United States
                                  Environmental Protection
                                  Industrial Environmental Research
                                  Cincinnati OH 45268
                                  Research and Development
                                  EPA-600/S7-82-030  Oct. 1982
Project Summary
                                  Waste Heat Recovery
                                  Potential  in
                                  Selected  Industries
                                  S. R. Latour, J. G. Menningmann, and Benjamin L Blaney
                                   The  goal of the research project
                                  summarized herein is to establish the
                                  location, thermal quality, and quantity
                                  of  waste heat discharged to the
                                  environment by energy-intensive
                                  industries and emerging energy-
                                  conversion technologies.
                                   Among the industries studied are
                                  the eight which discharge the largest
                                  quantities of waste heat. Potential
                                  thermal pollution streams from the
                                  new energy conversion technologies
                                  are also discussed.
                                   Data  from this study will permit
                                  evaluation of various energy manage-
                                  ment techniques and identification of
                                  possible beneficial uses of waste heat.
                                   The principal goals of the EPA in this
                                  project are: decreased quantities of
                                  discharged pollutants as a result of
                                  decreasing fuel consumption; increased
                                  efficiency of energy utilization as a
                                  pollution control technique; and
                                  assuring that new pollutants are not
                                  generated by new waste heat recovery
                                    This Project Summary was developed
                                  by EPA's Industrial Environmental
                                  Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH,
                                  to announce key findings of the
                                  research project that is fully docu-
                                  mented in  a separate report of the
                                  same title (see Project Report ordering
                                  information at back).

                                    This study assesses the potential for
                                  energy recovery from selective industries
                                  (Table 1) and emerging energy-conver-
                                  sion technologies (Table  2). Data from
                                  this study can be used to evaluate
                                  various  heat-management techniques
                                  (Table 3).
                                    The principal goals of the EPA in this
                                  project  are:  decreased  quantities of
                                  discharged  pollutants as a result of
                                  decreasing fuel consumption; increased
                                  efficiency of energy utilization as a
                                  pollution control technique; andassuring
                                  that new pollutants are not generated
                                  by new waste heat recovery systems.
                                  Table 1.   Standard Industrial Classifications of Energy Intensive Industries

                                  SICtt      Classification                  SICtt     Classification
                                  2611     Pulp Mills                    3211
                                  2621     Paper Mills (ex. Bldg. Paper)      3221
                                  2631     Paperboard Mills               3229
                                  2812     Alkalies and Chlorines           3241
                                  2813     Industrial Gases               3274
                                  2819     Industrial Inorganic             3312
                                  2865     Cyclic Crudes & Intermediates     3321
                                  2869     Industrial Organic Chemicals      3331
                                  2873     Nitrogenous Fertilizers           3334
                                  2911     Petroleum Refineries
                                             Flat Glass
                                             Glass Containers
                                             Pressed and Blown Glass
                                             Cement Hydraulic
                                             Blast Furnace and Steel
                                             Grey Iron Foundries
                                             Primary Copper
                                             Primary Aluminum

Table 2.    Emerging Technologies for
           Energy Development
Coal Conversion

    Lurgi Gasifier
    Koppers-Totzek Gasifier
    Wellman-Galusha Gasifier
    Winkler Process
    COz Acceptor Process
    Sythane Process
    Low Btu Synthesis
    Bergius Process
    Fisher- Tropsch Process
    Coed Process
    H-Coal Process
Oil Shale Retorting
    Indirect heat transfer retorts
    Combustion zone retorts
    Externally heated gas/liquid retorts
    Externally heated solid retorts
Uranium Enrichment
    Paducah,  Kentucky
    Oak Ridge, Tennessee
    Portsmouth,  Ohio
  This study identified industries and
emerging technologies which offer the
greatest potential for discharging
substantial  quantities of waste heat to
the  environment.  For each  of the
industries,  a study was conducted to
document all waste-heat discharges to
the environment. The  major source of
data collected on flue gases was the
National Emissions Data System (NEDS)
Point Source Listings. These  data on
point sources of discharge were then
verified for each industrial classification
by discussion with various industry
officials and  by correlation with other
related studies conducted  both by the
Environmental Protection Agency and
the  Department of Energy. Data on
wastewater and non-contact cooling
waters containing significant quantities
of waste  heat were  also identified,
when possible, utilizing EPA develop-
ment documents for effluent limitations,
correspondence with industrial pollution
control officers, literature surveys, and
various United  States government-
sponsored  research and development
  The energy  intensive   industries
included in this study are presented in
Table 1.
  The emerging technologies for energy
development and the specific processes
reviewed in this report are presented in
Table 2.
Table3. Optimum Operating Temperature of Waste-Heat Recovery Processes
Temperature Range
High Medium
1 200F-20OOF 250 F- 1 200 F
(649C-W93C) (121C-649C)
 Radiation recuperator
 Convection recuperator
 Ceramic heat wheels
 Refractory regenerators
Metallic heat wheel
Passive gas to gas regenerator fair preheater)
Heat pipe exchanger
Finned tube heat exchanger (economizers)
Shell and tube heat exchangers
Waste heat boilers
Gas and vapor expanders
Organic Rankine cycle heat engine
 Heat pumps
  Several waste heat recovery technol-
ogies were also reviewed to identify
their potential for recovering waste heat
energy  from a  fluid  (i.e., liquid  or
gaseous) waste stream product,  or
byproduct, and returning it to a process
stream in such a manner that a net heat
energy transfer resulted in a credit to
the  overall energy balance of the
process. These processes and devices
are shown in Table 3.
  In the final project report each  of
these processes  is described, applica-
tions in industry  are  provided, and
limitations and/or specific advantages
for each technique are given.

Environmental Impacts of
Waste Heat
  The environmental  impacts which
may result from the discharge of  waste
heat to the environment may be sepa-
rated into two general categories:  1)
those impacts  resulting from the
release  to the  environment of the
various chemical and particulate pollu-
tants contained  in the waste heat
stream,  and 2) those impacts resulting
from the release  to the environment of
the heat energy contained in the  waste
heat stream.
  The environmental impacts resulting
from  the  release of  pollutants are
specific to the composition and volume
of each discharge. However, any  action
which results in an increase  in the
efficiency of energy utilization (whether
it  is  accomplished by waste heat
recovery or general conservation prac-
tices) may be  considered as a pollution
control alternative in that these actions
will result in a reduction  in fuel
consumption, and, generally, in  a
corresponding decrease in the quantity
of pollutants discharged.
  The greatest  potential impact  of
waste heat discharges  is to natural
bodies  of  water and  their aquatic
ecosystem. Although a large number of
studies  have been and are  being
conducted in attempts to further define
these cause and effect relationships,
considerable data are still lacking. Some
of the known and  reported  effects
associated with temperature increases
of natural waterways are: decreasing
gas  (oxygen) solubilities; changes in
species  diversity,  metabolic  rates,
reproductive  cycles,  digestive and
respiration  rates, and behavior  of the
aquatic organism; and increasing the
parasitic bacterial population.  All of
these have the potential for creating an
unbalanced aquatic ecosystem.

Major Project Results

Energy Intensive Industries
  The United States consumed approxi-
mately 73 quadrillion Btu (quads) (77
exajoules) of fuels in 1977. Slightly over
21.4 quads (25.4 exajoules) was used
either directly or indirectly (e.g. through
electricity consumption) by the industrial
sector alone. Approximately 6.5% of the
Nation's purchased energy in 1977 was
discharged as waste heat to the en-
vironment by  the eight  most energy
intensive industries. Approximately
four  percent  was discharged as flue
gases, and two percent was discharged
as identified  wastewater and cooling
water discharges.
  Of the industrial  sector's fuel con-
sumption, approximately 37% was
discharged to the environment as waste
heat by major energy-intensive  indus-
tries included in this study. Flue gases
accounted for about 23%, and identified
wastewaters  and   cooling  waters
accounted for about 14%.
  This wasted heat is not only costly for
industry and hence the consumer, but it,
is becoming increasingly apparent that
thermal  pollution affects climatic and
biotic conditions. In light of the present
energy shortage and  environmental
problems faced today, it is apparent that

 waste heat should be minimized through
 process design and/or recovery tech-
   Figure 1 presents the annual waste
 heat  discharged by flue gases for the
 major energy intensive  industries  in
 1977. Petroleum Refining, SIC 2911,
 discharged the largest quantity of flue
 gas waste  heat  to the  environment.
 Steel Mills,  SIC 3312, was the second
 largest  annual discharger of flue gas
 waste heat. These two together repre-
 sent  approximately 50%  of the total
 annual flue  gas waste heat discharged
 by the nineteen SIC groups included in
 this study.
   Figure 2 presents the percentage of
 the annual  waste heat discharged  by
 flue gases at temperatures above 350F
 (177C). The heat content of the waste
 heat  discharges above 350 F (177C),
 were considered "Btu Available" due to
 their greater  potential  for  energy
 recovery via conventional heat exchanger
   Figure  3  presents  the percent  of
 energy consumed (purchased fuels and
 electricity) discharged as flue gas waste
 heat by each SIC. As the figure shows,
 Flat Glass, SIC 3211, discharged more
 then  75% of the energy content of  its
 purchased fuels and electricity as flue
 gas waste  heat. Six  industries: Flat
 Glass, Petroleum Refineries, Hydraulic
 Cement, Blast Furnaces and Steel Mills,
 Primary Copper, and Lime, all discharged
 more  than 50% of their purchased fuels
 and electricity as flue gas waste heat.
 Only three industries, Paperboard Mills,
 Cyclic Crudes  and Intermediates, and
 Nitrogenous Fertilizers, discharged less
 than  10% of their purchased fuels and
 electrical energy as flue gas waste heat.
  The figure also indicates that the Flat
 Glass Industry,  SIC  3211,  has the
 greatest percent of its flue gas waste
 heat discharged at temperatures greater
 than 350F  (177C). Only three indus-
 tries.  Flat Glass SIC 3211, Petroleum
 Refining SIC 2911, and Glass Containers
 SIC 3221, discharge more than one half
 of their flue gas waste  heat at tempera-
 tures  greater than 350F  (177C). The
 Paper and Allied  Products (i.e., SIC
 2611, 2621, 2631) discharged greater
than 80% of their waste heat as low
 grade waste heat at temperatures less
  The percentages presented in Figure
 3 may be somewhat conservative since
the data used  in  this  analysis do not
 include wastewater and cooling water
discharges, nor do they account for the
 relative feedstock energy content.
       0.1 .
            ~  *  *  CM  PJ  o>  10
            ~.  CM  co  *-*-  to  10  rs  *- -  CM  CM
            (O   *-
                                            C\|    V-  TJ.
                                            "  CM  co  co
                                            co  co  co  co
                                            co  co  co  co
Figure 1.  Annual waste heat discharged (flue gases only) by SIC numbers. (1977).
These figures  are discussed in the
individual industry evaluations contained
in the complete report.
  Figure 4 presents the annual flue gas
waste heat discharged in the 10 EPA
Regions. These data reflect the regional
potentials for commercial use of low-
grade waste heat in the fields of space
heating, soil warming, agriculture, and
other applications, as well as for
industrial recycling of high-grade waste
                        EPA  Regions 3,  5, and  6 have the
                      largest quantities of flue gas waste heat
                      discharged to the environment. Region
                      5 has the greatest quantity of flue gas
                      waste heat discharged. This waste heat
                      is discharged  primarily by the  Steel,
                      Petroleum, and the Organic Chemicals
                      Industries. Waste heat discharges in
                      Region 5 were due primarily to waste
                      heat discharged by Petroleum, Organic
                      Chemicals, Cement, Inorganic Chemicals
                      and  Papermills. The  waste  heat in

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S. R.  Latour and J. G. Menningmann  are  with DSS Engineers.  Inc., Ft.
  Lauderdale, FL 33313; Benjamin L. Blaney (also the EPA Project Officer, see
  below) is with the Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Cincinnati,
  OH 45268.
The complete report, entitled "Waste Heat Recovery Potential  in Selected
  Industries," (Order No. PB 82-259 276; Cost: $22.50, subject to change) will
  be available only from:
        National Technical Information Service
        5285 Port Royal Road
        Springfield, VA22161
        Telephone: 703-487-4650
The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
        Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        Cincinnati, OH 45268
                                                                      &U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1982/659-095/538

United States
Environmental Protection
Center for Environmental Research
Cincinnati OH 45268
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