United States
Environmental Protection
Industrial Environmental Research
Research Triangle Park NC 27711 ~
Research and Development
EPA-600/S9-81-029  Oct. 1981
Project Summary
Proceedings:  Conference  on
Wood Combustion
Environmental  Assessment
(New Orleans, February 1981)
Franklin A. Ayer, Compiler
  These  proceedings  are  for  the
"Wood Combustion  Environmental
Assessment Conference," which was
held February 21-24. 1981. in New
Orleans. The objective of the confer-
ence was the dissemination of recent
research and development findings on
the subject of residential wood com-
bustion. The five sessions of  the
conference dealt with: (1) an overview
of environmental  assessment activi-
ties, (2) specific emissions and heating
efficiency assessments, (3) emissions
control techniques, (4) highlights of
the first three sessions, and (5) resi-
dential wood combustion issues  and
their resolution.
  In summary, the previously reported
high  concentrations  of polycyclic
organic matter (POMs) in residential
wood stove emissions were verified in
several papers. One paper even re-
ported high POM concentrations in
the indoor environment in homes with
operating  wood  combustors.  High
ambient values were not attributed to
residential  wood  combustion  but
many of the ambient impact studies
were  just beginning. Emissions
control techniques which were con-
sidered for controlling organic emis-
sions included secondary combustion
and the introduction of a combustion
catalyst.  These  two control  tech-
niques were already being marketed;
however, their reliability and struc-
tural  stability were questioned  by
several researchers. Future regulation
of wood stove emissions was con-
sidered  unlikely due to problems of
enforcing  a  residential  emission
  This Project Summary was develop-
ed by EPA's Industrial Environmental
Research Laboratory, Research Tri-
angle Park, NC, to announce key find-
ings of the research project that is fully
documented in a separate report of the
same title (see Project Report ordering
information at back).

  This report  is  a  summary  of the
proceedings of the EPA Conference on
Wood Combustion  Environmental
Assessment, held on February 21-24,
1981, in New Orleans. This conference
was held in cooperation with and at the
same time as the Wood Heating Alli-
ance International Trade Show and
Wood Heating Seminar The conference
brought  together  representatives of
industry, associations, stove and fire-
place manufacturers and  suppliers,
government,  researchers, scientists,
academia and journal writers, with the
purpose of disseminating new informa-
tion on wood combustion
  The conference was opened by Carter
Keithley of the Wood Heating Alliance,
who  welcomed the  participants and
introduced   Michael C   Osborne,
General Chairman, USEPA,  IERL-RTP.
Osborne also  welcomed the  partici-
pants and thanked the Wood Heating

Alliance for including the conference on
the agenda of their International Trade
Show  In  addition, he informed them
that the objective of the conference was
to focus their attention on the recent
development  of  new  information on
wood combustion An overview of wood
combustion and  assessment,  assess-
ments of residential wood heating effi-
ciency  and  emissions,  emissions
control techniques for wood  burning
appliances, environmental assessment
and  control—highlights from  earlier
sessions,  and  a panel discussion on
issues  related  to the residential com-
bustion of wood and how they may be
resolved, were covered
  The chairman of Session 1, Overview
of  Wood  Combustion  Environmental
Assessment,  Henry  Anderson,  U.S.
Department of Energy, Washington, DC,
presented  a paper  entitled Residential
Wood Program Overview. In addition,
he  presented  a  paper prepared by
Charles Bendersky, Pyros, Inc., entitled
Results of  the DOE Think Shop on Resi-
dential Wood Combustion  Other
speakers and their topics were. Over-
view of Emissions from Wood Combus-
tion by Kenneth J Lim, Acurex, Ambient
Air Assessment in a Rural New England
Village Where Wood is the Dominant
Fuel by James F  Hornig, Dartmouth
College, and  An  Integrated  Environ-
mental Assessment of  Biomass Energy
Development in the Tennessee Valley
by Paul Schwengels, EPA/ORD
  The chairman of  Session 2, Assess-
ments  of  Residential  Wood  Heating
Efficiency  and Emissions,  Jerome P
Harper, Tennessee Valley Authority at
Chattanooga,  TN, presented a paper
entitled Residential Wood Heating Effi-
ciency  and Emissions—An Overview.
Other speakers and their topics were
Wood  Combustion  Emissions at
Elevated   Altitudes  by  Thomas  W
Hughes, Monsanto Research Corpora-
tion, The Effects of Woodburnmg on the
Indoor   Residential Air  Quality  by
Joseph Zabransky, Jr., Geomet Tech-
nologies, Inc.; Performance of Domestic
Wood-Fired Appliances by A.  C. S.
Hayden, Canadian Research  Labora-
tories; An  Assessment of the Efficiency
and Emissions  of  Ten  Wood Fired
Furnaces by Robert J Brandon, Institute
of Man and Resources, and Results of
Laboratory Tests on Wood Stove Emis-
sions  by   Bill  R.  Hubble,  Argonne
National Laboratory.
  Papers  presented under Session 3,
Emissions Control Techniques for Wood
Burning Appliances, chaired by Wade H.
Ponder, USEPA, IERL-RTP, were  Cata-
lytic  Combustion in Residential Wood
Stoves by Robert V  VanDewoestine,
Corning   Glass  Works;  Results   of
Research on  Catalytic Combustion in
Wood  Stoves  by  Jay  W.  Shelton,
Shelton  Energy  Research;  Measure-
ments  of  Chemical Changes Due to
Catalysts  of  Woodstove  Effluent  by
Dennis R.  Jaasma, VPI; The Effects of
Woodstove Design on  Condensable
Paniculate Emissions, In-Home Deliv-
ery Efficiency and Creosote Formation
Rate  by  Stockton  G. Barnett,  State
University  of New York at Pittsburgh,
and Control of Emissions from Residen-
tial  Wood  Burning  by  Combustion
Modification by John M. Allen, Battelle-
Columbus  Laboratories
  Session  4,  Environmental Assess-
ment and Control—Highlights of Earlier
Sessions, was chaired by Robert E. Hall,
USEPA, IERL-RTP Session 1 Highlights
were presented  by Henry Anderson,
DOE, Washington, DC; Session 2 High-
lights by Jerome P  Harper, TVA;  and
Session 3 Highlights  by  Wade  H.
  The  Panel—Issues  Related to  the
Residential Combustion of Wood  and
How  They May   be  Resolved—was
chaired by  Michael C. Osborne, USEPA,
IERL-RTP.  Panel   presentations   and
speakers were-  Combustion of Wood/
Environmental Restrictions in Sweden
by Jan Nilsson, The National Swedish
Environment Protection Board; Institu-
tional and Regulatory Approaches to
Control  Residential  Wood  Burning
Emissions   by  William   T   Greene,
Oregon  Department of Environmental
Quality;  Residential Wood Combustion
Issues for the  Tennessee  Valley by
Charles E.  Bohac, TVA; Wood Energy—
The  North  Carolina  Effort by  Phyllis
Brooks Wainwright, N.C. Department of
Natural  Resources  and  Community
Development; Preliminary Analysis of
the  Ambient  Impacts  of Residential
Woodburnmg  in Waterbury, Vermont,
by Cedric R. Sanborn, Vermont Depart-
ment of Water Resources and Environ-
mental Engineering; and Pollution  and
Fire  Places in California  by Peter H.
Kosel, California Air Resources Board.
  The forum  was  highlighted by  the
frank exchange of information between
participants  of  varied  backgrounds,
interests, and associations. The inter-
change  initiated  the communication
between  stove  and  fireplace  manu-
facturers,  wholesalers,  retailers,
academia, researchers,  and  govern-
ment agencies. In addition, thecoopera-
tion and support provided by the Wood
Heating Alliance was excellent.
  Abstracts  of the speakers'  remarks

Henry Anderson,
Space  Heating  Appliances,  DOE,
  The  DOE  Office  of  Buildings  and
Community  Systems, Technology  and
Consumers Products Branch, convened
a  "Think   Shop"  to   address  the
technology needs in the area of residen-
tial wood  combustion emissions  The
meeting was held at Battelle-Columbus
Laboratories on  March  27-28,  1980,
and was attended by a group of program
managers from DOE, EPA, TVA, and the
Canadian Government, and a  group of
the leading  researchers active in the
field  The  results were  recommenda-
tions of needed activities to be under-
taken  in  the areas  of air  quality,
combustion   technology,   equipment
development, and emissions measure-
ments. It was recommended that to be
effective, these activities must be initi-
ated immediately and be completed in
FY 85. The needs of the program require
the cooperation of the managementand
scientific expertise of the DOE, EPA, and
TVA, the pooling of available financial
resources, and  the  participation  of a
number of qualified research organiza-
tions. The report provides statements of
needs, definitions of specific tasks, and
estimates  of the resources and man-
power for accomplishment. This report
was prepared by Pyros, Inc., as  a source
document for DOE study and for use in
program development and does  not
reflect firm actions planned for or by
DOE or other federal organizations.
Kenneth J. Lim,
Acurex Corporation
  An assessment is made of emissions
and  their control from  wood-fired
boilers, home stoves, and fireplaces.
The  major pollutants are particulates,
organics, and CO; NOxare also emitted.
The  important  parameters  affecting
emissions are furnace  design, excess
air level, and burning rate. For boilers,
optimal emission control and efficiency
are achieved with  50 to 200% excess
air,  with  overfire  air  maximized  for
stokers Data on other techniques and
operational impacts are minimal. On a
normalized  basis,   residential  wood-
burning units tend to produce  higher
emissions  than do boilers.  Data  on
wood-fired stoves  indicate that certain

designs (e.g., crossdraft) emit less par-
ticulate matter  The limited data suggest
that low burning rates are conducive to
POM formation, a pollutant of major
concern. As the combustion conditions
for fireplaces are even more difficult to
quantify and  control,  emission trends
for those devices are even less estab-
lished  However,  POM  emissions
appear to be less from fireplaces than
from stoves.

James F. Hornig,
Dartmouth College
  During the 1979-80 heating season,
50  standard hi-vol  filter samples  of
ambient air were taken in a small town
and m semi-rural areas in New Hamp-
shire where  wood  is the dominant
heating fuel In  addition to total  sus-
pended  particulate  (TSP)  values,
concentrations of 15 polycyclic organic
materials  (POM), 12  of  which  are
priority pollutants,  were  determined
using HPLC with UV and fluorescence
detection, and  by GC/MS techniques.
Concentrations of benz(a)pyrene were
found to be in the range 0.5-0 8 ng/m3
The  measurements  are compared  to
recently published POM  values from
diverse  sources.  This  comparison
includes  discussion  of  troublesome
methodological problems which poten-
tially compromise ambient  air POM

Paul F. Schwengels,
Office of Research and Development,
   In  recent years,  rising prices  and
availability problems  associated  with
other fuels have generated a great deal
of  interest in  biomass (particularly
wood) as an energy source At the same
time, concerns have been raised about
the possibility of negative effects on the
environment and on  public health and
safety which might  result from exten-
sive use of this energy  source. This
paper describes a study currently in
progress which attempts to pull together
the available information on the poten-
tial  for  biomass  utilization  in  the
Tennessee  Valley   Authority  (TVA)
region and the possible environmental
and health  hazards associated with this
development  The study also evaluates
a  range of public policy options which
might be implemented at various levels
of  government  to  promote  environ-
mentally  sound  development  of
biomass  energy resources. The paper
describes the study approach used and
presents preliminary findings. Expected
results at the completion of the study
are also identified

Thomas W. Hughes,
Monsanto Research Corporation
  Combustion of wood in fireplaces and
in wood-burning stoves is growing in
popularity  as the cost  for other fuels
increases.  The  growing use of wood
combustion for  aesthetic and primary
and  secondary  home  heating   has
attracted  widespread  environmental
concern  due   to   the  significantly
increased  particulate,  CO,  and poly-
cyclic organic material (POM) emissions
over other residential fuel  types. A
recent  study conducted for the  EPA
indicated that  residential wood com-
bustion is the largest stationary source
of POM emissions. Recently, high levels
of particulates and  POMs have been
found in the mountainous resort areas.
Local EPA officials were concerned that
wood stoves operated at high elevations
had significantly higher pollutant emis-
sions than  stoves  operated at  low
elevations. The EPA  conducted a study
quantifying high elevation emissions,
this  paper presents  the results of the
Joseph Zabransky, Jr.,
Geomet Technologies, Inc.
  Data from suburban residences in the
Boston  metropolitan area  reveal  a
potential adverse impact on indoor air
quality  from woodburning in  wood-
stoves  and  fireplaces. Ambient
pollutant  concentrations  at each
residence  were  compared to  corre-
sponding  pollutant  levels indoors at
three locations  (kitchen, bedroom, and
activity   room).  Individual   gaseous
pollutant samples were averaged hourly
while 24-hour  integrated samples of
particulate matter were obtained  Ten
gaseous pollutants were sampled along
with total suspended  particulates (TSP)
Chemical  analyses further determined
10 components of TSP including trace
metals,  benzo-a-pyrene (BaP),  respir-
able suspended particulates (RSP), and
water  soluble  sulfates  and  nitrates.
Monitoring lasted two  weeks at each
residence  and  was  conducted under
occupied real-life conditions.
  Observed, elevated indoor concentra-
tions of TSP, RSP, and  BaP are attri-
buted to woodburning.  Data  indicate
that  average indoor TSP concentrations
during woodburning periods were about
three times corresponding levels during
nonwoodburnmg periods  The primary
24-hour national  ambient air  quality
standard (NAAQS)  for TSP was ex-
ceeded  once  indoors during fireplace
use,  and the  secondary, 24-hour TSP
NAAQS was also exceeded indoors by
RSP  concentrations.  Indoor BaP con-
centrations  during  woodstove  use
averaged five times more than during
nonwoodburnmg periods At this stage,
results  are  only  indicative, but  the
potential impact from elevated indoor
concentrations of TSP,  RSP, and BaP,
attributed  to  woodburning, may have
long-term  health implications.
A. C. S. Hayden,
Conservation and Renewable Energy,
The  Canadian Combustion Research
  The Canadian Combustion Research
Laboratory has developed an indirect or
stack loss method to measure the per-
formance of domestic wood-fired space
heaters, giving detailed information on
operating characteristics and emissions
Flue gas composition,  including COz,
CO, 02, HC, and NOx, as well as temper-
atures and  wood-burning rate,  are
monitored continuously over the burn-
ing cycle on a data logging system and
stored on magnetic tape for computer
retrieval  and  analysis. This allows an
accurate reconstruction of the burning
cycle and complete detail on appliance
performance over that cycle.
  Results of experiments on a series of
appliance  types are presented  These
show that a  fireplace or  non-airtight
space heater is extremely inefficient in
utilizing  the  potential  energy in  the
wood, while a well-designed and well-
constructed controlled combustion  unit
can  have efficiencies comparable to a
fossil-fuel-fired appliance

Robert J. Brandon,
Wood  and Solar  Energy Programs,
Institute of Man and Resources
  Significant use of wood for residential
space heating will require development
of improved  combustion systems that
approach the operational attractiveness
of oil- or  gas-fired  equipment.  Seven
innovative  wood-fired   residential
central heating systems, together with
three  conventional  wood furnaces,
were installed and operated in single-
family homes over the 1979-80 heating
season in a demonstration funded by
the  Canada-P.E I  Agreement  on
Renewable Energy Development. Four

of the systems use chip wood fuel; one
uses pellet wood fuel; and two involve
water thermal storage During the heat-
ing   season,  thermal   performance
evaluation and emission  testing were
carried out on all 10 units
  A high  volume sampling technique
was  used to collect flue gas at the
chimney exit enabling particulates and
condensable organics to be trapped in a
glass  fibre  filter.  Average  emission
factors ranged from a low of 0.72 g/kg
for the wood pellet stoker to a high of
38 6  g/kg for  a  wood  chip stoker.
Sampling for CO, NO*, and SCKwasalso
carried out. A creosote probe was used
to determine the tendency of each unit
to form creosote in the chimney. At the
end of the heating season an examina-
tion was madeofthetypeandamountof
flue deposits produced by each unit.
  Thermal efficiencies of the  systems
were  tested for  comparison using an
input/output  method. The wood-fired
units showed a high standby heat loss
which is difficult to apportion  correctly
to either a direct  loss or an  indirect
house heating gain.
Bill R. Hubble,
Argonne National Laboratory
  This report discusses results from the
Argonne  environmental testing
program   for  airtight  wood-burning
stoves. These experiments were  per-
formed with stove configurations and in
a manner consistent with typical resi-
dential  operation  of  wood  stoves
Emission data are reported for particu-
late and CO in the stove stack gas as
functions  of stove operating variables
and calculated estimates of stove  effi-
ciency. These data are also comparable
with creosote production rates obtained
during these  experiments  and  are
reported  as preliminary  estimates of
stove  emission factors.
Robert V. VanDewoestine,
Special Process Research,
Corning Glass Works

  Laboratory tests with a modified wood
stove showed that condensable emis-
sions could be reduced 79-95% by using
a monolithic honeycomb catalytic con-
verter to initiate secondary combustion.
The experiments defined the cell size
and combustor volume necessary for
various levels  of  effectiveness. Field
tests have confirmed the laboratory data
and have  indicated the stove changes
necessary for practical operation.

Jay W. Shelton
Shelton Energy Research
  Two aspects of catalytic combustion
in wood  stoves  have  thus far  been
investigated in  our ongoing research-
potential safety issues and the thermal
performance of a  catalytic stove.
  Safety issues investigated include the
very high  temperatures  that can be
achieved and the possibility of plugging
(with creosote, ash, and soot) Although
significant, neither problem appears to
be insurmountable.
  A  nonproduction  stove was tested
with and without its  catalyst to deter-
mine the effectiveness of the catalyst.
The measurements were performed in a
calorimeter room and  included  direct
measurement of the  flue gas velocity
The determined perimeters included the
three  energy  efficiencies—overall,
combustion, and heat transfer.  The
results were  not available when this
abstract was written.

Dennis R. Jaasma,
Virginia  Polytechnic  Institute   and
State University
  Pollutant emissions from wood stoves
are responsible for chimney fires and
may also   have  a serious effect on
human health. Since  wood stove  stack
emissions contain negligible amounts
of SO*, NO*, and ash, all of the pollutants
of concern are combustibles and can be
eliminated by oxidation to  COz and Hga.
Use of a catalyst to encourage the oxida-
tion process is an attractive idea  from
both energy conservation and air pollu-
tion  standpoints. Potential  problems
with use of a catalyst to reduce emis-
sions  to  acceptable  levels  include
fouling before operating temperature is
reached, production of secondary  prod-
ucts such  as  ammonia  or  hydrogen
cyanide during fuel-rich operation, and
a draft requirement  in excess of that
required by conventional chimneys. The
recent commercial debut of a stove con-
taining a monolithic  catalyst indicates
that start-up and natural draft operation
can  be  achieved, but details of the
chemical nature of the effluent are not
yet available. Experiments to character-
ize the chemical and  physical transfor-
mations of woodstove effluent  as  it
passes over anoble metal catalyst are
underway  at  the  VPI  Solid   Fuels
Research  Laboratory.  Preliminary
results are presented and discussed
Stockton G. Barnett,
State University of New York at

  In the past three years, six generic
types of woodstoves have been evalu-
ated. These include a thin-walled con-
vective box heater, double-door0.25-in.
plate  unbaffled  step stove, baffled box
stove,  crossdraft  stove (two brands),
true downdraft stove, and a new proto-
type stove. All tests were made at typical
burning rates for the  northeast (2  to
about 7 Ib/hr)  using air-dried native
  Condensable  particulate  emissions
were  sampled using a moderately high
volume sampler to concentrate flue gas
particles   on  filter paper.  Abundant
ambient air was bled into the sample
tube to ensure that flue gas condensa-
tion was complete  The  flow  rates  of
both stack and sampler were monitored.
The filter   residue was weighed, this
weight was related to the wood's burn-
ing rate, and the emission factor (partic-
ulates per kilogram of wood burned)
was calculated.
  Results  indicate that high tempera-
ture  burning  produces  much lower
emission  factors than does  smolder
burning.  However,  this  temperature-
dependent emission pattern varies for
different stove types.
  Interior stove design is also correlated
with emissions. Stoves  without baffles,
with  inclined  and  horizontal  baffles,
appear to produce essentially the same
emission   levels.   Crossdraft  stoves
reduce emissions to about one-half to
one-third of the above levels.
  Creosote accumulation rates  were
measured by both removing a stovepipe
section  and   removing  cutout  pipe
sections and weighing them  every 4
days.  Creosote  weights per unit area
were  then related to average burning
rate and stove type. Generally there was
a positive correlation between creosote
accumulation  rates and  particulate
  Woodstove efficiency was measured
in two homes  in the  cold climate  of
northernmost New York where annual
degree days average 8000. One home
has 5 ft of exposed flue pipe  and the
other has  only 1 ft. A small fan circu-
lates room air in both homes.
  Each home's heating load per degree
day was measured by metering electric
heat loads for 15 to 20 days without the
woodstove  in  operation.  Additional
measured  variables include:  average
indoor temperature, average  outdoor

temperature, solar gam, wind velocity,
and human energy gains and losses.
  Woodstove  efficiency was  deter-
mined by comparing the daily weight of
wood  burned (adjusted  for moisture
content) with the home's net daily heat
loss over continuous  periods  which
averaged about 20 days per stove.
  The  results indicate that there is little
difference  in delivered  efficiency
between most of the  various  stove
designs, in spite of the wide variety of
types which are represented. The one
exception, the thin-walled  convective
box heater, is  about 10% less efficient.
  However, a control device  developed
by  the author to  produce  very even
burns  provides a significant efficiency
improvement of 5 to 10% above either
manual or standard thermostatic con-
trol of  these stoves.
John M. Allen,
Fuels and Combustion Section,
Battelle-Columbus Laboratories
  Air pollution emissions from residen-
tial  wood-burning   appliances   are
affected  by many variables, including
stove design,  operator techniques, and
fuel  properties. Several of these vari-
ables have been investigated in the
laboratory  to  identify relationships
between the  independent  combustion
variables and the stove emissions.
  The two most significant emissions
are CO  and organic  species, the  latter
including both hydrocarbons and  some
partially   oxidized   materials.  These
organic  materials are also the source of
creosote when they condense in the
flue  and  are  collected on  the cooler
surfaces before  being  emitted to the
atmosphere.  They also include  some
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which
have been found to be carcinogenic. The
two  principal  mechanisms of pollution
formation are incomplete combustion in
the active burning region usually  asso-
ciated with a  restricted air supply, and
wood pyrolysis without burning of the
pyrolysis products. Several factors can
prevent  or restrict the burning of these
combustible  species,  including   low
temperatures, limited  oxygen  supply,
poor mixing, and  lack of ignition source.
  Several approaches are identified to
reduce the emissions from residential
woodstoves, including mode of burning
provided by the stove design, operator
techniques in using  the  stove,  and
characteristics of the fuel being burned.
Some problems in applying some of the
corrective actions are noted, and prom-
 ising techniques are recommended for

  Highlights of Sessions 1, 2, and 3
 were  presented  by  the  Session
 Chairmen in Session 4-

  Session   1,  Overview  of  Wood
 Combustion  Environmental  Assess-
 ment by Henry Anderson.
  Session 2, Assessments of  Residen-
 tial Wood Heating Efficiency and Emis-
 sions by Jerome P. Harper.
  Session 3, Overview and  Challenges
 for the Future by Wade H. Ponder

  Panel   discussion  (Session  5)
 speakers' abstracts follow:
William T. Greene,
Portland Air Quality Maintenance Area,
Oregon Department of Environmental
  After an introduction on the severity
of pollution impacts from residential
wood  heating  in  Oregon, different
potential institutional  and regulatory
approaches  to  control  pollution from
this  emission source were discussed.
Approaches  include testing and certifi-
cation programs under government or
trade  association   sponsorship,
weatherization  programs  to  reduce
heating needs,  educational programs,
governmental   efficiency/emissions/
safety inspection programs as in West
Germany, and  government or trade
association  research   programs  to
develop  improved  emission  control
techniques. The importance of develop-
ing a simpler, yet repeatable, emissions
measurement method is emphasized.

Charles E. Bohac,
Environmental Research and
Development Staff, TVA
  Impacts on  air quality  standards,
industrial development, human health
and safety, and forest resources are the
major  issues  relating  to  residential
wood  combustion in  the  Tennessee
  Although regional paniculate levels
might not be significantly elevated and
regional sulfur emissions could poten-
tially be reduced because of increased
wood combustion, residential heating
emissions can comprise a high percent-
age of winter paniculate emissions for
urban areas. Additionally, the chemical
content of  these  emissions can  be
represented  so as  to  be alarming-
dozens of carcinogenic and toxic chem-
icals  contained in small particles that
penetrate deep into the lungs.  There-
fore, the local air quality impacts are of
primary concern.
  Preliminary  estimates  indicate  that
although there is ample wood available
to support even the highest estimates of
residential wood heating, the combina-
tion of  all  potential  demands when
considered in the context of accessibil-
ity, topography, landowner preference,
and the general market-price competi-
tion will create many local areas where
demand will exceed supply.
  Other  issues addressed include ac-
celerated  erosion,  nutrient  loss,
increased sediment  load  to  receiving
waters, increased flash flood potential,
safety hazards to wood harvesters, and
fire hazards from  improper heater in-
stallation and operation.
  Alternative means of resolving these
issues which  are available  to  local,
state, and  Federal agencies  are  also
Phyllis Brooks Wainwright,
Division of Environmental Mangement,
N.C.  Department  of  Natural
Resources and Community Develop-
  The State of North Carolina is com-
mitted to wood as an alternative energy
source and at the same time recognizes
its  responsibility to the environment.
Because  of conflicting  polycyclic
organic material (POM)  emission data
available,  the State of North Carolina
has  undertaken  a  sampling study  for
POM  emissions  from  wood-fired
boilers. The North Carolina wood energy
project and the POM samplingstudyare
Cedric R. Sanborn,
Agency of Environmental
Conservation, Department of
Water Resources and Environmental
  During the winter of 1979-80, the Air
Pollution Control Program of the State
of Vermont conducted  an ambient air
monitoring program in  Waterbury, VT,
to study the effects of residential wood-
burning on the particulate level  within
the Village. The  ambient monitoring
program  consisted of 10 high-volume
samplers at 5 sites,  2 meteorological
stations,  and  an  ambient particulate
monitor  (APM) for outputtmg  hourly
total and respirable particulate  levels.

The monitors were placed to measure
microscale impact in residential areas
that had high concentrations of wood-
  The  average  24-hour  TSP  levels
ranged  from  26  to 81 //g/m3 at the
residential   sampler  sites.  Several
excursions of the 150/ug/m3 National
Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)
were recorded at two of the sites.
  Based on modeling  techniques, it is
estimated that as much as 35% of the
measured TSP  could  be due to wood
smoke. The modeling was based on the
ARM emissions which were based on
wood use forms filled  out by 30 wood-
burning residents in Waterbury over a
12-week period. Additional filter anal-
ysis is being  conducted to confirm or
deny  these  estimates  of  ambient
  In addition to working on the residen-
tial aspects of wood-burning, the State
of Vermont has also conducted a study
of emissions from industrial wood-fired
boilers.  Currently work is  progressing
under  a DOE  grant  to  improve the
combustion efficiency of several types
of residential  wood-stoves.
F. A. Ayer, compiler, is with Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park,
  NC 277O9,
Michael C. Osborne is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
The complete report,  entitled "Proceedings: Conference on Wood Combustion
  Environmental Assessment (New Orleans,  February 1981)," (Order No.
  PB 81-248 155; Cost: $24.50, subject to change) will be available only from:
       National Technical Information Service
       5285 Port Royal Road
       Springfield,  VA 22161
        Telephone: 703-487-4650
The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
       Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
       U.S. Environmental Protect/on Agency
       Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
Peter H. Kosel,
Air Resources Board
  An  examination of air pollution test
results and the demography of wood-
burning in  California  indicates  that
although  wood-burning is less impor-
tant than  some other urban pollution
sources, it may be a major contributor to
pollution in some residential areas. To
reduce emissions from wood-burning
equipment, it is better to  apply design
specifications to new equipment than to
impose  emission  limits  on  existing
equipment. The potential for marketing
retrofit devices  and hints for  more
efficient   and  less  polluting  wood-
burning are discussed.
                                                              . S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I98I/559-092/3325

United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
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