United States
Environmental Protection
Air and Energy Engineering
Research Laboratory
Research Triangle Park NC 27711
 Research and Development
EPA/600/S7-86/033 Feb. 1987
 Project  Summary
 Preliminary  Operation  of
 the  Fluidized-Bed  Combustion
 Facility  for  Hazardous  Waste
 Disposal   Research:  Test  Results
 and  Evaluation
R. Clayton, H. Dempsey, and R. Machilek
  This report describes Phase I of a pro-,
gram to  provide research data  on  the
destruction of hazardous wastes in a
fluidized-bed combustor (FBC). The report
addresses three primary areas of the pro-
gram:  facility operation, sampling and
analysis,  and health and safety.
  The  FBC was operated at a nominal
temperature of 982 °C for each test run.
The bed height changed somewhat from
run to run, but the residence time at a
temperature of about 982 °C was main-
tained at about 0.8 sec. CO and CO2 con-
centrations in the freeboard  were moni-
tored continuously, along with down-
stream O2 and total hydrocarbon levels.
  Operating parameters were maintained
easily, but were less flexible than desired.
Phase II of the program will  re-evaluate
and continue the research effort, based on
the Phase I data and conclusions.
  This Project Summary was developed
by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering
Research Laboratory, Research Triangle
Park, NC, to announce key findings of the
research project that is fully documented
in a separate report of the same title (see
Project Report ordering information at

  As part of an interagency coordinated
research program to provide technical sup-
port for EPA's hazardous waste permitting
activities, EPA's Air and Energy Engineer-
ing Research Laboratory sponsored a pro-
gram to incinerate surrogate  wastes in a
fluidized-bed combustor (FBC). A multi-
phased program was developed to utilize
the FBC for a variety of hazardous waste
incineration studies including destruction
and removal efficiency  (ORE) testing,
sampling and analysis methods evaluation
and development, and incineration and
control  technology development. The
pilot-scale atmospheric FBC facility, at
EPA's Environmental Research Center, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC, was utilized for
this study.
  Phase I of the program was designed to
(1) develop, test, and evaluate facility oper-
ation protocols with emphasis on facility
safety and personnel health; (2) determine
destruction and removal efficiencies for
selected test compounds at a given set of
operating conditions; and (3) test selected
state-of-the-art sampling trains and analy-
sis methods.
  The 6-month Phase I program included:
the development of a comprehensive test
plan, including OA/OC and health and
safety plans for facility operation and sam-
pling and analysis activities; modification
of the FBC to accomplish the goals of the
plan; and a 3-week test burn for data col-
lection. A post-test evaluation period was
designed to analyze the results and re-
appraise the program's goals and direction.
  Test compounds were chosen to repre-
sent a full range of volatility and ease of
destruction which would allow the test-
ing of three sampling and analysis meth-
ods including: (1) Volatile Organic Sample
Train (VOST) for measuring the volatile
constituents, (2)  Source Assessment
Sampling System with a glass  XAD-2

Resin module (Glass SASS) for collecting
the semivolatiles, and (3) Stack Dilution
Sampling System (SDSS) for measuring
the condensible organic components in
the flue gas. Test compounds were chosen
which were not listed as principal organic
hazardous constituents in Appendix VIII of
the Resource Conversion and Recovery
Act (RCRA).
  These  surrogate wastes  were mixed
with No. 2 fuel oil at 1- 2 percent by weight
concentrations to be injected into the
fluidized bed.

  The facility was modified by:
  1. Extending the exhaust stack to en-
     sure adequate dispersion of any flue
     gas pollutants.
  2. Installing a gas-fired burner in the
     combustor for bed preheat and fuel
     oil ignition.
  3. Installing a liquid-fuel feed system to
     safely handle and inject the fuel/
     waste mixtures.
  4. Recasting the combustor section to
     a  circular cross-section with  more
     abrasive-resistant material.
  5. Modifying  participate  cleanup de-
     vices  (cyclone, baghouse) to safely
     catch and dispose of  potentially
     hazardous residues.
  6. Adding and modifying facility safety

  A typical  test run  required  approxi-
mately 24 hours, beginning 12 -18  hours
before data collection began. The facility
draft fan, blower, and electric and gas pre-
heater were operated to preheat the com-
bustor, bed  material,  and  downstream
facility components.
  After a clean oil start-up burn time of 3
- 6 hours, the facility was operated at a
nominal  bed temperature of 982 °C for
each fuel/waste burn. Apparent residence
time at temperature was about 0.8 sec.
The bed was about 25 in.* (slumped) of
0.020 - 0.050 in. spherical bauxite  beads
expanded to 30-35 in. After data collec-
tion was  completed, the   facility was
operated  on  clean  fuel for about  30
minutes before fuel shutoff and facility
   Two fuel/waste mixtures were burned—
one containing the non-volatile and semi-
volatile compounds and the other contain-
ing the volatile compounds. The  Glass
SASS and SDSS methods were conducted
simultaneously  on three test dates. The
three VOST runs were made successively
on the same day.
  The data provided DRE's for the six
compounds in the 99.99 percent range,
verifying the usefulness of the facility for
hazardous waste research. Phase I of the
program provided  not only quantitative
data but also operational data to evaluate
the protocols developed for facility sam-
pling and analysis operations with partic-
ular emphasis on OA/OC, personnel health
and safety, and program goals.
  To develop and evaluate a comprehen-
sive health and safety plan, a third party
was utilized to assist in the  development
of protocols,  training of personnel,  and
evaluation of performance and procedures.
  The facility performed  satisfactorily,
with only one problem affecting the test:
the fuel  feed nozzle plugged  during opera-
tion causing a premature shutdown. All
goals of the facility operations plans were
met by performing the required test burns
and providing the data necessary to eval-
uate the facility's capabilities and plan
future testing.
  The goals of the sampling and analysis
functions  of  the program were  also
achieved.  The three sampling methods
were tested, and the data were analyzed
to provide the DRE determinations. The
operational experience with each sampling
method provided the data to evaluate the
methods and analytical procedures and
determine the logistics necessary for data
collection and analysis for  hazardous
waste studies using the FBC facility.
  The health and safety aspects  of the
program were a primary focal point of the
test plans to achieve the facility operation
and sampling and analysis  goals. The ac-
complishment of those goals provided the
opportunity to evaluate the health and
safety protocols developed for the pro-
gram and the adherence to the protocols
by the facility operations  and sampling
crews. Health- and safety-related costs
were determined as part of this effort.
   R.  Clayton, H. Dempsey, and R. Machilekd are with Acurex  Corp., Research
     Triangle Park, NC 27709.
   John H. Wasser is the EPA Project Officer fsee below).
   The  complete report, entitled  "Preliminary  Operation  of the Fluidized-Bed
     Combustion Facility for Hazardous Waste Disposal Research: Test Results
     and Evaluation," (Order No. PB 87-110 474/AS;  Cost: $24.95, subject to
     change) will be available only from:
           National Technical Information Service
           5285 Port Royal Road
           Springfield, VA 22161
           Telephone: 703-487-4650
   The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
           Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Research Triangle Park. NC 27711
   1 in. = 2.54 cm.


United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
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