United States
                                   Environmental Protection
                                Industrial Environmental Research
                                Research Triangle Park NC 27711
                                   Research and Development
                                EPA-600/S9-81-006  Sept. 1981
                                   Project  Summary
                                   Symposium  Proceedings:
                                   Environmental  Aspects of Fuel
                                   Conversion  Technology, V
                                   (September 1980, St. Louis, MO)
                                   F. A. Ayer and N. S. Jones, Compilers
  The report documents presentations
at the fifth EPA-sponsored symposium
on the environmental aspects of fuel
conversion technology, in St. Louis,
MO, 9/16-19/80. The symposium
served as a colloquium on environ-
mental  information related to coal
gasification, indirect liquefaction, and
direct liquefaction. The  program
included sessions  on program ap-
proach, environmental assessment,
and environmental control,  including
the development of EPA's  pollution
control guidance documents. Process
developers and users, research scien-
tists, and State and Federal officials
participated in the symposium.
  This Project Summary was devel-
oped by EPA's Industrial Environmen-
tal Research Laboratory. Research
Triangle Park, NC.  to announce key
findings of the research project that is
fully documented in a separate report
of the same title (see Project Report
ordering information at back).

  This report summarizes the proceed-
ings of the fifth EPA symposium on
Environmental Aspects of Fuel Conver-
sion Technology, held September 16-
19, 1980, in St. Louis, MO.
  The purpose  of the symposium,
sponsored by EPA's Industrial Environ-
mental Research Laboratory at Research
Triangle Park, NC, was to discuss
 environmentally related information on
 coal gasification and  liquefaction.
 Approximately 250 participants, includ-
 ing process developers, process users,
 environmental groups, governmental
 representatives, and research scientists,
 attended the 4-day symposium.
  Source and ambient multimedia test
 results from pilot through commercial-
 scale coal gasification and liquefaction
 facilities were presented, as  well as
 evaluations of environmental control
 technologies, results of laboratory
 research, and the status of methodolo-
 gies for environmental assessment.
 Development of EPA's Pollution Control
 Guidance Documents for coal indirect
 liquefaction, direct liquefaction,  and
 low-Btu gasification was highlighted.
  Abstracts of the speakers' remarks

 Keynote Address

 Kurt W. Riegel, Associate
 Deputy Administrator
 Office of Environmental
 Engineering and Technology
 U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C.
  Since last year's meeting two things,
 which can be expected to spur synthetic
fuels development, have occurred. The
price of oil has again almost doubled

and President Carter  has signed into
law the Synthetic Fuels Corporation Bill
which authorizes up to  $20 billion to
encourage the growth of the industry.
  In spite of sporadic Agency funding
for research  on the environmental
effects of synthetic fuels production, a
core effect  has  been  maintained that
has enabled EPA to meet its commit-
ments to  formulate  environmental
protection  guidelines for  emerging
synfuels technologies. The Alternate
Fuels Group and Priority Energy Project
Group have been established by the
Administrator and have  functioned to
coordinate EPA's activities in this effort
to use "best engineering judgement" to
provide  the basis for evaluation of
permit applications  on accelerated
projects in  lieu  of operating data on
existing plants.
  The major outputs in this effort are a
series of Pollution  Control Guidance
Documents (PCGDs), one for each of the
major synfuel product areas: gasifica-
tion/indirect liquefaction, direct  lique-
faction, oil shale, and biomass. These
are targeted for the user groups: permit
reviewers  (both  in  the  EPA regional
offices and in comparable state govern-
ment agencies),  process developers or
plant  operators, and  EPA regulatory
offices which will  use the data for
standards preparation.
  I thank you for your contributions to
and interest in these  efforts and your
participation in this symposium.

Session  I. General Approach

Robert P. Hangebrauck,
Industrial Environmental
Research Laboratory
U.S.  EPA, Research  Triangle
Park, NC  27711

The Synthetic Fuel Program of
the Fuel Process Branch of

T. Kelly Janes, Chief
Industrial Environmental
Research Laboratory
U.S.  EPA, Research  Triangle
Park, NC  27711
  This paper deals with  the overall
research effort being conducted  by the
Fuel Process Branch of EPA's Industrial
Environmental Research Laboratory at
Research Triangle Park,  NC. This effort
has been divided into three categories:
(1) development of suitable methodolo-
gies for environmental assessment of
these technologies, (2) problem defini-
tion through data acquisition, and (3)
research facilities to assess control
technology acceptability.

EPA/IERL-RTP Program for
Direct Liquefaction and
Synfuel Product Use

Dale A. Denny
Industrial Environmental
Research Laboratory
U.S. EPA, Research Triangle
Park, NC 27711

  The direct liquefaction  program at
EPA/IERL-RTP covers those synfuel
processes which add hydrogen to coal
and form liquid hydrocarbon products
directly. The processes currently under
study include  SRC-II,  Exxon Donor
Solvent, and H-Coal. SRC-I is  also
included in the program because of its
similarity to SRC-II even  though  the
main product from  that process  is a
solid. The synfuel use program covers
products from coal  and shale synfuel
processing systems. Current and planned
IERL-RTP activities in the area of direct
coal liquefaction and  synfuel product
use are  described. The relationship of
these activities to process developers,
regulatory programs, other governmen-
tal agencies, and other  EPA research
activities is discussed.

Update of EPA/IERL-RTP
Environmental Assessment

Garrie  L Kingsbury
Research Triangle Institute
Research Triangle Park,
NC 27709
N. Dean Smith
Industrial  Environmental
Research  Laboratory
U.S. EPA, Research Triangle
Park, NC

  EPA's IERL-RTP  has developed a
systematic  approach for  performing
each aspect of environmental assess-
ment to allow for  consistent  data
gathering and interpretation. Environ-
mental assessment requires the deter-
mination of contaminant levels associ-
ated with point source discharges and
comparison of those determinations
with target control levels. Procedures
for conducting phase environmental
assessments involving Level  1 and
Level 2 chemical analyses and bioassays
have been  formalized.  Multimedia
Environmental Goals (MEGs) reflecting
potential toxicity of specific chemicals
provide the target  values used for
comparison. Source Analysis  Models
(SAMs) delineate discharge stream
severities  based  on the components
present and mass flow rates. The Level
1/Level 2  chemical analysis approach
has been coupled  with the categorical
system for organizing chemicals  ad-
dressed by MEGs.
  The  computerized Environmental
Assessment Data System (EADS) at
IERL-RTP is used to store environmental
assessment data  and to provide links
between characterization  and target
goals. Eventually,  EADs will be used to
automate large portions of the assess-
ment data analysis.
The Permitting Process for
New Synfuel Facilities

Terry L. Thoem, Director
Energy Policy Coordination Office
U.S. EPA, Region 8, Denver,
CO 80295
  The U.S.  EPA and the various state
departments of health are involved in a
joint partnership with shared responsi-
bilities for protecting  the environment
during the  development of synthetic
fuels. Legislation in  the form of the
Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act,  Safe
Drinking Water Act, and the Toxic
Substances Control  Act provide the
framework for EPA's regulatory respon-
sibilities. The current status of imple-
menting regulations and agency policies
vis-a-vis these  Acts is provided in this
paper. Also, important aspects of state
environmental regulations are provided.
  Permit applications for synthetic fuel
facilities are being  received by EPA
regional offices and by state agencies.
Synfuel  EISs  are being  reviewed.
Decisions on Best Available Control
Technology are being  made. These
engineering judgements are also dis-
cussed in this paper.

The TV A Ammonia from
Coal Project

P.C. Williamson
Division of Chemical
TVA, Muscle Shoals, AL 35660
  TVA's Ammonia from Coal Project
involves retrofitting a coal gasification
process to the  front end of its existing
225-ton-per-day  ammonia  plant.  The
purpose of the project is  to develop
design and operating data to assess the
technological, economic, and environ-
mental aspects of substituting coal for
natural gas in the  manufacture of
ammonia. Preliminary operation of the
facility was begun in September 1980.
In the absence of specific environmental
guidelines for  coal gasification proc-
esses, TVA's approach to the potential
environmental  problem is to meet or
exceed the emission control require-
ments  for specific components;  e.g.,
sulfur  compounds, particulates,  and
aqueous discharges. Also, TVA's facility
contract  specified limits on certain
discharges based on anticipated guide-
lines. In addition to a discussion of the
emissions control activities, a program
is described that examines the environ-
mental health and safety aspects of the
Ammonia from Coal Project.

Environmental Control
Options for Synfuel Processes

F.E. Witmer
Environmental and Safety
Engineering Division
U.S. DOE, Washington,
DC 20545
  Ultimately, the large scale production
of synfuels from U.S. coal and oil shale
will become a reality. The U.S. DOE has
a charge to foster the commercialization
of energy conversion technology that is
environmentally acceptable. "Environ-
mental acceptability" is perceived to
extend beyond meeting environmental
compliance standards at a given plant
and  to include the "acceptability" of
subtle,  longterm health and ecological
effects and the composite of low level
environmental  effects associated with
an aggregate  of  synfuel installations.
DOE has a hierarchy of site-specific
environmental assessments integral to
DOE development and demonstration
activity. The objective of these assess-
ments is to provide a data  base for a
determination of environmental readi-
ness by the Assistant Secretary for
Environment. An evaluation of the
adequacy of the environmental control
technology is a key component of these
  In assessment  of control adequacy,
many  alternative approaches present
themselves.  Some of  these control
options result from a natural synergism
of combining process  needs; e.g.,  an
auxiliary power plant that recovers flue
gas S02 in a concentrated stream can be
advantageously coupled to H2S recovery
from the conversion process to produce
by-product sulfur via Claus,  or  an
entrained-type gasifier can be included
with a series of Lurgi gasification units
to handle rejected coal fines and oxidize
highly contaminated condensate waste-
waters. Other control options follow for
making  controls more cost-effective
and/or environmentally superior. Waste-
water reuse to extinction (zero dis-
charge) and the catalytic incineration of
process tail gases are examples of
improvements over conventional tech-
nology.  In  the  case  of small, site-
oriented  industrial gasifiers, process
simplicity and reliability are driving
forces  for improved controls or the
absence thereof;  e.g., ingasifier sulfur
scavenging to eliminate subsequent
HzS cleanup or  "dry-quenching" of
product gas to eliminate the difficulty of
wastewater treatment.
  This presentation overviews a number
of select environmental control options
whose technical and economic feasibil-
ity has been recently established. The
direction  that future resultant control
technology  is expected to take is

Technical and Environmental
Aspects of the Great Plains
Gasification Project

Gary N. Weinreich
American Natural Service
Detroit, Ml 48226
  The Great Plains Gasification Project
will be the first commercial-size synthetic
fuels  plant constructed in the U.S.
Construction of the first phase began in
July 1980 and,  when completed in
1984, will produce 137.5 million cubic
feet per day of substitute natural gas
(SNG). Producing this quantity  of gas
requires 13,000 tons of North Dakota
lignite per day and water at the  rate of
 4,400 gallons per minute.
   Planning for the project has been
 ongoing for 7 years. An integral part of
 the technical  planning has been  the
 design and selection of environmental
 controls. The plant is designed for zero
 discharge  of  process wastewaters to
 surface streams. Extensive air pollution
 control equipment is designed to meet
 all applicable emission standards and
 ambient air quality standards. Compli-
 ance  will be maintained with the PSD
 Class I increments  at the Theodore
 Roosevelt National Park, 100 kilometers
 west  of the plant site.
   The gasification process to be used
 was developed by Lurgi, an engineering
 firm  in West Germany. The major
 downstream process units were aiso
 developed and perfected by Lurgi. Other
 patented processes incorporated in the
 design of the Great Plains project are
 U.S.  Steel's  Phosam-W process for
 removing ammonia from process waste-
 water and Northwest  Gas Board's
 Stretford process for converting HkS to
 elemental  sulfur. Two American engi-
 neering companies, CE Lummus Com-
 pany  and Kaiser Engineers,  are  the
 architect/engineers for the project.
   Many of the technical uncertainties
 surrounding a new venture such as this
 have been resolved through a technical
 consulting agreement with SASOL, the
 South African  gasification company
 that has produced synthetic fuels via the
 Lurgi  process for over 20 years. Great
 Plains shipped  12,000 tons  of North
 Dakota lignite to South  Africa  for
 gasification testing in 1975, the results
 of which  formed the basis  for the
 gasification design being used today.

Session II. Environmental
Assessment: Direct

 D. Bruce Henschel, Chairman
Industrial Environmental
Research Laboratory
U.S.  EPA, Research Triangle
Park, NC27711

Preliminary Results of the Fort
Lewis SRC-II Source Test

Jung I. Kim and
David D.  Woodbridge
Hittman Associates, Inc.
Columbia, MD 21045
  As  part of  EPA's environmental
assessment of the SRC-II coal liquefac-

 tion technology, a source test and evalu-
 ation  study was conducted to charac-
 terize multimedia environmental streams
 associated with the SRC pilot plant at
 Fort Lewis, WA.
  Although the SRC-II pilot plant is not
 considered  a miniature version of
 commercial  facilities, environmental
 implications  of the SRC-II technology
 can be determined with proper engi-
 neering evaluation, and sampling and
 analytical strategies.
  The program consists of chemical and
 biological characterization of the SRC-II
 process and  waste streams. Chemical
 analyses were performed to identify and
 quantitate potentially toxic inorganic
 and organic compounds. Biological
 tests  were also performed to provide
 both  health effects  and ecological
 effects of the SRC-II streams on mam-
 malian organisms and ecosystems.
 These two tests complement each other
 to better define  the  SRC-II streams
 relative to their environmental signifi-

Characterization of SRC-II
Product and By-products

W.D. Felix, D.D. Mahlum,
W.C. Weimer, R.A. Pelroy, and
 B.W. Wilson
 Pacific Northwest Laboratory
 Richland, WA 99352
  Biological and  chemical tests  in
 concert with engineering  analyses of
 plant  operations  have been used  to
 provide data for the assessment  of
 health and environmental effects of a
 mature coal liquefaction industry. This
 report describes the methodology
 whereby biological testing is used to
 guide the  chemist in the analysis  of
 fractions of selected pilot plant mater-
 ials. The principal components of an
 unmodified distillate blend from the
 SRC-II process are two- and  three-
 ringed aromatic  and heteroatomic
 species. Phenolic and  polynuclear
 aromatic components are generally
 present at higher levels than expected
 in petroleum crudes.  Biotesting,  with
 the Ames test as the primary first-tier
 method, revealed  mutagenic activity.
 Chemical fractionation in conjunction
 with  Ames  testing  implicates the
 primary aromatic amines as the com-
 pound class of primary concern. Chemi-
 cal biotesting of a hydrotreated distillate
 blend showed a significant reduction of
the primary aromatic amines as well as
polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
Hydrotreating also can result in  the
reduction of sulfur and oxygen-contain-
ing compounds; e.g., thiophenes and

Low-No*  Combustors for
Alternate Fuels Containing
Significant Quantities  of Fuel-
bound Nitrogen

W.D. Clark, D.W.  Pershing,
G.C. England, and M.P. Heap
Energy and Environmental
Research  Corporation
Santa Anna, CA 92705
  This paper summarizes data generated
in two EPA-sponsored programs con-
cerned with the development of low-
NOX combustors for  high nitrogen
containing fuels. EPA Contract 68-02-
3125 is concerned with NO« production
and control from liquid fuels containing
significant quantities of bound nitrogen.
It was found that fuel nitrogen content is
the primary composition variable  af-
fecting fuel NO  formation and that
emissions from   both  petroleum and
alternative  liquid fuels correlate with
total fuel  nitrogen content. Conditions
were  identified  which allow high-
nitrogen fuels to be burned satisfactorily
with minimal NOX emissions. Certain
coal-derived fuel gases may contain
ammonia. Data  is presented from a
series of bench-scale reactors designed
to minimize the conversion of this
ammonia to  NO,. Lowest NO* emissions
were produced in a rich/lean combustor
utilizing either a  diffusion flame or a
catalyst in the fuel-rich primary stage.

Problem Oriented Report:
Utilization of Synthetic Fuels:
An Environmental Perspective

E.M. Bonn, J.E. Cotter,
J.O. Cowles, J. Dadiani,
R.S. Iyer, and J.M. Oyster
TRW,  Energy Systems and
Planning Division
McLean, VA22102

  This  paper discusses the potential
environmental  problems arising from
the refining, transportation, storage,
and utilization of fuels produced by a
synthetic fuel  industry.  Scenarios
defining  possible buildup rates  for
synfuel products from oil shale and coal
conversion are developed to scope the
magnitude of potential exposures. The
market infrastructure  for  the use of
these products  is examined  and the
potential public health risks during the
handling, transportation, and utilization
of these synfuel products are evaluated.
Significant issues regarding  environ-
mental  impacts  and the need for
regulatory attention are discussed.

Session  III: Environmental
Assessment: Gasification and
Indirect Liquefaction

Charles F.  Murray, Chairman
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
Environmental Test Results
from Coal Gasification
Pilot Plants

N.A. Holt, J.E.  McDaniel,
T.P. O'Shea
Electric Power Research Institute
Palo Alto, CA 94303            |

  Environmental awareness and the
world oil situation are having a profound
impact on the U.S. Electric Power
Industry. "Environmental acceptability"
has been redefined and  is emerging as
one of the major criteria  for selection of
a power generation process  to satisfy
increasing load demand or to replace
retired units. Furthermore, the fact that
the cost of fuel has risen in real terms
dictates  that more fuel  efficient plant
configurations  be deployed.  Fuel effi-
ciency and environmental tolerability
come only at the expense of increased
monetary cost.
  These fundamental changes certainly
are creating problems for the power
industry  but they are  also creating
opportunities for new and more appro-
priate power generation  processes.
  EPRI has high expectations  that
combined cycle power systems fueled
by gas from coal will be cleaner and
more efficient than  the competing
processes for equivalent capital cost.
Advantages accrue to these Gasification-
Combined Cycle (GCC) systems primarily
from the relative ease of cleaning fuel
gas,  the  benign nature  of the waste,

products, and the inherent and proven
high thermodynamic  efficiency  of the
combined cycle configuration.
  These and  other advantages are
discussed. Coal gasification  processes
are identified  which  most  effectively
capitalize on these advantages. Environ-
mental test results on these processes
are summarized. Finally, the plans for
commercial  scale demonstration of a
GCC system are reviewed. This demon-
stration is a critical milestone since no
technology can be considered to be a
real option until it has been operated at
an appropriate scale.

COS-HzS Relationships in
Processes Producing
Low/Medium-Btu Gas

M.B. Faist, R.A.  Magee, and
M.P. Kilpatrick
Radian Corporation
Austin, TX 78758

  The chemical aspects of the distribu-
tion of sulfur between H2S and COS in
the product gas from the gasification of
coal are examined. Comparing  actual
gasifier measurements with equilibrium
computations shows that the  gas
stream becomes frozen  corresponding
to equilibrium values at high tempera-
ture, most  likely corresponding  to the
reactor exit. This implies a sulfur distri-
bution with a higher COS concentration
than expected. The conversion of COS
to HaS occurs mainly by COS hydrolysis,
which is very slow at low temperatures.
Finite rate  studies indicate that  an
effective catalytic COS hydrolysis rate
constant of 10~17 to 1CT16 cmVmol sec
will allow the reaction  to reach >95
percent  equilibrium in  small enough
residence time  to allow reasonable
reaction vessel sizes.
  It is found that the  achievable H2S/
COS equilibrium ratio is determined
from the product of the  locally  frozen
HaO/COa ratio and  the COS  hydrolysis
equilibrium  constant. The governing
parameters for the HaO/COa equilibrium
ratios are the  temperature,  pressure,
and the gas stream (H/C) and (0/C)
ratios. The  higher the (H/C) ratio and
the lower the (0/C) ratio, the larger the
H2O/COa ratio and  thus the  larger the
H2S/COS ratio. Moreover, raising the
(H/C) ratio and lowering the(O/C) ratio
also increases  the achievable CH4
equilibrium concentration from a cata-
lytic methanation module.
Behavior of a Semibatch Coal
Gasification Unit

W.J. McMichael and
D.G. Nichols
Research Triangle Institute
Research Triangle Park,
NC 27709
  This paper describes the transient
behavior of a laboratory scale fixed-bed
gasifier operated in a semibatch mode.
The operation is batch with respect to
the coal feed and  continuous with
respect to gas flows. Various coals
ranging from lignite to bituminous were
gasified using steam/air mixtures at 1.4
MPa  (200 psia)  and approximately
900°C. The transient behavior of  the
reactor temperature at various coal bed
depths was examined. Test results from
nine  tests involving five coals  are
reported. The data presented include
the  rate  of production  of  various
gasification products, including CH4,
CO, Hz, benzene, toluene, xylene, HaS,
COS,  and thiophene, as a function of
run time. It was found that the majority
of the CH4, the minor hydrocarbons, and
sulfur species were evolved during coal
devolatilization. These data were ana-
lyzed  using a simple kinetic model
which assumes that the rate of produc-
tion  of  a  compound at any time is
proportional to the (potential) amount of
that compound remaining  in the coal.
This model explains the data reasonably
well during the devolatilization period. It
was  found that  the  specific rate of
production  of individual species was
practically the same for all coals and
gasification products  considered;  the
ultimate yield was dependent on coal
type. The ultimate yield of (a) CH4 or
benzene, and (b) sulfur species roughly
paralleled the volatile and sulfur
contents of the coals, respectively.

Carbon Conversion, Make Gas
Production, and Formation  of
Sulfur Gas Species in a Pilot-
scale Fluidized-bed Gasifier

M.J. Purdy, J.K. Ferrell,
R.M. Felder, S. Ganesan, and
R.M. Kelly
North Carolina State University
Raleigh,  NC 27650
  The steam-oxygen gasification of a
pretreated Western  Kentucky No.  11
bituminous coal was- carried out in a
                                                                              pilot-scale  fluidized-bed gasifier.  This
                                                                              paper describes the  experiments and
                                                                              summarizes measured carbon conver-
                                                                              sions,  sulfur conversions,  make gas
                                                                              production  rates, and  the  results  of
                                                                              material  balance calculations on total
                                                                              mass and major elements (C, H, 0,  N,
                                                                              and S). The development of a single-
                                                                              stage kinetic model for the  gasifier is
                                                                              outlined, and  correlations  of the ex-
                                                                              perimental  results using this model are
                                                                              presented. Quantities  of sulfur gas
                                                                              compounds formed in the gasifier  at
                                                                              different operating conditions are
                                                                              summarized and a first ana lysis of these
                                                                              results is presented.
                                                                              Modderfontein Koppers-Totzek
                                                                              Source Test Results
J.F. Clausen and C.A. Zee
TRW, Systems and Energy
Redondo Beach, CA 90278

  A source test program was conducted
at a Koppers-Totzek (K-T) coal gasifica-
tion facility operated by AECI Limited at
Modderfontein, Republic  of South
Africa. The EPA's interest in the K-T
process stems from the fact that the
process economics and demonstrated
commercial reliability  make it a very
viable prospect for some U.S. applica-
tions. The responsibilities for sampling,
analysis, and engineering descriptions
of the Modderfontein plant were shared
between TRW and GKT, Gessellschaft
fur Kohle-Technologie  mbH of Essen,
Federal  Republic of Germany. GKT is
the wholly owned subsidiary of the
German-based parent company which
is the developer and licensor of the K-T
process. EPA's phased approach for
environmental assessment was fol-
lowed.  Level 1 and Level  2 data  were
collected along with priority pollutant
screening data. Much of the effort was
focused on  wastewater streams. The
wastewater treatment, consisting of a
clarifier and settling pond, was adequate
to produce a final discharge that had
lower pollutant  levels  than  the fresh
input waters supplied to the plant. The
complete data  are presented  in this
paper along with brief descriptions of
the K-T process and the Modderfontein
plant. The Source Test and Evaluation,
intended as  an  initial effort,  was
somewhat limited in scope.

An Environmentally Based
Evaluation of the Multimedia
Discharges from the Lurgi Coal
Gasification System at Kosovo

K.J. Bombaugh, W.E. Corbett,
K.W. Lee, and W.S. Seames
Radian Corporation
Austin, TX 78766
  An  international program has been
under way in  the  Kosovo region of
Yugoslavia to characterize the environ-
mental problems  associated with a
commercial Lurgi  coal gasification
system. The study was conducted over a
3-year pjeriod as a cooperative endeavor
between scientists from Yugoslavia and
U.S. EPA/Radian Corporation.  It was
undertaken because the Lurgi gasifica-
tion process has a significant potential
for  use in the  U.S. In  this study, the
plant's key streams  (feed,  process,
product, and discharge) were character-
ized, and key pollutants in the  plant's
gaseous, aqueous, and solid discharges
were  identified and quantified. Multi-
media discharges were  prioritized
according  to  both  mass flow and
discharge severity.
  This paper focuses on the severity of
the discharges,  as determined  by the
EPA-IERL SAM/IA model for evaluating
pollutants on the basis of their potential
for causing adverse health  effects. Key
pollutants in each discharge medium
are identified and significant streams,
as prioritized, are discussed.
  Study results indicate that all dis-
charge media (gaseous, aqueous, and
solid) present a significant potential for
polluting the environment and also that
effective controls for many discharge
streams are imperative.

Ambient Air Downwind of the
Kosovo Gasification Complex:
a Compendium

Ronald K. Patterson
Environmental Sciences
Research Laboratory
U.S.  EPA, Research Triangle
Park, NC 27711
  In an attempt to obtain environmental
impact data for a commercial scale coal
gasification facility, the Aerosol Re-
search Branch of EPA's ESRL-RTP
conducted a 16-day continuous ambient
air study in  the  Kosovo Region of
Yugoslavia. Five sampling sites were
established around and —2 km outside
the fence line of the Kosovo medium-
Btu Lurgi gasification complex.
  Organics in total particulate matter;
total and fine particle mass, inorganics,
and elemental species; trace metal in
size-fractionated particles; and vapor-
phase organics were determined.
Physical and chemical analyses were
carried out on particulate  matter using
gravimetric analysis, ion chromatogra-
phy, and scanning electron microscopy.
Elemental analysis was done using the
inductively coupled argon  plasma
emission technique, proton-induced x-
ray emission, and combustion analysis.
Both  particle catches  and vapors
trapped on Tenax resins were subjected
to organic analysis using  gas chroma-
tography. The chromatographic fractions
were  identified and quantified  using
flame ionization detection, sulfur and
nitrogen specific detectors, and mass
spectrometry. A comprehensive quality
assurance and quality control program
was implemented to ensure the validity
of the samples collected and analyzed.
  A number of U.S. and  Yugoslavian
laboratories participated in the ambient
air sampling and analysis phases of this
study. This paper is a compendium of
the major results and conclusions
obtained by the participant laboratories.
Characterization of Coal
Gasification Ash Leach ate
Using the RCRA Extraction

Kar Y. Yu
TRW, Inc.
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
Guy M. Crawford
Radian Corp.
Austin, TX 78758
  Gasification ash constitutes the
single largest solid waste stream from
coal gasification facilities, and its
disposal is  subject to regulations
promulgated under RCRA. Ashes from a
Lurgi gasifier, Wellman-Galusha gasi-
fier, and Texaco gasifier were subjected
to the RCRA Extraction Procedure test.
The results are reviewed in light  of
similar data on boiler  ashes.  Those
findings indicate that these materials
will not be considered toxic based on the
100X primary drinking water standard
Comparison of Coal
Conversion Wastewaters

R.V. Collins, K.W. Lee, and
D.S. Lewis
Radian Corporation
Austin, TX 78758
  This paper presents analytical results
from the aqueous process condensates
from an  oxygen-blown, lignite-fired
Lurgi gasifier, an air-blown, bitumi-
nous-fired  Chapman  gasifier, and a
coke oven process. Results show strong
similarities  between the two gasifier
process condensates.  The similarities
include gross chemical parameters and
concentrations of specific organic
compounds. Extraction of  the three
condensates using diisopropyl ether
resulted in  a  99+ percent removal of
total phenols and a 75 percent average
removal of the  total  organic  carbon
(TOC).  Further extraction  with an
exhaustive technique removed an
average  of only 9 percent  of the
remaining TOC from the two gasifier
waters. The <500 MW to >500 MW
ratio was  approximately 2 for the
remaining  refractory  organics. The
results of a  brief study using activated
carbon to remove the refractory organics
indicated  that the TOC  levels could be
further reduced, but the levels remained
relatively high. The occurrences of eight
nitrogen-containing  organic species
were compared using a gas chromato-
graph equipped with a Hall Electrolytic
Conductivity Detector in the nitrogen-
specific mode.  The occurrences  of
phenolic species were  also compared
using a gas chromatograph equipped
with a  flame  ionization detector. The
three process condensates  contained
the same phenolic and nitrogen hetero-
cyclic compounds.

Session IV: Environmental

Forest 0.  Mixon, Jr., Chairman
Research  Triangle  Institute
Research  Triangle  Park,
NC 27709

flanking of Potential Pollutants
from Coal Gasification

D.G. Nichols and D.A. Green
Research  Triangle Institute
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

   Potential pollutants associated with
 coal gasification processes were studied
 based on data from EPA's environmental
 assessment  research  program.  An
 environmental assessment methodology
 based on health and ecological Multi-
 media Environmental Goals (MEGs) is
 described and applied to product, by-
 product, process, and waste streams. A
 list  of  chemical species  that  were
 measured or qualitatively identified in
 coal  gasification  streams is given.
 Maximum concentrations of each quan-
 titated species in each  medium (solid,
 liquid, gas, tar) are given.  Production
 factors  have been  computed and nor-
 malized on the basis of coal input rate to
 facilitate comparisons. Chemical species
 have been ranked by potential hazard to
 health and ecology.  Priorities for
 monitoring, regulation, and control
 technology development may be estab-
 lished from these lists.

 Effect of Sludge Age  on the
 Biological Treatability of a
 Synthetic Coal Conversion

 P.C.  Singer, J.C. Lamb, III,
 F.K. Pfaender, R. Goodman,
 B.R.  Marshall, S.R. Shoaf,
 A.R.  Hickey, and L. McGeorge
 University of North Carolina
 Chapel Hill, NC 27514

  Aerobic biological processes appear
 to be  the focal  point of  any overall
 scheme for  treating coal  conversion
 wastewaters since a significant number
 of the  major  constituents of these
 wastes are biodegradable. Accordingly,
 suitable design  and operating criteria
 for biological treatment facilities need to
 be developed. The studies described in
 this  paper were conducted using a
 synthetic wastewater which was for-
 mulated to be representative, in its
 organic  composition, of actual waste-
 waters from coal gasification and coal
 liquefaction processes. The wastewater
 contains 28 organic compounds,  in-
 organic nutrients, and pH-buffers.
  The synthetic coal conversion waste-
water was fed to several bench-scale
activated sludge reactors, operated at
different solids retention times (sludge
 ages). Effluents from the reactors were
analyzed by gas  chromatography  and
 high-performance  liquid chromatog-
 raphy to assess the degree of removal of
 the various constituents in the rawf eed,
 and to identify  reaction products
 following biological treatment. Addi-
 tionally, acute toxicity studies using
 fathead minnows were conducted  to
 evaluate the biological impact of the
 treated wastewaters on  aquatic life.
 Acute  mammalian cytotoxicity and
 Ames mutagenicity analyses were also
 performed on  the reactor effluents  to
 assess their potential impact on human
 health.  This paper  presents selected
 results of some of these analyses.
 Treatment and Reuse of Coal
 Conversion Wastewaters

 Richard G.  Luthy
 Carnegie-Mellon University
 Pittsburgh, PA  15213
  This paper presents a  synopsis of
recent  experimental  activities to
evaluate processing characteristics of
coal conversion wastewaters. Treatment
studies have been performed with high-
Btu coal gasification process quench
waters to assess enhanced removal of
organic  compounds via powdered acti-
vated carbon/activated sludge treat-
ment, and to evaluate a coal gasification
wastewater treatment train comprised
of sequential processing by ammonia
removal, biological oxidation, lime-soda
softening, granular activated carbon
adsorption, and reverse osmosis. In
addition, treatment studies  are in
progress to  evaluate solvent extraction
of gasification process wastewater to
recover phenolics and to reduce waste-
water loading of priority organic pollu-
tants.  Biological  oxidation  of coal
gasification  wastewater  has  shown
excellent removal efficiencies of major
and  trace  organic  contaminants at
moderate loadings;  addition of powdered
activated carbon  provides lower effluent
COD and color. Gasification  process
wastewater treated through brblogical
oxidation, lime-soda softening,  and
activated carbon adsorption appears
suitable for reuse as cooling  tower
makeup water. Solvent extraction is an
effective means  to reduce organic
loadings to  downstream  processing
units. In addition,  preliminary  results
have  shown  that solvent extraction
removes chromatographable organic
contaminants to  low levels.
 Pilot Plant Evaluation  of H2S,
 COS, and COz Removal from
 Crude Coal Gas by Refrigerated

 R.M. Kelly, R.W. Rousseau,
 and J.K. Ferrell
 North Carolina State University
 Raleigh, NC 27650
   Acid gas  removal  systems  are  a
 necessary part of coal gasification
 processes. Carbon dioxide  must be
 removed  from gasifier product gas to
 improve the energy content of the gas
 and several sulfur compounds must be
 taken out to protect downstream process
 catalysts  as well as reduce potential
 sulfur emissions.
   At North Carolina State University, an
 integrated coal gasification/gas clean-
 ing test facility is being  used to study the
 environmental and process implications
 of several different acid  gas removal
 solvents. Details of the plant facilities
 and operating procedures may be found
 in a recent EPA technical report (Ferrell
 et al., EPA-600/7-80-046a, March
 1980). This paper presents some of the
 initial results from acid gas removal
 pilot plant operation, discusses several
 aspects  of methanol use  for  acid gas
 removal, and outlines future experi-
 mental work on this part of the process.

 Pollution Control Guidance
 Document for Low-Btu
 Gasification  Technology:
 Background Studies

 W.C. Thomas, R.C. Page, and
 D.A. Dalrymple
 Radian Corporation
 Austin, TX 78758
  The U.S. EPA is currently preparing a
 Pollution Control Guidance Document
 (PCGD) for low-Btu gasification (LBG)
 facilities which use atmospheric-
 pressure, fixed-bed gasifiers. The PCGD
 is intended to aid industry and govern-
 ment in their efforts to commercialize
 LBG technology in an environmentally
 acceptable manner. This paper presents
 some of the preliminary results of
 background studies performed to sup-
 port the development of the LBG PCGD.
  A model plant approach was used to
 assess the environmental control needs
for LBG facilities. The plant configuration
and coal feed combinations for which
pollution controls were identified  and

evaluated were selected based on
existing and proposed plants in the U.S.
The major variables examined were coal
feed type (anthracite,  lignite, and high-
and low-sulfur bituminous coals) and
degree of product gas purification
(production of hot,  cooled, and desul-
furized low-Btu gas). In all, 11 combina-
tions  of  these variables (i.e.,  model
plants) were selected for study. Each
model plant had a nominal capacity of
45 MJ/s  (150 x 106 Btu/hr) of low-Btu
  Multimedia pollutant sources and
pollutants of  potential  concern were
identified and quantified for each model
plant. The bases for these determina-
tions were field test data and calculated
emissions projections. The EPA's low-
Btu gasification environmental assess-
ment program was the major source of
the field test data, but results from other
government and industry test programs
were also used.
  Control/disposal options were identi-
fied and  evaluated for each discharge
stream. Factors that  were considered
included  the need for control, current
industry  practices,  control equipment
performance, capital investment re-
quirements, annual  operating costs,
energy impacts, and secondary environ-
mental discharges.

Development of a Pollution
Control Guidance Document
for Indirect Coal Liquefaction

K.W.  Crawford
TRW, Inc.
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
WJ. Rhodes
Industrial Environmental
Research Laboratory
U.S. EPA, Research Triangle
   Park, NC 27711
W.E.  Corbett
Radian  Corporation
Austin, TX 78758
   Synfuels present both an opportunity
and a problem  for  EPA  in  terms of
developing a new  environmentally
acceptable industry. The opportunity is
for EPA  to  encourage environmental
controls  to be incorporated/developed
as an integral part  of the first  plant
designs rather than  as "add on"
technology in an existing industry. The

problem is that an adequate data base
for promulgation of defensible regula-
tions for synfuel plants does not now
exist and will likely not exist until after
the first plants have been constructed
and operated for some period of time.
EPA has responded to this situation with
the "Pollution Control Guidance Docu-
ment  (PCGD)" concept, in which the
best thinking of the  various EPA R&D
program and regional offices is to be
provided to permitters and to industry in
the form of "guidance" for an interim
period rather than as regulations.
  The Indirect Liquefaction (IL) PCGD is
one of the first such documents which
EPA is  preparing with the  technical
support  of  various contractors. TRW,
Radian, Versar, and RTI are involved in
the preparation of the data base for the
first technical draft of the IL PCGD.
  This paper summarizes the technology
basis for control levels identified.

Initial Effort on a Pollution
Control Guidance Document:
Direct Liquefaction

J.E. Cotter, C.C. Shih,  and
B. St. John
TRW, Inc.
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
  Development of the pollution control
guidance document (PCGD)  for direct
coal  liquefaction is  proceeding  in
parallel  with the permitting  and con-
struction of the first demonstration-size
liquefaction plant, the SRC-II  unit in Ft.
Martin,  WV. In addition to the SRC-II
process, the PCGD will provide guidance
for the other major liquefaction tech-
nologies: SRC-I,  H-Coal, and Exxon
Donor Solvent.
  The control technology'guidance will
be related to baseline designs prepared
for each of the four  liquefaction
processes, sized at  100,000 bbls/day
production. The  baseline designs are
composed of material balance flow-
sheets and uncontrolled waste stream
calculations, using plant configurations
which are most likely to occur in future
commercial  size plants. Variations of
the baseline designs will be considered
if they affect control decisions. A range
of feed coals have been selected for the
baseline cases, with  at least  one
common coal type that could be used by
all four processes. The present effort is
focused on identification of the pollu-
tants of concern using pilot-plant test
data from coal liquefaction developers,
DOE, and EPA sponsored testing pro-
grams. These data  will be evaluated
with a variety of engineering analysis
methodologies, so that the subsequent
examination of control options can be
carried out.
  The  range of  control options—air,
water,  solid  waste—will be selected
from those methods that have a known
track record in related industrial appli-
cations; e.g., petroleum  refining, coke
ovens, and mining.
  The  control technologies will be
characterized parametrically according
to the  inlet stream  compositions and
quantities, and their percentage release
of specific pollutants. Finally, the cost of
control will be developed according to
the same parameters, with a range of
costs obtained depending on the com-
plexity and efficiency of control.
   F. A. Ayer and N. S. Jones, compilers, are with Research Triangle Institute,
     Research Triangle Park. NC 27709.
   N. Dean Smith is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
   The complete report, entitled "Symposium Proceedings: Environmental Aspects
     of Fuel Conversion Technology, V (September 1980, St. Louis, MO)," (Order
     No. PB 81 -245 045; Cost: $44.00, subject to change} wit/be available only from:
           National Technical Information Service
           5285 Port Royal Road
           Springfield. VA 22161
           Telephone: 703-487-4650
   The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
          Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
          U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
          Research Triangle Park. -NC 27711
                                                           . S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1981/559-092/3324

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