United States
                                 Environmental Protection
                                  Robert S. Kerr Environmental
                                  Research Laboratory
                                  Ada OK 74820
                                 Research and Development
                                  EPA-600/S2-82-074 Sept. 1982
Project Summary
                                 A  Case Study  of the Muncie,
                                 Indiana,  Water  Quality
                                 Control Program
                                 David W. Shultz
                                   This report is a case study about the
                                 establishment, administration, and
                                 effectiveness of a  water  quality
                                 control program currently being oper-
                                 ated to serve the community of
                                 Muncie, Indiana, population about
                                 100,000. The study was conducted
                                 by Southwest Research Institute of
                                 San Antonio, Texas, during the period
                                 March 1978 to January 1981.
                                   The purpose of the  study was to
                                 gather and publish information that
                                 could be used by other communities of
                                 similar size in establishing and con-
                                 ducting,  or perhaps expanding, their
                                 own water pollution control programs.
                                 Implementation of this program has
                                 greatly  reduced the  heavy-metal
                                 concentrations in the sludge produced
                                 by the treatment plant. Additionally.
                                 revenues generated from an industrial
                                 surcharge program averaged $45,849
                                 per year over a six-year  period.
                                 Approximately one-third of the pro-
                                 gram's budget is chargeable to  its
                                 industrial monitoring and  surcharge
                                   There  are approximately 2500
                                 communities nationwide with publicly-
                                 owned  treatment works that are
                                 required to establish and maintain an
                                 EPA-approved water pollution control
                                 program similar to the one reported in
                                 this case study. It is likely that details
                                 of this report will benefit other
                                 communities  of  similar  size and
                                   This Project Summary was devel-
                                 oped by EPA's Robert S. Kerr Environ-
                                  mental Research Laboratory, Ada,
                                  OK, to announce key findings of the
                                  research project that is fully docu-
                                  mented in a separate report of the
                                  same.title (see Project Report ordering
                                  information at back).

                                   Organized to function as an integral,
                                  though independent, component within
                                  the framework of the Muncie Sanitary
                                  District (MDS),  the program  heavily
                                  emphasizes the  total management of
                                  local water resources.  Within the
                                  Muncie area, water resources are
                                  comprised of the White River  and its
                                  eight tributary streams; city drainage
                                  (runoff) and  sewerage  systems; a
                                  publicly-owned treatment works; and
                                  industrial discharges. Domestic and
                                  industrial water supplies are processed
                                  from a surface reservoir. Management
                                  of these water resources rests with the
                                  Muncie Division of Water Quality
                                  (DWQ), whose basic responsibilities are
                                  briefly listed as follows:
                                   (1) Perform all laboratory testing for
                                      the wastewater treatment plant.
                                   (2) Monitor all industrial dischargers
                                      who use the  MSD sewerage
                                      system and wastewater treat-
                                      ment plant.
                                   (3) Enforce all ordinances relating to
                                      sewer use and pretreatment and
                                      develop new ordinances as nec-
                                   (4) Prepare spill control and counter-
                                      measure capabilities to minimize
                                      spill effects on the environment.

  (5) Conduct investigations of heavy-
     metal concentrations in fish that
     inhabit the local waterways.
  (6) Perform  bacteriological tests of
     community-operated public swim-
     ming areas.
  (7) Perform  any necessary scientific
     research covering all aspects of
     area water pollution.
  (8) Conduct workshops as requested
     for the benefit of other communi-
  (9) Monitor  all area waterways and
     identify illegal dischargers.
  Empowered by federal, state, and
local statutes, the DWQ was developed
in March of 1972. Significantly, it was
established as an organizational "equal"
to other departments within the Muncie
Sanitary District. As such, it is separately
managed and budgeted. Headed  by an
appointed director,  the DWQ reports
directly to the MSD Board of Commis-
sions, who are elected by public vote.
Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the MSD and
DWQ organizations.
  Over a period of 7 years, the Muncie
DWQ has developed  an approach to
monitoring  industrial  plants in the
interest of water quality control.  Com-
prised of monitoring and field sampling
schedules, as well as laboratory analyses,
their program effectively serves the
following purposes:
  (1) Determines compliance with estab-
     lished standards and ordinances.
  (2) Provides  data for determining
     appropriate user surcharge  fees.
  (3) Supports necessary enforcement
  (4) Provides a  data base to justify
     ordinance and procedural modifi-
  (5) Provides  data for  required re-
     porting to state and federal  agen-
  (6) Promotes cooperation from the
     industrial sector.
  (7) Provides unbiased  samples and
     maximizes flexibility of sampling
  (8) Minimizes costs of monitoring

DWQ Program Elements

  Principal elements of the Muncie
Water  Quality  Control program are
listed  and briefly described in the
following subparagraphs.

Industrial Discharge Control
  The  need  for  a formal  industrial
wastewater discharge control program
was based on due consideration of five
  (1) Size of the industrial sector and
     the unknown quantity of their
     wastewater discharges.
  (2) Suspected high metal concentra-
     tions in industrial discharges.
  (3) National  Pollutant  Discharge
     Elimination System (NPDES) per-
     mit requirements.
  (4) Need for  equitable  fee assess-
     ment to non-domestic users of the
     MSD system.
  (5) Sensitivity of the receiving stream
     to treatment plant effluent.
  To accomplish the objectives of the
program created as a  result of these
considerations, the first requirement
was to develop an industrial user data
base that would ensure credibility of the
program. The approach chosen for this
task was to collect and analyze samples
in the  DWQ  laboratory  in  order  to
produce the most reliable and consis-
tent  data.  Following  identification  of
every known  or suspected industrial
discharger  into the MSD  system, the
next step  was to organize and imple-
ment preliminary inspections  of each
facility. Several significant advantages
accrued to  the DWQ as a  result of the
on-site  visits,  and this approach  is
recommended when the tota I number of
users can be visited on a personal basis
within a reasonable period of time.
  Upon  completion of the visitations
and  evaluation of  the data collected,
each  plant was ranked, using  specific
criteria, to determine the order in which
each  would  be subjected to  a field
sampling  program. Plants that were
known to  discharge industrial wastes
were scheduled ahead of those  only
suspected of discharging industrial and
domestic wastes. Subsequently, sam-
ples were collected for both organic and
                              City of Muncie
Figure 1.   Organizational chart — Muncie sanitary district.
Industrial and Stream
Surveillance Section
Surveillance Section
Figure 2.   Organizational chart — Division of Water Quality,
          Muncie Sanitary District.

 metals analysis; all  sampling  and
 analysis was performed by DWQ per-
 sonnel. (The initial effluent quality data
 base should  always be  established
 using results of sampling and analysis
 performed or controlled by the regulating
 authority.  Once established, it must be
 continually maintained and upgraded
 through the  medium of an  effective
 monitoring program.)
   Remaining components of the indus-
 trial discharge control program include
 an enforcement program that provides
 procedures for dealing with  pollution
 violations;  a clean-water council  that
 provides an effective communication
 mechanism between the DEQ and the
 industrial  sector; and  an industrial
 surcharge program that effectively
 administers equitable fee assessments
 based  on  the  amount  of organic and
 solids   loading in excess  of normal
 domestic loadings. Figure 3 illustrates
 annual revenues generated from the
 surcharge program.

 Water Quality Monitoring
   The   second  major element  of the
 Muncie water quality control program is
 the monitoring  of surface  waters
 beyond the points of runoffs and treated
 discharges. This  practice  is  primarily
 aimed  at identifying sources and trends
 or  changes with  time  in order to
 measure or assess effectiveness of the
 overall  program. Secondary uses of the
 monitored data are listed as follows:
  (1) To determine suitability  of public
     waters for recreational  use and
     the propagation of aquatic life.
  (2) To determine adherence  to, or
     violation  of, applicable state and
     federal  in-stream water quality
  (3) To determine pollution  patterns
     downstream from pollution sources.
  (4) To provide  a  source  of field
     samples  for  additional research
  (5) To establish a baseline record of
     water quality for  use in various
  Water samples are extracted at 66
fixed points along the White River and
its eight tributaries; each point strategi-
cally located  at a bridge over  the
waterway  to avoid interference from
fluctuating  water levels.  Sampling
frequencies are balanced between the
desirability of a large data base and the
evaluative  resources available  (staff,
  uipment, etc.). With the exception of
  ssolved oxygen and  temperature
 ladings, which are recorded in  the
 field,  all samples are subjected  to
 analysis in the laboratory.

 Laboratory Testing
  The  Muncie program's  laboratory
 testing activity includes not only testing
 of samples from the various monitoring
 stations, but also daily  testing  of
 influent, effluent, and sludge samples
 from the MSD wastewater treatment
               plant.  Additionally,  bacteriological
               testing  is performed on samples of
               domestic  potable  water, as well as
               samples  taken  from  local  swimming
               areas. Certified by the State Board of
               Health,  the DWQ laboratory further
               supports the community by providing
               public service testing of water samples
               in conjunction with the state and county
               Boards of  Health.

                     Metal Loading in Raw and Final Waste Stream
                                                         —•— Influent
                                  75      76

                                 Metal Removal
   ti,  90-

74      75       76      77

   Metal Loading in Sludge
        72      73       74      75       76      77       78      79

Figure 3.  Metal loadings and metal removal at the MSD Wastewater
          Treatment Plant.

Special Studies
  Other  significant  elements of the
Muncie  program are categorized as
special studies: urban sewer monitor-
ing; parking lot  runoff monitoring;
ongoing  research studies regarding
crop uptake, fish  and macroinverte-
brates, and priority pollutants; fish kill
investigations,  and spill response
  The urban sewer monitoring program
is aimed primarily at analyzing samples
taken from domestic sewage conduits to
determine the amount of heavy metals
generated by  normal  households in the
area. Justification  for this non-indus-
trial sewer monitoring program seems
evident by the results shown in Table 1
— data which indicates that a signifi-
cant concentration  of  heavy metals
exists in domestic sewage. Similarly,
metals data is extracted from samples
taken at specific  parking lot runoff
locations to assess the impact of urban
runoff on water quality in the White
  "^e special study  on priority  pollu-
t,nts  was  initiated in  1980 with the
following objectives:

  (1) To determine the  presence  and
     concentrations  of  priority pollu-
     tants of various stages of the MSD
     wastewater treatment system.
  (2) To determine the contribution of
     priority  pollutants from major
     industrial dischargers to the MSD
  (3) To  assess the impact of  the
     treatment plant on concentration
     levels of priority pollutants.
  Laboratory analysis results of priority
pollutant heavy-metals concentrations
(samples taken at 16  representative
stations within the treatment plant) are
presented in Table 2. These  results
indicate that metal concentrations
generally increased from the influent
through primary clarification and acti-
vated sludge aeration.
  Ongoing research activities in support
of the crop uptake study are aimed at
determining any contamination effects
from applications  of  waste treatment
sludge to area soils. Likewise, extensive
research  is  being conducted  with
periodic examinations of various aqua-
tic specimens from area waters. This
research provides  invaluable data for
assessing water quality and the effec-
tiveness of water  quality management
at the local level. Fish kill investigations
and spill response activities, including
cleanup, are limited to occurrences of
these events.

Program Benefits
  Perhaps  one of the singly most
beneficial results attributable to the
Muncie program has been the  signifi-
cant reductions in heavy-metals con-
centrations  that  have eventuated in
wastewater treatment sludge.  Land
areas appropriated for sludge disposal
can  thus be  substantially reduced,
making  land  application economically
feasible. Heavy-metals reductions have
also contributed  to better quality of
water in area streams that receive the
discharges. Figure 3  graphically  illus-
trates data  recorded  for tead loadings
and removals at the MSD  wastewater
treatment plant during the 7-year period
1972 to 1979.
  Other benefits can be itemized and
listed as follows:
  (1) Overall improvement  in quality of
     all water resources.
  (2) Community approach to manage-
     ment  and control of  local water
     resources as opposed to govern-
     mental control and management
  (3) Contributions to control of water-
     borne diseases.
  (4) Improvement of local swimming,
     boating, and fishing areas.
  (5) Effective communications and
     cooperation  between local inter-
     ests and the industrial sector.
  (6) Establishment of a  sound data
     base that contributes to wa rra nted
     judgements and enhances future
     aspects of program improvements.

Summary and

  The Muncie Sanitary District (MSD),
Muncie, Indiana,  initiated a  total
program  to control  water  pollution in
1972 by establishing a  new Division of
Water Quality (DWQ). The DWQ provided
the  MSD flexibility to  monitor water
quality and establish standards, control
industrial dischargers, and  enforce pre-
treatment regulations.
  To establish  an industrial discharge
control program,  the DWQ  personnel
visited each plant within its boundaries
to evaluate discharge  characteristics
and  spill potentials. This  approach is
recommended for  all communities of
similar size to Muncie.
Table 1.     Summary of Parking Lot Runoff Data ffjg/l)

   Station No.       Value    Cadmium    Chromium    Copper      Iron
                                    Manganese    Nickel    Lead
K-Mart North
(Formerly Mason's
Dept. Store)
Muncie Mall

Ave. Bridge

Val Dept.

Table 2.    Priority Pollutant Heavy Metal Concentrations for Stations 1-16 (tig/1)
No. Ag As Be
1 .0119 .0016 <0001
2 .0550 .026 .0018
4 .0368 .028 .0011
3 .7275 .188 .0473
5 .690 .866 .0378
6 .0931 .051 .0026
7 .0260 .2210 .0077
8 .222 .608 .0250
11 .0439 .443 .0145
9 .0002 .0007 <0001
10 .0002 .0010 <0001
12 .0004 .0010 <0001
13 .0003 .0011 <0001
15 .0022 .0013 <0001
16 .429 1.29 .0436
The industrial surcharge program
revenues from 1973 through 1979
totaled $327,942. Average revenue per
year was $46,849. Approximately one-
third of the DWQ budget, or $95,243, is
chargeable to the industrial monitoring
and surcharge program. This cost
amounts to 87 cents per person served
by the MSD.
Implementation of the MSD industrial
discharge control and pretreatment
program has reduced the heavy-metals
concentrations in the sludge produced
by the treatment plant. Present concen-
trations of chromium, copper, nickel,
zinc, and lead are below reported mean
values for typical municipal sludges
reported by EPA. These reductions
mean that Muncie will require less land
area to dispose of sludge by land
application. For example, in 1974, the
MSD treatment plant was producing
sludge containing 142 pounds per day
of lead, or approximately 26 tons per
year In 1978, lead concentrations
decreased to 4 pounds per day or .73
tons per year. Using proposed EPA land
application criteria, land requirements
would have decreased from 52 acres to
1.5 acres. The decreases in metal
concentrations in the MSD sludge since
initiation of the industrial monitoring
and control program have decreased the
ultimate amount of land needed for land
application (based on metal loadings).
possibly making land application an
economically feasible option for the
MSD to continue into the future.
The full report was submitted in
fulfillment of Grant Agreement No.
R805529-01 by Southwest Research
Institute on behalf of the Division of
Water Quality, Muncie Sanitary District,
under partial sponsorship of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.


Cr Cu Hg Ni
.0298 .062 <0003 .0134
.505 .680 <0003 .1682
.335 .450 .0023 .0952
9.03 20.6 .0066 4.50
7.73 17.0 .0053 5.04
.760 1.08 <0008 .2523
1.76 3.21 .0014 .6141
5.19 11.7 .0038 2.46
3.110 6.39 .0023 1.798
.0167 .0017 <0003 .0192
.0006 .0006 <0003 .0090
.0030 .0028 <0003 .0119
.0023 .0037 <0003 .0091
.0069 .016 <.0003 .0127
10.4 28.7 .0034 4.04


David W. Shultz is with the Southwest Research Institute.


United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
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Fees Paid
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