Oh,
                     their future is dreary. They'll walk on their fins and get woefully weary
                     in search of some water that isn't so smeary."
* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

              The final pages impart the message that the future of the environment is up to individuals
              as wisened Once-ler tosses the last Truffula seed to a passerby, saying:

                    "Plant a new Truffula. Treat it with care  ... Unless someone like you
                    cares ... nothing is going to get better.  Then the Lorax and all his
                    friends can come back."

Comment:     Like his other  classics, Dr. Seuss writes in his true whimsical style but  this time the
              message is the impact of greed and human development on the environment. The pond
              and its fishes and swans are impacted and are forced to  seek other homes to live if
              possible.  Wetlands,  like other resources, are limited.  Only when individuals care for
              and protect wetlands  in their community will they be conserved and restored.

MAKE WAY FOR DUCKLINGS*. Robert McCloskey. The Viking Press,  Inc., New York; 1971;
72 p.; kindergarten to grade 2; E

Summary:     Simple, well-illustrated drawings of mallards are very realistic. Begins with "Mr. and
              Mrs. Mallard"  looking for a safe home to raise their family and attempting to  nest in
              Boston Garden which quickly reveals many dangers.  Ducks settle in a cozy spot along
              Charles River.  Once ducklings hatch, Mr. Mallard departs for Boston Garden.  Later,
              Mrs. Mallard leads ducklings across traffic and town to join Mr. Mallard at island in
              Boston Garden.

Comment:     Make Way for Ducklings is a classic story for young children about a family of ducks.
              Ducks and other waterfowl are just one group of wildlife that breeds in wetlands.  The.
              loss of wetlands as nesting habitat for ducks through human activity such as draining and
              filling wetlands has greatly reduced the duck population.

              Over ten percent of the Charles River Watershed in the Boston area consists of wetlands
              such as grassy  marshes, swamps  and damp meadows. The Charles River Watershed
              Association was founded hi 1965 in response to increasing public concern over the
              environment and  poor condition of the Charles River.  One  of the many programs
              sponsored by the Charles River Watershed, the Adopt-A-Brook program,  enables schools
              and other organizations to care for the wetlands of the Charles River.
THE NOISY COUNTING BOOK. Susan Schade and Jon Butler. Random House, New York; 1987;
8 p.; pre-kindergarten to grade 1; E

Summary:     Part of series, A Just Right Book; super-sturdy pages.  Counting book with delightful,
              attractive and funny illustrations of a boy who goes to fish in a quiet pond but soon
              becomes frustrated as rising noise disrupts quiet when first one frog says, "Ga-Dunk,"
              then two ducks say, "Wak," and noise increases until six mosquitos  say, "Bzzz," at
              which point boy hollers, "QUIET!"
* Available through book shops'

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

 Comment:     The Noisy Counting Book contains excellent representations of a pond that captures the
               essence of one type of wetlands with animals and plants that occur  naturally in these
OLD MOTHER WEST WIND*. Thornton W, Burgess. Henry Holt and Co., New York; 1990; 90 p.;
pre-kindergarten to grade 4; F                            ,     .

Summary:     Full color edition with extraordinary illustrations of this classic, the first of die Old
               Mother West Wind series, which was first published in 1910, will stimulate children's
               imagination.  Stories involve many characters living in wetlands and other bodies of
               water: Jerry Muskrat, Billy Mink, Little Joe Otter,-Spotty the Turtle and many more.
               The following is a passage from chapter, "Little Joe's Slippery Slide at the Smiling
               Pool," which children will enjoy:

                     "Peter Rabbit kept coming nearer and nearer until finally he stood at the
                      top of the slippery slide. Billy Mink crept up behind him very softly and
                      gave him a push. Peter Rabbit's long legs flew out from under him and
                      down  he sat with a thump on the slippery slide.  "Oh," cried Peter
                      Rabbit, and tried to stop himself. But he  couldn't do  it and so away he
                      went down the slippery slide, splash into the Smiling Pool."

Comment:     Stories from Old Mother West Wind  with their mischievous characters like Billy Mink
               (above) are part of an American childhood. A major influence on children's literature,
               Thornton Burgess has written over SO books for children, many on the lives of animals.
               living in wetlands.  Look for other titles of T. Burgess on individual animals from Old
               Mother West  Wind that inhabit wetlands.  His  works emphasize the importance of
               wetlands to the  lives of many animals.  Burgess' books are  ideal for reading to pre-
               kindergarten children.
PUDDLES AND PONDS*. Rose Wyler. J. Messner, New York; 1990; 32 p.; grades 1 to 3; NF -

Summary:     Attractively illustrated; describes some of the many living things inhabiting or visiting
              puddles and ponds.  Information generally accurate.   Suggested hands-on activities
              throughout book.

Comment:     Bodies of water such as puddles and ponds are often wetlands. Often wetlands are areas
              that are so shallow that plants grow completely across them or that may be dry during
              long periods of the year. Puddles and Ponds is also about wetlands. Some activities are
              well-suited to the primary reader, ages 6 to 8, while others lack sufficient instructions
              and could  end  in  failure.  Teachers  need to be careful and suggest the reader seek
              assistance if difficulties arise.
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


RAIN DROP SPLASH*. Alvin Tresselt.  Lothrop, Lee and Sheperd Co., New York; 1965; 17 p;
kindergarten to grade 2; E

Summary:     Picture book, simple story; raindrops begin to fall and eventually form a puddle which
              men becomes a pond with water lilies and fish. Raindrops continue as pond spills over
              into lake with bigger fish and pickerel weed,  and Red-winged Blackbirds. Raindrops
              flood farms, roads and cities and impact all life, people included.

Comment:     In addition to Rain Drop Splash, Alvin Tresselt also wrote Beaver Pond, a wetland book.
              Rain Drop Splash illustrates one very important benefit of wetlands: their natural ability
              to retain rainwater and reduce flood levels during rainstorms.  It demonstrates the impact
              of heavy rains and flooding with illustrations depicting wetlands absorbing water run-off
              during rain.  Natural wetlands reduce flood peaks during storms. Their loss can increase
A RIVER DREAM*. Allen Say. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston; 1988; 32 p.; grades 1 to 3; E

Summary:     Breath-taking color illustrations! Fun tale of boy Mark whose dreams and reality merge
              as he lies in bed with a fever and opens a prize box from an uncle. Mayflies flutter out
              of the box and Mark follows them outdoors to find a river has replaced his street. He
              climbs into a boat.  Rowing,  he sees his uncle fishing, joins him, catches magnificent
              trout in the shallow waters and faces a tough choice whether to keep the trout or release
              it and leave the river as he found it.

Comment:     Many wetlands occur along rivers.  A River Dream brings together a touching story of
              a boy's adventure and step toward maturity with two of the many opportunities rivers,
              wetlands  and other  bodies of water provide: fishing and boating.   The shimmering
              paintings reveal the intrinsic beauty of wetlands and rivers.
RIVER PARADE*. Alexandria Day. Viking, New York; 1990; 36 p.; kindergarten to grade 2; E

Summary:     Great splashes of shimmering  watercolor mirroring the hot summer day on the river.
              Young boy rides up a river with his father on a hot summer day, with his toys. One by
              one, each toy falls into the water, and finally, so does the boy, finding  it wonderful

Comment:     River Parade contains nice representations of wetlands along the river,  with marshy
              vegetation, fish and mallard ducks.  It depicts  important wetlands values, including good
              water quality, plant and animal life, and recreation.
* Available through book shops -

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

THE SEMINQLE*. Emilie U. Lepthier. Children's Press, Chicago; 1985; 48 p.; grades 1 to 2; index;

Summary:     Easy reading with abundant photographs from the New-True-Book Series.  Traces the
              history of the Seminole Indians, who were, originally from the Creek Tribe in Georgia
              and Alabama but were forced south to Florida  swamps, to the Everglades and  Big
              Cypress Swamp.  Describes events of the three Seminole Wars in the 1800's and the
              tactics used by the Seminoles to strike at the  settlers  then disappear  in the swamps.
              Depicts the life of the Seminoles in Florida today.

Comment:     Author Emilie U. Lepthier describes the Seminole way of life in the swamp,  including
              information on their education and government,  village life, ability to sustain .themselves
              by hunting and fishing, handicrafts and present way of life.  (This is not the same book
              as the one listed by same title under Elementary Level by Martin Lee.)
SPRING  PEEPERS. Judy Hawes.   Thomas Y.  Crowell  Company, New York;  1975; 34 p.;
kindergarten to grade 2; NF

Summary:    Attractively illustrated with large colorful drawings of peepers.  Describes the peeper,
              bow to look for peepers, the different kinds of peepers or tree frogs in die United States
              and even includes the song of the tiny Coqui of Puerto Rico, "ko-KEE, ko-KEE."

Comment:    Spring Peepers is actually about tree frogs that return to the water, particularly wetlands,
              to mate in the spring and can be heard in the evening in marshy, wet places, including
              puddles and ditches.  Spring Peepers is highly recommended for learning about life in
              wetlands.  Wetlands play an important role in the life cycle of spring peepers, for this
              is where many hatch into tadpoles,  emerge as tree frogs and return to breed.
THE UGLY DUCKLING*. Hans Christian Anderson, English text by Anne Stewart. Greenwillow
Books, New York; 1982; grades 1  to 3; F

Summary:     Captivating, newly illustrated and interpreted.  Classic fairy tale of badly treated ugly
              duckling which later emerges as a swan.  Begins in a country surrounded by lakes and
              pools; newly hatched duckling is mocked and laughed at, retreats to a great swamp with
              wild ducks, is nearly killed by hunters and somehow survives the winter in a swamp.
              Duckling leaves home among the reeds in swamp in spring and finds himself in a "forest
              of rushes and water" where he looks into his reflection in the water and finds he has
              emerged as a swan.

Comment:     The beloved classic, The Ugly Duckling, is easily read to pre-kindergarten children and
              can be read by children beginning late in the first grade.  Many of the settings throughout
              the tale are in wetlands, such as the swamp and the forest of rushes where the three
              swans appear floating on the water (known as forested wetlands).  Waterfowl such as the
              ducks and  swans, are true inhabitants of wetlands.
* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC= Story Collection


 WILLA IN WETLANDS*. Peyton Lewis and Rory Chalcraft. National Children's Theatre for the
 Environment; Washington, D.C.; 1991; 28 p.; pre-kindergarten to grade 2 to view play and grades 3 to
 5 for viewing and reading; E

 Summary:    A very creative, fiinny and engaging play, with catchy, upbeat songs. Includes players,
             Willa the  student, Sherman and Shirley the pink  Shrimp, Johnny Rockfish with
             sunglasses, Wild Rice, Blue Heron and many other treasures in the wetland. Begins with
             Willa announcing her decision to go to the wetland because her teacher had mentioned
             to her that day "there was a treasure in the wetland" and she's going to look for it until
             she finds it, but soon discovers:

                   "looking for -a treasure in a swamp or a marsh is a hard job.  I .see
                   nothing mat looks the least bit priceless."

             Discovering that the treasures she finds were not what she expected, her search leads her
             to a Bald Eagle, the Muskrat lodges, the fiddling Fiddler Crabs and many more. Willa

                   "I came here looking for gold and silver but I think I've learned what the
                   real treasure is. Everyone I met was a jewel."

 Comment:    As play continues, Willa and the audience become aware of the impending threat of the
             constant "Great Sound" of development in the background to the homes of Willa's new
             friends in the  wetlands.  Willa  in Wetlands does more than  highlight the priceless
             treasures of wetlands as it presents  realistically the real threats to wetlands and offers.
             practicable ways children might help in reducing the loss by sharing wetlands and their
             treasures with others.

             Copies of Willa in Wetlands are available at no charge from the Wetlands Protection
             Hotline.  Call toll-free 1-800-528-7828. Accompanying teacher's guide also available.
List of Additional Books for Primary Students
The sections describing these additional books are in parenthesis:

Animals of the Ponds and Streams, Julie Becker (elementary)
Explore a Spooky Swamp, Wendy W. Cortesi (elementary)
Frogs, Toads, Lizards and Salamanders, Nancy Winslow Parker and Joan Richards Wright (elementary)
Green Darner, Robert M. McClung (elementary)
In the Middle of the Puddle, Mike Thaler (elementary)
Marshes and Swamps, Linda M. Stone (elementary)
Wetlands: Bogs, Marshes and Swamps, Lewis Buck (elementary)
* Available through book shops •
Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

                            ELEMENTARY LEVEL
                                    (Grades 3 through 5)
 ANIMALS AND PLANTS THAT TRAP. Philip Goldstein. Holiday House, New York; 1974; 128 p.;
 grades 4 to 6; NF

 Summary:     Well-written with clear explanations. Devotes entire chapters to the carnivorous Venus
              fly trap, sundew and pitcher plant.  Explains how bladderworts living in quiet ponds and
              bogs capture small creatures with underwater leaves covered with miniature traps that
              function automatically.

 Comment:     Animals and Plants That Trap is comprehensive hi covering plants that trap insects, many
              of which occur in wetlands. Wetlands soils are often poor in nutrients. Carnivorous
              (insect-eating) plants thrive in these conditions with special adaptations that trap insects
              to obtain die nutrients that are unavailable hi the soil.
ANIMALS OF THE PONDS AND STREAMS. Julie Becker. EMC Corporation, Minneapolis; 1977;
55 p.; grades 2 to 4; NF

Summary:     Lots of pictures, photographs and drawings to hold student's attention.  Describes ten
              animals inhabiting ponds and streams: turtle, blue heron, crayfish, otter, mallard duck,
              frog, beaver, catfish and dragonfly.  Suggests child visit pond or stream and  watch
              quietly to observe the many inhabitants.

Comment:     Much of the area within a*pond or an entire pond may be so shallow it is classified as
              a wetland. Many wetlands also occur along streams. Animals of the Ponds and Streams
              demonstrates one of the important values of waters, including wetlands: they are home
              to an abundant number  of wildlife.
BEAVER VALLEY. Walter D. Edmonds.  Little, Brown and Company, Boston; 1971; 70 p.; grades
3 to 5; F

Summary:     Easy to read. Narrates a tale of a quiet, peaceful valley containing streams and wetlands,
              of a beaver colony constructing a dam and impacting lives of deer, mouse and others in
              valley. Contains vegetation and wildlife associated with wetlands.

Comment:     One valuable function of wetlands is they provide homes for many wildlife species. The
              author of Beaver Valley presents a story in  which the wetland is changed by beaver
              activity. The author alludes to the similarity  between the beaver and humans who both
              have the ability to impact wetland environments.
* Available through book shops -

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F= Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


DRAGONFLIES. Hilda Simon. The Viking Press, New York; 1972; 95 p.; index; grades 4 to 6; NF

Summary:     Provides  information on an important group of insects commonly found in wetlands.
              Discusses this spectacular, often very colorful, group of insects: their origins, mating
              rituals, and life cycle, including the underwater nymphal stage.

Comment:     Colorful drawings illustrate dragonflies in many wetland habitats.  Hilda Simon has
              included a guide to dragonflies of North America in Dragonflies.
EXPLORE A SPOOKY SWAMP*. Wendy W, Cortesi. National Geographic Society:  Books for
Young Children, Washington, D.C.; 1978; 32 p.; grades 2 to 4; NF

Summary:     Colorful and attractive with  lots of photographs.   Invites young reader to explore a
              swamp through the experiences  of two  children as they venture into the Okefenokee
              Swamp in Georgia.  Describes their adventures in a small boat as they observe the plants
              and animals along their path.

Comment:     Photographs from Explore A Spooky Swamp are very realistic as they depict the boy and
              girl in a swamp, providing the reader the opportunity for an imaginative journey into a
FROGS. TOADS. LIZARDS AND SALAMANDERS*. Nancy Winslow Parker and Joan Richards
Wright.  Greenwillow, New York; 1990; 48 p.; grades 2 to 6; NF

Summary:     Outstanding, colorful book about a group of animals common to wetlands.  Great pictures
              and wonderfully funny text that can be read by grades four to six and read to grades one
              to two. Easy reading; scientific names included.  Contains picture glossary and range
              maps indicating distribution of species.

Comment:     Children are fascinated by frogs, toads and salamanders, animals which belong to the
              class known as amphibians. They require water to begin life and, after migrating to land
              following metamorphosis, must return to water to reproduce.  Students may find them
              in wetlands during their early water dependent stages and sometime in their adult stage
              as well.  Following is a sample from Frogs, Toads, Lizards and Salamanders:

                    "Grant's aunt was picking flowers in a drainage ditch occupied  by a fat,
                     snakelike, Two-toed Amphiuma. Amphiumas are aquatic. Amphiumas
                     live in rivers, streams, swamps, bayous and drainage ditches."
FROM POND TO PRAIRIE. Laurence Pringle. The MacMillan Company, New York; 1972; 34 p.;
grades 3 to 5; index; NF

Summary:     Accurate illustrations of plants such as bladderworts (insect-eating plants), water lilies and
              sedges, and animals including catfish, dragonfly nymphs, herons and Pintail  Ducks.
* Available through book shops.

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


               Describes successive changes of ponds as they evolve into marshes and prairies over
               hundreds or thousands of years.  Explains the loss of wetlands to farmlands through
               human disturbance.

Comment:     Just like everything else in nature, wetlands are changing.  A pond may be evolving into
               a marsh. However, contrary to From Pond To Prairie, it is now known that bodies of
               water such as wetlands do  not naturally become dry upland prairies.  A low-lying
               depression mat creates a wetland will generally remain, although the type of wetland may
               change.  Only outside disturbances such as draining or filling, may cause a wetland to
GREEN DARNER. Robert M. McClung.  William Morrow and Company, New York; 1980; grades
2 to 4; 34 p.; NF

Summary:     Newly illustrated edition of this accurate, popular nature book.  Dlustrates wetlands
              habitats with accurate drawings of wetlands animals, such as salamanders and water bugs,
              and wetland vegetation, such as arrowhead.  Introduces reader to Green Darner, a
              dragonfly, following the story of a dragonfly's life as it grows from  a tiny nymph
              through molting periods to adulthood at a meadow pond.

Comment:     Green Darner  is  highly recommended.    Its drawings are  excellent,  realistic
              representations of wetlands.  It covers the life cycle of a dragonfly from  nymph to
              adulthood, including the many threats encountered while maturing to an adult. Following
              is an excerpt on the food chain at the meadow pond:

                     "The  Green  Darner nymphs ...  ate  little one-celled  creatures  called
                     "protozoans," and tiny water fleas ... Other animals ate some  of the
                     Green Darner nymphs too.  A  baby salamander ate the water bug, and
                     a little pickerel ate the salamander.  A bullfrog ate the pickerel, and a
                     big snapping turtle ate the bullfrog!  In the pond, many animals get eaten
                     by animals bigger than they are."
IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PUDDLE*. Mike Thaler. Harper and Row, New York; 1988; 32 p.;
grades 2 to 4; NF

Summary:     Good illustrations of different habitats as a puddle changes to a pool, a pond, and larger
              bodies of water because of rains and floods.  Illustrations depict true vegetative and
              animal characteristics for each stage. Author relates a fun story about two friends in the
              middle  of a puddle, Fred the Frog and Ted the Turtle.  Recounts the two friends'
              experiences with rain and flood, the ensuing changes of the puddle into a pond, then a
              lake and finally a sea before the rains stop and the sea recedes to a lake, then a pond and
              finally to a puddle.
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F=Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


 Comment:     Wetlands may or may not be wet all year.  Many may even be dry for many months.
              Like the flood of In the Middle of the Puddle, animals occurring in wetlands have
              specially adapted to these sometimes extreme fluctuations.
ISLAND OF THE LOONS. Dayton O. Hyde.  Atheneum, New York; 1984; 155 p.; grades 4 to 7; F

Summary:     Captivating and exciting adventure of orphan Jimmy who is captured by a convict and
              taken to an uninhabited island in Lake Superior where they fend together for several
              months,  including winter.   There, Jimmy senses the convict's unfamiliarity with
              wilderness and realizes the more useful he is, the greater his chances of survival.
              Descriptive wetland settings include sphagnum plains  and leatherleaf bogs.  Jimmy's
              resourcefulness extends to creating brews from wetland plants:  pitcher plants, cattails
              and lady slippers.

Comment:     Wetlands occur in shallow depressions or alongside rivers and lakes, as on the island in
              Lake Superior in Island of the Loons,  Dayton O. Hyde blends together a tale of a man
              who finds himself, a boy who learns life can have unexpected turns, and the breath-taking
              settings of wetlands and the unspoiled wilderness.

MARSHES AND SWAMPS*. Linda M. Stone.  Childrens Press, Chicago; 1983; 48 p.; grades 2 to

Summary:     Attractive, accurate, and well-illustrated. Describes three different types of wetlands:
              marshes,  bogs, and swamps, including information on their functions and values.

Comment:     In Marshes and Swamps, author Stone provides excellent information about wetlands and
              their values and functions.  She has written several other books on wetlands, including
              one entitled, Wetlands, also contained in this reading list.
THE MYSTERY OF THE GREAT SWAMP. Marjorie A. Sapf. Atheneum, New York; 1967; 167 p.;
grades 4 to 7; F

Summary:     Captivating tale with colorful descriptions of the swamp.   Presented by the Weekly
              Reader Children's Book Club.  Takes place in  the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia.
              Recounts adventures of boy Jeb in swamp, particularly his unexpected encounters with
              the Indians that were not all driven from the swamp years ago,  as early settlers had

Comment:     In The Mystery of the Great Swamp, the author refers to true, realistic elements of the
              swamp throughout the story including:  herons, alligators, waving reeds, grasses, tall,
              spotted pitcher plants, cypress trees  and tupelo trees.   Trees are important for
              distinguishing a swamp from a marsh as marshes are dominated by soft-stemmed (known
              as herbaceous) plants.
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; IMF = Nonfiction;  SC = Story Collection


POND AND RIVER*. Steve Parker. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York; 1988; 64 p., grades 3 to 5;

Summary:     Very well-illustrated, in color and indexed.  Describes the types of plants and animals
              that characterize ponds and rivers, with a special emphasis on  these habitats as they
              change during the different seasons of the year.

Comment:     Pond and River provides good information on ponds, rivers and wetlands. A pond may
              be defined as a body of water so shallow that plants may grow completely across it. As
              such, many ponds are also wetlands.  Also, many wetlands occur along rivers and are
              known as riverine wetlands.
THE POND BOOK. Albro Gaal. Van Rees Press, New York; 1955; 136 p.; grades 3 to 4; NF

Summary:     Easy to read and understand. Gaal provides interesting and fun activities for children to
              learn about wetlands using an applied, hands-on approach.

Comment:     Ponds are vegetated shallow bodies of water and may be considered just one of the many
              different types of wetlands.  One chapter in The Pond Book is about setting up a "teacup
              aquarium," which, as the name indicates, can be done in the home.  This would allow
              the student to watch activities of the tiny living things mat may be found in a nearby
SCOOTS THE  BOG TURTLE*. Judy  Cutchins and  Ginny  Johnston.   Atheneum MacMillan
Publishing Company, New York; 1989; 32  p.; index; grades 3 to 5; NF

Summary:     Excellent! Identifies and describes bogs as  rare, unique and fragile wetlands occurring
              in cooler climates of the north and on mountains. Explains unique adaptations of the bog
              turtle which is specially adapted to bog habitat.

Comment:     Like other plant and animal inhabitants of bogs, the bog turtle is easily threatened by
              human disturbance.  Scoots the Bog Turtle follows the life of imaginary Scoots, the little
              bog turtle at Duck Potato Bog. All plants and animals in the story commonly occur in
              bogs in the North Carolina mountains.
THE SEMINOLE*. Martin Lee.  Franklin Watts, New York; 1989; 64 p.; grades 3 to 5; index; NF

Summary:     Historical and modern account of Seminole Indians of the Florida swamps.  Tells the
              background of the Seminole Indians who lived in Georgia and Alabama but were forced
              into Florida in the  1700's, some north of Big Cypress Swamp.  Descriptions of the
              Seminole Wars and of their leader Osceola hiding his people in swamps of southern
              Florida after a fight.  While many Seminoles were killed or moved to reservations in
              West, a few chose to continue to live in the southern Florida environment, in traditional
              chickees (huts) in small villages.
* Available through book shops -

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


 Comment:     The Semlnole and other titles on Seminole Indians (or Indians in general), provides
               information  on how native  Americans learned to  live  in  unison  with  a wetland
               environment—in this instance a swampland—and their customs  of food  gathering,
               assembling homes, and preparing garments of materials using resources found in the
               wetlands environment.

               (NOTE:  This is not the same book as the one listed by same title under Primary Level
               by Emilie U. Lepthier.)
SMAT I. WATER MAMMALS. Maxwell Knight. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York; 1968; 32 p.;
grades 3 to 5; NF

Summary:     Good background information on water mammals. Identifies and describes specific water
              mammals, including the water shrew, muskrat and beaver—mammals often found in
              wetlands.  Describes each animal's requirements in terms of food, home and breeding.

Comment:     Mammals  (wildlife) represent one of the many values wetlands provide.  They are part
              of the food chain. Students may observe mammals such as a muskrat or beaver by sitting
              patiently and quietly alongside a marsh which shows sign of muskrat or beaver activity
              (stumps along the edge of or a lodge in die marsh) at dusk.
SNAILS OF LAND AND SEA. Hilda Smith.  The Vanguard Press, New York; 1976; 143 p.; grades
4 to 7; index; NF

Summary:     Attractive, color illustrations. Discusses the evolution, anatomy, structure of the shell,
              and growth of the entire class  of snails, including freshwater snails.  Describes the
              characteristics of major groups of snails, such as swamp snails which may live in ponds,
              pools and other shallow waters.

Comment:     Students are urged to seek out Snails of Land and Sea and other titles on snails to learn
              about these highly successful animals that are common in wetlands. Snails are important
              food in some countries and have been economically useful as currency and in creating
              dyes and culturally important in jewelry and artifacts.
SWAN LAKE*. Mark Helprin. Briel Books, Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston; 1989; 84 p.; grades 2 to

Summary:     Beautifully illustrated classic, an original fable with insightful text that reveals the story
              behind the Tchaikovsky ballet.  Tale is of an orphaned princess and a young prince. The
              prince is posed with a choice of the world of the court or the peaceful world of nature.
              Critical scenes occur along a lake and other bodies of water, centering around swans.
* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


Comment:     Swan Lake flows with the grace of Tchaikovsky's music.  Wetlands, such as those found
              in the tundra and prairie potholes of the midwest, are the nurseries for a high percentage
              of ducks, geese and swans.

WATER INSECTS. Sylvia A. Johnson.  Lerner Publications, Minneapolis; 1990; 48 p.; grades 3 to
7; glossary; NF

Summary:     Well-designed and illustrated in a style that appeals to children without oversimplifying
              or sacrificing accuracy. Water Insects focuses predominantly on insects occurring in
              ponds or wetlands, with photographs highlighting every aspect of insect life.

Comment:     As with other volumes from the Lerner Natural Science Series, Water Insects is easy to
              understand and thorough.  Many children are fascinated by insects. Water Insects draws
              on their natural  curiosity and will invite them to visit ponds and other wetlands to
              observe water insects.
WETLANDS*. Linda M. Stone. Rourke Enterprises, Inc., Vero Beach; 1989; 48 p.; grades 3 to 5;
glossary, maps and index; NF

Summary:     Attractive and well-illustrated with excellent information on wetlands! Part of Ecozones
              Series.  Wetlands information addresses their curious appeal,  the different types of
              wetlands that occur, formation of wetlands, and the plants and animals wetlands support.

Content:      As with Marshes and Swamps listed earlier, Wetlands is another wonderfully written
              book on ecosystems by distinguished childrens author, Linda  M. Stone.   Wetlands
              contains several hands-on activities, such as creating a collage of wetlands plants and
              animals.  The author includes a list of outstanding wetlands to visit.
WETLANDS; BOGS. MARSHES AND SWAMPS. Lewis Buck. Parents Magazine Press, New York;
1974; 64 p.; grades 2 to 4; index; NF

Summary:     Attractive, light and well-written for young children. Identifies and describes three of
              the more familiar types of wetlands: bogs, marshes, and swamps.  Examines the Prairie
              Pothole region in the Midwest and central Canada, the breeding grounds for one-third
              of the North American waterfowl population in the chapter, "Life in a Duck Factory."

Comment:     Wetlands: Bogs, Marshes and Swamps mentions all wetlands are changing from water
              to dry land, a belief once commonly accepted that we now know does not always occur.
              Wetlands are created by hydrology and many wetlands do not develop into uplands with
              the passage  of time as once was thought but remain wetlands as long as hydrology
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


 WONDERS OF THE FIELDS AND PONDS AT NTGHT. Jacquellyn Berrill. Dodd, Mead and Co.,
 New York; 1962; 80 p.; grades 3 to 5; index; NF

 Summary:     Easy to read and informative.  The chapter devoted to ponds, "Night at the Pond," has
              sections  on  some of the animals inhabiting  ponds,  many of which are wetlands.
              Information  included on frogs, water shrews and muskrats,  all of which  occur hi

 Comment:     Most mammals are nocturnal and those inhabiting shallow ponds and wetlands are no
              exception.  In Wonders of the Fields and Ponds at Night, author Berrill presents this
              other less understood period of the living world, nighttime, when mammals  are most
              active in and around wetlands.
THF. WORT n OF FISHES*. Thomas D. Fagely.  Dodd, Mead and Co., New York; 1978; grades 3
to 5; index and bibliography; NF

Summary:     Informative, easy to understand.  Presents overview on fishes and their importance as
              food and as a source of recreation. Provides general facts on fishes, including: senses,
              mating and habitat; individual chapters on different lands of fish—gamefish, panfish, salt
              and freshwater fish; information on endangered fish; and information on the effects of

Comment:     The World of Fishes and books on brackish or saltwater as well as freshwater fish contain
              information on animals that may breed, hatch, feed and live their whole life in wetlands.
              Wetlands are necessary to many fishes during some or all of their life. One final chapter
              has information on creating one's own "pond" or aquarium.
List of Additional Books for Elementary Students
The sections describing the following books are in parenthesis:
Common Frog, Oxford Scientific Films (primary)
Dragonflies, Cynthia Overbeck (primary)
Estuaries,  Where Rivers Meet the Sea, Laurence Pringle (intermediate)
Everglades Country, Patricia Lauber (intermediate)
Exploring the Great Swamp, George Laycock (intermediate)
Let's Find Out about Frogs, Conine J. Naden (primary)
The Lorax, Dr. Seuss (primary)
Misty of Chincoteague, Marguerite Henry (intermediate)
Pitcher Plants:  The Elegant Insect Traps, Carol Lerner (intermediate)
Puddles and Ponds, Rose Wyler (primary)
A River Dream, Allen Say (primary)
The Snow Goose, Paul Galileo (intermediate)
The Ugly Duckling, Hans Christian Anderson (primary)
Willa in Wetlands, Peyton Lewis and Rory Chalcraft (primary)
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

                           INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
                                    (Grades 6 through 8)
ESTUARIES. WHERE RIVERS MEET THE SEA. Laurence Pringle. The MacMillan Co., New
York; 1973; 56 p.; glossary; grades 5 to 7; NF

Summary:     Superb photographs and simple, concise text.  Explores bays and salt marshes, with
              descriptions of plant and  animal life above and below water, including the complex,
              interrelationships between tides, grasses, crabs, fish and birds.

Comment:     Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, some producing twenty
              times as much food as an equal area of open sea. Salt marshes may produce ten tons of
              plants a year  compared to the best wheat fields which yield only seven tons.  The
              following passage from Estuaries,  Where Rivers Meet the Sea indicates how valuable
              estuaries are to all of us:

                    "Whether you live close to an estuary or far away, your life is tied to salt
                     marshes and eelgrass meadows.  Whenever you eat scallops, oysters,
                     clams, sole or many other kinds of seafood, your body receives energy
                     from estuaries."
EVERGLADES COUNTRY. Patricia Lauber.  The Viking Press, New York; 1973; 125 p.; grades
5 to 8; NF

Summary:     Very informative and accurate.  Provides an account of the Florida Everglades, with its
              unique plant and animal life. Author refers to Everglades National Park as a "huge reach
              of grassy water."  Describes this internationally unique and valuable wetlands system
              known as the Everglades as well as the constant, heavy pressure to develop this area.
              It includes discussions of the defeat of proposed construction for an expansive airport,
              and ongoing irrigation for agricultural practices that have changed the "grassy water" to
              barren land.

Comment:     Everglades Country provides the student with a respect, understanding and appreciation
              for this special environment, its inhabitants and the threats to its existence. Perhaps it
              will encourage students to identify ways to actively conserve wetlands.
EXPLORING THE GREAT SWAMP. George Laycock.  David McKay Company, Inc.; 1978; 58 p.;
grades 5 to 8; NF

Summary:     Very informative and well illustrated.  Author Laycock conveys sense of intrigue and
              adventure as the author defines wetlands  and some  of their  values and functions.
              Describes swamps, including the history and vegetative communities that comprise some
              swamps of North America.  In Exploring the Great Swamp, George Laycock investigates
f^ f^ ra fft ra ra fft f» |ffi fft |& |ft §K ffr M

* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC-Story Collection


              scientifically  accurate facts,  eye-witness  accounts, history and  legends of the great
              swamps such as the Great Dismal Swamp located on the border between Virginia and
              North  Carolina,  the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia and the Alakai on a Hawaiian

Comment:     Exploring the Great Swamp presents good information about swamps in different areas
              of the country. The reader will learn that while these places are all swamps, each swamp
              is unique and differs widely from other swamps.
LOOK WHAT I FOUND*. Marshal T. Case. The Chatham Press, Inc., Riverside; 1971; 95 p.;
grades 5 to 7; NF

Summary:     Contains useful  information on setting up an  aquarium either  at home  or in  the
              classroom, for studying plant and animal life, including those found along the edge of
              wetlands.  Discourages disturbing wetlands, and encourages students to release living
              things they capture to then* native habitats once finished with them.

Comment:     In Look What I Found, author Marshal T. Case provides information for students to learn
              first hand  what constitutes a wetland through building a model of a wetland either at
              home or in the classroom.
MISTY OF CHINCOTEAGUE*. Marguerite Henry. Rand McNally and Co., Chicago; 1946; 176 p.;
grades 5 to 8; F

Summary:     Fiction based on fact;  occurs along the barrier islands of Maryland and Virginia:
              Assateague Island; where according to legend shipwrecks in colonial times occurred and
              stranded fifteen ponies in wild, grassy marshlands; and neighboring Chincoteague Island,
              home of children Maureen and Paul.  Classic narrative of Paul and Maureen's adventures
              acquiring three ponies: a wild mare, stallion and colt during annual round-up and lessons
              learned in the process.

Comment:     Many students love horse stories.  Assateague Island is a National Wildlife Refuge where
              ponies still roam free and every year there is a round-up like the one described in Misty
              of Chincoteague.  All the incidents  in the story are real and happened at one time or
              another along the barrier islands and grassland marshes.  Accurate descriptions of the
              marshes and barrier islands are incorporated.
THE MYSTERY OF THE BOG FOREST. Lorus J. Milne and Margery Milne. Dodd, Mead and
Company, New York; 1984; 128 p.; grades 5 to 7; index; NF

Summary:     Attractive,  well-done and accurate,  with index.  Explains the origins of bogs, then-
              special attractions and their unique plant and animal life.  Lists plants  and animals
              occurring in wetlands, providing scientific name and range.  Describes the formation of
              bogs from peat moss as  it spreads out from  shore, and the unusually harsh, physical
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


characteristics that limit the plant community to life forms specially adapted to wetlands,
emphasizing the adaptations of carnivorous plants.

The Mystery of the Bog Forest provides helpful background information on bogs and their
unique and unusual types of vegetation. A student may want to visit a bog after reading
this book. Bogs are great to investigate in groups.  Authors Margery and Lorus Milne
also describe the very old artifacts found deep in bogs.
A NATURALIST'S SKETCHBOOK. Clare Walker Leslie.  Dodd, Mead and Company, New York;
1987; 121 p.; grades 7 to 12; NF

Summary:     Creative, new method for studying wetlands. Leslie presents a calendar year of pages
              taken from ten  naturalist journals daily covering the period 1977 to 1987.   Provides
              helpful notes on drawing, demonstrating a new way of seeing nature.  Drawings of
              waterfowl, paddling painted turtle and hooded mergansers in a pond with notes describe
              author's experiences during day in margins.

Comment:     A Naturalist's Sketchbook, like Leslie's earlier,  Nature Drawing: A  Tool for Learning
              is  simply  about developing a new tool for learning and is highly  recommended for
              learning to see and study nature in a new way.  It is an excellent tool for experiencing
              and learning about marshes and other wetlands through "seeing."
OF MEN AND MARSHES. Paul L. Errington. The Iowa State University Press, Ames; 1957; 150
p.; grades 7 to 10; NF

Summary:     Accurate but not too technical description as dedicated naturalist unveils little known
              world of wetlands life; encompasses prairie marshes and marsh-dwelling animal societies
              such as the muskrat (Errington is "The muskrat expert") and water birds in  glaciated
              regions of Midwest and far West, and  Southeast.  Portrays ducks filling skies and
              covering waters, shorebirds running on mudflats,  fishes in shallows; describes living
              things adjusting to  changes, such as muskrats during flood and  drought, waterfowl  in
              migration during a snow storm.

Comment:     Of Men and Marshes takes a humanistic and historic perspective  to describe human
              impacts on marsh communities.  By  paralleling human to  marsh societies, Errington
              expresses the need  for reverence toward the ancient interrelationships of native plants,
              animals, soils and climates.  He suggests man demonstrates he is civilized by preventing
              unnecessary destruction of the remaining marshlands and other existing wild places.

                    "Greater familiarity with marshes on the part of more people could give
                     man a truer and more wholesome view of himself in relation to Nature.
                     In marshes, Life's undercurrents and unknowns and evolutionary changes
                     are exemplified  with a  high degree of  independence from human
                     dominance as long as the marshes remain in marshy condition.  Marshes
                     comprise their own form of wilderness.  They have their own life-rich
* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

                     genuineness  and reflect forces  that  are  much older,  much  more
                     permanent, and much mightier than man."

                     Note:  Since this book is out of print, it may be hard to find.
PITCHER PLANTS;  THE EIJRGANT  INSECT TRAPS. Carol Lerner.  William Morrow and
Company, New York; 1983; 63 p.; grades 5 to 8; NF

Summary:     Excellent drawings, paintings and text.  Contains a glossary, an index and a list of places
              with collections of pitcher plants and other carnivorous (insect-eating) plants. Portrays
              a group of plants known as pitcher plants which are unique to bogs along die. East coast.
              These unusual plants are unable to obtain nutrients from acidic soil conditions and have
              adapted by consuming bisects to survive.

Comment:     Pitcher Plants:   The Elegant Insect  Traps  and similar books on insectivorous or
              carnivorous plants are highly recommended for learning about these unusual and rare
              plants, and will enable students to gam an understanding of the unique adaptations plants
              and animals make in response to the special ecological conditions found in wetlands
POND LIFE*. George K. Reid, Ph.D. Western Publishing Company, Inc., New York; 1967; 160 p.;
grades 6 to 10; index; NF

Summary:     Popular, accurate and informative book  in the Golden Guide Series.  Describes and
              illustrates in color some of the most common of the thousands of animals and plants that
              inhabit ponds and other wetlands, lakes  and streams.  First section includes valuable
              information on the characteristics of ponds, examining several of the many different types
              of ponds and wetlands (cypress swamps, bogs and mountain bogs).  Discusses water
              characteristics and the different habitats found in freshwater systems, including the littoral
              or wetland habitat extending from the water's edge outward as far as rooted plants grow.
              Suggestions for when to visit, where to look, how to make exciting discoveries, and how
              to observe, collect and release live specimens.
Comment:     Pond Life defines ponds as quiet bodies of water so shallow that rooted plants may grow
              completely across them.  By definition, ponds are one type of wetland.  Although there
              are many different kinds of wetlands and each is unique, Pond Life explains well the
              physical  and biological factors common to most wetlands, as well as how plants and
              animals live in community together.
*  Available through book shops

Code: E = Easy Reader; F= Fiction; NF=Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


THE SNOW GOOSE*. Paul Gallico. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York; 1940; 56 p.; grades 5 to 12;

Summary:     Haunting,  moving and tender account during World War II.  Setting is an abandoned
              lighthouse on a low, far-reaching desolate expanse of grass, reeds and half-submerged
              meadowlands on the Essex coast of England.   Snow Goose wanders from home in
              Canada to  England and is wounded by hunters in nearby marsh.  Twelve year old girl,
              Fritha, daringly brings wounded Snow Goose to lonely, deformed man, Rhayader, who
              cares for wild, wounded animals. Once healed, "Great White Bird" returns annually.
              When war breaks out, Rhayader sets out across  the sea to rescue marooned men in bad
              weather, unknowing of Snow Goose overhead.  Remainder of story is a mystery but
              fragmentary and is based on words from pub and local residents: Rhayader is successful,
              however, what became of bun is unknown and of the Snow Goose it is written:

                    "The Great White Bird with the black-tipped pinions that saw it all from
                     the beginning has returned to the dark, frozen silences of the northlands
                     from whence it came." (p. 56)

Comment:     The Snow  Goose is a true story that occurs along the coastal wetlands of Great Britain
              and is garnered from many sources and many people. Apparently, the hero was last seen
              rowing soldiers across the sea to safety  tune and again,  with the Snow  Goose
              accompanying bun. Following is a passage from The Snow Goose:

                    "The Great Marsh lies on the coast between the village of Chelmbury and
                     the ancient Saxon oyster-fishing hamlet of Wickaeldroth. It is one of the
                     last wild places of England, a low, far-reaching expanse of grass  and
                     reeds and half-submerged meadowlands  ending in the great saltings and
                     mud flats and tidal pools near the restless sea."  (pages 3-4)
WILD AM) SCENIC RIVERS. National Geographic Society.  Washington, D.C.;  1983; 200 p.;
grades 6 to 9, NF

Summary:     Stunning photographs and informative text on America's rivers, including many riverine
              wetlands such as those along the Little Pee Dee River in South Carolina, the floodplain
              wetlands of Minnesota's Big Fork River, and the Bayou Penchant, a 30-mile marsh
              environment in Louisiana.

Comment:     Many wetlands occur along rivers.  Wetlands also often occur at the headwaters of
              rivers.   For  example,  Wild and Scenic Rivers cites the source or headwaters of
              Wisconsin's Riviere Noire or Black River as bogs and swamps. The book describes state
              and national efforts to preserve these and other riverine systems, as well as people who
              work to protect them.
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


THE WIND IN THE WILLOWS*. Kenneth Grahame.  Charles Scribner's Sons, New York; 1908;
259 p.; grades 6 to 10; F

Summary:     Classic, delightful story featuring adventures of animals along a riverbank, wetlands
              habitats and other low-lying areas. Star characters include Mole, Rat, Toad and Badger.
              Whether it is die adventures boating with Rat or Toad in his motor car,, wetlands are
              never far off:  along the river, beside the meadows, on the bank where Rat's house is
              found or beside the pools where Otter hides.  Below is an excerpt from a conversation
              between Mole and Rat, as Mole speaks about enjoying boating and water:

                    "What?"  Cried the Rat, open-mouthed; "Never been in a—you never-
                      well, I—what have you been doing then?"
                    "Is it so nice as all mat?" asked the Mole shyly.
                    "Nice?  It's the only thing," said the Water Rat solemnly, as he leaned
                      forward  for his  stroke.   "Believe me,  my  young  friend, mere is
                      nothing—absolutely nothing—half so much worth doing as messing about
                      in boats." (pages 6-7).

Comment:     The Wind In The Willows is for those who are or remain young at heart. Wetlands occur
              often along rivers, and many of us enjoy activities in riverine wetlands, much like the
              characters in this book.   The Wind In The Willows portrays the interconnectedness of
              wetlands, rivers, meadows, woods, and the lives of animals and humans.
THE YEARLING*. Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings.  Charles Scribner's Sons, New York; 1938; 428 p.;
grades 7 to 10; F

Summary:     This cherished classic that takes place in the shallow springs and pools, sawgrass rivers
              and adjacent meadows and wooded swamps in and around the Florida Everglades. Story
              is about a boy growing up hi a poor family, his attachment to adopted, semi-tame fawn,
              the fawn's repeated invasion of his father's com field, the tragedy that follows, and the
              painful maturing these experiences bring.  Excellent characters, realistic experiences and
              accurate descriptions of landscapes.

Comment:     The  Yearling mirrors  author M.K. Rawling's own,  real life experiences when  she
              emigrated from  the bustling life of the city to write in a country surrounded by  the
              Florida Everglades.  It is based on her personal relationship with a neighboring family
              and a youth who faced the very real trials of growing up in a poor, rural family with a
              father attached to the bottle. Her writings also describe the surrounding wetlands, typical
              of the Florida Everglades, as indicated in the quote below:

                    "There was suddenly a strip of hammock land,  and a place of live oaks
                      and scrub palmettos. The undergrowth was thick, laced with cat-briers.
                      Then hammock, too, ended, and to the south and west lay a broad open
                      expanse  that looked at first to be a meadow. This was the saw-grass.
                      It grew knee-deep in water, its harsh saw-edged blades rising so thickly
                      it seemed a compact vegetation." (pages 32-33)
*  Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = INonfiction; SC = Story Collection


              Students are encouraged to read M.K. Rawling's autobiography, Cross Creek, which also
              has much on wetlands. Both The Yearling and Crow Creek have been made into movies.

List of Additional Books for Intermediate Students
The sections describing the following books are in parenthesis:
Amazon: .The Flooded Forest, Michael Goulding (secondary)
Animals and Plants That Trap, Philip Goldstein (elementary)
The Birder's Handbook: A Field Guide to the Natural History of North American Birds, Paul R. Erlich,
  David S. Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye (secondary)
Dragonflies, Hilda Smith (elementary)
Frogs, Toads, Lizards and Salamanders, Nancy Winslow (elementary)
Island of the Loons, Dayton O. Hyde (elementary)
Life and Death of the Salt Marsh, John and Mildred Teal (secondary)
The Pond, Robert Murphy (secondary)
A Sand County Almanac, Aldo Leopold (secondary)
Snails of Land and Sea, Hilda Smith (elementary)
Through the Eyes of a Young  Naturalist, Bill Sipple (intermediate)
Walking the Wetlands, Janet Lyons and Sandra Jordan (secondary)
Wandering Through Winter, Edwin Way Teale (secondary)
Water Insects, Sylvia A. Johnston (elementary)
* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction;  SC = Story Collection

                           SECONDARY LEVEL
                                (Grades 9 through 12)
ADOPTING A STREAM; A NORTHWEST HANDBOOK*. Steve Yates. University of Washington
Press, Seattle;  1989; 144 p.; grades 10 to 12; NF

Summary:     Primarily  a  handbook for the older student and  adults.  Author provides helpful
             information for teachers and older students interested in working with a group of high
             school students to adopt and improve a stream and adjacent or isolated wetlands.
             Contains information about streams but is applicable to wetlands, too.

Comment:     Although primarily about streams, Adopting A Stream: A Northwest Handbook is an
             excellent reference for anyone interested in initiating a stream or wetlands clean-up and
             monitoring project.  Adopting a wetland could be a challenging but rewarding class
THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN*. Mark Twain.  Airmont Publishing Co., Inc.,
New York; 1962; 318 p.; grades 10 to 12; F

Summary:     Humorous yet complex classic often cited as Mark Twain's best.  Begins with rigid aunt
             and abusive, drunk father from whom Huck Finn soon escapes. Aunt accuses slave Jim
             who had disappeared of murdering Huck. .Story unfolds as Huck and Jim soon meet,
             build a raft and flee together down the Mississippi River.  Novel depicts their journey
             of adventure and humor, cruelty and injustice, and preserves the essence and spirit of an
             important era in American history.

Comment:     The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn contains more of one of America's favorite writers,
             Mark Twain, man any of his other novels.  It is also important river/wetlands literature
             because the setting is the Mississippi River, a watershed which drains waters from about
             a third of the United States.  Experiences highlight the interconnectedness between man
             and the  environment.  Twain brings to the novel his own personal experiences with the
             river and once extensive adjacent wetlands as  riverboat  pilot along  the great river.
             Another book by  Mark Twain that contains information  on the Mississippi and her
             wetlands is life on the Mississippi.
AMAZON; THE FLOODED FOREST. Michael Goulding. Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., New York.
1990; 208 p.; grades 8 to 12; NF

Summary:     Spectacular photographs, many of wetlands. Complements television series by Partridge
             Films, Ltd., for the British Broadcasting Company (BBC).  Provides  natural history of
             Amazonian rivers and rainforests. Three main features of Amazonian fioodplains are
             described:  flooded forests, open water bodies and floating meadows of herbaceous
* Available through book shops •
Code: E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


plants.  Information is included on species of trees specially adapted to survive long
periods of flooding.

The Amazon is a very special place and much of this large area is a wetland. It floods
to a depth of 30 feet then drains to a shallow marsh annually.  The variety of plant and
animal life that has adapted to the extreme conditions of the Amazon is extraordinary,
as is evident in Amazon:  The Flooded Forest.
BEAUTIFUL SWIMMERS*. William W. Warner.  Little, Brown and Company, Boston; 1976;
304 p.; grades 9 to 12; NF

Summary;     Well written and interesting.  Contains information on the Atlantic blue crab and is a
              study of the Chesapeake Bay, the continent's largest estuary, including its history, winds
              and tides, gradations of depths, temperature and salinity with an interesting account on
              those who earn their living by chasing the blue crab. It follows the seasons of crabbers'
              year from autumn one year to Labor Day Crab Derby the next.

Comment:     Warner writes in the manner of the great naturalists Rachel Carson and Annie Dillard,
              and is a must for learning  about the Chesapeake, crabbing and  estuaries.  Beautiful
              Swimmers  identifies additional  reading sources and  suggests sites to visit in the
              Chesapeake Bay in the "Afterword."
AMERICAN BIRDS*. Paul R. Erlich, David S. Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye.  Simon and Schuster,
Inc., New York; 1988; 785 p.; grades 8 to 12; NF

Summary:     Excellent guide and reference to all birds known to nest regularly on the continent,
              including all those that nest or inhabit wetlands.  A significant portion is devoted to birds
              often found in wetlands.  These include, but are not limited to ducks, geese, egrets,
              herons, loons, plovers, ospreys, and rails.

Comment:     The Birder's Handbook is an identification guide with specific treatments of 650 species
              of birds, with fascinating and  informative essays on each species.  Type of nest, nest
              location, and major types of food eaten during the breeding season  are included in the
              information provided.
CAESARS OF THE WILDERNESS. Peter C. Newman. Viking-Penguin, Inc.; 1987; 452 p.; grades
9 to 12; NF.

Summary:     Historical description of the Hudson Bay Company (fur trading) empire established in
              Canada and the United States to harvest beaver and other fur animals in the vast wetlands
              of the two countries during the 1700 and 1800's.
W wlwlw l^l^i^iw w Iwfw fw |w^ ?w jfw

* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


The presence of water (hydrology) determines whether or not an area is a wetland.  It
influences the type of vegetation and type of soil that occurs.  Collectively these three
criteria—hydrology, soils and vegetation—are used to identify a wetland. In Caesars of
the Wilderness, author Newman emphasizes Canada's historical dependence on water.
Wetlands are habitat (home) to many furbearers, and are particularly important to beaver,
muskrat and mink.
CHESAPEAKE*. James A. Michener.  Random House, New York; 1978; 865 p.; grades 9 to 12; F

Summary:     Excellent descriptions of life surrounding the magnificent estuary habitat of Chesapeake
              Bay in mis historical novel by acclaimed author. Contents are arranged chronologically.
              The section titled "Voyages" contains an abundance of material devoted to wetlands.
              Voyage One:   1583,  "The River," focuses  on Chesapeake Indian tribes including
              fictitious Petaquod observing a marshland bird, "Fishing-long-legs" (an egret?).  In
              Voyage:   1636, "The  Marsh," pirate Turloch learns to view the marsh not only as a
              hiding place but as:

                    "an empire, a reservoir of considerable richness populated by larger and
                     tastier fish. He did not bother to differentiate the rushes and the various
                     kinds of minute inedible crabs,  nor  did he have the knowledge to
                     comprehend how  the contrasting elements of life fitted together, each
                     supporting the  other; that complicated awareness would not come in his
                     century.  But what he could understand was the marsh constituted a kind
                     of outlaw state from which he could thumb his nose at the Steeds and
                     any  others  who  sought  to enslave  him  in  their  ordered  ways."
                     (pp. 147-148)

Comment:     In preparing Chesapeake, James Michener did a lot of field research into the Chesapeake
              Bay estuary,  including its marshlands and tributaries, herons and  ospreys, Indians,
              oysters and  more.  Although it  is  a  novel with imaginary characters  and locales,
              Chesapeake documents the unique character and flavor of the Chesapeake Bay.
Newman. Viking-Penguin, Inc., New York; 1985; 448 p.; grades 10 to 12; NF

Summary:     Provides historical background of the giant Hudson's Bay Company that played a central
              role in settling the North American continent.

Comment:     Company of Adventures is recommended reading for gaining a knowledge of the early
              pioneers and the undeveloped land, much of which included wetlands.   Furs  and the
              wealth they brought to the Hudson's Bay Company is a story that covers one-twelfth of
              the earth's surface—much of it wetlands.
*  Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


 THE EVERGLADES:  RIVER OF GRASS*. Marjory Stoneman Douglas. Mockingbird Books, Inc.,
 St. Simons Island; 1947; 308 p.; grades 9 to 12; NF

 Summary:     First comprehensive study of Florida's Everglades.  Commences with a description of
               the natural setting followed by the coming of the Indian and later the Europeans.
               Includes descriptions of the natural history of the Everglades including its waters which
               form a seventy mile wide, shallow river, and grasses,  particularly the saw grass.
               Accounts of the discoverers, conquerors and peoples that have affected the Everglades
               and present threats to their existence.

 Comment:     The Everglades: River of Grass portrays human history spanning the time from ancient
               Indian cultures to modem times, investigates the natural phenomenon of the seventy-mile
               wide river flowing through the saw grass to the sea and comments on the present and
               future threats to the Everglades.
LEWIS AND CLARK;  PIONEERING NATURALISTS*. Paul Russell Cartright.  University of
Illinois Press, Chicago; 1969; 506 p.; grades 10 to 12; appendices and index; NF

Summary:     Natural history account of the famous expedition of Merriwether Lewis and William
               Clark. Expedition originates on the Potomac River, traverses the Missouri and Columbia
               River watersheds to reach the Pacific coast and concludes with their return to St. Louis.
               The expedition occurred between 1802 and 1806, under the direction of then president,
               Thomas Jefferson. Includes  appendices of plants and animals discovered by Lewis and
               Clark along rivers and riverine wetlands, and lists of Lewis and Clark journals, maps and
               other reference material.

Comment:     The mission of Lewis and Clark as explained in Lewis and dark: Pioneering Naturalists
               was to explore the Missouri River and its principle streams and the waters of the Pacific
               for the purpose of commerce, to record die diverse vegetation and animal  life, and to
               identify the aboriginal (Indian) nations.  Their remarkable journey took place along major
               watersheds, including the Columbia Estuary and riverine wetlands.   Descriptions  of
               vegetation occurring  in wetlands habitats include the broad-leaved arrowhead (Sagittaria
               latifolid) in the Northwest with its nutritious,  white starchy tubers that  contributed
               significantly to the welfare of coastal Indians.

               Regarding the tremendous numbers of ducks, geese, brant, cranes, swans and other
               aquatic birds, Clark comments: "I could not sleep for the noise kept [up] by the Swans,
               White and black brants ..." (m 199) on page 239. This and other accounts of Lewis and
               Clark are excellent references revealing the rich, pristine landscape and abundance of life
               along our rivers and  wetlands prior to European settlement.
* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


LIFE AND DEATH OF THE SALT MARSH*. John and Mildred Teal.  Ballantine Books, New
York; 274 p.; 1969; grades 8 to 12; index; NF

Summary:    Well written and illustrated, accurate and easy to understand. Documents the birth and
             death of marshes,  ecology of salt marshes, and their conservation needs.  Author
             describes salt marshes along the East Coast from Newfoundland to Florida, including:
             the development of these marshes, the plants and animals inhabiting mem and then*
             interrelationships, their contributions to human welfare and the often negative impact of
             human civilization on salt marshes.

Comment:    Written long before many ever heard of the term "wetlands," Life and Death of a Salt
             Marsh is recommended reading for any student desiring to learn about wetlands in coastal
             areas. The environment of the salt marsh is unique in that plants and animals inhabiting
             them have had to adapt to fluctuating tides, to being covered with water one moment and
             exposed the next. At low tide the salt marsh is a vast flat meadow of grasses. High tide
             is similar but with water showing between the spears of grass where land was earlier.
             The authors discuss the negative impact of civilization on salt marshes and present
             solutions and suggestions emphasizing it is important for people to decide together to
             reduce the continuing losses and actively work toward the preservation of salt marshes.

THE NEW BOOK OF OXFORD CANADIAN VERSE. Compiled by Margaret Atwood. Oxford
University Press, New York; 477 p.; grades 9 to 12; SC

Summary:    Nice selections on wetlands.  "The Blue Heron" by Theodore Goodridge Roberts,  1926,.
             refers to a species of bird common in wetlands and has a very nice poetic description of
             a wetland, perhaps a fresh or salt water marsh.  Following is a sample from his poem:

                   "In a green place lanced through
                   With amber and gold and blue—
                   A place of water and weeds,
                   and roses pinker than dawn
                   And ranks of lush young reeds
                   And grasses straigbtly withdrawn
                   From graven ripples of sands.
                   The still blue heron stands."

Comment:    This and other poems in "Die New Book of Oxford Canadian Verse, such as "Beaver
             Pond" (p.  165) or "Dark Pines Under Water" (p. 389) or "The Bull Moose" (p. 299)
             are other poetry included on wetland-related topics.  Students are encouraged to browse
             this and other anthologies for poetry on related wetlands topics.
* Available through book shops *
Code: E = Easy Reader; F=Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


PILGRIM AT TINKER CREEK*. Annie Dillard.  Bantam Books, New York; 1974; 280 p.; grades
9 to 12; NF

Summary:     Highly recommended!   Encompasses many  levels and disciplines, including natural
               science, poetry, and philosophy. A sensory, revealing and magical excursion into the
               natural and mystical world of the wetlands and watershed of Tinker Creek. Descriptions
               of experiences in author-naturalist's world in wetlands at Tinker Creek include: author's
               experiences in chapter entitled, "Seeing," as  she stalks the bank of a cattail marsh and
               observes a muskrat, turtle, and swallow; and an excellent account of a flood and its
               "tyrannical dominance" over the landscape including humans and other living things.

Comment:     Annie Dillard received  the Pulitzer  Prize for Pilgrim at  Tinker Creek. . A pilgrim
               watching for signs and keys to the natural world, the author's excellent manipulation of
               words in a hands-on, experiential style enables the reader to feel, hear and smell die
               world of the naturalist.  The chapter on die flood is relevant to die economic importance
               of wetlands because wetlands help reduce flood levels.  From die author's perspective,
               Tinker Creek in Virginia represents die universe and its spiritual complexity.
THE POND. Robert Murphy.  E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc., New York; 1964; 254 p.; grades 7 to 12;

Summary:     Reflective narrative portraying interaction between 14-year-old Joey, Mr. Ben and other
              characters Joey meets.  Excellent characterizations describing Joey's observations when
              getting away from home to spend time with Mr. Ben, an elderly caretaker, in an obscure
              land near Richmond, Virginia, where he  develops an appreciation for the wildlife he

Comment:     The Pond contains excellent descriptions, including when Joey befriends a maltreated dog
              and Joey's interactions with two boys he  meets and their deformed, crippled brother.
              Murphy sympathetically contrasts their world with Joey's. Reading The Pond, one will
              experience Joey's adventures; die development and molding of emotions, Joey's progress
              towards maturity; and an appreciation for life in die swamp, pond and woods.
THE PORTABLE THOREAU*. Revised edition by Carl Bode. Viking Penguin, New York; 1982;
697 p.; grades 9 to 12; SC

Summary:     Excellent  nature writing.  Contains writings on wetlands, including selections  from
              Walden, The Maine Woods and A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. Editor
              writes of nature's claims on Thoreau, "that it presented a sympathetic setting for his
              thoughts, a drapery for his dreams."  There was no human element to intrude. "What
              he saw in Walden was that 'sweet solitude my spirit seemed so early to require' to invite
              his noblest thoughts." Following is an excerpt from Walden:

                     "Not a fish can leap or an insect fall on die pond but it is thus reported
                      in circling dimples, in lines of beauty, as it were the constant welling up
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

       of its fountain, the gentle pulsing of its life, the heaving of its breast.
       The thrills of joy and thrills of pain are indistinguishable."

Henry David Thoreau is one of America's most influential nature writers.  He wrote
about his thoughts inspired by his detailed  observations of the natural environment
including wetlands.  It is recommended the reader not limit her or himself to any one
work of Thoreau or other nature writers to gain insights into ponds, wetlands, and other
natural resources.
RUNES OF THE NORTH*. Sigurd F. Olson. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York; 1963; 256 p.,
grades 7 to 12; NF

Summary:     Legends, yarns and reflections drawn from northern Canada and Alaska. Many chapters,
               such as Cranberry Bog", "Wild Rice" and "The Swamp," contain interesting descriptions
               of wetlands. Two 'sections of Runes of the North, "Le Beau Pays" and "Pays d'en Haul"
               reveal descriptions of man's lore of the land, rushing white water streams and lost lakes.

Comment:     Runes of the North depicts a wilderness, a large percentage consisting of lakes, rivers and
               wetlands. Author Olson's runes (i.e., a tale of magic and mystery) will evoke the appeal
               of the wilderness.  Sigurd Olson was a notable woodsman with thirty years experience
               as a wilderness guide in northern Minnesota and Ontario.  He has the gift of skillfully
               weaving together descriptions of nature, such as a cranberry bog, with deep insights into
               man's innerworld. The text reinforces that wetlands are ubiquitous. They can occur just
               about  anywhere water collects,  from a meter-wide puddle in the backyard, to an
               expansive freshwater marsh remote from man and civilization.
A SAND COUNTY ALMANAC*. Aido Leopold. Ballantine Books, New York; 1970; 270 p.; grades
9 to 12; NF

Summary:     A classic by a highly acclaimed author-naturalist! This edition combines A Sand County
              Almanac (first published in 1949) with essays from Round River (1953). Journal writing
              of seasonal changes in nature over the period of one full year with abundant material on
              wetlands, such as, "Come High Water"  (p. 25),  "Great Possessions"  (p. 47)  and
              "Manitoba" (p. 169). Text includes essays from  different areas around the continent,
              such as Arizona and Oregon but focuses primarily on Leopold's home in the Midwest.
              Leopold addresses man's destructive interference with nature and concludes with a plea
              for a conservation land ethic.

Comment:     A Sand County Almanac is a  must for anyone interested in things wild and free,  and
              protection  of the  land  on which they  (and we) depend.   Leopold  reveals  the
              interdependence between living things in the environment, particularly the critical and
              inseparable role wetlands play hi the  delicate balance of living systems and the earth.
              Below is a passage from "Marshland Elegy":
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story  Collection

                    "A dawn wind stirs on the great marsh.  With almost imperceptible
                     slowness, it rolls a bank of fog across the wild morass. Like the white
                     ghost of a glacier, the mists advance, riding over phalanxes of tamarack,
                     sliding across bog  meadows heavy with dew.  A single silence hangs
                     from horizon to horizon."  (p. 101)
SWAMP FOX*. Robot Duncan Bass. Henry Holt and Company, New York; 1959; 275 p.; grades
9 to 12; NF
Summary:     Historic account of Francis Marion's activities during Revolutionary War when he
              retained eastern South Carolina from the British and later, with Nathaniel Greene, drove
              die British from South Carolina.   Historic documentation includes many  swamp

Comment:     The swamp provided a good hiding place for the resourceful Swamp Fox and his troops.
              Descriptions of swamps abound throughout the text, painting a picture in the reader's eye
              of real wetlands,  The author, Robert Duncan Bass, describes Little Peedee Swamp as:

                    "... giant  cypress trees rearing their fronds into the sky, their knees
                     protruding from the black loam and their limbs draped with streaming
                     Spanish moss.  From all  around came  the sour, pleasant  smell of
                     decaying  vegetation and mucky soil."
THIS INCOMPARABLE LANDE*. Thomas J. Lyon. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston; 1989; 495
p.; grades 10 to 12; SC

Summary:     Begins with a history of nature writing in America and a discussion of major writers; an
              "Anthology of American Nature Writing" follows with a comprehensive selection from
              these  authors including those who  have written wetland material, such as William
              Bartram's, "East and West Florida" and John James Audubon's, "The Great Pine

Comment:     Works of the great  nature writers  in  This Incomparable  Lande provide excellent
              descriptions of natural history and reveal a sense of oneness with nature.  It touches on
              Man's ethical responsibility towards the land and its vital  wetlands.   For example,
              Thoreau speaks about human consciousness not being a separate  human state but a
              partnership with nature.

              Below is a an example from This Incomparable Lande by one of the early nature writers,
       ;       John James Audubon (1785-1851). Artist, ornithologist and writer, Audubon walked and
              rode through the recently settled states, alert to more than birds, particularly the beauty
              and inexplicable magnetism of wilderness and the diverse assortment of human characters
              he met in the back country.  The following writing represents his most direct, concrete
* Available through book shops

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection

                   "It was the month of October. The Autumnal tints already decorated the
                    shores of that queen of rivers, the Ohio.  Every tree was hung with
                    clustered fruits of varied brilliancy, their rich bronzed carmine mingling
                    beautifully with the yellow foliage, which now predominated over the yet
                    green leaves, reflecting more lively tints from the clear stream than ever
                    landscape painter portrayed or poet imagined."  (p. 47)
THROUGH THE EYES OF A YOUNG NATURALIST*. William A. Sipple. Gateway Press, Inc.,
Baltimore; 1991; 204 p.; grades 9 to 12; NF

Summary:    Anecdotal  and nostalgic account of author's outdoor natural history experiences  as
             youngster, teenager and young adult in New Jersey from 1951 to 1971. Author provides
             numerous autobiographical accounts of activities within the New Jersey countryside,
             beginning with adventures of the author as a young birder. Includes accounts of hunting,
             fishing, trapping  and camping in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, on the  Hackensack
             Meadows and along the New Jersey Coast.

Comment:    Through the Eyes of a  Young Naturalist is written for a wide variety of outdoor and
             natural history enthusiasts both young and old, amateur and professional. It documents
             Sipple's changing interests, his environmental ethic and societal changes in attitudes and
             behavior toward natural resources.  Part V, "Evolving Ethics" elaborates on the author's
             personal perspective on the outdoors and the public's changing attitudes towards one of
             his favorite natural environments—wetlands.

             Available from William S. Sipple, 512 Red Bluff Court, Millersville, Maryland 21108

WALKING THE WETLANDS*. Janet Lyons and Sandra Jordan. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New
York; 1989; 222 p.; index; bibliography; NF

Summary:    Written as a hiker's  guide to identify plants and animals that inhabit marshes, bogs and
             swamps. Includes full-page pen drawings accompanied by written descriptions of living
             organisms  in  freshwater wetlands of the  United States.   Individual profiles contain
             concise descriptions  of range of habitat, and informative essays on the natural history of
             wetland habitats.

Comments:   Waiting The  Wetlands is a handy  resource guide for  the field.   Although not
             comprehensive (e.g., herons are included, but not egrets), it reveals the value of wetlands
             through descriptions of individual organisms found there.  The appendix lists wetland
             areas  in the National Park and National Refuge Systems.  It is important to note that
             many species described  in the text are not limited to wetlands .(like raccoons and mink),
             but nonetheless frequent wetland habitats.
* Available through book shops -
Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


WANDERING THROUGH WINTER*. Edwin Way Teale.  Dodd, Mead and Company, New York;
1965; 370 p.; grades 6 to 12; NF
Excellent material on wetlands woven throughout text.  Opens in the southern tip of
California as naturalist Teale travels north and east to northern Maine, describing his
experiences with nature along the zigzag route of his wandering 20,000 mile journey.
Teale describes the remarkable adaptations of the common cattail, and its use by Indians
bom for weaving mats and moccasins, and as an important food source.  In the chapter, ,
"The Great Swamp," the author discusses the value of the northern wetlands to deer for ;
              providing shelter and forage as they
              "The Deer Yard."
                                'yard up" in groups to survive whiter in the chapter,'
      "Each year, as soon as the snow begins to pile up hi the north woods,
       these animals gather into bands ... choosing some area protected from
       the cold winds and provided with such food as twigs, bark, tree lichens
       and evergreen boughs, settle down for the winter.  Most frequently,
       cedar swamps are selected."  (pp. 325-326)

Wandering Through  Winter is the fourth of a series by respected artist, writer and
naturalist, Edwin Way Teale, on traveling cross country with the seasons. Teale writes
about the natural history of each season during his journeys. His other tides about the
seasons are: North With The Spring, the narration of a 17,000 mile journey from Florida
to Canada as author keeps pace with the advance of spring; Journey into Summer, and
Autumn Across America  follow. All four books contain  material on wetlands and are
recommended reading for learning about wetlands.
THE WATER IS WIDE*. Pat Conroy. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston; 1972; 260 p.; grades 10 to 12;

Summary:     Powerful and inspiring true account of Pat Conroy who chose to spend a year of his life
              teaching black children on an impoverished island on the South Carolina coast. Although
              its inhabitants had been living proudly off the sea, industrial waste had made its waters,
              including many wetlands, unsafe, threatening their lives—until one day when Pat Conroy
              walked into the office of the superintendent and offered to teach on the island which had
              no teacher. This is the account of that moving and incredible experience.

Comment:     The Water Is Wide is a must! The setting, Yamacraw, is an island off the South Carolina
              coast not far from Savannah, Georgia.  There, wetlands abound as "undulating marshes"
        . .'.    fringe the southern coast with "dark, threatening silences of the swamps in the heart of
        ^'     the island."  Already familiar with wetlands, his father's  pursuits  had  led Pat into
              swamplands of the East Coast.
* Available through book shops •

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F = Fiction; NF = Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


WATER POLLUTION*. Kathlyn Gay.  "Impact Books" Series, Watts, Kirkwood; 1990; 128>pl;
grades 10 to 12; NF                                                         ,,          ,;  ,  •
                                                                         .-;.--     .* .:hrv-.•.'..
Summary:      Balanced, well-written and well-organized with clear, detailed scientific explanations;
               Provides information on the water cycle, sources of water, water pollution, attempts at
               clean-up and how to prevent continued misuse of this natural resource.  Explains theF
               importance of wetlands in terms of ecology and water systems,  absorption of toxic
               compounds, prevention of aquifer contamination, and flood control.

Comment:      Water Pollution is a fine resource for the student who wants to understand the unique
               properties of water, the key characteristics of wetlands  and the  pervasive problems
               resulting from water pollution as it affects wetlands and other natural resources.
WETLANDS*. William Niering. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York; 1985; 640 p.; grades 9 to 12;
index; NF                                                                     ~-
                                                                        •. r-T"', -  '•"•
Summary:     Well-written field guide published by National Audubon Society   Contains wetlands
              information including color descriptions of different kinds!of wetlands; dynamics of
              wetlands; discussions of ecosystems such as bogs, marshes and shrub swamps; colorplates
              of wetlands in the United States;  photographs; descriptions of plants  and animals;
              glossary; bibliography; and index.

Comment:     Wetlands is an excellent guide for learning about wetlands!  It is comprehensive but not
              overly technical. Niering has provided distribution maps of different wetlands types and
              range maps for animals and plants.  Below is an excerpt from Wetlands:

                    "A typical flooded marsh is often a mosaic of emergents, submergents and
                      floating plants, interspersed with areas of open water. The marsh plants,
                      the primary producers, are at the base of the food chain ... Among the
                      primary consumers are muskrats, ducks and even people,  when they
                      harvest Wild Rice." (pp. 46-47)
WETLANDS. Max Firlaison and Michael Moser, (General Editors).  Facts oh File Limited; New
York; 1991; 224 p.; grades 10 to 12; NF

Summary:     Glossy, spectacular book prepared by the International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research
              Bureau (IWRB). A documented account of the status of the world's major wetlands by
              continent. Wetlands and their values opens the volume by defining wetlands, describing
              major types (swamps, peatlands, mangroves are a few), and discussing their vulnerability
              and the need for conservation of these internationally important resources.

Comment:     Wetlands is very comprehensive.  It presents the world's wetlands as they are found on
              each continent. It addresses the impacts of recreation, pollution and agriculture. This
              book emphasizes that the threat to wetlands may be due to activities elsewhere in the
* Available through book shops-                                  '•.>->       -•*>•*   ;     "

Code: E = Easy Reader; F = Faction; NF ^ Rle^fiqtion; SC = Story Collection           s :>c

 List of Additional Books for Secondary Students
 The sections describing these additional books are in parenthesis:
 A Naturalist's Sketchbook, Claire Walker Leslie (intermediate)
 TTieiSnow Goose; Paul Gallico (intermediate)
 The Wind in the Willows, Kenneth Grahame Qntermediate).
 Wild and Scenic Rivers, National Geographic Society Qntermediate)
 The Yearling, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (intermediate)
i *K.
* Available through book shops -

Code:  E = Easy Reader; F=Fiction; NF=Nonfiction; SC = Story Collection


                                  KEY WETLAND TOPICS

The books that are described in the "Wetlands Reading List" are only a few of the many that exist on
wetlands and wetlands related topics.  Readers unable to locate any of the books  identified in the
"Wetlands Reading List," will want to look for other books that may cover the same, topic, Numerous
more books have been and continue to be written on wetlands.  A few key words for finding additional
books on wetlands topics are listed below:

bayou                                                           .
beaver                                                      . =.
carnivorous plants
cattail marsh
insectivorous plants
Lewis and Clark
lily pad
nature writers
pitcher plants
Seminole Indians
spring peepers