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                            ADDENDA AND ERRATA

 Population Equivalent

     One population  equivalent  (PE)  is defined as the  discharge  of  1/6
 pound  of 5-day,  20°C,  biochemical  oxygen  demand  (BOD)  per  day.   Thus  a
 daily  discharge  having an  oxygen-consuming capacity (BOD)  of  10,000
 pounds has a  PE  of 60,000.

 Washwater at  Chicago Water Filtration  Plants

     Washwater from  the South District Filtration Plant  is reported to
 be chlorinated and discharged to the Lake from a 48-inch pipe at the  south
 end  of the plant.  Settling tank sludge is discharged  to a 10-inch  pipe ex-
 tending 3»600 feet into the Lake.  Washwater  and settling  tank sludge from
 the  Central District Filtration Plant  is  reported to "be  discharged  to a
 7-foot pipe extending  3,000 feet into  the Lake.

 Page k,  delete  fourth full paragraph.  Substitute  the following:
         "One company  discharges industrial wastes  into  Wolf  Lake in
         Indiana, causing  fish kills in a portion of the lake, and
         tainting the  flesh of game  fish  in Wolf Lake."

 Page 4,  last two lines.  Delete last  two lines  and substitute the  following:
         "Sewage and industrial wastes discharged to the Little  Calumet
         River,  Grand  Calumet River, and  Wolf Lake  in  Indiana cause
         pollution of  these waters in..."

 Page 19, after third full paragraph, insert the  following:
         "As  stated  above,  some combined  sewer overflows are  conveyed to
         the water courses  by pumping.  One of the  pumping stations oper-
         ated by the Metropolitan Sanitary District, located  at  95th  Street
         near the Calumet River, at  times discharges combined sewage  to
         the  river through  the Howard  Slip, about one  river mile from Calumet
         Harbor.  This discharge will  reach Lake Michigan  if  the Calumet
         River flow  is toward the Lake at the time  of  discharge.  Since
         the pumping takes  place during severe storms, it  is  likely to
         coincide with river flow toward  the Lake.  This overflow is  likely
         to contain  coking  wastes from steel plants located on the
         Calumet River.  Pumping to  the Calumet River  from 95th  Street
         Pumping Station is confined to severe storm periods  and has  varied
         from 2 to 100 hours per year.  Pumping records  are available
         from the Sanitary  District.  The pumping station  outfall is
         located between the O'Brien Lock and Lake Michigan,  and will
         therefore continue to discharge  to the Lake during flow reversals,
         even after  the O'Brien Lock is put into operation."

Page 22, third full  paragraph.  Delete the last sentence and  substitute:
         "Tainting of the flesh of game fish caught in Wolf Lake has
         been reported."

Table VI-5a,   After U.S. Steel So. Works, Chicago, Illinois insert
              "210MGD."
                             Region V,  Library
                             230 South  r>2-, \. \-~a  Street
                             ct v---.-,, :;•'.;   •    i

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                   REPORT OH
      POLLUTION OF THE WATERS OF THE GRAND
  CALUMET RIVER, LITTLE CALUMET RIVER, CALUMET
       RIVER, LAKE MICHIGAN, WOLF LAKE AND
                THEIR TRIBUTARIES
               ILLINOIS - INDIANA
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
              Public Health Service
 Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control
                    Region V
               Chicago, Illinois

                 February, 1965
              C^ie^o, I^-oid  60606

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VMV.

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                               Page No.

I     SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS                                      1

II    FOREWORD                                                     6

III   BACKGROUND                                                   7

IV    THE AREA                                                     8
           Cities and Industries                                   8
           Stream System                                           8
           Flow Reversal in Calumet River                          9

V     WATER USES                                                  12
           Municipal Water Supply                                 12
           Industrial Water Supply                                12
           Waterborne Commerce                                    12
           Recreation                                             13
           Esthetics                                              1^
           Waste Disposal and Assimilation                        1^

VI    SOURCES OF WASTES                                           l6
           Municipal Wastes                                       l6
           Combined Sewer Overflows                               18
           Industrial Wastes                                      19
           Federal Installations                                  22
           Bulk Storage Areas and Barges                          23
           Vessel Pollution                                       23

VII   LAKE CURRENTS                                               25
           General Considerations                                 25
           Relationship to Municipal Water Supplies               26

VIII  EFFECTS OF WASTES ON WATER QUALITY AND WATER USES           28
           Water Quality Criteria                                 28
           Calumet Area Streams                                   30
           Lake Michigan                                          31*-

IX    CORRECTIVE ACTION NEEDED                                    1*5

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                          LIST OF TABLES

Table Ho.                         Title

  V-l        Industrial Water Supplies in the Calumet Area

  VI-1       Sources of Municipal Wastes, Lake Michigan Basin

  VI-2       Sources of Municipal Wastes, Illinois River Basin

  VI-3       Sources of Industrial Wastes, Lake Michigan Basin

  VI-k       Sources of Industrial Wastes, Illinois River Basin

  VI-5       Quantities of Industrial Wastes, Lake Michigan Basin

  Vl-b       Quantities of Industrial Wastes, Illinois River Basin

  VI-7       Public Health Service Grants for Construction of Waste
             Treatment Facilities

  VTII-1     Summary of Raw Water Problems, Chicago South District
             Filtration Plant

  VIII-2     Organic Concentrations at Chicago and Vicinity Water
             Intakes

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                         LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No.                      Title
  IV-1         Chicago and Calumet Area Drainage and Municipal Water Supplies
  IV-2         Location Map, Calumet Area
  V-l          Beaches, Water-Oriented Parks, & Marinas, Calumet Area
  VT-1         Principal Sources of Industrial Wastes
  VI-2         Principal Sources of Oxygen-Demanding Wastes
  VI-3         Principal Sources of Ammonia Nitrogen
  VI-^         Principal Sources of Phenolics
  VI-5         Principal Sources of Cyanide
  VT-6         Principal Sources of Oil
  VII-1        Generalized Water Movement
  VII-2        Generalized Water Movement
  VII-3        Generalized Long-Term Movements
  Vll-^t-        Current Patterns in Calumet Harbor
  VIII-1       Bottom Organisms, Little Calumet & Calumet Rivers
  VIII-2       Coliform Densities, Grand Calumet River
  VIII-3       Coliform Densities, Little Calumet River
  VIII-U       5-Day BOD, Little Calumet River
  VIII-5       5-Day BOD, Grand Calumet River
  VIII-6       Dissolved Oxygen, Little Calumet River
  VIII-7       Dissolved Oxygen, Grand Calumet River
  VIII-8       Bottom Organisms, Southwest Lake Michigan
  VIII-9       Coliform Densities at Beaches
  VIII-10      Phenols in Lake Michigan

  VIII-11      Phenols in Lake Michigan
  VIII-12      Ammonia Nitrogen in Lake Michigan
  VIII-13      Ammonia Nitrogen in Lake Michigan

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                     I - SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
     On the "basis of reports, surveys, or studies, in accordance with
section 8 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. ^66 et
seq.), Secretary Anthony J. Celebreeze of the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, on December 15 > 19*& called a conference in the
matter of pollution of the interstate waters of the Grand Calumet River,
Little Calumet River, Calumet River, Lake Michigan, Wolf Lake and their
tributaries (Indiana-Illinois),

     "Hie Calumet Area at the south end of Lake Michigan in Illinois and
Indiana includes the Calumet River system and the affected waters of
Lake Michigan.  Although poorly drained, it lies astride a continental
divide, with about kO per cent of the area draining to the Illinois
River and thence to the Mississippi River, and about 60 per cent of the
area draining to Lake Michigan and the St. Lawrence River.  Most of the
streams and ditches are sluggish or stagnant, and some of the streams,
particularly the Calumet River in Chicago, experience alternating direc-
tions of flow.

     The western parts of the Little Calumet and Grand Calumet Rivers
flow from Indiana into Illinois.  Wolf Lake is an interstate lake lying
on the Illinois-Indiana state line.  The state line extends northward
from the shoreline into Lake Michigan, passing within one-third mile of
the mouth of the Calumet River in Chicago, and turns east at a point
about ijf miles north of the Calumet Harbor breakwater.

     The currents in Lake Michigan are also subject to reversal of flow.
Under most conditions the direction of flow is from Indiana waters to
Illinois waters, but flow from Illinois to Indiana waters is also common.

     The area is highly industrialized, and the industries are expanding
production rapidly.  There are ten major steel mills, five petroleum
refineries, and several chemical, paper, and food processing industries
in the area.

     Lake Michigan is used as a source of municipal water supply.  The
City of Chicago pumps about 10^0 million gallons daily (mgd) and serves
a population of about H,1»00,OOQ.  The cities of Gary, Hammond, East
Chicago, and Whiting in Indiana pump about 62 mgd and serve a popula-
tion of about 375*000.  Lake Michigan is also used as the major source
of industrial process and cooling water in the area, and as a source of
condenser water for power plants.  Lake Michigan and its harbors in the
area handle about 60 million tons of cargo annually, of which three-
fourths is iron ore and related materials for the steel industry.

     Lake Michigan and Wolf Lake are heavily used for recreational
activities such as swimming, boating, water skiing, and fishing.  They
also receive direct discharges of industrial wastes.

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     The Grand Calumet River is used to a minor extent as an industrial
water source.  Its main use is as a receiver of municipal and industrial
wastes.  The Indiana Harbor Canal is used extensively for navigation and
as a receiver of industrial wastes.  The waters of the Grand Calumet River
and the Indiana Harbor Canal are unfit for any recreational activity.

     The Calumet River and the navigable portion of the Little Calumet
River are used for navigation, industrial water supplies, receipt of
municipal and industrial wastes, and recreational boating.  A large
number of parks, golf courses, and forest preserves are located along
the banks of the Little Calumet River.  The Cook County Forest Preserve
District has not developed picnic areas along the Little Calumet River
because of its polluted condition.

     Municipal sewage and industrial wastes, treated to varying degrees,
are the principal pollutional materials discharged continuously into the
waters of the Calumet Area.  Other wastes discharged intermittently may
have serious local effects or may cause temporary excassive pollution.
Among these wastes are accidental spills from storage tanks and barges,
combined sewer overflows, wastes from lake vessels, barge tows, and
pleasure craft, and materials from dredging operations.

     The total oxygen demand of municipal and industrial waste as dis-
charged in the Calumet Area is about 1,150,000 population equivalent (PE)
of which 80 per cent is discharged in the Lake Michigan Basin and 20 per
cent is discharged in the Illinois River Basin.  Seventy per cent of the
waste discharged in the Illinois River Basin is from municipal sources
and 30 per cent is from industrial sources.  In contrast, only 5 P«r
cent of the waste discharged in the Lake Michigan Basin is from municipal
sources, and 95 per cent is from industrial sources.

     The principal deficiencies in municipal waste disposal in the Calumet
Area are the general lack of effluent disinfection, the prevalence of
combined sewer systems that cause the discharge of untreated sewage
during and after heavy rains, and the proliferation of small sewage
treatment plants throughout the basin that discharge to ditches and
small streams.  These plants are so numerous, and the amount of dilution
water so small, that nearly all streams are to some extent polluted.

     Three steel plants that discharge wastes to the Grand Calumet River
and the Indiana Harbor Canal are the most significant sources of wastes
in the Lake Michigan Basin.  Oil refineries and chemical plants are
lesser, but still major, sources of wastes.  The steel plants discharge
coking wastes, blast furnace wastes, and rolling mill wastes.  The chief
identifiable constituents in these discharges are oxygen-demanding
wastes, oily wastes, waste pickle liquor, phenolic materials, ammonia,
cyanide, and suspended solids.  The refineries discharge oxygen-
demanding wastes, oily wastes, phenolic materials, and ammonia.

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     The  steel plants in the Illinois River Basin have their coking wastes
 sewered and treated at the Calumet Plant of the Metropolitan Sanitary
 District  of Greater Chicago.  The principal wastes discharged to the
 rivers from these plants are oily wastes, waste pickle liquor, and
 suspended solids.  One steel plant discharges untreated sewage to the
 Little Calumet River in Illinois.

     Biological studies (1961-63) indicate that all of the streams in
 the Calumet Area are polluted, differing only in degree and by nature
 of the pollutant.  The Grand Calumet River is the worst of all as
 evidenced by the near-absence of botton organisms.  The Little Calumet
 and Calumet Rivers and the Indiana Harbor Canal are also severely
 degraded.

     Streams in the Calumet Area are generally characterized by unsightly
 appearance, in the form of floating debris, oil, discoloration, and
 turbidity.  Channel banks, structures, and boats acquire a black coat-
 ing from  oil or tarry substances.  Malodorous conditions are prevalent
 and frequent.  Along the shores of Lake Michigan, in Indiana and the
 southern  shore in Illinois, the Lake waters are discolored by suspended
 and dissolved waste materials, in sharp contrast to the pleasing
 appearance of the rest of Lake Michigan.

     The  streams of the Calumet Area are grossly polluted by fecal con-
 tamination.  Average coliform densities on the Grand Calumet and Little
 Calumet Rivers where they cross the State line were in the order of 1
 million per 100 ml, and average fecal streptococcus densities were JO,000
 to 80,000 per 100 ml.  Burns Ditch showed 120,000 coliform per 100 ml
 near Lake Michigan, and 1.? million four miles inland.  In the Indiana
 Harbor Canal coliform counts averaged 380?000 per 100 ml, and individual
 tests ranged up to 2.5 million.  The Calumet River exhibited average
 coliform densities of 2,900 per 100 ml near its junction with Lake
 Michigan, increasing to 25,000 per 100 ml about three miles farther in-
 land.  Periodic reversals of flow in the Calumet River can contribute
 bacterial pollution in Lake Michigan.  Bacterial pollution of the
 magnitudes indicated in Calumet Area Streams constitutes a threat to
 public health.

     Critically-low dissolved oxygen concentrations exist generally through-
 out the streams of the Calumet Area.  Nearly every sampling station
 showed zero dissolved oxygen at some time during field investigations.

     The bottom of Lake Michigan in the Calumet and Chicago areas exhibits
 biological degradation caused by organic enrichment.  Whereas in the
 clean bottom areas of Lake Michigan there are many kinds of organisms,
 with none predominating, this area exhibits only a few kinds.  Sludge-
worms and aquatic scuds are the most numerous, but bloodworms and
 fingernail clams are sometimes abundant.  Of these, only the scud is
 sensitive to pollution.   The number of pollution-tolerant organisms
average 250 to UOO per square foot in the Calumet Area,  and increase to

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1000 per square foot off Chicago,  The lesser numbers in the Calumet
Area reflect inhibition by heavy settleable sol iris and toxic materials,
whereas the less dense organic materials are carried by lake currents
northward to the waters off Chicago.  The kinds of organisms found in
this area of Lake Michigan limit the desirable species of fisb such as
whitefish, lake trout, and yellow perch, and favor trash fish such as
carp, buffalo, and suckers.

     The deep waters of Lake Michigan generally contain less than one
coliform organism per 100 ml.  In contrast, the inshore waters of Lake
Michigan in the Calumet Area often contain several thousand coliform
organisms per 100 ml, indicating fecal contamination from the tributary
area.  Bathing beaches at Whiting, Hammond, and Chicago's Calumet Park,
which lie between Indiana Harbor and the Calumet River, nearly always
exhibit coliform densities greater than 1000 per 100 ml.  Coliform
densities greater than 10,000 are common at these beaches, and densities
greater than 100,000 occur often at the Whiting and Hammond beaches.

     Taste and odor producing materials, such as phenolic materials, are
discharged to Lake MJerugan from industries in Indiana, and interfere
vith municipal water supplies in Indiana and Illinois.  It has been
demonstrated that severe taste and odor problems at Indiana water treat-
merit plants in January and March, 1963? followed a few days later by
similar problems at Chicago, were associated with lake currents moving
northwestward from the Indiana Harbor area toward Chicago.  Likewise,
Jarge amounts of ammonia discharged to Lake Michigan in Indiana increase
the cost and difficulty of municipal water treatment in Indiana and
Illinois.  In addition, this ammonia contributes to fertilization of
Lake Michigan, which can cause prolific growths of algae and aquatic
weeds that pile up onto beaches, clog water intakes, interfere with
filter plant operations, and cause ta,-te and odor problems in municipal
water supplies.

     Section IX of this report discusses corrective measures needed in
the Calumet Area.

     Although one company discharges industrial wastes into Wolf Lake
in Indiana, resulting in pollution of a portion of the lake and causing
fish kills, investigation by the Public Health Service has not disclosed
significant interstate pollution on Wolf Lake.

     There is no evidence cf interstate pollution from the discharge of
wastes to Lake Michigan via Burns Ditch.  Burns Ditch has some effect on
the contribution of nutrients in the south end of Lake Michigan, and
contributes local bacterial pollution.  The effects of increased
development in this area bear careful watching.

     Sewage and industrial wastes discharged to the Little Calumet "U.ver
and Grand Calumet River in Indiana cause pollution of these waters in

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Illinois.  Sewage and industrial wastes discharged to the Calumet River
System and Lake Michigan in Indiana cause pollution of the waters of
Lake Michigan in Illinois, and sewage and industrial wastes discharged
to the Calumet River System and Lake Michigan in Illinois cause pollu-
tion of Lake Michigan in Indiana.  This pollution endangers the health
or welfare of persons in a state other than that in which the discharges
originate, and therefore is subject to abatement under the provisions of
the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

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                            II - FOREWORD
     This is a technical report on interstate pollution problems in the
Calumet area, Indiana and Illinois.  The waters under consideration are
the Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Calumet River, Lake Mich-
igan, Wolf Lake and their tributaries.  Findings are based on data ob-
tained from State, local, and sanitary district records, industries, and
sampling by the Public Health Service.

     The cooperation provided by the Indiana Stream Pollution Control
Board, the Illinois Sanitary Water Board, the Metropolitan Sanitary Dis-
trict of Greater Chicago, and others  in supplying valuable information
is gratefully acknowledged.

     The report considers the quality characteristics of the waters as
they exist today, evaluates the effects of waste discharges on the water
quality and water uses, and summarizes the principal problems and needed
corrections.

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                          Ill - BACKGROUND
     The quality of the waters of Lake Michigan has Ir^g been a matter
of concern, and there have been diverse opinions on how and to what ex-
tent the lake should be protected.  In the 19th century the growing
city of Chicago experienced increasingly severe outbreaks of cholera and
typhoid fever.  In 1856 Chicago started construction of the first inte-
grated sewer system in the United States and only the second one in the
modern world - Hamburg, Germany having built one before.  However, these
sewers drained to the rivers and hence to Lake Michigan, and epidemics
continued.

     The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago (then the San-
itary District of Chicago) was organized in 1890, and its first respon-
sibility was to protect Chicago's water supply from pollution.  It con-
structed the Sanitary and Ship Canal and reversed the flow of the Chicago
River in 1900.

     The flow of the Calumet River was reversed in 1922, and thus Chicago's
sewage was substantially excluded from Lake Michigan and diverted to the
Mississippi River drainage basin.

     In 1922 a number of Great Lakes States joined to bring suit in the
United States Supreme Court to end the existing diversion at Chicago.
In 1930 the Court issued a decree directing the Sanitary District to re-
duce its diversion to 1500 cubic feet per second (cfs), plus domestic
pumpage (which now averages 1700-1800 cfs) by the end of 1938.  To meet
the terms of the decree, the District engaged in a massive construction
program designed to provide secondary treatment for its wastes.  The
building program was substantially completed in 19^9-  Litigation was
resumed in 1959? when the Supreme Court directed the reopening of its
1930 decree.  The present party litigants consist of the States of New
York, Ohio, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Michigan and Wisconsin as plaintiffs,
the State of Illinois as defendant, and the United States of America as
an intervening party litigant.

     The State of Illinois, the City of Chicago, and the Sanitary District
of Chicago filed suit in the United States Supreme Court in 19*44 against
the State of Indiana, the Cities of Hammond, Gary, East Chicago, and Whit-
ing, and l6 industries in Indiana, alleging pollution of the south end
of Lake Michigan and the impairment of Chicago's water supplies.  The case
was heard before a Master in Chancery in St. Louis, Missouri, and a con-
sent decree was entered in 19^5> whereby certain corrective measures were
to be taken.  In 19^8 the consent decree was deemed to have been complied
with.

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                           IV - THE AREA
     The area included in this report is the Calumet River System in
Indiana and Illinois upstream of the navigation locks at Blue Island,
Illinois, the contiguous and directly affected areas of Lake Michigan,
north to the Cook-Lake County, Illinois line, and Wolf Lake.  Figure
IV-1 shows the relationship of the Calumet Area to the larger Chicago
area drainage pattern, while Figure IV-2 shows the relevant Calumet Area
in more detail.

     The Calumet Area, as defined in this report and shown on Figure
IV-2, includes roughly 7^-2 square miles, of which 320 square miles are
normally tributary to the Illinois River and Mississippi River, and 1*22
square miles are normally tributary to Lake Michigan and the St. Lawrence
River.

Cities and Industries

     Some of the major cities in the area are Gary, East Chicago, Whiting,
and Hammond, in Indiana; and Calumet City, Chicago Heights, and a part
of the south side of Chicago in Illinois.  The area is heavily industral-
ized, with five petroleum refineries and ten major steel mills.  Some of
the major industries in Indiana are the United States Steel Corporation,
Gary Works and Gary Sheet and Tin Mill; Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company;
Inland Steel Company; Cities Service Petroleum Company; Sinclair Refining
Company; Mobil Oil Company; and American Oil Company.  Some of the major
industries in Illinois are the United States Steel Corporation South Works,
Wisconsin Steel Works, Interlake Iron Corporation, Republic Steel Corp-
oration, and Acme Steel Company.  As an indication of the magnitude of
industrial activity in the area, the Value Added in Manufacture in the
Calumet Area in the year 1958 vas estimated at 2 billion dollars.  Industry
is growing in this area, and present day activity is undoubtedly higher.

Stream System

     The Calumet Area is a flat plain with much of the land only slightly
above Lake Michigan water levels.  In what might be considered their
natural state, the Little Calumet and Grand Calumet Rivers originated in
Indiana and flowed westward into Illinois where they joined and became
simply the Calumet River, which discharged into Lake Michigan.  However,
the development of the area by man has changed this flow pattern.

     In 1922, the Calumet Sag Channel was completed between the Chicago
Sanitary and Ship Canal and the Little Calumet River at Blue Island,
Illinois.  This construction caused the Calumet River, and that portion
of the Little Calumet River from Blue Island to the Calumet River, to be
reversed and thus flow away from Lake Michigan.  However, this is an un-
stable situation; depending on storm runoff and fluctuating Lake levels,
the stream frequently flows toward Lake Michigan.
                                    8

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     Burns Ditch v^s completed, in 19^3 "to connect the eastern part cf
the Little Calumet Kiver in Indiana to Lake Michigan near Ogden Dunes^,
Indiana.  This construction caused an indefinite division of the flo₯
in the vicinity of Highland, Indiana, reversing the flow of the Little
Calumet River from this point east to Ogden Dunes.  All portions of  the
Little Calumet River east of the new divide then v
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by the hydraulic control of the Sanitary and Ship Canal system maintained
by the Metropolitan Sanitary District in connection with the diversion
of water from Lake Michigan for dilution purposes.  The Blue Island Con-
trolling Works, owned and operated by the Sanitary District, is one of
the points of diversion from Lake Michigan.

     The record low stages of Lake Michigan during the past year have
contributed to reversals of flow in the Calumet River under two different
sets of conditions as explained below.

     1.  With the present low lake stages and the requirement to maintain
a 9-foot navigation depth in the Calumet Sag Channel, the hydraulic head
at the Blue Island Controlling Works is minimal, varying from zero to a
few tenths of a foot most of the time.

     Local variations in the level of Lake Michigan of 0-5 to 1.0 foot
due to wind and/or barometric pressure effects are common.  These changes
occur in a  few hours time, and the effect may persist for one or more
days.

     When the lake drops 0.5 foot or more at Calumet Harbor, this can
produce a hydraulic gradient which causes the Calumet River to flow
toward the lake for periods ranging from a few hours to more than one
day.  This may occur even though the lock  gates  at the Blue Island
Controlling Works are fully opened in an effort to induce flow to the
Calumet-Sag Channel.

     The Metropolitan Sanitary District operates recording water level
gages located on the Little Calumet River at the Acme Steel Plant, and
on the Calumet River near its mouth.  The recorder charts for the period
January through March, 196U were examined for periods of flow reversal.
On the basis of 12-hour average gage heights obtained by inspection, eight
periods of flow reversal were found.  The duration of reversal varied
from 12 to 36 hours.  A detailed examination of these gage records would
permit calculation of the per cent of time during which flow is towards
the lake.  Flow reversals could also be correlated with rainfall to
determine which reversals were caused by storm runoff.

     2.  Major storms which produce excessive runoff in the Little Cal-
umet River basin in the past have resulted in occasional flow reversals
in the Calumet River.  These have been due to the inability of the
Calumet-Sag Channel to carry the flood flows away from the area fast
enough, or to operation of the Blue Island Controlling Works for prevention
of flood damage in the area west of the Controlling Works.  The duration
of these flow reversals varies greatly, depending on the storm rainfall
distribution.  It was estimated that the Calumet River flowed into Lake
Michigan for about 72 hours during and after the storm of October 9-H*
195^.  During the storm of July 12-13, 1957, when flooding became
critical in the Calumet-Sag Channel, the lock gates at Blue Island
Controlling Works were opened to permit flow out of the canal toward
                                   10

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Lake Michigan.  The entire Calumet-Little Calumet system flowed into
Lake Michigan for several hours.

     In September, 1961, heavy rains on the 13th and l^th resulted in
general flooding which caused the Calumet River to flow into the lake
for several hours.

     Flow reversals caused by runoff have recently become more frequent,
due in part to the hydraulic conditions produced by the extremely low
lake stages.  The lack of head at the Blue Island Controlling Works
restricts the flow that can be discharged out of the Little Calumet-
Calumet system to the Calumet-Sag Channel.  Therefore, runoff may more
easily produce a gradient causing flow toward Lake Michigan.

     When reversals of flow in the Calumet River occur, both municipal
and industrial wastes enter Indiana waters of Lake Michigan which lie
about 1/3 mile off shore.  Corps of Engineers studies of currents in
Calumet Harbor show that strong northerly winds produce a strong south-
east current through the harbor.  This current would carry pollution
along the Indiana shoreline.

     The Thomas J. O'Brien lock and dam will provide a positive barrier
between Lake Michigan and all of the municipal treatment plants and
some of the industrial waste sources on the Little Calumet-Calumet
system.  When the O'Brien lock is put into operation, these wastes
will be excluded from the lake, except during infrequent periods of
major flooding when the control gates might be opened to alleviate
flood damage.
                                   11

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                          V - WATER USES
Municipal Water Supply

     There are six major municipal water systems in Chicago and the
adjacent Calumet Area in Indiana which use Lake Michigan as a source
of water supply.  The largest is the recently constructed Central
District Filtration Plant near the center of Chicago.  This plant
serves a population of about 2,800,000 and pumps an average of about
660 mgd (million gallons daily).  The second largest is Chicago's South
District Filtration Plant located just north of Calumet Harbor.  This
plant serves a population of about 1,600,000 and pumps an average of
about 380 mgd.  The other users are Gary, serving 200,000 people and using
2k mgd; Hammond, serving 112,000 people and using 23 mgd; East Chicago,
serving 56,000 people and using 1^ mgd; and Whiting, serving 8,000
persons and using 1.5 mgd.  The Gary-Hobart Water Company is constructing
a new municipal water plant at Ogden Dunes, Indiana, about one mile
west of Burns Ditch.  This plant will have an initial rated capacity
of 16 mgd.

     The location of these municipal water supplies is shown in Figure
IV-1.

Industrial Water Supplies

     Nearly all of the independent water supplies in the Calumet Area
are surface supplies.  The total pumpage (excluding cooling water used
by public utilities) is about 2,760 mgd, of which about 2,H80 mgd is
pumped in the Lake Michigan Basin and about 280 mgd in the Illinois
River drainage basin.  Table V-l shows a breakdown of water use by
industrial group.

     The steel industry uses about Q,kOO mgd, 8? per cent of the total.
The petroleum refining industry uses 250 mgd, 9  Per cent of the total.
The remaining k per cent is used by the paper, food, and chemical in-
dustries.  Ninety per cent of the industrial water pumpage is taken
directly from Lake Michigan.  The Calumet and Little Calumet Rivers
supply the remainder, except for a small amount taken from the Grand
Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal.

Waterbome Commerce

     The several ports in the Calumet Area that are involved in inter-
national, interstate, and interport activities form a large part of
Lake Michigan commerce.  The Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, reported
that, in 1963, over 52 million tons of cargo moved through Gary
Harbor, Buffington Harbor, Indiana Harbor, Lake Calumet, Calumet
Harbor, and the Calumet River.  This accounted for almost one-half
of the total Lake Michigan commerce.  Three major types of cargo
made up 90 Per cent of the tonnage handled through the Calumet Area
ports.  Iron ore and related materials for the steel industry

                                  12

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accounted for 7^ per cent of the total.  Petroleum products amounted to
10 per cent and grain shipments were 6 per cent of the total.

     In general, the harbors listed above have sufficient depth to
accommodate lake vessels and some, but not all, of the ocean-going
vessels which enter the Great Lakes via the St. Lawrence Seaway.  In
addition, a 9-foot depth navigation channel connects the Calumet River
with the Illinois Waterway-Mississippi River System, providing water
transportation to St. Louis, Minneapolis, Pittsburgh and New Orleans.

Recreation

     Recreational activities such as swimming, boating, water skiing,
and fishing are engaged in by a large segment of the population of the
Calumet Area.  During the summer, millions of people visit the beaches
in Chicago, Gary, and Indiana Dunes State Park.  Hundreds of pleasure
boats can be observed on Lake Michigan and Wolf Lake, and at times
there is a virtual parade of boats to and from the marinas and mooring
facilities.  As the population grows, the need for recreational facilities
will expand.  The locations of marinas, launching ramps, beaches, and
water-oriented parks are shown in Figure V-l.

     Lake Michigan and Wolf Lake provide the only swimming waters.  The
streams are not safe for swimming because of the bacterial pollution.
The Lake Michigan beaches at Chicago, Gary, and Whiting are packed on
summer week-ends, but there is an increasing tendency for people living
in Calumet area to drive to the Indiana Dunes State Park or the Michigan
beaches where the water is clearer and the sand is cleaner.  The Hammond-
owned beach on Wolf Lake is used by thousands of swimmers and sun
bathers.  The Lake Michigan beach at Hammond has been closed for several
years because of high coliform bacteria counts.

     The popularity of water skiing has paralled the growth in pleasure
boating.  Occasionally water skiers are observed on the Calumet River
but the poor quality of the water and heavy boat traffic make it un-
desirable.  The Indiana Harbor Canal and Grand Calumet River are unfit
for any recreational activity.  None of the other streams of the area
is deep enough for motor boating and skiing.  Water skiing is a popular
sport on both Lake Michigan and Wolf Lake.

     In recent years the growth of interest in pleasure boating has in-
creased at a phenomenal rate.  Marinas, mooring facilities, and launching
ramps are hardly able to handle peak traffic.  There are now 2U such
boating facilities in the area.  This number would undoubtedly increase
markedly if the sheltered waters of the area were not polluted.  The
boat registration records of Indiana and Illinois show how popular
pleasure boating has become.  In the three Indiana counties bordering
on Lake Michigan there are 11,000 boats, and in Lake and Cook Counties
in Illinois there are ^3>C-00 registered boats.  Many of the boaters
                                   13

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of the area moor their boats in cleaner waters as far away as Saugatuck
and Holland in Michigan.  The waters of the Calumet River stain boat hulls
with a tar-like substance that is unsightly and difficult to remove.

     Most public parks are located near some feature of nature that has
strong appeal.  Many times the appeal is a lake or a stream.  In the
Calumet area there are several such parks that provide recreational
opportunities for thousands of people.  Marquette Park at Gary and Wolf
Lake park in Hammond are two of the larger parks of the area.  Both are
located on relatively clean waters.  Calumet Park Beach in Chicago is
also heavily used, but the bacteria content of its waters is higher than
desirable, and accumulations of popcorn slag on the beach from steel
mills make  the beach unattractive to bathers because of its gritty
texture.  There are a number of other parks and golf courses along the
Little Calumet and Grand Calumet Rivers that are less attractive be-
cause of unsightly streams.  The Cook County Forest Preserve District
has not developed picnic areas along the Little Calumet River because
of its polluted condition.  To provide water-oriented recreation, an
official of the Forest Preserve reports they have now adopted a policy
of building lakes and ponds in the interior of the preserves, away from
the polluted streams.

     Except for Wolf Lake and Burns Ditch, the streams of the Calumet
area are not fished becaused of the severely polluted conditions and
consequent absence of fish.  Waterfowl avoid the polluted streams,
but hundreds of waterfowl can be observed at Wolf Lake during the spring
and fall migrations.  They also frequent the offshore Lake Michigan
waters during migration.

Esthetics

     A body of water that is dirty-looking or foul-smelling is anything
but pleasant.  It can be particularly repugnant if it meanders through
an area where large populations live and work.  The Calumet Rivers
are like this.  Although there are not very many homes on the banks of
the streams, they are in view of thousands of people motoring or walking
in the area.  The Indiana Toll Road parallels seven miles of the Grand
Calumet River, and the Chicago Skyway crosses the Calumet River.  There
are 16 beaches and parks that provide public access to the streams and
lakes.  The polluted waters at most of these parks detract from the
beauty and limit esthetic enjoyment.  The value of property adjacent
to clean water is significantly higher than similar property having no
adjacent water or situated next to polluted water.  If the degraded and
unsightly waters of the Calumet area were clean, the value of the ad-
jacent properties would rise substantially.

Waste Disposal and Assimilation

     Nearly every stream in the Calumet Area, and indirectly Lake Mich-
igan, receives municipal waste.  Nearly all municipal waste receives

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secondary treatment.  Most of the waste receiving less thjn secondary
treatment is in the process of correction.  Most of the treated domestic
waste is not disinfected.

     Some portions of the Calumet Area receive relatively little in-
dustrial waste.  The area tributary to Burns Ditch receives industrial
wastes near its mouth, and municipal wastes in tributary areas.  The
non-navigable portion of the Little Calumet River which flows to the
Illinois River receives municipal wastes and relatively small amount
of industrial waste.  The large amounts of industrial waste are dis-
charged to the Calumet and Grand Calumet Rivers, the navigable portion
of the Little Calumet River, Wolf Lake, the Indiana Harbor Canal and
Lake Michigan.

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                        VI - SOURCES OF WASTES
     Municipal sewage and industrial wastes are the principal pollutional
materials discharged continuously into the waters of the Calumet Area.
Other wastes, discharged intermittently or regularly, may have serious
local effects or may cause temporary excessive pollution.  Among these
wastes are accidental spills from storage tanks, barges, etc.; combined
sewer overflows; wastes from lake vessels, barge tows, and pleasure craft;
and materials from dredging operations.

     The total oxygen demand of municipal and industrial waste in the
Calumet Area is about 1,150,000 population equivalent (PE) of which 80
per cent is discharged in the Lake Michigan Basin and 20 per cent is
discharged in the Illinois River Basin.  Seventy per cent of the wastes
discharged in the Illinois River Basin is from municipal sources and
30 per cent is from industrial sources.  In contrast, only 5 per cent
of the waste discharged in the Lake Michigan Basin is from municipal sources,
and 95 per cent is from industrial sources.

     Three industrial plants discharge one-half of the population equiva-
lent in the entire Calumet Area and two-thirds of the population equiva-
lent in the Lake Michigan portion of the Area.  These plants are the
United States Steel Corporation in Gary, Indiana, and the Inland Steel
Company and the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company in East Chicago, Indiana.

Municipal Wastes

     Sources of municipal wastes in the Lake Michigan portion of the Calumet
Area are listed in Table VI-1, and sources in the Illinois River portion
are listed in Table VI-2.

     All but two of the municipal waste sources draining to Lake Michigan
are tributary to Burns Ditch.  Each of these 19 sources is relatively
small, but they total U-3 per cent of the municipal wastes to Lake
Michigan.  At present, many of these sources discharge inadequately
treated sewage.  Some are in the process of being corrected.  For
instance, the Merrillville Conservancy District has been organized to
serve the Black Oak-Ross area south of Gary, Indiana.

     The largest sources of municipal wastes discharged to the Lake
Michigan Basin are the sewage treatment plants at Gary and East Chicago,
Indiana.  These discharge via the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana
Harbor Canal.  Neither plant accepts significant industrial wastes.
Both provide secondary treatment.  At the present time Gary has under
construction sewers and sewage treatment plant expansions.  This con-
struction includes chlorination facilities and is nearing completion.
It is understood that the East Chicago plant has chlorination facilities
but they are not regularly operated.


                                  16

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     The largest sources of municipal wastes discharged to the Illinois
River Basin from the Calumet Area are the Calumet Plant of the Metro-
politan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, the Sanitary District of
Bloom Township, Illinois and the Hammond Sanitary District, Indiana.
All of these plants provide secondary treatment and accept industrial
waste.  Depending upon runoff conditions and the level of Lake Michigan,
a variable portion of the treated waste from Hammond drains to Lake
Michigan.

     The Hammond Sanitary District has a major sewer and sewage treatment
plant expansion project now under construction which is nearing completion.
All of the waste from Griffith, Indiana has been connected; part of
Munster is connected, and works are under construction to connect all of
it.  About half of Highland is connected, with the remainder scheduled
to be.  These connections should eliminate pollution of the Little
Calumet River from these sources, except for storm water overflows, and
will result in an increased discharge of treated sewage to the Grand
Calumet River.  The State of Indiana has recommended that the Hammond
Sanitary District include chlorination facilities as part of the present
construction project.

     The Sanitary District of Bloom Township, Illinois serves Park Forest,
Chicago Heights, and South Chicago Heights, and a large industrial district
in Chicago Heights.  The Sanitary District has engaged two firms of
consulting engineers to study its problems.  Both reports have been
received, and actions to implement the recommendations have been taken.

     The Calumet Plant of the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater
Chicago (MSD) is by far the largest sewage treatment plant in the Calumet
Area.  It discharges 50 per cent of the municipal waste in the Illinois
River portion, and bQ per cent of the municipal waste in the entire
Calumet Area.  Effluent disinfection is not practiced, and no plans for
disinfection have been announced.  The Calumet Plant serves the south-
east part of Chicago and many suburbs such as Blue Island, Calumet City,
Riverdale, and Dolton.  It receives and treats domestic and industrial
wastes.  Of particular significance, it treats coking wastes from the
steel plants located along the Calumet River in Chicago so that phenolic
and other constituents of these wastes receive secondary treatment.

     The MSD operates three small sewage treatment plants in the Calumet
Area, each achieving 85 per cent or higher biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
removal efficiency.  These plants are at East Chicago Heights, Hazel
Crest, and Orland Park, Illinois.  In addition, the MSD supervises
through analytical control 19 additional small operations.  These small
operations show between 80 and 90 per cent BOD removal efficiency.
Three of these latter small plants will be eliminated within six months
and become part of the interceptor system, in accordance with the
overall policy of the Sanitary District pertaining to such installations.
Chlorination is carried out at all small Metropolitan Sanitary District
treatment plants, and a number of the small private plants in the
                                  17

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District have begun chlorination.

     Except as hereafter noted, all domestic wastes from industries in
the Calumet Area either are connected to municipal systems or receive
secondary treatment at the site.  All industrial sewage treatment plants
in Indiana provide chlorination except the Universal Atlas Cement
Company, a part of the U.S. Steel Corporation.

     Although secondary treatment for organized sewerage systems is the
rule in the Calumet Area, there are a large number of small sewage treat-
ment plants, septic tanks systems, and tile systems, both in Illinois
and Indiana, that discharge to small streams and ditches.  Obese are so
numerous, and the amount of dilution water available is so small, that
nearly all streams and ditches are to some extent polluted.

     Table VI-7 shows the status of Public Health Service Grants for
Construction of Municipal Waste Treatment facilities.  Total grants of
$1,900,210 in Indiana have supported $7,039,000 in eligible construction,
while grants of $237,710 in Illinois have supported $795,600 in eligible
construction.  The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago has
not been certified for a construction grant to date by the Illinois
Sanitary Water Board.

Combined Sewer Overflows

     Most of the older communities in the Calumet Area nave combined sewer
systems, which convey the dry weather flow to treatment plants, and spill
combined flows to the streams or to Lake Michigan during storm periods,
either by gravity or by pumping.  The overflow of raw sanitary sewage
and industrial wastes mixed with storm runoff constitutes a source of
pollution of the waterways and of Lake Michigan in the Calumet Area.
Although the .overflows are intermittent, depending on rainfall, the
resultant pollution seriously affects the quality of the receiving waters.

     Combined sanitary sewage overflows contribute gross bacterial pollu-
tion, high suspended solids concentrations; and a heavy BOD load.  Any
industrial wastes present in the municipal sewer system add further to
the pollution problem.

     Several Indiana communities are served by combined sewers with
reported overflows to tributaries of the Calumet River and flow westward
into Illinois.  Pollution resulting from overflows in these towns has
interstate Implications:

                    Munster                Hammond
                    Griffith               Schererville
                    Highland

     A number of Illinois communities having combined sewers which over-
flow to the Calumet River system are listed below.  Overflows from these
towns can go to Lake Michigan during periods of flow reversal in the
Calumet River;

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                      Calumet City            Lansing
                      Burnham                 Riverdale
                      South Holland           Dolton
                      Phoenix                 Posen
                      Chicago (MSB Calumet Treatment Plant)

     Several Indiana communities having combined sewers which overflow
to the Indiana Harbor Canal - Grand Calumet River system are listed
below.  Overflows from these towns go to Lake Michigan via the Indiana
Harbor Canal:

                      Gary                    Hammond
                      East Chicago            Whiting

     A number of other Indiana towns served by combined sewers which
overflow to the Little Calumet - Burns Ditch system are listed below.
These overflows reach Lake Michigan via Burns Ditch:

                      Chesterton              East Gary
                      Porter                  Hobart
                      Valparaiso              Griffith

     In addition, at least one city, Whiting, Indiana, has a combined
sewer overflow which discharges directly to Lake Michigan.

Industrial Wastes

     Industrial waste information in this report was obtained from records
of the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board, the Illinois State Sanitary
Water Board, the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, from
a number of the industries, and from studies by the Public Health Service.
In particular, the Public Health Service conducted a sampling survey of
industrial wastes in the Calumet Area in the latter half of
     The principal sources of industrial waste in the Calumet Area are
located in Figure VI-1.  The industries are listed in Tables VI- 3 and k
which show the receiving stream, the nature of the waste, and the
treatment provided.  The industries are again listed in Tables VI-5
and 6 which show the volume of waste and the waste load.  Figures VI-2
through VI-6 show the principal municipal and industrial sources of
oxygen-demanding waste, ammonia nitrogen, phenolics, cyanide, and oil.

     The Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal are grossly
polluted.  There is no dissolved oxygen in the Indiana Harbor Canal,
and its waters and banks are covered with oil.  The lakeward reaches
of Indiana Harbor are rust-colored from waste pickle liquor.  The
effects of this pollution axtend into Lake Michigan.  The largest
sources of waste on the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal
are the United States Steel Corporation, Gary, Indiana; the Youngstown
Sheet and Tube Company, East Chicago, Indiana; and Inland Steel
Company, East Chicago, Indiana.  Three petroleum refineries are lesser,


                                  19

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MOD
330
250
480
80
4
4

PE
266,000
100,000
200,000
47,1*00
4,740
12,l4OO
Ammonia
Nitrogen
13,750
4,090
16,800
1,140
130
1,130

Phenol
1,500
250
620
130
190
780

Cyanide
1,700
250
940
—
—
—


54
18
24
4



Oil
,000
,900
,800
,o4o
290
	
"but still major, sources of waste.  They are Cities Service Petroleum
Company, Sinclair Refining Company, and Mobil Oil Company, all in East
Chicago, Indiana.  A summary of waste loads from these six plants is as
follows:
                                           	Pounds Per Day
                                           Ammonia
Company

U. S. Steel, Gary, Ind.
Youngstown S&F, E. Chi., Ind,
Inland Steel, E. Chi., Ind.
Cities Service, E. Chi., Ind,
Sinclair, E. Chi., Ind.
Mobil Oil Co., E. Chi., Ind

     All of these plants have invested in waste treatment facilities.
The United States Steel Corporation quenches coke with ammonia still
wastes and discharges waste pickle liquor to an absorption lagoon.  U.S.
Steel discharges blast furnace flue dust to the Grand Calumet River and
recovers it with a dredge that is located in the river permanently.
The Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company recovers phenol and most of its
pickle liquor, and recovers blast furnace flue dust with thickeners.
Inland Steel Company recovers phenol and blast furnace flue dust, but
discharges waste pickle liquor to the Indiana Harbor Canal.  Analysis
of the wastes from these three steel plants indicates that large amounts
of coking wastes are reaching the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor
Canal.

     Cities Service Petroleum Company provides oil separators and sulfide
and ammonia strippers, and has installed a secondary treatment pilot
plant.  Sinclair Refining Company provides oil separators, an ammonia
and sulfide stripper, a sulfide oxidation tower, and removes phenol by
extraction with crude oil and oxidation in a cooling tower.  The total
amount of waste is limited by a large amount of water reuse.  Sinclair
also skims oil from the Lake George Branch, Indiana Harbor Canal, to
help decrease the oil nuisance.  Mobil Oil Company provides oil separators,
cooling towers, and straw filters.  A sulfide and ammonia stripper are
under construction.  A sulfide oxidation tower is being installed.  Mobil
Oil Company uses the Indiana Harbor Canal as a water supply.

     E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company, East Chicago, Indiana produces
hydrochloric acid as a by-product of one of its manufacturing operations.
It is reported that the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board has
approved discharge to the Grand Calumet River through an underwater
waste diffusion system of a maximum of 90,000 pounds per day of chloride,
and at normal river flows, a maximum of 125>000 pounds per day of un-
neutralized hydrochloric acid that would use up to 25 mg/1 of natural
alkalinity in the river.  The approval was granted with the understand-
ing that the Company would make every effort to sell the acid rather
than discharge it to the Grand Calumet River.  The Company has advised
                                  20

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that all hydrochloric acid is now being sold, and that no chlorides or
acid from this operation are "being discharged to the river.

     The Midwest Steel Division, National Steel Corporation, provides a
high degree of treatment for its sheet and tin mill vastes.  There is no
significant pollution to Burns Ditch from this source, and this plant
illustrates the degree of waste control that can be achieved in a steel
rolling mill.  The Bethlehem Steel Company is installing similar waste
treatment facilities for its Burns Harbor sheet and tin mill, now under
construction.  When the proposed Burns Harbor deep water port is con-
structed, these two companies plan to install basic steel and coking
facilities.  Their plans to control waste from these future facilities
have not been reported.  The State of Indiana has notified the companies
that adequate waste treatment must be provided and plans must be approved
before basic steel mills are constructed.

     The principal sources of wastes that discharge directly to Lake
Michigan are Union Carbide Chemicals Company, Whiting, Indiana; American
Oil Company, Whiting, Indiana; American Maize-Products Company, Hammond,
Indiana; and United States Steel Corporation, Chicago, Illinois.  Wastes
from the first three are summarized as follows:
                                                    Pounds Per Day	
                                                Ammonia
Company                           MGD     PE    Nitrogen   Phenol    Oil

Union Carbide, Whiting, Ind.      43    99>000    —         13        0
American oil Co., Whiting, Ind.   97    57,000    3,800    1,100    3,950
Am. Maize-Products Co.,
       Hammond, Ind.               9    Ml,000    	       	      	

     Union Carbide Chemicals Company has a quench water recirculation
system.  Other wastes are mostly soluble in water, and no treatment is
provided.  Recently large amounts of pellets of material  similar to
polyethylene have been found washed ashore on the beaches in Chicago.
It is believed that Union Carbide is a possible source of this material.

     American Oil Company provides oil separators on both process wastes
and cooling water return flow, and secondary treatment on process wastes.
American Maize-Products Company discharges some wastes to the Hammond
Sanitary District.  Other wastes are treated in an anaerobic - aerobic
lagoon and chlorinated before discharge.  A decrease of 80-90 per cent
in BOD in the lagoon system is reported.

     The United States Steel Corporation, South Works, Chicago, Illinois
has no coke plant.  Its principal wastes are blast furnace flue dust,
oil, and hydraulically quenched blast furnace slag (popcorn slag).  Hie
amount of flue dust that overflows the thickeners is not known, but
discoloration of Calumet Harbor and Lake Michigan is evident from the
air.  The company provides oil separators, but their effectiveness is
not known.  Popcorn slag at times is discharged and washes ashore at
                                  21

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such places as Calumet Park Beach In Chicago vhere it becomes a nuisance
to "bathers.  No significant amount of pickle liquor is discharged.
Blast furnace flue dust and oily wastes have been observed to flow into
Indiana waters of Lake Michigan, which lie about 1/3 mile off shore.

     Wisconsin Steel Works, Interlake Iron Corporation, and Republic
Steel Corporation, all in Chicago, have their coke plant wastes sewered
to the Calumet Sewage Treatment Plant.  The data in Table VI-6, however,
indicate that some coke wastes are probably discharged to the Calumet
River by Interlake iron Corporation.  Only Republic Steel Corporation
discharges a significant amount of pickle liquor.  It has not been
reported whether this pickle liquor is neutralized before discharge.
All three plants provide thickeners for recovery of blast furnace flue
dust.  Some popcorn slag has been traced to the Wisconsin Steel Works.

     Cargill, Inc., Chicago, Illinois provides septic tanks for domestic
wastes.  Wastes from refining soybean oil contribute 8,700 PE to the
Calumet River.  An industrial waste treatment plant providing neutraliza-
tion and anaerobic - aerobic treatment has been constructed, but has not
been reported to be in operation.

     Lever Brothers Company, Hammond, Indiana discharges about 18,000 PE
to the extreme northern end of Wolf Lake.  Several acres of the lake
have been polluted, and fish kills have been reported.  Studies of Wolf
Lake by the Public Health Service have not disclosed evidence of
significant interstate pollution.

     Acme Steel Company, Riverdale, Illinois discharges raw sewage from
approximately 2,900 of its employees.  It also discharges a substantial
amount of unneutralized pickle liquor.  The Company provides scale pits,
oil separators, and a thickener.  Acme Steel Company is drawing plans
to separate the domestic waste from the combined system so that the
domestic was^e may be discharged to the existing sewerage system.
Further, plans are being made for revision of production operations
needed for the installation of a pickle liquor waste disposal system.

     Victor Chemical Company in Chicago Heights, Illinois discharges an
estimated 3,300 pounds per day of phosphate via the State Street Ditch
and the Sanitary District of Bloom Township.  This phosphate can
potentially produce algae nuisances downstream in the Illinois River.

Federal Installations

     There are presently twenty-five federally owned or leased installa-
tions in the conference area.  Of these twenty-five installations,
seventeen are housing units which have been leased for army personnel
when off-base housing was needed.  The number of these housing units
and their location varies as the needs for housing occur.  In the
leasing agreements, the responsibility for providing sewage disposal
lies with the various building owners.


                                  22

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     The other federal installations in the area include four Nike Missile
Sites, one Corps of Engineers Lock and Dam, one Naval Reserve Training
Center, one Defense Material Supply Depot, and one Coast Guard Light
Station.  Waste treatment facilities appear to be adequate for all of
these installations except the light station located at the mouth of
Indiana Harbor.  This installation, known as the Indiana Harbor Light,
has a personnel complement of 3-^ persons and their domestic sewage is
discharged untreated directly to Lake Michigan.

     A waste disposal problem could possibly occur at the Defense Material
Supply Depot located on Wolf Lake, Hammond, Indiana.  This installation
is built on a land fill area and the soil is not ideal for the septic
tanks and tile drain fields which are currently being used.  The depot
is now manned by a staff of only 15-20 persons.  In the event that
activity at this installation is increased or changed, the waste disposal
system should be reviewed, and the possibility of connecting to the
Hammond Sanitary District sewers should be investigated.

Bulk Storage Areas and Barges

     Open air storage of iron ore, coal, and limestone at unloading sites
adjacent to waterways is a potential source of pollution.  If the stock-
piles are not properly drained, dust and granular material may be washed
into the streams by rainfall.  These materials may be carried to the
Lake in suspension if the stream velocity is adequate, or they may settle
in the dock area.

     Bulk storage areas for petroleum products, commonly called tank
farms, are also potential sources of pollution.  Although tanks may be
adequately diked, accidental spills can occur in connection with the
transfer of liquid between tanks, or in the operation of loading or
unloading a vessel or barge.  These may be due to human error or
mechanical failure.

     An accident spill occurred in December 1963 at the American Oil
Company dock in the Lake George Branch of the Indiana Harbor Canal.
A barge containing about 10,000 barrels of highly toxic toluene was
being unloaded, when suddenly the bow of the barge sank with three
valves open.  An unknown amount of toluene excaped to the canal during
approximately l4 hours before the leak was controlled.  As far as is
known, no serious damage resulted from the spill.  This was partly
due to the high volatility of the toluene, which evaporated rapidly.

Vessel Pollution

     Cargo vessels accounted for about 11,000 trips through Calumet Area
deep water ports in 1963.  In addition, several thousand pleasure craft
operate out of marinas in the area.  Wastes discharged by these vessels
seldom undergo any treatment, although some boats have facilities for
treating or holding sanitary wastes.  The principal vessel wastes are


                                  23

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sanitary, garbage, refuse and drainage, ballast and bilge water, dredged
materials, compartment washings, and cargo losses.  Uncontrolled dis-
charge of these wastes can result in serious pollution problems to
beaches, shore property, recreational waters, and municipal and industrial
water supplies.

     The Chicago Water Department has had a problem, during the recrea-
tional boating season, with plastic "Marine Sanitary Bags" getting onto
screens, settling basins, and filter beds.  Apparently, pleasure boat
operators use the bags for sanitary wastes, and then throw the sealed
bags overboard into Lake Michigan.

     In general, existing Federal, State, and local regulations restrict-
ing the discharge of vessel wastes are primarily aimed at protecting
municipal water supplies and preserving navigation channels.  Enforcement
of these regulations is difficult at best.  Posting of regulations and
surveillance efforts by the Public Health Service, the Coast Guard, and
the Corps of Engineers constitute the control measures.

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                         VII - LAKE CURRENTS
     Intensive studies of currents and temperature changes vere made
by the Public Health Service in the Illinois-Indiana-Michigan boundary
waters from November 1962 through July IS&\-,  The study used automatic
recording current meters and free floating current measuring devices.
Additional current meter studies were conducted in the Calumet Harbor
area during the summer and fall of 1963 by the U.S. Lake Survey.  The
studies indicate a prevailing flow from south to north along the southern
and the adjacent southwestern portion of Lake Michigan.

     Only three pertinent studies of currents have been made in Lake
Michigan prior to the present study.  From 1892 through 189**^ Mark
Harrington of the U.S. Weather Bureau released a series of drift bottles
over a three year period.  In 195^-55* James Johnson of the U.S. Bureau
of Fisheries made an intensive study of surface currents using drift
bottles and drift cards.  Also, in 1955, Dr. John Ayres and others of the
University of Michiganused drift bottles and temperature studies to show
currents in the Lake.

     These studies were confined  to the summer period and are based
on a very limited period of study.  The information was too narrow in
scope to be usable for background information.

General Considerations

     Both wind and the shore are the primary factors which influence
the flow of water in the southern part of the Lake.  Wind is the energy
source for putting the water in motion, and the shoreline is responsible
for the general direction of flow in this area.  Water movements, in
general, tend to parallel the shore as the water gets shallower.  Water
tending to move parallel to the shoreline is illustrated by the patterns
of flow found in the Calumet Area.

     Density plays a role in the movement of materials put into xhe
lake.  A pollutant discharged into the lake will rise, sink or come
to rest within the water mass depending on its initial density.

     Existing currents or absence of currents also affect the discharge
of a pollutant.  If a pollutant is discharged into the lake during
near calm periods it will build up into a stationary mass.  If the
pollutants are discharged into an existing current it will be diluted
by the moving water.  The initial dilution depends on the rate of
discharge of the pollutant and the speed of the current.

     The most important types of motion are mixing and transport.
Mixing refers to the rate of dilution of a pollutant.  Transport is
the net movement of a water mass from one area to another.
                                  25

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Relationship to Municipal Water Supplies

     Water transport can be divided into two broad types, short and
long term.  Short term means up to a few days in length and long term
would include months of travel.  Data shown in Figures VII-1, 2, 3>
and k, refer to over 20,000 continuous current meter observations
from various stations in southern Lake Michigan near or adjacent to
the Calumet Area.  The data from the current meter stations describe
the flow in the area shown.

     Two specific periods, January 21 to 2k, 1963 and March ±k to 16,
1963, shown in Figures VII-1 and VII-2, show the pattern of flow from
current meter records.  During both periods the City of Chicago Water
Department experienced severe taste and odor problems from water taken
at the cribs.  On January 20, 1963 the odor threshold level at Whiting
and Hammond were recorded at a value of 8 at both intakes.  These values
jumped k to 5 times by the following day and nearly 15 to 20 times by
January 22.  The flow of water past the intakes was toward the north-
west as shown in Figure VII-1.  On January 2^, just two days later,
the Chicago South District Filtration Plant recorded its first taste
and odor problems in 1963-  Taste and odor problems were not experienced
farther to the north at this time, indicated that the pollution occurred
to the south as shown by the water movements.

     Figure VII-2 shows the conditions during the second occurrence in
1963 when severe taste and odor problems occurred at Chicago.  Water
flow during the March ±k to 16, 1963 period was again from the south
to the north.

     Mixing rates can vary widely depending on the weather conditions.
During the times of taste and odor difficulties experienced by Chicago
both in January and in March, 1963, chemical analyses showed that the
water mass was diluted about four times while in transit from the Whiting-
Hammond areas to the Chicago intake.

     Studies made during April, 1963 near Chicago indicate that the
dilution ratio following near calm conditions is less than five for
currents up to one foot per second and five miles of travel.

     Figure VII-3 shows typical annual water movements in the Illinois-
Indiana region.  Regardless of the season of the year, the prevailing
flow is from the south, although flows from the north also occur, as
shown.  From December through March strong northeast storms, as well
as prolonged west and west-southwest winds, account for the relatively
greater per centage of time when flow is from the north.  From April
through July the total percentage of flow from the south is less than
50 per cent, but it is still the dominant sector.  From August through
November, currents shov a very dominant flow from the south.  The winds
                                    26

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over the lake during the summer are primarily from the south and
southeast and in the vinter are from the northwest, "both of which
maintain the northward flow of water.

     Figure VII-k illustrates the independent results of continuous
summer and fall studies made "by the U.S. Lake Survey in and adjacent to
Calumet Harbor.  The Lake Survey concluded that the northwestward flow
past the harbor was a typical summer condition.  Tliis flow was reversed
only "by strong northerly winds.

     Current speeds along the shore and in the upper layers move between
2 and 5 miles per day for 60 per cent of the time.  Movement from the
Indiana area to the Chicago vicinity will normally take from three to
four days for average conditions.  Under storm conditions or periods of
high winds, it could travel the distance in less than one day.

Summary

     The general pattern of flow during the year in the southwest corner
of Lake Michigan is from south to north.  Northwest and southerly winds
maintain this flow.  Reversals to this pattern occur only after pro-
longed wind shifts of more than eighteen hours in length when the wind
is from the northeast and southwest.

     Specific occurrences of taste and odor problems experienced at the
South District Filtration Plant were shown to originate in the Indiana
portion of Lake Michigan.
                                  27

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      VIII - EFFECTS OF WASTES ON WATER QUALITY AND WATER USES
Water Quality Criteria

     The quality of water as it affects the health or welfare of people
in the environment is adjudged "by many criteria.  These criteria range
from characteristics readily discernible to the senses of sight and
smell, to tests requiring highly sensitive laboratory equipment and
sophisticated techniques.  The following paragraphs discuss the more
important tests and their significance, preliminary to a description
of quality conditions and effects in specific parts of the stream and
lake system.

                        Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

     The small quantity of oxygen dissolved in water is perhaps the most
important single ingredient necessary for a healthy, balanced, aquatic
environment.  Dissolved oxygen is consumed by living organisms through
respiration and is replenished, if a well-balanced environment exists,
by absorption from the atmosphere and through the life processes of
aquatic plants.  When organic pollution enters this invironment, the
balance is altered.  The bacteria, present in the water or introduced
with pollution, utilize the organic matter as food and multiply rapidly.
resulting deficiency may be great enough to inhibit or destroy the fish
and other desirable organisms and to convert the stream or lake into an
odoriferous nuisance.  Solubility of oxygen in water is quite low,
saturation values ranging from 8 to 13 milligrams per liter (mg/l)
depending on water temperature and, in lesser degree, on atmospheric
pressure.  Commonly accepted minimum concentrations that should be main-
tained at all times to prevent nuisance and promote desirable aquatic
life, range from a minimum of 3 mg/l> which will support minimal aquatic
life and rough fish, to 6 or more mg/l for certain types of game fish.
It is considered that a reasonable goal for dissolved oxygen in Calumet
Area streams is an absolute minimum of 3 mg/1 and preferably not less
than k.  For Lake Michigan itself, it is both reasonable and highly
desirable that dissolved oxygen concentration by maintained at or near
saturation levels.

                   Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

     The biochemical oxygen demand of municipal and industrial waste
waters is exerted by three classes of materials;  l) carbonaceous
organic materials, 2) oxidizable nitrogen compounds; and 3) certain
chemical reducing compounds which will react readily with dissolved
oxygen.  In general, high BOD values can be expected to result in
lower dissolved oxygen levels in the receiving waters, greater need for
chlorine and chemicals for water treatment, and may cause tastes and
odor in treated water.
                                  28

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                   Bacterial Pollution Indicators

     Two indicators of the degree of bacterial pollution are used in
this report:  the traditional coliform bacteria test, and the more
recently developed test for fecal streptococci.  Since the origin of
most of the coliform group of organisms is the intestinal tract of warm-
blooded animals, including man, the presence of these organisms in a
body of water is strongly indicative of contamination of the water by
fecal matter.  Waters so contaminated must be presumed to contain also
pathogenic bacteria and viruses, some identifiable and some quite difficult
to isolate.  The fecal streptococci (fecal strep), which are also enteric
organisms abounding in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals and
man, likewise indicate the presence of fecal matter in water.  Moreover,
the fecal strep test is a more positive indicator, because some of the
coliform group may be found in nature, in soil, etc., and may multiply
in water -- whereas the fecal strep generally do not multiply outside
their natural intestinal habitat.

     Coliform and fecal strep concentrations, expressed herein as the
number of organisms per 100 milliliters (ml) of water sample, are there-
fore indicators of the degree of hazard to waterborne disease.  While
any degree of hazard to health is undesirable, the complete elimination
of hazard is impossible, and many States and other organizations have
established or proposed limiting values on the indicators.  For assess-
ment of the degree of bacterial pollution in waters of the Calumet Area,
the following guidelines are proposed:

     A)  For recreational use involving intimate contact such as swimming,
         water skiing, and skin diving, coliform concentration should
         not exceed 1,000 per 100 ml and fecal strep count should not
         exceed 20 per 100 ml;

     B)  For uses involving limited body contact, such as commercial
         shipping (barge traffic), and boating, coliform and fecal strep
         counts should be, respectively, not more than 5,000 and 100
         per 100 ml;

     C)  For municipal source water, at the intake, average coliform
         concentration should not exceed 5>000 per 100 ml in any one
         month, and not more than 20 per cent of individual in any one
         month should  exceed that amount.

     It is imperative here to note that the foregoing suggested guide-
lines for bacterial pollution are to be regarded as restrictive, not
permissive.  That is to say, as subsequently recommended, pathogens
and associated organisms originating in human wastes should be destroyed
by disinfection to the greatest degree feasible, at waste treatment
plants prior to discharge.  Referring particularly to Lake Michigan, the
natural bacterial quality of its water is excellent, and every reason-


                                  29

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able effort should be made to keep it that way.

                              Phenols

     Phenolic material, which includes phenols, cresols and xylenols,
when found in water is usually the result of pollution by industrial
wastes.  Very low concentrations of phenols can impart a disagreeable
taste to water when chlorinated.  Thresholds of taste and odor for chlor-
ophenols range from 1 to 20 micrograms per liter (ug/l).  (Practically
speaking, one microgram per liter is equal to one part per billion by
weight.)  The drinking water standards of the U.S. Public Health Service
recommend that phenols not be present in a water supply in excess of one
microgram per liter where other more suitable supplies are or can be
made available.

                        Biological Indicators

     The kinds and numbers of aquatic plants and animals, inhabiting a
particular body of water, and the stream or lake bottom beneath it,
reflect the quality of water that has generally prevailed in the area
for an extended period of time.  Some plants and animals are capable, by
virtue of physiological features or living habits, of withstanding
polluted conditions and multiply rapidly when competition with less
tolerant forms is eliminated.  Examples of pollution-tolerant animals
are the sludgeworms, bloodworms, leeches, and pulmonate snails, that
exist in the decaying organic sediment which builds up from the setteable
organic solids present in most waste discharges.  A benthic (bottom-
dwelling) population consisting of many kinds of organisms with low
numbers of each species is typical of unpolluted waters.

Calumet Area Streams

     Except as otherwise noted, the statements on water quality conditions
in this and subsequent sections are based on field surveys and investigations
conducted during 1961-6^ by the Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins Project.

                        Biological Conditions

     Summary results of biological studies for the Little Calumet River
and the Calumet River are shown in Figure VIII-1.  These studies confirmed
that all of the streams in the Calumet area are polluted, differing only
in degree and by nature of the pollutant.  The Grand Calumet River is
the worst of all as evidenced by a near-absence of bottom organisms.  The
Little Calumet and Calumet Rivers and the Indiana Harbor Canal were also
found severely degraded.  None of the streams exhibited a balanced
bottom-dwelling community.

The Calumet River from its confluence with the Grand Calumet River to
its mouth in Calumet Harbor is severely degraded.  The stream was highly
                                   30

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turbid.  Oil slicks and floating sewage solids were observed.  At
stations at the mouth, and five miles upstream from the mouth, the
bottom was composed mainly of organic ooze that had a sewage and
petroleum odor.  Near the mouth of the Grand Calumet River the bottom
deposits of the Calumet River were composed of inert or inorganic
materials.

     Only very pollution-tolerant sludgeworms (Oligochaeta) existed
in the reach from Lake Calumet downstream (away from Lake Michigan).
From Lake Calumet upstream to the harbor mouth (Lake Michigan inlet),
sludgeworms predominated, but the presence of fingernail clams
(Spaeriidae) indicated a slight improvement in water quality and bottom
conditions.  Sludgeworms averaged more than 5,000 per square foot in
this stream reach.

     Attached filamentous algae, routinely scraped from substrata in
this river, were very pollution-tolerant blue-green forms.  No pol-
lution-sensitive filamentous forms were found.

     The bottom sediments of the Little Calumet River were composed
of ooze and organic debris along with some gravel and rubble.  The
dredgings had a sewage odor.  The water was highly turbid and had a
strong sewage odor at the station upstream ten miles from Thorn Creek.
Slime was evident for about three miles downstream in the barge canal
from the confluence with the Grand Calumet River.

     The organic bottom deposits of the Little Calumet River supported
large numbers of pollution-tolerant sludgeworms, with population densities
as high as 11,000 per square foot.  There were no pollution-intolerant
organisms.  Pollution-tolerant blue-green algae were the only aquatic
plants living in this river.

     The Grand Calumet River was practically barren biologically.  Al-
though there were thick deposits that usually provide a suitable habitat
for sludgeworms, extended septic periods and toxic pollutants prevented
their establishment.

     Only the very pollution-tolerant filamentous blue-green algae
occurred.  The bottom was composed of minute iron particles at the
farthest station upstream near the headwaters in Gary, Indiana.  West-
ward from that point to the Indiana Harbor Canal, the bottom consisted
of rubble, petroleum wastes, and a heavy black oily organic ooze that
had a highly objectionable sewage and petroleum odor.  The stream
surface was covered with oil.

     Nutrients in treated sewage from towns in the drainage basin
tributary to Burns Ditch, and the sluggishness of the stream, combine
to effect a most favorable condition for planktonic algal growth.  The
subsequent die-off of the algae forms a bottom sediment favorable for
                                   31

-------
populations of pollution-tolerant sludge-worms and bloodworms.  The stream
is biologically degraded but not as severely as other area streams.

     Industrial pollutants inhibited the establishments of large numbers
of bottom animals in the Indiana Harbor Canal.  The highest number of
sludgeworms, only kk per square foot, were found near the southern end
of the canal.  The stations near the mouth at Indiana Harbor had only
from two to ten sludgeworms per square foot.  Oil slicks were observed
at all stations and the water was very turbid.

                         Bacterial Pollution

     The bacterial findings for Calumet Area streams reported herein
derive from an intensive 2^-day sampling survey conducted between
August 20 and September 12, 196.3-  Samples were collected once a day
at each sampling station on some 20 days of the period.  Coliform and
fecal streptococcus densities were determined for each sample, by the
membrane filter technique.  Representative average and maximum results
are shown graphically on Figures VIII-2 and VIII-3.  Gross fecal pollution
is generally evidenced.  It is also evident on the two Figures that the
interstate flow from Indiana to Illinois through both Grand and Little
Calumet Rivers is grossly polluted bacterially; this contributes materially
to the health hazard to downstream users, including workers on commercial
barge lines and recreationists using the boating areas and boat launching
ramps in the near vicinity.

     Fecal Streptococcus densities add further confirmation to the
coliform indications of pollution.  Sampling stations located near the
State line on either side, in both the Grand and Little Calumet Rivers,
had average fecal strep concentrations in the order of 70,000 to 80,000
per 100 ml.

     Burns Ditch showed an average coliform density of 120,000 per 100
ml near its point of discharge to Lake Michigan, and 1.7 million per
100 ml about h miles inland.  Fecal strep at the latter point averaged
83,000 ml.

     In the Indiana Harbor Canal coliform counts averaged 3^0,000 per
100 ml, and individual tests ranged up to 2.5 million.  Associated
fecal strep values ranged as high as Uo,000 per 100 ml.

     In Wolf Lake, coliform densities as high as 19,000 per 100 ml were
found in the Indiana portion, and values ranged downward to 250 per 100
ml at the lake's  outlet connection to the Calumet River.  It is believed
that abnormally high coliform counts are confined to local areas of Wolf
Lake, and there is no evidence of significant interstate bacterial
pollution through this lake.

     The Calumet River exhibited average coliform densities of 2,900
per 100 ml near its junction with Lake Michigan, increasing to 25,000


                                   32

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per 100 ml about 3 miles farther inland.  As described in earlier
sections of this report, the Calumet River generally serves as one of
the diversion channels carrying water away from jjOke Michigan into the
Illinois River system.  Frequent reversals of flow occur, however --
occasioned by inversion of the flat water surface gradient due to storm
runoff or local short-term lowering of Lake Michigan surface level due
to surges (seiches) in the Lake.  Prolonged southwesterly winds could
produce both such a lowering of Lake Michigan and a current movement
within the Lake that is from Illinois into Indiana waters.  Thus, at
times water from the Calumet River, polluted bacterially and otherwise,
can cross from Illinois to Indiana.  Whether such movement constitutes
a hazard or detriment to water uses in Indiana would depend upon the
effectiveness of dilutional mixing, the proximity of beaches or water
intakes, and other factors — but the possibility exists.  Unquestionably
the flow reversals are detrimental to beaches and other water uses in
Illinois, along the shoreline immediately adjacent to the junction.

     In summary, widespread and gross bacterial pollution prevailing
throughout the waters of the Calumet Area stream system constitutes
a threat to public health.  Any human contact with these waters entails
an exposure risk of infectious disease.  In addition, such waters com-
prise a habitat for insects (such ae roaches) and animals (such as rats
and birds) which can act as mobile disseminators of infection.

           Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen

     Figure VIII-^ shows average IsuD concentrations, at sampling stations
on the Little Calumet River, for the August-September, 1963* survey
period previously described.  Noteworthy is the concentration of 20-3
milligrams per liter (mg/l) at mile point 333-1* just east of the Illinois-
Indiana State line; combining with average stream flows for the period,
that figure converts to a pollutional load of about 1,500 pounds per
day of 5-day BOD crossing the line from Indiana into Illinois.

     Figure VIII-5 shows BOD concentrations for the corresponding period
in the western part of the Grand Calumet River.  It will be noted that
BOD concentration near the State line, at mile point 328.7, is 15.7
mg/l; combining this concentration with average stream flow indicates
that about 3>200 pounds per day of 5-
-------
system, downstream from the western end of the Cal-Sag Channel, such
waste loads are dwarfed by the much larger inputs from MSD-Chicago's
main plant at Stickney.

     Average dissolved oxygen conditions in the Grand and Little
Calumet Rivers corresponding in location and time to the BOD con-
ditions just discussed, are shown in Figures VIII-6 and VIII-7.  Not
only did critically low average DO conditions prevail generally through-
out the area, but some individual samples showed zero DO at every station.
The anomalous value of U.9 mg/1 average DO at mile point 337-2 in
Indiana, near the point where the Little Calumet River divides to flow
east and west, is worth special comment.  Here the individual samples
showed extreme variability in DO, ranging from zero to 25.6 mg/1.  The
latter represents a high degree of supersaturation and a very unstable
transient condition.  This anomaly is attributed to intense algal activ-
ity and a lagoon effect in the shallow, sluggish, nutrient-rich, water.

Lake Michigan

     The following discusses the effects of wastes entering Lake Michigan
in the Calumet Area on the quality of the lake and the uses made of it.
Wastes entering Lake Michigan come from the Indiana Harbor Canal, industries
discharging along the shoreline in Indiana and Illinois, reversal of flow
of the Calumet River in Chicago, to a lesser extent the discharge from
Burns Ditch in Indiana, and at least one storm water overflow in Whiting,
Indiana.

                               Biology

     Between 1961 and 1963 more than ^50 bottom dredgings were made in
the lake area from Wilmette, Illinois to Indiana Dunes State Park and
lakeward about 30 miles.  The lake was divided into sectors bounded by
15 minute lines of latitude and longitude, and the numbers of organisms
per square foot and the kinds of organisms comprising the bottom animal
communities were determined for each sector.  Summary results of those
data as shown in Figure VIII-8 illustrate the effects on Lake Michigan
of the sources of pollution in the Calumet Area.

     The bottom animal communities in this area of Lake Michigan were
composed of only a few different kinds of organisms.  Sludgeworms
(Oligochaeta) and aquatic scuds (Amphipoda) were more numerous, but
bloodworms (Tendipedidae) and fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae) were some-
times abundant.  Of these four different kinds of animals only one, the
scud, is sensitive to pollution, preferring a clean sand or gravel
bottom and relatively clear water.  Where the lake bottom is subjected
to deposits of organic materials the conditions are more favorable for
sludgeworms, bloodworms, and fingernail clams.

-------
     Figure VIII-8 shows the population differences in bottom organisms
from one sector to the other.  In Sector 3, offshore from the Calumet Area
streams, pollution tolerant organisms averaged kOO per square foot, and
there were only a few clean water associated organisms.  In Sector 2,
also Calumet Area shoreline waters, pollution tolerant organisms averaged
about 250 per square foot, and again there were only a few pollution
intolerant organisms.  In Sector 6, which is north of Sectors 2 and 3> and
along the Chicago shoreline, pollution tolerant organisms averaged about
1,000 per square foot of lake bottom and pollution intolerant forms
averaged about 50 per square foot.  This more than two-fold increase in
pollution tolerant organisms is attributed to an organic sediment that
is a more suitable habitat for organisms such as sludgeworms and less
favorable for clean water associated organisms.  The reason sludgeworms
were less numerous in Sectors 2 and 3 is that the heavier suspended
particles contained in wastes from the steel industries settle out be-
fore they are carried northward to the Chicago waterfront.  Some of the
lighter organic particles from sewage and other organic waste sources
also settle out near the Calumet Area, but some are carried northward
by lake currents, and deposited along the Chicago shoreline.  In addition,
toxic and inhibitory materials in some of the industrial pollutaa ts are
more highly concentrated in the Calumet Area of the lake than off the
Chicago shoreline.  The lower concentration of toxic substances in the
Chicago Area would permit larger populations of organisms to develop.

     Further evidence that wastes from the Calumet Area are deposited
in the Lake near Chicago is in theodors of the dredgings from this area
of Lake Michigan.  Some of the dredgings from the sectors along the
shore contained organic sediments described as ooze.  Sewage odors
were detected in some of the dredgings in Sectors 1, 2, 3 and 6; and
petroleum odors were detected in bottom muds from Sectors 1 and 2.

     The organic materials discharged in the Calumet Area, and carried
by the streams into Lake Michigan, have created a condition deleterious
to aquatic life.  This is indicated by the predominance of sludgeworms
over kinds of organisms beneficial to fish.  The aquatic scud is one of
the principal food organisms for desirable species of Lake Michigan fish,
particularly the whitefish, lake trout, and yellow perch.  In this area
where scuds are scarce there is inadequate food for large populations of
desirable fish.  Trash fish like carp, buffalo, and suckers usually pre-
dominate in a lake area where the bottom sediment is organic.

     Pollution of this large area of Lake Michigan is especially serious
because it is practically irreversible.  That is, the conditions that
now exist will not necessarily improve with the cessation of present
waste discharges.  In a stream where there is a current moving in one
direction there is a tendency for the bottom deposits to be scoured
away.  However, Lake currents are weak and shifting, and bottom deposits
might move only slightly over a long period of time.


                                   35

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     In addition to the study of the bottom organisms, samples of
water were collected for planktonic (free floating) algae evaluations.
The information obtained about the abundance and kinds of algae presents
further understanding of the effects of pollutants.  If growth factors
such as water movement, temperature, and light are favorable, the plank-
tonic algae populations increase with an increase in growth nutrients.
There are a wide number of algal growth nutrients but, just as agricul-
tural crops such as corn and soybeans require measurable amounts of
phosphorus and nitrogen, so do the planktonic algae.  Inorganic nitrogen
and total phosphate concentrations of 0-3 milligrams per liter and 0.03
milligrams per liter, respectively, at the start of the algae growing
season, are considered sufficient to cause nuisance algal conditions.
Concentrations of inorganic nitrogen were higher than 0.3 rag/1 in the
Lake Michigan area adjacent to the Calumet area.  However, total phos-
phate values were near, but rarely ever more than 0.03 fflg/1.  Secchi
disc readings in this area were generally about three feet.  Dense
populations of planktonic algae did not occur, probably because of a
shortage of phosphorus, and because suspended matter restricted light
penetration.  If the discharge of phosphorus and other nutrients con-
tinues, the concentration of phosphates can be expected to surpass
the critical level of 0.03 mg/1 and algal nuisance conditions will occur.

                            Bacteriology

     The waters off the Calumet area and the Chicago area were studied
during 1962 and 1963 in a series of sampling cruises.  Coliform and
fecal streptococcus determinations were made.  Virtually none of these
organisms were found in the deep water of the main body of Lake Michi-
gan.  Highest coliform concentrations occured in the waters extending
from the mouth of the Calumet River to the Indiana Harbor and out to
a distance of approximately two miles offshore.  Coliform densities
as high as 7,000 per 100 ml were observed in this area.  In the zone
extending on eastward to Burns Ditch all determinations were in the
range of 1 to 1,000 per 100 ml at a distance up to two miles offshore.
Coliform densities in the range of 100 to 1,000 were observed extending
outward from the Calumet Harbor-Indiana Harbor area for a distance of
five to seven miles.  Such densities were detected at the Indiana-Illinois
boundary line running east and west in Lake Michigan, due north of
Whiting.  The waters of the south end of Lake Michigan are thus shown
to be receiving large loads of fecal pollution originating in the Cal-
umet Area and moving out into Lake %chigan.

     Data from records of the Chicago Park District on the occurrence
of coliform bacteria on beaches in the Calumet Area and northward
along the Lake shore in Chicago are shown below.  Each beach was
sampled on 20 to 30 different days during the bathing season each year,
and the table shows the number of days sampled on which the coliform count
exceeded the values shown.


                                  36

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Beaches
No. of sampling days when coliform vere
                110,000 or
                greater
                     greater than
                     10,000
                                   greater than
                                   1,000
                1961  62  63  6^     6l  62  63  6U     61  62  63  6k
Indiana

Whiting

Hammond

Illinois

Calumet

Rainbow

6? th St.

Jackson Pk.

57th St.

     St.
2

2
 5   7

12   9
1     11

1     00

0     00
0

0

0
 0   0

 0   0

 0   0
0

1*



0

0

0

0

0

0
8  12   lU   1

6  13   ib   5



U   3   12   3

20    10

0   1.    2   2
0   0

0   0
1   1

1   0
19  20  23  16

19  20  23  18



22  19  25  18

10  10   9   8

 9   9   7  10

12  11  12  11

12   5  11   6

 535^
*2HQ,000
     It is evident that Whiting Beach and Hammond Beach in Indiana and
Calumet Park Beach in Chicago  are the most heavily polluted.  These
beaches lie within the artificial bay created by the Calumet Harbor break-
water and Indiana Harbor, and are directly subject to pollution by wastes
discharged to Lake Michigan in the Calumet Area.  Coliform densities
usually exceed 1,000 per 100 ml, and are often 100 times higher.  The beach
at Hammond is closed to swimming by orders of the Hammond Health Department
due to high coliform concentrations.  The beach is posted for no swimming.

     The effects of bacterial pollution from the Calumet Area are ex-
tended to beaches farther north along the shoreline, although to a dim-
inshing extent.  These relationships are shown in Figure VIII-9-  The
locations of the beaches are shown in Figure V-l.

     The water intakes of Chicago's Dunne Crib and South District Fil-
tration Plant are often affected by those polluted waters moving north-
ward from Indiana and the mouth of the Calumet River.  Rainbow Beach and
the filtration plant are immediately adjacent, and Dunne Crib is two
miles offshore.  The bacterial records of water from both the plant and
crib intakes substantiate the presence of waters carrying fecal pollution.
At times the quality of the water abruptly worsens and coliform densities
increase sharply.  During the last part of November, 1963, for example,
coliform densities as high as 5>800 were recorded through an eight-day
                                   37

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period.  Higher coliform densities have been recorded in other season
and years since 1950-

                Phenolic Materials and Taste and Odor

     In 1962 Lake Michigan studies by the Public Health Service, phenol
samples were collected at three Indiana Harbor stations.  Results at
these stations and at one nearby Lake station were slightly higher than
values found in other inshore sampling.  The most notable result was a
phenol value of 6.8 ug/1 (micrograms per liter).

     In the first half of 1963, stations were located within the inner
harbor area, and at these stations the analytical results showed definite
degradation of water quality.  Phenols were as high as 52.^ ug/1.  At
the stations adjacent to the harbor, the phenols were present in con-
centrations ranging from O.k to 10.0 ug/1.  The May, 1963 studies showed
that phenol values at nearly all of sixty-four lake stations in the
Indiana Harbor, Calumet Harbor, and adjacent lake stations exceeded
1 ug/1.

     A special study in the Calumet and Indiana Harbor area was made
for phenols during the period of October 20 through December 9, 1963.
Figure VIII-10 illustrates a typical set of results obtained during
this study.  One day's sampling was selected for this figure (October
22, 1963) to show a typical flow pattern because averages on individual
lake stations have proved to be misleading.  Changes in wind direction
from day to day cause the pollution plume to alter its course.  The
direction and severity of such pollution plumes are best represented
by a separate examination of each individual days sampling.  Averages
are useful in showing longer range effects on the general water quality
of sizable areas in the lake, but averages of all results at individual
stations do not successfully produce either of the desired patterns.

     The phenol values shown in Figure VIII-10 were 127 ug/1 in Indiana
Harbor, 56 ug/1 at the harbor mouth, and 72 ug/1 a half mile out in
the lake.  At points two miles and four and one-half miles in a north-
westerly direction, results were 6 ug/1.  They decreased to 5 ug/1 in
another mile and to 3 ug/1 as the State line was crossed.  Higher re-
sults (k to 12 ug/1) were  observed near the shoreline between Indiana
Harbor and Calumet Harbor and in Calumet Harbor.  These phenol results
were associated with a phenol value of 25^ ug/1 in the Indiana Harbor
Canal on the same day.

     To illustrate both the average results and the maximum results
in both the Indiana and Calumet Harbor area and the Chicago water in-
take areas, Figure VIII-11 show the average of all samples collected
in these areas in 1962 and 1963.

     The average of 518 samples in the Calumet Harbor-Indiana Harbor

-------
area vas 16 ug/1.  In the sector west across the State line, the average
of 105 samples was 1.8 ug/1 and in the sector to the north, where the
Chicago water intakes are located, the average phenol value of 21 samples
was 1.6 ug/1.  It should be pointed out that the maximum values obtained
in these three areas were respectively 35^ ug/1, 32 ug/1, and 3.2 ug/1,
all substantially higher than the typical day previously referred to in
Figure VIII-10.

     Hienols are decomposed "by bacterial action in the presence of
dissolved oxygen and their persistence from point-to-point is relatively
short-lived, except during low temperature periods.  The levels observed
in the October study could be expected to be exceeded in colder weather,
especially at the stations farthest removed from Indiana Harbor, near
the water intakes.

     The shore intake of the Chicago South District Filtration Plant is
less than a mile from the Indiana State line.  The Dunne Crib intake is
about two miles off shore and less than three miles from the State line.
The locations of these intakes are such that the problems which occur
at this plant and the results of analyses obtained here are a direct
reflection of interstate pollution.

     Records of phenol determinations by the City of Chicago were
obtained during 10 months of record in 1962 and the first three months
of 1963.  The 1962 phenol results ranged from 0 to 6 ug/1 with an
average of 2 ug/1.  The phenol results for the first three months of
1963 averaged 1 ug/1.

     The Filtration Plant reported that one of its most serious taste
and odor problems occurred between January 24, 1963 and February 1, 1963,
lasting 15 days.  During this period threshold odor  numbers increased
from the usual level of k to a maximum value of 50 at Dunne Crib and 15
at the shore intake.  Odors during this period were characterized as
"hydrocarbon."  This description is usually associated with industrial
wastes.  These high odor numbers are reflected in the heavy use of carbon
in an effort to remove the odor.  Associated with these objectionable
odors were high ammonia nitrogen results which will be discussed in
more detail later.

     Other periods referred to by the Chicago South District Filtration
Plant as causing similar problems are shown in Table VIII-1.  These
periods were March 3 and k, 1963, when threshold odor values of 8
(hydrocarbon) at the shore and 12 (hydrocarbon) at Dunne Crib were
reported.  On April 2 to 7, 19^3, threshold odor numbers up to 10 at
the shore and 14 at the Crib were reported.  Again these odors were
reported as "hydrocarbon."  Another critical period recently reported
was a 20-day period from December 11 to December 31, 196^.  During
this period an excessive threshold odor of 90 (hydrocarbon) was obtained
at Dunne Crib and l6 was obtained at the shore.
                                  39

-------
     As was discussed in Section VII, the high threshold odor number in
January and March 1963 were associated with movements of water from
Indiana towards Chicago intakes.

     Four Indiana water plants also take their water from Lake Michigan
in the Calumet Area.  The Gary-Hobart Water Plant reports that when
high carbon dosages are required, hydrocarbon odors are always responsible.
Acute problems were experienced at this plant in January, February, and
March, 1963 and less severe problems were  experienced in January,
February, March and December, 1964.  Threshold odors and phenol analyses
were not reported.

     The East Chicago Water Treatment Plant reports that beginning
December 15, 1964, a strong phenol odor was detected.  Threshold odor
numbers for the next eight days ranged from 8 to 35, maintaining 35 for
three consecutive days.  Normal or average carbon dosages are 2k to
27 pounds per million gallons.  During these eight days dosages were
between 63 and 163 Ibs/MG.

     The Hammond Water Plant reports that when winds are from the south-
east or northeast, Intensive pollution due to phenols is experienced.
In the past, phenols were experienced only during winter months but
they are now expected at any time.  Threshold odor numbers of 2,500 or
higher have been recorded.  On March 24 and 25 and April 2, 1964, a
severe taste was experienced characterized as a "gasoline or paint"
type.  This continued with less severity for two weeks.  An insecticide
spill was identified on July 10 and 11, 1964 which took one week to
eliminate from the system.  During December 1 to 26, 1964, threshold
odors from 30 to 79 were experienced for 77 per cent of the time.

     Whiting, Indiana is located with industrial plants in close proximity
on both sides.  Industrial pollution never ceases to be a problem.
Threshold odors are usually high, running 15 to 25 when severe problems
are absent.  During 1963 and 1964 much higher than average chemical
dosages were required.  Only one period of phenol results was available.
Results from January 16 to February 6, 1963 ranged from 1 to 26 ug/1 with
an average value of 8 ug/1.  Threshold odors during this period averaged
18 with a maximum of 100.  In contrast during the week of December 24,
1964, threshold odors ranged from 300 to 2,000.  Phenol analyses were
not obtained during this period.

     Because of the taste and odor problems reported in the first part
of 1963, the Public Health Service began monitoring water intakes in
Chicago and vicinity for organic contaminants.  This program was con-
tinued until June 1964.  The stations selected were Whiting, Chicago's
South District Filtration Plant, Chicago Avenue, Evanston, and Waukegan.
The carbon adsorption method was used for this study and the average
results are shown in Table VIII-2.
                                 40

-------
     The Whiting, Indiana plant showed significantly greater amounts
of carbon chloroform extract than the other intakes.  This is an indica-
tion of industrial pollution.  An average value of 242 micrograms
per liter found at this station can be considered a serious pollution
load.  Threshold odor numbers up to 3>000 have been reported at Whiting.
The "Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards - 1962" (PHS Publica-
tion No. 956) recommends a threshold odor number limit of 3«  A study
by Rosen and Rubin shoved that 70 Per cent of the organic carbon
in the carbon-chloroform extract from samples of intake water at Whiting,
Indiana was fossil carbon, originating from petroleum and coal, and in-
dicated industrial sources.  The other 30 per cent was contemporary
carbon, indicating sewage origin.

     The carbon filter extracts from the other water plants indicate
they are receiving organic pollutants in their raw water of the same
magnitude as obtained in the South District Filtration Plant.  Un-
fortunately, carbon filter studies were not being made at the times of
the most severe taste and odor problems reported by these plants, in
January, March, and April, 1963, and December, 1964.

           Nitrogen:  Ammonia, Organic, and Nitrate-Nitrite

     Nitrogen is necessary to the normal life cycle of aquatic life.
If it is present with phosphate in moderate concentrations, accelerated
growths of algae and plankton can result.  Ammonia in high concentrations,
above 2 to 2.5 mg/1 and under alkaline pH conditions (pH8-8.5) is a
substance toxic to many forms of aquatic life.  At all levels it is an
increased burden to municipal water treatment, because of its high
chlorine demand.

     A study of Indiana Harbor was conducted from May 8 to May 23, 1963
covering five stations inside the breakwater and 27 stations adjacent
to the harbor.  At the same time, a survey was also made covering 32
stations at Calumet Harbor.  Four of these stations were located inside
the breakwater, and the others were located outside the breakwater.
The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen were found
to be higher at the stations near the harbors than they were farther
out in the Lake and were much higher than concentrations found in the
mid-lake waters.

     Figure VIII-12 illustrates typical ammonia nitrogen results as
found on November 2k, 1963.  The highest result was 2.4 mg/1 in the
Indiana Harbor Canal, followed by 1.5 mg/1 in the inner harbor, 1.6
at the harbor mouth, and 1.1 mg/1 at a point one-half mile from shore.
Close by was another result of 0.5 mg/1.  Four miles northwest of the
harbor, the level was 0.45, and at five miles northwest at the State
line, the result was 0.75 mg/1.

     Figure VIII-13 shows the average results of all samples collected
in the Calumet Area studies.  The data were analyzed in quadrangles of

-------
15 minutes latitude and 15 minutes longitude.  The average of 538 results
in the Calumet Harbor-Indiana Harbor area was 0.35 mg/1.  Across the
State line to the west, the average result of 108 samples was 0.19 "ig/l*
To the north, in the area of the Chicago water intakes, the average
value of 58 samples was 0.12 mg/1.  While the averages are not significant
from a health standpoint, they represent a nutrient load to the Lake,
and the maximum values between 2 and 4.5 mg/1 in the Indiana Harbor-
Calumet Harbor area could be toxic to many forms of aquatic life.  In
addition, the values up to 0.37 in the area of the water intakes contribute
to the cost of water treatment.  The levels also demonstrate the movement
of pollution from the Indiana Harbor area northwestward toward the Chicago
water intakes and shore area.  Similar patterns were also observed for
organic nitrogen and for nitrate-nitrite nitrogen results.  The distribu-
tion of the total nitrogen results in the area emphasizes the nutrient
load placed in the Lake by the addition of nitrogen in the Calumet area.

       Excessive amounts of ammonia discharged to interstate waters of
Lake Michigan contribute to overfertilization of the lake, with con-
sequent eutrophication or aging.  Over-enrichment of the lake can cause
prolific growths of algae and aquatic weeds that pile up onto beaches>
clog water intakes, interfere with filter plant operations, and cause
taste and odor problems in municipal water supplies.

       An even better indication of the frequency and degree of this pollu-
tion can be found in the records of the Chicago South District Filtra-
tion Plant.  The two analyses which were made daily on the raw water of
this plant which are closely allied are ammonia nitrogen and threshold
odor.  Threshold odor has been discussed previously, but it bears some
repitition on its relation to ammonia values.  The shore intake of this
plant is approximately eight miles from Indiana Harbor and three quarters
of a mile from the Indiana-Illinois State line.

       The effect of the ammonia in Lake Michigan water has been felt
repeatedly by the Chicago South District Filtration Plant.  This plant
takes from 20 to 60 per cent of its water from its shore intake depending
on the total demand on the plant, and the remainder of the water comes
from the Dunne Crib, two miles off shore.  Reports from this plant
indicated that a critical water quality problem existed from January 24,
1963 to February J, 1963.

       During this period when the severe "hydrocarbon" threshold odor
problem reached a man' mum odor number of 50 at the Dunne Crib and 15
at the shore, high ammonia results were also obtained.  The Filtration
Plant reported that the normal ammonia value of raw lake water should
be 0.004 mg/1 and treatment problems occur with a rapid increase in
chlorine demand when the ammonia nitrogen level exceeds 0.02 mg/1.  During
this period, the average ammonia values at the Dunne Crib were over
0.02 mg/1 on twelve out of the fifteen days with maximum values over
0.10 mg/1 on nine days and over 0.20 mg/1 on four of the days.  The
average value at the shore intake exceeded 0.04 mg/1 every day, with
maximum values more than 0.10 mg/1 on nine days.

-------
      Other periods referred to by the Chicago South District Filtration
Plant as causing similar problems were March 3 and k, 1963, April 2 to
7, 1963 and December 11 to 31, 1964.  On March 3 and *», 1963, a thres-
hold odor value of 12 was obtained at the Dunne Crib and 8 was obtained
at the shore, again with the characteristic hydrocarbon odor.  Ammonia
values of 0.052 mg/1 at the Crib and 0.10 mg/1 at the shore were also
obtained on this date.  On April 2 to 1, 1963, threshold odors  of lU
at the Crib and 10 at the shore  were again associated with ammonia
values as high as O.lH mg/1 at the Crib and up to 0.098 mg/1 at the shore.

      During the last reported problem period, December 11 to 31, 196^ a
maximum threshold odor of 90 (hydrocarbon) and an ammonia value of Q.l6k
mg/1 were obtained at Dunne Crib.

      Although the highest ammonia values were obtained during the same
periods as the highest threshold odors, the relationship does not always
hold.  High ammonia concentrations were also observed and problems
occurred from them at a number of other times with no attendant Increase
in threshold odor numbers.  Such conditions existed on numerous occasions,
the most notable being from April 15 to May 20, 1963, when ammonia levels
were over 0.05 »g/l for 20 days with three days over 0.11 mg/1 and from
November 18 to December 3, 1963, when ammonia nitrogen levels again ranged
from 0.05 to O.lU mg/1 for twelve days.

      During 1963 at the South District Filtration Plant, ammonia nitrogen
results exceeded 0.22 mg/1 on 187 days.  Shown below Is a breakdown of
the number of days this and higher values were exceeded at the Dunne
Crib and at the shore:

Ammonia Hitrogen                                       Dunne Crib
     Results                      Shore (1963)            (1963)

greater than 0.02 mg/1                  182                 187
greater than 0.05 nig/1                   T2                  77
greater than 0.10 mg/1                    6                  15
greater than 0.20 mg/1                                        3

      Ammonia problems are also reported by the Gary-Hobart Water Company
which draws its water from Lake Michigan at Gary.  Gary-Hobart reports
odors suggesting gasoline, and that high ammonia concentrations are
common in the raw water, the average magnitude being 0.10 mg/1.  Water
company officials report that each pound of ammonia in the raw water in-
creases the chlorine demand by about 10 pounds.  On seven days during
January, 1963, ammonia concentrations ranged from 0.1*0 to 0.65 mg/1.
On three days in March, 1963, the ammonia values were between 0.30 and
0.1+0 mg/1.  During 196^, ammonia values of 0.15 to 0.1*7 mg/1 were reported
on eight days in January, six days in February, and one day in March.

-------
                         Additional Problems

     The Gary-Hobart Water Company reports that high iron concentrations
are common in the raw water supply.  The average amount of the iron in
the raw water is reported to be 0.15 mg/1.  In January, 19^3 iron results
were O.k to 1.0 mg/1 for five days.  In March, 1963 iron ranged from 0.5
to 1.1 mg/1 for four days,  in February and March, 196^- iron values were
between 0.3 and 0.5 mg/1 for eight days.  This iron probably comes from
waste pickle liquor discharged to Indiana Harbor.  The effect of this
iron is to increase the cost of water treatment.

     An investigation was conducted in September, 1963 to determine the
source of popcorn slag which fouls the Calumet Park Beach on Lake
Michigan at 95th Street in Chicago.  Popcorn slag is a very light, porous
solid which if formed by rapid cooling of molten blast furnace slag
by water Jets.  Some escapes the recovery facilities and is then dis-
charged in washing or cooling water to the adjacent watercourse.  The
slag floats and is moved by winds and current.  Thus, it frequently
collects on bathing beaches, where the sulfide odor and gritty texture
are both annoying and uncomfortable to bathers.  This problem is a more
or less continuous nuisance throughout the summer.   Field investiga-
tions have indicated that at least two plants discharge this waste.  The
largest source of popcorn slag is the U.S. Steel South Works in Chicago.
A lesser source is the Wisconsin Steel Works in Chicago.

-------
                        IX - CORRECTIVE ACTION HEEDED
       It is recommended that:

       1.  Industrial plants in both Indiana and Illinois take immediate
steps to improve practices for exclusion or treatment of wastes especially
the following constituents:

                     Oil and tarry substances;

                     Phenolic compounds or other persistent
                     organic chemicals that contribute to
                     taste and odor problems;

                     Ammonia and other nitrogenous material;

                     Phosphorus;

                     Suspended matter; and

                     Highly acidic or alkaline materials.

       2.  Major industrial plants institute permanent programs of sampling
their effluents to provide more complete information about waste outputs.
Location and frequency of sample collection should be sufficient to yield
statistically reliable values of waste output and its variations.  Analyses
should include the following:  pH, oil, tarry residues, phenolics, ammonia,
organic nitrogen, total nitrogen, cyanide, toxic metals, phosphorus, suspended
solids, and biochemical oxygen demand.  Wastewater flows should be measured,
and results should be reported in terms of both concentrations and tonnage
rates.  Monthly reports of results should be submitted to the appropriate
State water pollution control agencies, where they will be available in
open files.  Unusual increases in waste output and accidental spills should
be reported immediately to the State agency.

       3.  Appropriate State or local agencies establish a system of water
quality monitoring stations at strategic points in the public waters of the
area.  Analyses should include the indices recited above, plus dissolved
oxygen, coliform and fecal streptococcus counts, and stream temperature.
At selected locations and for selected indices, continuously recording
monitors should be maintained and data transmitted to a central receiving
office.  Effective alerting procedures should be instituted by State or
other appropriate agencies, for quickly informing interested parties of
sudden changes or hazards to water quality.

-------
       k.  The Thomas J. O'Brien Lock be closed and placed In conventional
lockage operation to provide more positive control of flows and reduce the
frequency and duration of backflows to Lake Michigan.

       5.  A dam be built across the Grand Calumet River to prevent un-
controlled flows from Lake Michigan to the Illinois River through that
channel.  Preferred location of the dam is east of the outfall from the
East Chicago Municipal Waste Treatment Plant.

       6.  All municipal wastes in the area receive secondary treatment.
The trend toward consolidation of small community facilities into integrated
sewer systems should be accelerated, to achieve better operating conditions
and reduce the proliferation of sewage treatment plants discharging into
small tributaries and dry watercourses.

       7.  Hammond and East Chicago investigate the feasibility of con-
structing lagoons for further treatment of waste effluents.  Part of the
existing poorly-drained flood plain of the Grand Calumet River might be
utilized for this purpose, with levees around the lagoons high enough to
prevent flooding, and improved bypass channels for storm drainage.

       8.  All sanitary wastes be disinfected before discharge.  Disin-
fection should be practiced in the manner prescribed by State water pollu-
tion control agencies and mutually agreed upon between the two States.

-------
                            Table VI-la

                    SOURCES OF MUNICIPAL WASTES
                        LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN
Community,
Estimated Sewered
Sanitary
District, or
Institution
Crown Point,
Ind.
St. John TWP,
Ind.
Receiving
Stream
(Direct)
Deep River
Turkey Cr.
Lincoln Gardens,
Ind. Turkey Cr.
Ross TWP,
Ind.
Hobart TWP,
Ind.
Hobart, Ind.
Black Oak-Ross
Ind. (d)
Gary, Ind.
Miller Plant
Chesterton,
Ind.
Porter, Ind. (
Valparaiso,
Ind.
Turkey Cr.
Deep River
Deep River
,
L. Cal. R.
Burns Ditch
L. Cal. R.
e) L. Cal. R.
Salt Creek
Eight Smaller
Sources, Ind.
BURNS DITCH SUBTOTAL
Gary, Ind. 3D
Main Plant
East Chicago,
Ind.
INDIANA HARBOR
LAKE MICHIGAN
G. Cal. R.
G. Cal. R.
SUBTOTAL
TOTAL
Treatment
Secondary
Minor
Secondary
Minor
Minor
Secondary
Minor
Secondary
Secondary
Minor
Secondary
Estimated Pop
Connected to
Sewer
8000
3300 (a)
1000
1M55 (b)
8920 (c)
18,680
6000
5000
^335
1200
15,000
7 Secondary
1 Minor 6350

Secondary
Secondary
92,6k)
17^,500 (f)
57,66o
232,100
32^, 7to
. Population Equivalent-
Be fore
Treatment
8000
650
1000
3000
1800
15,000
6000
U990
*4OOO
1200
11,600
6050
63,290
299,000
53,300
352,300
lU5,590
Discharged
1200
650
150
3000
1800
2000
5280
1750
kOQ
1200
500
1325
18,755
18, 100 (g)
6500 (b)
2U,600
^3,355

-------
Table VI -Ib
!ES OF MUNICIPAL WASTES
AKE MICHIGAN BASIN
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-------
                            Table VI-2a

                    SOURCES OF MUNICIPAL WASTES
                       ILLINOIS RIVER BASIN
Community,
Estimated Sewered
Sanitary
District, or
Institution
Hammond, Ind.(a)
Black Oak-Ross,
Ind.
Schererville,
Ind.
Dyer, Ind.
Highland, Ind.
(part) (c)
Three smaller
sources, Ind.
Calumet Plant
(MSD), Ill.(d)
Lansing, 111.
Bloom Twp. San.
Dist., Ill.(e)
Steger, Ill.(f)
Crete, 111.
East Chicago
Heights, 111.
Matteson, 111.
Flossmoore, 111.

Home wood, 111.
Washington Park
Race Track, 111.
Receiving
Stream
(Direct)
G. Cal. R.

L. Cal. R.
Hart Ditch
Hart Ditch
L. Cal. R.


L. Cal. R.
L. Cal. R.
Thorn Creek
Third Creek
Deer Creek

Deer Creek
Butterfield
Creek
Butterfield
Creek
Butterfield
Creek
Ditch to
Thorn Cr.
Treatment
Secondary

Minor
Minor (b)
Minor (b)
None
2 Secondary
1 Minor

Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary

Secondary
Secondary
Secondary

Secondary
Secondary
Estimated Pop.
Connected to
Sewer
147,000


1,250
3,600
5,430
l,6oo

602,400
18,000
68,000
6,4oo
3,500

10,000
3,000
4,600

14,000
20,000
Population
Before
Treatment
281,000

17,000
1,250
3,6oo
5,^30
1,250

883,000
18,000
77,000
6,4oo
3,500

10,000
3,000
4,6oo

15,000
1,000
Equivalent-
Discharged
27,000(h)

15,000
1,000
3,000
4,880
780

80,000(i)
3,6oo
16, 900 (j)
1,300
1,000

1,200
200
700

1,400
100

-------
        Table VI-2b

SOURCES OF MUNICIPAL WASTES
    ILLINOS RIVER BASIN
Community,
Sanitary
District, or
Institution
Southdale
Subd., 111.
Thornton, 111.
Hazel Crest,
111.
Sundale Hills
Subd., 111.
Est. 20 smaller
Receiving
Stream
(Direct)
Lansing Dr.
Ditch
Thorn Creek
Cal . Union
Dr. Ditch
Midlothian
Creek

sources, 111.
ILLINOIS RIVER TOTAL
CALUMET AREA TOTAL
Treatment
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
All
Secondary
Estimated Pop
Connected to
Sewer
1,200
2,900
6,200
1,400

5,000
9^2, U8o
1,267,220
Estimated Sewered
Population Equivalent*
Before
Treatment
800
2,900
6,200
1,900

5,000
1,3^7,830
1,763,^20
Discharged
100
Uoo
600
200

500
159,860
203,215
                                                    GPO 816—151-8

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-------
                              Table VI-3 a

            SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN
Industry and City
Receiving
Stream
Nature of
Waste
Treatment
Provided
N. Ind. Public Service Co.
Baileytown, Indiana

N. Ind. Public Service Co.
Gary, Indiana

Universal Atlas Cement Co.
Gary, Indiana

Union Carbide Chemicals Co.
Whiting, Indiana

American Oil Company
Whiting, Indiana

American Maize-Products Co.
Hammond, Indiana

Commonwealth Edison Co.
State Line Station
Hammond, Indiana

U.S. Steel Corp., So. Works
Chicago, Illinois

Bethlehem Steel Corporation
Chesterton, Indiana
Midwest Steel Division
National Steel Corporation
Portage, Indiana
                               LAKE MICHIGAN SHORELINE
L. Michigan   Ash
L. Michigan   Ash
L. Michigan   Domestic
                 Settling Ponds
                 Settling Ponds
                 Secondary
L. Michigan   Petrochemical    Some recirculation
              Petroleum
L. Michigan   refinery
L. Michigan   Corn starch
              Fly ash,
L. Michigan   slag
L. Michigan   Basic steel

              Rolling mill
L. Cal. R.    Domestic
              Rolling mill
Burns Ditch   Domestic
                 Oil separators
                 Secondary

                 Lagoon, inplant
                 control
                 Dewatering
                 bins

                 Flue dust
                 clairifier

                 Scale pits,
                 Flocculation-
                 Clairification

                 Scale pits,
                 Flocculation
                 Clairification,
                 Secondary
                 Chlorination

-------
                             Table VI-3b

            SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN
 Industry and City
                               Receiving
                               Stream
Nature
of Waste
Treatment
Provided
U.S. Steel Corporation*
Gary Works
Gary, Indiana
U.S. Steel Corporation
Gary Sheet & Tin Mill
Gary, Indiana

Steiner Tissue Mill
Gary, Indiana

Berry Refining Co.
Gary, Indiana

Cities Service Petroleum Co.
East Chicago, Indiana
E. I. DuPont de Menours & Co.
East Chicago, Indiana
Blaw Know Company
East Chicago, Indiana

General American Trans-
portation Company
East Chicago, Indiana
Linde Air Products Co.
East Chicago, Indiana

American Oil Company
Hammond, Indiana
                               GRAND CALUMET RIVER  - INDIANA HARBOR CANAL
                               G. Cal. R.
Basic steel
Coke
                               G. Cal. R.
                               G. Cal. R.    Paper
                               No discharge

                                             Petroleum
                               G. Cal. R.    Refinery
                                             Inorganic
                               G. Cal. R.    Chemicals
                               Indiana
                               Harbor Canal
                               Indiana       Tank car
                               Harbor Canal  washing
                               Indiana       Cooling
                               Harbor Canal  water

                                             Petroleum
                               L.  George Br. refinery
Phenol quenched
pickle liquor
absorption lagoon,
oil recovery pits
flue dust-partial
recovery
                Save-alls

                Oil separator &
                impounding basin

                Oil separators,
                sulfide &
                ammonia stripper,
                caustic neutra-
                lization

                Controlled dis-
                charge facilities,
                acid neutral-
                ization

                Settling tanks
                & filters
                Pond, settling
                basin, oil
                separator, pH
                control, chemical
                treatment

-------
                              Table VI-3c

            SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN
Industry and City
Receiving
Stream
Nature
of Waste
Treatment
Provided
                               GRAND CALUMET RIVER - INDIANA HARBOR CANAL
Calumet Nitrogen Products Co.
Hammond, Indiana

Union Tank Car Company
Hammond, Indiana

Sinclair Refining Company
East Chicago, Indiana
L. George Br.


L. George Br.


L. George Br.
Synthetic
ammonia

Tank car
washing

Petroleum
refinery
East Chicago Storm Sewer
East Chicago, Indiana

Mobil Oil Company
East Chicago, Indiana
L. George Br.


L. George Br.
Industrial

Petroleum
refinery
U.S. Gypsum Company
East Chicago, Indiana

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co.
East Chicago, Indiana
Indiana
Harbor Canal

Indiana
Harbor Canal
Gypsum &
roper

Basic steel
Coke
Inland Steel Company
East Chicago, Indiana
Indiana
Harbor Canal
Basic steel
Coke
Holding
pond

Chemical oil
separation basins

Oil separators,
cooling towers,
ammonia-sulfide
stripper, sulfide
oxidation, caustic
treatment, phenolic
waters routed
through desalters
Oil separation,
cooling towers,
straw filters,
sulfide & ammonia
strippers under
construction.
Stripper waters
will be through
desalters for
phenol reduction
None

Phenol & pickle
liquor recovery,
thickeners, oily
waste treatment,
scale pits

Phenols & nap-
halene recovery,
coke plant
cooling waters,
recirculation,
scale pits

-------
                                 Table VI - 3d

              SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN
Industry and City
Receiving
Stream
Nature of
Waste
Treatment
Provided
Adolph Plating, Inc.
East Chicago, Indiana

U.S.S. Lead Refinery, Inc.
East Chicago, Indiana

American Steel Foundries
East Chicago, Indiana
                                 GRHND CALUMET RIVER - INDIANA HARBOR CANAL
G. Cal. R.    Plating
G. Cal. R.
Indiana
Harbor Canal
* Also includes U.S. Steel Corporation National Tube Division and American
  Bridge Division, Gary, Indiana.

-------
                              Table VI-Ua

            SOUBCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, ILLINOIS RIVER BASIN
Industry and City
Receiving
Stream
Nature
of Waste
Treatment
Provided
Commonwealth Edison Company
Calumet Station
Chicago, Illinois              Calumet R.

Wisconsin Steel Works
Chicago, Illinois              Calumet R.
                Flue dust,
                some neutra-
                lized pickle
                liquor, coke
                breeze
               Thickener,
               neutralization
Interlake Iron Corporation
Chicago, Illinois              Calumet R.
Republic Steel Corporation
Chicago, Illinois              Calumet R.

Lever Brothers Company
Hammond, Indiana               Wolf Lake

Allied Chemical Company
Chicago, Illinois              Calumet R.

Cargill, Inc.
Chicago, Illinois              Calumet R.
Ford Motor Company
Chicago, Illinois              Calumet R.
LaSalle Steel Company
Hammond, Indiana               G. Cal. R.

Swift & Company
Burnham, Illinois              G. Cal. R.

Catalin Corporation
Calumet City, Illinois         L. Cal. R.

Spencer Chemical Company
Calumet City, Illinois         L. Cal. R.

Acme Steel Corporation
Riverdale, Illinois            L. Cal. R.
                Some coke
                wastes, flue
                dust

                Flue dust,
                pickle liquor

                Soap,
                fats

                Inorganic
                chemicals

                Soybean
                oil
                Paint, alkali,
                chromium
                Some pickle
                liquor
                Fertilizer
                Phenolics
               Thickeners,
               closed coke
               quench

               Thickeners,
               scale pits

               Air flotation,
               chlorination
               Neutrali za ti on,
               treatment plant
               under construction

               Filtration,
               treatment plant
               under construction

               Acid neutralization
               None
                Raw sewage     Thickener,
                mill scale,    scale pits,
                pickle liquor  oil separation

-------
                              Table VI-4b

           SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, ILLINOIS RIVER BASIN

                               Receiving     Nature           Treatment
Industry and City	Stream	of Waste	Provided	

State Street Ditch
Chicago Heights, 111.          Thorn Creek   Phosphate

Simmons Company
Monster, Indiana               L. Gal. R.    Pxating          Alkaline
                                                              chlorination of
                                                              cyanide, reduction
                                                              of chromate

-------
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-------
                              Table VI-7

   Public Health Service Grants for Construction of Waste Treatment Facilities
Municipality

INDIANA

Dyer

Griffith

Hammond S.D. (STP)

Hammond S.D.
 (Monster Interc)

Highland

Hobart

Schererville

Merrillville
 (Conservancy District)


ILLINOIS

Thornton

Lansing
Date
Offered or
Approved     Amount
9/5/63

9/11/61

9/20/62

10/19/62


10/10/63

10/19/60

10/2V63

1/6/65



3/5/58

V2/57
            Estimated
            Total Cost
            of Project  Status of Project
$250,000  $ 977,000

 250.000  1,519,000

 250,000  3,500,000

 2^3,000    810,000
                       Under construction

                       Essentially in
                       operation
 229,500    765,000     Contracts awarded

 250,000   1,0^3,200    In operation

 2^5,970    819,000     Under construction
181,
            605,800     Offer made
  32,880    112,800

 20^,830    682,800
                       In operation

                       In operation

-------
            Table VIII-1 - SUMMARY OF RAW WATER PROBLEMS

            CHICAGO SOUTH DISTRICT FILTRATION PLANT, 1963-^
Time Period
1963
Jan. 2l4-Feb. 7
March 3-k
April 2-7
1964
Dec. 11-12
Dec. 22-31
Threshold Odor*
Average Maximum
Crib
Ik
9
8
55
6
Shore
9
6
6
11
5
Prevalent Odors
hydrocarbon
disagreeable
musty
septic
hydrocarbon
disagreeable
musty
chemical
hydrocarbon
disagreeable
musty
chemical
hydrocarbon
hydrocarbon
Carbon Dosage
pound per MG
Av. Max.
266
208
1U8
532
130
                                         disagreeable
                                         musty, fishy
                                         septic, moldy
*Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards is a maximum of 3-

-------
                           Table VIII-2

    ORGANIC CONCENTRATIONS AT CHICAGO AND VICINITY WATER INTAKES
                  Results in micrograms per liter
                          Average	Maximum	Minimum
Whiting, Indiana
     CCE
     CAE
     Total

South District Filtration
     CCE
     CAE
     Total

Chicago Avenue
     CCE
     CAE
     Total

Evanston, Illinois
     CCE
     CAE
     Total

Waukegan, Illinois
     CCE
     CAE
     Total
CCE  Carbon chloroform extract
CAE  Carbon alcohol extract
146
169
308
Plant
46
162
208
53
165
218
47
162
209
42
156
197
242
212
442

76
262
315
97
227
294
71
230
287
66
198
290
67
132
187

18
103
138
35
93
147
29
90
146
14
90
121

-------
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-------
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-------
      LAKE    MICHIGAN
DEC. 1962-MAR. 1963
  LAKE    MICHIGAN
                                            APR.-JULY 1963
      LAKE    MICHIGAN
LEGEND
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AUG.-NOV 1963
            GENERALIZED
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                          FIGURE "Zn-3

-------
                                                  MICHIGAN
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                                                        CALUMET  HARBOR
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-------
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