United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Industrial Environmental
Research Laboratory
Research Triangle Park NC 27711
Research and Development
EPA-600/S7-83-060  Jan. 1984
Project  Summary
Analysis  of  Residential
Coal  Stove  Emissions
Marcus Cooke, Warren E. Bresler, Robert B. Iden, Timothy L. Hayes, and
Sharron E. Rogers
  The  report  provides  combustion
conditions  and   compound-specific
organic analyses on  residential  coal
stoves burning both  bituminous and
anthracite fuels. A Modified Method 5
collection system, evacuated  glass
bulbs,  and gravimetric fuel depletion
measurements were  used to sample
effluents and gauge burn rates.  One
stove tested was a residential appliance
primarily   designed  for wood
combustion  then  modified  by the
manufacturer for coal use. The report
describes combustion  parameters,
concentrations  of volatile  organic
constituents, and measured concentra-
tions of  several polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons.
  This Project Summary was developed
by  EPA's  Industrial  Environmental
Research  Laboratory. Research
Triangle  Park, NC, to announce key
findings of the research project that is
fully documented in a separate report of
the same title (see Project Report order-
ing information at back).

Introduction
  This study was a cooperative program
with  the  Vermont Agency of Environ-
mental Conservation. Some interest has
been shown in the Northeastern United
States about  the effects  of   coal
combustion  in  residential appliances,
especially stoves designed to use wood
then  retrofitted for coal. These stoves
may not contain the proper engineering
criteria for clean operation when burning
coal fuel,  especially Eastern bituminous
coal. The State of Vermont has instituted
a detailed residential research program to
evaluate impacts of residential coal com-
bustion. Table 1  summarizes the tests
conducted.
Table 1.   Stove Tests

     Unit
      Fuel
Converted Coal/
 Wood Stove How
 burn rate)

Residential Coal
 Stove (high burn
 rate)

Residential Coal
 Stove (low burn
 rate)
Bituminous  Anthracite
Bituminous  Anthracite
Bituminous  Anthracite
  A primary goal of this study was to
investigate the levels of air pollutants and
organic  constituents  found in  small
residential  coal-fired  stoves  when
operated in a manner characteristic of
home  heating.  The two  stoves
investigated in  this program operated
from 22,000 to 57,000 Btu/hr (23 to 60
MJ/hr) and are  characteristic of small
hand-stoked stoves used in the  United
States for residential space heating. One
stove, designed by the manufacturer for
coal combustion, was  operated at a high
burn rate and in an  air-starved  mode
which generated a low  burn rate. The
second stove, primarily designed  for
wood combustion, had been modified by
the manufacturer to  accomodate coal.
Each stove was  tested with anthracite
and  bituminous  coal to evaluate the
effect of the two  fuels on emissions.
  Analyses included  fixed combustion
gases, condensible organics, Method 5
particulates, principal  volatile compound
screening  by gas mass  spectrometry

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(CMS), and polynuclear aromatic hydro-
carbon (PAH) analysis by high resolution
gas chromatography/mass spectrometi#
(GC/MS).
  The stove  operating data in Table  2
shows that burn rates varied between 0.6

Table 2.    Stove and Sampling Parameters
and  1.6 kg/hr, and that typical  gas
discharge volumes  varied  between 44
and  80 ma. Volatile ergariics analysis
revealed  the   presence  of  methane,
ethane, sulfur dioxide,  carbonyl sulfide,
and  nitrogen oxides in anthracite  and
bituminous tests. PAH compounds were
measured by  analysis of  18 indicator
compounds. Table 3 shows the results for
benzo(a)pyrene  expressed  in   several
combustion  related units.
High, Burn flate
Stove Parameter
Fuel per Test, kg lib)
Burn Rate, kg/hr (Ib/hr)*
Mean Stack Temperature, C
(F)"
Sampling Time, min
Stack Water, percent
Stack Oxygen, percent^
Stack Carbon Dioxide,
percent!
Stack Carbon Monoxide,
percent^
Method 5 Volume (dry).
SCM (SCF>
Total Stack Discharge, Q.
SCM (SCF)
Bituminous
Coal Stove
2.5 (5.6)
1.2 (2.6)

270 (520)
120
1.8
13

6

0.6

1.8 (64)

64 (2,300)
Anthracite
Coal Stove
2.8 (6.2)
1.9(3.1)

250 (480)
120
3.5
10

10

0.6

1.9 (68)

58 (2.050)
Bituminous
Coal Stove
1.7 (3.8)
0.8 (1.7)

220 (420)
150
1.8
17

4

0.2

2.0 (70)

72 (2,500)
Low Burn Rate
Anthracite
Coal Stove
1.3 (2.9)
0.7 (1.5)

140 (278)
155
1.6
17

3

0.0

2.4 (85)

80 (2,800)
Bituminous Modi-
fied Wood Stove
2.4 (5.4)
1.2 (2.6)

160 (315)
155
1.9
14

6

0.4

2.3(81)

67 (2.400)
Anthracite Modi-
fied Wood Stove
1.7(3.7)
0.9 (1.8)

140(280)
155
2.3
13

7

0.4

2.5 (87)

44 (1,600)
* Averaged over total test.
**At Method 5 probe.
t Approximate, values determined by ORSAT technique.
Table 3.   Benzo(a)pyrene Concentrations in Vermont Coal Stove Study

                                 High Burn Rate
                                        Low Burn Rate
Emission
Gaseous Emission. ug/SCM
Fuel Based Emission,
ppb-dry-ash free
Thermal Based Emission. ng/J
Thermal Input to Furnace,
Btu/hr (MJ/hr)
Bituminous
Coal Stove
110
2800
8.1x10*
4.2x10* (44)
Anthracite
Coal Stove
0.1
3
7.3x10 5
4.7x10" (50)
Bituminous
Coal Stove
52
1700
5.0x10*
2.2x10" (23)
Anthracite
Coal Stove
0.08
5
1.5x10*
1 7x10* (18)
Bituminous Modi-
fied Wood Stove
120
3400
9.8x10-*
3.0x10* (32)
Anthracite Modi-
fied Wood Stove
0.17
4
1.2x10*
2.1x10* (22)
   M. Cooke, W. E. Bresler, ft. B. Iden. and T. L. Hayes are with Battelle-Columbus
     Laboratories, Columbus, OH 43201; C. R. Sanborn is with the State of Vermont,
     Agency of Environmental Conservation, Montpelier, VT 05602.
   Michael C.  Osborne is the EPA Project Officer (see below).
   The complete report,  entitled "Analysis of  Residential Coal Stove Emissions,"
     (Order No. PB 84-130 442; Cost: $8.50, subject to change) will be available only
     from:
          National Technical Information Service
          5285 Port Royal Road
          Springfield, VA 22161
           Telephone: 703-487-4650
   The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at:
          Industrial Environmental Research  Laboratory
          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
          Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                                                -US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1984-759-015/7284

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