United States
                   Environmental Protection
Air and Energy Engineering
Research Laboratory
Research Triangle Park NC 27711
                   Research and Development
EPA/600/S9-89/036 Aug. 1989
&EPA          Project Summary
                    Proceedings:   First Combined
                    FGD and  Dry  SO2 Control
                   B. B. Emmel
                    The proceedings document presen-
                   tations at the  First Combined FGD
                   and Dry SO2 Control Symposium, in
                   SL Louis, MO, October 25 - 28, 1988.
                   The objective of the symposium was
                   the exchange of technical  and reg-
                   ulatory Information on sulfur oxide
                   control technology, including wet and
                   dry scrubbers,  emerging processes,
                   and international developments in
                   clean coal/acid  rain  technologies.
                   Topics covered during the sympos-
                   ium included:   retrofit economics,
                   spray dryer technology, furnace sor-
                   bent injection topics (demonstration
                   results, byproducts utilization, en-
                   hancements), wet FQD operation, mu-
                   nicipal solid waste facilities, and
                   post-combustion dry technologies.
                   Also included were concurrent ses-
                   sions on special topics of interest, In-
                   cluding dry FQD, new technologies,
                   and FGD  improvement The proceed-
                   ings, published in three volumes, in-
                   clude 85  papers and  4  unpresented
                    This Project Summary was  devel-
                   oped by EPA's  Air and Energy Engi-
                   neering Research  Laboratory, Re-
                   search Triangle Park, NC, to announce
                   key findings of  the research project
                   that is fully documented three sepa-
                   rate volumes of the  same title (see
                   Project Report  ordering Information

                    The first Combined FGD and Dry SO2
                   Control Symposium was conducted to
                   exchange technical and  regulatory infor-
                   mation on  sulfur oxide control technology
                   including wet, dry, and  semi-dry scrub-
                   bers, emerging technologies, and clean
coal/acid rain retrofit technologies. Topics
covered included:
  -  Retrofit Economics
  -  Spray Dryer Technology
  -  Furnace Sorbent Injection
  -  Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)
  -  Municipal  Incineration  Flue Gas
  -  Post-combustion Dry FGD Technolo-
  In addition, concurrent  sessions  on
specialized FGD topics were held for dry
FGD research,  new FGD  technologies,
and FGD process improvement. A total of
85 papers, including 25 foreign, were
presented. The proceedings  include
these as well  as four unpresented papers
and a list of attendees.

Session 1
  Session  1, International Overview, com-
pared the status of FGD  technologies
worldwide, and included four European
reports.  A paper on U.S. FGD research
and development status focused on the
Clean Coal Program of the Federal and
State governments. Details  of the
recently awarded Clean Coal II  projects
were presented along with  Illinois, Ohio,
and Argonne National Laboratory pro-
grams. Two papers dealt with progress in
European  SO2 and NOX  control with
deserved emphasis on recent develop-
ments in West Germany. Papers outlining
status and future plans for FGD instal-
lations in  the United Kingdom  and the
Netherlands  were  also presented in
Session  1. The last paper  in Session 1
covered S02 and NOX control  technology
in Japan and other Far Eastern countries.

Session 2
  Session 2 focused on  the  economic
aspects of  retrofit SO2 control technol-
ogies. One paper discussed actual retrofit
FGD systems and compared economics
and performance to that predicted by
modelling. A second paper compared six
candidate processes for injecting sorbent
into post-combustion  and  combustion
zones as applied to a specific site. The
third  paper summarized  the retrofit
difficulties of FGD and  sorbent injection
technology  based on case studies at 60
Eastern  and  Midwestern U.S.  power
plants firing medium- to high-sulfur coal.

Session 3
  Session 3 was devoted to spray dryer
technology, with three  papers covering
commercial-scale  experience  and two
addressing  spray drying on  a  pilot plant
basis. A paper by  the Tennessee Valley
Authority evaluated spray drying on a 10
MWe  slipstream facility and concluded
that better  than 70%  S02 removal  is
feasible on  high sulfur coal using a spray
dryer/ESP combination. Papers were pre-
sented by two vendors covering U.S. and
foreign spray dryer installations, all show-
ing that guarantees of  S02 removal and
system performance were routinely being
achieved worldwide. Another paper also
showed that performance of lime-based
spray  dryers  could  be  enhanced  by
adding ammonia.

Sessions 4/5
  Parallel Sessions 4 and 5 were devoted
to furnace sorbent injection and conven-
tional  wet FGD, respectively. Session 4A
included  eight  papers on commercial in-
furnace SO2 control, including  three U.S.
facilities, and units  in Finland, Canada,
West  Germany, Austria, and France.
Session 4B included four papers on FGD
waste management  and four  papers on
combined S02/NOX control.
  Session 5A focused on the consequen-
ces of furnace sorbent injection, as
papers were presented  covering sorbent
feed systems, impacts on dust collection,
and humidification effects. Other  papers
detailed diverse topics  such as oil-fired
boiler  injection  of sorbent,  reactivation
and recycle of  spent sorbent,  and labo-
ratory evaluation of lime  and surface-
modified lime  sorbents.  Session  SB
covered a range  of wet FGD studies.
Included were papers  on the  EPRI high
sulfur test center and  a TVA program
limestone dissolution,  droplet  size anal-
ysis, performance  of downstream
paniculate emissions controls, and two
papers outlining troubleshooting of mist
elimination/stack opacity problems.
  Session  5B  continued with  eight
additional papers  on commercial wet
FGD systems; four U.S. systems and four
foreign FGD systems were included.

Session 6
  Session 6 encompassed four discus-
sions of flue gas scrubbing on U.S. mu-
nicipal waste-fired boilers (MSWs).  While
much discussion included HC1 and S02
control,  papers  included discussion  of
other types of pollutants being  controlled;
i.e., volatile organics and heavy metals. It
was  evident from the papers that scrub-
bing of MSW  flue gas  has become  a
rapid growth area  for both vendor and
research organizations.

Session 7
  Session 7 encompassed  18 papers
given in three parallel sessions, with each
session  designed to focus on specialty
areas of FGD  research.  Session  7A
included papers on fundamentals of S02
capture  on dry sorbent particles  under
furnace  conditions,  sorbent recycle
studies, and x-ray methods  for deter-
mining sorbent reactivities. New techno-
logies were  the  focus of Session  76.
Topics included  a circulating  fluid-bed
absorber for S02, a limestone fixed-bed
absorber, a  sodium  phosphate regen-
erable  SO2  scrubber, a  simultaneous
SO2/NOX scrubber using sodium  com-
pounds, and two papers on sorbents pre-
pared by reacting lime with waste fly ash
to produce calcium silicates.  FGD  im-
provement was addressed in Session 7C,
with  papers addressing on-line corrosion
monitoring, fluorelastomeric coatings for
erosion/corrosion  control,  FGD  cost
modelling,  performance evaluation  of
FGD linings,  chemical additives  for
spray-dryer systems, and a video tape on
FGD chemistry.
Session 8                          ,
  Session 8 was devoted mainly to posM
combustion dry  technologies which are
being studied as low-capital cost solu-
tions for  acid rain control. Seven  of the
eight papers dealt with new processes for
SO2 removal, while one paper detailed
additive N02  reduction with  dry sodium
injection.  The DOE research  program for
in-duct scrubbing  technologies  were
discussed  in one paper. Two  papers
covered  EPRI research areas including
injection of sorbent at 540C  and sorbent
injection humidification   evaluation
(HYPAS). Two EPA research areas were
detailed:  one (E-SOX) converts an elec-
trostatic precipitator (ESP) stage  into a
compact  spray  dryer;  and  the  other
(ADVACATE)  uses fly ash/lime sorbents
to achieve high SO2 removal in-duct. Two
papers were devoted to new foreign tech-
nologies:   one  is a Japanese process
using a calcium  silicate material  in fluid
beds; and the other is  a circulating fluid
bed  using  lime  sorbent developed  by
Lurgi of West Germany.

Unpresented Papers
  The  proceedings  also include four
papers not presented at the  symposium.
These include papers on a multiple mov-
ing  bed-limestone  dry  scrubber, SO2i
capture in a coal-fueled gas turbine, com-
bined S02/NOX removal  in  spray  dryer
FGD,  and  an  FGD   system   cost
  The proceedings include a list  of ap-
proximately 650 attendees  representing
government, private industry, academia,
and scores of foreign representatives.
  In  summary,  the  proceedings  outline
the  current status  of FGD  commercial
activities, research, and FGD-related reg-
ulations in all nations currently using, or
about to  use, FGD technology. Acid rain
retrofits and municipal waste  applications
are  given considerable  discussion, with
emphasis on  performance and econom-
ics. Practically every  FGD  topic  is ad-
dressed in this forum  in the context of
worldwide demand and regulatory climate
prevailing in the late  1980s.

8. B. Emmel is with Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
The complete  report consists of three volumes,  entitled  "Proceedings: First
  Combined FGD and Dry SO2 Control Symposium:," (3 volume set: Order No. PB
  89-172 1421 AS; Cost: $127.50)
    "Volume 1, Sessions 1,  2, 3, and 4," (Order No.  PB 89-172 159IAS; Cost:
    'Volume 2. Sessions 5 and 6," (Order No. PB 89-172 1671 AS; Cost: $49.95)
    "Volume 3. Sessions 7 and 8," (Order No. PB 89-172 1751 AS; Cost: $49.95)
The above reports will be available only from: (Costs subject to change)
       National Technical Information Service
       5285 Port Royal Road
       Springfield, VA 22161
       Telephone: 703-487-4650
The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
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       Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
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