Number_                           Title                                Page

  1          INTRODUCTION	   1-1

                    Purpose and Scope	1-1

                    Authority	1-1

                    Basin Characteristics	1-1

                    Importance	   1-2

                    Problem Areas  ............   1-3

                    Present Water Quality Problems   ......   1-4


                    Municipal Pollution Sources   	   2-1

                    Industrial Pollution Sources  	   2-5

                    Other Pollution Sources .      	2-8

  3          COSTS	3-1



Table                                                                  After
No._                              Title                                Page

2-1        Municipal Waste Needs	    2-9

2-2        Industrial Waste Needs	    2-9

2-3        Other Needs	    2-9

3-1        Municipal Waste Treatment Plant Construction Costs  .  .    3-1
                                  - ii

Figure                                                          After
No.	                        Title                             Page
 1-1            St. Louis River Basin .	  .  1-1


                              CHAPTER  1


Purpose and Scope

       The purpose of this report is to focus attention on known sources

of pollution in the St. Louis River Basin (Figure 1-1) and to provide a

priority for action.  The recommendations in this report are based on

information supplied by the States of Minnesota and Wisconsin, reconnais-

ance surveys conducted by the Chicago Program Office staff and preliminary

engineering considerations.  No detailed v/ater quality surveys or engineer-

ing studies were carried out for the preparation of this report.


       This report was prepared in accordance with Section 3(a) of the

Federal V/ater Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 USC 466 et seq).

Basin Characteristics


       The St. Louis River, with a drainage area of 3,860 square miles,

is an interstate stream that forms part of the Minnesota-Wisconsin

boundary.  Approximately 3,575 square miles are located in Minnesota and

285 in Wisconsin.  The St. Louis River Basin is rectangular in shape with

its principal axis extending from a northeast to southwest direction for

approximately 80 miles.


Note = Numbers Refer to Table 2-1
                                                GREAT  LAKES—  ILLINOIS
                                                RIVER BASINS   PROJECT
                                                ST. LOUIS  RIVER BASIN

       Minnesota counties in the study area include portions of St.

Louis, Itaska, Lake, and Carlton counties.  Only Douglas County in

Wisconsin contains any of the drainage area.


       The mean discharge rate of the St. Louis River is 2,440 cubic feet

per second (cfs) based on 57 year information obtained at the U. S.
Geological Survey gaging station at Scanlon, Minnesota.    Maximum and

minimum rates are 42,600 cfs and 90 cfs, respectively.


       The St. Louis River Basin had a I960 population of 260,000 with

a municipal population of 210,000 or 80^ of the total.

                            Area Economy

       A considerable variety of industry exists in the area.  Major

industries in Carlton County include pulp and paper products and petroleum

refining.  Major industries in St. Louis County include steel rolling and

finishing, food and kindred products, and non-electrical machinery.  The

major mining activity is for iron ore.

Importance of Pollution Control in Lake Superior

       Lake Superior, the largest body of fresh water in North America,

must be preserved.  Future uses of the Lake for all purposes require con-

tinued efforts to reduce pollutants to the lowest possible levels.  Nutrients

in the form of phosphates and nitrates must be limited to concentrations

that wj.ll not lead to excessive algal blooms and hence eutrophication.
Phosphates are the easiest of the two nutrients mentioned to control.


Experience with Lake Erie has shown what can happen to a large body of

water which is allowed to be a receptacle for pollutants.  However, the

trend toward eutrophication may be reversed in Lake Erie by extensive

pollution control actions due to natural flushing and to Lake Erie's

relatively small volume.  Damage to Lake Superior water quality on the

other hand may very well be irreversible, since Lake Superior has a much

greater volume and annual flow out of the Lake is a very small percentage

of the volume.  This emphasizes the importance of pollution control in

the Lake Superior Watershed.  The St. Louis River is a major tributary

to Lake Superior and control of its pollution is vital to the protection

of the Lake.

Problem Areas

       1.  Upper_Riyer -  Many municipalities do not provide adequate

           treatment of wastes in the Upper St.  Louis River Basin.   This

           means that problem areas probably exist, although information

           is limited in this regard.  The recommended actions cited in

           Chapter 2 are aimed at improving waste treatment in this area.

       2.  Lower River -  The Lower St.  Louis River from Cloquet to

           Billings Park is polluted, based on information furnished by

           the Minnesota Department of Health and on reconnaissance
           studies made by the Chicago Program Office.     This is

           evidenced by low dissolved oxygen, excessive algal volumes,

           sludge banks and some high coliform counts.   Considerable

           debris and oil slicks have been noted in the Duluth-Superior


           Harbor.  These problems result from:

              a.  Less than secondary treatment for municipal waste at

                  Duluth, Superior, Cloquet, and other communities that

                  discharge sewage effluent into the St. Louis River;

              b.  Wastes from a number of industries in the Cloquet and

                  Duluth-Superior areas;

              c.  Combined sanitary and storm sewer systems in Duluth

                  and Superior^

              d.  Refuse and effluents from the large number of ships

                  using the harbor.

Present Water Quality Problems

       The following water quality condition statements are adapted from


the 1961 Minnesota Department of Health Report on the St. Louis River,

and from observations made by personnel from the Chicago Program Office

between May 6 and October 28, 196?.

                 Minnesota Department of Health Report

            During both surveys (June and August,  19&1), observing from

       the boat, the water appeared to be turbid and colored,  but when

       viewed in the sample bottles, it appeared clear.  The small oil

       slicks on the surface of the water in the upper harbor during

       both surveys were apparently due to discharge of wastes from the

       large number of ships using the harbor.

            The waters in the Billings Park beach area were generally

       somewhat turbid, especially during the June (1961) survey.   The


high velocity winds from the north and northeast resulted in

a surface water movement (tide) from the main channel towards

the Billings Park area.  During the August survey the wind

velocities were much lower, and the river and harbor waters

were generally calm.

     At times, the bay and harbor are affected by strong winds

which drive the waters up-river.  Such temporary reversals or

impediments to the river flow have been known to raise the water

level in the bay area as high as two feet.  The greatest concern

has not been in the elevation of the harbor water level but the

up-river movement of the currents, particularly the surface

currents.  It is apparent at times that sewage, wastes, or

refuse discharged from any source into the lower river or bay

can be carried up-river for substantial distances by these

reverse currents.

     The results of the examination of the bacteriological samples

are expressed as the concentration of coliform group organisms,

MPN/100 ml (most probable number per 100 milliliters).  The un-

differentiated coliform group was used as an indicator of the

presence of fecal material or sewage.

     Coliform present in the samples taken at the Billing Park

beach area were relatively low, ranging from 20 to 1?0 MPN/100 ml,

and averaging about 112 MPN/100 ml.   Three samples collected in the

inlet immediately south of the beach showed coliform concentrations


averaging 15,300 MPN/100 ml.  (Concentrations in excess of 1,000
MPN/100 ml are considered hazardous to public health when waters
containing these concentrations are used for bathing.)  There are
private   homes located along this inlet which are served by
individual septic tanks and soil absorption fields; however, at
the time of the investigation, no surface discharge from these
private systems were observed.
     On the north side of the beach, just below the Arrowhead
Bridge, samples were collected in two slips that reportedly re-
ceive the overflow from a raw sewage lift station during periods
of breakdown or power failure.  The concentration of colifonn
organisms in these samples was 3>900 or 93,000 MPN/100 ml.  From
these data, it appears there may be substantial sources of sewage
discharge on both the north and south sides near the beach, but at
this time there was  no evident effect on the beach as shown by
the sampling and analytical data.
     As would be expected, the concentration of coliform organisms
was relatively high in the samples collected near the outfalls of
the sewage treatment plants„  The concentration of coliform
organisms in the samples collected near the main Duluth plant varied
from 790 to 16,000 MPN/100 ml in June (196l) and from 790 to
5,400 MPN/100 ml in August (1961).
     Results for the samples collected near the Fairmount district
plant outfall varied from 220 to 1,000 MPN/100 ml in June and from
20 to 790 in August.  Concentrations of coliform organisms in the
samples collected near the Smithville district plant outfall varied
from 790 to 16,000 MPN/100 ml during June,  and from 1,100 to 16,000


       MPN/100 ml in August.  The sample collected at the outlet of Mud

       Lake, which receives the effluent of the Gary-New Duluth district

       plant, had a coliform concentration of 1,100 MPN/100 ml in June

       and 110 MPN/100 ml in August.  (Based on the limited data obtained

       it would appear unlikely that the river could be used for body

       contact sports in any area other than along the Billing Park beach.)

       Along the Wisconsin shore, the chemical and bio-chemical examination

of waters and tributary waters from Lake Superior, through Superior Bay,

St. Louis Bay and upstream into the St. Louis River to Oliver Bridge in-

dicated the following:

       (l)  In Superior Bay, between Superior entry and the mouth of the

            Nemadji River, the DO content averaged 8.15 nig/1 with a

            maximum of 8.2 and a minimum of 8.1.  The BOD of the composite

            of the depth samples was 3.0 ing/1.

       (2)  In Superior Bay from the Superior entry to a range upstream

            past the Superior sewage treatment plant outfall, the DO con-

            tent averaged 7.6 mg/1 with a maximum of 8.2 and a minimum of

            7.2.  The BOD averaged 2.9 mg/1 with a maximum of 3.0 and a

            minimum of 2.8.

       (3)  In the St. Louis River from Interstate Bridge,  upstream into

            the mouth of Pokegama Bay, the DO content averaged 5.9 mg/1

            with a maximum of 7.4 and minimum of 5.1.  The  BOD averaged

            3.3 Eig/1 with a maximum of 5.7 and a minimum of 1.4.   (The

            waters in the Billings Park Area are included.)


       (4)  Along the Wisconsin side of the main river channel, the DO
            content averaged 1.6 ing/1 with a maximum of 2.8 and minimum
            of 0.0.  The BOD averaged 4.1 mg/1 with a maximum of 4.8 and
            minimum of 3.3.
       Along the Minnesota shore, the chemical and bio-chemical examination
of the waters and tributary waters, from Lake Superior through Superior Bay,
St. Louis Bay and upstream into the St. Louis River, indicated the following:
       (1)  In Superior Bay from the Duluth entry along the Minnesota shore
            to Interstate Bridge, the DO content averaged 6.8 mg/1, with
            a maximum of 8.2 and a minimum of 5.7.  The BOD averaged 3.4
            mg/1, with a maximum of 4.3 and minimum of 2.5.
       (2)  In St. Louis Bay from Great Northern Railroad Bridge, along
            Minnesota shore past the outfall of the Duluth main sewage
            treatment plant to Arrowhead Bridge, the DO content averaged
            6.1 mg/1, with a maximum of 7.7 and minimum of 5.2.  The BOD
            averaged 4.5 mg/1, with a maximum of 5.6 and minimum of 3.3.
       (3)  In the St. Louis River, upstream along the Minnesota shore
            from the entrance to Inland Coal and Dock Company barge slip
            to a point between Interlake Iron Corporation and Dwights Point,
            the DO content averaged 5.2 mg/1, with a maximum of 6.0 and a
            minimum of 4.7.  The BOD averaged 3.4 mg/1, with a maximum of
            3.8 and minimum of 3.0.
       (4)  In the St. Louis River upstream along Minnesota shore from the
            mouth of the creek discharging into the Bay west of Interlake
            Iron Corporation past the stream tributaries which receive the



            effluents from the Duluth sewage treatment plants at Fair-mount

            Park and Smithville to a point between Morgan Park and Clough

            Island, the DO content average 3.0 mg/1 with a maximum of 3.7

            and minimum of 2.4.  The BOD averaged 3.2 mg/1, with a maximum

            of 3.8 and minimum of 2.5.

       (5)  Along the St. Louis River where the Northern Pacific Railroad

            Bridge crosses the outlet of Mud Lake opposite the effluent

            discharge of the Gary-New Duluth sewage treatment plant, the

            DO averaged 3.6 mg/1 with a maximum of 4.9 and a minimum of 2.3.

            The BOD averaged 3.1 nig/1, with a maximum of 3.3 and a minimum

            of 2.8.

       (6)  In the St. Louis River from Oliver Bridge upstream to where

            Minnesota State Hwy 23 crosses Fond du Lac, the DO content

            averaged 1.5 rag/1, with a maximum of 2.7 and a minimum of 0.0.

            The BOD averaged 4.6 mg/1, with a maximum of 7.0 and minimum

            of 3.3.

       Minimum DO concentrations acceptable for propagation of fish is


generally considered to be about 4 mg/1, depending upon temperature.

Thus, the waters in this area above the Oliver Bridge would not support

game fish.

               Chicago Program Office Reconnaisance

       The town of Cloquet, Minnesota, is located approximately 15 miles

above the interstate portion of the St.  Louis River.  Cloquet is approxi-

mately 23 miles southwest of Duluth,  Minnesota, and has a population (i960)


of approximately 10,000 people.  A primary sewage treatment plant dis-

charging to the St. Louis River handles the municipal wastes and some of

the industrial wastes for the city.

       Major industries in the Cloquet area are pulp and paper type of

operations.  The Northwest Paper Company,  the Wood Conversion Company,

and the Diamond Match Company all have mills in this area.

       The Wood Conversion Company discharges directly to the St. Louis


       The Northwest Paper Company discharges both directly to the river

and through a series of lagoons.  Both of these companies discharge

organic wastes which exert a high biochemical oxygen demand on the stream

and contribute substantially to the discoloration of the water as well as

having high loadings of suspended materials.  As a result, the waters of

the St. Louis River are very dark for many miles below Cloquet, Minnesota.

       The St. Louis River between Cloquet and Duluth, Minnesota, traverses

many miles of gorge area, the total fall being several hundred feet.  Con-

siderable amounts of foam are generated and waters going through these

gorge areas have an amber color.  Some of this color may come from natural

bog conditions, but a large amount of this color can be attributed to the

wood processing industries located at Cloquet.

       Between Cloquet, Minnesota, and Duluth-Superior Harbor area are

located several small towns which provide only primary treatment or less

for their municipal wastes.   These are the towns of Fond du Lac, Minnesota,

Gary, Minnesota,  New Duluth,   Minnesota,  Morgan  Park, Minnesota and

Oliver, Wisconsin.  After the St.  Louis River passes the towns of New Duluth,


Minnesota  and Oliver, Wisconsin, it flows into and through a  series  of

channels and lakes including Mud Lake and Spirit Lake before  discharging

to  St. Louis Bay, and the harbor areas of Duluth, Minnesota and  Superior,

Wisconsin.  In the Duluth, Minnesota area the Chung King Corporation

(R. J. Reynolds Foods, Inc.) and Western Paint Company have operations

which discharge to the St. Louis River.  Between Gary, Minnesota and Morgan

Park, Minnesota there are two major industrial complexes:  Universal Atlas

Cement Co. and American Steel and Wire Division of U. S. Steel.  The

American Steel and Wire Division of U. S. Steel manufactures  steel fence

posts and  various types of fence and woven steel mats.  The plant has two

blast furnaces in addition to the usual heavy steel manufacturing facilities.

The plant  discharges a rust-colored to red effluent which carries for miles

below the  plant before losing itself in the Spirit Lake and St.  Louis Bay

areas of the St. Louis River.  This discoloration is typical  of  steel

cleaning operations.  Sulphuric acid is used to de-scale the  steel before

forming operations can be carried on and thus contributes large  amounts

of iron and sulphate to the receiving waters.  In addition to the red

discoloration so typical of steel pickling operations, lagoons containing

oily wastes were observed discharging to the river.  This oil overflow or

spillage caused oil slicks and oily conditions on the surface of the water

and along the banks for a considerable distance below the steel plant.

       In the harbor area between Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin

bounded on the  upstream by the Northern Pacific RR Bridge and to the lake-

ward by the High Bridge (Route 53) is the area containing the so-called

upper channel,  north channel, south channel,  cross channel areas and the


Westgate Basin all within the St. Louis Bay area.  This area is heavily

discolored and has,at times,large slicks of oil.

       The Minnesota Power and Light Company is a source of thermal

pollution and possibly pollution of an acid nature from coal storage

areas.  To the northeast of this power plant are industrial plants such

as the Duluth Brass Works, National Iron Company, Elliot Packing Company,

Globe-Duluth Iron Works, and another Chung King Corp. plant (R. J.

Reynolds Food Co.).  A series of lagoons discharge to the harbor in this


       Located on the North Channel is an ore-loading facility operated

by the Duluth Missabe and Iron Range Railway.  Water near these ore-

loading docks is very dark and has a considerable amount of floating oil.

       Four primary type sewage disposal plants serve the City of

Duluth.  The main plant discharges into the St. Louis Bay near the north

channel.  This plant has a large flow which is visible from the air and

does not provide adequate treatment.

       The Duluth Harbor Basin area is bounded by Rice's Point to the

west, the City of Duluth to the north, and Minnesota Point to the east

and the East Gate Basin to the south.   This area has elevators for grain,

iron and metal docks, fuel docks and a scrap metal terminal, contracting

and dredging companies, refrigerated and general  purpose docks, marine

repair facilities, a Coast Guard Base, a Naval Reserve Training Center,

and the U.  S. Army Reserve Center.   A major .source of pollution in this

area is the Supervrood Corporation Plant.   The Duluth Ship Canal leads


into the Duluth Harbor basin from Lake Superior.  The discolored water

from Duluth Harbor can be seen discharging almost continuously through

the Duluth Ship Canal into Lake Superior.  At times this discolored

water can be seen a mile or more out into Lake Superior.

       The City of Superior docking area extends generally southeast

for approximately 5 miles from the High Bridge (Route 53).  This area

contains general storage warehouses, coal storage docks, a paper manu-

facturing facility, a cement plant, a sewage treatment plant, grain

elevators, and iron ore loading docks.  The natural outlet of the St.

Louis River to Lake Superior is through the Superior entry.  This entry

is approximately 7 miles southeast of the Duluth Ship Canal and is

directly opposite the Nemadji River.  The most obvious sources of pollu-

tion along the Superior waterfront are the City of Superior's Sewage

Treatment Plant, the Superior Fiber Products Pulp and Paper manufacturing

facility, ths Nemadji River, the Allouez River, and the iron loading

facilities operated by the Great Northern Railroad Company and the

Northern Pacific Railroad Company.  All pollute the harbor.  This dis-

colored harbor water plus the muddy appearing water from the Nemadji

River is discharged through the Superior entry directly into Lake

Superior.   This causes a discoloration which extends as much as two

miles into Lake Superior, and on occasion extends for several miles along

the Wisconsin shoreline south and east of Superior.


                             CHAPTER  2


       The following lists of municipal, industrial, and other waste

sources in the St. Louis River Basin was compiled from the Minnesota
Department of Health report of June-August 1961,    a Wisconsin State
Health Department Report of 1966,    and the Public Health Service
Inventory of Municipal Waste Facilities.    Population figures are based

on I960 census reports.

Municipal Pollution Squrpes

       1.   City of Cloquet has a primary sewage  treatment plant

            serving a population of 9,013.  During a 1959 investiga-

            tion, general operation of the plant  appeared good. Design

            capacity is 1.5 million gallons per day (mgd).  Secondary

            treatment and advanced waste treatment for phosphorus removal

            should be provided.

       2.   Village of Carlton has primary sewage treatment facilities

            serving a population of 862.  Plant operation appeared to

            be fair during a 1959  investigation.   Secondary treatment

            should be provided.

       3.   Village of Scanlon has a primary sewage treatment plant

            serving a population of 1,126.  The 1959 survey showed no

            chlorine residual and  generally poor  maintenance.   Design

            capacity is 0.036 mgd.  Secondary treatment should be



k*   Community of Esko (Unincorporated) has a secondary sewage

     treatment plant designed to treat 0.030 mgd of sewage and

     creamery wastes.  Generally poor operation was observed in

     1959.  Better operation should be provided.

5.   Duluth (population 106X884) serves all but approximately

     5,900 of its total population with municipal sewage treat-

     ment facilities.  The majority of the unserved population

     is in the Riverside area, which is sewered.  Provisions

     were made in the design of the Smithville plant for the

     Riverside area but a connection has not been made.   The

     length of the Duluth municipal sewer system totals  approxi-

     mately 315 miles.   Approximately three miles of this total

     is combined sanitary and storm sewers.

     Duluth is served by four primary sewage treatment plantsj

     i.e., the main plant and three district plants at Fainnount,

     Smithville, and Gary-New Duluth.   The latter were constructed

     and placed in operation in I960.   The main plant, which was

     constructed in 1940,  contains a telemetering installation

     to provide continuous monitoring of some of the processes

     at the district plants.

        Following is a  brief description of each plant and a

     summary of operational data:

     The Duluth main plant was designed to provide chemical

     flocculation,  primary sedimentation,  sludge digestion and

     incineration,  and  effluent chlorination for domestic sewage

and a limited amount of industrial waste at the rate of

12.5 wgd.  The suuraary report of plant operations in I960

showed an average sewage flow of 14.1 mgd.  The flow during

the June 12-16 survey period averaged 16.06 mgd, while in

August it was 13.05 nigd.  The summary of laboratory data

for I960 showed an average reduction in SS (suspended

solids) and BOD of 64.1 and 39.6 percent, respectively. The

plant effluent is discharged directly to the harbor area a

short distance above the Interstate Bridge (USH 53).

The Gary-New Duluth district plant consists of the following

units:  barminutor, combination grit and pre-aeration chamber,

primary settling tank, chlorinator, chlorine contact tank,

and raw sludge concentration tank.  The raw sludge is hauled

to the main sewage treatment plant for digestion.  The plant

design was based on an average flow of 0.260 mgd.  The

effluent discharges to Mud Lake, a tributary of the St. Louis


   On June 12, 1961,all of the plant units were in operation and

the general operation of the plant was satisfactory.  The

plant- records show that a chlorine residual of approximately

0.3 - 0.6 mg/1 was being maintained in the plant effluent.

The Smithville district giant has essentially the same units

as the Gary-New Duluth plant with the plant design being

based on an average sewage flow'of 0.500 mgd.   The effluent

is discharged directly to the St. Louis River.

   All of the plant units were in operation on June 12} 1961.

The general operation of the plant was satisfactory and

the records show that a chlorine residual of approximately

0.2 - 0.5 mg/1 was being maintained in the plant effluent.

The Fairmount Park district plant is similar to the Gary-

New Duluth and Smithville plants.  The plant design is

based on an average sewage flow of 0.700 mgd.  The effluent

is discharged to the St. Louis River north of Tallas Island.

Provision was made in the design of the Fairmount Park

Plant for treatment of the sewage from Proctor (population

2,963).  This sewage formerly was discharged without treat-

ment to the river via the Duluth system, but now receives
(primary) treatment at this plant.

   Secondary treatment plus advanced waste treatment for

phosphorus removal must be provided for all of Duluth*s wastes.

The City of Superior (populationJ33,5631 operates a primary

type sewage treatment plant which was completed in 195&.  It

was designed for dry weather capacity of 5 mgd and a wet

weather flow of 15 mgd.  The receiving water for the sub-

merged effluent line is Superior Bay.  The sanitary and

storm sewers are combined and regulated with baffles in the

storm sewer interceptors.  These storm sewers have outfalls

at 16 locations throughout the city and all but three dis-

charge directly or indirectly into Superior Bay (lowermost

            portion of the St. Louis River Basin).  One discharges

            into Towers Bay slip in St. Louis Bay, just south of

            Connors Point and Interstate Bridge.  The other two storm

            sewers outfall into St. Louis Bay, approximately one-fourth
            mile east of Arrowhead Bridge.

               Superior should provide secondary treatment and advanced

            waste treatment for phosphorus removal.

       6,   The following communities have minor or no treatment of

            their sanitary wastes:  Floodwood, Iron Junction, Kelly

            Lake, Kerr Junction, Kinney, Mahoning Location, Keadowlands,

            Monroe Location, McKinley, Arnold, Elcor, Embarrass,

            Hermantown, Lactonia, Nopeming, Parkville, West Virginia,

            and Wrenshall, Minnesota; and Superior Village, Foxboro,

            and Oliver, Wisconsin.

       The above-named communities all contribute to the total pollution

of the St. Louis River and help to degrade the aesthetic qualities of

the River.  Treatment plant needs were detailed only for those communities

having a population equivalent of 400 or more.  Table 2-1 gives specific

recommendations for each community.

Industrial Pollution Sources

       Recommended actions for each industry cited and for all other

industries in the Basin are to study pollutional effects of process

wastes and to institute corrective measures.   Also, each industry should

provide secondary treatment of its sanitary"wastes or connect to

municipal sewer lines.


1.   Wood Conversion Company, Cloquet, provides fiber screening

     facilities and a continuous digester system to reduce the

     discharge of suspended solids.  Sanitary sewage has been

     separated from the process waste and is discharged to the city

     sanitary sewer system.  A pilot industrial waste treatment
     aeration unit was placed in operation on December 7> 19&1.

2.   Northwest Paper Company, Cloquet, provides in-plant fiber

     screening, lime sludge pond, and mechanical clarification

     for removal of suspended solids.  Turbine vents have been

     installed at the Thomson and Fond du Lac dams for river

     reaeration.  Sanitary sewage is segregated and discharged to
     the city sewerage system.

3.   American Cyanamid Company, Cloquet, discharges its processed

     wastes to the lime sludge pond of Northwest Paper Company.

     A septic tank and soil absorption field have been provided
     for disposal of sanitary sewage.

4.   Wrenshall Refinery, Wrenshall, provides septic tanks and soil

     absorption fields for disposal of sanitary sewage.  An oil

     removal and cooling pond with a separate discharge to Silver

     Creek has been provided for the cooling water and boiler

     blowdown.  The process wastes are treated by chemical neu-

     tralization and steam stripping, the oil being removed by

     means of an API oil separator and the effluent being pumped

     to a seepage pond.  Spent caustics are recovered and hauled
     to a nearby paper aii.ll for use as process chemicals.


5.   TheAmerican Steel and Wire Division, U. S. Steel Corporation

     is located on the lower St. Louis River just above the

     Smithville district sewage treatment plant.  The process wastes

     include fly ash and flue dust from the blast furnace, waste

     acids and oil from the steel mill and. phenolics from the coke

     plant.  No attempt is made to segregate sanitary sewage from

     the process wastes.  At the time of the investigation on June

     13, 1961, the mill was operating at approximately 50 percent

     capacity with about 1,500 people employed.

        Part of the sanitary sewage, and the wastes from the coke

     plant and blast furnace, are discharged to a settling and

     skimming pond.  The pond system was constructed in 1954, and

     has been nearly filled with solids.  A seepage pit i.s being

     used for disposal of the acid wastes from the steel mill.

     The settling pond overflow and the remainder of the wastes

     are discharged directly to the St. Louis River.  Approximately

     45 mgd of water is used in the mill.  There is little or no
     attempt made to recirculate or reuse the water.

6.   The Superwood Corporation board mill is located on Superior

     Bay near the Duluth entry.  The mill produces a high-density

     board from aspen pulp, without debarking.  Process wastes

     from the chipper, grinder, and presses are pumped from a large

     sump through a ditch to a settling pond which was constructed

     by diking an area near a barge slip.  The overflow from the

     pond is discharged to the Bay.  Sanitary sewage is treated in


            septic tanks and discharged directly to Superior Bay.

       ?•   The Lake Superior JRefining; Company of Superior is bounded

            by Stinson Avenue, Hill Avenue, and 19th Street.  The wastes

            are first treated in an API separator, then in a series of

            three lagoons where they receive chemical treatment and

            settling.  The overflow from the lagoons passes through
            the Washington Park drainage tributary to Superior Bay.

Other Poll_ution_ Source s

       1.   The Carlton Community Health Center (a nursing home) is

            located on U. S. Highway 6l north of the Village of Carlton.

            The home has a capacity of approximately 40 beds.  The

            existing sewage treatment facilities consist of an Imhoff
            Tank, dosing tank, and soil absorption field.   Secondary

            treatment should be provided.  No data are available to

            assess the effect the Health Center has on the St. Louis


       2.   Two Trailer Parks located north of the Miller Trunk (U. 3.

            Highway 53) north of Duluth are not served by the municipal

            sewer system.  Each has an individual septic tank disposal

            system.   In June 1961 there were noticeable signs of surface

            discharge of effluent at bothj  although the disposal systems

            were designed to provide for soil absorption.  The runoff,

            in both  cases, would flow to a  swamp and then to Miller's

            Creek, which flows into St.  Louis Bay.   This discharge was


     reportedly causing a local nuisance, but no effects
     attributable to this discharge could be found in the Bay.

3.   Puluth-Superior,.Harbor; received a total of 2,491 ships in

     1961 up to the tir.e of the June survey.  Only 130 of this

     number were ocean-going vessels.  During August, 289 ships

     passed through the Duluth port of entry and 390 through the

     Superior entry, for a total of 6?'9 ships entering the harbor.

     The average tine tied up at berth was approximately two days

     for ocean freighters and seven to eight hours for domestic

     vessels.  The crews averaged approximately 35 for each ship,

     or a total of about 24,000 in August.  The refuse and sewage

     from many of the ships is presumably discharged directly into

     the harbor  waters, because shore facilities for disposal of

     these wastes have not been generally provided; however, the

     Port Authority does maintain by contract a refuse disposal

         •   f         v-  •  <3)
     service for some shipping.

4.   Approximately 113_piers,  wharves,  and docks are located in

     the Duluth-Superior Harbor Area which may contribute to pollu-

     tion of the St. Louis River and Lake Superior.  These possible

     pollution sources should  be studied to determine their im-

     pact on water quality in  the harbor area.



                       TABLE 2-1

                  MK3ICIPAL WASTE KEED3
S, C
S, C
S, C
S, C
S, C
Connection to
Virginia Sever System
S, C
S, C
Connection to
Superior Sevor System
St. Louis County,
Car It on County,
Douglas County,
Better Operation of canton cc/uiny,
Secondary Treatment Plaait Minnesota
Separate Storm and
Sanitary Severs
Entii-e Basin
Kelly Lake
Vest Virginia
Superior Village
Esko CoKironity
All Communities
Key  -  C = colorination; S = secondary;
        AWT = advanced vaste treatment

Note:   Priority letters, i.e., A,B,C}  indicate  relative
        importance of  pollution problems based on available


                              TABLE 2-2

                        INDUSTRIAL WASTE HEEDS
Study pollutional
effects of process
•wastes and institute
corrective measures.
Cloquet, Minn.
Wood Conversion Co.
State of Minnesota

Kbrthwast Paper Co.
State of Minnesota

American Cyanamid
State of Minnesota
Study pollutional
effects of process
vastes and institute
corrective measures.
Wrenshall, Minn.    Wrenshall Refinery
                    State of Minnesota
Study pollutional
effects of process
vastes end institute
corrective measures.
Secondary treatment
of sanitary vastes
or connection to
existing sever lines.
Duluth, Minn.
American Steel &
Wire Division of
U.S. Steel Corp.
O^ - 4>.-, *-,-'• >' : ^ ,.-• - - "--'-a
k.- v_* i, ^j; V ^. - ^_u ^_^ * , -• -,ct
                    State of Minn.
                         Superior, Wis.
                    Lake Superior
                    Refining Co.
                    State of Wisconsin
       Note:   Priority letters,  i.e.,  A,B,C, indicate relative
               importance of pollution problems based on available


                              TABLE 2-3

                              OTHER HEEDS
Secondary treatment or
connection to existing
sever lines
Carlton Community
Health Center

Trailer Parks on
Highway 53
Village of Carlton
                                             State of Minnesota

Sanitary sewage inter-
ceptors for ships.
Refuse dicjosal for
Port Authority
Study pollutional
effect of piers,
wharves, and docks.
Minnesota & Wisconsin
         Note:   Priority letters,  i.e., A,B,C, indicate relative
                importance of pollution problems based on available


                             CHAPTER  3


       Municipal waste treatment plant construction costs are listed

in Table 3-1.  Cost estimates for industrial waste control and other

needs were not made due to lack of information.

       Municipal waste treatment cost estimates are based on the

requirement of secondary treatment and chlorination for communities

under 5>000 population, and advanced waste treatment for phosphorus re-

moval and chlorination for those over 5,000 population.  Costs were
corrected to June, 196? and were based on national averages.    Twenty-

five percent was added to cover administrative, engineering and legal

costs.  Where primary treatment existed, one-half of the value of the

existing plant was deducted from the secondary costs to allow for the

use of this plant and equipment.  Thirty percent was added to the sewered

population to arrive at a population equivalent (PE) estimate which in-

cludes industrial wastes.  Cost estimates were made for all communities

in the basin with a raw PE of 400 or more.


                                    TABLE 3-1


Main Plant
Fairuount Paric
Gary-IJev Duluth

KeUy take
Herman toxm
West Virginia


Superior Village

County ment
St. Louis, Mina.

St. Louis, Minn. N

Carlton, Minn. P

Douglas, Vis. P

Needed Costs

S, C
S, C
S, C
S, C
S, C
to Virginia
Sever System
$ 308,000
S, C
S, C
$ 970,000
to Superior
Sever System
Key -
P = primary; N = none or minor; C = chlorination;
S = secondary; AWT = advanced waste treatment
$8, if 18,000


                             CHAPTER  4


       Since 1954, the date of the last comprehensive pollution study
in the Lake Superior drainage basin,   some minor progress has been made

in pollution control.  The town of Biwabik, after showing some deteriora-

tion in sei^age treatment plant operation, built a new plant.  Four other

towns, Babbitt, Hoyt Lakes, Mountain Iron,  and Chisolm have built secondary

treatment plants since 1954; and two towns, Cloquet and Carlton built

primary sewage treatment plants.  Seven plants with primary or secondary

treatment had marked deterioration in treatment due either to increased

loadings or decreased plant efficiency.  These changes do not affect

appreciably the low level of treatment given wastes in this Basin.  Pri-

mary treatment remains the rule rather than the exception.

       The water pollution control authorities of the States of Minnesota

and Wisconsin together with the officials of local communities and in-

dustries share the primary responsibility for the conditions existing in

the St. Louis River Basin.


 1.   Savyer, C. N.  Some Hew Aspects  of Phosphates in Relation to
      Lake Fertilization, gevage and Industrial Wastes, 2k,  6 (June

 2.   "More Air, More Sludge, Less  Phosphates," Engineering  Neva
      Record, January 26, 1967.

 3.   Minnesota Department of Health Report on pollution survey of
      the St. Louis River, unpublished,  1961.

 k*   Wisconsin State Health  Department,  Report on the Investigation
      £? the PojLlutjLpn in the Lake  Superior ; Drainage Basin Made During
      19oT"end      ~                "
 5.   U.S. Public Health Service, Modem  Sewage  Treatment Plants,
      Pub. #1229,
 6.   Smith, Robert.  "A Compilation of Cost  Information for Conventional
      and Advanced Waste-water Treatment Plants  and Processes, " USDI,
      FWPCA, AWT Branch, Division of Research,  Cincinnati  Water Research
      Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio, December
 7.   UoS,, Public Health Service, Inventory of Municipal Waste Facilities,
      Washington, D0C0, 196l to
 8.   U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Bata  for Minnesota,

 9.   Water Resources Agency of California, State Water  Quality Control
      Board, Water Quality Criteria, Pub. No. 3-A,  1963.

10.   UoS. Public Health Service, A Comprehensive Program  fpr^ Water
      PoJJLution Control for the Like Superior Drainage Basin,  Water
      Pollution Series No. 66
11.   Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Pollution
      Observations in the Lake Superior Basin, February, 1968 0