LAKE HURON - MICHIGAN
     WATER QUALITY DATA
        1965 SUEVET
Clean Water Series LHBO-17-A
       U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
                 Great  Lakes Region

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Po c,'  *-°
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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
                            (cont'd)

                                                           Page No.

BIOLOGICAL RESULTS  .................       260

    Introduction
    Importance of Biological Information
    Fhytoplankton
    Light Penetration
    Chlorophyll
    Discussion and Results
      Physical Observations
      Benthic Macroinvertebrates
      Phytoplankton
      Chlorophyll
    Pesticides


WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS	       32?
                               11

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                           LIST OP TABLES

Table Ho.,                                                   _Page  Ho.

    1        Major Drainage Areas to Lake Huron                 13

    2        Average Temperature and Total Precipitation        15

    3        .Flow Characteristics at Major Michigan             16
             Gaging Stations

    k        Summary of Michigan Average Flows                  18

    5        Ontario Hydrologic Values                          19

    6        Lake Huron Water Balance                           21

    7        Lake Huron Basin Sampling Stations                 22

    8        Municipal Water Supplies                           37

    9        Projected Population                               38

   1C        Projected Water Use                                39

   11        Industrial Water Supplies                          kO

   12        Major Michigan Ports and Cargo                     4l

   13        Commercial Shipping - Freight Tonnage              43

   14        Municipal Waste Treatment Inventory                49

   15        Industrial Waste Treatment Inventory               54

   16        Industrial Waste Discharges                        55

   17        Inventory of Waste Water Disposal at               56
             Federal Installations

   18        Population Centers                                 64

   19        Projected Sewered Population                       65

   20        Waste Flow Projections                             66

   21        Projected BOD  Loadings                            67

   22        Treated BOD  Loadings                              68
                               iii

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                           LIST OF TABLES
                              (cont'd)

Table No.                                                   Page No.

    23        Projected Untreated BOD  Loadings                  69

              Key Tor Water Quality Tables                      88

              Water Quality Data - Lake Huron Basin

    2k-        Deepwater 1965 - Ranges                           89

    25        Deepwater 1965 - Straits'of Mackinac              100

    26        Deepwater 1965 - Cheboygan                       101

    27        Deepwater 1965 - Presque  Isle                    105

    28        Deepwater 1965 - North Channel                   in

    29        Deepwater 1965 - Georgian Bay                    115

    30        Deepwater 1965 - Alpena                          119

    31        Deepwater 1965 - Oscoda                          1.2k

    32        Deepwater 1965 - Mouth of Saginaw  Bay            131

    33        Deepwater 1965 - Pte Aux  Barques                 135

    3^        Deepwater 1965 - Harbor Beach                    138

    35        Deepwater 1965 ~ Port Huron

    36        Deepwater 1967 - Ranges

    37        Deepwater 1965 - Depth Range of Stations         163

    38        Nearshore 1965 - Straits  of Mackinac  -            1.6k
              Ranges

    39        Nearshore 1965 - Straits  of Mackinac  -            l6j
              Stations                  ,      ,

    kO        Nearshore 1965 - Cheboygan - Stations            177

    kl        Nearshore 1965 - Rogers City - Stations          183

    k2        Nearshore 1965 - Alpena - Ranges                 187
                              iv

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                           LIST OF TABLES
                              (corit'cl)

Table Ho.                                                    Page No.
    43        Near-shore 1965 - Alpena - Ranges                  191

    kk        Nearshore 1965 - Harrisville - Ranges             198

    1*5        Nearshore 1965 - Oscoda - Ranges                  203

    k6        llearshore 1965 - Harbor Beach - Ranges            209

    kj        Nearshore 1965 - Port Sanilac - Ranges            218

    h&        1965 Deepwater Radiochemistry - Ranges            223

    hr)        1965 Mearshore Radiochcmistry - Areas             251

    50        Biological Data - Physical Observations -         27^
              Lake Huron Deepwater

    51        Biological Data - Physical Observations -         279
              Lake Huron Nearshore

    52        Gumraary of Average Physical Observations          28l

    53        Identified Bcuthic Macro invertebrates             2.8k

    5k        Average Depth Distribution of Benthic             285
              Manroinverteb rate s

    55        Average Benthic Macroinvcrtcbrates                286

    56        Biological Data - Deepvater Benthic               287
              Macroinverteb rate s

    57        Biological Data - Nearshore Benthic               29^
              Macro invertebrates

    58        Biological Data - Surface Phytoplankton -         299
              Deepwater

    59        Biological Data - Phytoplankton at the top        30o
              of the Thermocliiie

    60        Biological Data - Phytoplankton at Enpbotic       309
              Zone

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                           LIST OF TABLES
                              (cont'd)

Table No.                                                    Page No.

    6l        Biological Data - Phytoplankton near              312
              the Bottom

    62        Average Phytoplankton Populations                 3l8

    63        Biological Data - Nearshore Phytoplankton         319

    6k        Biological Data - June Deepwater Chlorophyll      322

    65        Biological Data - August Deepwater                32^
              Chlorophyll

    66        Average Chlorophyll Concentrations                326
                              vi

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                       LIST OF FIGUKES

Figure No.                                                   Page No.

     1        Drainage Basins of the Great Lakes                 3

     2        Lake Huron Basin                                   k

     3        Location of Sampling Stations -                   29
              Lake Huron

     •!4        Surface Currents - Lake Huron                     30

     5        St. Marys Eiver and Michigan Upper                50
              Peninsula Tributaries to Lake Huron

     6        Cheboygan River Basin                             51

     7        Thunder Bay River Basin                           52

     8        Lower Lake Huron Tributaries                      53

     9        Average Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations -        158
              1965

    10        Ammonia - N Concentrations - 1965                159

    11        ITitrate - I-J Concentrations - 1965                160

    12        Total Soluble Phosphate Concentrations -         l6l
              1955

    13        Average Chloride Concentrations - 1965           162

    l*t        Mean Transparencies - Lake Huron - 1965          282

    15        Mean Phytoplaiikton Populations and Surface       283
              Chlorophyll for Lake Huron - 1965

    l6        Mean Transparencies - Lake Huron - 1965          283

    17        Mean Amphipod Populations                        292

    lO        Mean Oligochaete Populations                     293

    19        Surface Phytoplankton Standing Crops -           297
              June 1965

    20        Surface Phytoplankton Standing Crops -           298
              August 1965
                             vx i

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                           INTRODUCTION


     The water quality data contained in this report are the results

of field investigations and other studies conducted in 1965 and 1966 to

provide information for a water pollution control plan for the Lake

Huron Basin.  The Lake Huron Basin Study is a part of the Great Lakes-

Illinois River Basins Project, directed by the Great Lakes Region,

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) and under

authority of Public Law 84-660 (33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.).
     Sec. 3. (a)  The Secretary shall, after careful investigation,
     and in cooperation with other Federal agencies, with State
     water pollution control agencies and interstate agencies, and
     with the municipalities and industries involved, prepare or
     develop comprehensive programs for eliminating or reducing the
     pollution of interstate waters and tributaries thereof and
     improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground
     waters.  In the development of such comprehensive programs due
     regard shall be given to the improvements which are necessary
     to conserve such waters for public water supplies, propagation
     of fish and aquatic life and wildlife, recreational purposes,
     and agricultural, industrial, and other legitimate uses.  For
     the purpose of this section, the Secretary is authorized to
     make joint investigations with any such agencies of the con-
     dition of any waters in any State or States, and of the
     discharges of any sewage, industrial wastes, or substance
     which may adversely affect such waters,
     Total water quality planning begins in the headwaters of the

individual river basins and continues downstream through the major

tributaries to and including the Great Lakes.   The extent and complex-

ity of the Great Lakes and tributaries are shown on Figures 1, 2,

and 3.

     Water quality standards for interstate waters (Lake Huron) have

been adopted by the State of Michigan and approved by the Secretary

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of the Interior.  Intrastate standards for Michigan are being implemented

by the Michigan Water Resources Commission.  These standards will form

a basis for long-range plan for controlling pollution and maintaining

water quality for Lake Huron and its tributaries.


                          ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     The principal agencies taking an active, part  in providing assistance

in the preparation of the report are as follows:

     State Agencies   - Michigan Water Resources  Commission
                        Michigan Department of Public Health

     Federal Agencies - U.S. Department of Commerce
                           Weather Bureau
                           Office of Business Economics
                           Bureau of Census

                        U.S. Department of the Interior
                           Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
                           Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
                           Bureau of Outdoor Recreation
                           Geological Survey

     For further information, contact the following:

          Lake Huron Basin Office
          Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
          U.S. Naval Air Station
          Grosse lie, Michigan  48138

          Michigan Water Resources Commission
          Stevens T. Mason Building
          Lansing, Michigan  48926

          Michigan Department of Public Health
          3500 N. Logan
          Lansing, Michigan  48914

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                                                                                  FIGURE.
I .  SAOINAW RIVER
2.  CASS RIVER
3.  FLINT  RIVER
4.  SHIAWASSEE  RIVER
9.  TITTAB AWASSEE RIVER
 6. MICHIGAN TRIBUTARIES
   TO  SA6INAW BAY
 7. MICHIGAN TRIBUTARIES
   TO  LOWER LAKE HURON
 6. AU  SABLE RIVER
 9, THUNDER BAY  RIVER
10. CHEBOYGAN  RIVER
   ST  MARYS RIVER  AND
   MICHIGAN UPPER  PENINSULA
   TRIBUTARIES TO  LAKE  HURON
                               I I
12.
13.
14,
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21 .
MISSISSAGI  RIVER
SPANISH  RIVER
WANAPITEI  RIVER
FRENCH  RIVER
MAGANATAWAN RIVER
MUSKOKA RIVER
SEVERN  RIVER
SAUGEEN RIVER
MAITLAND  RIVER
AU SABLA  RIVER
                                                                                          7—\
                             L A HE \  HURON
                                                                                         SO
                             DETROIT   PROGRAM  OFFICE

                           LAKE   HURON   BASIN
                             U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                    FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  ADMINISTRATION
                     GREAT LAKES  REGION        GROSSE ILE, MICHIGAN

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                        GENERAL DESCRIPTION






Area Description




     Lake Huron, second largest of the Great Lakes and fifth largest




lake in the world, has a water surface area of 23,000 square miles




and a drainage basin area of 72,600 square miles.   Of these totals,




9,100 square miles of water surface area and 25,300 square miles  of




drainage basin area are in Michigan.  It has a length of 200 miles




and a width of 100 miles.  The greatest recorded depth in the lake




is 750 feet at a point 23 miles southwest of the entrance to Georgian




Bay.  The lake has an average depth of 195 feet and a volume of 850




cubic miles (about 1 quadrillion gallons).  Bottom irregularity




characterizes all the deepwater portion of the basin with depths  in




a number of locations ranging from 200 to more than 600 feet in a




distance of several miles.  The low water datum measured at Harbor




Beach is 576-8 feet above the mean water level of the Gulf of St.




Lawrence at Father Point, Quebec (IGLD)*.  The United States shore-




line (mainland only) is 56^ miles.




     The major sources of flow to the lake are Lake Superior (via the




St. Marys River) and Lake Michigan (via the Straits of Mackinac).




The major tributaries to the lake (not including Georgian Bay and




North Channel) are Cheboygan, Thunder Bay, Au Sable, and Saginaw




Rivers in the United States and the Saugeen River in Canada.  The




major Canadian tributaries to North Channel, and Georgian Bay are




the Mississagi, Spanish, Wanapitei, French, Maganatawan, Muskoka,




*IGLD -- International Great Lakes Datum

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and Severn Rivers.




     Forest cover varies across the "basin.   In  the southern part  of




the U.S. portion of the "basin are many birch, "beech, maple, and




hemlock; oak and hickory cover the southern part  of the basin  on  the




Canadian side.  Northward on both sides of  the  border, the predominant




tree types change to spruce, fir, and white, Borway, and  jack  pines.




     Extending from the western side of Lake Huron in a southwesterly




direction is Saginaw Bay.  This shallow arm of  the lake is 26  miles




wide at the entrance, and the minimum width is  13 miles between Sand




Point and Point Lookout.  The bay is 51 miles long from the mouth of




the Saginaw River to a line joining Pointe  Aux  Barques and Au  Sable




Point which are on opposite sides of the entrance. There are  two




outlying islands in the bay - Charity and Little  Charity  Islands  -




both are small.




     Georgian Bay and North Channel are extensions of the lake on




the northeast and north sides, respectively and are Canadian waters.



They are nearly landlocked by the Bruce (Saugeen) Peninsula, and




Drummond, Cockburn, Manitoulin, and Pitzwilliam Islands.




     Georgian Bay is 115 miles long in a northwest-southeast direct-




ion and 50 miles wide.  It contains over 20,000 islands - largest of




which are Pitzwilliam, Lonely, Parry, and Christian.  The coastline




is very irregular and has many inlets and capes.   The largest  passage




between Georgian Bay and Lake Huron is the  channel between Fitzwilliam




Island and the tip of Bruce Peninsula.  It  is possible for small  boats




to proceed directly to Lake Ontario from Georgian Bay by  means of the

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Trent Canal system which was opened in 1918.   The depth of the water




over most of the bay ranges from 100 to 300 feet and the maximum




recorded depth is 5^-0 feet near the entrance to Lake Huron.   The




major tributaries to Georgian Bay are Wanapitei, French,  Maganatawan,




Muskoka, and Severn Rivers.  The Mississagi and Spanish Rivers are




tributary to North Channel.




     Table 1 lists the location and size of the major drainage areas




to Lake Huron.




Climate




     A wide variety of climatic conditions are encountered in the




Great Lakes area.  Because of its mid-continental, mid-latitude




position and a length of 1,297 miles, the area lies in the path of




storms which periodically travel from the western and southwestern




regions of the continent.  The area experiences storm periods through-




out the year, with a tendency for severe storms to occur in the fall.




The climate is modified to a degree by the moderating influences of




the lakes.




     The Lake Huron Basin is subject to considerable variations in




climate from north to south because of its great length.   From Port




Huron in the southern portion to the Thunder Bay Basin, the mean




yearly temperature is hk°P, while mean summer and winter temperatures




are 60°F and 25°F, respectively.  The average annual precipitation




is 31 inches.  In the Upper Peninsula and the St. Marys River region,




the average temperature is about 10°F lower than the southern part




of the lake.  Cold air masses tend to be warmed by the large masses

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of warmer water in the Great Lakes.   This lake effect  modifies  temp-



eratures close to the Lake Huron shoreline,  with the result that



warmer winter and cooler summer temperatures are recorded.  Table 2



shows the variations of temperature  and precipitation  during  15365 at



various locations inside and outside of the  Lake Huron Basin.




Hydrology



     The major source of flow to Lake Huron  is from the upper lakes -



Lake Superior via the St. Marys River, and Lake Michigan via  the  Straits



of Mackinac.  The other main source  of water is surface runoff  from



United States and Canadian streams.   Contributions from ground  water



and evaporation-precipitation relationships  of the lake have  not



been precisely determined but are assumed to be minor  (less than



10 percent of the outflow).



     The long-term average flow from Lake Superior is  73,000  cubic



feet per second (cfs).- Outward flow from Lake Michigan to Lake



Huron is variously estimated between 40,000  and 55*000 cfs.   In this



report, computations are based on an outflow of 40,000 cfs from Lake



Michigan.  The long-term average flow in the St. Glair River  at



Port Huron is 176,000 cfs.  The annual runoff from the Lake Huron



drainage basin is ^7,000 cfs.  An estimate of 10,200 cfs is mad.e  for




the Michigan portion of the drainage basin (exclusive  of that drainage



to the St. Marys River).



     Table 3 summarizes the available surface water records for the



Michigan portion of the basin as published by the U.S. Geological



Survey.  The gaging stations listed  are nearest the mouth on  the  main

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river or major tributaries.  Multiple gages listed for Cheboygan,




Thunder Bay, Au Gres, and Saginaw River tributaries were weighed in




proportion to their gaged area to obtain the yields and flows for the




river basin.  In areas such as the Upper Peninsula and Southern Lake




Huron shoreline where no long-term gages exist,  the records of adjacent




basins were utilized to obtain a yield factor.




     The yield is highest in the northeastern Michigan area,  although




major tributaries to Thunder Bay and Cheboygan Rivers indicate a




lower yield than the main stream.  The Rifle River has the highest




yield, both for the period of record and for the water year 1965.




This yield is high throughout all gaged areas of the Rifle River




Basin.  With this exception, all basins in the Southern Lake Huron




Basin, including that of the Saginaw River, have a much lower yield




than the northeastern area.  The yield for the water year 19&5 was




slightly above average for the northern portion of the Lake Huron




drainage area.  In the basins (Shiawassee, Flint, and Cass Rivers,




and the Southern Lake Huron tributaries area) to the south and east



of the Tittabawassee River Basin, the yield for the water year 1965




was significantly lower than in the northern part of the basin.




     Table h is a summary of the average flows of the Michigan drainage




to Lake Huron.  The flows have been grouped according to major basin




and area, with the exception of the Saginaw River tributaries,  which




are considered as a single entity.   The total average annual  flow is




11,000 cfs, including the Upper Peninsula drainage to the St.  Marys




River.  Of this total, 35 percent is discharged from the Saginaw River,
                                9

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The northeastern Michigan drainage amounts to 57 percent  of the



total, with the Au Sable alone accounting for 15 percent  of the total



Michigan flow.



     The major Canadian tributary areas to Lake Huron are the  French



(7,328 sq. mi.), Spanish (5,4l7 sq.  mi.), Mississagi (3,602 sq.  mi,),



and Severn (1,582 sq. mi.) Rivers.  Total Canadian drainage to Lake



Huron is 33>000 square miles, with the major tributaries  amounting



to 22,300 square miles.



     Average annual flow to Lake Huron from the Canadian  drainage



basin is 36,000 cfs.  Table 5 lists the hydrologic characteristics



of the major Canadian streams.  The yield of Canadian tributaries is



significantly higher than that of U.S. tributaries.   Table 6



summarizes the water balance for the Lake Huron Basin.  Sampling



stations for the Lake Huron Basin are listed in Table 7 and shown




on Figure 3-



Lake Currents



     A number of factors determine the direction,  velocity, and per-



sistence of surface currents in the Great Lakes.  The more important



of these are:  direction and velocity of winds, barometric pressure



differentials over the lake surface, temperatures, depth  and mass of



water, bottom and shoreline configuration.  Although a number  of these



factors vary daily, fundamental patterns of surface and subsurface



currents exist in each of the lakes.



     A great deal remains to be known about the velocity  and duration



of current patterns in Lake Huron.  Existing data on the  lake  appears



to indicate that although a general surface current pattern exists,





                                10

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it is variable.  This is brought out in recent  studies by Ayers,




Anderson, Chandler, and Lauff in the 1956 joint publication  of the




Ontario Department of Lands and Forests and the University of Michigan.




Hough (1958) regards the surface current pattern demonstrated by




Harrington (1895) to be a "fair representation  of the average circu-




lation of the lake during the summer months."




    The FWPCA conducted extensive current studies of Lake Huron dur-




ing 1965.  The data collected are in the process of being analyzed




and are not avialable for this report.




    In general, circulation patterns in the upper and lower  portions




of the lake have a counterclockwise direction.   In the upper lake,




water from the Straits of Mackinac and the St.  Marys River meet




offshore from Presque Isle.  Part of the water  mass moves along the




shoreline to enter Saginaw Bay, another portion swings eastward




above Presque Isle to form a large counterclockwise moving series




of currents in the north central portion of the lake.  Part  of this




large flow pattern is directed into Georgian Bay and another portion




moves southeastward towards Kincardin and along the Saugeen  Penin-




sula-   The surface currents eventually assume  a counterclockwise




direction to form a second large circular pattern in the lake.  A




series of currents travel in a southerly direction from  the  vicinity




of Presque Isle to the southern portion of the  lake and  its  outlet.




These are gradually deflected by the Canadian land mass  so that




the currents move in a northerly direction, some to merge with the




large counterclockwise pattern found off the Saugeen Peninsula.




Figure 4 shows the average summer surface currents of Lake Huron.





                               11

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In the area of the outflow to the St.  Glair River the  flow is ac-



companied by clockwise eddies near the lower shoreline and by strong



currents moving towards the St.  Glair  River.




     The currents in Saginaw Bay have  been extensively studied.  In



general, there is a substantial  outward movement  of Saginaw Bay



water.  The more contaminated flow of  the Saginaw River tends to



flow in the deeper channel unless upset by wind induced surface



currents.  Computed flushing times of  the Bay are 113  days at peak



river flow and 186 days under average  river flow.   Seiches caused



by substantial winds or barometric changes raise  or lower  the water



level at the mouth of the Saginaw River by four ft.  in less than as



many hours.



     The changing of water temperatures on an annual basis causes



vertical currents and upwelling  or sinking.   Because  of the great



depth and formation of a thermocline,  vertical mixing  is restricted



during the summer.  Major windstorms may result in  mixing  below the



thermocline.  Thermal bars are assumed to exist at  the mouth of



major tributaries during the spring.  These result  in  containment



of tributary flow as a distinct  body,  with limited  dispersion to



the main water mass of the lake.
                               12

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          TABLE 1.  MAJOR DRAINAGE AREAS TO LAKE HURON
     Location
Drainage Area
  (sq. mi.)
MICHIGAN
     Upper Peninsula Tributaries to St.  Marys
     River
     Upper Peninisula Tributaries to Lake Huron

           Subtotal

     Cheboygan River Basin
     Miscellaneous Cheboygan-Thunder Bay
     Thunder Bay River Basin
     Miscellaneous Thunder Bay-Au Sable
     Au Sable River Basin

           Subtotal

     West Saginaw Bay
     East Saginaw Bay
     Southern Lake Huron Tributaries

           Subtotal

     Saginaw River Basin
       Saginaw River
       Tittabawassee River
       Shiawassee River
       Flint River
       Cass River
           Subtotal
                           Total
ONTARIO
     Mississagi River
     Spanish River
     French River
     Magnatawan River
     Muskoka River
     Severn River
     Nottawasaga River
     Minor Tributaries
     Saugeen River
     Maitland River
       808

       590
     1,550
       650
     1,120
       ISO
     2,035
     1,300
       701
       500
       21(6
     2,1*62
     1,201
       889
     3,602
     5,^17
     7,328
     1,663
     1,967
     2,390
       791
     1,582
       981
                1,398
                5,535
                2,501
                6,222

               15,656
                                13

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          TABLE 1.  MAJOR DRAINAGE AREAS TO LAKE HURON (Cont'd)

                                             Drainage Area
      Location                                 ( sg. mi . )
Au Sable River
Islands and Miscellaneous                       6,100

                       Total                            33^00

                 GRAND TOTAL                            ^9,056

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                                               17

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            TABLE 4.  SUMMARY OF MICHIGAN AVERAGE SLOWS
                        Lake Huron Basin
Total Gaged
Drainage Drainage
Astfft' Area
(sq. mi.) (sq. mi.)
Upper Peninsula
Cheboygan
Thunder Bay
Au Sable
Miscellaneous
Subtotal
Saginaw Basin Tributaries
Tittabawassee
Shiawassee
Hint
Cass
Saginaw
Subtotal
1398
1550
1120
2035
830
6933
2482
1201
1404
889
246
6222
-
11*62
722
1100
-
3284
2400
637
1120
848
-
5005
Average
Yield
FOR*
(cfsm)
.900**
.810
• 738
.824
.787**
-
.633
.630
.605
• 527
.608**
-
Total
Area
Blow
(cfsm)
1.260
1260
827
1680
653
5680
1571
757
849
469
150
3796
Southern Lake Huron Tributaries Area
Saginaw Bay West
Saginaw Bay East
Southern Near shore
Total 15
1300
701
500
,656
674
55
-
9018
• 752
.471
.500**
-
978
330
250
11,034
*  FOR - Period of Record

** Based on Yield of adjacent basins
                                18

-------
              TABLE 5-   ONTARIO HYDBOLOGIC  VALUES
                        Lake Huron Basin
Gaged
Drainage
Area
River (sq. mi.)
Mississagi
Spanish
Vermilion
Wanapitei
French
North Magnatawan
Muskoka
Severn
Nottawasaga
Sauble
Sydenham
Beaver
Bighead
Saugeen
Maitland
3,590
4,66o
1,570
1,220
5,370
135
1,800
2,260
456
358
70
225
113
1,570
680
Average of
Gaged
Discharge
(cfsm)
4,64o*
4,490
1,640
1,290
5,530*
197
2,490
l,88o
336
429
96
161*
139
1,950
816
Average
Yield
(cfsm)
1.29*
• 96
i.o4
1.06
1.03*
1.46
1.38
.83
.74
1.20
1-37
.72*
1.23
1.24
1.20
Remarks
At Mississagi
Chute
At Espanola
At Lome Falls
(tributary to
Spanish River)
Near Wanup
At Dry Pine Bay
Near Burts
Falls
Below Bala
At Swift
Rapids
Near Baxter
At Sauble
Falls
Near Owen
Sound
Near Clarks-
burg
Near Meaford
Near Port
Elgin
Near Donny-
brook
*  Water Year 1961-1962
                             19

-------
          TABLE 5-  ONTARIO HH)ROLOGIC VALUES (Cont'd)
                        Lake Huron Basin
Gaged
Drainage
Area
(sq. mi.)
334
Average of
Gaged
Discharge
(cfsm)
324
Average
Yield
(cfsm)
• 97
Remarks
Near Spring
back
River
Au Sable
Total Ontario Gaged       24,411 sq. mi.

Drainage to Lake Huron Basin

Total Drainage Area       33>400 sq. mi.

Total Area How           36,000 cfsm
                              20

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               TABLE 6.  LAKE HURON WATER BALANCE
                        Lake Huron Basin
Drainage Area                             Area Floy (cfs)

Lake Superior (St. Marys) Inflo               73,000

Lake Michigan (straits of Mackinac) Inflo     40,000

Canadian Rivers Inflo                         36,000

Michigan Rivers Inflo                         11,000

Precipitation (minus evaporation) Inflo       17,000
and ground water                             	


                            Total Inflo      177,000

Lake Huron                  Total Outflo     177,000
                              21

-------
           TABLE J.  LAKE HURON BASIN SAMPLING STATIONS
 Area or
Tributary

Deepwater Ranges

Straits of Mackinac


Cheboygan
Station



  H8l4


  H530


  H532
Location
Presque Isle
  H536

  Kk20


  H422
                        Ek26
North Channel
  H432


  H808


  H809


  H810


  H812
10.0 miles - 77° from Round Island
Passage Light

Midway between Poe Reef Light
and buoy $2

10.0 miles - 57° from Poe Reef
Light group

10.0 miles - 228° from Detour
Reef Light

At Detour Reef Light

1.5 miles - 20° from Presque Isle
Light

10.0 miles - 20° from Presque
Isle Light

19.6 miles - 20° from Presque
Isle Light
29.5 miles - 20° from Presque
Isle Light

At Mississagi Strait Light,
Ontario

At entrance to False Detour
Channel

3.5 miles - 15° from Cape Robert
Light

7-5 miles - 338° from Cape
Robert Light

5.0 miles - 275° from Mississagi
Isle Light buoy

5-0 miles - 177° from Bigsby
Island
                                22

-------
       TABLE T.  LAKE HURON BASIN SAMPLING STATIONS (Cont'd)
 Area or
Tributary
Station
 Location
Deepwater Ranges (Cont'd)

Georgian Bay            H380


                        H382
Alpena
  H386


  H388


  H370


  H372
Oscoda
  H3T6


  H378


  H320


  H321


  H322
                        H326"
 59-0 miles  -  71   from  flashing
 buoy in Thunder Bay

 Entrance buoy to  Georgian Bay

 2.0 miles - 0° from Tobermory
 Light

 37.0 miles  -  64°  from  Tobermory
 Light

 30.5 miles  -  18°  from  Owen Sound
 radiobeacon

 1|.9 miles - 21^°  from  Thunder Bay
 Light

 10.0 miles  -  71°  from  bell buoy
 in  Thunder Bay

 23-5 miles -  71°  from  bell buoy
 in  Thunder Bay

 38.0 miles -  71°  from bell buoy
 in  Thunder Bay

 52.0 miles -  71°  from bell buoy
 in  Thunder Bay

 10.0 miles -  85°  from Au Sable
 breakwater light

 19.1 miles -  85°  from Au Sable
breakwater light

 29-7 miles -  85°  from Au Sable
breakwater light

 ^9-2 miles -  85°  from Au Sable
breakwater light

68.7 miles -  85°  from Au Sable
breakwater light
                                23

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       TABLE 7.  LAKE HURON BASIN SAMPLING STATIONS (Cont'd)
 Area or
Tributary
Station
Location
Deep-water Ranges (Cont'd)

Oscoda (Cont'd)         H328


                        H330


Mouth of Saginaw Bay    H200


                        H202


                        H204


                        H206
Point Aux Barques
Harbor Beach
  H250


  H252

  H251*-


  EL 30


  H132


  H133
                        HI 36
85.7 miles - 85° from Au Sable
breakwater light

93.7 miles - 85° from Au Sable
breakwater light

5-0 miles - 118° from buoy $2,
Tawas Point

10.0 miles - 118° from buoy $2,
Tawas Point

16.3 miles - 118° from buoy $2,
Tawas Point

21.3 miles - 118° from buoy #2,
Tawas Point

2.3 miles - 56° from Pte. Aux
Barques light

6.8 miles - 11° from Pte. Aux

17.0 miles - 3° from Pte. Aux
Barques light

9.5 miles - 100° from Harbor
Beach Light

21. k miles - 100° from Harbor
Beach Light

27.7 miles - 100° from Harbor
Beach Light

W*.5 miles - 100° from Harbor
Beach Light

1.0 miles - 280° from west end
of breakwater at Goderich,
Ontario

-------
      TABLE 7-  LAKE HURON BASIN SAMPLING STATIONS (Cont'd)
Area or
Tributary
                      Station
Location
Deepvater Ranges ( Cont'd)

Port Huron              H100


                        HI 02
                        H106


                        H108


                        H110
Nearshore Ranges

Straits of Mackinac
                        H500
                        H502
                        H506



                        H508


                        H510
                                   1.9 miles - 270° from Lake Huron
                                   Lightship

                                   100 feet - 90° from Lake Huron
                                   Lightship

                                   1500 feet - 90° from Lake Huron
                                   Lightship

                                   5.7 miles - 90° from Lake Huron
                                   Lightship

                                   8.5 miles - 90° from Lake Huron
                                   Lightship

                                   II.k miles - 90° from Lake Huron
                                   Lightship
3800 feet from Mackinaw City
shoreline under the Mackinac
Bridge

1.9 miles from Mackinaw City
shoreline under center section
of Mackinac Bridge

5000 feet from Point St. Ignace
shoreline under Mackinac Bridge

Midway "between east ends of State
Ferry Dock, on Graham Point, St.
Ignace

1.2 miles - 86° from east end
of State Perry Dock

2.3 miles from east end of State
Ferry Dock   Graham Point, near
Mackinac Island light
                              25

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      TABLE 7-  LAKE fflJRCST BASIN SAMPLING STATIONS (Cont'd)
Area or
Tributary
Station
Location
Hearshore Ranges (Cont'd)
Straits of Mackinac
(Cont'd)
  H512
Cheboygan
  H518

  1500


  H525


  H526


  H527


  H528


  MWRC Che
Eogers City
                        H403
Midchannel between Round Island
Passage Light and buoy #5

6.1 miles - 68° from north end
of State Ferry Dock

2.8 miles - 68° from north end
of State Perry Dock

At end of State Ferry Dock

West State Street bridge at
center on upstream side

50 feet north of Crib Light
Bell in Cheboygan Channel

1.5 miles - 3^9° from Crib
Light Bell

2.9 miles - 3^9° from Crib
Light Bell

4.2 miles - 3^9° from Crib
Light Bell

.25 mile from the mouth of the
River

3000 feet - 0° from landing
light in Rogers City

300 feet - 102° from landing
light in Rogers City

5350 feet - 102° from landing;
light in Rogers City

At breakwater light in Calcite
                                26

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      TABLE 7-  LAKE HURON BASIN SAMPLING STATIONS (Cont'd)
Area or
Tributary
Station
Location
Nearshore Ranges (Cont'd)

Alpena
                        H362
                        H363
Harrisville Harbor
  H365

  H366

  H350



  H351


  H352


  H353
 Oscoda
  H301


  H302


  H303
Midway between end of breakwater
and Alpena Light

1.3 miles - 186° from Alpena
Light

1.6 miles - 150° from south end
of North Point

2.7 miles - 231° from bell buoy

5.3 miles - 231° from bell buoy

I.5 miles - 84° from Alpena Light

Midway between south edge of
north breakwater and main break-
water in entrance to harbor

5000 feet - 0° from breakwater
light

5000 feet - 90° from breakwater
light

5000 feet - l80° from breakwater
light

10 feet from southwest end of
main breakwater

5000 feet - 0° from end of break-
water light

Midway between the breakwater
lights

3000 feet - 90° from end of
breakwater light

5000 feet - 180° from end of
breakwater light
                                27

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       TABLE 7.  LAKE HURON BASIN SAMPLING STATIONS (Cont'd)
 Area or
Tributary
Station
 Location
Nearshore Ranges (Cont'd)

Oscoda (Cont'd)        Y010
Harbor Beach
Port Sanilac
  MWRC-AuS


  H121


  H122


  H123


  H124


  HL25


  H126


  H127


  Hill



  H112


  H113


  HllU


  H115
 US 23 "bridge at  center on down-
 stream side

.2 mile from mouth of river on
 US 23  on south  edge of Oscoda

 5000 feet - 0° from north
 entrance to "breakwater

 Middle of north  entrance of
 breakwater

 5000 feet - 45°  from Harbor Beach
 Light

 Midway between Harbor Beach
 Light and South  Pier Light

 5000 feet - 90°  from east
 entrance to harbor

 300 feet - l8o°  from south edge
 of breakwater

 1.1 miles - 150° from east
 entrance to harbor

 In entrance to harbor, midway
 between north and south break-
 waters

 5000 feet - 0° from north break-
 water light

 5000 feet - 90°  from north break-
 water light

 1-9 miles - 90°  from north break-
 water light

 5000 feet - l80° from north
 breakwater light
                                28

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.Figure

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                                               FIGURE 4
\  \   \      «*&"?yF
 \      \  t.a'".2--~V /

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                             WA.TER USE






Municipal Water Supply




     The Michigan portion of the Lake Huron Basin had a total popu-




lation of 1.2 million in I960.  In 1965, 715,000 permanent residents




were served "by public water supply systems.  Thirty percent of the




supply was from ground water sources and 70 percent was from surface




water.  Fifty percent of the latter was served directly with sup-




plies from Lake Huron,, including the St. Marys River and Saginaw




Bay.  The total amount of water used in the basin was 140 MGD,




with 40 MGD from ground sources and 75 MGD directly from Lake Huron.




     Projected populations to be served are 1,370,000 in 1990 and




2,550,000 in 2020.  Demand is projected to be 300 MGD in 1990 and




580 MGD by 2020.  Not included in these projections is the planned




use by the Detroit Metropolitan Water Services of Lake Huron north




of Port Huron for a water source.  The capacity of this pipeline




and water treatment plant will be 400 MGD in 1969 and 1,200 M5D




by 1990.  This system will also serve the Flint metropolitan area.




     Table 8 lists the present municipal water supplies and the




population served by these systems.  Table 9 lists the present and




projected populations served by public water systems in the Lake




Huron Basin.   Table 10 lists the present and projected water demands




for municipal, industrial, and total needs.  These have been grouped




by river basin and area.




Industrial Water Supply




     There are numerous industries in the Lake Huron Basin that
                               31

-------
obtain water from municipal systems.  Many industries have individ-



ual sources, particularly for cooling or major process use.  At



present, not many of these industries obtain their water directly



from Lake Huron, although most of the industrial water demand,



particularly for cooling waters,  is supplied by surface sources.




     In 1965> a total of if-9 industries in the Lake Huron Basin  had



an average demand of 860 MGD.  Twelve percent of these industries



used ground water sources, with a total demand of 10.6 MGD and



37 percent used surface waters, with a total demand of 830 MGD.



Projected water use is expected to be 2,000 MGD in 1990 and



3,800 MGD in 2020.  Not included in these demands are the require-



ments for extra-basin industries.



     Table 10 lists the present and projected industrial water



demands by basin and area.  Table 11 lists the present water demands



by basin and area for process, cooling, and total needs.



Water-Related Recreation



     The Lake Huron Basin offers some of the finest water-oriented



outdoor recreation in the State.   Even in the populous and indus-



trialized areas of the Saginaw River Basin, recreation areas have



been established and are maintained.  Fishing, hunting, camping,



skiing, boating, swimming, and touring are popular.  Much of the



northeastern Michigan area is in public ownership in the national



and State forests.




     The shoreline of the lake and the lake itself are extensively



used for recreation; including duck hunting and fishing in Saginaw,



Thunder, and Tawas Bays and other nearshore waters.  The fishing




                               32

-------
activity may "be expected to increase when  the Coho salmon,  scheduled




for planting in Lake Huron streams,  reach  maturity in the lake  and




begin their annual migrations back to the  streams.  Summer camping




is combined with swimming at shoreline parks such as Tawas State




Park.  Numerous marinas and harbors of refuge have been constructed




with Federal, State, local and private funds.  Boating ranges from




weekend cruising and sailing in numerous small craft to the annual




cup races such as the Detroit to Mackinac  regatta.  A more detailed




description of basin recreation is contained in the Bureau of




Outdoor Recreation publication "Water Oriented Outdoor Recreation -




Lake Huron Basin (1967)."




Commercial Shipping




     The Lake Huron Basin has been an important waterway, but the




construction of the Soo Locks and the opening of the St.  Lawrence




Seaway has increased the navigation traffic to and through Lake




Huron.  The additional shipping and larger vessels emphasized the




need for deeper channels and improved docking facilities, and better




and more harbor sites.




     Lake Huron has only a few natural harbors which have been  im-




proved and manmade harbors have been developed.  Table 12 lists




the major Michigan port sites as well as total tonnage and major




commodities by basins.  Of the 31*,56?,2^8  total tons, the port  of




Calcite (Thunder Bay River Basin) handled  14,266,112 tons (4l.3




percent) of the limestone (1^,189,^07), coal and lignite (69,3^3),




and asphalt, tar, and pitches (7,362).  The next largest port area




was the Saginaw River where 7,2^3,288 tons were handled.   Table 13





                                33

-------
shows a breakdown of total freight tonnage through the major water




systems.




Commercial Fishing




     The commercial fishing industry has always  been an  important




part of Michigan economy,  beginning in recent  times with the fur




companies of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.   In the Lake




Huron Basin, this early fishery developed in the St.  Marys River




and Straits of Mackinac areas,  spreading by the  1830's to Saginaw




Bay and numerous ports along the Lake Huron shore.   The  westward




expansion, made practical by the Erie Canal and  later the railroads,




resulted in an ever increasing demand for fishery products.




Commercial production rose steadily between the  mid 1800's and the




turn of the century, reaching a peak in 1902 when over 20 million




pounds were landed.  Annual harvests remained  relatively stable




through the 1920's, with Lake Huron ranking third in commercial




fisheries landings, behind Lakes Erie and Michigan.




     Sea lamprey predation, general economic conditions, availabil-




ity of more preferrable protein sources, and a decline in the unit




value of the fishery products resulted in a decline of the total




production.  The decline of the traditional high valued  species




lake trout, whitefish, and suckers, caused by  lamprey predation,




and in some areas by taste and odor problems created by  pollution,




has been responsible to a large degree for the reduction in  active




United States commercial fishermen operating on  the lake.




     Saginaw Bay remains the most active fishing area, accounting




for 68 percent of the total landings in 1966.  Major ports of the

-------
bay fishery include Bayport,  Tawas City,  Sebewaing,  and the Standish




area.  Alpena, Cheboygan, Oscoda,  Rogers  City,  and Harbor Beach are




the major ports on the open lake.   In all,  some 30 Lake Huron shore-




line communities recorded commercial fish landings in 1966.




     Although pollution and the introduction of destructive species




such as the sea lamprey and alewife has most assuredly resulted in




the decline of commercial fishing, fishery techniques - harvesting,




processing, and marketing - used by United States fishery have not




kept pace, for various reasons, with other technological advances.




Much of the total fishery population in the lake is underutilized.




Advances such as the use of fish protein  concentrate, more appealing




fresh-water fish specialty items,  and return of the lake trout or




Coho salmon, will result in a more profitable fishery and increase




the value of this resource in Lake Huron.  Commercial fishing in




the tributary areas has not in the past been of importance, prin-




cipally because of sports fishing's greater impact.   Such items




as harvesting surplus Coho salmon or fish farm ponds may provide




an inland commercial fishery resource.




     Potential demand for commercial fishery products from the Great




Lakes is expected to increase fourfold by 2020.  Water quality is




expected to be a constraint in achieving  this level of production,




even with advances in harvesting,  processing, and marketing.




Although population densities throughout  most of the basin will




remain relatively low, with the exception of the Saginaw Bay




tributary area, man's activities in the basin will have a signifi-




cant effect on the total aquatic environment.  Pesticide residues





                                35

-------
have already been found in adult fish, fry, and eggs.  Although



applications of pesticides may "be low, in terms of the concentra.tions



in the waters affected, the concentration effect of the fish food



chain yields levels capable of damaging the fish population.  The



increase in power requirements will create heat loads sufficient to



cause localized areas with temperature considerably above the ambient



level of the lake.  Fish and other aquatic life are extremely sen-



sitive to even minor changes in the environment and will be affected



long before gross pollution becomes apparent.



     The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries publication "Report on



Commercial Fisheries Resources of the Lake Huron Basin (1968)" details



the many aspects of commercial fisheries history, problems, and




potential.
                               36

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                 TABLE 9-   PROJECTED POPULATION
             Michigan Municipal Water Supply Systems
                        Lake Huron  Basin
Area                          196?            1990          2020

Upper Peninsula               24,500         34,000          45,000
Cheboygan River Basin          8,325         10,050          13,250
Thunder Bay River Basin       20,500         39,000          69,000
Au Sable River Basin           7,525         14,250          23,750

               Total          60,850         97,300        151,000
Saginaw River Basin

  Saginaw River              198,000        340,000        570,000
  Tittabawassee River         75,000        150,000        300,000
  Shiawassee River            5i,,000         85,000        120,000
  Flint River                280,000        620,000      1,300,000
  Cass River                  20,OOP         28,500         40,100

               Total         627,000      1,223,500      2,330,100
Southern Lake Huron*

               Total          26,750         47,500         67,500


Lake Huron Basin Total*      714,600      1,368,300      2,548,600
  Exclusive of Detroit Metropolitan Water Services System; population
  not in the Lake Huron Basin.
                              '38

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                    SOURCES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF W&STE






Municipal




     Data contained in this section are based on the 19&5 operating




records furnished the Michigan Department of Public Health by




municipal waste treatment plant operators.   Inventory information of




the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS),  Michigan Department of Public




Health (MDPH), Michigan Water Resources Commission (MWRC), and the




Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) were also




utilized.  Table l4 describes the municipal waste treatment plants.




Prior to January 196?> a^ plants were required to practice disin-




fection from May 15 to September 15.  Since that date, MDPH reg-




ulations require continuous year-round disinfection.  In the basin,




there were a total of 47 sewage treatment plants, of which 20 were




secondary, 25 were primary, and 2 were of the lagoon type.  The




majority of these (l6 secondary, 14 primary, 1 lagoon type) were in



the Saginaw River Basin.




     Eight municipal waste treatment plants discharged directly to




the lake.  Figures 5 through 8 show the location of these treatment




plants.  The effluents of East Tawas and Tawas City flow into




Saginaw Bay and are covered in the report on Saginaw Bay.  The




impact that the Saginaw River Basin complex has on Lake Huron is




apparent from the number of treatment plants and the total waste




load discharged to the river.




     The St. Ignace primary sewage treatment plant serves 3> 300




people, who contribute an average flow of .64 MGD.  The effluent

-------
from the plant had an average BODc value of 50 mg/1 and varied




between 2T and 106 mg/1, of which k$ percent was removed.




    The 900 residents on Mackinac Island were served by a  sewer




system that consisted of collection lines, grinding and dilution of




the waste by pumping it into Lake Huron through a deep submerged




outfall.  No records of effluent quality were available.




    In Mackinaw City the primary municipal waste treatment plant




has an average efficiency of 32 percent.   The average flow was




.09 MG-D for the population of 900.




    The City of Cheboygan has a primary waste treatment plant for




its 5;800 residents.  It -was served by a combined storm and sani-




tary system that had an average flow of 1.00 MG-D.  The effluent




BODr averaged 76" mg/1 and ranged from 38 to 120 mg/1.




    Rogers City, population k,500, was served by a primary sewage




treatment plant with a flow of .48 MGD.  There was a 50 percent




removal of BOD^.




    The Alpena primary waste treatment plant served a population




of 14,500 through a combination sewer system.  The flow from the




plant averaged 2.3 MGD with an average efficiency of kh percent



removal of BODn;.




    The Harbor Beach sewage treatment plant, a trickling filter




plant, with an average flow of .k MGD, served 2,300 people.  The




effluent BOD^ averaged 18 mg/1 and varied from 13 to 27 mg/1.




    The Lexington sewage treatment plant had a waste stabilization




lagoon for treating the wastes from TOO people.  Available infor-

-------
mation reported the lagoon discharged twice a year and analyses




were performed for total coliform densities.




Industrial




    In 19^5 there were 49 industries in the Lake Huron Basin.




These industries discharged approximately 895 MGD waste water




effluent to the basin waters.  The industries were engaged in




machine operations, beet sugar processing, chemical production,




food processing, and brewery operations.  Wastes from these




industries included brine, toxic metals, soluble oil, biochemical




oxygen demanding substances (BODc), organic and inorganic solids,




and heat from cooling water (refer to Saginaw tributaries basins




reports).  Thirty of these industries discharged either process




wastes, manufacturing wastes, or a combination of process and




cooling water wastes.  Table 15 summarizes these industries




according to basin.




    Of the total industries in the basin, eight discharged either




process or cooling water directly to the lake.  These industries




with their waste flows are listed in Table 16.




    Commercial wastes in the basin originated from a variety of




sources, such as commercial and automatic laundries, motels, and




automobile washing firms.  These commercial industries are rated




by the Michigan Water Resources Commission if they discharge di-




rectly to surface or subsurface waters.




    As additional information is developed, different methods are




applied to treatment procedures and incorporated where applicable

-------
to maintain desired quality in the receiving waters.



Federal Installations



     There are two major Federal installations located in the Lake



Huron Basin.  Kincheloe Air Force Base is located in the St.  Marys



River area and is equipped with a trickling filter plant to treat



sanitary sewage from approximately 10,000 people.  The waste  flow



averages .8 MJD and the BOIL and suspended solids reductions  are in



the 80 to 90 percent range.  Aircraft washings are treated by oil



and grease separation.  Year-round effluent chlorination is prac-



ticed in accordance with Air Force regulations.   The treated  wastes



are discharged to Mud Lake, a tributary of the Waiska River which



flows into the St. Marys River.



     Wurtsmith Air Force Base, located in the Au Sable River  area,



has a trickling filter plant with the capabilities to treat sanitary



sewage from approximately J,400 people.  The waste flow averages



.6 M3-D and the BOD  and suspended solids reductions average 7^



and 77 percent, respectively.  Aircraft washings are treated  by oil



and grease separation then released to a separate stormwater  system.



The effluent is discharged to Van Bfcten Creek about two miles up-



stream from its confluence with the Au Sable River.



     Other than these two major installations, there are many minor



installations, such as campgrounds, picnic grounds, and forest and



recreational areas that are Federally owned and/or operated.   Due to



low waste volume, and ground as a receiving area, these installations

-------
were not listed.  Table 17 lists the Federal installations that have



teen studied.
                                1*8

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            Figure
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               POPULATION AND WASTE LOAD PROJECTIONS






     Demographic studies were conducted by the Great Lakes-Illinois



River Basins Project, Chicago, Illinois, for the Lake Huron Basin.



Population trends on a national,  regional,  and county basis were



analyzed, and population projections were developed for the various



areas of the Lake Huron Basin.  In I960,  approximately 1.2 million



persons lived in the Lake Huron Watershed - about  double the 1920



population.  By the year 2020, it is estimated that the population



of the watershed will be approximately 3.2 million.



     The population centers in the Lake Huron Basin are Flint



(196,914.0), Saginaw (98,265), Bay City (53,6oi).) and Midland (27,779)



according to I960 census.  Table 18 lists the fifteen largest cities



in the Lake Huron Basin.  For this report,  the various populations




in each basin and area were analyzed assuming that by 2020 these



centers would be urbanized and served by water and sewer systems..



The individual areas were added to yield the total population



served.  For certain areas such as the Northeastern Michigan basins,



the adjacent shoreline projections were proportioned and added to



the basin projections.  For the total basin, the 1965 population



served by sewer systems was estimated to be 580,000 and projected



to 1,340,000 by 1990 and 2,500,000 by 2020.  Table 19 lists the



present and projected population served by river waste treatment




facilities.



     A similar technique was used to project waste flow, both



municipal and industrial.  Table 20 lists the present and projected
                               62

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waste flows for municipal, industrial and total waste flows.



     BODc projections were based on present day inventory informa-



tion obtained from the Michigan Water Resources Commission, Michigan



Department of Public Health, and the Federal Water Pollution  Control



Administration.  Municipal and industrial BODc projections,  in



terms of population equivalents, were determined from studies on



the Lake Michigan Basin and applied to the inventory data obtained



for the Lake Huron Basin.  The results of these projections are



shown in Table 21, which lists the municipal, industrial, and total



BODc; generated by the Michigan area of the Lake Huron Basin.   The




municipal BODc load for 19&5 "vas calculated on the basis of .17



pounds per day of BODc per person served, and the 1990 and 2020



load factors, .18 and .20 pounds per day of BODc P6*1 person.



     Table 22 lists the treated BODc loadings discharged during



1965-  The percent treatment achieved in 1965 was also indicated



for municipal, industrial, and total wastes.  The projected BODc,



waste loadings are listed on Table 23.
                               63

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                   TABLE 18.   POPULATION CENTERS
                         Lake Huron Basin
City

Flint

Saginaw

Bay City

Midland

Sault Ste. Marie

Ovosso

Mt. Pleasant

Alpena

Alma

Lapeer

Fenton

Cheboygan

Howell

Rogers City


Essexville
Basin
Flint
Saginaw
Saginav
Tittabawassee
I960 Population
196,940
98,265
53,604
27,T79
SMSA*
416,239
190,752
107,042

Upper Peninsula 18,772
Shiawassee
Tittabawassee
Thunder Bay
Tittabawassee
Flint
Shiawassee
Cheboygan
Shiawassee
Lake Huron
Shoreline
17,006
14,875
14,682
8,978
6,160
6,142
5,859
4,861
4,722









Saginaw
4,590
*  Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area.
                                64

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             TABLE 19.  PROJECTED SEWERED POPULATION
                         Lake Huron Basin
                                     1965         1990          2020

Upper Peninsula                      21,780      33; 000       1*6,000
Cheboygan                             6,7^5      10,050       13,250
Thunder Bay                          19,780      39,000       69,000
Au Sable                              6*5*6      1*1,250       23,750

                 Total               5M50      96,300      152,000
Saginaw River Basin

  Saginaw                           180,000     3^0,000      570,000
  Tittabauassee                      58,800     125,000      255,000
  Shiawassee                         1*6,650      80,000      115,000
  Flint                             210,000     620,000    1,300,000
  Cass                               18.400      28,500       kO,100

                 Total              513,850   1,193,500    2,280,100
Southern Lake Huron                  1^,150      ^7,500       67,500
  Tributaries
Lake Huron Basin Total              582,850   1,337,300    2,^99,600

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-------
              TABLE 21.   PROJECTED BOD5 LOADINGS
                        Lake Huron Basin
                         (Pounds per Day)
         Percent
        Treatment

Municipal   0
            6k (Present)
            90
            95
            99

Industrial  0
Total
            90
            95
            99

            0
            60 (Present)
            90
            95
            99
                           120,892
                            ^3,932
                            12,089
                            6,0^5
                            1,209

                           196,825
 19,683
  9,841
  1,968

31T,71T
125,276
 31,772
 15,886
  3A77
                289,815
                105,316
                 28,982
                 14,
566,250
234,020
 56,625
 28,313
  5,663

856,065
339,336
 85,607
 42,804
  8,561
                     2020

                  594,572
                  216,062
                   59,^57
                   29,728
1,272,840
  526,039
  127,284
   63,642
   12,728

1,867,412
  742,101
  186,741
   93,370
   18,674
                               67

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                 TABLE 22.  TREATED BODr LOADINGS
                      Lake Huron Basin - 1965
                         (Pounds per Day)
Area

Upper Peninsula
Cheboygan River Basin
Thunder Bay River Basin
Au Sable River Basin

        Total
Municipal

  1,972
  ^353
Industrial
                       765
                    35,500
 36,265
 Total

 1,972
 1,653
36,625
   368

40,6l8
Saginaw River Basin

  Saginaw River           24,260
  Tittabawassee River      5,760
  Shiawassee River         3,500*
  Flint River              3,380
  Cass River               1,3^9

        Total             38,249
                     9,770
                     7,647
                     1,065
                       917
                     5,000

                    24,399
                  34,030
                  13,^07
                   4,665
                   4,297
                   6,3^9

                  62,748
Southern Lake Huron
  Tributaries Total        1,330
Total Lake Huron Basin    43,932
                    20,680

                    81,344
                  22,280

                 125,646
* Estimated.
                               68

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                         WATER QUALITY DATA






     In 1965 a water quality sampling program -was conducted by the




Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) as part of the




Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins Project*  This program included




periodic sampling at key locations on basin streams; sampling to de-




termine oxygen resources of the major reaches of streams in the




Saginaw system; routine sampling of harbor, bay, and nearshore lake




waters; a number of cruises on deepwater Lake Huron; and special studies.




     Samples were collected in Lake Huron from 50 offshore stations




at the following depths:




     1„  surface




     2<,  20 meters




     3-  depth when 1 percent of incident light is measured




     h.  5 feet above the thermocline




     5°  midway between thermocline and bottom




     6.  5 feet above the bottom




     Variations in the above program were made to take into account




differences in depth or other physical data that would result in




duplication of sampling at a given depth.




     Surface samples were collected at harbor areas and for a distance




of about 1 mile lakeward to determine the difference in quality in




these waters.




Lake Huron Deepwater Stations




     Based on the values obtained from the water quality parameters




for the 50 chemical and kO microbiological stations, the two 1965
                                70

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Lake Huron deepwater surveys showed the water to be of excellent quality.

The stations were grouped into the following ranges and found in

Figure 3:

        Range                             Stations
     Straits of Mackinac
     Cheboygan                      H530, H532, H53^, H536
     Presque Isle                   Ek20, Hb22, Kb2k, Ek26,
     North Channel                  H808, H809, H810, H8l2
     Georgian Bay                   H382, H3&14-, H386, H388
     Alpena                         H3TO, H372, H371*, H376, H378, H380
     Oscoda                         H320, H321, H322, E32h, H326,
                                    H328, H330
     Mouth of Saginaw Bay           H200, H202, E2(A, H206
     Pte, Aux Barques               H250, H252  H25^
     Harbor Beach                   H130, HI 32, H133, H13^, HI 36
     Port Huron                     ELOO, H102, HlQlj-, H106,
                                    H108, H110

     The parameters analyzed were:  dissolved Oxygen (DO); 5 -day

biochemical oxygen demand (BODj); nitrogens - ammonia, organic,

and nitrate; phosphates - total and total soluble; total solids;

chlorides; phenols; sodium; potassium; calcium; magnesium; sulfate;

conductivity; total coliform; and total plate counts.

     Analyses of the parameters reported in the lake showed uniform

concentrations, with the exception of a few localized areas that showed

greater concentrations.  These exceptions occurred mainly in the harbor

areas and near the mouths of the major tributaries.

     Data for the ranges (total of surface, depths, and bottom samples)

are listed in Table 24 and individual stations are compiled in Tables

25 through 35-  Each station was sampled once during late July 1967,

and the data are listed in Table 36, along with the six new stations -

    , H800, H802, KBOk, H806, and H8l6.
                                71

-------
     The average DO concentrations for the entire lake were in



sufficient quantities to meet all water uses,,  The central portion



and the southern half of Georgian Bay averaged 12.0 mg/1 or greater



and the surrounding shoreline areas ranged from 11.0 to 12.0 mg/1



(Table 2k].  The North Channel and the immediate Cheboygan Harbor



area showed a range of 10.0 to 11.0 mg/1, which is also at accept/able



levels (Fig. 9)-  A reduction in oxygen concentrations occurred in



the Saginaw Bay area where the DO ranged from 8.0 to 11.0 mg/1.



The BOD^ averaged from <1 to 2 mg/1 for the entire lake, except at



the mouth of Saginaw Bay where the range was 1 to h mg/1.  Other-



wise, the oxygen relationship indicated acceptable water quality in




the Lake Huron deepwater stations (Tables 25-35)-



     Some nutrient values indicated slight water quality degradation



at the deepwater stations.  Higher levels were noted in the southern




ranges and from the Saginaw Bay and nearshore areas.  The Straits of



Mackinac, Cheboygan, Georgian Bay, North Channel, and Presque Isle



ranges showed low concentrations of ammonia nitrogen from 
-------
     Average nitrate values of the open waters appeared to be  .3




or less (Fig. 11).  There were areas where the average concentrations




were greater than  .3 mg/1 as these values included surface depths and




bottom sample results, but no pattern was apparent when evaluating the




data.  The total and total soluble phosphates ranged from<.0^  to .08




mg/1 in the Straits of Mackinac, and the Cheboygan, North Channel,




Presque Isle, Georgian Bay, and Alpena ranges, except for the  first




station outside Thunder Bay Harbor which ranged from<.0l(- to  .1 mg/1.




The Oscoda range was higher, ranging from<.(A to  .2 mg/1.  The higher




values were nearer the Michigan shore and appeared to be reduced




across the lake.  At the mouth of Saginaw Bay, a  range of<.04  to




.,2 mg/1 was observed.  Lower water quality at Pointe Aux Barques was




indicated by the highest range of phosphate concentration,^.dk to




»6 mg/1,  in the entire lake area.  This concentration appeared to be




diluted as shown by the decrease at Harbor Beach  of<.0^ to .k  mg/1,




and finally to<.04 to .3 mg/1 at Port Huron (Figure 12).




     The open waters of the lake, including the North Cahnnel,




appeared to have ,0k mg/1 phosphate or less and this was within



recommended levels.  Georgian Bay and some of the shoreline areas




range up to .1 mg/1 of phosphate, and this exceeds the level at




which algal growths are stimulated.  Many of the nearshore areas,




as wall as Saginaw Bay, range from<.
-------
Saginaw Bay mouth to a range of 5 to 7 mg/1 at Port Huron (Fig. 13).




Total solids also showed a slight increase from the Straits of




Mackinac, ranging from 97 to 120 mg/1, to Port Huron -where the range




•was 93 to l.k-0 mg/1.  Despite the distance and amount of water moving




through the area, there appears to be a slight increase in most of




the parameters.




     Throughout the lake, little variance -was noted in the sodium,




potassium, magnesium, and sulfate parameters.




     The water quality did not exceed recommended levels, with the




exception of small localized areas.






Microbiology




     In 1965, two deepwater cruises were undertaken during which time




a total of 40 deepwater stations were sampled at depths ranging from




the surface to 500 feet.  Figure 3 shows the location of these stations.




The following bacterial parameters were measured aboard the survey




vessel:  total eolifonns, total "bacteria (at 20°C and 35°C), fecal




coliform, and fecal streptococci.  Some measurements were made of the




last two parameters due to the extremely low total coliform values that




were observed and too, previous evaluations of these waters had shown




very low bacterial counts at deepwater points.  Table 37 lists the




ifO stations and the range of depths sampled.




     Median total coliform densities at all the stations were very




low, ranging from
-------
the Stc Marys River empties into Lake Huron.  Wastes from De Tour




Village or ships passing through the channel may account for this




last value.




     Fecal coliform densities were determined at seven deepwater




stations.  Values ranged fromCl organism/100 ml to 1^ organisms/100 ml




of sample; median values were
-------
Lake Huron Ifearshore Areas



     There are a number of Lake Huron nearshore areas located along



the Michigan shoreline of the lake from Mackinaw City to Port Huron,



vhich are of significance to the water quality of the lake,,  These



locations, as shown in the inserts on Figure 3 are:  Straits  of



Mackinac, Cheboygan, Rogers City, Alpena, Harrisville, Oscoda, Harbor



Beach, and Port Sanilac.  A harbor, breakwater enclosure, or tribu-




tary was located at each, nearshore station.  Major areas also studied



were the St. Marys River (Eastern Upper Peninsula River Basins),



Cheboygan, Thunder Bay and Au Sable Rivers, Saginav Bay, and southern



tributaries, (Saginaw Bay and southern Lake Huron tributaries) which



were discussed in the FWPCA Lake Huron tributary basin reports.



     The St. Marys River, above the Soo Locks, represented the water



quality from Lake Superior and the Straits of Mackinac represented the



Lake Michigan water quality as they enter Lake Huron.  The St. Clair



River above Port Huron represented the Lake Huron water quality as it



enters the Lake Erie Basin.



     During 1965, the FWPCA sampled the nearshore station ranges and



made physical, chemical, and microbiological measurements.  The



Michigan Water Resources Commission has water quality monitoring



stations on a number of these main tributaries flowing into Lake Huron,



and portions of their data have been included.



     The eight nearshore stations are reported individually and



described with short narratives and tables.
                                 76

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                         Straits of Mackinac




     A summary of the data on samples collected by the FWPCA for the




Straits of Mackinac ranges is compiled in Table 38.  The 10 sample




stations were divided into three selected ranges:  Range 1 - stations




H500, H502, and H5




outside of Mackinaw City.  There was no supersaturation and no apparent




problems.  The BOD^ did not exceed 3 mg/1.




     Ammonia concentrations throughout the sampled area ranged from




405 to -53 mg/1.  A high level of nitrates, .9 mg/1, was observed at




St. Ignace.  Undesirable blooms can be expected above levels of .30




mg/1 of inorganic nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, and ammonia).  Total




phosphate concentrations ranging from<.0^ to 1.2 mg/1 were found




south of Mackinac Island, and the total soluble phosphate values



ranged from<.o4 to 1.0 mg/1.  In combination with excess inorganic




nitrogen and satisfactory light and heat, algal growths and odors



can be stimulated,,




     Total iron level of l,000>ug/l was observed at St. Ignace and can




pose a threat to aquatic life at concentrations over 300jug/l.




     The microbiological data for the Straits of Mackinac indicated




that the waters are of suitable bacteriological quality for all uses.
                                77

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                            Cheboygan




     The Cheboygan nearshore stations, including Y500, were sampltd




five times or more by the FWPCA.  Table k-0 presents the results of




the sample stations Y500, H525, H526., H52?, and H528; and 16-CHE




(MWRC) for Cheboygan Harbor and Cheboygan River derived from the




1965 surveys.  The data showed some water quality variations.




     The waters of Cheboygan Harbor contained concentrations of




DO that were near 100 percent saturation.  The lowest DO value,




6.5 Hlg/l> was found at the mouth of the Cheboygan River and indicat-




ed some degradation from the river.  Average BOD^ values in the




Cheboygan River ranged from 1 to 3 mS/l and was diluted to range




1 to 2 mg/1 in the harbor area.




     Nutrient ranges indicated degradation from the mouth and then




appeared erratic across the harbor.  The ammonia nitrogen ranged from




<.05 to  .25 mg/1; nitrate from <.l to  .k mg/1; and the total phosphates




from <.0^ to .2 mg/1,  With adequate light and heat, this could develop




into a problem area.




     Total solids concentrations at the mouth of the Cheboygan River




averaged 190 mg/1 and was diluted across the Cheboygan Harbor to




range from 140 to 110 mg/1.




     Average phenol concentrations in  the harbor ranged from<2 to




5 /ug/1, while values ranged from 2 to  8 /ig/1 at the mouth of the




Cheboygan River and in the immediate vicinity.  Other areas in the




Cheboygan Harbor were of suitable bacteriologic quality for all uses.

-------
                            Rogers City



     The FWPCA sampled the Rogers City Harbor in May to determine the



immediate quality of these waters.  Table hi. summarizes the parameters



for the sampling stations H^OO, H^Ol, BkQ2, and H^03 for the Rogers



City Harbor.  The brief investigation showed little indication of any




pollution of these waters.



     DO values of the Rogers City Harbor ranged from 98 to 1C4 per-



cent saturation.  Ammonia nitrogen concentrations ranged from .22



to .28 mg/1 and in combination with a total phosphate concentration



of .2 mg/1, satisfactory temperature, and light conditions could



develop into a problem area.  Total solids concentration ranged from



120 to l40 mg/1, and chlorides were<5 mg/1.  Neither value indicates



any pollution problem.



     From the four stations, it appeared that the bacterial levels



increased below the marina area and were reduced in passage to the



Port of Calcite.




                              Alpena



     The FWPCA conducted water quality surveys in the Thunder Bay area.



The sampling stations - HS^l, H362, H363, H3C&, H3^5, H366,H370, and Y200,



were divided into three ranges to facilitate presentation and interpre-



tation of the collected data.  Station Y200, located at the mouth of



the river, and 15-TB (MWRC) were presented as Range 1 to give an overall



picture of the river.  Range 2 was stations H36l, H362, and H366; and



Range 3 contained H363, H36^, H365, and H3TO.
                                 79

-------
     Table k2 presents a summary of the chemical and microbiological
range data as collected by the FWPCA and Michigan Water Resources
Commission.  Examination of the table revealed significant water
quality variations.  Individual station data were compiled on
Table lj-3.
     DO concentration in Range 3 averaged 11.1 mg/1, diminished to
an average of 9-7 rag/1 outside the mouth of the Thunder Bay River,
and dropped to 7.k mg/1 at the mouth.  BOD^ concentration increased
from average values of 1 and 2 mg/1 in Ranges 3 and 2,to U mg/1 at
the mouth of the river.  This oxygen depletion indicated definite
water quality degradation.
     Ammonia nitrogen in Thunder Bay averaged .1^ mg/1 on Range 3>
.18 mg/1 on Range 2, and ranged from<,05 to .33 mg/1 at the mouth.
An increase was also noted in the organic nitrogen from the outer
area to the mouth as the range increased from ^.05 to .29 mg/1, to
.10 to .36 mg/1, and finally from .21 to .83 mg/1 at the mouth.
Total phosphate values in Ranges 3 and 2 ranged from<^04 to .2 mg/1
and ^04 to .3 mg/1 at the mouth.  These nutrient values in the right
combination with satisfactory temperature and light could become a
problem area.
     Total solids concentration decreased from the mouth of the
Thunder Bay River toward the bay from average values of 2^0, then
150, and finally 120 mg/1.  The concentration at the mouth was greater
than the maximum recommended level of 200 mg/1.  Phenol concentrations
were the highest below the treatment plant and averaged 3 >ug/l> then
were diluted to range from<2 to 3 >ig/l by the time the outer harbor
area was reached.
                                80

-------
     The highest total coliform, found directly below the treatment



plant outfall, had a high of ij-3,000 organisms/100 ml and an average



of lj-,300 organisms/100 ml, which exceeds the recommended maximum



of 2,000 organisms/100 ml.  The high is still above maximum at



H36l, but is diluted in Range 3 to average 6,



                           Harrisville



     Water quality surveys of the Harrisville Harbor were conducted




by the FWPCA.  Water quality data for sampling stations H350, H351>



H352, H353, and H35^ were compiled in Table kk.  Examination of the



table showed some variations in the quality of the water.



     Variable lake currents caused the flow to run in erratic patterns.



Occasional high values were observed at both the breakwater stations



and those stations about a mile from the breakwater, although the



concentrations appeared to be greatest near the breakwater and re-



duced at the stations further out.  Exceptions to this were total and



total soluble phosphates that were the highest at H353> the most



southern station of the area.  Solids and nutrient values at the



southern breakwater station, H35^-, were the highest of the location,



averaging 170 mg/1 total solids, 35 mg/1 chlorides, and ranging .Ok to



.6 mg/1 for total phosphates.  These three parameters indicated some



degradation.  Because of these occasional high values, further in-



vestigation is necessary.



     Bacteriological data indicated the highest total coliform density



was at the southern end of the breakwater, but the count was still be-



low the maximum recommended levels; therefore, the water quality was



acceptable for all uses.





                                81

-------
                              Oscoda




     The FWPCA also conducted water quality surveys of Oscoda Harbor.




The stations in the harbor which were sampled five times or more dur-




ing the year included stations H301, H302, H303, and H304.  The Au




Sable River was also sampled at Y010 and at 1^-AuS (MWRC) for compari-




son of the water quality of the river and that of the harbor area.




Table k-5 presents the results of the chemical and microbiological




parameters and reveals water quality variations.




     Most of the waters of Oscoda Harbor displayed high levels of




DO.  Some oxygen depletion was evident near the mouth of the Au Sable




River at stations Y010 and l4-AuS(MWRC) and in the immediate vicinity




of the channel of the harbor at station H302, dropping to 71 percent




saturation at one time in the river and 72 percent at the mouth,




station H302.




     Average ammonia nitrogen concentration of .20 mg/1, with a range




of .lh to .32 mg/1, was found at station H302.  Average ammonia




nitrogen levels greater than .10 mg/1 were found throughout the other



areas in the Oscoda Harbor and in the Au Sable River.  Nitrate nitro-




gen, with a range of .1 to .3 mg/1, was found at station Y010, and




ranged from(.l to .2 mg/1 in the Oscoda Harbor.  High concentration of




total and total soluble phosphate,  .6 mg/1, was found at station H303-




In the remaining waters adjacent to the harbor and at station Y010,




the total and total soluble phosphate levels ranged from .04 to




.2 mg/1.  If the nutrients are in the right combination, and with




satisfactory heat and light, algal growths can be produced.
                                82

-------
     Total solids concentrations were highest at stations Y010 and




H302, "but less than the maximum recommended level of 200 mg/1.  High




total iron levels above the 300/ig/l maximum recommended concentration




observed at stations Y010, E301, H302, and H303 were 500/ag/l, l,200jug/l,




1,000, and 800 ug/1, respectively.




     The bacteriological water quality of Oscoda Harbor was determined




from evaluation of the survey data.  High total and fecal coliform




densities were found at stations Y010 and H302.  These organisms are




indicators of bacterial contamination and serve to warn that a health




hazard may exist for those exposed to or consuming these waters.




Other areas were of suitable bacteriological quality for all uses.




                           Harbor Beach




     The stations in the surveys at Harbor Beach were combined into 2




areas:  Breakwater Area - H122, H1214-, and H126, and the Outer Harbor




Area - H121, H123, H125, and H127»  The data (Table 46) summarizes the




two areas as well as the individual stations.  Although this nearshore




area lies within the area known as southern Lake Huron, it actually




flows into Lake Huron.




     DO concentration at the Harbor Beach Outer Harbor Area averaged




11.T ™g/l.> but a slight decrease to 11.2 mg/1 was noted at the breakwater.




BOD^ ranged from 1 to 2 mg/1 in the outer area and 1 to 4 mg/1 at the




breakwater.




     Occasionally, the lake currents caused the flow around the break-




water to become erratic and sometimes variable, resulting in some




variable data.
                                83

-------
     Average ammonia nitrogen concentrations in the Harbor Beach waters




ranged from .09 to .19 mg/1.  A high value of .^0 mg/1 was observed




at station H121, probably from the Saginaw Bay area or Port Austin.




The highest total phosphate levels, 1.9 mg/1 and l.U mg/1, were




found in the center of the breakwall at station H12^, and in an area




south of the breakwall at station H126.  The maximum soluble phosphate




values for stations H12^ and H126 were 1.6 and .2 mg/1, respectively.




Another area of high total and total soluble phosphate concentrations,




both being -7 mg/1; was found at station H121 approximately 5,000 feet



north  of Harbor Beach.  The previously-mentioned currents from Lake




Huron could have caused this variability.  The nutrient concentrations




were above the recommended levels and could be conducive to algal




growths.  The maximum total iron concentrations, 1,000 and 1,300/ig/l,




were found at stations H122 and H127, respectively.  The breakwater




iron averaged ^OO/ig/l and the outer harbor was 300 ;ug/l.  Iron con-




centration maximum recommended level is 300 Ja.g/1, and both areas were




above this level.




     The water quality of Harbor Beach was bacteriologically accept-




able for all uses, both at the breakwater and in the outer harbor.




The breakwater area has the higher counts of the two areas but the




counts were below the recommended maximum limits.




                           Fort Sanilac




     Another area surveyed by the FWPCA for water quality was Port




Sanilac.  This nearshore area is located in the southern Lake Huron




area but flows directly into Lake Huron.  The chemical and baeterio-

-------
logical data from the stations, Hill, H112, H113, HH^, and H115




were compiled in Table kj,




     Levels of DO in all parts of Port Sanilac averaged 11.5 to 11.8 mg/1




and BOD5 ^1 1 mg/1 to 2 mg/1;, so little oxygen degradation was observed.




     Average ammonia nitrogen values in the Port Sanilac water




ranged from .13 to .18 mg/1.  Hitrate nitrogen ranged from .1 to




•5 mg/1 in the area.  High levels of total and total soluble phos-




phate, .3 mg/1 > were found at station Hill, while the rest of the




stations ranged from<.o4 to .2 mg/1 for total, and <.04 to .OJ mg/1




for total soluble phosphate.  The nutrient concentrations ranged to




levels where algal blooms could occur.




     Total solids concentration ranged from 110 to 160 mg/1.  There




were two or three times more suspended solids at Hill, averaging 13 mg/1,




than the other stations.  Phenol concentrations were the greatest at




Hill and HU5, ranging from<2 to 8>ug/l; the higher values were over




the maximum recommended level of 2;ug/l.  Total iron concentrations




of 500, 500, and l,000;ug/l were observed at stations H115, H112, and




Hill, respectively.




     Occasionally, small amounts of phosphates and solids were found




at the breakwater, but these were below the recommended maximum levels.




     All stations in the Port Sanilac area showed total coliform




densities of<10 org/100 ml, except station Hill located in the center




of the breakwall.  The median total coliform count for station Hill was




66 org/100 ml, with range values of/12 to I^k org/100 ml.  The water is




bacteriologically good for all water uses.

-------
Radiochemistry

     Lake Huron Basin radiochemistry results for water, sediment,

and plankton samples were analyzed for alpha and beta activity levels.

The water samples were filtered through a 1.2 micromembrane filterf

analyzed in terms of suspended (nonfiltrable) and dissolved (filtrable)

portions, and reported in picocuries per liter (pc/l).  Sediment and

plankton samples were measured in picocuries per gram (pc/g).  The

maximum values were as follows:

                          Dissolved   Suspended   Sediment   Plankton
                           ABABABAB

  Deepwater Ranges
   Straits of Mackinac    .50   U.3  <.05   .80   14   54    5.3  26
   Worth Channel         <.05   5.8   .20   .80   26   54    J .0  6j
   Georgian Bay          <,°5   5-7  <.05   .90   16   60    9.2  83
   Cheboygan             ^05   4.7  
-------
for the deepwater and nearshore stations did not indicate any




radioactivity water quality problems.
                               87

-------
                    KEY FOR WATER QUALITY TABLES


Station-Location shown in Figure 3°


Chemical Parameters        -   all results in milligrams per liter (mg/l)
                               (exceptions noted).

   Phosphate               -  reported as phosphate (POj,),
    Total Phosphate        -  includes ortho, poly, biological,
                              and organic.
    Total Soluble Phosphate - includes soluble ortho, soluble poly,
                              and soluble organic.

   Vol. Susp. Solids       -  volatile suspended solidsf

   Phenol                  -  reported as micrograms per liter (/ig/l).

   pH                      -  measure of hydrogen ion activity  -
                              acidic (0), alkaline (ib), neutral (7).

   Percent Saturation      -  reported as percent.

   Total Iron              -  reported as micrograms per liter (ug/l)„

   Total Hardness          -  reported as calcium carbonate (CaC03)«

   Conductivity            -  micromhos per centimeter (umhos/cm).
Microbiological Parameters -  values obtained by membrane filter
                              technique, unless otherwise noted.

                              Median values shown in Average column.

   Total Coliform      )
   Fecal Coliform      )    - reported as organisms per one hundred
   Fecal Streptococcus)      milliliters (org/100 ml).

   Total Plate Count       -  number of bacteria/ml.
Michigan Water Resources Commission reported values in terms of most

probable number/100 ml (MPR/100 ml).


NS = number of samples.

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TABLE 37.  DEPTH AT DEEPWATER STATIONS
       Lake Huron Basin - 1965
Station No.
H130
H132
H133
H131*
H136
H200
H202
H2<&-
H206

H320
H322
E32k
H326
H328
H330
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Depth
(ft.)
180
185
255
200
27
60
80
85
60

165
210
255
500
180
60
60
100
525
635
290

- Station No.
H380
H382
H381)-
H386
H388
HteO
Ek22
Ek2k
Ek26
H428
Hl+32

H530
H532
H532*
H536

H808
H809
H810
H812
E&lk
Depth
(ft.)
2^5
90
80
175
190
100
290
450
200
170
95

27
115
300
85

120
90
1*0
125
135
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                       BIOLOGICAL RESULTS






Introduction




     A study of the biological conditions in Lake Huron was




initiated in 1965 t>y the FWPCA.  Major surveys were made in June




and August of the deepwater areas of Lake Huron, and three surveys




of the nearshore areas and Saginaw Bay were made in the summer of




1965•  A November deepwater survey of southern Lake Huron sampled




the phytoplankton of that area.  In all, j6 different stations




were sampled for biology data during the 1965 studies.  The




following samples were collected in the biological study of Lake




Huron:  benthic macroinvertebrate samples - 157; phytoplankton




population counts - 2Lh; and chlorophyll concentration analyses -




9^.  Field observations on the water transparencies and bottom




characteristics were also routinely noted.




     The purpose of this study was to obtain information on general




biological conditions of the lake; locate areas of biological




degradation; and supplement bacteriological, physical, and chemical




data collected during the same period of study.




     For comparative and descriptive purposes, Lake Huron was




divided into six areas:  North Channel, Georgian Bay, Northern




Lake Huron, Saginaw Bay, the mouth of Saginaw Bay, and southern




Lake Huron.  The range of stations that extended from Tawas Bay




to Port Austin was considered the mouth of Saginaw Bay.  The sta-




tions located in the main body of Lake Huron, north of and including




the stations in the AuSable range, were considered as northern







                               260

-------
Lake Huron.  Stations "below this range in Lake Huron were listed as




southern Lake Huron.



                   Benthic Macroinvertebrates




     Three zones of biological activity characterize the floor of




lakes.  These include the littoral zone from the edge of the water




to the limit of rooted aquatic vegetation; the sub-littoral zone




from the littoral zone to the upper boundary of the hypolimnion;




the profundal zone all of the lake bottom up to the hypolimnion.




The region of the lake where there is a rapid change in tempera-




ture per unit of depth is known as the thermocline.




     Factors such as the characteristics of the substratum, the




quality of the water, and certain physical features such as depth,




light, currents, wave action, temperature, and morphometry of the




basin determine the kinds and numbers of benthic fauna.  The littoral




zone generally contains a variety of species, whereas the profundal




zone supports only a few species.  The number of species and indi-




viduals decreases with increasing depth.  The benthic fauna of the




profundal zone in the Great Lakes is usually composed of sludge-




worms (Oligochaeta), fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), scuds (Amphipoda),




bloodworms (Tendipedidae), and opposum shrimp (Mysis relicta).




     Benthos preferring organic sediments are known as pollution-




tolerant; those which require an unpolluted habitat are considered




pollution-sensitive.  Pollution-tolerant benthic fauna include




aquatic sow bugs(lsopoda), lung-breathing snails (Pulmonata), leeches




(Hirudinea), sludgeworms, fingernail clams and bloodworms.
                                261

-------
Pollution-sensitive benthos include scuds, opposum shrimp,  gill-




breathing snails (Prosobranchia), pearl button clams (Unionidae),




mayfly larvae (Ephemeroptera) caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera),  and




aquatic beetles (Coleptera)o




                          Phy toplankton




     Phytoplankton are suspended or slightly motile microscopic




plants existing near natural buoyancy.  Under suitable conditions




of water movement, temperature, and light, phytoplankton popu-




lations increase, with an increase in nutrients.  For cell growth,




algae need phosphorus, nitrogen,  potassium, iron, calcium, and




organic substances such as vitamin B12 and thiamine,.  Algal growth




is stimulated as phosphorus increases, however, nitrogen and other




nutrients must also be present if algal production is to continue.




Phosphorus can be recycled within a lake for several years without




being replenished, enabling crops of algae to succeed themselves.




     The kinds of algae that inhabit a body of water are important




indices of the general water quality.  In nutrient-poor lakes such




as Lakes Michigan and Superior, the diatoms - Tabellaria, Aster-




ionella, Synedra, and Fragilaria - are predominant.  In contrast,




other diatoms, blue-greens and euglenoids, prefer nutrient-enriched




waters of eutrophic lakes.  Anacystis, Oscillatoria, Stephanodiscus,




Cyclotella, and Melosira are often the dominant genera.  Plankton




algae rarely exceed 500 organisms/ml in oligotrophic waters.  Stand-




ing  crops in excess of 1,000 organisms/ml are considered indicative




of enrichment.
                               262

-------
     The attached algae Cladophora is also encouraged by nutrients,



especially phosphates.  Where sufficient light and turbulence are


available,, it can cover all suitable substrates.  The long fila-



ments of Cladophora often break off and litter beaches, clog water



intakes, and foul fishing nets.  Dense growths are not common to



the oligotrophic Great lakes.




                       Light Penetration



     Water transparencies of less than ten feet in lakes often


occur as a result of algal blooms or excessive turbidities.  Oli-



gotrophic lakes are characterized by their exceptionally clean



waters.  Secchi disc transparencies of over 20 feet are comiron in



the Great Lakes, and readings of over 50 feet have been found in



many areas.  The light penetration characteristics of a lake usually


dictate' the production and distribution of the phytoplankton.  The



availability of light energy is important for plant growth and the



primary productivity of a lake.




                           Chlorophyll


     The amount and type of chlorophyll present in the water is an


indicator of the predominant kind of algae and an estimate of the
                                                             l

relative productivity.  Chlorophyll pigments can be separated into



different types.  The most common are chlorophylls a, b, and c.


All types of algae contain chlorophyll a.  The green algae have,



in addition to chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b.  The diatoms and brown



flagellated algae contain the pigments a and c.  Blue-green algae



contain only chlorophyll a.                                '



                                263

-------
Discussion and Results




                     Physical Observations




     Lake Huron is considered to be geologically young and bio-




logically unproductive.  The lake basin is deep (average depth -




196 feet) and becomes thermally stratified during the summer and




winter.  Its clear waters offer little interference to light




penetration.  The lake basin has an unusually long and irregular




shoreline caused by many large islands, peninsulas, and bays.




     Water transparency measurements were made by both Secchi




disc and submarine photometric methods.  The Secchi disc extinction




depths and one percent surface light penetration depths (euphotic




zone) for the deepwater and nearshore areas are reported in Tables




50 and 51 along with observations on sampling depths and bottom




compositions.  Table 52 summarized the Lake Huron Basin physical




observations and noted the mean euphotic zone to be 78 feet in




the deepwater areas.  Secchi disc readings averaged between one-




half and one-fifth of the euphotic zone depth during these surveys,




or approximately 22 feet.  The August cruise had an average Secchi




disc reading of 27 feet, while June had an average of 20 feet.




Saginaw Bay and the nearshore areas of Lake Huron had much shallower




waters and more turbid conditions (Figure ih).  The average Secchi




disc extinction depth for Saginaw Bay was eight feet, while the




nearshore areas averaged twelve feet.  Georgian Bay and northern




Lake Huron had the deepest euphotic zones and Secchi disc readings




(Figure 16).




     The submarine photometer readings are reportedly more indicative

-------
of the actual water transparency "because of the various human



errors involved in Secchi disc interpretations.



     Silt, sand, and clay were the most often reported bottom




types in deep water Lake Huron.  The main body of Lake Huron was



sampled between depths of 30 to 700 feet.  The average sampling



depth for bottom organism collections was 170 feet in deepwater



areas.  Nearshore sampling ranged from 5 to 66 feet and averaged



2k feet.  Saginaw Bay was sampled at an average depth of 33 feet.






                  Benthic Macroinvertebrates



     The benthic macroinvertebrates from Lake Huron and Saginaw



Bay were identified and listed in Table 53-  Twenty major taxc-



nomic groups of organisms were found.



     At the Lake Huron deepwater stations, the predominant benthic



organism was the scud (Pontoporeia affinis).  Sludgeworms, finger-



nail clams and bloodworms were the most numerous organisms, in



the order named.  This assemblege of aquatic fauna is character-



istic of  oligotrophic conditions in the Great Lakes.  Scuds



comprised 58 percent of the total benthic population in the main



body of the lake.  They were also predominant in the deepest areas



(> 200 feet) where they made up 69 percent of the population.



Table 5^- contains the depth distribution data.



     Average benthic population for the 1965 lake surveys was



found to be 78 organisms per square foot (Table 55).  Georgian



Bay and southern Lake Huron were the least populous areas for




benthic macroinvertebrates, while the mouth of Saginaw Bay supported
                              265

-------
over twice the average number found throughout the lake.   Table 56



contains the individual deepwater station information for the



various areas.  Samples collected in August averaged IT more in-



dividuals per square foot than those collected in June.



     Saginaw Bay contained the highest standing crops of  benthic



organisms.  The average population was over five times as numerous



as those found in Lake Huron and almost three times as great as the



nearshore areas.




     Sludgeworms were the most common organisms in Saginaw Bay_,



averaging over 300 per square foot.  Scud populations were compari-



tively small and comprised only eight percent of the benthic orga-



nisms in Saginaw Bay.  A small area immediately adjacent  to the



Saginaw River mouth had an average sludgeworm population  of 2,500



per square foot.  The pollution-sensitive scuds were restricted



to less than ten per square foot for a distance of fifteen miles



from the Saginaw River mouth.



     Sandy bottom areas supported twice the average benthic organism



populations, while clay bottom substrates had one-half the average



number of benthic macroinvertebrates.  Silty and rocky areas of



Lake Huron supported approximately the same numbers of organisms.



     The higher numbers of scuds and sludgeworms, found in the




North Channel and the channels leading out of the North Channel



into Lake Huron, are of interest.  The increase in macroinvertebrate



populations may have been due to the close proximity of productive



nearshore areas and favorable bottom compositions.  Scuds numbered
                             266

-------
less than ten per square foot in a narrow zone in the middle of the




lake, extending southward from about Rogers City to Port Huron




(Figure 17).  Sludgeworm populations of less than ten per square




foot were found in the middle of the lake, in Georgian Bay, and




the northwestern part of the  lake (Figure 18).




     At the nearshore stations, scuds comprised only k percent and




oligochaetes 6k percent of the total organisms.  Table 57 contains




this data.  The most populous sample, collected near Rogers City,




contained over 750 organisms per square foot, mostly sludgeworms




and fingernail clams.  Hyalella and Gammarus were the predominant




scuds at the majority of stations.  Caddisflies or mayflies were




collected in nearly every nearshore area.




     A greater variety of organisms was found in the harbor and




nearshore areas than in either the main body of the lake or in




Saginaw Bay, reflecting the shallower waters and increased nutrient




availability.  The greatest variety in any of the harbor or near-




shore areas was found near Cheboygan, Rogers City and Alpena where




over ten major taxonomic groups were identified.  The least vari-




ety, only three major taxonomic groups, was found in the Straits




of Mackinac and near Au Sable.




     The highest scud concentrations, averaging h8 per square




foot, were collected near Cheboygan, while Harbor Beach exhibited




none at all.  Sludgeworm concentrations averaging over 620 per




square foot were found near Port Sanilac.  Benthic populations




increased slightly at the harbor and nearshore stations in the
                            267

-------
summertime, and averaged 153 per square foot for all seasons.






                       Phytoplankton



     Data from the deepwater phytoplankton samples at the surface,



top of the thermocline, euphotic zone, and near the bottom are  in



Tables 58, 59> 60 and 6l.  The standing crops of phytoplankton in



the deepwater areas of Lake Huron were relatively low, ranging




from 70 to 1,930 organisms/ml at the surface (Table 58) and av-



eraging 650 organisms/ml throughout the lake.  The average phy-



toplankton populations were listed according to water depth areas



on Table 62.



     Nearshore stations averaged 1,^80 phytoplankters per milliliter,



or over twice that of the deepwater stations.  Population increases



between June and August were noted at most nearshore stations,  as



well as the deepwater areas.  However, population pulses were




found at Rogers City (5,740/ml), Harrisville (4,550/ml), and Oscoda



(ll,780/ml).  Rogers City had a bloom of green flagellates; Harris-



ville had a bloom of Navicula near the harbor entrance; and Oscoda



had a spring pulse of green flagellates (Table 63).



     The mean number of deepwater phytoplankton taken in June was



520/ml.  An increase in the populations was noted during the



August and November surveys.  Mean populations in August and Nov-



ember were 760/ml and 720/ml, respectively.  In June, the predom-



inant genera found, in order of abundance, were:  Rhizosolenia,



Synedra, Cyclotella-Stephanodiscus, various green flagellates,



and Tabellaria.  Predominant species in the November samples were
                            268

-------
mainly Cyclotella-Stephanodiscus, with fewer numbers of Oscillatoria,




Synedra, and Navicula.




     Surface phytoplankton sampled in June found standing crops in




excess of 1,000/ml throughout most of Saginaw Bay and in one small




area of the North Channel  (Figure  19)-   The average density for




all of Lake Huron was only 520/ml.  By August, the area of excess-




ive algal growth had extended to surround the Thumb area of Mich-




igan and parts of the North Channel and Mackinac Straits area.




Isolated areas around Goodrich, Ontario, the northern part of




Georgian Bay, and northeast Lake Huron also had standing crops in




excess of 1,000/ml (Figure 20).  Huge open water areas in northern




and central Lake Huron had less than 500 organisms/ml during tooth




surveys, and averaged only 380 organisms/ml.  Mean'southern Lake




Huron phytoplankton densities ranged between 170 and 310 organisms




higher per milliliter than those in northern Lake Huron.  Stations




across the mouth of the Saginaw Bay had average counts of over




1,000 organisms/ml, while Saginaw Bay proper supported mean popu-




lations in excess of 7*000 organisms/ml.  Blooms of blue-greens




were found to occur in the late summer in Saginaw Bay; however,




no excessive numbers were discovered in Lake Huron.




     Samples taken near the top of the thermocline, one percent




surface light zone, and near the bottom showed very little change




in the population densities (Table 62).  Nuisance forms of algae




were never predominant and population blooms were not detected in




the deepwater areas.
                            269

-------
                       Chlorophyll




     Chlorophyll analyses in June and August of the surface and




near "bottom vaters of Lake Huron are presented in Tables 6k and




65.  Average chlorophyll values are presented "by area in Table 66.




     Contrary to phytoplankton population counts, the June sampling




survey showed higher average chlorophyll concentrations than the




August survey.  However, the lake-wide distribution of chlorophyll




and phytoplankton concentrations showed a definite correlation




(Figure 15)-  Highest values were found in Saginaw Bay, while




Georgian Bay and northern Lake Huron had the two lowest concentra-




tions.  There was a slight increase in the amount of chlorophyll




in the bottom-most samples, compared with the surface samples.




The phytoplankton analyses also showed slight population increases




near the bottom.  In clear water, it is not uncommon for the high-




est chlorophyll and phytoplankton densities to' occur in shaded




areas well below the surface.  Figure 16 shows that the light pen-




etration in Lake Huron is closely related to the density of the




algal populations.




     The summary data tables and figures have shown that different




areas of Lake Huron have varying degrees of biological activity.




Phytoplankton and benthic organisms are more dense, chlorophyll




higher, and light penetrations lower in the bay and inshore areas.




Although shallow areas are normally much more productive, pol-




lution-tolerant organisms are not usuaUy predominant.  The effects




of water quality degradation on the biota are first noted in areas




of relatively small water volumes.




                            270

-------
Saginaw Bay supported the highest populations of both algae and



bottom-dwelling organisms found during this study.  Pollution



tolerant sludgeworms and blue-green algae were often the pre-



dominant community forms in Saginaw Bay.  Nearshore areas that




supported pollution-tolerant communities include parts of Thunder



Bay near Alpena and Harbor Beach.



     The biota of the deepwater areas reflects upon the true




oligotrophic nature of most of Lake Huron.  Low numbers of pol-



lution-sensitive organisms inhabited the deep mid-lake areas.



     Accelerated eutrophication is beginning in some major bays




and harbors of Lake Huron.  These areas are much more important to



the great mass of aquatic life in Lake Huron, and therefore should



be protected from degradation.






                        Pesticides




     Pesticides, necessary to our mass production economy, have



been indicated as despoilers of the environment.  Improper use



of pesticides are well documented causes of fish kills.  Hot so



well documented are the long-term effects of residual low level



pesticide concentrations which have been observed in waters, plants



and fish.  The universality of the pesticide problem is evidenced



by the fact that residues of DDT, in extensive use only since the



end of World War II, have been found in the flesh of animals in



the polar regions many thousands of miles from the nearest known



point of use.
                            271

-------
     The danger from pesticides lies not in the spectacular fish

kills which make headlines "but in subtle long-term changes to the

total environment..  A silent spring is faced "by Michigan's arobi-

tious Coho salmon planting program.  Pesticides have been dis-

covered in the eggs stripped from salmon migrating upstream after

their return from the waters of Lake Michigan.  Although pesticide

application rates on land may result in low levels in the surface

waters, the various parts of the aquatic food chain from the once-

celled plants and animals up to man have the ability to concentrate

and retain in their systems the pesticides.  Eagle and osprey

nests in parts of the country lie barren because the fish consumed

by the majestic predators contained levels of pesticide sufficient

to cause sterility, if not death.  Ducks, too, in eating aquatic

plants ingest pesticides which are taken up in the fatty tissues -

at harmless concentrations - until a cold winter snap requires

the utilization of stored fat creating toxic levels in the blood

stream and sudden death.

     Much information is needed.  Most critical is an accurate
                          ,   !

inventory of pesticide use in the basin - both by, commercial users

and individuals.  Research is needed on the effects of pesticides

particularly in such a complex situation as the aquatic food chain.
                                  '         i      '
Lethal levels of pesticides are reasonably well defined, but sub-

lethal levels which permit lethargic survival or cause genetic

malfunctions or sterility eliminating the species are not as well

known.  Synergistic effects of other pesticides, pollutants, or a

variety of water quality indices should be determined to more

                            272

-------
adequately predict the effect of pesticide applications in the



basin.
                           273

-------
Table 50.  BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS
          Lake Huron Deepwater - 196 5
                                     Bottom Types
Euphotic
Secchi Zone
Station Date
North Channel
H808 6-23
8-30
H809 6-23
8-30
H8lO 6-23
8-29
H812 6-23
8-29
Georgian Bay
H382 6-16
8-23
H381* 6-16
8-23
H386 6-17
8-21*
H388 6-17
Q-2k
Depth
Feet
116
132
66
96
ko
^3
122
125

99
83
86
86
168
178
205
195
Disc
Feet
13
23
15
23
15
18
13
21

30
33
25
31
26
28
23
31
Depth
Feet
ho
56
*5
56
To Bottom
To Bottom
1*6
66

82
To Bottom
82
82
96
99
82
99
Northern Lake Huron
H8l4 6-21
8-29
H530 6-21
8-27
H532 6-21
8-27
H53U 6-22
8-29
116
lit 9
33
30
106
125
320
277
15
20
16
20
18
26
15
25
66
86
To Bottom
To Bottom
76
76
63
82
                                     Silt, clay, ooze


                                     Silt, clay, ooze, sand


                                     Sand


                                     Silt, ooze
                                     Rock, gravel


                                     Silt, clay, gravel


                                     Soft "brown clay, sand


                                     Silt, clay




                                     Silt, ooze


                                     Rock


                                     Clay, rock, gravel


                                     Silt, clay, ooze

-------
Table 50.  BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS(cent'd)
          Lake Huron Deepwater - 1965
Station
Northern
H536

H*l 20

H>*22

Ek2h

Jl4 ^D

TT li Oft

T-fli "5O

H370

H372

H37^

H376

H378

H380

Date
Depth
Feet
Lake Huron (cont
6-22
8-29
6-20
8-27
6 -2k
8-27
6-2h
8-30
6-22
8-30
6-22
8-30
6-22
8-29
6-20
8-26
6-19
8-26
6-19
8-26
6-19
8-26
6-19
8-26
6-19
8-23
73
92
106
99
287
310
479
396
211
218
182
188
106
76
66
73
109
102
5^5
578
627
700
317
300
238
257
Secchi
Disc
Feet
'd)
13
13
16
28
21
26
21
26
15
26
12
21
Ik
25
16 To
30
28
31
33
la
25
35
20
38
20
31
Euphotic
Zone
Depth
Feet

66
5^
86
79
89 '
7^
76
99
76
109
56
76
50
-
Bottom
66
76
82
102
99
99
99
86
82
86
99
                                     Bottom Types
                                     Silt, rock
                                     Silt, clay, ooze


                                     Silt, ooze


                                     Silt, ooze


                                     Silt, sand, gravel
                                     Clay, sand, rock,
                                       gravel

                                     Sand
                                     Bock


                                     Silt, ooze


                                     Silt, hard clay


                                     Silt, clay, ooze


                                     Silt
                      275

-------
Table 50,  BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS (cont'd)
               Huron Deepwater - 1965
Euphotic
Secchi Zone
Station
northern
H320
H321
H322
H324
H326
H328
H330
Mouth of
H200
H202
Date
Depth
Feet
Lake Huron (cont
6-15
8-21
11-11
11-18
11-11
11-18
6-15
8-22
11-11
11-18
6-15
8-22
6-15
8-22
6-15
8-22
6-16
8-25
Saginaw
6-14
8-21
11-16
11-23
6-14
8-21
11-16
11-22
175
175
-
221
224
248
280
545
548
185
191
59
66
Bay
66
66
63
86
82
79
86
Disc
Feet
•d)
21
31
20
17
• 20
21
26
31
21
16
26
4l
30
46
21
31
20
23
17
17
20
17
18
17
20
18
Depth
Feet Bottom Types
82 Silt, sand
82
73
73
73
79
86 Silt, clay, sand
82
79
73
86 Silt, clay
132
92 Silt, soft brown clay
132
82 Silt, clay, sand
To Bottom Sand, rock, gravel
To Bottom
To Bottom Silt, sand
To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom
76 Silt, sand
To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom
                      276

-------
TABLE 50.  BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS (cont'd)
           Lake Huron Deepvater -
Euphotic
Secchi Zone
Station
Mouth of
E20k
H206
Southern
H250
H252
H25U
H130
H132
H133
H134
Date
Saginaw
6-14
8-21
11-16
11-22
6-14
8-21
11-16
11-22
Depth
Feet
Bay (cont
106
102
82
66
63
63
63
Disc
Feet
M)
18
23
21
17
18
17
17
20
Depth
Feet Bottom Types
63 Silt, sand
76
To Bottom
86
63 Silt, sand, gravel
To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom
Lake Huron
11-11
11-18
11-11
11-18
ll-ll
11-18
6-11
8-20
11-19
6-11
8-20
11-10 •
11-19
6-11
6-10
8-20
11-10
11-21
..
-
_
201
191
182
204
280
206
221
12
7
21
25
22
28
15
28
ko
26
20
23
18
33
20
10
To Bottom
99
89
79 Silt, clay
99
73 Silt, hard clay, sand
99
82
66 Silt
66 Silt, clay, sand
82
56
                      277

-------
Station   Date
        Table 50.   BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYSICAL .OBSEKVATIONS (cont'd)
                  Lake Huron Deep-water - 19°5
                           Euphotic
                 Secchi    Zone
        Depth    Disc      Depth
        Feet     Feet      Feet     Bottom Types
Southern Lake Huron (cont'd)
  HI 36
  KL02
  KL06
 6-10
 8-20
11-10
11-20

 6-10
 8-19
11-9
11-21

 6-10
 8-19
11-9
11-21
33
31
36
38

36

36
37

53
12
12
 2
 1

25
23
16
13

25
20
15
11
To Bottom   Rock

    7
To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom

To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom
Sand, rock, gravel
Silt, sand, rock, gravel
                               278

-------
Table 51.
 BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS
Lake Huron Nearshore -


Station
Mean
Depth
Feet
Mean Euphotic
Secchi Zone
Disc
Feet
Depth
Feet


Bottom Types
Straits of Mackinac
H500
Cheboygan
H523
E52k
H525
Rogers City
H^OO
HfcOl
H^02
E&03
Ekok
Thunder Bay
H361,
H362
H366
Harrisville
H351
H352
H353
Oscoda
H301
H303
H30^
66

13
23
10

37
9
28
27
25

23
13
18

20
31
21

20
15
1^
20

10
10
10

27
9
2k
10
9

7
11
7

13
15
15

3
3
k
-

To Bottom
-
To Bottom

To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom

To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom

To Bottom
To Bottom
To Bottom

_
-
_
Clay, rock

Silt, clay,
Silt, clay,
Silt, clay,

Clay, rock
Fine sand
Clay, sand
Silt, clay,
Fine sand

Ooze, sand,
Silt , sand
Silt , sand

Sand
Silt, sand
Rock

. Sand
Sand
Sand


sand, gravel
sand, detritus
sand, gravel




gravel


paper fibers










          279

-------
            TalDle 51.   BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS (cont'd)
                      Lake Huron Nearshore - 1965
 Station

 Harbor Beach

   ST-1*
   ST-2**
   KL21
   EL23
   KL25
   EL27

 Fort Sanilac

   KLL2
   HU3
   HL15
         Mean
Mean     Secchi
Depth    Disc
Feet     Feet
  5        3
  8        3
 25       13
 40       17
 k3       17
 33       1^
 18       Ik   To Bottom
 k6       15   To Bottom
 18       13   To Bottom
Euphotic
Zone
Depth
Feet     Bottom Types
         Silt, ooze, sand
         Silt, ooze
         Rock, gravel
         Rock, gravel
         Sand, rock, gravel
         Silt, clay, rock
         Sand, rock, gravel
         Sand, rock, gravel
         Silt, sand, rock
 *ST-1 500 feet south of Coast Guard Station
**ST-2 2000 feet south of Coast Guard Station
                                  280

-------
-p
(U
o 
-------
FIGURE 14

-------
                                                                                              FIGURE
8,000
7.OOO
           16.0
           14.0
Q.

O
6,000      12.0

        n


        V.

         o«
S,OOO    g IO.O



         o
         I


4,000   j  8.0

        >-

        I
        0-


3,000   cc  6.0
2,000       4.0
I ,000       2.0
MEAN PHYTOPLANKTON POPULATIONS
AND SURFACE CHLOROPHYL L - a

LEGEND c „
D Plankton ^ m
£2 Chlorophyll = »
O
« .£
J< 0>
O 0
_ _l CO
a>
1 o S § £ £
^ m * 5 5 §5
t> C I X OT S m
JE 2" 9> 4> *• CO
•*- 0 ic je o o c
0 « ° ° » 3 0.
2 «, j _J Z 3 o
JE J= 0)
to -f
o ° n ^
2 OT -1
F^ r^ ^
II m rf fl ^











^

i
!

!
1









     SURFACE
             10
            20
            30
                                                                                              FIGURE  16
       UJ
            40
       —    80

       I
       I-
       a.

            e°
            70
            80
            90
           100

c

0>
c
c
o
O
0
Z
C

r>
C

00
c
w.
O
__ o>
i» O


<


C
:>
c
o
3
I
0)
Jt
o
_J
o
z



o
o


^ <=
§
D m
s
0
4) ^
-1 co
1 1
1 1
V
Jtf
0
LEGEND
i
O
k
0
c
o




>
;> dl> Secchi Disc Extinction Depth
d> 1% Surface Light Depth
MEAN WATER TRANSPARENCIES
IN LAKE HURON-1965

-------
          TABLE 53, IDENTIFIED BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES
                    LAKE HURON AND SAGINAW BAY
Amphipoda (scud s)
  Gamma rus
  Hyallela azteca
  Pontoporeia af finis

Isopoda (aquatic sow bugs)
  Asellus
  Lirceus

Mysidacea (opposum shrimp)
  Mysis relicta

Prosobranchia (gill snails)
  Amnicola
  Bythinia
  Pleurocera
  Valvata tricarinata

Pulmonata (lung snails)
  Ferrisia
  Helisoma
  Lymnaea
  Planorbula
  Stagnicola

Hirudinea (leeches)
  Helobdella stagnalis
  Several unidentified

Oligochaeta (aquatic earthworms)
  Tubificidae (sludgeworms)
  Several unidentified

Nematoda (round worms)
  Several unidentified

Turbellaria (flatworms)
  Dugesia
  Several unidentified

Unionidae (pearl button clams)
  Lampsilis
  Several unidentified
Sphaeriidae (fingernail clams)
  Pisidium
  Sphaerium

Diptera (flies)
  Ceratopogonidae
  Tendipedidae (bloodworms)
  Tipulidae

Ephemeroptera (mayflies)
  Ephemera
  Hexagenia
 Baetidae
  Baetisca
  Caenis
  Ephemerella
  Tricorythodes
  Several unidentified
 Heptageniidae
  Stenonema
  Several unidentified

Trichoptera (caddisflies)
  Leptoceridae
  Phyrygane idae
  Psychomyiidae
    Polycentropus
    Several unidentified

Coleoptera (beetles)
  Elmidae
  Several unidentified

Hemiptera (true bugs)
  Corixidae

Bryozoa (moss animals)

Hydrozoa (Hydra)

Hydracarnia (aquatic mites)

Porifera (sponges)
                               284

-------
               TABLE 54- AVERAGE DEPTH DISTRIBUTION
                 OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES
                  LAKE HURON DEEPWATER - 1965
                  (average organisms/sq. ft.)
Depth No. of
(feet) Samples
0-49
50-99
100-149
150-199
200-249
250-299
300-4oo
> 4oo
Total
6
9
9
12
6
5
4
7
58
Composition
Fingernail
Clams
44
20
10
8
6
X
1
X
11
14$
Scuds Sludgeworms
71 33
79 4o
3^ 19
5^ 17
33 18
31 13
49 13
5 2
^5 19
58$ 24$
Others
16
7
1
1
0
0
0
0
3
4$
Total
164
146
64
80
57
*5
63
7
78
100$
X Means less than 1/sq. ft.
                              285

-------
          TABLE 55, AVERAGE BENTHIC MACROUJVERTEBRATES
                    LAKE HURON BASIN - 1965
Area

Deepwater

  North Channel

  Georgian Bay

  Northern Lake Huron

  Southern Lake Huron

  Mouth of Saginaw Bay

    Average Total

Hearshore

Saginaw Bay
No. of Samples



     8

     5

    33

     9

     8

    63

    35

    59
No/sq. ft.



  120

   lU

   62

   38

  176

   78

  153
                               286

-------








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                 EXPLANATION LIST OF DEEPWATER
                      pmrropLAMTON GENERA
                    LAKE HUBDN BASIN - 1965
Centric Diatoms

     a.  Cyclotella-Stephanodiscus
     "b.  Melosira
     c.  Rhizoselenia

Pennate Diatoms

     d.  Amphora
     e.  Asterionella
     f.  Fragilaria
     g.  Navicula
     h.  Nitzschia
     i.  Synedra
     j.  Tabellaria

Green Coccoids

     k.  Micractinium
     1.  Oocystis
     m.  Scenedesmus
     n.  Tetraedon
     o.  Unidentified

Blue-Green Coccoids
     p.  Coelosphaerium

Blue-Green Filamentous

     q.  Oscillatoria
     r.  Unidentified

Green Flagellates

     s.  Euglena
     t.  Trachelomonas
     u.  Unidentified

Brown Flagellates

     v.  Dinobryon
                                317

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      TABLE 6k  BIOLOGICAL DATA  - JUKE DEEFWATER CHLOROPHYLL
                     LAKE HURON  BASIN - 1965

                   (a, TD  - mg/M3, c  - MSHJ/M3*)

Station
North Channel
HSOb1
H809
H810
H812
Georgian Bay
H3S2
H384
H386 .
H388
Northern Lake Huron
H814
H530
H532
H534
H536
H420
H422
H424
H426
H428
H432
H370
H3T2
H374
H376
H378
H38o
H320
H322
H324
H326
H328
H330
Surface
a 1>

1.9 - •
2.6
2.5
2.1 0.3

1.1
1.0
0.7
1.1*

1-3
1.6
1.6
1.4
-
1.1
2.0
1.7 o-i
1.6
1.9 0.2
1.8
0.8
1.4
1.9 0.2
1.7'
2.3 0.1
2.6
3-3 0.2
2.3 0.2
4.4
2. ^ 0.1
1.7
,2.1* 0-1

c

2.8
2-5
2.1
5-^

3-1
2.2
0.4
1.7

2.7
2.3
2-5
3.3
-
3-1
2-3
2.5
0.1
1.8
-
2.1*
1.5
1.0
2.4
1.0
0.5
2.6
1.2
1.2
1-3
2.0
0-7
Near' Bottom
s. "b '
1.1
3.3
2.2
1.7
1.4
1.3
0.9
1.5
2.0
1-5
2.2
2.0 3-0
2.7
1.6
1.5
2.1 0.1
2.2 0.2
2.1
3-0 0.1
1.8 O.l
2.4
1.9
1.8 0.1
2.3
3-7
2.7
2.7 0.2
5.1 0.4
2.4 0.3*
3-1 0.3
3-5
	
2.4
7.6
0.1
2.5
3-9
0.3
1.0
«•
4.4
2.9
3.9
0.8
3-0
1.4
1.1
0.5
2.0
1.0
1.8
2.4
2.5
3-1
l.l
0.9
3.2'
1.4
1.5
3-8
1.9
2.0
2.0
*MSHJ/M   - thousandths specific pigment units per cubic meter
                                322

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      TABLE 64  BIOLOGICAL DATA - JUTTE DEEPWATER CHLOROPHYLL   (Cont'd)
                     LAKE HURON BASIN - 1965.
                    (a, b - mg/M3;, c - MSRI/M3*)
Station
                         Surface
                      a
                  Near Bottom
                  a      T?
Mouth of Saginav Bay
      H200           2.2   0.2
      H202           2.6   0.2
      H204           3.5
      H206           2.3   0.1

Southern Lake Huron
2-5
1-7
2-5
EL30
EL32
H133
H134
KL36
KL02
EL06
2.4
3-5
4.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
-
-
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.9
2.0
0.9
1.4
1-5
3-9
8.2
2.2
3.1
4.7
                                                   3-2
                                                   3.3
                                                   3-1
                                                   3-7
                                                   2-5
                                                   1.8
                                                   3-*
o.i

0.2


0.3
                        0.3
                        0.4
1.6
4.0
              1.3
              3.5
              2.7
              1.3
              1.5
              7-4
              2.5
       o
*MSFU/M   - thousandths specific pigment units per cubic meter
                                323

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TABLE 65  BIOLOGICAL DATA -  AUGUST DEEFWATEK CHLOROPHYLL
               LAKE HURON^BASIN - 1965W
             (a, b - mg/M ,  c  - MSHJ/JT  )
                                              Near Bottom
Surface
Station
North Channel
H808
H809
H8lO
H812
Georgian Bay
H382
H384
H386
H388
Northern Lake Huron
H«14
H530
H532
H534
H536
H420
H422
H424
H426
H428
H432
H370
H372
H374
H376
H378
H380
H320
H322
H324
H326
H328
H330
a

2.1
1.8
1.2
.2.3

1.2
0.7
1.4
0.8

1.2
1.6
1.5
1.1
1.3
1.2
0.8
1.3
1.0
1.8
2.5
1.4
1.1
0.6
0.7
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.0
0.9
0.7
0.9
l.l
b

_
0.2
0.2
0.3

-
0.3
_
0.4

0.4
-
-
-
0.5
0.9
0.1
-
_
_
_
_
0.3
-
0.2
0.1
-
0.2
-
0.4
-
0.2
-
c

2.1
_
0.1
-

0.6
_
0.2
0.9

_
0.9
3-9
1.2
0.2
-
2.9
3-5
2.4
2.6
1.8
1.6
1.6
1.8
0.5
0.3
3-6
0.5
1.2
0.8
1.6
0-9
1.4
                                           1.1   0.5
                                           1.5   0.3   O.T
                                           1.2   0.4   0.4
                                           1.8   0.8   2.2
                                           i.o   0.6   0.7
                                           0.8   o.i   1.3
                                           i.o   0.9
                                           1.2   0.9
                                           2.2
                                           2.1    -    2.4
                                           2.2    -    1.5
                                           1.5    -    1-5
                                           1.8   o.i   3.2
                                           1.3   0.3   i.o
                                           1.4   0.2   3-4
                                           1.2   0.2   3.2
                                           1.3   0.4   4.5
                                           1.3   0.4   2.8
                                           1.5    -    4.2
                                           1.6   0.2   3.0
                                           1.8    -    2.1
                                           0.9   0.2   2.0
                                           1.0   0.2   4.3
                                           l.l   0.4   0.6
                                           1.2    -    4.2
                                           1.2   0.2
                                           1.6   0.1   1.0
                                           1.5    -    3-0
                                           1.0    -    3-5
                                           1.8   0.1   1.5
                                           2.6    -    3-7
     - thousandths specific pigment units per  cubic meter
                           324

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     TABLE 65  BIOLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST DEEFWATEE CHLOROPHYLL (Cont'd)
                    LAKE HURON BASIN - 1965

                  (a, "b - mg/M3, c - MSFU/M3*)
                         Surface                    Near Bottom
Station               a     b      c             a       be
Mouth of Saginav Bay
      H200     '      1.7   0.4    0.2           2.4     0.5   3.5
      H202           1.7   0.4    0.8           2.3     0.2
      'H204           0.7    -      -            3-0     0.3   1.5
      H206           1.3    -     1.1           1.1     0.2   0.8

Southern Lake Huron
      HL3(3           1.2   0.4    O.k           1.6      -    0.7
      H132           0.6    -     1.4           1.6      -    1.7
      H134            -                         1.6     0.2   3^8
      KL36           1.3    -     0.9           1-1      -    2.2
      H102           0.9    -                   1.8           7-^
      mo6           i.4   o.4    o.i            -
*MSFU/M   - thousandths specific pigment units, per cubic meter
                               325

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                      WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS






     After the physical, chemical, bacteriological, and "biological




surveys of Lake Huron were completed, the data were compiled and




evaluated as to the present quality and the present and future




problems.




     In the Lake Huron deepwater areas, it was summarized that the




upper lake area had good, acceptable quality and the nearshore areas




showed varying levels of degradation.  Chemical and bacteriological




data indicated the effects from the tributaries and nearshore stations.




The pollution-sensitive forms were predominant in the deepwater area




(beyond five miles).  Closer to the shore, one-half to one mile, the




proportion of pollution-tolerant forms increased.  Transparency




measurements as high as thirty feet were characteristic of the deeper




areas, whereas the harbor areas were less transparent, some cases




being less than six feet.  The levels of several parameters were,




observed to be lower at the Straits of Mackinac than at Port Huron,




such as total soluble phosphate, chloride, ammonia nitrogen, and




nitrate nitrogen, with the Saginaw Bay area being the greatest con-




tributor.  Dissolved oxygen showed a gradual decrease, indicating •




some degradation from the nearshore areas and Saginaw Bay.




     The oxygen level was near saturation of the water flowing from




Lake Michigan and Lake Superior into Lake Huron.  The level was




also near saturation of the water flowing from Lake Huron at Port




Huron, although slightly lower.
                                327

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     Lake Superior had excellent water quality and was acceptable




for all uses.  The water from Lake Michigan had good water quality




with occasional parameters that exceeded the recommended limits.




The BOD^, total solids, ammonia nitrogen, chlorides, phenols, mag-




nesium, sulfate, hardness and conductivity parameters were all in




greater concentrations in the water flowing from Lake Michigan than




Lake Superior, although the levels are not in the range that could




be considered as water quality problems.




     Because the nearshore areas and tributaries were the areas




that caused the degradation, each area was analyzed separately.




     At the Straits of Mackinac, the three main sources of waste




were the municipal treatment plants at St. Ignace, Mackinaw City,




and Mackinac Island.  The data for these areas indicated nutrients




in concentrations that could, with adequate heat and light, create




algae growths.  The iron level at St. Ignace was above the recom-




mended safe level for aquatic life.




     Pegradation was noted at the mouth of the Cheboygan River due




to the municipal and jjutustrial wastes and caused low dissolved




oyxgen, high nutrients for potential algal growths, excess phenols,




and high total coliform counts.  These potential problems were re-




duced in the lake to minimal concentrations.  A majority of pollu-




tion-sensitive animals were also found.




     Limited data at Rogers City showed increased coliform concen-




tration down lake from the marina area, but this was diluted in




passage.  The waste treatment plant for the community was the major




waste source.





                                328

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     Water quality in the Thunder Bay River was degraded by paper




mill waste and .often appeared murky.  Pollution-tolerant organisms




were abundant.  The dissolved oxygen concentrations diminished from




the bay; 11.1 mg/1 to the mouth of the river at 7-^ mg/1.  The nu-




trient values also increased from the outer range to the mouth of




the river.  In the right combination, these nutrients, along with




adequate heat and light, can stimulate algal blooms.  The concen-




tration of total solids at the mouth was greater than the maximum




suggested value of 200 mg/1 for water.  Phenol concentrations were




the highest just below the treatment plant as was the total coliform




count.  Generally, the total and total fecal coliforms at the mouth




of the river were acceptable at time for recreational purposes.  Of




all the nearshore areas, Thunder Bay showed the most severe levels




of degradation.




     There are no known sources of municipal or industrial waste




effluent in the Harrisville area.  Possible sources of pollution




might be storm runoff or watercraft discharges to the harbor area.




A potential source exists from a submerged pipeline a mile north of




Harrisville which extends one and one half miles from shore.  Fuel



tankers anchor in the 30-35 foot deepwater, engage and raise flex-




ible end of the pipeline and pump cargo to a fuel farm located a-




shore.  The immediate harbor area contained concentrations that could




develop into problem areas, as the total and total soluble phosphates




were at levels that - if combined with an adequate amount of nitrogen




under the proper conditions - could produce algal growths.
                               329

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     The Au Sable River's main sources of waste were the domestic




waste treatment plants at Wurtsmith Air Force Base and to a lesser




degree those at Grayling and Roscommon.  Urban .runoff and ineffi-




cient individual treatment systems were minor sources.  Pollution




is evident in the elevated bacterial densities and minor dissolved




oxygen depression in the lower river and at the mouth of the river.




In addition to "bacterial problems, elevated nutrient concentrations




were evident.  Although the Au Sable River in its lower reach and




immediate harbor area were of a degraded nature, the effect was




not carried into Lake Huron.




     The Saginaw Bay area receives water from the Saginaw River




system as well as the many small tributaries that line the bay.




Nutrients are high from the Saginaw River as well as many of the




tributaries, and algal growth is possible in many of these areas




and would be aggravated by low flow.  Solids are high from most of




these areas but are settled out or diluted in the bay before reach-




ing Lake Huron.  These areas abound in pollution-tolerant bottom




dwelling organisms.  The high total coliforms present at the mouth




of the Saginaw River and various tributaries, appeared to be di-




luted in the bay to levels that are acceptable for total body con-




tact by the time the water reaches the outer bay area.




     At Harbor Beach, the municipal treatment plant and the indus-




trial treatment plant from Huron Milling Division-Hercules incorp-




orated were the only major sources of wastewater.  In 196"7> treat-




ment facility at the industry was rated as inadequate, but
                               330

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additional plans are underway for improved treatment.   The variation



observed was that higher results were obtained at the breakwater



stations.  In most cases, the phosphate levels were above desirable



concentrations, ranging to 1,9 zng/1 at the breakwater and -7 Kg/1



in the outer harbor area and could stinmalte growths of algae.



Bacterial quality was impaired in the breakwater area although the



levels were recuded in the lake to levels of minimal concentrations.




     The only possible sources of any waste material were from



stormwater runoff and watercraft discharge in the marina area, as



no sources of municipal or industrial waste were known in the Port



Sanilac area.  Values were the highest at the breakwater locations



with solids, nutirents and total coliform showing what could develop



into algal growth problems.



     With all of the available undeveloped land in ideal recreational



locations, development for this use is inevitable.



     Planned development of the area is essential to make maximum



utilization of the water resource possible without destroying the



environment.
                              331

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