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                                   V
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                         OOOS91001
     FY 1991 ACTION PLAN
           FOR THE
        GREAT LAKES

       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

            April 1991

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FY 1991:  A Year of Transition

Fiscal Year (FY) 1991 marks the beginning of a new era in the US EPA's approach to
environmental protection in the Great Lakes.  In the past, EPA programs have worked
diligently to control the release and/or transport of pollutants on an end-of-pipe, media-by-
media basis.  Over the last 20 years, this approach has achieved remarkable success in
reducing levels of many traditional pollutants  in the Great Lakes basin.

Yet, despite the demonstrable success of our past efforts, many environmental goals have
not been attained, and, in some cases, problems have become more complex and serious.
Today, there is growing recognition that our traditional approach to environmental
protection has often simply cycled problems through our system, seldom solving them.  It
has become clear that, if we are to  protect and restore the  nation's  heritage in the Great
Lakes, we must adopt a more holistic, integrated approach to ecosystem management.

In FY 1991, a model approach based on ecological perspectives will be taking shape in the
Great Lakes.  For the first time, all the Agency's programs will join in a cooperative,
integrated effort to direct a critical mass  of resources  to address problems on a holistic,
ecosystem basis. The hallmark of the effort will be pollution prevention as the preferred
option for reducing risk. This will  be buttressed by the Agency's traditional regulatory
activities, which will be integrated across program lines to craft specific solutions tailored
to local  circumstances.  In addition, EPA will  make use of a much broader array of tools,
including market incentives and education and information. In putting the pieces together,
EPA will seek the support and involvement of States, and the national governments and
citizens  of the United States and Canada.

This FY 1991  Action Plan is intended to guide the transition to a whole-systems
environmentalism.  Activities are directed at two environmental objectives: preventing and
reducing the release of harmful toxic pollutants from all media and enhancement and
recovery of habitat and species diversity.  The Action Plan identifies and tracks  progress in
15 critical elements that will contribute to the  development and implementation of an
integrated approach to ecosystem protection and restoration in the Great Lakes.  The Action
Plan does not attempt to capture all the Agency's activities in 1991, nor does it  attempt to
fully define the integrated program.  Rather, the  15 elements build upon a base of ongoing
activities, and represent a series of key steps as we move toward an ecosystem approach to
the Great Lakes, which will  be more fully developed  in the Agency's  5 Year Strategic Plan
for the Great Lakes.  The 15 elements that comprise the action plan are set forth below:

 1. Great Lakes 5 Year Strategic Plan
 2. Bi-National Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Strategy
    and U.S. Action Plan
 3. Lakewide Management Plans (LAMPs)
 4. Remedial Action Plans (RAPs)

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 5.  Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLWQI)
 6.  Baseline Loadings
 7.  Contaminated Sediments
 8.  Special Geographic Initiatives
 9.  Spill Response and Prevention
10.  Habitat Protection  and Restoration
11.  Great Lakes Ecosystem Monitoring and Status
12.  Exotic Species
13.  EPA Research Vessel Activity
14.  Great Lakes Reports
15.  Outreach and Education

Objectives

As noted above, the FY 1991  action plan describes a number of key steps necessary to
enhance the Agency's ability to more fully protect and restore the integrity of the Great
Lakes ecosystem over an extended period of time, as required by the Great Lakes Water
Quality Agreement and the Clean Water Act.

In support of this goal,  the Agency has defined two fundamental objectives:

      Objective 1:  Prevent and reduce the release and deposition of harmful toxic
      pollutants from all sources into the Great Lakes ecosystem, and remediate in-place
      toxic pollutants  to levels that provide:

             a. Water quality and sediments capable of sustaining populations of the most
             sensitive  native living resources (aquatic and terrestrial) that comprise the
             Great Lakes ecosystem;

             b. Drinking water and fish that are safe for unlimited human and wildlife
             consumption; and

             c. Air quality that protects the health of the most sensitive human
             populations and the integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem.
       Objective 2:  Provide for the further recovery of native species, and enhance the
       biological diversity and stability of the Great Lakes Basin through the protection,
       restoration, and creation of important aquatic, semi-aquatic, and terrestrial plant and
       animal habitats.

The 15 elements in the plan contain a range of activities to achieve these objectives.  The
activities will be carried out through: (1) strategically designed Agency programs, assisted

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by States and Tribes, local governments, the Province of Ontario, other Federal agencies,
the Canadian government, and the citizens of the United States and Canada; and (2) joint
activities undertaken by appropriate combination of these agencies.

The relationship between the elements, activities, objectives, and goals that comprise the
action plan is illustrated in Figure 1 (attached).  As the  diagram illustrates, the Agency's
renewed emphasis on the protection and restoration of the Great Lakes is an aggressive
effort to revitalize enhance and integrate EPA's traditional  activities and programs.

Key activities in support of objective 1 include:

      Prevention of future discharges of toxic pollutants, with special emphasis on
      persistent, bioaccumulative pollutants from all sources;

      Abatement of continuing discharges and emissions of toxic pollutants from all
      sources; and

      Remediation of in-place sources of toxic pollutants from all  sources ("toxic hot
      spots").

Key activities in support of objective 2 include:

      Inventory existing aquatic, semi-aquatic, and terrestrial habitats;

      Mobilize U.S. EPA binational interagency efforts to protect and manage remaining
      habitats  of importance to Great Lakes basin plants and animals, including the  active
      participation/support of U.S.  and Canada to control the spread of exotic species; and

      Mobilize U.S. EPA binational, interagency efforts to mitigate lost habitats and
      restore remaining habitats

The relationship between the 15 elements in the Plan and the objectives is shown in Figure
2 (attached).  Moreover, the Action Plan requires the use of an appropriate balance of all
available tools to achieve the program's environmental goals and objectives.  These tools
include  integration of the Agency's traditional command and control programs, augmented
by the use of a much broader array of tools including pollution prevention, market
incentives, and information/education.  While the Agency has already begun to use the tools
at its disposal in new and imaginative ways (e.g., USX  settlement), our experience is  still
limited Nonetheless, we recognize that much of our success in the Great Lakes in future
years  will depend on our ability to more completely integrate and balance existing tools,
with an eye towards continuous improvement over time.

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Action Plan Summary Format

In the following pages, each of the 15 elements of the action plan is addressed individually.
For each element there is a statement of purpose, a listing of key activities/products, and a
summary of expected results.

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                          Figure 1

                 FY1991 ACTION PL AN
                        Ecosystem
                         Integrity
                    Reduce
                    Toxic
                   Pollution
        Prevent
Abate
Remediate
                   Protect
                and Restore
                   Habitat
Inventory
Protect
Restore
           Base Programs (CWA, CAA, TSCA, RCRA, CERCLA)
Standards          Permits  	Enforcement    Monitoring

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                        Figure 2
Matrix of Action Plan Elements to Great Lakes Objectives
Action Plan Programs
5-year Strategic Plan
Bi-natlonal Poll. Prev. Strategy
LAMPs
RAPs
GLWQI
Baseline Loadings
Contaminated Sediments
Special Geographic Initiatives
Spill Response and Prevention
Habitat Protection/Restoration
Great Lakes Ecosystem Monitoring &
Status
Exotic Species
Research Vessel
Reports
Reduce
Toxics
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X

X
X
Protect and
Restore
Habitat
X

X
X


X
X
X
X
X
X

X

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   FIVE YEAR STRATEGIC PLAN FOR THE GREAT LAKES
Purpose:

To focus Agency efforts  and resources in a multi-media, geographic based,
ecosystem attack on targeted Great Lakes environmental problems and problem
areas to reduce toxics and protect\restore habitat and species diversity.
 Deliverables:

 Complete Great Lakes Comparative Risk Report

 Draft Five Year Strategic Plan incorporating EPA and
 State comments on outline

 Brief public and  other Federal Agencies on draft
 strategic plan

 Second draft Strategic Plan incorporating public
 comments

 Finalize Strategic Plan and deliver to stakeholders
Expected Results:

Completion and implementation of the Five-year Strategic Plan (FY 92-96) will allow
the Agency to coordinate efforts to achieve maximum risk reduction using all
available tools.  Moreover, the  Plan will Involve all stakeholders and increase
public, state and Agency support in  identified actions.  The Identification of
appropriate measures  of success  in the Plan  will allow the Agency to track
progress in meeting the program's goals and objectives.

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   BINATIONAL GREAT LAKES POLLUTION PREVENTION
           STRATEGY AND THE U.S. ACTION PLAN
Purpose:

To develop and implement Canadian and US comprehensive pollution prevention
actions focused on preventing the generation and release of pollutants to all media
(air, land, water)
 Deliverables:

 Announcement of Strategy & U.S. Action Plan by
 Reilly, De Cotret, and Governors
 Begin implementing binational initiatives including:

       Pollution Prevention Symposium in Traverse
       City, Michigan

       Lake Ontario Urban Nonpoint Source Project
       Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Challenge
       Program

       Binational Lake Superior Initiative

       Binational Automobile Industry Project



Expected Results:

Reaching  agreement  on the Pollution Prevention  Strategy and  Action  Plan
constitutes an important step towards completion of a number of goals in the Great
Lakes region. These include virtually eliminating the discharge of persistent toxics
into the Great Lakes basin; reducing  emissions of the 17 targeted pollutants
identified in the National 33/50 Project (formerly the Industrial Toxics Project), as
measured by TRI and other sources; incorporating pollution prevention into all
Agency activities including Remedial Action  Plans and  Lakewide  Management
Plans; and identifying ways to achieve cost effective restoration and maintenance
of the biological, chemical, and physical integrity of the Great Lakes basin. (Note:
many of the  problems in the Great Lakes basin are caused by persistent toxics,
such  as  RGB's, which have been  banned and are therefore not  amenable to
pollution  prevention strategies. Problems from in place pollutants will be primarily
addressed through Remedial Action Plans and the remediation of contaminated
sediment, both integral elements of this Action Plan.)

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 LAKEWIDE MANAGEMENT PLANS (LAMPs) FOR CRITICAL
                          POLLUTANTS
Purpose:
To develop and implement comprehensive management plans to reduce the loading
of Critical Pollutants from all media to the Lakes in order to restore and protect the
full range of beneficial uses. As a priority, the Agency is focusing its effort on the
completion of Stage I LAMPs for Lakes Michigan and Ontario during FY1991. The
completion of LAMPs for the remaining Lakes will be covered in the Great Lakes
5-Year Strategic Plan.
 Deliverables:
 LAKE MICHIGAN
 Problem Characterization and Draft Stage I LAMP
 Development
 Establish Intergovernmental Coordination Process
 Develop and Implement Public Outreach Strategy
 Establish Monitoring and Data Management Process
 Submit Stage I LAMP to IJC

 LAKE ONTARIO
 Update the Lake Ontario Toxics Management Plan
 Adopt Four Party nonpoint source load estimate
 methodology (U.S. EPA,  New York State,
 Environmental Canada, Ontario Province)
 Apply nonpoint source methodology to Lake Ontario
 Adopt Four Party ecosystem objectives
 Develop ecosystem indicators for Lake Ontario
 Submit Stage I LAMP to IJC

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Expected Results:

Completing Stage I LAMPS for Lakes Michigan and Ontario in FY 91 will set the
stage for achieving further significant load reductions of Critical Pollutants from
air, land and water sources during FY 92 and beyond.  The interim objective of
these plans will be to reduce levels of toxic substances in the Lakes to levels that
will present a negligible risk  to  humans  and wildlife  and that will  support a
sustainable fishery.  The plans will also serve as an important step toward the
virtual elimination of loading  of  Critical Pollutants  to the Lakes through the
implementation of improved technology and pollution prevention measures.
                           91 Action Plan: LAMPS - 2

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 REMEDIAL ACTION PLANS FOR THE AREAS OF CONCERN

Purpose:

For each Area of Concern (AOC) on the Great Lakes, to identify beneficial use
impairments and the causes of those impairments from sources in all media (Stage
I); to identify the remedial actions, and  the parties  responsible for carrying out
those actions, necessary to restore the beneficial uses (Stage II); and document
attainment of the beneficial uses following implementation of the remedial actions
(Stage III)

 Dellverables:

 Conduct quarterly meetings of U.S. EPA/State RAP
 Policy Guidance Workgroup
 Transmit FY 92 RAP Program Guidance to the States

 Award FY 91  RAP Program Funds to States

 Conduct FY 91 Mid-Year Evaluation of State RAP
 Program Efforts and Identify Opportunities for
 Enhancement
 Prepare report on compliance with June 30,1991
 deadline of the Great Lakes Critical Program Act

 Receive and review draft FY 92 State RAP Program
 Plans
 Approve FY 92 State RAP program plans

Current State commitments are for the completion of 9 Stage I and 2 Stage II RAPs
during FY 91, bringing the cumulative totals to 24 Stage I RAPs and 8 Stage II RAPs
by September 30, 1991.  Appropriate milestones for tracking the completion and
implementation of RAPs were agreed upon at a January 23, 1991 meeting of a
State/U.S. EPA RAP working group. Individual tracking charts will be prepared for
each of the 31 AOCs  for which the United States has  either sole or joint
responsibility with Canada and will be used to monitor progress. Tracking charts
for those RAPs scheduled for completion during FY 91  will be appended  to the
Action Plan at the end of the second quarter of the fiscal year.


Expected Results:

Beneficial use impairments at the AOCs  include fishery and benthic impairments
resulting from toxic  contaminants and contributing  to  human  health and
environmental risks both  locally  and on a lakewide basis.  RAPs provide a
mechanism for focusing all prevention, control and remediation tools available at
the local, State and Federal levels to achieve specified environmental goals in a
geographic area.  Gains achieved at the  AOC level will contribute significantly to
the reduction of environmental and human health risks throughout the basin.

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          GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY INITIATIVE

Purpose:

To develop guidance  for consistent water quality criteria and implementation
procedures, antidegradation policies and procedures,  and pollution prevention
strategies for the Great Lakes.
 Deliverables:

 Prepare for final steering committee ratification of the
 aquatic life, wildlife, and antidegradation proposals

 Prepare a pollution prevention strategy and schedule
 for implementation

 Prepare for final steering committee ratification the
 human health and the implementation proposals

 Federal register notice for comment all proposals

 Conduct public hearings on materials subject to
 federal register notice
Expected Results:

Completion of the Initiative will  provide, through the consensus of the Federal,
State, public and private groups, the essential elements needed for the States to
review and update their individual water quality standards and implementation
procedures during the 1990-1993 triennial review period. This process will, for the
first time, result in consistent water quality criteria and implementation procedures
for the Great Lakes, which will greatly reduce the potential for interstate conflicts
and ensure across-the-board implementation of toxic pollutant controls for Great
Lakes discharges.  Further, products of the Initiative will be used by the United
States to negotiate Objectives under Annex 1  of the Great Lakes Water Quality
Agreement.

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                       BASELINE LOADINGS
Purpose:

To establish the baseline toxic loads from land, water, and air sources to the Great
Lakes. Establishing baseline loads will be accomplished on a geographic priority
basis in conjunction  with Remedial Action Plan development for the Areas of
Concern* and Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) development for Lakes Michigan
and Ontario. Baseline loads for Lakes Erie, Huron and Superior will be established
in conjunction with LaMP development beginning in fiscal years 1992, 1994, and
1996, respectively.


 Deliverables:

 Complete source inventory and atmospheric
 deposition studies of toxic pollutants in the Detroit-
 Windsor transboundary area and the Lake Michigan
 basin

 Develop criteria  for screening permits for a pilot
 project reviewing several major new sources of air
 emissions for State control of toxic pollutants in
 accordance with the Great Lakes Toxic Substances
 Control Agreement and begin implementation of the
 pilot project.

 Conduct an airborne lead initiative to reduce the
 800,000 pounds  of lead emitted annually to the air in
 Region V:

      Identify major lead sources which contribute to
      deposition

      Conduct modeling and/or monitoring studies to
      characterize the problem

 Establish Lake Ontario-Niagara Frontier NPS estimates:

      Conduct methods development workshop

      Apply methodology for priority toxics to Niagara
      frontier

      Apply methodology and  develop loading
      estimates  for Niagara River/Lake Ontario Basin

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BASELINE LOADINGS (Contd.)


 Deliverables:

 Prepare demonstration study for the Rouge River and
 the Niagara River watershed to help develop a
 methodology to link mass balance models for the
 Great Lakes to GIS technology

 Complete load estimates for Critical Pollutants from
 wastewater discharges to the Lake Michigan system

 Complete load estimates for toxic pollutants from
 RCRA facilities and CERCLA sites to the Lake
 Michigan system

Expected  Results

The Agency's ability to quantify and report progress in reducing the toxic pollutant
loads to the Great Lakes will depend upon our ability to establish a baseline load.
The activities described above represent the first steps to develop load estimates
for toxic pollutants on a targeted geographic basis. These estimates will be refined
over time and confidence intervals narrowed as source monitoring activities and
analytical capabilities improve.

'Baseline Toxic Pollutant load estimates for the AOCs  are being developed in
conjunction with each Remedial Action Plan.
                      91 Action Plan: Baseline Loadings  2

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                  CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS


Purpose:

To  assess and  implement innovative  methods  and technologies  for  the
management and  remediation  of contaminated  sediments, supporting  LAMP
development as well as  Mass Balance Studies,  and to reduce the impact of
contaminated sediments through accelerated remediation


 Deliverables:

 Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated
 Sediments (ARCS) Program:

      Identify technologies to be demonstrated at
      ARCS sites

      Initiate Pilot (small, field) scale contaminated
      sediment treatment demonstrations

      Complete field work to support mini-mass
      balance contaminated modeling of the Buffalo
      and Saginaw Rivers

      Issue reports on (i) assessments conducted for
      the ARCS Program, (ii) bench (laboratory) scale
      contaminated sediment treatment
      demonstrations, (iii) human health  contaminated
      sediment risk assessments in  four ARCS
      locations

 Great Lakes Contaminated Sediment Tributary
 Monitoring Program:

      Complete draft plan for necessary field activities
      for sediment sampling of tributaries and harbors
      of Lakes Ontario and Michigan, focusing on
      toxics
 Great Lakes Contaminated Sediment Monitoring Plan:
      Complete draft field plan design, including  open
      lake sediment sampling using  the R/V Lake
      Guardian, focusing on toxics in core samples.

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CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS (Contd.)


 Dellverables:

 Buffalo River Clean-Up:

      Agreement by key agencies (U.S. Army Corps of
      Engineers, the New York State Department of
      Environmental Conservation, Region II, and
      GLNPO) on project scope

      Complete draft plans, identify sites, conduct
      workshops and meetings with RAP Citizen
      Advisory Groups and other interested parties,
      complete necessary sampling, and complete
      NEPA and other regulatory requirements

      Announce Buffalo River Cleanup Plan

 Region V Great Lakes Sediment Initiative:

      Program Building - Fill positions, secure
      necessary contract documents for dredging and
      disposal projects, add additional enforcement
      sites, establish necessary workgroups, and
      establish workplans

      Initiate enforcement investigations at simpler
      sites such as Manistique River, Menominee
      River/Harbor, St. Louis River/Harbor and at more
      complex sites like Green Bay and Saginaw Bay.
      Accelerate enforcement activity at Grand
      Calumet River/Indiana Harbor  and continue
      Superfund activity at Waukegan, Ashtabula,
      Sheboygan, Torch Lake, and the Kalamazoo
      River

      Dredged Material - Develop Draft USEPA/Corps
      Great Lakes 404 guidance for dredged  sediment
      testing and analysis (final document anticipated
      in 2nd quarter, FY 92)

      Disposal Guidance Development - Contract and
      obtain preliminary outputs from  engineering
      consultant. Provide support to programs on
      disposal decisions

      Regional Contaminated Sediment Inventory
      Pilot - Contractor to have obtained all new raw
      data and to have begun draft inventory

                   91 Action Plan: Contaminated Sediments - 2

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CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS (Contd.)

Expected Results:

Targeted assessment and remediation of contaminated sediments addresses a
serious long-term basin problem. Since sediments serve as both a repository of
toxic contaminants and an ongoing source of toxins to the Great Lakes food chain,
remediation and proper management are essential to the restoration of ecosystem
health.   Persistent toxic substances  in sediment  will  continue  to  harm the
ecosystem as long  as  they remain  in the system.   The activities and plans
contained in this element will provide experience, methods, and guidance toward
solving identified contaminated sediment problems throughout the basin. Targeted
sites will actually be cleaned up upon completion of remediation activities.
                    91 Action Plan: Contaminated Sediments  3

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              SPECIAL GEOGRAPHIC INITIATIVES
Purpose:

The Agency has identified two areas within the Great Lakes Basin that, because of
extensive historical and ongoing degradation, merit special attention with regard
to remediation, further pollution abatement and  prevention actions in order  to
reduce environmental and human health risks. These areas are:  (1) Northwest
Indiana; and (2) the Niagara River.  The purpose of these Initiatives Is to develop
a multi-media, geographically focused environmental program In these areas that
will result In significant reductions in toxic pollution  and  restoration of the
beneficial uses, and serve  as a model for EPA program  cooperation in  other
geographic-specific initiatives in ensuing years.


 Deliverables:

 NORTHWEST INDIANA:

 Coordinate with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to
 ensure the dredging of the federal navigation channel
 in the Indiana harbor ship canal

 Achieve 90% or greater compliance with all Federal
 environmental statutes:

       Track USX Corporation's initiation of its
       sediment characterization study and the start-up
       of its sediment recycle study

       Complete negotiations of the multi-media,  Inland
       Steel enforcement case

       Complete Potentially Responsible Party searches
       at 15 sites along the Grant Calumet River for
       future CERCLA enforcement actions and U.S.
       Fish and Wildlife service natural resources
       damage assessments and claims

       Complete negotiations with  Federated Metals
       under RCRA/Clean Water Act clean-up action for
       Lake George in Whiting, Indiana

 Assess petroleum distillate contamination of ground
 water

 Initiate broad  spectrum pollution prevention initiative
 with industry and local municipalities

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SPECIAL GEOGRAPHIC INITIATIVES (Contd.)


 Deiiverables:

 NORTHWEST INDIANA (Contd.):
 Assist Indiana in completing the remedial action plan
 Involve the public in key activities through an
 aggressive public outreach/environmental
 communications strategy(RAP) for the area of concern

 Conduct the air enforcement activities to reduce limits
 applicable to coke oven gas combustion


 NIAGARA RIVER:

 Provide report on the Updated Categorization of
 Chemicals:
 Complete U.S. Point Source Loadings Report for the
 Niagara River

 Update U.S. Hazardous Waste Sites Loadings Report
 with chemical specific loadings and status of cleanup

 Develop Proposal for Niagara River/ Lake Ontario
 Pollution Prevention Initiative

 Complete annual 50% reduction progress report for the
 Niagara River

 Screen Chemicals for addition to ambient river
 monitoring network

 Complete U.S. non-point source control annual status
 report
 Complete re-analysis of prior years' ambient river
 monitoring data

 Complete Niagara Falls, NY ground water flow model

Expected Results:

These actions will result in immediate decreases in the loadings of toxic pollutants
from ongoing discharges entering  southern Lake Michigan and western Lake
Ontario thereby reducing  loadings of toxics that bioaccumulate in fish tissue and
improving the quality of the habitat and aquatic biota.  These actions will also
begin the process of addressing contaminated sediments that, until remediated,
will continue to act as a major source of toxic pollutants.

                  91 Action Plan: Special Geographic Initiatives  2

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             SPILL RESPONSE AND PREVENTION
Purpose:

To reduce the number and volume of Great Lakes spills of oil and other hazardous
materials, focussing on areas with the greatest spill risk.


 Deliverables:

 Target and complete 120 spill prevention and control
 countermeasures (SPCC) program inspections at Great
 Lakes facilities (increased from 69 in FY 90)

 Complete 30 SPCC inspections at Grand Calumet/
 Indiana Harbor Area of Concern

 Complete strategy to deal with oil-laden aquifers in
 Grand Cal/ Indiana Harbor (SPCC staff)

 Complete chemical safety audits in Detroit and
 Cleveland (CEPP)

 Conduct EPA meetings on achieving improved data
 collection and interpretation techniques pertaining to
 spills

 Map areas with greatest threat of spills through
 cooperative effort of GLNPO, US Coast Guard, and the
 Department of Transportation

 Conduct spill preparedness exercises at most Region II
 removal sites

Expected Results:

As a result of increased inspections, there should be decreased damage to the
Great Lakes ecosystem from spills through (i) improved prevention and clean up
efforts and (ii) fewer spills.

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          HABITAT PROTECTION AND RESTORATION


Purpose:

To provide an overall protection strategy for wetlands in the Great Lakes basin and
provide initial inventories of the critical habitat areas of the Great  Lakes for Lake
Michigan and Lake  Ontario, and prepare initial action plans to protect, restore,
enhance and create appropriate plant communities and hydrology that will provide
habitat for birds, fish, mammals, amphibians, reptiles and invertebrates. This effort
is a part of the Great Lakes Wetlands Strategy that will identify specific tasks and
Implementation plans that will result in a  net gain of wetland acreage and value In
the basin, and will serve as a national model for  species/habitat protection on a
watershed basis, in addition, this effort will help to focus Federal, State, Provincial,
and local public agencies and private wetland organizations on the common goals
of wetland protection and restoration.


 Deliverables:

 Develop a Great Lakes Wetland Strategy:
       Review draft strategy with US Great Lakes Policy
       Committee

       Develop final strategy and deliver to
       stakeholders

 Develop Habitat Protection Plan:

       Issue letters  to State and Federal  agencies with
       natural resource responsibilities asking for data
       Coordinate with States to prepare maps of
       critical communities

       Prepare draft protection strategy for most critical
       communities and deliver to stakeholders for
       comment

Expected Results:

A Federal, State, and local wetlands protection strategy  will be established that
provides detailed roles for each involved governmental entity.  Also, critical plant
communities within  the basin will be inventoried and assessed for their ability to
support fish and wildlife populations.  Areas will be categorized into three major
groups (meeting, not meeting, need information) indicating their status to support
designated uses of waters along the  nearshore of the Great Lakes and  in the
tributaries. Based on current status,  a  protection, enhancement or restoration
strategy will be proposed for  each area.  Maps  and initial  action plans will be
provided to the States for  inclusion in their future workplans.  The final plan will
provide a framework for Federal and State initiatives to restore and enhance habitat
to provide for an expanded multiple use  natural resource base.

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  GREAT LAKES ECOSYSTEM MONITORING AND STATUS
Purpose:

To establish environmental objectives and design comprehensive and integrated
cross media management, monitoring, and data management processes that will
answer  key management questions with regard to identifying trends in the
chemical, physical  and biological components of the Great  Lakes ecosystem,
projecting future ecosystem responses, and setting cleanup targets and priorities.


 Dellverables:

 Coordinate with States and other Federal Agencies in
 doing a comprehensive review of Ecosystem
 Monitoring

 Form an intra-agency work group to identify specific
 data integration issues needing resolution in order to
 support FY 91 activities and implementation of the
 Great Lakes Five Year Strategy
 Complete trial run  and methods validation for open
 water sampling of  toxic substances in Lakes Michigan
 and Ontario

 Begin construction of five air toxics monitoring
 stations for the Great Lakes Air Deposition  Network.
 All stations will be fully operational by the end of the
 first quarter FY 92
 Report  on  trends in chemical concentrations in Great
 Lakes fish
 Complete plan for  Great Lakes EMAP and integrate
 with Great Lakes Monitoring Plan

Expected Results:

Establishing comprehensive, State and Federal environmental objectives for the
Great Lakes and agreeing to the key management questions that must be answered
will guide subsequent monitoring and data management program design for the
Great Lakes Basin.  Designing the EPA program to complement other Federal and
State activities will  result in the efficient utilization of limited resources and will
foster cooperation  and reporting of the status and trends of key environmental
indicators.  The formation of the intra-agency work group will facilitate internal
resolution of data integration issues and provide a specific forum for coordinating
data management in support of the specific activities in the FY 91 Action  Plan.
This work group will identify barriers to data  integration, the steps for overcoming
these barriers, and  the cost of and priority for taking these steps.

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                          EXOTIC SPECIES
Purpose:
To coordinate with other Federal Agencies to determine ecosystem effects of exotic
species and monitoring efforts to prevent Introductions of exotic species.
 Deliverables:

 Conduct zebra mussel observations in cooperation
 with the Coast Guard
 Research to determine the impact of zebra mussels on
 the health of Great Lakes ecosystems, to define the
 ecological and physiological requirements of nuisance
 species for forecasts of their spread and to identify
 susceptible areas, and to evaluate the environmental
 risks of possible control options:

      Complete  report on Proceedings of International
      Workshop on Introduced Exotic Species in the
      Great Lakes
      Monitor effectiveness of ballast-water exchange
      for  Great Lakes shipping

      Draft report on ballast-water exchange  program

      Establish  cooperative agreement with Soviets on
      zebra mussel ecology
 Include exotic species component in FY92 Great Lakes
 Monitoring Plan

Expected Results:

Minimize introductions of nuisance exotic species and determine their effects on
the ecosystem. Identification of impacts of new invading species and taking the
first steps  to stabilizing the Great Lakes biological community.

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     EPA RESEARCH VESSEL MONITORING PROGRAM
                            SUPPORT
Purpose:

First time monitoring of toxic substances in Great Lakes water column on a
"routine" basis and open lakes sediments monitoring to establish baseline and
support LAMP development.
 Deiiverables:

 Complete arrangements for Bay City Homeport
 facilities for R/V Lake Guardian

 Complete R/V Lake Guardian warranty work

 Commission the Ship; have shakedown of existing lab
 facilities

 Complete outfitting of labs

 Conduct Great Lakes cities tour

 Conduct first open lake program cruises

Expected Results:

The availability of the R/V Lake Guardian will allow establishment of baseline
information for LAMPs, development of a data base allowing EPA programs to set
realistic  goals for  Great  Lakes cleanup,  and measurement of environmental
progress. This element will also provide an educational support platform for Great
Lakes universities.

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                             REPORTS
Purpose:

Reports to Congress and the International Joint Commission on environmental
progress in the Great Lakes Basin.
 Deliverables:

 Prepare US contribution to IJC, Water Quality Board,
 State of the Lakes Report
 Draft Administrator's 1989/90 Report to Congress to
 EPA and States
 Submit Administrator's 1989/90 Report to Congress

 Draft Administrator's 1991 Report to Congress to EPA
 and States

 Submit EPA's 1990 Report to the IJC on progress
 under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement to
 EPA and the States for review

 Submit CAA report to Congress on air toxics/Great
 Lakes

Expected  Results:

These Reports provide a mechanism for EPA to report on US progress in restoring
Great Lakes ecosystem health, serve to articulate an environmental agenda for the
Great Lakes, and comply with statutory requirements.

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                  OUTREACH AND EDUCATION
Purpose:

To initiate an aggressive communications and education effort to inform the public
about the work EPA, States, and other Federal agencies are doing to protect and
restore the Great Lakes. This effort will seek to increase the public's knowledge
and concern about the Great Lakes ecosystem and demonstrate EPA's commitment
to the Lakes.
 Deliverables:

 Announce Bilateral Great Lakes Pollution Prevention
 Strategy

 Develop public information and education materials
 Develop and deliver pilot teacher workshop

 Commission new research vessel
 Hold "Great Lakes Month", (including Great Lakes
 Education Week, Great Lakes Cleanup Day, and other
 events)
 Conduct International Great Lakes Pollution Prevention
 Symposium
 Conduct general media outreach


Expected Results

The communications strategy should bring widespread attention to the activities
of EPA and others to protect the Great Lakes on both  sides of the border. The
public will become better informed of the relative risks to the Great Lakes and the
strategic choices the Agency is making to address those risks.

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