SUMMARY AND POLLUTION ABATEMENT
RECOMMENDATIONS
                  FOR THE
              UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER
              AND MAJOR TRIBUTARIES
  FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMIN.
  TWIN CITIES-UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER PROJECT

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            Dirties Shores
           - Of Wisconsin
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           Mississippi Pollution Control s"'* ^ ^

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                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                      Page

Introduction                                                              1

Summary of Water Uses                                                     2

Summary of Waste Sources                                                  7

Summary of Water Quality and Interferences with Water Uses                     13

Observations                                                            21

Conclusions                                                             23

Recommendations                                                         26

Schedule for Remedial Program                                             34

Appendix                                                               35
                         LIST OF FIGURES
No.                                                               Follows Page

  1     Map of Project Study Area                                         ii

 2-7    Summary of Water Uses                                             2

  8     Location of Waste Sources Investigated                               7

  9     Most Significant Contributors of BOD
          During 1964-1965                                                7
 10     Most Significant Contributors of Suspended
          Solids During 1964-1965                                          7

 11     Most Significant Contributors of Coliform
          Bacteria During 1964-1965                                        7

 12     Typical Water Quality Conditions During Low                         14
          Flow Periods in 1964-1965'

13-18    River Reaches Unsuitable for Various Water Uses                     14

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   Before the turn of the century the rivers served
as an important element in the initial development
of the present
seven - county
metropolitan
area
                    Today a combined population of
                over 1.5 million -- encompassing the
               river systems -- share in the inherited
               diverse water interests and associated
               problems

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               MINNEAPOLIS
                  LOCK a DA
                  NUMBER I
                        MSSD  Minneapolis- St. Paul Sanitary District
FIGURE  I - For the  development of  pollution abatement  recommendations
   investigations  were conducted  on water quality, sources and quantities
   of wastes, and  the  extent  of pollution  in 270 miles of  river.

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                           INTRODUCTION
    The investigation of water pollution along the
Upper Mississippi River and its major tributaries,
a summary of which is presented herein, was con-
ducted  by  the  Twin  Cities-Upper  Mississippi
River Project of  the Federal Water Pollution Con-
trol  Administration. The  investigation was made
under the authority of Section 10 (d) (1)  of the
Federal Water  Pollution Control Act  as  amended
(33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.) and at the request of the
conferees of the Federal-State conference on water
pollution held in St. Paul, Minnesota on February
7 and 8, 1964. The Conference, in turn, was held
in response to a  joint request from the Governors
of Minnesota and Wisconsin to abate  pollution in
the area and was called  by the Secretary  of the
Department  of Health,  Education,  and  Welfare.

    The  investigation  was  conducted  to  gather
information on  water  quality, sources  and quanti-
ties of wastes, the extent of pollution, and  neces-
sary abatement  measures  in the following  river
reaches: Upper Mississippi River from the Rum
River  at  Anoka,  107  miles downstream  to  the
outlet  of Lake  Pepin;  lower  110  miles  of the
Minnesota River;  and the  lower 52 miles  of the
St. Croix River (see Figure 1).

    Surveys  of  municipal  and  industrial  waste
sources  were  joint  efforts  of the Project,  the
appropriate  State  regulatory  agencies,  and  in
many  instances  the  municipality  or industry in-
volved.

    The summary of  the 1st session  of the  Con-
ference  indicated that the  investigations  would
be carried out in  conjunction with both states  and
agencies. To  this end, we are most appreciative
of the cooperative attitude exhibited by  all with
whom  the  Project dealt.  Participating agencies
included the staffs of Minnesota's  Department of
Health  and  Department of  Conservation;  Wiscon-
sin's  Department  of  Resource Development  and
Department of Conservation, as well as many other
federal, municipal, and private organizations.

    All desired information on waste  sources  and
stream  quality, collected  over the years  by the
Minnesota  Department of  Health,  Wisconsin  De-
partment of Health, and the Minneapolis-St. Paul
Sanitary  District Sewage  Treatment Plant (MSSD)
was   made  available  to  the  project  by these
agencies.

    Laboratory  procedures  were  performed in  ac-
cordance with "Standard Methods for the Examina-
nation of Water and Wastewater, Eleventh Edition".
Any  deviations were  based  on proven  research
described in the literature. All calculations (ex-
cept those on flow frequencies) were based on data
collected  during the  survey period  (June  1964 —
October  1965)  and   reflect conditions resulting
from  waste  loadings being  discharged during that
period.

    The main body of this  report contains a more
detailed description and discussion  of all Project
findings  along  with appropriate maps, figures  and
tables.  The information  provided  in the Summary
and Conclusions which follow, is a condensation
of all the information contained  in  the  main body
of this report.

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                           SUMMARY OF
                            WATER  USES
    Water uses in  practice along the Mississippi,
and  St. Croix Rivers are summarized below and
illustrated in Figures 2 through 7.
POTABLE WATER SUPPLY
     Minneapolis and St. Paul use the Mississippi
System  as a  source of potable  water  supply for
themselves and  many of the  suburbs. Other com-
munities  depend on ground  water  sources. The
water intakes for  Minneapolis and  St. Paul, lo-
cated just upstream from  Minneapolis, withdraw
an  average of 103  million  gallons per day (mgd)
and serve approximately 873,000 people.
 A  component  of  Minneapolis'  water  treatment
 plants,  located on  the Mississippi upstream from
 the city.
NONPOTABLE INDUSTRIAL

PROCESS WATER
    Significant amounts  of  untreated  water  from
the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers are used  by
four industries in  their processes at seven loca-
tions  within the study area. No use is made of the
St. Croix River for this purpose.
     On the Mississippi  River, barge and  gravel
 washing is carried  out  at  two locations, each.
 Both activities are of a seasonal nature, operating
 from  April through  October. Barge washing, con-
 ducted  near downtown  St. Paul (river miles 840.4
 and 837.3), requires  about  2  million gallons per
 operating   season.  Gravel  washing  is  performed
 about  6  miles  farther  downstream  (river miles
 826.5 and  825.0) and requires  650  million gallons
 of water per operating season.

     On the Minnesota River,  sugar beet washing
 and fluming is conducted during the  winter (4-month
 period)  near Chaska.  Barge  washing  is conducted
 at two locations (river miles 13.2 and 8.0) between
 April and November  of each year.  The former op-
 eration  requires  about  700  million  gallons  per
 season  and the latter ones require about 800 thou-
 sand gallons per season.
COOLING WATER

    One   processing  industry  and  five  steam-
generating  plants  utilize Mississippi  and  Minne-
sota River  waters for cooling purposes. No use is
presently being made of the St. Croix River for thr
purpose.

    The Mississippi River serves  the one proces-
sing industry located at South St. Paul and three
of the steam-electric generating  plants,  located in
Minneapolis,  St.  Paul,  and  Red Wing. Together,
they use cooling water at a  maximum rate of 1,100
mgd.

    The Minnesota River serves two of the steam-
electric  generating  plants,  located  near Mankato
and  Bloomington.  They use  cooling water at a
maximum rate of 405  mgd.

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   FIGURE 2-Potable water supply and
      all  nonpotable industrial uses
                                                              FIGURE 3-Irrigation or stock watering
FIGURE 4 - Whole body contact water sports
   (eg  swimming and water skiing)
FIGURE 5 - Limited body contact water sports
   te g boating and fishing).
     FIGURE 6-Commercial shipping
  FIGURE 7 - Commercial fishing  and
     maintenance of aquatic  life
            LEGEND        Designates   where  each use   is practiced   extensively.
              FIGURES   2-7.    SUMMARY   OF  WATER  USES.

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Northern States Power Co. Riverside steam-electric
generating  plant, located on Mississippi River in
Minneapolis.

HYDROELECTRIC  POWER
    There  are  five  hydroelectric  plants  within
the study area and all utilize the Mississippi River.
One is  located  10 miles above  Minneapolis  and
the other four are  located  in Minneapolis at St.
Anthony Falls and Lock & Dam No. 1.

    The total capacity of these  plants is  42,260
KW, 3.2  percent of the total steam-electric power
plant capacity in the study area.
                                                         IRRIGATION  AND
                                                         STOCKWATERING
                                                             Very  little  use  is  made  of the Mississippi
                                                         River  system  for  irrigation  and stock-watering.

                                                             Permits for withdrawal of irrigation water have
                                                         been issued to persons along the Mississippi River
                                                         above Minneapolis and near North Lake in Pool No.
                                                         3;  along the Minnesota River at Jordan; and along
                                                         the St. Croix River just above Prescott. There may
                                                         also be  some use for  irrigation  by  truck farmers
                                                         along  the  north bank of the Mississippi River just
                                                         above Lock & Dam No.  2 and along  the lower 35
                                                         miles  of the Minnesota River.

                                                             Very  limited use  is made  of the  rivers  for
                                                         stockwatering. Small numbers of cattle have been
                                                         seen drinking from the Mississippi River just above
                                                         Lock  &  Dam  No. 2 and from the Minnesota River
                                                         above Chaska.
St.  Anthony Falls at Minneapolis, the site of three
hydroelectric plants.
COMMERCIAL SHIPPING
    Although river traffic in the Twin  Cities area
is significant, it  is less than  on the remainder of
the Mississippi River. During  1964 over five  and
one-half  million tons of materials  were received
and shipped  at the  ports of Minneapolis and St.
Paul.  In  this same year there  were  1,556 commer-
cial  lockages made  through Lock &  Dam  No. 2.
Docking  facilities extend upstream  as far  as  the
northern  city limit of Minneapolis where  the nine-
foot channel ends.

    The  shipping channel extends upstream on the
Minnesota  River  as  far as Shakopee  (river mile
25.1). During 1963 over two and one-quarter  million
tons of materials were received and shipped along
this reach.

    Commercial shipping extends upstream  on the
St. Croix River as far as Stillwater (river mile 23.3).
In comparison to the Mississippi and  Minnesota
Rivers, barge traffic on the St. Croix River  is very
light.

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       Barge traffic on Mississippi River.
    Receipts consist  generally of  only two prod-
ucts, coal and superphosphate. Of the 30,567 tons
of materials  received in 1964, 17,939 tons  were
coal. Coal  receipts are  expected to increase sig-
nificantly  after  the  Allen  S.  King  Power Plant
becomes operational.
COMMERCIAL FISHING

    Commercial  fishing is  practiced on the Mis-
sissippi River in and below Pool No. 2  and on the
lower 23 miles of the  St. Croix River,  known as
Lake  St. Croix.  The major  source  of fish  in  this
area,  however, has always  been Lake Pepin in
Pool No. 4. Fish caught  commercially in Pools 3
and  4  during  1964 were valued  at $91,320.  No
figures were  available  for catches in Pool No. 2
that year. The 1964 catch in Lake St. Croix totaled
511,586 pounds and was valued at $15,750.  The
predominant species  of fish caught commercially
are carp, buffalo, catfish and drum.
                                                        SWIMMING AND

                                                        WATER SKIING

                                                            Swimming  is  practiced  throughout the reach
                                                        below Red Wing (Lake Pepin) and  the  lower  St.
                                                        Croix River from beaches as well as boats. There
                                                        are eight  beaches along Lake Pepin  and seven
                                                        beaches on the St. Croix River, however, which
                                                        receive  heaviest  use.  Approximately 650 people
                                                        can normally be found along each of  the two rivers
                                                        using these beaches  on a  typical  warm, sunny
                                                        weekend day.
Commercial fishing in the north end ot Lake Pepin.
Bathing beach on St.  Croix  River  near  its mouth
at Prescott, Wise.

    Water skiing is generally  practiced  in  four
areas, two on the Mississippi River and two on the
St.  Croix River. On the Mississippi  River it is
practiced near Anoka at the upper end of the study
area and  near Red Wing at the lower end. As many
as  75  people make use  of  these  areas on good
days. Limited skiing is  also practiced near St.
Paul  Park,  seven  miles  below MSSD. The two
areas on  the  St. Croix River receiving heaviest
use  by water  skiers are  near Hudson  (river  mile
17.0) and Afton (river mile 11.0).  Approximately
150 people make use of these areas on  good days.
PLEASURE BOATING

    Pleasure boating is practiced  from  April  to
September throughout all three of the major streams
under  consideration.  Greatest  use, however,  is
made  of the St.  Croix River below Stillwater, and
the Mississippi  River below  Lock &  Dam  No.  2.

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Pleasure boating  on Mississippi River below its
confluence with the St. Croix River.

SPORT FISHING

    Fishing is an important summer,  as  well  as
winter, recreational activity in the area under con-
sideration. The St. Croix River and the  Mississippi
River below its confluence with  the St. Croix re-
ceive the greatest use although fishing  is practiced
to some extent over the entire area.

ESTHETIC ENJOYMENT

    The scenic beauty  afforded  by the streams in
this  area has resulted in the location  of about 30
parks along their banks.  The two parks receiving
greatest  use are  the Interstate and  O'Brien State
Parks, both located  on  the  St.  Croix  River. The
former is located on both sides  of the river near
Taylors Falls  and St. Croix Falls.  The latter is
situated  on the Minnesota shore midway between
Taylors Falls and Stillwater. A large river oriented
park is proposed for  the area  adjacent to the  mouth
of the Minnesota River.

    In addition, there are many  scenic highways
that  border  on the  streams under consideration.
Plans are being developed to construct a national
parkway  following the  course of the  Mississippi
River on both sides from Canada to  the  Gulf of
Mexico.

MAINTENANCE OF   HABITAT  FOR

AQUATIC LIFE  AND  WATERFOWL

    Fish can  be  found throughout the streams in
the study area in varying  numbers  and species.
                                                        Ducks, white egrets, and herons can also be found
                                                        along many reaches of the three rivers. The Missis-
                                                        sippi  River serves  as  a  major  artery in the conti-
                                                        nental  system  of flyways serving wildfowl migra-
                                                        tions. Pools 2, 3,  and 4 are spring and fall con-
                                                        centration  areas  for several species of duck. As
                                                        many as 10,000 ducks  at a time have been seen in
                                                        the  Spring Lake  area  (immediately  above  Lock &
                                                        Dam  No. 2).
Heron  in  flight along  Mississippi  River  above
Lake Pepin.

Mallard ducks  along Mississippi River below Red
Wing, Minnesota.

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WASTE DISPOSAL
    Fifty-nine  significant  waste water producers
utilize the major streams within the study area for
disposal  purposes.  Their  discharges  total  1,800
(mgd).  The  steam-electric  generating plants con-
tribute 85 percent of this  amount. Municipalities
and other industries contribute 12 and 3 percent,
respectively. In addition to the above contributors
there are more than 100 combined and storm sewer
outfalls which  discharge during  and immediately
after rains.  Approximately 80 of these are  located
in Minneapolis and St. Paul.

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            SUMMARY  OF  WASTE  SOURCES
GENERAL

    Sewage  and other  wastes contain  many con-
stituents which  affect  water quality  in  different
manners  and restrict the  water's  use.  Floating
materials such as grease, oils and solids lower thet
esthetic quality of a  body of water, making it less
attractive for all  uses. Oxygen consuming materials
(measured by  5-day (20°C)  BOD) can  limit  or
destroy fish, fish food organisms, and other desira-
ble aquatic  life  by reducing the  dissolved oxygen
concentration in  the  water. Complete depletion  of
dissolved  oxygen results  in the  generation  of
offensive odors.  Suspended solids,  including silt
from land erosion, create turbidity which  not only
makes the waterless suitable as a source of supply
and for recreational uses, but can also be damaging
to fish.  Larger suspended solids eventually settle
out, forming  a  sludge blanket on the bottom. This
sludge blanket  smothers  fish food organisms and
may  affect  navigation.  Nitrogen,  phosphorus, and
heat promote the growth  of algae  (simple plants,
many  microscopic  in size)  which, in turn,  create
nuisance  conditions  affecting   water  supplies,
recreational  uses, and esthetic quality. Excessive
•immonia  nitrogen concentrations  affect fish life.
Some  chemicals,  such  as  phenols,  impart un-
desirable tastes and odors to the water and the
flesh  of fish.  Some  of the  intestinal bacteria,
present in sewage in  astronomical numbers, may be
pathogens which  can reinfect man.

    The location of all  waste  sources investigated
are shown in Figure 8. The most significant sources
and the amounts of materials discharged  by them
are depicted  in Figures 9, 10, and 11.
FEDERAL  INSTALLATIONS

    Twelve   Federal  installations   within  the
Project's study area watershed handle their  own
waste  disposal.  Others  discharge to  municipal
sewerage systems. Table  1  (see  Appendix)  gives
information on the type  of treatment and place  of
final disposal of wastes  from  each of these  12
installations.

    None  have  any  measurable  effect  on  water
quality in  the portions of rivers under  study. One,
however, the 934th Troop  Group  Officers'  Club,
has unsatisfactory waste treatment facilities which
discharge effluent to a marsh area adjacent to the
Minnesota  River. These wastes present a potential
health  hazard  to  water users  along   the  lower
Minnesota River.
MUNICIPAL SOURCES

    MiSSiSSippi River   There  were  five
primary and  seven secondary  municipal  sewage
treatment plants discharging 208 mgd of wastes to
the Mississippi River  investigated. The  primary
plants  are  those  operated  by  MSSD,  Hastings,
Prescott,  Lake  City,  and  Pepin.  The  secondary
plants are those operated by Anoka, South St. Paul,
Newport, Inver Grove, St. Paul Park, Cottage Grove,
and Red Wing.

At the time of the survey these sources contributed
the following loadings of constituents:

    1.  Oxygen-consuming wastes equivalent to raw
       sewage from a population of 1,800,000.

    2.  Coliform bacteria equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of 1,200,000.

    3.  Suspended solids equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of 920,000.

    4.  Approximately 42,000 pounds  of organic and
       ammonia nitrogen compounds per day.

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                                  k*ST. CROIX FALLS
                                   SC 50.0
                     Industrial waste
                     Sewage treatment plant
                     Power plant
                     Water treatment plant
                     Untreated  domestic waste
                     Federal installations (discharging to surface waters)
                                                  SCALE
                                                05
                                                i     i
15  Miles
FIGURE  8-Location of  waste sources  investigated

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                  LEGEND

                  ^  5-Day BOD
                  STP Sewage Treatment Plant
      NOTE-- One population equivalent equals 0.17 pounds 5-day BOD.
  FIGURE  9-Most significant  con  ributors  of BOD during  1964-1965.

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     FIGURE 10-Most significant  contributors ot  Suspended  Solids
         during  1964-1965.

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    5. Approximately  24,000 po   ds of phosphates
       per day.

    6. Approximately  850  pounds  of phenols  per
       day.

    The MSSD is the  largest plant  and contributes
91 percent  of  the municipal wastes volume. Of the
total municipal contribution, MSSD's waste effluent
contained  88   percent  of  the  oxygen consuming
materials; 95  percent of the  coliforms; 92 percent
of the  suspended solids; 85 percent of the organic
nitrogen, ammonia  nitrogen,  and phosphates;  and
essentially 100 percent of the phenols.
Minneapolis-St.  Paul  Sanitary  District  sewage
treatment  plant discharging  to Mississippi  River
downstream  from  St.   Paul,  Minnesota  (before
addition of secondary unit).

    The South  St.  Paul sewage treatment  plant
(SSP) is the second largest one  and  contributes 7
per cent of the municipal wastes volume.  Of the
total  municipal  contribution,  this   source  dis-
charged  11  percent  of the  oxygen consuming
materials, 2 percent of the coliforms,  6 percent of
the suspended  solids,  12 percent of the organic
and  ammonia  nitrogen,  and  9  percent  of  the
phosphates.
South St.  Paul sewage  treatment plant  discharging
to Mississippi River.
    The other 10 plants contributed the remaining
2 percent of the municipal wastes volume and from
1 to 6 percent of the various  constituents discussed
above.

    Table 2 (see Appendix)summarizes the informa-
tion obtained on the characteristics of wastes from
all municipal sewage treatment plants investigated.
Loading rates of the various constituents discharged
from each  plant to the river are summarized in
Table 3 (see Appendix).

MinneSOta  River      There   were  seven
communities  and a Masonic  home discharging to
the Minnesota River within the study area. Two of
the communities  (Mankato  and Shakopee) and the
Masonic home provide primary treatment. Only one,
the City of Henderson, is  without any  treatment
facilities. The remaining four communities (Chaska,
Savage,  Burnsville,  and  Cedar  Grove)  provide
secondary  treatment.  At the  time of the  survey,
these sources  contributed  the following  loadings
of constituents:

    1. Oxygen consuming wastes equivalent to raw
       sewage from a  population of 24,600.

    2. Coliform  bacteria equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of 12,500.

    3. Suspended solids equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of 19,300.

    4. Approximately  850  pounds  of organic  and
       ammonia  nitrogen per day.

    5. Approximately   550   pounds of  phosphates
       per  day.

    The Mankato sewage  treatment plant is the
largest  one on the Minnesota River and contributes
4.5 mgd, about  74 percent  of the total  municipal
wastes  volume. Of the total municipal contribution,
Mankato's  waste effluent contained  85  percent of
the oxygen  consuming materials; 54 percent of the
coliforms;  69  percent of the suspended solids, 69
percent of  the nitrogenous  compounds;  and 49  per-
cent of  the phosphates.

     The second largest municipal  contributor of
oxygen  consuming wastes  and coliforms  was Shak-
opee, which contributed 7 and 24 percent of the to-
tals,  respectively.  The remaining  plants discharge
much smaller quantities of wastes.  Additional in-
formation  on  municipal waste  characteristics  and
stream  loading  rates  from  these plants is summar-
ized in  Tables 2 and 3.

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St.  CrOJX River        Six communities dis-
charge  wastes to the St.  Croix River within the
study area. Two (Osceola and  Stillwater) provide
primary  treatment  and the  remainder (St.  Croix
Falls, Taylor Falls, Bayport, and Hudson) provide
secondary  treatment.  At  the time of the survey,
these sources  contributed the  following loadings
of constituents:

     1. Oxygen consuming wastes equivalent to raw
       sewage from a population of 940.

     2. Coliform  bacteria equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of 1,600.

     3. Suspended solids equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of 700.

     4. Approximately  400  pounds of  organic  and
       ammonia nitrogen per day.

     5. Approximately  500 pounds of phosphates
       per  day.

     The  Stillwater,   Minnesota  primary  sewage
treatment plant is the  largest single contributor on
the St.  Croix  River. It discharges 1.8 mgd,  about
58  percent of the total municipal wastes  volume.
Of  the  municipal  contribution,  Stillwater's  waste
effluent  contained  78  percent of  the  oxygen con-
suming  materials;  54 percent of the coliforms;  75
percent  of  the suspended  solids; 57  percent  of the
nitrogenous  compounds;  and 54 percent of  the
phosphates.

     The remaining  five plants are much smaller in
capacity, receiving  less  than 0.6 mgd each.  Ad-
ditional  information  on municipal waste character-
istics and stream loading rates from these plants is
summarized in Tables 2 and 3.
INDUSTRIAL  SOURCES

MiSSiSSippi  River.  .     Fourteen  manu-
facturing and  processing plants, two  water treat-
ment plants, three steam-electric generating plants,
and two barge washing facilities were  investigated
on  the Mississippi  River.  The  fourteen  manu-
facturing and processing  plants  referred  to  are
Swift & Co., Union Stockyards,  Armour & Company,
King  Packing  Co.,  Northwestern  Refining  Co.,
J. L. Shiely Co., General Dynamics  Liquid Car-
bonics Division,  St. Paul  Ammonia Products Co.,
Great  Northern  Oil  Co.,  Northwest  Cooperative
 Mills, Minnesota  Mining  and Manufacturing Co.,
 H.  D. Hudson  Manufacturing Co., Foot  Tanning
 Co., and Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. The two water
 treatment plants investigated are  owned and  oper-
 ated by the City of Minneapolis. The  three steam-
 electric  generating plants (Riverside,  Highbridge,
 and  Red  Wing) are owned  and  operated   by the
 Northern States Power Co.

     The barge washing facilities investigated were
 those  of  the  Minnesota Harbor Service and  Twin
 City Shipyard. These industrial sources, excluding
 the three electric  plants,  discharge wastes at the
 rate  of  about 35 mgd  to the river.   The steam-
 electric  plants  utilize as much as 1,095  mgd  of
 river  water   for  cooling purposes,  returning  it
 directly to river after use. These sources, together
 contributed the following loadings  of constituents:

     1. Oxygen consuming wastes equivalent to raw
       sewage from a population of 35,000.

     2. Coliform bacteria equivalent to  raw  sewage
       from a  population of 170.

     3. Suspended  solids equivalent to  raw  sewage
       from a  population of 70,000.
Northwestern Refining Co. with treatment facilities
in foreground discharging to  the Mississippi River
at St. Paul Park, Minnesota.
     4. Approximately 4,500 pounds of organic and
        ammonia nitrogen compounds per day.

     5. Approximately 2,500 pounds  of phosphates
        per day.

     6. Approximately 40 pounds of phenols per day.

     7. Approximately 600  pounds of  fluoride per
        day.

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    8. Approximately 160  billion British  Thermal
       Units (BTU) of  heat  per  day  (when steam-
       electric plants are operating at  full capacity).

    Table 4 (see Appendix) summarizes the informa-
tion obtained on the characteristics of wastes from
all  industries investigated.  Loading rates of the
various constituents discharged to  the  river are
summarized in Table 5 (see Appendix).

MinneSOta  River.      Eleven manufactur-
ing  and  processing  plants,  two  steam-electric
generating  plants, and two  barge cleaning facilities
were  investigated on  the Minnesota River.  The
eleven  manufacturing  and processing  plants  inr
vestigated  were the North Star Concrete Co., Archer
Daniels Midland  Co., Blue  Cross  Rendering Co.,
Green Giant Co.,  Minnesota Valley Milk Processing
Assoc., American Crystal Sugar Co.,  M.  A. Gedney
Co., Rahr  Malting Co.,  Owens-Illinois Glass Co.,
American Wheaton Glass Co., and Cargill,  Inc. The
two steam-electric generating plants  (Wilmarth and
Blackdog)  referred to are  owned and operated by
the Northern States Power  Company. The two barge
washing facilities are those of Twin City  Shipyards.
One industry,  Honeymead Products  Co.,  located on
the Blue Earth River near its confluence with the
Minnesota  River,  was  also investigated.  These
industries, excluding the two electric plants,  dis-
charge wastes at the rate of 18 mgd to  the river.
The steam-electric plants  utilize as much as 405
mgd of river water for  cooling purposes,  returning
it  to  the   river  after use.  The  Blackdog  electric
plant  passes  the  water  through a  cooling pond
before returning it to the river. At the time of the
survey, these sources, together,  contributed the
following loadings of constituents:

     1. Oxygen consuming wastes equivalent to raw
       sewage from a population  of 273,000.
    2. Coliform  bacteria equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of 40,300.

    3. Suspended solids equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of 238,000.

    4. Approximately 1,200 pounds of organic and
       ammonia  nitrogen per day.

    5. Approximately  950 pounds  of  phosphates
       per  day.
    6. Approximately 740 pounds of oil and grease
       per  day.

    7. Approximately 60 billion BTU of  heat pei
       day  (when steam-electric plants are operating
       at  full  capacity  and discharging  cooling
       water directly to river.)
    Additional  information   on   industrial waste
characteristics  and  stream loading  rates  is sum-
marized in  Tables 4 and 5.
Rahr Malting  Co. located on  Minnesota River  at
Shakopee, Minnesota.
 American Crystal Sugar Co. plant which discharges
 to the Minnesota River at Chaska, Minnesota.
Northern States Power  Co.  Blackdog  power plant
and cooling pond, located eight miles  above the
mouth of the Minnesota River.
                                                     10

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St.  CrOJX River.       There  are  two  in-
dustries  (Andersen Window Co.  and United  Re-
frigerator Co.) on the St. Croix River.  Together they
discharge wastes  at the rate of 0.5 mgd. These
sources  contributed  the   following  loadings  of
constituents:

    1.  Oxygen consuming wastes equivalent to  raw
       sewage from a population of 330.

    2.  Suspended solids equivalent to raw sewage
       from a population of  300.

    3.  Approximately  3  pounds  of  organic  and
       ammonia nitrogen per day.

    4.  Approximately   5  pounds  of  phosphates
       per day.

    5.  Less than one pound of chromium per day.

    Additional   information on  industrial  waste
characteristics  and stream loading rates  is sum-
marized in Tables 4 and 5.
COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS

    The cities of Minneapolis, St. Paul, and South
St. Paul each have combined sewers with regulators
that divert excess flows directly to the Mississippi
River.

    The Minneapolis-St.  Paul   combined  sewer
system  has more than  80 overflow  points.  It is
estimated that over a  period of one year, up to 3.5
percent  of  sewage  reaching the  MSSD  treatment
plant may be lost without treatment. The total of
Combined sewer overflow discharging to Mississippi
River in Twin Cities area.
these figures represent about 7.5 million pounds of
5-Day (20°C) BOD and 9.5 million pounds  of sus-
pended  solids on  a yearly basis.  This overflow
occurs  over  about  10 percent of the  time  in  a
given year.

     The South St.  Paul combined sewer system is
very similar in design  to that of  the Twin Cities.
South St. Paul  has a  more  serious  surcharging
problem along a considerable  portion of the inter-
ceptor,  however,  during periods  of maximum dry-
weather flow.  In general, the  interceptor has only
about one-half the required capacity to handle the
maximum dry-weather  flow  plus  the runoff from  a
rainfall  intensity of 0.04  inches  per  hour.  It is
estimated that  South  St. Paul's  overflow  system
contributes about 6 million  pounds of 5-Day (20°C)
BOD and 5 million pounds  of suspended solids on
a yearly basis.
AGRICULTURAL AND

NATURAL POLLUTION

    Nutrients  are the primary  products of concern
resulting from agricultural activities  and the natural
death and decay of  plant and animal life. Among
the nutrients, nitrogen  and phosphorus  are con-
sidered  the  most important. At  times, suspended
solids, resulting from erosion,  are also of concern.

    MiSSiSSippi River   Approximately
40,000 and 20,000 pounds  per day of total nitrogen
and phosphate  (as  PC>4), respectively, would  be
expected to enter the Mississippi River above Lake
Pepin from agricultural and natural  sources  at the
mean August flow (9,480 cfs at St. Paul).

    Minnesota  River.  Approximately 6,000
and 4,000  pounds  per day  of total  nitrogen and
phosphate (as PO^), respectively,  would  be ex-
pected to enter the  study area via the Minnesota
and Blue Earth Rivers from agricultural and natural
sources  at the  mean August  flow (2,677 cfs at
Carver).

    Turbidity, occurring naturally, is  considerably
more  than 25 units  in waters  entering the study
area at Mankato except on occasions of low stream
flows after long absences of  surface runoff. The
sand-silt-clay mantle, through which the river flows
is  largely  responsible  for  this  condition.  Land
erosion  within the  drainage basin also contributes
to this problem.
                                                   11

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    erosion along Minnesota River above Shakopee,
Minnesota.

    St.  CrOJX  River.   Approximately 13,000
and  2,000 pounds per day  of total  nitrogen and
phosphate  (as  PO^),  respectively, would be  ex-
pected  to enter  the  study area via the St. Croix
River irom agricultural and natural  sources at  the
mean August flow  (3,580 cfs at Stillwater).
                                                     12

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              SUMMARY  OF WATER  QUALITY
                                    AND
           INTERFERENCE  WITH  WATER  USES
GENERAL
     Ideally, a stream should be  high in dissolved
 oxygen,  low  in temperature,  turbidity,  nitrogen,
 phosphate, phenol and bacteria.

     A dissolved oxygen concentration  of at least
 three  mg/1  is  required  in order to  maintain  a
 suitable habitat for  rough fish. A minimum  of five
 mg/1 is required for  game fish.

     Water temperatures should  not exceed 93°F in
 order to maintain  a  suitable habitat for rough fish
 and to be  suitable for limited body contact  activi-
 ties (e.g.  boating and commercial shipping.) The
 maximum   temperature  permitted   for  whole body
 contact activities  (e.g. swimming and water  skiing)
 and for irrigational  or cooling  water  use  is 90°F.
 To be suitable  as a source of potable  supply and
 as a habitat for game  fish, the  water temperature
 should not exceed 86°F.

     Waters used as a source for potable  supplies
 and for  whole  body  contact activities,  such  as
 swimming and water  skiing,  should have a turbidity
 of not greater than  25 Jackson  units.  Most other
 water  uses require  a  turbidity  of less than 250
 jackson units.

     Nitrogen in the ammonia form  should not exceed
 1.0 mg/1  for game fish and 2.0  mg/1 for rough fish.
 Inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in concentrations
 greater than 0.3 mg/1 (as  nitrogen) and 0.03 (as
 phosphate) at  the  time of  spring  overturn  are
 generally  considered  sufficient  to  produce algal
 blooms in  lakes. (Pools behind locks and dams
 become lakes at low-stream  flows.)

     Phenolic compounds in concentrations  greater
 than 0001 mg/1  produce  undesirable  tastes and
 odors  in  chlorinated  drinking  water supplies.  In
 concentrations  greater than 0.01 mg/1 they taint
 fish flesh.
    Sewage  polluted  waters  frequently  contain
pathogenic bacteria which, if ingested,  can cause
gastrointestinal  diseases  such  as  typhoid fever,
dysentery, and diarrhea. Body contact with sewage-
polluted waters can cause eye, ear,  nose, throat or
skin infections.  Viruses, which cause  diseases,
including polio, hepatitus, and meningitis may also
be present.

    Sewage  also   contains   readily   detectable
coliform  bacteria which  typically  occur  in the
feces of  man and other warm-blooded animals. Not
all coliform bacteria are of  intestinal origin, how-
ever.  Though generally harmless in themselves,
coliform  bacteria are  always present  in sewage-
polluted waters and have, therefore, been  considered
indicators of the probable presence  of  pathogenic
bacteria.

    Many water pollution control agencies evaluate
water quality on  the basis of total coliform count,
which includes  those of intestinal as well  as non-
intestinal origin. In  this report a total coliform
density of greater than 5,000/100 ml is  considered
to be unsafe for any water  use  involving limited
body  contact  (e.g.   boating, commercial shipping,
and fishing) or for irrigation  and stock and  wildlife
watering. Waters used as a source of potable water
supply should  not  have  a  total coliform  density
greater  than  4,000/100  ml.  The  total  coliform
density  in  waters  used  for  whole body  contact
activities (e.g.  swimming  and water skiing) should
not exceed 1,000/100 ml.

    In this  study a  more  selective test was used
to identify fecal  coliform bacteria, in  addition to
the total coliform. This permitted a better  evalua-
tion of  the  significance  of  total coliform counts
since the presence  of  fecal  coliform  bacteria is
positive proof of fecal contamination.

    More  recently,  refined  methods for isolation
and detection of Salmonella organisms  (producers
                                                   13

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of many  intestinal  diseases,  including  typhoid
fever) have made it more practical to test for these
specific infectious disease bacteria.

    General water quality  conditions found in the
study area during  the  Project's survey are shown
in Figure  12. Figures 13 through  18 show the river
reaches that were found to be unsuitable for various
water  uses because  of  the water  quality. The
streams' flow (daily average) during this period
ranged from 1.3 to 10 times the 7-consecutive-day,
once in 10-year low flow.

MISSISSIPPI RIVER

     Anoka  to  St.  Anthony   Falls.
The water quality of  the Mississippi  River  between
Anoka  and St.  Anthony Falls was  unsatisfactory
from a bacteriological  standpoint, only. The aver-
age total  coliform density in this segment ranged
from 5,000 MPN/100  ml at Anoka to 4,000 MPN/100
ml a short distance above St. Anthony Falls. Fecal
coliform counts were approximately  10 percent of
the  total   counts.  Almost  all  of  this bacterial
pollution  originates  upstream from the study area
on  the Mississippi  and  Rum  Rivers.  The only
sources of bacterial  pollution of any consequence
along this segment are the Anoka sewage treatment
plant and  some of the metropolitan combined sewer
overflows, including Bassett Creek.  The  Minne-
apolis  water  treatment plant and  the  Riverside
steam-electric generating plant  also discharge to
this segment but do  not contribute to the bacterial
pollution.   Minneapolis  Water Works  officials re-
ported  that  a  few tributaries to  this  segment are
sometimes a source of high  algal populations in
the vicinity of their water intake.

     In its present condition  this segment  of river
 is suitable for all  uses  except  whole body  water
 contact activities (e.g. swimming and water skiing).
 Before these activities could be  practiced safely,
 the average total coliform density would have to be
 reduced to less than  1,000  organisms per  100 ml.
 Since water quality in  this segment does not change
 appreciably with  variations in flow (in the  low and
 intermediate ranges),  the water is suitable  for all
 uses except whole body contact  activities even at
 very low flows.

     St.   Anthony   Falls  to  MSSD
  OUtfall.   This segment of river receives waste
  water from more  than  80  combined sewer overflows
  serving the Twin Cities as well  as from the Minne-
  sota River,  High Bridge steam-electric generating
 plant,  Minnesota  Harbor  Service,  and Twin  City
 Shipyard.

    In dry weather the water quality  is nearly as
good as it is upstream  of St. Anthony Falls. During
and immediately  following  rainfall, however,  the
combined  sewer   overflows  discharge  into   this
reach,  affecting the bactenorlogical quality. These
discharges were sufficient in the summer and early
fall of 1964 to increase the  monthly average total
coliform  density   along the segment   from  4,000
MPN/100  ml  at  the  upper end to approximately
30,000 MPN/100 ml at  the lower end. Coliform data
collected  by  the Minneapolis - St.  Paul  Sanitary
District  between  1942 and   1955  show  similar
average values at these locations  for  August  and
September.  Fecal coliform  counts  were  approxi-
mately 10 percent of the total counts.

    The Minnesota River at its mouth is usually
lower  in  quality   than  the  Mississippi  River  im-
mediately  above  their confluence.  During  the
summer and early  fall  of 1964 the Minnesota River
had an effect on dissolved oxygen and turbidity
levels  in  the  Mississippi River. The  average  dis-
solved oxygen level decreased from 8.0 to 7.7 mg/1
and the average turbidity increased from <25 to 60
units  as a result of the Minnesota River's inflow.

    The other waste sources in this reach do not
have an appreciable effect on water quality.
Confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers
(Note the greater turbidity of the Minnesota River).

     In its present condition  this  segment of the
river is  generally  unsuitable   for body  contact
activities such as swimming, boating,  fishing, and
navigation. Before the water would be suitable for
the latter three activities, the average total coliform
density would have to be reduced to less than  5,000
organisms/100 ml. To make this segment  suitable
for swimming or water  skiing,  the average  total
                                                    14

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     ANOKA
                                                              15 Miles
                  DISSOLVED OXYGEN_- mg/l
                                 < 3
                                 3-5
                                 > 5
                     FISH  PALATABILITY
                  REACH OF LOWEST
                   PALATABILITY
                TOTAL  COLIFORM- MPN/IOOml
                  O   < 1,000
                       1,000-5,000
                       5,000-100,000
                       100,000-1,000,000
                       1,000,000-10,000,000
    Note-D.O. and Coliform levels on the Minnesota River are typical of period
         when American Crystal Sugar Co. was in operation.
FIGURE  12  - Typical  water quality conditions  during  low flow
              periods in  1964  and 1965

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        FIGURE 13-Source ot potable water supply
           FIGURE 15- Whole body contact activitie
               e g swimming and water skiing}
FIGURE  14-Source of water for irrigation
   and  stock and wildlife watering
  FIGURE 16-Limited body contact activities
     (e g boating, commercial shipping, and
     f i shing )
                                 ST CRO1X
              FIGURE  17 - Game  fish
                              LEGEND t... '' Designates unsuitable  reaches
FIGURES   13-18.   RIVER   REACHES   UNSUITABLE  FOR   VARIOUS   WATER  USES.

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 coliform density would have to be reduced to less
 than  1,000  organisms/100  ml  and  the  turbidity
 reduced to 25  units or less in the reach below the
 mouth of the Minnesota River.

      MSSD Outfall to  Lock  &  Dam

 INO. 2.  This segment  of  river receives wastes
 from  the two largest contributors in  the study  area
 (MSSD and South St.  Paul sewage treatment plants)
 as  well as from 16 other  smaller  sources discussed
 previously and listed in Tables 2 and 4. As a result
 of  these waste discharges this  21 1  mile  reach of
 river had the lowest water  quality of the entire study
 area.

      Dissolved oxygen levels  decreased  from  an
 average of 7.8 mg/1 just  above the MSSD outfall to
 an average of 2.9 mg/1   in the vicinity of Spring
 Lake during  the  summer and  early  fall  of 1964.
 The  minimum  dissolved oxygen level  measured at
 this  lower  station during the  same period  was 0.5
 mg/1. Winter levels were  only slightly higher than
 summer  levels  in the lower 10  miles  of this seg-
 ment. The  minimum  daily river flow during this
 period has a recurrence interval of 4 years.

     Ammonia  nitrogen levels exceeded 1.0 mg/1
 (the maximum  permitted for game fish) one  or more
 times during the summer  survey at all  stations in
 the entire segment.  Values were highest at a point
 two miles  below the  South St. Paul plant  outfall,
 ranging from 0.57 to  2.01  mg/1 (2.0  mg/1 is maxi-
 mum permitted  for rough  fish)  and averaging 0.96
 mg/1  during the  summer  and early  fall of  1964.
 Ammonia  nitrogen  values  were  slightly  higher
 during the winter of 1964-1965.

     The bacteriological  quality  of  the  river  de-
 creased markedly below the MSSD outfall. The total
 coliform density ranged from 460,000  to  17,000,000
 MPN/100 ml,  averaging   6,500,000  MPN/100  ml
 between  June and October of  1964 at  a point  8.8
 miles below the plant outfall. Above the outfall, the
 total coliform density averaged about 30,000 MPN/
 100 ml over this same period.  The fecal coliform
 density throughout  this reach averaged  about  20
 percent of the total density.

     Pathogenic bacteria   and  viruses  were  also
 isolated from stream and  waste samples collected
along this segment. Fourteen species  of Salmonella
bacteria and  three types  of viruses were isolated
from the MSSD effluent. Five species  of Salmonella
were isolated from the  South St. Paul plant effluent.
Ten species of  Salmonella were found in the river
 a distance of  six  miles  below  MSSD  (two miles
 below  South  St. Paul). Ten miles downstream of
 MSSD, seven species of Salmonella were found.

     Biologically,  the  river  was  relatively  un-
 polluted   above  the  MSSD  outfall.  Conditions
 changed abruptly, however,  at  this point.  Here,  a
 zone  of  degradation began  and  extended down-
 stream to the vicinity of the South St. Paul sewage
 treatment plant outfall.  The remainder of the  seg-
 ment,  down to Lock & Dam No.  2, was  a  zone of
 active  decomposition.  The river  bottom  was com-
 posed of organic sludge along the entire length of
 this segment.  No  clean  water associated  bottom
 organisms  were found.
Dead fish found below the Twin Cities.
Floating  sludge   and  rising   gas  bubbles  in
Mississippi River below MSSD.

    Garp  was the  predominant species  of fish
throughout Pool No. 2. In the reach between South
St. Paul and  Spring Lake,  game fish  made up only
6%  of  the  total fish population. In the two-mile
reach above  Lock & Dam No. 2, they made up only
                                                    15

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9% of the total population. Of all the fish evaluated
in the study area by a  taste panel, the flesh of
those caught between South  St. Paul and  Lock &
Dam No.  2 received palatability ratings  which were
among the lowest. Ratings ranged from  3.8 to 4.4.
A rating  of  4 or below  indicated the fish flesh to
be unacceptable.

    The  water quality found in this segment during
the Project's  surveys  indicated  that it was con-
sistently suitable for only one use — cooling water.
To  make this segment  suitable for uses such  as
pleasure  boating,  navigation,  fishing,  stock  and
wildlife watering,  irrigation, and  the maintenance
of rough  fish, the minimum dissolved oxygen con-
centration should be maintained above 3 mg/1  and
the average coliform density maintained less than
5,000 organisms/100 ml.

     Lock  &  Dam   No. 2  to   Lock  &
        NO.  O. This segment of river, which lies
in  the  pollution recovery  zone,  has  three small
waste sources  discharging to it.  (Hudson Manu-
facturing  Co.,  Hastings Sewage Treatment Plant,
and Prescott Sewage Treatment Plant). The  dis-
solved oxygen level  was generally increased by 1
or 2 mg/1 during passage over Lock  & Dam No. 2.
Water quality in this  reach is  also enhanced by the
St. Croix  River  which enters the Mississippi River
about four miles below Lock & Dam No. 2.
Confluence of the Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers
(Note the greater turbidity of the Mississippi River).
    The minimum dissolved oxygen concentration
recorded during  the summer and early  fall of 1964
between Lock & Dam  No.  2  and the St. Croix River
was  3.1 mg/1.  Below the mouth  of the  St. Croix
during this same period, the minimum concentration
measured  was 4.4  mg/1.  Winter  levels  were also
low. The minimum values recorded in the Mississippi
River above and below the St. Croix's mouth during
the winter of 1964-1965  were 2.1 and  5.7 mg/1,
respectively.

    Ammonia nitrogen levels were highest in the
four-mile  reach  below Lock  8s Dam No.  2. During
the surveys in the winter of 1964-1965, they ranged
from 1.49  to 2.59 mg/1, averaging 2.12 mg/1.

    The  bacteriological  quality  of  this  segment
was better than in  the previous one,  but was still
poor.  The total coliform  density  1.2  miles below
Lock  & Dam No.  2 ranged from 2,300 to 350,000
MPN/100  ml, averaging 74,500 MPN/100  ml during
the June-October  1964   period.  Additional  con-
tributions  by  the  Hastings  and  Prescott  sewage
treatment  plants offset the improvement in bacteri-
ological quality that would have  resulted  from
dilution by the St. Croix River. Below the St. Croix
River  the  coliform density decreased progressively
with   distance downstream  due  to natural dieoff.
Just above Lock &  Dam No.  3 the coliform density
ranged from 3,300 to 130,000 MPN/100 ml,  averaging
31,000 MPN/100 ml during  the June-October 1964
period.  Fecal coliform densities averaged 10 to 20
percent of the total  densities in this segment.

    Floating algae were found in greater numbers
in the four-mile reach immediately below Lock  84
Dam  No.   2  than  at  any  point  upstream. Their
monthly  average  density  at the  one-foot depth
ranged  from  10,690/ml (in  May) to 34,450/ml  (in
October) and averaged 21,200/ml,  over  the April-
December 1964  period.  Although these  densities
were  rather  high, they created no problems. Their
presence was apparent only by microscopic examina-
tion.  Their increase in density was due,  primarily,
to the increased nutrient load.

    Greater  numbers  of  game fish were  found  in
this segment than in any of the previous ones. The
Minnesota Department of Conservation determined
that  in 1964 game fish made up  46% of  the total
fish population in this pool.

    The water quality found in the four-mile reach
between Lock & Dam No. 2 and  the mouth of the
St. Croix  River was  unsuitable for all uses  prac-
ticed. It would  have  been considered suitable for
                                                    16

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rough fish if the maximum ammonia  nitrogen level
had not exceeded  2.0  mg/1 and  the  minimum dis-
solved oxygen concentration had not fallen below
3 mg/1.

    The  reach between the mouth of the St. Croix
River  and  Lock  & Dam  No. 3  was  considered
suitable  for  rough  fish  but  not for  game fish.
Ammonia nitrogen  levels  exceeded  1.0 mg/1 and
the minimum  dissolved oxygen  concentration fell
below 5 mg/1.

    To make the  entire  segment between  Lock &
Dam  Nos.  2  and  3 suitable for  uses  such  as
swimming, water skiing,  boating, sport and com-
mercial fishing,  and navigation,  the  average total
coliform  density  should  be reduced  to less  than
1,000  organisms/100  ml;  the maximum  ammonia
nitrogen  concentration reduced  to  1.0  mg/1; and
the minimum  dissolved  oxygen  concentration  in-
creased to 5.0 mg/1.


    Lock &  Dam No. 3 to Chippewa
RlV6r.  This  segment  of river  also  lies in the
pollution recovery zone.  It  receives waste water
from  three   municipal  sewage  treatment  plants,
(Red  Wing, Lake  City, and Pepin), two processing
industries, (Foot Tanning Co. and Pittsburgh Plate
Glass Co.) and  the Red Wing  steam-electric gener-
ating plant.  These  sources  have  little  effect  on
water quality,  however.   Lake Pepin,  which  is a
predominant  portion of this segment, serves  as a
settling  basin  for  silt and organic  sludge carried
in from upstream.


     The water  quality  in  this  segment  was un-
satisfactory from a bacteriological standpoint. The
average  total   coliform   density  decreased  from
31,000/100  ml at  the  upper  end to  250/100 ml at
the lower end during the summer and early fall of
1964.  Fecal  coliform densities  were from 5 to  10
percent of the total  coliform densities.  Most of the
coliforms found in this  segment had entered from
upstream. The  three  sewage treatment plants  in
this  segment,   however,   also  added  significant
amounts  of coliforms.
     The Red  Wing sewage treatment  plant, largest
 of the three,  was  monitored on ten  occasions  for
 pathogenic bacteria and viruses.  Positive results
 were obtained nine of the ten times from effluent
 samples.  In  all,  seven  species of  Salmonella in
 addition to Polio, Coxsackie, and ECHO viruses
 were isolated.
    Algal  densities  out  in  the mainstream  were
generally  lower than those found in the previous
segment. In shallow areas along the shores,  how-
ever,  densities were very high.  During the summer
of 1965, a  greenish  "pea soup consistency"  algal
bloom was observed in Lake Pepin at Stockholm,
Wisconsin's bathing beach. Rocks along the bathing
beach  were coated  with a  green  slimy mass of
algal  cells. Another  bloom was  also  observed at
the Lake City  Marina. The water was colored  "pea
green" and  a  thick green slime coated boat hulls.
These and  other  observations  demonstrate   that
algal  populations can and do  become a problem in
the lower part  of the study area.


    Results of chlorophyll-a  analyses  on the  plant
cells  found on artificial  substrates placed in the
river  indicated that attached algae were about six
times as  abundant  on  those substrates in  Lake
Pepin as compared to those located elsewhere up-
stream.  This  increase in attached algal growths
on substrates  and free-floating algae in quiescent
shallow areas  was  due largely to the  nutrient and
organic load received from upstream sources.


    Nutrient concentrations  in Lake  Pepin  were
above  values   generally  considered  sufficient to
produce algal  blooms in lakes. Inorganic nitrogen
levels averaged  0.70 mg '1 at the upper end and
0.54 mg/1 at  the lower end.  The orthophosphate
level  remained fairly constant throughout the entire
segment, averaging 0.56 mg/1  (as PC>4).


    Game fish were present  in far greater numbers
in this  segment  than anywhere else in the study
area.  The  Minnesota Department  of Conservation
found that 68% of the fish population in Pool No. 4
were game fish. Flesh palatabihty tests  made by a
taste  panel on fish  caught at five stations distri-
buted throughout this  segment showed that flavor
improved with  distance downstream as far as mid-
way through Lake Pepin. Beyond this  point  there
was no detectable improvement.
    In  general, the  water quality  found in this
segment indicated that it  was  suitable  for  main-
tenance of game fish as well as rough fish, esthetic
enjoyment,  and as a source of cooling water. The
reach below the head end of Lake Pepin  was also
suitable for  limited  body contact  activities  and
stock and wildlife watering. In addition  to  all of
these uses,  the reach below  Lake  City  was also
suitable for  whole  body  contact  activities (e.g.
swimming and water skiing).
                                                    17

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    The upper reaches in this segment would also
be suitable for all these water uses  if the average
total coliform density were reduced  to  less than
1,000 organisms/100 mg.

MINNESOTA RIVER

    Mankato to Chaska.
This segment of river receives waste water from
five  sources  in  the Mankato  area  (Honeymead
Products  Co.,  Mankato  sewage treatment  plant,
Archer  Daniels Midland  Co., Blue Cross  Rendering
Co.,  and Wilmarth electric plant) and one  each from
the cities of Le  Sueur (Green  Giant  Co.  plant)
Henderson,  and  Belle  Plaine   (Minnesota  Valley
Milk Processing  Association plant.)

    Except  for  a  moderately  high  turbidity  and
colirorm density, the water in this 79.9  mile seg-
ment was  of reasonably  good quality. The turbidity
(resulting  primarily from erosion) generally  ranged
from 25 to  220  units.  The high  values occurred
during and immediately following periods  of surface
runoff.  No one portion of the segment was consist-
ently more turbid than another.

    During the summer  and early  fall of 1964  the
total coliform density in the river at Mankato just
above the mouth of the  Blue Earth River averaged
approximately 5,000  MPN/100  ml.  Waste sources
from the Mankato area increased the average density
to about 80,000 MPN/100 ml. At the 7-consecutive-
day, once in  10  year summer low flow these waste
sources would be expected to increase the coliform
density to approximately 400,000 organisms/100 ml
at a point 10 miles downstream.  Beyond this point,
and until reaching Chaska, the density would show
a general  decrease because of bacterial dieoff.

    Dissolved oxygen concentrations were consist-
ently high (greater than 6.0 mg/1) in this segment.
Waste loadings found during 1964 and 1965  do  not
have an  appreciable affect on  oxygen  resources,
even at low stream flows.

     Algal densities at the one-foot depth were high
throughout the entire segment, but were generally
highest around  Belle  Plaine.  Here, the  density
averaged  46,400/ml between April and December of
1964.  Their  presence  in these   numbers were
generally  obvious only  upon microscopic examina-
tion, due partly to the natural turbidity of the water.
At times, however,  the water did have  a greenish
cast. Nutrient levels were well above values con-
sidered  necessary  to  produce  algal   blooms in
lakes.  (Pools   behind  dams  essentially   become
 lakes at low stream flows). Inorganic nitrogen and
 phospnate  (as  PC>4)  levels  averaged  about  1.0
 mg/1 and 0.29 mg/1, respectively.

     Bottom organism populations were very sparse
 (usually less than 10 mean numbers per square foot)
 throughout the entire  segment. This was  due to  the
 sand and gravel bottom which provided few  areas
 for organisms to attach themselves. The only region
'of  organic  sludge deposition  was in  the five-mile
 reach immediately below the Green Giant Company
 at  Le  Sueur.  Pollution sensitive  animals  were
 present at most of the stations in this segment,  but
 they generally  accounted for less than 50% of  the
 total kinds.

     Because  of the  sparsity  of bottom animals,
 turbid waters, and extreme range of flows there is
 a poor  fish population in the Minnesota  River.  Of
 the fish  present in this segment, only  15% were
 game  fish.  The  palatability  of  fish  caught  at
 Mankato and Belle Plaine was also evaluated by a
 taste panel. Carp and walleye pike  found  in  the
 vicinity of  Mankato were considered  in  the  inter-
 mediate  range  of  palatability.  Only  carp  were
 evaluated at Belle Plaine and they were of slightly
 lower palatability than those caught at Mankato.

     The  waters  of  this segment were considered
 suitable  for use  as  a  source of cooling  water,
 esthetic  enjoyment,  and maintenance of a  clean
 water associated organism community.

     The  waters  were not  suitable  for irrigation,
 stock   and  wildlife   watering,  and   limited body
 contact activities (e.g.boating and fishing) because
 the average coliform density along the entire seg-
 ment exceeded 5,000 MPN/100  ml. The waters
 were not  suitable for whole body contact activities
 (e.g.  swimming  and  water skiing)  because  the
 turbidity exceeded 25 units and the coliform density
 exceeded 1,000MPN/100 ml along the  entire length.


     Chaska  to  Mouth.
 This segment of river receives far greater quantities
 of  wastes  than the  previous one. Its quality   is
 lowest  during late fall and winter while one season-
 al  industry, the  American Crystal Sugar Company
 is  in operation. This  segment  also receives waste
 from the  municipal   sewage  treatment  plants  of
 Chaska,  Shakopee,  Savage,  Burnsville  and  Cedar
 Grove.  The M.  A.  Gedney  Co.,  Rahr Malting Co.,
 Owens-Illinois Glass  Co., American Wheaton  Glass
 Co.,  Cargill, Inc., Twin City Shipyard and  Black-
 dog electric plant also discharge to  this segment.
                                                    18

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     During  the  period  between June  and October
1964, while American  Crystal  Sugar Company  was
out of operation, the dissolved oxygen profile de-
creased steadily from Shakopee (river mile 25.0) to
the mouth. Above Shakopee  the  dissolved oxygen
concentration   ranged   from   5.9  to  13.4  mg/1,
averaging 9.1 mg/1.  Near the mouth, it ranged from
3.1 to 10.7 mg/1, averaging 6.6 mg/1.
Dredge  sample  of  Minnesota River  bottom just
below American Crystal Sugar Co. outfall containing
sugar beet sections.

    Turbidity levels in this  segment during the
summer  period  were  slightly higher  than  those
found in the previous segment, especially near the
mouth. The  turbidity  averaged 70 units at Chaska
and 110 units near the mouth. It  ranged from 25 to
240 units over the entire segment.

    River temperatures exceeded 90°F at times of
low stream  flow  in  a one-mile  reach immediately
below the  Blackdog steam-electric generating plant
when cooling water was discharged directly to the
river. On one occasion the temperature immediately
below the point of discharge  reached approximate-
ly 100°F.
     The average  total coliform density exceeded
 5,000  MPN/100 ml  over  the entire  segment. The
 density during summer was highest in  the vicinity
 just below Shakopee. At that point  (river mile 23.0)
 the coliform density ranged from 24,000 to 240,000
 MPN/100  ml,  averaging   approximately   80,000
 MPN/100 ml. Fecal colifotm densities were between
 10 and 20 percent of the total densities.
     Algal densities  and  nutrient levels were  of
the same magnitude as those  found in the previous
segment. Although algal densities were high,  they
created no nuisance conditions.
    There was a general increase in  the number of
bottom organisms  below Chaska  due primarily to
the presence of organic sludge deposits.  Pollution
tolerant sludgeworms comprised the largest portion
of the benthic population with as  many as 237 and
487 per  square foot being found in  the  fall and
winter,   respectively.  Clean   water  associated
animals were  even less abundant in this segment
than in  the  previous one. Game fish  made up only
7% of the total fish population.

    The palatability of carp caught  in  this seg-
ment immediately  above the  Blackdog power plant
was also evaluated. They  had  the lowest level of
palatability  of all the fish assessed in the entire
study area.

    During  the winter, dissolved  oxygen  levels
were much lower and coliform densities were much
higher in the lower 27 miles  of river as a result of
the  additional  wastes  contributed  by  American
Crystal  Sugar Company. Ice cover also served to
reduce  dissolved  oxygen  levels  by preventing
reaeration. Except in  a short reach of open water
immediately below the Blackdog  power plant, the
dissolved oxygen concentration averaged  less than
3 mg/1  along the  lower 20 miles  of river during a
three-day  survey  in  February   1965.  Dissolved
oxygen  concentrations at  the  mouth varied from
0.0 to 4.0 mg/1, averaging 1.8 mg/1.

    Due  largely   to  American  Crystal  Sugar
Company's and Rahr Malting Company's discharges,
coliform organisms  in the  river increased from
220 MPN/100 ml above the American Crystal Sugai
outfall to 500,000 MPN/100 ml  at  a point  4.7 miles
below the outfall. The coliform density decreased
progressively  with distance downstream below this
point. Near the mouth, it averaged 9,600MPN/100ml.

    The waters in this segment below Chaska were
unsuitable for irrigation, stock and wildlife  water-
ing, navigation, and limited body contact  activities
because the  average coliform density  exceeded
5,000 MPN/100 ml.

    The minimum dissolved oxygen  concentration
during the summer was too low below Shakopee and
the maximum  temperature  was  too  high  between
river miles  8.4  and  3.0 for the waters to be suit-
able for the maintenance of game  fish. Even if the
DO and temperature  had been suitable, however,  it
is very  doubtful that  game fish would have been
present  in  great numbers  because  of the limited
available food supply.
                                                    19

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    The waters were usually too turbid to be con-
sidered suitable for whole body contact activities
(e.g. swimming and water skiing).

    During  the winter survey  this  segment  was
also considered unsuitable for all  fish because of
extremely low dissolved oxygen levels. In addition,
ammonia nitrogen  levels  exceeded the limit con-
sidered suitable for game fish.

    To make the  waters  in  this segment  suitable
for  uses such as boating, fishing,  stock and wild-
life watering,  irrigation,  and the  maintenance of
rough  fish,  the minimum dissolved  oxygen level
should be maintained above 3 mg/1  and the average
coliform  density   maintained  less   than  5,000
organisms/100 ml.

ST.  CROIX  RIVER
    Pollution in the St. Croix River is very slight.
The water quality was suitable for all uses prac-
ticed in all except a few small isolated areas where
coliform densities were high. These  included the
immediate  vicinity  of municipal  waste  outfalls
belonging  to  Taylors Falls,  St.  Croix  Falls,
Osceola,  Stillwater,  Bayport,  Hudson,  and  the
Andersen  Window Company industrial outfalls. The
esthetic  quality was  affected in a few locations
along the  shoreline where algal blooms had occurred
during late summer.

     The  municipal  and  industrial  waste sources
along  the St. Croix  River  do not  produce  any
significant changes in  the  general  water quality
even at very  low  flows. Agricultural  and natural
pollution, however, contribute nutrients  in amounts
generally  considered sufficient to support  nuisance
algal blooms.  Pollution  from boats  is  sometimes
evident in backwater areas,  where debris is  found
occasionally.

     To make  the waters suitable for body contact
activities, at  all  locations, waste effluents should
receive more  complete  disinfection before  being
discharged. Better  control  of natural  and  agri-
cultural sources is  required if  nutrient concentra-
tions are  to be lowered sufficiently to reduce algal
densities  in  late  summer. Greater control of dis-
charges  from  boats is  also required  in  order to
protect the esthetic as well  as the  bacteriological
quality of the  waters.
                                                     20

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                           OBSERVATIONS
STATE  PROBLEMS
    The  problem  of controlling water pollution is
critically important in this  urbanized society. The
problem is  very complex in the  variety and depth
of interests  involved  and in  the  governmental
arrangements  that exist to  do  something about  it.
Much  of  the  authority  of water  pollution control,
however,  rests with the State governments. There-
fore, progress toward  solving the problem will  be
influenced in  a very large measure by the effective-
ness of State  action.

    When a State budget is prepared, water pollu-
tion control activities  have to compete with other
desirable programs for a share of available funds,
particularly where it  is a  subsidiary  activity of
another agency (such  as a  Public Health Depart-
ment).  Up  to now this  has usually  resulted in a
shortage  of funds and staff for most  State water
pollution control  programs.  The most  serious im-
pact of this shortage is the necessary concentration
of available resources to meet urgent  critical needs
at the expense   of comprehensive  measures  and
long-range planning.
    In view of the growing pressure that  will be
exerted on the  State pollution control agencies as
pollution  problems  become  more intense and the
public concern more insistent, there is a great need
for a  strong, efficient agency in every State with
adequate  resources  in  finance,  personnel,  and
technical equipment.

    In 1964 the Public Health Service contracted
the Public Administration Service, Chicago, Illinois,
for a  study,  the  central purpose of which was  to
develop standards  against  which  State agencies
and other interests could  gauge the adequacy  of
personnel complements  and budgetary support  for
State  water pollution control programs. Minimum and
desirable  staffing and  budget needs were determined
for each State.  The needs estimated for  Minnesota
and Wisconsin  (in  1964) are given  in  the table
below along with actual staffing and budget figures.
It should be kept in mind that these estimates were
prepared in 1964, before the  increased  emphasis
on water pollution control and the establishment  of
standards  of water quality. Also,  the  estimates
were  based on salary  and  expense  levels lower
than those now prevailing.
              COMPARISON OF NEEDED AND ACTUAL STAFFING AND BUDGET ALLOCATIONS
                           TO STATE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCIES
STATE
Minnesota
Minimum, 1964
Desirable, '64
Actual FY '66
Actual FY '67
Wisconsin
Minimum, 1964
Desirable, '64
Actual FY '66
Actual FY '67
TOTAL
STAFFING

58
104
35
35

71
126
24
81
AVERAGE
SALARY $


6,849
—



6,849
8,094

TOTAL
BUDGET $

530,000
946,000
338,336
345,327

646,000
1,145,000
267,206
1,193,832
TOTAL BUDGET
PER CAPITA (CENTS)

15
27



16
28


                                                   21

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    The investigators feel that staffing and budget
needs for the State water pollution control agencies
in the States of Minnesota  and  Wisconsin should
be maintained no lower than the  "desirable" level
given in  the preceding table.
METROPOLITAN PROBLEMS

     The complicating factor in the water pollution
problem  is  that  water refuses to recognize city,
county, or State boundaries. It simply flows down-
hill. When a city fails to clean up its own wastes,
the  chief victim is  not  the city   itself  but its
neighbor  downstream;  similarly,  when the  city
meets  its  responsibilities, it is the neighbor who
appears to benefit most.
     The  problem is compounded  when  the  cities
 within a  given metropolitan  area  attempt  to meet
 their responsibilities on  an  individual basis. Such
 an approach results in much duplication of  effort,
 higher unit  costs, and no guarantee that  a  solution
 will ever  be obtained. Certainly, there is  very little
 hope  that  the  optimum solution  could  ever  be
 achieved  under such an approach.

     Planning  and  action to  alleviate  metropolitan
 problems  of sewage collection, treatment,  and dis-
 posal can  be  handled  best  by a  single authority.
 Through  this  approach  efforts can be coordinated
 and directed most efficiently toward a set of con-
 sistent objectives.  This  reduces the possibility  of
 one city  inadvertently  solving its problems  at the
 expense of another. The  metropolitan approach can
 also be  economically  advantageous  since,  within
 limits, the  per capita investment  for the construc-
 tion  and  operation of  sewage treatment facilities
 decreases  as  the size of  the  facility  increases.
 Whether the best solution lies in the use of  one  or
 several plants is irrelevant; the important point  is
 that all sewage  facilities be planned as part of  an
 integrated  system encompassing the entire  metro-
 politan area.
    In the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area,
there  are approximately 80 communities.  The two
core cities  operate  a sanitary  district created  in
1933 to handle wastes  from Minneapolis, St. Paul,
and  those  adjacent outside  areas  which  might
contract  with  either of the two cities for sewage
disposal. To  date,  approximately  30 communities
have  contractual  arrangements with  them.  Plans
prepared  by  the  Minneapolis-St. Paul  Sanitary
District as required by Minnesota law,  to eventually
serve  the remaining  communities  has  met  with
resistance. The Minnesota Water Pollution Control
Commission has  approved the  engineering aspects
of these plans, considering them as an acceptable
solution  to the metropolitan sewage problem. Many
of the suburbs, however, have expressed opposition
to the plan, principally its financial aspects. Many
of these suburban communities wish to form separate
districts while others  are providing for their own
sewage disposal.

    There has  been an  increasing awareness  of
the need for  coordination in solving  the metro-
politan area sewage disposal problems on the part
of city, county, and State officials, civic leaders,
and  most  State  legislators.  Many of  them have
submitted proposals  but  unfortunately,  none have
been  fully accepted  by all the factions involved.
Several bills pertaining to the metropolitan problem
have been submitted to the legislature in previous
sessions. Some passed; others died in committee.
Although  little  progress  toward  a  solution has
actually been made, the concern shown  by these
activities offers a note  of optimism.

    The  investigators  feel  that all  communities
within  the  metropolitan  area  should  unify their
positions and  press for the establishment  of  an
overall   metropolitan  sanitary  authority.   This
authority should  control  all  plant  operations on a
unified basis  and  provide for the  coordination of
local policy in the development of  a regional water
strategy.  This authority should, however, fall under
the jurisdiction  of  the Minnesota   Water  Pollution
Control Commission.
                                                     22

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                          CONCLUSIONS
    Sewage and  industrial wastes  discharged  to
the Mississippi River from Minnesota cause pollution
in the  interstate  waters of the Mississippi River
which endangers the health and welfare of persons
in Wisconsin and,  therefore, is subject to abatement
under the provisions of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act.


    1.  The following  sources  of waste  water dis-
charged to the Mississippi during the period  of
investigation:
       Anoka Sewage Treatment Plant
       Minneapolis Water Treatment Plants
       NSP Riverside  Steam-Electric Generating
         Plant
       NSP High  Bridge Steam-Electric Generating
         Plant
       Minnesota  Harbor Service
       Twin City  Shipyard
       Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District Sewage
         Treatment Plant
       Swift and Company
       Union  Stockyards
       Armour and Company
       King Packing Company
       So. St. Paul Sewage Treatment Plant
       Newport Sewage Treatment  Plant
       Inver Grove Sewage Treatment Plant
       Northwestern Refining Company
       St. Paul Park Sewage Treatment Plant
       J. L. Shiely Company — Larson  Plant
       J. L. Shiely Company — Nelson  Plant
       General Dynamics—Liquid Carbonic Division
       St. Paul Ammonia Products Company
       Great Northern  Oil Company
       Northwest  Cooperative Mills
       Cottage Grove  S^wage Treatment Plant
       Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company
       Hudson Manufacturing Company
       Hastings Sewage Treatment Plant
       Prescott Sewage Treatment Plant
       S. B. Foot Tanning Company
       Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company
       Red Wing Sewage Treatment Plant
       NSP Red Wing  Steam-Electric  Generating
         Plant
       Lake City Sewage Treatment Plant
       Pepin Sewage Treatment Plant

     2. The following sources  of  waste  water dis-
 charged to the Minnesota River during  the  period
 of field investigation:
       Honeymead Products Company
       Mankato Sewage Treatment Plant
       Archer Daniels Midland Company
       Blue Cross Rendering Company
       NSP Wilmarth Power Plant
       Green Giant Company
       City of Henderson
       Minnesota Valley Milk Producers Coopera-
         tive Assoc.
       Chaska Sewage  Treatment Plant (includes
         Gedney Co. wastes)
       American Crystal Sugar Company
       Rahr Malting Company
       Shakopee Sewage Treatment Plant
       Owens-Illinois Forest Products
       American Wheaton Glass Company
       Savage Sewage Treatment Plant
       Minnesota Masonic Home
       Cargill, Inc.
       Twin City Shipyard
       Burnsville Sewage Treatment Plant
       NSP Blackdog Power Plant
       Cedar Grove Sewage Treatment Plant


    3. The following sources of waste  water dis-
charged to the St. Croix River  during the period of
investigation:
       St.  Croix Falls Sewage Treatment  Plant
       Taylors Falls Sewage Treatment Plant
       Osceola Sewage Treatment  Plant
       Stillwater Sewage Treatment Plant
       Andersen Window Company
                                                  23

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       Bayport Sewage Treatment Plant
       United Refrigerator Company
       Hudson Sewage Treatment Plant

    4. The  discharge  of  excessive  amounts  of
wastes  produced oxygen concentrations  below  5
mg/1 in the following stream reaches:

       a. Mississippi  River  between  the  Minne-
         apolis-St. Paul Sanitary District sewage
         treatment  plant and Lock and Dam No.  3
         (39.4 mile reach) during summer of 1964.

       b. Mississippi  River  between  the  Minne-
         apolis-St. Paul Sanitary District sewage
         treatment  plant and St. Croix River (25.0-
         mile reach) during the winter of 1964-1965.

       c. Minnesota River between Shakopee and its
         mouth (25.4-mile reach) during the summer
         of 1964.
    8. Ammonia nitrogen levels exceeded 2.0 mg/1
in the  Mississippi River between Lock & Dam No.
2 and  the  St. Croix River (3.9-mile  reach) during
the winter of 1964-1965.

    9. Ammonia nitrogen levels exceeded 1.0 mg/1
in the following stream reaches:

       a. Mississippi  River  between  the  Minne-
         apolis-St. Paul  Sanitary District  sewage
         treatment plant  and Lock  &  Dam No. 3
         (39.4-mile reach) during the period of the
         survey.

       b. Lower 15 miles  of the  Minnesota River
         during the winter of 1964-1965.

    10. Phenol levels  occasionally exceeded 0.01
mg/1  in a  20-mile  reach immediately  below the
Minneapolis-St. Paul   Sanitary  District  sewage
treatment plant.
       d. Minnesota River between  Chaska and its
         mouth (27.7-mile reach) during the winter
         of 1964-1965.

    5. The  discharge  of  excessive  amounts  of
wastes  produced oxygen concentrations  below  3
mg/1 in the following stream reaches:

       a, Mississippi River  between the  Minne-
         apolis-St. Paul Sanitary  District sewage
         treatment  plant and Lock & Dam  No.  2
         (21.1-mile  reach)  during  the summer of
         1964 and the winter of 1964-1965.

       b. Minnesota River between  Chaska and the
         mouth (27.7-mile reach) during the winter
         of 1964-1965.

    6. Minnesota River  temperatures exceeded  90
and  93°F  on occasion in  a  one-mile  reach im-
mediately below the  Northern States Power Compa-
ny's Blackdog steam-electric generating plant.

    7. The average turbidity exceeded 25 jackson
units  in the following  stream  reaches during the
summer of 1964:

       a. Mississippi River  between the  Minnesota
         River and the head of Lake  Pepin  (59.0-
         mile reach).

       b. Minnesota  River from some point  above
         Mankato (the  limit of the study area) to
         the mouth.
     11. The average concentration of the nutrients,
 inorganic nitrogen and  phosphorus,  exceeded  0.3
 (as N) and 0.03 (as P) mg/1, respectively, through-
 out the three major streams studied.

     12. Average coliform densities exceeded 1,000
 MPN/100 ml in the following stream reaches during
 all surveys:

       a. Mississippi River from some point above
          Anoka  (limit of study area) to Lake City.

       b. Minnesota River  from  some  point above
          Mankato (limit of study area) to the mouth.

     13. Average coliform densities exceeded 5,000
 MPN/100 ml in the following stream reaches during
 all surveys:

       a. Mississippi  River between  St. Anthony
          Falls and the  head  of Lake Pepin (70-
          mile reach).

       b. Minnesota River between the Blue Earth
          River at Mankato and  the  mouth (109.2-
          mile reach).

     14. Pathogenic bacteria  and  enteric  viruses
 were present in the following stream reaches:

       a. Mississippi  River between St. Paul  and
          Grey  Cloud Island  (10 miles  below  the
          Minneapolis-St.  Paul   Sanitary  District
          Plant).
                                                    24

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       b. Mississippi River immediately below Red
         Wing sewage treatment plant.

    15. Algae reached nuisance proportions  in the
following locations:

       a. Mississippi River's LakePepin in shallow
         areas along the shorelines.

       b. St. Croix River's Lake St. Croix in shallow
         areas along the shorelines.

    16. Bottom sediment consisted of a  mixture of
organic sludge and  sand in the following stream
reaches during 1964:

       a. Mississippi River between  Lock & Dam
         No. 1 and  the Minneapolis-St. Paul Sani-
         tary  District  sewage  treatment   plant
         (11.3-mile  reach).

       b. Mississippi River between  Lock &, Dam
         No. 2 and  the head of Lake Pepin (30-
         mile reach).

       c. Minnesota  River  along  a  five-mile reach
         immediately   below  the   Green  Giant
         Company (at LeSueur).
       d. Minnesota River between American Crystal
         Sugar Company (at Chaska) and the mouth
         (27.7-mile reach).


       e. All of Lake  St. Croix (lower 23 miles of
         the St. Croix River).
    17. Bottom sediment consisted almost solely of
organic sludge  in the  following  stream reaches
during 1964:


       a. Mississippi  River between  the  Minne-
         apolis-St. Paul Sanitary District sewage
         treatment plant and Lock &  Dam  No.  2
         (21.1 mile reach).


       b. All  of  Lake  Pepin (lower 22 miles of
         Mississippi River  under study).
    18. Fish caught in the lower 10  miles  of the
Minnesota River and in the  segment of Mississippi
River between South  St. Paul  and the  St. Croix
River had  lower levels of palatability  than  fish
caught elsewhere in the study  area.
                                                   25

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                       RECOMMENDATIONS
GENERAL

    River water quality shall be preserved or up-
graded,  as required, to permit  maximum use  and
full recreational enjoyment of the waters. Remedial
measures  necessary to attain this goal are given
in the recommendations. The recommendations are
given in two groups: General and specific.  General
recommendations  cover the  broad  objectives  of
pollution  abatement in the Project  area. Specific
recommendations  are   given  for  the  solution  of
particular problems and are offered in addition to,
not in place of, the general recommendations.
                                  These recommendations  represent the initial
                              phase  of a  long-range  and more  comprehensive
                              water resource development program for the entire
                              Upper  Mississippi  River  Basin.  They  apply to
                              problems needing immediate correction.

                                  Although  fertilization of the rivers and back-
                              water areas  is  undesirable, no  recommendations
                              are made  at  this time concerning the  installation
                              of  specialized  treatment  facilities  designed to
                              reduce nitrogen  and  phosphorus  compounds in the
                              waste effluents.  Operation of treatment  facilities
                              so as to optimize nutrient removal will reduce the
                              problem.
                RIVER SEGMENT
     FROM
 (RIVER MILE)
         TO
    (RIVER MILE)
 (MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM CONCENTRATIONS
          FOR ANY ONE SAMPLE)
   DO (Min.)               COLIFORM GUIDE
     mg/1                    (Maximum)l
Mississippi River
871.6 (Anoka)
836.3 (MSSD)
815.2 (L&D No. 2)

Minnesota River
109.2 (Mankato)
 30.0 (Chaska)

St. Croix River
 52.0 (Taylors Falls)
836.3 (MSSD)



815.2 (L&D No. 2)
763.5 (Chippewa River)


 30.0 (Chaska)



  0.0 (Mouth)



  0.0 (Mouth)
No deterioration
in present level
  (>5 mg/1)
       3
       5
No deterioration
in present level
  (>5 mg/1)
No deterioration
in present level
   (>5 mg/1)
A&C2
 B
 A
  B
                                  B
A&C
                         following pages for explanation of Coliform Guide.
                     ^Coliform Guide C applies to the segment between Anoka
                      and St. Anthony Falls, only.
                                                   26

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MUNICIPALITIES,
INSTITUTIONS,
AND  INDUSTRIES
General  Recommendations
     It is recommended that:
        Protection of Existing Water Quality

     1.  There  be no further decrease in quality of
 any of the waters within the Study Area (Mississippi
 River between Anoka, Minnesota and the outlet of
 Lake Pepin; Minnesota River in and below Mankato,
 Minnesota;  and St.  Croix River in  and below  St.
 Croix Falls, Wisconsin.)
           Enhancement of Water Quality

     2. Water quality  be enhanced as stipulated in
 the   remaining  recommendations  to  provide  the
 following dissolved oxygen and coliform levels in
 the  given segments of the Mississippi,  Minnesota,
 and  St. Croix  Rivers during  flows  equal to or
 greater than the 7-consecutive-day, once in 10-yeai
 summer and winder low flows.
 (Refer to Table on page 26),
the fecal streptococcus  count  is  not more  than
20/100  ml, and  provided  also that  there is proper
isolation  from   direct   fecal  contamination   as
determined by a  sanitary survey.
    The waters designated for whole body contact
use should be  maintained acceptable  for this  use
at least between May and October, inclusive. During
the remainder of the year when the weather is un-
suitable for  whole body contact activities,  these
waters should conform to Coliform Guide B.
    Coliform Guide B — Recreational, limited body
contact use and commercial shipping (barge traffic).
The water uses for which this guide is intended are
those that entail limited contact between the water
user  and the water.  Examples of such  uses are
fishing, pleasure boating, and commercial shipping.
Recommended guide value for  coliforms is 5,000/
100 ml. For all waters in which coliform levels are
below this  guide  value,  the  water is  considered
suitable for use, provided there is proper isolation
from direct fecal contamination as determined by a
sanitary survey.
 (1) Coliform Guides

     Coliform Guide A  — Recreational whole body
 use.  The water uses  for which this guide  is  in-
 tended  are  those  that  entail  total and  intimate
 contact of the whole body with the water. Examples
 of such use are swimming,  skin diving,  and water
 skiing,  in which the body is  totally immersed and
 some ingestion of the water may be expected.  The
 recommended guide value for coliforms is 1,000 per
 100 milliliters (1,000/100  ml). For all  waters in
 which coliform levels are below the guide  value of
 1,000/100  ml,  the  water  is considered  suitable
 provided there is proper isolation from direct fecal
 contamination as determined by a sanitary survey.
 Situations may arise wherein waters having coliform
 counts  somewhat higher than the guide  value can
 be used, provided supplemental techniques  are used
 to determine safe  bacterial quality. The  analysis
 for  fecal  streptococci  is  more  definitive  for
 determining the presence of organisms of intestinal
 origin,  and  is  suggested  as  the supplemental
 technique to  be  employed.  A  coliform  level of
 5,000/100 ml is considered satisfactory,  provided
    Coliform Guide C — Applies to municipal water
source.  Where municipal water treatment includes
complete  rapid-sand  filtration or  its equivalent,
together with continuous post-chlorination,  source
water may be considered acceptable if the coliform
concentration  (at  the  intake)  averages  not more
than 4,000/100 ml.

    If the foregoing water quality is assured, then
the water will  be suitable for the  following uses
in each of the given river segments.
                                                    27
                                                                                              GPO 829—375

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                            WATER USE

a.  Source of municipal water supply




b.  Maintenance of habitat for Group P fish
c. Whole body contact recreational activities
d. Maintenance of habitat for Group 11^ fish

e. Irrigation

f.  Stock and wildlife watering

g. Limited body contact recreational activities

h. Source of non-potable industrial process water

i.  Source of cooling water

j.  Commercial fishing

k.  Navigation

1.  Hydroelectric power generation

m.  Esthetic enjoyment

    3 & 4 See following for explanation of Group I and Group II fish.
                 RIVER SEGMENT

         Mississippi River:
            Anoka — St. Anthony Falls
         St. Croix River:
            Taylors Falls -  Mouth

         Mississippi River:
            Anoka - MSSD
            L&D No.  2 - Chippewa River
         Minnesota River:
            Mankato — Chaska
         St. Croix River:
            Taylors Falls -  Mouth

         Mississippi River:
            Anoka — Minnesota River
            L&D No.  2 - Chippewa River
         St. Croix River:
            Taylors Falls —  Mouth

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams

         All portions of three major streams
(3) Group I Fish — Are those  generally sought
after by sport fishermen and include but are not
limited to the following species: Walleyed Pike,
Sauger,  Northern Pike,  Black Crappie, White
Crappie, Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass,
Rock Bass,  White  Bass,  Bluegill,  Channel
Catfish,  Sturgeon,  Flathead   Catfish,  Green
Sunfish,   Pumpkinseed  Sunfish,  and Brown
Trout.
(4) Group II  Fish — Are those generally sought
after by commercial fishermen in this area and
include but are  not  limited to  the  following
species: Carp, Quillback, Sheepshead, Brown
Bullhead,  Bigmouth  Buffalo,  Northern  Carp-
sucker, Northern Redhorse,  Longnose  Gar,
Shortnose   Gar,  Bowfin,  Mooneye,   Gizzard
Shad, Common  Sucker, Spotted Sucker, Yellow
Bullhead,   Black Bullhead,   Golden  Shiner,
Perch, and River Sucker.
                                                     28

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          Treatment of Municipal Wastes
            Monitoring of Water Quality
    3. All  municipalities  and  other  institutions
discharging sewage to the rivers under investiga-
tion provide at least secondary biological treatment
plus continuous disinfection  of  the effluent.  This
treatment is to prbduce an effluent  containing  no
more than:

    a. 20 percent of the mass of 5-day  (20°C) BOD
       originally contained in the influent.

    b. 20 percent of the mass of suspended solids
       originally contained in the influent.

    c. 5,000 coliforms/100 ml (except where "d"
       applies).

    d. 1,000  coliforms/100 ml  between May and
       October, inclusive,  where receiving waters
       are used for whole  body  contact  activities
       (see preceding list).

    These  limits are  to be followed except  where
more  stringent ones  are  given in  the  specific
recommendations or  are required by  State  Water
Pollution Control agencies.
      Reports by Municipal Treatment Plants

     4. Municipal waste treatment plants maintain
at least the minimum laboratory control and records
as recommended by the  Conference of State Sanitary
Engineers  at their  38th Annual  Meeting in  1963
(See  Appendix).  In addition,  all   plants  should
maintain a record of chlorine feed rates and those
plants of 2 million gallons/day capacity,  or greater,
should provide  analyses for total and  fecal  coli-
forms on a once per week basis. Results of  labora-
tory tests  and  other pertinent records  should be
summarized monthly  and submitted  to the  appropriate
State agency  for  review  and evaluation.  These
records are to be maintained  in  open files of the
State agency  for use by all persons with a legiti-
mate interest.

                Phosphate Removal

     5. New waste treatment facilities be designed
to  provide  adequate capacity  of individual units
and components  as  well as maximum flexibility in
order to  permit  later  modification  in  operating
procedures  so as to effect  the greatest amount of
phosphate removal.  Existing plant facilities should
be operated so as to optimize phosphate removal.
     6. The  States  of  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin
establish a program of monitoring and  surveillance
in area waters for evaluating progress  in improve-
ment of stream quality resulting from implementation
of  actions  recommended  by  the  conferees.  The
FWPCA should establish monitoring stations where
appropriate on  portions of  the Mississippi  and
Minnesota  Rivers  within the State of Minnesota to
aid  in the  evaluation.  Water  quality  surveillance
activities should be coordinated and all information
made available to  the States,  the FWPCA,  and
other parties with  a legitimate interest.

         Bypassing and  Spilling of Wastes

     7. All present and future sewerage and sewage
treatment facilities be  modified or designed  and
operated to eliminate bypassing of untreated wastes
during normal  maintenance and  renovation opera-
tions.  The appropriate  State agency  (Minnesota
Water Pollution Control Commission or  Wisconsin
Department of  Resource  Development) is  to  be
contacted  for approval  prior  to  any expected by-
passing  of waste.  All  accidental  or emergency
bypassing   or  spillage  should   be  reported  im-
mediately.

              Pretreatment of Wastes

     8. Wastes  (such as sludge  from  the St.  Paul
water  treatment   plant)  which  discharge  into  a
municipal sewerage system be pretreated to avoid
any detrimental effect  on waste treatment operation.

            Protection Against Spillage

     9. Programs be developed by those responsible
for the facilities to prevent or minimize the adverse
effect  of accidental spills of oils, gases,  fuels,
and other material capable of causing pollution. The
elements of such programs should include:

     a. Engineering works such as catchment areas,
       relief vessels,  and dikes to trap spillage.

     b. Removal of all apilled materials in a manner
       acceptable to the regulatory agencies.

     c. Immediate  reporting (by  those  responsible
       for  the  facilities) of any  spills to the ap-
       propriate State  agency.

     d. In-plant  surveys and  programs  to prevent
       accidental  spills.
                                                     29

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      Combination Storm and Sanitary Sewers
                  Vessel Wastes
    10. Combined  storm and  sanitary  sewers  be
prohibited  in  all  newly developed  areas and  be
eliminated  in  existing areas wherever  opportunity
to do  so is  afforded by  redevelopment.  Present
combined sewers should be continuously  patrolled
and operated so as to convey the maximum possible
amount of combined flows to and through the waste
treatment  plant.  In  addition,  studies  to  develop
effective control of wastes from this source should
be continued by the MSSD  and should be initiated
by the  City of  South St.  Paul.  Although the im-
mediate problem is  a bacterial  one, both studies
should  also consider the  discharge of BOD and
solids.  Methods  to be used to control wastes from
combined  sewers  and a  time  schedule  for  their
accomplishment should be reported to the conferees
within  two  years after issuance of the  Conference
Summary.

          Treatment of Industrial Wastes

    11. All industries  discharging  wastes to the
rivers   under   investigation,   unless   otherwise
specified,  provide treatment sufficient  to  produce
an effluent  containing no more than  20 percent of
the mass  of  5-day  (20°C) BOD  and  suspended
solids originally contained  in the untreated process
waste.   Settleable  solids   and  coliforms  in  the
effluent are not to exceed the following:

    a.  Settleable solids - 5 ml/1

    b.  Coliforms  -  5,000/100 ml  (except where
       "c" applies)

    c.  Coliforms - 1,000/100  ml  between May and
       October,  inclusive,  where  receiving waters
       are  used  for  whole  body contact activities
       (see preceding list).

           Reporting of Industrial Wastes

     12. Industries discharging wastes to the waters
 maintain operating  records containing information
 on waste  discharge  rates and  concentrations  of
 constituents found in significant  quantities in their
 wastes.

     This  information should  be summarized and
 submitted to the appropriate State agency at monthly
 intervals for review and evaluation.  These records
 are  to  be  maintained  in  open files of  the  State
 agency for use by  all  persons  with a legitimate
 interest.
    13. All watercraft provide adequate treatment
on board or arrange  for suitable  on-shore disposal
of all  liquid and solid wastes.

            Garbage  and  Refuse Dumps

    14. Garbage or refuse not be dumped along the
banks  of the river and no open dumps  be allowed
on the flood plain. Material  in ^present  dump  sites
along  the river  banks should be  removed and the
appearance  of the bank restored  to an esthetically
acceptable  condition. Present open dumps  on the
flood  plain  should  be converted to sanitary  land-
fills operated acceptably to the appropriate  State
agencies.

            Upstream Bacterial Control

    15. Waste sources upstream from and outside
of the study area on the  Mississippi,  Minnesota,
and  St.  Croix  Rivers  and  their  tributaries  be
sufficiently controlled so that waters entering the
study  area conform  to  General  Recommendation
No. 2.

     Specific Recommendations  -
             Mississippi River
    Specific  recommendations   are   offered  in
addition  to,  and not  in  place  of,  the general
recommendations.

Municipal Sources

    It is recommended that:

     MSSD to South St. Paul  - Maximum BOD
         and Suspended  Solids Loadings

    1. Maximum waste  loadings  from all  sources
between  and  including  the  Minneapolis-St.  Paul
Sanitary  District and the  South St.  Paul Sewage
Treatment  Plants be  such  that  a  minimum dis-
solved oxygen content of  3.0 mg/1  can  be main-
tained during  the  7-consecutive-day,  once  in
10-year  low summer flow  in  the reach of  river
between  Mississippi River miles 836.4 and 815.2.
To  attain this, combined wastes loads from these
sources  should  not  exceed  68,500 pounds/day of
5-day   (20°C)  BOD,  exclusive of combined sewer
overflows.  Suspended  solids loadings  discharged
to this reach  (exclusive of  combined sewer  over-
flows) should  not  exceed  85,500 pounds/day  in
order to minimize sludge deposits.
                                                    30

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           Maximum Phenolic Loadings

    2. Maximum loadings  of phenolic wastes  from
the Minneapolis-St. Paul  Sanitary District sewage
treatment  plant, Northwestern  Refining  Co., Grea:
Northern Oil Co., and Minnesota  Mining and Manu-
facturing Co., all combined, not exceed 110 pounds/
day in order  to maintain  the stream concentration
of this  material under 0.01 mg/1 at stream flows
equal  to  or  greater  than the 7-consecutive-day,
once in 10-year low flow.

               Bypassing at MSSD

    3. An  engineering study  of  the  Minneapolis-
St.  Paul  Sanitary  District sewerage  system be
undertaken to determine what changes are required
to make unnecessary  the practice of bypassing
wastes  periodically for  the purpose of  cleaning
the inverted siphon under the Mississippi River.

                 Hastings Plant

    4. The BOD removal efficiency at the Hastings,
Minnesota  primary  sewage treatment  plant  be in-
creased from the 5 percent figure found during the
survey to a minimum of 30 percent until secondary
biological treatment facilities are in operation.

Industrial Sources

     It is recommended that:

 Water Treatment Plants of the City of Minneapolis

     1. Treatment facilities be provided capable of
producing an effluent with a suspended  solids con-
centration not exceeding that found in other treated
effluents  being discharged to the same  reach of
river.  At no time  should the  daily  average  sus-
pended solids concentration exceed 50 mg/1.

     The two water treatment plants of  the City of
Minneapolis discharge sand filter backwash water
to the  river  without  prior treatment.  Together the
two  plants discharge approximately  0.69 mgd of
backwash  water  having  an  average  suspended
solids concentration of 1,900 mg/1.

    Swift & Co., Armour & Co., and So. St. Paul
                 Union Stockyards

     2. The industries in the South St.  Paul area
 (Swift  & Company, Armour  & Company, and the
St.  Paul  Union  Stockyards) provide ar  effective
 method  of  control  and  correction  of  direct  dis-
 charges to the Mississippi  River. These include
 so-called  clean  waste  waters,  watering trough
overflows, truck washing wastes, surface drainage,
and hog  pen flushings. The  coliform densities of
any of these discharges  should  not exceed 5,000/
100 ml once the control devices are in operation.

           Northwest Cooperative Mills

    3. Additional treatment be provided to reduce
the suspended  solids concentrations of the com-
positing  pond effluent  to  substantially the same
levels found in other effluents being discharged to
the same reach of rjver after satisfactory treatment.
In no  instance should the daily average suspended
solids concentration exceed 50 mg/1.

    The   discharge  from  the  compositing pond
averages  46,000 gallons/day (gpd) and contains
about  420 mg/1 of suspended  solids.

             Foot  Tanning Company

    4. Any  additional  facilities  constructed  for
the company's  waste  produce  an  effluent of  a
quality  acceptable   to   the   Minnesota   Water
Pollution Control   Commission  (MWPCC)  and in
conformity with recommendations in  this  report.
The possibility  of discharging  the  settled  waste
to the Red Wing sewerage system in lieu  of addi-
tional treatment  should be considered and  a  report
on the conclusions  of such questions submitted to
the MWPCC.

    On April 1,  1966 the company submitted  to the
MWPCC  plans   and specifications  for  a  primary
clarifier  and a study plan for evaluating secondary
treatment methods.
     Specific Recommendations  -
             Minnesota  River

    Municipal Sources

         No specific recommendations.

    Industrial Sources

         It is recommended that:

              Green Giant Company
    1. An additional pump be provided for standby
purposes at the waste water sump for use when the
main  pump  fails. The sanitary  and miscellaneous
process wastes should be  handled  as specified by
General Recommendations 3 and  11.
                                                    31

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    This company had pump failures at the waste
water collection  sump  where  process waste  is
collected and  pumped to ridge and furrow  fields.
When pump  failure occurs, the waste is discharged
directly  to the river. Some sanitary  and  miscellane-
ous process wastes are discharged directly to the
river without treatment as a normal practice
  American Crystal Sugar Co. and Rahr Malting Co.
   Maximum  BOD and Suspended Solids Loadings

    2. Maximum waste loadings from  all sources
between and including  the American  Crystal Sugar
Co.  and  the  Rahr Malting Co.  be  such that  a
minimum dissolved oxygen content of 3.0 mg/1 can
be maintained during  the  7-consecutive-day,  once
in 10-year low  winter flow in the  reach of  river
between Minnesota River  miles 29 and 0. To attain
this,  combined  waste  loads  from  these sources
should  not  exceed  12,000  pounds/day of 5-day
(20°C) BOD  during winter when there is no ice
cover in the vicinity of the Blackdog power plant.
At times of complete ice cover, the maximum waste
loading of 5-day (20°C)  BOD from  these sources
should not exceed 6,500 pounds/day.  In no case,
however, should treatment efficiency  be less than
that specified  in the General Recommendations.

  Northern States Power Company Blackdog Plant

    3. A  water temperature  of  not  greater  than
90°F  be maintained in the lower Minnesota River.
To attain  this,  the existing  cooling pond should
be utilized to  its fullest  extent during the summer
at stream  flows less  than  1500  cfs.  During these
periods the  thermal  addition  to  the  Minnesota
River  should  not  exceed  13.5  billion BTU/day.


    Specific  Recommendations -
            St.  Croix River

    Municipal Sources

        No specific recommendations.

    Industrial Sources

        No specific recommendations.

FEDERAL INSTALLATIONS

    Federal installations  contribute  less  than 0.1
percent of the pollution  entering the  three major
streams studied. Although their contributions are
small, full consideration  is still given  to Federal
installations, in compliance with Section 11 of the
Federal Water Pollution  Control  Act as amended
(33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.)

                U.  S.  Army  -
      Nike Missile  Installations

    General Recommendations
         It is recommended that:

     1. A minimum of one hour per  day  be  devoted
to proper treatment, plant operation and maintenance.

     2. The  treatment facilities be operated such
that  removal efficiencies approach those for which
the plants were designed.

     3. Laboratory analyses and  records  mainten-
ance consistent with recommendations of the Con-
ference of State Sanitary Engineers  for plants  of
0.25 mgd capacity be carried out.  A report of these
functions, including  results of analyses, are to be
furnished  to the Federal Water Pollution  Control
Administration upon  request.

     Specific Recommendations

        Nike Site No. 20, Roberts, Wisconsin

             No specific recommendations.

        Nike Site No. 40, Farmington, Minnesota

             It is recommended that:

    1. Discharge of  effluent to the roadside ditch
be terminated as soon  as possible.  The  present
outfall sewer line  should be  extended  so as  to
discharge the  effluent   into  the  unnamed creek
which at present ultimately receives the waste.

    2. Continuous chlorination facilities be acti-
vated immediately with disinfection  sufficient  to
produce a free  chlorine  residual of 0.5  mg/1 after
a 15  minute contact at peak flow rates.

        Nike Site No. 70, St. Bonifacius, Minnesota

            No specific recommendations.

        Nike Site No. 90, Bethel, Minnesota

             It  is  recommended  that continuous
        chlorination  facilities be activated  im-
        mediately with  disinfection  sufficient to
                                                  32

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   produce a free  chlorine residual of 0.5
   mg/1  after  a 15 minute contact at peak
   flow rates.

         U.  S. Air  Force -
    Air  Defense  Command

    Osceola, Wisconsin Station

        It  is  recommended  that  a  schedule of
    maintenance practices be instituted consistent
    with   accepted   procedures  for operation of
    oxidation ponds so as to insure satisfactory
    treatment.
  U. S. Army  Corps of  Engineers

    Locks and Dams

        It is recommended that:

    1. Present  plans   be   continued  concerning
improvement or  replacement  of inadequately sized
treatment facilities.
    2. At  stream  flows  of  7,000  cubic  feet per
second (cfs) or less (as  measured  at the  St. Paul
gage), as much water as possible  be passed over
bulkheads before the Taintor gates  at Lock & Dam
No. 2. At flows of  3,000 cfs or less, the equivalent
of the inflow to Pool No. 2 should  be passed over
the bulkheads.

    Floating Dredge Thompson

        It is recommended that a planned schedule
    of analyses be continued  on effluent  from the
    waste  treatment  facilities  so as to  insure
    adequate removals prior to overboard discharge
    of effluent.

             U.  S.  Air  Force -
     934th  Troop  Carrier Group

    Officers Club

        It is recommended that the present  single
    compartment septic tank  be  changed to a two
    compartment tank. A subsurface tile  field of
    adequate size should be  installed  to supple-
    ment the present field.
                                            33

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       SCHEDULE  FOR REMEDIAL  PROGRAM
MUNICIPALITIES,
INSTITUTIONS,
AND INDUSTRIES
    In light of the excellent progress the MWPCC
has made  in making various industrial firms and
municipalities  aware  of the need for  abatement
facilities,  the following time schedule for the fore-
going remedial program is recommended.  The time
periods given commence with the issuance of the
Conference Summary  by  the  Secretary  of the
Interior.

    a. Submission of preliminary plans for remedial
      facilities within 6 months.

    b. Submission  of  final  design for  remedial
      facilities within 12 months.

    c. Financing  arrangements  for municipalities
      completed  and  construction started within
       18 months.

    d. Construction  completed and plants placed
      into operation within 36 months.

    e. Existing schedules  of the  State  agencies
      calling for earlier completion dates are to
      be met.
FEDERAL INSTALLATIONS

    Schedules  for Federal installations requiring
only operational and maintenance changes shall be
initiated immediately. Changes  required  at Nike
Site No.  40 and  the Ft.  Snelling  Officers Club
should  be  completed and made operational within
6 months.
SCHEDULE MODIFICATIONS
    It is  recognized that  modifications  in this
 schedule may be necessary. These  may include:

    a. A lesser  time  where  the  control  agency
       having jurisdiction considers  that  a prac-
       tical method of control can be in operation
       prior to the time stated.

    b. In a few industries and municipalities some
       variation from this schedule may be sought
       from the appropriate State and local pollution
       control agencies. In such cases after review
       the conferees may make appropriate recom-
       mendations to the Secretary of the  Depart-
       ment of the Interior.
  GPO 829-375-6
                                              34

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APPENDIX
    35

-------
                                               TABLE 1
                                SUMMARY OF FEDERAL INSTALLATIONS
            FACILITY
TYPE OF TREATMENT
            FINAL DISPOSAL
U.S. Air Force
  Osceola Air Force Station
  934th Troop Carrier Group
    Officers Club
Secondary
Primary
Ground
Marsh area near Minnesota River
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
  Upper St. Anthony Falls
  Lower St. Anthony Falls
  Lock & Dam No.  1
  Lock & Dam No.  2
  Lock & Dam No.  3

U.S. Army
  Nike Site No. 90
    Administration Site
    Launch Site
    Dog Kennels
  Nike Site No. 70
    Administration Site
    Launch Site
    Dog Kennels
  Nike Site No. 40
    Administration-Launch Site
    Radar Control Site
    Dog Kennels
  Nike Site No. 20
    Administration Site
    Launch Site
    Dog Kennels
  Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant
    Cooling & Storm Water
    Zeolite Softener Backwash Water
    Other Wastes
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Primary
Primary

Secondary
Primary
Primary

Secondary
Primary
Primary

Secondary
Primary
Primary

None
None
  (to municipal system)
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Tributary to Rum River
Ground
Ground

Slough
Ground
Ground

Unnamed Creek
Ground
Ground

Pond
Ground
Ground

Round Lake (Company Owned)
Rice Creek (Tributary on Mississippi River)

-------
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-------
                    EXCERPTS FROM
           "RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MINIMUM
           PERSONNEL, LABORATORY CONTROL
AND RECORDS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT WORKS"
                         BY

       The Conference of State Sanitary Engineers
                   in cooperation with
   U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
                  Public Health Service
                        1963
                         36

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PLANT CAPACITY  0.25 MGD

    Laboratory  Control

        In a plant of this size, the operator shoulc
        conduct the following tests:
        (1) Settleable solids (Imhoff Cone) once or
           twice a week using grab samples. The
           grab samples should.be taken at a time
           of representative flow and should re-
           flect vary ing days of the week and hours
           of the day.

        (2) Relative  stability   (methylene  blue)
           daily, Monday through Friday.

        (3) Chlorine residual of  effluent daily,
           Monday  through  Friday;  twice  daily
           when stream conditions require.

        (4) For  activated sludge plants, in addi-
           tion to the  above tests,  sludge  index
           tests  daily  and  a  colorimetric  dis-
           solved oxygen test weekly.


Records

    Usually  personnel  and  time  limitations  will
permit the  keeping of  only minimal records.  How-
ever,  two types of records  should  be kept:  (1)  a
diary-type log showing  a necessarily  wide variety
of useful and  important information  such as un-
usual  maintenance  work,  failure of  a  piece  of
equipment,  accidents,  unusual  weather, flooding,
bypassing,  complaints,  visitors,  etc;  and  (2)  a
tabular record showing the  observation or results
of each  laboratory test  made and other available
measured data  such  as plant  flow,  volume  of
sludge,  or   time  sludge  pumped.  Emphasis  is
placed here on the need for the operator to  record
the data available to him with strict regularity and
in a form best suited to his schedule.

PLANT CAPACITY 0.5  MGD

    Laboratory Control

         For  a plant other  than activated sludge
         the  following  tests, should be conducted:

         (1) Settleable  solids (Imhoff  Cone) daily,
            Monday  through  Friday.  Tests should
            be made at varying hours during  the
            day.
        (2) Relative  stability  (methylene  blue)
           daily,  Monday  through  Friday.  Tests
           should be made at varying hours  during
           the day.

        (3) Colorimetric  pH  of raw  waste  water
           occasionally.

        (4) Chlorine  residual  of  effluent  daily;
           twice  daily  when stream  conditions
           require.

        (5) Total   solids  of  digested  sludge
           occasionally and  when the sludge  is
           drawn to the drying beds.

        (6) pH of digested sludge occasionally and
           when the sludge is drawn  to the  drying
           beds.

        For an activated sludge plant  the following
        tests should be conducted:

        (1) Settleable  solids  (Imhoff  Cone)  daily.

        (2) Relative  stability  (methylene  blue)
           daily.

        (3) Sludge index daily.

        (4) Mixed  liquor dissolved oxygen (colori-
           metncally) daily.

        (5) Sludge depth measurements in primary
           and secondary settling tanks daily.

        (6) pH of  digested sludge when sludge  is
           drawn.

        (7) Total  solids of digested  sludge when
           sludge is drawn.

Records

    A  diary  should be kept  similar to the 0.25
MGD plant, but with a full-time operator it  should
be more comprehensive. Regularity is emphasized.

    The laboratory control record also  is slightly
more  detailed  because  of  the  additional tests
specified  and with a full-time operator should be
maintained with  ease.  Consultation with  State
regulatory   agency   representatives,  university
personnel, and/or other experienced personnel, and
attendance at short courses in his State will  assist
the operator  to establish  and maintain  suitable
                                                   37
                                                                                             GPO 829-375-4

-------
records.  These  records  should
complete for the items specified.
be accurate  and
PLANT  CAPACITY  1.0 MGD

    Laboratory Control

        For primary and trickling filter  plants the
        following tests are specified:


        (1) Settleable  solids (Imhoff Cone) daily.

        (2) Relative  stability  (methylene  blue)
            daily.

        (3) BOD's of raw waste, final effluent, and
           of such other components as possible
           once  a week and  preferably  twice  a
           week.  Samples should be 3-hour com-
           posites  taken  at  11 arm.,   12 noon,
           and 1 p.m.

        (4) Suspended  solids  of raw waste,  final
           effluent and of such other components
           as possible once a week and preferably
           twice a week. Samples should be 3-hour
           composites taken at 11 a.m., 12 noon,
           and 1 p.m.

        (5) pH of  digested sludge when drawn or
           when   operating difficulties  are  ex-
           perienced or anticipated.

        (6) Total solids of digested sludge when
           drawn  or when operating difficulties
           are experienced or anticipated.

        (7) DO of  receiving stream at least twice
           a week  above and below the plant dis-
           charge.

        (8) Chlorine residuals  of effluent daily;
           twice daily, when  stream  conditions
           require.

        For activated sludge plants the following
        tests are specified:

        (1) Settleable solids  (Imhoff Cone) daily.

        (2) Relative stability   (methylene  blue)
           daily.
        (3) BOD's  of  raw waste,  final effluent,
           and of such other components as pos-
           sible  twice a week. Samples should be
           3-hour composites taken at 11 a.m., 12
           noon,  and 1 p.m.

        (4) Suspended solids of raw waste,  mixed
           liquor, and final effluent once a  week.
           Samples should be 3-hour composites
           taken at 11 a.m.,  12 noon, and 1 p.m.

        (5) pH of digested sludge when drawn or
           when   operating  difficulties  are  ex-
           perienced or anticipated.

        (6) Total  solids  of digested  sludge when
           drawn or when operating difficulties
           are experienced or anticipated.

        (7) Depth of sludge  in  primary and final
           settling tanks daily.

        (8) Sludge index  daily.

        (9) Dissolved  oxygen  (colorimetric)  of
           mixed liquor daily.

       (10) DO of receiving stream at least twice
           a  week above  and below the  plant
           discharge.

       (11) Chlorine  residual  of  effluent  daily;
           twice  daily,   when stream  conditions
           require.

Records

    For a plant of this size considerable care and
technical competence is required in assembling and
recording  the  data.  Included in the  supervision
be the  understanding and  patience needed to inter-
pret the control procedure carried on.  To establish
and maintain adequate records, some guidance will
be  needed from  State  regulatory  agency  repre-
sentatives,  university  personnel,   and/or  other
experienced individuals,


PLANT CAPACITY 5.0 MGD

    Laboratory Control

        Following are recommended test procedures
        for plants other  than activated  sludge:

        (1) Settleable solids daily.
                                                  38

-------
 (2) Relative stability daily.
        (7) Sludge index daily on each shift.
 (3) Dissolved oxygen of raw waste, efflu-
    ent  and receiving  stream  above  and
    below  the plant  discharge  5  days per
    week.

 (4) pH of  raw waste and effluent  5  days
    per week.

 (5) BOD's  of raw waste and effluents  3
    times  per week  on  24-hour composite
    samples.

 (6) Suspended solids  of raw  waste  and
    effluents 3 times per week on 24-hour
    composite samples.

 (7) pH of  digested  sludge when  drawn or
    as necessary to  control digester opera-
    tion.

 (8) Total  and  volatile  solids of digested
    sludge when  drawn or as necessary to
    control digester  operation.

 (9) Volatile acids of digested sludge when
    drawn   or  as   necessary  to  control
    digester operation.

(10) Chlorine  residual  of  effluent daily,
    twice  daily  when  stream  conditions
    require.

 For  activated sludge  plants  the  recom-
 mended test  procedures  are as follows:

 (1) Settleable solids daily.

 (2) Relative stability  or nitrates  5  days
    perweek on 24-hourcomposite samples.

 (3) Dissolved oxygen of raw waste, efflu-
    ent  and receiving  stream  above  and
    below  discharge  5 days per  week.

 (4) pH  of  raw  waste and  final  effluent
    daily.

 (5) BOD's  of raw waste and  effluents  5
    days per week on 24-hour composites.

 (6) Suspended solids  of raw  waste  and
    effluents  5  days per  week  on  com-
    posite samples.
        (8) Mixed  liquor  DO (colorimetric) daily
           on each shift.

        (9) Sludge  depth  in  primary  and  final
           settling tanks daily on each shift.

       (10) pH  of  digested  sludge when drawn or
           as needed to control digester operation.

       (11) Total and  volatile solids of digested
           sludge  when  drawn  or  as  needed to
           control digester operation.

       (12) Volatile acids of digested sludge when
           drawn or as needed  to control digester
           operation.

       (13) Chlorine  residual of  effluent  daily,
           twice  daily when  stream  conditions
           require.


Records

    The size of this  plant  makes  it desirable to
keep  daily  records  of all  operations — many of
them  on  a  shift  basis. With  a full-time  super-
intendent and a staff  of trained men, including  a
chemist in an activated sludge  plant, there  should
be  no difficulty  in maintaining the  records  in  a
highly competent manner. The specified personnel
should  assure  the interpretation and use  of the
control  information  in  such  a  way as  to  obtain
the maximum treatment efficiency.

    Since this  falls in  the large  plant category
there  may be considerable flexibility in  the  form of
records and  various control procedures.  In addition
to the  recorded laboratory  control  and  diary-type
log information, this plant  may need to record  a
number of other determinations. Some of these might
include alkalinity,  ORP, heavy  metals,  or  certain
components   indicative   of   particular  industrial
waste problems.

    There are  frequent needs  to record other in-
formation which contributes markedly to the  control
procedure. Some of these data include the following:

         (1) Weather  and  wind  direction   in  the
            event of odor problems.

         (2) In  addition  to  the  raw  waste  flow,  a
            record  of bypassing.
                                             39
                                                                                         GPO 829—375-3

-------
         (3) Amount of course  solids handled;  i.e.,
             grit screening, dried  sludge  hauled
             from  beds,  or sludge  removal  from
             digesters.

         (4) Primary  and  secondary settling  tank
             cleanup — hours of hosing or skimming
             and/or maintenance, etc.

         (5) Trickling filter maintenance —  nozzle
             cleaning, dosing or recirculating pump
             operation, humus   sludge  pumping  to
             primary tanks,  etc.

         (6) Activated sludge operation— air volume
             and blower operation, volume of  sludge
             return and waste, replacement or clean-
             ing diffusers, etc.

         (7) Sludge handling— in addition to volume
             of  sludge pumped  and  time, such in-
             formation as  amount of recirculation or
             transfer of digested sludge, gas mixing,
             supernatant  withdrawal, final  sludge
             to  drying beds or  filters,  disposal  of
             sludge from beds,  conditioning  chemi-
             cals for filters, incineration,  etc.

     Records of the above  operations  may oe  kept
 in  a form  most convenient to  the superintendent.
 Because  of the wide  variation in  plants  of  this
 size and individual needs, the way these records
 are kept will vary considerably.
PLANT CAPACITY 10.0 MGD
(or  larger)*

     Laboratory Control
          Required test procedures for plants other
      than activated sludge are:

          (1) Settleable solids daily.

          (2) Relative stability daily.

          (3) Dissolved   oxygen  of  raw   waste,
             effluent and receiving stream  above
             and below discharge 5  days per week.

          (4) pH  of  raw waste  and  effluent  daily.
 (5) BOD's  of  raw waste and  effluents
    daily,  Monday through Friday, based
    on 24-hour composite samples.

 (6) Suspended  solids  of  raw waste  and
    effluents daily, Monday through Friday,
    based  on 24-hour  composite samples.

 (7) pH  of  digested sludge when drawn  or
    as needed to control digester operation.

 (8) Total and  volatile solids  of digested
    sludge  when  drawn  or as  needed  to
    control digester operation.

 (9) Volatile acids of digested sludge when
    drawn or as needed to control digester
    operation.

(10) Chlorine residuals of effluent daily,
    twice  daily  when stream conditions
    require.
For an activated sludge plant the required
test procedures are:

(1) Settleable solids daily.

(2) Relative stability or nitrates daily  on
   24-hour composite samples.

(3) Dissolved  oxygen of raw  waste,  final
   effluent and receiving stream above and
   below discharge 5 days per week.

(4) pH of raw waste and final effluent daily.

(5) BOD's of  raw  waste  and effluents
   daily, Monday through Friday,  on 24-
   hour  composite samples.

(6) Suspended  solids  of  raw waste and
   final  effluents  daily,  Monday  through
   Friday, on 24-hour composite samples.

(7) Sludge  index daily  on  each  shift.
   Solids should be  determined  in  con-
   junction with the BOD and  suspended
   solids determinations.

(8) Mixed liquor DO  (colorimetric)  daily
   on each  shift.
 *Note enclosed  in parentheses has been  added by
  the Twin Cities-Upper Mississippi River Project.
 (9) Sludge  depth  in  primary  and  final
    settling tanks daily on each shift.
                                                    40

-------
       (10) pH of digested sludge when drawn or
            as needed to control digester operation.

       (11) Total  and volatile  solids  of digested
            sludge when drawn  or as  needed to
            control digester operation.

       (12) Volatile acids of digested sludge when
            drawn or  as needed to  control digester
            operation.

       (13) Chlorine   residual  of  effluent  daily,
            twice  daily  when  stream  conditions
            require.

Records

    The  comments on records for the 5.0  MGD
plant  also  apply  to the  10.0  MGD plant. The ad-
ministrative  personnel should  select  the  record
style  best suited  to  their  specific  needs.  Many
more items of control  data  also  may be desirable,
based  on  the  superintendent's  judgment  and  on
special conditions.

    With a larger  staff the  10.0 MGD  plant may  be
able to  carry   on special  projects  beyond  that
possible in the  smaller plants. Such  projects may
include special studies  on  industrial  wastes  or
operational research projects. These  projects may
result  in  published  information  which   can  be
valuable to many others with similar problems.

    A  plant  of  this size normally is expected  to
produce  an  annual   operating  report  containing
comprehensive records of the year's activities and
performance.  This procedure  enables  the super-
intendent  to  transform  the daily  records into sum-
many and  unusual information which is  quite help-
ful to others.
                                                     41
                                                                                             GPO 829—375—2

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President Johnson said:
     "No one has a right  to  use America's  rivers  and
America's waterways that belong  to all  the people as
a sewer.  The banks of a river may belong to one man  or
one industry or one state, but the waters which flow
between those banks should belong to all  the people."

-------