United States
 Environmental Protection
 Water Engineering Research
 Cincinnati OH 45268
 Research and Development
 EPA/600/S8-85/026  Nov. 1985
 Project  Summary
 Wastewater  Treatment  Plant
 Instrumentation Handbook
 Robert C. Manross
  A handbook was developed as a guide
 for selecting, applying, and maintaining
 instruments and final control elements
 in wastewater treatment plants.  The
 handbook does not include all instru-
 ments used in such plants, but priority is
 given to basic, proven instruments that
 meet specific needs and provide tangi-
 ble benefits.
  Basic applications covered  include
 analytical measurement, flow measure-
 ment (liquid  and  gas),  level measure-
 ment, pressure measurement, pump
 control,  and control valves.  Topics
 addressed are the theory of operation,
 application guidelines,  installation re-
 quirements,  maintenance and  calibra-
 tion  requirements, and selection  and
 sizing specifications.
  The handbook is intended to  be used
 by individuals with  no  previous back-
 ground  or specialized  knowledge of
 instrumentation and control equipment.
 A designer's checklist  is provided for
 each of the instruments described in the

  This Project Summary was developed
by EPA's Water Engineering Research
Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce
key findings of the research project that
is fully documented in a separate report
of the same  title  (see Project  Report
ordering information at back).

  Instruments are required for the proper
operation of wastewater treatment plants.
To be useful,  the  instruments must be
operable and  maintainable. Thus care
must betaken in selecting, applying, and
installing instruments and control equip-
ment. This handbook tells users how to
design and apply instruments and con-
trols  for waste treatment  operations.
 Special emphasis is placed on problems,
 causes, and solutions.

  Instrumentation for wastewater treat-
 ment was observed in various states of
 working order during visits to wastewater
 treatment  plants  over  several years.
 Personnel at these sites often criticized
 the instruments for their failure to meet
 expectations of reliability and usefulness.
 However, the  same instruments  per-
 formed satisfactorily in other locations.
 We therefore concluded that the need
 was great to educate the engineering,
 user, and regulatory communities about
 the prerequisites for success with instru-
  The initial response was to hold a 4-day
 seminar in November 1983 in Chicago to
 teach engineers and operators how to
 make wastewater treatment instruments
 operable and maintainable. The program
 presented examples of real-life problems
 and how they could be prevented. The
 problems were attributed to misapplica-
 tion, incorrect installation,  or improper
 maintenance. This handbook grew out of
 the preparation  for the seminar, which
 required documenting the basis for the
 information that was presented.

 Contents of the Handbook
  The handbook addresses more instru-
 ments than the seminar could deal with,
 but it does not cover all items used in
 wastewater treatment plants. Priority has
 been given to basic,  proven equipment
that meets  specific needs and provides
tangible benefits. The handbook includes
 instruments, valves,  and pumps com-
 monly  used in  wastewater treatment
plants. Applications covered are analytical
 measurement, flow measurement (liquid

  and gas), level measurement, pressure
  measurement, pump control, and control
  valves. Topics addressed are the basic
  theory of operation, applications, instal-
  lation requirements,  maintenance and
  calibration requirements, and selection
  and sizing specifications.
    The handbook is  intended for use by
  individuals with no previous background
  or specialized knowledge of instrumenta-
  tion or control equipment. Users respon-
  sible for reviewing the work done by
  others may find a helpful reference in the
  designer's checklist in each  section. If
  more technical information is required, a
  reference list is included at the end of
  each section.

    The information contained in the hand-
  book should not be  considered all-inclu-
  sive; rather, it is a much-needed, begin-
  ning documentation of what really works
  in the field. Making an instrument reliable
  and maintainable may depend on infor-
  mation not included in the manufacturer's
  manual. The solutions may  involve re-
  vised procedures, test methods, or physi-
  cal modifications. Too often this knowl-
  edge is not shared outside the treatment
  plant because the persons responsible do
  not consider their  solutions  unique or
    The full report was submitted in fulfill-
  ment  of Contract  No. 68-03-3130 by
  Dynamac, Inc., Rockville, MD, under the
  sponsorship  of the U.S.  Environmental
  Protection Agency.
        Robert C. Manross is with EM A. Inc., St. Paul, MN 55101.
        Walter W. Schuk is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
        The complete report, entitled "Wastewater Treatment Plant Instrumentation
          Handbook,"{Order No. PB 86-108 636/AS; Cost: $28.95, subject to change)
          will be available only from:
                National Technical Information Service
                5285 Port Royal Road
                Springfield, VA 22161
                Telephone: 703-487-4650
        The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
                Water Engineering Research Laboratory
                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                Cincinnati, OH 45268
United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
  PERMIT No. G-35
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

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