UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                    Office of Air Quality  Planning  and Standards
SUBJECT:  OAQPS  Guideline  Series
                                                     DATE:
FROM:
TO:
Richard G.  Rhoads,  Director,
Control Programs Development  Division,  OAQPS

Addressees

I.   INTRODUCTION
                                                           OOOR74105
               CPDD  has received a number of questions on the OAQPS Guideline
          Series  concerning  its purpose, the kinds of documents in the series,
          distribution, and  so forth.  This memorandum attempts to answer those
          questions  and provide information in general about the Series.

          II.   PURPOSE OF THE OAQPS GUIDELINE SERIES

               OAQPS is responsible for developing regulations, standards,  and
          guidance for a wide range of topics under the Clean Air Act.  The regu-
          lations and standards are published in the Federal Register, thus
          making  them available to the public.  But guidance documents on a
          wealth  of  topics are published individually by the originating OAQPS
          Division.  To date, OAQPS has published and distributed 96 of these
          documents.  Without a centralized system of compilation, cataloging,
          and  distribution,  availability would vary from document to document.

               The OAQPS Guideline Series is an attempt to provide a system for
          compiling, cataloging, and distributing guidance documents that ori-
          ginate within OAQPS or that have been prepared with substantial  contri-
          bution from OAQPS.

          III.  INFORMATION IN THE OAQPS GUIDELINE SERIES

               The OAQPS Guideline Series contains, or is supposed to contain,
          policy and procedure manuals originating wholly or partially from within
          OAQPS.  The documents cover most of the topics with which OAQPS is con-
          cerned.  These include the following:

               --National  ambient air quality standards.
               --Air quality data and monitoring procedures.
               --Emissions data.
               --Air quality dispersion modeling.
               --Control strategy development and evaluation.
               --Air quality maintenance guidelines.
               --Review and approval  of implementation plans.
               —New source review.
EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

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     --Transportation control strategies.
     --Fuels and emissions.
     —New source performance standards.
     --Hazardous pollutants.
     --Manuals for the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS).

     Although the original concept of the Series was to include EPA
regulations (and in fact there are some regulations in the series),
CPDD does not update the Series by adding new regulations; EPA publishes
its regulations in the Federal Register; placement of the regulations
in the OAQPS Guideline Series would be unnecessarily duplicative because
of the large body of regulations that EPA has concerning OAQPS activities.

IV.  FORMAT OF OAQPS GUIDELINE SERIES

     The series is arranged in the following major categories:

     Guidelines                                      Designations,

     Manuals                                         OAQPS 1.

       Air pollution technical data publications     OAQPS 1.1

       Procedural documents                          OAQPS 1.2

     Regulations (use discontinued)                  OAQPS 2.

     Other policy and position papers                OAQPS 3.

Most of the documents in the series are procedural documents (No. 1.2).
The series has been compiled into a set of blue binder notebooks.  The
series contains an automated comprehensive keyword index ("Key Word Out
of Context" or "KWOC") to assist the user in finding documents of inter-
est.  An explanatory memo explaining the index is attached to this
memorandum.

V.   SERIES UPDATING PROCEDURES

     CPDD updates the series by adding new documents to a notebook as
the documents are published.  Documents are added to a notebook until
it is filled.  CPDD does not purge outdated or superseded documents from
the series because of their historical value.

VI.  SERIES DISTRIBUTION

     CPDD sends series binders and KWOC indexes to the following:

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     --Regional Administrators
     —Deputy Regional Administrators
     --OAQPS Division Directors
     --Regional Directors of--
        —Air and Hazardous Materials Divisions,  Region  I,  III-X
        --Environmental Programs Division, Region II
        --Surveillance and Analysis Divisions, Regions  I-X
        --Enforcement Divisions, Regions I-X
     --Regional Office Librarians
     --ERC Library
     —OAQPS Library

     In addition, CPDD sends KWOC Indexes to all  State  agencies and  inter-
ested local agencies.  OAQPS distributes to the Regional  Office recipients
90 sets of binders and 3S5 copies of each new document  in the  Series.  The
Regional Offices are responsible for further distribution of documents to
State and local air pollution control agencies and to other persons  who
request copies.  When a Regional Office's supply  of a particular  document
runs low, it is their responsibility to meke additional  copies as needed.

     CPDD generally refers persons who request copies of individual
documents to their respective Regional Office librarians.

VII. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

     CPDD is interested in obtaining your comments about  the Guideline
Series.  If you want, you can use the enclosed questionnaire.

     If you have any questions concerning the OAQPS Guideline  Series,
you can call Joseph Sableski, Chief, Plans Guidelines Section, Control
Programs Development Division, (MD 15), U.S.  Environmental  Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC  27711.  Phone:  FTS—629-5437.
Conmercial--919-688-8146, ext. 437.

Enclosure

ADDRESSEES:

Director, DSSE
Director, OTLUP
Director, OMSAPC
Director, OMSE
Director, Air and Hazardous Materials Division, Region I, III-X
Director, Environmental  Programs Division, Region  II
Director, Surveillance and Analysis  Division, Region  I-X
Director, Enforcement Division, Region I-X
Regional Office Librarians
State Agencies
Selected Local Agencies

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                      OAQPS GUIDELINE SERIES
                        —QUESTIONNAIRE—

     Circle your answer or fill  in the blank as appropriate.

DISTRIBUTION OF GUIDELINE SERIES DOCUMENTS

1.   Do you have (a few) (many)  (a complete set of) documents in the
     OAQPS Guidelines Series?

2.   Do you regularly receive new documents in the Series? 	
3.   Do you regularly file documents in the Series as you receive them?


4.   Did you ever have difficulty in obtaining additional copies of
     documents in the series? 	 If so, when did you have the diffi-
     culty and what was the nature of the difficulty?
5.   If you receive copies of documents,  do you feel  that you receive
     too many or too few copies of the documents? 	  If so,  how
     many would you prefer to receive? 	

6.   Do you think that CPDD should distribute the series documents to
     additional persons? 	 If so, to whom?
USAGE OF SERIES

1.   To your knowledge, the series is used (never)  (a few times) (often)

2.   To your knowledge, the series is used by (only one person) (a few
     people) (a lot of people).

3.   Do you yourself use it? 	
CONTENT OF SERIES

1.   Do you feel that there are documents not in the Series that should
     be?        If so, describe them.
2.  Do you feel that there are documents in the Series that should not
    be there?       If so, describe them.

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3.   Within the past year, have you consulted any but the most recent
     three OAQPS Guideline Series volumes?	
4.   If OAQPS purges superceded documents, will  this affect the use-
     fulness of the Series to you as a historical  record of policy
     development? 	
MISCELLANEOUS

1.   Does the KWOC Index help in locating documents?
     do you have any suggestions on a better method?
If not,
     In general, do you feel  that the Series is useful?
     Explain why or why not.
     If you feel  that it is useful,  do you have any suggestions  for
     it improvement.
     If you feel  that it is not useful,  do  you  think that it should
     be abolished? 	 If so,  state  your reasons and  suggest
     alternative  methods for compiling,  indexing,  and distributing
     the guidelines that OAQPS generates.
     Do you have any other comments,  suggestions,  or  complaints  about
     OAQPS publication and distribution  practices  in  general  and the
     OAQPS Guideline Series in  particular?

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Name

Title
Affiliation

Address
Telephone:  FTS 	Commercial 	

Date: 	


Send completed questionnaires to:

     Joseph Sableski
     Control Programs Development Division  (MD-15)
     Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
     Research Triangle Park, NC  27711

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SUBJECT:  Usa of the KW
   FROM:
  ;eph Sableski,  Chief
Flans  Guidelines  Suction,  SIB,  CPLiD
     TO:  Users of the OAQPS Guideline  Series

     The. Index is constructed such that EACH prominent  keyword  in  a
title is displayed in the left column  of listed titles.   This rrĞans,  as
an exanple, that a title with five prominent keywords  could  be  located
by any of the five prominent keywords  in the title.  The  keywords  will
appear alphabetically.  For example:

     "Two-Year Extensions for Achievement of Primary Standards.
     OGC. Memo. Vol.  1.  March 19, 1973. OAQPS  1.2-051"

could be located in the index by any  of the following  keywords:

     0 Two-Year
     0 Extension
     0 Achievement
     0 Primary
     0 OGC

     A ''kill-list" is included in the index.  The "kill-list"  is  composed
of common words that have been "killed" (or omitted) so that they  will  not
appear as keywords.  For example, the word "Standards"  in the  above  men-
tioned title 1s "killed" and would not be found in the index as  a  keyword.

     In former editions of the KWOC Index, there has been a  computer
identification number on the right hand side of each page.   That  number has
now been replaced witn the OAQPS Number to aid in the  ordering  of  documents.
In some cases, the document indexed might be a revision of an  earlier docu-
ment.  In that case, an "R" would follow immediately after the  number;  for
example, "OAQPS 1.2-017R".  The following are  other symbols  and  their
meanings:

     F  - Final
     Rl - First revision
     R2 - Second revision
     S  - Supercesslon

     Copies of the documents in the Guideline Series  are available from the
Regional Office Librarians, of which a list 1s enclosed.   Basic  distribution
of the OAQPS documents Is to the Regional Libraries for the  use  of the State
and local agencies.  When ordering from the Regional Office, please  use the
OAQPS Number to help in facilitating your request.

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                                  VOLUME  I

  01/72-C3-19   TWO-YEAR  EXTENSIONS FOR  ACHIEVEMENT OF PRIMARY.STANDARDS.
                   OGC.  3/19/73.   MEMO.

  01/72-07-10   EPA ACTION  ON  SIP FUEL  AVAILABILITY ISSUE*   DIRECTOR SSPCP-*
                   7/10/72.   MEMO.

  01/72-08-21   L0Ğ SULFUR  FUEL REQUIREMENT  AMD AVAILABILITY.
                   DIRECTOR  SSPCP.  8/21/72*   MEMO*
  01/72-10-00   TERMINAL  USERS MANUAL  (DRAFT).  (SAROAD).  HDAD.   10/72.
                   H A N U A L <.

| 01/72-11-21   LO* SULFUR  COAL SHORTAGES  AND  COMPLIANCE SCHEDULES.
                   DIRECTOR  OAQPS.  U/21/72.   MEMO.

  01/72-12-27   PROCEDURES  FOR USING EPA/OMB  APPROVED • QUEST I ONrjA IRE
                   (OMB NO.  158-R75)  TO ACQUIRE  DATA FROM INDIVIDUAL  SOURCES.
                   MDAD.   12/27/72.   MEMO.

  01/73-CU-3Q   CRITERIA  FOR  REVIEW  OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL  MEASURES.
                   SASD.   1/30/73.  OAQPS 1.2-Q01,

  01/73-01-35   FINAL REPORT  SULFUR  OXIDE  CONTROL  TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT
                   PANEL (SOCTAP)  ON  PROJECTED UTILIZATION OF STACK GAS
                   CLEANING  SYSTEMS  DY STEAM-ELECTRIC PLANTS.   APTD-1569.
•                  H/lb/73.  REPORT.                              —
•
•
   01/73-02-23A  NED5/5AROAD ( SCHF^LE  FOR  SEMIANNUAL PROGRESS  REPORTING)*
                   HDAD.   2/23/73Ğ.,  -1EMO.
   01/73-02-238  REVIEW  SCHEDULE WITH MILESTONES FOR TRANSPORTATION CONTROL
M                 PLANS.   SASD.  2/23/73.   MEMO.

*Ol/73-02-35   SOME  ASPECTS OF EMISSION  CONTROL IN THE  BY-PRODUCT COKE
                   INDUSTRY.   ESE^-  2/7/73.   MANUAL,

• 01/73-03-12A  GUIDANCE  FOR.WRITING OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL PLANS.  SASD.
                   3/12/73.   OAQPS NO,  1.2-002.

| 01/73-C3-12B  CHECKLIST  FOR  rV-yUATlON  OF  TRANSPORTATION  PLANS.   SASDe'
                   3/12/73.   Cv-.^Pv. ..'0.  1.2-003.

• 01/73-03-19   EPA SOURCE  PROMULGATION:   RECQROKEEpING  AND  REPORTING:
m                 PUBLIC  AVAILABILITY  OF  DATA.   CPDD.  3/21/73.
                   OAQPS NO.  1,2-004.

• 01/73-03-21   RECOMMENDED  ^, \ .C;LH TO PROMULGATION OF  EPA  TRANSPORTATION
                   CONTROL fwA"  • ' rASD.   3/19/73.   MEMO.

I
                             Environmental Protection Agency
•                           Region V, Library
                             230 South Dsarbcrn Street
                             Chicago, Illinois  6060Ğt

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PROTECTION

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01/73-03-28A  FORMAT  FOR  THE  REVlE.V  ANQ  EVALUATION OF TRANSPORTATION
                CONTROL PLANS.   SA3D,  3/28/73.   MEMO.

01/73-03-28B  TRANSPORTATION  CONTROL  MEETING  (MINUTES!  CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS,
                3-20-73).   SASD.   3/28/73.   MEMO.

OI/73-C3-28C  GUIDELINES  FOR  WAIVERS  OF  EMISSION  TESTING IN FACILITIES
                INVOLVING BERYLLIUM*   ESED.   3/28/73.
01/73-03-28D  GUIDELINES FOR WAIVERS  OF  EMISSION  TESTING  IN  FACILITIES
                -INVOLVING MERCURY.  ESED.   3/28/73.   MANUAL.

01/73-03-28E  GUIDELINES FOR WAIVERS  OF  COMPLIANCE  WITH EMISSION STANDARDS
                FCR BERYLLIUM.  ESED.  3/28/73,   MANUAL.

01/73-03-28F  GUIDELINES FOR WAIVERS  OF  COMPLIANCE  WITH EhlSslQN STANDARDS
                FOR MERCURY.  ESED.   3/28/73.  MANUAL.

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  DATE:


SUBJECT:




  FROM:
            UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

August 29,  1977

Additions to the Office of Air Quality Planning
and Standards Guideline Series

Darryl D. Tyler, ChieffV/£
Standards Implementatiorr Bran
    T0: See Below
             Enclosed is Volume XIV of the Office of Air Quality Planning
        and Standards Guideline Series.  An updated keyword index is also
        enclosed.'  Any previous versions of this index should be discarded
        since they do not encompass these latest titles.

             For any further information, contact Ms. Patrice Mansfield,
        Plans Guidelines Section, SIB, CPDD, Room 500 Mutual (MD 15),
        Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711, telephone (FTS)   .
        629-5437.

        Enclosures

        Addressees:

           Regional Administrator - Regions I-X
           Deputy Regional Administrator - Regions I-X
           Director, Surveillance & Analysis Division - Regions I-X
           Director, Air & Hazardous Materials Division - Regions I, III-*
           Director, Environmental Programs Division - Regior, II
           Director, Enforcement Division - Regions I-X
           Librarian, Regions I-X
EPA For,,, 1320 6 fRrv 3 76>

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                     UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
   SUBJECT-Additions to the Office of Air Quality Planning        DATK: j 5 APR 1977
            end  Standards Guideline Series         i

   FROM:    Darryl  D. Tyler, Chief tVc.;' ?y.,-C- $' /\.''^
            Standards Implementation Bran^fi, CPDD   /

   '10:      See  Below


                 Enclosed is Volume XIII of the Office of Air Quality Planning
            and  Standards Guideline Series.  An updated keyword index is also
            enclosed.   Any previous versions of this index should be discarded
            since they  do not encompass these  latest titles.

                 For  any further  information,  contact Ms. Patrice Mansfield,
            Plsns Guidelines Section, SIB, CPDD, Room 500 Mutual (MD 15),
            Research  Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711, telephone (FTS)
            629-5437.

            Enclosures

            Addressees:
              Regional  Office Administrators - Regions I-X
              Deputy  Regional Administrators - Regions I-X
              Director, Surveillance & Analysis Division - Regions I-X
              Director, Air & Hazardous  Materials  Division - Regions I-X
              Director, Enforcement Division - Regions I-X
              Librarians, Regions I-X
                                                                                              ğ'Ğ
                                                                                              c
    EPA F^rrt, 1 320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SUBJECT: Additions  to the Office of Air Quality Planning       DATE- o i  ncp
         and Standards Guideline Series                             • <5 i  utu
                D.  Tyler, Chief
         Standards  Implementation Bfc&nch5  CPDD

         See Below
              Enclosed is  Volume XII of the Office  of Air  Quality  Planning
         and Standards Guideline Series.  An updated keyword index is  also
         enclosed.   Any previous versions  of this  index should  be  discarded
         since they do not encompass these latest  titles.

              For any further information, contact  Ms.  Patrice  Mansfield,
         Plans Guidelines  Section, SIB, CPDDğ Room  500 Mutual  (MD  15),
         Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, telephone  (FTS)
         629-5437.

         Enclosures

         Addressees:
           Regional Office Administrators  - Regions I-X
           rinnn+-iğ p^mnna'i flrimiriisf.rat.nrs  - Kecriufib I-X
           Director,'Surveillance & Analysis Division - Regions i-X
           Director,  Air & Hazardous Materials Division -  Regions  I-X
           Director,  Enforcement Division  - Regions I-X
           Librarians, Regions I-X
EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

     v .  —

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SUBJECT:  Additions to the Office of Air Quality Planning
          and Sta/rflards Guidelirie Series
                                                     DATE:   JUL 2 9 1976
FROM:
TO:
                , Chief
          tigrams Operations Branch
>ee Below
               Enclosed is Volume XI of the Office of Air Quality Planning
          and Standards Guideline Series.   An updated keyword index is
          also enclosed.  Any previous versions  of this index should be
          discarded since they do not encompass  these latest titles.

               For any further information, contact Ms. Mary Whaley,  Control
          Programs Development Division,  Room 517 Mutual  (MD 15), Research
          Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711,  telephone (FTS)  629-5287.

               After August 15 please contact Ms.  Patrice Mansfield of the
          same address but on telephone 629-5437.

          Enclosures
Addressees:
Regional Office Administrators - Regions I-X
Deputy Regional Administrators - Regions I-X
Director, Surveillance & Analysis Division -
Director, Air & Hazardous Materials  Division
Director, Enforcement Division - Regions I-X
Librarians, Regions I-X
                                                       Regions  I-X
                                                       -  Regions  I-X
EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMEr .7\L PROTECTION AGENCY
                    Research Triangle  Park,  forth  Carolina  27711

SUHJH-T: Additions to the Office of Air Qualii;  Planning         HATK:  fl\f\R 1 '  ^ ^
        and Standards Guideline Series
           -—v/ /
I'W)M    Normin/tr-ybjjofetr, Chief
        Con/ro[V-1)f6grams Operations  Branch

'l()-     Addressees

              Enclosed are Volumes IX and X of the  Office  of Air Quality
        Planning and Standards Guideline Series.   An  updated keyword index is
        also  enclosed.  Any previous versions of  this index should be  dis-
        carded, since they do not encompass  these  latest  titles.

              For any further information, contact  Ms.  Mary  Whaley, Control
        Programs Development Division, Room  517 Mutual  (MD  15), Research
        Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711, telephone  (FTS)  629-5287.

        Enclosures

        Addressees:
        Regional Office Administrators - Regions  1-X
        Deputy Regional Administrators - Regions  I-X
        Director, Surveillance & Analysis Division -  Regions I-X
        Director, Air & Hazardous Materials  Division  - Regions I-X
        Director, Enforcement Division - Regions  I-X
        Librarians- Regions I-X
I:PA form ; 170.A w-v. 6 7?)

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
SUBJECT: Office of Air Quality Planning and
         Standards Guideline Series
FROM:
TO:
                                                      DATE: August 20, 1975
         _       Chief
         rograms Operations Branch
See Below
              On several  occasions,  including  the  recent  Regional Workshop,
         individuals in Regional  Offices  have  made inquiries  as  to  the  avail-
         ability of OAQPS Guideline  documents.   The Series  presently  consists
         of 66 specific guidelines  and informative documents  bound  into 5
         volumes.   Two more volumes  will  be  distributed within the  next few
         weeks.  Each mailing, generally  quarterly but determined by  the
         development of new guidelines, includes an updated keyword index  to
         the entire set of documents.

              Distribution is designed to assure accessibility to the documents
         by all Regional  Office personnel.   Sets of the Guideline Series have been
         provided to each Regional Administrator,  Deputy  Administrator,  Air and
         Hazardous Materials Division  Director,  Enforcement Division  Director,
         Surveillance and Analysis  Division  Director and  EPA  Regional Library.
         Extra copies are sent to Regional Libraries to meet  requests for  in-
         dividual  items in the Series.  Anyone desiring access to the Series
         for reference or for personal  copies  should use  the  sets at  these lo-
         cations or obtain copies from the Regional  Library.

              For any further information, contact Whitmel  M. Joyner, Mail Drop
         15, Control Programs Operations  Branch, Research Triangle  Park, N. C.,
         27711.  Telephone (FTS)  919-688-8287.   Your interest in the  OAQPS
         Guideline Series is appreciated.

         Addressees:
         Air and Hazardous Materials Division  Director, Regions  I-X
         Enforcement Division Director, Regions  I-X
         Surveillance and Analysis  Division  Director, Regions I-X
         Librarian, Regions I-X
EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711

SUBJECT-. Additions to the Office of Air Quality Planning   '     DATE:  J(jfl 6   $75
        and Standards Guideline Series
FROM-.   NonM&tkR^CSIjfee, Chief
                  og"ratr!s Operations Branch, CPDD

T0:     Addressees

             Enclosed are the completion of Volume IV and the whole
        of Volume V of the Office Of Air Quality Planning and Standards
        Guideline Series.  An updated keyword index is also enclosed.
        Any previous versions of this index should be discarded,  since
        they do not encompass these latest titles.

             For any further information, contact Whitmel M. Joyner.
        Control Programs Development Division, Room 517 Mutual, Research
        Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, telephone 919/688-8287.

        Enclosures

        Addressees:

        Regional Office Administrators - Regions I-X
        Deputy Regional Administrators - Regions I-X
        Director, Surveillance & Analysis Division - Regions I-X
        Director, Air & Hazardous Materials Division - Regions I-X
        Director, Enforcement Division - Regions I-X
        Librarians - Regions I-X
EPA Form 132'J

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                     Research Triangle Park,  North Carolina  27711

suBjECTiQAQPS Guideline Series                                 DATE-.
FROM-.   Nonfian'Jx'Bunfee, Chief
             el Programs Operations Branch,  CPDD
TO-.     Librarians - Regions I-X

             Binders for the Office of Air Quality Planning  and  Standards
        Guideline Series are enclosed, to be used with the four  volumes  of
        Guideline documents recently sent to your library.   Sufficient supply
        of the volume binders has been obtained to assure that future
        additions to the Series will  be in identical  bindings for  quick
        reference and ease of use.

I             As with previous Guideline mailings, all  additions  to the Series
        will include an updated Table of Contents and Keyword Index covering
        all the documents up to that point.
             Distribution of the Keyword Index to STAPPA  and ALAPCO  officials
        and other interested parties has generated increasing interest  in  the
        Guideline Series.  Many EPA offices have received requests  for  certain
        documents in the Series.  To help the EPA libraries  meet  these  requests,
        distribution of future Guideline volumes will  include 50  copies of
        each document for every Regional  library.      •—-—	

             Inquiries and comments on the Guideline Series  should  be directed
        to:

                             Whitmel M.  Joyner
                             Project Officer
                             Control Programs Development Division
                             Room 517 Mutual Plaza
                             Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711

        Enclosures

        cc:  Regional Administrators I-X
             Deputy Regional Administrators I-X
             Director, Surveillance & Analysis Division I-X
             Director, Air & Hazardous Materials Division I-X
             Director, Enforcement Division I-X
EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
    SUBJECT: office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
             Guideline Series
                                                               DATE: November 13, 1974
FROM:
TO:
         Morn
                          Operations  Branch
EPA Librarian
Regions I-X

     Enclosed you will  find a set of the Guideline Series  of
reference and information documents issued by the Division of
the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.   The  Series
         index,  collated  with  Volume  I.
         ing,  alphabetized  by  all major
         titles.   We  hope you  will  find
         sets  of the  Series  also  reside
         Deputy  Regional  Administrator^
         Enforcement  Division,' and  Air
                               is a keyword comprehensive list-
                               subjects  mentioned in the various
                               these documents  useful.   Complete^
                               with each Regional  Administrator/
                               Surveillance and Analysis Division
                              and Water  Division.  '"
              Loose  leaf  binders  for  the Series volumes are temporarily
         out  of  stock.  As  soon as  available, one for each volume will be
         sent to you.

              Whenever  new  publications are  included, you will receive
         copies, along  with  an updated comprehensive index and table of
         contents.   Appearance of new documents is intermittent, so new
         components  to  the  Series will be sent to you as they appear rather
         than on a rigid  timetable.

              If you have any Questions please give me a call at the Research
         Triangle Park, N.  C. (919-549-2751).

         Enclosure
EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                     Research  Triangle  Park,  North Carolina   27711

SUBJECT: office  of Air Quality Planning and                     DATE:NOV 7   1974
         Standards Guideline Series

FROM:    NonnaR--Wfleev'ten"ief
         Control  PVqgrajBS-^Jperations  Branch
 T0:      See  below
              On  June  7,  1974, you  were  sent  the  first  three  volumes  of  the
         OAQPS Guideline  Series.  The  fourth  volume  of  the  Series  has been
         prepared, with several new titles  now available, and we are  pleased
         to  enclose  copies.   Included  with  the new volume are an updated
         comprehensive index  and  new tables of contents to  replace the previous
         ones.

              Originally  we planned to distribute additions to  the Guideline
         Series at regular intervals,  but appearance of new documents has
         been  rather intermittent.   It seems  more effective,  then, to furnish
         new components to the Series  as they appear rather than on a rigid
         timetable.

              A set  of the Guideline Series has been sent to  each  Region's
         EPA Library.  An index of  the documents  has been sent  to  STAPPA and
         ALAPCO officers  for  their  information and interest.  Should  these
         officials request specific titles  from the  Regional  Offfice, we
         assume such requests will  be  honored.

         Enclosure

         Addressees:
         Surveillance  and Analysis  Division,  Regs. I-X
         Enforcement Division, Regs. I-X
         Lester Sutton, Region I
         Conrad Simon, Region II
         Gordon Rapier, Region III
         G.  T.  Helms,  Region  IV
         Robert Schneider, Region V
         Richard  Hill, Region VI
         Carl  Blomgren, "Region VII
         Charles  Murray,  Jr., Region VIII
         Frank Covington, Region  IX
         Robert Burd,  Region  X
         cc: EPA  Library, Regs. I-X
EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

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j
                  '      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTl.:>  '••.•,' AGENCY
                                ğv ;ĞHi;iGTON, D >.-  ,'->>o
                             OFF i''i: • !•  GrNEHA!  •  OU^SFL
                                          '                   *
        'Ğ:  March 19,  1972
           'Robert L°.  BauiTi  .                                        •       "
           Associate  General Cou*,i,!. j
          "'Air  Quality and Uadj.it,-ion  Division          •  •        °
    Subject:  Two-Year Extonx-;it : '   . .-  AchievciTiunL .    •.-.  - }•;••• 1'.H-  :>oi!.c  guidance
           in  re- !(••;.                 '"'-',      •   .  i.i  in.  pursuant  to
           §110 (Ğ .                        '             i. iiitonded to  be and
           cansiot. I--  i  • •-.-,      •       .  :i .           /'!;)fh  such appli-
           cation1:  i ;   ' .-  ,,  . ,        ,>,..> ,J  i '           .-.^ ions presented
           will xoui. ; i •  ','            ;!' , r  ,;  .,    ,  ,    j,,,,  , ments.   How-
           ev-'',  tl  •    "  ;    •  ;•  .  .   ai. 1 -• .  •      .    tort:}; more clearly
           th   l.iv, '    •  -  :.                v  ••        ,  ' ;i"  iyp'.1 of  infor-
           ma*  .,/,'i li.v.t  •  •;             - -^ • i ..  •  o<  ;•  ;..•  ".at'.tiy those re-
           qu :i r eine r- i ;..
 4
               2.    It shoula ii;ys.  ;. c noted  tha*   ,n •  .,,...ci sion of the  Court
               of Appeals for thu .'.  s\.i-ict of CoJu; ib-i..- Circuit in NRDC v.
               EPA,  Case No.  72-152^  i.Joiiuary 31,   i&73),  holds that  a  plan
               as adopted must coritciu: measures v.hich,  if ''mplemented,  would
               achieve tne  ;3tanda;i c-,.-.  \>\  May  31, Hr/5>.   The provisions  must
               be adopLf.j .--xn 'r  .-,  •    ,- St.a-*;- ,.'• .-.-   • -I believe they  can be
               put  into ..--. i,...  , i       :  . .;.ii.c.    -;.:-, ;u..y pc-sc^  SC.UM difficult
               problenu-. ., ii';  -, .;  •       -..?opt in.j r egu.k: tio';s  waon the  effective
               date i:. .  ;                  Ar.':,i'. i.i .<.,t   ; i.ci ss ai-iion in guJd; i •:  • '.  j -- h :t proviso fiat the
               effect   •                 . . •;. i.^'.-j i j  eu  .1 a the  regulation unless
               an e.xi.        -         •   •_,  t'if / ...-I  r,i-'. Lie. t or  of EPA,  in v;hich
               case i'"- '.-;;    t •          . /u],_;  j t  t;.,: j.alt'V date specified in the
               ext ^riK   ••   -.   Ğ   , ^  '.      .'nJs  woviiu  ^ci.,iiL the  regulation to
               be c;do,,;  ,: ,            •   . .4; ing o;' tu,y  tlci:ion on the extension
                     ,
               3.    c:,." .     •       .       t i; -   ,-<>,,  jij:.' r::^t:..;  ifto two-year ex
                    ioir    '•'!.•           .   .,._;,          -..,. (  b(-  met for

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                        .ĞA^J. ,' ,.f '. y.;_ Uğ.V'. 4 . tT ... _;•.'„ğ,.. * . ..- ...-i.ğ.ğ. •;'.,-.-.• 'j ' .•..^4.T._. • lit ğ'
1   "                 '               '                    '
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              extension to be granted is  that one or mor£ emission sources
              or classes of moving sources  are unable to comply with the    •
         '     plan because the technology or other alternatives are not     |
             *availablge or will not be available in time to permit compl'i-'
          '  ^ ance.  This language is relatively clear.   The request must   -
              demonstrate that a source or  a group of sources cannot meet   I
              the emission limitation needed to reach the primary standard
              within the three years because of the absence of technology.
            r For example, in the case of power plants,  if scrubbers can-   I
              not be produced and installed within the three-year period,   B
   - '         this portion of the requirement would be satisfied.  In ad-
             'dition,  the.request must show that other alternative means    •
              of control for these sources  are not available.  Again, in    I
              the ease of power plants, the request should show that the
            ,  alternative of using low sulfur fuel, which would permit the  •
              emission limitation to^be met without the use of the scrubbers |
              cannot be required because  of the inability of the source to
              acquire the fuel.  The request by the State should set forth  Ğ
              with some specificity the basis for its conclusion that tech- I
              nology is not or will not be  available and that either there
              are no alternatives, or as  in the case of the low sulfur fuel _
O              possibility, the basis for  their determination that the possi-B
              ble Alternative is not feasible.            -                 - •

              4.   In connection with this  requirement,  you should be aware I
              of a quote in the legislative history of this section.  In a  •
              discussion of key provisions  of the Clean Air Act* inserted
              in'the Congressional Record (December 18,  1970, page S. 20600) •
              the following statement appears:                              |
                   i
                        "If, at the time  of plan approval,, it appears       M
                        impossible to bring specific sources into com-      •
                        plian-ce within three years, the Governor of the
                   i     State may request an extension of the deadline      _
                   I     up to two years.   The Administrator* must be       . •
                        satisfied that alternate means of achieving the     ™
                        standard have been  considered (including closing
                        down the source in  question), that all reasonable   'I
                        interim measures  will- be applied and that the       •
                        State is justified  in seeking the-extension."
                        [emphasis supplied]                                 •
                 -  ' '                     •  .          .                       • I
              The underlined phrase, which  does'not appear in the law or
              anywhere else in the legislative history/  would require that
              the State include some explanation of why  it^has not chosen
 I
                                                                             I

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to meet the or.tina.y  standard
or curtail.ir.M t VM    <:>! M-ir.;.
strict  intcrp1- -i    •   . i  t   -
whole concc ut .- .         • -.
is obv.i ••>;..• •  .
certain SOL' :
period „  A'... . j  .
to-requ-^/  • i •  .   •      •  ji-s
the iv..i, i    ; •
native  .if t • -••           flu. f :
source  mamr  -•  i   •  ; .  ., e i <-:. •  .'.
product,  -a ,-Jtij . i  ...  .;iny miqh
the.source should  -a tact be  c.
tension granted
                :  years  by closing  down
               ,--i.xirco  in question.   A
            ,, i ; ..;;,-,. rit  might render  the
              .;-. ,.:; null and void.   It
                 i  .nsion is to allow
           f-f .-r<.ğ },>•; beyond the three-year
           •f - t .f* j or, raicht allow a State
           P -;er plont on the basis that
           tl:  t*,,!-  it  rejected the  alter-
           i    -Ic1 uvei ,  :, f the particular
           •:•:.-•  ...;  some other "non-essential"
           . .-. .'i ; o Uie  conclusion  that
           w.-jfu'i down and no .two-year ex-
5f    Because of  tj,-
results iru;t ,.;  •-'•.,. ;  r.;\td.tro  -•ğ"
ment  in ihf 1 ;.••;-: .   > •  n, •  t  ;y •
what  io nr-'n i ., •  ii .    i   ^K-  --^.^
t:-l ia-i.jr  i ;   i •  . -         i ;    -.. !
•-•ver  ,.'"••
wil j  br
.ither odd  a-~ğd,.  v,'e believe,  unintended
discus- i-
close  <..ğ=;
the  pj jii: i
                   rather casual state-
                    ^u-;e,  we believe  that
                     i1,  fact come into com-
                    -i;.  ,  -Jie extension may
                   .. ;  h  :-,\  §110 (e) are
                    t: .t ; .  a source cannot
                    • *• • -->r  ",-he):e a source
                   <  :,;  the two year  ex-
                   ncofssity for a State
                    ' ;  ultimately have to
                     ; <;j  the meeting  of
                    :;i;;v.j! of* taking the
6 ,    Tic  ot  . '.
State hj > ;• ;
avai lut  '  .  '
just if A t_,: i   .  ,
There La-.:, h <.."-,•;.
Of  this  re-qi!.i r
Again, the .u^,,
refers to ,,(ğ,
the ext en.sKX".
first con die io;
sources  ca;. ğof
circun<~, t."* r. •  ". ,
troj
     '     •••"-  tK  '  i itine is that  the
 >•••• iii i  I ic i  ar, . .   "  of  i is plan reasonably
  ',- n<:'.  •: f -it r  j-. . '  „  t'/t; standard  and has
    1- :• :.'i;.'ifn '.  ' dc:;e in three  years.
 • f i!^ i <-•;. c'.>i;C( : u nq  the 'i elationship
 ğd the  iirst j tu/.t iremont- discussed above.
 ;>f alternativr-s in  the first requirement
 means  of control  of the. source for which
 it.  The second requirement assumes the
 •en met, i^e^ the  source or group of
  comply with the  requirement under any
 •i is thc case, under the second  re-
 '. iraph   t.pc  St nc  must:  then determine
  •.r  ho met  by applying a different con-
 ;.-rt!rj'\.  . ,j  fhi-  ''t r .' .'•-•irnc y of the liinita-
• t :•(,-•
                                                  he
                                      Again,

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 o
<,
on parking, or ^/.^ • • nt.-, "...
t
7 , ' Pr • ', •
extrj. , !
a, >p ' •
;• , \
<.-
••• " I
^ * \ -
ii .;u,j!',!
appii'-c.' '
S-,on , ,
8, -I;.
t '-atv -
Oi li/v.
app1 i - ; :
Kic-lrl a. !. i •
to, Ği •
will ha ,i; !
SO that: t. • > , • ,.
possible c-.-v. , : -•, . . t. n.
ard. Again,, i . • <•; of. |-
control xneas, i - .. • .. •••! ;. am >:••.'
control equ i , , , - - ij\st--J. ;
the thr <.-•>• / - T:. ;
needf.d -. ,
that c\, .
d< L i
9.
t<> &.'.-! •- ! i
wheti.fi
s i on :•
dcrt;Cj;: '
ing -.).
e:> ' ':'] •

.

ğ
: addressed separ-
.: .,ving that the
., sought cannot
• • * ''•;-• t assuming Ğ
!o cM.er regulatory
i or example, the
, ontrol strategy
: Bailable by 1975 and
//i.en it could utilize
r",;eras, restrictions
a n s i t .
r
1 , - IT ay grant an
,1- provides for
' .:, 1 1 emission
-• --'I: the
..; nor dif fi-
r-nitain some
,.tion is
the plan
• •••<-.- applied as
• -:.' ,
• '. .t the Adminis-
s of control
st'-'tl v;ill be
•"ğur imple-
•-.-.oi the duty
.- f measures
A :•'! is sought
, \ : '.^L extent
; a ov meet the stand-
•j s it- nay be interim
a is it may be that some
•tii" emissions during
ii'.ionaL measures
• - i-;s,- longer. In
' . ,- 'imposed and
, . , .,1',? be con-
i • , j .
•:,)*. intended •
: ; J: t ormining
; -,:' ->• /k,.-ar exten-
i -ho MRDC' case
:• . i tlio grant-
•i v i.ot di r,cu3S-
, •• sts which do
•
1

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1

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1

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not specifically cover each of the points raised above
cannot support the granting of the extension.  Whether   0
or not the information submitted to comply'with each of
these points is adequate to convince the program that
the extension is justified is a .technical-question and one
that will have to be considered in connection with each-
separate application. ° But applications which make no men-
tion of these factors invite legal challenge' and cannot be
defended.          •
      •                          '        e
     I    . .                             '
   •
10.  Any 'decisions made by. the program concerning extensions
should be set forth in detail in preambles to the regulations
granting or denying the request suspension, and care should
be taken to have the program analysis which supports the
Administrator's determinations in .the record for use in any
litigation which results from actions taken with respect to
these extensions.

11.  Finally, we should point out that no extension-should be
given for a longer period than the record shows will be ab-
solutely necessary.  The two-year period is the longest time
allowed by the law.  The requirement that standards be achieved
as expeditiouslv as practicable still applies to the grant-
ing of the extension.  The inability of the source to comply
by 1975 does not automatically make it eligible for two addition
al years, but only for that period of time which the record
demonstrates is necessary for compliance.        *
                                           . c

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                              •/
                                                           TIME
                                   of
                                                                a,
1  to
                                                                      ed
                                         73
                * prob:-cn;s  r;t:''riBunion :::;,;r-r'  >**

                °edand tWV;;;;''^eun,, •,;;;•'   :tr
                2ed  in restrii,^ ;-^ilitv t^,  '  j Ur
 —-Bussed  AK      e sou'eiv'h^+-                     sources













Ort^__  . an anoihcu.   p.;,V"^  lor an ..... ' °-e  •>"-K --


             "l-i-     !Ch citv  has :^e--J°n
                      - ^  * !" D !•- ^ ...     " '"" •• !  r. ,'  F
         compare
                        t"/:
        comes
                 Pi i j r. T
                                                                    has
                                                                   to

                                                                as
             f the

             anted
                                                                    I
                                                       •cent.

                                                           >ğ

                                                         ^"

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!  O
  O
We do  not. en.:D;js.  ,
be examined oxii< -
of law it woulo ,.  .

15".  A second gioa>,
be raised in mi meto
controls.  Section
achieved by 1975 wi
ing the expense of
face,  the section w
f or an extei">;, •-
that the  ,•   • . ,
ava_il u'j ;  •   T:-
aval J ab it  ,-  ;;,.•,.,

eoor.onu;  ; ,Ğ, '     -.;

(2) (ilj ,   Ti. —  ,
trator J,cei.  t  .
Thus , .if 11;--  i,,i  ; ,
control :-•:.'„  -I.   •. i
expens i "c ,.   . • '
     ' such s , i
     ,,r cl'ul j.y ,
     .ipprovab J o
                      nd
                                                         believe it should
                                                    .'iinnot  say as a matter
 ;:. r ed is in the
  i:> ,.Ğ,  i-,	  •  ,.    to section • 110 (e)
      •,£•• .)  -, '• ,  L.    ,.o^ed if  the Adminis-
 :.v    i •" rf  ,i,st !,uL ;;  .nde-r the  circumstances,
  •, :,- ...suruL  u, be  !-;';.ir-ed by  the permanent
  •''  the e>lon:riori ]-eriod would be so
      ,.,• *i j •-.-••,! by  .1 c'v-j i/benef it analysis,
             16,   Des},-i< *• ti-f- , .
             in sectifj;.  1.10 ,  a;iĞ
             whether  .it  as j >.s:.
             necessary but ^ j r-
             able"  as a  pra^tu
             the State to raise
             arise  because of i i
             native control ?>t,
             much  less ex;^. ;.;.•<-•.
             permit, ap
            • since  ve
             unit,  j t
             tjover: ••,(_
             the  ex, -t;.
             the  i>l-vj(;
             because  r,
             control -; ,
             Clear  lr •
             in .iĞ.-<.. '
             ' s i t. •.  . >
             ci i .  u.
             a v -"i i . ;
        ci ,'-io.'jf"-c' i-.jj economic "factors
         in  particular, we  considered  .
        havr cJ  control strategy  that is"
             that it  would be  "not avail-
   luatter  becau.u- of the inability .of
  nfticient  fundu.   This* p*roblen\ may not
   obligation of the State  to apply alter-
  oqies, which  may be more  onerous but
  and thus not  justify tfye ^extension to
  f the more expensive control.   Moreover,
   with the  resources of a -governmental
    ;o say that the funds would  not be
••'  the ability  of the Slate or other
i   xaise taxes  or issue bonds to cover
ait'-oular  rontro' strategy.   Thus, while
 < o .-aiities  may appear to b.e  quite serious
;,  iiuc burden of the necessary transportation
< ,  p*; a qcnera'i. pio^osition,  find any
   '  perjn.] t +• : r',<- an extension  on  this .basis
      •vc'•, \.,' cio bcrliove that each individua
       i    • ;  .    i '.' ;.;. ; e  are certain
   , . ••,' ii,.:. „•;,.' .v (. :  i!,at would inake
  1  -.lie nc-cot:-;.a; v lur.dt.- o! c- not  available.
„ i

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          17.  An  additional
          r costs  is0 whether ih
          den  oh the  indiviuo
          pulsory  retrofits,
          cost is  quite ai.jh,
          for  those in  the Ic
          ever,  it would aypc
          some 'form of  assist
          their  vehicles but
          'We,  again,  believe*
          for  extension but f
          be reviewed careful
                   factor in  CGI* ^:ct xon  with the economic
                   •. control  strategy  places the cost bur-ğ
                   ;; 1 driver,  su.'h  as  in the case of cora-
                     A;..iln, it  wo-..Id  be arguable that if the
                     M.(-  funds  sjrply may not be "available"
                   -.  er  income  grcup1-..  In such a case, how-
                   ;.r possible that  the  State could have
                   ance  for those  indivIduals who need
                   ca.nr.*"-,t afford  t_he c:st of retrofitting. •
                   that  tli is  is generally not a valid ground
                   ev.1  ; I <- indivjciual  circumstances should
18. .Another iinpeuiment  to aehievi. ,.  •  .  standards by 1975
which may be raisea by V-tates  as  the  DU-J^  for an extension
request is the administrative  burden  o-"  • stituting the
controls.  Like the cost of  imposing  tne  controls, section
110 does not contemplate this  being c\ valid reason for not
achieving the standard by 1975.   Obviously, Congress recog-
nized there would be difficult problems in  instituting these
                     certainly within the capabilities of
controls..  But it  is
a State to add the  c
ment and enforce ar.y
be unique situations
analyzed.  At this  t
sumption tudi this  •
extension,
                                         personnel necessetry
                                    ho.-;ever , I bn
                                    , m ddeq-.:at i
                                                   to imple-
                                 -f their ;-lans.   There may
                                 ;e ;-h-'u1d ,oe individually
                                          njrj d he*1 a pre-
                                           ;=, for a cwo-year.
19.  The leasr diffj.-,,
the necessary cont;ol
not exist or does net
considered available,
retrof its, coi;vc: ~ i . >•;
                                    extension
           equipment nee.l
                                      uv.tsL .wj 11 be where
                       t^raires  hardware wh:..ch either does
                       Ğj:iat in  sufficient quantities' to be'
                        This would include such things as
                        f  aas station pumps,-and possibly
                       n.t,pections and testing or for inter-
mittent contr  i  6,-'  ,.:    If such controls are needed and
if there are no  oiuei  '-or.trols  wnich can be imposed in tine
to achieve  the st.iu-iai.'.-  by 1975, this would appear to meet
the requirements of  £.t*nt...un 110 (e)..        „

20.  Similarly,  where  the control itst-if does-not require
hardware but the effect of the  control will necessitate  the
availability of  other  equipment, an ex'
fied.  For  example   	  ..-,_.•-._-•..-. •-  -
control strategy
able only wher;
to permit the

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 generally been
 cent of the veh
 so'rationing to
"mass transit ar.
 •if it is neceEK
 such as corriJ'iui ..
 able for thotv
' ing mass f; •;..:•.
 passenqci  i :•.<.!
 necessa -.• >/  ' >>i .Ğ-.
 ing.

 21.'  If -.. -ii.
 the qua u i  . o/
 Will be: d  Vt'. 1-tU
 extensi ,.-n  :„•'.-.' . .
 i s s; !>:.  )  \' '' , >
                            considered that  approximately  15<>to 20 per-
                            icle  miles traveled is not essential traffic
                             thut  extent v/ould not require expansion of
                              •- ud not justify an extension.   However,
                                   vostrier  essential automobile travel,
                                .  work,.theic  must be mass transit avail-
                                 .   /in analysis muut be made  of the exist-
                                 . •.-i. T<, SLU  ir  it, can absorb  the increased
                                >i  (t  vdVi  j.^vvide transportation at the
                                : ' -: ,.-t -vti;  where the people will be work-
                                .'<".. "....ay  t^  oxpn.id the  transit system,
                               .i  :il .  il'y  ...•!  .:. -  , ->::£issary  equipment
                              .;,•,. ai/.t at ic.h  as >  dfcU  ,-.;;, ing whether an
                                 . i  ni • •'    f\-jpacit;,' for  .-us construction
                              ••' ,j;v*' ;< f , T  vlr  p;?r*.it-ion control plans are
                               ,. ,  •"•-' dc f i•..-,  i"f  di.  extiemely  large number
                                ,  Ijt-y^nd tr.t;  capaci t.y oJ." tue bus manu-
                               4..  i1  -;a hy  1975,  +-hi:.- v.'ovild  appear to be
                                   t  . s.eii.-i •';,•:.,   Vhf.rfi must be careful
                                    •• th;  adrti ii,-)iUiJ equipment is needed
                                    v.•-. at.t :-;:ipt eo  t'   ntciin  them by 1975,
           either £roir> suanutj, IU.V-K or  other  .sources, and has been
           unable to do so,                                   f
 O i  addi 11 f -.   1
 facturerc.; >-
 a  valid ^.
 document..!' -.
 and wh-vit!.-:,   •
           22.   Anothei group
           ities that, may or  i
           ing  and bui- lane?.:,
           be neco -e -; • / t-.  •
           struc-t  •••: .- -. v , jj... ;
           new  mouu-:- <- '   -  •- .-
           as a i^
           purcb?,  -	
                      o;
           agaar,
           that  a;
           then  t?

           2 3.  .Tl
           simply
           it wi3
           upon  tl
           The  i,;.,
           s i ve  v. .-
           ing  u>ai  - •
           culai  cor. t i
           taining the
           able  by D"
   •Controls  requiring additional facil-
   not be  available includes fringe park-
     same  punciplos would  apply;
   ; at  •t  :
   •• i  iac-,
    Slates
    to dc  i

   \..-'\ir i s t,
   -•xteno • ;
   ter  th:.
    be  juj. •
                                            would  apply; it will
                                  i  .-: t iut 1 ,• not' possible to con-'
                                  1 1 ICE, tv accommodate these
                                  may  ar.juc that it is impossible,
                                  ll  that is necessary, c-uch  as
                                  ,  lettJug contracts and final-
                                         urdens should not be,
                                         H'here it  can be shown
                                         ies cannot be constructed,
at i vf;
-n,  but
f c5 C 1 1 i
i fled.
                    ••.-'fiUi/ veiy  g<.;ncial principles.   It is
                        • -jKe eac.h  type •-,! strategy and say that •
                    . s  ;,^ ground-, .for e \t..nsion  since it depends
                    i   , : Ğ•   nu^,.-,--. •:  cf .he particular locality.
                        • f >^ t:;Ğjt.  : , .  ^ ta'e cannot  obtain an
                            i  •     . •  ,  '  J r, i" •
                          ^ L> t •            i,.-  c; c; -i r-\r

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 emission reduction without utilizing the particular approach,
 which they allege ;/i3i not be available.  States should
 *be advised to docu.asnc carefully and discuss adequately
 their reasons for raquc'"t;.ng the extension.  EPA must
 carefully examine th -- requests and base our determination
 on rational grounJc- since they wi]J be very carefully
-•examined in every ca;:s v;tiere an extension is granted.
                                                           o
          '.
 24.   Again we should caution that  the statements in this
 memorandum as to what f-actors would or x^ould not make  a
 State eligible for the exionsion are not intended  to be
 dispositivG of q;.-j:.-io:'h arising u;:dor individual  requests.
 Nor'should general s^atenieacs made here,, intended  for  use
 in assisting Svatc:., in preparing 3  L.MU
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                           ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                     OFFICE OF AIR PROGRAMS
                          RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NORTH CAROLINA  27711

        (•                                                              Date: July 10, 1972

    Sulgtct:     EPA Action on SIP Fuel Availability Issue


      To:   * Robert L. Sansom
              Assistant Administrator for Air and Water Programs

                   On July 5, 1972, we met in Chicago with representatives of Regions
              II, III, IV, and V to explain more f/lly the analytical  studies that
              indicate the existence of a low sulfur coal  gap and to discuss with them
              possible EPA strategies.  A list of attendees is attached.

                   Joe Padgett outlined the energy study and presented summary results
              •including the estimated shortages of low sulfur coal for each State.
~~            The potential of stack gas cleaning, additional low sulfur coal availability;
              and switching to gas and low sulfur oil were outlined and discussf.-d.  Some
I              of the regional representatives thought that more could be acccmp': ished
              with s-;ack gas cleaning by 1975 and agreed with the need for the nore
              detailed study now underway.  Joe also presented the reduction in demand
              for low sulfur coal that could be achieved by 1975 by deferral of the
              regulations in Priority III and II regions.
                       We then discussed ways of achieving the necessary SIP revisions to
                  accomplish the following:

                       1.  Reduce significantly the demand for low sulfur coal  in 1975.

                       2.  Attain, as scheduled, the primary air quality standard in all
                  regions by 1975.

                       3.  Minimum disruption to the SIP's as approved.

                       4.  Keep maximum pressure on each source to find  best control
                  solution as soon as possible.

                       5.  Minimum jeopardy to the concept of region-wide or State-wide
                  regulations.

                       6.  Least possible loss of EPA creditability with the States.

                       The regional representatives felt unanimously and strongly that EPA
                  should not at this time publish new guidelines nor formalize  recommendation
                  that states defer regulations in Priority II and III regions.  They feel
                  that this is simplistic and too general a strategy, would jeopardize
                  compliance schedule negotiations in all States and for all regions, not ju:
                  those with the fuel shortage problem, and might relieve too fully pressure:
                  to push technology and find partia'i solutions.  Generally, the ; ccoiraien-

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         elation was to allow the States to enter the compliance schedule nego-
         tiations for each source armed with existing regulations but understanding
         the fuel problem, EPA's attitude on attainment of primary versus secondary
         standards and our willingness to accept plan revisions in this area.   This
         would force the power companies to make the case for needed relief on a
         plant-by-plant basis and convince tfie State that reasonable steps were being
         taken.  We would upgrade the analysis of the fuel probjem early in 1173,^
         based on actual compliance schedules and with a better evaluation ^TTrie
         potential of flue gas desulfurization.  Also by then, we will  have better
         guidance on non-degradation.  EPA can formally pressure for plan revisions
         if still needed at that time.  The regional representatives indicated that
         the States are feeling great pressure from the power companies and will provide
         significant relief for the fuel problem if it is made known that EPA will
         accept such revisions.

              I recommend that we try the suggested low visibility strategy and allow
         the States to work it out with little fcrmal pressure from EPA at this time.
         We would provide the States with the studies on fuel availability and national
         shortages, estimates of the potential of stack gas cleaning over the next
         three to five years and general technical assistance as requested on source/air
         quality relationships.  Our Regional Offices would meet individually with each
         State to explain the situation, and provide our analysis of the magnitude of
         the problem in each State.

              I'm unclear on the need to involve the Steering Committee, and the
         Intergovernmental Review Committee or others in a formal review of alternatives
         and recommendations on this issue.  Also, I need guidance on the documentation
         and analyses you desire on alternatives.  I'll call you on this soon.
                                             B.J. Steigerwald
                                                 Director
                                        Stationary Source Pollution
                                             Control .Programs
         Attachment

         cc:  Mr. Walsh
              Mr. Wassersug
              Mr. Van Mersbergen
              Mr. Johnson
              Mr. Padgett
              Mr. Tuerk
              Mr. Goodwin
              Mr. Farmer

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                             ATTENDANCE LIST
Edward Enstrom
Vernon R. Hanson
Victor M. Yamede'
Henry L. Longest
Stephen R. Wassersug
Tonmie A. Gibbs
Gene B. Welsh
Conrad Simon
  ğ
William Cox
Jack Farmer
Bern Steigerwald
Joe Padgett
Dorothy Attermeyer
George Hurt
Rex Dieter!e
Lou Torrez
John Paskevicz
William Beyer
E.P. Krajeski
Vic Wenk
Alvin Liebling
Region V
Region V
Region V
Region III
Region III
Region IV
Region IV
Region II
GAP, Durham
OAP, Durham
GAP, Durham
OAP, Durham
Region V, Enforcement
Region V
Region V
Region V
Region V
Region V
Mitre - Washington
Mitre - Washington
EPA - Asst. Region Counsel
Region V

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 •  ATTAINMENT or PRIMARY STANDARDS
  The Act  requires ittainircnt of pri-
mary standards as cxoccutiouoiy as prac-
ticable, but not laU.r thcji J years from
too date of  the Administrator's approval
Ol a State plan except where  an cxU-n-
elon Is granted  by the Administrator: it
requires attainment of secondary stand-
ards within a reasonable time. Except
where extensions have  been  requested,
Stato plans generally provide for attain-
ment of the primary standards  in 3 years.
Whether more expeditious attainment of
the primary standar&s is r.ractlcabie is a
question that will be subject to continu-
ing examination in  connection with the
Administrator's review of the compliance
schedules and pro=;rc::s reports  to to sub-
mitted by the States and as part of the
Administrator's continuing  surveillance
of State activities.  H  is alreaay  clear,
however, that  the  iggi-et'ata  emission
control  requirement';  of the  55  State
plans will erf-ate Mich a great demand for
clean fuels, emission control equipment,
and other Hems that attainment of the
primary standards ir_ many urban areas
In significantly loss time tnan 3 years
generally vdll not be feasible.
          ATTAiNMEirr DATES
  Each Stato plan must specify the pro-
jected datos of attainment of primary
and secondary standards. V."here a State
plan sets forth a  control strategy
and
regulations adequate for atuumr.ent of
the national standards willim  U:e time
periods prescribed by the Act but frils to
specify an attainment date, the Aumin-
Jstiator wOl promulgate attainment dates
meeting the requirements of the Act.
      MAINTENANCE or STANDARDS
  Where existing air pollution levels ex-
ceed the national standards. State plans
were expected  to provide for the de-Tree
of emission reduction necessary for at-
tainment and  main .enar.ce -of the  na-
tional standards, including  the degree of
emission  reduction necessary  to o:lset
the probible impact of projected growth
of population,  industrial  activity, motor
Vehicle traffic,  or other factors. There is
a great rical of uncertainty involved in
.projecting prowth and preaictin- itj  im-
pact on air quality. Growth projections
extending  more  than 2 or  3 years  into
the future are  iit-cessanly generalized
and Inevitably are based en a variety of
assumptions, many vf them  which are. at
best, tenuous. Even v, here rrrov. ih policies
have  been  adopted  by State  or  local
government':, they normally provide oniy
general guidelines. Technique* for trans-
lating generalized projections of popula-
tion and industrial growth, into predic-
tions  of future nU quality  do not, exist.
Accordingly, Str.trs were limited in  trie
extent to which they could  ck-vclon con-
trol Strauses  adcviate not only for at-
tainment, but  also for maintenance, of
the national standards. S.n;e the Envi-
ronmental Protection Acency's capaollHy
of planning for  continued  maintenance
of the national standards is subject to tiio
same limitations, <>ncl  since state  r.nd
local  governments  clearly  should   not
lightly be derived of the opportunity to
plan and control crcwthln a manner best
     RULES' AND  REGULATIONS

suited to the needs and preferences of in-
dividual communities and their Inhabi-
tants, with due coru-iucrntion of environ-
mental  impacts, tnc Adinuiistrator,  at
this time, is not proposing sub&tituic con-
trcl strate;:ic*3 based on con.sidorat.jons
related  solely to maintenance 01 national
standards. States arc required, lio\vcvor.
to prevent conr.truction, modification, or
operation of any stationary source at r.ny
1 ".-cation v,here iti emissions vull prevent
tha  attainment or  maintenance of  a
national  standard;  the Administrator
will promulgate appropriate regulations
v, horever State  plans are judged inade-
quate in this rrjr.rd.  Thus,  all  State
plans will include th.s mechanism  for
minimizing the  e:";ccts  of prowlh on r.ir
qur.iity. New source pc riormancs stand-
ards promulgated by ,he Administrator
under section 111  of the Act will aUo
serve to minimize the impact of ETO'.vtli.
Furthermore, ths Act uuthori/.es the Ad-
ministrator to rcau;re revision of a State
p!an whenever he nnds tnat it is subjtan-
t.r.lly inadequate to at;oin or maint'Uu a
national standard, lo .'s the Administra-
tor's intention to LI;::-:J a continui;;j  ex-
amination of  the  aUenuacy  of  state
plans, and, where necessary,  to call  for
revisions. States .'-hoiMd  be  aware that
failure to proTidc for Maintenance of  the
national standards could necessitate  re-
straints on  populrlic-n  r.nd  indu.strin.1
growth   and/or  furilnr  rc.stricrions  on
emissions from existing sources of  air
pollution.
  EVALUATION or CONTROL STRATEGIES
  A "control strategy"  Is a combination
of measures tiesiTr.ed to achieve tiic  PS:-
grcgatc reduction of emissions nectwary
for  the purposes  of  attainment  and
maintenance  of a national  standard.
TM  Administrator's  regulations   ('10
CFR  51.13 and 61.11)  set forth proce-
dures,  i.e.,  proportional or   di:a:."ion
modeling, to be employed by the JUt.ites
in  demonstrating   that  their  control
strategics vnll be adequate for these u\:r-
POSPS. Kv.iination  of  the control r-tvat-e-
cnes generally  included n^e^sment  of
the accuracy of tho data relied upon by
a State  in uemonstrating tiie aclccuiacy
of control strategies, the validity oi any
assumpnons  maae  oy the Stote. and  tiis
accuracy of  the calculations  cmplo;. od
In  the  modelins exercises. In  aduirion,
a determination \;as made as to v/htt'ier
the control strategy v.-ould be siuiiciently
comprehensive.

SULFUR OXIDES  AND PAnTicuLATE I^HTTER
  The  national .strndards  for  sulfur
oxides  and partlci!ln-t<; matter  include
both  short-term sUrsdards,  e.d., maxi-
mum 24-hour cor.cc::ti-atio:is  not  to be
exceeded more thr.n  once per  year, and
lon'j-toi-m  stanciaioi. i.e.. annual  avcr-
n:'o concentrations, i/tate plans were  ic-
qulrcd to -el fotin co -'trol r.tratonics ade-
qui'.w for attamsr.cri j'.nd muint<.p.?.r.rc
o'  botn  the  slicrt-tĞ,rm  and  loir-r-t-.-nn
siamiaidi,  v.-itii  the exception of die  :.'!-
hour .secondary  .',t?n'iard for  sulfur ox-
lues r.nd the  annua" average .secondary
standard for pariicu-'-it^ matter, bo',h of
which arc fruiuc-llnes. Wiierc State plans
did not explicitly  t.emomtrate that a
                                                                              10813

                                              control stratcTX is adc-iuate for attain-
                                              ment and maintenance of .'.hort-term, r.1-,
                                              well  as  lonfT-tcrm r.tanCaias,  the  Ad-
                                              ministrator hns made j''d':ments ba od
                                              on  avuilable data rc-i:at\l r"-ti;-to-mc\'.r.
                                              ratios; paint-source control measure.!, lor
                                              example, arc likely to mmco  tl>c  iro-
                                              qucncy nnd intennty o.r poai: concontia-
                                              tions. thus altering pc: k-to-nicati r.it:a?
                                              and increasing the likelihood that a con-
                                              trol strategy adequate ior :'..talnnie:il o:
                                              an  annual average standard will r-l.no u?
                                              adequate for attainment of short-term
                                              standards.
  The  State  implome nation plans  to
control SOx generally have been resnon-
iive to tho mandates of th? C'lern  .-...-
Act. The plans providi for  moctuiT  bv
1075 primary air qur.llt • standards wiv.c.i
are designed to protect tha public hcauh.
In  most  coses, Uic  S'.r.tes  C2tcrm.:icd
1975 to be the "reoionz bie time" a!lo-.u j
by  the Act to  meet  tiie secondary  a,r
quality standards  for i O* winch arc  c;o-
signcd to protect the p-.iokc welfare. r;:cl
coiyiDUstion regulation: were designed to
achieve both the prim: ry rnd secondary
standards by the 10'. 5  date. In  rr.or.
States  these emlfoion regulations vc:c
marie  to  apply statcviUe,  witliout  rj-
gard  to the differinT  i:r quality  in  re-
gions \vithln the State.
  It is clear that  achi> v;n? these ric-or-
ous  State standart's  ji  tho time pre-
scribed would s!;;ni:lc,',ntly enhance  a.r
quality in m:aiy arci's or ihs ICation. ağ
contemplated by the; cicv.n Air Act. llo-v-
ever,  in addition to rcrio\, izn the e.rcc-
tiveness of each  Scat?  linplcmentat.o::
plan, tliis Ajrcncy  and the I'cacral  G>.'.'-
ci'iimcnt  ha\e  an obli^ratio.i to  a.iic.vs
the Impact of  the various Claris in  t. ;
assreg;atc. From  this s'.r.nclpoint,  ti.crj
ij ?tro:!^  evidence il r.l  < .:o com; 1 '"
implementation of the  plans  as  :uo-
niitted may not  be attainable in the ti:r.™
prcscubcd.
  Because of physical limitations or.  o_r
ability  to  clean tne  cmlvions  of  h...-.
sulfur fuels on a InrTC f.caln  In the lir:.?
permitted by the statuts, r.ch!cve:r,c:r.
of  the poi'liculaio of t;-.e State  pla:.,
would require  the availability of  lar  -:
additional supplies of  "cl:r.n"  fuels—
natural pas and lo'.'.- sulfur coal and  o ..
Since  fuel desulfurir  tion facilities  r.rj
unlikely to be  inuit on the scale  v,!-.::.i
would be required to fully impJemeni :...
Stato plans by  1975,  it aopears tha: ?..
State  plans  can  be  completely Imulc-
mcnted by 1975 only with r. major  ?r, r:
term  shift to natura ly clean fuels. L":>
fortunately, thc.se n.-".uraily  clean  fi.: :
are not likely to  be av,..I.ib;j in tn;-r.i:::. -
necessary to meet  the mo.'cried cicir.?.::;:.
  Unfortunately, our lonT-ovcrdue c •>••--
ceni for air quality cj-'.cs at a time •;.,'.'•.:
the abundance oi  clcracr erieri'v n'^i- .•;
tho United Slates Is r:  picily ui.-ar/::-?.-\i.: -
nnd enerry expert,; or • orcor.iin^ v.o::
about our ability to iivct o-ir c:iei: y :..
need.1; even Jndeperur. lit of tnvsron.iv.-: -
t;il  considerations. G'vc:i llic lirn::?  :"
the supply of natuiailv clt an  UK .'•; in ::
shore run. the well pu jliei/rd sho: '..-.:c •
natural i;as  in  tir.s  country. ;.nu  t . -
piiyiically disruptive 'osi: of subrtUi;;.:. :
                                                RCCISIFS,  VOL  37,_ HO. i)5—WEDNESDAY,  MAY  3J, J97Z

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tho use of huge amounts of clean fuels by
cnerry producers and uicrs at a time
when traditional fuels such tw natural
ens are in chort supply. It is apparent
that the Nation fixes a diiflcult trsk.
  It is also apparent that Uic cost of
this  effort, translated into costs of fuel
and  electric energy to our economy and
to Individual energy consuiscrs. will be
substantial  and cannot  be  wuoliy  ig-
nored. On  the other  hand, appropriate
environmental  costs must  be recoeni/ed
in the price cl energy if we arc to allo-
cate our total  resources properly.
  ITicro arc alternative strategies which
should permit achievement 01' tho goals
of the Clean Air Act  within ihe legisla-
tive  deadlines, but the approach Must fee
twofold.  First,  implementation of  the
standards must tafce into account  the
limits on total availability of clean fuels.
Second, government  must aico idtircss
tho  problem of creating  oconosdc  and
other incentives which ensure tr.at nnt-"
Ural or desulfurized  clean fueU go to
users in areas of greatest enyiromnezt-al
need.
  The Pure Air Act of 1972 (the sulfur
emission tax), which  is current!/ before
Congress, is important to both aspects
of this approach. The tax v.-oultl permit
clean fuels to reach users in arep-s of
environmental  need   by  providing:  a
strong  economic  incentive  fcr  i-hose
 sers to bid for the clean fuels. The tax
would &!•ğ  increase  the availability of
 tlean fuels by  providing  r.n i.-concmic
 stimulus both to develop new clean  fuel
 resources, and to perfect tcehmlosy for
 [-.leaning fuels b?fora combustion,  and
 "or purifying  exhaust Easts.
  Preliminary analysis by EPA. Indicates
 Ihe  real possibility that,  under current
 conditions In  the  domestic and  -,ror!d
 lucl markets  including the absence of
 iho  sulfur tax,  all rspccts cf the £tate
 ?lans In   the aggregate  cannot  be*
 ichleved by 1973 despite the bsst eaorts
 )f  both  goveinment and  the  private
 lector.  Pending  further  study,   H?A
 s approvins or promulsatiu? regulations
 'or  meeting both  the primary ancS  sec-
 ğndary  SO*   standards.   The  States
 hou'd  proceed to develop compliance
 chcdules on  the  assumption that both
 tnndards can be met. In ti:i> meantime
 JPA will be completing its studies of the
 .ggrcsalo situation and will suggest nec-
 ssary changes to the suites, and iike-
 riso modify federally pronr.ilsatcd SOx
  egulations for achievement 01 th^ t-ec-
  ndary  standard  whzfe  appropriate.
  Hghest priority must be River, to achiev-
  n0 the primary stancaids vhca'.th re-
  itcd) by  the statutory  deadline.
   At this time, the States rr.ost likely to
  caffccted by this shortage cf clean fuels
  tcludo   Illinois,   Indiana,  Kentucky,
  '/iscoiifiin.  Michigan, Ohio.  Ter.neĞee,
  Jabama,  Pennsylvania.  v/.-st Virginia,
  icorpia, and  Ne-.v York, bat others will
  L'.o need to consider tho arailaLUUy of
  jch In developing compliar ce schedules.
   For its part in addition t:> completins
  lis work,  KPA Intends  to be v.frorous
  ğ WTini* other Federal agencies and the
  oniucss to adopt cnerrry policies which
  111 stimulate the r.% :ulTibil Ğy ol needed
   ran fuels and injure t!>cjr availability
   > areas of greatest need, consistent with
     RULES  AND  REGULATIONS

environment, national  security,  con-
sumer and other considerations.
          NmocEw DIOXIDE
  Where  attainment  of  the national
standard for iiitrojca  dioxide would re-
quire additional c-mis&ion reductions be-
yond those  expected  to  result  from
Federal motor vcchicle emission stand-
ards, the Adnustrator's  regulations (40
CFI-"i 51.14)  required  States to provide
for the  decree of nitrogen oxides emis-
sion reduction  attainable  through the
application  of  reasonably   available
teclinolo.Ty for tlie  control of stationary
source emissions of nitrogen oxides, as
defined by  -10 CFR Fart 51, Appendix
B.   Kydrocarbon   emission  reductions
arising  from tlie Federal motor vehicle
star.aards  or from transportation con-
trol measures undertaken to  implement
tlia  rational standards for photo.'hcmi-
cal oxidonts will tend  to reduce ambient
air  concentrations of nitrogen c.ioxiue.
In accordance with 40  CFR 51.14, this
combination  of stationary and mobile
source  control  measures is  considered
an adequate control strategy for imple-
mentation of the national standi.rds for
nitrcsen diojcde. Studies aimed at pro-
viding an improved basis for developing
and evaluating nitrciien oxiclcs control
strategies  are underway. Eased on  the
results  of these studie-s,  Uie Administra-
tor  will clstermine whether revision of
the £tctĞ plans for implementation of
the national  standards for  nitrogen
dioxide will  be necessary; such revisions
may necessitate, ainon;: other tilings, the
cicvciopnicnt and  application of nitro-
gen oxides emission control techniques
going, beyond thoye wiiich are now avail-
able. Pending such action. States'  rc-
quc-o^s  fcr  2-year extensions  of  the
ccaaline for attainment  of this national
standard have not been evaluated.
             HYDROCARBONS
   Tlie  national  standard  for hydro-
carbons KO CFR 50.10)  is a ETiido to the
formulation of control strategies tor a.t-
 t.vlnrncrifc  and maintenance of Uie na-
 Uor.al   standard   for    photochemical
o:-:iclpjits. Accordingly, State plans were
r.oc rcqviired to provide for  attainment
and maintenance of the national stand-
 ard for hydrocarbons, per se.

   TRANSPORTATION CONTROL MEASURES
   Tlie Act and the Administrator'
 lations (40 CFR Part 51) rcqu:rc Stat-^s
 to take steps to reduce errJ-sions irom
 triinspoitation sources  wh 'revcr such
 steps are necessary for r.tta'nmcnt  and
 maintenance  of  national nibicnt  air
 quality standards. In Auiriis: 1971, when
 tlie  Administrator's   resuU, ions were
 promulgated,  it  was  rcccuiiizcd  that
 States have had practicall.- no experi-
 ence with transportation co.itrel meas-
 ures  as  a means of deal:;,!  with air
 quality problems and that available data
 •were  not suflicicnt to pcnnit States to
 develop meaningful tranrporuition con-
 trol schemes and predict their impact on
 air quality. The Environniintal Protec-
 tion Agency had already ber.';n an assess-
 ment of  the extent  to which various
 transportation control measures, includ-
 ing motor vehicle inspection and installa-
 tion of cmui ion control devices on ui-
 uso automobiles,  could  be expected to
 produce improvements in air quality, but
 it was apptu'cnt that tho results would
 not bo available"within the time  allo.vi Uie
 measures beinj considered.  States were
 further advised that they would  have to
 submit, no  later than February 15, 1373.
 together with their  first  s^niiai nur.l
 progrcos reports, definitive  transporta-
 tion control plans,  including Identifica-
 tion of the spccififlc measures to t; im-
 plemented,  demonstration of the ad-j-
 quacy of thcc-e measures for attrJi.mcnt
 and maintenance of the natloncJ s. taud-
 crds, und a detailed timetable for o nain-
 ing  any necessary  legal  authority and
 taking all o;hcr steps ntcessrvry to -:nrle-
 ment the various measures. Tht> I:n/iron-
 mental Protection Agency, in coopf ration
 with  the Department of  Trr.nspor a;ion,
 will  provide- assistance  to the bu ues in
 the development  of  Uieir transpo.-tr.tion
 control plans.
          COMPLIANCE SCHEDULES
    State  plans  were required to .specify
 the dates by which all sources  ' iuğt be
 in  compliance v.-ith p.pplicabie .-eguia-
 tions, except  that, where a Staie pkm
 prondcs  for  nc.?,oliatins   compliance
 schedules  for  individual &ou:-cc.-., r-uoh
 schedules are  required to be submitted
 to the AdmUiislrator no later than the
 time of subir.ittal   of the  Str.u-'s first
 semiannual prcgi'ccs rej^or;. £:rUe-s t:c:i-
 erally have eillier prescribed a t-;rmu\ivl
 date for compliance by all sources, v.un
 individual  rourcc  cchedulee, ir.ciuciing
 schedules  oi"  incremental steps tov.-.ird
 ccir.plirrtce,  to be ncrotiatcd,  or  have
 macio rc^iJ-ticns effective aimosc imme-
 diately,  with compliance schedules to be
 negotiated,  and  effectuated through  a
 variance proct-dure. Eitlicr approich  is
 considcreci  acceptable:  Proi-iCcd,  jitst,
 That compliance  with  all  re relations
 related  to attainment  of national am-
 bient p.ir   quality  standards  will  be
 achieved by the attainment date  specified
 in the State  plan  or prĞcno.-d by the
 Administrator, and second,  ti^t  provi-
 sion  is made for negotiating c":npi.ance
 schedules,  including incremcnt.il i'.f.po in
 cases where the terminal date is more
  than 18 months away.

           EMERGENCY EPISODES
    State plans  were required t?  set forth
  episode  criteria, i.e.,  poiluUi.t concen-
  trations at which specified em'.-'iion con-
  trol  actions wğil be tn;tir.t<:d in order to
  prevent sijuiilcaiH harm to ;hc  l:c.iith
  of persons. Episode  criteria  v.-cie  re-
  quired to be adequate to protect against
  occurrence of  Uie significant .;arm levels
  prescribed  by the  Admin I; irator   (40
  CFR 51.1C).  Emission  con.rol  action
  plans were required to provide for abate-
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   ,£                            Office of Air  Programs
                     ' Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711


   ,o/;     OD,  SSPCP                           .                      D^c: August 21, 1972

Subject;     Low  Sulfur  Fuel  Requirement  and  Availability

   To:
          Directors,  Air & Water  Programs  Divisions, Regions  I-X •

               The purpose of this  memo is to report to you on the  status  of our
          ongoing Tow sulfur fuel studies  and the  approaches  recommended to be
          taken by Regional  Offices and States to  eliminate the projected  low
          sulfur fuel shortage.

               We initiated a study in December  1971 to determine the  impact of
          the  aggregated State Implementation Flans  (SIP's) on the  nation's
          fossil v'uel resources.  The  control strategy specified by most states
          to reduce sulfur oxides is limitation  of the maximum sulfur  content of
          fuels which will result in a large  shortage  of  low  sulfur coal.   The
          total requirement for coal in 1975  is  estimated to  be 590 million tons,
          assuming present coal users  do not  svsitch to other  fuels.  The mi snatch
          between coal  availability and supply due to  sulfur  regulations is pro-
          jected to create a potential shortage  of over 300 million tons of ';ow
          sulfur coal,  again assuming  no switching to  other fuel  and no use of
          stack gas cleaning.   The  major coal shortages exist  in ten to twelve
          states located primarily  in  the  Great  Lakes  and Ohio Valley  region:;.
          An analysis of possible strategies  indicates these  shortages can bo
          eliminated  by a combination  of fuel switching to low sulfur  oil,
          utilization of stack gas  cleaning,  and deferment of  sulfur regulations
          in AQCR's which do not  exceed primary  ambient air quality standards.
          These results  were obtained  by mid-May and are  described  in  the  enclosed
          report (Attachment 1).  The  low  sulfur fuel  shortage and  the need for a
          reassessment  of SOX regulations  by  the states were  discussed in  the
          preamble to the May 31  Federal Register  (Attachment  2). -

               Our continuing fuel  studies are primarily  in the following  areas:

               1.   Methods for increasing  the supply of low sulfur  fuel.

               2.   Methods for increasing  the utilization of  stack  gas cleaning
          by utilities.

               3.   Methods for reducing the demand for low sulfur fuel by  deferring
          regulations in AQCR's which  can  meet primary ambient standards without
          additional  controls.

               4.   Compatibility of demand reduction and  non-degradation alternatives.

               On  July  5 we  reviewed our study results and alternative actions to be
          taken by the Regional Offices with  rapresentatives of Regions I!, Ill, IV,
          and  V.   These  Regions include the states with the most critical  coal
          shortages.  The  results of this  meeting  are  discussed in  my  July 10 memo
          to Mr. R, i- Sansom (Attachment  3).

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     The regional representatives were unanimous in recommending that
EPA not issue formal guidelines to the states at this -time or in any
way formalize recomnendations that states defer regulations in
Priority II and III regions.  Their recommendation, with which we
concur, is to allow the states to enter compliance schedule negotia- .
tions for each source armed with exTsting regulations, but understanding
the fuel problem, EPA's attitude on attainment of primary versus second-
ary standards, and our willingness to accept plan revisions when the
attainment of the primary standard is not compromised.

     We will update our analysis of the fuel deficient in early 1973
based on actual compliance schedules and a better evaluation of the
availability of stack gas cleaning systems.  If this indicates that there
is still a significant problem, more direct action to revise or defer
state regulations in the more critical states may be required.
                                            B. J. Steigerwald
                                                Director
                                       Stationary Source Pollution
                                           ' Control Programs
3 Enclosures

cc:  Mr. R. Sansom.
     Mr. W. Megonnell
     Mr. J. Fanner  .
     Mr. M. Storlazzi, Region I
     Mr. C. Simon, Region II
     Mr. M. Stenburg, Region III
     Mr. T. Gibbs, Region IV
     Mr. R. Van Mersbergen, Region
   .  Mr. D. Greenwell, Region VI
     Mr. D. Durst, Region VII
     Mr. N. Huey, Region VIII
     Mr. D. Calkins, Region IX
     Mr. L. Miller, Region X

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DRAFT
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 m                                  TERMINAL USERS MANUAL
 *                                       October 1972
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  m                                      Prepared By
                                   National Air Data Branch
  •                          Monitoring and Data Evaluation  Division
  •                            Air Quality Planning and Standards
                                         OAWP - EPA
  I-

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I   W                                       FOREWARD

•                     This manual  defines procedures for submitting data to and receiving
                  data and summaries from the National  Aerometric Data Bank.  It Is
J                written for those who will  be using the procedures, whether they be
 _                regional offices, other EPA personnel, or others who have been given
 ™                access to the data bank.
 •                     With respect to data input, a section 1s prepared describing the
                  data flow.  The "SAROAD User's Manual" APTD-0663, published in July
 •                1971, describes how to use the SAROAD format in filling out forms,
                  punched cards, or magnetic tape.  This manual is intended as a
 •               companion to that one.
 •                    There are also three sections on output.  One section describes
                  how to interactively request air pollution information using a remote
 ff               terminal.  Another section describes procedures for requesting batch
                  jobs to be run later using a remote terminal.  A third section describes
  I               other output formats which are available by mailed requests.
  —                    Questions, comments, and requests may be forwarded to:
  *                                      National Air Data Branch
  •                                      Environmental Protection Agency
                                         411 West Chapel Hill Street
  •                                      Durham, North Carolina  27701
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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                               Page No.
TSO Air Pollution Access System 	    1
Interactive Access	    5
Site Descriptions 	    9
Quarterly Inventory 	   15
Yearly Inventory	   22
Quarterly Summary	   2
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I

I-
•                                     ISO A1r Pollution Access System

g                     The  National Aerometric Data Bank has been expanded to enable users
                  to access the data bank files via typewriter terminals.  A user can
•                ascertain the amount of data available for a site, the sites established,
                  and can receive  various data summaries and Information.
|                     The  personnel of NADB have developed a system of programs to allow
 ^                the user  Interactive access to the summary, site, and pollutant files.
 ™                The summary  files are quarterly and yearly files contalnlnq the maximum,
 •                minimum,  number  of observations, arithmetic mean, arithmetic standard
                  deviation, geometric mean, geometric standard deviation, an approximation
 •                to the minimum detectable, the number of times one half the approximation
                  to the minimum detectable was substituted, and the percent of possible
 m               observations  present.  The site file contains all the information re-
 •               garding the  location and environment of the air pollution samplers.
                  The pollutant file contains the names of all the valid pollutants.
 •                    The  NADB interactive system also allows remote batch access to the
                  frequency and raw data files.  The frequency files are quarterly and
 g               yearly files containing the common percent!le distributions.  The raw
 £               data file consists of all the basic validated data submitted to the data
  *               bank. Remote batch access is used with the frequency and raw data files
 •               because of the amount of time required, the amont of on-line storage
                  required, and the nature of the requests.
  •                    The  system  has a master interactive program which allows the user
                  to specify the type of function he wishes to access.  The master program
  B  N"x          then calls the correct subprogram.  The called program retains control

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until the user signifies that all  requests for the subfunction have
been answered.  The called program then relinquishes control  to the
master program and the user can request other functions.   Explanations
for each Individual program are given later in the manual.  Examples
of outputs are also Included at a later point.
     Program development for this system was done on a University
Computing Company 1030 typewriter terminal utilizing the IBM 360/50
in EPA's Research Triangle Computation Center, Research Triangle Park,
N. C.  All explanations regarding program access and data entry will
be given in terms of the UCC 1030 terminal.  For users unfamiliar with
the 1030 keyboard, a diagram is included in the appendix.
     To use the NADB Interactive system, the user must first gain access
to the computer on which the system is installed.  This is accomplished
by the sign on procedure distributed when users Identification numbers
are assigned.  The user first dials the computer using the telephone
number specified with the user number.  Contact has been made when a
shrill noise  is emitted via the telephone.  The phone receiver is then
placed in the acoustical coupler connected to the terminal.  Make sure
that the cord end of the receiver is in the correct direction as specified
on the coupler.  The terminal and the coupler should be turned on.
(The "on" button for the UCC 1030 terminal 1s located to  the right of
the  keyboard.  The "on" button for the acoustical coupler Is located
on the top of the machine on the right behind the carriage or on the
coupler  itself.)  The terminal should also be set on the  "remote" setting.
 (The remote  button is  located  to the left of the keyboard.)

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_                    The terminal "proceed" light should now be on and the user 1s free
                 to sign on.  In order to enter any Information via the terminal, the
•               Information must be typed and the return key pushed.  The user should
                 enter the  "logon" Information furnished with the assignment of his
J               user identification number.  The procedure to be requested is NADBTSO.
m               To obtain  a user identification number contact:
•                                    National A1r Data Branch
•                                    Environmental Protection Agency
                                      411 W. Chapel Hill Street
•                                    Durham, North Carolina 27701
                      A message indicating the system is processing the user sign on
•               information is returned.  The message, LOGON PROCEEDING, may also appear
 •               indicating the system is still processing the initial entry.  The system
                 returns the message, READY, when it is ready to accept user input.  The
 •               user response should be to enter: nadbtso or nadbtso parm(noDrint).   After
                 this entry, the data bank master program takes over and any information
 |               required is requested by the program.  More detailed explanations of  re-
                 quired information are provided in each section describing the individual
                 programs .
 •                    When  the user has completed his interactive session, the end command
                 should be  entered.. A short wait is required to allow the computer system to
 £              submit any remote batch jobs constructed and to release the resources allotted
 —              to the user.  A message indicating the user has logged off is returned by
 ^              the system when its tasks are complete.  The terminal and coupler should then
 •              be turned  off and the phone returned to its cradle.
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     Please note that should the connection to the computer be broken,
the user has only to follow the same procedure that he always uses to
log on.  Any remote jobs constructed prior to the disconnection may not
have been submitted and should be reentered.
     A line of Input 1s not considered entered by the computer until
the return key 1s pressed.  Typing errors can be corrected until the
line 1s entered by backspacing or pressing the attention key.  The
backspace feature 1s used to back up to the character to be corrected.
All characters to the right of the error must be retyped since the
backspace operation erases them.  The attention key deletes the entire
line and the user reenters the correct Information.
     If the attention key (marked ATTN) 1s hit during the session and
the READY message Is returned, the user should enter loooff to end
his session or nadbtso to restart the session.
     Many references to criteria restraints arc made 1n the program
descriptions.  An explanation for the criteria restraints Is Included
1n Appendix I.

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—                                       Interactive  Access
                       The master program for the data  bank  Interactive system 1s
•                automatically Invoked when the command,  nadbtso,  is entered.  If
                  parm(noprint) or parm(nop) 1s not specified,  the  master program
 |               automatically lists the possible function  requests and their de-
 —               scrlptlons.  To request that the description  not  be printed, enter:
 •               nadbtso parm(ncprlnt): Otherwise, enter: nadbtso.

                       The possible function requests and their descriptions  are:
  •                          (1) site - abbreviated or full site descriptions  for
                                       sites 1n the data bank that  are  requested.
  £                          (2) qinv - quarterly inventory which furnishes  the maximum
  _                                    value, number of observations, and,  if criteria
  •                                    restraints are met, the  arithmetic mean for
  •                                   specified site-pollutant-date comhinations.
                             (3) ylnv - yearly inventory.  
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                     minimum detectable, and the number of times the
                     substitute value was used.
         (5)  ysum - yearly summary Information.  Ysum 1s like qsum
                     except the Information Is given on a yearly basis.
         (6)  poll - pollutant names corresponding to valid pollutant
                     codes are provided.
         (7)  qfreq -quarterly frequencies.  For further Information
                     refer to the remote batch section of this manual.
         (8)  yfreq -yearly frequencies.  For further Information refer
                     to the remote batch section of this manual.
         (9)  rawdl -raw data listings.  For further Information refer
                     to the remote batch section of this manual.
        (10)  end -  signals the user's desire to terminate the terminal
                     session.  When this command 1s entered, an appropriate
                     message is printed and the data bank procedure 1s
                     completed.   The user should allow a short time
                     for the system to submit  the remote batch jobs
                     specified and reallocate  the resources dedicated
                     to the user.   When the system has completed Its
                     tasks, the user 1s notified that he has logged
                     off the system.  He should turn off the terminal
                     and coupler and return the phone to Its cradle.
     Initially the user 1s requested to enter his user identification
number.  This number is required to submit remote batch Jobs.

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I   -
I                        The user 1s  prompted to choose  a  function  by  the  program message:
                     SITE, QINV,  YINV, QSUM,  YSUM,  POLL,  QFREQ,  YFREQ,  RAWDL,  OR  END.   The
 •                   user types his selection and pushes  the  return  key.  The  master  program
 m                   evaluates the user request.   If the  request is  valid,  the corresponding
                     subprogram is called and control  relinquished to the subprogram.   The
 fl                  'END* command does not require a  subprogram since  it just indicates
                     the session  termination.  If the  user  command is not one  of  the  valid
 |                  commands, the user receives  a message  indicating the command is  invalid
 —                  and Is given the  opportunity to enter  a  new command.
 •                       The user can choose to  enter the  complete  command or abbreviate
 •                  the command  to the first two letters.  An example  1s  's1' for 'site1.
                     The program  processes both commands  in the same manner.
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•                                           Site Descriptions
                         The site subfunctlon 1s selected by the user who desires  detailed
8                  Information about the location and  surroundings of some sampling site
m                  or sites.  The option of obtaining abbreviated or full site descriptions
                    Is Incorporated in the system.
V                       The site program Initially offers the user the option of  having a
                    short description of the valid commands printed.  The user response is
8                  'yes' if the command 11st 1s desired or 'no* if the list is not needed.
 —                       Secondly, the user is required to choose either abbreviated or full
 "                  descriptions.  Examples of the output obtained with the 'abbr1  and the
 •                  'full1 entries are Included at a later point.
                         After the user has made the decisions discussed above, he is prompted
 |                 by the messages 'START ENTERING COMMANDS' and 'COMMAND?', to begin the
                    actual retrieval.  There are two possible types of commands:  selection
 •                 commands and action commands.  The selection commands are used to specify
 •                 the state, area, site, agency and project that the user wants  information
                    about.  The action commands Indicate to the program what action it is to
  •                 take.  Any type of command can be entered following the 'COMMAND?1 prompt.
                         The selection commands are:
  8                          (1)  'states??'   - indicates the state desired.  Example:  state=01.
  M                          (2)  'area*????'  - the city or county desired.  Example:  areaĞ1300.
                             (3)  'site*???'   - the site number within the area specified.
  8                                              Example:  site=001.
                             (4)  'agency*?'   - the code for the sponsoring agency.
                                                 Example:  agency=g.
      *^_^
  —                         (5)  'project*??' - the code for the type of sampling.
  "                                             Example:  project=01.

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     (6)   'key????????????1  -  the  complete  key  composed of  Items  1-5
                       in the order listed.   This  command  can be used
                       as a quick method  of  entering  Information.
                       Example:  keyğ011300001GC1.
                       The key  command can be used to position  the
                       file at  the  beginning of  a  state so the  find
                       and next commands  can be  used  to process the
                       sites for a  state.
The action commands are:
     (1)  'find1       - Instructs  the program to locate the  last state-
                        area-site-agency-project combination specified.
     (2)  'next??'     - Instructs  the program to output descriptions for
                        the next '??' state-area-site-agency-project
                        combinations in the  file.   '??' represents any
                        two digit  number from 01 to 99.   If  just  'next'
                        is specified, one combination 1s  printed.   If a
                        match was  not found  when the 'find'  command was
                        entered, the  'next*  command does  not necessarily
                        result in  the sequential combination following the
                        Invalid key being printed.  Example: next 02.
     (3)  'end'        - signals that the user has completed  his use of this
                        function.   Control  1s returned to the master program
                        by this command.
     The complete command may be entered or the command may  be abbreviated
to the first two letters of the command. For example, 'next  02' can be
abbreviated to 'ne 02'.
                                     10

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                        The error messages associated with the site description program
                   deal with three areas:  Invalid commands, attempts to process beyond
 •                 the end of the file, and Invalid state-area-site-agency-project
 •                 combinations.  Invalid commands result in the message 'INVALID COMMAND.
                   REENTER1, followed by the prompt,  'COMMAND?'.  The user need only enter
 •                 a valid command to continue.  The attempt to process beyond the end
                   of the data occurs when the 'next ??' command request more combinations than
 8                remain.  As many combinations as exist are printed followed by the
 •                message,  'END OF DATA.  ENTER NEW KEY1, followed by the prompt,  'COMMAND?1.
                   The user enters a valid command to continue.  The final situation, an
 I                Invalid key, occurs when the combination specified 1s not on the site
                   file.  The user receives the message,  'NO SITE FILE ENTRY FOR key.
 I                ENTER VALID KEY1, followed by the prompt, 'COMMAND?'.  The user can
 g                change any part of the key or enter  any other valid command at this
 *                point.  Please note that the command 'next* causes the next sequential
 •                combination following the last valid key to be printed which may not be
                   the next sequential combination following the Invalid key.
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I
                                         Quarterly Inventory

•                     The quarterly Inventory subfunction is selected by the user desiring
•                to ascertain the amount of Information available for a site-pollutant-year-
                  quarter combination.  If the combination exists on the quarterly file,
•                the programs provide the user with the number of observations recorded;
                  the maximum value that occurred; and, if the criteria restraints are
•                met, the arithmetic mean.
•                     The user is offered a chance to print the valid command list for
                  this subfunction.  If the comnand list is needed, the user should reply
 •                 'yes1.  If the command list is unnecessary, the user should reply 'no'.
                       The user begins to make his selections after the messages,  'START
 |                ENTERING COMMANDS', and  'COMMAND?1.  'COMMAND?1 is always used to indicate
 g               when the user can enter commands.
 ™                    Basically the commands can be divided into two types.  The selection
 fl               commands are used to specify location, pollutant, and time information.
                  The action commands are used to instruct the program to perform some task.
 |                    The selection commands and their functions are:
 —                        (1)  'state*??1     the code for the state desired.  Example:
 *                                            state=01,
 •                        (2)  'area-.'?:'?'    the code for the city or county desired.
                                               Example:  area* 1300.
 |                        (3)  'site*???'     the site number within the state.  Example:
                                               site=001,
  •                        (4)  'agency*?'   - the code for the sponsoring agency.  Example:
                                               Iagency-g.
     ^

  I

  I

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          (5)   'project*??1 - the codĞ for the type of sampling.
                             Example:  project-01.
          (6)   'pollutant0?????' - the code for the pollutant dtsired.
                             Example:  pollutant*11101.
          (7)   'method*??'  - the code for the sampling method.
                             Example:  method=91.
          (8)   '1nterval=?' - the code for the sampling interval.
                             Example:  interval=7.
          (9)   'year*??'    - the yĞar desired.  Example:  year*66.
         (10)   'quarter=??' - the quarter desired.  Example:  quarterĞ01.
         (11)   'key=????????????????????????' - (24 characters)
                             the complete key for the information composed
                             of the  state, area,  site, agency, project,
                             pollutant, method, Interval, year, and quarter
                             in the  order listed.  The  'key' command is
                             provided as  a quick method  of entering  the
                             desired  Information.  A partial  key can  be
                             entered  to  position the  file at a  desired  point
                             so the   find  and next commands can be used to
                             retrieve subsequent  information.
The action commands and their results are:
     (1) 'find1            -  indicates that  the user  has entered all the
                             selection Information he wishes to sptdfy.
                             The program uses the  Information specified
                             and attempts to find  a matching key on  the
                             summary  file.   If a match Is found, the Info-
                             mat Ion  for the  sltt-pollutant-yetr-quarttr
                             c->:LinĞtion is  printed and the 'COMMAND'
                                   16

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I

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                                              prompt follows.  If a match was  not  found,
|                                            the message, 'NO MATCH FOUND FOR KEY
-                                            key CORRECT OR ASK FOR NEXT RECORD1  is
•                                            returned.  The user has the option of
fl                                            requesting the next sequential  combination
                                              via the  'next' command or entering new
 J                                            selection information.  If the  key requested
                                              is greater than the largest key recorded in
 I                                            the file, the message, 'KEY key_ GREATER THAN
 •                                            HIGHEST  POSSIBLE KEY.  ENTER KEY LESS THAN
                                              OR EQUAL highest key't is printed.   Any valid
 •                                           command  other than 'next1 can be entered at
                                              this  point.
 •                        (2)  'next ??'     - indicates that the user wishes  to have  the
  •                                           information for the next  '??' sequential
                                              combinations printed.  The  '??' represents
  •                                           any two  digit number  from 01 to 99.   If '??'
                                              is entered as blanks, one is assumed.  If
  P                                           the end  of the file is reached, the message,
  -                                            'END  OF  DATA ENTER NEW COMMAND', 1s  printed.
  •                                           The user can enter any valid command other
  •                                            than  'next'.
                                                  If an invalid entry for  '??' is  entered,
  J                                           the user 1s notified  and a new command is
                                              called for.
  I  ^

  I

  I

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         (3)   'end1         -  signals  the end of user requests  for the
                             quarterly Inventory function.   The program
                             returns  control 10 the master program and
                             other functions can be requested.
     Please note that the entire command can be entered or the first
two letters of the command can be used.   Example:  next 02 or  ne 02.
                                     18

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                         Yearly Inventory

     The yearly Inventory subfunction 1s selected by the user desiring
to ascertain the amount of Information available for a site-pollutant-
year combination.  If the combination exists on the yearly file, the
program provides the user with the number of observations recorded;
the maximum value that occurred; and, if the criteria restraints are met,
the arithmetic mean.
     The user is offered a chance to print the valid command list for
this subfunction.  If the command list is needed, the user should reply
'yes1.  If the command list 1s unnecessary, the user should reply 'no1.
     The user begins to make his selections after the messages, 'START
ENTERING COMMANDS', and  'COMMAND?1.   'COMMAND?1 is always used to indicate
when the user can enter commands.
     Basically the commands can be divided into two types.  The selection
commands are used to specify location, pollutant, and date information.
The action commands are used to instruct the program to perform some task.
     The selection commands and their functions are:
         (1)   'state=??'   - the code for the state desired.  Example:
                             state*01.
         (2)   'area=????'  - the code for the city or county desired.
         (3)   'site*???'   •• the site number within the state.  Example:
                             site-1300.
         (4)   'agency2?'   - the code for the sponsoring  agency.  Example:
                             ajency*g.
                                       22

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                       (5)   'project3??'  - the code for the type of sampling.

                                            Example: project=01

                       (6)   'pollutant-?????' - the code for the pollutant desired.

                                            Example: pollutant=l 1101 .

                       (7)   'method*??'  - the code for the sampling interval.

                                           Example: method=91 .

                       (8)   'Interval8?' - the code for the sampling interval.

                                           Example: interval2?.

                       (9)   'year*??1    - the year desired.  Example: /eĞrĞCfc

                       (10)   'key*??????????????????????' - (22 characters)

                                           the complete kev for the information composed

                                           of the state, area, site, agency, project, pollutant,

                                           method,  interval and year in the order listed.

                                           The 'key' command is provided as a quick method

                                           of entering the desired information.  Example:

                                           key=011300001qOmiOl91766.  A partial key can

                                           be entered to position the file at a desired point

                                           to enable the use of the  find and next commands

                                           to retrieve subseouent information.

                  The  action commands and their results are:

                       'find'            - indicates that the user has entered all the

                                           selection information he wishes to specify. The

                                           program  uses the information specified and

                                           attempts to find a matching key on the summary

                                           file.  If a match is found, the information

                                           for the  site-pollutant-year combination is

                                           printed  and the 'COfiMAND' promot follows.

                                           If a match was not found, the message,  'NO
                                                          23

-------
                    MATCH FOUND FOR KEY'  key_ 'CORRECT OR ASK



                    FOR NEXT RECORD1  i,  printed.   If the key



                    requested is greater than the largest key



                    recorded in the file, the message, 'KEY



                    key_ 'GREATER THAN HIGHEST POSSIBLE KEY.



                    ENTER KEY LESS THAN  OR EQUAL 'highest key',



                    is printed.  Any valid command other than



                    'next'  can be entered at this point.



(2)   'next ??'     - indicates that the user wishes to have the



                    in format1 on for u,<.-  next '?">' sequential



                    combinations printed.  The '??' represents



                    any two digit nur,;rer from 01 to 99.  If



                    '::' is entered a; blanks, one is assumed.



                    If the end of the file is reached, the



                    f.e^d-jfc,  'END OF  DATA ENTfK NEW COMMAND1,



                    is pnrited.  The  user can enter any  valid



                    L0>nr.id' '-'. other  than  'next'.



                         If an  invalid entry  for  '??'  is  entered,



                    the  user  is notified and a new command  is



                    called  for.



(3)   'end'         - signals  the end  of  user  requests  for the



                    yrat iy  inventory  function.   The  program



                    rfcU-rn:,  control  to  the master  program and



                    other  functions  can  be  requested.

-------
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                letters of the command can be used.   Example:  next 02 or ne 02.
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I

I-
I                                       Quarterly Summary

•                    The quarterly summary subfunction is selected by the user desiring
                  statistical  information for a site-pollutant-year-quarter combination.
•                If the  combination exists on the quarterly file, the user can obtain
                  the information he specified utilizing the summary information selection
M                commands.   If  the combination does not exist on the file, the user has
 •                the option  of  specifying a new combination or requesting the sequential
                  combination following the key he specified.
 •                    The first choice the user must make regards the listing of valid
                  program commands.  The user is given the option of printing the commands
 1               or proceeding  directly to tne data selection.  If 'yes1  is entered, the
  •ğ               commands are listed.  If 'no' is entered, the user is asked to enter his
                  first command.
  fl                   The program commands can be divided into two classes.  The selection
                  commands specify the data desired and the action corrinands request the
  •               program perform some task.  The selection commands can be further divided
  _               into site-pollutant commands and summary information commands.
  •                  The site-pollutant selection commands are:
  •                      (1)   'state*??'   - the state desired.  Example:  state=01.
                          (2)   'area=????'  - the code for the city or county desired.
  •                                          Example:  area=1300.
                          (3)   'site*???1   - the site number within the area desired.
  P                                          Example:  site=001.
  •                      (4)   'agency-?    •  the code for the sponsoring agency.
                                              L Ğuii.^le:  agency-*.).
   I
   I

-------
      (5)   'project3??'  -  the code  for the type  of sar.plinq.
                          Fxample:  projected.
      (6)   'pollutant*?????1  - the  code for the  pollutant  desired.
                          Example:  pollutant=11101.
      (7)   *method=??'   -  the code  for the sampling method.
                          Example:  method=°l.
      (8)   'interval--?'  -  the code  for the sanTlino interval.
                          Example:  interval^/.
      (9)   'year=??'    -  the code  for the vear  desired.  Example:  year=66
     (10)   'quarter3??'  -  the code  for the quarter desired.  Exanple:  ouarter=01.
     (11)   'key=???????????????'???????? - (24  characters)
                          the complete key for  tne information composed
                          of the state, area,  site, agency,  project,
                          pollutant, method, year, and quarter in the
                          order listed.  The 'key' command is  provided
                          as a ouick method of  enterinq information.
                          Example  kev=--0]130L001q0111 !ClC'176tPl .
            P partial Key  can be entered to position the file  at
            a desired noint to erahL- tr <•> user  to enter the  find  and
            next commands  to retrieve suhseouent  information.
The summary information selection commands are:
     (1) 'observ'   -     tn^ nun^er of observations stored  in the
                          tidta tank for the comtination specified.
     (2) 'max1      -     the maximum observation that occurred for
                          the combination specified.
     (3) 'rnin1      -     tne minimum observation that occurred for
                          the combination snecifiea.

-------
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         (4)   'amean'       -  the  arithmetic mean.  The  value  is  printed

                             only if  the  criteria  restraints  of  NADB are

                             met.

         (5)   'gmean1       -  the  geometric mean.   The value is printed

                             only if  the  criteria  restraints  of  NADB are met.

         (6)   'astdev1      -  the  arithmetic standard deviation.   The value

                             is printed only  if the criteria  restraints

                             of NADB  are  met.

         (7)   'gstdev'      -  the  geometric standard deviation.   The value

                             is printed only  if the criteria  restraints

                             of NADB  are  met.

         (8)   '%observ'     -  the  percentage of possible observations that

                             are  present. This value  is blank for time

                             intervals that would  make  the value meaningless.

         (9)   'zsub1        -  the  value substituted for  data  values less

                             than the minimum detectable in  the  computations,

                             This value represents an  approximation  to one

                             f-alf the minimum detectable.

        (10)   'zcnt'        -  the  number of  times the  'zsub'  value was

                             substituted  in  the computations.

     Initially, the program is set up not to  print any of the summary

information.   Specific requests  for items are made by entering the appro-

priate command after the 'COMMAND?' prompt.   If at a  later point in the

program some item of information  requested  is no longer needed,  printing
                                      31

-------
of this Information can be suppressed by entering the  letter X  followed
by the summary information selection command corresponding to that
information.  For example, if the maximum value was  requested by the
command, 'max', the command to suppress the printing would be 'xmax1.
     The action commands and their results are:
         (1)  'find1       - indicates that the user has entered all the
                             selection information desired.  The program
                             uses the information specified and attempts
                             to find a matching key on the summary file.
                             If a match is found, the  information for the
                             site-pollutant-year-quarter combination
                             requested is printed, followed by the
                             'COMMAND?' prompt.  If the match was not
                             found, the message, 'NO MATCH FOUND FOR KEY
                             key CORRECT OR ASK FOR NEXT RECORD,' is
                             returned.  The user has the option of
                             requesting the next sequential combination
                             via the  'next1 command or entering new
                             selection information.  If the key requested
                             is greater than   the largest  key recorded  in
                             the file, the message, KEY  'key' GREATER
                             THAN HIGHEST POSSIBLE  KEY.   ENTER  KEY  LESS
                             THAN OR  EQUAL  'highest key',  is printed.
                             Any valid command other than  'next'  can be
                             entered  at this point.
                                       32

-------
I
                         (2)  'next ??'    - Indicates that the user wishes to have the
I                                           Information selected for the next '??'
•                                           sequential combinations printed.  The '??'
                                             represents any two digit number from 01 to
I                                           99.  If  '??' is entered as blanks, one is
                                             assumed.  If the end of the file is reached,
§                                           the message, 'END OF DATA ENTER NEW COMMAND1,
.                                           is printed.  The user can enter any valid
*                                           command  other than  'next'.
•                       (3)  'end'        - signals  the end of user requests for the
                                             quarterly summary function.  The program
||                                           returns  control to the master program and
                                             other functions can be requested.
•                   Please note that  the entire command can be entered or the first two
Ij               letters of the command can be used.   The only time the two letter
                 abbreviation  is not sufficient  is when negating the summary  information
•               commands.  The negative command requires at least three letters.  For
                 example, if  'max' was  specified and no longer wanted,  the user can
•               suppress the  maximum by entering xmax or xma.

I

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• ^                                     Yearly Summary

|                   The yearly summary subf unction is selected by the user desiring
.              statistical information for a site-pollutant-year combination.  If the
                combination exists on the yearly file, the user can obtain the information
ft              he specified utilizing the summary information selection commands.  If
                the combination does not exist on the file, the user has the option of
£              specifying a new combination or requesting the sequential combination
—              following the key he specified.
"                   The first choice the user must make regards the listing of valid
•              program commands.  The user is given the option of printing the commands
                or proceeding directly to the data selection.  If 'yes' is entered, the
 •              commands are listed.  If  'no1 is entered, the user is asked to enter his
                first command.
 •                   The program commands can be divided into two classes.  The selection
 Ğ|             commands specify the data desired and the action commands request program
                perform some task.  The selection commands can be further divided into
 •             site-pollutant commands and summary information commands.
                     The site-pollutant selection commands are:
 j|                      (1)  'state-??1   - the state desired.  Example:  state*01.
  —                      (2)  'area=????'  - the code for the city or county desired.
  ™                                          Example:  area=1300.
  •                      (3)  'site*???1   - the site number within the area desired.
  ^
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                                             Example:  site=001.
                         (4)   'agency=?'   - the code for the sponsoring agency.
                                             Example:  agency=g.
                                                      37
  I

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     (5)   'project0??'   -   the  code  for  the  type of  sampling.
                           Example:   projectğ01
     (6)   'pollutant*?????'   -  the code  for  the pollutant desired.
                           Example:   pollutantğ11101.
     (7)   'method*??'   -   the  code  for  the  samoling method.
                           Example:  method-91.
     (8)   'interval3?'  -   the  code  for  the  sampling interval.
                           Example:   interval*?.
     (9)   'year=??'   -   the code  for the year  desired.  Example: year=66,
    (10)   'key=??????????????????????' - (22 characters)
                        the complete key for the  information  composed
                                                          •
                        of the  state, area,  site,  agency,  project,
                        pollutant, method and  year in  the  order
                        listed.  The 'key'  command is  provided as
                        a  quick method of entering information.
                        Example:  ke.y=C11300001 qOllllGl 91766.  />
                        partial key  can  be entered to  position  the
                        file at a desired point to enable  the user
                        to enter  the find and  next commands  to
                        retrieve  subsequent information.
TI.e summary information selection commands are:
     (1)   'observ'    -   the number of observations stored  in the
                        data bank for the comhinaion specified.
     (2)   'max1       -   the maximum observation that occurred for
                        combination  specified.
     (3)   'min'       -   the minimum observation that occurred
                        for the combination specified.
                                 38

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I
I  —                    (4)   'amean'     -   the aritmetic mean.  The value is
_                                          printed only 1f the  criteria restraints
™                                          of NADB are met.
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         (5)   'gmean'      - the geometric mean.  The value 1s printed
                            only If the criteria restraints of NADB
                            are met.
         (6)   'astdev'     - the arithmetic standard deviation.  The value
                            Is printed only If the criteria restraints
                            of NADB are met.
         (7)   'gstdev'     - the geometric standard deviation.  The value
                            is printed only if the criteria restraints
                            of NADB are met.
         (8)   'Xobserv'    - the percentage of possible observations that
                            are present.  This value is  blank for time
                            intervals  that would make the value meaningless.
         (9)   'zsub'       - the value  substituted for data values less  than
                            the minimum detectable in the computations.
                            This  value represents an approximation of one
                            half  the minimum detectable.
        (10)   'zcnt1       - the number of times  the  'zsub' value was
                            substituted  in  the  computations.
     Initially, the program  is set up  not  to print any of the  summary
information.   Specific requests  for items  are made by entering the
appropriate command after the  /COM1AND?'  prompt.   If  at  a later point  in
the program some item of information requested  is no  longer needed,
printing of this information can be suppressed  by entering the letter  X
followed by the summary information selection  command corresponding  to
that information.  For example,  if the  maximum value  was requested  by
                                     40

-------
I
I
                the command, 'max', the command to suppress the printing would be
J              'xmax*.
                     The action commands and their results are:
•                       (1)  'find'       - Indicates that the user has entered all the
£                                           selection Information desired.  The program
                                             uses the Information specified and attempts
•                                           to find a matching key on the summary file.
                                             If a match 1s found, the Information for
|                                           the site-pollutant-year combination requested
_                                           1s printed, followed by the 'COMMAND?' prompt.
*                                           If the match was not found, the message, 'NO
•                                           MATCH FOUND FOR KEY key_ CORRECT OR ASK FOR
                                             NEXT RECORD', 1s returned.  The user has the
]                                           option of requesting the next sequential
 _                                           combination via the 'next* command or entering
 "                                           new selection Information.  If the key
 •                                           requested 1s greater than the largest key
                                             recorded 1n the file, the message, KEY  'key'
 I                                          GREATER THAN HIGHEST POSSIBLE KEY.  ENTER KEY
                                             LESS THAN OR EQUAL  'highest key'. 1s printed.
 •                                          Any valid command other than  'next' can be
 m                                          entered at this point.
                         (2)  'next ??'    - Indicates that the user wishes to have  the
 •                                          information selected for the next  '??'

 i

 i
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-------
                             sequential  combinations  printed.  The  '??'
                             represents  any  two  digit number from 01  to
                             99.   If '??'  Is entered  as blanks, one 1s
                             assumed.   If  the end  of  the  file  1s reached,
                             the  message,  'END OF  DATA ENTER NEW COMMAND1,
                             is printed.   The user can enter any valid
                             command other than  'next'.
                                 If an Invalid entry  for  '??'  1s entered,
                             the  user Is notified  and a new command Is
                             called for.
         (3)  'end1         - signals the end of  user  requests  for  the
                             yearly summary  function. The program returns
                             control to the  master program and other
                             functions can be requested.
     Please note that the entire  command can be  entered or the first two
letters of the command can be used.  The only time the two letter
abbreviation is not sufficient is when negating  the summary information
commands.  The negative command requires at  least three  letters.   For
example, if 'max* was specified and no longer wanted, the user can
suppress the maximum by entering  'xmax' or  'xma'.
                                     42

-------
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                                          Pollutant Names
I                    The  pollutant names subfunction 1s selected by users  desiring the
_               pollutant name  corresponding to a five digit pollutant code.   If  the
™               code 1s one  for which a pollutant name has been assigned by NADB  staff,
•               the name  Is  returned.  If the code entered is not matched, a  new  pollutant
                 must be specified or the command 'end1 entered.
J                    The  commands associated with this function are:
                          (1)  'pollutant3?????' - the code for which a pollutant  name is
•                                           desired.  Example:  pollutant=11101.
•                        (2)  'find'       - Indicates that the user has specified a
                                             pollutant code and is ready for  the  program
•                                           to search for the name.  If a match  is
                                             found, the pollutant name 1s  printed.   If
•                                           a match was not found, the message,  'INVALID
m                                           POLLUTANT CODE = pollutant code.  ENTER NEW
                                             POLLUTANT CODE', is printed.  The user  can
•                                           enter a new code or the 'end1 command.
                          (3)  'next ??'    - requests that the next '??' sequential
|                                           pollutant names be printed.  '??' represents
g                                           any two digit number from 01  to  99.   If blanks
*                                           are entered for '??', 01 is assumed.  If  the
•                                           end of the data file is encountered  while
                                             processing this command, the  message,  'END
|                                           OF DATA.  ENTER NEW CODE', is printed.

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-------

_                     (4)   'end1        - signals the end of requests for pollutant
*                                         names.  Control 1s returned to the master
•                                         program.
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                   Please note that the entire command can be entered or the first two
               letters of the command.  For example, next 02 or ne 02 1s a valid command.
                                                    47
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                               UNITS TADI.C

     The:  unit:, table  sub-function prints  the um-cnt  i!/'.!

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I
   |v~
                                        Remote Batch Submissions

|                 The master program for the data bank Interactive system 1s
_            automatically Invoked when the command, nadbtso, 1s entered.  If
™            parm (noprint) or parm (nop) 1s not specified, the  master program
•            automatically lists the possible function requests  and their de-
              scription.  To request that the descriptions not be printed, enter:
I            nadbtso parm (noprint) or nadbtso parm (nop).  Otherwise, enter:
              nadbsto.
•                 The possible function requests and their descriptions are:
•                     (1)  qfreq     - quarterly frequencies.  Common percentlles
                                         are printed for each state requested by year
 •                                      quarter.  The state(s) or region desired
                                         must be specified.
 •                     (2)  yfreq     - yearly frequencies.  Yfreq 1s like qfreq
 •                                      except the Information 1s given on a yearly
                                         basis.
 V                     (3)  rawdl    -  raw data listing for 24  hour or greater data
                                         values.  The year and single pollutant desired
 |                                      must be specified along with the state(s) or
 _                                      region desired.
 •                     (4)  end      -  signals the user's desire to terminate the
 •                                      terminal session.  When this command 1s entered,
                                         an appropriate message 1s printed and the data
 £                                      bank procedure 1s completed.  The user should
                                         allow a short time for the system to submit the
 •^                                    remote batch jobs specified and reallocate the
 •                                      resources dedicated to the user.
                                                         50
  I

-------
I
   1^,
                    The site, glnv, ylnv, gsum, ysum, and poll commands are
-             used 1n the Interactive access explained 1n that section of
™             the manual.
•                  When the system has completed Us tasks, the user 1s notified
               that he has logged off the system.  He should turn off the terminal
•             and coupler and return the phone to Its cradle.
                    Initially the user 1s requested to enter his user Identification
•             number.  This number Is required to submit remote batch jobs.
•                  The user 1s prompted to choose a function by the program message
               SITE, QINV, YINV, QSUM, YSUM, POLL, QFREQ, YFREQ, RAWDL, OR END?  The
•             user types his selection and pushes the return key.  The master program
               evaluates the user request.  If the request 1s valid the corresponding
I             subprogram Is called and control relinquished to the subprogram.  The
•             'END* command does not require a subprogram since 1t just Indicates
               the session termination.  If the user command 1s not one of the valid
8             commands, the user receives a message Indicating the command 1s Invalid
               and 1s given the opportunity to enter a new command.
|                  The user can choose to enter the complete command or abbreviate
 _             the command to the first two letters.  An example 1s 'si1 for  'site-'.
 ™             The program processes both commands In the same manner.
 I

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™                                     Quarterly  Frequencies
I ^                 The quarterly  frequency subfunction  1s selected by the user
•               desiring common  percent He  distributions  on a quarterly basis.  The
                 user must specify either  a  region desired or the state(s) desired.
I               If a user chooses to  specify the  states desired, he may specify a
                 maximum of five  states.
I                    The user 1s given the  opportunity to 11st the valid commands
_               Initially.  If the  list 1s  needed,  the user should reply yes.  Other-
™               wise the user should  reply  no.
•                    After the user makes this  Initial decision, he Is requested to
                 enter the  Identification assigned  to the terminal to which the output
|               1s to be sent.  For example, on the RTCC  computer, 1f you wish your
—               print sent to the computer  room,  you enter:  local.
*                    The user batch account number Is  also required  for  both  sub-
•               missions.  The user 1s required to enter the assigned code.
                      The program prompts  the user with messages, 'START  ENTERING
|               COMMANDS' and 'COMMAND?'  to enter his  selections.   The possible
                 commands are:
I                        (1)   'year-??1     - The  single year for which data 1s desired.
 —                                           If this command 1s not used, all years are
 ™                                           printed.  Example:  year-66.
 •                        (2)   'quarter-??'  - The  single quarter for which data 1s desired.
                                             If this command 1s not used, all quarters
 |                                           are  printed.  Example:  quarterğ01.
                          (3)   'pollutant-?????' - The single pollutant for which data 1s
 •                                           desired.  If this command 1s not used, all
                                             pollutants are printed.
                                             Example:  pollutant-Ill01.
 I
 I

-------
         (4)  'Interval*?1  - The single Interval for which data 1s desired.
                            If this command 1s not used, all Intervals
                            are printed.  Example:  Interval=7.
         (5)  'state*??,??,??,??,??1- The 11st of states desired separated
                            by commas.  The maximum number of states that
                            can be specified 1s five. If the state
                            command Is entered, any region command
                            entered previously 1s Ignored.  Example:
                            stateğ01.
         (6)  'region*??'   - The region desired.  If the region command
                            1s entered, any state command entered
                            previously is  ignored.  Example:  region=01.
         (7)  'end'         - Signals that the request  specifications are
                            complete.  The batch job  is prepared for
                            submission and the specifications printed.
                            The user  is given an opportunity to either
                            request the job as specified or to force
                            the job to fail.
     All commands can be entered in their entirety or  abbreviated  to
the first two letters of the command.  A valid entry for either the
region command or the state  command is required for job  submission.
If any command except end is entered and you wish  to cancel  it, enter
the command followed by the  number of  ampersands  corresponding  to  the
number of digits required by the  command.   An  example  of cancelling
a command is:  pos&&&&&.
                                       54

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I
B                                     Yearly Frequencies

•                  The yearly frequency subfunction is selected by the user desiring
               common percent!le distributions on a yearly basis.   The user must
I             specify either a region desired or the state(s) desired.  If a user
               chooses to specify the states desired, he may specify a maximum of
•             five states.
•                  The user 1s given the opportunity to list the valid commands
               Initially.  If the 11st 1s needed, the user should reply yes.  Other-
•             wise the user should reply no.
                    After the user makes this Initial decision, he is requested to
•             enter the identification assigned to the terminal to which the output
•             1s to be sent.  For example, on the RTCC computer, if you wish your
               print sent to the computer room, you enter:  local.
I                  The user batch account number is also required for batch
               submissions.  The user is required to enter the assigned code.
I                  The program prompts the user with messages, 'START ENTERING
_             COMMANDS' and  'COMMAND?' to enter his selections.  The possible
               commands are:
•                       (1)  'year*??'      - The  single year for which data is  desired.
                                             If this command 1s not used,  all years  are
I                                           printed.   Example:  year-66.
                         (2)  'pollutant=?????'- The single pollutant for which  data  is
|                                           desired.   If this command is  not used,  all
                                             •pollutants are  printed.   Example:
                                             pollutant=11101.
•        j               (3)  'interval*?'   -  The  single interval for which data 1s desired.
I
                                             If  this  command  is  not  used,  all  Intervals
                                             are printed.   Example:   interval*?.
                                                      59

-------
                                           I
                                           I
                                           I
         (4)  'state-??,??,??,??,??1- The  list of states desired separated
                            by commas.   The maximum number of states that
                            can be specified 1s five.  If the state
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                            entered previously 1s  Ignored.  Example:
                            stateĞ01.                                             I
         (5)  'region-??'    - The  region desired.  If the  region command            •
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         (6)  'end*          - signals that the request  specifications are
                            complete.  The batch job  Is  prepared for               |
                                                                              V
                            submission and the specifications printed.
                            The  user  1s  given an opportunity to  either  .
                            request  the  job as specified or to force
                            the  job  to fall.
     All commands can be entered  In their entirety  or  abbreviated to
the first two letters of the command.  A  valid entry for either  the
region command or the state command Is required for job submission.
If any command except end Is entered  and  you wish  to cancel  1t,  enter
the command followed by the number of ampersands  corresponding to the
number of digits required by the  command.  An example  of cancelling
a command Is:  po-44444.
60

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m                                       Raw  Data Listing
•                   The raw data  listing subf unction 1s chosen by the user desiring
•              a 11st of data values  for 24  hour or greater data.  The user Is required
                to specify either  a  region desired or the state(s) desired.  The sub-
I              program limits the user to a  single pollutant and a single year.  If
                any one of the required Items 1s not specified, the batch job 1s forced
P              to fall.  The user can also specify the Interval or Intervals desired.
—              The default value  for  the Interval 1s 7 which specifies 24-hour data only.
*                   The user 1s Initially given the opportunity to list the valid
•              commands.   If the  command 11st  Is desired, enter yes. Otherwise, enter no.
                     After the user  makes his Initial decision, he 1s requested to enter
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                sent.  For example,  on the RTCC computer 1f you wish your print sent
 •              to the computer room,  you enter:  local.
 •                   The user  batch account number is also reouired for batch
                submissions.   The  user  is  required to enter the assigned code.
 I                   The program prompts  the  user with messages, 'START ENTERING
                COMMANDS' and  'COMMAND?'  to enter his selections.  The possible
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                        (1)   'year*??1    - The year desired.   This  entry  1s required.
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                        (2)   'pollutant'?????1  - The pollutant desired.  This  entry is
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                                            the job will  be forced to fall.  Example:
                                            pollutant=11101.
  I
  I

-------
         (3)  'Interval-?'   - The Interval desired.  The Interval 1s 7
                            unless otherwise specified.  If more than
                            one Interval 1s desired, repeated usage
                            of the command 1s  Involved.  Example:
                            Intervalğ8.
         (4)  'state-??,??,??,??,??'- The  11st of  states desired separated
                            by commas.   The maximum number of states
                            that  can  be  specified  1s five.  If the state
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                            previously entered 1s  Ignored.  Example:
                            state-01.
         (5)  'region-??'    - The region desired.   If the  region command
                            1s entered,  any state  command entered
                            previously 1s  Ignored.  Example:  reg1on*0l.
         (6)  'end1          - Signals that the  request specifications  are
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required by the command.  An example  of cancelling a  command  1s:   po*ft&&&&.
                                      66

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-------
                                              STANDARDS PROGRAMS
   yr:-    Ğ                                 •   •
 •  j  •                 The HADB standards procjrams are a series of programs written
    Ij              to furnish reports for the  pollutants for which standards have boon
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,....  1              set.  These reports encompass the three formats shown in the samples
 I    .            following.  Asterisks adjacent to values indicate that the values
 ^,  \              exceed the priniary standard listed at the bottom of the report. rPlus
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    ;              'START ENTERING CO^'-ANDS1 and 'COMMAND?'.  The 'COMMAND?1 prompt is
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i
1     70.1
                                                                       _

-------
     (4)  'y,.'-"•'•??'   -  fhr y^r <•';"_; irc'.i. l.liiifL  is  one yo?r per rc
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can be used.
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to which tho  print should bo rouu.<-!.  For  example, remotc?5.  The
user's batch  recount nur.ber c.nd the user's nsrco is also rc'Cjirirod.
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has been cnix-rad,  the u^er rec>i!2sts are  listed end the user can  chpust:
to arcept oi'  reject the job.  Should tlv; job  be accepted, it will  be
subiiiittrd upon  successful completion of  tiie n:ic!!;tso proccdi'rt.
                                      70.1.2

-------
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                                                         70.?

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                                                    70.2.1

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•                               SAROAD Mailed Request System

fl                 Data are available in formats other than those described in the
               previous sections.  These can be requested by contacting:
|                              Environmental Protection Agency
_                              National Air Data Branch
•                              411 West Chapel Hill Street
•                              Durham, North Carolina  27701
                                (919) 688-8146, Ext. 261
•                  If the  number of requests for these routines  becomes excessive,
               they will be made available under the TSO Air Pollution Access System
m             if  possible.  Some routines are in this section  because they  require
M             special equipment or special skills to use.  If  you are not a Federal
               Government employee, first try to request data from your EPA  regional
V             office.  The addresses of the regional offices can be  found in Appendix  2.
                   When you make a request you must have the SAROAD  code.   Other
|             requests cannot be honored.  For example a request for data from
 _             Denver, Colorado is insufficient.  The request must be for data from
*             state 06 and city 0580.
 •                 A list  of the codes necessary to request data can be obtained  at
               the above address.
 •                 Other programs dealing with trend analyses  and statistical analyses
               are available or being developed.  However,  we cannot  make these  available
 ™             at  this time due to a lack of resources.  If you have  a specific  project,
•             contact us at the above address and we may be able to  offer you the

 I

 I

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programs.   Also, 1f you have requests for other programs,  contact us
at the above address.   Following are descriptions of the available mall
requests.
                                       72

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  I

  I-
                                    Yearly Report by Quarters

                    The yearly report by quarters has been used in the past to
  g            satisfy general requests for data.  The report by quarters  was  used
  m            because many pollutants follow a seasonal  trend and the annual  average
  •            alone is often insufficient to identify the trends.  Utilizing  this
  •            report, one can examine patterns by quarter as well as examining
               annual trends.
  •                 The yearly report by quarters does not relate the data to  the
               standards.  Therefore, the report will probably receive a more  limited
 •            usage than in the past.
 •                 Sample output for the yearly report by quarters is shown in
               Figure 1 on the following page.
 I                 In order to request a yearly report by quarters, the following
               information must be provided in the request:
 I                     1.  Pollutants desired.  Which pollutant or pollutants are you
 Ğ            interested in?  Are you interested in all  pollutants?
 ™                     2.  Method, units, and interval.   For each pollutant desired
 •           . are you interested in a particular method, units, and/or interval?
                        3.  Site combination.  Are you interested in a specific site,
 J            city, county, state, region and/or any combination thereof?
                        4.  Year.  Are you interested in a specific year or specific
 •             years?
 •                      5.  Summarization.  Do you want pollutants summarized
               separately?  Please note that separate summarization involves multiple
               requests and can only be done for a few pollutants, not all.

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                                                      74

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I

                               Raw Data  Ustina  (less  than ?4 hour)
•                 The raw data mall request 1s  used currently  to present data with  a
               1-hour, 2-hour, or 4-hour sampling Interval.   Detailed Information  by
|             month for each pollutant-site is  offered.   The basic values (1-hour,
_             2-hour, or 4-hour) are listed across the page.   If 75% or more of the
*             values are present for a day, the daily average  is calculated.  The
•             number of values per day is also  listed.
                   Diurnal variation is also displayed for the  month.  Along the bottom,
•             the average for each 1-hour interval (or 2-hour  interval, or 4-hour
               interval) is displayed if 75% or  more of the values are present for that
•             interval in that month.  The number of values and a maximum is also
•             displayed.
                   A monthly average 1s calculated if 75% or more of the values are
•             present and a monthly maximum is  listed.  Saturdays and Sundays are
               identified by an asterisk following the "DAY."  The format is as shown
I             in Figure 3 on the following page.
                   The following information must accompany the request for a raw data
M
"             listing:
•
                        1.  Pollutant.  Which pollutant or pollutants are you interested
                        2.  Method, unit.  For each pollutant are you interested in a
 —            certain method and/or units?
 •                     3.  Interval.  Which interval are you interested in?
 •                     4.  Site combination.  Are you interested in a specific site,
               city, county, state, and/or region?
         "               5.  Date.  Are you interested in a specific month, quarter,
               year, or years?
                                                    78
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                            APPENDIX  I
          Criteria Restraints  of the  NADB  for Averaging

     In order to assume some integrity  of  the values,  summary  statistics
are automatically not calculated unless the data meet  certain  minimum
criteria.  These criteria guarantee a minimum number of  samples  and that
the samples are distributed throughout  the time period.
         1.  Continuous data (currently this is 1-hour data, 2-hour
data, and 4-hour data).
             a.  No quarterly statistics are constructed unless  75%
of the individual hourly values are present.
             b.  No yearly statistics are  constructed  unless 75% of
the individual hourly values are present.
         2.  Daily data (24-hour sampling  interval).  The daily  data
is usually generated on a random or systematic schedule, so a  straight
percentage is not possible.  The following criteria are  based  on the
old National Air Surveillance Network's schedule of 26 samples per year.
             a.  No quarterly statistics are constructed unless  there
are a minimum of 5 samples per quarter.  A second constraint is  that
if one month has no values, there must be at least two values  in each of
the other two months.  To reword this criteria we are excluding data
where there are no samples in each of two months and 5 or more in the
third; and where there are no samples in one month, one sample in
another, and 4 or more in  the third.
             b.  No yearly statistics are constructed unless all four
quarters in the year meet  criteria.
                                     80

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I
                          3.  Monthly data.
                              a.  No quarterly statistics are constructed unless two
I               months have values.
                              b.  No yearly statistics are constructed unless all four
•               quarters meet criteria.
m                        4.  Quarterly data.
                              No yearly statistics are constructed unless all four quarters
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                           APPENDIX  II

                  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION  AGENCY

                      Regional  Administrators
John A. S. McGlennon
Region I
John F. Kennedy Federal  Bldg
Room 2303
Boston, Mass.  02203
  Phone:  614-223-7210
  Connecticut, Maine, Mass.
  New Hampshire, Rhode Island,  Vermont

Gerald M. Hansler
Region II
26 Federal Plaza
Room 2525
New York, N. Y.  10007
  Phone:  212-264-2525
  New Jersey, New York,  Puerto  Rico
  Virgin Islands

Edward W. Furia, Jr.
Region III
Curtis Building
6th and Walnut Streets
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  19106
  Phone:  215-597-4506
  Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland
  Pennsylvania, Virginia, W. Virginia

Jack E. Ravan
Region IV
Suite 300
1421 Peachtree Street
Atlanta, Georgia  30309
  Phone:  404-526-5727
  Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi
  Kentucky, N. Carolina, 5.  Carolina
  Tennessee

Francis T. Mayo
Region V
1 North Wacker Drive
Chicago, Illinois  60606
  Phone:  312-353-5250
  Illinois,  Indiana, Minnesota, Michigan
  Ohio, Wisconsin
Arthur W. Busch
Region VI
1600 Patterson St.
Suite 1100
Dallas, Texas  75201
  Phone:  214-749-1962
  Arkansas, Louisiana, N. Mexico,
  Oklahoma, Texas

Jerome H. Svore
Region VII
1735 Baltimore Ave.
Kansas City, Missouri  64108
  Phone:  816-374-5493
  Iowa, Kansas, Missouri,
  Nebraska
John Green
Region VIII
1860 Lincoln Street
Denver, Colorado  80203
  Phone:  303-837-3895
  Colorado, Montana, N. Dakota,
  South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming
Paul DeFalco, Jr.
Region IX
100 California Street
San Francisco, California  94111
  Phone:  415-556-2320
  Arizona, California, Hawaii
  Nevada, Guam, American Samoa
James L. Agee
Region X
1200 6th Avenue
Seattle, Washington  98101
  Phone:  206-442-1200
  Washington, Oregon, Idaho
  Alaska
                                     82

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APPENDIX III
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                   IF  YOU  GIVE THIS "AWAL TO A.'IOTHER  INOIVIDUAL, PLTASE  FILL  OUT TME
                   FOLLO'.'INfi:
               .^PDRESS OF
               HEW OI/NER
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                                                   v

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                  THIS  IS  TO ALLO'J US TO KEEP A CURRENT LI^T OF MM'JAL OWNERS.
                  I'./E 'JILL  BE PERIODICALLY SEND I, T. niJT REPLACfT.'.TS A.'ii) AD
                  TO THE 'WIIIAL.


   *              MAIL  THIS  FORM TO:              NATIONAL Air? DATA T>A.'ICM

                                                   1411  '-JEST CilAPEL HILL ST
                                                   OUnM/VI,  .'^"TH C^OLr.'A  27701

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                       SAROAO  ACCESS
   IF YOU GIVE THIS MANUAL TO ANOTHER
   FOLLO'lINfi:
JWMT
                                 wro
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                         MIVIOUAL, PLEASE FILL OUT THE
ADDRESS OF
NEW OWNER
   THIS IS TO ALLO'.J US TO KEEP A CURRENT LIST OF MANUAL OWNERS.
   'JE '//ILL BE PERIODICALLY SENDING OUT REPLACEMENTS AND ADDITP.'IS
   TO THE MANUAL.
   MAIL THIS FORM TO:
                    NATIONAL AIR DATA BRANCH
                    EPA
                    411 !-/EST CHAPEL HILL STPEET
                    DUnHA!1, NORTH CAROLINA  27701

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            SUBJECT:
            FROM:
                               UNITED .STATES Ef-.'VincVvWEMTAL JT.OTF.CTION AGENCY
                                  Office  of Air Quality Planning end Standards
                                    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
                       SAROAD Terminal  Users Manual  Update //I               DATE:
            TO:   TSO Users
      1
     Please make the  following  changes in the SAROAD Terminal

Users Manual:                   .       .      -    •  '  ..

     INSERT PAGES:  49J  -  49.1.2       DELETE PAGES: 75,76,77

                    70.1  --.70.1.8

                    70.2  -  70.2.10               -   '•"•
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                                                           Gerald J. Men Is
                                                                Chief
                                                       t-'C*. td l'!?.'!t'.'""J.'"-!! L O'j','!. I'.'f!
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                  Enclosures

       \  '•
            nPA form U?"-<; (JVv. 6-72)

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     ft     00, SSPCP              •       •         .                  Dett:   HOV. .21,

 Street:     tow Sulfur Coal Shortages and Compliance Schedules


   **;   • Directors, A1r and Water Programs Divisions
           Regions I-X

                On November 3, 1972, the Administrator sent a memorandum (copy
           attached)- to Regional Administrators to reiterate EPA policy and
           priorities relative to SIP revisions and compliance schedules required
           to reduce the projected 1975-77 low sulfur coal deficit.

                The elimination of this deficit in a manner compatible with the
           objectives of the Clean Air Act is of primary concern.  Ultimately,
          •this will require revisions to SIP's to extend the date of compliance
           for many coal-burning power plants in Priority II and III regions.
           State agencies, of course, play the major role in solving this problem.
           So that we may assess progress and keep several headquarters groups
           Informed, we would appreciate periodic reports from each Region on each
           State with low sulfur fuel problems relative to efforts to reduce the
           short-term need for low sulfur coal.  As appropriate, these reports
           Should include information on the following:

                1.  Current estimate of the low sulfur fuel  deficit and discussion
           of any special problems.

                2.  Attitude of the State agencies toward the problem and toward
           wi!Tic cX<,Ci"i jlGi'iS.

                3.  Current proposed variances, hearings scheduled and other action
. '  •       underway by the States that could lead to reduction in short-term demand
           for low sulfur fuels.

                4.  Requirements for support from this office.

                These can be short,  memo reports and are for internal use only.
           I would like a first report from all regions by December 4.  Subsequent
           reports need be submitted only for States where the problem is acuta.
           I will request additional reports when and as needed.
                                                    B. J. Steigerwald
                                                         Director
                                               Stationary Source Pollution
                                                    Control Programs.
                Enclosure

                cc:  Robert Sansom
 P

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l          -         .                      .I-:                          /
*
             cc:  W. Megonnsll
                  J. Padgett
             .   ;  P. Blerbaum
                  M. Storlazzi,  Region I
                  C. Simon, Region II
                  S, Wassersug,  Region III
                  T. G1bbs, Region IV
                  V. Yamada, Region V
                  Dean Mathe\vs,  Region VI
                  D. Durst, Region VII
                •  N. Huey; Region VIII .
                  C. Calkins, Region IX
                  G. Young, Region X
                                             >*


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                                                                2 7 DEC 1972
Procedures for Using EPA/OMD Approved Questionnaire {OMB
Nr. 158-R75) to Acquire Data from Individual Sources
Mr. William Megonnell
Stationary Source Enforcement Division

     Early this year the attached questionnaire was approved by OMU for
use by EPA In acquiring emissions-related Information directly from
facilities discharging air pollutants Into the atmosphere.  Originally,
It was Intended that the questlonnlare would only be enployed by DAMP
personnel, however, we are now receiving numerous requests from EPA
Regional Offices and DSSE personnel for questionnaires to acquire
emissions-related data for sources now being constructed.  Moreover, we
expect an Increasing use of this questionnaire as various groups within
EPA require source data to carry cut their responsibilities In monitoring
and evaluating pollution control activities and progress.

     Due to the potential political coroplications that could arise from
needlessly contacting private sources for Information, It 1s nandatory
that duplicate usage of these questionnaires be strictly avoided and
that all Information received be routinely Incorporated Into the
National Emissions Data Bank (HEOB).  To Insure this, the National Air
Data Branch (NADB) 1s managing distribution of the questionnaires.
Strict control procedures are necessary to prevent unauthorized use of
these questionnaires until EPA personnel are well aware of the potential
political hazards.  A list of those persons authorized to receive
Questionnaires 1s now being constructed by f!ADQ.  Please advise NADU
(John Bosch: FTS 919-688-8491} of the name of one DSSE representative
authorized to order and receive questionnaires.  The two NCDS/SAROAD
representatives 1n each EPA Regional Office will also be Included on
this list, together with the emission Inventory contact in each
Regional Office.,

     Administrative rules for using the questionnaires to solicit data
directly from sources are specified in the attachment.  These procedures
shall be followed by all persons employing the questionnaire for data

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                                  - 2  -
                                                                                         I

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 acquisition.   It must be  emphasized  that authorization for requiring                     I
 sources  to complete these questionnaires Is needed In each Instance
 and Is the sole  responsibility of those persons Initiating the data-
 gathering  program*
                                                                                         I
                                    Robert E. Nellgan
                                        Director                                         •
                                   Monitoring and Data                                   •
                                   Analysis Division
Enclosures
                                                                                         |

cct                                                                                      •
John A.S. McGlennon, Region I                                                            •
Gerald M. ilansler, Region II
Edward W. Furl a, Jr., Region III                                                         •
Jack E, Ravan, Region IV                                                                 |
Francis T. Mayo, Region V
Arthur W. Busch, Region VI                                                               m
Jerone H. Svore, Region VII                                                              •
John A. Green, Region VIII                                                               *
Paul DeFalco, Jr., Region IX
James L. Agee, Region X                                                                  •
Ken Berry, SIB                                                                           •
EIU:JBosch:fhirm 647:Mu:ext
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GUIDELINE  SERIES
           OAQPS NO. 1.2-001
             January 30, 1973
      CRITERIA FOR REVIEW OF TRANSPORTATION



             CONTROL MEASURES
                        US. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards


                            Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

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                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                            Office of Air and Water Programs
                       Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711


                               .                '                     ** Jan.  30,1973

Subject:   Criteria for Review of Transportation Control  Measures

   To.    .
        All Regional Air & Water Program Directors

             The purpose of this  memorandum is to provide criteria to assist
        the Regions in the review and approval of State  Transportation Control
        Measures.  The overall philosophy for development of an "approvable"
        plan is presented and important elements that should be included
        in a good plan are discussed.  It is intended that these criteria serve
        both as an overall  guide  and a check list of the content required in
        an "approvable" plan.  The limits of "reasonableness"  that can be
        accepted are reviewed, particularly with respect to reductions claimed
        for various transportation control  strategies.

        General
             The transportation control  measures  must meet the requirements  of
        the Clean Air Act and existing EPA regulations.   The Transportation
        Control Measures "Guidelines" now published as notice of proposed rule
        making (FR 1464, January 12, 1973) specifically apply to this  portion
        of the State Implementation Plan.  The Act and EPA policy make it very
        clear that these are, above all, to be State plans and States  are to
        be given maximum flexibility to meet the  standards in whatever way is
        optimum for them.  Our role is to see that State plans have a  reasonable
        chance of meeting the standard and that they are generally enforceable.
        In an area as new and qualitative as transportation controls this
        gives us significant freedom in plan approval.  It should be remembered
        that where we disapprove a plan, we must  propose an EPA plan.

             Copies of the recently proposed transportation control plan prepared
        by Region IX for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Intrastate Region, pre-
        sented by the administrator January 15, 1973, have been distributed  to
        all Regions.  It provides an example of an extremely severe plan, necessary
        under the circumstances to comply with the Court Order, the Clean Air Act
        and meet the National ambient air quality standards.  It is not expected
        any other region will require such extensive control measures.  However,
        there~are several considerations in the Los Angeles plan that  are equally
        relevant to less severe control  measures.  They are discussed  below.

        Control Strategies' Emission Reductions

             It can be expected that States will  have various percentage reductions
        claimed for Inspection, Maintenance and Retrofit of motor vehicles.
        Appendix N to the Transportation Control  Measures "Guidelines" contains

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•".ithor specif i,: vrK \s  '.cr  t>.e'
on >-;jther limited tests.   They
for current  planning  purpose  ar
of :,ny states  rtrateou>r.   ^.:i;
transit system: ,  i nip rove  ' ,, --r".
fviyn  not been  cv.c. 'on^d  -  -•.-  f .'
some  guidance  as   In  r>n  •• •;.,. ]'-
the "Six Cities"  ^eporl    '•  '<-•
*TT'Crt,   Th-°rr ' '"•O',1!'1  '
- -.-.-Ğ- s s me nt of  r:--.     ;,<:
      Severe  .-trflt-/: ^t.   •-",";•
resfrici ;-m ,  - ..-   ,  •  •--.- .  • •
should be ooi .;•;.:  c.;-" :-; '. - ; .
ospecidl ly aor~v  -•.•'£;•.
transportal/l cr; .'la;:'^  ur  i. (  '
Although  it  r!;-'-^  ;;e  ^a:,:. .•
gasoline  r^t~ ;-">- " .,  plans  ^:'
more  c-esil.j'  '• '••_.  c.nted r.,f.-:
vnj'  sc^/e ti'f-  !-or-!cm wi'/io
th^t  : rovicit-j fi,-- letter ~, ;s.;
c''nir.,:p i/-, tf,  •-'  '   I'cductior-"
..r     :',,-'•  •-•  I-   ..;    use of  i';'
      Thr pro:\;/ v:-i.n of the  station.-, ••
standa1"-.   .•'(,', a-Kj- ,  it has  bren  riot,-
'.on;?'  ', v  '"'•  ,       •  io  '-•".•''
      Tf.u
if  very
in  the r/"
enn ss
measure   •   '  -  •.    t/ ;
adequate";/  ;       •   "in
in  some  r-. • t.,  .  . •>  • v •• \
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in  the value.v  >r c- '•" :-'.
quirement fc*    ..'..     . •
are otder  •'^'•'\  i ••  • •  •,
be  a prop-" •   ::  •  •-.  - ' <

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     The approach for maintaining surveillance of the air quality and
transportation data togetiier with procedures for alternative action, if
needed, should be included as required in the regulations.

Int e r m i 11ant C o n t r ol__Measmres

     The initial drafts of the transportation "Guidelines" included as
a control measure motor vehicle operation restrictions such as those
contained in the abatement strategies earn-; ion reduction plans.  Hov;ever,
it was considered that problems in enforcenent and adequate forecasting
would mitigate against the feasibility of such strategies.  Nevertheless,
as noted in the Proposed Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate plan, inter-
mittant controls were discussed which prohibit the use of all but certain
classes of vehicles on cJciy-> when the ambient air quality was expected to
be violated.  Although the technical and legal feasibility of such measures
is still uncertain, they may be the most "reasonable" alternative to more
severe strategies applied year around or continously on a seasonal basis.
It is expected, according to some meteorologists, that weather forecasts
based on improved satellite coverage will improve their accuracy, but any
accurate air quality predictions further in advance than 24 hours seem
years^ away.  This is particularly true of oxidant concentrations.

Data Requirements

     The data thdt -,ubc t.uitiates the assu./pf inns, Calculations , and con-
clusions reijnrciir,; contvo1 measure strategics. Lfiouid be consistent with
the intent of Appendix M to the transportation control "Guidelines".
Since these data art. v :ainr><-j o:, an on call basis, there is some measure
of judgment involved as to whether they are convincing evidence of the
validity of the control measures.  A good index of validity would be
their potential suitability as a form for evidence in the event of a
possible lawsuit   Arihr reive '.••• Appendix M will preclude "holes" in the
data.  However, to be acteutab le, the data does not need to be in the
exact format called for in the guidelines,

Resources & ScheduIes

     Resources to be made available to monitor, enforce and accomplish
the mechanical aspect:, of the strategies should be well defined.
Strategies that require massive equipment purchases such as busses or
people movers """Should be capable of achievement in the context that
other areas of the country also will be expanding mass transit and re-
quiring additional equipment.  Since EPA cannot promulgate substitute
federal regulations if State resources are not adequate, this portion of
a plan may require negotiation with the State.  Generally we must accept
promises that the Statf intends to try for such resources.  Schedules
for accomplishing the strategies should be presented and be reasonably
possible of achievement.

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Enforcement

     Strategies should be enforceable at the state  or local  level.   Many
options will not bo in the form of regulations  that arc  directly  enforce-
able such as car pools, 'and mass transit.   Much judgment will  be  needed
and it should be remembered that each plan is unique and there may  be  a
valid basis in many plans for giving credit for these controls.

     If strategies are in AQCR's that involve more  than  one  state,  it
should be explained how the reductions are apportioned and how the
strategies can be enforced.  This is particularly important  where large
commuter traffic originates in one state and travels to  the  business
district of another.

     Strategies that involve federal jurisdictions, such as  interstate
airlines, should have an  explanation as to how the  restrictions or  pre-
dicted emission reduction will be enforced and what other agencies  must
approve the proposals (i.e. FAA).

     The Office of Enforcement and General Counsel  (OEGC) will review  all
plans for legality and enforceability and provide you with their  comments.
They will also be available for guidance on legal and enforcement questions
on an individual item basis.

Technical Assistance

     In addition to the BOA Contract data previously noted (six cities,
fourteen cities and Washington, D.C.), an additional technical assistance
task order is being prepared to provide EPA with an evaluation of the
aggregate impact of the State plans.  Two reports will be prepared:
one dealing with the social and economic impact of  the transportation
control strategies, due in March 1973, and the other describing the
general and specific features of the various plans.  The later report,
due in April 1973, will be useful in the preparation of  the  preamble to
the Federal Register Publication of approval/disapproval notices  con-
cerning the states' Transportation Control Measures.

     It can be expected that questions will arise which  are  not addressed
in these "Guidelines".  We plan to call a meeting of Regional  Transporta-
tion Control representatives in late February to exchange information
and answer quest'ions you  may have.  In the interim, please call Dr.
Ron Venezfa, Fred'Winkler, or Don Armstrong, Land Use Planning Branch,
(919) 688-8291, for clarification of any questions  or 'discussion of
specific local problems.

Evaluation Report

     Based on past experience we can expect many lawsuits on our decision
on these transportation control plans.  Therefore,  it becomes  important
that a comprehensive evaluation report be prepared on each plan showing
clearly the basis for my significant decision made.

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     Jn general, EPA does not wish to promulgate regulations unless  it
is absolutely necessary.   However, overly optimistic plans that would bo
approved now could lead to obvious problems in a few years.   Thus  the
Regions should maintain close liaison with the states to assure that the
transportation control  plans, even with some sections requiring more
definitive data later,  are "approvable" in the period between now  and
June 15, 1973.

     Where it is obvious  that EPA must promulgate regulations,
cognizant Regions should  make early preparations for the draft of
the preamble, regulations and briefing memorandum similar to that
prepared by Region IX for the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate  Region,
According to the Clean  Air Act, such regulations must be promulgated
by August 15, 1973.  However, the approval cycle is such that drafts of
these plans must be submitted by about April 27, 1973 to allow for the
proposal, hearings, interagency review and incorporation of comments.
We will be sending you  soon a more detailed schedule and flow chart for
plan review and approval.
                                        .  Steigerwald
                                         Director
                                  Office of Air Quality
                                  Planning and Standards
cc:  Transportation representatives
     Reviewers

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                                          I
                            APTD-1569        |
          FINAL REPORT                 .

          SULFUR OXIDE                 .
      CONTROL TECHNOLOGY             *
       ASSESSMENT PANEL               I
             (SOCTAP)                    .
                ON                        •
     PROJECTED UTILIZATION            I
OF STACK GAS CLEANING SYSTEMS        .
   BY STEAM-ELECTRIC PLANTS          *
                                          I
                                          I
                                          I
                                          I

                                          I
                                          I
         Submitted

         to the

   FEDERAL INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE
EVALUATION OF STATE AIR IMPLEMENTATION PLANS
                                          I
          by                         I
   Sulfur Oxide Control Technology
       Assessment Panel

                                    I
       April IS, 1973

                                    I
                                          I

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                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
  I.   INTRODUCTION                                         i


 II.   SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS                          1


      A.   Summary	   1

          1.   Technological Status	   1
          2.   Performance	   3
          3.   Cost	   4
          4.   Associated Environmental Factors	   5
          5.   Institutional Barriers	   6
          6.   Forecasting of Utilization of
              Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems	   7


      B.   Recommendations.	, .	   9


III.   DESCRIPTION AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS OF
      FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS                    13

      A.   Wet Lime/Limestone Systems	  13
      B.   Magnesium Oxide Scrubbing	  22
      C.   Catalytic Oxidation (Cat-Ox)	  25
      D.   Wellman-Lord Process (Sodium Base
          Scrubbing with Regeneration)	 ,	  30
      E.   Double Alkali Systems	  33
      F.   Dry Limestone Injection.	  36

 IV.   PERFORMANCE AND COST COMPARISONS OF
      FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS                    39


      A.   General Considerations	  39
      B.   New Versus Retrofit Installations	  39
      C.   Throwaway Versus Saleable Product Systems	  40

          1.   Throwaway Processes	  40
          2.   Recovery Systems	  41

      D.   Development 01 Comparable Cost Projections....  43

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      E.   Cost and Performance Comparisons	   44

          1.   Low Sulfur Fuel	   46
          2.   Dry Limestone Injection	   46
          3.   Wet Lime/Limestone Scrubbing	   46
          4.   Magnesium Oxide Scrubbing	   47
          5.   Monsanto Catalytic Oxidation	   47
          6.   Wellman-Lord	   47
          7.   Double Alkali Process	   47

      F.   Specific Cost Examples	   47

  V.  ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS                    52

      A.   Quantification of the Problem	   52
      B.   Throwaway Product Disposal	   55
      C.   Sale of Sulfur Products	   56

 VI.  INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO APPLICATION
      OF SULFUR OXIDE CONTROL SYSTEMS                     59

      A.   Institutional Barriers in the Electric
          Utility Industry	   59

          1.   Reserve Generating Capacity
              and Scheduling of Retrofits	   60
          2.   Lack of Familiarity with Chemical Processing
              Technology within the Electric Power
              Industry	   66
          3.   Competing Fuel Supply/Environmental
              Protection Strategies	   67

      B.   Institutional Barriers in the Control
          Systems Industry	   69

          1.   Utility Engineers	   70
          2.   Consulting Engineers	   70
          3.   Scrubber Vendors	   70

VII.  FORECASTING SULFUR OXIDE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY         75

      A.  Recent Trends in Orders for Flue
          Gas Desulfurization  Systems	   75
      B.  Forecasting Applications of Flue Gas
          Desulfurization Systems	   77

      APPENDIX                                            87

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                      I .  INTRODUCTION
     This is the final report* of tho Fedora 1 interagency
committee established to assess the potential for utiliza-
tion of flue gas desulfurization (Snx control) systems by
steam electric plants,

     Previous studies have indicated that the implementation
of State Air Implementation Plan (SIP) regulations limiting
the sulfur content of fossil fuel can result in a demand for
low sulfur coal that greatly exceeds the supply. Such studies
have indicated a possible deficit in low sulfur coal in 1975
of as much as 250 million tons.  This is equivalent to
100,000 megawatts, expressed as steam electric plant capacity.
Flue gas desulfurization can reduce this shortage by removing
sulfur oxides from th*1 stack gas an lieu of requiring
substitution of low .•r.nlrar t u>l ,  However,  it is currently
estimated that less Midti  1.5,000 megawatts of SOX control would
be available by 19/t;

     Stack gas cleaning to reduce sulfur oxides, both in the
near and intermediate future, offers potential as an important
technological option to fuel switching.  Recognition of this
by the Federal Interagency Committee responsible for evalua-
tion of SIP's resulted in the formation in May 1972 of an
interagency task force to conduct a more detailed evaluation
of SOX control systems.  This group, designated the Sulfur
Oxide Control Technology Assessment Panel  (SOCTAP), had as
primary objectives (1) to attempt to quantify the availability
of stack gas cleaning bysxcn-.s to steam, electric utilities in
1975, 1977, and beyond, and  (2) to identify possible actions
that might serve to maximize the utilisation of these systems,
if desirable.  It is important to note that this study is
limited to stack gas cleaning.  It does not attempt to assess
other alternatives to this technology, nor to assess the
relative merits of competing technologies.  The task force
consisted of the following members:

     R. Berkowitz         Knvironmental Protection Agency
     S. Gage              Office of Science & Technology/
                          Council on Environmental Quality
     B. Haffnei           Department of Commerce


*This report rep"Fe~sents the view of the individual SOCTAP
members and not necessarily those of their respective agencies

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     R. Jimeson         Federal Power Commission
     J. Padgett         Environmental Protection  •'Vjency
     F. PrincioLta      Environmental Protection  Agency
     E. Shykind         Department; of f\.n>T-iei ct-

     We recognized  eariy in th^ .;•* u iy  M;t. a compi enensive
analysis of every  aapt-ct of -;i;., 1 lets :md met with  representatives
of the Eciison Elect! , r  institvtc  ind the National Construc-
tors Association.   - -i  industry  ^ntacts .led   ?•>  i.o conclude
that information on  SOX technology in  .T-ipau vis  essential
to our study.  We  t'orefore sent two of our members to
Japan for a first-bund  assess*:;*, nc. of this  technology.

     A preliminary  draft of thf tinal  report was submitted
for review and comment  on November 16, 1972, to  the Federal
Interagency Committee  for Eva.luat.ion of State  ."  .  Implemen-
tation Plans.  All  information and findings preae.nt.ed are
as of the ^^ o^^thaV^draft reportT   Written  comments were
received from the  Departments of Interior, Con-u-neroe,  and
Agriculture,  Atomic  Energy Cor^u i ^;- ion, Federal Power  Commis-
sion, and' che Offi:,-£  c.i ^n;ergt.:ic/ Preparedness.   These
comments were rarer wily reviewed cy task force members and
the majority  of ^osiments considered within the Fcope  of the
SOCTAP charter were  Accepted and  integrated into the  final
report.  The  rr^j^,  ^ .< -rpt.ionj \':\-*:- Uiose by the  ;. i'C.   The
FPC task f;ir-v rr.r." .;<•-,   ind FPC ^oviewers veie nij  h trox'e
pessimistic chan  the  other task force  members  -,..  .-tiiur
Federal Agencies  relative? to the  technological -.-status of
stack gas cleanivi.   We were :>;;-c  .j].ie  to reconc-: u- their
viewpoint witn  :.hai. •.)!'  other r.isk lotce- member fa

     Our conclus io-r.o  =u:.i t occr'i >t nf.'a " ions are ^ros-rnted in
Section II.   Discussions of Sux cor>trol technology, cost
and performance of competing systems,  environmental factors,
institutional fact
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          II.  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
                     A.  Summary

     Many factors must be considered in estimating the
utilization of stack gas cleaning systems by the utility
industry.  These include technology, cost, adverse environ-
mental effects, institutional barriers, and the ability of
the suppliers to produce and install all of the systems
demanded.  These factors interact and combine to determine
both the decision to buy, which must be made by the individual
utility, and the aggregate supply constraints and secondary
impacts which may limit the utilization.  Uncertainties in
the assessment of these factors have been a major barrier to
widespread application of stack gas cleaning systems.  We
have not made an exhaustive assessment of each factor, but
we believe each has been examined sufficiently to support
the conclusions and recommendations presented.  Detailed
findings are discussed in Chapters III-VII.  Our major find-
ings are given in the following sections.

     1.  Technological Status

     We have examined the status of stack gas cleaning
technology in the United States and Japan and have concluded
that sulfur dioxide removal from stack gases is technologi-
cally feasible in commercial-sized installations.  We have
concluded that the technological feasibility should not now
be considered a decisive element in the utilization of these
systems and that a large fraction of the nation's coal-fired
steam electric plants can ultimately be fitted with commer-
cially available stack gas cleaning systems.

     The reliability of currently available systems has been
the subject of some question.  We concur that SOX control
systems must exhibit the high degree of reliability required
by the utility industry.  We believe that the required reli-
ability will be achieved with the early resolution of a
number of applications engineering problems related to specific
hardware components and system design parameters.  Solutions
to each of these problems have been developed and demonstrated
at one or another location.  We do recognize, though, that
solutions reached at one installation may not be entirely
transferable to all other installations.
                         -1-

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     In view of the fact that a number of large scale
plants scheduled for operation in the U.S. in the near
future will provide additional engineering effort to
solve these problems, we believe that an additional
eighteen months operating experience (or by 1974) should
effectively remove engineering barriers to the application
of stack gas cleaning to many facilities.

     Flue gas desulfurization systems can be classified
into two general categories:  (a) throwaway product systems
where the sulfur product is disposed of as waste or (b)
saleable product systems where the sulfur product (such
as sulfuric acid) is marketed.  The state of the art of
SOX desulfurization technology has advanced rapidly over
the last year.  Two plants with throwaway products -
Chemico's calcium hydroxide scrubbing system in Japan and
Babcock and Wilcox's. limestone scrubbing system on a
Commonwealth Edison boiler - and two plants with saleable
products - Chemico's regenerative magnesium oxide process
on a Boston Edison plant and Wellman Lord/MKK regenerative
sodium sulfite process on a boiler in Japan - are considered
particularly significant.

     To date, the most successful operation of a throwaway
system has been the Chemico calcium hydroxide scrubber
process which has operated on the coal-fired boiler at
the Mitsui aluminum plant in Japan since March 29, 1972,
without any significant down-time; availability of this
unit has been effectively 100 percent since start-up.
Both sulfur dioxide and particulate removal efficiencies
have been quite high and there is an important similarity
between this application and typical U.S. requirements.
Babcock and Wilcox's limestone scrubbing unit on Common-
wealth Edison's Will County plant near Chicago,  since  its
start-up in February 1972, has indicated reasonably high
SO2 removal efficiencies and the promise of reliable opera-
tion in the near future.  The major problem afflicting the
throwaway processes is developing techniques for disposing
of sludge materials in an ecologically satisfactory manner
without excessive costs.  It is  considered important that
acceptable disposal techniques be expeditiously  developed.
Without these techniques, sludge disposal will remain  a
serious constraint to the utilization of  throwaway systems
at many power plant locations.

     Of the regenerable  systems, the Wellman Lord regenerable
sodium sulfite scrubbing process has operated most reliably
                         -2-

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to date.  A unit treating flue gas at Japan Synthetic
Rubber's Chiba Plant has shown reliable and efficient
operation since June 1971, producing high quality sulfuric
acid.  The main disadvantage of this system is the require-
ment for discarding a sodium sulfate bleed stream which is
ecologically and economically undesirable.  However, there
are indications that bleed rates can be substantially
decreased so that less than five percent of incoming flue gas
sulfur need be discarded, compared to the present ten percent.

     Chemico's magnesium oxide system at Boston Edison's
Mystic Station started up in April 1972, and has operated
intermittently since then due to mechanical difficulties.
However, sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies have been in
excess of 90% with no apparent scrubber problems.  Preliminary
experience with the critical regeneration system has been
promising.  There appears to be a high probability for reliable
operation of this unit in the near future. Among the more
advanced processes, this process is somewhat unique in that no
major ecological problems have been identified. However,
problems in marketing large quantities of sulfuric acid may
limit acceptability of saleable product systems to only a
fraction of the total potential flue gas desulfurization market.

     2. Performance

     When evaluating SO? removal efficiencies, it should be
noted that a removal efficiency of about 75% is needed to
meet the New Source Performance Standards with 3% sulfur
bituminous coal.  Generally efficiencies of 85% are sufficient
to meet the sulfur dioxide emission limitations of most State
Implementation Plans.

     As discussed above, a number of stack gas cleaning systems
are being tested and evaluated.  At the Mitsui aluminum plant
near Omuta, Japan, the Chemico scrubbing unit has exhibited
reliable, essentially trouble-free operation, with removal
efficiencies of 80% to 90% since March 29, 1972.  The Wellman-Lord
scrubbing unit, at the Japan Synthetic Rubber plant near Chiba,
has accumulated over 9000 hours of operation since June 1971
with a removal efficiency averaging about 90%.

     The only U.S. plants that have yet achieved sufficient
operating  experience to report long-term average removal
rates are the Combustion Engineering limestone injection/
wet scrubbing systems.  These have exhibited average removal
rates in the range of 60% - 80%.  However, performance results
                          -3-

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to date indicate that at the upper end of this range
these systems are more prone to chemical scaling and
other operating problems.

     Short-term testing of the Babcock and Wilcox wet
limestone scrubber at Commonwealth Edison's Will County
plant and the Chemico wet  magnesium oxide scrubber at
Boston Edison's Mystic plant have exhibited removal
efficiencies of 75-85% and 90%, respectively.  It does
not appear that there are insurmountable chemistry
related problems at these higher removal efficiencies
for these two plants.

     It should be noted that many stack gas cleaning
processes, particularly lime/limestone wet scrubber
systems, are also capable of efficient particulate
removal.  In fact, most planned and installed stack gas
cleaning systems are designed to meet both SC>2 and
particulate removal specifications.

     3.  Cost

     The incremental capital costs for including a stack
gas scrubbing installation in the construction of new
generating plants ranges from a low of $30 to a high of
$50 per kilowatt capacity.  This would include particulate
control equipment, where required.  The average incremental
cost for new generating plants is expected to be around
$40/kw.

     Capital costs for retrofit installations to existing
generating plants in most cases is expected to be in the
$45 to $65/kw range.  For some retrofitted plants, installa-
tion costs have been estimated as high as $80/kw or more.
However, the practical limiting cost for retrofitting is
fixed by economic considerations at each particular plant.

     Based on the forecasts of the amount of stack gas
cleaning that might possibly be installed under the assump-
tions used in this study, the total investment between 1975
and 1980 for stack gas cleaning would be $8.2 billion in
addition to $78 billion of new generating capacity invest-
ment. This represents almost 10% of the total future capital
requirements for the industry.

     The annual costs estimated for stack gas cleaning
range from 1.1 to 3.0 mills per kilowatt-hour, with a mean
of about 2.0 mills/kw-hr.  The average national consumer
                         -4-

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cost for power is about 17.8 mills/kw-hr.  (1971, Edison
Electric Statistical Yearbook).   Assuming stack gas clean-
ing costs are passed on, consumer cost for electricity
could increase by as much as 17%.

     Annual costs are difficult to generalize because of the
present lack of sufficient operating data on large scale
installations, the variability resulting from different
process type, specific installation cost factors, and varia-
tion in cost accounting procedures.  In the figures for
annual costs cited in this report, the fixed charge portion
includes depreciation of capital equipment over 15 years on
a straight line basis.  Operating costs include a charge for
parasitic power consumption.

     4.  Associated Environmental Factors

     The disposal of waste products from stack gas cleaning
systems still remains a major problem with serious environ-
mental consequences.  Based on a potential installation of
100,000 MW of flue gas desulfurization, calculations indicate
that 48 million tons per year of throwaway sludge would be
produced.  This corresponds to a potential land requirement
of 160 square miles assuming a 20-year storage requirement
and ponding to a 10-foot depth.  This should be compared to
a 50 square mile requirement  for flyash disposal under the
same assumptions.  In some rural plants, sludge materials
can be disposed of in a pond on the power plant site.  In
urban applications the sludge can be transported for landfill,
but the transportation costs may be prohibitive in certain
situations.  Although it is feasible to minimize potential
water pollution and land deterioration problems by closing
the scrubber liquor loop and by careful engineering of disposal
sites, it is essential that development and demonstration
efforts be accelerated in this area to obtain satisfactory
solutions to this problem before its full impact is felt in
the 1975-80 time period.

     Due to the great difficulty of storing and marketing
large quantities of sulfuric acid under future supply/demand
constraints, it is estimated that only a relatively small
fraction of flue gas desulfurization systems will produce
saleable H2SO4.  From an environmental viewpoint, the most
manageable sulfur product appears to be elemental sulfur,
since:   (a)  it can be economically stored for sale in
certain locations;  (b) it would drastically reduce land
                         -5-

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requirements if treated as a throwaway product; and (c)
it is an insoluble and inert material with no apparent water
pollution potential.  The major obstacles to use of elemental
sulfur producing control processes are the lack of demon-
strated technology and unfavorable economics,  if treated
as a throwaway product.

     5.  Institutional Barriers

     There are a number of institutional barriers in the
electric utility and control systems industries to the
accelerated application of SOX control systems.  These
barriers can combine to delay the ordering, fabricating,
assembling, and placing into operation of SOX scrubbing systems.
Some of the most important are (a) the adequacy of the market
demand to encourage development of a supply industry; (b)
necessity to maintain adequate electrical reserve generation
margin; (c) lack of process chemistry expertise in the elec-
tric utility industry; and (d) fuel switching alternatives
where higher costs for low sulfur fuels can be passed through
to consumers by means of fuel adjustment clauses.

     An important factor now restricting system installation is
the currently limited market demand for the SOX control sys-
tem.  This lack of demand by the electric utilities and other
industries arises from a number of primary factors such as
lack of confidence in the ability of the vendors to perform
as promised, an anticipation that regulations may be altered
in the near future, potential difficulties in raising capital
and obtaining rate increases to cover expenses  for pollution
abatement, and the lack of suitably trained personnel in the
industry to evaluate and operate these systems.  With increased
demand pressure, scrubber systems probably could be constructed
at a hicfher rate than at present.

     Elimination of these primary factors which are now  limiting
market demand will require time to accomplish.  Familiarity
with the technology is increasing but confidence in system
reliability depends critically on scrubber operating experience
during the next few months.  A sudden surge of  orders could
swamp the productive capacity of  the control  systems industry,
though, and scrubbers which might otherwise be  brought  on line
in 24-30 months may be delayed a  year or more.

     Nationally in  the electric power industry,  there  is
certainly  an upper  limit  to the generating capacity which
can be retrofitted  each year  because of  the necessity  to
maintain adequate  reserve margins.  While  that quantity is
somewhat above present estimates  of market demand  or what
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the control system vendors can now supply,  this factor may
preclude higher rates of installation.  In particular,
there may be severe scheduling problems in retrofittinq
scrubbers in the middle central and middle southern parts
of the country where the large coal-fired utilities, already
under pressure because of delays in new generating equipment,
are concentrated.

     There is little expertise in large-scale chemical process
technology within the electrical utility industry.  Thus,
there may be serious operational problems once the scrubbers
are installed because of the lack of familiarity with the
operational details of the scrubbing system.  The utilities
now depend almost completely on the control systems vendors
and engineering consultants for technical advice.  However,
because of past experience, particularly with the dry lime-
stone injection/wet scrubbing systems, utilities are wary of
vendor claims.

     There are several economic disincentives involved in
installing stack gas scrubbers.  The utilities can meet the
SOX standards by converting coal-fired plants to low sulfur
oil or by securing low sulfur coal.  Both of these options
have, in turn, broad implications for national economic and
environmental policies.  Even with much higher costs for the
low sulfur fuels, many utilities are allowed to pass most of
these increased fuel costs directly and immediately on to
the consumer without regulatory commission action.  On the
other hand, utilities must apply for rate increases to cover
the capital and operating expenses of the scrubbers.

     In the construction industry, localized shortages of
pipefitters, boilermakers, and possibly other skilled workmen
may delay scrubber projects.  If intense competition  for
skilled metal-workers does develop because of construction
booms in refineries, waste treatment  systems, etc., then  it
is certain that scrubber installation schedules will be de-
layed, and installation costs will be escalated.

     6.  Forecasting of Utilization of Flue Gas
         Desulfurization Systems

     In the United States during the  1973-80 period,  electric
utilities will probably continue the  current pattern  in
selecting wet scrubbing systems, with the majority  of orders
probably for wet lime/limestone scrubbers producing a throw-
away sludge.  There probably will be  a limited number of  orders
for regenerative processes using reagent liquors based on
magnesium, sodium, and other compounds.
                          — "7 —.

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    Forecasts based on SOCTAP estimates of the regulatory
enforcement pressures, utility demand, and supplier capa-
bilities indicate that as much as 20,000 MWe of generating
capacity could be equipped by SOx scrubbing systems by the
end of 1975 but more likely the capacity will be closer to
10,000 MWe.  By the end of 1977 the equipped capacity may
be 48,000-80,000 MWe which would allow the use of high sul-
fur coal to supply 2§-40% of the utility heat required from
coal in that year.  Again, realism dictates that the lower
end of the range would be the best guess because of the like-
lihood of near-term delays and the uncertainties in estimat-
ing the effect of interactions between the factors considered.

    With steady growth in the control system industry based
on a firm market in the utility industry, at least 75% of the
coal-fired capacity conceivably could be equipped with stack
gas scrubbers by 1980.  This could permit the utilization of
over 400 million tons of high sulfur coal in that year.  Such
an estimate, however, does not take into account chemical coal
cleaning processes such as liquifaction  and gasification
which may become available on a limited basis in the 1977-1980
timeframe.

    Our forecast is based on the results of many discussions
with utilities, manufacturers, and others to attempt to identi-
fy  and quantify those factors which might limit the utiliza-
tion of SOx control systems.  These include consideration of
the technology, cost, environmental effects, factors affecting
utility demand, other institutional barriers, and the ability
of the industry to produce and install the systems.

    Our estimates are the result of an intuitive and analyti-
cal blending of these factors.  The concept of  "choke point"
or limiting factor is an integral part of our assessment.
For example, if the technology is not available, a deluge of
orders by the utilities will not automatically  result in
increased utilization.  Given the technology and sufficient
orders, the "choke point" may be determined by  considerations
such as financing, engineering design, scrubber production,
construction, or possibly the ability of the utilities to
phase in the operation of SOX control systems without risking
unduly low reserve margins.  It is apparent also that the
choke point will change with time.  Elimination of the con-
trolling 'thoke point? allows the utilization rate to increase
until a new factor is controlling.  This new rate may or may
not represent a significant increase  in utilization rate.
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    An upper  limit of  24,000 MWe and  80,000 MWe by  the
end of 1975 and  1977,  respectively, is  forecast based on
the assumption that  the "choke point!1 is  supplier capability.
Orders for systems for 1975 must be placed within the next
6-9 months, with 24-30 months then  required to brinq each
system on line.   The lower limit, of 10,000 MWe and  48,000
MWe for  1975  and 1977, respectively,  assumes  the  likeli-
hood of  delays in excess of 6-9 months  before utility
demand increases significantly.  Thus,  utility demand is
the initial "choke point."  Factors affecting this  demand
are many.  The assumption that  a combination  of factors
and the  resulting utility demand constitute   the  real
"choke point1 leads us to conclude that the  lower estimates
are the  more  realistic.
                     B.   Reconunendati.gns_

     The momentum for utilization  of  stack  gas  cleaning
 appears to  be  building  and  probably  will continue  at some
 rate without the need for additional assistance  from the
 Federal government.   We believe,  however,  that the rate of
 utilization of these systems  could be accelerated,  if it
 is  deemed desirable, by implementing the following recom-
 mendations.  Consistent with  the  limited objectives of this
 study,  the  recommendations  are  addressed only  to stack gas
 cleaning.   This is not  to imply,  however,  that alternatives
 to  stack gas cleaning are less  desirable and should not be
 encouraged.

         1.  A major factor which limits utility demand
         appears to be  a lack of  up-to-date knowledge of
         the status of  SOX  technology and  other  informa-
         tion  needed by the individual utility to  decide
         how to meet its local  sulfur regulations  and
         how to plan a  program  to implement this decision.
         We recommend the institution of an effective pro-
         gram  of SOX control  technology transfer to be
         carried out by one or  more  Federal agencies to
         assist the utilities and industrial boiler opera-
         tors  in identifying  potential technologies and
         solving technical  staffing  problems associated
         with  the operation of  the scrubbers.  This
         activity would cover not only information
         dissemination  on hardware but would address
                         -9-

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operations and manpower problems within the
utility/industry context.  A possible model
might be the combination of a policy committee
under the Federal Council for Science and
Technology or the Council on Environmental Quality
and an operations office under EPA Control Systems
Division.  This arrangement could go a long way
toward meeting the twin objectives of putting a
new face on the Federal government's attempts to
accelerate the application of SOX control techno-
logy while ensuring the required level of technical
expertise in the operational arm.  It would also
have explicit responsibility for the dissemination
of information about foreign developments in SOX
control.

2.  Accelerate R&D in critical areas of SOX
control technology.  In particular, Federal R&D
efforts should be expanded to accelerate the
development of improved scrubber solid waste
management processes.  It also is strongly recom-
mended that the Federal government continue
support of ongoing government sponsored programs
to develop SOX control processes.  The need for
the development of advanced SOX control processes
is clearly recognized to expand the options avail-
able to industry and the Federal government, parti-
cularly processes with more environmentally accept-
able by-products.  However, the committee was not
in unanimous agreement that programs for advanced
processes should be wholly or predominantly funded
by the Federal government.

3.  Explore a variety of incentives to accelerate
the application of SOX control systems, and/or dis-
incentives  for substitute or alternative pollution
control strategies.  The following incentives and
disincentives might be considered:

      (a)  Modification of the fuel adjustment clause
     provision now operable in many states to in-
     hibit utilities from passing through to the
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consumers the high cost of low sulfur I iu-I
rather than installing SOx control systems
which would require public utility commission
action to increase the rate base.  This
problem could be explored with the Nat ion.>1
Association of Regulatory Utility Commissions
(NARUC).

(b)   Simplification of the procedures re-
quired by public utility commissions for
utility companies attempting to obtain rate
increases to cover the costs of pollution
abatement devices such as SOX scrubbers.
Removal of this disincentive is closely
coupled to changes in the fuel adjustment
clause and could also be explored with
NARUC.

(c)   Institution of a grant-in-aid program
through EPA to assist in the purchase of SOX
control equipment.  A variation of this
approach would be a low-interest loan program
in which a fraction of the loan would be for-
given when the scrubber system goes into
operation.

(d)   Sulfur tax with a rebate clause so that
the utilities would pay a sulfur emission
charge until their scrubber goes into operation
and then taxes paid during the construction
and shakedown phase would be rebated.  Al-
ternatively, a clause for suspension of the
tax during the period of construction and
shakedown phase could be considered.

(e)   Residuals subsidy program under which  a
base-level price would be established for
scrubber residuals such as sulfur, H2S04,  and
CaSC>4 to encourage beneficiation of the scrubber
sludge to a potentially useful product, even
though that product may have to be stockpiled.
This could avoid premature commitment of large
areas of land to non-reclaimable sludge ponds.
           -11-

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4.   Encourage Labor and Commerce Departments to
determine national needs for skilled technical
manpower (boilermakers, pipefitters, etc.) for which
there may be intense competition among several
competing industries (SOX scrubbers, refineries,
etc.). Where potential shortages are indicated,
special programs to provide the manpower supply
and increase its productivity may be required.

5.   Encourage interagency efforts to devise
policies (and propose legislation if necessary)
to provide special incentives for the use of  low
sulfur fuel by small industrial boiler and area
sources.   This would direct the low sulfur fuels
toward users for whom SOX control methods would
be prohibitively expensive.  This would result
in a strategy which would influence fuel purchas-
ing patterns by inhibiting utilities and large
industries from tying  up available low sulfur
fuel supplies by outbidding the small consumers
with long-term contracts.
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          III.  DESCRIPTION AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS OK

                  FLUE GAS DESULFURIZAT10N SYSTEMS
     There are more than fifty SO2 flue gas desulfurizaLion
control processes, and their major variations.  Of those,
only five are considered developed sufficiently to enable
reasonable estimation of expected performance and economics.
For the purposes of this discussion, four of these five
processes are considered sufficiently developed, with
acceptable S02 removal efficiencies, to potentially make a
significant contribution to the control of new or modified
power plants within the next five years.  The dry limestone
injection process, although well characterized, has a
removal efficiency too low for most boiler control require-
ments .


     The four processes which are considered sufficiently
developed to potentially desulfurize flue gas on a full-
scale commercial basis, within the next five years, are:


     Wet lime/limestone scrubbing
     Magnesium oxide scrubbing
     Catalytic oxidation
     Wet sodium-base scrubbing with regeneration  (Wellman-
     Lord Process)


     An additional process, the double alkali process,  is
also potentially  important, and could be added to the above
list if process technology development is accelerated.


     The following discussion describes and presents the
status of: wet lime/limestone systems, magnesium oxide
scrubbing, catalytic oxidation, the Wellman-Lord process,

double alkali, and dry limestone injection control processes.


            A.  Wet Lime/Limestone Systems


     The great majority of full-size power plant desulfuriza-
tion systems in both the planning and operational phases
involve scrubbing with limestone or lime slurries.   The
primary reasons for this are that these processes  are  more
                       -13-

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fully characterized than other first generation systems;
have relatively low capital and operating costs; and have
high potential removal efficiencies.  However, along with
characterization comes familiarity with such process problems
as chemical scaling, erosion/corrosion, solid waste dis-
posal, and plume heating requirements.

     Several methods have been developed for the use of
limestone and lime in a wet scrubbing process.  The major
variations are schematically illustrated in Figure III-l.
In Method 1, Scrubber Addition of Limestone, the flue gas
is contacted with a slurry containing finely ground lime-
stone. The limestone is added directly to a portion of
scrubber effluent for recycle.  Part of the scrubber dis-
charge goes to a settler (or a pond) where the solid product
is removed.  Settler overflow can either be recycled as
shown or discharged to waste.  The next method, Scrubber
Addition of Lime  is similar to Method I except that the
limestone is first calcined to lime externally before
addition to the scrubber circuit; ordinarily lime is pur-
chased by the utility from lime suppliers.  In the final
method, Boiler Injection, the limestone is calcined in the
boiler (as in the Dry Injection System) and carried to the
scrubber in the flue gas.  Figure III-2 shows the Common-
wealth Edison Company's Will County Station - Unit No. 1.
This unit utilized limestone introduced in the scrubber
circuit and shows the major equipment items needed for a
typical full-size wet limestone installation.

     In addition to being classified according to whether
lime or limestone is the reactant, the above processes are
further classified as cyclic or non-cyclic.  Such a classi-
fication refers to whether the aqueous liquor loop is totally
recycled  (cyclic operation) or totally purged  (non-cyclic
operation) to a stream or reservoir, giving rise to possible
water pollution problems.  In light of such potential water
pollution problems, the great majority of the full-size  in-
stallations operate, or will operate, in a total or near-
total recycle mode.  The ultimate disposition of the sludge
solids is generally in a large pond at the power plant site;
when land is not economically available, the  sludge is
transported to the most economical  surface disposition
area available.
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                                       GAS TO STACK
    STACK
     GAS
                          SCRUBBER
                                       CaCO,
                                             PUMP
                                             TANK
                                                             SETTLER
                         METHOD 1. SCRUBBER ADDITION OF LIMESTONE
                                    CaS03+CaS04

                                     TO WASTE
              STACK ^
               GAS  W~
CaC03
        CALCINER
                                                GAS TO STACK
                                                   Ca(OH)2
                                  SCRUBBER
                       CaO
                     PUMP
                     TANK
                                                                    SETTLER
                                           CaS03+CaS04

                                             TO WASTE
                         METHOD 2. SCRUBBER ADDITION OF LIME

                                                GAS TO STACK
CaC0
        BOILER
                  CaO  GAS
SCRUBBER
                                                   PUMP
                                                   TANK
                                                                  SETTLER
                                METHOD 3. BOILER INJECTION
                                                                           TO WASTE
 Figure  III-l.  Major process variations for  use of  lime or limestone for
                 removal  of S02  from stack gases.
                                       -15-

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                            S
                           •H
                            •M

                            CO



                            X
                            o
                           u
                           g
                           VI
                           •H

                           S
                           rt
                           0)
                           I
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                   The chemical reactions occurring in the above systems,
              although seemingly simple,  are neither well understood nor
              universally agreed upon.   The following chemical reactions
              have been postulated for  flue gas scrubbing with limestone
              slurries and appear to be the most plausible on the basis
              of experimental data available.
                                  |S02(g)5ħ S02(aq)
                        SO^aq)  +  H05iHS05i.H  +

|

                        Ca+4" +
|
                                CaCC>3 (s)^ħCaCO3 (aq)
                               CaCC>3 (aq)^Ca++ + 003=
                                    + 1/2 • H20£CaS03'l/2 H2O(s)
                                    C03= + H+ 5=St  HC03-
                                H++ HC03"-ħH2C03(aq)
fl            The overall reaction is:
                   CaC03(s)  + S02 (g)  + 1/2 H20-*CaS03.l/2 H20(s) + C02 (g)


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                   There has been a considerable amount of bench model,
              pilot plant,  and prototype experimental activity in the
              limestone wet scrubbing area.  An extensive effort has been
              expended on a variety of scrubber types, by a large number
              of organizations, over the last 30 years.  Over the last
              several years, pilot plant effort has been, particularly
              active and substantial advances have been made in wet lime-
              stone technology.  Scrubber types which have received the
              most attention in recent years have been the venturi.
              Turbulent Contact Absorber (TCA), Hydrofilter  (flooded
              marble bed),  spray tower, and packed tower.  Generally,
              pilot plant results have indicated that under carefully
              selected operating conditions, all of these scrubbers,
              with the probable exception of the packed tower due to its
              inherent plugging tendencies, can be operated with rela-
              tively high SC>2 and particulate removal efficiencies
              with acceptable reliability.   Pilot plant testing has in-
              dicated that, with relatively high liquid-to-gas ratios,
              high solids content in the scrubber slurry, long residence
              times in a delay tank following the scrubber, and a proper
              choice of scrubber type, the desirable combination of good
              removal efficiencies without excessive down-time can be
              achieved.

                   For example, the results of both the Ontario-Hydro  and
              the Tennessee Valley Authority  (TVA) pilot plant programs
              indicate that good performance and reliability have been obtained
              on a pilot-size scale.  Ontario-Hydro was able to achieve

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SO  removal efficiencies of 70-80 percent in its spray
tower, under reasonable operating conditions, with good
reliability; scaling or plugging was not a major problem.
TVA has been able to achieve high removal efficiencies foi
three scrubber systems: a venturi-rod  (modified venturi)
spray tower, a three-stage TCA, and multi-grid tower.  For'
the venturi-rod/spray unit, SCU removal efficiencies of
77 percent over a 354-hour test were achieved with only
20 hours of down-time.  Particulate removal efficiency was
measured at from 98.9 percent to 99.3 percent.  For the
TCA unit, S02 removal efficiencies of up to 92 percent
and a particulate removal efficiency of 98.3 percent have
been measured during a 172-hour test.  Although the unit
showed no scaling or plugging tendencies, erosion of the
balls, grids, and nozzles was excessive; design modifications
are being considered to minimize this problem.  For the
multi-grid scrubber, a 270-hour test yielded an S02 removal
efficiency of 85 percent with no scaling or plugging.
Particulate removal was about 98.9 percent.  TVA reports
that demister operation has been troublesome, however, with
some solids buildup  (CaSC>4 •  2H20) .

     At the present time, at least six full-size scrubber
facilities have been constructed and have generated varying
amounts of operating data.  An additional unit, the London
Power Fullham Plant, was constructed and tested in the late
1930's.  This unit is considered the first commercial
application of wet limestone scrubbing of power plant flue
gas.  It was operated from 1936 to 1939, yielding very high
S0_ and particulate removals, without  substantial scaling
or plugging problems.  In  fact, many of  the  techniques used
to control scaling and plugging on this- unit have been
utilized successfully in recent years.   However, the
facility was afflicted with corrosion  and erosion problems
which led to considerable  down-time and high maintenance
costs.  The unit was  taken off the line  during  the early
stages of World War  II, when the  stack plumes were considered
markers for enemy airmen.  Before shutdown,  a plant  modifi-
cation decreased the  removal efficiency  to  90 percent, but
gave  some promise of being able to remain in service for
much  longer periods without repair.  This unit  is considered
to have been the first  to  indicate the feasibility of wet
limestone  scrubbing  for  power  plants on  a commercial basis.
                          — 1 R—
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     In Japan, 156 MWe power plant of the Mitsui Aluminum
Company has been retrofitted with two dual-stage venturi
scrubber systems, each capable of handling 75 percent of
the full-load gas flow.  The system has exhibited reliable,
trouble-free operation since being put on stream on March
29, 1972.  The plant is presently burning 2 percent sulfur
coal and achieving 80 - 85 percent SC>2 removal from the
flue gas using carbide sludge (essentially calcium hydroxide)
as the alkaline absorbent.  The unit passed performance
guarantee tests within four weeks of start-up which required
90 percent SC>2 removal and 90 percent flyash removal at a
specified gas flow rate.  Presently, the unit is operating
at less stringent conditions, but with the aim of meeting
the Japanese regulatory codes.  It should be noted that,
although the system is designed for total liquor recycle,
it did not operate in a totally closed-loop mode for at
least a portion of its operating lifetime.  Appendix A fur-
ther describes this important unit which was recently visited
by SOCTAP members.

     The AB Bahco system, which utilizes a two-stage inspi-
rating scrubber with lime as the reactant, is considered an
important operational scrubber facility despite its small
size  (the equivalent of 25 MWe for the three units).  The
units service three oil-fired boilers in a hospital
in Stockholm, Sweden.  This system, considered among the
more successful of the wet lime scrubbers in operation, has
been routinely operated at 95-98% removal efficiencies.
After three months of service, the scrubber must be shutdown
and hard sulfate scale removed from the demister section.
The demisters have not been equipped with washing sprays,
a possible solution to the scaling.  Recently, Cottrell
announced that it has licensed the Bahco process for use
in the United States.  At the present time, they will accept
orders for scrubber facilities up to 40 MWe per module in
size.

     In the United States, Combustion Engineering, Inc. has
constructed and operated three full-size scrubber facilities:
two in 1968 at existing coal-fired power plants  (the 125
MWe Kansas Power & Light Lawrence Station No. 4 and the
140 MWe Union Electric Meramec No. 2), and the third, on
a new plant  (the 420 MWe Kansas Power & Light Lawrence
Station No. 5).  These units all employ boiler injection of
limestone followed by wet scrubbing in single-stage flooded-
bed scrubbers (method three of Figure IIJ-1). These plants were
expected to remove about 85% of the SC>2 from flue gas generated
using about 3.5% sulfur coal.
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     Multiple problems including corrosion,  plugging of
drain lines, spray nozzles, demister and reheater, lime dis-
tribution and mechanical failure of pumps and other
components were experienced during early stages of operation
of the 125 MWe KP&L Station No. 4.  After incorporation of
several modifications, the system was able to operate for
extended periods with improved reliability even though the
scrubber was periodically taken off line for inspection and
repair and the plant boilers fired on natural gas at these times

     During the first half of 1971, the unit operated with
SC>2 removal efficiencies of 50-65% and up to 90% for short
periods.  In a three-day test period in March 1971,
efficiencies ranging from 52-87%  (averaging 73%) were
achieved while firing 3.4% sulfur coal.

     Problems were experienced at KP&L in early 1972 when
the larger  (420 MWe) unit was added to the system.  The
scrubber on the larger boiler is  said to have caused over-
loading of the ponding system such that scaling occurred in
the scrubber beds of both units.

     Another series of tests were conducted In February-March
1972, which Indicated that lower  gas velocity, high L/Q ratio,
and high solids.recycle would improve the operation of the
facility.  The scrubbing system has been recently modified
to achieve  lower gas velocity, higher L/G and high recycle
of solids.  The object of these revisions is to demonstrate
reliable operation of the system, probably with lower SC>2
removal than originally expected.  The system with these
modifications was tested during October 1972, for approximately
two weeks.  Based on results of operation during  this short
period, KP&L management expects to obtain 75% SO2 removal
and 99+% particulate removal with this system in  long-term
continuous  operation.  This program has been supported by
EPA-funded  testing on the 11,000  CFM Combustion Engineering
pilot unit  in Windsor, Connecticut.

     The Union Electric unit was  also tested in May-June
1971 with S02 removals similar to the 125 MWe unit.  However,
mechanical  equipment problems, mostly unrelated to  limitations
in the process design, limited continuous operation to about
80 hours.   Boiler pluggage was also a major problem with  this
unit.  Recently, Union Electric has announced abandonment of
this unit.
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     The 420 MWe unit was initially tested in September
1971 during which maldistribution of gas flow to the six
scrubbers was noted.  Gas flow control modifications have
since been made.  The unit was started up again using
coal on November 28, 1971.  Currently, information on SC>2
removal is not available for this unit.  This unit is
currently being modified to achieve conditions suggested
by the February-March tests in Unit 4.  Two additional
scrubbers are being installed in parallel to the existing
six scrubbers in order to lower the gas velocity.

     In February 1972, the 175 MWe Commonwealth Edison Will
County Station - Unit No. 1 (Figure III-2) started up.  This
unit has operated intermittently since start-up and has
generally achieved SC>2 removal efficiencies in the range
of 75-85%.  Demister pluggage with a soft, mud-like substance
has been a problem; but with automatic demister washing
with make-up water via bottom sprays and other system modi-
fications, this problem appears to be controllable. There was
no hard scale noted anywhere in the system in operations to
date.  Economic disposal of sludge from this system appears
to be a problem; however, Commonwealth Edison is presently
working on this problem with Chicago Flyash Company.  One of
the first steps taken will be the installation of a sludge
treatment system to allow disposal of sludge with a lower
water content.  None of the problems encountered thus far
in the Will County unit appear to be insurmountable.  This
facility was also recently visited by SOCTAP members and
a more detailed description is presented in the appendix.
This system is the first full-scale installation in the
United States that uses limestone introduced into the scrubber
circuit.  This system is representative of a trend in recent
years away from the boiler injection mode due to the possi-
bility of boiler pluggage and the tendency toward serious
scaling problems.

     It should be noted that EPA is conducting a major test
program in the lime/limestone scrubbing area at the recently
built prototype facility at the TVA Shawnee steam plant near
Paducah, Kentucky.  Bechtel Corporation is the prime con-
tractor for the test program for which TVA is supplying
operational and analytical personnel.  The facility is very
versatile and will test limestone/lime scrubbing in venturi,
                       -21-

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turbulent contact absorber and flooded marble bed scrubbers.
The facility is equipped with extensive process instrumenta-
tion and sophisticated data acquisition and handling systems.
Test phases involving air-water and soda-ash, water, SO2
and flue gas, water, soda ash have been completed.  Testing
with limestone is presently getting underway.  As testing
progresses, the total body of knowledge in wet scrubbing
will be greatly increased.
              B.  Magnesium Oxide Scrubbing

     In many respects,' the magnesium oxide (MgO) scrubbing
process is similar to lime (CaO) scrubbing.  The principal
difference is that the spent magnesium sulfite and sulfate
salts are regenerated producing a concentrated stream of
10-15% S02 and regenerated MgO for reuse in the scrubber
loop.  Since the reactant is recycled, it must be protected
from contamination by fly ash.  It is, therefore, necessary
that the process be applied on an oil-fired boiler or that
the fly ash be sufficiently removed from the flue gas prior
to passing it into the MgO desulfurization process.

     This process was first developed by the Grille Company
of Hamborn, Germany.  In 1968, Grillo scaled up the small
pilot plant which it has operated for about one year to a
15,000 CFM scrubbing facility installed on an oil-fired
boiler of Union Kraft at Wesseling, Germany,  The reactant
used was principally MgO with about 6% manganese dioxide.
Spent reactant from the scrubber was shipped from Wesseling
to Hamborn where it was calcined in a vertical kiln with
a carbon reducing agent to assist in the regeneration of
MgO.  In Japan, the Mitsui Aluminum Company has tested
this system on a pilot-scale basis with generally encourag-
ing results.  During the development program, Grillo adopted
the centralized reprocessing concept which suggests that
the superior economics associated with a large regeneration
facility will offset the cost of transporting spent reactant
to a centralized site and the regenerated reactant back to
the utility.  This coneept is similar to and probably stems
from the custom smelting practices of certain nonferrous
smelting operators, of which Grillo is one.
                        -22-

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     In the United States, the Chemico Corporation is
following a nearly identical approach to that of Grillo.
EPA and Boston Edison are cost-sharing the development
of an MgO scrubbing and regeneration process on a 150
MWe oil-fired unit at Boston Edison's Mystic Station.
The flow sheet for this process is schematically shown
in Figure III-3.  This facility started up in April
1972 and has operated intermittently since then.  Areas
of potential concern with the process, which will be
evaluated during the 12-month test program, include:
potential scaling and plugging problems, attainment of
90% design efficiency, potential erosion/corrosion pro-
blems, effectiveness of the regeneration step, and over-
all system reliability.  The results of these tests will
be particularly important since there is only a limited
amount of information on this process based on prior
pilot plant testing by Chemico and Babcock & Wilcox.
Also, this demonstration represents the first time that
the individual steps of scrubbing, centrifuging, and
calcining have been operated on an integrated basis for
the Chemico system.  The system has thus far in its
intermittent operation achieved 90+% SC>2 removal with
no apparent scrubber related problems; the major problem
area has been with the dryer's operational reliability.

     In the EPA-Boston Edison demonstration, only the
equipment for absorption, centrifuging, and drying is
located at the power plant.  Spent reactant is shipped
to the Essex Chemical Plant at Rumford, Rhode Island,
where it is calcined to produce SC>2 for making about
50 tons per day of 98% sulfuric acid.  The SC>2 produced
during regeneration will provide feed for this plant's
total acid output.

     A second full-scale magnesium oxide S02 removal
facility is planned for Potomac Electric and Power's
Dickerson No. 3 unit.  Approximately 100 MWe of the
195 MWe of this unit will be processed.  Since this
facility burns coal  (3% sulfur, 8% ash), the scrubbing
facility consists of two separate venturi scrubbers.
The first removes fly ash particulates; the second
absorbs the SO^.  Present plans are to use the afore-
mentioned calcination facility located at the Essex
Chtoical Plant.  This facility is scheduled to start
up early in 1974.
                       -23-

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     For both the Boston Edison and Potomac units, the
particulate-free, S02~containing flue gas from the
power plant enters the venturi absorber where it contacts
a dense spray of the slurry absorbing liquor.  The ab-
sorbing liquor consists primarily of magnesium sulfite
(MgS03) , magnesium sulfate  (MgSC>4) , and magnesium oxide
(MgO).  Fresh MgO slurry is added as a makeup.  A bleed
from the absorber goes to a centrifuge for separation
of the solids from the mother liquor.  The mother liquor
is returned to the absorber system.  The wet cake from
the centrifuge, containing water of hydration and surface
moisture, is dried in a direct-fired rotary kiln.  Hot
drier exhaust qa.st.-:; pass to the stack where they provide
reheat for the flue gas from the absorber.

     The anhydrous crystals leaving the drier, after
addition of carbon, are next reacted in a direct-fired
calciner to regenerate MgO arid release sulfur oxide.
The high operating temperature  (about 1800-2000°F) is
needed to regenerate MgO from the relatively small
quantities of MgS04.  7H20 that form from oxidation of
MgS03  *6H20.  The regenerated MgO produced is mixed
with make-up water and reused in the absorber system.
The calciner off-gases containing 15-16% SO2 are sent
to a conventional su If uric acid plant, for further pro-
cessing.  Table IU-1 lists the chemical reactions
which have been postulated for the major steps of the
process.  The appendix describes the status of the
Boston Edison unit, based on a visit by a SOCTAP member.
              C.  Catalytic Oxidation  (Cat-Ox)
     Monsanto has -leveloped a modified version of  the
well-known contact i;jSC)4 process for  removing SO2  from
power plant fine gas.  Basically, the process consists
of passing the flue qas through a fixed catalyst bed
where S02,  in  -iv ;~ie.5ence of O;>, is  converted to  803.
The 803 is thf,1 st sorhed in reci rculated H2S04 in  an
absorption to'wtğ
                       -25-

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         Table III-l.  CHEMISTRY OF MgO Sli'kRV PROCESS

ABSORPTION
    MAIN REACTION
           MgO *$02^6 H£0 -ğ Mg SOj • 6
    SIDE REACTIONS
           Mg S03+SG2 + H20 -ğ Mg (HSOa)2
                              Mg S04 • 7 H20
           MgS03 + l/2 02^7 H20 ~* MgS04 • 7 H20
DRYING
           MgS03-6H20   ^  MgSOa-hBHzO
           M|S04  7 H20   ^  MgS04 *• I H20
                H20(l)   ^  H20(g)
REGENERATION
                  MgS03

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     Besides being designed for the dilute SC>2 concentration
found in flue gas, the Cat-Ox process differs  from  tho  con-
ventional contact process in two principal respects:   first,
the flue gas entering the process must either  already be  at
a high enough temperature, about 850°F, for the conversion
of SOo to 803, or heat must be supplied.  The  heat  of re-
action alone, because of the .low SC>2 concentration,  is  in-
sufficient to maintain the required  temperature. Second,
SC^-containing ya.s  (rlue gas) entering the system is not
dried prior to enieiing the converter.

     For POVC.L j.ioM applications, Monsanto has proposed  two
versions of the process: first, i.he "integrated system"
for use on new plants and second, the  "reheat  system"  for
use on existing plants,  These variations are  shown in
Figures III-4 and ITJĞ[>.

     In the "integrated system-.," schematically depicted
in Figure III-4 hot  flue gas at about  850°F is taken direct-
ly from the boilei and passed through  an efficient  dust
collection system  (mechanical collectors plus  an electro-
static precipitatcr) to remove at  least 99.6% of the
particulates.  The gas then flows through a converter where,
in contact with a vanadium pentoxide catalyst  at about
850°F, oxidation of  the SC>2 occurs.  Flue gas  from  the
converter is next cooled in an economizer followed  by  an
air heater.  By maintaining the operating temperature  of
these units above the dew point of H^SO^, corrosion
problems are avoided.  Sulfuric acid in the flue gas is
then condensed in a  packed-bed absorber by direct contact
with acid recycled from an external cooler, producing  an
80% acid product   Acid mist and day ieiiu-iining dust in  the
flue gas is then,  i ..-moved in a highly efficient,  fiber-type
mist eliminator -mn  passed out the stack.

     The "iehfri\ system" shown in Figure III-5 is similar
to the " i ntt:Mi 01 *••<< '-ystem."  Howevei ğ  the temperature  of  the
entering gas is lyrically about 325°F  in this  system,  com-
pared to 8503F jn the "integrated system."  Therefore,  the
electrostatic precapitator need not be designed  for such  an
extreme temperature  service.  High efficiency  dust  removal
is still required, however.  The low temperature of the en-
tering gas also necessitates raising the gas to  reaction


                      -27-

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temperature before it  enters the converter .   This  is  done
by using  the converter exhaust  qases  to prohe.it the  incominq
gas.   To  supply the  additional  heat  roquii^'i, hot  gas from
the combustion of oil  or  gas is added  ;ii ;{.<. t ly.  With these
exceptions, the two  systems atĞ >"=;••,;,;  >[}y  alike.

     Monsanto tested the  " i M. :-g '. oted  ptocesG" on a 15 MWe
scale  at  Metropolitan  t?._ ;. con • ,s  Port. j,,nd ,.; t.tti on .   These
tests,  which cove tea a tvvo-yt-ar period from  1967 to  1969,
indicated the cap -,r; i i 1 1   ut r he m'<->.-"rbJ- *;> remove  85-90%
of the sulfui xii;-- '' '-.- ,  •, n a'.'/n •, ion,  the information
required  for 3caj >-•;[  •.. r  tn - pi'-.e,^-:  /  •;-•  ,>bt3 !.:,ed .
     The  princip,-,!  t^chr.jd.i  pK.-bieais  -vjt,],
for power plant ap;pl icati on  are us HOC i at 7< .  Monsanto es
catalyst  cl-;sninc' will  be required  at  about
tervals.   The  ^9.6%  collection efficiency r
precipitators  is near  the u,^..er limit  of pr
equipment.  The t-^chr.i>.-a 1 s tcresu of  the r.r
to a large extern on how -.veil this  critical
can be  met. .,
                                              the  Cctt-Gx process
                                               v,ith  fly ash
                                              ficiency from
                                              piu^  the converter
                                              ccr t aininate the
                                               requires a 2-3
                                              ,,- .:  results in
                                              t: iiriul.es  that
                                               - - A month in-
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                                              cceb:s  will depend
                                               requirement
      This \> jc uc :'.-.-.  ha.-,  bee,1-;  <>}! r  ,  'I-  II line  .; r-  -'*>.'  Conij.)ariy .
The  $6,7 n. iliinr,  ::ost  oL ; h .-  • :  n onr, ti at i o". '.--,.;  be shared
by EPA ar,d J i .1 inoi;;  Povvi... ,   .,,t i, 1 —up .: ;j 1. 1 r-  ••  '"I1/ underway
and  will he f.iilo  ^ci h-y  .-.. •;;: '•- \£ğar  test  prt-  . :n .
         We J iman -Loixi
            jer:.er a f i on -
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S02  in the f s ue  -ja.- :s dbi>or,kif-d into a solution of sodium
sulfite, bic; ilfjte, c.Ad b.ilt \ie ,  converting  some of the  sul-
fite to bisulfite  aeor.rd s uy  to  the following equation:

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     Some of the absorbed S02 undergoes oxidation and shows
up in the solution as sulfate.  The active scrubbing solution
is regenerated by evaporating water and SO- while crystalliz-
ing sodium sulfite in an evaporative crystallizer.   This
step is represented by the reverse of the above reaction
and is promoted by heat input.  The vapor product is cooled
to condense out all of the water.  The pure gaseous S0?
can be further processed to liquid S02/ sulfur, or sulfuric
acid.  Condensed water is used to redissolve the sulfite
solids for recycle to the scrubber.  Sulfate formed in the
scrubber cannot be regenerated and is removed from the
system by direct purge of scrubbing solution or selective
crystallization of sodium sulfate.  The purge can be treated
to transform sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite to sodium
sulfate to eliminate an oxygen demand problem.

     The specific advantage ot the WeiIman-Lcrd process is
the simplicity of its unit opei^ations.  The main disadvantage
of the process is its sensitivity to buildup of contaminants
necessitating bleed.  The major contaminants venerated in
the process are sodium sulfate, sodium thiosulfate, sodium
polythionates, and a small amount of elemental sulfur.
As stated previously, sulfate  is generated by oxidation
of sulfite in the absorber.   In the crystallizer, sulfites
are converted to sulfate, thionates, thiosulfates, and
sulfur by a disproportionation reaction which is promoted
by heat.  There are several ways to control these undesir-
able reactions, the discussion of which is considered
beyond the scope of this paper.

     A full-scale demonstration of the Wellman-Lord process
will be undertaken by Northern Indiana Public  Service
Company at their D. H. Mitchell plant  in  Gary, Indiana,
with partial funding by EPA  (approximately $4.25 million).
The system will be a retrofit to the  115  MWe boiler No. 11
and is designed for coal containing 3-1/2% sulfur and  11-1/2%
ash.  The anticipated removal  efficiency  will be no less
than 90% in any case, and cleaned  stack gas will contain
less than 200 ppm SO  if the  sulfur content of the coal is
less than 3-1/2%.  Tne  contact  specifies that sodium  make-
up shall not exceed 6.6  tons/day of sodium as  Na2CC>3.   This
plant will also demonstrate  the  technology for reduction  of
SCU  to elemental  sulfur.  Present  plans are to start  con-
struction of the  unit, in January  1973  arid to  start-up  the
plant  in July 1974.

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     A very significant demonstration of Wol 1 man-Lot <1
technology is in J.ipan by the Mitsubishi Chemical Mactiinciy
(MKK) at the Japan Synthetic Rubber's Chiba Plant.  This
unit treats a flue gas stream equivalent to about 75 MWe from
an oil-fired boiler containing 600-2000 ppm SC>2 and achieves
better than 90% removal of SC>2,  which is converted  to high
quality sulfuric acid.  In general, operation has been
quite reliable,  operating in excess of 9000 hours since
June 1971.  During the past year, the scrubber has been
available almost 100% of the time the boiler has been in
operation.  This may represent the longest successful
operation of any modern large scale SC>2 control process.
The main disadvantage of the system is the requirement to
bleed a waste liquor stream due to sulfate formation.  For
the Chiba unit,  this stream amounts to 1-1.5 tons/hour and
contains no sodium sulfite or pyrosul f i t.e, has a pH of
approximately 7 and a COD value under 200.  It is estimated
that approximately 10% of the total incoming sulfur is bled
from the system; this corresponds to  about 4% oxidation.
Recent developments by Sumitomo  (Japan) have indicated these
numbers can probably be decreased by  55% by the use of an
oxidation retardant.  SOCTAP members  have visited this
facility and a trip summary describing the process  in more
detail is included in the appendix.

            E.  Double Alkali Systems

     There has been recent and intense interest  in  a new
class of throwaway flue gas desulfurization systems, double
alkali wet scrubbing technology.  This process, which has
several variations, involves scrubbing flue gas with a
soluble alkali,  such as sodium sulfite, and regenerating
the alkali with an insoluble alkali,  such as lime,  producing
an insoluble throwaway product, such  as calcium  sulfite.
The process has the potential advantage of soluble  alkali
scrubbing without the potential scaling, plugging,  and erosion
problems associated with slurry scrubbing.

     Figure III-7 schematically depicts a double  alkali
system.  Flue gas entering the bottom of the absorber/scrubber
is contacted with a solution of Na-SO-^/NaHSC^  in  the ab-
sorber.  The liquor leaving the absorber becomes  rich  in
NaHSO3 as S02 is absorbed and reacts  with the Na  SO3.  A
calcium hydroxide slurry is prepared  in a mixing  tank  and
it is added to the caustisizer where  it is mixed  with  the
                        -33-

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scrubber effluent.  Regeneration occurs in the vessel and
the bisulfite is converted to the sulfite with the production
of calcium sulfite.  Also, since some sodium sulfate forms
from oxidation of sulfite and bisulfite, lime must also re-
generate the sulfate by producing sodium hydroxide and
gypsum.  The caustisizer product is pumped to a thickener in
which the precipitated calcium compounds are removed, and
the overflow liquor is pumped to a holding tank where make-up
Na2Co3, make-up water and wash water from the calcium salt
cake are mixed and returned to the scrubber.  The following
are the chemical reactions postulated for this system:

     Scrubber :


     (a)  Na2SO3 + S02 + H2O - * 2NaHSO3


     Caustisizer :


           NaHS03 + Ca(OH)2 - ğNaOH+Ca3C>3 • 1/2H20 + 1/2H20


                                   > 2!JaOH f CaSO[|
      (d)  NaOH + NaHS03
     Another important variation to this process  involves
use of both limestone, a less expensive alkali, and  lime.
Limestone is used for the regeneration of the bisulfite,
and lime is used to regenerate the sulfate.


     This process ha^i the potential advantage of  performing
high efficiency particulate scrubbing and SO2 absorption
in one scrubber.  This is feasible since sodium sulfite
solutions are quite effective absorption solutions and are
capable of yielding high SO- removal efficiencies in Venturis,
venturi_rocjs and similar scrubbers which are capable of
efficient particuJate removal but are not particularly
effective mass transfer devices.


     It s"hould he noted that the driving force for reaction
(c) above is not great and SO ~/SO3 concentrations must be
maximized to increase t.he driving force.  Most of the
variations of the double alkali process involve alternate ways
of treating the Na2SC>4 which is inevitably produced  in the
absorption/scrubbing device.  For example, use of ammonium
                           -35 —

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sulfite scrubbing systems has been  studied  since the
thermodynamics for the regeneration of  NII^SO^  is much more
favorable as compared to Na2SO4.  However,  due to the
volatility of ammonium compounds, serious  fume problems
have been observed which, to date,  have led to unacceptably
visible stack plumes.  Another  variation,  developed in Japan,
involves reaction of a soluble  sulf ate/sul f ite/bisulf ite
bleed stream with H2SC>4 and product calcium sulfite.  Sodium
sulfate is converted to sodium  bisulfite according to the
following reaction:
     Na2S04+2CaS03- l/2h2O4H2S04+3H?u — ğ• 2NaHS03+2CaC04 •

Such systems allow  the  use  of  the  less expensive limestone
for bisulfite regeneration.

     To date, u^.iblc-  alkali  , .'/stems have been tested on a
pilot-scale bc'isis by  several  organizations.   General Motors
and Chemico have run  pi lot-hf-a ie tests on a process similar
to that depicted in Figure  111-7,  and encouraging results
have been reported.   Kureha and Showa Denko, in Japan, have
tested the system variation involving H-^SO^ addition de-
scribed above   on a bench-scale and pilot-scale basis,
respectively.   Double Alkali  efforts to date have generally
indicated high  S02  removal  efficiencies (>9C%) ,  low sodium
make-up requirements  and generally reliable operation.

     EPA  is  in  U'f-  pro -ess  •.!  initiating a comprehensive
double alkali development program on a large pilot plant
to evaluate  the various double alkali systems and to
optimize  the most attractive  schemes,

             £' •  PJ1Y_ JL-JL?'*5 y to?V£ _jn ject-i on

     The  dry  L-imest i>n" jr. )ss in considered a
fairly well  characterized control process with only limited
potential, d\>f-  i  i:" ,- i I/ i.<.; inherently low removal
efficiencies,   i'ne  j ^re-ess involves the injection of
pulverized  1 tui^t, tone  -iiLoct ly into the power plant boiler
where it  is calcined  to  lime  and subsequently reacts at high
temperature  with  SC>2  anct excess oxygen in the boiler  to
form calcium  sulfate.  The calcium sulfate  is then removed
as a solid with the fly ash by mechanical collectors  and
electros tat ic  Hr ec i pita tor ,j ,

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     Although recognized and investigated for many years,
the process had not been characterized adequately to enable
its confident full-scale utilization.  For this reason, the
most comprehensive full-scale test program on the process
was initiated under a joint EPA-TVA project performed at
the Shawnee Station near Paducah, Kentucky.  The program has
recently been completed.  The process was installed on a
140 MWe boiler burning an average 2.7% sulfur, pulverized
coal.

     The goal of the- Snawnee test piogram was to establish
the conditions for optimum system performance and obtain
comprehensive design and cost information.  Results from
the comprehensive test effort have indicated that:

      (a)  SCU removal efficiencies are quite low; for most
          limestones with the boiler operating at or near
          full load only about 11% per unit of stoichiometry
          can be expected with 95% confidence.  This re-
          moval can increase by a factor up to two if a
          reactive limestone, such as marl, is available,
          and/or if the boiler is operated near 50% load
          conditions.

      (b)  Use of this process can lead to severe operating
          problems.  for example, during testing at
          Shawnee, severe boiler reheater pluggage occurred
          after only 6 d.iyt; of continuous testing.  Union
          Electiic has experienced similar pluggage problems
          in their boiler during testing of their boiler-
          injection/wet  limestone system installed at their
          Meramec No. j. Station.  it should be noted, how-
          ever, that such problems have not been severe  at
          a similar system installed at Kansas Power &
          Light's L.-iwrenre Station No. 4 or at Detroit
          Edison's St. Ciair NO. b Unit.  Differences
          associated wit.h boiler pluggage potential are
          attribut i.-.i to specific boiler design features  of
          which tube spacing and temperature regime are
          considered major parameters.

      (c)  Degraded electrostatic precipitator performance
          resulting from higher dust loading of higher re-
          sistivity particulate has been reported.  Re-
          ductions in efficiency ranging from 10% average to
          about 25%  were measured at Detroit Edison and
          Shawnee.  Test results from the latest precipitator
          test program at Shawnee are not yet available.

                            -37-

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     In light of the inherently low removal efficiencies,
and the potential for major reliability problems, it does
not appear that the dry limestone injection process will
play an important role in controlling SO,, emissions from
power plants.  While the process may find some use for
particular situations, its application is expected to be
limited.

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     IV.  PERFORMANCE AND COST COMPARISONS OF FLUE GAS
                   DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS
     Any discussion or comparison of cost and performance
data relating to full-scale, commercial flue gas desulfuri-
zation systems must be prefaced with the warning that
generalized conclusions and figures are at best calculated
opinions or scaled-up projections derived from currently
incomplete data.  At present there are too few installa-
tions and insufficient operating experience with any of
the processes to permit historical comparison.  Available
information on the different processes is largely derived
from non-typical examples such as pilot plant experience
and experimental and prototype installations, and based
on a wide range of variables, so that they cannot be com-
pared in a precise manner.  With commercial scale work on
most of the processes continuing, a basis for more accurately
assessing full-scale performance and installation and operat-
ing costs for different systems and specific applications
will be built up over the next several years.
              A.  General Considerations
     An examination of the rationale for switching to low
sulfur fuels was outside of this Task Group's objectives.
However, an estimate ut the range of incremental operating
costs associated with the additional cost of low sulfur
fuel has been included in the summary table as a prelimi-
nary comparison with S02 removal processes,

     Because S02 control processes are in an early stage
of development, it was necessary to generalize from the
scattered information available in order to obtain a
rational picture of relative performance and costs of SO^
removal processes.
              B.  New Versus Retrofit Installations
     As far as S02 removal efficiency is concerned, there
seems to be little difference whether a particular S02 re-
covery system is added to an existing utility plant, or is
                       — 39 —

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planned, engineered, and constructed concurrently with
completely new power generating units.  Operating per-
formance and direct operating costs may be slightly
affected by some of the design differences required for
retrofitting.  The important difference, however, between
new and retrofit installations is the greatly increased
cost of construction and installation of retrofitted
equipment.  This includes escalation for the requirements
of intercepting duct work,, and other special equipment;
new buildings or structural revisions and enlargement of
present structures; more difficult job locations, erec-
tion conditions and other site constraints; and extra-
ordinary interconnection and startup expenses.  These
additional costs can increase the total investment to
several times the estimate for concurrently designed and
constructed facilities, and the upper limit would be what
the utility is willing to spend to keep from having to
convert to more costly low sulfur fuels, if he can get
them.  Obviously, there are many present utility installa-
tions for which it will be impractical to retrofit.  For
this SOCTAP study, retrofit costs were based on construc-
tion contractor's estimates for the typical or average
situation at most present utilities, generally represent-
ing a substantial increase in total cost over completely
new installations.
         C.  Throwaway Versus Saleable Product Systems
     1.  Throwaway Processea

     In throwaway systems, the input reagents are not
ordinarily regenerated and recycled, and all of the end
product is considered waste material and discarded.
These systems, primarily the limestone, lime or the
double alkali scrubbing process, are generally less
expensive to purchase and build because of their simpler
technology.  In a-id it ion, these throwaway processes
generally do not require the removal of particulate
matter  (mainly fly ash) from the input gas prior to the
S02 removal stage.  Consequently, any requirement for
electrostatic precipitators, or special particulate
                        -40-

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scrubbers is eliminated, as fly ash is adequately recovered
by the S02 scrubbers.  For new utility plants,  the elimina-
tion of particulate removal system reduces the total
out-of-pocket cost.

     The operating costs for throwaway systems are highly
sensitive to the cost of the input additives, and the cost
of waste disposal.  In some locations the delivered cost
of the required large volume of reagents may be prohibitive.
In some cases, the physical location of the utility, local
land use regulations, limited storage site area, or water
pollution potential may require excessive costs for secondary
pollution control, or for transportation of the wastes to
distant disposal areas.

     Any of these factors may preclude the use of a throw-
away system in certain situations, despite any advantages
or  desirability.  Assuming moderate cost for reagents
delivered to the plant and nominal disposal costs related
to discharge into local settling ponds, the annual cost
for throwaway systems is generally less than for other
systems.  In some cases where operating costs will be
high due to waste disposal costs, there is a possibility
that some offsetting benefit could be obtained if all or
part of the waste material could be further processed into
a non-polluting saleable product such as gypsum, concrete
aggregate, or solid land-fill material.  This problem
requires further investigation since both cost and environ-
mental benefits may be realized.  Currently, a practical
technology is not available, and it appears that market
availability is limited and economic benefit would be
marginal in most cases.

     S02 removal efficiencies for throwaway processes are
comparable to other systems, and are generally adequate,
with the exception of the special process involving dry
limestone injection directly into the furnace.  This last
process also has serious unsolved operating problems, and
has been generally abandoned as a practical method of SC>2
recovery.

     2.  Recovery Systems

     For saleable products  (recovery) systems, generally
the input reagent is regenerated and re-used; and the
                       -41-

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process converts the recovered SC>2 to a marketable by-
product such as sulfuric acid, liquid S02 or elemental
sulfur.  The advantages of reducing the need for pur-
chasing, storing and handling large volumes of input
reagents, reducing or eliminating solid waste disposal
problems and a potential for supplementary income from
by-product sales, in many cases could result in lower
direct operating costs than for throwaway systems.

     This savings must Le balanced against higher capital
investment cost.  The increased technical complexity of
these recovery systems, plus the added costs for regen-
erating stages  (particularly for off-site processing
plants) increases the initial investment cost from 20%
to 50% over a throwaway system.  To be comparable to the
throwaway system, this estimate includes particulate
removal.  In most of the recovery processes, particulate
removal is affected by an additional preliminary wet
scrubbing stage integrated into the SO-> removal process,
and the cost is included in the present SOCTAP study
figures.  In certain cases where a separate precipitator
might be used, its cost would be roughly balanced by a
corresponding redaction in the SC>2 systems cost as a
result of eliminating the extra scrubbing stage.

     The total annual cost, including annualized fixed
charges, for recovery systems  (not including any off-set
from by-product sales) is generally higher, by at least
one-fourth, than !"• ;,: throwaway systems.

     Despite theae higher ar.nualized coatsi tor many utility
situations, the elimination of excessive waste disposal
and secondary pollution conrroj costs, and/or the poten-
tial for recovering some of the costs through by-product
sales, make recovery systems highly attractive.  These
benefits, however, <^ie stricsly dependent  upon the market-
ability ot tr.e  sulfur by-piociucts.  If the by-products
cannot be sold  (or yiven away), they pose  transportation,
storage and <.ol '. -.'.f : ~"n uri blems and accompanying added
costs  that couJ 1 •: c comparable to  the disposal costs of
throwaway sy6tn..s   The future economics of the marketing
by utilities of lai ye quantities of by-product sulfur or
sulfuric acid,  in  competition with potentially large  low
cost supplies from petreleuro refineries,   nonferrous  smelt-
ers,   and other sources is difficult to predict, and needs
much additional  indepth study.
                         42-

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     D.  Development of Comparable Cost Projections


     The variety of estimates, opinions or guesses that
have been put forward as probable overall costs for in-
stallation and operation of different pollution control
systems show a wide range, depending upon the source.
There is often a considerable difference in judgment as
to exactly what costs should be charged to a process,
depending on whether it is a utility's estimate of total
out-of-pocket costs or a systems vendor's turnkey quotation.

     In order to place capital or investment costs on a
reasonably common basis, the cost data and estimates avail-
able to date have been reconciled to represent the manufac-
turers' base costs for the particular SO2 scrubber system.
Auxiliary equipment is included only if it is unique to the
SC>2 removal technology.  Limestone preparation and handling
equipment, for instance, would be included, but the cost of
modification to such items as main flues, stacks, or water
supply and water pollution control equipment are excluded.
Conversely, no credit is included in the SC>2 systems cost
for eliminating or reducing the requirement for specific
fly ash control equipment.  To the base cost is added the
estimated costs for construction, erection, and integration
of that particular system with the power generating equip-
ment, generally averaging about 40% of base cost.  An
additional increase is included for design, engineering,
and procurement costs attributable to the SC>2 removal sys-
tem.  These costs were scaled to the requirements of a
typical coal-burning installation; and separate estimates
were established for both retrofitted systems on existing
utility plants and for systems constructed concurrently
with new generating units.

     It was assumed that the typical plant size would be
200 MWe of generating capacity for retrofitted existing
plants, and 1000 MWe capacity for new power generating
plants.  Total systems costs are expressed in terms of
dollars per kilowatt of generating capacity of the associ-
ated power gene1" i f J ng equipment.

     Inve&ur.ent. cost a are given in two ranges; for each
system the lower figure is an average for concurrent con-
struction with new generating plants, and the higher figure
represents an average cost for retrofitting existing plants.
In either case, actual costs for particular installations
will vary according to furnace and boiler characteristics,
                        •43-

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                                                 _____ _       i —^r. —       ^^B





sulfur and ash content of fuels, local pollution control
requirements, raw material storage and waste disposal
constraints, as well as the specific type of scrubber               I
and other equipment selected.                                       •

     Presently available statistics on the direct operating         V
costs for the different systems are less comparable than            I
the reported capital cost estimates.  The operating cost
is highly sensitive to the raw material and reagent costs           m
and to waste disposal ,:osts,   Even for the same S02 removal         •
process, these costs can vary substantially from one parti-
cular installation to another.  Estimates used in this              _
study of probable operating costs for each process included         •
only a nominal waste disposal cost where applicable, based          •
on normal fluid discharge and ponding.  A nominal range for
materials costs was used, rather than a maximum possible            0
range.  Operating costs include a charge for parasitic power        |
consumption.

     The projected total annual cost, including annualized          •
fixed charges for each process,  is expressed in mills per
kilowatt-hour.  These are presented as a single range from           _
typical low to typical high cost operation based on average         I
regional variation in reagent costs, and differences in             ™
original capital costs, size, power requirements and operat-
ing results for individual installations with the same type         flj
of system.  Except as indicated, no credit was included for         •
potential by-product sales.

     For all cases, annual costs were figured on an assumed          |
80% generating load factor, with fixed charges set at 18% of
capital cost.  The 80% load  factor used is high compared  to
reported utility averages, but  most of the SC>2 systems in-
stalled over tne near future  are assumed to be on base-load
units with higher than average  load factors.  The  levelized
capital charges of 18% include  interest, return on investment,
taxes and insurance at typical  levels for private  utilities,
and depreciation on a 15-year straight line basis.
         *•"  C'c.-st arid^ Performance Comparisons


     Table 1V~1 compares SC)2 removal  techniques  and  probable
investment and annual costs for each  of  the  particular  con-
trol processes considered  in this study.   The  figures have
been derived as indicated  in the text.   Specific comments on
each process follow,

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The following are observations which can be made:

1.  The production tonnages (dry basis)  of throwaway
sulfur product are approximately 50 percent greater (dry)
than the fly ash normally produced; this leads to a
total (sludge plus ash) throwaway requirement about
2.5 times the normal coal ash disposal tonnage.  This
indicates that production of the sludge throwaway pro-
duct aggravates an already existing problem, rather
than creates a totally new one.  In general, the two
major techniques used for ash disposal, ponding in
large ash disposal ponds and transporting for landfill,
appear applicable to lime/limestone sludges.

2.  Large storage volumes are required for the ultimate
disposition of sulfite sludges.  For example, for a
1000 MWe unit over a 20-year lifetime, about 900-1100
acres (1.6 sq. miles) of disposal land would be required,
assuming a wet sludge  (50 percent solids) ponded to a
10-foot depth.  For 100,000 MWe, about 100,000 acres or
160 square miles  (to a 10-foot depth) would be necessary
to dispose of the sulfur product.  This should be com-
pared to a requirement of about 50 square miles for wet
ash  (80 percent solids) associated with 100,000 MWe of
coal-fired capability.

3.  Potentially large quantities of sulfuric acid can be
produced by certain flue gas desulfurization processes.
Such processes include:  magnesium oxide scrubbing,
catalytic oxidation, and the Wellman-Lord system.  Approxi-
mately 28 million tons per year of concentrated sulfuric
acid can be produced from 100,000 MWe of flue gas desul-
furization capability.  This is close to the total annual
U.S. sulfuric acid production rate, which was 29.3 million
tons in 1971.

4.  Elemental sulfur appears the most attractive product
in terms of production rates and potential storage volume.
About 89,000 tons/year of sulfur would be produced by a
1000 MWe unit per year; this leads to a potential storage
or disposal area of about 63 acres for a 1000 MWe unit
over a 20-year lifetime, assuming a  10-foot  stacking
stack height.
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                 B- Throwaway Product Disposal


     Several techniques have been proposed for disposing of
lar<|c quantities of t-hrowaway sulfur products.  To date,
most of the operafinq lime or limestone scrubbing systems
have relied on disposal of the sludge materials in a disposal
pond on the power plant site.  If sufficient land is
available, the pond is designed to eventually store liquid
sludge material over the lifetime of the power plant.  Such
ponds are fed by a bleed stream from the scrubber circuit
which is pumped either directly to the pond or via a thickening
system  (clarifier, filter, centrifuge) with the thickened
sludge pumped to the pond.  The supernatant liquor from both
the dewatering system and the pond is usually returned to the
scrubber circuit.

     Another important disposal technique used where land is
not available at the plant site involves maximum dewatering
of the throwaway bleed stream, using one of the many effective
combinations of clarifying,filtering or centrifuging equipment
available; the solid dewatered sludge is then transported,
generally by barge and/or truck to a suitable landfill  site.
However, some sludge materials have been found difficult to
dewater mechanically.  Since such sludge products, retaining
large quantities of liquor,  are difficult to transport
and lead to eventual land use problems due to the instability
(nonsettling) of the wet sludges, chemical fixation processes
are being developed.  These  generally involve pozzolanic
(cementitious)  chemical reactions requiring the presence of
lime.  The reactions lead to the formation of a dry, solid,
and hopefully chemically inert material which is desirable
for landfill  purposes.

     The major problems associated with sludge disposal on
a large-scale basis are associated with interrelated environ-
mental and economic factors.  Although throwaway sludge
materials are relatively insoluble, liquors in equilibrium
with sludge materials typically have dissolved solids contents
in the 3,000 to 15,000 ppm range; major constituents include
Ca++, SO=, Mg++ and SO^ .  Although there are no finalized
Federal water pollution regulations and local regulations vary
considerably, it is certainly environmentally undesirable to
allow entry of substantial quantities of such liquors into
watercourses.  For this reason, it is considered
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important for users of flue gas desulfurization systems
to operate in a closed or nearly-closed loop modo of
operation.  For the disposal pond operation, this means
that all liquor entering the pond is recycled back to
the scrubber circuit; no sludge liquor is released to
any watercourse.  Also, in order to avoid unintentional
seepage of liquor through the walls and floor of the dis-
posal pond into groundwaters, it may be necessary to
utilize a sealant material.  Visits to the Mitsui-Miike
power plant in Japan and Commonwealth Edison's Will County
facility indicate that attempts have been made in both
installations to operate in a closed-loop mode.  However,
in both facilities, seepage, run-off and other mechanisms
could be postulated which would allow liquor to be released
into watercourses, at least periodically.  Careful civil
engineering of disposal ponds is needed to assure that
their design is consistent with closed loop operations.  It
should be noted that ash ponds which have been utilized for
many years have similar water pollution problems; however,
there is little evidence that ash liquor contamination has
been of major concern to many utilities in the past.  For
the landfill disposal technique, it is also necessary that
potential run-off will not lead to any significant water
pollution problem.  For both ponding and landfill approaches
a detailed evaluation of the geologic and hydrologic
conditions of the disposal area is necessary to minimize
water pollution potential.

     Another environmental concern is the ultimate condition
of the large land areas required for sludge disposal.  Some
ponding installations have reported poor settling charac-
teristics of the sulfite sludge material, which could lead to
permanently somi-liquid slurry ponds which would be quite
difficult to reclaim for subsequent development, construction,
or other land use.

                  C. Sale of Sulfur Products
     As stated earlier, sulfuric acid is the sulfur product
which has received the most attention as a flue gas desul-
furization saleable product, but the future market is uncertain,
Although sulfuric acid is a large volume chemical, Table
V-l indicates that each 1,000 MWe
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desulfurization system would produce about 278,000 tons per
year of concentrated acid; this represents about 1 percent
of the present total U.S. production rate.  Since market-
ability of a relatively low-value chemical such as sulfuric
acid is highly dependent on transportation costs, it is
necessary that large acid producers be within about 100-150
miles of large users.  By far the largest use for sulfuric
acid is for fertilizer production.  Other important acid
uses include cellulosics applications (rayons, cellophane,
pulp and paper),  petroleum alkylation and chemical production
(Ti02, HF, (NH4J2S04, etc.).  At present, the states of
Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and Illinois consume close to
half of the U.S.  total sulfuric acid output.  Of these states
only the Illinois utilities normally burn large quantities
of high sulfur coal; and therefore would be the ones likely
to apply flue gas desulfurization systems that produce
saleable sulfuric acid.

     However, other potential sources of reclaimed sulfur and
sulfuric acid will be major competitors in the marketplace.
By-product sour gas sulfur, in particular, has made large in-
roads in the sulfur/sulfuric acid market.  Fuel desulfurization
and  nonferrous smelters are other sources.  Any new large
source of sulfur effectively impacts the sulfuric acid market,
since most sulfur produced is used for acid production.
Unfortunately, sulfuric acid production from power plant flue
gases cannot be adjusted to market demand for acid, since
these systems must operate continuously, which further com-
plicates their acid marketing.

     Although an up-to-date and comprehensive market survey is
not available to assess the situation in detail, it appears
that only a relatively small fraction of the potential flue
gas desulfurization system users will be induced to produce
sulfuric acid, due to difficulty in marketing the acid.  For
those systems that can market the acid, the resulting price
for H2S04 might be only $6 to $8 per ton or less.  At such
prices, annualized operating costs for those systems, taking
credit for acid sale, will still be somewhat higher than
those of the throwaway systems.

     As discussed earlier, elemental sulfur is probably the
most desirable sulfur product.  As opposed to sulfuric acid,
sulfur can be economically stored for eventual sale.  If
marketing is not possible, sulfur is probably the ideal
throwaway product since it is inert and insoluble, with much
smaller disposal site requirements than those for throwaway
processes.  The major obstacles to elemental sulfur
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production appear to be  (1) lack of demonstrated technology
and (2) potential economic penalties since operating costs
would be significantly higher than competing throwaway
systems if sulfur cannot be sold.  However, a major step
has been taken in the initiation of the partially EPA-
sponsored NIPSCO Wellman-Lord unit which will produce
elemental sulfur.  Allied Chemical technology, which utilizes
natural gas as a reductant, will convert the SO2 produced in
the Wellman-Lord evaporator-crystallizer to elemental sulfur.
                           -58-

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           VI.  INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO THE
       APPLICATION OF SULFUR OXIDE CONTROL SYSTEMS
    Because the successful demonstration and subsequent
commercial application of SO  control systems necessarily de-
pend  on the electric utilities and the control system vendors
in the U.S., it is essential to recognize that serious im-
pediments in either of these industries to the general appli-
cation of stack gas scrubbers on coal-fired plants will retard,
or even obviate, the use of flue gas desulfurization as a
control strategy option.
            A.  Institutional Barriers in the
                Electric Utility Industry


    Application of sulfur oxide control technology will have
its greatest public health benefits when applied in the
electric utility industry.  It is estimated that over 25
million  tons of sulfur oxides are emitted in the United States
each year from coal-and oil-fired electric generating plants.
This represents 55% of all sulfur oxides emitted from man-
made sources.  Electric power is growing rapidly, and is
capturing a relatively larger share of the energy market
so by the turn of the century 75% of sulfur oxides may be
produced by combustion in power plants.  The abatement of
sulfur oxide pollution depends then critically on the ability
of the electric power industry to implement sulfur oxide
control technology or to find alternative sources of low-
sulfur fuel, either naturally occurring or chemically cleaned.

    Barriers to the application of SOX control technology
can be associated with technological, economic, or environ-
mental factors.  The technology may not be adequately and
reliably demonstrated as discussed above, or the investment
in the technology may be considered as too large to justify
in terms of the reduced risks to human health and property
or the secondary consequences of the technology such as solid
waste disposal may be considered as potentially more noxious
than the air pollution.  However, even if all of those
barriers are overcome, application of SOX control technology
can be seriously impeded by barriers in the electric power
industry.
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    An assessment of the nature and severity of those
barriers was  obtained through a meeting of the SOCTAP
members with representatives of the electric power industry,
assembled by the Edison Electric Institute, and through
contacts between individual SOCTAP members and utility
personnel.  The barriers which were identified are discussed
below:

    1.  Reserve Generating Capacity and Scheduling
        of Retrofits

    Reserve generating margins are required to meet customer
demand and still conduct essential periodic equipment main-
tenance and cover equipment malfunctions and failures.  The
Federal Power Commission has stated that reserves of about 20%
of peak load are essential to avoid sporadic power curtail-
ments.

    The electric power industry is organized into regional
power pools which provide an increased degree of reliability
through grid connections between individual utilities.
Assessment of the reserve generating capacity by the
Federal Power Commission for summer 1972, as shown in
Table VI-1, indicates that the reserve capacity in many
sections of the country was well below 20%.  In addition, the
reserve capacity available during late June 1972 was con-
siderably below that anticipated for the summer peak period in
a survey conducted in late May 1972.  This latter fact is an
indication of both the deterioration of reserve margin during
the peak load period because of equipment failures and un-
expected delays in bringing new equipment on line because
of technical and licensing problems.

    The data in Table VI-1 indicate  that the lowest reserve
margins were in the Southeast and West Central National Power
Survey Regions.  Also faced with lower than desirable margins
were the Northeast and East Central Regions.  These regions
with low reserve margins, as can be seen in Figure VI-1, fall
in a contiguous zone in the central and eastern part of the
country.  Because 6f the widespread nature of the limited
reserve margins, the ability to transfer power from one region
to another has been significantly reduced.  Even with some
inter-regional transfers, the maintenance of adequate reserve
margins throughout the eastern half of the nation has been
quite critical during the past three years.  For a variety of
reasons, this situation will probably continue for the rest of
the decade.
                         -60-

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                               TABLE Vl-1

             Generating Capacity and Reserve in the National
                   Power Survey Regions in Summer 1972
                   Formerly Expected as of
May 31, 1972
b
Net
ependable Capacity Available
esources**' for Reserves
1 1 of Esti-
mated Peak
NFS Region*
Northeast
East Central
Southeast
West Central
South Central
West
Contiguous U.S.j
MW
71,152
60,175
71,010
44,397
55,948
68,833
371,515
| Actual as of June 27, 1972
Net
Dependable
Resources**
Capacity Available
for Reserves
\ of Esti-
mated Peak
MW Summer Load MW MW Summer Load
10,788
, 9,471
7.071
4,631
9 371
13,223
i 54, 555
17.9
18.7
11.1
11.6
20.1
23.8
17.2
68,772 8,408 :
59,056 8,352 .
68,943 5,004 .
43,607 3,841
55,348
8,771
69,128 !l3,518 :
364,854 J47.894 .'
13.9
16.5
7.8
9.7
18.8
24.3
15.1
*National Power Survey (NPS) Regions are shown in Figure VI-1.  In comparing
 the NPS with the electrical Reliability Councils, the following identifica-
 tions can be made:  the Northeast Region corresponds roughly to the North-
 east Power Coordinating Council and the Mid-Atlantic Area Coordination Group
 combined; the East Central corresponds roughly to the East Central Area
 Reliability Coordination Agreement; the Southeast corresponds roughly to the
 Southeastern Electric Reliability Council; the West Central corresponds
 roughly to the Mid-America Interpool Network and the Mid-Continent Area
 Reliability Coordination Agreement combined; the South Central corresponds
 roughly to the Southwest Power Pool and the Electrical Reliability Council
 of Texas combined; and West corresponds to the Western Systems Coordination
 Council.

**Includes net firm power purchases but does not include fossil plants on
 line for testing.  For nuclear plants, includes only megawatts actually being
 operated under license limits.
                                   -61-

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   LEGEND

Power Supply Area

National Power Survey Region
 FIGURE Vl-1-National Power Survey Regions
            and  Power Supply Areas
                   -62-

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     The electric power industry has been characterized by
an extremely high rate of growth for the past two decades,
e.g., its 8-10% growth rate has been twice that of growth
in total energy utilization.  These trends will in all like-
lihood continue throughout the remainder of this decade.  In
Table VI-2 a recent forecast of the growth in the electric
power industry by Electrical World, September 15, 1972, is
summarized.  The data show that the trend of vigorous growth
will probably continue and, although fossil-fuel plant addi-
tions will have a decreasing share of the total yearly addi-
tions, large blocks of new fossil capacity, on the order of
20 million Kw, will be brought on line annually in the late
1970's.  Of this 20 million Kw average addition, approximately
55-65% is coal-fired capacity, with 5-15% of the coal-fired
capacity capable of dual-fuel operation, i.e., easy conversion
to oil- or gas-firing (Steam-Electric Plant Factors, 1971
Edition, National Coal Association).

     Another factor which must be noted is that economies of
scale and technological developments have increased the size
of both fossil-fuel and nuclear plants significantly over the
past few years, the oil- and coal-fired plants going to 600-
800 MWe and nuclear plants to 1000-1200 MWe.  This has meant
that, in many utility pools, larger reserve generating margins
must be maintained to cover the scheduled and unexpected out-
ages of the big plants.  The construction lead times for
fossil-fuel plants are now 4-5 years and for nuclear 8-10
years.  These long lead times tend to freeze the planning
schedules of the utilities and when delays occur there is
often little if anything the utilities can do to obtain alter-
native sources of power on short notice.  The delays which
have been experienced in bringing many nuclear plants on line
also serve to erode the available reserve margin.  In several
of the power pools, the status of nuclear capacity of 1000-
3000 MWe threatened by delays due to litigation over environ-
mental questions or technical problems has been the difference
between adequate and inadequate reserves.  Nationwide, close
to 10,000 MWe of nuclear capacity originally scheduled for
1971-1972 has been delayed.  Thus, even though a record 34,500
MWe of additional capacity will be brought on line by the end
of 1972, growth of 28,000 MWe in the non-coincidental annual
peak has resulted in a drop in the gross reserve margin.  Un-
certainty about the status of delayed plants and possible
limitations on the crash-building of gas turbine and internal
combustion generation equipment to substitute for the delayed
plants certainly cloud the immediate future.  Whether these
problems can be solved by the time that SOX control equipment
must be installed in great quantities remains to be seen.
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                  TABLE VI-2

Predicted Trends in the Electric Power Industry
    (Electrical World, September 15, 1972)
Actual
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
Fore-
cast
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1985
1990
Annual Non-
Co incidence
Peak
Millions Kw
141
152
161
175
187
204
214
239
258
275
294

322
353
381
414
447
482
517
556
593
820
1103
Capability
at Peak,
Millions Kw
185
199
211
217
230
242
259
280
301
328
353

386
425
470.
513
549
586
629
675
722
1009
1321
Gross
Margin,
% Peak
31.0
31.0
30.2
23.7
22.9
18.4
20.8
17.2
16.6
18.7
19.9

19.6
20.5
23.5
24.1
22.9
21.6
21.5
21.5
21.7
23.0
20.1
Net Total
Generating
additions
Millions Kw
12.7
10.4
18.7
11.7
13.8
11.7
21.4
21.8
22.3
27.7
26.3

34.4
43.2
46.2
40.2
33.6
38.8
45.2
47.9
45.1
59.0
72.0
Net Fossil
Generating
additions
Millions Kw
9.3
8.1
15.5
9.4
11.6
8.8
15.4
16.1
14.9
16.8
17.6

20.3
19.5
23.9
20.8
19.2
16.9
20.9
21.5
20.0
22.5
32.0
Total
Generation
Capital
Expend. ,
Billions $
2.2
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.6
3.6
4.4
5.6
7.0
9.2

10.1
10.4
9.6
9.8
10.3
11.7
12.4
13.3
14.5
15.6
20.2
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     Across most of the country, electric power demand peaks
in the summer, and then again at a somewhat lower level in
the winter.  Installation of scrubber equipment on existing
plants therefore would have to be scheduled for the off-peak
spring and fall periods.  In a sample power pool investigated
- the Michigan pool composed of Detroit Edison and Consumers
Power - the amount of capacity which could be spared for
maintenance varied from about 100 MWe in winter to 1200 MWe
in spring out of 11,000 MWe pool capacity and zero in summer
to 1,500 MWe in fall out of 12,000 MWe pool capacity; i.e.,
10-13% of the capacity could be spared, and only during these
periods.

     In a typical utility operation, each plant is rescheduled
for routine maintenance at least once a year, depending on the
age of the plant, i.e., older plants require more frequent main-
tenance.  This maintenance may require 1-3 weeks, which from
all estimates would be too short a time to install even a
pre-assembled scrubbing system.

     Once every 4-5 years, again depending on its vintage,
a plant is scheduled for major maintenance requiring 5-8 •
weeks.  With careful scheduling, this time should be adequate
for the majority of retrofits.  Thus, a power plant might be
available for installation of a scrubbing system once in
the 4-5 year cycle during the spring or fall maintenance period,
i.e., on the average, an upper limit of 20% of the power plant
capacity would be available for SOX control equipment instal-
lation each year.  However, because an even smaller fraction
of the capacity can be spared for scheduled maintenance,
scrubbing installations would have to be carefully scheduled
and the installation time kept to a minimum in order to approach
scrubber installations on 20% of the system capacity in any one
year.

     To put the point more clearly, the scrubber installation
time would have to be short enough during the 3-month spring
or fall period so that the utility could also complete the
maintenance scheduled on other boilers without exceeding the
limit of 10-15% margin for maintenance.  Because of probable
stretch-outs early in the expansion of the control system
industry, it is likely that somewhat less than 20% of the
coal-fired capacity could be retrofitted each year and in
specific cases, such as the Michigan Power Pool and many
other largely coal-firing utility pools in the middle central
and middle south, no more than 10-13% of the capacity can be
retrofitted each year.
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     2.   Lack of Familiarity with Chemical Processing
          Technology within the Electric Power Industry

     Traditionally the electric utilities have concentrated
on what they do best - generating electrical power.  Until
recently, state regulatory commissions have generally been
unsympathetic to proposed rate adjustments to allow utilities
to conduct R&D on new equipment and methods.  Utilities
generally paid for R&D through higher prices on capital
equipment, the R&D having been performed by the manufacturers.
Consequently utility staffs have been composed largely of
mechanical engineers for the fuel-handling and boiler operations
and electrical power engineers for the generation and trans-
mission operations.  Only in isolated instances have utilities
ventured into fuel cleaning or other activities which involve
large-scale chemical process technology.  Flue gas desul-
furization confronts the utilities with massive, complicated
chemical processing plants, a challenge for which they are
neither adequately nor appropriately staffed.

     The experience gained during the recent rapid growth
of nuclear electric power provides some insight.  During the
late 1950's and early 1960's, only a few of the most progressive
utilities developed nuclear power divisions within their
organizations.  The bulk of the utilities either were un-
receptive to suggestions that they begin staffing with nuclear
engineers on the grounds that nuclear power was "so far off"
that it would not enter into their 10-25 year planning acti-
vities or indicated that they would rely on consulting engi-
neering firms and the manufacturers to provide the required
expertise if it were ever needed.  However, with the rush of
orders for nuclear units in the late 1960's and early 1970's,
many utilities suddenly attempted to build their in-house
nuclear capability for siting plants, preparing safety analysis
and environmental reports, etc., and found, not unexpectedly,
that the supply of appropriately trained engineers had been
depleted and that it would take 2-5 years to revamp and expand
graduate programs to meet their needs.  Further, the utilities
found themselves competing with the  manufacturers for what
manpower there was available.
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    A somewhat similar pattern appears to be repeating
itself in the field of flue gas desulfurization.   Most
utilities do not yet feel that they will be directly in-
volved in chemical processing, (either SOX control tech-
nology or chemical cleaning of fuels), ana their engineering
staffs have remained little changed.  There is a general
feeling in the utilities that they can ultimately rely on the
vendors; yet there is general skepticism of the vendors' claims
at this time.  If an early decision is made at the management
level that the utilities must turn to stack gas scrubbing as
an abatement strategy, there will be heavy demand for in-house
engineering talent to prepare specifications, review bids,
provide liaison during the construction and shakedown phases,
and assume responsibility for reliable operation of the
scrubbers.  That type of manpower will probably be in a very
short supply.

    On the operational side, the situation appears even more
discouraging.  Visits by SOCTAP members to the most ambitious
SOX control projects-Commonwealth Edison's Will County plant
and Boston Edison's Mystic plant - revealed a low degree of
interest or involvement in the shakedown phase by the utilities
installing those two projects.  While Babcock & Wilcox and
Chemico, respectively, have responsibility for bringing those
plants on line, the operational staff available from the
utilities for those projects are neither adequately nor ap-
propriately manned.  Although both facilities have had a series
of unfortunate delays due largely to mechanical problems,
utility personnel have had little direct experience with their
scrubbers.  Labor-management factors have also strongly affected
these two utilities' manning of their scrubber installations
and operation, representing yet another impediment to the
rapid application of flue gas cleaning technology.
         3.  Competing Fuel Supply/Environmental
                  Protection Strategies


    Besides serious question of the electric power industry
toward the national and state sulfur oxide and nitrous oxide
standards, there is in many utilities genuine confusion as
to the best approach to be pursued.  The options open to the
utilities are to commit capital resources to an uncertain and
expensive technology to remove SOX from the stack gases or to
                        -67-

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convert from coal to oil, hoping for a steady supply of
low sulfur oil at only reasonable price increases or to
contract for low sulfur coal, largely from Montana and .Wyo-
ming.  While full discussion of these alternatives lies out-
side of the SOCTAP mandate, it is necessary to point out
several factors which serve as serious disincentives to rapid
growth of SOX control equipment.

    The two low sulfur fuel alternatives do appear more
attractive to many utilities because they involve only small
capital investments and shift the environmental protection
strategy to an operating cost.  In a number of states, utili-
ties are now able to pass on to the consumer most of the in-
cremental operating costs of higher-priced fuels by means of
"fuel adjustment" provisions.  The fuel adjustment charges
may be passed directly to the consumer via the monthly bill
without further action by the regulatory commission.  On the
other hand, increases in generating costs due to carrying
charges on or operating costs of capital equipment can be
compensated only by rate increases which require commission
action.  Not only do the utilities claim that they must wait
for this compensation until the regulatory commissions act
but also they claim that -'they often have to "absorb" some of
the additional costs, particularly from nonproductive equip-
ment such as pollution abatement devices.  This situation tends
to force utilities to secure as much low sulfur fuel as is
available and then wait to see what the Environmental Pro-
tection Agency or state agencies will do to enforce the
standards.  In this regard, it should also be pointed out
that sulfur emissions tax would help only to the extent that
it might force utilities to install stack gas scrubbers on
those plants for which the utility could hot secure low sulfur
fuel.

    While the probable dislocations in fuel supply resulting
from these factors raise  many questions, one of the most
disturbing is the precipitous rush by the utilities to obtain
low sulfur coal contracts and thus to show "good faith" in
compliance insofar as the low sulfur coal is available.
Vigorous utility competition for low sulfur coal from new and
proposed mines in Wyoming and Montana has led to widespread
speculation in land and water rights, particularly in the
Powder River Basin.  Much of the coal in this region lies under
land whose surface rights are privately owned but whose
mineral rights are either owned by the Federal government or
Indian tribes.  Few mines are operating today but many appli-
cations for leasing public mineral rights are pending and
blocks of  coal deposits owned by the railroad and other private
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interests, the states, and Indian tribes (off the reserva-
tions) are being unitized for exploitation.   Acceptable re-
clamation of these semi-arid lands has yet to be demonstrated.
The sudden surge for development of these resources finds
both states and the responsible Federal agencies inadequately
prepared to cope with the array of immediate problems pre-
sented by the development let alone long-range cumulative
effects on the economic, physical, and social environment
of the region.  Since stack gas cleaning represents a tech-
nological alternative in the near-term to such a culture-
and environment-shattering resource development, the full
implications of both options should be explored.
        B.  Institutional Barriers in the Control
                    Systems Industry


    One of the major choke points limiting the growth of
stack gas scrubbing technology could be institutional con-
straints on the various design, construction, and material
supply organizations who will be called upon to expand their
efforts to meet the sizable demand forecasted for 1975-1980.

    In order to obtain a scope of this problem the SOCTAP
members interviewed:   (a)  the engineering department of a
major utility...Southern Services, the people who must specify
the need for scrubbing on particular plants, prepare the
in-house documentation for technical and financial decision-
making, participate in the implementation process and sign-off
on the final product;  (b)  a major engineering-consultant
contractor...Bechtel who shares the engineering-design res-
ponsibilities with the in-house staff; participates in pre-
liminary development involving alternate process evaluation
and selection, preparation of bid plans and specifications,
hiring local construction and material sub-contractors, job
supervision and approval, and final start-up check-out runs;
(c)  two of approximately fifteen* scrubbing system vendors...
Chemico and Combusion Engineering, who supply drawings, pilot
plant data, and the scrubber and its peripheral equipment; and
(d)  the National Constructors Association...an organization
representing heavy construction contractors around the country.
The consensus of these sources is as fellows:


*Including:Babcock & Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Chemico,
Peabody, Universal Oil Products  (Procon), Krebs, Envirotech,
Zern, Monsanto, Enviroengineering, Joy, Research-Cottrell,
Wellman-Lord; North American Rockwell, Consolidated Coal.
                        -69-

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    1.  Utility Engineers

    Although the institutional barriers within the electric
utilities to the rapid application of SOX control devices
were described in detail in the previous section, it is well
to reiterate one important point.  Because the utilities do
not typically have chemical processing expertise on their
engineering staffs and because there will undoubtedly be a
shortage of experienced chemical engineers if and when
scrubbers are ordered in quantity, the utilities will have
to rely in large part on the manufacturers and consulting
engineers.  This may result in dĞlays in preparing detailed
specifications for the scrubbers and in deterioration of
performance once the scrubber operation is turned over to
the utility.

    2.  Consulting Engineers

    The consulting engineers provide an interface between
the utilities and the scrubber vendors.  These companies can
be divided into two groups - those who traditionally deal with
electric utilities on large construction jobs and those who
do not.  For those with utility experience, the corporate
division handling scrubbers are significantly smaller than
divteLqoHS working on power plant design, either fossil fuel
or nuclear power.  A typical scrubber system requires 20
men from the consultant's staff  (engineers, designers, drafts-
men) plus 20 men from the scrubber vendor's staff.  One of
the major consultants is currently working on 5 scrubber
systems.  To expand further, the Scrubber Division would have
to borrow staff from the Power Division which is currently
working at capacity on nuclear plants.

    For consultants without utility experience, it would
be necessary to create new divisions to build scrubbers.  In
either case, a significant expansion of the demand for scrubbers
would cause an immediate shortage of experienced manpower
since all retrofit and many new scrubber systems will be
custom-made products.

    3.  Scrubber Vendors

    Currently there are some fifteen vendors  (see list above)
who are more or less established in the flue-gas scrubbing
business.  A realistic assessment of the current capabilities
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of vendors indicates that there are three, possibly four,
who have sufficient experience and available manpower and
corporate backing to expand rapidly, i..e., within the coming
year.  There are another three or four who are gaining
experience and could probably expand although at a slower
rate.  The remainder of the vendors which have very limited
experience could possibly play an important role in the
late 1970's but their ability to design, fabricate, and
deliver an entire system is largely unproven.  Finally,
new suppliers may be expected to enter the market with new
processes under license if the scrubber market develops
substantially.

    At this time there are some 20 units committed or
underway.  It takes two to two-and-a-half years to complete
a scrubber and about the same time to develop experienced,
competent engineer-designers. There will probably be in-
tense competition for experienced manpower if the market
. If :e Jot-s i apid j y ,.

    Most vendors do not do their own fabrication.  Thus,
there may be choke points at the level of component suppliers
or local fabrication shops.  While no specific data were
obtained on this subject, several areas were mentioned by
those interviewed, including:

    a.  Pumps  (lead time approx. 12 months)
    b.  Fans  (long lead times)
    c.  Rubber-lined, pipes
    d.  Instrumentation  (e.g. magnetic flow meters)

    Almost everyone interviewed by the Interagency Task
Force predicted that the growth of scrubber installations
would be hindered by construction labor shortages in critical
skill areas...welders, pipe-fitters, electricians, boiler-
makers, and craftsmen who install the rubber liners in the
scrubbers.  These shortages will be local in nature, reflecting
the constrained and declining membership of many local craft
unions, and the reduced willingness of skilled workers to
travel to find new work.

    An EPA review of the construction industry shows the
following:
                            71

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a.  Environmental standards will result in major
    new demands on the construction industry for
    the remainder of the decade.  Besides stack
    gas scrubbing facilities there will be sizable
    growth in the demand for:  Municipal sewage
    treatment facilities indluding sewers, refinery
    facilities for lead-free gasoline and low sulfur
    fuel, thermal pollution reduction facilities for
    power plants, industrial waste treatment facilities,
    and new coal mining facilities.  In addition there
    will be a major new shipbuilding program and a
    doubling of installed electrical generating capacity.

b.  Shortages in process engineering talent will be
    qualitative  (due to lack of experience) rather
    than quantitative.

c.  Due to the difficulties in obtaining performance
    bonding and sufficient working.capital the
    contracting business is highly stratified, with
    a few large firms handling the larger jobs.  Thus,
    as more large jobs come up for bids we can expect
    fewer qualified bidders.

d.  liabor strength is a local characteristic with over
    10,500 union locals divided into more than thirty
    different specialized trades.  As a rule of thumb,
    large non-residential work  (over $500,000) in all
    urban areas other than the Southeast and Southwest
    is performed by unionized workers.

e.  The skilled worker is no longer mobile in most
    regions due to a reduction in the seasonaiity of
    employment, union restrictions requiring work
    permits to allow entry into other areas, fringe
    benefits tied to local union contracts, and the
    general immobility resulting from a higher personal
    income.

f.  Some of the craft unions show stagnant or declining
    membership due to restrictive membership barriers.
    The apprenticeship program  for a Hoilermaker  takes
    four years although six months experience may be
    sufficient to enable a man  to handle most journeyman
    tasks.

g.  Unlike labor, basic materials  (concrete, steel, cast
    iron, plywood, electrical system components)  rarely
    create a check on industry  capacity.   Problems which
    may occur relate to higher  prices rather than a lack
    of availability.


                        72

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h.  Productivity in the construction industry has
    not increased significantly in a decade and is
    not likely to advance in the coming ten years.
    Technological advance is sporadic.  Pro-fabri-
    cation may serve to create "captive" craftsmen,
    further immobilizing skilled union laborers, but
    it will not significantly reduce skilled labor
    requirements on the site due to union work rules
    and transportation constraints limiting the size
    of pre-fabricHted parts.

i.  Due to facttu , rel.ding construction activity
    to seasonal and business cycles, many projects
    are on-going at the same time and pace.  Since
    wages are fixed by local union contracts, the
    workers tend to move between jobs on the basis
    of available overtime.  Thus, if pipe-fitters are
    getting more oveitime on site #2 than on site #1
    they can be expected to migrate even though there
    is still work to be done on site #1.  Thus, cost
    estimates based on a 40-hour straight-time work
    week will be underpriced.

j.  New environmental standards have created an inelastic
    demand for new construction which will probably
    reach its peak in the middle of this decade.  The
    incremental figure for all such pollution control
    construction during the decade is estimated not to
    exceed four billion dollars  (at 1967 prices),
    representing an increaise of approximately 4 percent
    over a haseline fiyae of about $1UO billion  (1967
    prices).  The impact of this incremental demand will
    be f c 1 v 'iirtinly -1S pJ'ire in^J oases,

k.  In 1980, an incit.iiH-n t a 1 demand for $4 billion of
    construction at 1967 prices would result in $2-4
    billion of other construction being foregone because
    of insuifiricn* supply to carry it cut, and in the
    cost, of projects, constructed on schedule being raised
    between $?,:-= and $5,2 billion  (1967 prices).  So  the
    "effect 1 
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        These conditions will cause contractors to
        include large contingencies in their bids
        for delays and overtime.

    m.  Of the $4 billion construction increment, the
        "non-equipment elements of air pollution control
        construction will not be significant."

    The implications for scrubber installations in the
remainder of this decade are:  higher costs and construction
delays with local labor factors determining their magnitudes.
It would appear to be safe to say that "institutional con-
straints" will limit scr-ibbui installation to the eirtent
that less than 10% of the potential demand can be met by 1975,
and that full demand can be met by 1980 only by extraordinary
circumstances of growth in the vendor industry and skilled
labor force.

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           VII.  FORECASTING SULFUR OXIDE
                    CONTKQL TECHNOLOGY


     Recent trends in utility orders  for  flue  gas  desulfuri-
zation systems have been examined and forecasts  for  the
application of these systems in the period  from  1975-1980
are presented.  Implications of the projected  expansion  in
the use of SOX control technology are described.


            A•  %,'-_'''!I*-.- f.A'!r_Qds_ -i-JAr Orders for
              f'lut/ Ga.'i Desulfurization Systems


     By analyzing pi-^seut and planned flue  desulfurization
systems in the United Spates, it is possible  to  roughly
ascertain trends  i^ i he degree- of flue gas  desulfurization
system utilization and the types of systems which  are
presently favored by utilities.   In Table VII-1 the  full-size
desulfurization systems planned or operating  in  the
United States are compiled.  Note that the  table is  arranged
in chronological sequence within category type;  the  facilities
completed earliest are listed first.  Pa^ed on this
summary, the  following observations can be  made:


     1.  Presently, twenty-two flue gas desulfurization
systems are planned or in operation;  sixteen  are lime or
limestone scrubbing units; two are sodium-based; three are
magnesium oxide systems, and one is a catalytic  oxidation
system.  Eleven of the limestone systems  utilize injection
of dry limestone into the furnace followed  by either wet or
dry scrubbing; the remaining eleven lime/limestone systems
utilize only wet post-combustion scrubbing  with  a  lime/
limestone slurry.  Roi n the recent sales  patterns  and opinion
within the utility inoustiy indicate  that few, if  any, dry
limestone in. je.-t ion systems will be purchased in the future.


     2.  The gicat :ii-, ,or MY of the systems  are installed
on coal-fired units; only two of the  twenty-two  are  on oil-
fired units.


     3.  The g" -at maiority of the systems  are retrofitted
onto existing boiler facilities; only five  of the  twenty-two
are systems for new boilers.
                       -75-

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Table VII-1.
PLANNED AND OPERATING FULL SIZE FLUE GAS  DESULFURIZATION FACILITIES
                     IN THE UNITED STATES
UTILITY COMPANY/PLANT/NEW OR RETRO
LIMESTONE SCRUBBING
1. UNION ELECTRIC CO. (ST. LOUIS)/
MERAMEC NO. 2/RETRO
2. KANSAS POWER ft LIGHT/LAWRENCE
STATION NO. 4/RETRO
3. KANSAS POWER ft LIGHT/LAWRENCE
STATION NO. 5 NEW IN 1971
4. COMMONWEALTH EDISON (CHICAGO AREA)/
f ILL COUNTY STATION NO. I/RETRO
5. CITY OF KEY WEST/STOCK ISLANDVNEW

6. KANSAS CITY POWER & LIGHT/HAWTHORNE
STATION NO. 3/RETRO
7. KANSAS CITY POWER & LIGHT/HAWTHORNE
STATION NO. 4/RETRO
.8. LOUISVILLE GAS ft ELECTRIC CO./
PADDY'S RUN STATION N0.6/RETRO
?, KANSAS CITY POWER ft LIGHT/LA CYGNE
STATION/NEW
10. DETROIT EDISON CO./ST. CLAIR
STATION NO. 6/RETRO
11. ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE CO./CHOLLA
STATION/RETRO
12. UNION ELECTRIC COMPANY (ST. LOUIS)/
MERAMEC NO. I/RETRO
13. DUOUESNE LIGHT CO. (PITTSBURGH)/
PHILIPS STATION/RETRO
14. TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY ftiDOK'S
CREEK STATION NO. 8/RETRO
15. NORTHERN STATES PQtfER CO. (MINNESOTA)
SHERBURNE CO. STATION NO. 1 & Z/NEN
it SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON & OTHER
SOUTHWESTERN UTILITIES/NAVAJO/NEN
if. nlBWiDA TOWERm/REID GARDNER
STATION/RETRO
18. NORTHERN INDIANA PUBLIC SERVICE CO./
D.H. MITCHELL NO. 11 (WELLMAN-LORD
PROCESS)VRETRO
20. PHILADELPHIA ELECTRIC CO./EDOYSTONE 1/RFTRO
21. POTOMAC ELECTRIC & POWER (MARYLAND)/
DICKERSON NO. 3VRETRO
r ITAI YTIP. OXIDATION
22! (LliHolsTinfERywooD RIVERVRETRO
MEGAWATTS

140

125

430

175

37

130

130

70

820

180

115

140

100

550

1360
2-680
2250
3-750
250
115


150
120
100


100
STARTUP

SEPTEMBER
1968
DECEMBER
1968
NOVEMBER
1971
FEBRUARY
1972
OCTOBER
1972
LATE 1972

LATE 1972

NOVEMBER
1972
DECEMBER
1972
DECEMBER
1973
JANUARY
1973
SPRING
1973
SPRING
1973
APRIL
1975
MAY 1976
FIRST UNIT
1-UNIT MAR. 1976
3 UNIT MAR. 1977
MID 1973
JULY 1974


APRIL 1972
MID 1973
EARLY 1974

SEPT.-OCT.
1972
FUEL

3.0% S COAL

3.5% S COAL

3.5% S COAL

3.5% S COAL

2.75% S FUEL OIL

3.5% S COAL

3.5% S COAL

3.5 S COAL

5% S COAL

3.7%-3.8% S COAL

0.4%-1% S COAL

3.0% S COAL

2% S COAL

3.7% S COAL

0.8%-1.2% S COAL

0.3-0.8% S COAL

0.5%-1.0% S COAL
3.5% S COAL


2.5% S FUEL OIL
2.5% S COAL
10% S COAL

25%

   •PARTIAL FUNDING BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                          -76-

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     4.  The total megawatts represented by these units
is about 7,500 MWe, 3,600 MWe representing systems in-
stalled on new boilers.

     5.  Presently, about 3,400 MWe of control capability
is scheduled to be installed as of the end of 1974, which
includes 950 MWe utilizing dry limestone injection.  Since
any additional commitments would require from two to three
years for design and construction, it is not expected tnat
the actual total capacity will be much greater than that
already scheduled for 1974.  The corresponding number for
1975 is about 4,000 MWe.  This amount could be increased
substantially only if utilities make decisions to install
such systems between now and about mid-1973.

     6.  The utilities to date have committed capital
expenditures for flue gas desulfurization systems of
approximately $330 million.
           B.  Forecasting Applications of
             Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems
     Based on the results of many discussions with utilities,
manufacturers, and others, an attempt has been made to pre-
dict potential growth patterns for the application of sulfur
dioxide control systems in the electric power industry.
With many uncertainties in regulatory strategy, utility
management policy, operations experience in SOX control
demonstration plants, and the capability of the control
system vendors to deliver reliable products, these forecasts
can at best be considered as rough estimates of optimistic
schedules for application of stack gas cleaning equipment
to central station generating plants.

     It is impossible to characterize these forecasts in
a simple way, other than to say that they result from the
intuitive and analytical blending of many factors: pressures
from New Source Performance Standards and the State Implemen-
tation Plans; the realities faced in the electric power
industry today, including delays in nuclear capacity and
fossil fuel shortages; and the uneven progress of equipment
manufacturers in developing SOX control devices.
                       -77-

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     Two forecasts are presented in Tables VII-2 and
VII-3 to illustrate possible trends in the application
of SOX control equipment in the electric power industry.
Some of the guidelines used in constructing these pro-
jections are described here.  The modeling was simplified
by considering only coal-fired central station electric
plants.  There are several limitations implicit in this
assumption which should be mentioned.  Many smaller coal-
fired plants may be converted to oil-firing, and a number
of midwestern coal-fired plants may begin burning low
sulfur Western coal instead of high sulfur coals.  An
offsetting factor may be the installation of SOX control
equipment on oil-fired boilers, depending on increasing
costs of low sulfur oil.

     New and retrofit SOX control equipment installations
were considered separately.  It was assumed that, because
of the New Source Performance Standards and the State
Implementation Plans, all new coal-fired plants would be
equipped, if possible, with SOX control devices.  In the
forecasts, this annual demand was satisfied first.  The
rest of the estimated capacity of the control system ven-
dors was applied to retrofitting existing coal-fired
plants.

     The pacing factors or "choke points" in these projec-
tions are two-fold:  the ability of the control system
vendors to convince the utilities that they have developed
reliable systems and the ability of the vendors to initiate
quickly many new projects, to bring those systems on line
with minimum delay and adverse publicity, and to continue
to take on new projects with negligible choke effects.  In
both of the projections, the potential for delays due to
shortages in engineering and skilled construction manpower
and for delays in acquiring material and equipment was
recognized.

     For purposes of simplicity, the manufacturers were
grouped three categories:  Vendor A group included 3 to
4 major manufacturers which have considerable experience
with SOX control and have reasonably large engineering
staff; Vendor B group included 4 to  5 manufacturers with
some experience in SOX control and with extensive experience
in some phase of air pollution control or chemical pro-
cessing; and Vendor C group included all other manufacturers,
including such organizations as TVA which engineers its
own scrubber systems.
                       -78-

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                          TABLE VII-2


        FORECAST OF SULFUR OXIDE CONTROL EQUIPMENT ON ELECTRIC

                        POWER STATION, 1975-1980

                          -OPTIMISTIC SCENAFIO-
                          Number of Scrubbers Brought- on Line
Vendor
Type
A

B

C
Install .
Totals
Capacity
Totals,
MWe
Total Cap. ,
MWe
Cumulative,
MWe
Type l15iru2
Install. i 974
New
Retro
New
Retro
New
Retro
New
Retro
New 860
Retro 1570

,„ 4 jU

2500


197H 1976
4
ib 16
,- '-, 2 5

1 ~ 25
b 10
16 16
46 60
12,000 12,000
9,500 12,000

2i,5Uu 24,000

24,000 48,000


1977
14
45
2
35
20
16
100
12,000
20, 000

32,000

80, 000


1978
16
45
2
35
30
20
110
15,000
22,000

37,000

117,000


1979
16
59
2
45
40
20
144
15,000
29,000

44,000

161,000


1980
16
59
2
45
50
20
154
15,000
31,000

46,000

207,000

 Average size of new plants assumed to be  750MW;  retrofitted plants
 assumed to be 200 MW.


>
 Plants using dry J >;v;•_ t r
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                 FORECAST OF  SULFUR OXIDE CONTROL EQUIPMENT ON
                       ELECTRIC  POWER STATION,  1075-1980
                        -ONE  YEAR DELAY SCENARIO-
Vonclor       Typo       Thru?   	Number of  Scrubbers Brought on  Lino
Type

A
Install. 1974
New
Retro
New
Retro
New
Retro
New
Retro
1975 1976
5 U4
10 15
5 10
r' i
r ) ••
If- 2i<
1977
16
25
25
10
16
60
1978
14
45
2
35
20
100
1979
16
45
2
35
2
30
20
110
198i
16
59
2
45
2
40
20
144
Install.     New
Totals
Capacity     New        H6u     3750    8,2.0   12,OoO   12,000   15,000   15,000
Totals, MWe  Retro      1570   3600    r>,6oO   12,003   ,'0,000   22,000   29,000
Tot. Capacity,          2430   7150    13,850  24,000   J2,0uu   37,000   44,000
MWe

Cumulative,             2500   i0,000  24,000  48,000   80,000  117,000  161,000
  MWe

           Average  size of now plants assumed to be 750 MW; retrofitted plants
           assumed  to be 200 MW.
           2
           Plants using dry limestone imortion not included  in  compilation
           or  in projection.

           This number includes  TVA ' ^ ^u ,' MW Widow'b  CreeK  Fl.Hit

           4
           This number includes  Nort.'it-. <. n ;M .ttes Power1 ,  14uO  MWe Sherburne Co.
           Plant.

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     The first forecast given in Table VII-2 describes
what we considered an "optimistic" scenario for the
application of SOX control devices.  Critical to this
forecast is the ability, particularly of the major manu-
facturers, to expand rapidly during 1973-1974 so that
they can handle 40 or more projects at the same time.
Also critical is the requirement that utilities will
have to order the scrubbers scheduled for operation in
1975 within the next six to nine months since the time
needed to specify, fabricate, and assemble a scrubber
is 24-30 months.

     The second forecast given in Table VII-3 is more
realistic than the first forecast, in that it assumes
the likelihood of delays in excess of six to nine months
before utilities begin placing substantial orders.  Some
of the reasons for such delays have been described above,
but probably include evidence of long-term reliable opera-
tion with Chemico's Mag-Ox scrubber in Boston or Babcock
and Wilcox's limestone scrubber near Chicago.  This second
forecast assumes that the 62 scrubber units scheduled for
1975  (under the optimistic scenario) would not be completed
until the end of 1976.  Twenty-three units were assumed to
come on line in 1975 and 39 units in 1976.  Thus, the
postulated expansion of the scrubber application would be
delayed by one year.

     The cumulative sulfur oxide control capacity predicted
in these two forecasts is presented graphically in Figure
VII-1.  From these two curves, one can see that the elec-
trical generating capacity out-fitted with SOX control
equipment may be, between 10,000 and 24,000 MWe in 1975
and between 48,000 and 80,000 MWe in 1977.  While it may
be possible to use only an incremental 25-60 million tons
of high sulfur coal because of the limited availability
of SOX control devices in 1975, the amount of high sulfur
coal which could be used in 1977 may grow to 120-200
million tons.

     Although projections for the use of coal during the
coming decade also vary widely, it is instructive to com-
pare the quantities of high sulfur coal which could be
used with the availability of SOX control devices pre-
dicted in these Iwo scenarios.  In Table VII-4 total steam
electric coal requirements are projected and compared to
the quantities of high sulfur coal made usable with SOX
control technology.  From this table, one can see that,
in the first "optimistic" scenario, the market for SOX
control equipment; would probably soften after 1977 because
                       -81-

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cumulative
 scrubber,
 install.,
MWe
220

260

180

160

140

120
            80
            60

            40

            20

             0
                          Optimist ic

                           Scenario
                          -+
                                                 One-year delay

                                                Scenario
                       74    75    76    77    78    79

                                  YEAR
                                                         80
                                  FIGURE  VII-1
                     FORECASTS  OF  CUMULATIVE STACK GAS SCRUBBER
                                   INSTALLATIONS
                                    -82-

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                   TABLE VII-4


     Comparison of High .c:uJ fur  Coal Usable  with SOX

     Control  Technology t-o Total  Consumption  in  Steam

                        F, lec-t t ] c  PI :ir;i <-.
                                 JX. UVI.V

                              Hi qh ;-u , : ..
                                   -..' i 1 1ğ 5OX
Cc

1975
1977
1980
?al Consul 'i
lO^To:
440
485
545
i



    Maximum

High Sulfur Coal
Used with  SOX

Control-Seen.2

KJ^tons  %Usable
                                                      26

                                                     120

                                                     410
             6

            25

            75
 Consumption of coal for  r.team electric i.-i^ms  assumed to
grow 6% per  year fror  '„•;-> million tons ir  !c)";0  through 1975,
drop to 5%  in 19'f>-lcr? ?.  rv,,1  then -I? r.j  ^.-  4r -  in 1978-1980.

-------
of the rapidly diminishing market, the higher installation
costs in the remaining smaller and older boilers and the
competition from low sulfur coal and oil conversions for
the remaining plants.  It appears, however,  that the mar-
ket in the second "realistic" scenario would probably
remain reasonably firm beyond 1977 with diminished "over-
shoot" capability in the control systems industry as the
retrofit market would decrease appreciably in size only
in the early 1980's.  These estimates, however, do not take
into account chemical coal-cleaning processes such as
liquefaction and gasification which may become available
on a limited basis in the 1977-1980 time frame.

     The question of maintaining adequate, reserve generating
capacity is a complex one, as described in Chapter VI.
Referring to Table VI-2, one can see that, on an overall
national basis, even a 10% maintenance margin might allow
as much as 40,000 MWe to be available for SOX scrubbing
system retrofit installations in 1975.  SOX control for
new plants can be installed while the boiler is being con-
structed and does not require a maintenance outage for
installation.  Only existing units will have to be retro-
fitted and brought on line during the spring and fall
maintenance periods at a rate not to exceed the available
maintenance margin of 40,000 MWe.  For both scenarios, the
projected additions of retrofitted systems are well within
this limitation.

     On the other hand, in the middle central and middle
south sections of the Nation, many utilities are equipped
only to burn coal, thus the Nation's coal-fired capacity
is concentrated in that area and the bulk of the burden
of retrofitting may fall on those utilities.  Because of
the limited ability to shift large blocks of electrical
power except within power pools  (as pointed out in Chapter
VI), there will probably be localized problems in these
geographical areas in bringing retrofitted SOX control
equipment on line, just as the problems of bringing nuclear
plants on line will probably continue to exacerbate the
reserve margin difficulties.  The application of SOX con-
trol equipment, i.e., the slope of the cumulative capacity
curves as shown in Figure VTI-1 will decrease.
                        -84-

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     An analysis of  the  direct  cost r !  a sulfur oxide
control program such  is  incorporated in the "realistic"
scenario is given  in  Table  VII- :>,

     In summary, we  feel  thai d  ,ğ,   extrapoJat:  /:N of  the current status
of stack gas clea/.u)'.)  snd does  n<>t  atterapt to evaluate
all possible alt^n-;• i-'os for ;-"Ox  pollution abatement.
                        -85-

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STA'iUS RiX.i;-'S  uN IMPORTANT MAJOP
      SGX  HCRTjhHING FACILlTII.r
  IN  THE  UNITED STATES AND ^/-PAN
    VISITED riY  SOCTAP MEMBKK.S

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Process;   Magnesium Oxide Scrubbing with Thermal Regeneration
Process Supplier:  Chemical Construction Corporation (Chemico)
Constructor;cKemical Construction Corporation
System Location;  Boston Edison's Mystic Station in
                  Boston, Massachusetts

Conclusions and Analysis of Significance .

     In April 1972, the shakedown period began for the Mag-Ox
scrubbing system on a 150 MW oil-fired boiler at Boston
Edison's Mystic Station.  The venturi scrubber has operated
intermittently since then due to mechanical difficulties.
During operation, the scrubber has achieved SOj removal
efficiencies in excess ot 90% with no apparent scrubber-
related problems.  The major problem has been with the
design and operation of the MgS03 crystal  dryer.  Redesign
of the dryer and a change of fuel to a low viscosity oil
appear to be resolving these problems.  Other problems with
centrifuging the sulfite crystals from the scrubbing liquor
and properly calcining the sulfite to regenerate MgO appear
to be manageable.  If new problems are not confronted, the
scrubber system should begin long-term test runs in the near
future.

     This project is quite important because it will be the
first time the individual steps of scrubbing, centrifuging,
and calcining on an integrated basis for the Chemico process
have been combined.  Partially funded by EPA, the project
involves not only the scrubber, centrifuge, and dryer at the
Boston Edison plant but also the calcining and acid plant at
Essex Chemical Company in Rumford, Rhode Island.

     The process has not yei. oeen demonstrated on a coal-fired
plant, however, a full-scale Mag-Ox scrubber is planned for
Potomac Electric and Power's Dickerson Plant.  Approximately
100 MW of the 195 MW of Dickerson Unit  3 will oe processed.
Since the plant burns coal  '3% S, 8% ash), the scrubbing
facility will use one venturi scrubber to remove the particu-
late and a second to remove the SO2.  The  scrubber is scheduled
to start up in early 1974 ar.'i to use the calcining plant at
Essex Chemical.

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Process ;  Limestone  Scrubbing with Throwaway Product
Process Supplier;  Babcock & Wilcox
Constructor ;  Babcock  & Wilcox
System Location:   Commonwealth Edi . >wi, c'o.'s Will County
                   Station  in Romeo" i i 1 ••• ,  Illinois

Conclusions and Analys.i -\J2f_
     In February,  i'llJ,  the  175 M\v Commonwealth Edison
Will County Station  l.'nif  No.  1  .started up.  The system con-
sists of two  iclent i- . i  parallel we i  limestone scrubbing
systems, each con;.; . -, > •> ,  •. i  a venturi for particulate
removal, followed  in  series  by a *.urbu"Jent contact
absorber  (TCA)  foi  sr>^  absorption,   T.iis unit has operated
intermittent 1\  since  .->t.trt-up and ii,..?-. generally achieved
SO2 removal ef f i c j enc; i es  in  the range oi 75-85%.  Demister
pluggage with a soft,  nr^tiike substance has been a problem;
but with automatic demister  washing with make-up water via
bottom sprays,  this  problem  area may lend itself to control.
Additional droplet disengagement space upstream of the
demister may  also  help alleviate the problem.

     Economic disposal  of sludge from this system appears to
be a problem; howe^e* ,  Commonwealth Edison is presently
working on this h. . -,\ \ < c,  v/ith Chicagii F'lyash Company.  One
of the first  <- teps taken  will be the installation of a
sludge t:eatiin.nt   \.>U;>>,  to  allow disposal of sludge with a
lower watei '-< •,  i   ^y  fvom the boiler injection mode due to
the possibili'v -. .;  /,. .jj.-.-t  pluggaqe • >.V ' - i> -, .   This facility is considered very
important for the;-  ^e ierai U.S.  control situation, since the
Will County unit is  typical  of many coal-fired retrofit
situations.   Despite  the  demister, mechanical and sludge
disposal problems,  it appears likely that the system will be
made to operate reliably  with adequate disposal of sludge
material, in  the near future.

                        -89-

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Process;  Lime  Scrubbing with Throwaway Product
Process Supplier;   Chemical Construction Corporation  (Chemiro)
Constructor:  Mitsui  Miike Machinery Co.
System Location;   Miike Power Station, Omuta Works, Mitsui
                   Aluminum Co., (near Omuta, Japan)

Conclusions  and Analysis ni SijjnJJ:'ic_cii.c_e;

     The SOX control  system on the Miike Power Station of
Mitsui Aluminum Company, Ltd., located near Omuta  in
Kyushu has exhibited  reliable, essentially trouble-free opera-
tion since March  29,  1972, After its performance passed the
guarantee tests in late Apj.il, the control system  has been
operated under  less stringent, conditions just  adequate to
meet the current  Japanese SO., standarur...  r\io serious  chemical
or mechanical problems havf been detected in the two-stage
venturi scrubbinn .syster.

     The sludge An the- d i ;;., .-,; pond app^-irĞ to be settling
quite well,  in  fact,,  nnurr. :>Ğ•:>? ter than >:.x • i ' °nced  at
U.S. facilities.   ULtartu.^  .Disposal of  the tnrowaway  product,
a major problem : n the I . •>. ,   remains  r opeu question.
     It should be  not*, i  •
this system  to date  it  v.>;
United States air  polluti
design ground rules £01  th
to those of  man;.   • v  ji   !
furization systems.   The
commonality: us**  of  exist
efficient electrostatic  •
moderately-large  size  boi
throwaway product, arid uv
The unit takes on add.it::-
was designed based on L , -S
similar unit, us iruj  <:,.\i> ħ
being construct^'  ' r. "• ''.e
Phillips StatKM;,  '-i-li ^. t
1973.

     It shou id ?,r  ..,., , . •
Mitsui unit  hat-  no^  yet !
some question  r^-iac  . .u:-j :
performance  to  Liif• •>   l;, ,
different de^ica-  ...rj-if.^i >
let concentrations,  ^;; :; ,
and much Mche>  i)..' "    : '
                          u
                             1 a
                             i
                             tc
                             >•;
 5.he  rc-iiible  pertormance of
;}  s i gn i f i ^ an re t o the
 ontrol  program,  since the
spanese  unit  are quite similar
 ur il 11 i er, r^q  , r ing desul-
 owing  are  iinorq the areas of
 coal-fiit-d boiler,  moderately
 pi tator .•-••,  installation on
 (156 Mw),  production of a
 bility  of  ca 1 >:• i uai hydroxide.
 signi f iranofe -since the system
 chnology   \Chemioo)  and a
 .ydroxide  on a coal boiler,  is
                                for  Duquesne Light Company's
                              up  scheduled during spring
                                            lability of the
                                              Also, there is
                                             r apolating Mitsui
                                              substantially
                                             •  higher 862 in-
                                             '-q boiler loads,
., ; Icmg-tei
";n demon st r
*'? >al idi ti
.u -j.,1 i cat i o •
: o ; , such ::
. ' : ', h fi i c. e \ \
U! Tr:
•-it.ed
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         Process;  Soluble Sodium Scrubbing with Thermal  Regeneration
                    (Wellman-Lord Process)
         Process Supplier;  Wellman Power Gas
         Constructor:  Mitsubishi Chemical Machinery  (MKK)
         System Location;  Japan Synthetic Rubber
                            (near Chiba, Japan)

         Conclusions and Analysis of Signif i.c ance ;

              Successful reliable ojciation ol: the Wellman-Lord  SOX
         control process at Chiba for greater 1 v,c.n 9,000  hours  for the
         last year and a half .is considered quite significant for the
         U.S. SOX control situafuu    This process has  been  demonstrated
         to reliably remove in  t :••   icier r-i 90 percent  of the inlet  flue
         gas on a 75 Mw oil-iaifi •   ilei.  It appears  that the  process
         should be applicable to coal- fired boilers if  fly ash removal
         equipment is installed upstream of the absorber.  A Northern
         Indiana Power Service Co.  (NIPSCO) unit, partially  funded by
         EPA, will evaluate such systems on a coal-fired  boiler.  Cost
         studies indicate that capital and operating costs for  a Wellman-
         Lord system in the U.S. on a coal-fired boiler are  not a great
         deal higher than those for wet lime/limestone  or magnesium  oxide
         scrubbing systems, which are generally considered the  least
         expensive of the flue gas desulfurization systems.

              The major problem witn the process is the requirement  for
         a bleed to remove contaminants, primarily Na^SO.^.   Present  infor-
         mation indicates about 10 percent of the total incoming sulfur
         is lost as soluble Ndot-.4   T^is is undesirable  from an environ-
         mental viewpoint, .-. inct Cut. uro Federal regulations  for waste
         streams will probaMy prohibit such discharge; also, sodium
         make-up costs are quite significant.  However, based on an  oxi-
         dation retardant identified by Pumitomo, such  Josses might  be
         reduced by 55 perct-iu.  CM HIM techniques for  decreasing or
         eliminating this discharge- will probably have  to be considered
         for U.S. applications,

•             Another potential pr^.r I tjrr. with this and  all the other  con-
         centrated S02 producing plot-esses is the requirement to sell
         large quantities ol  lrw-v-.^ue sulfur product.  Although there
•        is little doubt that H;.SCS , ,.m be marketed in  the U.S.  in  certain
•        localities  (near F^SO^j' users) . it does not appear that such pro-
         duction can be absorbed by users if a large percentage of  U.S.
I         electrical utilities would produce acid.  However,  elemental
         sulfur, which will be ptoduced in the NIPSCO  unit,  is  another
         potential product which is both storable and  potentially  sale-
         Iable; this could ultimately be the most desirable end  product
         of all, including the  ihrowaway sludges associated  with lime/
         limestone processes.
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                                    - 9.1 -

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Process;   Lime Scrubbing with Gypsum Production
Process Supplier:  Mitsubishi Heavy Industries -  Japanese
                    Engineering Consulting Co.
Constructor:   Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
System Location:  Amagasaki   Power Plant
                    (near Osaka,  Japan)

Conclusions and Analvs':- •..'.  -.. ; ua i f j . ••
                                            !-,insai  Electric
     The Mitsub i :-.n i . JT-X
the Amagasaki  power pS-i
                    i ./Ğ.
                      oxi
reliable,  trouble
three-month peric.
its demonstrated
high-purity gyp^-,.
CaSOs  •  1/2H20.
over the last eJ i
relative to rh. .- VIM it wM
United States ;. itu.it", on  1s
low-sulfur res;
to the scrubbe-
control  or; bo : ;
let concert, rat i
greater than. 20
scrubbing ay^t-      . ,;  r.-:
other  re! ;<•'-;'•   ,   • • ;\- in
Also,  ut L li .-rat . •-.,   *• '. i,..-
United States ;•.•-, a i '  ne  >•.
Chemico and We • ;.tu;u. • ..or ,
they  are U.S. based  com].
 ."••'-gypsum <^o,., ront i ol  system on
 t'L  r'ansai Lii'-tiic  has  exhibited
:!:•; i-'ji, foi  ^f.i'rciKinicit-el y a
 (••'j,  1972    ri;is  process with
    •hnolociy . .i   ,r-  production of
    HjC;)  irs- >   i  •;  ;-; ludge-rich in
 i   .:  techno L-M \  hc-s been demonstrated
    ,'-r Liiiis: iJvp^.-j!-  system treating
   •  •.  KoY'^~!  r-'' 1 ;  • •'  Nippon Kokan
 ', .  '-alcixijTi  -•.. ; . ,te for throwaway
 I'.OL^  easily  ;    '-rod,  either by
  i altering  ope.1 at. • oas .   This can
 sements for 'liudge  disposal ponds
 reclaiming  of  such  ponds.  For
 c  r. Ludge is transported for
 i Ğn be reduced  since a drier  (lower
 handled and transported to the
                             ;  t here ,
                              .i'a"ko ext
iuai
of
! S
:: i:-
oi ! j
3P.I\ V-i
r -i >:i> x '• ;
!.f> a a
] i a
! '' fpre -
, s gh - s
, - . - 1 r u .1 i
! t;
Me
i, L t
2 J1
               r t?5 t=tin factors
               <> • ."it " ons to the
                •  -MW boiler burns
                ,'(s  Concentration
               u j  .itilities require
                 - i  or oil with  in-
               . &y;-. leas generally
  •:i Lerice has  jiititcated lime
  ;-rone to  sfftlir\g,  plugging and
   it Itiqhcr  ;.;ile!  SO-, concentrations,
  : iruhishi  • t - Inoi' .gy in the
    . i i 11 i '"a" t   ;cxft>xi r ed to use of
   -h no logy,  for exaitiple, since

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Process:  EPA Prototype Test Facility - Limestone and Lime
          Scrubbing with Throwaway Product
Major Contractor;  Bechtel Corporation
Constructor;  Tennessee Valley Authority  (TVA)
System Location;  TVA's Shawnee Steam Plant near Paducah,
                  Kentucky

Conclusions and Analysis of Significance;

     The EPA prototype test facility consists of three
parallel scrubber systems, each capable of treating 30,000
acfm (lOMw) of flue gas, which are integrated into the
flue gas ductwork of an existing coal-fired boiler.  Bechtel,
as the prime contractor, has designed the facility and has
overall responsibility for the test program, whereas TVA
has constructed and is operating the system.  This facility
was designed for maximum flexibility; it can evaluate four
scrubber types, lime or limestone as the scrubbing medium,
various solids handling systems, and a variety of flow
configurations and a range of test conditions.  The facility
has a high degree of instrumentation for control and re-
cording of data over a wide range of operating conditions.

     Since the facility started up during April, 1972, it
has generated important data during air-water and sodium
carbonate testing.  Recently, testing has been initiated
using limestone slurries.  It is expected that such lime-
stone and subsequent lime testing will supply information
important to the design and/or operation of present and
future facilities utilizing a wet limestone or lime
scrubbing process.  Such information will include: a
comparison of performance and reliability for various
scrubber types, evaluation of lime versus limestone for
effectiveness, a comparison of solid disposal techniques,
and determination of optimum operating conditions for
maximum removal efficiency and reliability.
                       -93-

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                 tloa r--rj  contact  i-;- if  you r;-:vo Ğny  ^u^tic^s.

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cvory aUt:  ^ossiMr;  t.o  hn.vc all  "old" air •yj.illtv flat?.,  first
scr.nsrvvp.l r^r-orf. , sir! first, steer;:!,  and tnird ouartcrly  reports
to  t!A03 !>y J'jna 15, VJ73.

      flp,2 proMc'i nrv ihi^rfnr-"! tnt'i minterir.rscn  of Ihn proposed
schedule, R *  120, is t:>,c-  sorlotr, rl.ort'"-^ of  crr-ujf-rr tiro for il-V
     cosino.  Tl.is ratter is  no-' h^inrj Ktisdieu  in dnuan.
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      All of t'v?  C'^i^.^ioi  irvT.t^r1' rn".^*"?ct'i^l  "
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                         UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTtCTIOiN AGENCY
                            Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
                            Research Triangle Park,  North  Carolina  27711

       SUBJECT:            Review Schedule with Milestones for        DATE:  February 23,  1!
                  Transportation Control Plans

       FROM:      B. J. Steigerwald, Director
                  Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards

       TO:        Air and Water Program Directors
                  Regions I-X

                       States are required to submit transportation control  plans  on
                  April 15, 1973.   In order to comply with the requirements  of the Clean
                  Air Act and the Court, EPA must publish  approval/disapproval  notices
                  for transportation control plans in the  Federal  Register not later than
                  June 15, 1973.  This has resulted in a  very tight schedule for the
                  review, approval/disapproval and promulgation where  necessary.   The
                  schedule does not allow for any postponement of the  publication  dates
                  of June 15 and August 15 as appropriate.  To assure  that adequate
                  progress is being made towards achieving this requirement  the following
                  schedule with appropriate milestones is  transmitted.  A detailed
                  discussion and tracking chart is attached for your information.
O
      Key milestones:

 1.  March


 2.< April 15, 1973

 3.< April 16, 1973


 4.  April 16, 1973

 5.  April 16., 1973


 6.  April 20, 1973
 7.  May 7, 1973


 8.  May 15, 1973


 9.  May 21, 1973


10.  May 22, 1973



11.  June 4, 1973
Plan'review starts upon ğeceipt of draft
SIP; copies are sent to reviewers
States hold public hearings on SIP

Regions finish review and assessment of
public hearing transcript content
Plans received by regions
Regions begin to prepare for EPA promultjatii
in regions where no plan was submitted"
Reviewers receive SIPs
Regions receive review comments from EPA
reviewers, public, and interested parties
Regions make approval/disapproval recommen-
dations
LUPB forwards coordinated regional office
draft F.R..inputs to OAWP
OAWP forwards approval/disapproval recommen
dations and EPA p/oposed plans to EPA
Steering Committee

Final Interagency review comments are
received by OAWP
 I
            EPA Form 1320.6 (Rev. 6-72)

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              12.   June 6, 1973

              13.   June 10, 1973

              14.   June 15, 1973
              15.  July;25, 1973

              16.  August 1, 1973
              17.  August 15, 1973
OAWP makes final approval/disapproval
decisions        ,.       1
Regional Offices schedule public hearings
on EPA proposed plans
Federal Register notice of SIP approval is
published

Federal Register notice of hearings and EPA
developed plans for disapproved or inadequate
SIP is published
Regions hold public hearings on EPA plans
OAWP receives Regions' and LUPB's public
hearing assessments
EPA promulgates EPA plans
              . Steigerwal
              Director
        Air  Quality  Planning
            and Standards
              Attachments  (3)
              cc:  Region?.! transportation representatives
                   Reviewers
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                                          ATTACHMENT I
                                           /
                                      Review Procedure for
                                State Transportation Control Plans
      Plan review will  start with  the  receipt by  the  Regions  of  the
 draft SIPs which will  be  used  for the States'  public hearings.   Copies
 of draft SIPs  shall  be sent to the attached list of  reviewers upon
 receipt.   Subsequent to the States' public hearings, to be held prior to
 April  15, the  regional  staff shall  commence review of the hearing transcripts
 and assess their import.   If needed,  contractor  assistance will  be  available
 to aid Regions in this task.   This information shall  be retained and used
 by the Regions as input to their  eventual approval/disapproval  recommendation
 for SIPs.

      As final  transportation control  plans are received the  Regions will
 send copies directly to the attached  list of reviewers.  It  is  anticipated
 that the reviewers will return comments  directly to  the appropriate
 regional  office not  later than May 7, with a copy sent directly to  the
 Office of Air  Quality Planning and Standards,  Land Use Planning Branch.  All
 reviews must be completed by Mav  7, including  those  for late plan submittals.
 The Ren-'ons will  formulate their  recommendation  to approve or disapprove
 the plan by May 15.   OAQPS will assist the regional  offices  to  assure that
 uniform policies will  be  followed in  the ten regions involved in the
 review procedure.  Guidelines  of  Federal Register notices will  also be
 prepared during the  period up  to  May  15  by the regional office.  The OAQPS
 will  provide assistance to the regions prior to  May  15 through  contract
 assistance with TRW.   During this time period  TRW will review the transpor-
 tation strategies suomitted.   Their review will  aid  OAQPS in the analysis of
' the1 ifflplementatioTrs-ehcdule and theHmpct"of~"ttie-conti'ol "measures-proposed.

      No later  than May 15 the  Regions should have drafted appropriate
 Federal  Register notices  including where necessary preliminary  EPA  proposals.
 The Regions shoulu also prepare input which would be useabje in the
 preamble and briefing memo for the approval/disapproval no'tice.  This will
 be du
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o
                                                                                           I
                                                                                           I
              the plans.  Other Federal agencies will  be apprised of the status of
              the plans and hence it is felt that this final  interagency review will
              serve as an update.                            '                              •

                   June 15, 1973, 1s the date for publication of the EPA approval/dis-
              approval notice in the Federal Register.  If disapproved, EPA must           •
              promulgate a plan within two months or August 15, 1973.  Throughout the      |
              review period OAQPS will work closely with regional offices and the scates
              Involved in the review of the plans.  They will follow closely the inter-    m
              change of information between the states and the  regional offices in order   I
              to minimize plan disapproval.  It is anticipated  that through close liaison
              with the states disapproval notices can be minimized.  Throughout the
              period of January 15 through August 15 the TRW contract assistance will      •
              also be available to provide on-call technical  assistance to EPA and trie     "
              states in.the evaluation, interpretation, and corre:tion of various
              transportation control measures.  They will also  assist in preparation of    •
              transportation control strategies that EPA must propose.                     •
                                             %
                   The Land Use Planning Branch will report bi-weekly on the status of     •
              the transportation control plans to Headquarters.  If it appears that        jj
              additional assistance is necessary in the regional office, the OAQPS will
              be available to give either direct technical support to the regional         Ğ
              office or support through the assignment of additional task orders to        •
              the appropriate contractor.  Tasks in excess of those anticipated in the
              new task order should be paid from the appropriate region's BOA funds,        _

                   It Is important that a decision be reached quickly in the event a       ™
              plan ic not turned in.  If it becomes apparent that the plan is to be
              more than a few days late, Immediate action should be taken by the       .   •
              regional office to prepare a transportation control plan.  It is recommended m
              that the region adhere to a time schedule for preparing drafts of appropriate
              plans that will assure the drafts being sent to Headquarters on May 22,      •
              with Steering Committee review on May 22.  If it becomes apparent that a     |
              large number of plans need to be promulgated, many mor? so than presently
              expected, additional funding would be required for contractor assistance.    _
              It would not be possible for the OAQPS to expend a large^man-effort in the   •
              promulgation of EPA plans.  It is anticipated that most of 'the regional
              offices will be capable with contractor assistance to prepare any plans
              that were necessary.  However, technical assistance would be available to a  •
              limited extent in plan preparation.          •                                •
                                                                                            I
                                                                                            I

                                                                                            I

                                                                                            I

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 I
 I
                                    SOME ASPECTS OF EMISSION CONTROL
 •                                               IN THE
                                        BY-PRODUCT COKE INDUSTRY
 I
 I
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 I
                                             George B. Crane
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
        Engineering Srr^ioes Branch

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I
•                                           Introduction
B                This  document has been issued as an aid to enforcement personnel of
                  Region  V and should be useful to other EPA engineers.  It constitutes
•     ,           partial coverage of control of air pollution from by-product coke ovens.
                  The subjects covered are:   (1) coke quenching and the effect of foul
I                water on air and water pollution emissions, and (2) coke plant control
_                equipment manufacturers and their capabilities to install necessary
                  control systems.
B                Subject (2) was investigated by telephone contacts with vendors.
•                In most cases, company literature was available in time to be considered
                  in the  report.  Some company contacts were uncertain about the existence
•                of control  applications within the United States.  Otherwise subject  (2)
                  Identifies  all significant  coke plant control equipment manufacturers located
'                in the  U. S. or licensed  to do business here, along with the controls
•                installed or contracted,  and date of startup if now  under construction.  The
                  summary of  U. S. control  is current as of February 1973.
                  Although coke quenching is  described in subject (1), the available quenching
I                controls are identified and located as described in  subject  (2).  The
                  ordinary quench tower is  not covered in this document.
                  It was  not  possible  in the  time available to estimate the number of  ovens  that
|                a vendor could rehabilitate or the number of control systems that he  could
                  install within a given time.  However, the vendors'  U. S. control
•                installations have been identified to indicate their capabilities.
I

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                             Coke Quenching

 If a  coke  oven  contains 13 tons of coke, and if this is pushed into a car        |
 and quenched  from  2200 to 400°F using 4,000 gallons of water at ambient          Ğ
 temperature,  about 14,000 pounds or 40 percent of the water will be
 evaporated.   This will generate about 370,000 cubic feet of steam.              I
 Quenching  is  done  by water sprays in approximately 2 minutes.
                                                                                 I
 Measurements  on actual quench towers by U. S. Steel show that the vapor
 velocity and  temperature reach a maximum of about 36 feet per second             £
                                                      2
-(ft/sec) and  160°F, respectively, early in the quench.   During the
 remainder  of  the quench, there is a nearly linear drop to about 32 ft/sec
 and 150°F.  A volume of about 900,000 cubic feet of steam and air are
 discharged from the tower during each quench.  The air rushes into the
 bottom of  the quench tower as the hot steam and gases flow upward and out
 the top.  The gas  velocity was measured-by dividing the cross section of
 the quench tower into  16 equal area zones and taking pitot tube traverses.
 Temperature was also measured in each zone.
 Liquid entrainment by  the above steam-air mixture should commence at a
 gas velocity  approaching 10  ft/sec and indeed, considerable mechanical
 carry-over of quench water is always observed.  There is a distribution
 of particle sizes  and  the coarse drops fall out near the quench tower.
 The net result  is  that more  than 40 percent of the quench water is carried
 out; the total  amount  released is that vaporized plus that mechanically
 carried out.  The  latter may amount to 5 - 10 percent of the quench water

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                                                 I
                                                 I
 •            Tato of Chemicals 1n Quench Water
                            i
 m            It has been common practice for coke makers to quench v/ith waste water
               from coke oven by-product recovery plants.  Coking coals contain varying
 I     .       amounts of chemically combined nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine.   These are
               largely volatilized in the coke oven as organic compounds and occur in the
 I            waste waters from the by-product recovery plant.  The chlorine shows up
 M            as a chloride, and part of the sulfur appears as sulfate.  It is costly to
               remove these from the water waste.  Many organic compounds also appear in
 tt            the water waste, to a degree depending on their degree of separation in
               the by-product recovery plant.  These organic chemicals can be removed by
 m            proper treatment of the water waste.  Ammonia can occur in the free form
 m            (NH4OH) and in the fixed or chemically combined form (NH^CI and NH^SC^).
               If lime is added by operation of the "fixed still" in the recovery
 I            plant, CaCl2 and CaSO^ will be in solution, the latter to the extent of
               its solubility of about 2 grams/liter.
 I
               It is evident that many chemical compounds can be present in the v/aste
 J            water sent to quench.  Because of the highly transient phenomena and the
               short time intervals involved, and because of the three-phase quenching
 •             system, one cannot calculate the chemical emissions due to quenching,  neither
 •             adiabatic flash nor isothermal flash assumptions will give an accurate
               picture of the situation.  A rough estimate would simply say that if 40
 J             percent of the quench water is evaporated and 10 percent is mechanically
               carried out, then 50 percent of the chemicals are evolved - perhaps somewhat
 •             greater for low boilers and somewhat less for the high boilers.

I

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                                                        T.FVISFD:  2/20/73
Table 1 gives the standard raw waste level  of a coke plant, defined as
the quantity pf chemicals in the raw waste before any treatment.   Obviously,
the range can be enormous, and for this reason, subsequent values that
                            ;
I discuss may not agree with the averages of Table 1.  The BOD5 item
is obtained by a standard test using v?aste-consuming bacteria and is a
measure of total organic matter that can be thus consumed.  The figure
3.5 pounds represents an oxygen demand to convert to COp and H^O by bacterial
oxidation.
Table 2 shows the total coke plant effluent with the best available
treatment, i.e., the highest degree of treatment that has been reliably
achieved in an actual treatment.facility within the steel industry.  This
degree of treatment may be costly for some segments of the steel industry.
Ammonia in the solution is stripped out in the "free still."  Ammonia is
liberated from sulfate and chloride salts by treatment with lime and stripping
in the "fixed still."  All waste streams are combined in the biological
treatment or "bug" plant.  Cooling towers are employed to reduce the volume
of water to be treated.  The cooling tower blowdown is sent to the biological
plant  to dilute the still waste.
Table  3 shows the major waste components in an actual coke plant and their
total  estimated daily flow after specified treatment.  This treatment was
not  the oest available.  The free and  fixed ammonia  stills were  to operate
with addition of  lime to effect a 90-percent  removal of  ammonia.  This
seems  like  low  removal but it corresponds to  0.00016  mol fraction
 (100 parts  per million by weight) in  the still bottoms.   The  combined  flows  of
550  gpm were to go to a  trickling filter for  an  assumed  phenol removal  of
 '". " /•• ,  .'u:]t.  It ;!,i :"..!•./. ;...'   • - '	• <.-

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1 Table 1. STANDARD RAN LIQUID WASTE
-3
LOAD COKE MANUFACTURING"3
• • (Basis = 1 ton dry coal coked)
1 Parameters Range
~~
Water flow, gal 1400 - 4200
1
Phenol, mg/liter 5-35
| lb 0.125 - 0.875
• Cyanide, nig/liter 0.10 - 155
lb 0.0025 - 3.88
1
NH3, nig/liter 1.0 - 78
| lb 0.025 - 1.95
• BOD5, ing/liter 7 - 600
Ib - 0.175 - 15
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Average
3000

22
0.55
12
0.30

14
0.35
150
3.5








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                                                        REVISED:  2/2IV/3
              Table  2.   TOTAL  COKE PLANT LIQUID
                     WITH  BEST AVAILABLE TREATMENT
                    (Basis s 1  ton dry coal coked)
Water flow, gal
Phenol, Ib
Cyanide, Ib
Ammonia, Ib
BOD5, Ib
                                                      500
                                                      0.002
                                                      0.003
                                                      0.020
                                                      0.045
any effect on chlorides  or sul fates.   Oxidation  of  sul fides  increases
the amount of sul fate.
Properly designed and operated bug plants  can  effect much  greater phenol
removal than 60 percent.   Recoveries  of 90 to  95 percent can also
be made by liquid extraction,  by operating on  phenol -containing  streams
early in the process before they are  diluted with other aqueous  wastes.
Whenever bug plants are used,  some parallel standby or other provision
must be made for continuity of phenol removal  if the phenol-consuming
bacteria are killed by shock loads, poisons, or other  process irregularities.

From the data above, it is evident that economical  treatment of  coke
plant aqueous wastes may still  leave  sufficient amounts of phenols  and
organics that the water is unacceptable for use in  quenching. More important,
perhaps, is the fact ttiat the treatments mentioned  do  not  remove inorganic
salts.  Table 3 indicates that there  are about 29,000  Ib/day of  calcium
chloride and sulfate in the treated waste.  In quenching with this

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            Component
            H~0 gpm



            Phenols



            Ammoni a



            Sulfide



           jSulfaue
           /


            Cyani de
           i

           I
            Cyanatcs



            Chlorides



            Calcium
                             Table  3.   PROPOSED  TREATMENT FOR LIQUID WASTE

                                      FROM AN  ACTUAL  COKE PLANT4


                                (Basis =  8600  tons/day dry coal  coked)
Haste. Ib/day
Before treatment
540
4,000
13,400
3,200
4,400
1,000
2,200
10,000
_
After treatment
550
.1,600
1,340
250
5,240
150
1,700
10,000
13, POO

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they are also carried out in the 5'to 10 weight-percent  portion  of
qucnchwater leaving as droplets,  The material  settling  to the ground
1s washed to the rivers by rain.  The same 1s true of organlcs.   Also,
             I               '
a significant amount of material - especially these inorganic salts  -
remains on the cooled coke.  They are transferred to the blast furnace  and are
more or less volatilized out of the cool top, going to the blast furnace gas
washer.   This is a water washer to remove particulates  from the blast
furnace gas.  Volatilized organics and inorganics (CaCl2> etc.)  go Into
the wash water and eventually to disposal whence they find their way into .
streams.  Sulfates which do not volatilize are  reduced to sulfides and
enter the blast furnace slag.  On weathering, part of this slag  sulfide
can be released to air as H^S.
In summary, coke quenching mainly redistributes most of the pollutants
which are originally in the quench water.  A portion goes to air, part
goes to ground and thence to watercourses, part goes to blast furnace
slag and thence to air.  Both air and water pollution result.
Estimated Air Pollutant Emissions During Quenching
A United Nations study gives some quench emissions based upon experiments
with aqueous wastes from byproduct coke plants.   In one case, the volume
of steam was known and samples - Including condensate - were analyzed.   In
the other case, a material balance was made or, the quench water.  These
data are from Europe, and the quench water composition probably differs
from that In many U. S. plants.  Nevertheless, I have worked the emission
figures over onto the bases of Table 3, which is 8600 tons/day of dry
coal coked.  The results are shown in Table 4 and represent air emissions
                                  8

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from a 11. S. plant coking B600 tons/day of coal 1f the quench water and
other conditions were comparable to pages 17 and 30 in reference 6.
From the same study, the probable performance of the U. S. plant with
respect to parti culates might be:

P articulate Tb/day.
Grit
No control 1,100
Control 260
Droplets
No control 22,000
Control 2,200

This amounts to about 75 percent control on grit and 90 percent control
on aqueous droplets. The study data are based on:
a. Area deposition measurements, and
b. Collection on greased plates above the quench tower.

Table 4 and the above values are all based on extrapolation of European
estimates, but they give the best estimates of which I am aware, based
on any published data. Measurements 'In the United States are needed.


.
y


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Pollutant
Table 4.  AIR EMISSIONS WHEN QUENCHING
 WITH COKE PLANT WASTE WATER IN U.  S.
(Basis = 8600 tons/day dry coal coked)

                       Emissions, lb/daya
Phenol
Naphthalene
NH3
H2S
HCN
Tar
Cl-
Page 17
2100
360
1500
1000
120
120
360
Page 30
820

820
2000
4


50
                 960
 ^Assuming conditions are equivalent to those in reference 6, pages 17 and 30.
                                1U

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                                                                          •REVISED:   3/12/73
                                                  i

 I
 •                              United States Suppliers  of Coke Ovens  and
                                  Associated Emission Control  Equipment
                             i               i
                                            II
                Time requirements for building a grassroots coking facility,  including
 •              by-product recovery plant and associated air and water pollution controls,
                may be assessed by the actual requi rements for the 87  oven battery at
 I              Brown's Island, Weirton Steel Division of National Steel  Corporation.
                The time used was:
                     1.  Scope of work, specifications and request for bids       3 months
 |                   2.  Bid response and evaluation of bids                      4 months
 m                   3.  Company decision to build                                3 months
                     4.  Select 2 contractors (engineer and construct)
 I                       and award contracts                                      9 months
                     5.  Construct facilities                                    27 months
 I                       Total                                                   46 months
 I              Extensive repair, alteration or construction of coke oven facilities in
                the United States is limited by the availability of silica brick, now
 •              available from only two U. S. sources, Harbison Walker and General Refractories,
 •              With en average projected demand of over 50,000 tons/year, the 42,000 ton/yr
                U. S. manufacturing capacity is about 10,000 tons/yr deficient.  Little
 J    .          if any import from Europe, or even from Japan, seems possible.   The silica
                brick shortage is due to loss of the silica brick market by the disappearance
"              of open hearth furnace users, and from retirement of skilled brick-shrtpe
 •              mold makers, who are not being replaced.

I

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                                                   y  \REVISED:   3/12/73

Koppcrs Company Inc.

Koppers Company is the largest United States  supplier of coke  ovens
and by-product coke oven gas plants as well  as associated air  and
water pollution control equipment.   The company is  reported to have
built about 70 percent of the total U. S.  coking capacity.   During
World War I and II, Koppers had the capacity  to build about a  dozen
batteries at one time, although, this activity would not be entirely
simultaneous.  There would be some  staggering.

The following sections describe Koppers1 activities and capabilities and
do not constitute an exhaustive coverage.   Only emission control  methods
are identified; the reader may find descriptions and drawings  in  many
              q
other sources.
     1.  EPA - AISI smokeless charging concept; gravity feed Tarry  car
     on a battery with single collecting main.  Jones & Laughlin  Steel
     Corporation, Hazelwood, Pennsylvania; Granite City Steel  Company,
     Granite City, Illinois (latter for 1973 startup).
     Further developments in EPA -  AISI smokeless charging with a screw-
     feed larry car plus other mechanical  refinements, on ovens with 2
     collecting mains.  Donner Hanna Coke Corporation, Buffalo, Kew York;
     Bethlehem Steel Company, Burns Harbor, Indiana; Colorado Fuel  and,
     Iron Corporation, Pueblo, Colorado.  Weirton Steel Division  of National
     Steel Corporation.  (Target date for startup - in spite of explosion
     at site of ovens - is now June 1973.  )

     Retrofit of EPA - AISI concept on existing larry car at Ford Motor
                                   12

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                                                   REVISED:  3/12/73
hydraulic controls by overheating clue to limitations on physical
location suggest the unsatisfactory nature of this type of retrofit.
I                  2.   Pipeline  charging.   Building  56  new 20-foot ovens  with capacities
Q                  of 2500  tons  per  day  of coke.   Inland Steel  Company,  Indiana Harbor;
*         ,         Indiana  (1974 startup).
9                  3.   Smoke  transfer pipe.   Supplemental  suction  is  created to pull
•                  the emissions from the  oven  being charged into  an  adjacent,Oven,
                    where, under  oven suctions,  they  are collected  by  the  oven gas collecting
•                  main.  Jones  & Laughlin Steel  Corporation.

I                  4.   Emission  control  during  pushing.  Traveling quench car hood,  directing
                    to a smoke collection main and scrubber.   Ford  Motor Company, Dearborn,
|                  Michigan.
I                  b.   Emission  control  during  pushing.  Coke side hood  extending
                    for the  total length  of the  battery  with  overhead  exhauster main
•                  going to water scrubber.   Inland  Steel  Company, Indiana Harbor, Indiana.
|                  6.   Control of pushing  emissions  by  "one spot"  transfer car and
f                  smoke scrubber on gas cleaning locomotive system.   WelrtOR Steel
                    Division,  Weirton, West Virginia   (1973 startup).
•                  7.   Continuous controlled quenching  from a closed  coke receiving hopper.
•                  Weirton  Steel Division  of National Steel, V.'airton, Heft Virginia
                    (1973 startup).            '                             ;   ' ,

                    8.   Koppers vacuum carbonate process for removal of mlfur ffojn
•                  '"',"i!;P PVC !"i  r>":<;. "!!-!<•  prOC01"'* •"' '  ' "-"vğv* <••• "•?• G? MCP^ffnlfe df ft-^
                    from coke  oven gas, and there 'is  no  water pollution
                                                   13

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                                                                  3/1,7/73
     It operates  1n conjunction with  a  Claus  sulfur  recovery plant.  The
     only installation  currently  operating  is  at Donner llanna Coke,
     Buffalo,  New York.   One  at the Heirton Steel  Division  of National
     Steel  Corporation  is scheduled for startup in June 1973.  Other
     installations have been  built by other firms  than Koppers.

     9.   Ammonia destruction process.   This  removes  NFL  ion from aqueous
     waste by  stripping out as NH^, followed  by incineration to  form N2
     and HpO.   Weirton  Steel, Weirton,  West Virginia  (1973  startup);
     Inland Steel Company, Indiana Harbor,  Indiana (1973  startup).
    10.   Biological treatment.   This process  removes phenols and certain
     other organics from coke plant aqueous wastes.   A biological oxidation
     occurs.  Koppers claims  99 percent phenol  removal is possible.  They
     also estimate 75 to 85 percent  removal of CN.  Among the plants
     having this  system is Weirton Steel,  Weirton, West Virginia (1973
     startup).
Wilputte Corporation
Wilputte is another old-line  firm that  has been building  coke ovens  in  the
United States  since early in  the  century.   Until  1970,  it was owned  by
Semet Solvay,  a subsidiary of Allied  Chemical Corporation.   It  is now
owned jointly by Salem Corporation of Pittsburgh  and Gibbons  Brothers
Ltd. of England.
Wilputte is a fully integrated engineering and contracting  firm specializing
in design and construction of coke ovens,  coke oven  machinery,  and  by-product
-.      i . !•: c- ".-•..     :.-.?.
Since  1966, over 1200 large-capacity coke ovens have been completed.
                                   14

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  _              Among Wilputte's  services  to industry  are:
                      a.   Planning studies  and capital  budgeting  for coke production
  •                   requirements.

 |                   b.   Coke plant facility studies and  survey  reports for  pollution
 _                   abatement.

                      c.   Coke oven  battery inspection.

                      d.   Project  management and field  supervision  for coke oven
 |                   battery rehabilitation.

 •                   e.   Preventive maintenance programs.

 •              The following sections describe Wilputte's  pollution  control  capabilities.

 •                   1.   Automotive lid lifter and programmed charging, for  most
                      existing coal  charging cars.   One now  operating  at Great Lakes
 I                   Steel  Division, Detroit, Michigan.

 I                   2.   Smoke transfer pipe.  A supplemental suction is created  to
                      pull the emissions from the oven  being charged into an  adjacent
 |                    oven,  where, under oven suction,  they  are collected by  th* oven
 g                    gas collecting main.   This has been  tested  only  at the  Dormer Hanna
                      works.

 •                    3.   Mobile rotary continuous  quencher.  Prototype operated at
 •                    Clairton plant of U.  S. Steel. Wilputte says this quencher  can
                      be  built for existing battery installations.
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                                                        REVISED: 2/28/73
     4.   Pipeline charging.   Semet Solvay  Division of Allied Chemical,
     Detroit, Michigan.   Battery  of 70  ovens..  Startup  1973.  Scmet
     Solvay Division prototype at Ironton, Ohio.  Completed in  1970.
     Another is being built  for Alabama By-Products  Corporation for startup
     in late 1973.   It will  service 78  ovens.

     5.   Ammonia destruction.  No installations to date,  but Wilputte  is
     bidding on several  units.

     6.   Vacuum carbonate coke oven gas desulfurization,  with Claus
     process to recover  elemental sulfur.   Clalrton  unit  of U.  S.  Steel
     is operating.   Several  were  built  but not  now operating, including
     units for Republic  Steel at  Chicago and Warren, Ohio.

     7.  Phenol recovery.  Light  oil extraction process.  About a  dozen
     units built within  past 25 years.   Also solvent extraction process
     licensed by Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation.
Coaltek Associates  (Division of Allied  Chemical Corporation)

Pipeline charging.   As of February 1973, Coaltek  has licensed  all  coke
oven builders in the world,  except one, to construct pipeline  chargers.
After licensing, their services to the  contractor include monitoring
of process flow sheets,  P and I diagrams, plant layout, specifications,
and other general guidance.

Table 5 shows the U. S.  installations of pipeline charging  built  and
building.  According to  Coaltek,  several studies  concerning other
,o-   !•'.: -iii,'.,' .<. '  ...  .:.:  :c. :     •   .  V,         ,;  ::  ,
confidence that industry has in pipeline charging.
                                16

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                      Table 5.   U.  S.  PIPELINE CHARGING
                      INSTALLATIONS LICENSED BY COALTEK
     Company
     Ovens
Number   Status
          Number of
            6-1nch
          pipelines
Semet Solvay,
 Ironton, Ohio
Semet Solvay,
 Detroit
Inland Steel,
 E. Chicago
Alabama By-
Products,
 Birmingham
  24
  70
  56
Existing
New
  Pre'rieaters
Number  Tons/hr
        of coal
         each
                                40
          80
         100
  Startup
  78
Existing
          80
                     1970
   1973
February 1974
 March 1974
  Coaltek claims that their process  can readily be installed on batteries

  built within the past 6 years;  they say such  ovens  have the charging

  pipeline entrances built in.  They also Insist,.outside statements  to

  the contrary notwithstanding, that pipeline charging can be Installed on

  most existing ovens, although it cannot be jusitifed for ovens more

  than about 20 years old.
                                 17

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Arthur G.  McKee

McKce is a large engineering and construction firm which has joined with
Dr. C. Otto and Company of West Germany and Otto Construction Company of
New York to provide design, engineering, and construction services for
coke and coke by-product plants.  McKee has designed numerous major
facilities for metals processing and for petroleum, chemicals, and
minerals processing.

Otto has operated in Germany for over a century and has built about
65,000 coke ovens throughout the world during that time.  For the U. S.,
available information shows the followinq Otto construction:  85 ovens
in 1969 for Great Lakes Division, National Steel, Detroit; 63 ovens in
1959 for U. S. Steel at Fairfield, Alabama.

Pollution control offerings include the following:

     1.  Coaltek pipeline charging.

     2.  Otto quench car hood on the coke side.  The hood covers the entire
     length of the quench car track.  The hood is compartmented for five
     ovens per compartment and a stationary wet scrubber.
     3.  Three-stage movable quenching machine.  For new batteries.

     4.  Dry coke cooling system.  Pushed coke is cooled by inert gas
     and auxiliary quenching.

     5.  Miscellaneous designs for sulfur removal from coke oven gas,  for
     ammonia destruction, and for phenol removal from waste water.

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              Ihcro Is  little Information  about  items  3 and  4  above.   Further Invostiration
              is warranted.
^            In operational responsibility, Otto handles  electrical,  instrumentation,
•            and ordinary materials handling systems.   McKee supervises construction
              and Otto supervises startup.
              The Iron and Steel Division of McKee has  responsibility for coke plants.
I            This office is in Cleveland and has about 1000 men; however, this office
              also contains the Petroleum Refining and  Chemical Divisions.
I
M            J. E. Allen and Associates

—            This company is involved in a hooded-car  quench system.   The first unit
•          '  was developed jointly by the above; Interlake Inc. Technical Center,
•            Chicago; Hanby-Allen Pollution Control Systems, Inc. (HALCON), Chicago;
              and Aronetics Division of Thermotics, Inc., Houston.

              Two specially equipped'cars are coupled together.  The hooded quench
•            car is intended to capture emissions from pushing.  These are drawn
              into the cleaning system on the trailer by the draft induced by a two-
•            phase jet scrubber.
J            A test of the unit was made in Houston using a smoke bomb.  The unit has
^            been shipped to the Interlake plant, Chicago, where the first test will be
*            made on actual coke ovens in April 1973.
I
              Mitsubishi  Chemical Industries Ltd.

              i-iilsuuisiii  started in I(JJ4 as a prouuccr  01  coke and tar products, but is
•            now a combination of business enterprises including metal production, petroleum,

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chemical1.,, nuclear equipment, construction i qui|'.v.?rit, <,;id several  others.
Mitsubishi has devolop"(i some rather olirctivp coke own controls  which
seem to be available ior licencing with the UniU'H .cilni':s, hut  I hove  few
details.  They do, hcv:evor, have a liaison office in New York at 277 Park
Avenue.  The emission controls described by Mitsubishi .ire as follows:
     1.  Smokeless charging.  Charging car with Movable but  unspecified
     dust collector system to prevent emissions from charging hole and
     ascension pipe.  According to color photographs sent by Mitsubishi,
     control is excellent.

     2.  Smokeless pushing.  A hood is attached to a coke guide to
     cover the quenching car.  This hood attached to a suction  duct
     extending the length of the battery, at a sport in the  duct
     depending on the oven being pushed.  Gases and dust go  to  a
     nearby scrubber.  Clean gas goes to stack.  Color photographs
     sent by Mitsubishi indicate excellent emission control. Great Lakes
     Steel Division, National Steel, Detroit, Michigan.  Startup 2njd quarter
     of 1973.
American Waegner-Biro Company, Inc.
Dry coke quenching was developed in Europe m?ny years ai;o and used to  a
limited extent where .coal was costly and air pollution was not  tolerated.
I have references to about four plants in Europe for coke capacities  in
the 500 to 900 tons psr day range.  A few plants in Switzerland, by other
makers, arc also applying this principle to  coke or to other products.
 '., •• -  \*  , ,-  t .  :  ...  --:,, ,.'.U . '.    .   , . ...      ' -.   ,   .-•-•'. ..'.   ......
 the direct cooling iirSiiiUiii and uLi.uincs> y.cuCij-  h^wt-u  ui  Jiy  piucesiJ.
                                 20

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 ™  -                                             '                    REVISED:   3/12/73
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 M          Heat is then recovered from the hot exit gas  by indirect hoat exchange
             to water, forming useful  steam.
 •          The Waagiuer-Biro dry coke quenching system has  not been tried in the
 •          United States.   Some critics contend there is a serious dust problem
             with the product, calling for wetting and increased water to the blast
 •          furnaces.  Others think that it can eventually  become important because
             of the saving of heat from the pushed coke.
             To illustrate the heat savings available by gas cooling and steam
 |          generation, the savings may be calculated as  a  percentage of the heat
 £          used in firing the coke ovens themselves.   The heat saved by dry cooling
             of coke from, say 1832° to 572°F, amounts to  nearly 18 percent of that
 I          used to fire the ovens.  The overall heat transfer efficiency was taken as
             85 percent.
 I
 m           Tailor and Company, Inc.
             This company 1n Bettendorf,  Iowa, is developing a  pneumatic  preheated coal, oven
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injection process, including a locking, self-cleaning oven charge port.   The
process seems complex and, to my knowledge^it has  not vet been

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                                                             REVISED:  3/12/73
 1.   Crane,  G.  B.  to  Megonnell, W. H.  Trip Report:  Fairfield Works of
     U.  S. Steel  Corporation  at Birmingham, Alabama.  October 7, 1971.
                              /'
 2.   Fuller-ton, R.  H.   Impingement Baffles to Reduce Emissions from Coke
     Quenching.  JAPCA  V7:  12, 807 -  809  (1967).
 3.   Industry Profile StuJy on Blast  Furnace and Basic Steel Products.
     Contract 68-01-0006.   Water Quality  Office, Environmental
     Protection Agency.   December  1971.
 4.   Crane,  G.  B.  to  Megonnell, W. H.  Meeting  Report:  U. S. Steel and OAP
     Personnel  at Raleigh,  December 29, 1971.
 5.   Crane,  G.  B.  to  Cuffe, S. T.  Trip Report:  Meeting with United
     States  Steel  Personnel at Department of Justice, Washington,  D. C.
     November 2, 1971.
 6.   United  Nations Study ST/ECE Coal  26, pp.  17 and  30.
 7.   Personal communication,  Norman Plafcs, CSD, OAQPS,  EPA.
 8.   Personal communication,  Edward Gibbs, Marketing  Manager,  Koppers
     Company.
 9.   Edgar,  W.  D.  Coke Oven  Air Emissions Abatement.   Iron  and  Steel
     Engineer., pp. 86  - 94 (October  1972).
10.   Brochure, Sulzer Dry Coke  Cooling, Sulzer Brothers  Limited,
     Winterthur (Switzerland).
                                  22

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GUIDELINE SERIES
          OAQPS NO.  1.2-002
          GUIDANCE FOR WRITING OF

         TRANSPORTATION CONTROL PLANS
                                                 5OC
   VS. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
     Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
      Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                    Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
                    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711

 rajECT:    Transportation Controls                             DATE:  March 12,  1973


FROM-.      Ronald A. Vonezia, Chief    ,   /
           Land Use Planning Branch  A m

TO:        Air and Water Program Directors
           Regions I-X

                At the Kansas City regional meeting on February 9, 1973, it was
           indicated that the OAQPS would assist the Regions with guidance in
           the preparation of transportation control plans that must be proposed
           and promulgated by EPA.

                A review of the SIP task schedule sent to you on February 23
           points out the extremely short time period available for the prepara-
           tion of EPA plans after a decision is made as to whether or not the
           State plan is acceptable.  To fully think out, prepare, review, and
           announce on June 15 an EPA plan proposal with only one month lead
           time is very difficult.  To assure adequate preparation and review of
           EPA proposed plans, the following is recommended.

                The regional offices should prepare a contingency EPA proposal
           for transportation controls in each Region requiring these controls
           to meet NAAQS by 1975.  OAQPS 1.2-002, "Guidance for Writing Transpor-
           tation Plans," is provided to assist the Regions in writing the plans.
           This information should serve only as a guide.  EPA policy on use
           of gasoline rationing and the extent to which states will be required
           to enforce EPA promulgated regulations are not yet finalized.  There-
           fore, to the extent sample regulations imply a particular enforcement
           policy or a preferred strategy, they should be considered preliminary
           until further policy guidance is recommended.

                Included is a list of items that should be included in the pream-
           ble.  It is important that all  these points be covered for the prepara-
           tion of a comprehensive preamble.  Preambles for Regions' proposals
           will be coordinated by the Land Use Planning Branch  for the single
           preamble to cover all EPA plans proposed on June 15.  The Land Use
           Planning Branch is developing an additional listing  of strategies and
           priorities which can be used  in EPA plans, and will  attempt to
           identify preferred strategies that would be most appropriate for EPA
           proposal and promulgation in  each Region.
                                                                         *
                Close attention should be  given to the memorandum "Enforceability
           of Transportation Control Strategies," 3-2-73, Shutler to Regional Air
           and Water Programs Division Directors.  Mr. Graham prepared an excellent
           analysis of the potential for state and/or Federal enforcement.  It is
           intended that the sample plan be modified to suit each particular
           Region using Mr. Graham's work  and the preferred strategies from the
EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)

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Land Use Planning Branch.   This information will  be available
March 20.  At that time the Region should review the proposal,
determine if it suits regional  needs and prepare an  outline of the
"back-up" EPA plan for each AQCR.   This will be held in reserve to
finalize as an EPA proposal if states do not submit an adequate plan.

     Mr. Frick, of OGC, is preparing a document on the basis for ex-
tensions to meet the NAAQS.  It is expected it will be available by
March 20.

     The following policy issue papers are now in preparation by the
Land Use Planning Branch for consideration by the Administrator.
These issues will become an integral part of EPA policy to achieve
transportation controls.

     1.  Should an EPA promulgated plan make maximum use of
         gasoline rationing?  How much rationing can be
         effected without severe community impact?

     2.  Should EPA write regulations to force the states to
         act or should EPA act directly?

     It  is anticipated that we will be able to discuss these issues
in  some  depth at the March 20 meeting.  A decision will be reached
as  soon  as possible.

     An  evaluation report must be prepared for transportation and or
land use plans that are received from the States.  The Land Use
Planning Branch has prepared a checklist (OAQPS 1.2-003) which can be
used in  the evaluation of  the plans and serve as the basis of writing
the evaluation report.  A copy of this report should be sent to the
Land Use Planning Branch no later than May 15, 1973.

     For your  review of the State plans, your attention is called to
the following  references:

     1.  "Requirements for Preparation, Adoption and Submittal  of
         Implementation Plans."   (36  FR 15486) August  14, 1971.

     2.  "Criteria for Review of Transportation Control Measures."
         OD/OAQPS January  30, 1973.

     3.  "Proposed Transportation Control Measures."   (38 FR 1464)
         January  12,  1973.

     If you  have  further  questions  on  transportation  controls,  please
contact the  Land  Use  Planning  Branch  (919)  688-8291 or 8270.

Attachments
OAQPS  1.2-002
OAQPS  1.2-003

 cc: Transportation  representatives

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•                                                                   March 12, 1973

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£                                  OAQPS NO. 1.2-002

•                              Guidance for Writing of
                              Transportation Control Plans

                This appendix includes the following sections:
I
           I.  Items to be Included in the Preamble
•        II.  Suggested Wording for Opening of Preamble
         III.  Sample Wording for Possible Regulations
•        IV.  Current Studies and Guidelines Applicable to Plan Preparation
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•                       I.  Items to be included in Preamble

•              The preamble to the control regulations should contain the following
im         items:
                1.  Percent pollutant reduction required:  a statement as to the
I                  percent reduction required of oxidants or carbon monoxide
                    to meet the national primary ambient air quality standard
I                  by May 31, 1975.
a              2.  Background:  a brief description of the history and  legislation
                    leading to the requirement for EPA to promulgate a control  plan,
I                   (See  Section II).   Also a description of the  topography  and
                    meteorology of the  region in question and a statement describing
|                  the reason  (health  basis) for the NAAWS.  Describe the base air
M                  quality data and  compare it with the national standards.
                3.  Transportation and/or  land use control alternates:   describe the
I                  control strategies  available for the region in question  such
                    as  (a)  stationary source controls  (restrictions on organic  solvent
|                  use,  gasoline vapor recovery systems for service  stations,  a
•                  change in  the  substance used for degreasing operations,  and a
                    vapor recovery system  that prevents  evaporation of  solvents from
•                   dry  cleaning  operations;)  (b) hardware  type mobile  source controls
                     (inspection and maintenance, retrofit  and  fuel conversion,
•                   evaporative controls to  prevent  evaporation  of gasoline during
•                   the  filling of the gas tank;  (c)  reduction of vehicle miles
                     traveled  (increased use  of  mass  transit,  increased  car pooling,
I                   gasoline  rationing, increasing cost of motor vehicle use,  limiting
                     the number of automobiles registered,  land use controls or a
'                   combination of these.) I

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                                 2

     4.  The specific transportation and/or land use control strategy

         proposed to meet NAAQS by May 31, 1975.

     5.  Include a table summarizing the effect of each element of the

         proposed strategy as is shown on page 2196 of the January 22,

         1973 proposed plan for Los Angeles, 38 FR (2194).


For the following items see the January 22, 1973 Federal Register:


     6.  Discuss legal and administrative procedures to implement the

         plan.

     7.  Include compliance schedules.

     8.  Discuss surveillance and monitoring procedures.

     9.  Economic and social impact of the  (name of Region)  transportation

         and/or land use plan.

    10.  Direct costs to the public.

    11.  Effect on the economic fabric of the community.

    12.  Tax revenue implications.
                f
    13.  Summary of impacts.

    14.  EPA efforts to mitigate the effects of proposed regulations

    15.  The need for mass transit  (if applicable).

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1

                      II.   Suggested Wording  for Opening of Preamble

                             ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 •                                  [40 CFR Part  52]
                    Approval and Promulgation of  Implementation Plans
 •                          Notice of  Proposed Rule Making

 I
                On May 31,  1972 (37 FR 10842), pursuant to section 110 of the Clean
 |         Air Act and 40 CFR Part 51, the Administrator approved, with specific
 •         exceptions, State plans for implementation of the  national  ambient air
           quality standards.  On this date,  the  Governor  of  	
 •         was advised that in order to complete  the  requirements of  § 51.11 (b)
           and 51.14,  a transportation and/or land use control strategy was to be
 |         submitted to the Administrator by  February 15,  1973.
                On January 31, 1973,  the United States Court  of Appeals for the
           District of Columbia Circuit found that the Administrator  did not conform
 •         to the strict requirements  of the  Clean Air Act of 1970 in permitting
           several states to delay submission of  transportation control portions
 I         of their implementation plans until February 15, 1973, and in granting
 m         extensions  until mid-1977 for attainment of the national primary ambient
           air standard without following the procedures established  in Section
 I         110 (3) 42  V.S.C. § 1857 c-5 (e).   Accordingly  the court ordered that the
           Administrator rescind the extension granted the states for implementation
 •         of the transportation and/or land  use  control portion of their imple-
 •         mentation plans.  The affected states  were required to submit a control plan
           by April 15, 1973.  The plan was to show attainment of the national ambient
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air quality standards for oxidant and/or carbon monoxide as expeditiously
as possible but no later than May 31, 1975.
     On this day the Administrator approved, with specific exceptions,
transportation and/or land use control plans submitted in response to
the January 31, 1973 court order.  This proposal results from the failure
of the State of 	 to submit an acceptable control
plan for the attainment and maintenance of the national primary ambient
air quality standard for oxidants and/or carbon monoxide.

            III.   Sample  Wording for  Possible  Regulations

       The  following sample  regulations  should be modified  to  fit  the AQCR
  in question.   This also induces  the paragraph numbering  system.  Example
  regulations  follow the  format  shown in (38 FR 2194)  dated January 22,  1973.
       a.   The preferred  approach to  be  used by EPA in promulgating regula-
           tions such as  those on gasoline rationing (Section  II  f) have not
           been finalized.   Therefore these regulations and the strategy
           implied by their  use  may be revised as EPA policy on preferred
           strategies arid enforcement are further developed.
       b.   Subpart  (name of state)
           Section  	 is  amended by adding paragraphs	
           through 	, as follows:  § 52 	 control strategy and
           regulations:   Photochemical oxidants and/or carbon  monoxide,
           	 AQCR.

           Regulation for control of  evaporative emissions.
       (1)  For purposes of this paragraph:
       (i)   "Evaporative control  device" means a  device installed on a
             motor vehicle  to prevent the escape of gasoline  vapor from
             the gasoline tank  and carburetor.

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™              (ii)  "Registered" as applied to a motor vehicle, means that such
•                    motor vehicle,                               is duly licensed
                      for general operation on public roads or highways by the
|                    appropriate agency of the Federal Government or by the State.
^              (2)   This regulation is applicable in those portions of 	
                      Counties contained within the Metropolitan	
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                      Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) in the State of
                      The  requirement  of  this  regulation  shall be  effective

                      commencing  up  to _        •
_                (3)   Prior  to     (date)  _ ,  an  evaporative  control  device of at

                       least  85  percent  efficiency which  is  approved by the
I                     Administrator shall be properly installed,  in good working
                       order,  and in operation  on  all registered light-duty
|                     gasoline-powered  vehicles of model years 1966 through 1969

m                     and all registered  heavy-duty gasoline  vehicles of model

                       years  1966 through  1972.  Approved evaporative  control
•            -         devices shall be  installed  on a schedule determined by the

                       Administrator.
•               (4)    After     (date)     ,  the following shall apply  in the areas
•                     specified in paragraph (b)  (2), of this section:
                       (i) The State of _ shall  not register light-duty
•                         vehicles which do not  comply with  the provisions of
                           paragraph (b)  (3) of this section.
•                     (ii)  No owner of light-duty vehicles shall operate or allow

•                           the operation of such vehicles which do not comply with

                             the provisions  of  paragraph (b) (3) of this section.

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c.  Regulation for gaseous fuel conversion.




    (1)   For  purposes  of  this  paragraph:




    (i)    "Fleet  vehicle" means any  one of  ten (10)  or more light-and




          heavy-duty vehicles  operated by the same person (s)  or




          business and used  principally in connection with the same




          occupation or related occupations.




    (ii)   "Gaseous fuel"  means liquified  or pressurized petroleum




          or  natural gaseo which are used as  fuel  for light-duty




          vehicles.



    (2)    This regulation is applicable in  those portions of 	
          Counties contained within the Metropolitan 	 Air




          Quality Control Region (AQCR) in the State of	,




          The requirements of this regulation shall be effective




          commencing on   (date) .




    (3)    All registered gasoline-powered fleet vehicles of model years




          prior to 1975 shall be equipped for and operated on gaseous




          fuel by the effective date of this regulation.  Conversion of




          such fleet vehicles for use of gaseous fuel  shall be on a




          schedule determined by the Administrator.




    (A)    After   (date)    , the following shall apply in the areas




          specified in paragraph  (c) (2) of this section:




          (i)  The State of 	 shall not register vehicles




               which do not comply with the provisions of paragraph




               (b) (3) of this section.

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 |                      (ii)   No owner of fleet vehicles shall operate or allow the



 _       '                     operation of such vehicles which do not comply with the




                              provisions of paragraph (c) (3)  of this section.




 I         d.      Regulation for yearly inspection and maintenance.




                  (1)   For purposes of this paragraph:



 |                     "Inspection and maintenance" means a program to reduce



 •I                     emissions from in-use vehicles through identifying vehicles



                       that need emissions control related maintenance and requiring




 •                     that maintenance be performed.



                  (2)   This regulation is applicable in those sections of 	




 •                     Counties contained within the 	Air Quality




 •                     Control Region (AQCR) in the State of 	.  The



                       requirements of this regulation shall be effective commencing




 •                     °n   (date)



                  (3)   All registered gasoline-powered light- and heavy  duty vehicles




 •                     shall be inspected annually for emissions and, as necessary,



 •                     maintained by the owner in order to pass the inspection.  This



                       shall be done by personnel, facilities and procedures which shall




 •                     be proposed and promulgated by the Administrator.



                  (4)   After    (date)    , the following shall apply in the areas



 ^                     specified in paragraph (d) (2) of this section:



 •                     (i)   The State of 	 shall not register light-duty



                             vehicles which do not comply with the provisions of



 •                           paragraph (d) (3) of this section and procedures promul-



                             gated pursuant thereto.



™                     (ii)  No owner of light-duty vehicles shall operate or allow



•                           the operation of such vehicles which do not comply with



                             the provisions of paragraph (d) (3) of this section.




I

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                                   8





       Regulation  for oxidizing catalyst.




       (1) For purposes of this paragraph:




           "Oxidizing catalyst" means a device installed  in  the  exhaust




           system  of the vehicle that utilizes a  catalyst and, if




           necessary, an air pump  to reduce emissions of  hydrocarbons  and




           carbon  monoxide from that vehicle.




       (2)  This regulation is applicable in  those sections  of 	
            Counties contained within the 	AQCR  in  the  state




            of 	.  The requirements  of  this regulation  shall




            be effective  commencing on   (date)	.




        (3)  All registered gasoline-powered light- and heavy   duty motor




            vshicles of model years 1966 through 1974, shall be equipped




            with an appropriate oxidizing catalyst exhaust  retrofit in




            accordance with paragraph (e) (2)  of this section, approved




            by the Administrator.




        (4)  After,	, the following shall apply.in the areas




            specified in paragraph (e)  (2)  of this section:




            (i)   The State of 	 shall not register light-




                  duty vehicles  which do not comply with the provisions




                  of paragraph (e)  (3)  of this section.




            (ii)   No owner of light-duty vehicles shall operate or allow




                  the operation  of such vehicles which do not comply with




                  the provisions of paragraph (e)  (3) of this section.




f.      Regulation for purchase of gasoline.




       (1)  For purposes  of this paragraph:




       (i)  "Control period"  means a portion of a calendar year in which




            gasoline sales are regulated.

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                  (11) "Retail outlet" means any service station, filling station,


                       garage, store or other place of business at which gasoline


<•                     is transferred directly to consumers in the regular course


|                       of business.


'•                (2)  This regulation is applicable in those portions of 	
|_                     Counties contained within the 	Air Quality Control


'•                     Region (AQCR) in the State of 	.  The


 •                     requirements of this regulation shall be in effect commencing

j ^*
                         (date)    and shall remain in effect through    (date)


                       The regulation shall be effective in the same control periods


,_                     during each calendar year thereafter, until such time as the


                       Administrator determines the regulation to be no longer


:•                     necessary for the attainment and maintenance of the national


                       standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons and/or


i |                     carbon monoxide.)


:•                (3)  During the control periods, as specified in paragraph (f)


                       (2) of this sections the sale of gasoline to retail outlets


 •                     and to the owners and operators of motor vehicles shall be


S                       controlled by directions of the Administrator, EPA.


.I               (4)  The amount of gasoline to be controlled shall be determined
/

1•                    by the Administrator no later than 30 days prior to the


                       effective date of a control period.  This determination shall


 •                    be based on the hydrocarbon emission reduction required for


                       the attainment and maintenance of the national standard for


 •                    photochemical oxidants and/or carbon monoxide in the AQCR.




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                                 10






g.     Volatile organic compound loading facilities.




       (1)  This regulation is applicable in those portions of




                          Counties contained within the
            Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) in the State of




            	.   The requirement of paragraph (g) (2) of




            this section shall be effective commencing 	
       (2)  No person shall load or allow the loading of volatile organic




            compounds having a vapor pressure of 1.5 pounds per square




            inch absolute or greater, under actual storage conditions,




            into any tank truck or trailer, railroad tank car, loco:mctive,




            aircraft, stationary storage tank with a capacity greater




            than 5 gallons from any loading facility unless such tank or




            loading facility is equipped with a vapor collection and




            disposal system, or its equivalent, properly installed, in




            good working order, and in operation.  Loading shall be




            accomplished in such a manner that all displaced vapor and air




            will be vented only to the vapor disposal system.  A. means



            shall be provided to prevent liquid organic compound drainage




            from the loading device when it is removed from the hatch, or




            to accomplish complete drainage before such removal.  The




            vapor disposal portion of the system shall consist of one




            of the following:




            (i)   An absorber system or condensation system with a minimum




                  recovery efficiency of 90 percent by weight of all the




                  volatile organic compound vapors and gases entering such




                  disposal system.

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 I
11
 •                 (11)  A vapor handling  system which directs all  vapors  to  a


                         fuel gas  system.

                                                               I'
                    (111) Other  equipment of  at  least  90 percent  efficiency,


 •                      provided  plans for  such equipment  are submitted to and


                         approved  by  the Air Pollution Control Officer.


 •                 Intermediate storage vessels may be used prior to disposal


                    of  vapors under paragraph (g)  (2)  (1) , (ii) , or  (ill) ,


 •                 provided they are  so designed as to prevent release of


 •                 vapors at any time during use.


               (3)   Notwithstanding paragraph (g)  (2)  of  this section,  no person


 •                 loading or allowing the loading of the above  specified


                    compounds in the above. specified storage vessels from the


 I                 above specified loading facilities, any  of which were in


 V                 existence on the effective date of this  regulation,  or  in


                    the procers  of  being installed  for use on said effective date,


 •                 shall be subject to the provisions of paragraph  (g)  (2)

                    of  this section until      (date)     .  Provided  however,


 Jj                  that such person is hereby required to file on or before


 _                   (date)     a  compliance schedule with  the Administrator


                    showing how  the person  will  bring  this operation into


 I                  compliance with paragraph (g)  (2)  of  this section on or


                    before    (date)   . Failure to file  such compliance


 |                  schedule or  abide  by its  items shall render  the


m                  prohibition  contained in  paragraph (g)  (2) of this section


                    immediately  applicable  to such  person on _ (date) _ ,


 •                  or  on the date  of  said  person's failure  to abide by said


                    compliance schedule, whichever  is  later.


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                            12
h.   Control of drycleanlng solvent evaporation.




     (1)   For the purposes of this paragraph:




           "Drycleaning operation" means that process by which an




           organic solvent is used in the commercial cleaning of




           garments and other fabric materials.




     (2)   This regulation is applicable in those portions of




           	 Counties contained within the
           Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) in the State of




           	.  The requirements of this regulation shall




           be effective commencing on   (date) .




     (3)   No person shall operate a drycleaning operation unless the




           uncontrolled organic emissions from such operation have




           been reduced at least 85 percent.



      (4)  Drycleaning operations emitting less than three (3) pounds




           per hour and less than 15 pounds per day are exempt from




           this regulation.




      (5)  If incineration is used as a control technique, 90 percent




           or more of the carbon in the organic compounds being




           incinerated must be oxidized to carbon dioxide.




 i.   Decreasing operations.




      (1)  For the purpose of this paragraph:




           "Degreasing" means the operation of using an organic solvent




           as a surface cleaning agent prior  to fabricating,  surface




           coating, electroplating or any other process.

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                                           13
I

*              (2)  This regulation is applicable in those portions of 	
I                   Counties contained within the 	 Air Quality
                     Control Region (AQCR) in the State of 	
I
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|                   The requirements of this regulation shall be effective

_                   commencing on   (date)  .

                (3)  No person shall use trichloroethylene (TCE) degreaser as a

•                   degreasing solvent.

           j.   Organic Solvent Usage.

|              Contact the Land Use Planning Branch for additional information

Ğ              on this subject.  Work is currently being done to revise

                Appendix "B" of the August 14, 1971, Federal Register.  36 F.R.

•              (15486.)


            IV.   Current Studies and Guidelines Applicable to Plan Preparations
          The EPA has published the  following  studies  and  guidelines:
                a.  "Prediction of the Effects of Transportation  Controls  on Air

•                  Quality in Major Metropolitan Areas"  and "Evaluating Controls

                    to Reduce Motor Vehicle Emissions in  Major Metropolitan Areas,"

|                  November 1972.  Both of these documents are generally  known as

Ğ                  the "Six Cities Study."

                b.  "Transportation Controls to Reduce Motor Vehicle Emissions in

•        .          Major Metropolitan Areas," December,  1972.  This document is a

                    summary of 14 cities that were studied with the view of

•                  recommending specific transportation  control  strategies.

•                  Separate reports for each of the 14 cities will also be

                    available alo.ig with the Six Cities Study and  the document

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                           14



    listed in b above from the Office of Technical Information and




    Publications, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.




c.  "Control Strategies for In-Use Vehicles," November, 1972.  This




    report is available from EPA, Mobile Source Pollution Control




    Programs, 401 M St.S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460.




d.  "Proposed Transportation Control Plans," Federal Register




    (38 FR 1464) January 12, 1973.




e.  "An Air Pollution Impact Methodology for Airports and




    Attendant Land Use," dated January, 1973.  Copies available




    from Land Use Planning Branch, EPA, Research Triangle Park,




    North Carolina 2771.1.




f.  "Criteria for a Review of Transportation Control Measures"




    OD/OAQPS Memo, January 30, 1973.




g.  "An Interim Report on Motor Vehicle Emission Estimation" Kircher




    and Armstrong, October, 1972 and available from the Land Use




    Planning Branch, EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

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GUIDELINE SERIES
          OAQPS NO.  1.2-003
        CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATION OF

           TRANSPORTATION PLANS
                             DOC
   US. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
     Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards


      Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                    Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
                    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
SUBJECT:   Transportation Controls
DATE:  March 12,  1973
FROM:      Ronald A. Venezia, Chief   .->  .,
           Land Use Planning Branch   *•  l

TO:        Air and Water Program Directors
           Regions I-X

                At the Kansas City regional meeting on February 9, 1973, it was
           indicated that the OAQPS would assist the Regions with guidance in
           the preparation of transportation control plans that must be proposed
           and promulgated by EPA.

                A review of the SIP task schedule sent to you on February 23
           points out the extremely short time period available for the prepara-
           tion of EPA plans after a  decision is made as to whether or not the
           State plan is acceptable.  To fully think out, prepare, review, and
           announce on June 15 an EPA plan proposal with only one month lead
           time is very difficult.  To assure adequate preparation and review of
           EPA proposed plans, the following is recommended.

                The regional offices  should prepare a contingency EPA proposal
           for transportation controls in each Region requiring these controls
           to meet NAAQS by 1975.  OAQPS 1.2-002, "Guidance for Writing Transpor-
           tation Plans," is provided to assist the Regions in writing the plans.
           This information should serve only as a guide.  EPA policy on use
           of gasoline rationing and  the extent to which states will be required
           to enforce EPA promulgated regulations are not yet finalized.  There-
           fore, to the extent sample regulations imply a particular enforcement
           policy or a preferred strategy, they should be considered preliminary
           until further policy guidance is recommended.

                Included is a list of items that should be included in the pream-
           ble.  It is important that all these points be covered for the prepara-
           tion of a comprehensive preamble.  Preambles for Regions' proposals
           will be coordinated by the Land Use Planning Branch for the single
           preamble to cover all EPA  plans proposed on June 15.  The Land Use
           Planning Branch is developing an additional listing of strategies and
           priorities which can be used in EPA plans, and will attempt to
           identify preferred strategies that would be most appropriate for EPA
           proposal and promulgation  in each Region.

                Close attention should be given to the memorandum "Enforceability
           of Transportation Control  Strategies," 3-2-73, Shutler to Regional Air
           and Water Programs Division Directors.  Mr. Graham prepared an excellent
           analysis of the potential  for state and/or Federal enforcement.  It is
           intended that the sample plan be modified to suit each particular
           Region using Mr. Graham's  work and the preferred strategies from the
 EPA Form 1320-6 (Rev. 6-72)
 I

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Land Use Planning Branch.   This information will  be available
March 20.  At that time the Region should review the proposal,
determine if it suits regional  needs and prepare an  outline of the
"back-up" EPA plan for each AQCR.   This will be held in reserve to
finalize as an EPA proposal if states do not submit an adequate plan.

     Mr. Frick, of OGC, is preparing a document on the basis for ex-
tensions to meet the NAAQS.  It is expected it will be available by
March 20.

     The following policy issue papers are now in preparation by the
Land Use Planning Branch for consideration by the Administrator.
These issues will become an integral part of EPA policy to achieve
transportation controls.

     1.  Should an EPA promulgated plan make maximum use of
         gasoline rationing?  How much rationing can be
         effected without severe community  impact?

     2.  Should EPA write regulations to force the states to
         act or should EPA act directly?

     It  is anticipated that we will be able to discuss these  issues
in some  depth at the March 20 meeting.  A decision will be reached
as soon  as possible.

     An  evaluation report must be prepared  for transportation and or
land use plans that are received from the States.  The Land Use
Planning Branch has prepared a checklist (OAQPS 1.2-003) which can be
used in  the evaluation of the plans and serve as the basis of writing
the evaluation report.  A copy of this report should be sent  to the
Land Use Planning Branch no later than May  15, 1973.

     For your review of the S.tate plans, your attention is called to
the following references:

     1.  "Requirements for Preparation, Adoption and Submittal of
         Implementation Plans."  (36 FR 15486) August  14, 1971.

     2.  "Criteria for Review of Transportation Control Measures."
         OD/OAQPS January 30, 1973.

     3.  "Proposed Transportation Control Measures."   (38 FR  1464)
         January 12,  1973.

     If you have further questions  on  transportation  controls,  please
contact the Land Use  Planning Branch  (919)  688-8291 or 8270.

Attachments
OAQPS  1.2-002
OAQPS  1.2-003

cc:  Transportation  representatives

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•                                    OAQPS NO.   1.2-003
-                                CHECKLIST FOR  EVALUATION OF
'                                    TRANSPORTATION  PLANS
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                                         March 12,  1973
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                                                                   3/12/7J
                        APPENDIX B
            Checklist for Evaluation of Plans

                       INTRODUCTION

     The following check list for use in review of State Air
Quality Implementation Plans was compiled and edited from infor-
mation available from the following sources:
     Federal Register, Volume 36, Number 228 (11/25/71)
     Sierra Club v. Ruckelshaus, U.S. District Court, D.C.,
     Number 1031-72 (6/2/72)
     Federal Register, Volume 38, Number 8  (1/12/73)
     Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., et al. v.
     Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Ct. Appeals, D.C.,
     Number 1522-72, et al. (1/31/73)
Ğ                    Federal  Register,  Volume  38,  Number  21 (2/1/73)
                      The check list  retains  the  Code of Federal Regulations
article numbering system and part and subpart headings.  Where
reference is made within a check list item to appendices or
articles not presented in the check list that inforamtion will
be found in the November 25, 1971, Federal Register unless
noted otherwise.

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Subpart B - Plan Content and
Requirements
§ 51.10 General requirements.
(b) Each plan implementing a pri-
mary standard shall provide for the
attainment of such standard as ex-
peditiously as practicable, but in no
case, except as otherwise provided by
Gv.bpnrt C of this part, later than
May 31, 1975. The projected date of
attainment of such standard shall be
specified in the plan.
(c) Each plan implementing a sec-
ondary standard shall provide for the
attainment of such standard by a speci-
fied date, which shall be within a rea-
sonable time after the date of the
Administrator's approval of such plan.
(d) The plan for each region shall
have adequate provisions to insure that
pollutant emissions within such region
will not interfere with attainment and
maintenance of any national standard
in any portion of an interstate region
or in any other region
(e) Each plan shall provide for pub-
lac availability of emission date re-
ported by source owners or operators or
otherwise obtained by a State or local
agency. Such emission data shall be
correlated with applicable emission
limitations or other measures. As
used in this paragraph, "correlated"
means presented in such a manner as to
show the relationship between measured
or estimated amounts of emissions and
the amounts of such emissions allow-
able under the applicable emission
limitations or other measures.

Not
Applicable






9
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T3 (0
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Covered in
Transportation Plan






Missing






2
Remarks







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§ 51.11 Legal authority.
(a) Each plan shall show that the
State has legal authority to carry out
the plan, including authority to:
(1) Adopt emission standards and
limitations and any other measures
necessary for attainment and main-
tenance of national standards.
(2) Enforce applicable laws, regu-
lations, and standards, and seek
injunctive relief.
(3) Abate pollutant emissions on
an emergency basis to prevent sub-
stantial endangerment to the health
of persons, i.e., authority compare-
able to that available to the Admin-
istrator under section 303 of the Act.
(4) Prevent construction, modifica-
tion, or operation of any stationary
source at any location where emissions
from such source will prevent the
attainment or maintenance of a national
standard.
(5) Obtain information necessary to
determine whether air pollution sources
are in compliance with applicable laws,
regulations, and standards, including
authority to require recordkeeping and
to make inspections and conduct tests
of air pollution sources.
(6) Require owners or operators of
stationary sources to install, main-
tain, and use emission monitoring
devices and to make periodic reports
to the State on the nature and amounts
of emissions from such stationary
sources; also authority for the State
to make such data available to the
public as reported and as correlated
with any applicable emission standards
or limitations.

Not
Applicable








Covered in
Original Plan








Covered in
Transportation Pis








Missing








3
Remarks









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(b) Where a plan sets forth a control
strategy that provides for application
of (1) inspection and testing of motor
vehicles and/or other transportation
control measures or (2) land use
measures other than those referred to
in § 51.11 (a) (4), such plan shall set
forth the State's timetable for obtain-
ing such legal authority as may be
necessary to carry out such measures.
(c) The provisions of law or regula-
tion which the State determines provide
the authorities required under the sec-
tion shall be specifically identified,
and copies of such laws or regulations
shall be submitted with the plan.
(d) (1) Except as otherwise provided
by paragraph (b) of this section, the
plan shall show that the legal authori-
ties specified in this section are
available to the State at the time of
submission of the plan.
(2) Legal authority adequate to
fulfill the requirements of paragraph
(a) (5) and (6) of this 'section may be
delegated to the State pursuant to
section 114 of the Act.
(e) A State governmental agency other
than the State air pollution control
agency may be assigned responsibility for
carrying out a portion of a plan: Pro-
vided, That such plan demonstrates, to
the Administrator's satisfaction, that
such State governmental agency has the
legal authority necessary to carry out
such portion of the plan or, pursuant
to paragraph (b) of this section, has a
timetable for obtaining such authority.
(f) The State may authorize a local
agency to carry out a plan, or portion
thereof, within such local agency's
jurisdiction: Provided, That such plan
demonstrates, to the Administrator's
satisfaction, that such local agency has
the legal authority necessary to implement
such plan, or portion thereof, and further:
Not Applicable






Covered in
Original Plan






Covered in
Transportation Plan






Missing






4
Remarks







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Provided, That such auth'
not relieve the State of
under the Act for carryL
or portion thereof.

§ 51.12 Control strategy
  (a)  In any region wlv
(measured or estimated)
of a pollutant exceed tb
by an applicable nation
plan shall set forth a
which shall provide I
emission reduction necu.
ment and maintenance of
standard, including the
sion reduction necessar-
sion increased that can
expected to result from
of population, industri,
vehicle traffic, or oth,
cause or contribute to  '<
  (b)  In any region w.i
estimated ambient level:
are below the levels sp.
plicable secondary star
shall set forth a contr
shall be adequate to pi
pollution levels from I
deteriorated.

  (d)  For purposes of
trol strategy, data del-
men ts of existing ambJc
pollutant may be adjust
extent to which occasic.
accidental phenomena, <
forest fires, industri.
demonstrably affected
levels during the measu















,hall
Uity
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•els
;>ecified
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orms ,
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Remarks



































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§ 51.14 Control strategy: Carbon mon-
oxide, hydrocarbons, photo-
chemical oxidants, and nitrogen
dioxide.
(a) Priority I Regions. (1) Each plan
f c r a region classified Priority I with
respect to carbon monoxide, photochemical
oxidants, or nitrogen dioxide shall set
forth a control strategy which shall
provide for the degree of emission reduc-
tion necessary for attainment and main-
tenance of the national standard for each
such pollutant after consideration of the
emission reductions that will result from
the application of Federal motor vehicle
emission standards promulgated pursuant
to section 202 of the Act.
(2) Unless specific data are available
for a region, a State shall assume that
such Federal motor vehicle emission
standards will result in the emission
reductions shown in Appendix I to this
part. If specific data are vised, such
data must be submitted in the plan for
such region. (Refer to F.R.)
(3) The plan shall contain:
(i) A description of enforcement
methods including, but not limited to
procedures for monitoring compliance
with the selected traffic control measures,
procedures for handling violations, and a
designation of enforcement responsibili-
ties (j.e., air pollution control agency,
State police.)
(ii) Proposed or adopted rules and
regulations pertaining to the selected
transportation control measures.
(iii) A description of administra-
tive procedures to be used in imple-
menting all selected transportation
control measures.

Not Applicable







Covered in
Original Plan







Covered in
Transportation Plan







Missing







6
Remarks







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(iv) A schedule designating dates by
which legal authority necessary to imple-
ment the plan will be obtained, other
significant steps in the implementation
of the plan will be achieved, and each
control measure will be implemented.
(h) Control strategy development. In
a region in which attainment and main-
tenance of a national standard will
require emission reductions in addition
to those which will result from applica-
tion of the Federal motor vehicle emis-
sion standards, the control strategy
c^'iall provide for application or such
oi:ier meaiujj es as may be necessary for
attainment and maintenance of such
national standard.
(c) Adequacy of control strategy (1)
The plan shall demonstrate, by means of
a proportional model or diffusion/photo
chemical model or other procedure which
is adequate and appropriate, that the
control strategy included in each plan
for a region classified as priority I
is adequate for attainment and mainte-
nance of the national standard (r) to
which such control strategy applies.
Control measures shall not result in an
increase in the concent ration of any
pollutant. The plan shall include
provisions as necessary to prevent such
increases in concentrations as a result
of traffic increases that may be stim-
ulated by transportation control
measures.
(2) With respect to control of
carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, the
proportional model which may be used
for purposes of this paragraph is described
in § 51.13 (e) (2): Provided, With
respect to the national standard for
nitrogen dioxide, that the degree of air
quality improvement indicated to be
necessary by the proportional model will
be achieved by a corresponding degree of
reduction of total nitrogen oxides
emissions from stationary and mobile
sources. (Refer to F.R.)

Not Applicable





Covered in
Original Plan





Covered in
Transportation PI;





Missing





7
Remarks






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(3) In any region where the degree
of nitrogen oxides emission reduction
necessary for attainment and mainte-
nance of the national standard for
nitrogen dioxide is greater than that
which can be achieved by the applica-
tion of (i) the Federal motor vehicle
^mission standards promulgated under
section 202 of the Act, (ii) reason-
ably available control technology to
nitrogen oxides sources, and (iii) any
transportation control measures which
may be necessary for attainment and
maintenance of the national standards
for carbon monoxide and photochemical
oxidants, the plan shall provide for
the degree of hydrocarbon emission
reduction attainable through the appli-
cation of reasonably available control
technology. In any such region, a
control strategy which provides for
such hydrocarbon emission reduction
shall be deemed adequate for attain-
ment of the national standard for
nitrogen dioxide.
(4) With respect to hydrocarbons and
photochemical oxidants, it may be assumed
that (i) there is no background concen-
tration of photochemical oxidants and
(ii) the degree of total hydrocarbon
emission reduction necessary for attain-
ment and maintenance of the national
standard for photochemical oxidants will
also be adequate for attainment of the
national standard for hydrocarbons. The
proportional model to be used to deter-
mine the necessary hydrocarbon emission
reduction is set forth in Appendix J to
this part. (Refer to F.R.)



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(5) The plan shall show that the con-
trol strategy including transportation
control measures will result in the degree
of emissions reduction indicated to be
necessary by a proportional model, diffu-
sion model , or other procedure which is
adequate and appropriate. The plan shall
contain a .'•ummary of the computations,
assumptions, and judgments used to deter-
nii-v.- the i;,.-.riions reductions that will
iesu.lt fro;:1 application of the control
strategy to each point source, and each
group of area sources. Su>-h summary shall
In-- inrlu'l'd i"i a table similar to that
• • .,. .; \up i x '"> L . 'Vis part. The
(> ' an ai.;.o t.i.all Contain a summary oi the
data, computations, assumptions, and
judgments used to develop any transporta-
tion control measures that are a part of
the control strategy. Such a summary
shall as a minimum contain the material
described in Appendix M to this part. The
detailed computations and data shall be
retained by the State and made available
for inspection by the Administrator at his
request. (Refer tr F.R. F. 36, No. 228
and F.R. V. 38, No. 8.)
(6) If a diffusion/photochemical model is
used, the plan shall include a description
of such model.
(d) Emission data. Emission data on
carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and ni-
trogen oxides shall be submitted in
accordance with the requirements of
§ 51.13 (f). (Refer to F.R.)
(a', Air 4jaiity data. Data showing
existing air quality levels shall be
presented in accordance with this
section:
(1) For Priority I regions, data on
carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and
photochemical oxidants shall, as a mini-
mum, include the results of measurements
made during a period of approximately
3 months in accordance with the
following procedures.

Not Applicable






Covered in
Original Plan






Covered in
Transportation






Missing






Remarks







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(2) For Priority I regions, only avail-
able air quality data for hydrocarbons
must be submitted.
(4) Air quality data required by this
subparagraph shall be submitted in the
form similar to that shown in Appendix
H to this part. (Refer to F.R.)
(f) Motor vehicle emission factors.
The States required to submit .transpor-
tation control plans must, except as
noted below, use current emission factors
and methodology to calculate emissions
from gasoline powered motor vehicles.
The current emission factors and method-
ology are presented in "Compilation of
Air Pollutant Emission Factors," EPA
report No. AP-42, revised semiannually,
and in superseding EPA interim reports.
These are available from the EPA, Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711. If
emissions other than those presented in
the EPA report are used, the substantiat-
ing justification must be submitted with
the transportation control measures.
(g) Air Quality baseline. The concen-
trations of carbon monoxide and photo-
chemical oxidants set forth in the State
plan as approved and promulgated on
May 31, 1972 (37 FR 10842) (40 CFR
Part 52) may and should be used as the
air quality baselines for computation of
the emissions reductions through trans-
portation control measures required to
meet national standards. More recent air
quality data may be used where adequate
and appropriate. However, such data must
be compatible with the emissions inven-
tory for the region involved and justifi-
cation submitted for the appropriateness
of its use. Revised air quality data
should be submitted to the appropriate EPA
regional office at the earliest possible
date for evaluation and approval to
preclude plan disapproval resulting from
the use of faulty air quality data.

Not Applicable















































Covered in
Original Plan















































Covered in 1
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|(h) Transportation control strategies.
Information and requirements for States
which are considering transportation
M control measures involving inspection,
• maintenance and retrofit of in-use motor
vehicles are presented in Appendix N to
this part. (Refer to F.R. V. 38, No. 8)
§ 51.15 Compliance schedules.
(a) (J ) Except as otherwise provided
ir, subp.iragraph (2) of thi 3 paragraph,
each plan shall contain legally enforce-
Iable compliance schedules setting forth
the dales by which all ,-;t at.ii.nary and
mobile sources or categories jf such
1 sources must be in compliance with any
applicable portions of the control
strategy set forth in such plan.
§(2) A plan may provide that a legally
enforceable compliance schedule will be
negotiated with the owner or operator of
Ian individual source following submittal
of the plan. Such compliance schedule
shall be submitted to the Administrator
as early as possible but in no case later
• than the prescribed date for submittal of
• the first semiannual report required by
§ 51.7. Unless disapproved by the Ad-
Iministrator, such compliance schedule
shall be part of the applicable plan.
(b) O) Any compliance schedule de-
IKigned *••> provide for attainment and
ma i ati-'i'in i- <>t a pi imary standard shall
provide for compliance with applicable
I portions of the control strategy as ex-
peditiously as practicable and in no
case, except as otherwise provided by
1 Sub part C of this part, later than
May 31, 1973.
(2) Any compliance schedule designed
fto provide for attainment and mainte-
nance of a secondary standard shall
provide for compliance with applicable
^ portions of the control strategy in a
• reasonable time and in no case later
• than the date specified for attainment
of such secondary standard pursuant to
V 
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1
(c) Any compliance schedule extend-
ing over a period of 18 or more months
from the date of its adoption, but in
no case later than May 31, 1975, shall
provide for periodic increments of pro-
gress toward compliance by any affected
source (s) or categories of sources.
(d) Except as otherwise provided by
Subpart C of this part, neither the State
agency nor a local agency shall grant
any variance of, or exception to, any
compliance schedule included in an ap-
plicable plan if such variance or excep-
tion will prevent, or interfere with,
attainment or maintenance of a national
standard within the time (s) specified
pursuant to § 51.10 (b) and (c).
§ 51.16 Prevention of air pollution
emergency episodes.
(a) For the purpose of preventing air
pollution emergency episodes, each plan
for a Priority L region shall include a
contingency plan which shall, as a mini-
mum, provide for taking any emission
control actions necessary to prevent am-
bient pollutant concentrations at any lo-
cation in such region from reaching levels
which would constitute imminent and sub-
stantial endangerment to the health of
persons, which levels shall be prescribed
by the Administrator.
(b) Each contingency plan shall (1)
specify two or more stages of episode
criteria sucn as those set forth in Ap-
pendix L to this part, or their equiva-
lent (2) provide for public announcement
whoiK'Vor ir.y ep i >ode stage, has been de-
termined to exi^t, and (3) specify emis-
sion control actions to be taken at each
episode stage, including, but not neces-
sarily limited to, actions such as those
set forth in Appendix I to this part or
their equivalent. (Refer to F.R.)

Not Applicable 1






Covered in 1
Original Plan I






Covered in 1
Transportation Plaj






Missing






12
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|(d) To the maximum extcmL practi-
cable, emission control actions taken
pursuant to a contingency plan shall be
1 consistent with the extent of any air
pollution episode, e.g., if a single
source is determined to be responsible
for the occurrence of any episode stage,
• tnen the emission control action steps
™ applicable to such source, shall be taken.
_ (e) Each contingency plan for a Pri-
• or it y I region shall provide for:
* (1) Daily acquisition of forecasts of
atmospheric stagnation conditions or
1 during any episode stage and updating
of such forecasts at least every 12 hours.
(2) Inspection of sources to ascertain
• compliance with applicable emission
B control action requirements.
„ (3) Communications procedures for
• transmitting status reports and orders
* as to emission control actions to be
taken during an episode stage, including
1 procedures for contact with public offi-
cials, major emission sources, public-
health, safety, and emergency agencies
Iand news media.
(f) In the event that the requirements
of paragraphs (e) of this section have
•not been fully met by the prescribed date
for submitting a plan, a description of
the steps under consideration and a time-
1 table shall provide for meeting all re-
quirements of paragraphs (c) and (e) of
this section within 1 year after such
prescribed d?te. A description of interim
• actions that will be taken to control
™ emissions during any episode stage which
occurs during such 1-year period shall be
M included.
* (g) Each pJan for a Priority II region
shall include a contingency plan meeting,
Ias a minimum, the requirements of sub-
paragraphs (1) and (2) of paragraph (b)
^f this section.
1
1
Not Applicable I







Covered in
Original Plan







Covered in 1
Transportation Plaij







Missing







13
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•


§ 51.17 Air quality surveillance.

(a) (1) The plan shall provide for the
establishment of an air quality surveill-
ance system which shall be completed and
in operation as expeditiously as practi-
cable, but not later than May 31, 1974
and which shall meet, as a minimum, the
following requirements.
(2) At least one sampling site must
be located in the area of estimated max-
imum pollutant concentrations.
(b) The plan shall include a descrip-
tion of the existing and proposed air
quality surveillance system, which shall
set forth:
(1) The basis for the design of the
surveillance system, selection of sam-
plers, and sampling sites.
(2) The locations of the samplers by
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
grid coordinates or the equivalent. Any
EPA monitoring station may be designated
as a sampler location.
(3) The sampling schedules.
(4) The methods of sampling and
analysis.
(5) The method of data handling and
analysis procedures.
(6) The timetable for the installation
of any additional equipment needed to
complete the system.
(c) The plan shall provide for moni-
toring of air quality during any air
pollution emergency episode stage. The
stations selected for use during such
periods must be in operation within 6
months after the date of the Administra-
tor's approval of the plan and be capa-
ble of indicating when pollutant concen-
trations have reached, or are approaching,
any episode criteria established pursuant
to § 51.16.



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£ § 51.18 Kc-vJi!W of now sources and
modifications.
(a) Each plan shall set forth legally
enforceable procedures that will be used
to implement the authority described in
I§ 51.11 (a) (4), which procedures shall
be adequate to enable the State to deter-
mine whether construction or modification
Iof stationary sources w'.ll result in
violations of applicable portions of the
control strategy or will interfere with
•attainment or maintenance of a national
standard.
(b) Such procedures shall provide for
Ithe submission, by the owner or operator
of a new stationary source, or existing
source which is to be modified, of such
M information on the nature and amounts
1 of emissions, locations, design, construc-
~ tion, and operation of such sources as may
be necessary to permit the State agency
Ito make the determination referred to in
paragraph (a) of this section.
— (c) Such procedures rh^ll also include
• means of disapproving such construction
™ or modification if it will result in a vio-
lation of applicable portions of the con-
Itrol strategy or will interfere with attain-
ment or maintenance of a national standard.
(d) Such procedures shall provide that
1 approval of any construction or modifica-
tion shall not affect the responsibility
of the owner or operator to comply with
1 applicable portions of the control strategy.
"
§ 51.19 Source surveillance.
1.
Each plan shall provide for moni-
toring the status of compliance with any
rules and regulations which set forth
• any portion of the control strategy.
9 Specifically, each plan shall, as a mini-
mum, provide for:
I
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Not Applicable







Covered in
Original Plan







Covered in
Transportation Plan







i —
Missing







15
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(a) Legally enforceable procedures for
requiring owners or operators of sta-
tionary sources to maintain records of,
and periodically report to the State in-
formation on, the nature and amount of
emissions from such stationary sources
and/or such othe information as may be
necessary to enable the State to deter-
mine whether such sources are in com-
pliance with applicable portions of the
control strategy.
(b) Periodic testing and inspection of
stationary sources.
(c) Establishment of a system for
detecting violations of any rules and
regulations through the enforcement of
appropriate visible emission limitations
and for investigating complaints.
(d) Procedures for obtaining and
maintaining data on actual emissions
reductions achieved as a result of im-
plementing transportation control
measures. In the case of measures in-
volving inspection, maintenance, or
retrofit, these data shall include the
results of an emission karveillance
program designed to determine actual
average per vehicle emissions reductions
attributable to inspection, maintenance
and/or retrofit. In the case of
measures based on traffic flow changes
or reductions in vehicle use, the data
shall include observed changes in vehicle
miles traveled (VMT) and average speeds.
The data shall be maintained in such a
way as to facilitate comparison of the
planned and actual efficacy of the
transportation control measures.

Not Applicable





Covered in
Original Plan





Covered in 1
Transportation Plaj





Missing





16
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§ 51.20 Resources.
IEach plan shall include a description
of the resources available to the State
and local agencies at the date of sub-
1 mission of the plan and of any addi-
tional resources needed to carry out the
plan furing the 5-year period following
Iits submission. Such description, which
shall he provided in a form similar to
that in Appendix K to this part, shall
iuclude projections of the extent to
• which resources will be acquired at 1-,
• 3-, and5--yenr intervals. (Refer to F.R.)
I § 51.21 Intergovernmental cooperation.
(a) For the purpose of assisting in
Ithe development of a plan for any
interstate region, the State agency
responsible for implementing national
1 standards in any portion of such an inter-
state region shall furnish any available
data on emissions, air quality, and
1 control strategy development, upor request,
to any other State or local agency having
such responsibility in any other portion
of such interstate region.
£ (b) Each plan shall identify:
(1) The local agencies by official title
— (2) the responsibilities of such local
• agencies and the responsibilities of any
™ State governmental agency involved in
carrying out any portion of the plan.
• (c) Each plan shall provide assurances
that the State agency having primary
responsibility for implementing national
• standards in any region, or portion
• thereof, will promptly transmit to
other State agencies having similar or
1 related responsibility in the same or
other States, information on factors
(e.g., construction of new industrial
1 plants) which may significantly affect
air quality in any portion of such
region or in any adjoining region.
1
Not Applicable







Covered in
Original Plan







Covered in
Transportation Plan







hissing







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§ 51.22 Rules and regulations.
Emission limitations and other measures
necessary for attainment and maintenance
of any national standard, including any
measures necessary to implement the re-
quirements of § 51.11, shall be adopted
as rules and regulations enforceable
by the State agency. Copies of all such
rales and regulations shall be submitted
with the plan. Except as otherwise
provided by §51.11 (b), submittal of a
plan setting forth proposed rules and
regulations will not satisfy the require-
ments of this section nor will it be
considered a timely submittal.



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GUIDELINE SERIES
           OAQPS NO. 1.2-004
     EPA SOURCE PROMULGATION

       - Recordkeeping and Reporting

       - Public Availability of Data
   US. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
     Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards


       Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
                  WAR ',373

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                         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                      Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
                      Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711

RAtil'oJ:    OAQPS,  CPDD, SIB                                          Dttle: March 21, 1973

        Guidelines for Regional Office Enforcement of EPA Regulations Regarding
        Recordkeeping and Reporting and Public Availability of Data


   To:

        See  Below

             Enclosed is a copy of the guideline document for implementing

        EPA  promulgated regulations for source recordkeeping and reporting,

        and  for public availability of emission data.  This document has been

        prepared  for use by those Regional Offices which must carry out the

        data gathering activities required because of deficiencies in state

        implementation plans.  Additional  copies of this document may be

        obtained  from Ted Creekmore, OAQPS, CPDD, SIB, Research Triangle Park,

        North Carolina  27711 (Phone:  919-68878366).
                                           Norman G. Edmisten, Chief
                                       Standards Implementation Branch
                                              Control Programs
                                            Ho wn"lr*nmrğn-t- HTV/T c i* on
        Enclosure

        Addressees:
          Regional  Administrator, Regions I - X
          Director, Division of Air and Water Programs, Regions I - X (2)
          Principal Air Contacts, Regions I - X (3)
          W.  Megonnell  (3)
          B.  Stoigerwald
          J.  Paugett
          W.  Cox
          R.  Baum
          D.  Goodwin
          J.  Ha:<,..-3rle  (
          J.  Bosch
          SIB Personnel

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY


Reply to
 Ann of.-    OAQPS, CPDD, SIB                                           Dale. 14 MflR  19?3

 Subject:    Guidelines for Implementing EPA Promulgated Regulations for Source Record-
         keeping and Reporting and for Public Availability of Emission Data

   To:

         See  Below

              Where State implementation plans were disapproved because they did
         not  provide adequate procedures for making emissions data available to
         the  public [40 CFR 51.10(e)] or for requiring sources to maintain records
         and  make periodic reports to the State [40 CFR 51.19(a)], EPA has promul-
         gated  (or is in the process of promulgating) the necessary regulatory
         procedures .

              The Regional Offices are responsible for designating one or more
         places in each affected State where emissions data collected by EPA
         will be available to the public.  A list of these locations should be
         forwarded to Mr. Norm Edmisten, Chief, Standards Implementation Branch,
         which  is responsible for publishing this information in the Federal
         Register.

              On November 15, 1972 and January 31, 1973, draft copies of guidelines
         which  can be used by the Regional Offices in implementing these regulations
         were circulated for review.  Enclosed is the final copy of the guidelines,
         which  incorporates many of the comments received.

              If you have any questions, please contact Ted Creekmore (919-688-
         8365).
                                              Jean J. Schueneman
                                                  Di rector
                                               Control Programs
                                             Development Division

         Enclosure

         Addressees:

         Director, Division of Air and Water Programs, Regions I - X
         Principal Air Contacts, Regions I - X
         W. Megonnell                         R. Baum
         B. Steigerwald                       N. Edmisten
         R. Nellgan                           D. Goodwin
         J. Padgett                           J. Hammerle
         W. Cox                               J. Bosch
         SIB Personnel

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               I.    General  Policy Regarding the Implementation of EPA  Regulations  for
                    Stationary Source Recordkeeping and Reporting,  and  for Public
I                  Availability of Emission Data

I                  This 1s a general policy guideline for carrying out regulations
               promulgated by EPA as a result of State Implementation plan deficiencies
I             regarding i 51.10(e), Public Availability of Emissions Data, and/or i  51.19(a),
—             Procedures for Source Recordkeeplng and Reporting, of the "Requirements for
™             Preparation, Adoption, and Submittal of Implementation Plans"  (40 CFR  Part 51).
•                  In cases where EPA has disapproved only i  51.10(e), a  reoulatlon  has
               been promulgated for:  (1) requiring sources to maintain records, (2)  re-
|             quiring sources to submit emissions data, etc.  to EPA, and  (3)  making  such
               emissions data obtained by EPA, as correlated with applicable  emission Umlta-
•             tions, available to the public.  The recordkeeping and reporting provisions
•             are promulgated to provide a mechanism for obtaining the necessary data
               directly from the sources in order to release it to  the  public.  In the States
|             where the above deficiency  exists,  EPA does not^ have the  authority
_             to require State or local agencies to provide EPA with
•             emission data from their files.  Where both I 51.10(e) and  i 51.19(a)  have
•             been disapproved, EPA has promulgated the provisions of  (1)  and  (2) above to
               correct the I 51.19(a) deficiency and the provisions* of  (3)  above to correct
|             the f 51.10(e) deficiency.  Where only i 51.19(a) has been  disapproved, EPA
               also has promulgated regulations  for all three  provisions.   In  this case, the
•             procedures for making emissions data available  to the public are promulgated
•             to clearly indicate EPA's intent  to carry out the requirements  of Section H4(c)

               of the Clean Air Act  and  of   51.10(e)  of  the  implementation plan regulations
               (40 CFR Part 51).   In essence,  the  same regulation has been promulgated
               where EPA disapproved 1 51.10(e), I 51.19(a),  or both.

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                                                                                   I
                                       2
     Attachment 1  shows the  text  of these  regulations  as  promulgated by EPA 1n      I
the Federal  Register.   The regulations  do  not require  action  by  any stationary      •
source until notified by the Administrator.
     Regional Offices have the responsibility for notifying all                     •
appropriate sources of the recordkeeplng  and reporting requirements (see
II) and making emission data, as  correlated  with applicable emission                •
limitations, available to the public (see  III).                                     •
II.  Guidelines for Notifying Stationary  Sources of Recordkeeping  and
     Reporting Requirements                                                         •

A.   Sources to be Notified                                                         •
     The number of stationary sources to  be  notified of EPA's recordkeeplng
and reporting requirements will depend on the nature of the deficiencies  in         •
the implementation plan.  Some States have adequate procedures and authority
to require source recordkeeping and reporting as required by  I 51.19(a),            ™
but lack legal authority to  make all emissions data available to the public.        •
In such cases, the State may be able to make emissions data available  to  the
public for a majority of sources, but cannot release data for certain  sources       J
which request confidential  treatment pursuant to provisions of State statutes.
Thus, EPA would need to notify only these sources; presumably, a 11st  of  such
sources certifying confidentiality could be obtained from the State agency.
EPA must notify citizens through the Federal Register  where  such information
obtained by the State 1s available.  [The Regional Offices should notify
the Standards Implementation Branch (SIB), Control Programs  Development
Division (CPDD) of these locatons.  SIB will then publish this Information
1n the Federal Register.]
      In States or air quality control regions where there 1s  no clear  limitation
on stationary source to be notified, as 1n the case above, the Regional

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                                                   3
              Office should plan to notify all stationary sources having a potential  for  emit-
              ting more than 25 tons/year* of any pollutant for which there 1s  a  national
•            standard and which are affected by the control strategies approved  by the
              Administrator.  All stationary point sources emitting less than 25  tons/year
•            not affected by the approved control strategies, may be Included  1f time
•            and resources permit.
                   Once the criteria as to which sources must be notified have  been estab-
•            Ushed, a 11st of appropriate sources should be compiled.  The names and
              addresses of appropriate sources could be obtained 1n the following manner:
I                 1.   The Initial source of Information should be the National  A1r Data
•                 Branch (NADB), Monitoring and Data Evaluation Division (MDED), Office  of
                   A1r Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), which 1s presently compiling
I                 emission data for Inclusion 1n the National Emission Data System (NEDS).
                   These data are being compiled by contacting State and local  agencies  and
•                 from the Implementation plans (Including BOA Inventories conducted to
•                 assist 1n plan development).  The NADB has a fairly complete 11st of  sources
                   for all States.
I                 2.   Additional Information not obtained by the NADB may be  available  from
                   the State or local agencies, particularly those that have permit or regls-
I                 tratlon systems or that have compiled comprehensive emission Inventories.
•                 3.   From Industrial directories, phone book yellow pages, or  trade asso-
                   ciation publications (see APTD-1135 - Guide for Compiling a Comprehensive
I                 Emission Inventory).

•                 Since 1t 1s often difficult to determine from Industrial directories  or
              the yellow pages whether a company 1s a significant source or would be affected
                 *TMs refers to potential emissions from Individual stacks.
I

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                                      4
by the approved control  strategies,  this  1s  the least  desirable  means  of  com-
piling the notification  11st.
     It should be noted  that even though  complete  emissions  data may be avail-
able from the NADB or State or local agencies for  certain  sources,  such sources
must still be notified of the recordkeeplng  and reporting  requirements 1n order
to assure that these data are updated on  a periodic basis.
B.   Priority for Notifying Sources
     Once a 11st of appropriate sources has  been developed,  priorities for noti-
fication should be established.  The following 1s  a suggested  order "for contacting
sources:
     1.   Sources affected by approved control strategies
          a.   Large point sources (100 tons or more per year*)
               1)   Priority I Regions
               2)   Priority II Regions
               3)   Priority III Regions
          b.   Smaller point sources (25-100 tons  per  year*)
                   Priority I Regions
               2)  Priority II Regions
               3)  Priority III Regions
          c.   Sources listed in Appendix C of 40 CFR Part 51  and not covered
          by (a) and (b) above.
          d.   Other sources (e.g., incinerators and fuel combustion sources
          smaller than 25 tons/year).
*This refers to potential emissions from Individual stacks.

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I
•               Where the source notification 11st must be developed without Initial
            emission Information from NEDS, or State or local  agencies, the priority list
I          can be based on other Indices such as plant capacity, employees, or  sales.
                 As a minimum, sources under (l)(a) should be  notified by May 1, 1973;
I    .      sources under (l)(b) should be notified by July 31, 1973; and all other sources
•          to be notified should be contacted by January 1, 1974.  Where final  promulgation
            has been substantially delayed, this schedule may  have to be modified accordingly.
I
•          C.   Requirements that Stationary Sources Must Meet
•               The attached form letter (Attachment 2) explains the requirements that
            each stationary source must meet to comply with the EPA regulations.  Each
|          source must complete form 158-R75, A1r Pollutant Emissions Report (Attachment 3),
            and return it to the Regional Office no later than 45 days after the end of  each
•          reporting period (i.e., August 15, 1973, February  15, 1974, etc.).   Each station-
•          ary source must maintain records as necessary to substantiate the data submitted
            to EPA.  This recordkeeping should be initiated as of the date the questionnaire
•          is received.  The form must be updated every 6 months to coincide with the  semi-annua
            reporting periods of January 1 - June 30 and July  1 - December 31 or a certifl-
'          cation received from the source that there has been no change.
•               After submission of the initial report of information, subsequent
            reports need only identify those items that have changed or certify
•          that the information previously submitted has not  changed.  Where an
            Item has changed, the subsequent semiannual report should include the
•    "      applicable section of Form 158-R75.  Questions concerning annual fuel
•          consumption, process weight, or emission rate should be on a calendar
            year basis.  Thus, after the initial report, information concerning annual
I          operating or emission rates should be submitted only in the report
            due February 15 of each year and should cover the  previous calendar

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                                                                                   I
year.  Other Information on the general  operation of the  above facility
(change 1n process, new control equipment,  etc.)  should be  submitted
1n the first report following any such change.
D.   Coordination with Questionnaires Sent  to Sources Under Section 114  of the      •
     Clean Air Act                                                                 •
     Since form 158-R75 has been approved by the  Office of  Management  and  Budget
pursuant to the Federal Reports Act, 1t 1s  anticipated that this  form  also will
be used to obtain information for purposes  other  than the recordkeeping  and re-
porting requirements.  This form will be used for obtaining necessary  information
under Section 114 of the Act and for obtaining Information  required under  Federally •
promulgated regulations for review of new or modified sources.  Regional Offices
should make every effort to combine requests for  Information whenever  practical.    I
     To avoid duplicate updating of data by sources, the  Regional  Offices
should not make copies of form 158-R75 and  the accompanying Instruction             ™
sheets.  NADB is responsible for supplying  the Regional Offices with                •
form 158-R75 through the designated NEDS contact  man 1n each regional
office, who in turn is responsible for distribution.                               I
III. Guidelines for Making Data Available to the  Public                             •
A.   Data which Should be Made Available to the Public
     The attached form letter to the sources (Attachment  2) explains what  data      I
must be made available to the public and what data can be held confidential
along with procedures for obtaining confidential  treatment  of data submitted       I
to EPA.  It 1s the Regional Office's responsibility to collect emissions data,      •
correlate these data with applicable emission limitations,  and make  such data
available to the public in one or more locations  in every state.   (See B for       •

                                                                                   I

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 I	,

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                                                     7

              discussion of how the data will  be  handled.)   The  exact  procedures  for  making
 •            such data available should be  decided by  the  Regional Office  1n  accordance with
              the Freedom of Information Act and  the EPA's  regulations set  forth  1n 36  F.R.
 I            23058 (December 3, 1971).
 •                 The Regional Offices  are  responsible for designating one or more places
              1n each affected States where  emissions data  collected by EPA will  be available
 •            to the public.  It 1s suggested that the  United States Attorney's Office  or
              Post Office be considered  for  this  purpose.   The details of this arrangement
 I            are left to the Regional Office. A 11st  of these  locations should  be
 •            forwarded to the SIB, which 1s responsible for publishing this information
              1n the Federal Register.

 •            B.   Data Handling
 •                 The Regional Office will  be responsible  for transferring the data  received
              from sources on Form 158-R75,  Air Pollution Emissions Report, Into  the  NEDS for-
 •            mat, keypunching this information,  and forwarding  the data to the NADB  within
 —            21 days of validation.  The NADB will enter these  data into the  central  data
 '            bank in Durham.  This data bank can be accessed directly by use  of  the  computer
 •            terminals which will be Installed in each Regional  Office when the  system
              is fully operational.  The following format is suggested for  making
 •            emission data available to the public.

I

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                                     8
                           State of
                                        AQCR                Date
 PlantOwner     Process             Allowed     Actual   Scheduled   Applicable
Name and    or        or               Emissions   Emissions  Compliance     Regu- -j
Address  Operator   Source  Pollutant    ton/yr	ton/yr     Date	lations
 Refer to the applicable regulation (e.g., Section 03B,  10.03.37,  Regulation
 for Area II 1n Maryland).  The NEDS data bank does not  Include thls'informa-
 tlon; thus, this column will  have to be completed manually.
     The NADB will prepare a program with standard report  format as
described above as a service to the Regional  Offices.  The necessary ter-
minals to access the data bank for this Information will be  available
after April 1973.
     A copy of the NEDS format and explanation of how it 1s  developed  1s  pre-
sented 1n APTD-1135, Guide for Compiling a Comprehensive Emission  Inventory.
Any questions regarding the NEDS format should be directed to John Bosch,
National A1r Data Branch, Monitoring and Data Evaluation Division, Research
Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711, FTS 919-688-8491.
     After the Regional Offices have entered the  applicable  regulation for each
source, the above summary form should be adequate to fulfill most  requests for
Information.  If requested, the Regional Office should also  make available the
complete NEDS printout or completed Form 158-R75, unless data have been
designated confidential.

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 I
 *                                          Attachment 1
 •                    Example of Promulgated Regulation for Source  Recordkeeplng  and
I
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                          Reporting and Public Availability of Emission
|                 (1)  The  owner or operator of  any stationary source  1n  the  (State  or
.            Region) shall, upon notification from the Administrator,  maintain  records  of
™            the nature and amounts of emissions from such source and/ or  any  other  infor-
•            matlon as may  be deemed necessary by the Administrator to determine  whether
              such source 1s 1n compliance with applicable emission limitations  or other
I            control measures.
_                 (2)  The  Information recorded  shall be summarized and reported  to  the
•            Administrator, on forms furnished by the Administrator, and  shall  be submitted
•            within 45 days after the end of the reporting period.   Reporting periods are
              January 1 - June 30 and July  1 - December 31, except that  the Initial reporting
I            period shall commence on the date the Administrator issues notification of the
—            recordkeeplng  requirements.
•                 (3)  Information recorded by the owner or operator and  copies of  the  sum-
•            marizing reports submitted to the Administrator shall  be  retained  by the owner  or
              operator for 2 years after the date on which the pertinent report  1s submitted.
I                 (4)  Emission data obtained from owners or operators of stationary sources
              will be correlated with applicable  emission limitations and  other  control  measures,
•            All such emission data and correlations will be available during normal business
•            hours at the Regional Office (Region _ ).  The Administrator will  designate  one
              or more places 1n (State or  Region) where such emission data and correlations
I            will be available for public inspection.

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                              Attachment  2
                     Example Cover Letter to Source
Company Name
Dear Sir:
     The Clean A1r Act, as amended 1n 1970,  requires  each  State  to  submit  an
Implementation plan for the attainment and maintenance  of  national  ambient air
quality standards 1n each air quality control  region  of the  State.   Plans  for
the attainment and maintenance of ambient standards for sulfur oxides,  parti-
culate matter, carbon monoxide, non-methane  hydrocarbons,  photochemical  oxidants,
and nitrogen dioxide were submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
early 1n 1972.  These plans have been evaluated to determine their  adequacy.
Those plans or portions thereof, found to be inadequate have been disapproved
by the Administrator [May 31, 1972, Federal  Register  (37 F.R.  10842), et.  seq.]
As required by Section 110 of the Act, the Administrator must promulgate regu-
lations to correct deficiencies in State  plans.
     On (date) (37 F.R. 	), the Administrator (EPA) disapproved the State of
	's procedures (to require sources to maintain records of and periodically
report information on the nature and amount  of emissions)  and (for  making  emissions
data as correlated with applicable emission  limitations, available  to the  public.)
(Copy enclosed.)  On (date) (37 F.R. 	), the Administrator promulgated regu-
lations to correct these deficiencies (copy  enclosed).
     Section 52.	 of the enclosed regulations requires that upon notification
from the Administrator you submit on a semiannual basis, information on the nature
and amount of air pollutant emissions and any other information  necessary  to
enable the EPA to determine compliance with  applicable  emission  limitations or
other control measures of the Implementation plan for your facility located at
	.  The semiannual reporting periods are January  1 - June  30  and  July 1 -
December 31, except that the initial report  period commences on  the date you
receive this notice.  The information must be forwarded to this  office  no  later
than 45 days following the end of the reporting period. The information shall
be submitted on Form 158-R75, Air Pollutant  Emissions Report (copy  enclosed).
     In completing Form 158-R75, it 1s not Intended that a plant,  institution,
or establishment purchase expensive equipment or hire a consultant  to test the
stack effluents or determine other parameters.  If any  Information  would require
substantial cost to obtain, notify the EPA at the address  below  so  that estimates
may be developed jointly.  However, EPA retains the right  to require stack testing
1f 1t is found necessary to support the data presented  1n  the form.

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                                        2                                         I
     The data presented are to be supplied as  they pertain  to:   participate
matter, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide,  hydrocarbons,  and nitrogen  oxides.
If these pollutants are not emitted,  only Section  I (Page 1}  need be  completed.
     The Initial report should be for the previous full  calendar year (January-    _
December).   Although adequate records for the  Initial  report  may not  be  available  I
to respond accurately to some questions, please  attempt  to  answer all  applicable
questions.   Adequate records must be  maintained  1n order to accurately complete    I
and substantiate the data submitted on all subsequent  reports.
     After submission of the Initial  report of Information, subsequent reports     I
need only Identify those Items that have changed or certify that the  Information
previously submitted has not changed.  Where an  Hem has changed, the subsequent   •
semiannual  report should Include the  applicable  section  of  Form 158-R75.           •
Questions concerning annual fuel consumption,  process  weight, or emission  rate     Ğ
should be on a calendar year basis.  Thus, after the Initial  report,  Information   |
concerning annual operating or emission rates  should be  submitted only in  the
report due February 15 of each year and should cover the previous calendar year.    I
Other Information on the general operation of  the  above  facility (change  in
process, new control equipment, etc.) should be  submitted in  the first report      I
following any such change.  For the facility indicated above, your  first  report
1s due no later than 	; the second report  no later than	;  etc.             •
                                                           	                  —
     Records as necessary to substantiate the  data submitted  to EPA shall  be        m
maintained and submitted to EPA upon  request.  You must  retain all  records and      M
reports for a period of two years from the date  on which the  pertinent report       I
is submitted.
     As specified In Section 113(c)(2) of the  Act, any person who knowingly makes
    ••T^f  -  ;ter>er *  - ?prf-- * --".•.•Mon,  or ce?'.ifitatlcn  ir arv  record •;- report  filed
or required to be maintained under the Act shall,  upon conviction,  be punished      •
by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by Imprisonment  for  not more  than  six months
or both.                                                                           •
     Records and Information submitted under the requirements of I  52.	shall  be   ™
made available to the public by EPA unless a satisfactory  showing has been made  to •
the Administrator, EPA, that release  of the Information  obtained would divulge  a    I
trade secret.   Information required pursuant to  I  52.	cannot be withheld from EPA
on the grounds that you consider 1t to be confidential.   If you believe  that  any of
the information we reauest would reveal a trade  secret if  divulged, you  should
clearly idertify that information.  Emission data, however, will always  be available
 I

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                                    3

to the public.  Any Information determined to constitute a trade secret  will  be

covered by 18 U.S.C.  Section 1905,  except that such Information  may  be disclosed  tc

other officers, employees or authorized representatives  of the United States  con-

cerned with carrying out the Act,  or when relevant in any proceeding under the Act.

     Questions concerning the completion of Form 158-R75 or requests for additional

forms should be directed to:
     Completed forms should be forwarded to the above  address


                                    Regional  Administrator

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                         f  ATTACHMENTS     ^

                  Instructions for Completing the A1r
               Pollutant Emissions Report (Form 158-R75)
     The data requested are to be supplied as  they pertain  to  the

following pollutants:	
 	.   If these pollutants  are  not emitted,

only Section I need be completed; check  to Indicate this  at the  bottom

of page 1 and sign 1n the space  provided.


     Section I requests general  Information on  the size and location of

the plant, Institution, or establishment.  Sources of pollution  must be

located on a map by L'PA to within 100 meters, thus, more  than the

plant or establishment address is requested. Give the distance  and

direction to the nearest cross streets,  crossroads or landmark.  Where

there is more than one btiMina  or where sources  of pollution are

separated by more than b ' meters, enclose a sketch, map or engineering

drawing on which source^ (stacks, vents, etc.)  are located and identified

by source code.  Indicate the north direction and scale on the sketch

or map.


     Section II (two pages) relates to fuel combustion; Section  III, to

the disposal of combustible solid and liquid wastes;  Section IV, to

manufacturing, processes, and other operations; Section V, to air

cleaning equipment; and Section  VI, to stack and  pollutants emission

data.  In Sections II through VI, the first column 1s headed "Source

Code".  Footnote "a  of Section  II through IV describes the designation

of source codes.  A source code  is unique for each source of pollutants

so It may be used to relate a fuel combustion source, a waste disposal

source, or a process and operations source 1n Sections II through  IV

with Its air cleaning equipment  data In  Section V and Its stack  and

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pollutants emission data 1n Section VI.   A boiler in  Section  II would
be related by Us source code (e.g., Ha) to Us  air  cleaning  equip-
ment 1n Section V and Us stack and pollutant emissions  data  reported
1n Section VI using the same source code.

     The attached 11st of example sources, Attachment A, provides
identification numbers, (an eight digit  I.D. code)  which are  to be
used instead of word descriptions for "Type of Unit"  (column  4) in
Section II, "Method of Disposal" (column 5) in Section III, and
"Process or Operation" (column 2) in Section IV.   A source must be
appropriately described by the example to use the identification number.
Example listings in Attachment A which end with "other not  classified"
or "general/other" do not appropriately  describe  processes or
operations; do not use.  Attachment B lists example air cleaning equip-
ment, each with an Identification number, ID code (see footnote
instruction "b" of Section V).  Air cleaning equipment to remove a
pollutant (e.g., particulates) from a source may  consist of a combination
of two or more types, report all types and the arrangement  of the
combinations.

     The normal operating schedule 1s essential data  for each pollutant
source.  If sources reported in Sections II, III  or IV have normal
operating schedules different from that  reported  in the space
provided, enclose, on a separate sheet,  the normal  operating  schedule
of each such source and identify the source by its  source code.

     Sources, boilers or process units may be grouped, combined  (see
instruction a^ for Sections II and IV) when units  are  essentially
identical or discharge through the same stack or common emissions
control equipment.  The combined capacity of grouped  boilers  should
not exceed 10 million BTU per hour.  Report the number of units which
have been grouped.  If units which are grouped discharge through
separate stacks, report stack data for one typical, representative
stack.

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     Fuel combustion sources, reported 1n Section II includes

internal combustion units, turbines and fuel combustion for kilns,

dryers, etc.   Where combustion 1s a part of a process as 1n kilns,

dryers,foundaries, glass melt tanks, etc., this is indicated in

'.e-;tior II, pages 2 and 3, oy using the process source code (e.g.

IVa, IVi.', etc.).  Waste  materials as bark, woodwaste, and waste

solvents used as fuel in boilers or dryers will be reported in the

OTibust- )r> section, Section II (do not report in the waste disposal

section;.  Give the heat content,ash and sulfur contents of special

fuels and wastes 'jsed as fuel.  Solvents, liquid and gas fuels

handling and storage operations which have losses to the air are

reported as sources.  Report the units (pounds, tons, gallons, barrels

or 1C)3 cubic feet) for any quantity which is reported.  Pollutants

from each source are reported separately.

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1
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The




ID
II
01
02
03
01
02
03
04
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
09
20
30
90
01
02
03
04
05
90
01
02
03

SC

Attachment A
Table of Contents
Source Coding Table*

External Combustion Boiler - Electric Generation
External Combustion Boiler - Industrial
External Combustion Boiler - Commercial Institutional
Internal Combustion Boiler - Electric Generation
Internal Combustion Boiler - Industrial
Internal Combustion Boiler - Commercial Institutional
Internal Combustion Boiler - Engine testing
Industrial Processes - Chemical MFG
Industrial Processes - Food/ Agriculture
Industrial Processes - Primary Metals
Industrial Processes - Secondary Metals
Industrial Processes - Mineral Products
Industrial Processes - Petroleum Industry
Industrial Processes - Wood Products
Industrial Processes - Metal Fabrication
Industrial Processes - Leather Products
Industrial Processes - Textile Manufacture
Industrial Processes - In Process Fuel
Point Source Evaporation - Cleaning Solvent
Point Source Evaporation - Surface Coating
Point Source Evaporation - Petroleum Storage
Point Source Evaporation - Miscellaneous Organic Storage
Point Source Evaporation - Printing Press
Point Source Evaporation - Miscellaneous Hydrocarbon Evaporation
Solid Waste - Government
Solid Waste - Commercial Institutional
Solid Waste - Industrial

ID represents the first two categories of the source code


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-45-

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     1.  Low Sulfur Fuel

     Switching to  low  sulfur  fu^is w i I I  involve some
"investment cost"  in most  instanced   Boiler furnace
changes are necessary  not  ra.iy  for switching to a differ-
ent  type of fuel  (coal  to oil),  but the differences in
heat content, ash  content,  and  burning  characteristics
between high and  low .sulfi.r  coals also  usually require
extensive furnac*;  ir.-jdj T'< .-ui. i :m ,   Costs  would vary widely
from one situation to  , .••,:, t h-a/,  and no generalized estimate
has been attempted.
         Dry Limes tone
                        Inj u c t ion
     The strict  interpretation of the term Dry Limestone
Injection applies  to  the  process in which the limestone
and the SC>2 reaction  takes  place only in the combustion
and flue zones in  the furnace, and the resulting materials
are removed froir- the  stack  gas in the dry state, without
any wet scrubbing  stage.   The investment costs given  in-
clude $5 per  kilowatt, for  the part.iculate reir.oval equip-
ment assumed  to  be electrostatic preeipitators.  The  S02
removal efficiency is highly dependent upon the type  of
limestone used and the t>oilei  load condition.

     Injection of  dry limestone into the furnace, followed
by wet scrubbing,  is  a modification of the Wet Limestone
Scrubbing procen-  and is  eonsi "leri.d under that heading.
              sts  are vci
              therefore o
                    rse-
     Plant d
investrnen, r
is used, and
additional .'o-;t
if necessary,  :
for storage and
lime.  Annual  o
cost of lime DW
greater amounts
costs.  Ef f ten... t:_^  :>:-  * ';
the 90% range, ^art  t.v.;  i
Only nominal waste  di^po
many cases the cost of  >
add significantly  to the
                    1 < r;u ;. It,,!
 ro^*  '^ouire'int'r. c s ,  - nd resulting
 y  Si.i'itdr  re-iyardlesy nf which reagent
•'?('.  t-'-aied as  ore :>••;.ress type.  The
.;jt'---;-  drying  av>o  -r,: s nd ing equipment,
 . "  ,.,.; -e  ex'-ent b\ the higher costs
i  t s>'iiit:ies roi  the more reactive
 '.:o;",ts  are  about  the same, the higher
 r  .!„;  the need for proportionately
       and  the limestone preparation
   . irne reagent usually is higher, in
   as i.one efficiency is around 80%.
   .1 costs  have been included.  In
   a. ing  and transporting waste could
   rejectee! annual cost.

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     4.  Magnesium Oxide Scrubbing

     Investment costs will depend to some extent on whether
off-site recovery plants are used, or an integrated on-site
recovery stage is used.  There are advantageous economies
of scale involved in large off-site recovery process plants,
if they are within reasonable transportation distance, and
can serve more than one facility and costs can be shared.
The costs reported in Table IV-1, however, reflect on-site
recovery and acid production.  Credit for sulfur recovery
is based on the assumption that concentrated sulfuric acid
could be marketed at $7 per ton.

     5.  Monsanto Catalytic Oxidation

     Since the end-product of this process is relatively
dilute sulfuric acid, credit for sulfur recovered is con-
siderably less than for other processes.  A market value
of $4/ton for the 80% sulfuric acid is assumed.

     6.  Wellman-Lord

     Credit for sulfur recovery based on $20 per ton for
elemental sulfur, or $7 per ton for concentrated acid, is
assumed.

     7•  Double Alkali Process

     Relatively little information is available on costs
or performance of this process, and the proposed figures
are rough estimates only.
              F.  Specific Cost Examples
     In the short tjme allowed for this study, two detailed
cost analyses were obtained.  These should not be considered
typical applications but are included solely as examples of
detailed cost breakdowns.  The first was TVA's engineering
analysis of calculated investment costs on its Widow's
Creek #8 plant, rated at 550 MWe.  The total cost for the
retrofit limestone wet scrubber using a pulverized limestone
slurry as reagent was set at $35,000,000 _ 30%, equivalent
to about $64/KW.   The design values were based on using
                       -47-

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12,000 BTU/lb coal.  Parasitic power output used to run
the scrubber was set at 24.5 MWe, roughly 4.5%.  Con-
struction was scheduled to start in July 1972 and end
in December 1973, 18 months.  Detailed costs are shown
in Table IV-2.

     In the second analysis, annual operating cost details
were calculated for a Cheitii co-Basic Mag-Ox Recycle Scrubber,
These costs were based on a scrubber for a 600 MWe oil-
fired boiler burning 2,5% sulfur oil at a load factor of
65%.  SOX reduction was s?t at the equivalent of 0.3% S oil,

     The investment ec><. c   "01 this single stage Mag-Ox
scrubber was set by Chemico at $9 million  ($15/KW) which
probably understates the  full investment by the utility
for the design and erection of this facility.  Recycled
MgO and by-product sulfuric acid are produced from the
scrubber wastes by a central processing plant off-site.
Five 600 MWe stations are p.tdicated in the design and
financing of a single piocess plant turning out 1.000 tons
of 98% sulfuric acid per  day.  The cost of the process
plant  (an acid plant and  a calcinei pltvt) is set at
$8,200,000; thus, the tot-.il closed system cost would be
5 x $9 million plus $8.2  million ot $53,2 million.

     The annual operating cost detail  supplied for the
Mag-Ox system by the Chemical Construction Corporation
is shown in the attached  Table TV-3.
                        -49-

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                                           TABLE IV-2

                          TVA WIDOW'S CREEK #8 - LIMESTONE WET SCRUBBER         550 MWE
I
      Preliminary Construction and Facilities                           $ 445,000

I         Yard Work                                  $200,000
™         Unload $  Handle                              40,000
           Powerhouse  Revisions                          5,000
           Miscellaneous  Buildings                     200,000
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      Limestone Handling § Storage Facilities                          $1,890,000

           Truck Rd (1  mile),  Rail Track (1 1/4 miles)
           Scales and Structures  (2),  Storage Area
           (2 1/2 acres),  Hopper  with  Car Shaker
           (175 Ton Capacity),  Conveyer System,
           Storage Silo (7400  Tons Capacity),
           Dust Control System, Air §  Water
I           Piping,  Drainage,  Bucket  Elevator,
           Front  End Loader to Handle § Reclaim
           Limestone

|    Scrubber System                                                 $11,335,000  ($21/KW)

_         Foundations                                 $   235,000
•         Piping System                               1,335,000
•         Structural Steel                            1,200,000
           Ball Mill                                     270,000
I           Classifier                                     15,000
           Scrubbers (4  Venturi -  Rod)                  3,500,000
           Pumps,  Motors,  Drives                          550,000
I           Tanks                                          200,000
           Draft  Svstem  (Due's, Reheaters,              3,795,000

—         > ii:-.ul at ioii M  neat  i racing                      23:.,0()U

•    Disposal t,  Recirculation System                                  $1,910,000  ($3.5/KW)

I           Disposal  Area                              $1,300,000
           Pumping Station §  Pumps                        155,000
           Piping                                         415,000
           •Water  Intake  §  Skimmer                          15,000
           Concrete  Trenches                               25,000

      Make-Up  Water  System                                               $100,000

 •    Instrumentation                                                    $450,000
     Electrical Work                                                   $1,000,000

     Misc. Equipment,  Local  Communication System,  Painting               $46.000


     SUBTOTAL                                                         $17,176,000

                                              -49-

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                                 TABLE IV-2  (CONT.)



Construction Facilities  (10% Direct Costs)



TOTAL DIRECT CONSTRUCTION



Field General Expense



Allowance for Shakedown Modifications



Contingency Allowance  (11% Total Cost)



TOTAL FIELD CONSTRUCTION



     Misc. Engine Design § Mgt Overhead



     Interest During Construction   (8% per annum)



TOTAL PROJECT



ADD - R$D, CONSULTANTS, PILOT PLANTS
                                                           $1^724^000




                                                          '.$18,900,000  ($34/KW)



                                                             2,270,000



                                                             2,000,000



                                                             3,975.000



                                                           $27,145,000  ($49/KW)



                                                             5,865,000



                                                             2,200,000



                                                           $35,000,000
                                                           $  1,000,000



No overtime provision;  Material cost escalation = 5% per annum
                                         -50-

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                                     TABLE IV-3

                        CHEMICO-BASIC-MAG-OX RECYCLE SCRUBBER

Investment = $9 million

Operating Costs/Year:

     Fixed Charges @ 201/yr
     Maint. @ 4%/yr
     Labor @ .5 man yrs - $10,000 each
     Supervision @ 40% of labor
     Power @ $0.01/KWH - 38x106  KWH/yr
     Dryer Fuel - 100,000 BBL #6 oil @ $3/BBL
     Water - ISOxlO6 coal/yr @ $0.25/1000 gal.

                                    Scrubber Costs Yearly =

Acid Processing Plant:  Processes MgSOs from 5-600 MW plants

     Investment (Acid Plant + Calciner Plant) = $8,200,000
     Annual Cost = $3,179,440 (101 amoritization, 4% interest)
          Distributed to one 600 MW generating unit
                                       = 201 x $3,179,440 -
                        $1.8 million
                          .360 million
                          .050 million
                          .020 million
                          .380 million
                          .300 million
                          .045 million
                        $2.995 million
     Annual Scrubber + Processing Cost

Transportation Costs @ $5/ton (MgSOs out
     = 26,000 ton/yr)

*TOTAL Mag-Ox SCRUBBING ANNUAL COSTS
   NOTE:  No credit for sale of acid.
            TOTAL -

66,000 ton/yr;
    $635,900

  $3.630,900

in
460,000
               * $4,090,900
     The $4.1 million annual operating cost for a 600 MW plant operating at
651 load can be interpreted as follows:

                    $4.1 million/yr (6 x 105KW x 5694 hrs/yr)

                                             * 1.2 mills/KWH
                                        -51-

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         V.  ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
           A.  Quantification of the Problem
     One of the major problems inherent in any flue gas
desulfurization system is the necessity to dispose of or
utilize large quantities of a sulfur product.  The sulfur
compounds produced by such systems generally fall into two
major categories:  throwaway or saleable products.  To
date, most utilities have favored utilization of lime or
limestone scrubbing throwaway processes.  Lime scrubbing
processes ordinarily produce sludges containing CaS03.1/2H2O,
Ca(OH)2, CaSO4.2H20 and CaC03; limestone sludges generally
contain CaS03.1/2H20, CaCOs, and CaSO4.2H20.  For some coal
installations, where efficient particulate removal is not
installed upstream of the wet lime/limestone absorber, such
sludges can contain large quantities of coal ash.  Most
systems designed to produce a saleable sulfur product at
the present time yield sulfuric acid, although elemental
sulfur, gypsum, and pure S02 are among the other potential
products.

     Typical quantities of potential sulfur products com-
pared to fly ash production for a 1000 MWe coal-fired
boiler are presented in Table V-l.  This table provides
rough comparisons between the production rate and storage
requirements for a typical throwaway sulfur product com-
pared to fly ash which is the normal disposable product
from a coal-fired plant.

     It should be noted that only rough estimates for
specific volume were used to calculate potential  storage
volumes required for 20 years of scrubber operation.
Depending on the process, lime sludges can be allowed to
settle in a storage pond to a 30-70% solids slurry, or
can be dewatered to close to a dry state by various de-
watering techniques.  Table V-l also allows rough compari-
son between the potential production of sulfuric  acid from
flue gas control systems and the total U.S. production
rates.
                        -52-