United States
                  Environmental Protection
Research Laboratory
Athens GA 30613-7799
                  Research and Development
 EPA/600/S9-88/023  June 1989
&EPA         Project Summary
                  Protection  of  River Basins,
                  Lakes  and  Estuaries,  Fifteen
                  Years  of Cooperation  Toward
                  Solving  Environmental
                  Problems  in the USSR  and USA
                  Robert C. Ryans, editor
                   In 1987, the United States  of
                  America (USA) and the Union  of
                  Soviet  Socialist  Republics  (USSR)
                  completed 15 years of cooperation in
                  the field of environmental protection.
                  In recognition of this anniversary in
                  the on-going program, participants In
                  three projects of the agreement
                  contributed papers to a  commemora-
                  tive document describing recent
                  activities and providing  an historical
                  perspective on joint research In the
                  area of water pollution prevention.
                   Overviews are provided of joint
                  activities in water  planning and
                  management, in protection and
                  management of water quality in lakes
                  and estuaries, and in effects  of
                  pollutants on aquatic organisms and
                  ecosystems. Among  the papers are
                  discussions of water quality manage-
                  ment strategies and  modeling tech-
                  niques  for  water protection  (USSR)
                  and of mass balance approaches and
                  nonpoint agricultural measures  in
                  water quality management (USA).
                  Other contributions address predic-
                  tive models of water body conditions
                  and problems  in  investigating
                  petroleum  pollution (USSR) and
                  describe mesocosms for evaluating
                  ecosystem  health  and water quality
                  research in the Great Lakes  (USA).
                  Finally,  papers are presented regard-
                  ing ion exchange in fish and biotest-
                  ing of aquatic  environments (USSR)
and describing aquatic toxicity test
methodologies and ammonia toxicity
and metabolism in fish (USA).
  This Project Summary was devel-
oped by EPA's  Environmental
Research Laboratory. Athens, GA,  to
announce key findings of the research
project that Is fully documented In a
separate report of the same title (see
Project Report ordering  information at

  In 1972, the United States of America
and the Union of Soviet  Socialist
Republics launched a joint program  of
cooperation and exchange of scientific
information on problems of environmental
pollution. Since then, the USA-USSR
Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of
Environmental Protection has helped both
countries in their pollution  control efforts.
  Among several activities addressing
different environmental media under the
Agreement is the  Working  Group  on
Cooperation  in the  Area  of Water
Protection. Included in the interests  of
this Working Group are three projects—
Project 02.02-11 "River  Basin Water
Quality Management," Project 02.02-12
"Protection  and Management  of Water
Quality in Lakes and Estuaries," and
Project 02.02-13 "Effect of Pollutants  on
Aquatic Organisms and  Ecosystems:
Development of Water Quality Criteria."

  In recognition of the 15th anniversary in
the on-going  program,  participants  in
these three  projects  contributed papers
to a  commemorative  document describ-
ing recent  activities  and providing an
historical perspective on joint research.
Introducing this collection of papers is an
overview provided by  the Co-chairmen of
the USA-USSR Agreement on Coopera-
tion  in  the  Field  of  Environmental
Protection,   Mr.  L.A. Thomas, Admin-
istrator  of  the  U.S.  Environmental
Protection Agency, and Mr.  Y.A. Izrael,
Chairman of the  USSR State Committee
for Hydrometeorology.
  Contributing their views of the 15 years
of progress  are the Co-chairmen of the
USA-USSR  Working Group on Coopera-
tion  in the   Area A of  Water Pollution
Prevention,  Mr. V. V.  Adamkus, Regional
Administrator, Region  V, USEPA, and Mr.
A. K. Kuzin,  Director,  All-Union Research
Institute  for  Water  Protection.   Intro-
ductions to the collected  papers are
provided by  Project Co-leaders: Mr. V. J.
Saulys,  Chief, Remedial Program  Staff,
Great Lakes National Program Office,
Region V, USEPA, and Mr. Kuzin (02.02-
11);  Dr.  R.  C. Russo, Director, Environ-
mental  Research  Laboratory, USEPA,
Athens,  GA, Dr. W. R. Swain, Professor,
University of Amsterdam,  The Nether-
lands, and Dr. A. M. Nikanorov, Director,
Hydrochemical  Institute, USSR  State
Committee   for Hydrometeorology and
Control  of  the  Natural Environment
(02.02-12);  and  Dr.  R.  A.  Schoettger,
Director, National Fisheries  Contaminant
Research Center, U.S. Fish  and Wildlife
Service, Columbia  MO, Dr. Russo, and
Dr. N. Butorin, Director, Institute of  Inland
Waters,  USSR  Academy of Sciences

Titles,  Authors  and Abstracts of
the 12 Papers
   "Strategy  of  Water  Planning  and
Evaluation,"  by  A. V. L'vov and  A.  K.
Kuzin,  All-Union  Scientific  Research
Institute of Water  Protection,  USSR
Ministry of Reclamation  and  Water
Management,  Kharkov—The  importance
of water protection  in national economies
requires  the  selection  of  optimal
strategies for water quality planning and
management. Water quality management
is a continuing process of idea formation,
of planning  and achieving corresponding
water protection  measures, of evaluating
results,  and of establishing  new  goals.
Comprehensive  water  protection  pro-
grams must be based on an ecosystem
approach, the determination  of pollution
sources must be  based on  the  mass
balance approach, and the determination
of protection efficiency must be based on
a combination of technological and basin
approaches. Management  priority must
be that of  resource-saving technology,
which  is  nature  protective  and
economical at the same time.
  "A  Mass Balance Approach to Water
Quality Management in the Great Lakes,"
L. E. Fink, Great Lakes National Program
Office, USEPA, Region V,  Chicago, IL,
and  P.  L.  Wise,  Science  Applications
International Corporation,  McLean, VA—
The   mass balance,  or  total  load
management, approach seeks to  control
the total rate of entry  of toxic pollutants
from any source or location. Basic to the
approach  are  wasteload  allocation
models that must be tested and verified
through comparison with actual monitor-
ing results after all significant sources are
identified and quantified and after  source
controls  are  implemented.  The mass
balance approach is a  working con-
ceptual framework in which to implement
total  load  management  of  toxic
substances  so that  the  interim water
quality  goals  can  be achieved in a
systematic  and focused fashion, without
abandoning the  long-term goal of  zero
discharge of toxicants into the Great
Lakes ecosystem.
  "Water Quality Modeling and Develop-
ment of Water  Protection  Programs," Y.
V. Yermenko  and G. A. Sukhorukov, All-
Union  Scientific  Research Institute of
Water Protection,  USSR  Ministry  of
Reclamation  and  Water  Management,
Kharkov—The most important direction of
improvement  of a management system
for water protection and  rational  use of
water resources is the use of program-
objective  methods  of   control  and
planning. These methods are based on
the  extensive  use  of  mathematical
modeling and optimization  of water
protection  measures. Realization  of
simulation  requirements  applicable to
water basins is attained  by joining the
models of large scale discharge influence
and  other factors affecting water  quality
and  the models of local discharge
influence. It is mainly in the large scale
discharge  models that the circulation
influence of water masses is considered
as well  as the full transformation of
substances  under  the  influence  of
biochemical factors. The  local discharge
models are relatively simple and  extend
to areas from the site of pollutant
discharge to the control point.
  "Identification  of Pollutants  Subject to
Nonpoint Agricultural  Measures  in  the
Maumee River Basin," J.  B. Morrison,
Purdue  University,  West Lafayette, IN-
Management of  nonpoint  pollutio
sources requires the same kind of carefi
identification of impaired uses, importar
pollutants  and appropriate  centre
strategies that  is  necessary for poin
sources. In the Maumee River Basin, thi
impaired use of  a  resource  (Lake Erie
has  been identified  (eutrophicatioi
resulting  from nutrient  imbalances). Thi
pollutant responsible for the impaired usi
(phosphorus) has  been identified am
programs  for its control  (reduced so
erosion resulting  from less  intensivi
tillage  and other  soil  conservatio
measures) have been developed. Poten
tial consequences of this effort (increase*
nitrate concentrations ,  increased use c
chemicals for weed control) have bee
identified.  If care   and judgment  ar
employed, pollution management wi
result  in  restoration  of  the resourc
without  the  creation of new  and  une>
pected consequences.
  "Present  State  of  Model  Bank fc
Predictive Water Body  Conditions," A.  fv
Nickanorov, A.  B.  Gortsko,  A.  fi
Matveyev,  and  M. G.  Yereshukovj
Hydrochemical  Institute,  USSR  Stat
Committee for  Hydrometeorology an
Control of the  Natural  Environmen
Rostov-on-Don—Mathematical  model
provide  quantitative evaluations of wate
basin and channel conditions and predic
the response of water ecosystems unde
the action  of given factors.  Simulatio
techniques for intrabasin  processes ar
classified as descriptive models,  predic
live models, or optimization models. Th
more  complex the   system   to  b
simulated is, and the more this system  i
influenced by external factors, the mor
complex  does the  process of building
model  for predictive purposes beconru
Problems encountered in  developm
predictive models can be overcome mor
easily and quickly with  the use of  expe
systems.  Expert systems applied  t
intrabasin process  models  satisfy  th
modern  requirements  of  science an
increase the efficiency  of  theoretic)
investigations in hydrochemistry an
  "Historical Synopsis of  Great  Lake
Water  Quality Research  and Managf
ment and Future   Directions,"  W.   I
Richardson, Large Lakes  Researc
Station, USEPA, Grosse lie, Ml, and J.  I
Paul, Environmental Research  Labon
tory, USEPA, Narragansett,  Rl-ln 197
the  U.S.  Environmental  Protectic
Agency was just becoming involved wi
major  pollution  control efforts  on tr
North  American  Great  Lakes.  Sevei

 water  quality  issues were  related, most
 notably,  to  eutrophication and the
 Resultant  impacts  on drinking  water,
 fisheries, and recreation. Through the use
 of  monitoring studies and  mathematical
 modeling, much has been  accomplished
 in  understanding cause-effect relation-
 ships  and in managing water  quality.
 Most  notable was  the establishment  of
 target  loadings for phosphorus. With
 eutrophication declining,  effects  of toxic
 substances  became the  major environ-
 mental issue for the Great Lakes in  the
 1980s. Initial monitoring and research into
 cause-effect  relationships has indicated
 that rational management of toxics is and
 will continue to be a difficult problem.
   "Procedural-Methodological  Problems
 in  Investigating  Petroleum Products  in
 Continental Surface  Waters,"  A.   G.
 Stradomskaya, Hydrochemical  Institute,
 USSR State Committee  for  Hydro-
 meteorology and Control of  the Natural
 Environment, Rostov-on-Don — Surface
 waters have an  extremely  complex,
 diverse and  dynamic chemical  compo-
 sition, determined by a great variety  of
 formation  and transformation factors.
 Investigating petroleum product contami-
 nation of surface  water  is made  much
 more  difficult by  the  wide  range  of
 organic substances that  are  introduced
^through production process effluent and
'household  waste. To  obtain  correct
 information  on  the  total amount  of
 petroleum  products,  the analyst must
 consider  the volatile  and nonvolatile
 hydrocarbons, the  tars, and the asphalts.
 Variants  of  gas  and  liquid  chroma-
 tography-mass spectrometry  and highly
 efficient liquid  chromatography  have
 been  used  successfully  in  identifying
 petroleum products.
   "Use of Mesocosms in Evaluating  the
 Health of Aquatic  Ecosystems,"  S.  J.
 Lozano, University  of Wisconsin-Superior,
 Superior, Wl —Methods  for  assessing
 pollutant effects on aquatic systems  are
 numerous,  including  single-species
 bioassays and  experiments  in  micro-
 cosms, in  natural  water  bodies,  and  in
 enclosures within a lake or stream. With
 the use of whole systems and mesocosm
 techniques  and  proper  experimental
 design and analysis, it  is possible  to
 quantify the  effect,  persistence,  and
 movement of pesticides  and other toxi-
 cants. Mesocosms are ideal for measur-
 ing primary and secondary effects. The
 results from  these mesocosm experi-
ments are  of vital  interest to  the
experimental ecologist and  resource
manager.  When  the  symptoms  of
ecosystem  distress can  be related to
specific effects of different classes of
chemicals, environmental managers will
be better able to regulate levels of toxic
substances in aquatic systems.
  "Ion Exchange in Fish under Extreme
Effects of  a Varied  Nature," G.  A.
Vinogradov,  V. T.  Komov, and  V.  B.
Tagunov, Institute of the Biology of Inland
Waters, USSR  Academy  of Sciences,
Borok—A study of ion  exchange in fish
establishes  that  the  catching  and
laboratory handling of fish  are  the same
type of stress factor,  inducing disturb-
ances  of the ion  balance  between the
organism and medium  through intensi-
fication  of  sodium  and  potassium
diffusion  into the  external  medium. Ion
exchange characteristics become normal
in the  restorative period. Sodium losses
drop repeatedly and sodium absorption
from the  water  increases as a result of
the  fish's acclimation to the salt shortage
in the water. Polychlorpinene  increases
sodium loss  from  the  organism.  Other
pesticides in different concentrations do
not  have such an effect.
  "Aquatic Toxicity Test Methodologies:
An  Update for the  1980s," M. G. Henry,
National  Fisheries  Center-Great Lakes,
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ann Arbor,
Ml,  and  R.  A. Schoettger,  National
Fisheries Contaminant Research Center-
Columbia,  USFWS, Columbia,  MO —
Hazard assessment methodology is con-
stantly being refined  in  the  face  of
escalating   industrial,  domestic,  and
agricultural  point and nonpoint input of
contaminants to water supplies. Integral
to  hazard assessment  is the  determin-
ation  of the biological  effects  of  single
compounds  and mixtures  on  environ-
mental populations.  Since  the  first
technical exchange between the USA and
USSR, a collaborative program of toxicity
testing and application has  been carried
out  by American and Soviet researchers.
These tests  include microbial,  biochem-
ical, physiological, and behavioral assays
using  a number of organisms.  Future
research  will  incorporate issues such as
resistance,  reversibility  of  effects, and
continued   development  of  test
approaches  that use fish  and inverte-
brates of common indigenous distribution
in the  two countries.
  "Biotesting of Aquatic  Environments
Based on the  Behavioral Reactions  of
Aquatic Animals," V. A. Nepomniashchikh
and B. A. Flerov, Institute of the  Biology
of Inland Waters,  USSR Academy  of
Sciences, Borok—Numerous  methods
are available currently  for  testing the
effect of  water quality on the behavior of
aquatic animals. The primary focus is on
establishing  behavioral  indicators  of
contamination  and on  forecasting the
ecological effect of changes  in these
indicators caused by poisoning. In nature,
the animal's behavior is composed, not of
individual reactions,  but of  integrated
complexes of various forms  of behavior
that are  united  by  a common goal--for
example, feeding or reproduction.  From
the ecological  standpoint, it is  important
to study the effect of water quality on the
attainment of these goals and not on the
individual behavioral characteristics. To
this  end, research  had  involved the
examination of  behavioral  complexes
associated with  medicinal leeches  and
caddisworms  exposed  to  toxicants.
Results indicate  the animals' behavior  to
be a sensitive indicator of water quality.
  "Ammonia Toxicity and Metabolism  in
Fishes,"  R.  C.  Russo,  Environmental
Research Laboratory, USEPA, Athens,
GA,  D.  J.  Randall,  Department  of
Zoology,  University of British  Columbia,
Vancouver,  BC, and R. V.  Thurston,
Fisheries Bioassay  Laboratory, Montana
State  University,   Bozeman, MT—To
understand the  toxicity  of ammonia  to
fish,  it is important to   understand its
chemical equilibrium in water In aqueous
solutions, ammonia assumes both  ionized
and  unionized  chemical  forms.  The
relative concentrations are principally a
function of the pH, temperature, and ionic
strength  of a  given  ammonia solution.
Ammonia is an  end product of  protein
metabolism,  and because it is toxic, it
must  be  excreted  or converted  to  less
toxic  compounds  such as  urea or
glutamine. Short-term exposure of fish  to
high  concentrations of ammonia  causes
an increase  in  gill  ventilation,  hyper-
excitability, convulsions,  and  then death.
These symptoms  are most likely the
result of  a direct effect  of ammonia on
the central nervous  system.  Effects  of
chronic exposure to lower concentrations
include tissue damage  and decreased

 The EPA editor, Robert C. Ryans, is with the Environmental Research Laboratory,
 Athens, GA 30613.
 Rosemarie C. Russo is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
 The complete report,  entitled  "Protection of River Basins, Lakes and  Estuaries,
   Fifteen  Years  of Cooperation  Toward Solving Environmental Problems in  the
   USSR and  USA," (Order No. PB 89-129  688/AS;  Cost:  $36.95, subject  to
   change) will be available only from:
        National Technical Information Service
        5285 Port Royal Road
        Springfield, VA22161
        Telephone: 703-487-4650
 The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
        Environmental Research Laboratory
        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        Athens, GA 30613-7799
United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
                                                                                                     U.u.r'Uoiil'-''- !**
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300